Old-time days and ways

Material Information

Old-time days and ways
Whitney, Luthera
Bodfish, W. Parker ( William Parker ) ( Illustrator )
D. Lothrop & Company ( Publisher )
Rockwell and Churchill ( Printer )
Place of Publication:
D. Lothrop and Company
Rockwell and Churchill
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
[38] p. : ill. ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Country life -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Farm life -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Children's stories ( lcsh )
Social life and customs -- Juvenile fiction -- Vermont ( lcsh )
Children's stories -- 1883 ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1883
Children's stories ( lcsh )
novel ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )


Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
General Note:
"Russ Duncombe from Santa Claus, Christmas 1883"
Statement of Responsibility:
by Luthera Whitney ; with sixty-two homestead drawings by W. Parker Bodfish.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections ( with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026666430 ( ALEPH )
ALG5523 ( NOTIS )
05953431 ( OCLC )


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With Sixty-two Homestead Drawings by




39 Arch St., Boston.

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ago the Dee family lived in close to bean porridge till the crops are harvested."
a small log cabin in what is now the State of Ver- Those who have but lately moved in surely will.
mont, then disputed territory asserting its indepen- It was impossible to move vegetables in January, so
dence; but my story has nothing to do with war, I sold mine in Connecticut for what seems a very
though it was war time. small price to me now, though truly I could not buy
The cabin was very rude, for it was hastily thrown them hack, having no money at all," replied Mr. Dee.
up, and the trees of which it was built were green
and growing but a few months before; and as there

logs were filled with sticks and stiff clay. The mor-
tar used in making the chimney was clay also, and
the floor was laid of logs split in half, roughly
matched with a broad-axe, and laid together with the
flat sides upward. The door was a wide, thick
plank split or hewn out from the middle.of a great
log, and hung on stout walnut-wood hinges. The
latch and catch were of wood too, and the latch was
raised from the outside by means of a leather string
which passed under it and through the door. When
the latch-string was drawn in, the door was securely
fastened. This method of fastening gave rise to the
hospitable saying: My latch-string is always out."
Just as the Dee family were sitting down to break- .... "
fast one sunny spring morning a loud knock on the
rude door was heard.
Come in," called Mr. Dee in the familiar fashion '
of the time.
The latch rose with a snap, and a neighbor from
the north part of the clearing entered.
He was pleasantly greeted and asked to "sit by; "
words quite unintelligible to you probably, but which j
he had no difficulty in understanding to be an invita-
tion to breakfast. ,. ..
"I thank you kindly, but I have no occasion, hav- .c'J" c T'! '".'.'' T
ing just eaten at home. Indeed, my breakfast was


"I," said Mrs. Dee, "am only too thankful that we "Just so; but still he who stands minute-man
live near a mill. My sister Hartwood, who lives in against the king must be willing to help and be
Wensloo, has had only three bags of meal during a helped," said Mistress Dee.
year. When I boiled wheat yesterday, I contented "Very true, madame; and even Wells stands
the children by telling them that their little cousins there-a good patriot."
got nothing else from their grain, excepting their "When do you bid your men, and what tools shall
we take? asked Mr. Dee.
-B 11: ? "Well," said Mr. Pond, "as
^ ... we are all getting ready to
JI ". \/ F plant, we think his work
should not go far behind, lest
-- the family worry: so we have
rather set upon next week
S. '!.. t : Thursday if there is no objec-
rt ,r te tion; and as for the work and
wee u tools, why, there is everything
I needing to be done, and noth-
Sing doing. We shall have to
take a day there once in a
i while among us, all summer,
S if Wells don't get well (and it
S. ain't likely he will); but we
thought we would have one
Sh- big bee to begin on, as an
"- "earnest of what we were going
to do. There's wood to get
up -the woman has picked
"SARTIN, SARTIN," SAID MR. DEE HEARTILY. up her wood, I expect, ever
since snow went off. It's not
"father should bring it in a canoe to the mill in Num- so very scarce, but it is abounding heavy to lug.
ber Four, which is forty miles. We thought the Warriner boys would do that; they're
We have, indeed, little to complain of. After the more used to chopping than we that come from b'low.
first year the land flows with milk and honey, as it The cowyard ought to be cleaned out and the garden
were. But I come of a neighborly errand this morn- plowed and planted, some wheat hoed into the gird-
ing, though I don't know but you will think I stretch lings, and a piece scratched up for corn and beans-
the meaning of neighbor even beyond Scripture. Mr. and flax too, if we can get the seed. But I don't
Wells, who lives over beyond the encampment, is s'pose they have an atom of seed unless, maybe,
sick been sick a-most all winter always sick, in punkin seeds or garden sass. They can't afford to
fact. Of course he has not had any work done- his sow anything
children are all small--but unless they do have some they can eat."
crops got in, they'll suffer next winter. Now, we "Poor souls! :; /
have been thinking of making him a bee." but they must
Sartin, sartin," said Mr. Dee heartily. eat next year -- -,
"And we thought, even though you had only just too," said Mis-
come here, you would perhaps like to bear a hand." tress Dee.
"Sartin. I should indeed have felt grieved if "Indeedthat, "' -
you had not stopped to bid me; for-not to mention madam; and I
the promises no one knows how soon we may need shall send my "WELLS'S SLED."
such help. All are liable to sickness." John down to
1 doubt if we all of us get into Wells's sled ex- the South Settlement on a horse to-morrow. They
Lctly," interrupted Mr. Pond. have been there longer than any of us have been


here, and no doubt will have grain and seed which The boys instantly resolved to make themselves
they will be pleased to give for such a purpose ; and indispensable if once they could but get at work; and
what he fails to bring we must make up among Mistress Dee said:
ourselves a little here, and a spoonful there." "I suppose you will have dinner; can I do

|7 7.1
I b.- i ^ .,'


Sartin," said Mr. Dee again. "I brought the anything in the way of assistance or supplies ?"
least seed I thought would suffice, but I should not Madam Hunt has charge of that, and will call on
feel that my own crop would thrive if I refused to you; no doubt she would be glad of help, as the
part it in such a case." Wellses cannot be expected to furnish any food."
So we all feel. Mr. Double, who can do so, has Mrs. Dee next offered her bean-pots and trenchers,
promised me a piece of silver in lieu
of seed."
"I am glad any one can do so;
but I must give seed, and I do so

teams? ? -
"Oh, we need all we can work! "
"Wells has no team, as you may say, i -
for I don't s'pose his old mare will -

be able to draw her own breath by ,
that time. She has not had much BA
to eat all winter, and nobody knows
"what time of day she gets it. We
want tools too." "

them come over, and then if there are all the men and last of all, inquired if the sick man had any
"we need they can go back home again." need of roots or herbs, saying she had a large
we need they can go back home again." need of roots or herbs, saying she had a large


supply freshly gathered in Connecticut last year. natur, up here in the woods, and you'll find it so."
"And I do assure you," said Mr. Dee gallantly, The boys broke up their conference when Mr. Pond
" that Mistress Dee was reckoned as skilful in ad- came out, having first apologized by saying, I sit
ministering them as the village doctor himself." here as if I meant to wait for the war to close before
While the matter of food and tools was being I got up that bee; but I really have had a pleasant
decided, Jake and Ike,, having rapidly dispatched sitting-down."
their porridge and brown bread after they learned For a week Isaac and Jacob shivered every time
that boys were to be asked, ran out to hail Zeke they saw a man come into their clearing, lest he came
House who was just going by with a brace of par- to revoke the invitation (such as it was) to boys.
tridges which he had snared. "For," said Jake, "it would be just like a posse of

\- -. '- i-_
".. :1


Say, Zeke! Have you heard of the big time men to decide that they did not need boys, 'specially
next week ? called Jake, without even saying Good- to dinner."
morning." But the preparations went on apace; and by Satur-
The elders of that day were very formal and day night every man knew very nearly what his share
stately in their conversation, but the boys-well, of the day's work would be; Mr. Pond had met with
boys talked like boys even a hundred years ago. unexpected success in his errand to the South Settle-
No, I have not heard of any big time," said Zeke. ment; he brought back corn, wheat, rye, peas and
"Jehosaphat! he commented, after hearing the news. beans, some potatoes, and a few pounds of flax seed,
Well, it is lucky that Wells is shiftless, or we never and every family on the route rejoiced as they saw
should get any fun; nobody ever is sick, by hi lead old S pot heavily laden along the rough road.
Say, Zeke! Have you heard of the big time men to decide that they did not need boys, 'specially
next week ? called Jake, without even saying" Good- to dinner."
morning." But the preparations went on apace; and by Satur-
The elders of that day were very formal and day night every man knew very nearly what his share
stately in their conversation, but the boys-well, of the day's work would be; Mr. Pond had met with
boys talked like boys even a hundred years ago. unexpected success in his errand to the South Settle-
No, I have not heard of any big time," said Zeke. ment; he brought back corn, wheat, rye, peas and
"Jehosaphat i he commented, after hearing the news. beans, some potatoes, and a few pounds of flax seed,
"Well, it is lucky that Wells is shiftless, or we never and every family on the route rejoiced as they saw
should get any fun; nobody ever is sick, by him lead old Spot heavily laden alo ig the rough road.


