Citation
Travels into several remote nations of the world by Lemuel Gulliver, first a surgeon and then a captain of several ships, in four parts ...

Material Information

Title:
Travels into several remote nations of the world by Lemuel Gulliver, first a surgeon and then a captain of several ships, in four parts ...
Running title:
Gulliver's travels
Creator:
Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745
Lalauze, Adolphe, 1838-1906 ( Illustrator )
J.C. Nimmo and Bain ( Publisher )
Ballantyne, Hanson and Co ( Printer )
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
J.C. Nimmo and Bain
Manufacturer:
Ballantyne, Hanson and Co.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xliv, 363, [8] p., [6] leaves of plates : ill., port. ; 24 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Imaginary places -- Fiction ( lcsh )
Voyages, Imaginary -- Fiction ( lcsh )
Pride and vanity -- Fiction ( lcsh )
War ( lcsh )
Castaways -- Fiction ( lcsh )
Courts and courtiers -- Fiction ( lcsh )
Giants -- Fiction ( lcsh )
Treason -- Fiction ( lcsh )
Reason -- Fiction ( lcsh )
Sailors -- Fiction ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Fiction ( lcsh )
Satires -- 1883 ( rbgenr )
Fantasy literature -- 1883 ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1883 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1883
Genre:
satires (literary works) ( aat )
Fantasy literature ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements ( rbgenr )
novel ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh

Notes

General Note:
Title page printed in colors.
General Note:
Publisher's advertisements follow text.
General Note:
No. 13 of 40 copies printed on laid paper.
General Note:
Baldwin Library copy: "Only 40 copies of the edition on laid paper, medium 8vo. with proof etchings on Whatman paper, have been printed for the American market, and are numbered consecutively as issued. No. 30."
Funding:
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jonathan Swift ; with five etchings and portrait by Ad. Lalauze.

Record Information

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
002225029 ( ALEPH )
ALG5301 ( NOTIS )
37255367 ( OCLC )

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Full Text


tei ttade Detaled, Bidet Mh ttn ale hic ie ade ele ee Sa be oe OE

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TRAVELS
INTO SEVERAL REMOTE NATIONS OF THE WORLD

BY

LEMUEL GULLIVER

FIRST A SURGEON AND THEN A CAPTAIN OF SEVERAL SHIPS
gn Four Parts

I. A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT
II. A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG
III. A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, BALNIBARBI, LUGGNAGG,
GLUBBDUBDRIB, AND JAPAN |
IV. A VOYAGE TO THE COUNTRY OF THE HOUYHNHNMS

‘* Splendidé Mendax.”—Hor.

By JONATHAN SWIFT

DEAN OF ST. PATRICK

CHith Fine Ctchings and JPortrait bp Ap. Lalause

LONDON
J. G NIMMO AND BAIN
14, KING WILLIAM STREET, STRAND, W.C.
1883



Only go Copies of this E-dition on latd paper, medium Svo,
with proof Etchings on Whatman paper, have been printed
for the American market, and are numbered consecutively as

issued.



CONTENTS.





Oo
PAGE
PREFATORY MEMOIR TO JONATHAN SWIFT . . . XVii
THE PUBLISHER TO THE READER . . . . . XXXVI
A LETTER FROM CAPTAIN GULLIVER TO HIS COUSIN
SYMPSON, . . . . Lo . . . XXXIX

i

PART I.

A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT.
CHAPTER I.

The Author gives some account of himself and family—His first
inducements to travel—He is shipwrecked, and swims for his
life—Gets safe on shore in the country of Lilliput—Is made
a prisoner, and carried up the country . . . . .

CHAPTER II.

The Emperor of Lilliput, attended by several of the nobility, comes
to see the Author in his confinement—The Emperor’s person
and habit described—Learned men appointed to teach the
Author their language—He gains favour by his mild disposi-
tion—His pockets are searched, and his sword and pistols
taken from him . . . . . . . . .

b

14



vi CONTENTS.

CHAPTER III.

The Author diverts the Emperor and his nobility of both sexes,
in a very uncommon manner—The diversions of the court of
Lilliput described—The Author has his liberty granted him
upon certain conditions

CHAPTER IV.

Mildendo, the metropolis of Lilliput, described, together with the
Emperor’s palace—A conversation between the Author and a
principal secretary concerning the affairs of that empire—
The Author’s offers to serve the Emperor in his wars

CHAPTER V.

The Author, by an extraordinary stratagem, prevents an invasion
—A high title of honour is conferred upon him— Ambassadors
arrive from the Emperor of Blefuscu, and sue for peace—The
Empress’s apartment on fire by accident ; the Author instru-
mental in saving the rest of the palace . .

CHAPTER VI,

Of the inhabitants of Lilliput ; their learning, laws, and customs—
The manner of educating their children—The Author’s way of
living in that country—His vindication of a great lady .

CHAPTER VII.

The Author, being informed of a design to accuse him of high
treason, makes his escape to Blefuscu--His reception there .

CHAPTER VIII.

The Author, by a lucky accident, finds means to leave Blefuscu;
and, after some difficulties, returns safe to his native country .

PAGE

52

64

“TY
Wr



CONTENTS. Vil

N.

PART IL
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG.

CHAPTER T,
PAGE
A great storm described—The long-boat sent to fetch water; the
Author goes with it to discover the country —He is left on
shore, is seized by one of the natives, and carried to a farmer’s
house—ITis reception, with several accidents that happened
there—A description of the inhabitants . . . . 83

CHAPTER II.

A description of the farmer’s daughter—The Author carried to a
market-town, and then to the metropolis—The particulars of
his journey . . . . . . . . . . 99

CHAPTER III.

The Author is sent for to court—The queen buys him of his
master the farmer, and presents him to the king—He dis-
putes with his Majesty’s great scholars—An apartment at
court provided for the Author—He is in high favour with the
queen—Ile stands up for the honour of his own country—His
quarrels with the queen’s dwarf . . . . . . 107

CHAPTER IV.

The country described—A proposal for correcting modern maps—
The king’s palace, and some account of the metropolis—The
Author’s way of travelling—The chief temple described . 120

CHIAPTER V.

Several adventures that happened to the Author—The execution
of a crithinal—The Author shows his skill in navigation . 126



Vill CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VI.

PAGE
Several contrivances of the Author to please the king and queen—
He shows his skill in music—The king inquires nto the state
of England, which the Author relates to him—The king’s
observations thereon . . Loe . . . . 139

CHAPTER VII.

The Author’s love of his country—He makes a proposal of much
advantage to the king, which is rejected—The king’s great
ignorance in politics—The learning of that country very im-
perfect and confined—The laws and military affairs and
parties in the state . . . . . . . . 150

CHAPTER VIII.

The king and queen make a progress to the frontiers—The Author
attends them—The manner in which he leaves the country
very particularly related—IHe returns to England . . . 158

PART IIL.

A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, BALNIBA RBI, LUGGNAGG,
GLUBBDULBDRIB, AND FAPAN.

CHAPTER I.

The Author sets out on his third voyage—Is taken by pirates—
The malice of a Dutchman—His arrival at an island—He is
received into Laputa . . . ° . . . . 175



CONTENTS. ix

CHAPTER II.

PAGE
The humours and dispositions of the Laputians described—An
account of their learning—Of the king and his court—The
Author’s reception there—The inhabitants subject to fear

and disquietudes—An account of the women . . . 183
t

CHAPTER III.

A phenomenon solved by moderh philosophy and astronomy—The
Laputians’ great improvements in the latter—The king’s
method of suppressing insurrections —, : . . . 194

CHAPTER IV.

The Author leaves Laputa, is conveyed to Balnibarbi, arrives at
the metropolis—A description of the metropolis and the
country adjoining—The Author hospitably received by a
great lord—His conversation with that lord . ‘ . . 201

CHAPTER V.

The Author permitted to see the Grand Academy of Lagado—The
academy largely described—The arts wherein the professors
employ theniselves . . . . . . . . 209

CHAPTER VI.

A further account of the academy—-The Author proposes some
improvements, which are honourably received . . 219

CHAPTER VII,

The Author leaves Lagado—Arrives at Maldonada—No ship
ready—He takes a short. voyage to Glubbdubdrib—Ilis
reception by the governor ° . . . . . 227





Xx CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VIII.

PAGE
A further account of Glubbdubdrib—Ancient and modern history
corrected. , . . . . . . . . 233

CHAPTER IX.

The Author returns to Maldonada—Sails to the kingdom of Lugg-
nagg—-The Author confined—He is sent for to court—The
manner of his admittance—The king’s great lenity to his
subjects . ; , , , . 7 ; . 241

CHAPTER X.,

The Luggnaggians commended—A particular description of the
Struldbrugs, with many conversations between the Author
and some eminent persons upon that subject . . . . 246

CHAPTER XI.

The Author leaves Luggnagg, and sails to Japan—From thence he

returns in a Dutch ship to Amsterdam, and from Amsterdam
to England . ; . . . . . . . . 257

PART IV.

A VOYAGE TO THE COUNTRY OF THE
HOUVHNHNMS.
CHAPTER 1.

The Author sets out as captain of a ship—His men conspire
against him—Confine him a long time to his cabin—Set him



CONTENTS. XI

PAGE
on shore inan unknown land—Ile travels up into the country
—The Yahoos, a strange sort of animal, described—The

Author meets two Houyhnhnms . . . . . . 263

CHAPTER IT.

The Author conducted by a Houyhnhnm to his house—The house
described—The Author’s reception—The food of the Houy-
hnhnms—The Author in distress for want of meat—lIs at last
relieved—His manner of feeding in this country. . . 272



CHAPTER III.

The Author studies to learn the language—The Houyhnhnm, his
master, assists in teaching him—The language described—
Several Houyhnhnms of quality come out of curiosity te see
the Author—-He gives his master a short account of his voyage 280

CHAPTER IV.

The Houyhnhnms’ notion of truth and falsehood—The Author’s
discourse disapproved by his master—The Author gives a
more particular account of himself, and the accidents of his
voyage . . , ; . . . . . 287

CHAPTER V.,

The Author, at his master’s command, informs him of the state of
Iengland—The causes of war among the princes of Europe—
The Author begins to explain the English Constitution. » 294

CHAPTER VI.

A continuation of the state of England under Queen Anne=The
character of a first minister of state in European courts . » 302



Xl CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VII.

PAGE
The Author’s great love of his native country—His master’s obser-
vations upon the constitution and administration of England,
as described by the Author, with parallel cases and compari-
sons—His master’s observations upon human nature. . 31L

CHAPTER VIII.

The Author relates several particulars of the Yahoos—The great
virtues. of the Houyhnhnms—The education and exercise of
their youth—Their general assembly . . . . 320

CHAPTER IX.

A grand debate at the general assembly of the Houyhnhnms, and
how it was determined—The learning of the Houyhnhnms—
Their buildings—Their manner of burials—The defectiveness
of their Janguage . . . . , . . . . 328

CHAPTER X.

The Author’s economy and happy life among the Houyhnhnms—
His great improvement in virtue, by conversing with them—
Their conversations—he Author has notice given him by his
master that he must depart from the country—He falls into a
swoon for grief, but submits—He contrives and finishes a
canoe by the help of a fellow-servant, and puts to sea at
aventure . . . . . . . : » 335

CHAPTER XI.

The Author’s dangerous voyage—He arrives at New Holland,
hoping to settle there—Is wounded with an arrow by one of
the natives—Is seized and carried by force into a Portuguese
ship—The great civilities of the captain—The Author arrives

at England . . : . ; . . , » 345



CONTENTS. xl

CHAPTER NII.

PAGE
The Author’s veracity—His design in publishing this work—His
censure of those travellers who swerve from the truth—The
Author clears himself from any sinister ends in writing—An
objection answered—The method of planting colonies —His
native country commended—The right of the crown to those
countries described by the Author is justified—The difficulty
of conquering them—The Author takes his last leave of the
reader ; proposes his manner of living for the future; gives
good advice, and concludes . . , . » 355






LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



——-0
PORTRAIT OF SWIFT . , . ; . Lrontispirece
GULLIVER RETURNING WITH THE FLEET . , page 46
GULLIVER CARRIED BY GLUMDALCLITCH . . . 1O5
THE ACADEMY OF LAPUTA . , , ; . 29
THE VISIONS OF GLUBBDUBDRIB . , , . 231

MEETS THE HOUYHNHNMS . . . . . . 268






PREFATORY MEMOIR

TO

JONATHAN SWIFT.





O

Tue Flistory of Swift belongs rather to the list of British
Statesmen and patriots than to that of mere Novelists,
as, indeed, the work which places him in the latter
class, belongs to the class of political romances, rather
than to that which comprehends the liehter effusions of
fiction. Perhaps it ought not strictly to have claimed
a place in the present collection ; but it possesses such
charms, considered merely as a work of imagination,
and it is so often read without any further view, that the
Publishers conceived the compilation would have been
unperfect, if Gulliver’s Travels had been excluded.

It has been so Jately the task of the present Editor,
to offer to the public a detailed history of Swift’s life,
with some observations on his writings, that he may be
pardoned for here repeating a very few events and data
from the former, aud extracting from the latter the
short commentary on the Travels of Gulliver, to which
he finds himself unable to add much that is important

Or CUr1OUS.



XV111 PREFATORY MEMOTR

The celebrated Dean of Saint Patrick’s was born in
Dublin on 30th November 1667. He was of English
parentage, and, his father dying early and in poverty,
was educated at the expense of Godwin Swift, his uncle.
He passed through Trinity College, Dublin, without
being able to attain the usual honours, owing certainly
rather to carelessness and impatience of discipline, than
to any other insufficiency, since he possessed, during his
residence there, the knowledge requisite to plan, and in
part execute, his celebrated Tale of a Tub.

From college Swift passed to the patronage of Sir
William Temple, with whom he resided, with a brief
interval, from 1688 to the death of the latter in 1698-9,
gradually cultivating and unfolding during the interval
the powers which he possessed. He went with Lord
Berkley, one of the Lords Justices of Ireland, to that
country, in the capacity of his chaplain, and received
from him the livings of Agher, Laracor, and Rath-
beggan, which, with other small church preferments,
made up a moderate income, on which he lived with
the strictest economy. His retreat was shared by the
unfortunate Stella, or Mrs. Johnson, a young lady
with whom he had become acquainted in Sir William
Temple’s family, to whom he became passionately
attached, and with whom he lived in the strictest in-
timacy. But, without seeking her in marriage, he
regulated their intercourse with so much caution, that
it was impossible to annex to it any suspicion of im-
propriety. Swift’s life, during this period, was varied
by several visits to England, where he had now formed
an intimacy with several noblemen, chiefly of the Whig



ZO SWIFT. XIX

party, and with the celebrated Addison, Steele, Henlev,
and others. The future satirist became distinguished
by some political writings, but more particularly by the
Tale of a Tub, one of the most ingenious, as well as
one of the boldest and most singular books, which had
vet appeared in religious controversy. Although the
authors name was carefully concealed, the public
opinion attached the authorship of this work to Swift;
and, as religious opinions were treated in the Tale with
unbecoming levity (to say the least), he found it a
frequently recurring and insurmountable bar to his
attaining the highest rank of ecclesiastical preferment.
Swift appears to have been dissatisfied with his Whig
fricnds for not exerting themselves more actively in
his behalt; he thought also that their party meditated
harm to the Church of England; and, although he had
hitherto called himself a Whig in politics respecting the
State, yet he was equally zealous as a High Churchman
when the rights of his profession were called in ques-
tion. From a mixture of these motives he was led to
abandon the cause of the Whigs, upon the memorable
change of administration in 1710-11, which called to
the helm Harley and St. John, instead of Godolphin
and Somers.

Our author adopted the cause of the Tory ministers
with the whole energv of his character, and with very
Inadequate assistance fought their battle for the four
last vears of Queen Anne’s reign. There is little doubt
that he enjoved, in the greatest degree, the counte-
nance and intimacy both of Oxford and Bolingbroke ;
aud, upon the dissolution of their connection, Swift



XX PREFATORY MEALOIR

was long the only mutual friend who endeavoured to
reconcile them. When a total breach became un-
avoidable, he manfully and generously adhered to
Oxford, who, as the weaker party, was forced to yield
a momentary triumph to his late associate, speedilv
ended by the Queen’s unexpected death, which involved
both her late ministers in exile or proscription.

Swift, who had his full share of the odium which
the successful Whigs attached to the leaders of the
defeated Tories, retired to Ireland, where he had
obtained the Deanery of Saint Patrick’s, the highest
preferment which the late Ministry had been able to
procure for him.

He was now in a state of adversity, separated from
Pope, Arbuthnot, Prior, and other friends of congenial
talent, whose intimacy he had enjoyed when in Enge-
land; discountenanced by the governors of the country
which he inhabited, and unpopular among the inhabi-
tants; his society limited to a few clergymen, who
pretended to some learning; and his peace of mind
harassed by the passions of Miss Vanhomrigh (the
celebrated Vanessa), who had followed him from
London to Ireland.

With this unhappy lady Swift had lived on the same
dangerous footing of Platonic intimacy, in which he
had indulged with Stella. But the temper of Vanessa
was different; and with whatever degree of regulated
affection Swift, on his own part, may have qualified
their intercourse, the return she made was that of
active and overpowering passion. The catastrophe is
too well known. Obliged to decide upon the claims of



TO SWIFT. XXL

two amiable and attached women, Swift is gencrally
supposed to have married Mrs. Johnson, and Vanessa
is in consequence believed to have died chiefly of a
broken heart. But the union of the Dean and Stella
created no alteration in their intercourse with each
other, which continued as reserved as before; and such
was the mystery observed in the whole circumstances,
that we are rather inclined to say, that the evidence
predominates in favour of a secret marriage, than that
such is actually proved to have taken place. This
much is certain, that Swift, by affecting towards two
beautiful and amiable women a species of intimate
intercourse, totally divested of sexual passion, probably
shortened both their lives, and certainly embittered his
own,

To atone, in some measure, for his domestic misfor-
tunes, an opportunity occurred, of which Swift ably
availed himself, not only again to become a man of
first-rate consequence in the political world, but to
attract to himself a degree of popularity higher than
had ever been attained by any individual in Ireland.
That fine kingdom it had hitherto been the uniform
policy of England to treat as a conquered province.
Ireland was, indeed, permitted to have a representation
of her own; but this was an empty boon, while the
actual power of legislation was assumed by the Parlia-
ment of England, which, guided by an impolitic and
narrow-minded spirit of nationality, passed several Acts,
limiting the sphere and cramping the exertions of
Irish industry, and tending to reduce that kingdom, in

so far as her commerce went, to a state of restriction
c



XX PREFATORY MEMOIR

not. very different from absolute slavery. In 1720,
Swift dared to propose an association for the use of
Irish manufactures, to the exclusion of those of Britain.
This excited the vengeance of the government; but of
all passions, the Dean was least accessible to fear. In
1723 he published the well-known Drapier’s Letters,
in which, while contesting in appearance only the
rights of William Wood, a patentee, to whom the
king had granted the privilege of coining copper
money, designed to circulate in Ireland, the author
impugned generally the arbitrary authority exercised by
England over her sister kingdom, ‘he publication at
once raised Swift to the very summit of popularity,
and from that time till the declension of his faculties,
the Dean of Saint Patrick’s was able, by the weight of
his personal character and influence, always to confront,
and often successfully to control, the whole power of
the Irish government.

It was natural that Swift should, even amid this blaze
of popularity, pine to be restored to England, where he
had left so many friends of kindred talents, and accord-
ingly he seems to have longed inex pressibly tor such a
change. He entertained some hopes of accomplishing
the desired purpose through the influence of Queen
Caroline; but these were frustrated by the opposition
of Sir Robert Walpole, who had no desire to bring
nearer to his own sphere of administration an influence
which he had seen so powerfully exerted against his dele-
gates in Ireland. This disappointment, which occurred
in a visit to England in 1726, doubtless occasioned a
few additional touches to the character of Flimnap, the



LO SWIFT. XXtL

Lord High Treasurer of Lilliput, a personage who
figures to little advantage in the Travels of Gulliver.
This celebrated work appeared upon the Dean’s return
to Ireland, and we propose to add some observations
upon it, when we have finished the present summary of
the Dean’s life.

From 1726 to about 1736 Dean Swift resided in
Ireland, diverting his constitutional melancholy, now
augmented by disappointment and by periodical attacks
of an afflicting disease, by emploving his pen sometimes
on political subjects, but oftener on familiar topics, and
indulging a vein of poetry alwavs remarkable for wit
aud humour, sometimes for elegance of panegyric,
oftener for pungency of satire, and occasionally for
coarseness and indelicacy both of thought and expres-
sion.

In 1736 the mental faculties of this distinguished
author began to give way, with intervals, however, of
partial recollection, until 1740, when the wit, the poet,
and the politician sunk and disappeared, leaving behind
them a miserable specimen of degraded humanity, which
continued to breathe and execute the lower functions of
mortality, without again showing a glimpse of the bright
spirit which had animated it, until death closed the
scene on 18th October 1745.

The celebrated travels of Gulliver were given to the
public under the mystery which usually shadowed

<

Swift’s publications. He had been busied with it pro-



XXIV PREFATORY MEALTOIR

bably ever since the hint for such a satire had been
thrown out in the Club of Martinus Scriblerus, in
which Arbuthnot was to have borne a prominent part.
The author’s friend, Charles Ford, was employed as his
agent to convey the manuscript to Motte, the book-
seller, whose timidity induced him to adopt some re-
trenchments, of which Swift heavily complained.

The book was received with the acclamation of un-
limited popularity. Perhaps no work ever exhibited such
general attractions to all classes. It offered personal
and political satire to the readers in high life, low and
coarse incident to the vulgar, marvels to the romantic,
wit to the young and lively, lessons of morality and
policy to the grave, and maxims of deep and bitter
misanthropy to neglected age and disappointed ambi-
tion. The plan of the satire varies in the different
parts, The voyage to Lilliput refers chiefly to the
court and politics of England, and Sir Robert Walpole
is plainly intimated under the character of the premier
Flimnap, which he afterwards probably remembered, as
he continued uniformly to oppose the Dean’s view of
leaving Ireland. The factions of High-heels and Low-
heels express the factions of Tories and Whigs; the
Small-endians and Big-endians the religious divisions
of Papist and Protestant; and when the heir-apparent
was described as wearing one heel high and one low,
the Prince of Wales, who at that time divided his
favour between the two leading political parties of
England, laughed very heartily at the comparison.
Blefuscu is France, and the ingratitude of the Lillipu-
tian court, which forces Gulliver to take shelter



TO SIVIFT. XXV

there, rather than have his eves put out, is an indirect
reproach upon that of England, and a vindication of
the flight of Ormond and Bolingbroke to Paris. Many
other allusions may be traced by those well acquainted
with the secret history of the reien of George I. The
scandal which Gulliver gave to the empress, by his
mode of extinguishing the flames in the roval palace,
scems to intimate the author’s own disgrace with Qucen
Anne, founded upon the indecorum of the Tale of a
Tub, which was remembered against him as a crime,
while the service which it had rendered the cause of the
Flhieh Church was forgotten. It must also be remarked
that the original institutions of the empire of Lilliput
are highly commended, as also their system of public
education, while it is intimated that all the corruptions
of the court had been introduced during the three last
reigns, This was Swift’s opinion concerning the Ene-
lish constitution.

In the vovage to Brobdinegnag the satire is of a more
general character; nor is it easy to trace any particular
reference to the political events or statesmen of the
period. It merely exhibits human actions and senti-
ments as they might appear in the apprehension of
beings of immense strength, and, at the same time, of
a cold, reflectine

=

monarch of these sons of Anak is designed to embody

and philosophical character. The

Swift’s ideas of a patriotic king, indifferent to what
was curious, and cold to what was beautiful, feeling
only interest in that which was connected with general

utility and the public weal. To such a prince, the
intrigues, scandals, and stratagems of an European



XXV1 PREFATORY MEMOIR

court, are represented as equally odious in their origin,
and contemptible in their progress, A very happv
effect was also produced by turning the telescope, and
painting Gulliver, who had formerly been a giant
among the Lilliputians, as a pigmy amidst this tre-
mendous race. ‘The same ideas are often to be traced,
but, as they are reversed in the part which is performed
by the narrator, they are rather illustrated than re-
peated. Some passages of the court of Brobdingnag
were supposed to be intended as an affront upon the
maids of honour, for whom, Delany informs us, Swift
had very little respect.

The Voyage to Laputa was disliked by Arbuthnot,
who was a man of science, and probably considered it
as a ridicule upon the Royal Society; nor can it be
denied, that there are some allusions to the most. re-
spectable philosophers of the period. An occasional
shaft is even said to have been levelled at Sir Isaac
Newton. The ardent patriot had not forgot the philo-
sopher’s opinion in favour of Wood’s halfpence. Under
the parable of the tailor, who computed Gulliver’s
altitude by a quadrant, and took his measure by a
mathematical diagram, yet brought him his clothes
very ill made and out of shape, by the mistake of a
figure in the calculation, Swift is supposed to have
alluded to an error of Sir Isaac’s printer, who, by
carelessly adding a cipher to the astronomer’s compu-
tation of the distance between the sun and the earth,
had increased it to an incalculable amount. Newton
published, in the Amsterdam Gazette, a correction of
this typographical error, but the circumstance did not



TO SWIFT. XXVil

escape the malicious acumen of the Dean of St.
Patrick’s. It was also believed by the Dean’s friends,
that the office of flapper was suggested by the habitual
absence of mind of the great philosopher. The Dean
told Mr. D. Swift, that Sir Isaac was the worst com-
panion in the world, and that, if you asked him a
question, “he would revolve it in a circle in his brain,
round, and round, and round (here Swift described a
circle on his own forehead), before he could produce an
answer.”

But although Swift may have treated with irrever-
ence the first philosopher of the age, and although it
must be owned that he evinces, in many parts of his
writings, an undue disrespect for mathematics, vet the
satire in Gulliver is rather aimed against the abuse of
philosophical science than at its reality. The projectors
in the academy of Laputa are described as pretenders,
who had acquired a very slight tincture of real mathe-
matical knowledge, and eked out their plans of me-
chanical improvement by dint of whim and fancy.
The age in which Swift lived had exhibited numerous
instances of persons of this description, by whom many
of the numerous ludbbles, as they were emphatically
termed, had been set on foot, to the impoverishment of
credulous individuals, and the general detriment of the
community. In ridiculing this class of projectors,
whose character was divided between self-confidence in
their own chimeras, and a wish to impose upon others,
Swift, who peculiarly hated them, has borrowed several
illustrations, and perhaps the general idea, from Rabelais
(Book yv. cap. xxi), where Pantagruel inspects the



XXVI1 PREFATORY MEMOIR

occupations of the courtiers of Quinte-Essence, Queen.
of Entelechie.

The professors of speculative learning are represented
as engaged in prosecution of what was then termed
Natural and Mathematical Magic, studies not grounded
upon sound principles, or traced out and ascertained by
experiment, but hovering between science and mysti-
cism. Suchare the renowned pursuits of alchemy; the
composition of brazen images that could speak; of
wooden birds that could fly; of powders of sympathy,
and salves, which were applied, not to the wound, but
to the weapon by which it was inflicted; of vials of
essence, which could manure acres of land, and _ all
similar marvels, of which imposters propagated the
fame, and which dupes believed to their cost. The
machine of the worthy professor of Lagado, for im-
proving speculative knowledge, and composing books
on all subjects, without the least assistance from genius
or knowledge, seems to be designed in ridicule of the
art invented by Raimond Lully, and advanced by his
sage commentators; the mechanical process, namely,
by which, according to Cornelius Agrippa (himself no
mean follower of Lully), “everye man might plenti-
fullye dispute of what matter he wolde, and with a
certain artificial and huge heap of nownes and verbes
invente and dispute with ostentation, full of trifling
deceites upon both sides.” A reader might have supposed
himself transported to the grand academy of Lagado
when he read of this “ Brief and great art of invention
and demonstration,” which consisted in adjusting the
subject to be treated of according to a machine com-



ZO SWIFT. XXIX:

posed of divers circles, fixed and movable. The. prin-
cipal circle was fixed, and inscribed with the substances
of all things that may be treated of, arranged under
general heads, as Gop, ANGEL, Eartu, HEAVEN, Man,
AntmMat, &c, Another circle was placed within it,
which was movable, bearing inscribed thereon what
logicians call the accidents, as QuantrTy, QUALITY,
Revation, &c. Other circles again contained the
predicates absolute and relative, &c., and the forms of
the questions; and, by turning the circles, so as to
bring the various attributes to bear upon the question
proposed, there was effected a species of mechanical
logic, which, it cannot be doubted, was in Swift’s mind
when he described the celebrated machine for making
books. Various refinements upon this mechanical mode
of composition and ratiocination were contrived for the
purpose of improving this Art of Arts, as it was termed.
Kircher, the teacher of a hundred arts, modernised and
refitted the machine of Lully. Knittel, the Jesuit, com-
posed, on the same system, his Royal Road to all Sciences
and Arts; Brunus invented the Art of Logic on thesame
mechanical plan; and Kuhlman makes our very hair
bristle, by announcing such a machine as should contain
not only the art of knowledge comprehending a general
svstem of all sciences, but the various arts of acquiring
languages, of commentary, of criticism, of history sacred
and profane, of biography of every kind, not to mention
a library of libraries, comprehending the essence of all
the books that ever were written. When it was eravely
announced by a learned author in tolerable Latinity,
that all this knowledge was to be acquired by the art



XXX PREFATORY MEMOIR

of a mechanical instrument, much resembling a child’s
whirligig, it was time for the satirist to assume the pen.
It was not real science, therefore, which Swift attacked,
but those chimerical and spurious studies with which
the name has been sometimes disgraced. In the depart-
ment of the political projectors, we have some glances
of his Tory feelings; and when we read the melancholy
account of the Struldbrugs, we are affectingly reminded
of the author’s contempt of life, and the miserable state
in which his own was at length prolonged.

_ The Voyage to the Land of the Houyhnhnms is a
composition which an editor of Swift must ever con-
sider with pain. The source of ‘such a diatribe against
human nature could only be that fierce indignation
which he has described in his epitaph as so long gnaw-
ing his heart. Dwelling in a land where he considered
the human race as divided between petty tyrants and
oppressed slaves, and being himself a worshipper of
that freedom and independence which he beheld daily
trampled upon, the unrestrained violence of his feelings
drove him to loathe the very species by whom such:
Iniquity was done and suffered. To this must be added,
his personal health, broken and worn down by the re-
curring attacks of a frightful disorder; his social com-
fort destroyed by the death of one beloved object, and
the daily decay and peril of another; his life decayed
into autumn, and its remainder, after so many flatter-
ing and ambitious prospects, condemned to a country
which he disliked, and banished from that in which he
had formed his hopes and left his friendships :—when
all these considerations are combined, they form some



LO SWIFT. . XXX1

excuse for that general misanthropy, which never pre-
vented a single deed of individual benevolence. Such
apologies are personal to the author, but there are also
excuses for the work itself. The picture of the Yahoos,
uttterly odious and hateful as it is, presents to the
reader a moral use. It was never designed as a repre-
sentation of mankind in the state to which religion,
and even the lights of nature, encourage men to aspire,
but of that to which our species is degraded by the
wilful subservience of mental qualities to the animal
instincts of man, such as he may be found in the de-
graded ranks of everv society, when brutalised by 1enor-
ance and gross vice. In this view, the more coarse and
disgusting the picture, the more impressive is the
moral to be derived from it; since, in proportion as an
individual indulges in sensuality, crueltv, or avarice, he
approaches in resemblance to the detested Yahoo, |

It cannot, however, be denied, that even a moral
purpose will not justifv the nakedness with which
Swift has sketched this horrible outline of mankind
degraded to a bestial state; since a moralist ought to
hold, with the Romans, that crimes of atrocity should
be exposed when punished, but those of flagitious im-
purity concealed. In point of probability, too,—for
there are degrees of probability proper even to the
wildest fiction,—the fourth part of Gulliver is inferior
to the three others. Giants and piemics the reader can
conccive ; for, not to mention there being the ordinary
machinery of romance, we are accustomed to see, in
the inferior orders of creation, a disproportion of size,
between those of the same generic description, which



XXXH1 PREFATORY MEMOIR

may parallel (among some reptile tribes at least) even
the fiction of Gulliver. But the mind rejects, as utterly
impossible, the supposition of a nation of horses, placed
in houses which they could not build, fed with corn
which they could neither sow, reap, nor save, possessing
cows which they could not milk, depositing that milk in
vessels which they could not make, and, in short, per-
forming a hundred purposes of rational and social life,
for which their external structure altogether unfits them,

But under every objection, whether founded in reason
or prejudice, the Travels of Gulliver were received with
the most universal interest, merited indeed by their
novelty, as well as their internal merit. Lucian,
Rabelais, More, Bergerac, Alletz, and many other
authors, had indeed composed works, in which may be
traced such general resemblance as arises from the
imaginary voyage of a supposed traveller to ideal realms.
But every Utopia which had hitherto been devised, was
upon a plan either extravagant from its puerile fictions,
or dull from the speculative legislation of which the
story was made the vehicle. It was reserved for Swift
to enliven the morality of his work with humour; to
relieve its absurdity with satire; and to give the most
improbable events an appearance of reality, derived from
the character and stvle of the narrator. Even Robinson
Crusoe (though detailing events so much more probable)
hardly excels Gulliver in gravity and verisimilitude of
narrative, The character of the imaginary traveller is
exactly that of Dampier, or any other sturdy nautical
wanderer of the period, endowed with courage and
common sense, who sailed through distant seas, without



LO SWIFT. : XXXII

losing a single English prejudice which he had brought
from Portsmouth or Plymouth, and on his return gave
a grave and simple narrative of what he had seen or
heard in foreign countries. The character is strictly
Fnelish, and can be hardly relished by a foreigner.
The reflections and observations of Gulliver are never
more refined or deeper than might be expected from a
plain master of a merchantman, or surgeon in the old
Jewry; and there was such a reality given to his whole
person, that one seaman is said to have sworn he knew
Captain Gulliver very well, but he lived at Wapping,
not at Rotherhithe. It is the contrast between the
natural ease and simplicity of such a style, and the
marvels which the volume contains, that forms one
great charm of this memorable satire on the imperfec-
tions, follies, and vices of mankind. The exact calcu-
lations preserved in the first and second part, have also
the effect of qualifying the extravagance of the fable.
It is said that in natural objects, where proportion is
exactly preserved, the marvellous, whether the object
be gigantic or diminutive, is lessened in the eyes of the
spectator; and it 1s certain, in general, that proportion
forms an essential attribute of truth, and consequently
of verisimilitude, or that which renders a narration pro-
bable. If the reader is disposed to grant the traveller
his postulates as to the existence of the strange people
whom he visits, it would be difficult to detect any in-
consistency in his narrative. On the contrary, it would
seem that Gulliver and they conduct themselves to-
wards each other precisely as must necessarily have
happened, in the respective circumstances which the



XXXIV PREFATORY MEMOIR

author has supposed. In this point of view, perhaps
the highest praise that could have been bestowed on
Gulliver's Travels was the censure of a learned Irish
prelate, who said the book contained some things which
he could not prevail upon himself to believe. It is a
remarkable point of the author’s art, that, in Lilliput
and Brobdingnag, Gulliver seems gradually, from the
influence of the images by which he was surrounded, to
lose his own ideas of comparative size, and to adopt
those of the pigmies and giants by whom he was sur-
rounded. And, without further prolonging these reflec-
tions, I would only request the reader to notice the
infinite art with which human actions are divided be-
tween these two opposite races of ideal beings, so as
to enhance the keenness of the satire. In Lilliput,
political intrigue and ¢tracasserie, the chief employment
of the highest ranks in Europe, are ridiculed by being
transferred to a court of creatures about six inches high.
But m Brobdingnag, female levities, and the lighter
follies of a court, are rendered monstrous and discust-
ing, by being attributed to a race of such tremendous
stature. By these, and a thousand masterly touches of
which we feel the effect, though we cannot trace the
cause without a long analysis, the genius of Swift con-
verted the sketch of an extravagant fairy tale into a
narrative, unequalled for the skill with which it is sus-
tained, and the genuine spirit of satire of which it is
made the vehicle. |

The renown of Gulliver’s Travels soon extended into
other kingdoms. Voltaire, who was at this time in
England, spread their fame among his correspondents



ZO SWIFT. XXXV

in France, and recommended a translation. The Abbé
Desfontaines undertook the task, but with so many
doubts, apprehensions, and apologies, as make his
introduction a curious picture of the mind and opinions
ofa French man of letters. He admits, that he was
conscious of offending against rules; and, while he
modestly craves some mercy for the prodigious fictions
which he had undertaken to clothe in the French lan-
guage, he confesses, that there were passages at which
his pen escaped his hand, from actual horror and as-
tonishment at the daring violations of all critical de-
corum; then he becomes alarmed, lest some of Swift’s
political satire might be applied to the Court of Ver-
sailles, and protests, with much circumlocution, that it
only concerns the Toriz and /Vigts, as he is pleased to
term them, of the factious kingdom of Britain. Lastly,
he assures his readers, that not only has he changed
many of the incidents, to accommodate them to the
Mrench taste, but, moreover, they will not be annoyed
10 his translation, with the nautical details and minute
particulars, so offensive in the original. Notwith-
standing all this affectation of superior taste and refine-
ment, the French translation is very tolerable. It is
truc, the Abbé Desfontaines indemnified himself and
the French public, by writing a Continuation of the
Travels, in a style, as may easily be conceived, very
different from that of the original. Another Continua-
tion (a pretended third volume) was published in
England, the most impudent combination of piracy
and forgery that ever occurred in the literary world;

for, while the book was affirmed to be written by the



‘XXXV1 PREFATORY MEMOIR TO SWIFT.

author of the genuine Gulliver, it was not even the
work of his imitator, being almost entirely stolen from
an obscure French work called, “ L’ Histoire des Sever-
ambes.” Besides these continuations, a work thus
completely successful failed not to be attended by
imitations, parodies, keys, verses, commendatory and
defamatory, and the whole accompaniments of a
popular triumph, not forgetting a slave in the chariot,
whose abuse and ribaldry might remind the exulting
author he was still a man. These have been long since
in oblivion, but when will the day come when Gulliver’s
‘Travels shall be forgotten or unread !



THE PUBLISHER TO THE
READER.



O



THE author of these Travels, Mr. Lemuel Gulliver, is
my ancient and intimate friend; there is likewise some
relation between us on the mother’s side. About three
years ago Mr. Gulliver, growing weary of the concourse
of curious people coming to him at his house in Redriff,
made a small purchase of land, with a convenient
house, near Newark, in Nottinghamshire, his native
country, where he now lives retired, yet in good esteem
among his neighbours.

Although Mr. Gulliver was born in Nottinghamshire,
where his father dwelt, yet I have heard him say his
family came from Oxfordshire; to confirm which I
have observed in the churchyard at Banbury, in that
county, several tombs and monuments of the Gullivers,

Betore he quitted Redriff, he left the custody of the
following papers in my hands, with the liberty to dis-
pose of them as I should think fit. I have carefully
perused them three times. The style is very plain and
simple; and the only fault I find is, that the author,
atter the manner of travellers, is a little too circum-

d



xxxvill = THE PUBLISHER TO THE READER.

stantial. There is an air of truth apparent through the
whole; and, indeed, the author was so distinguished
for his veracity, that it became a sort of proverb among
his neighbours at Redriff, when any one affirmed a thing,
to say, it was as true as if Mr. Gulliver had spoken it.

By the advice of several worthy persons, to whom,
with the author’s permission, I communicated these
papers, | now venture to send them into the world,
hoping they may be, at least for some time, a better
entertainment to our young noblemen, than the common
scribbles of politics and party.

This volume would have been at least twice as large,
if [ had not made bold to strike out innumerable pas-
sages relating to the winds and tides, as well as to the
variations and bearings in the several voyages, together
with the minute descriptions of the management of the
ship in storms, in the style of sailors; likewise the
account of longitudes and latitudes; wherein I have
reason to apprehend that Mr. Gulliver may be a little
dissatisfied; but I was resolved to fit the work as much
as possible to the general capacity of readers. How-
ever, if my own ignorance in sea affairs shall have led
me to commit some mistakes, I alone am answerable
for them: and if any traveller has a curiosity to see
the whole work at large, as it came from the hands of
the author, I will be ready to gratify him.

As for any further particulars relating to the author,
the reader will receive satisfaction from the first pages

of the book.
RicHarpb SYMPSON.



A LETTER

CAPTAIN GULLIVER TO HIS COUSIN
SYMPSON.

WRITTEN IN THE YEAR 1727,



| HoPE you will be ready to own publicly, whenever
you shall be called to it, that, by your great and frequent
urgency, you prevailed on me to publish a very loose
and incorrect account of my travels, with direction to
hire some young gentleman of either university to put
them in order, and correct the style, as my cousin
Dampier did, by my advice, in his book called “A
Voyage Round the World.” But I do not remember
I gave you power to consent that anything should be
omitted, and much less that anything should be in-
serted: therefore, as to the latter, I do here renounce
everything of that kind, particularly a paragraph about
her Majestv Queen Anne, of most pious and glorious
memory, although I did reverence and esteem her more
than any of the human species. But you, or your
interpolator, ought to have considered, that as it was
not my inclination, so was it not decent to praise any



x] GUELLIVER’S LETTER TO SYMPSON.

animal of our composition before my master Houyhn-
hnm: and, besides, the fact was altogether false; for to
my knowledge, being in England during some part of
her majesty’s reign, she did govern by a chief minister ;
nay, even by two successively; the first whereof was
the lord of Godolphin, and the second the lord of
Oxford; so that vou have made me say the thing that
was not. Likewise, in the account of the academy of
projectors, and several passages of my discourse to my
master Houwyhnhnm, you have either omitted some
material circumstances, or minced or changed them
in such a manner, that I could hardly know my own
work, When I formerly hinted to you something of
this in a letter, you were pleased to answer, “That you
were afraid of giving offence: that people in power
were very watchful over the press, and apt not only to
interpret, but to punish everything which looked like
an innuendo ” (as I think you callit). But, pray, how
could that which I spoke so many years ago, and at
about five thousand leagues’ distance, in another reign,
be applied to any of the Yahoos who now are said to
govern the herd; especially at a time when I little
thought or feared the unhappiness of living under them ?
Have not I the most reason to complain, when I see
these very Yahoos carried by Houyhnhnms in a vehicle,
as if these were brutes, and those the rational creatures?
And, indeed, to avoid so monstrous and detestable a
sitht was one principal motive of my retirement
hither.

Thus much I thought proper to tell you in relation
to yourself, and to the trust I reposed in you.



GULLIVER’S LETTER TO SYMPSON. xli

Ido, in the next place, complain of my own great
want of judgment, in being prevailed upon, by the en-
treaties and false reasonings of you and some others, very
much against my own opinion, to suffer my travels to be
published. Pray bring to your mind how often I desired
you to consider, when you insisted on the motive of
public good, that the Yahoos were a species of animals
utterly incapable of amendment by precepts or example ;
and so it has proved; for, instead of seeing a full stop
put to all abuses and corruptions, at least in this little
island, as [had reason to expect,—behold, after about
six months’ warning, I cannot learn that my book has
produced one single effect according to my intentions.
I desired you would let me know, by a letter, when
party and faction were extinguished; judges learned
and upright; pleaders honest and modest, with some
tincture of common sense, and Simithfield blazing with
pyramids of law books; the young nobility’s education
entirely changed; the physicians banished; the female
Yahoos abounding in virtue, honour, truth, and good
sense; courts and levees of great ministers thoroughly
weeded and swept; wit, merit, and learning rewarded ;
all disgracers of the press, in prose and verse, condemned
to eat nothing but their own cotton, and quench their
thirst with their own ink. These, and a thousand
other reformations, I firmly counted upon by your
encouragement ; as, indeed, they were plainly deducible
from the precepts delivered in my book. And it must
be owned, that seven months were a sufficient time to
correct every vice and folly to which Yahoos are subject,
if their natures had been capable of the least disposition



xl GOULLIVER’S LETTER TO SYMPSON.

to virtue or wisdom. Yet, so far have you been from
answering my expectation in any of vour letters, that,
on the contrary, you are loading our carrier every week
with libels, and keys, and reflections, and memoirs, and
second parts; wherein I see myself accused of reflecting
upon great state folks; of degrading human nature (for
so they have still the confidence to style it), and of
abusing the female sex. I find, likewise, that the
writers of those bundles are not agreed among them-
selves; for some of them will not allow me to be the
author of my own travels, and others make me author
of books to which I am wholly a stranger.

I find, likewise, that your printer has been so careless
as to confound the times, and mistake the dates, of my
several voyages and returns; neither assigning the true
year, nor the true month, nor the day of the month:
and I hear the original manuscript is all destroyed since
the publicationof my book; neither have I any copy
left. However, I have sent you some corrections,
which you may insert, if ever there should be a second
edition: and yet I cannot stand to them, but shall
leave that matter to my judicious and candid readers,
to adjust it as they please.

I hear some of our sea Yahoos find fault with my
sea language, as not proper in many parts, nor now in
use. I cannot help it. In my first voyages, while I
was young, I was instructed by the oldest mariners, and
learned to speak as they did. But I have since found
that the sea Yahoos are apt, like the land ones, to
become new-fangled in their words, which the latter
change every year; insomuch, as I remember, upon



GULLIVER S LETTER TO SYMPSON. xlit

each return to my own country, their old dialect was so
altered that I could hardly understand the new. And
I observe, when any Yahoos come from London, out of
curiosity, to visit me at my house, we neither of us are
able to deliver our conceptions in a manner intelligible
to the other.

It the censure of the Yahoos could anyway affect me,
I should have great reason to complain that some of
them are so bold as to think my book of travels a mere
fiction out of mine own brain; and have gone so far as
to drop hints, that the Houyhnhnms and Yahoos have
no more existence than the inhabitants of Utopia.

Indeed I must confess, that as to the people of Lilliput,
Brobdingrag (for so the word should have been spelt,
and not erroneously, Brobdingnag), and Laputa, I have
never yet heard of any Yahoo so presumptuous as to
dispute their being, or the facts I have related concern-
ing them; because the truth immediately strikes every
reader with conviction. And is there less probability
in my account of the Houyhnhnms or Yahoos, when it
is manifest, as to the latter, there are so many thousands,
even in this country, who only differ from their brother
brutes in Houyhnhnm-land, because they use a sort of
jabber, and do not go naked? I wrote for their amend-
ment, and not their approbation. The united praise of
the whole race would be of less consequence to me than
the neighing of these two degenerate Houyhnhnms |
keep in my stable; because from these, degenerate ag
they are, I still improve in some virtues, without anv
mixture of vice.

Do these miserable animals presume to think that |



xliv GULLIVER’S LETTER TO SYMPSON.

am so degenerated as to defend my veracity? Yahoo
as I am, it is well known through all Houyhnhnm-land,
that by the instructions and example of my illustrious
master, I was able, in the compass of two vears (al-
though, I confess, with the utmost difficulty), to remove
that infernal habit of lying, shuffling, deceiving, and
equivocating, so deeply rooted in the very souls of all
my species, especially the Europeans.

I have other complaints to make upon this vexatious
occasion; but I forbear troubling myself or you any
further. I must freely confess that, since my last, some
corruptions of my Yahoo nature have revived in me,
by conversing with a few of your species, and parti-
cularly those of my own family, by an unavoidable
necessity; else I should never have attempted so absurd
a project as that of reforming the Yahoo race in this
kingdom: but I have now done with all such visionary
schemes for ever.

April 2, 1727.



GULLIVERS TRAVELS.

on



Wart HF.
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT.

CHAPTER I.

THE AUTHOR GIVES SOME ACCOUNT OF HIMSELF AND
LAMILY—HIS FIRST INDUCEMENTS TO TRAVEL—HE
IS SHIPWRECKED, AND SWIMS FOR HIS LIFE-——-GETS
SAFE ON SHORE IN THE COUNTRY OF LILLIPUT-—IS
MADE A PRISONER, AND CARRIED UP THE COUNTRY.

My father had a small estate in Nottinghamshire: I
was the third of five sons. He sent me to Emanuel
College in Cambridge, at fourteen years old, where I
resided three years, and applied myself close to my
studies; but the charge of maintaining me, although
I had a very scanty allowance, being too great for a
narrow fortune, I was bound apprentice to Mr. James
Bates, an eminent surgeon in London, with whom I
continued four years; and my father now and then
sending me small sums of money, I laid them out in
learning navigation, and other parts of the mathe-

matics useful to those who intend to travel, as I
A



Le

GULLIVER S TRAVELS.

always believed it would be, some time or other, my
fortune to do, When I left Mr. Bates, I went down
to my father, where, by the assistance of him and my
uncle John, and some other relations, I got forty
pounds, and a promise of thirty pounds a-year, to
maintain me at Leyden. There I studied physic two
years and seven months, knowing it would be useful
in long voyages.

Soon after my return from Leyden, I was recom-
mended by my good master, Mr. Bates, to be surgeon
to the “Swallow,” Captain Abraham Pannell, com-
mander; with whom I continued three years anda
half, making a voyage or two into the Levant, and
some other parts. When I came back, I resolved to
settle in London; to which Mr. Bates my master
encouraged me; and by him I was recommended to
several patients. I took part of a small house in the
Old Jewry; and, being advised to alter my condition,
I married Mrs. Mary Burton, second daughter to Mr.
I whom [ received four hundred pounds for a portion.

But my good master Bates dying in two years
after, and I having few friends, my business began to
fail; for my conscience would not suffer me to imitate
the bad practice of too many among my brethren.
Having therefore consulted with my wife and some
of my acquaintance, I determined to go again to sea.
I was surgeon successively in two ships, and made
several voyages, for six years, to the East and West
Indies, by which I got some addition to my fortune.
My hours of leisure I spent in reading the best
authors, ancient and modern, being always provided
with a good number of books; and when I was



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 3

a-shore, in observing the manners and dispositions
of the people, as well as learning their language ;
wherein I had a great facility, by the strength of my
memory.

Ihe last of these voyages not proving very fortu-
nate, I grew weary of the sea, and intended to stay
at home with my wife and family. I removed from
the Old Jewry to Fetter Lane, and from thence to
Wapping, hoping to get business among the sailors;
but it would not turn to account. After three years’
expectation that things would mend, I accepted an
advantageous offer from Captain William Prichard,
master of the “ Antelope,” who was making a voyage
to the South Sea. We set sail from Bristol, May 4,
1099, and our voyage at first was very prosperous.

It would not be proper, for some reasons, to trouble
the reader with the particulars of our adventures in
those seas; let it suffice to inform him, that, in our
passage from thence to the East Indies, we were
driven by a violent storm to the north-west of Van
Diemen’s Land, By an observation, we found our-
selves in the latitude of 30 degrees 2 minutes south.
Twelve of our crew were dead by immoderate labour
and ill food: the rest were in a very weak condition.
On the 5th of November, which was the beginning
of summer in those parts, the weather being very
hazy, the seamen spied a rock within half a cable’s
length of the ship; but the wind was so strong, that
we were driven directly upon it, and immediately
split. Six of the crew, of whom I was one, having
let down the boat into the sea, made a shift to get
clear of the ship and the rock, We rowed, by my
computation, about three leagues, till we were able



+ GULLIIVER’S TRAVELS.

to work no longer, being already spent with labour
while we were in the ship. We therefore trusted
ourselves to the mercy of the waves; and in about
half an hour the boat was overset by a sudden flurry
from the north. What became of my companions in
the boat, as well as of those who escaped on the rock,
or were left in the vessel, I cannot tell, but conclude
they were all lost. For my own part, I swam as
Fortune directed me, and was pushed forward by
wind and tide. I often let my legs drop, and could
feel no bottom; but when I was almost gone, and
able to struggle no longer, I found myself within my
depth: and by this time the storm was much abated.
The declivity was so small, that I walked near a mile
before I got to the shore, which I conjectured was
about eight o’clock in the evening. I then advanced
forward near half a mile, but could not discover any
sign of houses or inhabitants; at least I was in so
weak a condition that I did not observe them. I was
extremely tired; and with that, and the heat of the
weather, and about half a pint of brandy that I drank
as I left the ship, I found myself much inclined to
sleep. I lay down on the grass, which was very short
and soft, where I slept sounder than ever I remem-
bered to have done in my life, and, as I reckoned,
about nine hours; for when I awaked it was just
daylight. I attempted to rise, but was not able to
stir; for as I happened to lie on my back, I found my
arms and legs were strongly fastened on each side to
the ground, and my hair, which was long and thick,
tied downin the same manner. [I likewise felt several
slender ligatures across my body, from my arm-pits
to my thighs. I could only look upwards: the sun



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 5

began to grow hot, and the light offended my eyes.
I heard a confused noise about me, but, in the pos-
ture I lay, could see nothing except the sky. Ina
little time I felt something alive moving on my left
leg, which, advancing gently forward over my breast,
came almost up to my chin; when, bending my eyes
downward as much as I could, I perceived it to be a
human creature not six inches high, with a bow and
arrow in his hands, and a quiver at his back. In the
meantime, I felt at least forty more of the same kind
(as I conjectured) following the first. I was in the
utmost astonishment, and roared so loud, that they
all ran back in a fright; and some of them, as I was
afterwards told, were hurt with the falls they got by
leaping from my sides upon the ground. However,
they soon returned ; and one of them, who ventured
so far as to get a full sight of my face, lifting up his
hands and eyes by way of admiration, cried out, in a
shrill but distinct voice, Hekinah degul: the others
repeated the same words several times; but I then
knew not what they meant. I lay all this while, as
the reader may believe, in great uneasiness. At
length, struggling to get loose, I had the fortune to
break the strings and wrench out the pegs that
fastened my left arm to the ground; for, by lifting it
up to my face, I discovered the methods they had
taken to bind me, and, at the same time, with a
violent pull, which gave me excessive pain, I a little
loosened the strings that tied down my hair on the
left side, so that I was just able to turn my head
about two inches. But the creatures ran off a second
time, before I could seize them; whereupon there
was a great shout, in a very shrill accent, and, after



6 GULLIVEN’S TRAVELS.

it ceased, I heard one of them cry aloud, Toleo
Phonac,; when, in an instant; I felt above a hundred
arrows discharged on my left hand, which pricked me
like so many needles; and, besides, they shot another
flight into the air, as we do bombs in Europe, whereof
many, I suppose, fell on my body (though I felt them
not), and some on my face, which I immediately
covered with my left hand. When this shower of
arrows was over, I fell a-groaning with grief and
pain; and then, striving again to get loose, they dis-
charged another volley, larger than the first, and
some of them attempted, with spears, to stick me
in the sides; but by good luck I had on mea buff
jerkin, which they could not pierce. I thought it the
most prudent method to lie still; and my design was
to continue so till night, when, my left hand being
already loose, I could easily free myself: and as for
the inhabitants, I had reason to believe I micht be a
match for the greatest army they could bring against
me, if they were all of the same size with him that I
saw. But fortune disposed otherwise of me. When
the people observed I was quiet, they discharged no
more arrows; but, by the noise I heard, I knew their
numbers increased: and about four yards from me,
over-against my right ear, I heard a knocking for
above an hour, like that of people at work; when,
turning my head that way, as well as the pegs and
strings would permit me, I saw a stage erected about
a foot and a half from the ground, capable of holding
four of the inhabitants, with two or three ladders to
mount it : from whence one of them, who seemed to be
a person of quality, made me a long speech, whereof
Y understood not one syllable. But I should have



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 7

mentioned, that, before the principal person began his
oration, he cried out three times, Langro dehul san ;
(these words and the former were afterwards repeated
and explained to me ;) whereupon, immediately, about
fifty of the inhabitants came and cut the strings that
fastened the left side of my head, which gave me the
liberty of turning it to the richt, and of observing the
person and gesture of him who was to speak. He
appeared to be of a middle age, and taller than any
of the other three who attended him; whereof one
was a page, that held up his train, and seemed to be
somewhat longer than my middle finger; the other
two stood one on each side to support him. He
acted every part of an orator; and I could observe
many periods of threatenings, and others of promises,
pity, and kindness. I answered in a few words, but
in the most submissive manner, lifting up my left
nand and both my eyes to the sun, as calling him for
a witness: and being almost famished with hunger,
having not eaten a morsel for some hours before I left
the ship, I found the demands of nature so strong
upon me, that I could not forbear showing my impa-
tience (perhaps against the strict rules of decency)
by putting my finger frequently to my mouth, to
signify that I wanted food. The hurgo (for so they
call a great lord, as J afterwards learnt) understood
me very well. He descended from the stage, and
commanded that several ladders should be applied to
my sides, on which above a hundred of the inhabi-
tants mounted, and walked towards my mouth, laden
with baskets full of meat, which had been provided
and sent thither by the king's orders, upon the first
intelligence he received of me. I observed there was



5 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

the flesh of several animals, but could not distinguish
them by the taste. There were shoulders, legs, and
loins, shaped like those of mutton, and very well
dressed, but smaller than the wings of a lark. I eat
them by two or three at a mouthful, and took three
loaves at a time, about the bigness of musket-bullets.
They supphed me as fast as they could, showing a
thousand marks of wonder and astonishment at my
bulk and appetite. I then made another sign, that
I wanted drink. They found by my eating that a
small quantity would not suffice me; and, being a
most ingenious people, they slung up, with gereat
dexterity, one of their largest hogsheads, then rolled
it towards my hand, and beat out the top. I drank
it off at a draught, which I might well do, for it did
not hold half a pint, and tasted like a small wine of
Burgundy, but much more delicious, They brought
me a second hogshead, which I drank in the same
manner, and made signs for more; but they had
none to give me. When I had performed these
wonders, they shouted for joy, and danced upon my
breast, repeating several times, as they did at first,
flekinah degul. ‘They made mea sign that I should
throw down the two hogsheads, but first warning the
people below to stand out of the way, crying aloud
horach mevolah; and when they saw the vessels in
the air, there was a universal shout of Hekinah
degul. I confess I was often tempted, while they
were passing backwards and forwards on my body,
to seize forty or fifty of the first that came in my
reach, and dash them against the ground. But the re-
membrance of what I had felt, which probably might
not be the worst they could do, and the promise of



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 9

honour I made them—for so I interpreted my sub-
missive behaviour—soon drove out those imaginations.
Besides, I now considered myself as bound by the
laws of hospitality to a people who had treated me
with so much expense and magnificence. However,
in my thoughts I could not sufficiently wonder at the
intrepidity of these diminutive mortals, who durst
venture to mount and walk upon my body, while one
of my hands was at liberty, without trembling at the
very sight of so prodigious a creature as I must appear
tothem, After some time, when they observed that
I made no more demands for meat, there appeared
before me a person of high rank from his imperial
majesty. His excellency, having mounted on the
small of my right leg, advanced forwards up to my
face, with about a dozen of his retinue; and pro-
ducing his credentials, under the signet-royal, which
he applied close to my eyes, spoke about ten minutes
without any signs of anger, but with a kind of deter-
minate resolution; often pointing forwards; which,
as I afterwards found, was towards the capital city,
about half a mile distant, whither it was agreed by
his majesty in council that I must be conveyed. I
answered in few words, but to no purpose, and made
a sign with my hand that was loose, putting it to the
other (but over his excellency’s head, for fear of
hurting him or his train), and then to my own head
and body, to signify that I desired my liberty. It
appeared that he understood me well enough, for he
shook his head by way of disapprobation, and held
his hand in a posture to show that I must be carried
asa prisoner. However, he made other signs, to let
me understand that I should have meat and drink



TO GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

enough, and very good treatment. Whereupon, I
once more thought of attempting to break my bonds:
but again, when I felt the smart of their arrows upon
my face and hands, which were all in blisters, and
many of the darts still sticking in them, and observ-
ing likewise that the number of my enemies increased,
I gave tokens to let them know that they might do
with me as they pleased. Upon this, the Aurgo and
his train withdrew, with much civility and cheerful
countenances, Soon after, I heard a general shout,
with frequent repetitions of the words Pedlom selam ;
and I felt great numbers of people on my left side,
relaxing the cords to such a degree that I was able
to turn upon my right, and to ease myself with
making water; which I very plentifully did, to the
great astonishment of the people; who, conjecturing
by my motion what I was going to do, immediately
opened to the right and left on that side, to avoid
the torrent which fell with much noise and violence
from me. But before this they had daubed my face
and both my hands with a sort of ointment, very
pleasant to the smell, which, in a few minutes, re-
moved all the smart of their arrows. These circum-
stances, added to the refreshment I had received by
their victuals and drink, which were very nourishing,
disposed me to sleep. I slept about eight hours, as
I was afterwards assured; and it was no wonder, for
the physicians, by the emperor’s orders, had mingled
a sleepy potion in the hogsheads of wine.

It seems, that upon the first moment J was dis-
covered sleeping on the ground, after my landing,
the emperor had early notice of it by an express, and
determined in council that I should be tied in the



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. II

manner [ have related (which was done in the nicht,
while I slept), that plenty of meat and drink should
be sent me, and a machine prepared to carry me to
the capital city.

This resolution, perhaps, may appear very bold
and dangerous, and I am confident would not be
imitated by any prince in Europe, on the like occa-
sion. However, in my opinion, it was extremely
prudent, as well as generous: for, supposing these
people had endeavoured to kill me with their spears
and arrows while I was asleep, I should certainly
have awaked with the first sense of smart, which
might so far have roused my rage and strensth, as to
have enabled me to break the strings wherewith I
was tied; after which, as they were not able to make
resistance, so they could expect no mercy.

These people are most excellent mathematicians,
and arrived to a great perfection in mechanics, by
the countenance and encouragement of the emperor,
who is a renowned patron of learning. This prince
has several machines fixed on wheels, for the carriage
of trees and other great weights. He often builds
his largest men of war, whereof some are nine feet
long, in the woods where the timber grows, and has
them carried on these engines, three or four hundred
yards, to the sea. Five hundred carpenters and
engineers were immediately set at work to prepare
the greatest engine they had. It was a frame of
wood raised three inches from the ground, about seven
feet long, and four wide, moving upon twenty-two
wheels, ‘The shout I heard was upon the arrival of
this engine, which, it seems, set out in four hours
after my landing. It was brought parallel to me as



12 GULLIVER’ S TRAVELS.

Tlay. But the principal difficulty was to raise and
place me in this vehicle. Eighty poles, each of one
foot high, were erected for this purpose, and very
strong cords, of the bigness of pack-thread, were fas-
tened by hooks to many bandages, which the work-
men had girt round my neck, my hands, my body,
and my legs. Nine hundred of the strongest men
were employed to draw up these cords, by many
pulleys fastened on the poles; and thus, in less than
three hours, I was raised and slung into the engine,
and there tied fast. All this I was told; for, while
the operation was performing, I lay in a profound
sleep, by the force of that soporiferous medicine in-
fused into my liquor. Fifteen hundred of the empe-
rors largest horses, each about four inches and a half
high, were employed to draw me towards the metro-
polis, which, as I said, was half a mile distant.

About four hours after we began our journey, I
awaked by a very ridiculous accident; for the carriace
being stopped awhile to adjust something that was out
of order, two or three of the young natives had the
curiosity to see how I looked when I was asleep;
they climbed up into the engine, and advancing very
softly to my face, one of them, an officer in the
guards, put the sharp end of his half-pike a good
way up into my left nostril, which tickled my nose
like a straw, and made me sneeze violently ; where-
upon they stole off unperceived, and it was three
weeks before I knew the cause of my waking so
suddenly. We made a long march the remaining
part of the day, and rested at night with five hundred
cuards on each side of me, half with torches, and
half with bows and arrows, ready to shoot me if I



A VOVAGE TO LILLIPUT. 13

should offer to stir, The next morning at sunrise we
continued our march, and arrived within two hundred
yards of the city gates about noon. The emperor,
and all his court, came out to meet us, but his ereat
officers would by no means suffer his majesty to
endanger his person, by mounting on my body.

At the place where the carriage stopped, there
stood an ancient temple, esteemed to be the largest
in the whole kingdom; which, having been polluted
some years before by an unnatural murder, was,
according to the zeal of those people, looked upon
as profane, and therefore had been applied to common
use, and all the ornaments and furniture carried
away. In this edifice it was determined I should
lodge. The great gate fronting to the north was
about four feet high, and almost two feet wide, through
which I could easily creep. On each side of the gate
was a small window, not above six inches from the
ground: into that on the left side, the king’s smith
conveyed fourscore and eleven chains, like those
that hang to a lady’s watch in Europe, and almost
as large, which were locked to my left leg with six-
and-thirty padlocks. Over against this temple, on
the other side of the great highway, at twenty feet
distance, there was a turret at least five feet hich.
Here the emperor ascended, with many principal
lords of his court, to have an opportunity of viewing
me, as I was told, for I could not see them. It was
reckoned that above a hundred thousand inhabitants
came out of the town upon the same errand; and, in
spite of my guards, I believe there could not be fewer
than ten thousand at several times, who mounted my
body by the help of ladders, But a proclamation



T4 GOULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

was soon issued, to forbid it upon pain of death,
When the workmen found it was impossible for me
to break loose, they cut ail the strings that bound
me; whereupon I rose up, with as melancholy a dis-
position as ever [ had in my life. But the noise and
astonishment of the people, at seeing me rise and
walk, are not to be expressed. The chains that held
my left leg were about two yards long, and gave me
not only liberty of walking backwards and forwards
in a semicircle, but, being fixed within four inches
of the gate, allowed me to creep in and lie at my
full length in the temple.

CHAPTER II.

LHE EMPEROR OF LILLIPUT, ATTENDED BY SEVERAL OF
THE NOBILITY, COMES TO SEE THE AUTHOR IN HIS
CONFINEMENT—THE EMPEROR’S PERSON AND HABIT
DESCRIBED—LEARNED MEN APPOINTED TO TEACH
THE AUTHOR THEIR LANGUAGE—HE GAINS FAVOUR BY
HIS MILD DISPOSITION—HIS POCKETS ARE SEARCHED,
AND HIS SWORD AND PISTOLS TAKEN FROM HIM,

WHEN I found myself on my feet, I looked about
me, and must confess I never beheld a more enter-
taining prospect. The country around appeared like
a continued garden, and the enclosed fields, which
were generally forty feet square, resembled so many
beds of flowers. These fields were intermingled with
woods of half a stang (sixteen feet and a half), and
the tallest trees, as I could judge, appeared to be
seven feet high. I viewed the town on my left hand,



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 15

which looked like the painted scene of a city ina
theatre.

I had been for some hours extremely pressed by
the necessities of nature, which was no wonder, it
being almost two days since I had last disburdened
myself. I was under the greatest difficulties between
urgency and shame. The best expedient I could
think on was to creep into my house, which I accord-
ingly did; and, shutting the gate after me, I went as
far as the leneth of my chain would suffer, and dis-
charged my body of that uneasy load. But this was
the only time I was ever guilty of so uncleanly an
action, for which I cannot but hope the candid reader
will give some allowance, after he has maturely and
impartially considered my case, and the distress I was
in. From this time my constant practice was, as
soon as I rose, to perform that business in open air,
at the full extent of my chain, and due care was
taken every morning before company came that the
offensive matter should be carried off in wheelbarrows
by two servants appointed for that purpose. I would
not have dwelt so long upon a circumstance, that per-
haps at first sight may appear not very momentous,
if I had not thought it necessary to justify my charac-
ter, in point of cleanliness, to the world ; which, I am
told, some of my maligners have been pleased, upon
this and other occasions, to call in question.

When this adventure was at an end I came back
out of my house, having occasion for fresh air. The
emperor was already descending from the tower, and
advancing on horseback towards me, which had like
to have cost him dear, for the beast, though very well
trained, yet wholly unused to such a sight, which



16 GULLIVER’ S TRAVELS,

appeared as if a mountain moved before him, reared
up on his hinder feet; but that prince, who is an
excellent horseman, kept his seat till his attendants
ran in and held the bridle while his majesty had time
to dismount. While he alighted he surveyed me
round with great admiration, but kept beyond the
length of my chain. He ordered his cooks and
butlers, who were already prepared, to give me vic-
tuals and drink, which they pushed forward in a sort
of vehicle upon wheels till I could reach them. I
took these vehicles, and soon emptied them all; twenty
of them were filled with meat, and ten with liquor;
each of the former afforded me two or three good
mouthfuls, and I emptied the liquor of ten vessels,
which was contained in earthen vials, into one vehicle,
drinking it off at a draught, and so I did with the
rest. ‘he empress and young princes of the blood,
of both sexes, attended by many ladies, sat at some
distance in their chairs, but upon the accident that
happened to the emperor’s horse they alighted and
came near his person, which I am now going to de-
scribe. He is taller, by almost the breadth of my
nail, than any of his court, which alone is enough to
strike an awe into the beholders. His features are
strong and masculine, with an Austrian lip and arched
nose; his complexion olive, his countenance erect, his
body and limbs well proportioned, all his motions
eraceful, and his deportment majestic. He was then
past his prime, being twenty-eight years and three-
quarters old, of which he had reigned about seven
in great felicity, and generally victorious. For the
better convenience of beholding him I lay on my
side, so that my face was parallel to his, and he stood



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 17

but three yards off; however, I have had him since
many times in my hand, and therefore cannot be
deceived in the description. His dress was very plain
and simple, and the fashion of it between the Asiatic
and the European; but he had on his head a light
helmet of gold, adorned with jewels, and a plume on
the crest, He held his sword drawn in his hand to
defend himself if I should happen to break loose; it
was almost three inches long, the hilt and scabbard
were gold enriched with diamonds. His voice was
shrill, but very clear and articulate, and I could dis-
tinctly hear it when I stood up. The ladies and
courtiers were all most magnificently clad, so that
the spot they stood upon seemed to resemble a petti-
coat spread on the ground embroidered with figures
of gold and silver. His imperial majesty spoke often
to me, and I returned answers, but neither of us
could understand a syllable. There were several of
his priests and lawyers present (as I conjectured
by their habits), who were commanded to address
themselves to me, and I spoke to them in as many
languages as I had the least smattering of, which
were High and Low Dutch, Latin, French, Spanish,
Italian, and Lingua Franca, but all to no purpose.
After about two hours the court retired, and I was
left with a strong guard to prevent the impertinence
and probably the malice of the rabble, who were very
impatient to crowd about me as near as they durst,
and some of them had the impudence to shoot their
arrows at meas I sat on the ground by the door of
my house, whereof one very narrowly missed my left
eye. But the colonel ordered six of the ringleaders

to be seized, and thought no punishment so proper
B



IS GULLIVENS TRAVELS.

as to deliver them bound into my hands, which some
of the soldiers accordingly did, pushing them forwards
with the butt-ends of their pikes into my reach. I
took them all in my right hand, put five of them into
my coat pocket, and as to the sixth, I made a coun-
tenance as if I would eat him alive. The poor man
squalled terribly, and the colonel and his officers were
in much pain, especially when they saw me take out
my penknife, but I soon put them out of fear, for
looking mildiy, and immediately cutting the strings
he was bound with, I set him gently on the eround,
and away he ran. I treated the rest in the same
manner, taking them one by one out of my pocket,
and I observed both the soldiers and people were
highly delighted at this mark of my clemency, which
was represented very much to my advantage at court.

Towards night I got with some difficulty into my
house, where I lay on the ground, and continued to
do so about a fortnight, during which time the em-
peror gave orders to have a bed prepared for me.
Six hundred beds of the common measure were
brought in carriages, and worked up in my house;
a hundred and fifty of their beds sewn together made
up the breadth and length, and these were four
double, which, however, kept me but very indif-
ferently from the hardness of the floor, that was of
smooth stone. By the same computation they pro-
vided me with sheets, blankets, and coverlets, toler-
able enough for one who had been so long inured to
hardships.

As the news of my arrival spread through the
kingdom, it brought prodigious numbers of rich,
idle, and curious people to see me; so that the



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 19

villages were almost emptied; and creat neglect
of tillage and household affairs must have ensued,
if his imperial majesty had not provided, by several
proclamations and orders of state, against this incon-
veniency. He directed that those who had already
beheld me should return home, and not presume to
come within fifty yards of my house without license
from the court; whereby the secretaries of state sot
considerable fees,

In the meantime the emperor held frequent coun-
cils, to debate what course should be taken with mie ;
and I was afterwards assured by a particular friend, a
person of great quality, who was as muchin the secret
as any, that the court was under many difficulties
concerning me. They apprehended my breaking
loose; that my diet would be very expensive, and
might cause a famine. Sometimes they determined
to starve me, or at least to shoot me in the face and
hands with poisoned arrows, which would soon des-
patch me; but again they considered that the stench
of so large a carcass might produce a plague in the
metropolis, and probably spread through the whole
kingdom. In the midst of these consultations, several
officers of the army went to the door of the great
council-chamber, and two of them being admitted,
gave an account of my behaviour to the six criminals
above-mentioned, which made so favourable an im-
pression in the breast of his majesty and the whole
board in my behalf, that an imperial commission was
issued out, obliging all the villages nine hundred
yards round the city, to deliver in every morning six
beeves, forty sheep, and other victuals for my susten-
ance; together with a proportionable quantity of



20 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS. -

bread, and wine, and other liquors; for the due pay-
ment of which, his majesty gave assignments upon
his treasury :—for this prince lives chiefly upon his
own demesnes; seldom, except upon great occasions,
raising any subsidies upon his subjects, who are
bound to attend him in his wars at their own ex-
pense. An establishment was also made of six
hundred persons to be my domestics, who had board
wages allowed for their maintenance, and tents built
for them, very conveniently on each side of my door.
It was likewise ordered that three hundred tailors
should make me a suit of clothes, after the fashion
of the country; that six of his majesty’s greatest
scholars should be employed to instruct me in their
language; and, lastly, that the emperor’s horses, and
those of the nobility, and troops of guards, should be
frequently exercised in my sight, to accustom them-
selves to me. All these orders were duly put in
execution; and in about three weeks I made a great
progress in learning their language; during which
time the emperor frequently honoured me with his
visits, and was pleased to assist my masters in teach-
ing me. We began already to converse together in
some sort: and the first words I learnt, were to
express my desire that he would please to give me
my liberty ; which I every day repeated on my knees.
His answer, as 1 could apprehend it, was, that this
must be a work of time, not to be thought on without
the advice of his council, and that first I must Zumos
kelinin pesso desmar lon emposo ; that is, swear a peace
with him and his kingdom. However, that I should
be used with all kindness. And he advised me to
acquire, by my patience and discreet behaviour, the



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 21

good opinion of himself and his subjects. He de-
sired I would not take it ill, if he gave orders to
certain proper officers to search me; for probably I
might carry about me several weapons, which must
needs be dangerous things, if they answered the bulk
of so prodigious a person. I said, his majesty should
be satisfied ; for I was ready to strip myself, and turn
up my pockets before him. This I delivered, part in
words and part in signs. He replied, that by the
laws of the kingdom, I must be searched by two of
his officers; that he knew this could not be done
without my consent and assistance: and he had so
good an opinion of my generosity and justice, as to
trust their persons in my hands; that whatever they
took from me, should be returned when I left the
country, or paid for at the rate which I would set
upon them. I took up the two officers in my hands,
put them first into my coat pockets, and then into
every other pocket about me, except my two fobs,
and another secret pocket, which I had no mind
should be searched, wherein I had some little neces-
saries that were of no consequence to any but myself.
In one of my fobs there was a silver watch, and in the
other a small quantity of gold in a purse. These
gentlemen, having pen, ink, and paper about them,
made an exact inventory of everything they saw;
and when they had done, desired I would set them
down, that they might deliver it to the emperor.
This inventory I afterwards translated into English,
and is, word for word, as follows :—

“Tinprimts, In the right coat-pocket of the great
man-mountain (for so I interpret the words guznbus



22 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

ftestrin), after the strictest search, we found only one
great piece of coarse cloth, large enough to be a foot-
cloth for your majesty’s chief room of state. In the
left pocket we saw a huge silver chest, with a cover
of the same metal, which we the searchers were not
able to lift. We desired it should be opened and
one of us stepping into it, found himself up to the
mid-leg in a sort of dust, some part whereof flying
up to our faces, set us both a-sneezing for several
times together. In his right waistcoat -pocket we
found a prodigious bundle of white thin substances,
folded one over another, about, the bigness of three
men, tied with a strong cable, and marked with black
figures, which we humbly conceive to be writings,
every letter almost half as large as the palm of our
hands. In the left there was a sort of engine, from
the back of which were extended twenty long poles,
resembling the palisadoes before your majesty’s
court; wherewith we conjecture the man-mountain
combs his head; for we did not always trouble him
with questions, because we found it a great difficulty
to make him understand us. In the large pocket, on
the right side of his middle cover (so I translated the
word vanfilo, by which they meant my breeches), we
saw a hollow pillar of iron, about the leneth of a
man, fastened to a strong piece of timber larger than
the pillar; and upon one side of the pillar were huge
pieces of iron sticking out, cut into strange figures,
which we know not what to make of. In the left
pocket, another engine of the same kind. In the
smaller pocket, on the right side, were several round
flat pieces of white and red metal, of different bulk;
some of the white, which seemed to be silver, were



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 23

so large and heavy, that my comrade and I could
hardly lift them. In the left pocket were two black
pillars irregularly shaped: we could not, without
difficulty, reach the top of them, as we stood at the
bottom of his pocket. One of them was covered and
seemed all of a piece; but at the upper end of the
other there appeared a white round substance, about
twice the bigness of our heads. Within each of these
was enclosed a prodigious plate of steel; which, by
our orders, we obliged him to show us, because we
apprehended they might be dangerous engines. He
took them out of their cases, and told us that,in hisown
country, his practice was to shave his beard with one
of these, and cut his meat with the other. There
were two pockets which we could not enter; these
he called his fobs; they were two large slits cut into
the top of his middle cover, but squeezed close by
the pressure of his belly. Out of the right fob hung
a great silver chain, with a wonderful kind of engine
at the bottom. We directed him to draw out what-
ever was at the end of that chain, which appeared to
be a globe, half silver, and half of some transparent
metal; for, on the transparent side, we saw certain
strange figures circularly drawn, and thought we
could touch them, till we found our fingers stopped
by that lucid substance. He put this engine to our
ears, which made an incessant noise like that of a
water-mill: and we conjecture it is either some un-
known animal, or the god that he worships; but we
are more inclined to the latter opinion, because he
assured us (if we understood him right, for he ex-
pressed himself very imperfectly), that he seldom did
anything without consulting it. He called it his



24 GULLIVER'’S TRAVELS.

oracle, and said it pointed out the time for every
action of his life. From the left fob he took outa
net, almost large enough for a fisherman, but con-
trived to open and shut lke a purse, and served him
for the same use: we found therein several massy
pieces of yellow metal, which, if they be real gold,
must be of immense value.

“Having thus, in obedience to your majesty’s
commands, diligently searched all his pockets, we
observed a girdle about his waist, made of the hide of
some prodigious animal, from which, on the left side,
hung a sword of the length of five men; and on the
right, a bag or pouch divided into two cells, each cell
capable of holding three of your majesty’s subjects.
In one of these cells were several globes or balls, of a
most ponderous metal, about the bigness of our heads,
and required a strong hand to lift them: the other
cell contained a heap of certain black grains, but of
no great bulk or weight, for we could hold about
fifty of them in the palm of our hands,

“This is an exact inventory of what we found
about the body of the man-mountain, who used us
with great civility, and due respect to your majesty’s
commission, Signed and sealed on the fourth day
of the eighty-ninth moon of your majesty’s auspicious
reign.

“ CLEFRIN FRELOCK, MARSI FRELOCK,”

When this inventory was read over to the emperor,
he directed me, although in very gentle terms, to
deliver up the several particulars. He first called
for my scimitar, which I took out, scabbard and all.
In the meantime he ordered three thousand of his



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 25

choicest troops (who then attended him), to surround
me at a distance, with their bows and arrows just
ready to discharge; but I did not observe it, for mine
eyes were wholly fixed upon his majesty. He then
desired me to draw my scimitar, which, although it
had got some rust by the sea-water, was in most
parts exceeding bright. I did so, and immediately
all the troops give a shout between terror and sur-
prise: for the sun shone clear, and the reflection
dazzled their eyes, as I waved the scimitar to and
froin my hand, His majesty, who is a most magna-
nimous prince, was less daunted than I could expect:
he ordered me to return it into the scabbard, and
cast it on the ground as gently as I could, about six
feet from the end of my chain. The next thing he
demanded was one of the hollow iron pillars: by
which he meant my pocket pistols. I drew it out,
and at his desire, as well as I could, expressed to
him the use of it; and charging it only with powder,
which, by the closeness of my pouch, happened to
escape wetting in the sea (an inconvenience against
which all prudent mariners take special care to pro-
vide), I first cautioned the emperor not to be afraid,
and then I let it off in the air. The astonishment
here was much greater than at the sight of the
scimitar, Hundreds fell down as if they had been
struck dead; and even the emperor, although he
stood his ground, could not recover himself for some
time. I delivered up both my pistols in the same
manner as I had done my scimitar, and then my
pouch of powder and bullets; begging him that the
former might be kept from fire, for it would kindle
with the smallest spark, and blow up his imperial palace



20 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

into the air. I likewise delivered up my watch,
which the emperor was very curious to see, and
commanded two of his tallest yeomen of the guards
to bear it on a pole upon their shoulders, as draymen
in England do a barrel of ale. He was amazed at
the continual noise it made, and the motion of the
minute hand, which he could easily discern; for their
sight is much more acute than ours: he asked the
opinions of his learned men about it, which were
various and remote, as the reader may well imagine
without my repeating; although indeed I could not
very perfectly understand them. I then gave up my
silver and copper money, my purse with nine large
pieces of gold and some smaller ones; my knife and
razor, my comb and silver snuff-box, my handkerchief
and journal-book, My scimitar, pistols, and pouch
were conveyed in carriages to his majesty’s stores;
but the rest of my goods were returned me.

I had, as I observed before, one private pocket,
which escaped their search, wherein there was a pair
of spectacles (which I sometimes use for the weak-
ness of mine eyes),a pocket perspective, and some
other little conveniences; which being of no con-
sequence to the emperor, I did not think myself
bound in honour to discover, and I apprehended they
might be lost or spoiled if I ventured them out of my
possession,



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 27

CHAPTER III.

THE AUTHOR DIVERTS THE EMPEROR, AND HIS NOBILITY
OF BOTH SEXES, IN A VERY UNCOMMON MANNER.
THE DIVERSIONS OF THE COURT OF LILLIPUT DE-
SCRIBED, THE AUTHOR HAS HIS LIBERTY GRANTED
HIM UPON CERTAIN CONDITIONS.

My gentleness and good behaviour had gained so far
on the emperor and his court, and indeed upon the
army and people in general, that I began to conceive
hopes of getting my liberty in a short time. I took
all possible methods to cultivate this favourable dis-
position. The natives came, by degrees, to be less
apprehensive of any danger from me. I would some-
times lie down, and let five or six of them dance on
my hand; and at last the boys and girls would ven-
ture to come and play at hide-and-seek in my hair.
I had now made a good progress in understanding
and speaking the language. The emperor had a
mind one day to entertain me with several of the
country shows, wherein they exceed all nations I
have known, both for dexterity and magnificence. I
was diverted with none so much as that of the rope-
dancers, performed upon a slender white thread,
extended about two feet and ten inches from the
ground. Upon which I shall desire liberty, with the
reader’s patience, to enlarge a little,

This diversion is only practised by those persons
who are candidates for great employments and hich
favour at court. They are trained in this art from
their youth, and are not always of noble birth or
liberal education, When a great office is vacant,



25 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

either by death or disgrace (which often happens),
five or six of those candidates petition the emperor
to entertain his majesty and the court with a dance
on the rope; and whoever jumps the highest without
falling, succeeds in the office. Very often the chief
ministers themselves are commanded to show their
skill, and to convince the emperor that they have not
lost their faculty. Flimnap, the treasurer, is allowed
to cut a caper on the straight rope, at least an inch
higher than any other lord in the whole empire. I
have seen him do the summerset several times to-
gether, upon a trencher fixed on a rope, which is no
thicker than a common packthread in England. My
friend Reldresal, principal secretary for private affairs,
is, in my opinion, if I am not partial, the second after
the treasurer; the rest of the great officers are much
upon a par.

These diversions are often attended with fatal
accidents, whereof great numbers are on record. I
myself have seen two or three candidates break a
limb. But the danger is much greater when the
ministers themselves are commanded to show their
dexterity; for, by contending to excel themselves
and their fellows, they strain so far that there is
hardly one of them who has not received a fall, and
some of them two or three. I was assured that, a
year or two before my arrival, Flimnap would infal-
libly have broke his neck if one of the king’s cushions,
that accidentally lay on the ground, had not weak-
ened the force of his fall.

There is likewise another diversion, which is only
shown before the emperor and the empress, and first
minister, upon particular occasions. The emperor



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 29

lays on the table three fine silken threads of six
inches long; one is blue, the other red, and the third
green, These threads are proposed as prizes for
those persons whom the emperor has a mind to dis-
tinguish by a peculiar mark of his favour. The cere-
mony is performed in his majesty’s great chamber of
state, where the candidates are to undergo a trial of
dexterity, very different from the former, and such as
I have not observed the least resemblance of in any
other country of the new or old world. The emperor
holds a stick in his hands, both ends parallel to the
horizon, while the candidates advancing, one by one,
sometimes leap over the stick, sometimes creep under
it, backward and forward, several times, according as
the stick is advanced or depressed. Sometimes the
emperor holds one end of the stick, and the first
minister the other; sometimes the minister has it
entirely to himself. Whoever performs his part with
most agility, and holds out the longest in leaping or
creeping, is rewarded with the blue-coloured silk;
the red is given to the next, and the green to the
third, which they all wear girt twice round about the
middle; and you see few great persons about the
court who are not adorned with one of these girdles.
The horses of the army, and those of the royal
stables, having been daily led before me, were no
longer shy, but would come up to my very feet with-
out starting. The riders would leap them over my
hand, as I held it on the ground; and one of the
emperor's huntsmen, upon a large courser, took my
foot, shoe and all, which indeed was a prodigious
leap. JI had the good fortune to divert the emperor
one day after a very extraordinary manner. I desired



5° GULLIVER’ S TRAVELS.

he would order several sticks of two feet high, and
the thickness of an ordinary cane, to be brought me;
whereupon his majesty commanded the master of his
woods to give directions accordingly ; and the next
morning six woodmen arrived with as many carriages,
drawn by eight horses to each. I took nine of these
sticks, and fixing them firmly in the ground in a
quadrangular figure, two feet and a half square, I
took four other sticks, and tied them parallel at each
corner, about two feet from the ground; then I fas-
tened my handkerchief to the nine sticks that stood
erect, and extended it on all sides, till it was tight as
the top of a drum; and the four parallel sticks, rising
about five inches higher than the handkerchief, served
as ledges on each side. When I had finished my
work, I desired the emperor to let a troop of the best
horse, twenty-four in number, come and exercise
upon this plain. His majesty approved of the pro-
posal, and I took them up, one by one, in my hands,
ready mounted and armed, with the proper officers to
exercise them. As soon as they got into order they
divided into two parties, performed mock skirmishes,
discharged blunt arrows, drew their swords, fled and
pursued, attacked and retired, and, in short, disco-
vered the best military discipline I ever beheld. The
parallel sticks secured them and their horses from
falling over the stage; and the emperor was so much
delighted, that he ordered this entertainment to be
repeated several days, and once was pleased to be
lifted up and give the word of command; and with
great difficulty persuaded even the empress herself
to let me hold her in her close chair within two yards
of the stage, when she was able to take a full view



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 31

of the whole performance. It was my good fortune
that no ill accident happened in these entertain-
ments; only once a fiery horse, that belonged to one
of the captains, pawing with his hoof, struck a hole
in my handkerchief, and his foot slipping, he over-
threw his rider and himself; but I immediately
relieved them both, and covering the hole with one
hand, I set down the troop with the other, in the
same manner as [ took them up. The horse that
fell was strained in the left shoulder, but the rider got
no hurt; and I repaired my handkerchief as well as I
could: however, I would not trust to the strength of
it any more in such dangerous enterprises.

About two or three days before I was set at liberty,
as I was entertaining the court with this kind of feats,
there arrived an express to inform his majesty that
some of his subjects, riding near the place where I
was first taken up, had seen a great black substance
lying on the ground, very oddly shaped, extending
its edges round, as wide as his majesty’s bed-chamber,
and rising up in the middle as high as a man; that it
was no living creature, as they at first apprehended,
for it lay on the grass without motion, and some of
them had walked round it several times; that, by
mounting upon each other’s shoulders, they had got
to the top, which was flat and even, and stamping
upon it, they found that it was hollow within; that
they humbly conceived it might be something belong-
ing to the man-mountain; and, if his majesty pleased,
they would undertake to bring it with only five
horses. I presently knew what they meant, and was
glad at heart to receive this intelligence. It seems,
upon my first reaching the shore after our shipwreck



3 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

I was in such confusion that, before I came to the
place where I went to sleep, my hat, which I had
fastened with a string to my head while I was rowing,
and had stuck on all the time I was swimming, fell
off after I came to land; the string, as I conjecture,
breaking by some accident which I never observed,
but thought my hat had been lost at sea. I entreated
his imperial majesty to give orders it might be
brought to me as soon as possible, describing to him
the use and the nature of it: and the next day the
waggoners arrived with it, but not in a very good
condition; they had bored two holes in the brim,
within an inch and a half of the edge, and fastened
two hooks in the holes; these hooks were tied by a
long cord to the harness, and thus my hat was
dragged along for above half an English mile; but
the ground in that country being extremely smooth
and level, it received less damage than I expected.
‘l'wo days after this adventure, the emperor, having
ordered that part of his army which quarters in and
about his metropolis to be in readiness, took a fancy
of diverting himself in a very singular manner. He
desired I would stand like a Colossus, with my legs
as far asunder as I conveniently could. He then
commanded his general (who was an old experienced
leader, and a great patron of mine) to draw up the
troops in close order and march them under me; the
foot by twenty-four in a breast, and the horse by six-
teen, with drums beating, colours flying, and pikes
advanced. This body consisted of three thousand
foot and a thousand horse. His majesty gave orders,
upon pain of death, that every soldier in his march
should observe the strictest decency with regard to



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 33

my person; which, however, could not prevent some
of the younger officers from turning up their eyes as
they passed under me: and to confess the truth, my
breeches were at that time in so ill a condition that
they afforded some opportunities for laughter and
adniration.

f had sent so many memorials and petitions for
my liberty, that his majesty at length mentioned the
matter, first in the cabinet, and then in a full council ;
where it was opposed by none except Skyresh Bol-
golam, who was pleased, without any provocation, to
be my mortal enemy. But it was carried against him
by the whole board, and confirmed by the emperor.
That minister was galvet, or admiral of the realm,
very much in his master’s confidence, and a person
well versed in affairs, but of a morose and sour com-
plexion. However, he was at length persuaded to
comply; but prevailed that the articles and condi-
tions upon which I should be set free, and to which
I must swear, should be drawn up by himself. These
articles were brought to me by Skyresh Bolgolam in
person, attended by two under-secretaries and several
persons of distinction. After they were read, I was
demanded to swear to the performance of them:
first in the manner of my own country, and after-
wards in the method prescribed by their laws; which
was, to hold my right foot in my left hand, and to
place the middle finger of my right hand on the
crown of my head, and my thumb on the tip of my
right ear. But because the reader may be curious to
have some idea of the style and manner of expres-
sion peculiar to that people, as weil as to know the

articles upon which I recovered my liberty, I have
C



34 GULLIVER 'S TRAVELS.

made a translation of the whole instrument, word for
word, as near as I was able, which I here offer to
the public,

“ Golbasto Momarem Evlame Gurdilo Shefin Mully
Ully Gue, most mighty Emperor of Lilliput, delight
and terror of the universe, whose dominions extend
five thousand dl/ustrugs (about twelve miles in cir-
cumference) to the extremities of the globe; monarch
of all monarchs, taller than the sons of men; whose
feet press down to the centre, and whose head strikes
against the sun, at whose nod the princes of the earth
shake their knees; pleasant as the spring, comfortable
as the summer, fruitful as autumn, dreadful as winter.
His most sublime majesty proposes to the man-
mountain, lately arrived at our celestial dominions,
the following articles, which, by a solemn oath, he
shall be obliged to perform :—

“rst, The man-mountain shall not depart from our
dominions without our license under our great seal.

“2d. He shall not presume to come into our metro-
polis without our express order; at which time the
inhabitants shall have two hours warning to keep
within doors,

“3d. The said man-mountain shall confine his
walks to our principal high roads, and not offer to
walk, or lie down, in a meadow or field of corn.

“ath, As he walks the said roads, he shall take the
utmost care not to trample upon the bodies of any
of our loving subjects, their horses, or carriages, hor
take any of our subjects into’his hands without their
own consent,



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 35

“Sth. If an express requires extraordinary despatch,
the man-mountain shall be obliged to carry in his
pocket the messenger and horse a six days’ journey,
once in every moon, and return the said messenge
back (if so required) safe to our imperial presence,

“6th. He shall be our ally against our enemies in
the island of Blefuscu, and do his utmost to destroy
their fleet, which is now preparing to invade us,

“7th. That the said man-mountain shall, at his
time of leisure, be aiding and assisting to our work-
men, in helping to raise certain great stones, towards
covering the wall of the principal park, and other our
royal buildings.

“8th, That the said man-mountain shall, in two
moons time, deliver an exact survey of the circum-
ference of our dominions, by a computation of his
own paces round the coast.

“Jastly. That, upon his solemn oath to observe
all the above articles, the said man-mountain shall
have a daily allowance of meat and drink sufficient
for the support of 1724 of our subjects, with free
access to our royal person, and other marks of our
favour. Given at our palace at Belfaborac, the twelfth
day of the ninety-first moon of our reign,”

I swore and subscribed to these articles with great
cheerfulness and content, although some of them were
not so honourable as I could have wished ; which pro-
ceeded wholly from the malice of Skyresh Bolgolam,
the high-admiral; whereupon my chains were im-
mediately unlocked, and I was at full liberty. The
emperor himself, in person, did me the honour to be
by at the whole ceremony. I made my acknowledg-



30 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

ments by prostrating myself at his majesty’s feet:
but he commanded me to rise; and after many
eracious expressions, which, to avoid the censure of
vanity, I shall not repeat, he added, that he hoped I
should prove a useful servant, and well deserve all
the favours he had already conferred upon me, or
nught do for the future.

The reader may please to observe, that, in the last
article of the recovery of my liberty, the emperor
stipulates to allow me a quantity of meat and drink
sufficient for the support of 1724 Lilliputians. Some
time after, asking a friend at court how they came
to fix on that determined number, he told me that
his majesty’s mathematicians, having taken the height
of my body by the help of a quadrant, and finding
it to exceed theirs in the proportion of twelve to one,
they concluded, from the similarity of their bodies,
that mine must contain at least 1724 of theirs, and
consequently would require as much food as was
necessary to support that number of Lilliputians.
By which the reader may conceive an idea of the
ingenuity of that people, as well as the prudent and
exact economy of so great a prince.



A VOYAGE 70 LILLIPUT. 37

CHAPTER IV.

MILDENDO, THE METROPOLIS OF LILLIPUT, DESCRIBED,
TOGETHER WITH THE EMPEROR'S PALACE—A
CONVERSATION BETWEEN THE AUTHOR AND
A PRINCIPAL SECRETARY, CONCERNING THE
AFFAIRS OF THAT EMPIRE— THE AUTHOR'S
OFFERS TO SERVE THE EMPEROR IN HIS WARS.



THE first request I made, after I had obtained my
liberty, was, that I might have license to see Mildendo,
the metropolis; which the emperor easily granted
me, but with a special charge to do no hurt either to
the inhabitants or their houses. The people had
notice, by proclamation, of my design to visit the
town. ‘The wall, which encompassed it, is two feet
anda half high, and at least eleven inches broad, so
that a coach and horses may be driven very safely
round it; and it is flanked with strong towers at ten
feet distance. I stepped over the great western gate,
and passed very gently and sidelong through the
two principal streets, only in my short waistcoat, for
fear of damaging the roofs and eaves of the houses
with the skirts of my coat. I walked with the utmost
circumspection, to avoid treading on any stragglers
who might remain on the streets ; although the orders
were very strict that all people should keep in their
houses, at their own peril. The garret windows
and tops of houses were so crowded with specta-
tors, that I thought in all my travels I had not seen
amore populous place. The city is an exact square,
each side of the wall being five hundred feet long.



38 GULITIVER’S TRAVELS.

The two great streets, which run across and divide
it into four quarters, are five feet wide. The lanes
and alleys which I could not enter, but only viewed
them as I passed, are from twelve to eighteen inches.
The town is capable of holding five hundred thousand
souls: the houses are from three to five stories: the
shops and markets well provided.

The emperor's palace is in the centre of the city,
where the two great streets meet. It is enclosed by
a wall of two feet high, and twenty feet distance
from the buildings, I had his majesty’s permission
to step over this wall; and the space being so wide
between that and the palace, I could easily view it
on every side. The outward court is a square of
forty feet, and includes two other courts: in the
inmost are the royal apartments, which I was very
desirous to see, but found it extremely difficult; for
the great gates from one square into another, were
but eighteen inches high and seven inches wide.
Now the buildings of the outer court were at least
five feet high, and it was impossible for me to stride
over them without infinite damage to the pile, though
the walls were strongly built of hewn stone, and
four inches thick. At the same time, the emperor
had a great desire that I should see the magnificence
of his palace; but this I was not able to do till three
days after, which I spent in cutting down with my
knife some of the largest trees in the royal park,
about a hundred yards distance from the city. Of
these trees I made two stools, each about three feet
high, and strong enough to bear my weight. The
people, having received notice a second time, I went
again through the city to the palace with my two



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 39

stools in my hands. When I came to the side of
the outer court, I stood upon one stool, and took
the other in my hand; this I lifted over the roof,
and gently set it down on the space between the first
and second court, which was eight feet wide. I then
stepped over the building very conveniently from one
stool to the other, and drew up the first after me
with a hooked stick. By this contrivance I got into
the inmost court; and, lying down upon my side, I
applied my face to the windows of the middle stories,
which were left open on purpose, and discovered the
most splendid apartments that can be imagined.
There I saw the empress and the young princes, in
their several lodgings, with their chief attendants
about them, Her imperial majesty was pleased to
smile very graciously upon me, and gave me out of
the window her hand to kiss.

But I shall not anticipate the reader with further
descriptions of this kind, because I reserve them for
a greater work, which is now almost ready for the
press; containing a general description of this empire,
from its first erection, through a long series of
princes, with a particular account of their wars and
politics, laws, learning, and religion: their plants and
animals, their peculiar manners and customs, with
other matters very curious and useful; my chief
design at present being only to relate such events
and transactions as happened to the public or to
myself during a residence of about nine months in
that empire.

One morning, about a fortnight after I had obtained
my liberty, Reldresal, principal secretary (as they
style him) for private affairs, came to my house,



40 GULLIVER’ S TRAVELS.

attended only by one servant. He ordered his coach
to wait at a distance, and desired I would give him
an hour’s audience; which I readily consented to,
on account of his quality and personal merits, as
well as of the many good offices he had done me
during my solicitations at court. I offered to lie
down, that he might the more conveniently reach my
ear; but ne chose rather to let me hold him in my
hand during our conversation. He began with com-
pliments on my liberty; said, he might pretend to
some merit in it; but, however, added, that. if it
had not been for the present situation of things
at court, perhaps I might not have obtained it so
soon, For, said he, as flourishing a condition as
we may appear to be in to foreigners, we labour
under two mighty evils; a violent faction at home,
and the danger of an invasion by a most potent
enemy from abroad. As to the first, you are to
understand, that for above seventy moons past there
have been two struggling parties in this empire,
under the names of Yvamecksan and Slamecksan,
from the high and low heels of their shoes, by which
they distinguish themselves. It is alleged, indeed,
that the high heels are most agreeable to our ancient
constitution ; but, however this be, his majesty has
determined to make use only of low heels in the
administration of the government, and all offices in
the gift of the crown, as you cannot but observe;
and particularly that his majesty’s imperial heels are
lower at least by a drurr, than any of his court
(drurr is a measure about the fourteenth part of an
inch). The animosities between these two parties
run so high, that they will neither eat, nor drink, nor



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 4!

talk with each other, We compute the 7Zramecksan,
or high heels, to exceed us in number; but the
power is wholly on our side. We apprehend his
imperial highness, the heir to the crown, to have
some tendency towards the hich heels; at least we
can plainly discover that one of his heels is higher
than the other, which gives him a hobble in his gait.
Now, in the midst of these intestine disquiets, we
are threatened with an invasion from the island of
Blefuscu, which is the other great empire of the
universe, almost as large and powerful as this of his
majesty. I*or, as to what we have heard you affirm,
that there are other kingdoms and states, in the
world, inhabited by human creatures as large as
vourself, our philosophers are in much doubt, and
would rather conjecture that you dropped from the
moon or one of the stars; because it is certain, that
a hundred mortals of your bulk would in a short time
destroy all the fruits and cattle of his majesty’s
dominions: besides, our histories of six thousand
moons make no mention of any other regions than
the two great empires of Lilliput and Blefuscu ;
which two mighty powers have, as I was going to
tell you, been engaged in a most obstinate war for
six-and-thirty moons past. It began upon the fol-
lowing occasion: it is allowed on all hands, that the
primitive way of breaking eggs, before we eat them,
was upon the larger end; but his present majesty’s
grandtather, while he was a boy, going to eat an egg,
and breaking it according to the ancient practice,
happened to cut one of his fingers; whereupon, the
emperor his father published an edict, commanding
all his subjects, upon great penalties, to break the

>



42 GULIIVER’S TRAVELS,

smaller ends of their eggs. The people so highly
resented this law, that our histories tell us, there have
been six rebellions raised on that account; wherein one
emperor lost his life, and another his crown. These
civil commotions were constantly fomented by the
monarchs of Blefuscu; and when they were quelled,
the exiles always fled for refuge to that empire. It
is computed that eleven thousand persons have at
several times suffered death, rather than submit to
break their eggs at the smaller end. Many hundred
large volumes have been published upon this con-
troversy ; but the books of the Big-endians have
been long forbidden, and the whole party rendered
incapabie by law of holding employments. During
the course of those troubles, the emperors of Blefuscu
did frequently expostulate by theirambassadors, accus-
ing us of making a schism in religion, by offending
against a fundamental doctrine of our great pro-
phet Lustrog, in the fifty-fourth chapter of the
Blundecral (which is their Alcoran). This, however,
is thought to be a mere strain upon the text; for
the words are these: that all true believers break
their eggs at the convenient end. And which is the
convenient end seems, in my humble opinion, to be
left to. every man’s conscience, or at least in the
power of the chief magistrate to determine. Now,
the Big-endian exiles have found so much credit in
the Emperor of Blefuscu’s court, and so much private
assistance and encouragement from their party here
at home, that a bloody war has been carried on
between the two empires for six-and-thirty moons
with various success; during which time we have
lost forty capital ships, and a much greater number



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 43

of smaller vessels, together with thirty thousand of
our best seamen and soldiers; and the damage
received by the enemy is reckoned to be somewhat
creater than ours. However, they have now equipped
a numerous fleet, and are just preparing to make a
descent upon us; and his imperial majesty, placing
great confidence in your valour and strength, has
commanded me to lay this account of his affairs
before you. :

I desired the secretary to present my - humble duty
to the emperor; and to let him know that I thought
it would not become me, who was a foreigner, to inter-
fere with parties; but I was ready, with the hazard
of my life, to defend his person and state against all
invaders,

CHAPTER V.

THE AUTHOR, BY AN EXTRAORDINARY STRATAGEM,
PREVENTS AN INVASION—A HIGH TITLE OF
HONOUR IS CONFERRED UPON HIM—AMBASSA-
DORS ARRIVE FROM THE EMPEROR OF BLEFUSCU,
AND SUE FOR PEACE—THE EMPRESS S APART-
MENT ON FIRE BY ACCIDENT, THE AUTHOR
INSTRUMENTAL IN SAVING THE REST OF THE
PALACE,

THE empire of Blefuscu is an island, situated to
the north-east of Lilliput, from which it is parted
only by a channel of eight hundred yards wide. I
had not yet seen it, and upon this notice of an in-
tended invasion, I avoided appearing on that side



44 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS. .

of the coast, for fear of being discovered by some
of the enemy’s ships, who had received .no intelli-
gence of me; all intercourse between the two empires
having been strictly forbidden during the war, upon
pain of death, and an embargo laid ‘by our emperor
upon all vessels whatsoever. JI communicated to his
majesty a project I had formed, of seizing the enemy’s
whole fleet; which, as our. scouts assured us, lay at
anchor in the harbour, ready to sail with the first
fair'wind. . I consulted the most experienced seamen
upon the depth of the channel, which they had often
plumbed; who told me, that in the middle at high
water it was seventy glumeluffs deep, which is about
six feet of European measure; and the rest of it fifty
glumgluffs at most. I walked towards the north-east
coast, over against Blefuscu, where, lying down behind
a hillock, I took out my small perspective glass, and
viewed the enemy’s fleet at anchor, consisting of about
fifty men-of-war, and a great number of transports:
I then came back to my house, and gave orders (for
which I had a warrant) for a great quantity of the
strongest cable and bars of iron. The cable was
about as thick as packthread, and the bars of the
length and size of a knitting-needle. I trebled the
cable to make it stronger, and for the same reason I
twisted three of the iron bars together, bending the
extremities into a hook. Having thus fixed fifty
hooks to as many cables, I went back to the north-
east coast, and putting off my coat, shoes, and stock-
ings, walked into the sea,in my leathern jerkin, about
half an hour beforé high-water. I waded with what
haste I could, and swam in the middle about thirty
yards, till I felt ground. I arrived at the fleet in less



A VOVAGE TO LILLIPUT. 45

than halfan hour. . The enemy was so frighted when
they saw me, that they leaped out of their ships, and
swam to shore, where. there could not be fewer than
thirty thousand souls: I then. took my tackling, and,
fastening a hook to the hole at the prow of each, I
tied all the cords together at the end. While I was
thus employed, the enemy discharged several thou-
sand arrows, many of which stuck in my hands and
face; and besides the excessive smart, gave me much
disturbance in my work, My greatest apprehension
was for mine eyes, which I should have infallibly lost,
if I had not suddenly thought ofan expedient. Ikept,
among other little necessaries, a pair of spectacles
in a private pocket, which, as I observed before, had
escaped the emperor’s searches, These I took out,
and fastened as strongly as I could upon my. nose,
and thus armed, went on boldly with my work, in
spite of the enemy’s arrows, many .of which struck
against the glasses of my spectacles, but without any
other effect, further than a little to discompose them.
I had now fastened all the hooks, and, taking the
knot in my hand, began to pull; but not a ship would
stir, for they were all too fast held by their anchors,
so that the boldest part of my enterprise remained.
I therefore let go the cord, and, leaving the hooks
fixed to the ships, I resolutely cut with my knife the
cables that fastened the anchors, receiving about two
hundred shots in my face and hands; then I took
up the knotted end of the cables, to which my hooks
were tied, and with great ease drew nity of the
enemy’s largest men-of-war after me.

The Blefuscudians, who had not the least imagina-
tion of what I intended, were at first confounded with



46 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

astonishment. They had seen me cut the cables;
and thought my design was only to let the ships run
adrift, or fall foul on each other; but when they per-
ceived the whole fleet moving in order, and saw me
pulling at the end, they set up such a scream of grief
and despair, as it is almost. impossible to describe or
conceive. When I had got out of danger, I stopped
a while to pick out the arrows that stuck in my hands
and face; and rubbed on some of the same ointment
that was given me at my. first arrival, as I have
formerly mentioned, I then took off my spectacles,
and waiting about an hour, till the tide was a little
fallen, I waded through the middle with my cargo,
and arrived safe at the royal port of Lilliput.

Ihe emperor and his whole court stood on the
shore, expecting the issue of this great adventure.
They saw the ships move forward in « large half-
moon, but could not discern me, who was up to my
breast in water. When I advanced to the middle of
the channel, they were yet more in pain, because I

was under water tomy neck. The emperor concluded
me to be drowned, and that the enemy’s fleet was
approaching in a hostile manner:.but he was soon
eased of his fears; for the channel growing shallower
every step I made, I came in a short time within
hearing, and holding up the end of the cable, by
which the fleet was fastened, I cried in a loud voice,
Long live the most puissant King of Lilliput! This
creat prince received me at my landing with all pos-
sible encomiums, and created me a xardac upon the
spot, which is the highest title of honour among
them.

His majesty desired I would take some other



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A VOVAGE TO LILLIPUT. 47

opportunity of bringing all the rest of his enemy’s
ships into his ports. And so unmeasurable is the
ambition of princes, that he seemed to think of nothing
less than reducing the whole empire of Blefuscu into
a province, and governing it by a viceroy; of destroy-
ing the Big-endian exiles, and compelling that people
to break the smaller end of their eggs, by which he
would remain the sole monarch of the whole world.
But I endeavoured to divert him from this design, by
many arguments drawn from the topics of policy as
well as justice; and I plainly protested that I would
never be an instrument of bringing a free and brave
people into slavery. And, when the matter was
debated in council, the wisest part of the ministry
were of my opinion. |
This open bold declaration of mine was so opposite
to the schemes and politics of his imperial majesty,
that he could never forgive me. He mentioned it in
a very artful manner at council, where I was told that
some of the wisest appeared at least, by their silence,
to be of my opinion; but others, who were my secret
enemies, could not forbear some expressions which,
by a side-wind, reflected on me. And from this time
began an intrigue between his majesty and a junto
of ministers, maliciously bent against me, which broke
out in less than two months, and had like to have
ended in my utter destruction. Of so little weight
are the greatest services to princes when put into the
balance with a refusal to gratify their passions,
About three weeks after this exploit there arrived
a solemn embassy from Blefuscu, with humble offers
of a peace ; which was soon concluded, upon condi-
tions very advantageous to our emperor, wherewith



48 -GULLIVER’S. TRAVELS.--

I shall not trouble the reader. There were six am-
bassadors, with a train of about five humdred persons:
and their entry was very magnificent, suitable to the
erandeur of their master, and the importance ‘of their
business. ‘When their treaty was finished, wherein I
did them several good offices by the credit I nowhad,or
at least appeared to: have, at court, their éxcellencies,
who were privately told how much’ I had. been their
friend, made me a visit in form. They began with
many compliments upon. my valour and generosity,
invited me-to that kingdom in the emperor their mas-
ter’s name, and desired me to show them some proofs.
‘of my prodigious strength, of which they had ‘heard
so-many wonders; wherein I readily obliged them,
but shall not trouble the reader with the particulars.

When I had for some time entertained their excel-
lencies, to their infinite: satisfaction and surprise, I
desired they would do me the honour to present my
most humble respects to the emperor their master,
the renown of whose virtues had-so justly filled the
whole world with admiration, and whose royal. person
I resolved to attend before I returned to: my own
country. Accordingly, the next time I had the
honour to see our emperor, I desired his general
license to wait on the Blefuscudian monarch, which
he was pleased to grant me, as I could perceive, in
a very cold manner; but could not guess the reason,
till had a whisper from a certain person, that Flim-
nap and Bolgolam had represented my intercourse
with those ambassadors as a mark of. disaffection ;
from which I am sure my heart was wholly free,
And this was the first time I- began to conceive some
imperfect idea of courts and ministers, .



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT, 49

_ It is to be observed, that these ambassadors spoke
to me by an interpreter, the languages of both em-
pires differing as much from each other as any two
in Europe, and each nation priding itself upon the
antiquity, beauty, and energy of their own tongues,
with an avowed contempt for that of their neighbour:
yet our emperor, standing upon the advantage he
had got by the seizure of their fleet, obliged them to
deliver their credentials, and make their speech in
the Lilliputian tongue. And it must be confessed,
that, from the great intercourse of trade and com-
merce between both realms from the continual re-
ception of exiles, which is mutual among them, and
from the custom, in each empire, to send their young
nobility and richer gentry to the other, in order to
polish themselves by seeing the world, and under-
standing men and manners, there are few persons of
distinction, or merchants, or seamen, who dwell in
the maritime parts, but what can hold conversation
in both tongues; as I found some weeks after, when
I went to pay my respects to the Emperor of Ble-
fuscu, which, in the midst of great misfortunes,
through the malice of my enemies, proved a very
happy adventure to me, as I shall relate in its proper
place.

The reader may remember, that when I signed
those articles upon which I recovered my liberty,
there were some which I disliked, upon account of
their being too servile; neither could anything but an
extreme necessity have forced me to submit. But
being now a zardac of the highest rank in that
empire, such offices were looked upon as below my:

dignity, and the emperor (to do him justice) never
D



50 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

once mentioned them to me. However, it was not
long before I had an opportunity of doing his majesty,
at least as I then thought, a most signal service. J
was alarmed at midnight with the cries of many hun-
dred people at my door; by which being suddenly
awaked, I was in some kind of terror. I heard the
word burglum repeated incessantly; several of the
emperor's court, making their way throuch the crowd,
entreated me tocome immediately to the palace,
where her imperial majesty’s apartment was on fire,
by the carelessness of a maid of honour, who fell
asleep while she was reading a romance. I got up
in an instant; and orders being given to clear the
way before me, and it being likewise a moonshine
night, [ made a shift to get to the palace without
trampling on any of the people. I found they had
already applied ladders to the walls of the apartment,
and were well provided with buckets, but the water
was at some distance. These buckets were about
the size of a large thimble, and the poor people sup-
plied me with them as fast as they could; but the
flame was so violent, that they did little good. I
might easily have stifled it with my coat, which I
unfortunately left behind me for haste, and came
away only in my leathern jerkin. The case seemed
wholly desperate and deplorable; and this magni-
ficent palace would have infallibly been burnt down
to the ground, if, by a presence of mind unusual to
me, I had not suddenly thought of an expedient. I
had, the evening before, drunk plentifully of a most
delicious wine called glimzgrim (the Blefuscudians
call it féwnzec, but ours is esteemed the better sort),
which is very diurctic. By the luckiest chance in



A VOYAGE LO LILLIPUT. 51

the world, I had not discharged myself of any part
of it. The heat I had contracted by coming very
near the flames, and by labouring to quench them,
made the wine begin to operate by urine; which I
voided in‘such a quantity, and applied so well to the
proper -places, that in three minutes the fire was
wholly extinguished, and the rest of that noble pile,
which had cost so many ages in erecting, preserved
from destruction.

It was now daylight, and I returned to my house
without waiting to congratulate with the emperor;
because, although I had done a very eminent piece
of service, yet I could not tell how his majesty might
resent the manner by which I had performed it; for,
by the fundamental laws of the realm, it is capital
in any person, of what quality soever, to make water
within the precincts of the palace. But I was a little
comforted by a message from his majesty, that he
would give orders to the grand justiciary for passing
_my pardon in form; which, however, I could not ob-
tain. And I was privately assured, that the empress,
conceiving the greatest abhorrence of what I had
done, removed to the most distant side of the court,
firmly resolved that those buildings should never be
repaired for her use; and, in the presence of her chief
confidants, could not forbear vowing revenge.



52 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

CHAPTER VI.

OF THE INHABITANTS OF LILLIPUT; THEIR LEARN-
ING, LAWS, AND CUSTOMS ; THE MANNER OF
EDUCATING THEIR CHILDREN—THE AUTHOR'S
WAY OF LIVING IN THAT COUNTRY—HIS VIN-
DICATION OF A GREAT LADY.

«\LTHOUGH I intend to leave the description of this
empire to a particular treatise, yet, in the meantime,
1 am content to gratify the curious reader with some
general ideas. As the common size of the natives is
somewhat under six inches high, so there is an exact
proportion in all other animals, as well as plants and
trees: for instance, the tallest horses and oxen are
between four and five inches in height, the sheep an
inch and half, more or less; their geese about the
bigness of a sparrow, and so the several gradations,
downwards, till you come to the smallest, which, to
my sight, were almost invisible; but nature has
adapted the eyes of the Lilliputians to all objects
proper to their view: they see with great exactness,
but at no great distance. And to show the sharpness
of their sight towards objects that are near, I have
been much pleased with observing a cook pulling a
lark, which was not so large as a common fly: anda
young girl threading an invisible needle with invisible
silk, Their tallest trees are about seven feet high;
J mean some of those in the great royal park, the
tops whereof I could but just reach with my fist
clenched. The other vegetables are in the same pro-
portion ; but this I leave to the reader’s imagination.



A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 53

I shall say but little at present of their learning,
which for many ages has flourished in all its branches
among them: but their manner of writing 1s very
peculiar, being neither from the left to the right, like
the Europeans; nor from the right to the left, like
the Arabians; nor from up to down like the Chinese ;
but aslant from one corner of the paper to the other,
like ladies in England.

They bury their dead with their heads directly
downwards, because they hold an opinion, that in
eleven thousand moons they are all to rise again; in
which period the earth (which they conceive to be
flat) will turn upside down, and by this means they
shall at their resurrection be found ready standing
on their feet. The learned among them confess the
absurdity of this doctrine; but the practice still con-
tinues, in compliance to the vulgar. |

There are some laws and customs in this empire
very peculiar; and if they were not so directly con-
trary to those of my own dear country, I should be
tempted to say a little in their justification. It is
only to be wished they were as well executed. The
first I shall mention relates to informers. All crimes
against the state are punished here with the utmost
severity ; but, if the person accused makes his inno-
cence plainly to appear upon his trial, the accuser is
immediately put to an ignominious death: and out
of his goods or lands the innocent person is quad-
ruply recompensed for the loss of his time, for the
danger he underwent, for the hardship of his im-
prisonment, and for all the charges he has been at in
making his defence. Or, if that fund be deficient, it
is largely supplied by the crown. The emperor also



Full Text


tei ttade Detaled, Bidet Mh ttn ale hic ie ade ele ee Sa be oe OE

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in



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ol

TT






TRAVELS
INTO SEVERAL REMOTE NATIONS OF THE WORLD

BY

LEMUEL GULLIVER

FIRST A SURGEON AND THEN A CAPTAIN OF SEVERAL SHIPS
gn Four Parts

I. A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT
II. A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG
III. A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, BALNIBARBI, LUGGNAGG,
GLUBBDUBDRIB, AND JAPAN |
IV. A VOYAGE TO THE COUNTRY OF THE HOUYHNHNMS

‘* Splendidé Mendax.”—Hor.

By JONATHAN SWIFT

DEAN OF ST. PATRICK

CHith Fine Ctchings and JPortrait bp Ap. Lalause

LONDON
J. G NIMMO AND BAIN
14, KING WILLIAM STREET, STRAND, W.C.
1883
Only go Copies of this E-dition on latd paper, medium Svo,
with proof Etchings on Whatman paper, have been printed
for the American market, and are numbered consecutively as

issued.
CONTENTS.





Oo
PAGE
PREFATORY MEMOIR TO JONATHAN SWIFT . . . XVii
THE PUBLISHER TO THE READER . . . . . XXXVI
A LETTER FROM CAPTAIN GULLIVER TO HIS COUSIN
SYMPSON, . . . . Lo . . . XXXIX

i

PART I.

A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT.
CHAPTER I.

The Author gives some account of himself and family—His first
inducements to travel—He is shipwrecked, and swims for his
life—Gets safe on shore in the country of Lilliput—Is made
a prisoner, and carried up the country . . . . .

CHAPTER II.

The Emperor of Lilliput, attended by several of the nobility, comes
to see the Author in his confinement—The Emperor’s person
and habit described—Learned men appointed to teach the
Author their language—He gains favour by his mild disposi-
tion—His pockets are searched, and his sword and pistols
taken from him . . . . . . . . .

b

14
vi CONTENTS.

CHAPTER III.

The Author diverts the Emperor and his nobility of both sexes,
in a very uncommon manner—The diversions of the court of
Lilliput described—The Author has his liberty granted him
upon certain conditions

CHAPTER IV.

Mildendo, the metropolis of Lilliput, described, together with the
Emperor’s palace—A conversation between the Author and a
principal secretary concerning the affairs of that empire—
The Author’s offers to serve the Emperor in his wars

CHAPTER V.

The Author, by an extraordinary stratagem, prevents an invasion
—A high title of honour is conferred upon him— Ambassadors
arrive from the Emperor of Blefuscu, and sue for peace—The
Empress’s apartment on fire by accident ; the Author instru-
mental in saving the rest of the palace . .

CHAPTER VI,

Of the inhabitants of Lilliput ; their learning, laws, and customs—
The manner of educating their children—The Author’s way of
living in that country—His vindication of a great lady .

CHAPTER VII.

The Author, being informed of a design to accuse him of high
treason, makes his escape to Blefuscu--His reception there .

CHAPTER VIII.

The Author, by a lucky accident, finds means to leave Blefuscu;
and, after some difficulties, returns safe to his native country .

PAGE

52

64

“TY
Wr
CONTENTS. Vil

N.

PART IL
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG.

CHAPTER T,
PAGE
A great storm described—The long-boat sent to fetch water; the
Author goes with it to discover the country —He is left on
shore, is seized by one of the natives, and carried to a farmer’s
house—ITis reception, with several accidents that happened
there—A description of the inhabitants . . . . 83

CHAPTER II.

A description of the farmer’s daughter—The Author carried to a
market-town, and then to the metropolis—The particulars of
his journey . . . . . . . . . . 99

CHAPTER III.

The Author is sent for to court—The queen buys him of his
master the farmer, and presents him to the king—He dis-
putes with his Majesty’s great scholars—An apartment at
court provided for the Author—He is in high favour with the
queen—Ile stands up for the honour of his own country—His
quarrels with the queen’s dwarf . . . . . . 107

CHAPTER IV.

The country described—A proposal for correcting modern maps—
The king’s palace, and some account of the metropolis—The
Author’s way of travelling—The chief temple described . 120

CHIAPTER V.

Several adventures that happened to the Author—The execution
of a crithinal—The Author shows his skill in navigation . 126
Vill CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VI.

PAGE
Several contrivances of the Author to please the king and queen—
He shows his skill in music—The king inquires nto the state
of England, which the Author relates to him—The king’s
observations thereon . . Loe . . . . 139

CHAPTER VII.

The Author’s love of his country—He makes a proposal of much
advantage to the king, which is rejected—The king’s great
ignorance in politics—The learning of that country very im-
perfect and confined—The laws and military affairs and
parties in the state . . . . . . . . 150

CHAPTER VIII.

The king and queen make a progress to the frontiers—The Author
attends them—The manner in which he leaves the country
very particularly related—IHe returns to England . . . 158

PART IIL.

A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, BALNIBA RBI, LUGGNAGG,
GLUBBDULBDRIB, AND FAPAN.

CHAPTER I.

The Author sets out on his third voyage—Is taken by pirates—
The malice of a Dutchman—His arrival at an island—He is
received into Laputa . . . ° . . . . 175
CONTENTS. ix

CHAPTER II.

PAGE
The humours and dispositions of the Laputians described—An
account of their learning—Of the king and his court—The
Author’s reception there—The inhabitants subject to fear

and disquietudes—An account of the women . . . 183
t

CHAPTER III.

A phenomenon solved by moderh philosophy and astronomy—The
Laputians’ great improvements in the latter—The king’s
method of suppressing insurrections —, : . . . 194

CHAPTER IV.

The Author leaves Laputa, is conveyed to Balnibarbi, arrives at
the metropolis—A description of the metropolis and the
country adjoining—The Author hospitably received by a
great lord—His conversation with that lord . ‘ . . 201

CHAPTER V.

The Author permitted to see the Grand Academy of Lagado—The
academy largely described—The arts wherein the professors
employ theniselves . . . . . . . . 209

CHAPTER VI.

A further account of the academy—-The Author proposes some
improvements, which are honourably received . . 219

CHAPTER VII,

The Author leaves Lagado—Arrives at Maldonada—No ship
ready—He takes a short. voyage to Glubbdubdrib—Ilis
reception by the governor ° . . . . . 227


Xx CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VIII.

PAGE
A further account of Glubbdubdrib—Ancient and modern history
corrected. , . . . . . . . . 233

CHAPTER IX.

The Author returns to Maldonada—Sails to the kingdom of Lugg-
nagg—-The Author confined—He is sent for to court—The
manner of his admittance—The king’s great lenity to his
subjects . ; , , , . 7 ; . 241

CHAPTER X.,

The Luggnaggians commended—A particular description of the
Struldbrugs, with many conversations between the Author
and some eminent persons upon that subject . . . . 246

CHAPTER XI.

The Author leaves Luggnagg, and sails to Japan—From thence he

returns in a Dutch ship to Amsterdam, and from Amsterdam
to England . ; . . . . . . . . 257

PART IV.

A VOYAGE TO THE COUNTRY OF THE
HOUVHNHNMS.
CHAPTER 1.

The Author sets out as captain of a ship—His men conspire
against him—Confine him a long time to his cabin—Set him
CONTENTS. XI

PAGE
on shore inan unknown land—Ile travels up into the country
—The Yahoos, a strange sort of animal, described—The

Author meets two Houyhnhnms . . . . . . 263

CHAPTER IT.

The Author conducted by a Houyhnhnm to his house—The house
described—The Author’s reception—The food of the Houy-
hnhnms—The Author in distress for want of meat—lIs at last
relieved—His manner of feeding in this country. . . 272



CHAPTER III.

The Author studies to learn the language—The Houyhnhnm, his
master, assists in teaching him—The language described—
Several Houyhnhnms of quality come out of curiosity te see
the Author—-He gives his master a short account of his voyage 280

CHAPTER IV.

The Houyhnhnms’ notion of truth and falsehood—The Author’s
discourse disapproved by his master—The Author gives a
more particular account of himself, and the accidents of his
voyage . . , ; . . . . . 287

CHAPTER V.,

The Author, at his master’s command, informs him of the state of
Iengland—The causes of war among the princes of Europe—
The Author begins to explain the English Constitution. » 294

CHAPTER VI.

A continuation of the state of England under Queen Anne=The
character of a first minister of state in European courts . » 302
Xl CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VII.

PAGE
The Author’s great love of his native country—His master’s obser-
vations upon the constitution and administration of England,
as described by the Author, with parallel cases and compari-
sons—His master’s observations upon human nature. . 31L

CHAPTER VIII.

The Author relates several particulars of the Yahoos—The great
virtues. of the Houyhnhnms—The education and exercise of
their youth—Their general assembly . . . . 320

CHAPTER IX.

A grand debate at the general assembly of the Houyhnhnms, and
how it was determined—The learning of the Houyhnhnms—
Their buildings—Their manner of burials—The defectiveness
of their Janguage . . . . , . . . . 328

CHAPTER X.

The Author’s economy and happy life among the Houyhnhnms—
His great improvement in virtue, by conversing with them—
Their conversations—he Author has notice given him by his
master that he must depart from the country—He falls into a
swoon for grief, but submits—He contrives and finishes a
canoe by the help of a fellow-servant, and puts to sea at
aventure . . . . . . . : » 335

CHAPTER XI.

The Author’s dangerous voyage—He arrives at New Holland,
hoping to settle there—Is wounded with an arrow by one of
the natives—Is seized and carried by force into a Portuguese
ship—The great civilities of the captain—The Author arrives

at England . . : . ; . . , » 345
CONTENTS. xl

CHAPTER NII.

PAGE
The Author’s veracity—His design in publishing this work—His
censure of those travellers who swerve from the truth—The
Author clears himself from any sinister ends in writing—An
objection answered—The method of planting colonies —His
native country commended—The right of the crown to those
countries described by the Author is justified—The difficulty
of conquering them—The Author takes his last leave of the
reader ; proposes his manner of living for the future; gives
good advice, and concludes . . , . » 355
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



——-0
PORTRAIT OF SWIFT . , . ; . Lrontispirece
GULLIVER RETURNING WITH THE FLEET . , page 46
GULLIVER CARRIED BY GLUMDALCLITCH . . . 1O5
THE ACADEMY OF LAPUTA . , , ; . 29
THE VISIONS OF GLUBBDUBDRIB . , , . 231

MEETS THE HOUYHNHNMS . . . . . . 268
PREFATORY MEMOIR

TO

JONATHAN SWIFT.





O

Tue Flistory of Swift belongs rather to the list of British
Statesmen and patriots than to that of mere Novelists,
as, indeed, the work which places him in the latter
class, belongs to the class of political romances, rather
than to that which comprehends the liehter effusions of
fiction. Perhaps it ought not strictly to have claimed
a place in the present collection ; but it possesses such
charms, considered merely as a work of imagination,
and it is so often read without any further view, that the
Publishers conceived the compilation would have been
unperfect, if Gulliver’s Travels had been excluded.

It has been so Jately the task of the present Editor,
to offer to the public a detailed history of Swift’s life,
with some observations on his writings, that he may be
pardoned for here repeating a very few events and data
from the former, aud extracting from the latter the
short commentary on the Travels of Gulliver, to which
he finds himself unable to add much that is important

Or CUr1OUS.
XV111 PREFATORY MEMOTR

The celebrated Dean of Saint Patrick’s was born in
Dublin on 30th November 1667. He was of English
parentage, and, his father dying early and in poverty,
was educated at the expense of Godwin Swift, his uncle.
He passed through Trinity College, Dublin, without
being able to attain the usual honours, owing certainly
rather to carelessness and impatience of discipline, than
to any other insufficiency, since he possessed, during his
residence there, the knowledge requisite to plan, and in
part execute, his celebrated Tale of a Tub.

From college Swift passed to the patronage of Sir
William Temple, with whom he resided, with a brief
interval, from 1688 to the death of the latter in 1698-9,
gradually cultivating and unfolding during the interval
the powers which he possessed. He went with Lord
Berkley, one of the Lords Justices of Ireland, to that
country, in the capacity of his chaplain, and received
from him the livings of Agher, Laracor, and Rath-
beggan, which, with other small church preferments,
made up a moderate income, on which he lived with
the strictest economy. His retreat was shared by the
unfortunate Stella, or Mrs. Johnson, a young lady
with whom he had become acquainted in Sir William
Temple’s family, to whom he became passionately
attached, and with whom he lived in the strictest in-
timacy. But, without seeking her in marriage, he
regulated their intercourse with so much caution, that
it was impossible to annex to it any suspicion of im-
propriety. Swift’s life, during this period, was varied
by several visits to England, where he had now formed
an intimacy with several noblemen, chiefly of the Whig
ZO SWIFT. XIX

party, and with the celebrated Addison, Steele, Henlev,
and others. The future satirist became distinguished
by some political writings, but more particularly by the
Tale of a Tub, one of the most ingenious, as well as
one of the boldest and most singular books, which had
vet appeared in religious controversy. Although the
authors name was carefully concealed, the public
opinion attached the authorship of this work to Swift;
and, as religious opinions were treated in the Tale with
unbecoming levity (to say the least), he found it a
frequently recurring and insurmountable bar to his
attaining the highest rank of ecclesiastical preferment.
Swift appears to have been dissatisfied with his Whig
fricnds for not exerting themselves more actively in
his behalt; he thought also that their party meditated
harm to the Church of England; and, although he had
hitherto called himself a Whig in politics respecting the
State, yet he was equally zealous as a High Churchman
when the rights of his profession were called in ques-
tion. From a mixture of these motives he was led to
abandon the cause of the Whigs, upon the memorable
change of administration in 1710-11, which called to
the helm Harley and St. John, instead of Godolphin
and Somers.

Our author adopted the cause of the Tory ministers
with the whole energv of his character, and with very
Inadequate assistance fought their battle for the four
last vears of Queen Anne’s reign. There is little doubt
that he enjoved, in the greatest degree, the counte-
nance and intimacy both of Oxford and Bolingbroke ;
aud, upon the dissolution of their connection, Swift
XX PREFATORY MEALOIR

was long the only mutual friend who endeavoured to
reconcile them. When a total breach became un-
avoidable, he manfully and generously adhered to
Oxford, who, as the weaker party, was forced to yield
a momentary triumph to his late associate, speedilv
ended by the Queen’s unexpected death, which involved
both her late ministers in exile or proscription.

Swift, who had his full share of the odium which
the successful Whigs attached to the leaders of the
defeated Tories, retired to Ireland, where he had
obtained the Deanery of Saint Patrick’s, the highest
preferment which the late Ministry had been able to
procure for him.

He was now in a state of adversity, separated from
Pope, Arbuthnot, Prior, and other friends of congenial
talent, whose intimacy he had enjoyed when in Enge-
land; discountenanced by the governors of the country
which he inhabited, and unpopular among the inhabi-
tants; his society limited to a few clergymen, who
pretended to some learning; and his peace of mind
harassed by the passions of Miss Vanhomrigh (the
celebrated Vanessa), who had followed him from
London to Ireland.