After looking over the donation, he carefully estimated desirous of helping the bee in some way, but still had
how much more seed would be needed to raise a fair been forced to admit that they were too young to go.
amount for feeding the Wells family a year, and this This was the fleshy root of a low-growing plant of
quantity was made up which I wish I could give the botanical name, as I
._'=B, by those in the imme- have no doubt it still grows in uncultivated swamps;
Sdiate neighborhood. but many of the places which knew it once, now know
Every family contribu- it no more. The freshly dug roots were to be washed
"ted one potato. It must and boiled, and used in place of coffee; it had an
be remembered that aromatic and slightly pungent flavor, not much resem-
one potato carefully cut will produce a large number, bling coffee; but with plenty of milk and sugar it
and that potatoes were then used only as a dainty, a made a very acceptable drink.
luxury, and not made a staple article of diet as now. Isaac was engaged in work much more congenial
So generous were they in their contributions, that Mr to his tastes than groping in the mud after evan root,
Doublee's silver was saved to buy salt at Number or keeping reckless children from drowning in the
Four. swamp. tHe was oiling the cart and harness and
The women having less opportunity to see each putting things in general repair; but the crowning
other than the men, had a general meeting Saturday glory of his day's work was the making of two new
at Mrs. Copp's. Each offered such articles of food whips. To be sure the Dees had only one pair of
as she had in greatest abundance: a few beans, a
piece of pork, or a little meal. Maple sugar was
abundant, that harvest being just over. -
"It is my belief," said Mrs. Copp, that we'd bet- .
ter have the men come here to eat, as it is so near. ', 11
For in the first place they are crowded in to Wells's -e
tight as the stocks, and Wells is sick, and the poor i
woman has everything to do and nothing to do with;
she's no oven, and I do believe they had Wells in '
view when they made her bake-kettle, for it is the
shallerest thing I ever saw. Now I've got a noble
oven, which is a blessing in this country-don't .
s'pose I should have had it for years to come if hus- E
band had not staid and kept the bears off the wheat
while the rest of the men went back after their
belongings, but-I've got it, and it will hold thirteen
pots of beans, and pudding; and if there is not room
enough for them all to eat in the house, why, the door-
yard is dry, and the woodpile handy to sit on."
All agreed that this would be the best plan, and,
not to be outdone in system by Mr. Pond and his q
workers, they counted the men and boys bidden, I
estimated the amount of food necessary, and each
pledged her proportion. The food was to be sent'
already cooked, or ready for the oven, Thursday '
morning early; and four or five women those who
had fewest cares at home -were to cook and serve it. DIGGING EVAN ROOT.-MAKING THE WHIPS.
Knives, forks and trenchers (wooden plates) were
also engaged, as well as bean pots and other articles oxen, and any one of the family would have consid-
for use in cooking. ered it next to profanity to strike the old horse a
Wednesday Jacob Dee spent in digging evan root blow; still Ike said you never knew what would hap-
in company with several younger children who were pen -he should have a whip and Jake should have


one. So as they had but one walnut stock, he went before the door. The women rode in the carts, to
to the woods and cut a long blue beech withe which each of which as much team as possible was yoked.
he carefully trimmed, leaving the knots longer as the The men walked behind and led the single horses,
distance from the hand increased. This he mag- while the boys roared and shouted at the oxen. (Oxen
unanimously decided to take himself. The two whip- were just as deaf a hundred years ago as now.)
stocks he fastened to two woodchuck-skin lashes They stopped before every house; if the occupants
which had been a year in preparation, tanning and were not ready they shouted in derision; if they were
braiding. waiting they shouted in triumph -in any event, they
"There," said Ike, Solomon in all his glory never gave their shout, and continued it up to the end,
had a whip like these." notwithstanding every woman had cautioned her
Long enough before light Thursday, the boys were "menfolks not to make such a noise near a house
out of bed, feeding the team, and eating breakfast, where there were sick folks." Mr. Dee, it is stated,

Th re man bidden on each road was to he could fly with delight, for, as he said, "it was the

start with team and cart; at each house men, boys, first thing he had been to since he came into the
teams and tools were added, while snugly perched pesky old woods-wonder daddy don't holler too!"
among the clumsy harrows and plows were bean-pots, But the great shout for Jacob and Isaac came
wooden trays and troughs and gourd shells of food. when they arrived at the fork of the road, and it was
Ike said he thought he should die before Mr. Skinner, found that the Dee train was in ahead. Then the
the man who was to head the procession on their sounding aisles of the dim woods rang," and it is
road, ever got in sight, though there was but a narrow my impression that "Daddy hollered too," but he was
strip of light visible in the east when he stopped behind the train where the boys could not see him.


- -ing, boys were riding horse and
-'- ir driving oxen, and cutting potatoes,
-.._,i.^ r" and sorting beans, and I am sure I
: do not know what else.
.-..;-. -. '' The young Dees, with Zeke

-" with a taciturn Scotchman who
"- .- r seemed to have no other concern
". : in life than to put unlimited quanti-
4, *ties of wheat under unlimited quan-
S, : ''. titles of earth and leaves, all the
'time watching the boys and warn-
i:', ing them that they must "dig down
.i to soil."
,.' At first they raced; but the
S -- -- Scotchman advised them to save
AL TPE. ATTE ,O K'O' teyan..
S' their strength for steady work.
"THEY ALL STOPPED AT THE UROOK TO WASH. Then they worked and talked.
After this they worked silently
By "sun-up the work was fairly begun in as many and wished for noon; for under each boy's jacket
varieties as possible; there were men cutting down was an aching void.


trees, and men cutting up trees, to use the woodsman's 0, how they did wish for another pint of the por-
technical term; men were shoveling, men were plow- ridge they so lightly refused at breakfast. At last


Isaac could endure no longer without asking if it was tidy looking company they were when they came up
not almost noon. into the Copps' dooryard. They all wore coarse
"A-most noon!" said Fergurson. "Look at the working clothes-clean linen shirts, short breeches
and freshly braided cues. The minister, who had
S- been invited to come and dine with them, gave
S- thanks for the meal, which was substantial and good,
/.' -- --f.and then they all "fell to with a relish.
'' .. After dinner a little time was taken for rest ; stories
'. .were told, the last news from the seat of war discussed
Saby the elders, while the boys joked and laughed after
Sthe manner of boys in modern times, and one of them
4..... even proposed pulling sticks." "No, no," said Mr.
..if. ,',, ^ Pond; "pull sticks on a holiday, but save your
0 strength for something better to-day."
' ,.. 1 Work soon begun again, although to many of the
Sboys the pleasures of the bee were fast fading.
S' '' Unfortunately, the Dee twins were sent to the wheat
Field again. They wore stout bags of tow cloth
/ fastened to a leather belt in which to carry their wheat;
S" and from this they sprinkled a little at a time, hoeing it
I '- in as they went, making slow progress, as the land had
".i r- ,'. ..f never been plowed, and was full of roots and stumps
.., and girdled trees. This work lasted, however, but a
S.':,, short time after noon, when in consideration of
t.l their faithfulness among the girdlings they were given
',', J'r i lighter labor at which they were kept till nearly sun-
-. down, when the work of all kinds gave out. Those
who finished first turned cheerfully to help out on the
"/ / other jobs, that they might all go to supper together.
Besides the remainders from dinner, each man was
sun It was indeed discouragingly near Skitcha- served with a huge slice of broiled salmon. This
wany. The day was very warm for the season, and was a surprise to almost the whole company.
the boys quite unaccustomed to hoeing in such rough The Warriner boys, who were not householders, but
ground, were growing very tired, still anxious to furnish their quota for the feast, had
My back would be blistered with this sun," said gone privately to Bellow's Falls the day before and
Jacob, when they fell a little behind their captain, brought home a large take of fish. All did justice
"it would, I know, if it did not ache so that there is to the supper; but the jokes were less frequent, the
no chance for a blister to draw." laughter was but the echo of the shouts of noon-day,
I wish we'd run across a rattlesnake," said Zeke. and it was noticed that nobody wished to pull sticks.
"I wish we could start up a rabbit," said Isaac The men talked over the results of the day's work.
briskly, catching at the idea of a diversion, but shrink- "Well," said one, "I don't see why Wells ain't well
ing a little at the thought of a rattlesnake, enough on't. Crops enough in, if they do well, to feed
"'Twouldn't do any good," said Zeke, "they his family a year."
wouldn't let you stop to kill it; but if a rattlesnake Sartin," said Mr. Dee; here's plenty to eat, and
should turn up they'd all stop and have a lick at it." a goodish piece of flax and a woodpile beside."
Zeke had lived in Vermont three years, and spoke I'll venture," said another, that Ichabod Wells
as one having knowledge of local customs, never was so well off, nor his work so well done
Never was sound more welcome than the blast from since I've known him, and I've lived neighbor to
the old cow's horn announcing dinner an hour before him ten years in the clearing and two in the bush."
noon. They all stopped at the brook to wash; and a "Of course," said Mr. Pond; "it would have been


a shame to us if once we had set out to provide for (women who could not afford to buy combs to hold
them we had not done it better than he used to. Now their hair were accustomed to pin it up with a wooden
all this has to be taken care of, and if Wells can't do peg) ; "she looked like a witch, and she had that
it we must." young one in her arms a-bawling-Zeke House says
No voice dissented, and they all began preparations he's always a-bawling but she thanked us, and said
for home. Little account was made of forming the she hoped the Lord would reward us, and she cried.
processions, but all went quietly along over the rough 'I did not care nothing about my backache then--I
roads and as fast as the fading light permitted. wished it had ached harder."
Once at home, Isaac and Jacob promptly went to So sh'd I, and I don't mind now if I do go and
bed without waiting for the customary admonition, help when it gets to be hoeing."
" Jake," said Isaac, when they had gone up the lad- "We'll both go," said Jake ; and spite of the back-
der to their sleeping loft, "I hope there ain't any ache they were soon fast asleep.
more folks that are sick or lazy or shiftless round this Perhaps you would all like to know that though
bush ; my feet are blistered, and I've got backache Mr. Wells did not get about much till near winter,
enough to divide among the children of Israel." his work was all dofe in as good season and as good
So've I; but I was kinder glad I went when shape as that of his most lusty and thrifty neighbor.
Mis' Wells came out and thanked us." The men from the South Settlement came up and cut
No did she, though ? and stored his hay and built a new log stable, while
"Yes; you had gone over to Copps' I s'pose. I did the nearer neighbors did all the rest; and before
not care anything about the parson's thankings I Christmas a great woodpile, bigger than the house
expected that -but when we was picking up the itself, was anchored near by to last until spring.
tools Mis' Wells come out with a yaller cradle blan- In that day every man, without any election, con-
ket over her shoulders, and her hair all out of the peg sidered himself an overseer of the poor.