With this unhappy lady Swift had lived on the same
dangerous footing of Platonic intimacy, in which he
had indulged with Stella. But the temper of Vanessa
was different; and with whatever degree of regulated
affection Swift, on his own part, may have qualified
their intercourse, the return she made was that of
active and overpowering passion. The catastrophe is
too well known. Obliged to decide upon the claims of
TO SWIFT. XXL

two amiable and attached women, Swift is gencrally
supposed to have married Mrs. Johnson, and Vanessa
is in consequence believed to have died chiefly of a
broken heart. But the union of the Dean and Stella
created no alteration in their intercourse with each
other, which continued as reserved as before; and such
was the mystery observed in the whole circumstances,
that we are rather inclined to say, that the evidence
predominates in favour of a secret marriage, than that
such is actually proved to have taken place. This
much is certain, that Swift, by affecting towards two
beautiful and amiable women a species of intimate
intercourse, totally divested of sexual passion, probably
shortened both their lives, and certainly embittered his
own,

To atone, in some measure, for his domestic misfor-
tunes, an opportunity occurred, of which Swift ably
availed himself, not only again to become a man of
first-rate consequence in the political world, but to
attract to himself a degree of popularity higher than
had ever been attained by any individual in Ireland.
That fine kingdom it had hitherto been the uniform
policy of England to treat as a conquered province.
Ireland was, indeed, permitted to have a representation
of her own; but this was an empty boon, while the
actual power of legislation was assumed by the Parlia-
ment of England, which, guided by an impolitic and
narrow-minded spirit of nationality, passed several Acts,
limiting the sphere and cramping the exertions of
Irish industry, and tending to reduce that kingdom, in

so far as her commerce went, to a state of restriction
c
XX PREFATORY MEMOIR

not. very different from absolute slavery. In 1720,
Swift dared to propose an association for the use of
Irish manufactures, to the exclusion of those of Britain.
This excited the vengeance of the government; but of
all passions, the Dean was least accessible to fear. In
1723 he published the well-known Drapier’s Letters,
in which, while contesting in appearance only the
rights of William Wood, a patentee, to whom the
king had granted the privilege of coining copper
money, designed to circulate in Ireland, the author
impugned generally the arbitrary authority exercised by
England over her sister kingdom, ‘he publication at
once raised Swift to the very summit of popularity,
and from that time till the declension of his faculties,
the Dean of Saint Patrick’s was able, by the weight of
his personal character and influence, always to confront,
and often successfully to control, the whole power of
the Irish government.

It was natural that Swift should, even amid this blaze
of popularity, pine to be restored to England, where he
had left so many friends of kindred talents, and accord-
ingly he seems to have longed inex pressibly tor such a
change. He entertained some hopes of accomplishing
the desired purpose through the influence of Queen
Caroline; but these were frustrated by the opposition
of Sir Robert Walpole, who had no desire to bring
nearer to his own sphere of administration an influence
which he had seen so powerfully exerted against his dele-
gates in Ireland. This disappointment, which occurred
in a visit to England in 1726, doubtless occasioned a
few additional touches to the character of Flimnap, the
LO SWIFT. XXtL

Lord High Treasurer of Lilliput, a personage who
figures to little advantage in the Travels of Gulliver.
This celebrated work appeared upon the Dean’s return
to Ireland, and we propose to add some observations
upon it, when we have finished the present summary of
the Dean’s life.

From 1726 to about 1736 Dean Swift resided in
Ireland, diverting his constitutional melancholy, now
augmented by disappointment and by periodical attacks
of an afflicting disease, by emploving his pen sometimes
on political subjects, but oftener on familiar topics, and
indulging a vein of poetry alwavs remarkable for wit
aud humour, sometimes for elegance of panegyric,
oftener for pungency of satire, and occasionally for
coarseness and indelicacy both of thought and expres-
sion.

In 1736 the mental faculties of this distinguished
author began to give way, with intervals, however, of
partial recollection, until 1740, when the wit, the poet,
and the politician sunk and disappeared, leaving behind
them a miserable specimen of degraded humanity, which
continued to breathe and execute the lower functions of
mortality, without again showing a glimpse of the bright
spirit which had animated it, until death closed the
scene on 18th October 1745.

The celebrated travels of Gulliver were given to the
public under the mystery which usually shadowed

<

Swift’s publications. He had been busied with it pro-
XXIV PREFATORY MEALTOIR

bably ever since the hint for such a satire had been
thrown out in the Club of Martinus Scriblerus, in
which Arbuthnot was to have borne a prominent part.
The author’s friend, Charles Ford, was employed as his
agent to convey the manuscript to Motte, the book-
seller, whose timidity induced him to adopt some re-
trenchments, of which Swift heavily complained.

The book was received with the acclamation of un-
limited popularity. Perhaps no work ever exhibited such
general attractions to all classes. It offered personal
and political satire to the readers in high life, low and
coarse incident to the vulgar, marvels to the romantic,
wit to the young and lively, lessons of morality and
policy to the grave, and maxims of deep and bitter
misanthropy to neglected age and disappointed ambi-
tion. The plan of the satire varies in the different
parts, The voyage to Lilliput refers chiefly to the
court and politics of England, and Sir Robert Walpole
is plainly intimated under the character of the premier
Flimnap, which he afterwards probably remembered, as
he continued uniformly to oppose the Dean’s view of
leaving Ireland. The factions of High-heels and Low-
heels express the factions of Tories and Whigs; the
Small-endians and Big-endians the religious divisions
of Papist and Protestant; and when the heir-apparent
was described as wearing one heel high and one low,
the Prince of Wales, who at that time divided his
favour between the two leading political parties of
England, laughed very heartily at the comparison.
Blefuscu is France, and the ingratitude of the Lillipu-
tian court, which forces Gulliver to take shelter
TO SIVIFT. XXV

there, rather than have his eves put out, is an indirect
reproach upon that of England, and a vindication of
the flight of Ormond and Bolingbroke to Paris. Many
other allusions may be traced by those well acquainted
with the secret history of the reien of George I. The
scandal which Gulliver gave to the empress, by his
mode of extinguishing the flames in the roval palace,
scems to intimate the author’s own disgrace with Qucen
Anne, founded upon the indecorum of the Tale of a
Tub, which was remembered against him as a crime,
while the service which it had rendered the cause of the
Flhieh Church was forgotten. It must also be remarked
that the original institutions of the empire of Lilliput
are highly commended, as also their system of public
education, while it is intimated that all the corruptions
of the court had been introduced during the three last
reigns, This was Swift’s opinion concerning the Ene-
lish constitution.

In the vovage to Brobdinegnag the satire is of a more
general character; nor is it easy to trace any particular
reference to the political events or statesmen of the
period. It merely exhibits human actions and senti-
ments as they might appear in the apprehension of
beings of immense strength, and, at the same time, of
a cold, reflectine

=

monarch of these sons of Anak is designed to embody

and philosophical character. The

Swift’s ideas of a patriotic king, indifferent to what
was curious, and cold to what was beautiful, feeling
only interest in that which was connected with general

utility and the public weal. To such a prince, the
intrigues, scandals, and stratagems of an European
XXV1 PREFATORY MEMOIR

court, are represented as equally odious in their origin,
and contemptible in their progress, A very happv
effect was also produced by turning the telescope, and
painting Gulliver, who had formerly been a giant
among the Lilliputians, as a pigmy amidst this tre-
mendous race. ‘The same ideas are often to be traced,
but, as they are reversed in the part which is performed
by the narrator, they are rather illustrated than re-
peated. Some passages of the court of Brobdingnag
were supposed to be intended as an affront upon the
maids of honour, for whom, Delany informs us, Swift
had very little respect.

The Voyage to Laputa was disliked by Arbuthnot,
who was a man of science, and probably considered it
as a ridicule upon the Royal Society; nor can it be
denied, that there are some allusions to the most. re-
spectable philosophers of the period. An occasional
shaft is even said to have been levelled at Sir Isaac
Newton. The ardent patriot had not forgot the philo-
sopher’s opinion in favour of Wood’s halfpence. Under
the parable of the tailor, who computed Gulliver’s
altitude by a quadrant, and took his measure by a
mathematical diagram, yet brought him his clothes
very ill made and out of shape, by the mistake of a
figure in the calculation, Swift is supposed to have
alluded to an error of Sir Isaac’s printer, who, by
carelessly adding a cipher to the astronomer’s compu-
tation of the distance between the sun and the earth,
had increased it to an incalculable amount. Newton
published, in the Amsterdam Gazette, a correction of
this typographical error, but the circumstance did not
TO SWIFT. XXVil

escape the malicious acumen of the Dean of St.
Patrick’s. It was also believed by the Dean’s friends,
that the office of flapper was suggested by the habitual
absence of mind of the great philosopher. The Dean
told Mr. D. Swift, that Sir Isaac was the worst com-
panion in the world, and that, if you asked him a
question, “he would revolve it in a circle in his brain,
round, and round, and round (here Swift described a
circle on his own forehead), before he could produce an
answer.”

But although Swift may have treated with irrever-
ence the first philosopher of the age, and although it
must be owned that he evinces, in many parts of his
writings, an undue disrespect for mathematics, vet the
satire in Gulliver is rather aimed against the abuse of
philosophical science than at its reality. The projectors
in the academy of Laputa are described as pretenders,
who had acquired a very slight tincture of real mathe-
matical knowledge, and eked out their plans of me-
chanical improvement by dint of whim and fancy.
The age in which Swift lived had exhibited numerous
instances of persons of this description, by whom many
of the numerous ludbbles, as they were emphatically
termed, had been set on foot, to the impoverishment of
credulous individuals, and the general detriment of the
community. In ridiculing this class of projectors,
whose character was divided between self-confidence in
their own chimeras, and a wish to impose upon others,
Swift, who peculiarly hated them, has borrowed several
illustrations, and perhaps the general idea, from Rabelais
(Book yv. cap. xxi), where Pantagruel inspects the
XXVI1 PREFATORY MEMOIR

occupations of the courtiers of Quinte-Essence, Queen.
of Entelechie.

The professors of speculative learning are represented
as engaged in prosecution of what was then termed
Natural and Mathematical Magic, studies not grounded
upon sound principles, or traced out and ascertained by
experiment, but hovering between science and mysti-
cism. Suchare the renowned pursuits of alchemy; the
composition of brazen images that could speak; of
wooden birds that could fly; of powders of sympathy,
and salves, which were applied, not to the wound, but
to the weapon by which it was inflicted; of vials of
essence, which could manure acres of land, and _ all
similar marvels, of which imposters propagated the
fame, and which dupes believed to their cost. The
machine of the worthy professor of Lagado, for im-
proving speculative knowledge, and composing books
on all subjects, without the least assistance from genius
or knowledge, seems to be designed in ridicule of the
art invented by Raimond Lully, and advanced by his
sage commentators; the mechanical process, namely,
by which, according to Cornelius Agrippa (himself no
mean follower of Lully), “everye man might plenti-
fullye dispute of what matter he wolde, and with a
certain artificial and huge heap of nownes and verbes
invente and dispute with ostentation, full of trifling
deceites upon both sides.” A reader might have supposed
himself transported to the grand academy of Lagado
when he read of this “ Brief and great art of invention
and demonstration,” which consisted in adjusting the
subject to be treated of according to a machine com-
ZO SWIFT. XXIX:

posed of divers circles, fixed and movable. The. prin-
cipal circle was fixed, and inscribed with the substances
of all things that may be treated of, arranged under
general heads, as Gop, ANGEL, Eartu, HEAVEN, Man,
AntmMat, &c, Another circle was placed within it,
which was movable, bearing inscribed thereon what
logicians call the accidents, as QuantrTy, QUALITY,
Revation, &c. Other circles again contained the
predicates absolute and relative, &c., and the forms of
the questions; and, by turning the circles, so as to
bring the various attributes to bear upon the question
proposed, there was effected a species of mechanical
logic, which, it cannot be doubted, was in Swift’s mind
when he described the celebrated machine for making
books. Various refinements upon this mechanical mode
of composition and ratiocination were contrived for the
purpose of improving this Art of Arts, as it was termed.
Kircher, the teacher of a hundred arts, modernised and
refitted the machine of Lully. Knittel, the Jesuit, com-
posed, on the same system, his Royal Road to all Sciences
and Arts; Brunus invented the Art of Logic on thesame
mechanical plan; and Kuhlman makes our very hair
bristle, by announcing such a machine as should contain
not only the art of knowledge comprehending a general
svstem of all sciences, but the various arts of acquiring
languages, of commentary, of criticism, of history sacred
and profane, of biography of every kind, not to mention
a library of libraries, comprehending the essence of all
the books that ever were written. When it was eravely
announced by a learned author in tolerable Latinity,
that all this knowledge was to be acquired by the art
XXX PREFATORY MEMOIR

of a mechanical instrument, much resembling a child’s
whirligig, it was time for the satirist to assume the pen.
It was not real science, therefore, which Swift attacked,
but those chimerical and spurious studies with which
the name has been sometimes disgraced. In the depart-
ment of the political projectors, we have some glances
of his Tory feelings; and when we read the melancholy
account of the Struldbrugs, we are affectingly reminded
of the author’s contempt of life, and the miserable state
in which his own was at length prolonged.

_ The Voyage to the Land of the Houyhnhnms is a
composition which an editor of Swift must ever con-
sider with pain. The source of ‘such a diatribe against
human nature could only be that fierce indignation
which he has described in his epitaph as so long gnaw-
ing his heart. Dwelling in a land where he considered
the human race as divided between petty tyrants and
oppressed slaves, and being himself a worshipper of
that freedom and independence which he beheld daily
trampled upon, the unrestrained violence of his feelings
drove him to loathe the very species by whom such:
Iniquity was done and suffered. To this must be added,
his personal health, broken and worn down by the re-
curring attacks of a frightful disorder; his social com-
fort destroyed by the death of one beloved object, and
the daily decay and peril of another; his life decayed
into autumn, and its remainder, after so many flatter-
ing and ambitious prospects, condemned to a country
which he disliked, and banished from that in which he
had formed his hopes and left his friendships :—when
all these considerations are combined, they form some
LO SWIFT. . XXX1

excuse for that general misanthropy, which never pre-
vented a single deed of individual benevolence. Such
apologies are personal to the author, but there are also
excuses for the work itself. The picture of the Yahoos,
uttterly odious and hateful as it is, presents to the
reader a moral use. It was never designed as a repre-
sentation of mankind in the state to which religion,
and even the lights of nature, encourage men to aspire,
but of that to which our species is degraded by the
wilful subservience of mental qualities to the animal
instincts of man, such as he may be found in the de-
graded ranks of everv society, when brutalised by 1enor-
ance and gross vice. In this view, the more coarse and
disgusting the picture, the more impressive is the
moral to be derived from it; since, in proportion as an
individual indulges in sensuality, crueltv, or avarice, he
approaches in resemblance to the detested Yahoo, |

It cannot, however, be denied, that even a moral
purpose will not justifv the nakedness with which
Swift has sketched this horrible outline of mankind
degraded to a bestial state; since a moralist ought to
hold, with the Romans, that crimes of atrocity should
be exposed when punished, but those of flagitious im-
purity concealed. In point of probability, too,—for
there are degrees of probability proper even to the
wildest fiction,—the fourth part of Gulliver is inferior
to the three others. Giants and piemics the reader can
conccive ; for, not to mention there being the ordinary
machinery of romance, we are accustomed to see, in
the inferior orders of creation, a disproportion of size,
between those of the same generic description, which
XXXH1 PREFATORY MEMOIR

may parallel (among some reptile tribes at least) even
the fiction of Gulliver. But the mind rejects, as utterly
impossible, the supposition of a nation of horses, placed
in houses which they could not build, fed with corn
which they could neither sow, reap, nor save, possessing
cows which they could not milk, depositing that milk in
vessels which they could not make, and, in short, per-
forming a hundred purposes of rational and social life,
for which their external structure altogether unfits them,

But under every objection, whether founded in reason
or prejudice, the Travels of Gulliver were received with
the most universal interest, merited indeed by their
novelty, as well as their internal merit. Lucian,
Rabelais, More, Bergerac, Alletz, and many other
authors, had indeed composed works, in which may be
traced such general resemblance as arises from the
imaginary voyage of a supposed traveller to ideal realms.
But every Utopia which had hitherto been devised, was
upon a plan either extravagant from its puerile fictions,
or dull from the speculative legislation of which the
story was made the vehicle. It was reserved for Swift
to enliven the morality of his work with humour; to
relieve its absurdity with satire; and to give the most
improbable events an appearance of reality, derived from
the character and stvle of the narrator. Even Robinson
Crusoe (though detailing events so much more probable)
hardly excels Gulliver in gravity and verisimilitude of
narrative, The character of the imaginary traveller is
exactly that of Dampier, or any other sturdy nautical
wanderer of the period, endowed with courage and
common sense, who sailed through distant seas, without
LO SWIFT. : XXXII

losing a single English prejudice which he had brought
from Portsmouth or Plymouth, and on his return gave
a grave and simple narrative of what he had seen or
heard in foreign countries. The character is strictly
Fnelish, and can be hardly relished by a foreigner.
The reflections and observations of Gulliver are never
more refined or deeper than might be expected from a
plain master of a merchantman, or surgeon in the old
Jewry; and there was such a reality given to his whole
person, that one seaman is said to have sworn he knew
Captain Gulliver very well, but he lived at Wapping,
not at Rotherhithe. It is the contrast between the
natural ease and simplicity of such a style, and the
marvels which the volume contains, that forms one
great charm of this memorable satire on the imperfec-
tions, follies, and vices of mankind. The exact calcu-
lations preserved in the first and second part, have also
the effect of qualifying the extravagance of the fable.
It is said that in natural objects, where proportion is
exactly preserved, the marvellous, whether the object
be gigantic or diminutive, is lessened in the eyes of the
spectator; and it 1s certain, in general, that proportion
forms an essential attribute of truth, and consequently
of verisimilitude, or that which renders a narration pro-
bable. If the reader is disposed to grant the traveller
his postulates as to the existence of the strange people
whom he visits, it would be difficult to detect any in-
consistency in his narrative. On the contrary, it would
seem that Gulliver and they conduct themselves to-
wards each other precisely as must necessarily have
happened, in the respective circumstances which the
XXXIV PREFATORY MEMOIR

author has supposed. In this point of view, perhaps
the highest praise that could have been bestowed on
Gulliver's Travels was the censure of a learned Irish
prelate, who said the book contained some things which
he could not prevail upon himself to believe. It is a
remarkable point of the author’s art, that, in Lilliput
and Brobdingnag, Gulliver seems gradually, from the
influence of the images by which he was surrounded, to
lose his own ideas of comparative size, and to adopt
those of the pigmies and giants by whom he was sur-
rounded. And, without further prolonging these reflec-
tions, I would only request the reader to notice the
infinite art with which human actions are divided be-
tween these two opposite races of ideal beings, so as
to enhance the keenness of the satire. In Lilliput,
political intrigue and ¢tracasserie, the chief employment
of the highest ranks in Europe, are ridiculed by being
transferred to a court of creatures about six inches high.
But m Brobdingnag, female levities, and the lighter
follies of a court, are rendered monstrous and discust-
ing, by being attributed to a race of such tremendous
stature. By these, and a thousand masterly touches of
which we feel the effect, though we cannot trace the
cause without a long analysis, the genius of Swift con-
verted the sketch of an extravagant fairy tale into a
narrative, unequalled for the skill with which it is sus-
tained, and the genuine spirit of satire of which it is
made the vehicle. |

The renown of Gulliver’s Travels soon extended into
other kingdoms. Voltaire, who was at this time in
England, spread their fame among his correspondents
ZO SWIFT. XXXV

in France, and recommended a translation. The Abbé
Desfontaines undertook the task, but with so many
doubts, apprehensions, and apologies, as make his
introduction a curious picture of the mind and opinions
ofa French man of letters. He admits, that he was
conscious of offending against rules; and, while he
modestly craves some mercy for the prodigious fictions
which he had undertaken to clothe in the French lan-
guage, he confesses, that there were passages at which
his pen escaped his hand, from actual horror and as-
tonishment at the daring violations of all critical de-
corum; then he becomes alarmed, lest some of Swift’s
political satire might be applied to the Court of Ver-
sailles, and protests, with much circumlocution, that it
only concerns the Toriz and /Vigts, as he is pleased to
term them, of the factious kingdom of Britain. Lastly,
he assures his readers, that not only has he changed
many of the incidents, to accommodate them to the
Mrench taste, but, moreover, they will not be annoyed
10 his translation, with the nautical details and minute
particulars, so offensive in the original. Notwith-
standing all this affectation of superior taste and refine-
ment, the French translation is very tolerable. It is
truc, the Abbé Desfontaines indemnified himself and
the French public, by writing a Continuation of the
Travels, in a style, as may easily be conceived, very
different from that of the original. Another Continua-
tion (a pretended third volume) was published in
England, the most impudent combination of piracy
and forgery that ever occurred in the literary world;

for, while the book was affirmed to be written by the
‘XXXV1 PREFATORY MEMOIR TO SWIFT.

author of the genuine Gulliver, it was not even the
work of his imitator, being almost entirely stolen from
an obscure French work called, “ L’ Histoire des Sever-
ambes.” Besides these continuations, a work thus
completely successful failed not to be attended by
imitations, parodies, keys, verses, commendatory and
defamatory, and the whole accompaniments of a
popular triumph, not forgetting a slave in the chariot,
whose abuse and ribaldry might remind the exulting
author he was still a man. These have been long since
in oblivion, but when will the day come when Gulliver’s
‘Travels shall be forgotten or unread !
THE PUBLISHER TO THE
READER.



O



THE author of these Travels, Mr. Lemuel Gulliver, is
my ancient and intimate friend; there is likewise some
relation between us on the mother’s side. About three
years ago Mr. Gulliver, growing weary of the concourse
of curious people coming to him at his house in Redriff,
made a small purchase of land, with a convenient
house, near Newark, in Nottinghamshire, his native
country, where he now lives retired, yet in good esteem
among his neighbours.

Although Mr. Gulliver was born in Nottinghamshire,
where his father dwelt, yet I have heard him say his
family came from Oxfordshire; to confirm which I
have observed in the churchyard at Banbury, in that
county, several tombs and monuments of the Gullivers,

Betore he quitted Redriff, he left the custody of the
following papers in my hands, with the liberty to dis-
pose of them as I should think fit. I have carefully
perused them three times. The style is very plain and
simple; and the only fault I find is, that the author,
atter the manner of travellers, is a little too circum-

d
xxxvill = THE PUBLISHER TO THE READER.

stantial. There is an air of truth apparent through the
whole; and, indeed, the author was so distinguished
for his veracity, that it became a sort of proverb among
his neighbours at Redriff, when any one affirmed a thing,
to say, it was as true as if Mr. Gulliver had spoken it.

By the advice of several worthy persons, to whom,
with the author’s permission, I communicated these
papers, | now venture to send them into the world,
hoping they may be, at least for some time, a better
entertainment to our young noblemen, than the common
scribbles of politics and party.

This volume would have been at least twice as large,
if [ had not made bold to strike out innumerable pas-
sages relating to the winds and tides, as well as to the
variations and bearings in the several voyages, together
with the minute descriptions of the management of the
ship in storms, in the style of sailors; likewise the
account of longitudes and latitudes; wherein I have
reason to apprehend that Mr. Gulliver may be a little
dissatisfied; but I was resolved to fit the work as much
as possible to the general capacity of readers. How-
ever, if my own ignorance in sea affairs shall have led
me to commit some mistakes, I alone am answerable
for them: and if any traveller has a curiosity to see
the whole work at large, as it came from the hands of
the author, I will be ready to gratify him.

As for any further particulars relating to the author,
the reader will receive satisfaction from the first pages

of the book.
RicHarpb SYMPSON.
A LETTER

CAPTAIN GULLIVER TO HIS COUSIN
SYMPSON.

WRITTEN IN THE YEAR 1727,



| HoPE you will be ready to own publicly, whenever
you shall be called to it, that, by your great and frequent
urgency, you prevailed on me to publish a very loose
and incorrect account of my travels, with direction to
hire some young gentleman of either university to put
them in order, and correct the style, as my cousin
Dampier did, by my advice, in his book called “A
Voyage Round the World.” But I do not remember
I gave you power to consent that anything should be
omitted, and much less that anything should be in-
serted: therefore, as to the latter, I do here renounce
everything of that kind, particularly a paragraph about
her Majestv Queen Anne, of most pious and glorious
memory, although I did reverence and esteem her more
than any of the human species. But you, or your
interpolator, ought to have considered, that as it was
not my inclination, so was it not decent to praise any
x] GUELLIVER’S LETTER TO SYMPSON.

animal of our composition before my master Houyhn-
hnm: and, besides, the fact was altogether false; for to
my knowledge, being in England during some part of
her majesty’s reign, she did govern by a chief minister ;
nay, even by two successively; the first whereof was
the lord of Godolphin, and the second the lord of
Oxford; so that vou have made me say the thing that
was not. Likewise, in the account of the academy of
projectors, and several passages of my discourse to my
master Houwyhnhnm, you have either omitted some
material circumstances, or minced or changed them
in such a manner, that I could hardly know my own
work, When I formerly hinted to you something of
this in a letter, you were pleased to answer, “That you
were afraid of giving offence: that people in power
were very watchful over the press, and apt not only to
interpret, but to punish everything which looked like
an innuendo ” (as I think you callit). But, pray, how
could that which I spoke so many years ago, and at
about five thousand leagues’ distance, in another reign,
be applied to any of the Yahoos who now are said to
govern the herd; especially at a time when I little
thought or feared the unhappiness of living under them ?
Have not I the most reason to complain, when I see
these very Yahoos carried by Houyhnhnms in a vehicle,
as if these were brutes, and those the rational creatures?
And, indeed, to avoid so monstrous and detestable a
sitht was one principal motive of my retirement
hither.

Thus much I thought proper to tell you in relation
to yourself, and to the trust I reposed in you.
GULLIVER’S LETTER TO SYMPSON. xli

Ido, in the next place, complain of my own great
want of judgment, in being prevailed upon, by the en-
treaties and false reasonings of you and some others, very
much against my own opinion, to suffer my travels to be
published. Pray bring to your mind how often I desired
you to consider, when you insisted on the motive of
public good, that the Yahoos were a species of animals
utterly incapable of amendment by precepts or example ;
and so it has proved; for, instead of seeing a full stop
put to all abuses and corruptions, at least in this little
island, as [had reason to expect,—behold, after about
six months’ warning, I cannot learn that my book has
produced one single effect according to my intentions.
I desired you would let me know, by a letter, when
party and faction were extinguished; judges learned
and upright; pleaders honest and modest, with some
tincture of common sense, and Simithfield blazing with
pyramids of law books; the young nobility’s education
entirely changed; the physicians banished; the female
Yahoos abounding in virtue, honour, truth, and good
sense; courts and levees of great ministers thoroughly
weeded and swept; wit, merit, and learning rewarded ;
all disgracers of the press, in prose and verse, condemned
to eat nothing but their own cotton, and quench their
thirst with their own ink. These, and a thousand
other reformations, I firmly counted upon by your
encouragement ; as, indeed, they were plainly deducible
from the precepts delivered in my book. And it must
be owned, that seven months were a sufficient time to
correct every vice and folly to which Yahoos are subject,
if their natures had been capable of the least disposition
xl GOULLIVER’S LETTER TO SYMPSON.

to virtue or wisdom. Yet, so far have you been from
answering my expectation in any of vour letters, that,
on the contrary, you are loading our carrier every week
with libels, and keys, and reflections, and memoirs, and
second parts; wherein I see myself accused of reflecting
upon great state folks; of degrading human nature (for
so they have still the confidence to style it), and of
abusing the female sex. I find, likewise, that the
writers of those bundles are not agreed among them-
selves; for some of them will not allow me to be the
author of my own travels, and others make me author
of books to which I am wholly a stranger.

I find, likewise, that your printer has been so careless
as to confound the times, and mistake the dates, of my
several voyages and returns; neither assigning the true
year, nor the true month, nor the day of the month:
and I hear the original manuscript is all destroyed since
the publicationof my book; neither have I any copy
left. However, I have sent you some corrections,
which you may insert, if ever there should be a second
edition: and yet I cannot stand to them, but shall
leave that matter to my judicious and candid readers,
to adjust it as they please.

I hear some of our sea Yahoos find fault with my
sea language, as not proper in many parts, nor now in
use. I cannot help it. In my first voyages, while I
was young, I was instructed by the oldest mariners, and
learned to speak as they did. But I have since found
that the sea Yahoos are apt, like the land ones, to
become new-fangled in their words, which the latter
change every year; insomuch, as I remember, upon
GULLIVER S LETTER TO SYMPSON. xlit

each return to my own country, their old dialect was so
altered that I could hardly understand the new. And
I observe, when any Yahoos come from London, out of
curiosity, to visit me at my house, we neither of us are
able to deliver our conceptions in a manner intelligible
to the other.

It the censure of the Yahoos could anyway affect me,
I should have great reason to complain that some of
them are so bold as to think my book of travels a mere
fiction out of mine own brain; and have gone so far as
to drop hints, that the Houyhnhnms and Yahoos have
no more existence than the inhabitants of Utopia.

Indeed I must confess, that as to the people of Lilliput,
Brobdingrag (for so the word should have been spelt,
and not erroneously, Brobdingnag), and Laputa, I have
never yet heard of any Yahoo so presumptuous as to
dispute their being, or the facts I have related concern-
ing them; because the truth immediately strikes every
reader with conviction. And is there less probability
in my account of the Houyhnhnms or Yahoos, when it
is manifest, as to the latter, there are so many thousands,
even in this country, who only differ from their brother
brutes in Houyhnhnm-land, because they use a sort of
jabber, and do not go naked? I wrote for their amend-
ment, and not their approbation. The united praise of
the whole race would be of less consequence to me than
the neighing of these two degenerate Houyhnhnms |
keep in my stable; because from these, degenerate ag
they are, I still improve in some virtues, without anv
mixture of vice.

Do these miserable animals presume to think that |
xliv GULLIVER’S LETTER TO SYMPSON.

am so degenerated as to defend my veracity? Yahoo
as I am, it is well known through all Houyhnhnm-land,
that by the instructions and example of my illustrious
master, I was able, in the compass of two vears (al-
though, I confess, with the utmost difficulty), to remove
that infernal habit of lying, shuffling, deceiving, and
equivocating, so deeply rooted in the very souls of all
my species, especially the Europeans.

I have other complaints to make upon this vexatious
occasion; but I forbear troubling myself or you any
further. I must freely confess that, since my last, some
corruptions of my Yahoo nature have revived in me,
by conversing with a few of your species, and parti-
cularly those of my own family, by an unavoidable
necessity; else I should never have attempted so absurd
a project as that of reforming the Yahoo race in this
kingdom: but I have now done with all such visionary
schemes for ever.

April 2, 1727.
GULLIVERS TRAVELS.

on



Wart HF.
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT.

CHAPTER I.

THE AUTHOR GIVES SOME ACCOUNT OF HIMSELF AND
LAMILY—HIS FIRST INDUCEMENTS TO TRAVEL—HE
IS SHIPWRECKED, AND SWIMS FOR HIS LIFE-——-GETS
SAFE ON SHORE IN THE COUNTRY OF LILLIPUT-—IS
MADE A PRISONER, AND CARRIED UP THE COUNTRY.

My father had a small estate in Nottinghamshire: I
was the third of five sons. He sent me to Emanuel
College in Cambridge, at fourteen years old, where I
resided three years, and applied myself close to my
studies; but the charge of maintaining me, although
I had a very scanty allowance, being too great for a
narrow fortune, I was bound apprentice to Mr. James
Bates, an eminent surgeon in London, with whom I
continued four years; and my father now and then
sending me small sums of money, I laid them out in
learning navigation, and other parts of the mathe-

matics useful to those who intend to travel, as I
A
Le

GULLIVER S TRAVELS.

always believed it would be, some time or other, my
fortune to do, When I left Mr. Bates, I went down
to my father, where, by the assistance of him and my
uncle John, and some other relations, I got forty
pounds, and a promise of thirty pounds a-year, to
maintain me at Leyden. There I studied physic two
years and seven months, knowing it would be useful
in long voyages.

Soon after my return from Leyden, I was recom-
mended by my good master, Mr. Bates, to be surgeon
to the “Swallow,” Captain Abraham Pannell, com-
mander; with whom I continued three years anda
half, making a voyage or two into the Levant, and
some other parts. When I came back, I resolved to
settle in London; to which Mr. Bates my master
encouraged me; and by him I was recommended to
several patients. I took part of a small house in the
Old Jewry; and, being advised to alter my condition,
I married Mrs. Mary Burton, second daughter to Mr.
I whom [ received four hundred pounds for a portion.

But my good master Bates dying in two years
after, and I having few friends, my business began to
fail; for my conscience would not suffer me to imitate
the bad practice of too many among my brethren.
Having therefore consulted with my wife and some
of my acquaintance, I determined to go again to sea.
I was surgeon successively in two ships, and made
several voyages, for six years, to the East and West
Indies, by which I got some addition to my fortune.
My hours of leisure I spent in reading the best
authors, ancient and modern, being always provided
with a good number of books; and when I was
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 3

a-shore, in observing the manners and dispositions
of the people, as well as learning their language ;
wherein I had a great facility, by the strength of my
memory.

Ihe last of these voyages not proving very fortu-
nate, I grew weary of the sea, and intended to stay
at home with my wife and family. I removed from
the Old Jewry to Fetter Lane, and from thence to
Wapping, hoping to get business among the sailors;
but it would not turn to account. After three years’
expectation that things would mend, I accepted an
advantageous offer from Captain William Prichard,
master of the “ Antelope,” who was making a voyage
to the South Sea. We set sail from Bristol, May 4,
1099, and our voyage at first was very prosperous.

It would not be proper, for some reasons, to trouble
the reader with the particulars of our adventures in
those seas; let it suffice to inform him, that, in our
passage from thence to the East Indies, we were
driven by a violent storm to the north-west of Van
Diemen’s Land, By an observation, we found our-
selves in the latitude of 30 degrees 2 minutes south.
Twelve of our crew were dead by immoderate labour
and ill food: the rest were in a very weak condition.
On the 5th of November, which was the beginning
of summer in those parts, the weather being very
hazy, the seamen spied a rock within half a cable’s
length of the ship; but the wind was so strong, that
we were driven directly upon it, and immediately
split. Six of the crew, of whom I was one, having
let down the boat into the sea, made a shift to get
clear of the ship and the rock, We rowed, by my
computation, about three leagues, till we were able
+ GULLIIVER’S TRAVELS.

to work no longer, being already spent with labour
while we were in the ship. We therefore trusted
ourselves to the mercy of the waves; and in about
half an hour the boat was overset by a sudden flurry
from the north. What became of my companions in
the boat, as well as of those who escaped on the rock,
or were left in the vessel, I cannot tell, but conclude
they were all lost. For my own part, I swam as
Fortune directed me, and was pushed forward by
wind and tide. I often let my legs drop, and could
feel no bottom; but when I was almost gone, and
able to struggle no longer, I found myself within my
depth: and by this time the storm was much abated.
The declivity was so small, that I walked near a mile
before I got to the shore, which I conjectured was
about eight o’clock in the evening. I then advanced
forward near half a mile, but could not discover any
sign of houses or inhabitants; at least I was in so
weak a condition that I did not observe them. I was
extremely tired; and with that, and the heat of the
weather, and about half a pint of brandy that I drank
as I left the ship, I found myself much inclined to
sleep. I lay down on the grass, which was very short
and soft, where I slept sounder than ever I remem-
bered to have done in my life, and, as I reckoned,
about nine hours; for when I awaked it was just
daylight. I attempted to rise, but was not able to
stir; for as I happened to lie on my back, I found my
arms and legs were strongly fastened on each side to
the ground, and my hair, which was long and thick,
tied downin the same manner. [I likewise felt several
slender ligatures across my body, from my arm-pits
to my thighs. I could only look upwards: the sun
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 5

began to grow hot, and the light offended my eyes.
I heard a confused noise about me, but, in the pos-
ture I lay, could see nothing except the sky. Ina
little time I felt something alive moving on my left
leg, which, advancing gently forward over my breast,
came almost up to my chin; when, bending my eyes
downward as much as I could, I perceived it to be a
human creature not six inches high, with a bow and
arrow in his hands, and a quiver at his back. In the
meantime, I felt at least forty more of the same kind
(as I conjectured) following the first. I was in the
utmost astonishment, and roared so loud, that they
all ran back in a fright; and some of them, as I was
afterwards told, were hurt with the falls they got by
leaping from my sides upon the ground. However,
they soon returned ; and one of them, who ventured
so far as to get a full sight of my face, lifting up his
hands and eyes by way of admiration, cried out, in a
shrill but distinct voice, Hekinah degul: the others
repeated the same words several times; but I then
knew not what they meant. I lay all this while, as
the reader may believe, in great uneasiness. At
length, struggling to get loose, I had the fortune to
break the strings and wrench out the pegs that
fastened my left arm to the ground; for, by lifting it
up to my face, I discovered the methods they had
taken to bind me, and, at the same time, with a
violent pull, which gave me excessive pain, I a little
loosened the strings that tied down my hair on the
left side, so that I was just able to turn my head
about two inches. But the creatures ran off a second
time, before I could seize them; whereupon there
was a great shout, in a very shrill accent, and, after
6 GULLIVEN’S TRAVELS.

it ceased, I heard one of them cry aloud, Toleo
Phonac,; when, in an instant; I felt above a hundred
arrows discharged on my left hand, which pricked me
like so many needles; and, besides, they shot another
flight into the air, as we do bombs in Europe, whereof
many, I suppose, fell on my body (though I felt them
not), and some on my face, which I immediately
covered with my left hand. When this shower of
arrows was over, I fell a-groaning with grief and
pain; and then, striving again to get loose, they dis-
charged another volley, larger than the first, and
some of them attempted, with spears, to stick me
in the sides; but by good luck I had on mea buff
jerkin, which they could not pierce. I thought it the
most prudent method to lie still; and my design was
to continue so till night, when, my left hand being
already loose, I could easily free myself: and as for
the inhabitants, I had reason to believe I micht be a
match for the greatest army they could bring against
me, if they were all of the same size with him that I
saw. But fortune disposed otherwise of me. When
the people observed I was quiet, they discharged no
more arrows; but, by the noise I heard, I knew their
numbers increased: and about four yards from me,
over-against my right ear, I heard a knocking for
above an hour, like that of people at work; when,
turning my head that way, as well as the pegs and
strings would permit me, I saw a stage erected about
a foot and a half from the ground, capable of holding
four of the inhabitants, with two or three ladders to
mount it : from whence one of them, who seemed to be
a person of quality, made me a long speech, whereof
Y understood not one syllable. But I should have
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 7

mentioned, that, before the principal person began his
oration, he cried out three times, Langro dehul san ;
(these words and the former were afterwards repeated
and explained to me ;) whereupon, immediately, about
fifty of the inhabitants came and cut the strings that
fastened the left side of my head, which gave me the
liberty of turning it to the richt, and of observing the
person and gesture of him who was to speak. He
appeared to be of a middle age, and taller than any
of the other three who attended him; whereof one
was a page, that held up his train, and seemed to be
somewhat longer than my middle finger; the other
two stood one on each side to support him. He
acted every part of an orator; and I could observe
many periods of threatenings, and others of promises,
pity, and kindness. I answered in a few words, but
in the most submissive manner, lifting up my left
nand and both my eyes to the sun, as calling him for
a witness: and being almost famished with hunger,
having not eaten a morsel for some hours before I left
the ship, I found the demands of nature so strong
upon me, that I could not forbear showing my impa-
tience (perhaps against the strict rules of decency)
by putting my finger frequently to my mouth, to
signify that I wanted food. The hurgo (for so they
call a great lord, as J afterwards learnt) understood
me very well. He descended from the stage, and
commanded that several ladders should be applied to
my sides, on which above a hundred of the inhabi-
tants mounted, and walked towards my mouth, laden
with baskets full of meat, which had been provided
and sent thither by the king's orders, upon the first
intelligence he received of me. I observed there was
5 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

the flesh of several animals, but could not distinguish
them by the taste. There were shoulders, legs, and
loins, shaped like those of mutton, and very well
dressed, but smaller than the wings of a lark. I eat
them by two or three at a mouthful, and took three
loaves at a time, about the bigness of musket-bullets.
They supphed me as fast as they could, showing a
thousand marks of wonder and astonishment at my
bulk and appetite. I then made another sign, that
I wanted drink. They found by my eating that a
small quantity would not suffice me; and, being a
most ingenious people, they slung up, with gereat
dexterity, one of their largest hogsheads, then rolled
it towards my hand, and beat out the top. I drank
it off at a draught, which I might well do, for it did
not hold half a pint, and tasted like a small wine of
Burgundy, but much more delicious, They brought
me a second hogshead, which I drank in the same
manner, and made signs for more; but they had
none to give me. When I had performed these
wonders, they shouted for joy, and danced upon my
breast, repeating several times, as they did at first,
flekinah degul. ‘They made mea sign that I should
throw down the two hogsheads, but first warning the
people below to stand out of the way, crying aloud
horach mevolah; and when they saw the vessels in
the air, there was a universal shout of Hekinah
degul. I confess I was often tempted, while they
were passing backwards and forwards on my body,
to seize forty or fifty of the first that came in my
reach, and dash them against the ground. But the re-
membrance of what I had felt, which probably might
not be the worst they could do, and the promise of
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 9

honour I made them—for so I interpreted my sub-
missive behaviour—soon drove out those imaginations.
Besides, I now considered myself as bound by the
laws of hospitality to a people who had treated me
with so much expense and magnificence. However,
in my thoughts I could not sufficiently wonder at the
intrepidity of these diminutive mortals, who durst
venture to mount and walk upon my body, while one
of my hands was at liberty, without trembling at the
very sight of so prodigious a creature as I must appear
tothem, After some time, when they observed that
I made no more demands for meat, there appeared
before me a person of high rank from his imperial
majesty. His excellency, having mounted on the
small of my right leg, advanced forwards up to my
face, with about a dozen of his retinue; and pro-
ducing his credentials, under the signet-royal, which
he applied close to my eyes, spoke about ten minutes
without any signs of anger, but with a kind of deter-
minate resolution; often pointing forwards; which,
as I afterwards found, was towards the capital city,
about half a mile distant, whither it was agreed by
his majesty in council that I must be conveyed. I
answered in few words, but to no purpose, and made
a sign with my hand that was loose, putting it to the
other (but over his excellency’s head, for fear of
hurting him or his train), and then to my own head
and body, to signify that I desired my liberty. It
appeared that he understood me well enough, for he
shook his head by way of disapprobation, and held
his hand in a posture to show that I must be carried
asa prisoner. However, he made other signs, to let
me understand that I should have meat and drink
TO GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

enough, and very good treatment. Whereupon, I
once more thought of attempting to break my bonds:
but again, when I felt the smart of their arrows upon
my face and hands, which were all in blisters, and
many of the darts still sticking in them, and observ-
ing likewise that the number of my enemies increased,
I gave tokens to let them know that they might do
with me as they pleased. Upon this, the Aurgo and
his train withdrew, with much civility and cheerful
countenances, Soon after, I heard a general shout,
with frequent repetitions of the words Pedlom selam ;
and I felt great numbers of people on my left side,
relaxing the cords to such a degree that I was able
to turn upon my right, and to ease myself with
making water; which I very plentifully did, to the
great astonishment of the people; who, conjecturing
by my motion what I was going to do, immediately
opened to the right and left on that side, to avoid
the torrent which fell with much noise and violence
from me. But before this they had daubed my face
and both my hands with a sort of ointment, very
pleasant to the smell, which, in a few minutes, re-
moved all the smart of their arrows. These circum-
stances, added to the refreshment I had received by
their victuals and drink, which were very nourishing,
disposed me to sleep. I slept about eight hours, as
I was afterwards assured; and it was no wonder, for
the physicians, by the emperor’s orders, had mingled
a sleepy potion in the hogsheads of wine.

It seems, that upon the first moment J was dis-
covered sleeping on the ground, after my landing,
the emperor had early notice of it by an express, and
determined in council that I should be tied in the
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. II

manner [ have related (which was done in the nicht,
while I slept), that plenty of meat and drink should
be sent me, and a machine prepared to carry me to
the capital city.

This resolution, perhaps, may appear very bold
and dangerous, and I am confident would not be
imitated by any prince in Europe, on the like occa-
sion. However, in my opinion, it was extremely
prudent, as well as generous: for, supposing these
people had endeavoured to kill me with their spears
and arrows while I was asleep, I should certainly
have awaked with the first sense of smart, which
might so far have roused my rage and strensth, as to
have enabled me to break the strings wherewith I
was tied; after which, as they were not able to make
resistance, so they could expect no mercy.

These people are most excellent mathematicians,
and arrived to a great perfection in mechanics, by
the countenance and encouragement of the emperor,
who is a renowned patron of learning. This prince
has several machines fixed on wheels, for the carriage
of trees and other great weights. He often builds
his largest men of war, whereof some are nine feet
long, in the woods where the timber grows, and has
them carried on these engines, three or four hundred
yards, to the sea. Five hundred carpenters and
engineers were immediately set at work to prepare
the greatest engine they had. It was a frame of
wood raised three inches from the ground, about seven
feet long, and four wide, moving upon twenty-two
wheels, ‘The shout I heard was upon the arrival of
this engine, which, it seems, set out in four hours
after my landing. It was brought parallel to me as
12 GULLIVER’ S TRAVELS.

Tlay. But the principal difficulty was to raise and
place me in this vehicle. Eighty poles, each of one
foot high, were erected for this purpose, and very
strong cords, of the bigness of pack-thread, were fas-
tened by hooks to many bandages, which the work-
men had girt round my neck, my hands, my body,
and my legs. Nine hundred of the strongest men
were employed to draw up these cords, by many
pulleys fastened on the poles; and thus, in less than
three hours, I was raised and slung into the engine,
and there tied fast. All this I was told; for, while
the operation was performing, I lay in a profound
sleep, by the force of that soporiferous medicine in-
fused into my liquor. Fifteen hundred of the empe-
rors largest horses, each about four inches and a half
high, were employed to draw me towards the metro-
polis, which, as I said, was half a mile distant.

About four hours after we began our journey, I
awaked by a very ridiculous accident; for the carriace
being stopped awhile to adjust something that was out
of order, two or three of the young natives had the
curiosity to see how I looked when I was asleep;
they climbed up into the engine, and advancing very
softly to my face, one of them, an officer in the
guards, put the sharp end of his half-pike a good
way up into my left nostril, which tickled my nose
like a straw, and made me sneeze violently ; where-
upon they stole off unperceived, and it was three
weeks before I knew the cause of my waking so
suddenly. We made a long march the remaining
part of the day, and rested at night with five hundred
cuards on each side of me, half with torches, and
half with bows and arrows, ready to shoot me if I
A VOVAGE TO LILLIPUT. 13

should offer to stir, The next morning at sunrise we
continued our march, and arrived within two hundred
yards of the city gates about noon. The emperor,
and all his court, came out to meet us, but his ereat
officers would by no means suffer his majesty to
endanger his person, by mounting on my body.

At the place where the carriage stopped, there
stood an ancient temple, esteemed to be the largest
in the whole kingdom; which, having been polluted
some years before by an unnatural murder, was,
according to the zeal of those people, looked upon
as profane, and therefore had been applied to common
use, and all the ornaments and furniture carried
away. In this edifice it was determined I should
lodge. The great gate fronting to the north was
about four feet high, and almost two feet wide, through
which I could easily creep. On each side of the gate
was a small window, not above six inches from the
ground: into that on the left side, the king’s smith
conveyed fourscore and eleven chains, like those
that hang to a lady’s watch in Europe, and almost
as large, which were locked to my left leg with six-
and-thirty padlocks. Over against this temple, on
the other side of the great highway, at twenty feet
distance, there was a turret at least five feet hich.
Here the emperor ascended, with many principal
lords of his court, to have an opportunity of viewing
me, as I was told, for I could not see them. It was
reckoned that above a hundred thousand inhabitants
came out of the town upon the same errand; and, in
spite of my guards, I believe there could not be fewer
than ten thousand at several times, who mounted my
body by the help of ladders, But a proclamation
T4 GOULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

was soon issued, to forbid it upon pain of death,
When the workmen found it was impossible for me
to break loose, they cut ail the strings that bound
me; whereupon I rose up, with as melancholy a dis-
position as ever [ had in my life. But the noise and
astonishment of the people, at seeing me rise and
walk, are not to be expressed. The chains that held
my left leg were about two yards long, and gave me
not only liberty of walking backwards and forwards
in a semicircle, but, being fixed within four inches
of the gate, allowed me to creep in and lie at my
full length in the temple.

CHAPTER II.

LHE EMPEROR OF LILLIPUT, ATTENDED BY SEVERAL OF
THE NOBILITY, COMES TO SEE THE AUTHOR IN HIS
CONFINEMENT—THE EMPEROR’S PERSON AND HABIT
DESCRIBED—LEARNED MEN APPOINTED TO TEACH
THE AUTHOR THEIR LANGUAGE—HE GAINS FAVOUR BY
HIS MILD DISPOSITION—HIS POCKETS ARE SEARCHED,
AND HIS SWORD AND PISTOLS TAKEN FROM HIM,

WHEN I found myself on my feet, I looked about
me, and must confess I never beheld a more enter-
taining prospect. The country around appeared like
a continued garden, and the enclosed fields, which
were generally forty feet square, resembled so many
beds of flowers. These fields were intermingled with
woods of half a stang (sixteen feet and a half), and
the tallest trees, as I could judge, appeared to be
seven feet high. I viewed the town on my left hand,
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 15

which looked like the painted scene of a city ina
theatre.

I had been for some hours extremely pressed by
the necessities of nature, which was no wonder, it
being almost two days since I had last disburdened
myself. I was under the greatest difficulties between
urgency and shame. The best expedient I could
think on was to creep into my house, which I accord-
ingly did; and, shutting the gate after me, I went as
far as the leneth of my chain would suffer, and dis-
charged my body of that uneasy load. But this was
the only time I was ever guilty of so uncleanly an
action, for which I cannot but hope the candid reader
will give some allowance, after he has maturely and
impartially considered my case, and the distress I was
in. From this time my constant practice was, as
soon as I rose, to perform that business in open air,
at the full extent of my chain, and due care was
taken every morning before company came that the
offensive matter should be carried off in wheelbarrows
by two servants appointed for that purpose. I would
not have dwelt so long upon a circumstance, that per-
haps at first sight may appear not very momentous,
if I had not thought it necessary to justify my charac-
ter, in point of cleanliness, to the world ; which, I am
told, some of my maligners have been pleased, upon
this and other occasions, to call in question.

When this adventure was at an end I came back
out of my house, having occasion for fresh air. The
emperor was already descending from the tower, and
advancing on horseback towards me, which had like
to have cost him dear, for the beast, though very well
trained, yet wholly unused to such a sight, which
16 GULLIVER’ S TRAVELS,

appeared as if a mountain moved before him, reared
up on his hinder feet; but that prince, who is an
excellent horseman, kept his seat till his attendants
ran in and held the bridle while his majesty had time
to dismount. While he alighted he surveyed me
round with great admiration, but kept beyond the
length of my chain. He ordered his cooks and
butlers, who were already prepared, to give me vic-
tuals and drink, which they pushed forward in a sort
of vehicle upon wheels till I could reach them. I
took these vehicles, and soon emptied them all; twenty
of them were filled with meat, and ten with liquor;
each of the former afforded me two or three good
mouthfuls, and I emptied the liquor of ten vessels,
which was contained in earthen vials, into one vehicle,
drinking it off at a draught, and so I did with the
rest. ‘he empress and young princes of the blood,
of both sexes, attended by many ladies, sat at some
distance in their chairs, but upon the accident that
happened to the emperor’s horse they alighted and
came near his person, which I am now going to de-
scribe. He is taller, by almost the breadth of my
nail, than any of his court, which alone is enough to
strike an awe into the beholders. His features are
strong and masculine, with an Austrian lip and arched
nose; his complexion olive, his countenance erect, his
body and limbs well proportioned, all his motions
eraceful, and his deportment majestic. He was then
past his prime, being twenty-eight years and three-
quarters old, of which he had reigned about seven
in great felicity, and generally victorious. For the
better convenience of beholding him I lay on my
side, so that my face was parallel to his, and he stood
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 17

but three yards off; however, I have had him since
many times in my hand, and therefore cannot be
deceived in the description. His dress was very plain
and simple, and the fashion of it between the Asiatic
and the European; but he had on his head a light
helmet of gold, adorned with jewels, and a plume on
the crest, He held his sword drawn in his hand to
defend himself if I should happen to break loose; it
was almost three inches long, the hilt and scabbard
were gold enriched with diamonds. His voice was
shrill, but very clear and articulate, and I could dis-
tinctly hear it when I stood up. The ladies and
courtiers were all most magnificently clad, so that
the spot they stood upon seemed to resemble a petti-
coat spread on the ground embroidered with figures
of gold and silver. His imperial majesty spoke often
to me, and I returned answers, but neither of us
could understand a syllable. There were several of
his priests and lawyers present (as I conjectured
by their habits), who were commanded to address
themselves to me, and I spoke to them in as many
languages as I had the least smattering of, which
were High and Low Dutch, Latin, French, Spanish,
Italian, and Lingua Franca, but all to no purpose.
After about two hours the court retired, and I was
left with a strong guard to prevent the impertinence
and probably the malice of the rabble, who were very
impatient to crowd about me as near as they durst,
and some of them had the impudence to shoot their
arrows at meas I sat on the ground by the door of
my house, whereof one very narrowly missed my left
eye. But the colonel ordered six of the ringleaders

to be seized, and thought no punishment so proper
B
IS GULLIVENS TRAVELS.

as to deliver them bound into my hands, which some
of the soldiers accordingly did, pushing them forwards
with the butt-ends of their pikes into my reach. I
took them all in my right hand, put five of them into
my coat pocket, and as to the sixth, I made a coun-
tenance as if I would eat him alive. The poor man
squalled terribly, and the colonel and his officers were
in much pain, especially when they saw me take out
my penknife, but I soon put them out of fear, for
looking mildiy, and immediately cutting the strings
he was bound with, I set him gently on the eround,
and away he ran. I treated the rest in the same
manner, taking them one by one out of my pocket,
and I observed both the soldiers and people were
highly delighted at this mark of my clemency, which
was represented very much to my advantage at court.

Towards night I got with some difficulty into my
house, where I lay on the ground, and continued to
do so about a fortnight, during which time the em-
peror gave orders to have a bed prepared for me.
Six hundred beds of the common measure were
brought in carriages, and worked up in my house;
a hundred and fifty of their beds sewn together made
up the breadth and length, and these were four
double, which, however, kept me but very indif-
ferently from the hardness of the floor, that was of
smooth stone. By the same computation they pro-
vided me with sheets, blankets, and coverlets, toler-
able enough for one who had been so long inured to
hardships.

As the news of my arrival spread through the
kingdom, it brought prodigious numbers of rich,
idle, and curious people to see me; so that the
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 19

villages were almost emptied; and creat neglect
of tillage and household affairs must have ensued,
if his imperial majesty had not provided, by several
proclamations and orders of state, against this incon-
veniency. He directed that those who had already
beheld me should return home, and not presume to
come within fifty yards of my house without license
from the court; whereby the secretaries of state sot
considerable fees,

In the meantime the emperor held frequent coun-
cils, to debate what course should be taken with mie ;
and I was afterwards assured by a particular friend, a
person of great quality, who was as muchin the secret
as any, that the court was under many difficulties
concerning me. They apprehended my breaking
loose; that my diet would be very expensive, and
might cause a famine. Sometimes they determined
to starve me, or at least to shoot me in the face and
hands with poisoned arrows, which would soon des-
patch me; but again they considered that the stench
of so large a carcass might produce a plague in the
metropolis, and probably spread through the whole
kingdom. In the midst of these consultations, several
officers of the army went to the door of the great
council-chamber, and two of them being admitted,
gave an account of my behaviour to the six criminals
above-mentioned, which made so favourable an im-
pression in the breast of his majesty and the whole
board in my behalf, that an imperial commission was
issued out, obliging all the villages nine hundred
yards round the city, to deliver in every morning six
beeves, forty sheep, and other victuals for my susten-
ance; together with a proportionable quantity of
20 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS. -

bread, and wine, and other liquors; for the due pay-
ment of which, his majesty gave assignments upon
his treasury :—for this prince lives chiefly upon his
own demesnes; seldom, except upon great occasions,
raising any subsidies upon his subjects, who are
bound to attend him in his wars at their own ex-
pense. An establishment was also made of six
hundred persons to be my domestics, who had board
wages allowed for their maintenance, and tents built
for them, very conveniently on each side of my door.
It was likewise ordered that three hundred tailors
should make me a suit of clothes, after the fashion
of the country; that six of his majesty’s greatest
scholars should be employed to instruct me in their
language; and, lastly, that the emperor’s horses, and
those of the nobility, and troops of guards, should be
frequently exercised in my sight, to accustom them-
selves to me. All these orders were duly put in
execution; and in about three weeks I made a great
progress in learning their language; during which
time the emperor frequently honoured me with his
visits, and was pleased to assist my masters in teach-
ing me. We began already to converse together in
some sort: and the first words I learnt, were to
express my desire that he would please to give me
my liberty ; which I every day repeated on my knees.
His answer, as 1 could apprehend it, was, that this
must be a work of time, not to be thought on without
the advice of his council, and that first I must Zumos
kelinin pesso desmar lon emposo ; that is, swear a peace
with him and his kingdom. However, that I should
be used with all kindness. And he advised me to
acquire, by my patience and discreet behaviour, the
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 21

good opinion of himself and his subjects. He de-
sired I would not take it ill, if he gave orders to
certain proper officers to search me; for probably I
might carry about me several weapons, which must
needs be dangerous things, if they answered the bulk
of so prodigious a person. I said, his majesty should
be satisfied ; for I was ready to strip myself, and turn
up my pockets before him. This I delivered, part in
words and part in signs. He replied, that by the
laws of the kingdom, I must be searched by two of
his officers; that he knew this could not be done
without my consent and assistance: and he had so
good an opinion of my generosity and justice, as to
trust their persons in my hands; that whatever they
took from me, should be returned when I left the
country, or paid for at the rate which I would set
upon them. I took up the two officers in my hands,
put them first into my coat pockets, and then into
every other pocket about me, except my two fobs,
and another secret pocket, which I had no mind
should be searched, wherein I had some little neces-
saries that were of no consequence to any but myself.
In one of my fobs there was a silver watch, and in the
other a small quantity of gold in a purse. These
gentlemen, having pen, ink, and paper about them,
made an exact inventory of everything they saw;
and when they had done, desired I would set them
down, that they might deliver it to the emperor.
This inventory I afterwards translated into English,
and is, word for word, as follows :—

“Tinprimts, In the right coat-pocket of the great
man-mountain (for so I interpret the words guznbus
22 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

ftestrin), after the strictest search, we found only one
great piece of coarse cloth, large enough to be a foot-
cloth for your majesty’s chief room of state. In the
left pocket we saw a huge silver chest, with a cover
of the same metal, which we the searchers were not
able to lift. We desired it should be opened and
one of us stepping into it, found himself up to the
mid-leg in a sort of dust, some part whereof flying
up to our faces, set us both a-sneezing for several
times together. In his right waistcoat -pocket we
found a prodigious bundle of white thin substances,
folded one over another, about, the bigness of three
men, tied with a strong cable, and marked with black
figures, which we humbly conceive to be writings,
every letter almost half as large as the palm of our
hands. In the left there was a sort of engine, from
the back of which were extended twenty long poles,
resembling the palisadoes before your majesty’s
court; wherewith we conjecture the man-mountain
combs his head; for we did not always trouble him
with questions, because we found it a great difficulty
to make him understand us. In the large pocket, on
the right side of his middle cover (so I translated the
word vanfilo, by which they meant my breeches), we
saw a hollow pillar of iron, about the leneth of a
man, fastened to a strong piece of timber larger than
the pillar; and upon one side of the pillar were huge
pieces of iron sticking out, cut into strange figures,
which we know not what to make of. In the left
pocket, another engine of the same kind. In the
smaller pocket, on the right side, were several round
flat pieces of white and red metal, of different bulk;
some of the white, which seemed to be silver, were
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 23

so large and heavy, that my comrade and I could
hardly lift them. In the left pocket were two black
pillars irregularly shaped: we could not, without
difficulty, reach the top of them, as we stood at the
bottom of his pocket. One of them was covered and
seemed all of a piece; but at the upper end of the
other there appeared a white round substance, about
twice the bigness of our heads. Within each of these
was enclosed a prodigious plate of steel; which, by
our orders, we obliged him to show us, because we
apprehended they might be dangerous engines. He
took them out of their cases, and told us that,in hisown
country, his practice was to shave his beard with one
of these, and cut his meat with the other. There
were two pockets which we could not enter; these
he called his fobs; they were two large slits cut into
the top of his middle cover, but squeezed close by
the pressure of his belly. Out of the right fob hung
a great silver chain, with a wonderful kind of engine
at the bottom. We directed him to draw out what-
ever was at the end of that chain, which appeared to
be a globe, half silver, and half of some transparent
metal; for, on the transparent side, we saw certain
strange figures circularly drawn, and thought we
could touch them, till we found our fingers stopped
by that lucid substance. He put this engine to our
ears, which made an incessant noise like that of a
water-mill: and we conjecture it is either some un-
known animal, or the god that he worships; but we
are more inclined to the latter opinion, because he
assured us (if we understood him right, for he ex-
pressed himself very imperfectly), that he seldom did
anything without consulting it. He called it his
24 GULLIVER'’S TRAVELS.

oracle, and said it pointed out the time for every
action of his life. From the left fob he took outa
net, almost large enough for a fisherman, but con-
trived to open and shut lke a purse, and served him
for the same use: we found therein several massy
pieces of yellow metal, which, if they be real gold,
must be of immense value.

“Having thus, in obedience to your majesty’s
commands, diligently searched all his pockets, we
observed a girdle about his waist, made of the hide of
some prodigious animal, from which, on the left side,
hung a sword of the length of five men; and on the
right, a bag or pouch divided into two cells, each cell
capable of holding three of your majesty’s subjects.
In one of these cells were several globes or balls, of a
most ponderous metal, about the bigness of our heads,
and required a strong hand to lift them: the other
cell contained a heap of certain black grains, but of
no great bulk or weight, for we could hold about
fifty of them in the palm of our hands,

“This is an exact inventory of what we found
about the body of the man-mountain, who used us
with great civility, and due respect to your majesty’s
commission, Signed and sealed on the fourth day
of the eighty-ninth moon of your majesty’s auspicious
reign.

“ CLEFRIN FRELOCK, MARSI FRELOCK,”

When this inventory was read over to the emperor,
he directed me, although in very gentle terms, to
deliver up the several particulars. He first called
for my scimitar, which I took out, scabbard and all.
In the meantime he ordered three thousand of his
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 25

choicest troops (who then attended him), to surround
me at a distance, with their bows and arrows just
ready to discharge; but I did not observe it, for mine
eyes were wholly fixed upon his majesty. He then
desired me to draw my scimitar, which, although it
had got some rust by the sea-water, was in most
parts exceeding bright. I did so, and immediately
all the troops give a shout between terror and sur-
prise: for the sun shone clear, and the reflection
dazzled their eyes, as I waved the scimitar to and
froin my hand, His majesty, who is a most magna-
nimous prince, was less daunted than I could expect:
he ordered me to return it into the scabbard, and
cast it on the ground as gently as I could, about six
feet from the end of my chain. The next thing he
demanded was one of the hollow iron pillars: by
which he meant my pocket pistols. I drew it out,
and at his desire, as well as I could, expressed to
him the use of it; and charging it only with powder,
which, by the closeness of my pouch, happened to
escape wetting in the sea (an inconvenience against
which all prudent mariners take special care to pro-
vide), I first cautioned the emperor not to be afraid,
and then I let it off in the air. The astonishment
here was much greater than at the sight of the
scimitar, Hundreds fell down as if they had been
struck dead; and even the emperor, although he
stood his ground, could not recover himself for some
time. I delivered up both my pistols in the same
manner as I had done my scimitar, and then my
pouch of powder and bullets; begging him that the
former might be kept from fire, for it would kindle
with the smallest spark, and blow up his imperial palace
20 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

into the air. I likewise delivered up my watch,
which the emperor was very curious to see, and
commanded two of his tallest yeomen of the guards
to bear it on a pole upon their shoulders, as draymen
in England do a barrel of ale. He was amazed at
the continual noise it made, and the motion of the
minute hand, which he could easily discern; for their
sight is much more acute than ours: he asked the
opinions of his learned men about it, which were
various and remote, as the reader may well imagine
without my repeating; although indeed I could not
very perfectly understand them. I then gave up my
silver and copper money, my purse with nine large
pieces of gold and some smaller ones; my knife and
razor, my comb and silver snuff-box, my handkerchief
and journal-book, My scimitar, pistols, and pouch
were conveyed in carriages to his majesty’s stores;
but the rest of my goods were returned me.

I had, as I observed before, one private pocket,
which escaped their search, wherein there was a pair
of spectacles (which I sometimes use for the weak-
ness of mine eyes),a pocket perspective, and some
other little conveniences; which being of no con-
sequence to the emperor, I did not think myself
bound in honour to discover, and I apprehended they
might be lost or spoiled if I ventured them out of my
possession,
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 27

CHAPTER III.

THE AUTHOR DIVERTS THE EMPEROR, AND HIS NOBILITY
OF BOTH SEXES, IN A VERY UNCOMMON MANNER.
THE DIVERSIONS OF THE COURT OF LILLIPUT DE-
SCRIBED, THE AUTHOR HAS HIS LIBERTY GRANTED
HIM UPON CERTAIN CONDITIONS.

My gentleness and good behaviour had gained so far
on the emperor and his court, and indeed upon the
army and people in general, that I began to conceive
hopes of getting my liberty in a short time. I took
all possible methods to cultivate this favourable dis-
position. The natives came, by degrees, to be less
apprehensive of any danger from me. I would some-
times lie down, and let five or six of them dance on
my hand; and at last the boys and girls would ven-
ture to come and play at hide-and-seek in my hair.
I had now made a good progress in understanding
and speaking the language. The emperor had a
mind one day to entertain me with several of the
country shows, wherein they exceed all nations I
have known, both for dexterity and magnificence. I
was diverted with none so much as that of the rope-
dancers, performed upon a slender white thread,
extended about two feet and ten inches from the
ground. Upon which I shall desire liberty, with the
reader’s patience, to enlarge a little,

This diversion is only practised by those persons
who are candidates for great employments and hich
favour at court. They are trained in this art from
their youth, and are not always of noble birth or
liberal education, When a great office is vacant,
25 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

either by death or disgrace (which often happens),
five or six of those candidates petition the emperor
to entertain his majesty and the court with a dance
on the rope; and whoever jumps the highest without
falling, succeeds in the office. Very often the chief
ministers themselves are commanded to show their
skill, and to convince the emperor that they have not
lost their faculty. Flimnap, the treasurer, is allowed
to cut a caper on the straight rope, at least an inch
higher than any other lord in the whole empire. I
have seen him do the summerset several times to-
gether, upon a trencher fixed on a rope, which is no
thicker than a common packthread in England. My
friend Reldresal, principal secretary for private affairs,
is, in my opinion, if I am not partial, the second after
the treasurer; the rest of the great officers are much
upon a par.

These diversions are often attended with fatal
accidents, whereof great numbers are on record. I
myself have seen two or three candidates break a
limb. But the danger is much greater when the
ministers themselves are commanded to show their
dexterity; for, by contending to excel themselves
and their fellows, they strain so far that there is
hardly one of them who has not received a fall, and
some of them two or three. I was assured that, a
year or two before my arrival, Flimnap would infal-
libly have broke his neck if one of the king’s cushions,
that accidentally lay on the ground, had not weak-
ened the force of his fall.

There is likewise another diversion, which is only
shown before the emperor and the empress, and first
minister, upon particular occasions. The emperor
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 29

lays on the table three fine silken threads of six
inches long; one is blue, the other red, and the third
green, These threads are proposed as prizes for
those persons whom the emperor has a mind to dis-
tinguish by a peculiar mark of his favour. The cere-
mony is performed in his majesty’s great chamber of
state, where the candidates are to undergo a trial of
dexterity, very different from the former, and such as
I have not observed the least resemblance of in any
other country of the new or old world. The emperor
holds a stick in his hands, both ends parallel to the
horizon, while the candidates advancing, one by one,
sometimes leap over the stick, sometimes creep under
it, backward and forward, several times, according as
the stick is advanced or depressed. Sometimes the
emperor holds one end of the stick, and the first
minister the other; sometimes the minister has it
entirely to himself. Whoever performs his part with
most agility, and holds out the longest in leaping or
creeping, is rewarded with the blue-coloured silk;
the red is given to the next, and the green to the
third, which they all wear girt twice round about the
middle; and you see few great persons about the
court who are not adorned with one of these girdles.
The horses of the army, and those of the royal
stables, having been daily led before me, were no
longer shy, but would come up to my very feet with-
out starting. The riders would leap them over my
hand, as I held it on the ground; and one of the
emperor's huntsmen, upon a large courser, took my
foot, shoe and all, which indeed was a prodigious
leap. JI had the good fortune to divert the emperor
one day after a very extraordinary manner. I desired
5° GULLIVER’ S TRAVELS.

he would order several sticks of two feet high, and
the thickness of an ordinary cane, to be brought me;
whereupon his majesty commanded the master of his
woods to give directions accordingly ; and the next
morning six woodmen arrived with as many carriages,
drawn by eight horses to each. I took nine of these
sticks, and fixing them firmly in the ground in a
quadrangular figure, two feet and a half square, I
took four other sticks, and tied them parallel at each
corner, about two feet from the ground; then I fas-
tened my handkerchief to the nine sticks that stood
erect, and extended it on all sides, till it was tight as
the top of a drum; and the four parallel sticks, rising
about five inches higher than the handkerchief, served
as ledges on each side. When I had finished my
work, I desired the emperor to let a troop of the best
horse, twenty-four in number, come and exercise
upon this plain. His majesty approved of the pro-
posal, and I took them up, one by one, in my hands,
ready mounted and armed, with the proper officers to
exercise them. As soon as they got into order they
divided into two parties, performed mock skirmishes,
discharged blunt arrows, drew their swords, fled and
pursued, attacked and retired, and, in short, disco-
vered the best military discipline I ever beheld. The
parallel sticks secured them and their horses from
falling over the stage; and the emperor was so much
delighted, that he ordered this entertainment to be
repeated several days, and once was pleased to be
lifted up and give the word of command; and with
great difficulty persuaded even the empress herself
to let me hold her in her close chair within two yards
of the stage, when she was able to take a full view
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 31

of the whole performance. It was my good fortune
that no ill accident happened in these entertain-
ments; only once a fiery horse, that belonged to one
of the captains, pawing with his hoof, struck a hole
in my handkerchief, and his foot slipping, he over-
threw his rider and himself; but I immediately
relieved them both, and covering the hole with one
hand, I set down the troop with the other, in the
same manner as [ took them up. The horse that
fell was strained in the left shoulder, but the rider got
no hurt; and I repaired my handkerchief as well as I
could: however, I would not trust to the strength of
it any more in such dangerous enterprises.

About two or three days before I was set at liberty,
as I was entertaining the court with this kind of feats,
there arrived an express to inform his majesty that
some of his subjects, riding near the place where I
was first taken up, had seen a great black substance
lying on the ground, very oddly shaped, extending
its edges round, as wide as his majesty’s bed-chamber,
and rising up in the middle as high as a man; that it
was no living creature, as they at first apprehended,
for it lay on the grass without motion, and some of
them had walked round it several times; that, by
mounting upon each other’s shoulders, they had got
to the top, which was flat and even, and stamping
upon it, they found that it was hollow within; that
they humbly conceived it might be something belong-
ing to the man-mountain; and, if his majesty pleased,
they would undertake to bring it with only five
horses. I presently knew what they meant, and was
glad at heart to receive this intelligence. It seems,
upon my first reaching the shore after our shipwreck
3 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

I was in such confusion that, before I came to the
place where I went to sleep, my hat, which I had
fastened with a string to my head while I was rowing,
and had stuck on all the time I was swimming, fell
off after I came to land; the string, as I conjecture,
breaking by some accident which I never observed,
but thought my hat had been lost at sea. I entreated
his imperial majesty to give orders it might be
brought to me as soon as possible, describing to him
the use and the nature of it: and the next day the
waggoners arrived with it, but not in a very good
condition; they had bored two holes in the brim,
within an inch and a half of the edge, and fastened
two hooks in the holes; these hooks were tied by a
long cord to the harness, and thus my hat was
dragged along for above half an English mile; but
the ground in that country being extremely smooth
and level, it received less damage than I expected.
‘l'wo days after this adventure, the emperor, having
ordered that part of his army which quarters in and
about his metropolis to be in readiness, took a fancy
of diverting himself in a very singular manner. He
desired I would stand like a Colossus, with my legs
as far asunder as I conveniently could. He then
commanded his general (who was an old experienced
leader, and a great patron of mine) to draw up the
troops in close order and march them under me; the
foot by twenty-four in a breast, and the horse by six-
teen, with drums beating, colours flying, and pikes
advanced. This body consisted of three thousand
foot and a thousand horse. His majesty gave orders,
upon pain of death, that every soldier in his march
should observe the strictest decency with regard to
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 33

my person; which, however, could not prevent some
of the younger officers from turning up their eyes as
they passed under me: and to confess the truth, my
breeches were at that time in so ill a condition that
they afforded some opportunities for laughter and
adniration.

f had sent so many memorials and petitions for
my liberty, that his majesty at length mentioned the
matter, first in the cabinet, and then in a full council ;
where it was opposed by none except Skyresh Bol-
golam, who was pleased, without any provocation, to
be my mortal enemy. But it was carried against him
by the whole board, and confirmed by the emperor.
That minister was galvet, or admiral of the realm,
very much in his master’s confidence, and a person
well versed in affairs, but of a morose and sour com-
plexion. However, he was at length persuaded to
comply; but prevailed that the articles and condi-
tions upon which I should be set free, and to which
I must swear, should be drawn up by himself. These
articles were brought to me by Skyresh Bolgolam in
person, attended by two under-secretaries and several
persons of distinction. After they were read, I was
demanded to swear to the performance of them:
first in the manner of my own country, and after-
wards in the method prescribed by their laws; which
was, to hold my right foot in my left hand, and to
place the middle finger of my right hand on the
crown of my head, and my thumb on the tip of my
right ear. But because the reader may be curious to
have some idea of the style and manner of expres-
sion peculiar to that people, as weil as to know the

articles upon which I recovered my liberty, I have
C
34 GULLIVER 'S TRAVELS.

made a translation of the whole instrument, word for
word, as near as I was able, which I here offer to
the public,

“ Golbasto Momarem Evlame Gurdilo Shefin Mully
Ully Gue, most mighty Emperor of Lilliput, delight
and terror of the universe, whose dominions extend
five thousand dl/ustrugs (about twelve miles in cir-
cumference) to the extremities of the globe; monarch
of all monarchs, taller than the sons of men; whose
feet press down to the centre, and whose head strikes
against the sun, at whose nod the princes of the earth
shake their knees; pleasant as the spring, comfortable
as the summer, fruitful as autumn, dreadful as winter.
His most sublime majesty proposes to the man-
mountain, lately arrived at our celestial dominions,
the following articles, which, by a solemn oath, he
shall be obliged to perform :—

“rst, The man-mountain shall not depart from our
dominions without our license under our great seal.

“2d. He shall not presume to come into our metro-
polis without our express order; at which time the
inhabitants shall have two hours warning to keep
within doors,

“3d. The said man-mountain shall confine his
walks to our principal high roads, and not offer to
walk, or lie down, in a meadow or field of corn.

“ath, As he walks the said roads, he shall take the
utmost care not to trample upon the bodies of any
of our loving subjects, their horses, or carriages, hor
take any of our subjects into’his hands without their
own consent,
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 35

“Sth. If an express requires extraordinary despatch,
the man-mountain shall be obliged to carry in his
pocket the messenger and horse a six days’ journey,
once in every moon, and return the said messenge
back (if so required) safe to our imperial presence,

“6th. He shall be our ally against our enemies in
the island of Blefuscu, and do his utmost to destroy
their fleet, which is now preparing to invade us,

“7th. That the said man-mountain shall, at his
time of leisure, be aiding and assisting to our work-
men, in helping to raise certain great stones, towards
covering the wall of the principal park, and other our
royal buildings.

“8th, That the said man-mountain shall, in two
moons time, deliver an exact survey of the circum-
ference of our dominions, by a computation of his
own paces round the coast.

“Jastly. That, upon his solemn oath to observe
all the above articles, the said man-mountain shall
have a daily allowance of meat and drink sufficient
for the support of 1724 of our subjects, with free
access to our royal person, and other marks of our
favour. Given at our palace at Belfaborac, the twelfth
day of the ninety-first moon of our reign,”

I swore and subscribed to these articles with great
cheerfulness and content, although some of them were
not so honourable as I could have wished ; which pro-
ceeded wholly from the malice of Skyresh Bolgolam,
the high-admiral; whereupon my chains were im-
mediately unlocked, and I was at full liberty. The
emperor himself, in person, did me the honour to be
by at the whole ceremony. I made my acknowledg-
30 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

ments by prostrating myself at his majesty’s feet:
but he commanded me to rise; and after many
eracious expressions, which, to avoid the censure of
vanity, I shall not repeat, he added, that he hoped I
should prove a useful servant, and well deserve all
the favours he had already conferred upon me, or
nught do for the future.

The reader may please to observe, that, in the last
article of the recovery of my liberty, the emperor
stipulates to allow me a quantity of meat and drink
sufficient for the support of 1724 Lilliputians. Some
time after, asking a friend at court how they came
to fix on that determined number, he told me that
his majesty’s mathematicians, having taken the height
of my body by the help of a quadrant, and finding
it to exceed theirs in the proportion of twelve to one,
they concluded, from the similarity of their bodies,
that mine must contain at least 1724 of theirs, and
consequently would require as much food as was
necessary to support that number of Lilliputians.
By which the reader may conceive an idea of the
ingenuity of that people, as well as the prudent and
exact economy of so great a prince.
A VOYAGE 70 LILLIPUT. 37

CHAPTER IV.

MILDENDO, THE METROPOLIS OF LILLIPUT, DESCRIBED,
TOGETHER WITH THE EMPEROR'S PALACE—A
CONVERSATION BETWEEN THE AUTHOR AND
A PRINCIPAL SECRETARY, CONCERNING THE
AFFAIRS OF THAT EMPIRE— THE AUTHOR'S
OFFERS TO SERVE THE EMPEROR IN HIS WARS.



THE first request I made, after I had obtained my
liberty, was, that I might have license to see Mildendo,
the metropolis; which the emperor easily granted
me, but with a special charge to do no hurt either to
the inhabitants or their houses. The people had
notice, by proclamation, of my design to visit the
town. ‘The wall, which encompassed it, is two feet
anda half high, and at least eleven inches broad, so
that a coach and horses may be driven very safely
round it; and it is flanked with strong towers at ten
feet distance. I stepped over the great western gate,
and passed very gently and sidelong through the
two principal streets, only in my short waistcoat, for
fear of damaging the roofs and eaves of the houses
with the skirts of my coat. I walked with the utmost
circumspection, to avoid treading on any stragglers
who might remain on the streets ; although the orders
were very strict that all people should keep in their
houses, at their own peril. The garret windows
and tops of houses were so crowded with specta-
tors, that I thought in all my travels I had not seen
amore populous place. The city is an exact square,
each side of the wall being five hundred feet long.
38 GULITIVER’S TRAVELS.

The two great streets, which run across and divide
it into four quarters, are five feet wide. The lanes
and alleys which I could not enter, but only viewed
them as I passed, are from twelve to eighteen inches.
The town is capable of holding five hundred thousand
souls: the houses are from three to five stories: the
shops and markets well provided.

The emperor's palace is in the centre of the city,
where the two great streets meet. It is enclosed by
a wall of two feet high, and twenty feet distance
from the buildings, I had his majesty’s permission
to step over this wall; and the space being so wide
between that and the palace, I could easily view it
on every side. The outward court is a square of
forty feet, and includes two other courts: in the
inmost are the royal apartments, which I was very
desirous to see, but found it extremely difficult; for
the great gates from one square into another, were
but eighteen inches high and seven inches wide.
Now the buildings of the outer court were at least
five feet high, and it was impossible for me to stride
over them without infinite damage to the pile, though
the walls were strongly built of hewn stone, and
four inches thick. At the same time, the emperor
had a great desire that I should see the magnificence
of his palace; but this I was not able to do till three
days after, which I spent in cutting down with my
knife some of the largest trees in the royal park,
about a hundred yards distance from the city. Of
these trees I made two stools, each about three feet
high, and strong enough to bear my weight. The
people, having received notice a second time, I went
again through the city to the palace with my two
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 39

stools in my hands. When I came to the side of
the outer court, I stood upon one stool, and took
the other in my hand; this I lifted over the roof,
and gently set it down on the space between the first
and second court, which was eight feet wide. I then
stepped over the building very conveniently from one
stool to the other, and drew up the first after me
with a hooked stick. By this contrivance I got into
the inmost court; and, lying down upon my side, I
applied my face to the windows of the middle stories,
which were left open on purpose, and discovered the
most splendid apartments that can be imagined.
There I saw the empress and the young princes, in
their several lodgings, with their chief attendants
about them, Her imperial majesty was pleased to
smile very graciously upon me, and gave me out of
the window her hand to kiss.

But I shall not anticipate the reader with further
descriptions of this kind, because I reserve them for
a greater work, which is now almost ready for the
press; containing a general description of this empire,
from its first erection, through a long series of
princes, with a particular account of their wars and
politics, laws, learning, and religion: their plants and
animals, their peculiar manners and customs, with
other matters very curious and useful; my chief
design at present being only to relate such events
and transactions as happened to the public or to
myself during a residence of about nine months in
that empire.

One morning, about a fortnight after I had obtained
my liberty, Reldresal, principal secretary (as they
style him) for private affairs, came to my house,
40 GULLIVER’ S TRAVELS.

attended only by one servant. He ordered his coach
to wait at a distance, and desired I would give him
an hour’s audience; which I readily consented to,
on account of his quality and personal merits, as
well as of the many good offices he had done me
during my solicitations at court. I offered to lie
down, that he might the more conveniently reach my
ear; but ne chose rather to let me hold him in my
hand during our conversation. He began with com-
pliments on my liberty; said, he might pretend to
some merit in it; but, however, added, that. if it
had not been for the present situation of things
at court, perhaps I might not have obtained it so
soon, For, said he, as flourishing a condition as
we may appear to be in to foreigners, we labour
under two mighty evils; a violent faction at home,
and the danger of an invasion by a most potent
enemy from abroad. As to the first, you are to
understand, that for above seventy moons past there
have been two struggling parties in this empire,
under the names of Yvamecksan and Slamecksan,
from the high and low heels of their shoes, by which
they distinguish themselves. It is alleged, indeed,
that the high heels are most agreeable to our ancient
constitution ; but, however this be, his majesty has
determined to make use only of low heels in the
administration of the government, and all offices in
the gift of the crown, as you cannot but observe;
and particularly that his majesty’s imperial heels are
lower at least by a drurr, than any of his court
(drurr is a measure about the fourteenth part of an
inch). The animosities between these two parties
run so high, that they will neither eat, nor drink, nor
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 4!

talk with each other, We compute the 7Zramecksan,
or high heels, to exceed us in number; but the
power is wholly on our side. We apprehend his
imperial highness, the heir to the crown, to have
some tendency towards the hich heels; at least we
can plainly discover that one of his heels is higher
than the other, which gives him a hobble in his gait.
Now, in the midst of these intestine disquiets, we
are threatened with an invasion from the island of
Blefuscu, which is the other great empire of the
universe, almost as large and powerful as this of his
majesty. I*or, as to what we have heard you affirm,
that there are other kingdoms and states, in the
world, inhabited by human creatures as large as
vourself, our philosophers are in much doubt, and
would rather conjecture that you dropped from the
moon or one of the stars; because it is certain, that
a hundred mortals of your bulk would in a short time
destroy all the fruits and cattle of his majesty’s
dominions: besides, our histories of six thousand
moons make no mention of any other regions than
the two great empires of Lilliput and Blefuscu ;
which two mighty powers have, as I was going to
tell you, been engaged in a most obstinate war for
six-and-thirty moons past. It began upon the fol-
lowing occasion: it is allowed on all hands, that the
primitive way of breaking eggs, before we eat them,
was upon the larger end; but his present majesty’s
grandtather, while he was a boy, going to eat an egg,
and breaking it according to the ancient practice,
happened to cut one of his fingers; whereupon, the
emperor his father published an edict, commanding
all his subjects, upon great penalties, to break the

>
42 GULIIVER’S TRAVELS,

smaller ends of their eggs. The people so highly
resented this law, that our histories tell us, there have
been six rebellions raised on that account; wherein one
emperor lost his life, and another his crown. These
civil commotions were constantly fomented by the
monarchs of Blefuscu; and when they were quelled,
the exiles always fled for refuge to that empire. It
is computed that eleven thousand persons have at
several times suffered death, rather than submit to
break their eggs at the smaller end. Many hundred
large volumes have been published upon this con-
troversy ; but the books of the Big-endians have
been long forbidden, and the whole party rendered
incapabie by law of holding employments. During
the course of those troubles, the emperors of Blefuscu
did frequently expostulate by theirambassadors, accus-
ing us of making a schism in religion, by offending
against a fundamental doctrine of our great pro-
phet Lustrog, in the fifty-fourth chapter of the
Blundecral (which is their Alcoran). This, however,
is thought to be a mere strain upon the text; for
the words are these: that all true believers break
their eggs at the convenient end. And which is the
convenient end seems, in my humble opinion, to be
left to. every man’s conscience, or at least in the
power of the chief magistrate to determine. Now,
the Big-endian exiles have found so much credit in
the Emperor of Blefuscu’s court, and so much private
assistance and encouragement from their party here
at home, that a bloody war has been carried on
between the two empires for six-and-thirty moons
with various success; during which time we have
lost forty capital ships, and a much greater number
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 43

of smaller vessels, together with thirty thousand of
our best seamen and soldiers; and the damage
received by the enemy is reckoned to be somewhat
creater than ours. However, they have now equipped
a numerous fleet, and are just preparing to make a
descent upon us; and his imperial majesty, placing
great confidence in your valour and strength, has
commanded me to lay this account of his affairs
before you. :

I desired the secretary to present my - humble duty
to the emperor; and to let him know that I thought
it would not become me, who was a foreigner, to inter-
fere with parties; but I was ready, with the hazard
of my life, to defend his person and state against all
invaders,

CHAPTER V.

THE AUTHOR, BY AN EXTRAORDINARY STRATAGEM,
PREVENTS AN INVASION—A HIGH TITLE OF
HONOUR IS CONFERRED UPON HIM—AMBASSA-
DORS ARRIVE FROM THE EMPEROR OF BLEFUSCU,
AND SUE FOR PEACE—THE EMPRESS S APART-
MENT ON FIRE BY ACCIDENT, THE AUTHOR
INSTRUMENTAL IN SAVING THE REST OF THE
PALACE,

THE empire of Blefuscu is an island, situated to
the north-east of Lilliput, from which it is parted
only by a channel of eight hundred yards wide. I
had not yet seen it, and upon this notice of an in-
tended invasion, I avoided appearing on that side
44 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS. .

of the coast, for fear of being discovered by some
of the enemy’s ships, who had received .no intelli-
gence of me; all intercourse between the two empires
having been strictly forbidden during the war, upon
pain of death, and an embargo laid ‘by our emperor
upon all vessels whatsoever. JI communicated to his
majesty a project I had formed, of seizing the enemy’s
whole fleet; which, as our. scouts assured us, lay at
anchor in the harbour, ready to sail with the first
fair'wind. . I consulted the most experienced seamen
upon the depth of the channel, which they had often
plumbed; who told me, that in the middle at high
water it was seventy glumeluffs deep, which is about
six feet of European measure; and the rest of it fifty
glumgluffs at most. I walked towards the north-east
coast, over against Blefuscu, where, lying down behind
a hillock, I took out my small perspective glass, and
viewed the enemy’s fleet at anchor, consisting of about
fifty men-of-war, and a great number of transports:
I then came back to my house, and gave orders (for
which I had a warrant) for a great quantity of the
strongest cable and bars of iron. The cable was
about as thick as packthread, and the bars of the
length and size of a knitting-needle. I trebled the
cable to make it stronger, and for the same reason I
twisted three of the iron bars together, bending the
extremities into a hook. Having thus fixed fifty
hooks to as many cables, I went back to the north-
east coast, and putting off my coat, shoes, and stock-
ings, walked into the sea,in my leathern jerkin, about
half an hour beforé high-water. I waded with what
haste I could, and swam in the middle about thirty
yards, till I felt ground. I arrived at the fleet in less
A VOVAGE TO LILLIPUT. 45

than halfan hour. . The enemy was so frighted when
they saw me, that they leaped out of their ships, and
swam to shore, where. there could not be fewer than
thirty thousand souls: I then. took my tackling, and,
fastening a hook to the hole at the prow of each, I
tied all the cords together at the end. While I was
thus employed, the enemy discharged several thou-
sand arrows, many of which stuck in my hands and
face; and besides the excessive smart, gave me much
disturbance in my work, My greatest apprehension
was for mine eyes, which I should have infallibly lost,
if I had not suddenly thought ofan expedient. Ikept,
among other little necessaries, a pair of spectacles
in a private pocket, which, as I observed before, had
escaped the emperor’s searches, These I took out,
and fastened as strongly as I could upon my. nose,
and thus armed, went on boldly with my work, in
spite of the enemy’s arrows, many .of which struck
against the glasses of my spectacles, but without any
other effect, further than a little to discompose them.
I had now fastened all the hooks, and, taking the
knot in my hand, began to pull; but not a ship would
stir, for they were all too fast held by their anchors,
so that the boldest part of my enterprise remained.
I therefore let go the cord, and, leaving the hooks
fixed to the ships, I resolutely cut with my knife the
cables that fastened the anchors, receiving about two
hundred shots in my face and hands; then I took
up the knotted end of the cables, to which my hooks
were tied, and with great ease drew nity of the
enemy’s largest men-of-war after me.

The Blefuscudians, who had not the least imagina-
tion of what I intended, were at first confounded with
46 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

astonishment. They had seen me cut the cables;
and thought my design was only to let the ships run
adrift, or fall foul on each other; but when they per-
ceived the whole fleet moving in order, and saw me
pulling at the end, they set up such a scream of grief
and despair, as it is almost. impossible to describe or
conceive. When I had got out of danger, I stopped
a while to pick out the arrows that stuck in my hands
and face; and rubbed on some of the same ointment
that was given me at my. first arrival, as I have
formerly mentioned, I then took off my spectacles,
and waiting about an hour, till the tide was a little
fallen, I waded through the middle with my cargo,
and arrived safe at the royal port of Lilliput.

Ihe emperor and his whole court stood on the
shore, expecting the issue of this great adventure.
They saw the ships move forward in « large half-
moon, but could not discern me, who was up to my
breast in water. When I advanced to the middle of
the channel, they were yet more in pain, because I

was under water tomy neck. The emperor concluded
me to be drowned, and that the enemy’s fleet was
approaching in a hostile manner:.but he was soon
eased of his fears; for the channel growing shallower
every step I made, I came in a short time within
hearing, and holding up the end of the cable, by
which the fleet was fastened, I cried in a loud voice,
Long live the most puissant King of Lilliput! This
creat prince received me at my landing with all pos-
sible encomiums, and created me a xardac upon the
spot, which is the highest title of honour among
them.

His majesty desired I would take some other
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A VOVAGE TO LILLIPUT. 47

opportunity of bringing all the rest of his enemy’s
ships into his ports. And so unmeasurable is the
ambition of princes, that he seemed to think of nothing
less than reducing the whole empire of Blefuscu into
a province, and governing it by a viceroy; of destroy-
ing the Big-endian exiles, and compelling that people
to break the smaller end of their eggs, by which he
would remain the sole monarch of the whole world.
But I endeavoured to divert him from this design, by
many arguments drawn from the topics of policy as
well as justice; and I plainly protested that I would
never be an instrument of bringing a free and brave
people into slavery. And, when the matter was
debated in council, the wisest part of the ministry
were of my opinion. |
This open bold declaration of mine was so opposite
to the schemes and politics of his imperial majesty,
that he could never forgive me. He mentioned it in
a very artful manner at council, where I was told that
some of the wisest appeared at least, by their silence,
to be of my opinion; but others, who were my secret
enemies, could not forbear some expressions which,
by a side-wind, reflected on me. And from this time
began an intrigue between his majesty and a junto
of ministers, maliciously bent against me, which broke
out in less than two months, and had like to have
ended in my utter destruction. Of so little weight
are the greatest services to princes when put into the
balance with a refusal to gratify their passions,
About three weeks after this exploit there arrived
a solemn embassy from Blefuscu, with humble offers
of a peace ; which was soon concluded, upon condi-
tions very advantageous to our emperor, wherewith
48 -GULLIVER’S. TRAVELS.--

I shall not trouble the reader. There were six am-
bassadors, with a train of about five humdred persons:
and their entry was very magnificent, suitable to the
erandeur of their master, and the importance ‘of their
business. ‘When their treaty was finished, wherein I
did them several good offices by the credit I nowhad,or
at least appeared to: have, at court, their éxcellencies,
who were privately told how much’ I had. been their
friend, made me a visit in form. They began with
many compliments upon. my valour and generosity,
invited me-to that kingdom in the emperor their mas-
ter’s name, and desired me to show them some proofs.
‘of my prodigious strength, of which they had ‘heard
so-many wonders; wherein I readily obliged them,
but shall not trouble the reader with the particulars.

When I had for some time entertained their excel-
lencies, to their infinite: satisfaction and surprise, I
desired they would do me the honour to present my
most humble respects to the emperor their master,
the renown of whose virtues had-so justly filled the
whole world with admiration, and whose royal. person
I resolved to attend before I returned to: my own
country. Accordingly, the next time I had the
honour to see our emperor, I desired his general
license to wait on the Blefuscudian monarch, which
he was pleased to grant me, as I could perceive, in
a very cold manner; but could not guess the reason,
till had a whisper from a certain person, that Flim-
nap and Bolgolam had represented my intercourse
with those ambassadors as a mark of. disaffection ;
from which I am sure my heart was wholly free,
And this was the first time I- began to conceive some
imperfect idea of courts and ministers, .
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT, 49

_ It is to be observed, that these ambassadors spoke
to me by an interpreter, the languages of both em-
pires differing as much from each other as any two
in Europe, and each nation priding itself upon the
antiquity, beauty, and energy of their own tongues,
with an avowed contempt for that of their neighbour:
yet our emperor, standing upon the advantage he
had got by the seizure of their fleet, obliged them to
deliver their credentials, and make their speech in
the Lilliputian tongue. And it must be confessed,
that, from the great intercourse of trade and com-
merce between both realms from the continual re-
ception of exiles, which is mutual among them, and
from the custom, in each empire, to send their young
nobility and richer gentry to the other, in order to
polish themselves by seeing the world, and under-
standing men and manners, there are few persons of
distinction, or merchants, or seamen, who dwell in
the maritime parts, but what can hold conversation
in both tongues; as I found some weeks after, when
I went to pay my respects to the Emperor of Ble-
fuscu, which, in the midst of great misfortunes,
through the malice of my enemies, proved a very
happy adventure to me, as I shall relate in its proper
place.

The reader may remember, that when I signed
those articles upon which I recovered my liberty,
there were some which I disliked, upon account of
their being too servile; neither could anything but an
extreme necessity have forced me to submit. But
being now a zardac of the highest rank in that
empire, such offices were looked upon as below my:

dignity, and the emperor (to do him justice) never
D
50 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

once mentioned them to me. However, it was not
long before I had an opportunity of doing his majesty,
at least as I then thought, a most signal service. J
was alarmed at midnight with the cries of many hun-
dred people at my door; by which being suddenly
awaked, I was in some kind of terror. I heard the
word burglum repeated incessantly; several of the
emperor's court, making their way throuch the crowd,
entreated me tocome immediately to the palace,
where her imperial majesty’s apartment was on fire,
by the carelessness of a maid of honour, who fell
asleep while she was reading a romance. I got up
in an instant; and orders being given to clear the
way before me, and it being likewise a moonshine
night, [ made a shift to get to the palace without
trampling on any of the people. I found they had
already applied ladders to the walls of the apartment,
and were well provided with buckets, but the water
was at some distance. These buckets were about
the size of a large thimble, and the poor people sup-
plied me with them as fast as they could; but the
flame was so violent, that they did little good. I
might easily have stifled it with my coat, which I
unfortunately left behind me for haste, and came
away only in my leathern jerkin. The case seemed
wholly desperate and deplorable; and this magni-
ficent palace would have infallibly been burnt down
to the ground, if, by a presence of mind unusual to
me, I had not suddenly thought of an expedient. I
had, the evening before, drunk plentifully of a most
delicious wine called glimzgrim (the Blefuscudians
call it féwnzec, but ours is esteemed the better sort),
which is very diurctic. By the luckiest chance in
A VOYAGE LO LILLIPUT. 51

the world, I had not discharged myself of any part
of it. The heat I had contracted by coming very
near the flames, and by labouring to quench them,
made the wine begin to operate by urine; which I
voided in‘such a quantity, and applied so well to the
proper -places, that in three minutes the fire was
wholly extinguished, and the rest of that noble pile,
which had cost so many ages in erecting, preserved
from destruction.

It was now daylight, and I returned to my house
without waiting to congratulate with the emperor;
because, although I had done a very eminent piece
of service, yet I could not tell how his majesty might
resent the manner by which I had performed it; for,
by the fundamental laws of the realm, it is capital
in any person, of what quality soever, to make water
within the precincts of the palace. But I was a little
comforted by a message from his majesty, that he
would give orders to the grand justiciary for passing
_my pardon in form; which, however, I could not ob-
tain. And I was privately assured, that the empress,
conceiving the greatest abhorrence of what I had
done, removed to the most distant side of the court,
firmly resolved that those buildings should never be
repaired for her use; and, in the presence of her chief
confidants, could not forbear vowing revenge.
52 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

CHAPTER VI.

OF THE INHABITANTS OF LILLIPUT; THEIR LEARN-
ING, LAWS, AND CUSTOMS ; THE MANNER OF
EDUCATING THEIR CHILDREN—THE AUTHOR'S
WAY OF LIVING IN THAT COUNTRY—HIS VIN-
DICATION OF A GREAT LADY.

«\LTHOUGH I intend to leave the description of this
empire to a particular treatise, yet, in the meantime,
1 am content to gratify the curious reader with some
general ideas. As the common size of the natives is
somewhat under six inches high, so there is an exact
proportion in all other animals, as well as plants and
trees: for instance, the tallest horses and oxen are
between four and five inches in height, the sheep an
inch and half, more or less; their geese about the
bigness of a sparrow, and so the several gradations,
downwards, till you come to the smallest, which, to
my sight, were almost invisible; but nature has
adapted the eyes of the Lilliputians to all objects
proper to their view: they see with great exactness,
but at no great distance. And to show the sharpness
of their sight towards objects that are near, I have
been much pleased with observing a cook pulling a
lark, which was not so large as a common fly: anda
young girl threading an invisible needle with invisible
silk, Their tallest trees are about seven feet high;
J mean some of those in the great royal park, the
tops whereof I could but just reach with my fist
clenched. The other vegetables are in the same pro-
portion ; but this I leave to the reader’s imagination.
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 53

I shall say but little at present of their learning,
which for many ages has flourished in all its branches
among them: but their manner of writing 1s very
peculiar, being neither from the left to the right, like
the Europeans; nor from the right to the left, like
the Arabians; nor from up to down like the Chinese ;
but aslant from one corner of the paper to the other,
like ladies in England.

They bury their dead with their heads directly
downwards, because they hold an opinion, that in
eleven thousand moons they are all to rise again; in
which period the earth (which they conceive to be
flat) will turn upside down, and by this means they
shall at their resurrection be found ready standing
on their feet. The learned among them confess the
absurdity of this doctrine; but the practice still con-
tinues, in compliance to the vulgar. |

There are some laws and customs in this empire
very peculiar; and if they were not so directly con-
trary to those of my own dear country, I should be
tempted to say a little in their justification. It is
only to be wished they were as well executed. The
first I shall mention relates to informers. All crimes
against the state are punished here with the utmost
severity ; but, if the person accused makes his inno-
cence plainly to appear upon his trial, the accuser is
immediately put to an ignominious death: and out
of his goods or lands the innocent person is quad-
ruply recompensed for the loss of his time, for the
danger he underwent, for the hardship of his im-
prisonment, and for all the charges he has been at in
making his defence. Or, if that fund be deficient, it
is largely supplied by the crown. The emperor also
54 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

confers on him some public mark of his favour, and
proclamation is made of his innocence through the
whole city. | 7

They look upon fraud asa greater crime than theft,
and therefore seldom fail to punish it with death; for
they allege, that care and vigilance, with a very
common understanding, may preserve a man’s goods
from thieves, but honesty has no fence against supe-
rior cunning; and, since it is necessary that there
should be-a perpetual intercourse of buying and sell-
ing, and dealing upon credit, where fraud is permitted
and connived at, or has no law to punish it, the
honest dealer is always undone, and the knave gets
the advantage. I remember, when I was once inter-
ceding with the king for a criminal who had wronged
his master of a great sum of money, which he had
received by order, and ran away with; and happen-
ing to tell his majesty, by way of extenuation, that
it was only a breach of trust, the emperor thought it
monstrous in me to offer as a defence the greatest
ageravation of the crime; and truly I had little to
say in return, further than the common answer, that
different nations had different customs ; for I confess
I was heartily ashamed.

Although we usually call reward and punishment
the two hinges upon which all government turns, yet
I could never observe this maxim to be put in practice
by any nation, except that of Lilliput. Whoever can
there bring sufficient proof, that he has strictly
observed the laws of his country for seventy-three
moons, has a claim to certain privileges, according to
his quality or condition of life, with a proportionable
sum of money, out of a fund appropriated for that
A. VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 55

use; he likewise acquires the title of szz/pal/, or legal,
which is added to his name, but does not descend to
his posterity. And these people thought it a pro-
digious defect of policy among us, when I told them
that our laws were enforced only by penalties, with-
out any mention of reward, It is upon this account
that the image of Justice, in their courts of judicature;
is formed with six eyes, two before, as many behind,
and on each side one, to signify circumspection; with
a bag of gold open in her right hand, and a sword
sheathed in her left, to show she is more disposed to
reward than to punish,

In choosing persons for all employments; they have
more regard to good morals than to great abilities ;
for, since government is necessary to mankind, they
believe that the common size of human understanding
is fitted to some station or other; and that Providence
never intended to make the management of public
affairs a mystery to be comprehended only by a few
persons of sublime genius, of which there seldom are
three born in an age: but they suppose truth, justice,
temperance, and the like, to be in every man’s power;
the practice of which virtues, assisted by experience
and a good intention, would qualify any man for the
service of his country, except where a course of study
is required. But they thought the want of moral
virtues was so far from being supplied by superior
endowments of the mind, that employments could
never be put into such dangerous hands as those of
persons so qualified; and at least, that the mistakes
committed by ignorance, in a virtuous disposition,
- would never be of such fatal consequence to the public
weal, as the practices of a man whose inclinations led
56 -GULLIVER’S TRAVELS. |

him to be corrupt, and who ‘had great abilities to
manage, to multiply, and defend, his corruptions. _

In like manner, the disbelief of a Divine Providence
renders a man incapable of holding any public station;
for, since kings avow themselves to be the deputies
of Providence, the Lilliputians think nothing can be
more absurd than for a prince to employ such men
as disown the authority under which he.acts.

In relating these and the following laws; I-would.
only be understood to mean the original institutions,
and not the most scandalous corruptions, into which
these people are fallen by the degenerate nature of
man, For, as to that infamous practice of acquiring
great employments by dancing on the ropes, or badges
of favour and distinction, by leaping over sticks and
creeping under them, the reader is to observe, that
they were first introduced by the grandfather of the
emperor now reigning, and grew to the present height
by the gradual increase of party and faction.

Ingratitude is among them a capital crime, as we
read it to have been in some other countries; for
they reason. thus, that whoever makes ill returns to
his benefactor, must needs be a common enemy to
the rest of mankind, from whom he has received no
obligation, and therefore such a man is not fit to live.

Their notions relating to the duties of parents and
children differ extremely from ours. For, since the
conjunction of male and female is founded upon the
great law of nature, in order to propagate and con-
tinue the species, the Lilliputians will needs have it,
that men and women are joined together, like other
animals, by the motives of concupiscence; and that
their tenderness towards their young proceeds from
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 67

the like natural principle: for which reason, they will
never allow that a child is under any obligation to
his father for begetting him, or to his mother for
bringing him into the world; which, considering the
miseries of human life, was neither a benefit in itself,
nor intended so by his parents, whose thoughts, in
their love encounters, were otherwise employed. Upon
these and the like reasonings, their opinion is, that
parents are the last of all others to be trusted with
the education of their own children: and therefore
they have in every town public nurseries, where all
parents, except cottagers and labourers, are obliged
to send their infants of both sexes to be reared and
educated, when they come to the age of twenty
moons, at which time they are supposed to have
some rudiments of docility. These schools are of
several kinds, suited to different qualities, and both
sexes.— They have certain professors, well skilled in
preparing children for such a condition of life as befits
the rank of their parents, and their own capacities,
as well as inclinations. I shall first say something
of the male nurseries, and then of the female.

The nurseries for males of noble or eminent birth,
are provided with grave and learned professors, and
their several deputies. The clothes and food of the
children are plain and simple. They are bred up in
the principles of honour, justice, courage, modesty,
clemency, religion, and love of their country ; they
are always employed in some business, except in the
times of eating and sleeping, which are very short,
and two hours for diversions consisting of bodily
exercises. They are dressed by men till four years
of age, and then are obliged to dress themselves,
58 GULLIVER'S TRAVELS.

although their quality be ever so great; and the
women attendants, who are aged proportionably to
ours at fifty, perform only the most menial offices,
They are never suffered to converse with servants,
but go together in smaller or ereater numbers to
take their diversions, and always in the presence of
a professor, or one of his deputies; whereby they
avoid those early bad impressions of folly and vice,
to which our children are subject. Their parents
are suffered to see them only twice a-year; the visit
is to last but an hour; they’ are allowed to kiss
the child at meeting and parting; but a professor,
who always stands by on those occasions, will not
suffer them to whisper, or use any fondling expres-
sions, or bring any presents of toys, sweetmeats, and
the like. | |

The pension from each family for the education

and entertainment of a child, upon failure of due
payment, is levied by the emperor’s officers.
_ The nurseries for children of ordinary gentlemen,
merchants, traders, and handicrafts, are managed
proportionably after the same manner; only those
designed for trades are put out apprentices at eleven
years old; whereas those of persons of quality con-
tinue in their exercises till fifteen, which answers to
twenty-one with us: but the confinement is gradu-
ally lessened for the last three years.

In the female nurseries, the young girls of quality
are educated much like the males, only they are
dressed by orderly servants of their own sex; but
always in the presence of a professor or deputy,
till they come to dress themselves, which is at five
years old, And if it be found, that these nurses ever
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 59

presume to entertain the gifls with frightful or foolish
stories, or the common follies practised by chamber-
maids among us, they are publicly whipped thrice
about the city, imprisoned for a year, and banished
for life to the most desolate part of the country.
Thus the young ladies there are as much ashamed
of being cowards and fools as the men; and despise
all personal ornaments, beyond decency and cleanli-
ness: neither did I perceive any difference in their
education, made by their difference of sex, only that
the exercises of the females were not altogether so
robust; and that some rules were given them relating
to domestic life, and a smaller compass of learning
was enjoined them: for their maxim is, that among
people of quality, a wife should be always a reason-
able and agreeable companion, because she cannot
always be young. When the girls are twelve years
old, which among them is the marriageable age, their
parents or guardians take them home, with great
expressions of gratitude to the professors, and seldom
without tears of the young lady and her companions,

In the nurseries of females of the meaner sort, the
children are instructed in all kinds of works proper
for their sex, and their several degrees: those in-
tendea for apprentices are dismissed at seven years
old, the rest are kept to eleven.

The meaner families, who have children at these
nurseries, are obliged, besides their annual pension,
which is as low as possible, to return to the steward
of the nursery a small monthly share of their get-
tings, to be a portion for the child; and therefore al]
parents are limited in their expenses by thelaw. For
the Lilliputians think nothing can be more unjust,
60 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

than for people, in subservience to their own appetites,
to bring children into the world, and leave the burden
of supporting them on the public. As to persons of
quality, they give security to appropriate a certain
sum for each child, suitable to their condition; and
these funds are always managed with good husbandry,
and the most exact justice.

The cottagers and labourers keep their children at
home, their business being only to till and cultivate
the earth, and therefore their education is of little
consequence to the public: but the old and diseased
among them are supported by hospitals; for begging
is a trade unknown in this empire. |

And here it may perhaps divert the curious reader,
to give some account of my domestics, and my manner
of living in this country, during a residence of nine
months and thirteen days. Having a head mechani-
cally turned, and being likewise forced by necessity,
I had made for myself a table and chair convenient
enough, out of the largest trees in the royal park.
Two hundred sempstresses were employed to make
me shirts and linen for my bed and table, all of the
strongest and coarsest kind they could get; which,
however, they were forced to quilt together in several
folds, for the thickest was some degrees finer than
lawn, Their linen is usually three inches wide, and
three feet make a piece. The sempstresses took my
measure as I lay on the ground, one standing at my
neck, and another at my mid-leg, with a strong cord
extended, that each held by the end, while a third
measured the leneth of the cord with a rule of an
inch long. Then they measured my right thumb,
and desired no more; for, by a mathematical compu-
A VOVAGE TO LILLIPUT. 61

tation, that twice round the thumb is once round the
wrist, and so on to the neck and the waist, and
by the help of my old shirt, which I displayed on
the ground before them for a pattern, they fitted
me exactly. Three hundred. tailors were employed
in the same manner to make me clothes; but
they had another contrivance for taking my
measure. I kneeled down, and they raised a ladder
from the ground to my neck; upon this ladder one
of them mounted, and let fall a plumb-line from my
collar to the floor, which just answered the length of
‘my coat: but my waist and arms I measured myself.
‘When my clothes were finished, which was done in
my house (for the largest of theirs would not have
been able to hold them), they looked like the patch-
work made by the ladies in England, only that mine
were all of a colour.

I had three hundred cooks to dress my victuals,
in little convenient huts built about my house, where
they and their families lived, and prepared me two
dishes a-piece. I took up twenty waiters in my
hands, and placed them on the table; a hundred
more attended below on the ground, some with
dishes of meat, and some with barrels of wine and
other liquors slung on their shoulders; all which the
‘waiters above drew up, as I wanted, in a very ingeni-
ous manner, by certain cords, as we draw the bucket
up a well in Europe. A dish of their meat was a
cood mouthful, and a barrel of their liquor a reason-
able draught. Their mutton yields to ours, but their
beef is excellent. I have had a sirloin so large, that
I have been forced to make three bites of it: but
this is rare. My servants.were astonished to see me
62 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

eat it, bones and all, as in our country we do the leg
ofalark. Their geese and turkeys I usually eat at
a mouthful, and I confess they far exceed ours. Of
their smaller fowl I could take up twenty or thirty
at the end of my knife.

One day his imperial majesty, being informed of
my way of living, desired that himself and his royal
consort, with the young princes of the blood of both
sexes, might have the happiness, as he was pleased
to call it, of dining with me. They came accordingly,
and I placed them in chairs of state, upon my table,
just over against me, with their guards about them.
Flimnap, the lord high treasurer, attended there like-
wise with his white staff; and I observed he often
looked on me with a sour countenance, which I would
not seem to regard, but ate more than usual, in
honour to my dear country, as well as to fill the
court with admiration. I have some private reasons
to believe, that this visit from his majesty gave Flim-
nap an opportunity of doing me ill offices to his
master, That minister had always been my secret
enemy, though he outwardly caressed me more than
was usual to the moroseness of his nature. He
represented to the emperor the low condition of his
treasury; that he was forced to take up money at a
great discount ; that exchequer bills would not circu-
late under nine per cent. below par; that I had cost
his majesty above a million and a half of sprugs
(their greatest gold coin, about the bigness of a
spangle); and, upon the whole, that it would be
advisable in the emperor to take the first fair occasion
of dismissing me.

I am here obliged to vindicate the reputation of
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 63

an excellent lady, who was an innocent sufferer upon
my account. The treasurer took a fancy to be
jealous of his wife, from the malice of some evil
tongues, who informed him that her grace had taken
a violent affection for my person; and the court
scandal ran for some time, that she once came
privately to my lodging.—This I solemnly declare to
be a most infamous falsehood, without any grounds,
further than that her grace was pleased to treat me
with all innocent marks of freedom and friendship.
I own she came often to my house, but always
publicly, nor ever without three more in the coach,
who were usually her sister and young daughter, and
some particular acquaintance: but this was common
to many other ladies of the court. And I still appeal
to my servants round, whether they at any time saw
a coach at my door, without knowing what persons
were in it. On those occasions, when a servant had
given me notice, my custom was to go immediately
to the door; and, after paying my respects, to take
up the coach and two horses very carefully in my
hands (for if there were six horses, the postillion
always unharnessed four), and place them on a
table, where I had fixed a movable rim quite round,
of five inches high, to prevent accidents. And Ihave
often had four coaches and horses at once on my
table, full of company, while I sat in my chair, lean-
ing my face towards them ; and when I was engaged
with one set, the coachmen would gently drive the
others round my table. I have passed many an
afternoon very agreeably in these conversations. But
I defy the treasurer, or his two informers (I will
name them, and let them make the best of it), Clustril
64 GULIIVER’S TRAVELS.

and Drunlo, to prove that any person ever came to
me incognito, except the secretary Reldresal, who was
sent by express command of his imperial majesty, as
I have before related. I should not have dwelt so
long upon this particular, if it had not been a point
wherein the reputation of a great lady is so nearly
concerned, to say nothing of my own; though I then
had the honour to be a xardac, which the treasurer
himself is not; for all the world knows that he is
only a glumglum,a title inferior by one degree, as
that of a marquis is to a duke in England; yet I
allow he preceded me in right of his post. These
false informations, which I afterwards came to the
knowledge of by an accident not proper to mention,
made the treasurer show his lady for some time an
ill countenance, and me a worse; and although he
was at last undeceived and reconciled to her, yet I
lost all credit with him, and found my interest decline
very fast with the emperor himself, who was indeed
too much governed by that favourite.

CHAPTER VII.

THE AUTHOR, BEING INFORMED OF A DESIGN TO
ACCUSE HIM OF HIGH-TREASON, MAKES HIS
ESCAPE TO BLEFUSCU—-HIS RECEPTION THERE.

BEFORE I proceed to give an account of my leaving
this kingdom, it may be proper to inform the reader
of a private intrigue, which had been for two months
forming against me.
A. VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 65

I had been hitherto, all -my life, a stranger to
courts, for which I was unqualified by the meanness
of my condition. I had indeed heard and read
enough of the dispositions of great princes and mini-
sters; but never expected to have found such terrible
effects of them, in so remote a country, governed, as
I thought, by very different maxims from those in
Europe. |

When I was just preparing to pay my attendance
on the Emperor of Blefuscu, a considerable person
at court (to whom I had been very serviceable at a
time when he lay under the highest displeasure of
his imperial majesty) came to my house very privately
at night, in a close chair, and, without sending his
name, desired admittance. The chairmen were dis-
missed ; I put the chair, with his lordship in it, into
my coat-pocket; and, giving orders to a trusty ser-
vant to say I was indisposed and gone to sleep, I
fastened the door of my house, placed the chair on
the table, according to my usual custom, and sat
down by it. After the common salutations were
over, observing his lordship’s countenance full of
concern, and inquiring into the reason, he desired I
would hear him with patience, in a matter that
highly concerned my honour and my life. His
speech was to the following effect, for I took notes
of it as soon as he left me:—

“You are to know,” said he, “that several com-
mittees of council have been lately called, in the
most private manner, on your account ; and it is but
two days since his majesty came to a full resolution.

“You are very sensible that Skyresh Bolgolam
(galbet, or high admiral) has been your mortal enemy

E
66 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

almost since your arrival. His original reasons I
know not; but his hatred is increased since your
great success against Blefuscu, by which his glory
as admiral is much obscured. This lord, in conjunc-
tion with Flimnap the high treasurer, whose enmity
against you is notorious on account of his lady,
Limtoc the general, Lalcon the chamberlain, and
Balmuff the grand justiciary, have prepared articles
of impeachment against you, for treason and other
capital crimes,” |

This preface made me so impatient, being conscious
of my own merits and innocence, that I was going to
interrupt him, when he entreated me to be silent,
and thus proceeded :—

“Out of gratitude for the favours you have done
me, I procured information of the whole proceedings,
and a copy of the articles; wherein I ventured my
head for your service,

“ Articles of Impeachment against Quinbus Flestrin,
the Man-Mountain, 7

“ Article 1.—Whereas, by a statute made in the
reign of his imperial majesty Calin Deffar Plune, it
is enacted, that whoever shall make water within the
precincts of the royal palace, shall be liable to the
pains and penalties of high treason ; notwithstanding,
the said Quinbus Flestrin, in open breach of the said
Jaw, under colour of extinguishing the fire kindled
in the apartment of his majesty’s most dear imperial
consort, did maliciously, traitorously, and devilishly,
by discharge of his urine, put out the said fire kindled
in the said apartment, lying and being within the
A VOYAGE 70 LILLIPUT. 67

precincts of the said royal palace, against the statute
in that case provided, &c., against the duty, &c.

“ Article 2.—That the said Quinbus Flestrin, having
brought the imperial fleet of Blefuscu into the royal
port, and being afterwards commanded by his imperial
majesty to seize all the other ships of the said empire
of Blefuscu, and reduce that empire to a province,
to be governed by a viceroy from hence, and to
destroy and put to death, not only all the Big-endian
exiles, but likewise all the people of that empire who
would not immediately forsake the Big-endian
heresy; he, the said Flestrin, like a false traitor
against his most auspicious, serene, imperial majesty,
did petition to be excused from the said service, upon
pretence of unwillingness to force the consciences, or
destroy the liberties and lives, of an innocent people.

“ Article 3.—That, whereas certain ambassadors
arrived from the court of Blefuscu, to sue for peace
in his majesty’s court; he, the said Flestrin, did, like
a false traitor, aid, abet, comfort, and divert the said
ambassadors, although he knew them to be servants
to a prince who was lately an open enemy to his
imperial majesty, and in an open war against his said
majesty.

“ Article 4.—That the said Quinbus Flestrin, con-
trary to the duty of a faithful subject, is now prepar-
ing to make a voyage to the court and empire of
Blefuscu, for which he has received only verbal license
from his imperial majesty; and, under colour of the
said license, does falsely and traitorously intend to
take the said voyage, and thereby to aid, comfort, and
abet the Emperor of Blefuscu, so lately an enemy,
and in open war with his imperial majesty aforesaid.
6S GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

“There are some other articles; but these are the
most important, of which I have read you an abstract.

“In the several debates upon this impeachment,
it must be confessed that his majesty gave many
marks of his great lenity; often urging the services
you had done him, and endeavouring to extenuate
your crimes. The treasurer and admiral insisted
that you should be put to the most painful and
ignominious death, by setting fire to your house at
night; and the general was to attend with twenty
thousand men, armed with poisoned arrows, to shoot
you on the face and hands. Some of your servants
were to have private orders to strew a poisonous
juice on your shirts and sheets, which would soon
make you tear your own flesh, and die in the utmost
torture. The general came into the same opinion ;
so that for a long time there was a majority against
you; but his majesty resolving, if possible, to spare
your life, at last brought off the chamberlain.
_ “ Upon this incident, Reldresal, principal secretary
for private affairs, who always approved himself
your true friend, was commanded by the emperor to
deliver his opinion, which he accordingly did; and
therein justified the good thoughts you have of him.
He allowed your crimes to be great, but that still
there was room for mercy, the most commendable
virtue in a prince, and for which his majesty was so
justly celebrated. He said, the friendship between
you and him was so well known to the world, that
perhaps the most honourable board might think him
partial; however, in obedience to the command he
had received, he would freely offer his sentiments,
That if his majesty, in consideration of your services,
A VOYAGE T0 LILLIPUT. 69

and pursuant to his own merciful disposition, would
please to spare your life, and only give orders to put
out both your eyes, he humbly conceived that, by
this expedient, justice might in some measure be
satisfied, and all the world would applaud the lenity
of the emperor, as well as the fair and generous pro-
ceedings of those who have the honour to be his
counsellors. That the loss of your eyes would be no
impediment to your bodily strength, by which you
might still be useful to his majesty; that blindness
is an addition to courage, by concealing dangers from
us; that the fear you had for your eyes was the
greatest difficulty in bringing over the enemy’s fleet ;
and it would be sufficient for you to see by the eyes
of the ministers, since the greatest princes do no
more. .

“This proposal was received with the utmost
disapprobation by the whole board. Bolgolam, the —
admiral, could not preserve his temper; but, rising up
in a fury, said, he wondered how the secretary durst
presume to give his opinion for preserving the life of
a traitor; that the services you had performed were,
by all true reasons of state, the great aggravation of
your crimes ; that you, who was able to extinguish
tne fire by discharge of urine in her majesty’s apart-
ment (which he mentioned with horror), might, at
another time, raise an inundaticn by the same means
to drown the whole palace; and the same strength,
which enabled you to bring over the enemy’s fleet,
might serve, upon the first discontent, to Carry it
back ; that he had good reasons to think you were
a Big-endian in your heart; and, as treason begins
in the heart, before it appears in overt acts, so he
7O GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

accused you as a traitor on that account, and there-
fore insisted you should be put to death.

“ The treasurer was of the same opinion, He showed
to what straits his majesty’s revenue was reduced, by
the charge of maintaining you, which would soon
grow insupportable; that the secretary’s expedient
of putting out your eyes was so far from being a
remedy against this evil, that it would probably
increase it, as is manifest from the common practice
of blinding some kind of fowls, after which they fed
the faster, and grew sooner fat ; ; that his sacred
majesty and the council, who are your judges, were
in their own consciences fully convinced of your guilt,
which was a sufficient argument to condemn you to
death, without the formal proofs required by the
strict letter of the law. |

‘But his imperial majesty, fully determined against
capital punishment, was graciously pleased to say,
that since the council thought the loss of your eyes
too easy a censure, some other may be inflicted here-
after. And your friend the secretary, humbly desir-
ing to be heard again, in answer to what the treasurer
had objected, concerning the great charge his majesty
was at in maintaining you, said, that his excellency,
who had the sole disposal of the emperor's revenue,
might easily provide against that evil, by gradually
lessening your establishment; by which, for want of
sufficient food, you will grow weak and faint, and lose
your appetite, and consume ina few months, Neither
would the stench of your carcass be then so dangerous,
when it should become more than half diminished;
and, immediately upon your death, five or six thou-
sand of his majesty’s subjects might, in two or three
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. TI

days, cut your flesh from your bones, take it away by
cart-loads, and bury it in distant parts, to prevent
infection, leaving the skeleton as a monument of
admiration to posterity.

“Thus, by the great friendship of the secretary,
the whole affair was compromised. It was strictly
enjoined, that the project of starving you by degrees
should be kept a secret; but the sentence of putting
out your eyes was entered on the books; none dis-
senting except Bolgolam, the admiral, who, being a
creature of the empress, was perpetually instigated
by her majesty to insist upon your death, she having
borne perpetual malice against you on account of
that infamous and illegal method you took to ex-
tinguish the fire in her apartment.

“In three days your friend the secretary will be
directed to come to your house, and read before you
the articles of impeachment; and then to signify the
great lenity and favour of his majesty and council,
whereby you are only condemned to the loss of your
eyes, which his majesty does not question you will
cratefully and humbly submit to; and twenty of his
majesty’s surgeons will attend, in order to see the
operation well performed, by discharging very sharp
pointed arrows into the balls of your eyes, as you lie
on the ground.

“T leave to your prudence what measures you will
take; and, to avoid suspicion, I must immediately
return, in as private a manner as I came.”

His lordship did so; and I remained alone, under
many doubts and perplexities of mind,

It was a custom introduced by this prince and his
ministry,—very different, as I have been assured,
72 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

from the practice of former times,—that after the
court had decreed any cruel execution, either to
gratify the monarch’s resentment, or the malice of a
favourite, the emperor always made a speech to his
whole council, expressing his great lenity and tender-
ness, as qualities known and confessed by all the
world. This speech was immediately published
throughout the kingdom; nor did anything terrify
the people so much, as those encomiums on his
majestys mercy ; because it was observed, that the
more these praises were enlarged and insisted on,
the more inhuman was the punishment, and the
sufferer more innocent. Yet, as to myself, I must
confess, having never been designed for a courttier,
either by my birth or education, I was so ill a judge
of things, that I could not discover the lenity and
favour of this sentence, but conceived it (perhaps
erroneously) rather to be rigorous than gentle. I
sometimes thought of standing my trial; for, although —
I could not deny the facts alleged in the several
articles, yet I hoped they would admit of some
extenuation. But, having in my life perused many
state trials, which I ever observed to terminate as
the judges thought fit to direct, I durst not rely on
so dangerous a decision, in so critical a juncture, and
against such powerful enemies. Once I was strongly
bent upon resistance; for while I had liberty, the
whole strength of that empire could hardly subdue
me, and I might easily with stones pelt the metro-
polis to pieces ; but I soon rejected that project with
horror, by remembering the oath I had made to the
emperor, the favours I received from him, and the
hich title of zardac he conferred upon me. Neither
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 73

had I so soon learned the gratitude of courtiers, to
persuade myself that his majesty’s present severities
acquitted me of all past obligations.

At last, I fixed upon a resolution, for which it is
probable I may incur some censure, and not unjustly;
for I confess I owe the preserving of mine eyes, and
consequently my liberty, to my own great rashness
and want of experience; because, if I had then known
the nature of princes and ministers, which I have
since observed in many other courts, and their
methods of treating criminals less obnoxious than
myself, I should, with great alacrity and readiness,
have submitted to so easy a punishment. But, hurried
on by the precipitancy of youth, and having his im-
perial majesty’s license to pay my attendance upon
the Emperor of Blefuscu, I took this opportunity,
before the three days were elapsed, to send a letter
to my friend the secretary, signifying my resolution
of setting out that morning for Blefuscu, pursuant to
the leave I had got; and, without waiting for an
answer, I went to that side of the island where
our fleet lay. I seized a large man-of-war, tied a
cable to the prow, and, lifting up the anchors, I
stripped myself, put my clothes (together with my
coverlet, which I carried under my arm) into the
vessel, and, drawing it after me, between wading and
swimming, arrived at the royal port of Blefuscu,
where the people had long expected me: they lent
me two guides to direct me to the capital city, which
is of the same name, I held them in my hands, till
I came within two hundred yards of the gate, and
desired them to signify my arrival to one of the
secretaries, and let him know I there waited his
74 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

majesty’s command. I had an answer in about an
hour, that his majesty, attended by the royal family,
and great officers of the court, was coming out to
receive me. I advanced a hundred yards. The
emperor and his train alighted from their horses; the
empress and ladies from their coaches; and I did
not perceive they were in any fright or concern. I
lay on the ground to kiss his majesty’s and the
empress’s hands. I told his majesty that I was come,
according to my promise, and with the license of the
emperor my master, to have the honour of seeing so
mighty a monarch, and to offer him any service in
my power, consistent with my duty to my own
prince ; not mentioning a word of my disgrace,
because I had hitherto no regular information of it,
and might suppose myself wholly ignorant of any
such design; neither could I reasonably conceive
that the emperor would discover the secret, while
I was out of his power; wherein, however, it soon
appeared I was deceived.

I shall not trouble the reader with the particular
account of my reception at this court, which was
suitable to the generosity of so great a prince; nor
of the difficulties I was in for want of a house and
bed, being forced to lie on the ground, wrapped up
in my coverlet.
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 75

CHAPTER VIII.

THE AUTHOR, BY A LUCKY ACCIDENT, FINDS MEANS TO
LEAVE BLEFUSCU ; AND, AFTER SOME DIFFICUL-
TIES, RETURNS SAFE TO HIS NATIVE COUNTRY.

THREE days after my arrival, walking out of curiosity
to the north-east coast of the island, I observed,
about have a league off in the sea, somewhat that
looked like a boat overturned, I pulled off my shoes
and stockings, and, wading two or three hundred
yards, I found the object to approach nearer by force
of the tide; and then plainly saw it to be a real
boat, which I supposed might by some tempest have
been driven from a ship: whereupon I returned im-
mediately towards the city, and desired his imperial
majesty to lend me twenty of the tallest vessels he
had left, after the loss of his fleet, and three thousand
seamen, under the command of his vice-admiral.
This fleet sailed round, while I went back the shortest
way to the coast, where I first discovered the boat.
I found the tide had driven it still nearer. The sea-
men were all provided with cordage, which I had
beforehand twisted to a sufficient strength. When
the ships came up, I stripped myself, and waded till
I} came within a hundred yards of the boat, after
which I was forced to swim till I got up to it. The
seamen threw me the end of the cord, which I
fastened to a hole in the fore-part of the boat, and
the other end to a man-of-war; but I found all my
labour to little purpose ; for, being out of my depth,
70 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

I was not able to work. In this necessity, I was
forced to swim behind, and push the boat forward,
as often as I could, with one of my hands; and the
tide favouring me, I advanced so far that I could
just hold up my chin and feel the ground. I rested
two or three minutes, and then gave the boat another
shove, and so on, till the sea was no higher than my
arm-pits; and now, the most laborious part being
over, I took out my other cables, which were stowed
in one of the ships, and fastened them first to the
boat, and then to nine of the vessels that attended
me; the wind being favourable, the seamen towed
and I shoved, until we arrived within forty yards of
the shore ; and, waiting till the tide was out, I got dry
to the boat, and, by the assistance of two thousand
men, with ropes and engines, I made a shift to turn
it on its bottom, and found it was but little damaged.

I shall not trouble the reader with the difficulties I
was under, by the help of certain paddles, which cost
me ten days making, to get my boat to the royal port
of Blefuscu, where a mighty concourse of people
appeared upon my arrival, full of wonder at the sight
of so prodigious a vessel. I told the emperor, that
my good fortune had thrown this boat in my way to
carry me to some place whence I might return into
my native country; and begged his majesty’s orders
for getting materials to fit it up, together with his
license to depart; which, after some kind expostula-
tions, he was pleased to grant.

I did very much wonder, in all this time, not to
have heard of any express relating to me from our
emperor to the court of Blefuscu. But I was after-
wards given privately to understand, that his imperial
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 17

majesty, never imagining I had the least notice of his
designs, believed I was only gone to Blefuscu in per-
formance of my promise, according to the license he
had given me, which was well known at our court,
and would return in a few days, when the ceremony
‘was ended. But he was at last in pain at my long
absence; and, after consulting with the treasurer and
the rest of that cabal, a person of quality was de-
spatched with the copy of the articles against me.
This envoy had instructions to represent to the
monarch of Blefuscu, the great lenity of his master,
who was content to punish me no further than with
the loss of mine eyes; that I had fled from justice;
and if I did not return in two hours, I should be
deprived of my title of zardac, and declared a traitor.
‘The envoy further added, that, in order to maintain
the peace and amity between both empires, his master
expected that his brother of Blefuscu would give
orders to have me sent back to Lilliput, bound hand
and foot, to be punished as a traitor.