St;, f U = *I .l

UIU 10 .-

~'' ..... t- -

M ONSIEUR was a Frenchman, grown pale with What use will it be, I should just like to know,
despair For me to say over du pain ct de 'can ? "
Over little Miss Anne and her don't-care air; "
Mon enfant," he said, I beseech you to look Monsieur shrugged his shoulders. Mon enfant," he
At the lesson I gave in this charming book." cried,
"Think! Were you in prison in France, and you tried
"The book is not charming. I've torn the page out, To ask for some food how convenient to say,
And French is affected," said Anne, with a pout. 0, give me'diu pain et de 'eaui si'l zvous plat!'"

ID you ever wonder what they I

tl I ate, and how they cooked it, in

years ago? Or have you supposed that, 2"
like Mother Goose's old woman, they an axe, and a small supply of flour and salt. There
"lived upon nothing but victuals and drink ?" would, perhaps, be two horses belonging to a party
They certainly did; but with smaller variety in of five or six, and on these they bound the more un-
material and fewer utensils, their food necessarily wieldy articles; the rest they strapped upon their
differed widely from ours, and many very delicious, own backs. When they found a favorable location,
old-fashioned dishes are now almost forgotten, they built a cabin of bark and bushes, selected and
The whole country was new then, and Vermont staked out their farms, and each immediately began
was farther inland, practically, than the remotest to clear his own.
corner of Arizona is now; and the food of each They could shoot game enough for their meat
family was almost wholly produced on the farm upon supply, and the handiest one of their number was
which they lived, so that the sturdy, determined set- deputed to make unleavened bread as often as
tlers were independent of foreign lands, occasion required; and they did their cooking in a
I have often heard Madame Thankful Whitney's little fireplace in, or near, the cabin.
cooking spoken of, and some of her receipts have Week after week they chopped down the great
passed down to me, but I suppose the dear old peo- primeval trees ; when a sufficient quantity had been
ple who told them to me, would think the same felled in any one of the lots, they all worked together
dishes if cooked in modern stoves and ranges, lacked to pile the brush and logs for burning. The huge
a peculiar appetizing flavor which is imparted only fires were a wild and splendid sight, especially at
from the brick oven, the bake-kettle, or the fireplace, night, and frightened the wolves to safe distances
or more probably from Madame Whitney's skilful for some time. After the burning, if it was in season,
handling and compounding; it certainly did require they immediately sowed wheat, bought at the nearest
more skill to cook well then than now. settlement, and patiently hoed it in. The land was
The very earliest settlers in Vermont used gener- too rough for use of plow and harrow, therefore as
ally to come in small companies, all men, bringing fast as the wheat was scattered the ground was mel-
with them little beside a change of clothing, a gun, lowed and the seed covered by means of a hand hoe.
yo eerwodr ha te

with them little beside a change of~ clothing, a gun, lowed and the seed covered by rneans of a band boe.


It sprung up quickly, and produced an abundant improved farm; that is, a small clearing had been
crop. made upon it a few years before, and an unfinished
After the wheat was sown, they built substantial framed house built, also a log stable, I think, around
log cabins on their farms in the midst of the clearing. which had been stacked the wild hay cut in the clear-
"Didn't theyleave a single treeto shade their houses?" ing. Oh, how they shivered in that unfinished house
some one wonders. No; they were too wise to do that first winter, though Mr. Whitney kept his ham-
that. The first blast of wind might have blown them mers and saws flying-ceiling and battening the
over and perhaps crushed their little cabins. Forest cracks; for he was a notable carpenter. It is said
trees do not send out their roots widely and bracingly, pride will keep one warm," but their pride in their
like those which grow in open land, and they do "board house was not sufficient to keep them half
not stand stoutly alone. The cabins completed, the as warm as their neighbors were in their snug, cosey
clearings were left in the care of one man, while the log cabins. Did you never live in a log house? Then
rest went back to the home State for their families. I wish you could for just one winter; you would
It was not safe to leave the wheat fields unwatched ; never pity the early settlers again, simply on the score
and with all the care, very likely the bears got half of their houses. They were, perhaps, a trifle too
of the crops, dark in the day time, since the logs could not be cut
The food for the family during the first year was through too often for window space ; but they were
principally wild game and wheat. The pigs and very warm. The settlers, to be sure, built framed
sheep and calves which they had laboriously driven houses as soon as possible, both because they could
from the old homes were altogether too precious to be made more roomy and because they liked to build
be killed until they were sure of others. They often "for good." A log house was erected for temporary



boiled their wheat, and corn too after they began to accommodation without foundation stones; conse-
raise it, whole, or else cracked it in a mortar; for the quently sagged, sunk, and leaned, and seldom lasted
grist-mill might be twenty or thirty miles away, and of many years. Madame Whitney's house, like all of
course they went to it as seldom as possible, that date, had an immense chimney-larger than
But Mr. Whitney brought his family to an her bedroom, with small fireplaces in the "square


rooms," and ofe-lhigh, deep and wide--in the sauce "-beets, cabbage, turnips, carrots and pota-
kitchen. A heavy crane swung in this kitchen fire- toes- followed the beef at the appropriate time, and,
place, on which she could hang four or five cooking- best of all, a pudding. No boiled dinner was com-
plete without its pudding, which was put into the
.Td T -' --..- HAT" pot at exactly nine o'clock, dinner being always
"- 'P\ served at noon. The pudding was a simple batter
.-'*,- : of new milk and Indian meal, made thin and boiled
S, in a linen bag. To insure lightness the water in the
./1-: ,/'," pot must be boiling briskly when the pudding was
"' '' : '"', put in, and never stop for an instant. This item of
S'' care-taking attended to, when the bag was turned
"off, the pudding was always found to be light as a
<1h11. cork," and, with cream and maple-sugar, was very
toothsome; and all the more highly prized that they
"did not have dessert with every dinner. After the
S1 I\ vegetables and meats and pudding had been taken
up, crusts of brown bread which had been saved for
F i this purpose, were put into the pot and boiled a few
minutes, then skimmed out-a brewis with nameless
garden flavors -to accompany the dinner.
A good deal of time was required for the prepara-
S tion of a boiled dinner, but the shrewd lady saw at
least four meals in the pot when she swung forth
the crane. She served it warm for the first dinner,
S.. cold for supper, with brown bread and a salad of
Chopped mustard leaves if it was summer time. In
I' the morning she made a hash of the remaining meats
and vegetables; and for the next day's dinner there
pots and kettles at a time. At the left was the brick was a soup compounded of the fragments, the pot-
oven, four feet deep and two feet high, arched over broth, and a pint of beans I must admit that this
with brick. The brick or stone floor of this oven was not so popular a dinner as the first.
was about four feet higher than the kitchen floor, and Many beans were raised, the stumps being very
under it was a long pit for ashes, convenient to dry them on. They were baked and
A large portion of the great Whitney farm still stewed, but oftenest of all were made into bean
bristled with stumps and roots ; but some corn was porridge. This was a rich, thick soup, cooked slowly
raised even the first year. Potatoes, which after- for a long time. It was made with seasoning of beef
ward formed such an important crop, were little used, bones, if obtainable, but oftener a few slices of salt
a barrel of them being considered an ample supply pork were fried in the pot, two or three quarts
for winter. They were raised in the garden with of water poured upon
other vegetables and in similar quantities. Baked or them, and added to this -
boiled potatoes for every-day fare, as we regularly wa a I:.''t -:r i .ic o f '-
use them, were unknown; they were mostly used betai lri -.. ,-.,. -.. .. .. ,' '
in boiled victuals," a farm-house dinner still much .. , t n-
esteemed by families who keep to the old ways.
Madame Whitney's preparations for a boiled din- *, .
ner began before breakfast, when she put a great "'
piece of salt beef in the pot over the fire. This pot '
was a fat thing, small at the top, to keep the smoke .
away from the cover, and it held two or three pail- I
fuls. A piece of pork and a quantity of "garden A SUBSTANTIAL LOG CAB1.