The Emperor of Blefuscu, having taken three days
to consult, returned an answer consisting of many
civilities and excuses. He said, that as for sending
me bound, his brother knew it was impossible; that
although I had deprived him of his fleet, yet he owed
creat obligations to me for many good offices I had
done him in making the peace. That, however, both
their majesties would soon be made easy; for I had
found a prodigious vessel on the shore, able to carry
me on the sea, which he had given orders to fit up,
with my own assistance and direction; and he hoped,
in a few weeks, both empires would be treed from so
insupportable an encumbrance.
GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

“OT
CO

With this answer the envoy returned to Lilliput;
and the monarch of Blefuscu related to me all that
had past ; offering me, at the same time (but under
the strictest confidence), his gracious protection, if I
would continue in his service: wherein although I
believed him sincere, yet I resolved never more to
put any confidence in princes or ministers, where I
could possibly avoid it; and therefore, with all due
acknowledgments for his favourable intentions, I
humbly begged to be excused. I told him, that since
fortune, whether good or evil, had thrown a vessel in
my way, I was resolved to venture myself on the
ocean, rather than be an occasion of difference between
two such mighty monarchs. Neither did I find the
emperor at all displeased; and I discovered, by a
certain accident, that he was very glad of my resolu-
tion, and so were most of his ministers.

These considerations moved me to hasten my
departure somewhat sooner than I intended; to
which the court, impatient to have me gone, very
readily contributed. Five hundred workmen were
employed to make two sails to my boat, according
to my directions, by quilting thirteen folds of the
strongest linen together. I was at the pains of
making ropes and cables, by twisting ten, twenty, or
thirty, of the thickest and strongest of theirs. A
great stone that I happened to find, after a long
search, by the seashore, served me for an anchor.
I had the tallow of three hundred cows for greasing
my boat, and other uses. I was at incredible pains
in cutting down some of the largest timber-trees for
oars and masts; wherein I was, however, much
assisted by his majesty’s ship-carpenters, who helped
A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 79

me in smoothing them, after I had done the rough
work,

In about a month, when all was prepared, I sent to
receive his majesty’s commands, and to take my leave.
The emperor and royal family came out of the palace:
I lay down on my face to kiss his hand, which he
very graciously gave me: so did the empress and
young princes of the blood. His majesty presented
me with fifty purses of two hundred sfrugs a-piece;
together with his picture at full length, which I put
immediately into one of my gloves, to keep it from
being hurt. The ceremonies at my departure were
too many to trouble the reader with at this time.

I stored the boat with the carcasses of a hundred
oxen and three hundred sheep, with bread and drink —
proportionable, and as much meat ready dressed as
four hundred cooks could provide. I took with me
six cows and two bulls alive, with as many ewes and
rams, intending to carry them into my own country,
and propagate the breed. And, to feed them on
board, I had a good bundle of hay and a bag of corn.
I would gladly have taken a dozen of the natives, but
this was a thing the emperor would by no means per-
mit ; and besides a diligent search into my pockets,
his majesty engaged my honour not to carry away
any of his subjects, although with their own consent
and desire,

Having thus prepared all things as well as I was
able, I set sail on the twenty-fourth day of September,
1701, at six in the morning ; and when I had gone
about four leagues to the northward, the wind being
at south-east, at six in the evening I descried a
small island, about half a league to the north-west.
SO GULLIVER’S TRAVELS,

I advanced forward, and cast anchor on the lee-side
of the island, which seemed to be uninhabited, J
then took some refreshment, and went to my rest. I
slept well, and as I conjecture, at least six hours, for I
found the day broke in two hours after I awaked. It
was a clear night. JI ate my breakfast before the sun
was up; and heaving anchor, the wind being favour-
able, I steered the same course that I had done the
day before, wherein I was directed by my pocket com-
pass. My intention was to reach, if possible, one of
those islands which I had reason to believe lay to
the north-east of Van Diemen’s Land. I discovered
nothing all that day ; but upon the next, about three
in the afternoon, when I had, by my computation,
made twenty-four leagues from Blefuscu, I descried a
sail steering to the south-east; my course was due
east. I hailed her, but could get no answer; yet I
found I gained upon her, for the wind slackened. I
made all the sail I could, and in half an hour she
espied me, then hung out her ancient, and discharged a
gun, It is not easy to express the joy I was in, upon
the unexpected hope of once more seeing my beloved
country, and the dear pledges I left in it. The ship
slackened her sails, and I came up with her between
five and six in the evening, September 26th; but my
heart leapt within me to see her English colours, I
put my cows and sheep into my coat-pockets, and got
on board with all my little cargo of provisions. The
vessel was an English merchantman, returning from
Japan by the North and South Seas; the captain, Mr.
John Biddel of Deptford, a very civil man, and an ex-
cellent sailor. We were now in the latitude of thirty
decrees south ; there were about fifty men in the ship:
A VOVAGE TO LILLIPUT’, Or

and here I met an old comrade of mine, one Deter
Williams, who gave me a good character to the
captain. This gentleman treated me with kindness,
and desired I would let him know what place I came
from last, and whither I was bound; which J did in
a few words, but he thought I was raving and that
the dangers I had underwent had disturbed my
head; whereupon I took my black cattle and sheep
out of my pocket, which, after great astonishment,
clearly convinced him of my veracity. I then showed
him the gold given me by the Emperor of Blefuscu,
together with his majesty’s picture at full length, and
some other rarities of that country. I gave him two
purses of two hundred sfrags each, and promised, when
we arrived in England, to make him a present of a
cow and a sheep big with young. ©

I shall not trouble the reader with a particular
account of this voyage, which was very prosperous for
the most part. We arrived in the Downs onthe 13th
of April 1702. I had only one misfortune, that the
rats on board carried away one of my sheep; I found
her bones in a hole, picked clean from the flesh. The
rest of my cattle I got safe ashore, and set them
a-grazing in a bowling-green at Greenwich, where the
fineness of the grass made them feed very heartily,
though I had always feared the contrary: neither
could I possibly have preserved them in so long a
voyage, if the captain had not allowed me some of
his best biscuit, which, rubbed to powder, and min-
cled with water, was their constant food. The short
time I continued in England, I made a considerable
profit by showing my cattle to many persons of
quality and others: and before I began my second

F
52 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

voyage, I sold them for six hundred pounds. Since
my last return I find the breed is considerably in-
creased, especially the sheep, which I hope will prove
much to the advantage of the woollen manufacture,
by the fineness of the fleeces,

I stayed but two months with my wife and family ;
for my insatiable desire of seeing foreign countries
would suffer me to continue no longer, I left fifteen
hundred pounds with my wife, and fixed her in a
good house at Redriff. My remaining stock I carried
with me, part in money, and part in coods, in hopes
to improve my fortune, My eldest uncle John had
left me an estate in land, near Epping, of about thirty
pounds a-year; and I had a long lease of the Black
Bull in Fetter Lane, which yielded me as much more;
so that I was not in any danger of leaving my family
upon the parish, Myson Johnny, named so after his
uncle, was at the grammar-school, and a towardly
child. My daughter Betty (who is now well married,
and has children) was then at her needlework. I
took my leave of my wife and boy and girl, with tears
on both sides, and went on board the “ Adventure,”
a merchant ship of three hundred tons, bound for
surat, Captain John Nicholas, of Liverpool, com-
mander. But my account of this voyage must be
referred to the second part of my travels.
Wart TT,

A VOYAGE TO BROLDINGNAG.

CHAPTER I.

A GREAT STORM DESCRIBED ; THE LONG-BOAT SENT
TO FETCH WATER, THE AUTHOR GOES WITH
IT TO DISCOVER THE COUNTRY—HE 1S LEFT
ON SHORE, IS SEIZED BY ONE OF THE NATIVES,
AND CARRIED TO A FARMER'S HOUSE—HIS
RECEPTION, WITH SEVERAL ACCIDENTS THAT
HAPPENED THERE—A DESCRIPTION OF THE
INHABITANTS.

HAVING been condemned, by nature and fortune, to
an active and restless life, in two months after my
return, I again left my native country, and took ship-
ping in the Downs, on the 2oth day of June 1702,
in the “Adventure,” Captain John Nicholas, a Cornish
man, commander, bound for Surat. We had a very
prosperous gale till we arrived at the Cape of Good
Hope, where we landed for fresh water; but discover-
ing a leak, we unshipped our goods and wintered
there; for the captain falling sick of an ague, we
Of GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

could not leave the Cape till the end of March. We
then set sail, and had a good voyage till we passed
the Straits of Madagascar; but having got north-
ward of that island, and to about five degrees south
latitude, the winds, which in those seas are observed
to blow a constant equal gale between the north and
west, from the beginning of December to the begin-
ning of May, on the 19th of April began to blow
with much greater violence, and more westerly than
usual, continuing so for twenty days together; during
which time we were driven a little to the east of the
Molucca Islands, and about three degrees northward
of the line, as our captain found by an observation
he took the 2nd of May, at which time the wind
ceased, and it was a perfect calm, whereat I was not
a little rejoiced. But he, being a man well experi-
enced in the navigation of those seas, bid us all pre-
pare against a storm, which accordingly happened
the day following: for the southern wind, called the
southern monsoon, began to set in.

Finding it was likely to overblow, we took in our
spritsail, and stood by to hand the foresail; but,
making foul weather, we looked the guns were all
fast and handed the mizen. The ship lay very broad
off, so we thought it better spooning before the sea,
than trying or hulling. We reefed the foresail, and
set him, and hauled aft the foresheet; the helm was
hard a-weather. The ship wore bravely. We belayed
the fore downhaul; but the sail was split, and we
hauled down the yard, and got the sail into the ship,
and unbound all the things clear of it. It was a very
fierce storm; the sea broke strange and dangerous.
We hauled off upon the laniard of the whipstaff, and
A VOYAGE TO BROB)DINGNAG. 85

helped the man at the helm. We would not get
down our topmast, but let all stand, because she
scudded before the sea very well, and we knew that
the topmast being aloft the ship was the wholesomer,
and made better way through the sea, seeing we had
sea-room. When the storm was over, we set foresail
and mainsail, and brought the ship to. Then we set
the mizen, maintopsail, and the foretopsail. Our
course was east-north-east, the wind was at south-west.
We got the starboard tacks aboard, we cast off our
weather-braces and lifts; we set in the lee-braces,
and hauled forward by the weather bowlings, and
hauled them tight, and belayed them tight, and
hauled over the mizen-tack to windward, and kept
her full and by as near as she would lie.

During this storm, which was followed by a strong
wind west-south-west, we were carried, by my com-
putation, about five hundred leagues to the east, so
that the oldest sailor on board could not tell in what
part of the world we were. Our provisions held out
well, our ship was staunch, and our crew all in good
health; but we lay in the utmost distress for water.
We thought it best to hold on the same course,
rather than turn more northerly, which might have
brought us to the north-west part of Great Tartary,
and into the Frozen sea.

On the 16th day of June 1703, a boy on the top-
mast discovered land. On the 17th we came in ful]
view of a great island, or continent (for we knew not
whether), on the south side whereof was a small neck
of land jutting out into the sea, and a creek too
shallow to hold a ship of above one hundred tons.
We cast anchor within a league of this creek, and
S6 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

our captain sent a dozen of his men well armed in
the long-boat, with vessels for water, if any could be
found. I desired his leave to go with them, that I
might see the country, and make what discoveries I
could. When we came to land, we saw no river or
spring, nor any sign of inhabitants. Our men there-
fore wandered on the shore to find out some fresh
water near the sea, and I walked alone about a mile
on the other side, where I observed the country all
barren and rocky. I now began to be weary, and,
seeing nothing to entertain my curiosity, I returned
gently down towards the creek; and the sea being
full in my view, I saw our men already got into the
boat, and rowing for life to the ship. I was going to
hallo after them, although it had been to little pur-
pose, when I observed a huge creature walking after
them in the sea, as fast as he could: he waded not
much deeper than his knees, and took prodigious
strides; but our men had the start of him half a
league, and the sea thereabouts being full of sharp-
pointed rocks, the monster was not able to overtake
the boat. This I was afterwards told, for I durst
not stay to see the issue of the adventure; but ran
as fast as I could the way I first went, and then
climbed up a steep hill, which gave me some prospect
of the country. I found it fully cultivated; but that
which first surprised me was the length of the grass,
which, in those grounds that seemed to be kept for
hay, was about twenty feet hich,

I fell into a high road, for so I took it to be, though
it served to the inhabitants only as a footpath through
a field of barley. Here I walked on for some time,
but could see little on either side, it being now near
A VOYAGE TO BROLDINGNAG. 87

harvest, and the corn rising at least forty feet. I was
an hour walking to the end of this field, which was
fenced in with a hedge of at least one hundred and
twenty feet high, and the trees so lofty that I could
make no computation of their altitude. There was
a stile to pass from this field into the next. It had
four steps, and a stone to cross over when you came
to the uppermost. It was impossible for me to climb
this stile, because every step was six feet high, and
the upper stone about twenty. I was endeavouring
to find some gap in the hedge, when I discovered
one of the inhabitants in the next field, advancing
towards the stile, of the same size with him whom I
saw in the sea pursuing our boat. He appeared as
tall as an ordinary spire steeple, and took about ten
yards at every stride, as near as I could guess. I
was struck with the utmost fear and astonishment,
and ran to hide myself in the corn, whence I saw him
at the top of the stile, looking back into the next
field on the right hand, and heard him call in a voice
many degrees louder than a speaking-trumpet; but
the noise was so high in the air, that at first I cer-
tainly thought it was thunder. Whereupon seven
monsters, like himself, came towards him with reap-
ing hooks in their hands, each hook about the large-
ness of six scythes. These people were not so well
clad as the first, whose servants or labourers they
seemed to be; for, upon some words he spoke, they
went to reap the corn in the field where I lay. I
kept from them at as great a distance as I could, but
was forced to move with extreme difficulty, for the
stalks of the corn were sometimes not above a foot
distant, so that I could hardly squeeze my body
SS GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

betwixt them. However I made a shift to go forward
till I came to a part of the field where the corn had
been laid by the rain and wind. Here it was impos-
sible for me to advance a step; for the stalks were
so interwoven that I could not creep through, and
the beards of the fallen ears so strong and pointed,
that they pierced through my clothes into my flesh.
“At the same time I heard the reapers not above a
hundred yards behind me. Being quite dispirited
with toil, and wholly overcome by grief and despair,
I lay down between two ridges, and heartily wished
{ might there end my days. I bemoaned my desolate
widow and fatherless children. I lamented my own
folly and wilfulness in attempting a second voyage,
against the advice of all my friends and relations.
In this terrible agitation of mind, I could not forbear
thinking of Lilliput, whose inhabitants looked upon
me as the greatest prodigy that ever appeared in the
world; where I was able to draw an imperial fleet in
my hand, and perform those other actions which will
be recorded for ever in the chronicles of that empire,
while posterity shall hardly believe them, although
attested by millions. I reflected what a mortification
it must prove to me, to appear as inconsiderable in
this nation as one single Lilliputian would be among
us. But this I conceived was to be the least of my
misfortunes ; for, as human creatures are observed to
be more savage and cruel in proportion to their
bulix, what could I expect but to be a morsel in the
mouth of the first among these enormous barbarians
that should happen to seize me? Undoubtedly
philosophers are in the right, when they tell us that
nothing is great or little otherwise than by compari-
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 8g

son, It might have pleased fortune to have let the
Lilliputians find some nation, where the people were
as diminutive with respect to them, as they were to
me. And who knows but that even this prodigious
race of mortals might be equally overmatched in
some distant part of the world, whereof we have yet
no discovery.

Scared and confounded as I was, I could not for-
bear going on with these reflections, when one of the
reapers, approaching within ten yards of the ridge
where I lay, made me apprehend that with the next
step I should be squashed to death under his foot,
or cut in two with his reaping-hook. And therefore
when he was again about to move, I screamed as
loud as fear could make me; whereupon the huge
creature trod short, and, looking round about under
him for some time, at last espied me as I lay on the
ground. He considered awhile, with the caution of
one who endeavours to lay hold on a small dangerous
animal in such a manner that it shall not be able
either to scratch or to bite him, as I myself have
sometimes done with a weasel in England. At length
he ventured to take me behind, by the middle, be-
tween his forefinger and thumb, and brought me
within three yards of his eyes, that he might behold
my shape more perfectly. I guessed his meaning,
and my good fortune gave me so much presence of
mind, that I resolved not to struggle in the least
as he held me in the air above sixty feet from the
cround, although he grievously pinched my sides, for
fear I should slip through his fingers. All I ventured
was to raise mine eyes toward the sun, and place my
hands together in a supplicating posture, and to
go GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

speak some words in a humble melancholy tone,
suitable to the condition I then was in: for I appre-
hended every moment that he would dash me against
the ground, as we usually do any little hateful animal
which we have a mind to destroy. But my good star
would have it, that he appeared pleased with my
voice and gestures, and began to look upon me asa
curiosity, much wondering to hear me pronounce
articulate words, although he could not understand
them. In the meantime I was not able to forbear
groaning and shedding tears, and turning my head
towards my sides; letting him know, as well as I
could, how cruelly I was hurt by the pressure of his
thumb and finger. He seemed to apprehend my
meaning ; for, lifting up the lappet of his coat, he put
me gently into it, and immediately ran along with
me to his master, who was a substantial farmer, and
the same person I had first seen in the field.

The farmer having (as I suppose by their talk)
received such an account of me as his servant could
give him, took a piece of a small straw, about the
size of a walking staff, and therewith lifted up the
lappets of my coat; which, it seems, he thought to
be some kind of covering that nature had given me.
He blew my hairs aside to take a better view of my
face. Hecalled his hinds about him, and asked them,
as I afterwards learned, Whether they had ever seen
in the fields any little creature that resembled me?
He then placed me softly on the ground upon all
four, but I got immediately up, and walked slowly
backward and forward, to let those people see I had
no intent to run away. They all sat down in a circle
about me, the better to observe my motions. I pulled
A VOYAGE TO BROLBDINGNAG. gl

off my hat, and made a low bow towards the farmer.
I fell on my knees, and lifted up my hands and eyes,
and spoke several words as loud as I could; I took
a purse of gold out of my pocket, and humbly pre-
sented it to him. He received it on the palm of
his hand, then applied it close to his eye to see what
it was, and afterwards turned it several times with
the point of a pin (which he took out of his sleeve),
but could make nothing of it. Whereupon I made
a sign that he should place his hand on the ground.
I then took the purse, and opening it, poured all the
cold into his palm. There were six Spanish pieces
of four pistoles each, beside twenty or thirty smaller
coins. I saw him wet the tip of his little finger upon
his tongue, and take up one of my largest pieces, and
then another; but he seemed to be wholly ignorant
what they were. He made mea sign to put them
again into my purse, and the purse again into my
pocket, which, after offering it to him several times,
I thought it best to do.

The farmer, by this time, was convinced I must be
a rational creature. He spoke often to me; but the
sound of his voice pierced my ears like that of a
water-mill, yet his words were articulate enough. I
answered as loud as I could in several languages,
and he often laid his ear within two yards of me;
but all in vain, for we were wholly unintelligible to
each other. He then sent his servants to their work,
and taking his handkerchief out of his pocket, he
doubled, and spread it on his left hand, which he
placed flat on the ground, with the palm upward,
making me a sign to step into it, as I could easily
do, for it was not above a foot in thickness, [I thought
g2 GULLIVERN’S TRAVELS. |

it my part to obey; and for fear of falling, laid
myself at full length upon the handkerchief, with the
remainder of which he lapped me up to the head for
further security, and in this manner carried me home
to his house. There he called his wife, and showed
me to her; but she screamed and ran back, as women
in England do at the sight of a toad or a spider.
However, when she had awhile seen my behaviour,
and how well I observed the signs her husband
made, she was soon reconciled, and by degrees grew
extremely tender of me. :

It was about twelve at noon, and a servant brought
in dinner, It was only one substantial dish of meat
(fit for the plain condition of a husbandman),.in a
dish of about four-and-twenty feet diameter. The
company were, the farmer and his wife, three children,
and an old grandmother. When they were set down,
the farmer placed me at some distance from him on
the table, which was thirty feet high from the floor.
I was in a terrible fright, and kept as far as I
could from the edge, for fear of falling, The wife
minced a bit of meat, then crumbled some bread on a
trencher, and placed it before me. I made her a low
bow, took out my knife and fork, and fell to eat,
which gave them exceeding delight. The mistress
sent her maid for a small dram-cup, which held about
two gallons, and filled it with drink; I took up the
vessel with much difficulty in both hands, and in a
most respectful manner drank to her ladyship’s health,
expressing the words as loud as I could in English,
which made the company laugh so heartily, that I
was almost deafened with the noise. This liquor
tasted like a small. cider, and was not unpleasant.
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 9

Od

Then the master made me a sign to come to his
trencher side; but as I walked on the table, being in
creat surprise all the time, as the indulgent reader
will easily conceive and excuse, I happened to stumble
against a crust, and fell flat on my face, but received
no hurt. I got up immediately, and observing the
ood people to be in much concern, I took my hat,
(which I held under my arm out of good manners),
and waving it over my head, made three huzzas, to
show [I had got no mischief by my fall. But advanc-
ing forward towards my master (as I shall henceforth
call him), his youngest son, who sat next to him, an
arch boy of about ten years old, took me up by the
legs, and held me so high in the air, that I trembled
every limb; but his father snatched me from him,
and at the same time gave him such a box on the
left ear, as would have felled an European troop of
horse to the earth, ordering him to be taken from
the table. But, being afraid the boy might owe me
a spite, and well remembering how mischievous all
children among us naturally are to sparrows, rabbits,
young kittens, and puppy-dogs, I fell on my knees,
aud, pointing to the boy, made my master to under-
stand, as well as I could, that I desired his son might
be pardoned. The father complied, and the lad took
his seat again, whereupon I went to him, and kissed
his hand, which my master took, and made him stroke
me gently with it.

In the midst of dinner, my mistress’s favourite cat
leaped into her lap. I heard a noise behind me like
that of a dozen stocking-weavers at work; and turn-
ing my head I found it proceeded from the purring
of that animal, who seemed to be three times larger
O4 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

than an ox, as I computed by the view of her head
and one of her paws, while her mistress was feeding
and stroking her. The fierceness of this creature’s
countenance altogether discomposed me; though I
stood at the further end of the table, above fifty feet
off; and although my mistress held her fast, for fear
she might give a spring, and seize me in her talons. _
But it happened there was no danger; for the cat
took not the least notice of me when my master
placed me within three yards of her. And, as I have
been always told, and found true by experience in my
travels, that flying or discovering fear before a fierce
animal, is a certain way to make it pursue or attack
you, so I resolved, in this dangerous juncture, to
show no manner of concern. I walked with intrepidity
five or six times before the very head of the cat, and
came within half a yard of her; whereupon she drew
herself back, as if she were more afraid of me. I had
less apprehension concerning the dogs, whereof three
or four came into the room as it is usual in farmers’
houses; one of which was a mastiff, equal in bulk to
four elephants, and a greyhound, somewhat taller
than the mastiff, but not so large.

When dinner was almost done, the nurse came in
with a child of a year old in her arms, who imme-
diately spied me, and began a squall that you might
have heard from London Bridge to Chelsea, after the
usual oratory of infants, to get me fora plaything.
The mother, out of pure indulgence, took me up, and
put me towards the child, who presently seized me
by the middle, and got my head into his mouth,
where I roared so loud that the urchin was frighted,
and let me drop, and I should infallibly have broke
A VOYAGE TO BROLDINGNAG. 95

my neck, if the mother had not held her apron under
ine. The nurse, to quiet her babe, made use of a
rattle, which was a kind of hollow vessel filled with
creat stones, and fastened by a cable to the child’s
waist ; but allin vain, so that she was forced to apply
the last remedy by giving it suck. I must confess
no object ever disgusted me so much as the sight of
her monstrous breast, which I cannot tell what to
compare with, so as to give the curious reader an
idea of its bulk, shape, and colour. It stood pro-
minent six feet, and could not be less than sixteen
in circumference. The nipple was about half the
bigness of my head, and the hue, both of that and
the dug, so varied with spots, pimples, and freckles,
that nothing could appear more nauseous: for I had
a near sight of her, she sitting down, the more con-
veniently to give suck, and I standing on the table.
This made me reflect upon the fair skins of our
English ladies, who appear so beautiful to us, only
because they are of our own size, and their defects
not to be seen but through a magnifying glass;
where we find by experiment, that the smoothest
and whitest skins look rough, and coarse, and ill-
coloured,

I remember when I was at Lilliput, the com-
plexions of those diminutive people appeared to me
the fairest in the world; and talking upon this sub-
ject with a person of learning there, who was an
intimate friend of mine, he said that my face ap-
peared much fairer and smoother when he looked on
me from the ground, than it did upon a nearer view,
when I took him up in my hand, and brought him
close, which he confessed was at first a very shocking
go GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

sight. He said, he could discover great holes in my
skin; that the stumps of my beard were ten times
stronger than the bristles of a boar, and my com-
plexion made up of several colours altogether dis-
agreeable: although I must beg leave to say for
myself, that I am as fair as most of my sex and
country, and very little sun-burnt by all my travels.

On the other side, discoursing of the ladies in that
emperor's court, he used to tell me one had freckles,
another too wide a mouth, a third too large a nose;
nothing of which I was able to distinguish. I confess
this reflection was obvious enough; which, however,
I could not forbear, lest the reader might think those
-vast creatures were actually deformed: for I must
do them the justice to say, they are a comely race of
people ; and particularly the features of my master’s
countenance, although he were but a farmer, when I
beheld him from a height of sixty feet, appeared
very well proportioned.

When dinner was done, my master went out to his
labourers, and, as I could discover by his voice and
gesture, gave his wife a strict charge to take care of
me. JI was very much tired, and disposed to sleep,
which my mistress perceiving, she put me on her own
bed, and covered me with a clean white handkerchief,
but larger and coarser than the main-sail of a man-
of-war.

I slept about two hours, and dreamt I was at
home with my wife and children, which aggravated
my sorrows when I awaked and found myself alone
in avast room, between two and three hundred feet
wide, and above two hundred high, lying in a bed
twenty vards wide. My mistress was gone about
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 97

Her household affairs, and had locked me in. The
bed was eight yards from the floor. Some natural
necessities required me to get down: I durst not
presume to call; andif I had, it would have been in
vain, with such a voice as mine, at so great a distance
as from the room where I lay to the kitchen where
the family slept. While I was under these circum-
stances, two rats crept up the curtains, and ran
smelling backwards and forwards on the bed. One
of them came up almost to my face, whereupon I
rose in a fright, and drew out my hanger to defend
mvself. These horrible animals had the boldness to
attack me on both sides, and one of them held his
fore-feet at my collar; but I had the good fortune to
rip up his belly, before he could do me any mischief.
He fell down at my feet; and the other, seeing the
fate of his comrade, made his escape, but not without
one good wound on the back, which I gave him as he
fled, and made the blood run trickling from him.
After this exploit, I walked gently to and fro on the
bed, to recover my breath and loss of spirits. These
creatures were of the size of a large mastiff, but
infinitely more nimble and fierce; so that, if I had
taken off my belt before I went to sleep, I must
have infallibly been torn to pieces and devoured, JI
measured the tail of the dead rat, and found it to be
two yards long, wanting an inch; but it went against
my stomach to drag the carcass off the bed, where it
lay still bleeding; I observed it had yet some life,
but wita a strong slash across the neck, I thoroughly
despatched it.

Soon after my mistress came into the room,

who, seeing me all bloody, ran and took me up in
G
or GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

her hand. I pointed to the dead rat, smiling, and
making other signs to show I was not hurt; whereat
she was extremely rejoiced, calling the maid to take
up the dead rat with a pair of tongs, and throw it
out of the window. Then she set me on a table,
where I showed her my hanger all bloody, and
wiping it on the lappet of my coat, returned it to
the scabbard. I was pressed to do more than one
thing which another could not do for me, and there-
fore endeavoured to make my mistress understand,
that I desired to be set down on the floor; which,
after she had done, my bashfulness would not suffer
me to express myself farther, than by pointing to
the door, and bowing several times. The good
woman, with much difficulty, at last perceived what
I would be at, and taking me up again in her hand,
walked into the garden, where she set me down.
I went on one side about two hundred yards, and
beckoning to her not to look or to follow me, I hid
myself between two leaves of sorrel, and there dis-
charged the necessities of nature.

I hope the gentle reader will excuse me for dwell-
ing on these and the like particulars, which, however
insignificant they may appear to grovelling vulgar
ininds, yet will certainly help a philosopher to enlarge
his thoughts and imagination, and apply them to the
benefit of public as well as private life, which was
iny sole design in presenting this and other accounts
of my travels to the world; wherein I have been
chiefly studious of truth, without affecting any orna-
ments of learning or of style. But the whole scene
of this voyage made so strong an impression on my
mind, and is so deeply fixed in my memory, that,
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 99

In committing it to paper, I did not omit one mate-
rial circumstance: however, upon a strict review, I
blotted out several passages of less moment, which
were In my first copy, for fear of being censured as
tedious and trifling, whereof travellers are often, per-

haps not without justice, accused.

CHAPTER II.

A DESCRIPTION OF THE FARMERS DAUGHTER—THE
AUTHOR CARRIED TO A MARKET-TOWN, AND
THEN TO THE METROPOLIS—THE PARTICULARS
OF HIS FOURNEY.

My mistress had a daughter of nine years old, a
child of towardly parts for her age, very dexterous
at her needle, and skilful in dressing her baby. Her
mother and she contrived to fit up the baby’s cradle
for me against night: the cradle was put into a small
drawer of a cabinet, and the drawer placed upon a
hanging shelf for fear of the rats. This was my bed
all the time I stayed with those people, though made
more convenient by degrees, as I began to learn
their language, and make my wants known. This
young girl was so handy, that, after I had once or
twice pulled off my clothes before her, she was able
to dress and undress me, though I never gave her
that trouble when she would let me do either myself,
She made me seven shirts and some other linen, of
as fine cloth as could be got, which indeed was
coarser than sackcloth; and these she constantly
100 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

washed for me with her own hands. She was like-
wise my schoolmistress, to teach me the language;
when I pointed to anything, she told me the name
of it in her own tongue, so that in a few days I was
able to call for whatever I had a mind to. She was
very good-natured, and not above forty feet hich,
being little for her age. She gave me the name of
Grildrig, which the family took up, and afterwards
the whole kingdom. The word imports what the
Latins call xanunculus, the Italians homunceletino,
and the English mannikin. To her I chiefly owe
my preservation in that country: we never parted
while I was there ; I called her my Glumdalclitch, or
little nurse, and should be guilty of great ingratitude
if [ omitted this honourable mention of her care and
affection towards me, which I heartily wish it lay in
my power to requite as she deserves, instead of being
the innocent, but unhappy, instrument of her dis-
grace, as I have too much reason to fear,

It now began to be known and talked of in the
neighbourhood, that my master had found a strange
animal in the field, about the bigness of a splacnuck,
but exactly shaped in every part like a human
creature; which it likewise imitated in all-its actions;
seemed to speak in a little language of its own, had
already learned several words of theirs, went erect
upon two legs, was tame and gentle, would come
when it was called, do whatever it was bid, had the
finest limbs in the world, and a complexion fairer
than a nobleman’s daughter of three years old.
Another farmer, who lived hard by, and was a par-
ticular friend of my master, came on a visit on pur-
pose to inquire into the truth of this story. I was
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. IO!

immediately produced, and placed upon a table,
where I walked as I was commanded, drew my
hanger, put it up again, made my reverence to my
masters guest, asked him in his own language how
he did, and told him se was welcome, just as my
little nurse had instructed me. This man, who was
old and dim-sighted, put on his spectacles to behold
me better, at which I could not forbear laughing
very heartily, for his eyes appeared like the full
moon shining into a chamber at two windows. Our
people, who discovered the cause of my mirth, bore
me company in laughing, at which the old fellow
was fool enough to be angry and out of countenance.
He had the character of a great miser; and, to my
misfortune, he well deserved it, by the cursed advice
he gave my master, to show me as a sight upon a
market day in the next town, which was half an
hour’s riding, about two-and-twenty miles from our
house. I guessed there was some mischief contriv-
ing, when I observed my master and his friend whis-
pering long together, sometimes pointing at me; and
my fears made me fancy that I overheard and under-
stood some of their words. But the next morning
Glumdalclitch, my little nurse, told me the whole
matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her
mother. The poor girl laid me on her bosom, and
fell a-weeping with shame and erief. She appre-
hended some mischief would happen to me from rude
vulgar folks, who might squeeze me to death, or
break one of my limbs by taking me in their hands.
She had also observed how modest I was in my
nature, how nicely I regarded my honour, and what
an indignity I should conceive it, to be exposed for
102 GULELIVER’S TRAVELS.

money as a public spectacle to the meanest of the
people. She said, her papa and mamma had promised
that Grildrig should be hers; but now she found they
meant to serve her as they did last year, when they
pretended to give her a lamb, and vet, as soon as it
was fat, sold it to a butcher. For my own part, I
may truly affirm, that I was less concerned than my
nurse, I had a strong hope, which never left me,
that I should one day recover my liberty; and as to
the ignominy of being carried about for a monster, I
considered myself to be a perfect stranger in the
country, and that such a misfortune could never be
charged upon me as a reproach, if ever I should
return to England; since the king of Great Britain
himself, in my condition, must have undergone the
same distress.

My master, pursuant to the advice of his friend,
carried me in a box the next market-day to the
neighbouring town, and took along with him his
little daughter, my nurse, upon a pillion behind him.
The box was close on every side, with a little door
for me to go in and out, and a few gimlet holes to let
in air, The girl had been so careful as to put the
quilt of her baby’s bed into it, for me to lie down on.
However, I was terribly shaken and discomposed in
this journey, though it were but of half an hour: for
the horse went about forty feet at every step, and
trotted so high, that the agitation was equal to the
rising and falling of a ship in a great storm, but
much more frequent. Our journey was somewhat
farther than from London to St. Alban’s. My master
alighted at an inn which he used to frequent; and
after consulting awhile with the inn-keeper, and
A VOYAGE TO BROLDINGNAG. 103

making some necessary preparations, he hired the
grultrud, or crier, to give notice through the town of
a strange creature to be seen at the sign of the Green
Eagle, not so big as a splacnuck (an animal in that
country, very finely shaped, about six feet long),
and in every part of the body resembling a human
creature; could speak several words, and perform a
hundred diverting tricks.

I was placed upon a table in the largest room of.
the inn, which might be near three hundred feet
square. My little nurse stood on a low stool close
to the table, to take care of me, and direct what I
should do. My master, to avoid a crowd, would
suffer only thirty people at a time to see me, I
walked on the table as the girl commanded: she
asked me questions, as far as she knew my under-
standing of the language reached, and I answered
them as loud as I could. I turned about several
times to the company, paid my humble respects, said
they were welcome, and used some other speeches I
had been taught. I took up a thimble filled with
liquor, which Glumdalclitch had given me for a cup,
and drank their health. I drew out my hanger, and
flourished with it after the manner cf fencers in
england. My nurse gave me a part of a straw,
which I exercised as a pike, having learnt the art in
my youth. I was that day shown to twelve sets of
company, and as often forced to act over again the
same fopperies, tili I was half dead with weariness
and vexation : for those who had seen me made such
wonderful reports, that the people were ready to
break down the doors to come in. My master, for
his own interest, would not suffer any one to touch
104 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

me except my nurse : and, to prevent danger, benches.
were set round the table, at such a distance as to put.
me out of everybody’s reach. However, an unlucky
schoolboy aimed a hazel-nut directly at my head,
which very narrowly missed me; otherwise it came:
with so much violence, that it would have infallibly
knocked out my brains, for it was almost as large as
a small pumpion; but I had the satisfaction to see.
the young rogue well beaten and turned out of the
room. | |

My mastgr gave public notice that he would show
me again the next market-day; and in the meantime
he prepared a more convenient vehicle for me, which
he had reason enough to do; for I was so tired with
my first journey, and with entertaining company for
eight hours together, that I could hardly stand upon
my legs, or speak a word. It was at least three days
before I recovered my strength; and that I might
have no rest at home, all the neighbouring gentlemen.
for a hundred miles round, hearing of my fame, came.
to see me at my master’s own house. There could
not be fewer than thirty persons, with their wives and
children (for the country is very populous); and my
master demanded the rate of a full room whenever
he showed me at home, although it were only to a
single family: so that for some time I had but little
ease every day of the week (except Wednesday,
which is their Sabbath), although I were not carried
to the town.

My master, finding how profitable I was likely to
be, resolved to carry me to the most considerable
cities of the kingdom, Having therefore provided
himself with all things necessary for a lone journey,


jh sy
LE

My
:

WH

ft







HILT


A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 105

and settled his affairs at home, he took leave of his
wife, and upon the 17th of August 1703, about two
months after my arrival, we set out for the metropolis,
situate near the middle of that empire, and about
three thousand miles distance from our house, Mv
master made his daughter Glumdalclitch ride behind
him. She carried me on her lap, in a box tied about
her waist. The girl had lined it on all sides with the
softest cloth she could get, well quilted underneath,
furnished it with her baby’s bed, provided me with.
linen and other necessaries, and made everything as,
convenient as she could. We had no other company
but a boy of the house, who rode after us with the
lucgage.

My master’s design was to show me in all the towns
by the way, and to step out of the road for fifty or.
a hundred miles, to any village or person of quality’s
house, where he might expect custom. We made.
easy journeys, of not above seven or eight score miles
a-day: for Glumdalclitch, on purpose to spare me,
complained she was tired with the trotting of the
horse. She often took me out of my box, at my
own desire, to give me air, and to show me the
country, but always held me fast, by a leading string.
We passed over five or six rivers, many degrees broader
and deeper than the Nile or the Ganges; and there
was hardly a rivulet so small as the Thames at
London Bridge. We were ten weeks in our journey,
and I was shown in eighteen large towns, besides
many villages and private families.

On the 26th day of October, we arrived at the
metropolis, called in their language Lorbrilerud, or
Pride of the Universe. My master took a lodging
106 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

in the principal street of the city, not far from the
royal palace, and put out bills in the usual form,
containing an exact description of my person and
parts. He hired a large room between three and four
hundred feet wide. He provided a table sixty feet
in diameter, upon which I was to act my part, and
pallisadoed it round three feet from the edge, and as
many high, to prevent my falling over. I was shown
ten times a-day, to the wonder and satisfaction of all.
people. I could now speak the language tolerably
well, and perfectly understood every word that was
spoken tome. Besides, I had learnt their alphabet,
and could make a shift to explain a sentence here
and there; for Glumdalclitch had been my instructor
while we were at home, and at leisure hours during
our journey. She carried a little book in her pocket,
not much larger than a Sanson’s Atlas; it was a
common treatise for the use of young girls, giving a
short account of their religion ; out of this she taught
me my letters, and interpreted the words.
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 107

CHAPTER IIL.

THE AUTHOR IS SENT FOR TO COURT—-THE QUEEN
BUYS HIM OF HIS MASTER THE FARMER, AND
PRESENTS HIM TO TRE KING—HE DISPUTES
WITH HIS MASYESTYS GREAT SCHOLARS—AN
APARTMENT AT COURT PROVIDED FOR THE
AUTHOR—HE IS IN HIGH FAVOUR WITH THE
QUEEN—HE STANDS UP FOR THE HONOUR OF
HIS OWN COUNTRY—HI/S QUARRELS WITH THE
QUEEN'S DWARF.

TIE frequent labours I underwent every day made
in a few weeks, a very considerable change in
my health: the more my master got by me, the
more insatiable he grew. JI had quite lost my
stomach, and was almost reduced to a skeleton. The
farmer observed it, and concluding I must soon die,
resolved to make as good a hand of meas he could.
While he was thus reasoning and resolving with him-
self, a sardra/, or gentleman-usher, came from coutt,
commanding my master to carry me immediately
thither for the diversion of the queen and her ladies,
Some of the latter had already been to see me, and
reported strange things of my beauty, behaviour, and
cood sense. Her majesty, and those who attended
her, were beyond measure delighted with my de-
meanour, [ fell on my knees, and begged the
honour of kissing her imperial foot; but this gracious
princess held out her little finger towards me, after I
was set on the table, which I embraced in both my
arms, and put the tip of it with the utmost respect
108 GULLIIVER’S TRAVELS.

to my lip. She made me some general questions
about my country and my travels, which I answered
as distinctly, and in as few words as I could. She
asked, Whether I would be content to live at court ?
I bowed down to the board of the table, and hum-
bly answered, That I was my master’s slave; but
if I were at my own disposal, I should be proud
to devote my life to her majesty’s service. She then
asked my master, Whether he was willing to sell me
at a good price? He, who apprehended I could not
live a month, was ready enough to part with me,
and demanded a thousand pieces of gold, which were
ordered him on the spot, each piece being about the
bigness of eight hundred moidores, but allowing for
the proportion of all things between that country and
Furope, and the high price of gold among them, was
hardly so great a sum as a thousand guineas would
be in England. I then said to the queen, Since I
was now her majesty’s most humble creature and
vassal, I must beg the favour that Glumdalclitch,
who had always tended me with so much care and
kindness, and understood to do it so well, might be
admitted into her service, and continue to be my
nurse and instructor.

Her majesty agreed to my petition, and easily got
the farmer’s consent, who was glad enough to have
his daughter preferred at court, and the poor girl
herself was not able to hide her joy. My late master
withdrew, bidding me farewell, and saying he had
left me in a good service: to which I replied not a
word, only making him a slight bow.

Lhe quecn observed my coldness, and when the
farmer was gone out of the apartment, asked me the
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGAAG. 10g

reason. I made bold to tell her majesty, that I
owed no other obligation to my late master than his
not dashing out the brains of a poor harmless creature,
found by chance in his fields; which obligation was
amply recompensed by the gain he had made in
showing me through half the kingdom, and the price
he had now sold me for; that the life I had since led
was laborious enough to kill an animal of ten times
my strength ; that my health was much impaired by
the continual drudgery of entertaining the rabble
every hour of the day; and that if my master had
not thought my life in danger, her majesty would
not have got so cheap a bargain. But as I was out
of all fear of being ill-treated, under the protection
of so great and good an empress, the ornament of
nature, the darling of the world, the delight of her
subjects, the phoenix of the creation; so, I hoped
my late master’s apprehensions would appear to be
groundless ; for I already found my spirits revive by
the influence of her most august presence.

This was the sum of my speech, delivered with
great improprieties and hesitation. The latter part
was altogether framed in the style peculiar to that
people, whereof I learned some phrases from Glum-
dalclitch while she was carrying me to court.

The queen, giving great allowance for my defective-
ness in speaking, was, however, surprised at so much
wit and good sense in so diminutive an animal. She
took me in her own hand, and carried me to the king,
who was then retired to his cabinet. His majesty,
a prince of much gravity and austere countenance,
not well observing my shape at first view, asked the
queen after a cold manner, How long it was since she
110 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

grew fond of a splacnuck? for such, it seems, he took
me to be, as I lay upon my breast in her majesty’s
right hand. But this princess, who has an infinite
deal of wit and humour, set me gently on my feet
upon the scrutoire,and commanded me to give his
majesty an account of myself, which I did in a very
few words; and Glumdalclitch, who attended at the
cabinet door, and could not endure I should be out
of her sight, being admitted, confirmed all that had
passed from my arrival at her father’s house.

The king, although he be as learned a person as
any in his dominions, had been educated in the study
of philosophy, and particularly mathematics; yet,
when he observed my shape exactly, and saw me
walk erect, before I began to speak, conceived I
might be a piece of clock-work (which is in that
country arrived to a very great perfection), contrived
by some ingenious artist. But when he heard my
voice, and found what I delivered to be regular and
rational, he could not conceal his astonishment. He
was by no means satisfied with the relation I gave
him of the manner I came into his kingdom, but
thought it a story concerted between Glumdalclitch
and her father, who had taught mea set of words, to
make me sell at a better price. Upon this imagina-
tion, he put several other questions to me, and still
received rational answers, no otherwise defective, than
by a foreign accent, and an imperfect knowledge in
the language, with some rustic phrases which I had
learned at the farmer’s house, and did not suit the
polite style of a court.

Ilis majesty sent for three great scholars, who were
then in their weekly waiting, according to the custom
A VOYAGE TO BROLDINGNAG. III

in that country. These gentlemen, after they had
awhile examined my shape with much nicety, were of
different opinions concerning me. They all agreed
that I could not be produced according to the regular
laws of nature, because I was not framed with a
capacity of preserving my life, either by swiftness, or
climbing of trees, or digging holes inthe earth. They
observed by my teeth, which they viewed with great
exactness, that I was a carnivorous animal; yet, most
quadrupeds being an overmatch for me, and field-
mice, with some others, too nimble, they could not
imagine how I should be able to support myself,
unless I fed upon snails and other insects, which they
offered, by many learned arguments, to evince that I
could not possibly do. One of these virtuosi seemed
to think that I might be an embryo, or abortive birth.
But this opinion was rejected by the other two, who
observed my limbs to be perfect and finished; and
that I had lived several years, as it was manifest from
my beard, the stumps whereof they plainly discovered
through a magnifying glass, They would not allow
me to be a dwarf, because my littleness was beyond
all degrees of comparison; for the queen’s favourite
dwarf, the smallest ever known in that kingdom, was
near thirty feet high, After much debate, they con-
cluded unanimously, that I was only relplum scalclath,
which is interpreted literally lusus nature ; adetermi-
nation exactly agreeable to the modern philosophy of
Ikurope, whose professors, disdaining the old evasion
of occult causes, whereby the followers of Aristotle
endeavoured in vain to disguise their ignorance, have
invented this wonderful solution of all difficulties, to
the unspeakable advancement of human knowledge,
112 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

After this decisive conclusion, I entreated to be
heard a word or two. I applied myself to the king,
and assured his majesty that I came from a country
which abounded with several millions of both sexes,
and of my own stature; where the animals, trees, and
houses, were all in proportion, and where, by conse-
quence, I might be as able to defend myself, and to
find sustenance as any of his majesty’s subjects could
do here; which I took for a full answer to those
gentlemen’s arguments. To this they only replied
with a smile of contempt, saying, that the farmer
had instructed me very well in my lesson. The king,
who had a much better understanding, dismissing his
learned men, sent for the farmer, who, by good fortune,
was not yet gone out of town. Having, therefore;
first examined him privately, and then confronted
him with me and the young girl, his majesty began
to think that what we told him might possibly be
true. He desired the queen to order that a particular
care should be taken of me; and was of opinion that
Glumdalclitch should still continue in her office of
tending me, because he observed we had a great
affection for each other. A convenient apartment
was provided for her at court: she had a sort of gover-
ness appointed to take care of her education, a maid
to dress her, and two other servants for menial offices;
but the care of me was wholly appropriated to herself.
The queen commanded her own cabinet-maker to
contrive a box, that might serve me for a bed-chamber,
after the model that Glumdalclitch and I should agree
upon. This man was a most ingenious artist, and
according to my direction, in three weeks, finished
for me a wooden chamber, of sixteen feet square, and
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 113

twelve high, with sash-windows, a door, and two
closets, like a London bed-chamber, The board that
made the ceiling was to be lifted up and down by
two hinges, to put in a bed, ready furnished by her
majesty’s upholsterer, which Glumdalclitch took out
every day to air, made it with her own hands, and
letting it down at night, locked up the roof over me.
/\ nice workman, who was famous for little curiosities,
undertook to make me two chairs, with backs and
frames, of a substance not unlike ivory, and two tables,
with a cabinet to put my thingsin. The room was
quilted on all sides, as well as the floor and the ceil-
ing, to prevent any accident from the carelessness of
those who carried me, and to break the force of a jolt,
when I went in a coach, I desired a lock for my
door, to prevent rats and mice from coming in. The
smith, after several attempts, made the smallest that
ever was seen among them, for I have knowna larger
at the gate of a gentleman’s house in England. I
made a shift to keep the key in a pocket of my own,
fearing Glumdalclitch might lose it. The queen like-
wise ordered the thinnest silks that could be gotten,
to make me clothes, not much thicker than an English
blanket, very cumbersome till I was accustomed to
them, They were after the fashion of the kingdom,
partly resembling the Persian, and partly the Chinese,
and are a very grave and decent habit.

The queen became so fond of my company, that
she could not dine without me. I had a table placed
upon the same at which her majesty ate, just at her
elbow, and a chair to sit on. Glumdalclitch stood
on a stool on the floor near my table, to assist and
take care of me. I had an entire set of silver dishes

H
Il4 | GULLIVER’S TRAVELS. |

and plates, and other necessaries, which, in proportion
to those of the queen, were not much bigger than
what I have seen in a London toy-shop, for the furni-
ture of a baby-house: these my little nurse kept in
her pocket in a silver box, and gave me at meals
as I wanted them, always cleaning them herself. No
person dined with the queen but the two princesses
royal, the elder sixteen years old, and the younger at
that time thirteen and a month, Her majesty used
to put a bit of meat upon one of my dishes, out of
which I carved for myself, and her diversion was to
see me eat in miniature; for the queen (who had,
indeed, but a weak stomach) took up, at one mouth-
ful, as much as a dozen Enelish farmers could eat
at a meal; which to me was, for some time, a very
nauseous sight. She would craunch the wing of a
lark, bones and all, between her teeth, although it
were nine times as large as that of a full-grown turkey;
and put a bit of bread in her mouth as big as two
twelve-penny loaves, She drank out of a golden cup,
above a hogshead at a draught. Her knives were
twice as long as a scythe, set straight upon the handle,
‘he spoons, forks, and other instruments, were all in
the same proportion. I remember when Glumdal-
clitch carried me, out of curiosity, to see some of the
tables at court, where ten or a dozen of those enor-
mous knives and forks were lifted up together, I
thought I had never, till then, beheld so terrible a
sight.

It is the custom, that every Wednesday (which, as
I have observed, is their Sabbath) the king and queen,
with the royal issue of both sexes, dine together in
the apartment of his majesty, to whom I was now
A VOVAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 115

become a great favourite; and at these times, my
little chair and table were placed at his left hand,
before one of the salt-cellars. This prince took a
pieasure in conversing with me, inquiring into the
manners, religion, laws, government, and learning of
l able. His apprehension was so clear, and his judg-
ment so exact, that he made very wise reflections and
observations upon all I said. But, I confess, that,
after I had been a little too copious in talking of my
own beloved country, of our trade, and wars by sea
and land, of our schisms in religion, and parties in
the state, the prejudices of his education prevailed so
far, that he could not forbear taking me up in his
right hand, and stroking me gently with the other,
after a hearty fit of laughing, asked me, Whether I was
a Whig or Tory? Then turning to his first minister,
who waited behind him with a white staff, near
as tall as the mainmast of the “Royal Sovereign,”
he observed, How contemptible a thing was human
grandeur, which could be mimicked by such diminu-
tive insects as I: and yet, says he, I dare engage,
these creatures have their titles and distinctions of
honour; they contrive little nests and burrows, that
they call houses and cities; they make a figure in
Gress and equipage; they love, they fight, they dis-
pute, they cheat, they betray! And thus he continued
on, while my colour came and went several times,
with indignation, to hear our noble country, the
mistress of arts and arms, the scourge of France, the
arbitress of Europe, the seat of virtue, piety, honour,
and truth, the pride and envy of the world, so con-
temptuously treated.
116. GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

But as I was not in a condition to resent injuries,’
so upon mature thoughts, I began to doubt whether
I was injured or no. For, after having been accus-
tomed several months to the sight and converse of
this people, and observed every object upon which I
cast mine eyes to be of proportionable magnitude,
the horror I had at first conceived from their bulk and.
aspect was so far worn off, that, if I had then beheld
a company of English lords and ladies in their finery
and birthday clothes, acting their several parts in the
most courtly manner of strutting, and bowing, and
prating; to say the truth, I should have been strongly
tempted to laugh as much at them as the king and
his grandees did at me. Neither, indeed, could I for-
bear smiling at myself, when the queen used to place
me upon her hand towards a looking-glass, by which
both our persons appeared before me in full view
together; and there could be nothing more ridiculous
than the comparison: so that I really began to ima-
gine myself dwindled many degrees below my usual
SIZe,

Nothing angered and mortified me so much as the
queen’s dwarf; who, being of the lowest stature that
was ever in that country (for I verily think he was
not full thirty feet high), became so insolent at seeing
a creature so much beneath him, that he would
always effect to swagger and look big as he passed
by me in the queen’s antechamber, while I was stand-
ing on some table, talking with the lords or ladies of
the court, and he seldom failed of a smart word or
two upon my Z2tleness ; against which I could only
revenge myself by calling him dvother, challenging
him to wrestle, and such repartees as are usually in
A VOYAGE TO BROLDINGNAG. 117

the mouths of court pages. One day, at dinner,
this malicious little cub was so nettled with something
I had said to him, that, raising himself upon the frame
of her majesty’s chair, he took me up by the middle,
as I was sitting down, not thinking any harm, and let
me drop into a large silver bowl of cream, and then
Yan away as fast as he could. I fell over head and
ears, and, if I had not been a good swimmer, it might
have gone very hard with me; for Glumdalclitch in
that instant happened to be at the other end of the
room, and the queen was in such a fright, that she
wanted presence of mind to assist me. But my little
nurse ran to my relief, and took me out, after I had
swallowed above a quart of cream. I was put
to bed: however, I received no other damage than
the loss of a suit of clothes, which was utterly
spoiled. The dwarf was soundly whipped, and, as
a further punishment, forced to drink up the bowl
of cream into which he had thrown me: neither was
he ever restored to favour; for soon after the queen
bestowed him on a lady of high quality ; so that I
saw him no more, to my very great satisfaction; for
I could not tell to what extremity such a malicious
urchin might have carried his resentment.

He had before served me a scurvy trick, which set
the queen a-laughing, although at the same time she
was heartily vexed, and would have immediately
cashiered him, if I had not been so generous as to
intercede. Her majesty had taken a marrow-bone
upon her plate, and, after knocking out the marrow,
placed the bone again in the dish erect, as it stood
before; the dwarf, watching his opportunity while
Glumdalclitch was gone to the sideboard, mounted
118 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

the stool that she stood on to take care of me at
meals, took me up in both hands, and squeezing my
legs together, wedged them into the marrow-bone
above my waist, where I stuck for some time, and
made a very ridiculous figure. I believe it was near
a minute before any one knew what was become of
me; for I thought it below me to cry out: But, as
princes seldom get their meat hot, my legs were not
scalded, only my stockings and breeches in a sad
condition. The dwarf, at my entreaty, had no other
punishment than a sound whipping. | .

I was frequently rallied by the queen upon ac-
count of my fearfulness; and she used to ask me
whether the people of my country were as creat
cowards as myself? The occasion was this: The
kingdom is much pestered with flies in summer;
and these odious insects, each of them as big asa
Dunstable lark, hardly give me any rest while I sat
at dinner, with their continual humming and buzzing
about mine ears. They would sometimes alight
upon my victuals, and leave their loathsome excre-
ment or spawn behind, which to me was very visible,
though not to the natives of that country, whose
large optics were not so acute as mine in viewing
smaller objects. Sometimes they would fix upon
my nose or forehead, where they stung me to the
quick, smelling very offensively; and I could easily
trace that viscous matter, which, our naturalists tell
us, enables those creatures to walk with their feet
upwards upon aceiling. I had much ado to defend
myself against these detestable animals, and could
not forbear starting when they came on my face,
It was the common practice of the dwarf to catch a
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 11g

number of these insects in his hand, as school-boys
do among us, and let them out suddenly under my
nose, on purpose to frighten me and divert the queen.
My remedy was to cut them in pieces with my knife,
as they flew in the air, wherein my dexterity was
much admired,

I remember, one morning, when Glumdalclitch had
set me in my box upon a window, as she usually did
in fair days, to give me air (for I durst not venture
to let the box be hung ona nail out of the window;
as we do with cages in England), after I had lifted
up one of my sashes, and sat down at my table to
eat a piece of sweet cake for my breakfast, above
twenty wasps, allured by the smell, came flying into
the room, humming louder than the drones of as
many bagpipes. Some of them seized my cake, and
carried it piecemeal away; others flew about my
head and face, confounding me with the noise, and
putting me in the utmost terror of their stings.
However, I had the courage to rise and draw my
hanger, and attack them in the air. I despatched
four of them, but the rest got away, and I presently
shut my window. These insects were as large as
partridges: I took out their stings, found them an
inch and a half long, and as sharp as needles, I
carefully preserved them all; and having since shown
them, with some other curiosities, in several parts of
Europe, upon my return to England I gave three of
them to Gresham College, and kept the fourth for
myself.
120 GULLIVER’ S TRAVELS.

CHAPTER IV,

THE COUNTRY DESCRIBED—A PROPOSAL FOR CORRECTING
MODERN MAPS—THE KINGS PALACE, AND SOME AC-
COUNT OF THE METROPOLIS—THE AUTHOR’S WAY OF
TRAVELLING—THE CHIEF TEMPLE DESCRIBED.

I NOW intend to give the reader a short description
of this country, as far as I travelled in it, which was
not above two thousand miles round Lorbrulgrud the
metropolis; for the queen, whom I always attended,
never went farther when she accompanied the king
in his progresses, and there stayed till his majesty
returned from viewing his frontiers. The whole
extent of this prince’s dominions reaches about six
thousand miles in length, and from three to five in
breadth: whence, I cannot but conclude, that our
ceographers of Ikurope are in a great error, by sup-
posing nothing but sea between Japan and California ;
for, it was ever my opinion, that there must be a
balance of earth to counterpoise the great continent
of Tartary; and therefore they oucht to correct their
maps and charts, by joining this vast tract of land to
the north-west parts of America, wherein I shall be
ready to lend them my assistance.

The kingdom is a peninsula, terminated to the
north-east by a ridge of mountains thirty miles hich,
which are altogether impassable, by reason of the
volcanoes upon the tops: neither do the most learned
know what sort of mortals inhabit beyond those
mountains, or whether they be inhabited at all. On
the three other sides it 1s bounded by the ocean.
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 121

There is not one seaport in the whole kingdom: and
those parts of the coast into which the rivers issue
are so full of pointed rocks, and the sea generally so
rough, that there is no venturing with the smallest of
their boats; so that these people are wholly excluded
from any commerce with the rest of the world. But
the large rivers are full of vessels and abound with
excellent fish; for they seldom get any from the sea,
because the sea-fish are of the same size with those
in Europe, and consequently not worth catching;
whereby it is manifest, that nature, in the production
of plants and animals of so extraordinary a bulk, is
wholly confined to this continent, of which I leave
the reasons to be determined by philosophers. How-
ever, now and then, they take a whale that happens
to be dashed against the rocks, which the common
people feed on heartily. These whales I have known
so large, that a man could hardly carry one upon his
shoulders; and sometimes, for curiosity, they are
brought in hampers to Lorbrulgrud: I saw one of
them in a dish at the king’s table, which passed for
a rarity, but I did not observe he was fond of it; for
I think, indeed, the bigness disgusted him, although
I have seen one somewhat larger in Greenland.

The country is well inhabited, for it contains fifty-
one cities, near a hundred walled towns, and a great
number of villages. To satisfy my curious reader, it
may be sufficient to describe Lorbrulerud. This city
stands upon almost two equal parts, on each side the
river that passes through, It contains above eighty
thousand houses, and about six hundred thousand
inhabitants, It is in leneth three Slomglungs (which
make about fifty-four English miles), and two and a
122 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

half in breadth; as I measured it myself in the royal
map, made by the kine’s order, which was laid on the
ground on purpose for me, and extended a hundred
feet: I paced the diameter and circumference several
times barefoot, and, computing by the scale, measured
it pretty exactly. :
The king’s palace is no regular edifice, but a heap
of building, about seven miles round: the chief rooms
are generally two hundred and forty feet high, and
broad and long in proportion. A coach was allowed
to Glumdalclitch and me, wherein her governess fre-
quently took her out to see the town, or go among
the shops; and I was always of the party, carried in
my box; although the girl, at my own desire, would
often take me out and hold me in her hand, that I
might more conveniently view the houses and the
people, as we passed along the streets. I reckoned
our coach to be about a square of Westminster
Hall, but not altogether so high; however, I cannot
be very exact. One day the governess ordered
our coachman to stop at several shops, where the
beggars, watching their opportunity, crowded to the
sides of the coach, and gave me the most horrible
spectacle that ever a European eye beheld. There
was a woman with a cancer in her breast, swelled to
a monstrous size, full of holes, in two or three of
which I could have easily crept, and covered my
whole body. There was a fellow with a wen in his
neck, larger than five woolpacks; and another with
a couple of wooden legs, each about twenty feet high.
But the most hateful sight of all, was the lice crawl-
ing on their clothes. I could see distinctly the limbs
of those vermin with my naked eye, much better
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 123

than those of a European louse through a micro-
scope, and their snouts, with which they rocted like
swine, They were the first I had ever beheld, and I
should have been curious enough to dissect one of
them, if I had had proper instruments, which I un-
luckily left behind me in the ship, although, indeed,
the sight was so nauseous, that it perfectly turned
my stomach, |

Besides the large box in which I was usually
carried, the queen ordered a smaller one to be made
for me, of about twelve feet square, and ten hich,
for the convenience of travelling: because the other
was somewhat too large for Glumdalclitch’s lap, and
cumbersome in the coach; it was made by the same
artist, whom I directed in the whole contrivance,
This travelling-closet was an exact square, with a
window in the middle of three of the squares, and
each window was latticed with iron wire on the
outside, to prevent accidents in long journeys. On
the fourth side, which had no window, two strong
staples were fixed, through which the person that
carried me, when I had a mind to be on horseback,
put a leathern belt, and buckled it about his waist,
This was always the office of some grave, trusty
servant in whom I could confide, whether I attended
the king and queen in their progresses, or were dis-
posed to see the gardens, or pay a visit to some
creat lady or minister of state in the court, when
Glumdalclitch happened to be out of order; for I
soon began to be known and esteemed among the
greatest officers; I suppose more upon the account
of their majesties’ favour, than any merit of my own,
In journeys, when I was weary of the coach, a ser-
124 GULLIVER S TRAVELS.

vant on horseback would buckle on my box, and
place it upon a cushion before him; and there I had
a full prospect of the country on three sides, from
my three windows. I had, in this closet, a field-bed
and a hammock hung from the ceiling, two chairs
and a table, neatly screwed to the floor, to prevent
being tossed about by the agitation of the horse or
the coach. And having been long used to sea voy-
ages, those motions, although sometimes very violent,
did not much discompcse me.

Whenever I had a mind to see the town, it was
always in my travelling closet; which Glumdalclitch
held in her lap in a kind of open sedan, after the
fashion of the country, borne by four men, and
attended by two others in the queen’s livery. The
people, who had often heard of me, were very curious
to crowd about the sedan, and the girl was com-
plaisant enough to make the bearers stop, and to
take me in her hand, that I might be more con-
veniently seen.

I was very. desirous to see the chief temple, and
particularly the tower belonging to it, which is
reckoned the highest in the kingdom. Accordingly
one day my nurse carried me thither, but I may truly
say I came back disappointed; for the heicht is not
above three thousand feet, reckoning from the ground
to the highest pinnacle top; which, allowing for the
difference between the size of those people and us in
Europe, is no great matter for admiration, nor at all
equal in proportion (if I rightly remember) to Salis-
bury steeple. But, not to detract from a nation, to
which, during my life, I shall acknowledge myself
extremely obliged, it must be allowed, that whatever
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 125

this famous tower wants in height, is amply made up
in beauty and strength. For the walls are near a
hundred feet thick, built of hewn stone, whereof each
is about forty feet square, and adorned on all sides
with statues of gods and emperors, cut in marble
larger than the life, placed in their several niches. I
measured a little finger which had fallen down from
one of these statues, and lay unperceived among
some rubbish, and found it exactly four feet and
an inch in length. Glumdalclitch wrapped it up in
her handkerchief, and carried it home in her pocket,
to keep among other trinkets, of which the girl was
very fond, as children at her age usually are.

The king’s kitchen is indeed a noble building,
vaulted at top, and about six hundred feet high.
The great oven is not so wide, by ten paces, as the
cupola at St. Paul’s: for I measured the latter on
purpose, after my return. But if I should describe
the kitchen-grate, the prodigious pots and kettles,
the joints of meat turning on the spits, with many
other particulars, perhaps I should be hardly believed;
at least a severe critic would be apt to think I en-
larged a little, as travellers are often suspected to
do. To avoid which censure, I fear I have run too
much into the other extreme; and that, if this
treatise should happen to be translated into the
language of Brobdingnag (which is the general name
of that kingdom), and transmitted thither, the king
and his people would have reason to complain that I
had done them an injury, by a false and diminutive
representation.

His majesty seldom keeps above six hundred
horses in his stables: they are generally from fifty
126 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

four to sixty feet high. But when he goes abroad
on solemn days, he is attended, for state, by a militia
guard of five hundred horse, which indeed I thought
was the most splendid sight that could be ever
beheld, till I saw part of his army in batalia, whereof
I shall find another occasion to speak.

CHAPTER V.

SEVERAL ADVENTURES THAT HAPPENED TO THE AUTHOR
—THE EXECUTION OF A CRIMINAL—THE AUTHOR
SHOWS HIS SKILL IN NAVIGATION.

I SHOULD have lived happy enough in that country,
if my littleness had not exposed me to several ridi-
culous and troublesome accidents; some of which I
shall venture to relate. Glumdalclitch often carried
me into the gardens of the court in my smaller box,
and would sometimes take me out of it, and hold me
in her hand, or set me down to walk. I remember,
before the dwarf left the queen, he followed us one
day into those gardens, and my nurse having set me
down, he and I being close together, near some
dwarf apple-trees, I must needs show my wit, by a
silly allusion between him and the trees, which hap-
pens to hold in their language as it does in ours,
Whereupon, the malicious rogue, watching his oppor-
tunity, when I was walking under one of them, shook
it directly over my head, by which a dozen apples,
each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel, came
tumbling about my ears; one of them hit me on the
al VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 127

back as I chanced to stoop, and knocked me down
flat on my face; but I received no other hurt, and
the dwarf was pardoned at my desire, because I had
civen the provocation.

‘Another day Glumdalclitch left me on a smooth
crass-plot to divert myself, while she walked at some
distance with her governess. In the meantime there
suddenly fell such a violent shower of hail, that I
was immediately, by the force of it, struck to the
eround: and when I was down, the hailstones gave
me such crucl bangs all over the body, as if I had
been pelted with tennis-balls; however, I made a
shift to creep on ail four, and shelter myself, by lying
flat on my face, on the lee-side of a border of lemon-
thyme; but so bruised from head to foot, that I
could not go abroad in ten days. Neither is that at
all to be wondered at, because nature, in that country,
observing the same proportion through all her opera-
tions, a hailstone is near eighteen hundred times as
large as one in Europe; which I can assert upon
experience, having been so curious to weigh and
measure them.