over night in cold water. It was additionally sea- the many purposes for which wet barrels. When
soned with salt and small bits of pepper-pods, and flour or meal was needed, Mr. Whitney brought
was a staple article of diet, being made as often as forth his "fan," put a few quarts of grain upon it,
once a week, summer and winter; took kindly to and by a dexterous sleight tossed the grain up a few
repeated warming over, and was a popular dish with inches, catching it on the fan when it came down, to
the children, brown bread or wheaten being crum- toss it up again. The grain "and chaff soon began
bled liberally into the steaming bowl. mysteriously to separate, the chaff toward the front
Plenty of wheat was produced as I have told you, and the grain to the back of the fan. At intervals
and rye also. It was all threshed with hand flails. I the chaff and dirt were brushed off and the process
always think when I see a threshing-machine that renewed and repeated until the grain was perfectly
the poetry of farm-life is almost gone. A good clean and ready for the bag. The filled bags were

*-, "" '.4 ,* \ /:,

"his movements ; he brought his flail around with a rode to mill.
""A '

were accustomed to thresh on one floor. When one and was expected to split a great pile of short oven-
;/I' ,

thrcleaned from chaff, it wasy, leisutorelyd in the chamber in into the bread-trough, a box as large as a baby ed ra-or
hollow logis movements from which the bark had been stripped, de, and strongly dovetailed together. The modern to mill.
graceful swing very different from thinside might-scraped or mBaking-d fails to understand whday of these bread-troughsek. Mad-
maiburned out. Theseih primitive barrels were cut iTwon sec- werame Whitney was up but it imes a fact that they seldom
wertions accustomed to threshet on one floor. When oned and waserved he less thanexpected to bushels. A great pile of short oven-
hollow logs from which the bark had been stripped, dle, and strongly dovetailed together. The modern
"burned out These primitive barrels were cut in sec- were made so large; but it is a fact that they seldom

tons about four feet long, set up on end, and served held less than two bushels. At each end of the
hisi moeens hebogthsfl rudwt a rd oml.
graefu swngver difeentfro te mghtan- Bkin-da ws te gea da ofth wek. ad
main z blo whic pitue ofte suget Two~ me hteywsu eims;Crswa umnd
weeacutmd otres on on lo.We n n a xetdt pi ra ieo hr vn
flailI wetu h te aedw n huhi odbfr rafs n twsSlysdt
loke ik eaywri a o.duigtesm iet hv itdtema n
Whnteganhd centre n prily for treseeuso rye andi theofcrma
cleaed romchaf, t ws stredin he hamer n ino te beadtrogha bo aslare a a abycra
holow og frm hic te brk adbee sniped dl, ad trogl doetile toeter.Th moer
and~~, th eae odo h niesrpdo id al oudrtn h hs ra-ruh
bune out Ths rmtv arl eecti e-wr aes ag u ti atta hyslo
tions~ ~ abu forfe og e po nadsre el esta w uhl.A ahedo h


trough near the top, was a slot to hold the "meal- I say, because the broom was often dipped in a pail
stick," and along this stick little Sally slid the sieve of water to wash away the ashes.
to and fro, to and fro, to sift the meal. She next Pots of beans and an Indian pudding were set in
sifted a quantity of flour into the wheat tray -a while the oven was yet too hot for bread. The rye-


heavy home-made wooden receptacle holding but and-Indian and the wheat dough having become
little less than the trough. After breakfast Madame light, they were gently formed into loaves, well
rolled her sleeves to her shoulders, tied on a clean sprinkled with dry meal, and slid into the oven from
linen apron, and with a pan of milk and water and a the blade of a long-handled wooden shovel-the
bowl of fresh yeast, began to compound the brown brown bread first, and when the oven was a little
bread. I regret to say that it is my belief that she cooler, the wheat bread. The heat was measured by
called this bread "ryninjun" when it was done. the hand; if the cook could hold her hand in the
It was no light task to mix five or six large loaves, oven while she counted twenty, she put in her brown
since it must be made stiff enough to bake without bread; when she could count forty the white bread
pans on the bottom of the oven. When thoroughly followed.
mixed she heaped it in one end of the trough and There was then room for two or three pies in the
set it near the fire to rise. Then she mixed the mouth of the oven. Fruit pies could seldom be made;
wheaten dough and set the tray over the trough, berries, to be sure, soon sprang up in the clearings,
The oven was heated by building a fire of finely and wild grapes grew near some of the streams;
split wood in it. This fire was kept up an hour or but the Whitney family and their neighbors had
two; but old ladies used to say they "could tell to wait years for apples and the other tree-fruits.
when an oven was hot by the looks." When it Think how large a place fruit, raw and cooked,
was at white heat, the coals were spread over the occupies in all our meals and culinary calculations,
oven to heat the bottom; and when this stone floor and you will wonder how our foremothers managed
reached the right degree, the coals and ashes were to live without it! When wild cherries were ripe
scraped out, and a birch broom, from which the Madame Whitney used sometimes to make pies of
string had been cut to let the splinters stand in all them, of both bird cherries and the bush cherry called
directions, was used to sweep or mop it clean-mop, chokecherries. These cherry pies required long bak-


ing; and, if the crusts were growing too brown, she buckets, iron spouts and great reservoirs, and all the
covered them with large green leaves. She could not modern appliances which are locked in his father's
use yesterday's daily paper, since yesterday had brought sugar-house.
her no such thing. I doubt if she ever saw one. In Oh, yes; there were plenty of maple-trees, but
spring she made pies of sorrel. On baking days nothing else. Before sugar could be made, Cyrus
the children were sent to gather a quantity of fresh and his father must work many a long evening chop-
young green sorrel leaves the old leaves were ping and burning out troughs to be used in place of
tough and bitter. After covering a plate with paste buckets. They also made spouts by burning out the
she piled it high with the carefully washed and pith of some soft-hearted wood with a hot spindle.
picked sorrel, put on plenty of maple sugar, and They tapped the trees by boring with a large auger,
covered it with paste. Sometimes she scalded the or else cut in them a long diagonal gash with an
leaves slightly: then she could judge better of the axe, turning out a chip on the lower end to conduct
quantity to put in. Should you try to make sorrel the sap, in place of a spout. Either method would
pies, girls, remember sorrel takes as much sugar as be considered gross cruelty to the tree by a modern
rhubarb. America had not then become a "pie- sugar-maker. Many families had only their dinner-.
eating nation," but Madame Whitney made more pot or a small wash-kettle to boil down sap in; but
than her neighbors, especially when pumpkins came. Madame Whitney had saved from the sale of the
Oh, the pumpkin! I don't know what our pioneers saltpetre works an immense kettle, and brought it all
would have done without it. It was easily raised the way to Vermont. Mr. Whitney hung this old
and much used. They put it into brown bread to saltpetre-kettle by means of a large chain, to a stout,
give it a sweet taste; they ate it simply stewed; they well-braced pole, slung the great dinner-pot beside
cut it in long strips and dried it over the fire, or
stewed it and dried it in thle nven after the bread had .
been drav.ri ot; dil inle -. 4 i':' iii": ,-,l r--.z -- -- '
times the e.' n Ii-, i 1.-, f ir ,I
inferior I,ii .;.t -. i" i -_ t ,


have sugar enough ?" some farmer's boy asks, "with it, tapped the trees, and then left the boys to make
the town half covered with maple-trees?" And I the year's supply of sugar. Merry times they had
suppose he sees heaters and evaporators and tin too, though all the sap was gathered by hand. Ben

., ."1 ',



have sugar enough ?" some farmer's boy asks, "with it, tapped the trees, and then left the boys to make
the town half covered with maple-trees?" And I the year's supply of sugar. Merry times they had
suppose he sees heaters and evaporators and tin too, though all the sap was gathered by hand. Ben


and Cyrus had sap-yokes which they wore on their some of the neighbors' boys would come over to pass
shoulders to lighten the task of carrying the pails, the evening, perhaps staying to sugar off." After
and sometimes too, they wore snow-shoes as they supper of toasted brown bread and roast squirrel,
trudged about over the crusty snow from tree to tree they would lie down on the fragrant green floor and
through the tall, silent forest. The sap they gath- tell stories of bears and wolves and panthers, the
ered was stored in a long trough from which the scenes of which were so near, both in time and space,
kettles were filled. It was little John's business to that poor little John's hair often stood on end, and
he could plainly see fierce
i'i eyes glaring from every bush
S,.-on the way home, until he
'. i almost "wished the old cat-
.',b. ... (i'll'. r --'.-' amount had him and done
'.' I 'I' "with it." Sometimes they
Si told Indian stories, even
'' .' more frightful than those
'of wild beasts; for the fear
S' '' '. of the red man had not yet
r.', ,-' Ipassed away from the set-
S .' elements. But they gener-
ally forgot the terror each
S"' had in turn awakened, when
Sthe important moment ar-
"" 'i rived of testing the slowly


keep the fires, and skim
the syrup as it boiled.
There was little time to
play, but what there was
was improved. They
climbed trees, shot game,
broiled bits of salt pork
over the fire for their
luncheon, and ate the froth
which danced on the top
of the kettles--it con-
tained all the impurities
of the sap, but no matter:

"Anything sweet in the mouth
can sweeten
All this bitter world for a boy." AT LEAST FOUR MEALS IN THE POT.