But a more dangerous accident happened to me in
the same garden, when my little nurse, believing
she had put me in a secure place (which I often
cutreated her to do, that I might enjoy my own
thoughts), and having left my box at home, to avoid
the trouble of carrying it, went to another part of
the garden, with her governess and some ladies of
her acquaintance. While she was absent, and out
of hearing, a small white spaniel, that belonged to
one of the chief gardeners, having got by accident
into the garden, happened to range near the place
128 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

where I lay; the dog following the scent, came
directly up, and taking me in his mouth, ran straight
to his master, wagging his tail, and set me gently on
the ground. By good fortune he had been so well
taught, that I was carried between his teeth without
the least hurt, or even tearing my clothes. But the
poor gardener, who knew me well, and had a great
kindness for me, was in a terrible fright: he gently
took me up in both his hands, and asked me how I
did? but I was so amazed and out of breath, that
I could not speak a word. In a few minutes I came
to myself, and he carried me safe to my little nurse,
who, by this time had returned to the place where
she left me, and was in cruel agonies when I did not
appear, nor answer when she called. She severely
reprimanded the gardener on account of his dog.
But the thing was hushed up, and never known at
court, for the girl was afraid of the queen’s anger;
and truly, as to myself, I thought it would not
be for my reputation that such a story should go
about. |

This accident absolutely determined Glumdal-
clitch never to trust me abroad for the future, out of
her sight. I had been long afraid of this resolution,
and therefore concealed from her some little unlucky
adventures, that happened in those times when I was
left by myself. Once a kite hovering over the garden,
made a, stoop at me, and if I had not resolutely
drawn my hanger, and run under a thick espalier,
he would have certainly carried me away in his
talons. Another time, walking to the top of a fresh
molehill, I fell to my neck in the hole, through which
that animal had cast up the earth, and coined some
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 129

lie, not worth remembering, to excuse myself for
spoiling my clothes. I likewise broke my right shin
against the shell of a snail, which I happened to
stumble over, as I was walking alone, and thinking
on poor England,

I cannot tell whether I were more pleased or
mortified to observe, in those solitary walks, that
the smaller birds did not appear to be at all afraid
of me, but would hop about within a vard’s distance,
looking for worms and other food, with as much
indifference and security as if no creature at all were
near them. I remember, a thrush had the confidence
to snatch out of my hand, with his bill, a piece of
cake that Glumdalclitch had just given me for my
breakfast. When I attempted to catch any of these
birds, they would boldly turn against me, endeavour-
ing to peck my fingers, which I durst not venture
within their reach; and then they would hop back
unconcerned, to hunt for worms or snails, as they did
before. But one day, I took a thick cudgel, and
threw it with all my strength so luckily at a linnet,
that I knocked him down, and seizing him by the
neck with both my hands, ran with him in triumph
to my nurse. However, the bird, who had only been
stunned, recovering himself, gave me so many boxes
with his wings on both sides of my head and body,
though I held him at arm’s length, and was out of
the reach of his claws, that I was twenty times think-
ing to let him go. But I was soon relieved by one
of our servants, who wrung off the bird’s neck, and
I had him next day for dinner, by the queen’s com-
mand, This linnet, as near as I can remember,

seemed to be somewhat larger than an English swan.
I
130 GULLIVER S TRAVELS.

The maids of honour often invited Glumdalclitch
to their apartments, and desired she would bring me
along with her, on purpose to have the pleasure of
seeing and touching me. They would often strip
me naked from top to toe, and lay me at full length
in their bosoms; wherewith I was much diseusted ;
because, to say the truth, a very offensive smell
came from their skins; which I do not mention, or
intend, to the disadvantage of those excellent ladies,
for whom I have all manner of respect; but I con-
ceive that my sense was more acute in proportion to
my littleness, and that those illustrious persons were
no more disagreeable to their lovers, or to each other,
than people of the same quality are with us in Eng-
land. And, after all, I found their natural smell was
much more supportable than when they used per-
fumes, under which I immediately swooned away.
I cannot forget, that an intimate friend of mine in
Lilliput, took the freedom in a warm dav, when I had
used a good deal of exercise, to complain of a strong
smell about me, although I am as little faulty that
way as most of my sex: but I suppose his faculty of
smelling was as nice with regard to me, as mine was
to that of this people. Upon this point I cannot
forbear doing justice to the queen my mistress, and
Glumdalclitch my nurse, whose persons were as sweet
as those of any lady in England,

That which gave me most uneasiness among these
maids of honour (when my nurse carried me to visit
them) was, to see them use me without any manner
of ceremony, like a creature who had no sort of con-
sequence: for they would strip themselves to the
skin, and put their smocks on in my presence, while
A VOYAGE TO RROBDINGNAG. 131

I was placed on their toilet, directly before their
naked bodies, which I am sure to me was very far
from being a tempting sight, or from giving me any
other emotions than those of horror and disgust :
their skins appeared so coarse and uneven, so vari-
ously coloured, when I saw them near, with a mole
here and there as broad as a trencher, and_ hairs
hanging from it thicker than packthreads, to say
nothing further concerning the rest of their persons.
Neither did they at all scruple, while I was by, to
discharge what they had drank, to the quantity of at
least two hogsheads, in a vessel that held above three
tuns. Ihe handsomest among these maids of honour,
a pleasant, frolicsome girl of sixteen, would sometimes
sct me astride upon one of her nipples, with many
other tricks, wherein the reader will excuse me for not
being over-particular, But Iwas so much displeased,
that I entreated Glumdalclitch to contrive some
excuse for not seeing that young lady any more.
One day, a young gentleman, who was nephew to
my nurse's governess, came and pressed them both,
to see an execution. It was of a man who had mutr-
dered one of that gentleman’s intimate acquaintance.
Glumdalclitch was prevailed on to be of the company
very much against her inclination, for she was natur-
ally tender-hearted: and as for myself, although J
abhorred such kind of spectacles, yet my curiosity
tempted me to see something that I thought must be
extraordinary. The malefactor was fixed on a chair
upon a scaffold erected for that purpose, and his
head cut off at one blow, with a sword of about forty
feet long. The veins and arteries spouted up such a
prodigious quantity of blood, and so high in the air,
132 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

that the great jet-d’eau at Versailles was not equal
for the time it lasted; and the head, when it fell on
the scaffold floor, gave such a bounce as made me
start, although I were at least half an English mile
distant.

The queen, who often used to hear me talk of my
sea voyages, and took all occasions to divert me when
I was melancholy, asked me whether I understood
how to handle a sail or an oar, and whether a little
exercise of rowing might not be convenient for my
health? I answered that I understood both very
well: for although my proper employment had been
to be surgeon or doctor to the ship, yet often upon a
pinch, I was forced to work like a common mariner.
But I could not see how this could be done in their
country, where the smallest wherry was equal to a
first-rate man-of-war among us: and sucha boat as
I could manage would never live in any of their
rivers. Her majesty said, if 1 would contrive a boat,
her own joiner should make it, and she would pro-
vide a place for me to sailin. The fellow was an in-
genious workman, and by my instructions, in ten days
finished a pleasure-boat, with all its tackling, able
conveniently to hold eight Europeans. When it was
finished, the queen was so delighted that she ran
with itin her lap to the king, who ordered it to be
put into a cistern full of water, with me in it, by way
of trial, where I could not manage my two sculls, or
little oars, for want of room. But the queen had
before contrived another project. She ordered the
joiner to make a wooden trough of three hundred
feet long, fifty broad, and eight deep; which, being
well pitched, to prevent leaking, was placed on the
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG., 133

floor, along the wall, in an outer room of the palace.
It had a cock near the bottom to let out the water,
when it began to grow stale; and two servants could
easily fillit in half an hour. Here I often used to
row for my own diversion, as well as that of the
queen and her ladies, who thought themselves well
entertained with my skill and agility. Sometimes
I would put up my sail, and then my business was
only to steer, while the ladies gave me a gale with
their fans; and, when they were weary, some of their
pages would blow my sail forward with their breath,
while I showed my art by steering starboard or lar-
board as I pieased. When I had done, Glumdalclitch
always carried back my boat into her closet, and
hung it on a nail to dry.

In this exercise I once met an accident, which
had like to have cost me my life; for, one of the
pages having put my boat into the trough, the
governess who attended Glumdalclitch very offi-
ciously lifted me up, to place me in the boat; but
I happened to slip through her fingers, and should
infallibly have fallen down forty feet, upon the floor,
if, by the luckiest chance in the world, I had not
been stopped by a corking-pin that stuck in the good
centlewoman’s stomacher; the head of the pin passed
between my shirt and the waistband of my breeches,
and thus I was held by the middle in the air till
Glumdalclitch ran to my relief.

Another time, one of the servants, whose office
it was to fill my trough every third day with fresh
water, was so careless as to let a huge frog (not per-
ceiving it) slip out of his pail. The frog lay con-
cealed till I was put into my boat, but then, seeing
134 - GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

a resting-place, climbed up, and made it lean so
much on one side that I was forced to balance it
with all my weight on the other, to prevent over-
turning. When the frog was got in, it hopped at
once half the length of the boat, and then over mv
head, backward and forward, daubing my face and
clothes with its odious slime. The largeness of its
features made it appear the most deformed animal
that can be conceived. However, I desired Glum-
dalclitch to let me deal with it alone. I banged it a
gsood while with one of my sculls, and at last forced
it to leap out of the boat.

But the greatest danger I ever underwent in that
kingdom was from a monkey, who belonged to one
of the clerks of the kitchen. Glumdalclitch had
locked me up in her closet, while she went some-
where upon business or a visit. The weather being
very warm, the closet window was left open, as well
as the windows and the door of my bigger box, in
which I usually lived, because of its largeness and
conveniency. As I sat quietly meditating at my
table, I heard something bounce in at the closet
window, and skip about from one side to the other:
whereat, although I was much alarmed, yet I ven-
tured to look out, but not stirring from my seat;
and then I saw this frolicsome animal frisking and
leaping up and down, till at last he came to my box,
which he seemed to view with great pleasure and
curiosity, peeping in at the door and every window.
I retreated to the farther corner of my room or box;
but the monkey, looking in at every side, put me
into such a fright, that I wanted presence cf mind to
conceal myself under the bed, as I might easily have
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. ‘138

or? oD
and chattering, he at last espied me; and reaching

one of his paws in at the door, as a cat does when
she plays with a mouse, although I often shifted
place to avoid him, he at length seized the lappet of
my coat (which, being made of that country silk,
was very thick and strong), and dragged me out.
He took me up in his right fore-foot, and held me as
a nurse does a child she is going to suckle, just as I
have seen the same sort of cteature do with a kitten
in Europe; and when I offered to struggle, he squeezed
me so hard, that I thought it more prudent to submit.
I have good reason to believe that he took me for a
young one of his own species, by his often stroking
my face very gently with his other paw. In these
diversions he was interrupted by a noise at the closet
door, as if somebody were opening it, whereupon he
suddenly leapt up to the window at which he had
come in, and thence upon the leads and gutters,
walking upon three legs, and holding me in the
fourth, till he clambered up to a roof that was next
to ours. [I heard Glumdalclitch give a shriek at the
moment he was catrying me out. The poor girl was
almost distracted ; that quarter of the palace was all
in an uproar; the servants ran for ladders; the mon-
key was seen by hundreds in the court sitting upon
the ridge of a building holding me like a baby in
one of his fore-paws, and feeding me with the other,
by cramming into my mouth some victuals he had
squeezed out of the bag on one side of his chaps,
and patting me when I would not eat; whereat
many of the rabble below could not forbear laugh-
ing; neither do I think they justly ought to be

oa?

done, After some time spent in peeping, grinning,
139 GULITIVEN’S TRAVELS.

blamed, for without question the sight was ridi-
culous enough to everybody but myself. Some of
the people threw up stones, hoping to drive the
monkey down; but this was strictly forbidden, or
else, very probably, my brains had been dashed out.

the ladders were now applied, and mounted by
several men, which the monkey observing, and find-
ing himself almost encompassed, not being able to
make speed enough with his three legs, let me drop
on a ridge tile, and made his escape. Here I sat
for some time, five hundred yards from the ground,
expecting every moment to be blown down by the
wind, or to fall by my own giddiness, and come
tumbling over and over from the ridge to the eaves:
but an honest lad, one of my nurse’s footmen, climbed
up, and, putting me into his breeches-pocket, brought
me down safe.

I was almost choked with the filthy stuff the
monkey had crammed down my throat; but my
dear little nurse picked it out of my mouth with a
smal] needle, and then I fell a-vomiting, which gave
me great relief. Yet I was so weak and bruised in
the sides with the squeezes given me by this odious
animal, that I was forced to keep my bed a fortnight.
The king, queen, and all the court, sent every day to
inquire after my health; and her majesty made me
several visits during my sickness. The monkey was
killed, and an order made that no such animal should
be kept about the palace.

When I attended the king after my recovery, to
return him thanks for his favours, he was pleased to
rally me a good deal upon this adventure. He asked
me what my thoughts and speculations were, while
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 137

I lay in the monkey’s paw; how I liked the victuals
he gave me; his manner of feeding; and whether the
fresh air on the roof had sharpened my stomach ?
Ile desired to know what I would have done upon
such an occasion in my own country. I told his
majesty that in Europe we had no monkeys, except
such as were brought for curiosities from other places,
and so small, that I could deal with a dozen of them
together, if they presumed to attack me. And as for
that monstrous animal, with whom I was so lately
engaged (it was indeed as large as an elephant), if my
fears had suffered me to think so far as to make use of
my hanger (looking fiercely, and clapping my hand
upon the hilt as I spoke), when he poked his paw into
my chamber, perhaps I should have given him such a
wound as would have made him glad to withdraw
it with more haste than he put it in. This I deli-
vered in a firm tone, like a person who was jealous
lest his courage should be called in question, How-
ever, my speech produced nothing else besides a loud
laughter, which all the respect due to his majesty
from those about him could not make them contain.
This made me reflect how vain an attempt it is, for
a man to endeavour to do himself honour among
those who are out of all degree of equality or com-
parison with him, And yet IJ have seen the moral
of my own behaviour very frequent in England since
my return; where a little contemptible varlet, with-
out the least title to birth, person, wit, or common
sense, shall presume to look with importance, and
put himself upon a foot with the greatest persons of
the kingdom.

Iwas every day furnishing the court with some
138 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

ridiculous story; and Glumdalclitch, although she
loved me to excess, yet was arch enough to inform
the queen whenever I committed any folly that she
thought would be diverting to her majesty. The
cirl, who had been out of order, was carried by her
coverness to take the air about an hour’s distance,
or thirty miles from town. They alighted out of the
coach near a small foot-path in a field, and Glumdal-
clitch, setting down my travelling box, I went out of
it to walk. There was a cow-dung in the path, and
I must needs try my activity by attempting to leap
over it. I took a run, but unfortunately jumped
short, and found myself just in the middle, up to my
knees. I waded through with difficulty, and one of
the footmen wiped me as clean as he could with his
handkerchief, for I was filthily bemired; and my
nurse confined me to my box till we returned home;
where the queen was soon informed of what had
passed, and the footmen spread it about the court ;
so that all the mirth for some days was at my ex-
pense.
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 139

CHAPTER VI.

SEVERAL: CONTRIVANCES OF THE AUTHOR TQ PLEASE
THE KING AND QUEEN—HE SHOWS HIS SKILL IN
MUSIC—THE KING INQUIRES INTO THE STATE OF
ENGLAND, WHICH THE AUTHOR RELATES TO HiIM—
THE KINGS OBSERVATIONS THEREON.

IT USED to attend the king’s levee once or twice a
week, and had often seen him under the barber's
hand, which, indeed, was at first very terrible to
behold; for the razor was almost twice as long as
an ordinary scythe. His majesty, according to the
custom of the country, was only shaved twice a-week.
I once prevailed on the barber to give me some of
the suds or lather, out of which I picked forty or
fifty of the strongest stumps of hair. I then took a
piece of fine wood, and cut it like the back of a comb,
making several holes in it at equal distances with as
small a needle as I could get from Glumdalclitch, [I
fixed in the stumps so artificially, scraping and slop-
ing them with my knife toward the points, that I
made a very tolerable comb; which was a seasonable
supply, my own being so much broken in the teeth
that it was almost useless: neither did I know any
artist in that country so nice and exact as would
undertake to make me another.

And this puts me in mind of an amusement,
wherein I spent many of my leisure hours, [I
desired the queen’s woman to save for me the comb:
140 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

ings of her majesty’s hair, whereof in time I got a
good quantity; and consulting with my friend the
cabinetmaker, who had received general orders to
do little jobs for me, I directed him to make two
chair-frames, no larger than those I had in my box,
and to bore little holes with a fine awl round those
parts where I designed the backs and seats: through
these holes I wove the strongest hairs I could pick
out, just after the manner of cane chairs in England.
When they were finished, I made a present of them
to her majesty, who kept them in her cabinet, and
used to show them for curiosities, as indeed they were
the wonder of every one that beheld them. The
queen would have had me sit upon one of these
chairs, but I absolutely refused to obey her, pro-
testing I would rather die a thousand deaths than
place a dishonourable part of my body on those
precious hairs that once adorned her majesty’s head.
Of these hairs (as I had always a mechanical genius)
I likewise made a neat little purse, about five feet
long, with her majesty’s name deciphered in gold
letters, which I gave to Glumdalclitch by the queen’s
consent. To say the truth, it was more for show
than use, being not of strength to bear the weight of
the larger coins, and therefore she kept nothing in it
but some little toys that girls are fond of.

The king, who delighted in music, had frequent
concerts at court, to which I was sometimes carried,
and set in my box ona table to hear them: but the
noise was so great that I could hardly distinguish
the tunes. I am confident that all the drums and
trumpets of a royal army, beating and sounding
together just at your ears, could not equal it. My
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. I4!

practice was to have my box removed from the
place where the performers sat as far as I could,
then to shut the doors and windows of it, and
draw the window-curtains ; after which I found their
music not disagreeable,

fT had learned in my youth to play a little upon
the spinet. Glumdalclitch kept one in her chamber,
and a master attended twice a-week to teach her:
I called it a spinet, because it somewhat resem-
bled that instrument, and was played upon in the
Same manner. A fancy came into my head that I
would entertain the king and queen with an English
tune upon this instrument. But this appeared ex-
tremely_difficult: for the spinet was near sixty feet
long, each key being almost a foot wide, so that
with my arms extended I could not reach to above
five keys, and to press them down required a good
smart stroke with my fist, which would be too creat
a labour, and to no purpose. The method I con-
trived was this: I prepared two round sticks about
the bigness of common cudgels; they were thicker
at one end than the other, and I covered the thicker
ends with pieces of a mouse’s skin, that by rapping
on them I might neither damage the tops of the
keys, nor interrupt the sound. Before the spinet a
bench was placed, about four feet below the keys,
and I was put upon the bench. I ran sidelong upon
it, that way and this, as fast as I could, banging the
proper keys with my two sticks, and made a shift
to play a jig, to the great satisfaction of both their
majesties; but it was the most violent exercise J
ever underwent; and yet I could not strike above
sixteen keys, nor consequently play the bass and
142 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

treble together, as other artists do; which was a
great disadvantage to my performance. |

The king, who, as I before observed, was a prince
of excellent understanding, would frequently order
that I should be brought in my box, and set upon
the table in his closet: he would then command me
to bring one of my chairs out of the box, and sit
down within three yards distance upon the top of.
the cabinet, which brought me almost to a level
with his face. In this manner I had several con-
versations with him, I one day took the freedom to
tell his majesty, that the contempt he discovered
towards Europe, and the rest of the world, did not
seem answerable to those excellent qualities of mind
that he was master of; that reason did not extend
itself with the bulk of the body: on the contrary, we
observed in our country, that the tallest persons were
usually the least provided with it; that among other
animals, bees and ants had the reputation of more
industry, art, and sagacity, than many of the larger
kinds; and that, as inconsiderable as he took me
to be, I hoped I might live to do his majesty some
signal service. The king heard me with attention,
and began to conceive a much better opinion of me
than he had ever before. He desired I would give
him as exact an account of the government of
England as 1 possibly could; because, as fond as
princes commonly are of their own customs (for so
he conjectured of other monarchs by my former
discourses), he should be glad to hear of anything
that might deserve imitation.

Imagine with thyself, courteous reader, how often
I then wished for the tongue of Demosthenes or
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 143

Cicero, that might have enabled me to celebrate the
praise of my own dear native country, in a style
equal to its merits and felicity,

I began my discourse by informing his majesty,
that our dominions consisted of two islands, which
composed three mighty kingdoms, under one sove-
reign, besides our plantations in America. I dwelt
long upon the fertility of our soil, and the tempera-
ture of our climate. I then spoke at large upon the
constitution of an English parliament; partly made
up of an illustrious body, called the House of Peers:
persons of the noblest blood, and of the most ancient
and ample patrimonies. I described that extraordi-
nary care always taken of their education in arts and
arms, to qualify them for being counsellors both to
the king and kingdom; to have a share in the legis-
lature; to be members of the highest court of judi-
cature, whence there can be no appeal; and to be
champions always ready for the defence of their
prince and country, by their valour, conduct, and
fidelity. That these were the ornament and bul-
wark of the kingdom, worthy followers of their most
renowned ancestors, whose honour had been the re-
ward of their virtue, from which their posterity were
never once known to degenerate. To these were
joined several holy persons, as part of that assembly,
under the title of bishops; whose peculiar business it
is to take care of religion, and of those who instruct
the people therein. These were searched and sought
out through the whole nation, by the prince and his
wisest counsellors, among such of the priesthood as
were most deservedly distinguished by the sanctity
of their lives, and the depth of their erudition ; who
I44 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

were indeed the spiritual fathers of the clergy and
the people.

That the other part of the oarliament consisted of
an assembly called the House of Commons, who were
all principal gentlemen, freely picked and culled out
by the people themselves, for their great abilities and
love of their country, to represent the wisdom of the
whole nation. And that these two bodies made up
the most august assembly in Europe; to whom, in
conjunction with the prince, the whole legislature is
committed. |

I then descended to the courts of justice; over
which the judges, those venerable sages and inter-
preters of the law, presided, for determining the
disputed rights and properties of men, as well as
for the punishment of vice, and protection of inno-
cence. I mentioned the prudent management of our
treasury ; the valour and achievements of our forces,
by sea and land. I computed the number of our
people by reckoning how many millions there might
be of each religious. sect, or political party among us.
I did not omit even our sports and pastimes, or any
other particular which I thought might redound to
the honour of my country. And I finished all with
a brief historical account of affairs and events in
England for about a hundred years past.

This conversation was not ended under five
audiences, each of several hours; and the king heard
the whole with great attention, frequently taking
notes of what I spoke, as well as memorandums of
what questions he intended to ask me.

When I had put an end to these long discourses,
his majesty, in a sixth audience, consulting his notes,
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 145

proposed many doubts, queries, and objections upon
every article. He asked what methods were used to
cultivate the minds and bodies of our young nobility,
and in what kind of business they commonly spent
the first and teachable part of their lives? What
course was taken to supply that assembly, when any
noble family became extinct? What qualification-
were necessary in those who are to be created
new lords; whether the humour of the prince,
a sum of money to a court lady, or a design of
strengthening a party opposite to the public interest,
ever happened to be the motives in those advance-
ments? What share of knowledge these lords had
in the laws of their country, and how they came by
it, so as to enable them to decide the properties of
their fellow-subjects in the last resort? Whether
they were always so free from ayarice, partialities,
or want, that a bribe, or some other sinister view,
could have no place among them? Whether thase holy
lords I spoke of were always promoted to that rank
upon account of their knowledge in religious matters,
and the sanctity of their lives; had never been com-
pliers with the times, while they were common priests :
or slavish prostitute chaplains to some nobleman,
whose opinions they continued servilely to follow,
after they were admitted into that assembly ?

He then desired to know what arts were practised
in electing those whom I called commoners ; whether
a stranger, with a strong purse, might not influence
the vulgar voters to choose him before their own
landlord, or the most considerable gentleman in the
neighbourhood? How it came to pass that people
were so violently bent upon getting into this assembly,

ie
146 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

which I allowed to be a great trouble and expense,
often to the ruin of their families, without any salary
or pension; because this appeared such an exalted
strain of virtue and public spirit, that his majesty
seemed to doubt it might possibly not be always
sincere? And he desired to know whether such
zealous gentlemen could have any views of refunding
themselves for the charges and trouble they were at,
by sacrificing the public good to the designs of a
weak and vicious prince, in conjunction with a cor-
rupted ministry? He multiplied his questions, and
sifted me thoroughly upon every part of this head.
proposing numberless inquiries and objections, which
I think it not prudent or convenient to repeat.

Upon what I said in relation to our courts of
justice, his majesty desired to be satisfied in several
points ; and this I was the better able to do, having
been formerly almost ruined by a long suit in
Chancery, which was decreed for me, with costs,
He asked, what time was usually spent in deter-
mining between right and wrong, and what degree
of expense? Whether advocates and orators had
liberty to plead in causes manifestly known to be
unjust, vexatious, or oppressive ?) Whether party, in
religion or politics, were observed to be of any weight
in the scale of justice? Whether those pleading
orators were persons educated in the general know-
ledge of equity, or only in provincial, national, and
other local customs? Whether they or their judges
had any part in penning those laws, which they
assumed the liberty of interpreting and glossing
upon at their pleasure? Whether they had ever, at
different times, pleaded for and against the same
A VOVAGE TO BROEBDINGNAG. 147

cause, and cited precedents to prove contrary
opinions? Whether they were a rich or a poor
corporation? Whether they received any pecuniary
reward for pleading or delivering their opinions?
And particularly, whether they were ever admitted
as members in the lower senate ?

Te fell next upon the management of our treasury;
and said, he thought my memory had failed me,
because I computed our taxes at about five or six
millions a-year, and when I came to mention the
issues, he found they sometimes amounted to more
than double; for the notes he had taken were very
particular in this point, because he hoped, as he told
me, that the knowledge of our conduct might be
useful to him, and he could not be deceived in his
calculations. But, if what I told him were true, he
was still at a loss how a kingdom could run out of
its estate, like a private person. He asked me who
were our creditors, and where we found money to
pay them? He wondered to hear me talk of such
chargeable and expensive wars. That certainly we
must be a quarrelsome people, or live among very
bad neighbours, and that our generals must needs
be richer than our kings. He asked what business
we had out of our own islands, unless upon the score of
trade, or treaty, or to defend the coasts with our fleet?
Above all, he was amazed to hear me talk of a mer-
cenary standing army in the midst of peace and
among a free people. He said, if we were governed
by our own consent, in the persons of our representa-
tives, he could not imagine of whom we were afraid,
or against whom we were to fight; and would hear
my opinion, whether a private man’s house might
148 GULLIVER’ S TRAVELS.

not better be defended by himself, his children and
family, than by half a dozen rascals, picked up ata
venture in the streets for small wages, who might get
a hundred times more by cutting their throats.

He laughed at my odd kind of arithmetic, as he
was pleased to call it, in reckoning the numbers of
our people, by a computation drawn from the several
sects among us in religion and politics. He said he
knew no reason why those who entertain opinions
prejudicial to the public should be obliged to change,
or should not be obliged to conceal them. And, as
it was tyranny in any government to require the
first, so it was weakness not to enforce the second;
for a man may be allowed to keep poisons in his
closet, but not to vend them about for cordials,

He observed, that, among the diversions of our
nobility and gentry, I had mentioned gambling: he
desired to know at what age this entertainment was
usually taken up, and when it was laid down; how
much of their time it employed; whether it ever
went so high as to affect their fortunes; whether
mean, vicious people, by their dexterity in that art,
might not arrive at great riches, and sometimes keep
our very nobles in dependence, as well as habituate
them to vile companions; wholly take them from the
improvement of their minds, and force them, by the
losses they received, to learn and practise that in-
famous dexterity upon others ?

He was perfectly astonished with the historical
account I gave him of our affairs during the last
century; protesting, it was only a heap of conspira-
cies, rebellions, murders, massacres, revolutions, ban-
ishments, the very worst effects that avarice, faction,
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 149

hypocrisy, perfidiousness, cruelty, rage, madness,
hatred, envy, lust, malice, and ambition could produce.

His majesty, in another audience, was at the pains
to recapitulate the sum of all I had spoken; com-
pared the questions he made with the answers I
had given; then, taking me into his hands, and
stroking me gently, delivered himself in these words,
which I shall never forget, nor the manner he spoke
them in: My little friend Grildrig, you have made a
most admirable panegyric upon your country; you
have clearly proved that ignorance, idleness, and
vice are the proper ingredients for qualifying a
legislator; that laws are best explained, interpreted,
and applied, by those whose interest and abilities lie
in perverting, confounding, and eluding them. I
observe among you some lines of an institution,
which, in its original, might have been tolerable,
but these half erased, and the rest wholly blurred
and blotted by corruptions. It does not appear,
from all you have said, how any one perfection is
required, toward the procurement of any one station
among you; much less, that men are ennobled on
account of their virtue; that priests are advanced for
their piety or learning; soldiers, for their conduct or
valour; judges, for their integrity ; senators, for the
love of their country; or counsellors, for their wisdom.
As for yourself, continued the king, who have spent
the greatest part of your life in travelling, Iam well
disposed to hope you may hitherto have escaped
many vices of your country. But, by what I have
cathered from your own relation, and the answers I
have with much pains wringed and extorted from
you, I cannot but conclude the bulk of your natives
150 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

to be the most pernicious race of little odious vermin,
that Nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface
of the earth.

CHAPTER VII.

THE AUTHOR’S LOVE OF HIS COUNTRY—HE MAKES A PRO-
POSAL OF MUCH ADVANTAGE TO THE KING, WHICH
IS REFECTED — THE KINGS GREAT IGNORANCE IN
POLITICS—-THE LEARNING OF THAT COUNTRY VERY
IMPERFECT AND CONFINED—THE LAWS, AND MILI-
TARY AFFAIRS, AND PARTIES IN THE STATE.

NOTHING but an extreme love of truth could have
hindered me from concealing this part of my story.
It was in vain to discover my resentments, which
were always turned into ridicule; and I was forced
to rest with patience, while my noble and beloved
country was so injuriously treated. JI am as heartily
sorry as any of my readers can possibly be that such
an occasion was given: but this prince happened to
be so curious and inquisitive upon every particular,
that it could not consist either with gratitude or good
manners, to refuse giving him what satisfaction I
was able. Yet thus much I may be allowed to say
in my own vindication, that I artfully eluded many
of his questions, and gave to every point a more
avourable turn, by many degrees, than the strictness
of truth would allow; for I have always borne that
laudable partiality to my own country, which Dio-
nysius Halicarnassensis, with so much justice, recom-
mends to an historian: I would hide the frailties and
4l VOYAGE TO LROBDINGNAG. I51

deformities of my political mother, and place her
virtues and beauties in the most advantageous licht.
This was my sincere endeavour, in those many dis-
courses I had with that monarch, although it unfor-
tunately failed of success,

But great allowances should be given to a king,
who lives wholly secluded from the rest of the world,
and must, therefore, be altogether unacquainted with
the manners and customs that most prevail in other
nations: the want of which knowledge will ever
produce many prejudices, and a certain narrowness
of thinking, from which we, and the politer countries
of Europe, are wholly exempted; and it would be
hard, indeed, if so remote a prince’s notions of virtue
aud vice were to be offered as a standard for all man-
kind.

To confirm what I have now said, and further to
show the miserable effects of a confined education, I
shall here insert a passage which will hardly obtain
belief. In hopes to ingratiate myself further into his
majesty’s favour, I told him of an invention, dis-
covered between three and four hundred years ago,
to make a certain powder, into a heap of which the
smallest spark of fire falling would kindle the whole
ina moment, although it were as big as a mountain,
and make it all fly up in the air together, with a noise
and agitation greater than thunder. Thata proper
quantity of this powder, rammed into a hollow tube
of brass or iron, according to its bigness, would drive
a ball of iron or lead with such violence and speed
as nothing was able to sustain its force. That the
largest balls, thus discharged, would not only destroy
whole ranks of an army at once, but batter the
152 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

strongest walls to the ground, sink down ships, with
a thousand men in each, to the bottom of the sea;
and, when linked together by a chain, would cut
through masts and rigging, divide hundreds of bodies
in the middle, and lay all waste before them, That
we often put this powder into laree hollow balls of
iron, and discharged them by an engine into some
city we were besieging, which would rip up the
pavements, tear the houses to pieces, burst and
throw splinters on every side, dashing out the brains
of all who came near. That I knew the incredients
very well, which were cheap and common; I under-
stood the manner of compounding them, and could
direct his workmen how to make those tubes, of a
size proportionable to all other things in his mayjesty’s
kingdom, and the largest need not be above a
hundred feet long; twenty or thirty of which tubes,
charged with the proper quantity of powder and
balls, would batter down the walls of the strongest
town in his dominions in a few hours, or destroy the
whole metropolis, if ever it should pretend to dispute
his absolute commands, This I humbly offered to
his majesty, as a small tribute of acknowledement,
in return of so many marks that I had received of his
royal favour and protection.

The king was struck with horror at the description
I had given of these terrible engines, and the proposal
I had made. He was amazed how so impotent and
erovelling an insect as I (these were his expressions)
could entertain such inhuman ideas, and in so familiar
a manner, as to appear wholly unmoved at all the
scenes of blood and desolation which I had painted,
as the common effects of those destructive machines:
A VOYAGE TO BRODBDINGNAG. 153

whereof, he said, some evil genius, enemy to man-
kind, must have been the first contriver. As for
himself, he protested, that although few things de-
lighted him so much as new discoveries in art or in
nature, yet he would rather lose half his kingdom
than be privy to such a secret; which he com-
manded me, as I valued my life, never to mention
any more,

A strange effect of narrow principles and views!
that a prince possessed of every quality which pro-
cures veneration, love, and esteem; of strong parts,
great wisdom, and profound learning, endued with
admirable talents, and almost adored by his subjects,
should, from a nice, unnecessary scruple, whereof in
Furope we can have no conception, let slip an oppor-
tunity put into his hands, that would have made him
absolute master of the lives, the liberties, and the
fortunes of his people! Neither do I say this with
the least intention to detract from the many virtues
of that excellent king, whose character, I'am sensible,
will, on this account, be very much lessened in the
opinion of an English reader: but I take this defect
among them to have risen from their ignorance, by
not having hitherto reduced politics into a science, as
the more acute wits of Europe have done. For, I
remember very well, in a discourse one day with the
king, when | happened to say, there were several
thousand books among us written upon the art of
government, it gave him (directly contrary to my
intention) a very mean opinion of our understandings,
He professed both to abominate and despise all
mystery, refinement, and intrigue, either in a prince
ora minister. He could not tell what I meant by
154 GULIIVER’S TRAVELS.

secrets of state, where an enemy, or some rival nation,
were not in the case. He confined the knowledge of
coverning within very narrow bounds, to common
sense and reason, to justice and lenity, to the speedy
determination of civil and criminal causes; with some
other obvious topics, which are not worth consider-
ing. And, he gave it for his opinion, that, whoever
could make two ears of corn, or two blades of grass,
to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew
before, would deserve better of mankind, and do more
essential service to his country, than the whole race
of politicians put together.

The learning of this people is very defective; con-
sisting only in morality, history, poetry, and mathe-
matics, wherein they must be allowed to excel. But
the last of these is wholly applied to what may be
useful in life, to the improvement of agriculture, and
all mechanical arts; so that, among us, it would be
little esteemed, And, as to ideas, entities, abstrac-
tions, and transcendentals, I could never drive the
least conception into their heads,

No law of that country must exceed in words the
number of letters in their alphabet, which consists only
of two-and-twenty. But, indeed, few of them extend
even to that length. They are expressed in the most
plain and simple terms, wherein those people are not
mercurial enough to discover above one interpreta-
tion: and to write a comment upon any law is a
capital crime, As to the decision of civil causes, or
proceedings against criminals, their precedents are
so few, that they have little reason to boast of any
extraordinary skill in either.

They have had the art of printing, as well as the
ad VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. Iss

Chinese, time out of mind: but their libraries are
not very large ; for that of the king, which is reckoned
the largest, does not amount to above a thousand
volumes, placed in a gallery of twelve hundred feet
long, whence I had liberty to borrow what books I
pleased. The queen’s joiner had contrived, in one of
Glumdalclitch’s rooms, a kind of wooden machine,
five-and-twenty feet high, formed like a standing
ladder: the steps were each fifty feet long: it was
indeed a movable pair of stairs, the lowest end
placed at ten feet distance from the wall of the
chamber. The book I had a mind to read was put
up leaning against the wall: I first mounted to the
upper step of the ladder, and turning my face towards
the book, began at the top of the page, and so
waiking to the right and left about eight or ten paces
according to the length of the lines, till I had gotten
a little below the level of mine eyes, and then de-
scending gradually till I came to the bottom; after
which I mounted again, and began the other page in
the same manner, and so turned over the leaf, which
I could easily do with both my hands, for it was-as
thick and stiff as a pasteboard, and in the largest
folios not above eighteen or twenty feet long.

Their style is clear, masculine, and smooth, but
not florid ; for they avoid nothing more than multi-
plying unnecessary words, or using various expres-
sions. I have perused many of their books, especially
those in history and morality. Among the rest, I
was much diverted with a little old treatise, which
always lay in Glumdalclitch’s bedchamber, and
belonged to her governess, a grave elderly gentle-
woman, who dealt in writings of morality and devo-
156 GULLIVEN'S TRAVELS.

tion. The book treats of the weakness of human
kind, and is in little esteem, except among the
women and the vulgar. However, I was curious to
see what an author of that country could say upon
such a subject. This writer went through all the
usual topics of European moralists, showing, “how
diminutive, contemptible, and helpless an animal
was man in his own nature; how unable to defend
himself from inclemencies of the air, or the fury of
wild beasts; how much he was excelled by one
creature in strength, by another in speed, by a third
in foresight, by a fourth in industry.” He added,
“that nature was degenerated in these latter declining
ages of the world, and could now produce only small
abortive births, in comparison of those of ancient
times.” He said, “it was very reasonable to think,
not only that the species of men were originally
much larger, but also that there must have been
giants in former ages; which, as it is asserted by
history and tradition, so it has been confirmed by
huge bones and skulls, casually dug up in several
parts of the kingdom, far exceeding the common,
dwindled race of men in our days.” He argued,
“that the very laws of nature absolutely required
we should have been made, in the beginning, of a
size more large and robust; not so liable to destruc-
tion from every little accident, of a tile falling from a
house, or a stone cast from the hand of a boy, or
being drowned in a little brook.” From this way of
reasoning, the author drew several moral applications,
useful in the conduct of life, but needless here to
repeat. For my own part, I could not avoid reflect-
ing how universally this talent was spread, of drawing
dh FOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 157

lectures on morality, or indeed rather matter of dis-
content and repining, from the quarrels we raise
with nature. And I believe, upon a strict inquiry,
those quarrels might be shown as ill-crounded among
us as they are among that people.

As to their military affairs, they boast that the
king’s army consists of a hundred and seventy-six
thousand foot and thirty-two thousand horse: if
that may be called an army, which is made up of
tradesmen in the several cities, and farmers in the
country, whose commanders are only the nobility
and gentry, without pay or reward. They are indeed
perfect enough in their exercises, and under very
vood discipline, wherein I saw no great merit; for
how should it be otherwise, where every farmer is
under the command of his own landlord, and every
citizen under that of the principal men in his own
city, chosen, after the manner of Venice, by ballot ?

I have often seen the militia of Lorbrulgrud
drawn out to exercise in a great field near the city,
of twenty miles square. They were in all not above
twenty-five thousand foot and six thousand horse;
but it was impossible for me to compute their
number, considering the space of ground they took
up. A cavalier, mounted on a large steed, might be
about ninety feet high. I have seen this whole body
of horse, upon a word of command, draw their swords
at once, and brandish them in the air. Imagination
can figure nothing so grand, so surprising, and so
astonishing ! it looked as if ten thousand flashes of
livhtning were darting at the same time from every
quarter of the sky.

I was curious to know how this prince, to whose
158 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

dominions there is no access from any other country,
came to think of armies, or to teach his people the
practice of military discipline. But I was soon
informed, both by conversation, and reading their
histories; for, in the course of many ages, they have
been troubled with the same disease to which the
whole race of mankind is subject; the nobility often
contending for power, the people for liberty, and the
king for absolute dominion. All which, however
happily tempered by the laws of that kingdom, have
been sometimes violated by each of the three parties,
and have more than once occasioned civil wars; the
last whereof was happily put an end to by this
prince’s grandfather, in a general composition; and
the mulitia, then settled with common consent, has
been ever since kept in the strictest duty.

CHAPTER VIII.

LHE KING AND QUEEN AMIARE A PROGRESS TO THE
FRONTIERS—THE AUTHOR ATTENDS THEM—THE
MANNER IN WAICH HE LEAVES THE COUNTRY
VERY PARTICULARLY RELATED—HE RETURNS
TO ENGLAND.

I HAD always a strong impulse that I should some
time recover my liberty, though it was impossible to
conjecture by what means, or to form any project
with the least hope of succeeding. The ship in which
I sailed was the first known to be driven within sicht
of that coast, and the king had given strict orders,
A LOVMAGCE TO BROLDDINGNHAG. 159

that if at any time another appeared, it should be
taken ashore, and, with all its crew and passengers,
brouzht in a tumbrel to Lorbrulgrud. He was
stronely bent to get me a woman of my own size, by
Whom I might propagate the breed: but I think I
should rather have died than undergone the disgrace
of leaving a posterity to be kept in cages, like tame
canary birds, and perhaps, in time, sold about the king-
dom, to persons of quality, for curiosities. I was indeed
treated with much kindness; I was the favourite of
a great king and queen, and the delight of the whole
court; but it was upon such a footing as ill became
the dignity of human kind. I could never forget
those domestic pledges I had left behind me. I
wanted to be among people with whom I could con-
verse upon even terms, and walk about the streets
and fields without being afraid of being trod to death
like a frog or a young puppy. But my deliverance
came sooner than I expected, and in a manner not
very common; the whole story and circumstances of
which I shall faithfully relate.

I had now been two years in the country; and
about the beginning of the third, Glumdalclitch and
J attended the king and the queen, in a progress to
the south coast of the kingdom. I was carried, as
usual, in my travelling box, which, as I have already
described, was a very convenient closet of twelve feet
wide. «nd I had ordered a hammock to be fixed,
by siken ropes, from the four corners at the top, to
break the joits when a servant carried me before him
on horseback, as I sometimes desired; and would
often sleep in my hammock while we were upon the
road, On the roof of my closet, not directly over
160 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

the middle of the hammock, I ordered the joiner to
cut out a hole of a foot square, to give me air in hot
weather, as I slept; which hole I shut at pleasure
with a board that drew backward and forward through
a groove,

When we came to our journey’s end, the king
thought proper to pass a few days at a palace he has
near Flanflasnic, a city within eighteen English miles
of the seaside. Glumdalclitch and I were much
fatigued: I had gotten a small cold, but the poor
girl was so ill as to be confined to her chamber. I
longed to see the ocean, which must be the only
scene of my escape, if ever it should happen. I
pretended to be worse than I really was, and desired
leave to take the fresh air of the sea, with a page
whom I was very fond of, and who had been some-
times trusted with me. I shall never forget with
what unwillingness Glumdalclitch consented, nor the
strict charge she gave the page to be careful of me,
bursting at the same time into a flood of tears, as if
she had some foreboding of what was to happen.
The boy took me out in my box, about half an hour’s
walk from the palace, towards the rocks on the sea-
shore. I ordered him to set me down, and lifting up
one of my sashes, cast many a wistful melancholy
look towards the sea. I found myself not very well,
_and told the page that I had a mind to take a nap
in my hammock, which I hoped would do me good.
I got in, and the boy shut the window close down, to
keep out the cold. I soon fell asleep, and all I con-
jecture is, while I slept, the page, thinking no danger
could happen, went among the rocks to look for birds’
eggs, having before observed him from my window,
A 1TOVAGH TO BROBDINGN 1G. 161

searching about, and picking up one or two in the
clefts. Be that as it will, I found myself suddenly
awakened with a violent pull upon the ring, which
was fastened at the top of my box for the con-
veniency of carriage. I felt mv box raised very hich
in the air, and then borne forward with prodigious
speed. The first jolt had like to have shaken me
out of my hammock, but afterward the motion was
casy cnough. I called out several times as loud as
I could raise my voice, but all to no purpose. I
looked towards my windows, and could see nothing
but the clouds and sky. I heard a noise just over
my head, lke the clapping of wings, and then began
to perceive the woful condition J was in; that some
eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak, with
an intent to let it fall ona rock, like a tortoise in a
shell, and then pick out my body, and devour it: for
the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to
discover his quarry at a great distance, though better
concealed than I could be within a two-inch board.
In a little time, I observed the noise and flutter of
wings to increase very fast, and my box was tossed
up and down hke a sign in a windy day. I heard
several bangs or buffets, as I thought, given to the
cacle (for such, I am certain, it must have been that
held the ring of my box in his beak), and then, all
on a sudden, felt myself falling perpendicularly down
for above a minute, but with such incredible swiftness
that I almost lost my breath. My fall was stopped
by a terrible squash, that sounded louder to my ears
than the cataract of Niagara; after which I was quite
in the dark for another minute, and then my box

began to rise so high, that I could see light from the
L
co GOLILVEN SS TRAVELS.

tops of the windows. I now perceived I was fallen
into the sea. My box, by the weight of my body,
the goods that were in it, and the broad plates of iron
fixed for strength at the four corners of the top and
bottom, floated above five feet deep in water. I did
then, and do now, suppose that the eagle, which flew
away with my box, was pursued by two or three
others, and forced to let me drop, while he defended
himself against the rest, who hoped to share in the
prey. The plates of iron fastened at the bottom of
the box (for those were the strongest) preserved the
balance while it fell, and hindered it from being
broken on the surface of the water. Every joint of
it was well grooved; and the door did not move on
hinges, but up and down like a sash, which kept my
closet so tight that very little water came in. I got,
with much difficulty out of my hammock, having first
ventured to draw back the slip-board on the roof,
already mentioned, contrived on purpose to let in air,
for want of which I found myself almost stifled,
How often did I then wish myself with my dear
Glumdalclitch, from whom one single hour had so far
divided me! And I may say with truth, that, in the
midst of my own misfortunes, I could not forbear
lamenting my poor nurse, the grief she would suffer
for my loss, the displeasure of the queen, and the
ruin of her fortune. Perhaps many travellers have
not been under greater difficulties and distress than
I was at this juncture, expecting every moment to
sce my box dashed to pieces, or, at least, overset by
the first violent blast, or rising wave. A breach in
one single pane of glass would have been immediate
death : nor could anything have preserved the win-
ad TOYACGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 163

dows, but the strong lattice wires placed on the out-
side, against accidents in travelling, I saw the water
ooze in at several crannies, although the leaks were
not considerable, and I endeavoured to stop them as
well as I could. I was not able to lift up the roof of
my closet, which otherwise I certainly should have
done, and sat on the top of it; where I micht at least
preserve myself some hours longer, than by being
shut up (as I may call it) in the hold. Or, if I
escaped these dangers for a day or two, what could
I expect but a miserable death of cold and hunger ?
I was for four hours under these circumstances, ex-
pecting, and indeed wishing, every moment to be
mv last.

I have already told the reader, that there were
two strong staples fixed upon that side of my box
which had no window, and into which the servant,
who used to carry me on horseback, would put a
leathern belt, and buckle it about his waist. Being
in this disconsolate state, I heard, or at least thought
I heard, some kind of grating noise on that side of
my box where the staples were fixed; and soon after
I began to fancy that the box was pulled or towed
along the sea; for I now and then felt a sort of tug-
ging, which made the waves rise near the tops of my
windows, leaving me almost in the dark. This gave
me some faint hopes of relief, although I was not
able to imagine how it could be brought about. I
ventured to unscrew one of my chairs, which were
always fastened to the floor; and having made a
hard shift to screw it down again, directly under the
slipping-board that I had lately opened, I mounted |
on the chair, and, putting my mouth as near as I
164 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

could to the hole, I called for help in a loud voice,
and in all the languages I understood. I then
fastened my handkerchief to a stick I usually carried,
and, thrusting it up the hole, waved it several times
in the air, that, if any boat or ship were near, the
seamen might conjecture some unhappy mortal to be
shut up in the box. I found no effect from all I could
do, but plainly perceived my closet to be moved along;
and in the space of an hour, or better, that side of the
box where the staples were,and had no windows, struck
against something that was hard. I apprehended
it to be a rock, and found myself tossed more than
ever. I plainly heard a noise upon the cover of my
closet like that of a cable, and the grating of it as it
passed through the ring. I then found myself hoisted
up, by degrees, at least three feet higher than I was
before. Whereupon I again thrust up my stick and
handkerchief, calling for help till I was almost hoarse.
In return to which, I heard a great shout repeated
three times, giving me such transports of joy as are
not to be conceived but by those who feel them. I
now heard a trampling over my head, and somebody
calling through the hole with a loud voice, in the
I’nglish tongue, If there be anybody below, let them
speak. I answered, I was an Englishman, drawn, by
ill fortune, into the greatest calamity that ever any
creature underwent, and begged, by all that was
moving, to be delivered out of the dungeon I was in.
The voice replied, I was safe, for my box was fastened
to their ship, and the carpenter should immediately
come and sawa hole in the cover, large enough to
pull me out. I answered, that was needless, and
would take up too much time; for there was no more
a VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 165

to be done, but let one of the crew put his finger
into the ring, and take the box out of the sea into
the ship, and so into the captain’s cabin. Some of
them, upon hearing me talk so wildly, thought
I was mad; others laughed; for indeed it never
came into my head that I was now got among
people of my own stature and strength. The car-
penter came, and, in a few minutes, sawed a passage
about four feet square, then let down a small ladder,
upon which I mounted, and thence was taken into
the ship in a very weak condition.

The satlors were all in amazement, and asked me
a thousand questions, which I had no inclination to
answer. I was equally confounded at the sight of
so many pigmies, for such I took them to be, after
having so long accustomed mine eves to the mon-
strous objects I had left. But the captain, Mr.
Thomas Wilcocks, an honest worthy Shropshireman,
observing I was ready to faint, took me into his
cabin, gave me a cordial to comfort me, and made
me turn in upon his own bed, advising me to take a
little rest, of which I had great need. Before I went
to sleep, I gave him to understand, that I had some
valuable furniture in my box, too good to be lost; a
fine hammock—a handsome field bed—two chairs—
a table—and a cabinet. That my closet was hung
on all sides, or rather quilted with silk and cotton:
that, if he would let one of the crew bring my closet
into his cabin, I would open it there before him, and
show him my goods. The captain, hearing me utter
these absurdities, concluded I was raving; however
(1 suppose to pacify me), he promised to give order
as I desired, and going upon deck, sent some of his




166 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

men down into my closet, whence (as I afterwards
found) they drew up all my goods, and stripped off
the quilting; but the chairs, cabinet, and bedstead,
being screwed to the floor, were much damaged by
the ignorance of the seamen, who tore them up by
force. Then they knocked off some of the boards
for the use of the ship, and wnen they had got all
they had a mind for, let the hull drop into the sea,
which, by reason of many breaches made in the
bottom and sides, sunk to rights, And, indeed, I
was glad not to have been a spectator of the havoc
they made, because I am confident it would have
sensibly touched me, by bringing former passages
into my mind, which I would rather have forgot.

I slept some hours, but perpetually disturbed with
dreams of the place I had left, and the dangers I had
escaped. However, upon waking, I found myself
much recovered. It was now about cight o'clock at
night, and the captain ordered supper immediately,
thinking I had already fasted too long. He enter-
tained me with creat kindness, observing me not to
look wildly, or talk inconsistently ; and, when we were
left alone, desired I would give him a relation of my
travels, and by what accident I came to be set adrift
in that monstrous wooden chest. He said, that about
twelve o'clock at noon, as he was looking through his
class, he spied it at a distance, and thought it was a
sail, which he had a mind to make, being not much
out of his course, in hopes of buying some biscuit, his
own beginning to fall short. ‘That, upon coming
nearer, and finding his error, he sent out his long-
boat to discover what it was ; that his men came back
in a fright, swearing they had seen a swimming house.
ad VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 167

That he laughed at their folly, and went himself in
the boat, ordering his men to take a strong cable
along with them. That the weather being calm,
he rowed round me several times, observed my win-
dows, and wire lattices that defended them. That
he discovered two staples upon one side, which was
all of boards, without any passage for light. He
then commanded his men to row up to that side,
and fastening a cable to one of the staples, ordered
them to tow my chest, as they called it, toward the
ship. When it was there, he gave directions to
fasten another cable to the ring fixed in the cover,
and to raise up my chest with pulleys, which all the
sailors were not able to do above two or three feet.
He said, they saw my stick and handkerchief thrust
out of the hole, and concluded that some unhappy
man must be shut up in the cavity. I asked, whether
he or the crew had seen any prodigious birds in the
air about the time he first discovered me? To
which he answered, that discoursing this matter
with the sailors while I was asleep, one of them said,
he had observed three eagles flying towards the
north, but remarked nothing of their being larger
than the usual size; which, I suppose, must be
imputed to the great height they were at; and he
could not guess the reason of my question. I then
asked the captain how far off he reckoned we might
be from land? He said, by the best computation he
could make, we were, at least, a hundred leagues.
I assured him that he must be mistaken by almost
half, for I had not left the country whence I came
above two hours before I dropped into the sea.
Whereupon, he began again to think that my brain
168 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

was disturbed, of which he gave mea hint, and advised
me to go to bed ina cabin he had provided. I assured
him, I was well refreshed with his good entertainment
and company, and as much in my senses as ever I
was in my life. He then grew serious, and desired
to ask me freely, whether I were not troubled in my
mind by the consciousness of some enormous crime,
for which I was punished, at the command of some
prince, by exposing me in that chest; as great
criminals, in other countries, have been forced to sea
in a leaky vessel, without provisions: for although he
should be sorry to have taken so ill a man into his
ship, yet he would engage his word to set me safe
ashore in the first port where he arrived. He added,
that his suspicions were much increased, by some
very absurd speeches I had delivered at first to his
sailors, and afterwards to himself, in relation to my
closet or chest, as well as by my odd looks and
behaviour while I was at supper.

I begged his patience to hear me tell my story,
which I faithfully did, from the last time I left
england to the moment he first discovered me.
And, as truth always forces its way into rational
minds, so this honest worthy gentleman, who had
some tincture of learning and very good sense, was
inrmediately convinced of my candour and veracity.
But, further to confirm all I had said, I entreated
him to give order that my cabinet should be brought,
of which [ had the key in my pocket; for he had
already informed me how the seamen disposed of my
closet. J opened it in his own presence, and showed
him the small collection of rarities I made in the
country trom which I had been so strangely delivered.
aA VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 169

There was the comb I had contrived out of the
stumps of the king’s beard, and another of the same
inaterials, but fixed into a paring of her majesty’s
thumb-nail, which served for the back. There was
a collection of needles and pins, from a foot to half
a yard long; four wasps’ stings, like joiner’s tacks ;
some combings of the queen’s hair; a gold ring,
which one day she made mea present of, in a most
obliging manner, taking it from her little finger, and
throwing it over my head like a collar. I desired
the captain would please to accept this ring in return
of his civilities, which he absolutely refused. I
showed him acorn that I had cut off, with my own
hand, from a maid of honour’s toe; it was about the
bigness of a Kentish pippin, and grown so hard, that,
when I returned to England, I got it hollowed into
a cup, and set in silver. Lastly, I desired him to
see the breeches I had then on, which were made of
a mouse’s skin,

I could force nothing on him but a footman’s tooth,
which I observed him to examine with great curiosity,
aud found he had a fancy for it. He received it with
abundance of thanks, more than such a trifle could
deserve. It was drawn by an unskilful surgeon, in a
mistake, from one of Glumdalclitch’s men, who was
afflicted with the toothache, but it was as sound as
any in his head. I got it cleaned, and put into my
cabinet. It was about a foot long and four inches
in diameter.

The captain was very well satisfied with this plain
relation I had given him, and said, he hoped, when
we returned to England, I would oblige the world
by putting it on paper and making it public. My
170 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

answer was, that I thought we were overstocked with
books of travels: that nothing could now pass which
was not extraordinary; wherein I doubted some
authors less consulted truth than their own vanity,
or interest, or the diversion of ignorant readers;
that my story could contain little beside common
events, without those ornamental descriptions of
strange plants, trees, birds, and other animals; or of
the barbarous customs and idolatry of savage people,
with which most writers abound. However, I thanked
him for his good opinion, and promised to take the
matter into my thoughts,

He said, he wondered at one thing very much,
which was, to hear me speak so loud; asking me
whether the king or queen of that country were thick
of hearing? I told him it was what I had been used
to for above two years past, and that I admired as
much at the voices of him and his men, who seemed
to me only to whisper, and yet I could hear them
well enough. But, when I spoke in that country, it
was like a man talking in the streets to another look-
ing out from the top of a steeple, unless when I was
placed on a table, or held in any person’s hand. I
told him I had likewise observed another thing, that,
when I first got into the ship, and the sailors stood
all about me, I thought they were the most con-
temptible little creatures I had ever beheld. For
indeed, while I was in that prince’s country, I could
never endure to look in a glass after mine eyes had
been accustomed to such prodigious objects, because
the comparison gave me so despicable a conceit of
myself. The captain said, that, while we were at
supper, he observed me to look at everything with a
A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. 171

sort of wonder, and that I often seemed hardly able
to contain my laughter, which he knew not well how
to take, but imputed it to some disorder in my brain.
I answered, it was very true: and I wondered how I
could forbear, when I saw his dishes of the size of a
silver threepence, a leg of pork hardly a mouthful, a
cup not so big as a nutshell; and so I went on,
describing the rest of his household-stuff and pro-
visions, after the same manner. For, although the
queen had ordered a little equipage of all things
necessary for me, while I was in her service, yet my
ideas were wholly taken up with what I saw on every
side of me, and I winked at my own littleness, as
people do at their own faults. The captain under-
stood my raillery very well, and merrily replied with
the old English proverb, that he doubted mine eyes
were bigger than my belly, for he did not observe
my stomach so good, although I had fasted all day;
and, continuing in his mirth, protested, he would
have gladly given a hundred pounds to have seen
my closet in the eagle’s bill, and afterwards in its fall
from so great a height into the sea; which would
certainly have been a most astonishing object, worthy
to have the description of it transmitted to future
ages: and the comparison of Phaéton was so obvious,
that he could not forbear applying it, although I did
not much admire the conceit.

The captain, having been at Tonquin, was, in
his return to England, driven north-eastward to
the latitude of 44 degrees, and longitude of 143.
But meeting a trade-wind two days after I came
on board him, we sailed southward a long time, and
coasting New Holland, kept our course west-south-
172 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

west, and then south-south-west, till we doubled the
Cape of Good Hope. Our voyage was very prosper-
ous, but I shall not trouble the reader with a journal
ofit. The captain called in at one or two ports, and
sent in his long-boat for provisions and fresh water ;
but I never went out of the ship till we came into
the Downs, which was on the third day of June
1706, about nine months after my escape. I offered
to leave my goods in security for payment of my
friecht ; but the captain protested he would not
receive one farthing. We took a kind leave of each
other, and I made him promise he would come to
see me at my house in Redriff. I hired a horse and
guide for five shillings, which I borrowed of the
captain.

As I was on the road, observing the littleness of
the houses, the trees, the cattle, and the people, I
began to think myself in Lilliput. I was afraid of
trampling on every traveller I met, and often called
aloud to have them stand out of the way, so that I
had like to have gotten one or two broken heads for
my impertinence.

When I came to my own house, for which I was
forced to inquire, one of the servants opening the
door, I bent down to go in (like a goose under a
gate), for fear of striking my head. My wife ran out
to embrace me, but I stooped lower than her knees,
thinking she could otherwise never be able to reach
my mouth. My daughter kneeled to ask my bless-
ing, but I could not see her till she arose, having
been so long used to stand with my head and eyes
erect to above sixty feet; and then I went to take
her up with one hand by the waist. I looked down
A TOYACE TO BROBDINGNAG. 173

upon the servants, and one or two friends who were
in the house, as if they had been pigmies and I a
ciant. I told my wife, she had been too thrifty, for
I found she had starved herself and her daughter to
nothing. In short, I behaved myself so unaccount-
ably, that they were all of the captain’s opinion
when he first saw me, and concluded I had lost my
wits. This I mention as an instance of the great
power of habit and prejudice.

In a little time, I and my family and friends came
to a right understanding; but my wife protested, I
should never go to sea any more ; although my evil
destiny so ordered that she had not power to hinder
me, as the reader may know hereafter. In the
meantime, I here conclude the second part of my
unfortunate voyages,
jOart LLL.

A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, BALNIBARBI,
LUGGNAG, GLUBBDUBDRIB, AND
FAPAN.



0---

CHAPTER I.

THE AUTHOR SETS OUT ON HIS THIRD VOYAGE—IS
LAKEN BY PIRATES—THE MALICE OF A DUTCAH-
MAN—HIS ARRIVAL AT AN ISLAND—HE I/S RE-
CEIVED INTO LAPUTA.

I HAD not been at home above ten days when
Captain William Robinson, a Cornish man, com-
mander of the “ Hopewell,” a stout ship of three hun-
dred tons, came to my house. I had formerly been
surgeon of another ship, where he was master and a
fourth-part Owner, in a voyage to the Levant. He
had always treated me more like a brother than an
inferior officer ; and, hearing of my arrival, made me a
visit, as I apprehended, only out of friendship, for
nothing passed more than what is usual after long
absences, But, repeating his visits often, expressing
his joy to find me in good health, asking, whether I
176 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

were now settled for life? adding, that he intended
a voyage to the East Indies in two months. At last
he plainly invited me, though with some apologies, to
be surgeon of the ship; that I should have another
surgeon under me, beside our two mates; that my
salary should be double to the usual pay; and that
having experienced my knowledge in sea affairs to
be at least equal to his, he would enter into any
engagement to follow my advice as much as if I had
shared j in the command, |

He said so many other obliging things, and I knew
him to be so honest a man, that I could not reject his
proposal; the thirst I had of seeing the world, not-
withstanding my past misfortunes, continuing as
violent as ever. The only difficulty that remained
was to persuade my wife, whose consent, however, I
at last obtained, by the prospect of advantage she
proposed to her children.

We set out on the 5th day of August 1706, and
arrived at Fort St. George the 11th of April 1707,
We stayed there three weeks to refresh our crew,
many of whom were sick. From thence we went to
Tonquin, where the captain resolved to continue
some time, because many of the goods he intended
to buy were not ready, nor could he expect to be
despatched in several months. Therefore, in hopes
to defray some of the charges he must be at, he
bought a sloop, loaded it with several sorts of goods,
wherewith the Tonquinese usually trade to the neigh-
bouring islands, and putting fourteen men on board,
whereof three were of the country, he appointed me
master of the sloop, and gave me power to traffic,
while he transacted his affairs at Tonquin.
A VOV«GE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 177

We had not sailed above three days, when a great
storm arising, we were driven five days to the north-
nortn-cast, and then to the east; after which we had
fair weatner, but still with a pretty strong gale from
the west. Upon the tenth day we were chased by
two pirates, who soon overtook us; for my sloop was
so deep laden, that she sailed very slow, neither were
we In a condition to defend ourselves.

We were boarded about the same time by both
the pirates, who entered furiously at the head of their
men; but, finding us all prostrate upon our faces,
(for so I gave order), they pinioned us with strong
ropes, and, setting a guard upon us, went to search
the sloop.

I observed among them a Dutchman, who seemed
to be of some authority, though he was not com-
mander of either ship. He knew us by our counten-
ances to be Englishmen, and, jabbering to us in his
own language, swore we should be tied back to back,
and thrown into the sea. I spoke Dutch tolerably
well; I told him who we were, and begged him, in
consideration of our being Christians and Protestants,
of neighbouring countries in strict alliance, that he
would move the captains to take some pity on us.
This inflamed his rage; he repeated his threatenings,
and, turning to his companions, spoke with creat
vchemence in the Japanese language, as I suppose,
often using the word Christianos.

The largest of the two pirate ships was com-
manded by a Japanese captain, who spoke a little
Dutch, but very imperiectly. He came up to me,
and, after several questions, which I answered in

great humility, he said, we should not die. I made
M
178 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

the captain a very low bow, and then, turning to the
Dutchman, said, I was sorry to find more mercy ina
heathen than in a brother Christian. But I had
soon reason to repent those foolish words; for that
malicious reprobate, having often endeavoured in
vain to persuade both the captains that I might be
thrown into the sea (which they would not yield to,
after the promise made me that I should not die),
however, prevailed so far, as to have a punishment
inflicted on me, worse, in all human appearance, than
death itself. My men were sent by an equal division
into both the pirate ships, and my sloop new manned. —
As to myself, it was determined that I should be set
adrift in a small canoe, with paddles and a sail, and
four days’ provisions; which last the Japanese captain
was so kind as double out of his own stores, and
would permit no man to search me. I got down into
the canoe, while the Dutchman, standing upon the
deck, loaded me with all the curses and injurious
terms his language could afford.

About an hour before we saw the pirates, I had
taken an observation, and found we were in the
latitude of 46 N. and longitude of 183. When I was
at some distance from the pirates, I discovered by my
pocket-glass several islands to the south-east. I set
up my sail, the wind being fair, with a design to
reach the nearest of those islands, which I made a
shift to do in about three hours. It was all rocky:
however, I got many birds’ eggs; and, striking fire,
I kindled some heath and dry seaweed, by which I
roasted my eggs, I ate no other supper, being re-
solved to spare my provisions as much as I could.
I passed the night under the shelter of a rock
A TOVAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 179

strewing some heath under me, and slept pretty
well.

The next day I sailed to another island, and thence
to a third and fourth, sometimes using a sail, and
sometimes my paddles. But not to trouble the
reader with a particular account of my distresses,
let it suffice, that on the fifth day I arrived at the
last island in my sight, which lay south-south-east to
the former.