Sometimes they had to boil at night, and an eerie bubbling syrup to see whether it would "grain,"
and a merry time both, they had then. The sap was trying it upon pieces of broken crockery, and waxing
gathered before dark, and they repaired to the bush other spoonfuls on the snow for immediate consump-
house before the fire, going out occasionally to fill up tion while they waited for the test-portions to cool.
the kettles. A thick mat of odorous hemlock boughs How delicious were the cold sheets of waxen sweet,
covered the floor of the house, and the great fire that they peeled from the snow in yellow-brown rolls,
shining in made it very light and warm. Generally rivalling even the saucers of warm sugar. That too


was a good opportunity to manufacture maple sugar least for Cyrus, Ben, Sally and John. Nothing
eggs. These were made by pouring out the yolk was wasted in Madame Whitney's house. Even
and white __the crusts of bread
of an egg .,' .' all ned and
through a -II 'h, e.I i i various
small open- iI'iaIe wr s.l
ing in one f \\h,*n ri-, could
end of the A jet tie of
shell, and r i- ,me 'Pop Ro:binl ev-
then pouring I r b.i i. the house
in warm sug- a- 1a.p i au1 go-
ar, and leav- 'g tI tl O u just
ing it to grow h-|I that %as made,
solid, the a1 \e of Mari-
shell to be. Il n H lal' WIDE
removed at 4n lL Co,,ks will
pleasure. ---I I a tr to make
The Whit- iil it aid :- .w they
ney children like this dish :f their
usually pro- -r re rand-par-
vided them- -
selves with .i. ... r'
a dozen or .
more apiece of 1 i -_ r, in:1 f...r l-url ,.es ba I,.r tin '"
among themsel,. a in g tl. \..,.n,' t-i.b, th:c S.I aI
were more poweuif.l I IIan ,n raof thI-: real.e r i,
The first pai .4 i" rl .:I D v ;s t-.,: t,- ,arr, b, I. : ,me" .'. -
"for sap porridge. l. l ab.t
one third, added [. ce a. ntIIi n milk .- l, re T a; ;\rul..
and thickened ir ,irli fl i.r ti. I ,[,.t a, liick ,,.l ,<

.,, o t' I .CND

.*: ,'4..

I \N I D

cream. This was dipped boiling hot upon a quantity ents. Well, Madame Whitney boiled the sap and
of hard bread-crusts and made a good supper at added the milk, as she did for sap porridge. Then
5;: Y1 'I I -.~ TL)T
Ilk V.;
-Ap. Al :4Q," /8

of bard bread-crusts, and made a good supper -at added the milk, as she did for sap porridge. Then


when it boiled she put in her robins." To make boil a few moments after the last robin is in. A little
these she took one egg for each cup of sweet milk, salt should be put both into the robins and the por-
and stirred in flour till it was a stiff batter; but I ridge, the salt taste being quite distinct in the
Salt was one of the anxieties and trials of the
housekeeper; it required two bushels of wheat to
S" 'I buy one bushel of salt, and the exchange had to be
Made several miles away. It was coarse salt when
,., r, 'i bought; all the fine salt used for butter and cooking
,, was pounded in a mortar -the Whitney boys hated
the salt mortar worse than they did the churn.
S' The first maple syrup brought in demanded flap-
". jacks" for its full enjoyment. These were baked in
'''.. ''" I a frying-pan, with a handle three or four feet long,
.- and cook, who was perhaps the good deacon himself,
"T" held the pan over the fire, while the mass of batter
Swas baking; when well done on the under side he
""5 'r shook the pan lightly till the cake would slip upon
F'Ji'w it; then, with a skilful toss, he flatted the cake over,
i still holding the pan over the fire this made flap-
S' jacks of the cakes, I suppose, for they were what
we call griddle-cakes or pancakes. But Madame
Sr i Whitney's pancakes were different; they were made
S'"S ; 5' much like the dumplings in Pop Robin, and dropped
/ r by spoonfuls into hissing lard. No one could stand
r.'' was drawn out on the hearth, and in them was set a
.- a long-legged
Spider con-
think if you .'. training the
should put in 11. b lard. All iron-
as much cream ware was then
of tartar and made with
soda as you do long legs to
in making bis- stand in beds
cuts, your rob- of coals. A
ins will be "short-cake"
more likely to was baked in
be light-if a spider over
they are heavy the coals until
your dinner is the bottom
spoiled. The was done, then
batter should -- turned up be-
be as stiff as THE BAKE-KETTLE. fore the fire till
you can stir the top cooked
with a spoon; and as soon as the sweet porridge and browned. Biscuits were baked in a bake-kettle
boils you are to drop in bits, or robins," about as a kettle holding ten or twelve quarts, with a heavy
large as an acorn. Drop them just where the boiling cast-iron cover, which was surrounded by a deep rim.
makes a free space in the pot, and don't let the boil- The kettle was put on the hearth over a bed of live
ing cease for a moment. Cover the pot, and let it coals, the dough laid in, either with or without a


baking plate, the cover put on, and coals piled upon out for themselves. If any man was sick, his neigh-
it. When the coals began to die, they were easily bors did his planting or harvesting, taking good care
renewed from the fireplace. The bake-kettle was to have it done in season. Besides, in clearing land
prized for an emergency, as it was so readily got in and erecting buildings every man even those in most
baking order, while the heating of the brick oven prosperous circumstances was forced sooner or later
was an affair of time and preparation. to. ask help. No one willingly refused an invitation
When the settlements were new, the cows ranging to a log-piling, raising, or other bee." These were
the woods got little nourishing food and gave little the housewife's great days. If her townsmen took
milk. As fast as possible, trees were girdled or felled pleasure in coming to help her husband, she took
to give more grass space, and better pasturage and both pleasure and pride in giving them a good din-
milk soon came to form a very important article of ner when the work was done. As soon as the invita-
diet. Plain, but substantial breakfasts and dinners tions to a bee were out, the girls and matrons in the
of solid food were always provided; but in most vicinity dropped in one by one, with offers of
houses the suppers, not teas, were of milk with bread assistance in the house, cooking utensils and the use
or hominy, mush, or hulled corn, or boiled wheat, of the oven. The day of the bee as well as the day
eaten from wooden bowls or pewter porringers. before, was as busy a one in doors as out. A row of
But whatever the meal chanced to be, any neigh- pots hung bubbling on the crane, the great oven was
bor or friend who happened to call was asked to "sit heated again and again, and, if it was a very great
by," and made welcome to a share. Everybody was occasion, pots of beans and pudding were sent to
hospitable and benevolent, and all were as generous other houses to bake-but at another time I will
in caring for others as they were shrewd in looking tell you the full story of an old-fashioned bee."




CAN you put the spider's web back in its place, that once has been swept away ?
Can you put the apple again on the bough, which fell at our feet to-day ?
Can you put the lily-cup back on the stem, and cause it to live and grow ?
Can you mend the butterfly's broken wing, that you crushed with a hasty blow ?
Can you put the bloom again on the grape, or the grape again on the vine ?
Can you put the dewdrops back on the flowers, and make them sparkle and shine?
Can you put the petals back on the rose ? If you could, would it smell as sweet ?
Can you put the flour again in the husk, and show me the ripened wheat ?
Can you put the kernel back in the nut, or the broken egg in its shell ?
Can you put the honey back in the comb, and cover with wax each cell ?
Can you put the perfume back in the vase, when once it has sped away ?
Can you put the corn-silk back on the corn, or the down on the catkins say ?.
You think that my questions are trifling, dear? Let me ask you another one:
Can a hasty word ever be unsaid, or a deed unkind, undone ?


iiill iiflllllS4at;i,,, I 111111\8111Rli IIllil 111 Ilni---paa#ttiiaiaray /


I jj1



OU who read the story of the tray- sheep, so wild, so long-legged, and so lawless, that
elled Whitney cow Mooley, smiled they gave rise to the saying, You can't fence against
no doubt at the description of sheep!"
Cyrus Whitney in his suit of homespun; but I am Early in the season Cyrus and his father, with the
sure you could have had no idea how many weary younger children to look on, used to "wash sheep."
days' work those queer garments cost his parents It was an exciting spectacle, dear to countryside boys
" Sir and "Marm," Cyrus called them, as you call even now. The sheep, followed by bleating lambs,
your parents father and mother, or papa and mamma. were with some difficulty, and much ba-a-ing, driven
Should you suddenly lose all your clothing it into a small pen near a brook or river, dammed for
would be an easy matter for your father to replace the the occasion. Then Cyrus caught and dragged
garments in half an hour, at the nearest town; but them one by one in turn, to his father who stood
a hundred years ago there were no large shoeshops, in the deep cold water where he washed them,
no cloth factories, no ready-made clothing stores; giving each one a dexterous and mighty souse,
and cloth brought from England cost so much money and quickly proceeding'
that only rich people could wear it. Almost every A- to rub and squeeze the
family wore clothing made at home from material \i i l wool, putting on a little
produced on the farm. soap. Then the victim
Cyrus Whitney once or twice during his boyhood, was set free to run or
had deer-skin breeches made from skins bought of swim through the clear
the Indians, and sewed by a tailor; and sometimes, water to the clean turf
too, he wore cotton shirts in winter, but these were of the pasture, there to
none the less homespun. The raw cotton was -- drain and dry at leis-
bought, and then carded, spun, and woven in the ure. The wind blew
house. An early-rising woman must work very dili- l i out the long, thin, coarse
gently all day to card a pound of this raw cotton. wool until the great crea-
Then it was spun on a wool-wheel, and afterward tures looked as white
woven; and it was not very smooth and even cloth and soft as puffs.
when done; still it was warmer and more comfortable A few days after this
to wear than linen. But most of the underwear cloth came another annual ob-
was made from the home-grown flax. servance: sheep-shear-
Every farmer kept a few sheep for the wool supply. ing. Here, too, some-
These were of a large, coarse breed called Irish DEER-SKIN BREECHES. times on the turf, some-


times in the barn, the withy young Cyrus assisted, which I have forgotten; but you may be sure that
Dumb and patient, each sheep submitted to the Madame Whitney did not forget them, for her mind
great shears, perhaps giving now and then a plunge, was as busy as her fingers--you will still hear her
a bunt, or a kick. Each fleece was tied up neatly spoken of by the old people in town as "a very
by itself; and afterward Madame Whitney care- notable housewife," though hands and feet have been
fully sorted the packages, taking the poorest wool stilled for more than sixty years.
for stuffing her bedquilts, the next best for knitting- The wool which was to be used for wadding, and
yarns, and the best for making cloths; and the very that which was to be colored, was cleansed in hot
finest of the best was reserved for the Deacon's Sun- soap-suds. A part of the dyeing was done in the
wool, a part in the yarn, and a part in the cloth.

"" '-. i' ". 'k lI :Ie i- l. :,tl. ri ':, II '. : *1, :I'I I .:1I,_. I rabfew

S .' 'i i li. I r. .. i .<| -t co. loring.
".,' '''1" 1"l: .l ,,,. leel.,. _r, '., ,e highly
,1- 2,c 'i .'i n" 'i ,-I..i.t. I d..i o, and
/ re lIe-turls, ic be .tl-* i at thel s t-.r ; but
i r ,:,. '.,r "'-ic niid.e t rli banik, from the
S ... .r ,l -rl r,.. .. ght or

s ?^..: .

/ "*ii, l;irr .r. i .r [r iti.ii liked by
S. ri i L. every
\ r F r ": J
S.i-' '. -1 .-',.'I -" .: .: ii"ii'. '..V "n r ;, tangle

IEver, hose e had seerl is of rs

day suit. Of the rest of the best must be made carding tow, and wool, and cotton; they resembled
flannel sheets, blankets and coverlets for the beds, somewhat the cards used for cleaning horses and
hoods, dresses and shawls for Madame and her cattle, excepting that they were larger. The teeth
daughters, little skirts and blankets for the baby, were thickly set and were of fine steel wire. After the
shirts, waistcoats, frocks and breeches for the boys, wool was broken it was carded with fine-wool cards.
with fine tippets, stockings and mittens for the whole The left-hand card was firmly grasped, with the
family's best wear, and many other things, no doubt, handle pointed outward, and laid on the lap over the
family's best wear, and many other things, no doubt, handle pointed outward, and laid on the lap over the


left wrist;
the wool
put on it
and combed
and carded
with the
other card
until it was
smooth ;
then it was 7
on the back
of a card
into a round
soft "roll."

with mittens heavy
striped blue-and-white
ones for the boys, and
pretty speckled ones
for the girls.
A day's work of spin-
ning wool was thirty
A knots of warp, and forty
S.....knots of all other kinds
of yarn. When a thread
of warp was drawn to
-5 its full length the spin-
'- ner dropped it, took
"hold again near the
spindle and drew the
i, [. .,, N thread between her
thumb and finger, twist-
"" .it: ,, Inr I.hl. l i' ,aI e1 the yarn rounder and
Sn...,.: I.1r ... ".. i.slted of forty threads, each
-, i i .. I.- .I t. ,: ,l,. Ing. It was measured by
i.Ii r .., : r..l. .\ clock-reel struck as it
I. I. I 1 I \.:.Ii 1 -,:.I I l I. ; ._r time, and also indicated
a d ,.,u..I il.- ,,,ml_,.- -.1 thli,-al ..., the face; the threads on

from swifts, When the warp, or the lengthwise threads of a web of
then twisted on the wheel, then colored and hung cloth, was all spun and colored, Madame proceeded to
away in great bunches to be wound into balls and knit "lay out her piece and warp it. This required a
during the long winter evenings. Even boys were good deal of calculation. She must decide how fine
taught to knit in those days. The short modern a reed" to use --the fineness of the reed decided
sock was not known then. All men and boys wore how near together the threads would be; next, how
short breeches, and the long woolen stockings must be wide she wished her cloth. Then from the amount
knitted of a length to tie above the knee. Madame of yarn she had, she could judge how long her web
Whitney was also accustomed to knit the boys' would be. She now spooled her yarn on bobbins a
winter caps of blue and gray woolen yarn, together foot long, and set them up in a frame called "skarns."


Taking the end of each bobbin thread, she fastened before his eyes as hymn-book. Probably there were
them to a heavy frame called warping-bars," then not half a dozen books in the house, all counted.
carried the threads up and down and across over the They were careful to close their meeting before the
pins on this frame until it was as long as she wished good Deacon and his wife came back.
her web ; then she passed it back : she repeated this When Madame slipped her warp-yarn off the bars
process until she had the number of threads required she had a "hank just as long as the piece of cloth
by her reed. was to be, and it contained as many threads as would
These clumsy warping-bars when not in use, made be required for the width of the cloth. One end
a fine gymnasium for the Whitney children. The she now tied at intervals on a stick, then rolled it
boys climbed on it and swung from it, sometimes smoothly round the yarn-beam of the loom, and then
holding by their hands, sometimes by their feet. On sat down to draw it into the harness." The harness
Sunday, when Deacon Whitney mounted his horse was made at home, of two strips of wood, and some
and rode to meeting, with Madame on a pillion coarse linen thread; the threads fastened thickly
behind him, Cyrus and Ben walking to the same place, along each stick, held them about a foot apart. Each
the younger children held most interesting services in of these threads had a loop in it midway, three-fourths
the great weaving kitchen. The loom served for a of an inch long. For plain cloth she used two such
pulpit, the warping-bars for a gallery, and they pieces of harness. She drew the first thread of the
thought it much finer than the poor little room where warp through the first loop in one harness, then be-
their parents had worshipped since they came to tween the threads in the other; the next thread was


Vermont. Whether the sermons were instructive, the drawn between the threads of the first harness and
family traditions do not tell; but it is known that through the first loop in the second harness, and so
they all sung with spirit if not with understanding on across the web. Thus each harness held half the
after John who repeated one of Watts' Infant Hymns, warp, by each alternate thread, in its loops. The
two lines at a time, with a piece of birch-bark held up warp was next drawn through the reed, then firmly


s'. -

.'5 - --- .l...

I/': I I ,. '

,, ='I 4i ,

_N. ,, c. i- l

X\\lhen the
S ini:r ,. the -ttle
"k be m. I 1.-r r rrtn %.,-, can L l t ieve

N o w sh e-" l,,,1,1 rfl... ; ',..I -h. '. M ,_, t ,, a dl.,.l t,:, ,a rch

t illin read. to weave.i(,! :_r S,_ :i. ll,. tl-r,. .'. ?.: were taugh .t t ill

-lit' V, s p rn d the
.arne a. Ial te a
d the
"tied to a rod which was con- filling-yarn, as the bob-
fined by ropes to the cloth- bin of a sewing-ma-
beam. chine does the under
Now she was ready for w thread, and little gifls
the filling," ready to weave. d- were taught to fill
When she sat lown on the t them as soon as they
loom-bench, two treadles were 1 1t .' were five years old.
before her feet, connected / A huge skein of yarn
with the two pieces of har- was put round the
ness. She put her foot on "swifts," a machine
one, thus drawing up one which looked exactly
harness and half the yarn, like a turn-stile set in
so that she could now throw a block. A quill was
the shuttle, which carried thrust upon the spin-
the bobbin of filling thread, -9 dle of a small wheel,
across the web between the \ by which sat the little
upper and under threads- girl, who turned it
then she "sprung" the other with her right hand
treadle, which drewup its har- while she guided the
ness with the lower threads, BOYS WERE TAUGHT TO KNIT IN THOSE DAYS. thread upon the quill
then beat up the thread of filling with the reed with her left. At five years of age also little girls
which hung in the heavy lathe before her, and then learned to spin tow, afterward wool, and then linen,


so that the precious art was learned by the time months and months before they needed them to wear.
they were seven; and at this age they also had The thread for the making of garments was also a
learned to weave plain cloth, matter of foresight and patient toil. Buttonhole
Much of the cloth was made up just as it came twist was supplied in the following manner:
from the loom. The flannel for best dresses was When the wool was picked, some of the longest
sometimes carried to the clothiers to be napped and from the sheep's back was saved, and sent to a
pressed; and the cloth for men's outer garments Scotch woman who had some worsted combs. She
was sent away to be "fulled" and pressed. The combed out all the short fibres, then drew the long
linings were made of an inferior flannel or tow-cloth, ones into a long, loose rope, which she wound into a
Most of the sewing was done by Madame Whitney soft ball and sent home. It was wound over the fore-
fingers and spun on a linen wheel, colored, washed,
S Li l i 1 1 r t l, ,il, c i...r Aid.,r lII ,:, ,:,., 11. 13 ,, It .
'.---- -%. '.. J r Ir '. eii l iL i .r l. i i.i tt,.l r:,l ..'.\ \ ,-i

S'i '' L '1111 wa ti.Iw r iii- l.:'i l iii rIatiia.l t.rr -" \itu suit

'I :r '- l'r a i- -r l it i- t 11 r A k *3-t

%T % tc h ad A ml il.l ,l,..I :l ,, l 1:11e _- l

IC -i Vie coll
th. .S /is ni -l :-_- .Ll.l t i n ui [i ].:it t.i 'It .- li.r- nere ,, il

saxed ti o l:,larit. N,_,rliyi,. lca:-n,:l l\Iadau' \\litniey

to to Ill Ike. at
e : i, *:vd i ''I r il l C -I l

lha t. ai cf'. "iatheir u l. ocl.hi
t a to v la t
I C) 0 ,1) a._

t,-,ru t':, ,',.ut and t- I,,:11, h l'tir h rhic ind

v -t,' ,,i,'t: a_- I Ir .. hl rlI,_ I .i. -l ,ir r i,.Iv r.:. ,' :.