This island was at a greater distance than I
expected, and I did not reach it in less than five
hours. I encompassed it almost round, before I could
find a convenient place to land in; which was a small
creck, about three times the wideness of my canoe. I
found the island to be all rocky, only a little inter-
mingled with tufts of grass and sweet-smelling herbs,
I took out my small provisions, and, after having
refreshed myself, I secured the remainder in a cave,
whereof there were great numbers; I gathered plenty
of eggs upon the rocks, and got a quanity of dry sea-~
weed and parched grass, which I designed to kindle the
next day, and roast my eggs as well as I could; for I
had about me my flint, steel, match, and burning-glass,
I lay all night in the cave where I had lodged my pro-
visions. My bed was the same dry grass and seaweed
which I intended for fuel. I slept very little, for the
disquiets of my mind prevailed over my weariness, and
kept me awake. I considered how impossible it was
to preserve my life in so desolate a place, and how
miserable my end must be. Yet found myself so list-
less and desponding, that I had not the heart to rise;
and, before I could get spirits enough to creep out of
my cave, the day was far advanced. I walked a while
180 — GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

among the rocks: the sky was perfectly clear, and the
sun so hot, that I was forced to turn my face from it;
when, all on a sudden, it became obscure, as I thought,
in a manner very different from what happens by the
interposition of a cloud. I turned back, and per-
ceived a vast opaque body between me and the sun,
moving forwards towards the island: it seemed to be
about two miles high, and hid the sun six or seven
minutes; but I did not observe the air to be much
colder, or the sky more darkened, than if I had stood
under the shade of a mountain. As it approached
nearer over the place where I was, it appeared to be
a firm substance, the bottom flat, smooth, and shining
very bright, from the reflection of the sea below. I
stood upon a height about two hundred yards from
the shore, and saw this vast body descending almost
toa parallel with me, at less than an English mile
distance. Itook out my pocket perspective, and could
plainly discover numbers of people moving up and
down the sides of it, which appeared to be sloping:
but what those people were doing, I was not able to
distinguish,

The natural love of life gave me some inward
motion of joy, and I was ready to entertain a hope
that this adventure might, some way or other, help to
deliver me from the desolate place and condition I
was in. But at the same time, the reader can hardly
conceive my astonishment to behold an island in the
air, inhabited by men who were able (as it should
seem) to rise or sink, or put it into progressive motion,
as they pleased. But not being at that time in a
disposition to philosophise upon this phenomenon,
I rather chose to observe what course the island
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 181

would take, because it seemed for a while to stand still.
Yet, soon after, it advanced nearer, and I could see
the sides of it encompassed with several gradations of
galleries and stairs, at certain intervals, to descend
from one to the other. In the lowest gallery I beheld
some people fishing with long angling rods, and
others looking on. I waved my cap (for my hat
was long since worn out) and my handkerchief to-
wards the island; and upon its nearer approach, I
called and shouted with the utmost strength of my
voice; and then looking circumspectly, I beheld a
crowd gather to that side which was most in my view.
I found by their pointing toward me, and to each
other, that they plainly discovered me, although they
made no return to my shouting. But I could see
four or five men running in great haste up the stairs,
to the top of the island, who then disappeared. I
happened rightly to conjecture that these were sent
for orders, to some person in authority, upon this
occasion,

The number of people increased, and in less than
half an hour the island was moved and raised in such
a manner, that the lowest gallery appeared ina paral-
lel of less than a hundred yards distance from the
height where I stood. I then put myself in the most
supplicating postures, and spoke in the humblest
accent, but received no answer. Those who stood
nearest over against me seemed to be persons of
distinction, as I supposed by their habit. They con-
ferred earnestly with each other, looking often upon
me. At length, one of them called out in a clear,
polite, smooth dialect, not unlike in sound to the
Italian ; and, therefore, I returned an answer in that
182 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

language, hoping at least that the cadence might be
more agreeable to his ears. Although neither of us
understood the other, yet my meaning was easily
known, for the people saw the distress I was in.

They made signs for me to come down from the
rock, and go towards the shore, which IJ accordingly
did; and the flying island being raised to a convenient
height, the verge directly over me, a chain was let
down from the lowest gallery, with a seat fastened to
the bottom, to which I fixed myself, and was drawn
up by pulleys.
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 183

CHAPTER II.

THE HUMOURS AND DISPOSITIONS OF THE LAPUTIANS DE-
SCRIBED—AN ACCOUNT OF THEIR LEARNING—OF THE
KING AND HIS COURT—-THE AUTHOR’S RECEPTION
THERE—THE INHABITANTS SUBFECT TO FEAR AND
DISQUIETUDES-——-AN ACCOUNT OF THE WOMEN,

AT my alighting I was surrounded with a crowd of
people, but those who stood nearest seemed to be of
better quality. They beheld me with all the marks
and circumstances of wonder; neither, indeed, was I
much in their debt, having never till then seen a race
of mortals so singular in their shapes, habits, and
countenances, Their heads were all inclined either
to the right or the left; one of their eyes turned in-
ward, and the other directly up to the zenith. Their
outward garments were adorned with the figures of
suns, moons, and stars; interwoven with those of
fiddles, flutes, harps, and trumpets, guitars, harpsi-
chords, and many other instruments of music un-
known to us in Europe. I observed, here and there,
many in the habit of servants, with a blown bladder
fastened like a flail to the end of a stick, which they
carried in their hands. In each bladder was a small
quantity of dried peas, or little pebbles, as I was
afterwards informed. With these bladders they now
and then flapped the mouths and ears of those who
stood near them, of which practice I could not then
184 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

conceive the meaning. It seems the minds of these
people are so taken up with intense speculations, that
they neither can speak, nor attend to the discourses
of others, without being roused by some external
action upon the organs of speech and hearing; for
which reason, those persons who are able to afford it
always keep a flapper (the original is clzmenole) in
their family as one of their domestics; nor ever walk
abroad, or make visits, without him. And the busi-
ness of this officer is, when two, three, or more persons
are in company, gently to strike with his bladder the
mouth of him who is to speak, and the right ear of
him or them to whom the speaker addresses himself.
This flapper is likewise employed diligently to attend
his master in his walks, and upon occasion to give
him a soft slap on his eyes; because he is always so
wrapped up in cogitation, that he is in manifest
danger of falling down every precipice, and bouncing
his head against every post; and in the streets of
jostling others, or being jostled himself, into the
kennel.

It was necessary to give the reader this informa-
tion, without which he would be at the same loss
with me to understand the proceedings of these
people, as they conducted me up the stairs to the
top of the island, and from thence to the royal
palace. While we were ascending, they forgot
several times what they were about, and left me to
myself, till their memories were again roused by
their flappers, for they appeared altogether unmoved
by the sight of my foreign habit and countenance,
and by the shouts of the vulgar, whose thoughts and
minds were more disengaged.
A VOVAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 18s

At last we entered the palace, and procceded into
the chamber of presence, where I saw the king seated
on his throne, attended on each side by persons of
prime quality. Before the throne was a large table
filled with globes and spheres, and mathematical
instruments of all kinds. His majesty took not the
least notice of us, although our entrance was not
without sufficient noise, by the concourse of all per-
sons belonging to the court. But he was then deep
in a problem; and we attended at least an hour be-
fore he could solve it. There stood by him, on each
side, a young page with flaps in their hands, and
when they saw he was at leisure, one of them gently
struck his mouth, and the other his right ear; at
which he startled like one awaked on the sudden,
and looking towards me and the company I was in,
recollected the occasion of our coming, whereof he
had been informed before. He spoke some words,
whereupon immediately a young man with a flap
came up to my side and flapped me gently on the
right ear; but I made signs, as well as I could, that
I had no occasion for such an instrument, which, as
I afterwards found, gave his majesty and the whole
court a very mean opinion of my understanding.
The king, as far as I could conjecture, asked me
several questions, and I addressed myself to him in
all the languages I had. When it was found I could
neither understand nor be understood, I was con-
ducted by his order to an apartment in his palace
(this prince being distinguished above all his prede-
cessors for his hospitality to strangers), where two
servants were appointed to attend me. My dinner
was brought, and four persons of quality, whom I
186 GULLIVER'S TRAVELS.

remembered to have seen very near the king’s per-
son, did me the honour to dine with me. We had
two courses of three dishes each. In the first course
there was a shoulder of mutton cut into an equila-
teral triangle, a piece of beef into a rhomboid, and
a pudding into a cycloid. The second course was
two ducks trussed up in the form of fiddles; sausages
and pudding, resembling flutes and hautboys, and a
breast of veal in the shape of a harp. The servants
cut our bread into cones, cylinders, parallelograms,
and several other mathematical figures,

While we were at dinner, I made bold to ask
the names of several things in their language, and
those noble persons, by the assistance of their flap-
pers, delighted to give me answers, hoping to raise
my admiration of their great abilities, if I could be
brought to converse with them. I was soon able to
call for bread and drink, or whatever else I wanted.

After dinner my company withdrew, and a person
was sent to me by the king’s order, attended by a
flapper. He brought with him pen, ink, and paper,
and three or four books, giving me to understand by
signs that he was sent to teach me the language.
We sat together four hours, in which time I wrote
down a great number of words in columns, with the
translations over against them; I likewise made a
shift to learn several short sentences, For my tutor
would order one of my servants to fetch something,
to turn about, to make a bow, to sit, or to stand, or
walk, and the like. Then I took down the sentence
in writing. He showed me also, in one of his books,
the figures of the sun, moon, and stars, the zodiac,
the tropics, and polar circles, together with the
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 187

denominations of many planes and solids. He
gave me the names and descriptions of all the
musical instruments, and the general terms of art
in playing on each of them. After he had left me,
I placed all my words, with their interpretation, in
alphabetical order. And thus, in a few days, by the
help of a very faithful memory, I got some insight
into their language.

The word, which I interpret the flying or floating
island, is in the original Laputa, whereof I could never
learn the true etymology. Lap, in the old obsolete
language, signifies high ; and wz¢uh, a governor ; from
which, they say, by corruption, was derived Laputa,
from Lapuntuh. But I do not approve of this deriva-
tion, which seems to be a little strained. I ventured
to offer to the learned among them a conjecture of
my own, that Laputa was guasi lap outed; lap signi-
fying properly the dancing of the sunbeams in the
sea, and outed, a wing, which, however, I shall not
obtrude, but submit to the judicious reader.

Those to whom the king had entrusted me, observ-
ing how ill I was clad, ordered a tailor to come next
morning, and take measure for a suit of clothes.
This operator did his office after a very different
manner from those of his trade in Europe. He first.
took my altitude by a quadrant, and then, with rule
and compasses, described the dimensions and out-
lines of my whole body, all which he entered upon
paper; and, in six days, brought my clothes very ill
made, and quite out of shape, by happening to mis-
take a figure in the calculation. But my comfort
was, that I observed such accidents very frequent,
and little regarded.
15a GULILIVER’S TRAVELS.

During my confinement for want of clothes, and
by an indisposition that held me some days longer, I
much enlarged my dictionary; and when I went next
to court, was able to understand many things the
king spoke, and to return him some kind of answers.
ITis majesty had given orders that the island should
move north-east and by east, to the vertical point over
Lagado, the metropolis of the whole kingdom below,
upon the firm earth. It was about ninety leagues
distant, and our voyage lasted four days and a half.
Iwas not in the least sensible of the progressive
motion made in the air by the island. On the second
morning, about eleven o’clock, the king himself in
person, attended by his nobility, courtiers, and officers,
having prepared all their musical instruments, played
on them for three hours without intermission, so
that I was quite stunned with the noise; neither
could I possibly guess the meaning, till my tutor
informed me. He said, that the people of their
island had their ears always adapted to hear the
music of the spheres, which always played at cer-
tain periods, and the court was now prepared to
bear their part, in whatever instrument they most
excelled,

In our journey towards Lagado, the capital city,
his majesty ordered that the island should stop over
certain towns and villages, from whence he might
receive the petitions of his subjects, And, to this
purpose, several packthreads were let down, with
small weights at the bottom. On these packthreads
the people strung their petitions, which mounted up
directly, like the scraps of paper fastened by school-
boys at the end of the string that holds their kite.
dA VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, EITC. 16g

Sometimes we received wine and victuals from below,
which were drawn up by pulleys,

The knowledge I had in mathematics gave me
great assistance in acquiring their phraseology, which
depended much upon that science, and music; and
in the latter I was not unskilled. Their ideas are
perpetually conversant in lines and figures. If they
would, for example, praise the beauty of a woman, or
any other animal, they describe it by rhombs, circles,
parallelograms, ellipses, and other geometrical terms,
or by words of art drawn from music, needless here
to repeat. I observed, in the king’s kitchen, all sorts
of mathematical and musical instruments, after the
figures of which they cut up the joints that were
served to his majesty’s table.

Their houses are very ill built, the walls bevel,
without one right angle in any apartment; and this
defect arises from the contempt they bear to practical
ceometry, which they despise as vulgar and mechanic;
those instructions they give being too refined for the
intellects of their workmen, which occasions perpetual
mistakes. And although they are dexterous enough
upon a piece of paper, in the management of the rule,
the pencil, and the divider, yet, in the common ac-
tions and behaviour of life, I have not seen a more
clumsy, awkward, and unhandy people, nor so slow
and perplexed in their conceptions upon all other
subjects, except those of mathematics and music.
They are very bad reasoners, and vehemently given
to opposition, unless when they happen to be of the
right opinion, which is seldom their case. Imagina-
tion, fancy, and invention, they are wholly strangers to,
nor have they any words in their language by which
190 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

those ideas can be expressed; the whole compass of
their thoughts and minds being shut up within the
two fore-mentioned sciences.

Most of them, and especially those who deal in
the astronomical part, have great faith in judicial
astrology, although they are ashamed to own it pub-
licly. But what I chiefly admired, and thought alto-
gether unaccountable, was the strong disposition I
observed in them towards news and _ politics, per-
petually inquiring into public affairs, giving their
judgments in matters of state, and passionately dis-
puting every inch of a party opinion. I have indeed
observed the same disposition among most of the
mathematicians I have known in Europe, although I
could never discover the least analogy between the
two sciences; unless those people suppose, that be-
cause the smallest circle has as many degrees as the
largest, therefore the regulation and management of
the world require no more abilities than the handling
and turning of a globe; but I rather take this quality
to spring from a very common infirmity of human
nature, inclining us to be most curious and conceited
in matters where we have least concern, and for which
we are least adapted by study or nature.

These people are under continual disquietudes,
never enjoying a minute’s peace of mind; and their
disturbances proceed from causes which very little
affect the rest of mortals. Their apprehensions arise
from several changes they dread in the celestial
bodies, For instance, that the earth, by the con-
tinual approaches of the sun towards it, must, in
course of time, be absorbed, or swallowed up. That
the face of the sun will, by degrees, be encrusted with
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. IgI

its own effluvia, and give no more light to the world.
That the earth very narrowly escaped a brush from
the tail of the last comet, which would have infallibly
reduced it to ashes; and that the next, which they
have calculated for one and thirty years hence, will
probably destroy us. For if, in its perihelion, it
should approach within a certain degree of the sun
(as by their calculations they have reason to dread),
it will receive a degree of heat ten thousand times
more intense than that of red-hot glowing iron; and,
in its absence from the sun, carry a blazing tail, ten
hundred thousand and fourteen miles long; through
which, if the earth should pass at the distance of one
hundred thousand miles from the nucleus, or main
body of the comet, it must in its passage be set on
fire, and reduced to ashes. That the sun daily spend-
ing its rays without any nutriment to supply them,
will at last be wholly consumed and annihilated ; which
must be attended with the destruction of this earth,
and of all the planets that receive their light from it.

They are so perpetually alarmed with the appre-
hensions of these and the like impending dangers,
that they can neither sleep quietly in their beds, nor
have any relish for the common pleasures and amuse-
ments of life. When they meet an acquaintance in
the morning, the first question is about the sun’s
health, how he looked at his setting and rising, and
what hopes they have to avoid the stroke of the
approaching comet. This conversation they are apt
to run into with the same temper that boys discover
in delighting to hear terrible stories of spirits and
hobgoblins, which they greedily listen to, and dare
not go to bed for fear.
192 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

The women of the island have abundance of viva-
city; they contemn their husbands, and are exceed-
ingly fond of strangers, whereof there is always a
considerable number, from the continent below,
attending at court, either upon affairs of the several]
towns and corporations, or their own particular occa-
sions ; but are much despised, because they want the
same endowments. Among these the ladies choose
their gallants: but the vexation is, that they act with
too much ease and security ; for the husband is always
so rapt in speculation that the mistress and lover may
proceed to the greatest familiarities before his face, if
he be but provided with paper and implements, and
without his flapper at his side.

The wives and daughters lament their confinement
to the island, although I think it the most delicious
spot of ground in the world; and although they live
here in the greatest plenty and magnificence, and are
allowed to do whatever they please, they long to see
the world, and take the diversions of the metropolis,
which they are not allowed to do without a particular
license from the king; and this is not easy to be ob-
tained, because the people of quality have found, by
frequent experience, how hard it is to persuade their
women to return from below. I was told that a great
court lady, who had several children, is married to the
prime minister, the richest subject in the kingdom, a
very graceful person, extremely fond of her, and lives
in the finest palace of the island,—went down to
Lagado on the pretence of health, there hid herself
for several months, till the king sent a warrant to
search for her; and she was found in an obscure
eating-house, all in rags, having pawned her clothes
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 193

to maintain an old deformed footman, who beat her
every day, and in whose company she was taken
much against her will. And although her husband
received her with all possible kindness, and without
the least reproach, she soon after contrived to steal
down again with all her jewels to the same gallant,
and has not been heard of since.

This may, perhaps, pass with the reader rather for
an European or English story, than for one of a
country so remote. But he may please to consider,
that the caprices of womenkind are not limited by
any climate or nation, and that they are much more
uniform than can be easily imagined.

In about a month’s time I had made a tolerable
proficiency in their language, and was able to answer
most of the king’s questions, when I had the honour
to attend him. His majesty discovered not the least
curiosity to inquire into the laws, government, history,
religion, or manners of the countries where I had
been; but confined his questions to the state of
mathematics, and received the account I gave him
with great contempt and indifference, though often
roused by his flapper on each side.

i
104 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

CHAPTER ITI.

A PHENOMENON SOLVED BY MODERN PHILOSOPHY AND
ASTRONOMY — THE LAPUTIANS GREAT IMPROVE-
MENTS IN THE LATTER—THE KINGS METHOD OF
SUPPRESSING INSURRECTIONS.

I DESIRED leave of this prince to see the curiosities
of the island, which he was graciously pleased to
grant, and ordered my tutor to attend me.I chiefly
wanted to know to what cause in art or nature it
owed its several motions, whereof I will now give a
philosophical account to the reader.

The Flying, or Floating Island, is exactly circular,
its diameter 7837 yards, or about four miles and a
half, and consequently contains ten thousand acres.
It is three hundred yards thick. The bottom, or
under-surface, which appears to those who view it
below, is one even regular plate of adamant, shoot-
ing up to the height of about two hundred yards.
Above it lie the several minerals, in their usual order,
and over all is a coat of rich mould, ten or twelve
feet deep. The declivity of the upper-surface, from
the circumference to the centre, is the natural cause
why all the dews and rains, which fall upon the island,
are conveyed in small rivulets towards the middle,
where they are emptied into four large basins, each
of about half a mile in circuit, and two hundred yards
distant from the centre. From these basins the
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 195

water is continually exhaled by the sun in the day-
time, which effectually prevents their overflowing.
Besides, as it is in the power of the monarch to raise
the island above the region of clouds and vapours,
he can prevent the falling of dews and rain whenever
he pleases. For the highest clouds cannot rise above
two miles, as naturalists agree, at least they were
never known to do so in that country.

At the centre of the island there is a chasm, about
fifty yards in diameter, whence the astronomers de-
scend into a large dome, which is therefore called
fiandona gagnole, or the astronomer’s cave, situated
at the depth of a hundred yards beneath the upper-
surface of the adamant. In this cave are twenty
lamps continually burning, which from the reflection
of the adamant, cast a strong light into every part.
The place is stored with great variety of sextants,
quadrants, telescopes, astrolabes, and other astro-
nomical instruments. But the greatest curiosity,
upon which the fate of the island depends, is a load-
stone of a prodigious size, in shape resembling a
weavers shuttle. It is in length six yards, and in the
thickest part at least three yards over. This magnet
is sustained by a very strong axle of adamant pass-
ing through its middle, upon which it plays, and is
poised so exactly that the weakest hand can turn it.
It is hooped round with a hollow cylinder of adamant,
four feet deep, as many thick, and twelve yards in
diameter, placed horizontally, and supported by eight
adamantine feet, each six yards high. In the middle
of the concave side, there 1s a groove twelve inches
deep, in which the extremities of the axle are lodged,
and turned round as there is occasion.
196 GULLIVEN’S TRAVELS.

The stone cannot be moved from its place by any
force, because the hoop and its feet are one continued
piece with that body of adamant which constitutes
the bottom of the island.

By means of this loadstone, the island is made
to rise and fall, and move from one place to another.
For, with respect to that part of the earth over which
the monarch presides, the stone is endued at one of
its sides with an attractive power, and at the other
with a repulsive. Upon placing the magnet erect,
with its attracting end towards the earth, the island
descends; but when the repelling extremity points
downwards, the island mounts directly upwards.
When the position of the stone is oblique, the motion
of the island is so too; for in this magnet the forces
always act in lines parallel to its direction. :

By this oblique motion the island is conveyed to
different parts of the monarch’s dominions. To ex-
plain the manner of its progress, let A B represent a
line drawn across the dominions of Balnibarbi, let
the line ¢ @ represent the loadstone, of which let d
be the repelling end, and ¢ the attracting end, the
island being over C. let the stone be placed in the
position ¢ d, with its repelling end downwards; then
the island will be driven upwards obliquely towards
LD, When it is arrived at D, let the stone be turned
upon its axle, till its attracting end points towards E,
and then the island will be carried obliquely towards
£ ; where, if the stone be again turned upon its axle,
till it stands in the position E F, with its repelling
point downwards, the island will rise obliquely to-
wards /, where, by directing the attracting end
towards G, the island may be carried to G, and
A VOVAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 197

from G to H, by turning the stone, so as to make
its repelling extremity point directly downward.
And thus, by changing the situation of the stone,
as often as there is occasion, the island is made to
rise and fall by turns in an oblique direction, and
by those alternate risings and fallings (the obliquity
being not considerable), is conveyed from one part of
the dominions to the other,

But it must be observed that this island cannot
move beyond the extent of the dominions below,
nor can it rise above the height of four miles. For
which the astronomers (who have written large
systems concerning the stone) assign the following
reason: that the magnetic virtue does not extend
beyond the distance of four miles, and that the
mineral, which acts upon the stone in the bowels of
the earth, and in the sea about six leagues distant
from the shore, is not diffused through the whole
globe, but terminated with the limits of the king’s
dominions; and it was easy, from the great advan-
tage of such a superior situation, fora prince to bring
under his obedience whatever country lay within the
attraction of that magnet.

When the stone is put parallel to the plane of the
horizon, the island stands still; for, in that case, the
extremities of it being at equal distance from the
earth, act with equal force, the one in drawing
downwards, the other in pushing upwards, and con-
sequently no motion can ensue.

This loadstone is under the care of certain astro-
nomers, who, from time to time, give it such positions
as the monarch directs. They spend the greatest
part of their lives in observing the celestial bodies,
198 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

which they do by the assistance of glasses, far excel-
ling ours in goodness. For, although their largest
telescopes do not exceed three. feet, they magnify
much more than those of a hundred with us, and
show the stars with greater clearness. This advan-
tage has enabled them to extend their discoveries
much further than our astronomers in Europe: for
they have made a catalogue of ten thousand fixed
stars, whereas the largest of ours do not contain
above one-third part of that number. They have
likewise discovered two lesser stars, or satellites,
which revolve about Mars; whereof the innermost is
distant from the centre of the primary planet exactly
three of his diameters, and the outermost, five; the
former revolves in the space of ten hours, and the
latter in twenty-one and a half; so that the squares
of their periodical times are very near in the same
proportion with the cubes of their distance, from the
centre of Mars; which evidently shows them to be
governed by the same law of gravitation that influ-
ences the other heavenly bodies.

They have observed ninety-three different comets,
and settled their periods with great exactness. If
this be true (and they affirm it with great confidence),
it is much to be wished that their observations were
made public, whereby the theory of comets, which at
present is very lame and defective, might be brought
to the same perfection with other parts of astro-
nomy.

The king would be the most absolute prince in the
universe, if he could but prevail on a ministry to join
with him; but these having their estates below on
the continent, and considering that the office of a
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 199

favourite has a very uncertain tenure, would never
consent to the enslaving of their country.

If any town should engage in rebellion or mutiny,
fall into violent factions, or refuse to pay the usual
tribute, the king has two methods of reducing them
to obedience. The first, and the mildest course is, by
keeping the island hovering over such a town, and
the lands about it, whereby he can deprive them of
the benefit of the sun and the rain, and consequently
afflict the inhabitants with dearth and diseases. And
if the crime deserve it, they are at the same time
pelted from above with great stones, against which
they have no defence but by creeping into cellars or
caves, while the roofs of their houses are beaten to
pieces, But if they still continue obstinate, or offer
to raise insurrections, he proceeds to the last remedy,
by letting the island drop directly upon their heads,
which makes an universal destruction both of houses
and men. However, this is an extremity to which
the prince is seldom driven, neither indeed is he
willing to put it in execution; nor dare his ministers
advise him to an action, which as it would render
them odious to the people, so it would be a great
damage to their own estates, which lie all below; for
the island is the king’s demesne.

But there is still indeed a more weighty reason,
why the kings of this country have been always
averse from executing so terrible an action, unless
upon the utmost necessity. For, if the town intended
to be destroyed should have in it any tall rocks, as it
cenerally falls out in the larger cities, a situation pro-
bably chosen at first with a view to prevent such a
catastrophe ; or if it abound in high spires, or pillars
200 | GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

of stone, a sudden fall might endanger the bottom or
under surface of the island, which, although it con-
sists, as I have said, of one entire adamant two hun-
dred yards thick, might happen to crack by too great
a shock, or burst, by approaching too near the fires
from the houses below, as the backs both of iron and
stone will often do in our chimneys. Of all this the
people ‘are well apprised, and understand how far to
carry their obstinacy, where their liberty or property
is concerned. And the king when he is highest pro-
voked, and most determined to press a city to rubbish,
orders the island to descend with great gentleness, out
of a pretence of tenderness to his people, but indeed
for fear of breaking the adamantine bottom, in which
case, it is the opinion of all their philosophers, that
the loadstone could no longer hold it up, and the
whole mass would fall to the ground.

By a fundamental law of this realm, neither the
king, nor either of his two elder sons, are permitted
to leave the island; nor the queen, till she is past
child-bearing.
4 VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 201

CHAPTER IV.

LHE AUTHOR LEAVES LAPUTA, IS CONVEYED TO BALNTI-
BARBI, ARRIVES AT THE METROPOLIS—A DESCRIP-
LION OF THE METROPOLIS AND THE COUNTRY AD-
JOINING — THE AUTHOR HOSPITABLY RECEIVED BY
A GREAT LORD--HIS CONVERSATION WITH THAT
LORD.

“ALTHOUGH I cannot say that I was ill treated in
this island, yet I must confess I thought myself too
much neglected, not without some degree of contempt.
for neither prince nor people appeared to be curious
in any part of knowledge, except mathematics and
music, wherein I was far their inferior, and upon that
account very little regarded.

On the other side, after having seen all the curio-
sities of the island, I was very desirous to leave it,
being heartily weary of those people. They were
indeed excellent in two sciences, for which I have
great esteem, and wherein I am not unversed; but
at the same time, so abstracted and involved in
speculation, that I never met with such disagreeable
companions. I conversed only with women, trades-
men, flappers, and court-pages, during two months of
my abode there; by which at last I rendered myself
extremely contemptible; yet these were the only
people from whom I could ever receive a reasonable

answer.
202 GULLIVER'’S TRAVELS.

I had obtained, by hard study, a good degree
of knowledge in their language; I was weary of
being confined to an island where I received so little
countenance, and resolved to leave it with the first
opportunity.

There was a creat lord at court, nearly related to
the king, and for that reason alone, used with respect.
He was universally reckoned the most ignorant and
stupid person among them. He had performed
many eminent services for the crown, had great
natural and acquired parts, adorned with integrity and
honour; but so ill an ear for music, that his detractors
reported that he had been often known to beat time
in the wrong place; neither could his tutors, with-
out extreme difficulty, teach him to demonstrate
the most easy proposition in mathematics. He was
pleased to show me many marks of favour, often did
me the honour of a visit, desired to be informed in the
affairs of Europe, the laws and customs, the manners
and learning of the several countries where I had
travelled. He listened to me with great attention,
and made very wise observations on all I spoke. He
had two flappers attending him for state, but never
made use of them, except at court, and in visits of
ceremony, and would always command them to with-
draw when we were alone together.

I entreated this illustrious person to intercede in
my behalf with his majesty for leave to depart, which
he accordingly did, as he was pleased to tell me, with
regret ; for, indeed, he had made me several offers
very advantageous, which, however, I refused, with
expressions of the highest acknowledgment.

On the 16th of February I took leave of his
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 203

majesty and the court. The king made me a pre-
sent to the value of about two hundred pounds
English, and my protector, his kinsman, as much
more, together with a letter of recommendation to
a friend of his in Lagado, the metropolis; the island
being then hovering over a mountain about two miles
from it, I was let down from the lowest gallery in the
same manner as I had been taken up.

The continent, as far as it is subject to the
monarch of the Flying Island, passes under the
general name of Baluibarbi; and the metropolis, as
[ said before, is called Lagado. I felt some little
satisfaction in finding myself on firm ground. I
walked to the city without any concern, being clad
like one of the natives, and sufficiently instructed to
converse with them. I soon found out the person’s
house to whom I was recommended, presented my
letter from his friend the grandee in the island, and
was received with much kindness. This great lord,
whose name was Munodi, ordered me an apartment
in his own house, where I continued during my stay,
and was entertained in a most hospitable manner.

The next morning after my arrival, he took me in
his chariot to see the town, which is about half the
bigness of London; but the houses very strangely
built, and most of them out of repair. The people
in the streets walked fast, looked wild, their eyes
fixed, and were generally in rags. We passed through
one of the town gates, and went about three miles
into the country, where I saw many labourers work-
ing with several sorts of tools in the ground, but was
not able to conjecture what they were about; neither
did I observe any expectation either of corn or grass,
254 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

although the soil appeared to be excellent. I could
not forbear admiring these odd appearances, both
in town and country; and I made bold to desire my
conductor, that he would be pleased to explain to
me, what could be meant by so many busy heads,
hands, and faces, both in the streets and the fields,
because I did not discover any good effects they pro-
duced; but, on the contrary, I never knew a soil so
unhappily cultivated, houses so ill contrived and so
ruinous, or a people whose countenances and habit
expressed so much misery and want.

This lord Munodi was a person of the first rank,
and had been some years governor of Lagado; but,
by a cabal of ministers, was discharged for insuffi-
ciency. However, the king treated him with tender-
ness, as a well-meaning man, but of a low contemptible
understanding,

When I gave that free censure of the country and
its inhabitants, he made no farther answer than by
telling me, that I had not been long enough among
them to form a judgment; and that the different
nations of the world had different customs; with
other common topics to the same purpose. But
when we returned to his palace, he asked me how I
liked the building, what absurdities I observed, and
what quarrel I had with the dress or looks of his
domestics? This he might safely do; because every-
thing about him was magnificent, regular, and polite.
I answered,that his excellency’s prudence, quality, and
fortune, had exempted him from those defects which
folly and beggary had produced in others. He said,
if I would go with him to his country house, about
twenty miles distant, where his estate lay, there would
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 205

be more leisure for this kind of conversation. I told
his excellency that I was entirely at his disposal; and
accordingly we set out next morning.

During our journey, he made me observe the several
methods used by farmers in managing their lands;
which to me were wholly unaccountable; for, except
in some very few places, I could not discover one ear
of corn or blade of grass. But in three hours travel-
ling, the scene was wholly altered; we came into a
most beautiful country: farmers’ houses, at small
distances, neatly built; the fields enclosed, contain-
ing vineyards, corn-grounds, and meadows. Neither
do I remember to have seen a more delightful pro-
spect, His excellency observed my countenance to
clear up; he told me, with a sigh, that there his
estate began, and would continue the same, till we
should come to his house. That his countrymen
ridiculed and despised him for managing his affairs
no better, and for setting so ill an example to the
kingdom; which, however, was followed by very
few, such as were old, and wilful, and weak, like
himself,

We came at length to the house, which was indeed
a noble structure, built according to the best rules of
ancient architecture. The fountains, gardens, walks,
avenues, and groves, were all disposed with exact
judgment and taste. I gave due praises to every-
thing I saw, whereof his excellency took not the
least notice till after supper; when, there being no
third companion, he told me, with a very melancholy
air, that he doubted he must throw down his houses
in town and country, to rebuild them after the present
mode; destroy all his plantations, and cast others
206 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

into such a form as modern usage required, and give
the same directions to his tenants, unless he would
submit to incur the censure of pride, singularity,
affectation, ignorance, caprice, and perhaps increase
his majesty’s displeasure. That the admiration I
appeared to be under would cease .or diminish, when
he had informed me of some particulars which, pro-
bably, I never heard of at court; the people there
being too much taken up in their own speculations
to have regard to what passed here below.

The sum of this discourse was to this effect: That
about forty years ago, certain persons went up to
Laputa, either upon business or diversion, and after
five months’ continuance, came back with a very little
smattering in mathematics, but full of volatile spirits
acquired in that airy region. That these persons,
upon their return, began to dislike the management
of everything below, and fell into schemes of putting
all arts, sciences, languages, and mechanics, upon a
new footing. To this end, they procured a royal patent
for erecting an academy of projectors in Lagado; and
the humour prevailed so strongly among the people,
that there is not a town of any consequence in the
kingdom without such an academy. In these colleges,
the professors contrive new rules and methods of
agriculture and building, and new instruments and
tools for all trades and manufactures; whereby, as
they undertake, one man shall do the work of ten; a
palace may be built in a week, of materials so durable
as to last for ever without repairing; all the fruits of
the earth shall come to maturity at whatever season
we think fit to choose, and increase a hundred-fold
more than they do at present; with innumerable
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 207

other happy proposals. The only inconvenience is,
that none of these projects are yet brought to perfec-
tion; and, in the meantime, the whole country lies
miserably waste, the houses in ruins, and the people
without food or clothes. By all which, instead of
being discouraged, they are fifty times more violently
bent upon prosecuting their schemes, driven equally
on by hope and despair: that, as for himself, being
not of an enterprising spirit, he was content to go on
in the old forms, to live in the houses his ancestors
had built, and act as they did, in every part of life,
without innovation. That some few other persons of
quality and gentry had done the same, but were looked
on with an eye of contempt and ill-will, as enemies to
art, ignorant, and ill commonwealth’s men, preferring
their own case and sloth before the general improve-
ment of their country,

His lordship added, that he would not, by any
farther particulars, prevent the pleasure I should
certainly take in viewing the crand academy, whither
he was resolved I should go. He only desired me to
observe a ruined building, upon the side of a mountain
about three miles distant, of which he gave me this
account: That he had a very convenient mill within
half a mile of his house, turned by a current from a
large river, and sufficient for his own family, as well
as a great number of his tenants. That about seven
years ago, a club of those projectors came to him
with proposals to destroy this mill, and build another
on the side cf that mountain, on the long ridge
whereof a long canal must be cut, for a repository of
water, to be conveyed up by pipes and engines to
supply the mill: because the wind and air upon a
208 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

height agitated the water, and thereby made it fitter
for motion; and because the water, descending down
a declivity, would turn the mill with half the current
of a river, whose course is more upon a level. He
said that, being then not very well with the court,
and pressed by many of his friends, he complied with
the proposal; and after employing a hundred men
for two years, the work miscarried, the projectors
went off, laying the blame entirely upon him, railing
at him ever since, and putting others upon the same
experiment, with equal assurance of success, as well
as equal disappointment. |

In a few days we came back to town; and his
excellency, considering the bad character he had in
the academy, would not go with me himself, but
recommended me to a friend of his, to bear me com-
pany thither. My lord was pleased to represent me
as a great admirer of projects, and a person of much
curiosity and easy belief; which, indeed, was not
without truth; for I had myself been a sort of pro-
jector in my younger days.






THE ACADEMY OF LAPUTA
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 209

CHAPTER V.

THE AUTHOR PERMITTED TO SEE THE GRAND ACADEMY
OF LAGADO—THE ACADEMY LARGELY DESCRIBED
——-THE ARTS WHEREIN THE PROFESSORS EMPLOY
THEMSELVES.

THIS academy is not an entire single building, but
a continuation of several houses on both sides of a
street, which, growing waste, was purchased and
applied to that use.

I was received very kindly by the warden, and
went for many days to the academy. Every room
has in it one or more projectors; and, I believe, I
could not be in fewer than five hundred rooms.

The first man I saw was of a meagre aspect,
with sooty hands and face, his hair and beard long,
ragged, and singed in several places. His clothes,
shirt, and skin were all of the same colour. He had
been eight years upon a project for extracting sun-
beams out of cucumbers, which were to be put in
phials hermetically sealed, and let out to warm the
air in raw inclement summers. He told me he did
not doubt that, in eight years more, he should be
able to supply the governor’s gardens with sunshine
at a reasonable rate; but he complained that his
stock was low, and entreated me to give him some-
thing as an encouragement to ingenuity, especially

since this had been a very dear season for cucumbers.
O
210 GULLIVER S TRAVELS.

I made him a small present, for my lord had furnished
me with money on purpose, because he knew their
practice of begging from all who go to see them.

I went into another chamber, but was ready to
hasten back, being almost overcome with a horrible
stink. My conductor pressed me forward, conjuring
me in a whisper to give no offence, which would be
highly resented; and therefore I durst not so much
as stop my nose. The projector of this cell was the
most ancient student of the academy; his face and
beard were of a pale yellow; his hands and clothes
daubed over with filth. When I was presented to
him, he gave me a close embrace, a compliment I
could well have excused. His employment, from his
first coming into the academy, was an operation to
reduce human excrement to its original food, by
separating the several parts, removing the tincture
which it receives from the gall, making the ordure
exhale, and scumming off the saliva. He had a
weekly allowance from the society of a vessel filled
with human ordure, about the bigness of a Bristol
barrel.

I saw another at work to calcine ice into gun-
powder, who likewise showed me a treatise he had
written concerning the malleability of fire, which he
intended to publish.

There was a most ingenious architect, who had
contrived a new method for building houses, by
beginning at the roof, and working downward to the
foundation ; which he justified to me by the like
practice of those two prudent insects, the bee and
the spider,

There was a man born blind, who had several
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 211

apprentices in his own condition; their employment
was to mix colours for painters, which their master
taught them to distinguish by feeling and smelling,
It was indeed my misfortune to find them at that
time not very perfect in their lessons, and the pro-
fessor himself happened to be generally mistaken.
This artist is much encouraged and esteemed by the
whole fraternity.

In another apartment, I was highly pleased with a
projector who had found a device of ploughing the
ground with hogs, to save the charges of ploughs,
cattle, and labour. The method is this: In an acre
of ground you bury, at six inches distance, and eight
deep, a quantity of acorns, dates, chestnuts, and other
mast or vegetables, whereof these animals are fondest :
then you drive six hundred or more of them into the
field, where in a few days, they will root up the whole
ground in search of their food, and make it fit for
sowing, at the same time manuring it with their
dung; it is true, upon experiment, they found the
charge and trouble very great, and they had little or
no crop. However, it is not doubted that this inven-
tion may be capable of great improvement.

I went into another room, where the walls’ and
ceiling were all hung round with cobwebs, except a
narrow passage for the artist to go in and out. At
my entrance he called aloud to me, not to disturb his
webs. He lamented the fatal mistake the world had
been so long in, of using silk-worms, while we had
such plenty of domestic insects, who infinitely ex-
celled the former, because they understood how to
weave, as well as spin. And he proposed farther,
that, by employing spiders, the charge of dyeing
212 GOULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

silks should be wholly saved; whereof I was fully
convinced, when he showed me a vast number of
flies, most beautifully coloured, wherewith he fed his
spiders, assuring us that the webs would take a
tincture from them; and as he had them of all hues,
he hoped to fit everybody’s fancy, as soon as he
could find proper food for the flies, of certain gums,
oils, and other glutinous matter, to give a strength
and consistency to the threads.

There was an astronomer, who had undertaken to
place a sun-dial upon the great weather-cock on the
town-house, by adjusting the annual and diurnal
motions of the earth and sun, so as to answer and
coincide with all accidental turnings of the wind.

I was complaining of a small fit of the colic, upon
which my conductor led me into a room where a
great physician resided, who was famous for curing
that disease, by contrary operations from the same
instrument. He had a large pair of bellows, with a
long slender muzzle of ivory ; this he conveyed eight
inches up the anus, and drawing in the wind, he
affirmed he could make the guts as lank as a dried
bladder. But when the disease was more stubborn
and violent, he let in the muzzle while the bellows
were full of wind, which he discharged into the body
of the patient; then withdrew the instrument to re-
plenish it, clapping his thumb strongly against the
orifice of the fundament; and this being repeated
three or four times, the adventitious wind would rush
out, bringing the noxious along with it (like water put
into a pump), and the patient recovered. JI saw him
try both experiments upon a dog, but could not
discern any effect from the former. After the latter,
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 213

the animal was ready to burst, and made so violent a
discharge as was very offensive to me and my com-
panion. The dog died on the spot, and we left the
doctor endeavouring to recover him by the same
operation.

I visited many other apartments, but shall not
trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed,
being studious of brevity.

I had hitherto seen only one side of the academy,
the other being appropriated to the advancers of
speculative learning, of whom I shall say something,
when I have mentioned one illustrious person more,
who is called among them, “The universal artist.”
He told us he had been thirty years employing his
thoughts for the improvement of human life. He
had two large rooms full of wonderful curiosities, and
fifty men at work. Some were condensing air into a
dry tangible substance, by extracting the nitre, and
letting the aqueous or fluid particles percolate; others
softening marble for pillows and pin-cushions ; others
petrifying the hoofs of a living horse, to preserve
them from foundering. The artist himself was at
that time busy upon two great designs; the first, to
sow land with chaff, wherein he affirmed the true
seminal virtue to be contained, as he demonstrated
by several experiments, which I was not skilful enough
to comprehend. The other was by a certain com-
position of gums, minerals, and vegetables, outwardly
applied, to prevent the growth of wool upon two
young lambs; and he hoped, in a reasonable time,
to propagate the breed of naked sheep all over the
kingdom.

We crossed a walk to the other part of the academy,
214 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

where, as I have already said, the projectors in
speculative learning resided.

The first professor I saw was in a very large room,
with forty pupils about him. After salutation, ob-
serving me to look earnestly upon a frame, which
took up the greatest part of both the length and
breadth of the room, he said, Perhaps I might wonder
to see him employed in a project for improving
speculative knowledge, by practical and mechanical
operations. But the world would soon be sensible of
its usefulness; and he flattered himself, that a more
noble exalted thought never sprang in any other
man’s head. Every one knew how laborious the
usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences;
whereas, by his contrivance, the most ignorant person,
at a reasonable charge, and with a little bodily labour,
night write books in philosophy, poetry, politics,
laws, mathematics, and theology, without the least
assistance from genius or study. He then led me to
the frame, about the sides whereof all his pupils stood
in ranks. It was twenty feet square, placed in the
middle of the room. ‘The superficies was composed
of several bits of wood, about the bigness of a die,
but some larger than others. They were all linked
together by slender wires. These bits of wood were
covered, on every square, with paper pasted on them;
and on these papers were written all the words of
their language, in their several moods, tenses, and
declensions, but without any order. The professor
then desired me to observe, for he was going to set
his engine at work. The pupils, at his command,
took each of them hold of an iron handle, whereof
there were forty fixed round the edges of the frame,
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 215

and giving them a sudden turn, the whole disposition
of the words was entirely changed. He then com-
manded six-and-thirty of the lads to read the several
lines softly, as they appeared upon the frame; and
where they found three or four words together that
might make part of a sentence, they dictated to the
four remaining boys, who were scribes. This work
was repeated three or four times, and, at every turn,
the engine was so contrived, that the words shifted
into new places, as the square bits of wood moved
upside down.

Six hours a-day the young students were em-
ployed in this labour; and the professor showed me
several volumes in large folio, already collected, of
broken sentences, which he intended to piece to-
gether, and, out of those rich materials, to give the
world a complete body of all arts and sciences;
which, however, might be still improved, and much
expedited, if the public would raise a fund for making
and employing five hundred such frames in Lagado,
and oblige the managers to contribute in common
their several collections.

He assured me, that this invention had employed
all his thoughts from his youth; that he had emptied
the whole vocabulary into his frame, and made the
strictest computation of the general proportion there
is in books between the numbers of particles, nouns,
and verbs, and other parts of speech.

I made my humblest acknowledgment to this
illustrious person, for his great communicativeness ;
and promised, if ever I had the good fortune to return
to my native country, that I would do him justice,
as the sole inventor of this wonderful machine ;
216 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

the form and contrivance of which I desired leave to
delineate on paper, as in the figure here annexed.*
I told him, although it were the custom of our
learned in Europe to steal inventions from each
other, who had thereby at least this advantage, that
it became a controversy which was the right owner ;
yet I would take such caution, that he should have
the honour entire, without a rival.

We next went to the school of languages, where
three professors sat in consultation upon improving
that of their own country.

The first project was to shorten discourse, by cut-
ting polysyllables into one, and leaving out verbs and
participles, because, in reality, all things imaginable
are but nouns,

The other project was a scheme for entirely abolish-
ing all words whatsoever, and this was urged as a great
advantage in point of health as well as brevity. For
it is plain that every word we speak is in some degree
a diminution of our lungs by corrosion, and, conse-
quently, contributes to the shortening of our lives,
“An expedient was therefore offered, that, since words
are only names for things, it would be more con-
venient for all men to carry about them such things
as were necessary to express a particular business
they are to discourse on. And this invention would
certainly have taken place, to the great ease as well
as health of the subject, if the women, in conjunction
with the vulgar and illiterate, had not threatened to
raise a rebellion, unless they might be allowed the
liberty to speak with their tongues, after the manner
of their forefathers; such constant irreconcilable ene-

“ This figure is thought unnecessary.
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 217

mies to science are the common people. Jlowever,
many of the most learned and wise adhere to the
new scheme of expressing themselves by things,
which has only this inconvenience attending it, that
if a man’s business be very great, and of various
kinds, he must be obliged, in proportion, to carry a
greater bundle of things upon his back, unless he can
afford one or two strong servants to attend him. I
have often beheld two of these sages almost sinking
under the weight of their packs, like pedlars among
us; who, when they met in the street, would lay
down their loads, open their sacks, and hold con-
versation for an hour together, then put up their
implements, help each other to resume their bundles,
and take their leave.

But for short conversations, a man may carry
implements in his pockets, and under his arms,
enough to supply him: and in his house he cannot
be at a loss. Therefore the room where company
meet who practise this art is full of all things, ready
at hand, requisite to furnish matter for this kind of
artificial converse.

Another great advantage proposed by this inven-
tion was, that it would serve as a universal language,
to be understood in all civilised nations, whose goods
and utensils are generally of the same kind, or nearly
resembling, so that their uses might easily be compre-
hended. And thus ambassadors would be qualified
to treat with foreign princes, or ministers of state, to
whose tongues they were utter strangers.

I was at the mathematical school, where the
master taught his pupils after a method scarce ima-
sinable to us in Europe. The proposition and
215 GULLIVER'’S TRAVELS.

demonstration were fairly written on a thin wafer,
with ink composed of a cephalic tincture. This the
student was to swallow upon a fasting stomach, and
for three days following eat nothing but bread and
water. As the wafer digested, the tincture mounted
to his brain, bearing the proposition along with it.
But the success has not hitherto been answerable,
partly by some error in the guantum or composition,
and partly by the perverseness of lads, to whom this
bolus is so nauseous, that they generally steal aside
and discharge it upwards before it can operate;
neither have they been yet persuaded to use so
long an abstinence as the prescription requires.
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 219

CHAPTER VIL.

A FARTHER ACCOUNT OF THE ACADEMY-—THE AUTHOR
PROPOSES SOME IMPROVEMENTS, WHICH ARE HONOR-
ABLY RECEIVED,

IN the school of political projectors, I was but ill
entertained, the professors appearing, in my judg-
ment, wholly out of their senses; which is a scene
that never fails to make me melancholy. These un-
happy people were proposing schemes for persuading
monarchs to choose favourites upon the score of their
wisdom, capacity, and virtue; of teaching ministers
to consult the public good; of rewarding merit, great
abilities, and eminent services; of instructing princes
to know their true interest, by placing it on the same
foundation with that of their people; of choosing for
employments persons qualified to exercise them ;
with many other wild impossible chimeras that never
entered before into the heart of man to conceive; and
confirmed in me the old observation, That there is
nothing so extravagant and irrational which some
philosophers have not maintained for truth.

But, however, I shall so far do justice to this part
of the academy, as to acknowledge that all of them
were not so visionary. There was a most ingenious
doctor, who seemed to be perfectly versed in the
whole nature and system of government. This illus-
trious person had very usefully employed his studies
220 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

in finding out effectual remedies for all diseases and
corruptions to which the several kinds of public ad-
ministration are subject, by the vices or infirmities
of those who govern, as well as by the licentiousness
of those who are to obey. For instance, whereas ail
writers and reasoners have agreed that there is a
strict universal resemblance between the natural
and the political body ; can there be anything more
evident than that the health of both must be pre-
served, and the diseases cured by the same pre-
scriptions? It is allowed, that senates and great
councils are often troubled with redundant, ebullient,
and other peccant humours; with many diseases of
the head, and more of the heart; with strong con-
vulsions, with grievous contractions of the nerves and
sinews in both hands, but especially the right; with
spleen, flatus, vertigoes, and deliriums; with scro-
fulous tumours, full of fetid purulent matter; with
sour frothy ructations; with canine appetites, and
crudeness of digestion, besides many others needless
to mention. This doctor therefore proposed, That,
upon the meeting of the senate, certain physicians
should attend at the three first days of their sitting,
and at the close of each day's debate feel the pulses
of every senator; after which, having maturely con-
sidered and consulted upon the nature of the several
maladies and the methods of cure, they should, on
the fourth day, return to the senate-house, attended
by their apothecaries stored with proper medicines:
and before the members sat, administer to each of
them lenitives, aperitives, abstersives, corrosives, re-
stringents, palliatives, laxatives, cephalalgics, icterics,
apophlegmatics, acoustics, as their several cases re-
A VOYAGE TO LAPVTA, ETC. 221

quired; and according as these medicines should
operate, repeat, alter, or omit them, at the next
meeting,

This project could not be of any great expense to
the public, and might, in my poor opinion, be of much
use for the despatch of business in those countries
where senates have any share in the legislative power;
beget unanimity, shorten debates, open a few mouths
which are now closed, and close many more which
are now open; curb the petulancy of the young, and
correct the positiveness of the old; rouse the stupid,
and damp the pert.

Again, because it is a general complaint that the
favourites of princes are troubled with short and weak
memories, the same doctor proposed, That whoever
attended a first minister, after having told his busi-
ness, with the utmost brevity and in the plainest
words, should, at his departure, give the said minister
a tweak by the nose, or a kick on the belly, or tread
on his corns, or lug him thrice by both ears, or run a
pin into his breech, or pinch his arm black and blue,
to prevent forgetfulness ; and at every levee-day re-
peat the same operation, till the business were done,
or absolutely refused.

He likewise directed, that every senator in the
cereat council of a nation, after he had delivered his
opinion, and argued in the defence of it, should be
obliged to give his vote directly contrary; because if
that were done, the result would infallibly terminate
in the good of the public.

When parties in a state are violent, he offered
a wonderful contrivance to reconcile them. The
method is this: You take a hundred leaders of each
222 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

party, you dispose them into couples of such whose
heads are nearest of a size, then let two nice operators
saw off the occiput of each couple at the same time,
in such a manner that the brain may be equally
divided. Let the occiputs thus cut off be inter-
changed, applying each to the head of his opposite
party-man. It seems indeed to be a work that
requires some exactness, but the professor assured
us, that if it were dexterously performed, the cure
would be infallible. For he argued thus: That the
two half brains being left to debate the matter
between themselves within the space of one skull,
would soon come to a good understanding, and pro-
duce that moderation, as well as regularity of thinking,
so much to be wished for in the heads of those who
imagine they come into the world only to watch and
eovern its motion; and as to the difference of brains,
in quantity or quality, among those who are directors
in faction, the doctor assured us, from his own know-
ledge, that it was a perfect trifle.

I heard a very warm debate between two pro-
fessors about the most commodious and effectual
ways and means of raising money, without grieving
the subject. The first affirmed, the justest method
would be to lay a certain tax upon vices and folly ;
and the sum fixed upon every man to be rated after
the fairest manner by a jury of his neighbours. The
second was of an opinion directly contrary: To tax
those qualities of body and mind, for which men
chiefly value themselves; the rate to be more or less,
according to the degrees of excelling; the decision
whereof should be left entirely to their own breast.
The highest tax was upon men who are the greatest
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 223

favourites of the other sex, and the assessments,
according to the number and nature of the favours
they have received; for which they are allowed to
be their own vouchers, Wit, valour, and politeness
were likewise proposed to be largely taxed, and
collected in the same manner, by every person’s
giving his own word for the quantum of what he
possessed. But as to honour, justice, wisdom, and
learning, they should not be taxed at: all, because
they are qualifications of so singular a kind that no
man will either allow them in his neighbour, or value
them in himself.

The women were proposed to be taxed according to
their beauty and skill in dressing, wherein they had
the same privilege with the men to be determined by
their own judgment. But constancy, chastity, good
sense, and good nature were not rdted, because they
would not bear the charge of collecting,

To keep senators in the interest of the crown,
it was proposed that the members should raffle for
employments ; every man first taking an oath, and
giving security that he would vote for the court,
whether he won or not; after which, the losers had,
in their turn, the liberty of raffling upon the next
vacancy. Thus, hope and expectation would be kept
alive; none would complain of broken promises, but
impute their disappointments wholly to Fortune,
whose shoulders are broader and stronger than those
of the ministry. |

Another professor showed me a large paper of
instructions for discovering plots and conspiracies
against the government. He advised great states-
men to examine into the diet of all suspected per-
224 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

sons ; their times of eating; upon which side they
lay in bed; with which hand they wiped their
posteriors; take a strict view of their excrements,
and from the colour, the odour, the taste, the con-
sistence, the crudeness, or maturity of digestion, form
a judgment of their thoughts and designs, because
men are never so serious, thoughtful, and intent, as
when they are at stool, which he found by experi-
ence ; for, in such conjunctures, when he used, merely
as a trial, to consider which was the best way of
murdering the king, his ordure would have a tincture
of green; but quite different when he thought only
of raising an insurrection, or burning the metropolis.

The whole discourse was written with great acute-
ness, containing many observations, both curious and
useful for politicians; but, as I conceived, not alto-
gether complete. This I ventured to tell the author,
and offered, if he pleased, to supply him with some
additions. He received my proposition with more
compliance than is usual among writers, especially
those of the projecting species, professing he would
be glad to receive farther information.

[I told him that in the kingdom of Tribnia, by the
natives called Langdon, where I had sojourned some
time in my travels, the bulk of the people consist in
a manner wholly of discoverers, witnesses, informers,
accusers, prosecutors, evidences, Swearers, together
with their several subservient and subaltern instru-
ments, all under the colours, the conduct, and the
pay of ministers of state and their deputies. The
plots, in that kingdom, are usually the workmanship
of those persons who desire to raise their own char:
acters of profound ‘politicians; to restore new vigour
A VOVAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 225

to a crazy administration ; to stifle or divert general
discontents; to fill their coffers with forfeitures; and
raise or sink the opinion of public credit as either
shall best answer their private advantage. It is
first agreed and settled among them what suspected
persons shall be accused of a plot; then effectual
care is taken to secure all their letters and papers,
and put the owners in chains. These papers are
delivered to a set of artists, very dexterous in finding
out the mysterious meanings of words, syllables, and
letters; for instance, they can discover a close-tool
to signify a privy council; a flock of geese, a senate ;
a lame dog, an invader; the plague, a standing army;
a buzzard, a prime minister; the gout, a high-priest ;
a gibbet, a secretary of state; a chamber-pot, a com-
mittee of grandees; a sieve, a court lady; a broom,
a revolution; a mouse-trap, an employment; a bottom-
less pit, a treasury; a sink, a court; a cap and bells,
a favourite; a broken reed, a court of justice; an
empty tun, a general; a running sore, the administra-
tion.

When this method fails, they have two others more
effectual, which the learned among them call acrostics
and anagrams. First, they can decipher all initial
letters into political meanings. ‘Thus, WV shall signify
a plot; Bb, a regiment of horse; ZL, a fleet at sea: or,
secondly, by transposing the letters of the alphabet
in any suspected paper, they can lay open the deepest
designs of a discontented party. So, for example, if
I should say in a letter toa friend, “ Our brother Tom
has just got the piles,’ a skilful decipherer would
discover, that the same letters which compose that

sentence may be analysed into the following words,
P
226 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.



“ Resist, a plot is brought home,———the tour,”
And this is the anagrammatic method. |

The professor made me great acknowledgments for
communicating these observations, and promised to
make honourable mention of me in his treatise.

I saw nothing in this country that could invite me
to a longer continuance, and began to think of return-
ing home to England.


A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 227

CHAPTER VII.

THE AUTHOR LEAVES LAGADO—ARRIVES AT MALDO-
NADA—-NO SHIP READY—HE TARES A SHORT
VOYAGE TO GLUBBDUBDRIB—HIS RECEPTION BY
THE GOVERNOR.

THE continent, of which this kingdom is a part,
extends itself, as I have reason to believe, east-
ward, to that unknown tract of America westward of
California: and north to the Pacific Ocean, which is
not above a hundred and fifty miles from Lagado;
where there is a good port, and much commerce with
the great island of Lugegnagg, situated to the north-
west, about 29 degrees north latitude, and 140 longi-
tude. This island of Lugegnagg stands south-east-
ward of Japan, about a hundred leagues distant.
There is a strict alliance between the Japanese
emperor and the king of Lugenagg, which affords
frequent opportunities of sailing from one island to
the other. I determined therefore to direct my course
this way, in order to my return to Europe. I hired
two mules, with a guide, to show me the way, and
carry my small baggage. I took leave of my noble
protector, who had shown me so much favour, and
made me a generous present at my departure.

My journey was without any accident or adventure
worth relating. When I arrived at the port of Maldo-
nada (for so it is called), there was no ship in the
228 GOULLIVEIOS TRAVELS.

harbour bound for Luggnagg, nor likely to be in
some time. The town is about as large as Ports-
mouth. I soon fell into some acquaintance, and was
very hospitably received. A gentleman of distinc-
tion said to me, that since the ships bound for
Luggnageg could not be ready in less than a month,
it might be no disagreeable amusement for me to
take a trip to the little island of Glubbdubdrib, about
five leacues off to the south-west. He offered him-
self and a friend to accompany me, and that I should
be provided with a small convenient bark for the
voyage. |

Glubbdubdrib, as nearly as I can interpret the
word, signifies the island of sorcerers, or magicians.

It is about one-third as large as the Isle of Wight,
and extremely fruitful: it is governed by the head
of a certain tribe, who are all magicians. This tribe
marries only among each other, and the eldest in
succession is prince or governor. He has a noble
palace, and a park of about three thousand acres,
surrounded by a wall of hewn stone twenty feet hich.
In this park are several small enclosures for cattle,
corn, and gardening.

ihe governor and his family are served and
attended by domestics of a kind somewhat unusual.
By his skill in necromancy, he has a power of calling
whom he pleases from the dead, and commanding
their service for twenty-four hours, but no longer ;
nor can he call the same persons up again in less than
three months, except upon very extraordinary occa-
sions,

When we arrived at the island, which was about
cleven in the morning, one of the gentlemen who
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 229

accompanied me went to the governor, and desired
admittance for a stranger, who came on purpose to
have the honour of attending on his highness. This
was immediately granted, and we all three entered
the gate of the palace between two rows of guards,
armed and dressed after a very antic manner, and
something in their countenances that made my flesh
creep with a horror I cannot express. We passed
through several apartments, between servants of the
same sort, ranked on each side as before, till we came
to the chamber of presence; where, after three pro-
found obeisances and a few general questions we
were permitted to sit on three stools, near the lowest
step of his highness’s throne. He understood the
language of Balnibarbi, although it were different
from that of this island. He desired me to give him
some account of my travels; and to let me see that
{ should be treated without ceremony, he dismissed
all his attendants with a turn of his finger; at which,
to my great astonishment, they vanished in an instant,
like visions in a dream when we awake on a sudden.
IT could not recover myself in some time, till the
governor assured me that I should receive no hurt ;
and observing my two companions to be under no
concern, who had been often entertained in the same
manner, I began to take courage, and related to his
highness a short history of my several adventures ;
yet not without some hesitation, and frequently
looking behind me to the place where I had seen
those domestic spectres. I had the honour to dine
with the governor, where a new set of ghosts served
up the meat, and waited at table. I now observed
myself to be less terrified than I had been in the
230 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

morning, I stayed till sunset, but humbly desired his
highness to excuse me for not accepting his invitation
of lodging in the palace. My two friends and I lay
at a private house in the town adjoining, which is the
capital of this little island; and the next morning we
returned to pay our duty to the governor, as he was
pleased to command us.

After this manner we continued in the island for
ten days, most part of every day with the governor,
and at nightin ourlodging. I soon grew so familiar-
ised to the sight of spirits, that, after the third or
fourth time, they gave me no emotion at all; or, if
I had any apprehensions left, my curiosity prevailed
over them. For his highness the governor ordered
me to call up whatever persons I would choose to
name, and in whatever numbers, among all the dead
from the beginning of the world to the present time,
and command them to answer any questions I should
think fit to ask; with this condition, that my ques-
tions must be confined within the compass of the
times they lived in, And one thing I might depend
upon, that they would certainly tell me the truth, for
lying was a talent of no use in the lower world.

I made my humble acknowledgments to his high-
ness for so great a favour. We were in a chamber,
from whence there was a fair prospect into the park,
And because my first inclination was to be entertained
with scenes of pomp and magnificence, I desired to
see Alexander the Great at the head of his army,
just after the battle of Arbela; which, upon a motion
of the governor’s finger, immediately appeared ina
large field, under the window where we _ stood.
Alexander was called up into the room; it was with
Cia
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THE VISIONS OF Gi

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A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 231

creat difficulty that I understood his Greek, and had
but little of my own. He assured me upon his honour
that he was not poisoned, but died of a bad fever by
excessive drinking,

Next, I saw Hannibal passing the Alps, who told
me he had not a drop of vinegar in his camp.

{ saw Cassar and Pompey at the head of their
troops, just ready to engage. I sawthe former in his
last great triumph. I desired that the senate of
Rome might appear before me in one large chamber,
and a modern representative, in counterview, in
another. The first seemed to be an assembly of heroes
and demi-gods; the other, a knot of pedlars, pick-
pockets, highwaymen, and bullies,

The governor, at my request, gave the sign for
Cesar and Brutus to advance towards us. I was
struck with a profound veneration at the sight of
Brutus, and could easily discover the most consum-
mate virtue, the greatest intrepidity and firmness of
mind, the truest love of his country, and general
benevolence for mankind, in every lineament of his
countenance. I observed with much pleasure that
these two persons were in good intelligence with each
other; and Cesar freely confessed to me, that the
greatest actions of his own life were not equal, by
many degrees, to the glory of taking it away. I had
the honour to have much conversation with Brutus;
and was told, that his ancestor Junius, Socrates,
Epaminondas, Cato the younger, Sir Thomas More,
and himself, were perpetually together: a sextum-
virate, to which all the ages of the world cannot add
a seventh.

It would be tedious to trouble the reader with
232 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

relating what vast numbers of illustrious persons were
called up, to gratify that insatiable desire I had to
see the world in every period of antiquity placed
before me. I chiefly fed mine eyes with beholding
the destroyers of tyrants and usurpers, and the re-
storers of liberty to oppressed and injured nations,
But it is impossible to express the satisfaction I
received in my own mind, after such a manner, as to
make it a suitable entertainment to the reader.
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 233

CHAPTER VIII.

A FURTHER ACCOUNT OF GLUBBDUBDRIB—ANCIENT
AND MODERN HISTORY CORRECTED.

HAVING a desire to see those ancients who were most
renowned for wit and learning, I set apart one day
on purpose, I proposed that Homer and Aristotle
might appear at the head of all their commentators;
but these were so numerous, that some hundreds were
forced to attend in the court and outward rooms of
the palace. I knew, and could distinguish those two
heroes at first sight, not only from the crowd, but
from each other. Homer was the taller and comelier
person of the two, walked very erect for one of his
age, and his eyes were the most quick and piercing
I ever beheld. Aristotle stooped much, and made
use of a staff. His visage was meagre, his hair lank
and thin, and his voice hollow. I soon discovered that
both of them were perfect strangers to the rest of
the company, and had never seen or heard of them
before. And I had a whisper from a ghost, who shall
be nameless, that these commentators always kept in
the most distant quarters from their principals, in the
lower world, through a consciousness of shame and
suilt, because they had so horribly misrepresented
the meaning of those authors to posterity. I intro-
duced Didymus and Eustathius to Homer, and pre-
vailed on him to treat them better than perhaps they
234 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

deserved, for he soon found they wanted a genius to
enter into the spirit of a poet. But Aristotle was out
of all patience with the account I gave him of Scotus
and Ramus, as I presented them to him; and he
asked them, whether the rest of the tribe were as
great dunces as themselves?

I then desired the governor to call up Descartes
and Gassendi, with whom I prevailed to explain their
systems to Aristotle. This great philosopher freely
acknowledged his own mistakes in natural philosophy
because he proceeded in many things upon conjecture,
as all men must do; and he found that Gassendi, who
had made the doctrine of Epicurus as palatable as he
could, and the vortices of Descartes were equally to
be exploded. He predicted the same fate to attrac-
tion, whereof the present learned are such zealous
assertors. He said, that new systems of nature were
but new fashions, which would vary in every age;
and even those who pretend to demonstrate them
from mathematical principles, would flourish but a
short period of time, and be out of vogue when that
was determined.