I,. f tlJik hl]. i Flidr ie, h!.:.i i trll l',. il .I- -_
cic Cut ,l-ivi suIl' -,ii i rc.I .,, "-ii
t ,_ larun. : i I.I li: Ii A,:l -i t thi r
I ar. i err liS u- l,,:,, ll_ i I I-I ..._ Ii
had to plan for their supplies of clothing WVEAVI NG.


.'_ __ ._-. __ __-_ "_ ;.i_ ..... -.


:' -',

T V,


so well as to be the fortunate apple woman; and a mile. No spinning or weaving was done Thanks-
I have heard it said that the savory odors from her giving week; nothing but cooking. The great brick
kitchen could be smelled for a circumference of half oven was heated again and again. Delicious loaves
of wheat, rye and brown bread were baked, loaves
which those who tasted say were never equalled by
/ .. .- -- .."- anything baked in a stove oven. Loaf
/ cake, puddings and pies of various
kinds were made -nothing in these
save their spices, came from over the
sea; and Madame Whitney's loyal
"heart would have scorned to use rais-
ins or citron in war time. With cori-
//"ander and caraway seeds, with pepper
plants and sweet herbs in the
garden, even foreign spices were
little used. Poultry did not

But there were broiled par-
tridges, squirrel pot-pies,
and roast beef, also every
Vegetable after its kind. An
/ s extension to the tletale was
THE TAILOR. improvised, and beautifri


homemade tablecloths, heavy, shining,
and white as snow, were thrown over
the hospitable lengths. Delft and pew-
ter dishes were used; wooden trenchers
for the bread, and three great pewter
platters for the meats, were arranged
down the centre.
Did you ever see a pewter set ? I
wish you could after the great pieces
had been rubbed with rushes until bright
as silver. Mad-
ame Whitney
was as proud of
her pewter set /
as the Queen of
King James of
her great gold
The deacon
stood up and
said grace and 1
carved the roast, / a.' rc hex
and while they
cussed the for-
tunes of the army, the prospects of the new State; you think was done to correct it? Soda put in?
and the British and the "Yorkers" shared equally Madame Thankful Whitney had never so much as
in their maledictions. heard of soda; but she was chemist enough to know
After dinner the company began to disperse; that alkali would neutralize acid, so she swept the
those who staid till evening were treated with hearth, burned some corn-cobs, saved the ashes, and
short-cakes and tea-perhaps the only cup of real put a little lye made of these into her cream. It
Chinese tea some of them had tasted during the did not make the cake very light, but it prevented
year. any taste of sourness.
The "short-cake" was a rich, heavy, indigestible The feast-day over, the sun arose next morning on
compound made of cream and flour, and esteemed a work-day world; and the carding and spinning
very delicious. If the cream was a bit sour, what do and weaving were again begun.




-' ,.-.:.ib ., I, ._ ;t t.1..,k a [en the \\'Ien ti c i:ills i%,re %.ell ,Itie., the
ItLiie to niake C)ru.' coatL; but I flax ,a carried ilnto the L.ain and til al.lJ, to get
assure yot that his shirt was still longer in making, the seed. Enough seed was always saved for the
Early in spring the flax was sown. The turf of next year's sowing; the rest was sold to the oil-
a piece of good land was turned over, and the makers, and formed quite an important source of
soil made as smooth and mellow as possible with revenue, as few products of New England soil sold
the rude tools then in use; and very great care was for ready money in those days.
taken that no seeds of weeds should be buried in the After the flax was thrashed it was carried to a
soil. When it had been faithfully dragged and har- clean piece of grass land and spread, where it was
rowed, Mr. Whitney sowed the piece thickly with the permitted to lie, being turned occasionally, until the
shining brown flax seed; the rule was to put seven pith and all woody parts had become brittle from
seeds on a spot as large as a man's thumb-nail. The decay; but everybody needed to be very watchful
closer the flax grew, the smaller and longer the stalks lest the fibre become rotten also, for the useful part
were, and the better the flax fibre. When all had of the flax-plant is the fibrous bark. When the
been sowed, Cyrus again patiently drove the steers right degree of the rotting process had been reached,
to and fro, this time to harrow in the seed. The the flax was tied into bundles and again stored in
harrow was an "A" frame, like those in use in some the barn.
pi ices now; but it was home-made, and had hickory- When winter came, and growing crops no longer
wc )d teeth instead of iron or steel, claimed attention, Deacon Whitney swept the barn
Meanwhile Ben was hoeing back the earth which floor and brought out the "flax-break," a clumsy
ha, been scattered on the outlying turf, and Lem machine made of three pieces of hard board, some-
anc :ally were picking greens for dinner, or sorrel what sharpened at the upper edges, and fastened at
for I -s. One would have waited long to find a pair each end to two heavy posts ; four similar pieces of
of idie hands in Deacon Whitney's household; al- board shut into these, somewhat like the notches on
though as the summer days went on, the children cog-wheels. The parts were about five feet apart.
sometimes did go to the flax-field for other purposes Between these great jaws the stalks of flax were
than work : for aflax-field in midsummer, covered with crushed, the woody parts being thus effectually
beautiful blue flowers, is a pretty sight; and flax-blue crumpled. Clear, cold days were selected for break-
is the most beautiful blue in the world. ing flax, and on such a day the heavy strokes of the
When the seed was quite ripe the flax was pulled "break" could be heard from every barn in the
-never cut, but always pulled, to save every inch of neighborhood.


After it was broken, the flax was taken in locks be made with smooth, slender wrought iron nails,
and firmly held in the left hand over the edge of a but the fine one was invariably of round, sharp
board, and beaten with a thin stick somewhat resem- spikes, three inches long, very thickly set. The flax
bling a long knife, and called a swingling knife. It was combed even and smooth by whipping it over
was beaten up and down on .one side, turned, and these hatchels, first on the coarse hatchel and then on
beaten on the other till it was cleared from all the the fine. When it was done it was twisted into a
chives, or bits of stalk. This was called "swing- hank, and looked very like a switch of long drab
ling." Cyrus learned to single flax when he was hair. The short fibres and tangles left in the hatchel
but twelve years old. His father could single were, called "tow," and this was carded and spun on
twenty-four pounds in a day, while he could only get a wool wheel. Of it an inferior cloth was made,
out four; but his delicate strokes made the best flax. which was sometimes used for -summer waistcoats and
Great care was taken in every process to keep the trousers, and for various domestic purposes; but it
ends of the flax even, and the break as well as the mostly served as "filling" for a grade of cloth of
swingling board and knife must be perfectly smooth, which the warp was linen.
that the flax might not become tangled or torn. The long switches or hanks of flax were wound on
Some of the short fibres of course fell down among a distaff, and thus made ready to be spun on a "little
the chives; this was called "swingle-tow," and was wheel." But who shall describe the process? I
sometimes picked up, carded, spun, and woven into a believe nobody knows how it is done except those
coarse, rough cloth, which was used as ticking for who can do it, any more than we "know how oats,
straw beds, wool sacks, and the like. peas, beans, and barley grow." It is wound directly
Swingling finished the men's work on the flax. on to a spool as it is spun; the thread is guided by

.,; .. --- _-. .. --

,, .', ', I


Madame Whitney and the girls now took it. First, it means of hooks set in a half-oval concern which flies
was hatcheled, or hetckeld, as it was pronounced. A round the spool, and is called "flyers." I have seen
hatchel was a sort of brush made of iron or steel it done. I saw the flax pulled off the distaff, a few
spikes, firmly set in plank. The brush itself was fibres at a time, with the fingers. I saw it wet from a
six or seven inches square, but the plank was nearly gourd shell which always hung on the wheel. I saw
two feet long, that it might stand firmly. Each the dim mist which the flyers made in their rapid
family had a pair of hatchels; the coarse one might whirl, and I put my fingers in it. I am fully con-


vinced that no one knows how it feels to have his and linen "- that is, the warp was of flax, the woof
fingers in the flyers till he has tried it. Still I of tow; a part of it was colored blue with indigo, a
am sure I never could learn to spin flax. part buff with copperas -and a dainty artistic check
The very best flax was saved for thread; it was it made. Each girl had one new dress and two new
combed on a third very fine hatchel, and sometimes aprons every spring; these, with the half-worn ones
drawn over .a card also; then it was spun both fine left from last season, would last her a year.
and coarse, for all pur-
poses, and whitened. --
Cloth for sheets and shirts -- --- 7-'--..
was, much of it, woven \
brown just as it was spun,
and afterwards whitened
in the web before making
up. This was an opera-
tion requiring time and
After the cloth had
"been boiled in a weak lye /
made of wood ashes and
water, it was spread on

t pg h / e o lrg
""-l-v ax" --; .. .

the grass, pegged down The aprons were generally blue and white check,
to prevent the wind four threads of each; but the best gowns were made
from tossing it about, handsomer, sometimes with three colors, blue, buff,
lent .. t c and then kept constant- and white and Sally Whitney had some very deli-
"k i .ily wet. The bottom cate ones of buff and white, woven in broken plaids.
of a large gourd-shell The white part of the cloth was whitened in the
dipper was thickly per- yarn; and home-made linen-white is a very pure, rich
forated with fine holes white. The "knotting band was firmly tied about
; V // ,,,. by means of a hot wire; the skeins which were to be "whitened," and then they
this served as a water- were thrown into a "bucking tub," made in most cases
.y ing-pot. Lem carried of a large log hollowed out and fitted with a bottom.
Su ergow and this strainer many times When all the yarn was in, the tub was filled with lye
a day over the whole and water boiling hot. The next day the liquid,
length of the cloth, while John, walking beside him, looking very black and dirty, was drawn out at the
kept it filled by djl'.,, from a pail with another bottom and the tub refilled; this was repeated till
shell. Cloth dried very fast in hot, sunny weather, I the yarn began to look white and feel soft. Then it
assure you, and the children hated the task of wet- was spread on a board in the sun and kept wet until
ting it with all their hearts. They were required it was quite white.
to watch it themselves, and the care interfered seri- Before the yarn for warp was spooled on to the
ously with most of their plans. skarn spools, it was stiffened,, or sized, by dipping
Summer gowns and aprons were made of "tow it in a thin paste; wool and cotton were stiffened


with skimmed milk; while it was drying, Madame oc- as lasting as the cloths, which were laid away with
casionally snapped it out" on her hands, that the bags of rose leaves or lavender for use on state
threads might not stick to- occasions, when they hung
gether. It was now spooled in heavy folds over the cor-
and warped like wool; and > I ners of the table, white as
when a hank of warp of any snow, and shining like
kind was taken off the bars, satin.
it was looped together But these beautiful cloths,
like a mammoth chain of heirlooms now, were not
crochet. I l' i r' made until many years after
Ben was taught to weave, the Whitneys came to Ver-
for it was hard work to . ; ,'- .'. mont. The food was com-
weave; and there were so I i1I i only put on the bare,
many yards needed that the white table, which was
mother and Sally could not i washed after every meal,
well do it all. But no and scoured with sand twice
one other than herself ever a week; for the scanty table
touched the fine towelling linen brought from Connec-
and the tablecloth webs; ticut was only used on occa-
for these fabrics she used sions of ceremonious visits.
three, four, or more treadles The great primeval woods
in order to weave in the covered most of the land
pretty fancy figures when they first came, the
bird's-eye, diamond-spot, little clearings were full of
and others ; and when she stumps and roots, and the
made damask -tablecloths, flax grown was coarse and
the most beautiful of all, short, and only what was
she sent the yarn to an lk Q absolutely necessary for
Irish woman who had clothing and rough domes-
learned the lovely secrets tic use was raised. Indeed,
of "damask" in the old/ i
country. After it was woven .ts
and bleached, the damp damask web was laid over ------ l
a smooth, flat stone, brought from Ireland for this ~
purpose no doubt, and beaten all over with a '" A
wooden mallet to make it shine. This shine was .' ,'

S-Af I ,TL

I ./i f_- -,i I7 t -

1 'G -- I' / 'i H '


drapery curtains were often
made for the best room,
white, checked with two
S s C- threads of blue or buff;
",... also short curtains across
S. .. the lower sash, for the oth-
i ser rooms. Canopies of soft,
thin cloth, and spreads of
""ol 7. heavy diaper patterns, were
made for th5 high-post
"" beds, and all were trimmed
with fringe hand-knotted
from the "i thrums." When
a web was cut out of the
loom, there were always
pieces of warp called
thrums, left at each end;
short at the first end, but
often twelve or fifteen
inches long at the other.
The wcol thrums were tied
and knit, or used for darn-
ing; the linen thrums were
used for mending, for
strings of various kinds,
and afterward, when they
began to indulge in little


the cleared land was need- ,
ed to raise food for the 1
family, and hay for the
cattle. Twenty years lat-
er, when the farms were
fully cleared from stone, .'
root and stunmp, and made I --
smooth, broad fields of -
flax were common, and
precious stores of fine -
home-made linen were ac- -
cumulated, still the pride
and treasure of many an
old homestead. I have heard old people speak of luxuries and decorations, the short thrums were, as
persons who had sixty or one hundred pairs of home- I have said, knotted into fringes, and used for trim-
spun sheets. This was unusual; but in households mings after being bleached.
where there were many daughters, or where spinning When the apple-trees were in the blow" was
girls could be hired, there was always an abundance always deemed the most favorable time for bleach-
of bed and table linen, towels and the like, and a ing.
great chest full was made for each daughter. Long Cyrus' shirts for ordinary wear were of tow and


linen, plainly made, and tied at the neck and wrists of the right length for broom and handle, and three
with strings twisted of thrums; his one "handsome or four inches in thickness. Then with a knife
shirt" was made of fine linen, with a narrow scrap strips of the wood were peeled up thin as paper, and
of Holland linen gathered for a ruffle on the bosom, about one third of an inch in width and a foot in



This had buttons on it which his mother made by length, leaving the upper ends attached to the stick.
winding hard-twisted thread on a small stick, slipping When the wood was all evenly stripped up, they
it off and covering it neatly with a sort of lace turned the stick, and began, about fifteen inches
stitch with the same thread. These buttons were above the lower
hard, durable, and much handsomer than the thread strips, to peel thin .'
buttons now offered for sale in the shops, strips round and -
At first the living rooms were used to spin and round, until the '-
weave in, though the barn was resorted to when the stick was the prop- *, '.! .'
weather was warm enough; but when framed houses er size for a broom-- .
replaced the old log cabins, the more prosperous handle. The up-
people built a hall in the chamber for a manufactory, per strips were then I
or devoted one of the great square rooms to the turned down over "
work, or perhaps devoted the old log house to that the lower ones and
purpose. Madame Whitneyused the basementkitchen; firmly bound about
her house was built on a side hill. with strong cords. i
I think I know just how that old weaving room The upper part of iil
looked, I have heard it so often described. Madame, the handle was ''
with her head tied up turban-fashion in a blue-checked shaved smooth, and -
kerchief to keep the tow from her abundant auburn hair, thus a broom was
sat in one corner of the great wide fireplace hatchel- made which would
ing, while Ben was weaving, Polly Natt spinning tow, last Madame Whit- .
and little Sally winding quills. If it was a stormy day ney a long time.
very likely the Deacon or Cyrus was peeling a birch But as it was heavy, N' "
broom. Corn brooms had not been heard of at that and very lard to Bli
period. A sound piece of birch wood was selected wield, hemlock BEATING DAMASK.


brooms were often used instead. These Madame made trial with it was that though kept in the cellar, or even
herself. She gathered an armful of soft hemlock in the brook, the leaves would fall off in a few days,

t ... ... "
P.-,- .;t' -..A, '

--- - L --

7' "
*, -: ., .." +-"- -A^. ": i,' :. lq ^ ,J +. t+-

-, ) ;.,

to a handle, spreading them a little, so that the broom with it, it snapped and cracked like a thousand little

was broader than the birch broom. The hemlock pistols and little Sally Whitney was very fond of
broom was light, and it swept very clean: the great "sweeping up the hearth" with a hemlock broom.

-+ ,. : :_ -,

broom was light, and it swept very clean : the great "L sweeping up the hearth" with a hemlock broom.


The winter that Cyrus was thirteen -I --. .
years old, great haste was made, ex- "i -
tra girls hired, and all the cloth I ; II''iA'''" / --
was woven and made up, and the >-, I ,
loom taken down and packed in the, i '" 'i
barn, all before Thanksgiving. i
After Thanksgiving the old weav- ,, .'; I "',
ing room was swept and garnished, rI
blocks and various kinds of seats
were brought in, and all things
made ready for a school. Cyrus '. --"---_
danced with joy because he was go-
ing to learn to write. He had at- .
tended a school three months, in
Connecticut, to learn to read; and 4' y
now he was going to learn to write! j '. '' 1

on this carefully husbanded space Ii '

spelling-book contained reading les- --: ;u' j
sons and various tables and items of -
information no wen t to school any more. Thatin

modern spellers. All the neigh- ,"' ,' .-- ^-'
bors' children came to the home school also I
fromstudied Diles around,rth's some of them well-grown men. me that we may learn everything when once we
It was, I think Pike's arithe first school ever kept in the letters of the alphabet." Cyrus by no
spellitown. learned everything, for in his early life books
Yo u who have been to school nine months in every scarce and hard work abundant; yet he did le
infoyear that you can remember, are not to suppose that enough to put to shame many men of a later gene
modern spellers. All the neigh- i I -
hors' children came to this school
from miles around, some of them well-grown men, me that we may learn everything when once we
It was, I think, the first school ever kept in the letters of the alphabet." Cyrus by no
town. learned everything, for in his early life books i
You who have been to school nine months in every scarce and hard work abundant; yet he did lett'1
year that you can remember, are not to suppose that enough to put to shame many men of a later gene
Cyrus from an unschooled lad grew into an ignorant tion to whom books and school were a part of every
man. Not at all. Edmund Stone said, "It seems to day life up to manhood.