I spent five days in conversing with many others of
the ancient learned. I saw most of the first Roman
emperors, I prevailed on the governor to call up
Eliogabalus’s cooks to dress us a dinner, but they
could not show us much of their skill, for want of
materials. A helot of Agesilaus made us a dish of
Spartan broth, but I was not able to get down a
second spoonful.

The two gentlemen, who conducted me to the
island, were pressed by their private affairs to return
in three days, which I employed in seeing some of
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 235

the modern dead, who had made the createst figure,
for two or three hundred years past, in our own and
other countries of Europe; and having been always
a great admirer of old illustrious families, I desired
the governor would call up a dozen or two of kings,"
with their ancestors in order, for eight or nine gene-
rations. But my disappointment was grievous and
unexpected ; for, instead of a long train with royal
diadems, I saw in one family two fiddlers, three
spruce courtiers, and an Italian prelate. In another,
a barber, an abbot, and two cardinals. I have too
great a veneration for crowned heads to dwell any
longer on so nice a subject. But as to counts,
marquises, dukes, earls, and the like, I was not so
scrupulous, And I confess, it was not without some
pleasure, that I found myself able to trace the par-
ticular features, by which certain families are dis-
tinguished, up to their originals. I could plainly
discover whence one family derives a long chin; why
a second has abounded with knaves for two genera-
tions, and fools for two more; why a third happened
to be crack-brained, and a fourth to be sharpers ;
whence it came, what Polydore Virgil says of a
certain great house, Wec vir fortis, nec femina casta ;
how cruelty, falsehood, and cowardice grew to be
characteristics by which certain families are distin-
guished, as much as by their coats of arms; who first
brought the pox into a noble house, which has
lineally descended in scrofulous tumours to their
posterity. Neither could I wonder at all this, when
I saw such an interruption of lineages, by pages,
lackeys, valets, coachmen, gamesters, fiddlers, players,
captains, and pickpockets,
236 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

I was chiefly disgusted with modern history; for,
having strictly examined all the persons of greatest
name in the courts of princes for a hundred years
past, I found how the world had been misled by
prostitute writers, to ascribe the greatest exploits in
war to cowards; the wisest counsel to fools; sin-
cerity to flatterers; Roman virtue to betrayers of
their country ; piety to atheists; chastity to sodom-
ites; truth to informers: how many innocent and
excellent persons had been condemned to death or
banishment, by the practising of great ministers upon
the corruption of judges and the malice of factions ;
how many villains had been exalted to the highest
places of trust, power, dignity, and profit ; how great
a share in the motions and events of courts, councils,
and senates, might be challenged by bawds, whores,
pimps, parasites, and buffoons. How low an opinion
I had of human wisdom and integrity, when I was
truly informed of the springs and motives of great
enterprises and revolutions in the world, and of the
contemptible accidents to which they owed their
success !

Here I discovered the roguery and ignorance of
those who pretend to write anecdotes, or secret
history; who send so many kings to their graves
with a cup of poison; will repeat the discourse
between a prince and chief minister, where no wit-
ness was by; unlock the thoughts and cabinets of
ambassadors and secretaries of state; and have the
perpetual misfortune to be mistaken. Here I dis-
covered the true cause of many great events that
have surprised the world; how a whore can sovern
the back-stairs, the back-stairs a council, and the
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 237

council a senate. A general confessed in my presence,
that he got a victory purely by the force of cowar-
dice and ill-conduct; and an admiral, that, for want
of proper intelligence, he beat the enemy, to whom
he intended to betray the fleet. Three kings pro-
tested to me, that in their whole reigns they never
did once prefer any person of merit, unless by mis-
take, or treachery of some minister in whom they
confided: neither would they do it if they were to
live again; and they showed, with great strength of
reason, that the royal throne could not be supported
without corruption, because that positive, confident,
restive temper, which virtue infused into a man, was
a perpetual clog to public business.

I had the curiosity to inquire, in a particular
manner, by what method great numbers had pro-
cured to themselves high titles of honour and pro-
digious estates; and I confined my inquiry to a
very modern period ; however, without grating upon
present times, because I would be sure to give no
offence even to foreigners; for I hope the reader
need not be told, that I do not in the least intend
my own country in what I say upon this occasion.
A great number of persons concerned were called up,
and, upon a very slight examination, discovered such
a scene of infamy, that I cannot reflect upon it with-
out some seriousness. Perjury, oppression, suborna-
tion, fraud, pandarism, and the like infirmities, were
among the most excusable arts they had to mention,
and for these I gave, as it was reasonable, great
allowance. But when some confessed they owed
their greatness and wealth to sodomy, or incest ;
others, to the prostituting of their own wives and
238 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

daughters; others, to the betraying of their country
or their prince ; some, to poisoning ; more, to the
perverting of justice, in order to destroy the innocent;
I hope I may be pardoned, if these discoveries
inclined me a little to abate of that profound vene-
ration, which I am naturally apt to pay to persons
of high rank, who ought to be treated with the
utmost respect due to their sublime dignity by us
their inferiors,

I had often read of some great services done to
princes and states, and desired to see the persons
by whom those services were performed. Upon
inquiry I was told, that their names were to be
found on no record, except a few of them whom
history has represented as the vilest of rogues and
traitors. As to the rest, J had never once heard of
them, They all appeared with dejected looks and
in the meanest habit; most of them telling me they
died in poverty and Cisgrace, and the rest on a
scaffold or a gibbet.

Among others, there was one person whose case
appeared a little singular. He had a youth about
eighteen years old standing by his side. He told
me, he had for many years been commander of a
ship; and in the sea-fight at Actium, had the good
fortune to break through the enemy’s great line of
battle, sink three of their capital ships, and take a
fourth, which was the sole cause of Antony’s flicht,
and of the victory that ensued; that the youth stand-
ing by him, his only son, was killed in the action.
He added, that upon the confidence of some merit,
the war being at an end, he went to Rome, and
solicited at the court of Augustus to be preferred to
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 239

a greater ship, whose commander had been killed;
but, without any regard to his pretensions, it was
given to a boy who had never seen the sea, the son
of Libertina, who waited on one of the emperor's
mistresses. Returning back to his own vessel, he
was charged with neglect of duty, and the ship given
to a favourite page of Publicola, the vice-admiral ;
whereupon he retired to a poor farm at a great dis-
tance from Rome, and there ended his life. I was so
curious to know the truth of this story, that I desired
Agrippa might be called, who was admiral in that
fight. He appeared and confirmed the whole account;
but with much more advantage to the captain, whose
modesty had extenuated or concealed a great part of
his merit.

I was surprised to find corruption grown so high
and so quick in that empire, by the force of luxury so
lately introduced, which made me less wonder at
many parallel cases in other countries, where vices of
all kinds have reigned so much longer, and where the
whole praise, as well as pillage, has been engrossed
by the chief commander, who, perhaps, had the least
title to either.

As every person called up made exactly the same
appearance he had done in the world, it gave me
melancholy reflections to observe how much the race
of human kind was degenerated among us, within
these hundred years past. How the pox, under all its
consequences and denominations, had altered every
lineament of an English countenance, shortened the
size of bodies, unbraced the nerves, relaxed the sinews
and muscles, introduced a sallow complexion, and
rendered the flesh loose and rancid.
tint

240 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

I descended so low as to desire some English yeo-
men of the old stamp might be summoned to appear,
once so famous for the simplicity of their manners,
diet, and dress ; for justice in their dealings; for their
true spirit of liberty; for their valour and love of
their country. Neither could I be wholly unmoved,
after comparing the living with the dead, when I
considered how all these pure native virtues were
prostituted for a piece of money by their grand-
children, who, in selling their votes, and managing
at elections, have acquired every vice and corruption
that can possibly be learned in a court.
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 241

CHAPTER IX.

LHE AUTHOR RETURNS TO MALDONADA-—SAILS TO THE
KINGDOM OF LUGGNAGG—THE AUTHOR CONFINED
HE IS SENT FOR TO COURT—THE MANNER OF
HIS ADMITTANCE—THE KINGS GREAT LENITY
LO ALS SUBFECTS.

Tur day of our departure being come, I took leave
of his highness, the governor of Glubbdubdrib, and
returned with my two companions to Maldonada,
where, after a fortnight’s waiting, a ship was ready
to sail for Luggnage. The two gentlemen,and some
others, were so generous and kind as to furnish me
With provisions, and see me on board. I was a
month in this voyage. We had one violent storm,
and were under a necessity of steering westward to
get into the trade-wind, which holds for above sixty
leagues. On the 21st of April 1708, we sailed into
the river of Clumegnig, which is a seaport town at
the south-east point of Lugenagg. We cast anchor
within a league of the town, and made a signal for a
pilot. ‘wo of them came on board in less than half
an hour, by whom we were guided between certain
shoals and rocks, which are very dangerous in the
passage, to a large basin, where a fleet may ride in
safety within a cable's length of the town-wall.

Some of our sailors, whether out of treachery or
inadvertence, had informed the pilots that I was a

Q
242 GULIIVER?S TRAVELS.

stranger and a ereat traveller; whereof these gave
notice to a custom-house officer, by whom I was
examined very strictly upon my landing. This officer
spoke to me in the language of Balnibarbi, which, by
the force of much commerce, is generally understood
in that town, especially by seamen and those employed
in the customs. I gave him a short account of some
particulars, and made my story as plausible and con-
sistent as I could; but I thought it necessary to dis-
cuise my country, and call myself a Hollander, be-
cause my intentions were for Japan, and I knew the
Dutch were the only Europeans permitted to enter
into that kingdom, I therefore told the officer, that
having been shipwrecked on the coast of Balnibarbi,
and cast on a rock, I was received up into Laputa, or _
the Flying Island (of which he had often heard), and
was now endeavouring to get to Japan, whence I
might find a convenience of returning to my own
country. ‘The officer said, I must be confined till he
could receive orders from court; for which he would
write immediately, and hoped to receive an answer
in a fortnight. I was carried to a convenient lodging,
with a sentry placed at the door; however, I had the
liberty of a large garden, and was treated with huma-
nity enough, being maintained all the time at the
king’s charge. I was invited by several persons,
chiefly out of curiosity, because it was reported that
I came from countries very remote, of which they had
never heard.

I hired a young man, who came in the same ship,
to be an interpreter; he was a native of Lugenagg,
but had lived some years at Maldonada, and was a
perfect master of both languages. By his assistance,
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 243

I was able to hold a conversation with those who
came to visit me; but this consisted only of their
questions, and my answers.

The despatch came from court about the time we
expected. It contained a warrant for conducting me
and my retinue to Traldragdubh, or Trildrogdrib, for
itis pronounced both ways, as near as I can remember,
by a party of ten horse. All my retinue was that
poor lad for an interpreter, whom I persuaded into
my service, and, at my humble request, we had each
of usa mule to ride on. A messenger was despatched
half a day’s journey before us to give the king notice
of my approach, and to desire that his majesty
would please to appoint a day and hour, when it
would be his gracious pleasure that I might have
the honour to lick the dust before his footstool. This
is the court style, and I found it to be more than
matter of form. For, upon my admittance, two days
atter my arrival, I was commanded to crawl upon
my belly, and lick the floor as I advanced; but, on
account of my being a stranger, care was taken to
have it made so clean, that the dust was not offensive.
Tlowever, this was a peculiar grace, not allowed to
any but persons of the highest rank, when they desire
an admittance. Nay, sometimes the floor is strewed
with dust on purpose, when the person to be admitted
happens to have powerful enemies at court. And I
have seen a great lord with his mouth so crammed,
that when he had crept to the proper distance from
the throne, he was not able to speak a word. Neither
is there any remedy, because it is capital for those
who receive an audience to spit or wipe their mouths
in his majesty’s presencee ‘There is indeed another
244 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

custom, which I cannot altogether approve of ; when
the king has a mind to put any of his nobles to death
in a gentle, indulgent manner, he commands the floor
to be strewed with a certain brown powder of a
deadly composition, which, being licked up, infallibly
kills him in twenty-four hours. But in justice to
this prince’s great clemency, and the care he has of
his subjects’ lives (wherein it were much to be wished
that the monarchs of Europe would imitate him), it
must be mentioned for his honour, that strict orders
are given to have the infected parts of the floor well
washed after every such execution; which, if his
domestics neglect, they are in danger of incurring his
royal displeasure. I myself heard him give direc-
tions that one of his pages should be whipped, whose
turn it was to give notice about washing the floor
after an execution, but maliciously had omitted it ;
by which neglect, a young lord of great hopes coming
to an audience was unfortunately poisoned, although
the king at that time had no design against his life.
But this good prince was so gracious as to forgive
the poor page his whipping, upon promise that he
would do so no more, without special orders.

To return from this digression; when I had crept
within four yards of the throne, I raised myself
gently upon my knees, and then striking my forehead
seven times against the ground, I pronounced the
following words, as they had been taught me the
night before: Luckpling gloffthrobb squut scrum blhiop
milashnalt swin tnodbalkuff hsthiophad gurdlubh asht.
This is the compliment, established by the laws of the
land, for all persons admitted to the king’s presence.
It may be rendered into English, thus: « May your
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 246

celestial majesty outlive the sun eleven moons and a
half!” To this the king returned some answer, which
although I could not understand, yet I replied as I
had been directed: Flute drin yalerick dwuldom pras-
frat mirpush, which properly signifies, “My tongue is
in the mouth of my friend;” and by this expression
was meant, that I desired leave to bring my inter-
preter; whereupon the young man, already men-
tioned, was accordingly introduced, by whose inter-
vention I answered as many questions as his majesty
could put in above an hour. I spoke in the Balni-
barbian tongue, and my interpreter delivered my
meaning in that of Lugenageg,

The king was much delighted with my company,
and ordered his d/finarklub, or high chamberlain, to
appoint a lodging in the court for me and my inter-
preter, with a daily allowance for my table, and a
large purse of gold for my common expenses.

I stayed three months in this country, out of per-
fect obedience to his majesty, who was pleased highly
to favour me, and made me very honourable offers,
But I thought it more consistent with prudence and
justice, to pass the remainder of my days with my
wife and family.
246 GULLIVER'S TRAVELS,

CHAP TER XxX,

THE LUGGNAGGIANS COMMENDED—A PARTICULAR DE-
SCRIPTION OF THE STRULDBRUGS, ‘WITH MANY CON-
VERSATIONS BETWEEN THE AUTHOR AND SOME
EMINENT PERSONS’ UPON THAT SUBFECT.

‘THE Lugegnaggians are a nolite and generous
people; and although they are not without some
Share of that pride’ which is peculiar to all eastern
‘countries, yet they show themselves courteous to
strangers, especially such who are countenanced by
the court. I had many acquaintance, and among
persons of the best fashion, and being always attended
by my interpreter, the conversation we had was not
‘disagreeable.

One day, in much good company, I was asked by
a person of quality, whether I had seen any of their
struldbrugs, or immortals? I said I had not; and
desired he would explain to me what he meant by
such an appellation, applied to a mortal creature.
He told me that sometimes, though very rarely, a
child happened to be born in a family with a red
circular spot in the forehead, directly over the left
eyebrow, which was an infallible mark that it should
never die. The spot, as he described it, was about
the compass of a silver threepence, but in the course
of time grew larger and changed its colour; for at
twelve years old it became green, so continued till
A VOVAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 247

five-and-twenty, then turned to a deep blue; at five-
and-forty it grew coal-black and as large as an Eng-
lish shilling, but never admitted any farther altera-
tion. He said, these births were so rare, that he did
not believe there could be above eleven hundred
struldbrugs, of both sexes, in the whole kingdom, of
which he computed about fifty in the metropolis, and,
among the rest, a young girl born about three years
ago; and these productions were not peculiar to any
family, but a mere effect of chance, and the children
of the struldbrugs themselves were equally mortal
with the rest of the people.

I freely own myself to have been struck with inex-
pressible delight upon hearing this account: and the
person who gave it me happening to understand the
Balnibarbian language, which I spoke very well, I
could not forbear breaking out into expressions,
perhaps a little too extravagant. I cried out, asina
rapture: Happy nation, where every child has at
least a chance for being immortal! Happy people,
who enjoy so many living examples of ancient virtue,
and have masters ready to instruct them in the
wisdom of all former ages! But happiest, beyond all
comparison, are those excellent strudbrugs, who being
born exempt from that universal calamity of human
nature, have their minds free and disengaged, without
the weight and depression of spirits caused by the
continual apprehension of death! I discovered my
admiration, that I had not observed any of these illus-
trious persons at court; the black spot on the fore-
head being so remarkable a distinction, that I could
not have easily overlooked it; and it was impossible
that his majesty, a most judicious prince, should not
248 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

provide himself with a good number of such wise and
able counsellors. Yet, perhaps the virtue of these
reverend sages was too strict for the corrupt and
libertine manners of a court. And we often find by
experience, that young men are too opinionated and
volatile to be guided by the sober dictates of their
seniors. However, since the king was pleased to
allow me access to his royal person, I was resolved,
upon the very first occasion, to deliver my opinion to
him on this matter freely and at large, by the help of
my interpreter; and whether he would please to take
my advice or not, yet in one thing I was determined,
that his majesty having frequently offered me an esta-
blishment in this country, I would with great thank
fulness accept the favour, and pass my life here in the
conversation of those superior beings, the s¢ruddbrugs,
if tuey would please to admit me,

The gentleman to whom I addressed my discourse,
because (as I have already observed) he spoke the
language of Balnibarbi, said to me, with a sort of
smile, which usually arises from pity to the ignorant,
that he was glad of any occasion to keep me among
them, and desired my permission to explain to the
company what I had spoke. He did so, and they
talked together for sometime in their own language,
whereof I understood not a syllable, neither could
I observe by their countenances what impression my
discourse had made on them. After a short silence,
the same person told me that his friends and mine
(so he thought fit to express himself) were very much
pleased with the judicious remarks I had made on the
creat happiness and advantages of immortal life, and
they were desirous to know, in a particular manner
A VOVAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 249

what scheme of living I should have formed to my-
self if it had fallen to my lot to have been borna
struldbrug.

I answered, it was easy to be eloquent on so copious
and delightful a subject, especially to me, who had
been often apt to amuse myself with visions of what
I should do, if I were a king, a general, or a great
lord: and upon this very case, I had frequently run
over the whole system how I should employ myself,
and pass the time, if I were sure to live for ever,

That, if it had been my good fortune to come into
the world a struldbrug, as soon as I could discover
my own happiness, by understanding the difference
between life and death, I would first resolve, by all arts
and methods whatsoever, to procure myself riches.
In the pursuit of which, by thrift and management, I
might reasonably expect, in about two hundred years,
to be the wealthiest man in the kingdom. In the
second place, I would, from my earliest youth, apply
myself to the study of arts and sciences, by which I
should arrive in time to excel all others in learning,
Lastly, I would carefully record every action and
event of consequence, that happened in the public,
impartially draw the characters of the several succes-
sions of princes and great ministers of state, with my
own observations on every point, I would exactly
set down the several changes in customs, language,
fashions of dress, diet, and diversions. By all which
acquirements, [ should be a living treasure of know-
ledge and wisdom, and certainly become the oracle
of the nation.

I would never marry after threescore, but live in a
hospitable manner, yet still on the saving side, I
250 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

would entertain myself in forming and directing the
minds of hopeful young men, by convincing them,
from my own remembrance, experience, and obser-
vation, fortified by numerous examples, of the use-
fulness of virtue in public and private life. But my
choice and constant companions should be a set of
my own immortal brotherhood; among whom I
would elect a dozen from the most ancient, down to
my own contemporaries. Where any of these wanted
fortunes, I would provide them with convenient
lodges round my own estate, and have some of them
always at my table; only mingling a few of the
most valuable among you mortals, whom leneth of
time would harden me to lose with little or no
reluctance, and treat your posterity after the same
manner; just as a man diverts himself with the
annual succession of pinks and tulips in his garden,
without regretting the loss of those which withered
the preceding year.

These straddorugs and I would mutually com-
municate our observations and memorials through
the course of time; remark the several gradations
by which corruption steals into the world, and oppose
it in every step, by giving perpetual warning and
instruction to mankind; which, added to the strong
influence of our own example, would probably pre-
vent that continual degeneracy of human nature, so
justly complained of in all ages,

Add to this, the pleasure of seeing the various
revolutions of states and empires; the changes in the
lower and upper world; ancient cities in ruins, and
obscure villages become the seats of kings; famous
rivers lessening into shallow brooks; the ocean leav-
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 251

ing one coast dry, and overwhelming another; the
discovery of many countries yet unknown; barbarity
overrunning the politest nations, and the most bar-
barous become civilised. I should then see the dis-
covery of the longitude, the perpetual motion, the
universal medicine, and many other great inventions
brought to the utmost perfection.

What wonderful discoveries should we make in
astronomy, by outliving and confirming our own pre-
dictions; by observing the progress and returns of
comets, with the changes of motion in the sun, moon,
and stars! |

I enlarged upon many other topics, which the
natural desire of endless life, and sublunary happi-
ness, could easily furnish me with. When I had
ended, and the sum of my discourse had been inter-
preted, as before, to the rest of the company, there
was a good deal of talk among them in the language
of the country, not without some laughter at my
expense, At last, the same gentleman who had been
my interpreter said, he was desired by the rest to set
me right in a few mistakes, which I had fallen into
through the common imbecility of human nature,
and upon that allowance was less answerable for
them, ‘That this breed of straldbrugs was peculiar to
their country, for there were no such people either
in Balnibarbi or Japan, where he had the honour to
be ambassador from his majesty, and found the
natives in both those kingdoms very hard to believe
that the fact was possible: and it appeared from my
astonishment when he had first mentioned the matter
to me, that I received it as a thing wholly new, and
scarcely to be credited. That in the two kingdoms
252 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS,

above mentioned, where, during his residence, he had
conversed very much, he observed long life to be the
universal desire and wish of mankind, That whoever
had one foot in the grave was sure to hold back the
other’as strongly as he could. That the oldest had
still hopes of living one day longer, and looked on
death as the greatest evil, from which nature always
prompted him to retreat. Only in this island of
Lugenagg, the appetite for living was not so eager,
from the continual example of the strukabrugs before
their eyes. :

That the system of living contrived by me was
unreasonable and unjust, because it supposed a per-
petuity of youth, health, and vigour, which no man
could be so foolish to hope, however extravagant he
may be in his wishes. That the question therefore
was not, whether a man would choose to be always
in the prime of youth, attended with prosperity and
health; but how he would pass a perpetual life under
all the usual disadvantages, which old age brings
along with it. For although few men will avow their
desires of being immortal, upon such hard conditions,
yet in the two kingdoms before mentioned, of Balni-
barbi and Japan, he observed that every man desired
to put off death some time longer, let it approach
ever so late; and he rarely heard of any man who
died willingly, except he were incited by the extre-
mity of grief or torture. And he appealed to me,
whether in those countries I had travelled, as well
as my own, I had not observed the same general
disposition,

After this preface he gave me a particular account
of the stru/dbrugs among them. He said, they
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 253

commonly acted like mortals, till about thirty years
old; after which, by degrees, they grew melancholy
and dejected, increasing in both till they came to
fourscore. This he learned from their own confes-
sion; for otherwise, there not being above two or
three of that species born in an age, they were too
few to form a general observation by. When they
came to fourscore years, which is reckoned the
extremity of living in this country, they had not only
all the follies and infirmities of other old men, but
many more, which arose from the dreadful prospect
of never dying. They were not only opinionative,
peevish, covetous, morose, vain, talkative, but incap-
able of friendship, and dead to all natural affection,
which never descended below their grand-children.
Isnvy and impotent desires are their prevailing
passions. But those objects against which their
envy seems principally directed, are the vices of the
younger sort, and the deaths of the old. By reflect-
ing on the former, they find themselves cut off from
all possibility of pleasure; and whenever they see a
funeral, they lament and repine that others are gone
to a harbour of rest to which they themselves never
can hope to arrive. Thev have no remembrance of
anything but what they learned and observed in
their youth and middle age, and even that is very
imperfect. And for the truth or particulars of any
fact, it is safer to depend on common tradition than
upon their best recollections. The least miserable
among them appear to be those who turn to dotage,
and entirely lose their memories; these meet with
more pity and assistance, because they want many
bad qualities which abound in others,
254 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

If a struldbrug happen to marry one of his own
kind, the marriage is dissolved of course, by the
courtesy of the kingdom, as soon as the younger of
the two comes to be fourscore. For the law thinks
it is a reasonable indulgence, that those who are con-
demned, without any fault of their own, to a per-
petual continuance in the world, should not have
their misery doubled by the load of a wife.

As soon as they have completed the term of eighty
years they are looked on as dead in law; their heirs
immediately succeed to their estates, only a small
pittance is reserved for their support; and the poor
ones are maintained at the public charge. After that
period they are held incapable of any employment
of trust or profit; they cannot purchase lands, or take
leases; neither are they allowed to be witnesses in
any cause, either civil or criminal, not even for the
decision of meers and bounds. :

At ninety they lose their teeth and hair; they
have at that age no distinction of taste, but eat and
drink whatever they can get, without relish or appetite.
The diseases they were subject to still continue, with-
out increasing or diminishing, In talking, they forget
the common appellation of things, and the names of
persons, even of those who are their nearest friends
and relations, For the same reason, they never can
amuse themselves with reading, because their memory
will not serve to carry them from the beginning of a
sentence to the end: and by this defect, they are
deprived of the only entertainment whereof they
might otherwise be capable.

The language of this country being always upon
the flux, the s¢raddbrugs of one age do not understand
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 255

those of another; neither are they able, after two
hundred years, to hold any conversation (farther than
by a few general words) with their neighbours, the
mortals; and thus they lie under the disadvantage of
living like foreigners in their own country.

This was the account given me of the struldbrugs,
as near as I can remember. I afterwards saw five
or six of different ages, the youngest not above two
hundred years old, who were brought to me at several
times by some of my friends; but although they
were told that I was a great traveller, and had seen
all the world, they had not the least curiosity to ask
mea question; only desired I would give them s@um-
skudask, or a token of remembrance; which is a
modest way of begging to avoid the law, that strictly
forbids it, because they are provided for by the public,
although indeed with a very scanty allowance.

They are despised and hated by all sorts of people.
When one of them is born it is reckoned ominous,
and their birth is recorded very particularly: so that
you may know their age by consulting the register,
which, however, has not been kept above a thousand
years past, or at least has been destroyed by time,
or public disturbances. But the usual way of com-
puting how old they are is by asking them what
kings or great persons they can remember, and then
consulting history; for infallibly the last prince in
their mind did not begin his reign after they were
fourscore vears old.

They were the most mortifying sight I ever
beheld; and the women more horrible than the men.
Beside the usual deformities in extreme old age,
they acquired an additional ghastliness, in propor-
256 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

tion to their number of years, which is not to be
described; and among half a dozen I soon dis-
tinguished which was the eldest, although there was
not above a century or two between them.

The reader will easily believe that, from what I
had heard and seen, my keen appetite for perpetuity
of life was much abated. I grew heartily ashamed of
the pleasing visions I had formed; and thought no
tyrant could invent a death, into which I would not
run with pleasure from such a life. The king heard
of all that had passed between me and my friends
upon this occasion, and rallied me very pleasantly ;
wishing I could send a couple of straldbrugs to my
own country, to arm our people against the fear of
death; but this, it seems, is forbidden by the funda-
mental laws of the kingdom, or else I should have
been well content with the trouble and expense of
transporting them.

I could not but agree that the Jaws of this king-
dom, relative to the struldbrugs, were founded upon
the strongest reasons, and such as any other country
would be under the necessity of enacting in the like
circumstances, Otherwise, as avarice is the necessary
consequence of old age, those immortals would in
time become proprietors of the whole nation, and
engross the civil power, which, for want of abilities
to manage, must end in the ruin of the public.
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 257

CHAPTER XI.

THE AUTHOR LEAVES LUGGNAGG, AND SAILS TO FAPAN
—FROM THENCE HE RETURNS IN A DUTCH SHIP
LTO AMSTERDAM, AND FROM AMSTERDAM TO
ENGLAND.

[ THOUGHT this account of the struldbrugs might be
some entertainment to the reader, because it seems
to be a little out of the common way; at least I do not
remember to have met the like in any book of travels
that has come to my hands; and if I am deceived,
my excuse must be, that it is necessary for travellers,
who describe the same country, very often to agree
in dwelling on the same particulars, without deserv-
ing the censure of having borrowed or transcribed
from those who wrote before them.

There is, indeed, a perpetual commerce between
this kingdom and the great empire of Japan; and it
is very probable that the Japanese authors may
have given some account of the struldbrugs ; but my
stay in Japan was so short, and I was so entirely a
stranger to the language, that I was not qualified to
make any inquiries. But I hope the Dutch, upon
this notice, will be curious and able enough to supply
my defects.

His majesty having often pressed me to accept
some employment in his court, and finding me abso-
lutely determined to return to my native country,

was pleased to give me his license to depart; and
R
258 GULLIVER’S. TRAVELS.

honoured me with a letter of recommendation, under
his own hand, to the Emperor of Japan. He like-
wise presented me with four hundred and forty-four
large pieces of gold (this nation delighting in even
numbers), and ared diamond, which I sold in England
for eleven hundred pounds.

On the 6th of May 1709, I took a solemn leave of
his majesty and all my friends. This prince was so
gracious as to order a guard to conduct me to
Glanguenstald, whichis a royal port to the south-west
part of the island. In six days I found a vessel ready
to carry me to Japan, and spent fifteen days in the
voyage. We landed at a small port-town called
Xamoschi, situated on the south-east part of Japan ;—
the town hes on the western point, where there is a
narrow strait leading northward into a lone arm of
the sea, upon the north-west part of which, Yedo, the
metropolis, stands. At landing, I showed the custom-
house officers my letter from the King of Luggnageg
to his imperial majesty. They knew the seal per-
fectly well; it was as broad as the palm of my hand.
The impression was, a king lifting up a lame beggar
from the earth. The magistrates of the town, hear-
ing of my letter, received me as a public minis-
ter: they provided me with carriages and servants,
and bore my charges to Yedo; where I was admitted
to an audience, and delivered my letter, which was
opened with great ceremony, and explained to the
emperor by an interpreter; who then gave me notice,
by his majesty’s order, that I should signify my
request, and, whatever it were, it should be cranted,
for the sake of his royal brother of Lugenage, This
interpreter was a person employed to transact affairs
A VOVAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 259

with the Hollanders: he soon conjectured, by my
countenance, that I was a European, and therefore
repeated his majesty’s commands in Low Dutch,
which he spoke perfectly well. I answered, as I had
before determined, that I was a Dutch merchant,
shipwrecked in a very remote country, whence I had
travelled by sea and land to Lugenagg, and then took
shipping for Japan; where I knew my countrymen
often traded, and with some of these I hoped to get
an opportunity of returning into Europe: I therefore
most humbly entreated his royal favour, to give order
that I should be conducted in safety to Nangasac.
To this I added another petition, that for the sake of my
patron, the King of Luggnagg, his majesty would con-
descend to excuse my performing the ceremony im-
posed on my countrymen, of trampling upon the
crucifix ; because I had been thrown into his king-
dom by my misfortunes, without any intention of
trading. When this latter petition was interpreted
to the emperor, he seemed a little surprised; and
said he believed I was the first of my countrymen
who ever made any scruple in this point; and that he
began to doubt whether I was a real Hollander or
not; but rather suspected I must be a Christian.
However, for the reasons I had offered, but chiefly to
cratify the King of Luggnagg, by an uncommon mark
of his favour, he would comply with the singularity
of my humour; but the affair must be managed with
dexterity, and his officers should be commanded to
let me pass, as it were by forgetfulness. For he
assured me, that if the secret should be discovered by
my countrymen the Dutch, they would cut my throat
in the voyage. J returned my thanks, by the inter-
260 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

preter, for so unusual a favour; and some troops being
at that time on their march to Nangasac, the com-
manding officer had orders to convey me safe thither,
with particular instructions about the business of the
crucifix,

On the 9th day of June 1709, Iarrived at Nangasac,
after a very long and troublesome journey. I soon
fell into the company of some Dutch sailors belonging
to the “Amboyna” of Amsterdam, a stout ship of
450 tons. I had lived long in Holland, pursuing
my studies at Leyden, and I spoke Dutch well. The
scamen soon knew whence I came last; they were
curious to inquire into my voyages and course ot
life. I made up a story as short and probable as
I could, but concealed the greatest part. I knew
many persons in Holland; I was able to invent names
for my parents, whom I pretended to be obscure
people in the province of Gelderland. I would have
given the captain (one Theodorus Vangrult) what he
pleased to ask for my voyage to Holland; but under-
standing I was a surgeon, he was contented to take
half the usual rate, on condition that I would serve
him in the way of my calling. Before we took ship-
ping, I was often asked by some of the crew whether
I had performed the ceremony above mentioned. J
evaded the question by general answers; that I
had satisfied the emperor and court in all particulars.
However a malicious rogue of a skipper went to an
officer, and pointing to me, told him I had not yet
trampled on the crucifix; but the other, who had
received instructions to let me pass, gave the rascal
twenty strokes on the shoulders with a bamboo; after
which I was no more troubled with such questions.
A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA, ETC. 261

Nothing happened worth mentioning in this voyage.
We sailed with a fair wind to the Cape of Good Hope,
where we stayed only to take in fresh water. On
the 1oth of April 1710, we arrived safe at Amster-
dam, having lost only three men by sickness in the
voyage, and a fourth, who fell from the foremast into
the sea, not far from the coast of Guinea. From
Amsterdam I soon after set sail for England, in a
small vessel belonging to that city.

On the 16th of April we put in at the Downs. I
landed next morning, and saw, once more, my native
country, after an absence of five years and six
months complete. I went straight to Redriff, where
I arrived the same day at two in the afternoon, and
found my wife and family in good health.
JOart EV,

A VOVAGE TO THE COUNTRY OF THE
HOUVHNHNMS.





0

CHAPTER I.

THE AUTHOR SETS OUT AS CAPTAIN OF A SHIP—~-HIS MEN
CONSPIRE AGAINST HIM-—-CONFINE HIM A LONG TIME
LO HIS CABIN--SET HIM ON SHORE IN AN UNKNOWN
LAND-—-HE TRAVELS UP INTO THE COUNTRY—THE
VYAHOOS, A STRANGE SORT OF ANIMAL, DESCRIBED—
THE AUTHOR MEETS TWO HOUVHNHNMS.



I CONTINUED at home with my wife and children
about five months, ina very happy condition, if I could
have learned the lesson of knowing when I was well.
I left my poor wife big with child, and accepted an
advantageous offer made me to be captain of the
“« Adventure,” a stout merchantman of 350 tons: for
I understood navigation well, and being grown weary
of a surgeon’s employment at sea, which, however, I
could exercise upon occasion, I took a skilful young
man of that calling, one Robert Purefoy, into my
ship. We set sail from Portsmouth upon the 7th
254 GULIIVER’S TRAVELS.

day of September 1710; on the 14th we met with
Captain Pocock of Bristol, at Teneriffe, who was
coing to the bay of Campeachy to cut logwood. On
the 16th he was parted from us by a storm; J heard,
since my return, that his ship foundered, and none
escaped but one cabin-boy. Hewas an honest man,
and a good sailor, but a little too positive in his own
opinions, which was the cause of his destruction, as
it had been of several others. For, if he had followed
my advice, he might have been safe at home with his
family, at this time, as well as myself.

I had several men died in my ship of calentures,
so that I was forced to get recruits out of Barbadoes
and the Leeward Islands, where I touched, by the
direction of the merchants who employed me; which
IT had soon too much cause to repent; for I found
afterwards, that most of them had been buccaneers.
I had fifty hands on board; and my orders were,
that I should trade with the Indians in the South
Sea, and make what discoveries I could. These
rogues, whom I had picked up, debauched my other
men, and they all formed a conspiracy to seize the
ship, and secure me; which they did one morning,
rushing into my cabin, and binding me hand and foot,
threatening to throw me overboard if I offered to
stir, I told them, I was their prisoner, and would
submit. This they made me swear to do, and then
they unbound me, only fastening one of my legs with
a chain, near my bed, and placed a sentry at my
door with his piece charged, who was commanded to
shoot me dead if I attempted my liberty. They
sent me down victuals and drink, and took the
government of the ship to themselves. Their design
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS. 265

was to turn pirates, and plunder the Spaniards, which
they could not do till they sot more men. But first
they resolved to sell the goods in the ship, and then
go to Madagascar for recruits, several among them
having died since my confinement. They sailed
many weeks, and traded with the Indians; but I
knew not what course they took, being kept a close
prisoner in my cabin, and expecting nothing less
than to be murdered, as they often threatened me.

Upon the 9th day of May 1711, one James Welch
came down to my cabin, and said he had orders from
the captain to set me ashore. I expostulated with
him, but in vain; neither would he so much as tell
me who their new captain was. They forced me
into the long-boat, letting me put on my best suit
of clothes, which were as good as new, and take a
small bundle of linen, but no arms, except my hanger ;
and they were so civil as not to search my pockets,
into which I conveyed what money I had, with some
other little necessaries. They rowed about a league,
and then set me down ona strand. I desired them
to tell me what country it was. They all swore they
knew no more than myself; but said that the captain
(as they called him) was resolved, after they had sold
the lading, to get rid of me in the first place where
they could discover land. They pushed off immedi-
ately, advising me to make haste, for fear of being
overtaken by the tide, and so bade me farewell.

In this desolate condition I advanced forward, and
soon got upon firm ground, where I sat down ona
bank to rest myself, and consider what I had best
to do. When I was a little refreshed, I went up into
the country, resolving to deliver myself to the first
265 GULLIIVER’S TRAVELS.

savages I should meet, and purchase my life from them
by some bracelets, glass rings, and other toys, which
sailors usually provide themselves with in those
voyages, and whereof I had some about me. The
land was divided by long rows of trees, not regularly
planted, but naturally growing; there was great
plenty of grass, and several fields of oats. I walked
very circumspectly, for fear of being surprised or sud-
denly shot with an arrow from behind, or on either
side. I fell into a beaten road, where I saw many
tracks of human feet, and some of cows, but most of
horses. At last I beheld several animals ina field,
and one or two of the same kind sitting in trees.
Their shape was very singular and deformed, which
a little discomposed me, so that I lay down behind a
thicket to observe them better. Some of them com-
ing forward near the place where I lay, gave me an
opportunity of distinctly marking their form. Their
heads and breasts were covered with a thick hair,
some frizzled, and others lank; they had beards like
goats, and a long ridge of hair down their backs, and
the fore-parts of their legs and feet; but the rest of
their bodies was bare, so that I might see their skins,
which were of a brown buff colour. They had no tails
nor any hair at all on their buttocks, except about
the anus; which, I presume, nature had placed there
to defend them as they sat on the ground; for this
posture they used, as well as lying down, and often
stood on their hind-feet. They climbed high trees as
nimbly as a squirrel, for they had strong extended
claws before and behind, terminating in sharp points,
and hooked. They would often spring, and bound
and leap, with prodigious agility. The females were
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVYHNHNAUS. 267

not so large as the males; they had long lank hair
on their head, but none on their faces, nor anything
more than a sort of down on the rest of their bodies,
except about the anus and pudenda. The dugs
hung between their fore-feet, and often reached al-
most to the ground as they walked. The hair of both
sexes was of several colours, brown, red, black, and
yellow. Upon the whole, I never beheld, in all my
travels, so disagreeable an animal, or one against
which I naturally conceived so great an antipathy.
So that, thinking I had seen enough, full of con-
tempt and aversion I got up, and pursued the
beaten road, hoping it might direct me to the
cabin of some Indian. I had not got far when I
met one of these creatures full in my way, and
coming up directly to me. The ugly monster, when
he saw me, distorted several ways every feature
of his visage, and stared, as at an object he had never
seen before; then approaching nearer, lifted up his
fore-paw, whether out of curiosity or mischief, I could
not tell: but I drew my hanger, and gave him a
sood blow with the flat side of it; for I durst not
strike with the edge, fearing the inhabitants might be
provoked against me, if they should come to know
that I had killed or maimed any of their cattle.
When the beast felt the smart, he drew back, and
roared so loud, that a herd of at least forty came
flocking about me from the next field, howling, and
making odious faces; but I ran to the body of a tree,
and leaning my back against it, kept them off by
waving my hanger. Several of this cursed brood,
getting hold of the branches behind, leapt up into
the tree, whence they began to discharge their excre-
265 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

ments upon my head; however, I escaped pretty
well by sticking close to the stem of the tree, but
was almost stifled with the filth, which fell about me
on every side.

In the midst of this distress, I observed them all
to run away on a sudden as fast as they could; at
which I ventured to leave the tree, and pursue the
road, wondering what it was that could put them
into this fright. But looking on my left hand, I saw
a horse walking softly in the field, which my perse-
cutors having sooner discovered, was the cause of
their flight. The horse started a little when he came
near me, but soon recovering himself, looked full in
my face with manifest tokens of wonder. He viewed
my hands and feet, walking round me several times.
I would have pursued my journey, but he placed
himself directly in the way, yet, looking with a very
mild aspect, never offering the least violence. We
stood gazing at each other for some time; at last I
took the boldness to reach my hand towards his neck,
with a design to stroke it, using the common style
and whistle of jockeys when they are coing to handle
a strange horse. But this animal seemed to receive
my civilities with disdain, shook his head, and bent
his brows, softly raising up his right fore-foot to
remove my hand. Then he neighed three or four
times, but in so different a cadence, that I almost
began to think he was speaking to himself in some
language of his own.

While he and I were thus employed, another horse
came up, who, applying himself to the first in a very
formal manner, they gently struck each other’s right
hoof before, neighing several times by turns, and
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A VOYAGE TO THE HOUYHRNANMS. 269

varying the sound, which seemed to be almost arti-
culate. They went some paces off, as if it were to
confer together, walking side by side, backward and
forward, like persons deliberating upon some affair
of weight, but often turning their eyes towards me,
as if it were to watch that I might not escape. I was
amazed to see such actions and behaviour in brute
beasts, and concluded with myself, that if the inhabi-
tants of this country were endued with a proportion-
able degree of reason, they must needs be the wisest
people upon earth. This thought gave me so much
comfort, that I resolved to go forward, until I could
discover some house or village, or meet with any of
the natives, leaving the two horses to discourse
together as they pleased. But the first, who was a
dapple gray, observing me to steal off, neighed after
me in so expressive a tone, that I fancied myself to
understand what he meant; whereupon I turned
back, and came near to him, to expect his farther
commands, but concealing my fear as much as I
could, for | began to be in some pain how this ad-
venture might terminate; and the reader will easily
believe I did not much like my present situation.
The two horses came up close to me, looking with
creat earnestness upon my face and hands. The gray
steed rubbed my hat all round with his right fore-
hoof, and discomposed it so much, that I was forced
to adjust it better, by taking it off, and settling it
again; whereat both he and his companion (who was
a brown bay) appeared to be much surprised: the
latter felt the lappet of my coat, and finding it to
hang loose about me, they both looked with new
sions of wonder. He stroked my right hand, seem-
270 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

ing to admire the softness and colour, but he squeezed
it so hard between his hoof and his pastern, that J]
was forced to roar; after which they both touched
me with all possible tenderness, They were under
creat perplexity about my shoes and stockings, which
they felt very often, neighing to each other, and
using various gestures, not unlike those of a philoso-
pher when he would attempt to solve some new and
difficult phenomenon.

Upon the whole, the behaviour of these animals
was so orderly and rational, so acute and judicious,
that I at last concluded they must needs be magicians,
who had thus metamorphosed themselves upon some
design, and seeing a stranger in the way, resolved to
divert themselves with him, or perhaps were really
amazed at the sight of a man so very different in
habit, feature, and complexion, from those who might
probably live in so remote a climate. Upon the
strensth of this reasoning, I ventured to address
them in the following manner: Gentlemen, if you
be conjurors,as I have good cause to believe, you
can understand any language; therefore I make bold
to let your worships know that I am a poor distressed
Englishman, driven by his misfortunes upon your
coast ; and I entreat one of you to let me ride upon
his back, as if he were a real horse, to some house or
village where I can be relieved. In return of which
favour, I will make you a present of this knife and
bracelet, taking them out of my pocket. The two
creatures stood silent while I spoke, seeming to listen
with great attention ; and, when I had ended, thev
neighed frequently towards each other, as if thev
were engaged in serious conversation. I plainly ob-
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS. 271

served that their language expressed the passions
verv well, and the words might, with little pains, be
resolved into an alphabet more easily than the
Chinese.

I could frequently distinguish the word Yahoo,
which was repeated by each of them several times;
and although it was impossible for me to conjecture
what it meant, yet, while the two horses were busy in
conversation, I endeavoured to practise this word
upon my tongue; and as soon as they were silent,
I boldly pronounced Yahoo in a loud voice, imitating
at the same time, as near as I could, the neighing of
a horse, at which they were both visibly surprised ;
and the gray repeated the same word twice, as if he
meant to teach me the right accent; wherein I spoke
after him as well as I could, and found myself per-
ceivably to improve every time, though very far from
any degree of perfection. Then the bay tried me
with a second word, much harder to be pronounced,
but reducing it to the English orthography, may be
spelt thus, Houyvhnhnm, I did not succeed in this so
well as in the former; but after two or three farther
trials, I had better fortune, and they both appeared
amazed at my capacity.

After some farther discourse, which I then con-
jectured might relate to me, the two friends took
their leaves, with the same compliment of striking
each other’s hoof, and the gray made me signs that
I should walk before him; wherein I thought it
prudent to comply, till I could find a better director.
When I offered to slacken my pace, he would cry,
hhuun, hhuun. I guessed his meaning, and gave him
to understand, as well as I could, that I was weary,
272 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

and not able to walk faster; upon which he would
stand a while to let me rest.

CHAPTER II.

THE AUTHOR CONDUCTED BY A HOUYHNHNM TO HIS
HOUSE—THE HOUSE DESCRIBED-—-THE AUTHORS
RECEPTION—THE FOOD OF THE HOUYHNHNMS—THE
AUTHOR IN DISTRESS FOR WANT OF MEAT—IS AT
LAST RELIEVED—AIS MANNER OF FEEDING IN THIS
COUNTRY.

HAVING travelled about three miles, we came to a
long kind of building, made of timber stuck in the
ground, and wattled across; the roof was low, and
covered with straw. I now began to be a little
comforted, and took out some toys, which travellers
usually carry for presents to the savage Indians
of America, and other parts, in hopes the people
of the house would be thereby encouraged to receive
me kindly. The horse made me a sien to go in first.
It was a large room, with a smooth clay floor, and a
rack and manger extending the whole length on one
side, ‘There were three nags and two mares, not eat-
ing, but some of them sitting down upon their hams,
which I very much wondered at, but wondered more
to see the rest employed in domestic business: these
seemed but ordinary cattle. However, this confirmed
my first opinion, that a people who could so far civilise
brute animals, must needs excel in wisdom all the
nations of the world. The gray came in just after,
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS. 273

and thereby prevented any ill treatment which the
others might have given me. He neighed to them
several times in a style of authority, and received
answers,

Beyond this room there were three others, reaching
the length of the house, to which you passed through
three doors, opposite to each other, in the manner of
a vista: we went through the second room towards
the third. Here the gray walked in first, beckoning
me to attend; I waited in the second room, and got
ready my presents for the master and mistress of the
house: they were two knives, three bracelets of false
pearls, a small looking-glass, and a bead necklace.
‘he horse neighed three or four times, and I waited
to hear some answers in a human voice, but I heard
no other returns than in the same dialect, only one
or two a little shriller than his. I began to think
that this house must belong to some person of great
note among them, because there appeared so much
ceremony before I could gain admittance. But, that
a man of quality should be served all by horses, was
beyond my comprehension. I feared my brain was
disturbed by my sufferings and misfortunes. I roused
myself, and looked about me in the room where I was
left alone; this was furnished like the first, only after
a more elegant manner. I rubbed my eyes often,
but the same objects still occurred. I pinched my
arms and sides to awake myself, hoping I might be
in a dream. I then absolutely concluded that all
these appearances could be nothing else but necro-
mancy and magic. But I had no time to pursue
these reflections; for the gray horse came to the

door, and made me a sign to follow him into the
S
274 | GULLIVER S TRAVELS.

third room, where I saw a very comely mare, to:
cether with a colt and foal, sitting on their haunches
upon mats of straw, not unartfully made, and per-
fectly neat and clean.

The mare, soon after my entrance, rose from her
mat, and coming up close, after having nicely ob-
served my hands and face, gave me a most contemp-
tuous look, and turning to the horse, I heard the
word Yahoo often repeated betwixt them, the mean-
ing of which word I could not then comprehend,
although it was the first I had learned to pronounce.
But I was soon better informed, to my everlasting
mortification; for the horse beckoning to me with
his head and repeating the Ahuun, hhuun,as he did
upon the road, which I understood was to attend
him, led me out into a kind of court, where was
another building at some distance from the house,
Here we entered, and I saw three of those detestable
creatures which I first met after my landing, feeding
upon roots and the flesh of some animals, which I
afterwards found to be that of asses and dogs, and
now and then a cow, dead by accident or disease,
They were all tied by the neck with strong withes
fastened to a beam; they held their food between
the claws of their fore-feet, and tore it with their
teeth. |

Ihe master horse ordered a sorrel nag, one of his
servants, to untie the largest of these animals, and
take him into the yard. The beast and I were
brought close together, and our countenances dili-
gently compared, both by master and servant, who
thereupon repeated several times the word Yahoo.
My horror and astonishment are not to be described
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUYHNHNMS. 275

when I observed in this abominable animal a perfect
human figure: the face of it indeed was flat and broad,
the nose depressed, the lips large, and the mouth
wide ; but these differences are common to all savage
nations, where the lineaments of the countenance are
distorted by the natives suffering their infants to lie
erovelling on the earth, or by carrying them on their
backs, nuzzling with their face against the mother’s
shoulders. The fore-feet of the Yahoo differed from
my hands in nothing else but the length of the nails,
the coarseness and brownness of the palms, and the
hairiness on the backs. There was the same resem-
blance between our feet, with the same differences
which I knew very well, though the horses did not,
because of my shoes and stockings; the same in
every part of our bodies, except as to hairiness and
colour which I have already described.

The great difficulty that seemed to stick with the
two horses was, to see the rest of my body so very
different from that of a Yahoo; for which I was
obliged to my clothes, whereof they had no concep-
tion. The sorrel nag offered me a root, which he
held (after their manner, as we shall describe in its
proper place) between his hoof and pastern. I took
it in my hand, and, having smelt it, returned it to
him again as civilly as I could. He brought out of
the Yahoo’s kennel a piece of ass’s flesh ; but it smelt
so offensively, that I turned from it with loathing:
Ile then threw it to the Yahoo, by whom it was
creedily devoured. He afterwards showed me a
wisp of hay, and a fetlock full of oats; but I shook
my head, to signify that neither of these were food to
me. And indeed I now apprehended that I must
276 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

absolutely starve, if I did not get to some of my own
species ; for as to those filthy Yahoos, although there
were few greater lovers of mankind at that time than
myself, yet I confess I never saw any sensitive being
so detestable on all accounts; and the more I-came
near them, the more hateful they grew, while I stayed
in that country. This the master horse observed by
my behaviour, and therefore sent the Yahoo back to
his kennel. He then put his fore-hoof to his mouth,
at which I was much surprised, although he did it
with ease, and with a motion that appeared perfectly
natural; and made other signs, to know what I would
eat; but I could not return him such an answer as he
was able to apprehend; and if he had understood me,
I did not see how it was possible to contrive any way
for finding myself nourishment. While we were thus
engaged, 1 observed a cow passing by, whereupon I
pointed to her, and expressed a desire to go and milk
her. This had its effect; for he led me back into
the house, and ordered a mare servant to opena
room, where a good store of milk lay in earthen
and wooden vessels, after a very orderly and cleanly
manner. She gave me a large bowlful, of which I
drank very heartily, and found myself well refreshed.

About noon I saw coming towards the house a
kind of vehicle drawn like a sledge by four Yahoos.
There was in it an old steed, who seemed to be of
quality; he alighted with his hind-feet forward,
having by accident got a hurt in his left fore-foot.
Ife came to dine with our horse, who received him
with great civility. They dined in the best room, and
had oats boiled in milk for the second course, which
‘the old horse ate warm, but the rest cold, Their
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS. 277

mangers were placed circular in the middle of the
room, and divided into several partitions, round
which they sat on their haunches upon basses of
straw. Inthe middle was a large rack, with angles
answering to every partition of the manger; so that
each horse and mare ate their own hay, and their
own mash of oats and milk, with much decency and
regularity. The behaviour of the young colt and
foal appeared very modest, and that of the master
and mistress extremely cheerful and complaisant to
their guest. The gray ordered me to stand by him;
and much discourse passed between him and his
friend concerning me, as I found by the stranger’s
often looking on me, and the frequent repetition
of the word Yahoo.

I happened to wear my gloves, which the master
gray observing, seemed perplexed, discovering signs
of wonder what I had done to my fore-feet. He put
his hoof three or four times to them, as if he would
signify that I should reduce them to their former
shape; which I presently did, pulling off both my
cloves, and putting them into my pocket. This
occasioned further talk: and I saw the company was
pleased with my behaviour, whereof I soon found the
cood effects. I was ordered to speak the few words
I understood; and while they were at dinner, the
master taught me the names for oats, milk, fire, water,
and some others, which I could readily pronounce
after him, having from my youth a great facility in
learning languages.

When dinner was done, the master horse took me
aside, and by signs and words made me understand
the concern he was in that I had nothing to eat.
275 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

Oats in their tongue are called Alunni. This word I
pronounced two or three times: for although I had
refused them at first, yet, upon second thoughts, I con-
sidered that I could contrive to make of them a kind
of bread, which might be sufficient, with milk, to keep
me alive till I could make my escape to some other
country, and to creatures of my own species. The
horse immediately ordered a white mare-servant of
his family to bring me a good quantity of oats in a
sort of wooden tray. These I heated before the fire,
as well as I could, and rubbed them till the husks
came off, which I made a shift to winnow from the
srain: I ground and beat them between two stones,
then took water, and made them into a paste or cake,
which I toasted at the fire, and ate warm with milk.
It was at first a very insipid diet, though common
enough in many parts of Europe, but grew tolerable
by time ; and having been often reduced to hard fare
in my life, this was not the first experiment I had
made, how easily nature is satisfied. And I cannot
but observe, that I never had one hour’s sickness
while I stayed in this island. It is true, I sometimes
made a shift to catch a rabbit, or bird, by springes
made of Yahoos’ hairs; and I often gathered whole-
some herbs, which I boiled, and ate as salads with
my bread; and now and then, for a rarity, I made a
little butter, and drank the whey. I was at first at
a great loss for salt, but custom soon reconciled me
to the want of it: and I am confident that the fre-
quent use of salt among us is an effect of luxury, and
was first introduced only as a provocative to drink,
except where it is necessary for preserving flesh in
long voyages, or in places remote from great markets:
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS. 279

for we observe no animal to be fond of it but man:
and as to myself, when I left this country, it was a
great while before I could endure the taste of it in
anything that I ate.

This is enough to say upon the subject of my diet,
wherewith other travellers fill their books, as if the
readers were personally concerned whether we fare
well or ill. However, it was necessary to mention
this matter, lest the world should think it impossible
that I could find sustenance for three years in such
a country, and among such inhabitants.

When it grew towards evening, the master horse
ordered a place for me to lodge in: it was but six
yards from the house, and separated from the stable
of the Yahoos. Here I got some straw, and covering
myself with my own clothes, slept very sound. But
I was in a short time better accommodated, as the
reader shall know hereafter, when I come to treat
more particularly about my way of living.
280 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

CHAPTER III.

¢

THE AUTHOR STUDIES TO LEARN THE LANGUAGE-——THE
HOUVHNHNM, HISMASTER, ASSISTS IN TEACHING HIM—
THE LANGUAGE DESCRIBED—SEVERAL HOUYHNHNMS
OF QUALITY COME OUT OF CURIOSITY TO SEE THE
AUTHOR—HE GIVES HIS MASTER A SHORT ACCOUNT
OF HIS VOYAGE.

My principal endeavour was to learn the language,
which my master (for so I shall henceforth call him)
and his children, and every servant of his house, were
desirous to teach me: for they looked upon it as a
prodigy, that a brute animal should discover such
marks of a rational creature. I pointed to every-
thing, and inquired the name of it, which I wrote
down in my journal-book when I was alone: and
corrected my bad accent, by desiring those of the
family to pronounce it often. In this employment
a sorrel nag, one of the under-servants, was very
ready to assist me.

In speaking, they pronounce through the nose and
throat; and their language approaches nearest to the
High Dutch or German, of any I know in Europe ;
but is much more graceful and significant. The
Emperor Charles V. made almost the same observa-
tion, when he said, that if he were to speak to his
horse, it should be in High Dutch.

The curiosity and impatience of my master were
so great, that he spent many hours of his leisure to
instruct me. He was convinced (as he afterwards
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS. 251

told me) that I must be a Yahoo; but my teachable-
ness, Civility, and cleanliness astonished him; which
were qualities altogether opposite to those animals.
Fle was most perplexed about my clothes, reasoning
sometimes with himself, whether they were a part of
my body ; for I never pulled them off till the family
were asleep, and got them on before they waked in
the morning. My master was eager to learn whence
I came; how I acquired those appearances of reason
which I discovered in all my actions; and to know
my story from my own mouth; which he hoped he
should soon do, by the great proficiency I made in
learning and pronouncing their words and sentences.
To help my memory, I formed all I learned into the
English alphabet, and wrote the words down, with the
translations. This last, after some time, I ventured
to do in my master’s presence. It cost me much
trouble to explain to him what I was doing; for the
inhabitants have not the least idea of books or
literature.

In about ten weeks’ time I was able to understand
most of his questions, and in three months could give
him some tolerable answers. He was extremely
curious to know from what part of the country I
came, and how I was taught to imitate a rational
creature; because the Yahoos (whom he saw _ JI
exactly resembled in my head, hands, and face, that
were only visible), with some appearance of cunning,
and the strongest disposition to mischief, were ob-
served to be the most unteachable of all brutes.
I answered, that I came over the sea, from a far
place, with many others of my own kind, in a great
hollow vessel, made of the bodies of trees: that
282 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

my companions forced me to land on this coast,
and then left me to shift for myself. It was with
some difficulty, and by the help of many signs,
that I brought him to understand me. He replied,
that I must needs be mistaken, or that I said the
thing which was not; for they have no word in their
language to express lying or falsehood. He knew it
was impossible that there could be a country beyond
the sea, or that a parcel of brutes could move a
wooden vessel whither they pleased upon water. He
was sure no Houyhnhnm alive could make such a
vessel, nor would trust Yahoos to manage it.

The word Houyhnhnm, in their tongue, signifies a
horse, and, in its etymology, the perfection of nature.
I told my master that I was at a loss for expression,
but would improve as fast as I could; and hoped, in
a short time, I should be able to tell him wonders,
He was pleased to direct his own mare, his colt
and foal, and the servants of the family, to take
all opportunities of instructing me; and every day,
for two or three hours, he was at the same pains
himself. Several horses and mares of quality in the
neighbourhood came often to our house, upon the
report spread of a wonderful Yahoo that could speak
like a Houyhnhnm, and seemed, in his words and
actions, to discover some glimmerings of reason.
These delighted to converse with me; they put many
questions, and received such answers as I was able
to return. By all these advantages I made so great
a progress, that, in five months from my arrival, I
understood whatever was spoken, and could express
myself tolerably well.

The Houyhnhnms, who came to visit my master
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS. 283

out of a design of seeing and talking with me, could
hardly believe me to be a right Yahoo, because my
body had a different covering from others of my kind.
They were astonished to observe me without the
usual hair or skin, except on my head, face, and
hands: but I discovered that secret to my master,
upon an accident which happened about a fortnight
before.

I have already told the reader that every night,
when the family were gone to bed, it was my custom
to strip, and cover myself with my clothes. It
happened, one morning early, that my master sent
for me by the sorrel nag, who was his valet. When
he came, I was fast asleep, my clothes fallen off on
one side, and my shirt above my waist. I awaked at
the noise he made, and observed him to deliver his
message in some disorder; after which he went to
my master, and in a great fright gave him a very
confused account of what he had seen. This I pre-
sently discovered; for going, as soon as I was dressed,
to pay my attendance upon his honour, he asked me
the meaning of what his servant had reported, that
I was not the same thing when I slept as I appeared
to be at other times; that his valet assured him some
part of me was white, some yellow, at least not so
white, and some brown.

I had hitherto concealed the secret of my dress,
in order to distinguish myself, as much as possible,
from that cursed race of Yahoos; but now I found it
in vain to do so any longer. Besides, I considered
that my clothes and shoes would soon wear out, which
already were in a declining condition, and must be
supplied by some contrivance, from the hides of
254 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

Yahoos, or other brutes; whereby the whole secret
would be known. I therefore told my master, that
in the country whence I came, those of my kind
always covered their bodies with the hairs of certain
animals prepared by art, as well for decency as to
avoid the inclemencies of air, both hot and cold; of
which, as to my own person, I would give him
immediate conviction, if he pleased to command me;
only desiring his excuse, if I did not expose those
parts that nature taught us to conceal. He said my
discourse was all very strange, but especially the last
part: for he could not understand why nature should
teach us to conceal what nature had given; that
neither himself nor family were ashamed of any part
of their bodies; but, however, I might do as I pleased.
Whereupon I first unbuttoned my coat, and pulled it
off: I did the same with my waistcoat: I drew off
my shoes, stockings, and breeches: I let my shirt
down to my waist, and drew up the bottom, fastening
it like a girdle about my middle, to hide my naked-
ness.

My master observed the whole performance with
great signs of curiosity and admiration. He took up
all my clothes in his pastern, one piece after another,
and examined them diligently; he then stroked my
body very gently, and looked round me several
times; after which he said, it was plain I must bea
perfect Yahoo; but that I differed very much from
the rest of my species, in the softness, whiteness, and
smoothness of my skin; my want of hair in several
parts of my body; the shape and shortness of my
claws behind and before; and my affectation of
walking continually on my two hinder feet. He
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS. 285

desired to see no more, and gave me leave to put on
my clothes again, for I was shuddering with cold.

I expressed my uneasiness at his giving me so
often the appellation of Yahoo, an odious animal, for
which I had so utter a hatred and contempt: I
begged he would forbear applying that word to me,
and make the same order in his family and among
his friends whom he suffered to see me. J requested
likewise, that the secret of my having a false covering
to my body might be known to none but himself, at
least as long as my present clothing should last; for,
as to what the sorrel nag, his valet, had observed, his
honour might command him to conceal it.

All this my master very graciously consented to ;
and thus the secret was kept till my clothes began
to wear out, which I was forced to supply by several
contrivances that shall hereafter be mentioned. In
the meantime, he desired I would go on with my
utmost diligence to learn their language, because he
was more astonished at my capacity for speech and
reason than at the figure of my body, whether it
were covered or not; adding that he waited with
some impatience to hear the wonders which I pro-
mised to tell him.

Thenceforward he doubled the pains he had been
at to instruct me; he brought me into all company,
and made them treat me with civility ; because, as he
told them privately, this would put me into good
humour and make me more diverting,

Every day, when I waited on him, besides the
trouble he was at in teaching, he would ask me several
questions concerning myself, which I answered as well
as I could; and by these means he had already re-
256 | GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

ceived some general ideas, though very imperfect. It
would be tedious to relate the several steps by which
I advanced to a more regular conversation; but the
first account I gave of myself in any order and length
was to this purpose :—

That I came from a very far country, as I already
had attempted to tell him, with about fifty more of
my own species; that we travelled upon the seas in
a great hollow vessel made of wood, and larger than
his honour’s house. I described the ship to him in
tne best terms I could, and explained, by the help of
my handkerchief displayed, how it was driven forward
by the wind. That, upon a quarrel among us, I was
set on shore on this coast, where I walked forward,
without knowing whither, till he delivered me from
the persecution of those execrable Yahoos. Heasked
me who made the ship, and how it was possible that
the Houyhnhnms of my country would leave it to
the management of brutes? My answer was, that I
durst proceed no further in my relation, unless he
would give me his word and honour that he would
not be offended, and then I would tell him the
wonders I had so often promised. He agreed; and
I went on, by assuring him that the ship was made
by creatures like myself; who, in all the countries I
had travelled, as well as in my own, were the only
governing rational animals: and that, upon my arrival
hither, J was as much astonished to see the Houyhn-
hnms act like rational beings, as he, or his friends,
could be, in finding some marks of reasonin a creature
he was pleased to call a Yahoo; to which I owned
my resemblance in every part, but could not account
for their degenerate and brutal nature. I said further,
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUYHNHNMS. 287

that if good fortune ever restored me to my native
country, to relate my travels hither, as I resolved to
do, everybody would believe that I said the thing
that was not, that I invented the story out of my own
head ; and (with all possible respect to himself, his
family, and friends, and under his promise of not
being offended), our countrymen would hardly think
it probable that a Houyhnhnm should be the pre-
siding creature of a nation, and a Yahoo the brute.

CHAPTER IV.

THE HOUVHNHNMS NOTION OF TRUTH AND FALSEHOOD—
THE AUTHOR’S DISCOURSE DISAPPROVED BY WHIS
MASTER—-THE AUTHOR GIVES A MCRE PARTICULAR
ACCOUNT OF HIMSELF, AND THE ACCIDENTS OF HIS
VOYAGE. .

My master heard me with great appearances of un-
easiness in his countenance; because doubting, or
not believing, are so little known in this country, that
the inhabitants cannot tell how to behave themselves
under such circumstances. And I remember, in fre-
quent discourses with my master concerning the
nature of manhood in other parts of the world, having
occasion to talk of lying and false representation, it
was with much difficulty that he comprehended what
I meant, although he had otherwise a most acute
judgment; for he argued thus: That the use of
speech was to make us understand one another, and
to receive information of facts; now, if any one said
288 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

the thing which was not, these ends were defeated,
because I cannot properly be said to understand him ;
and Jam so far from receiving information, that he
leaves me worse than in ignorance; for I am led to
believe a thing black when it is white, and short
when it is long. And these were all the notions he
had concerning that faculty of lying, so perfectly well
understood, and so universally practised among
human creatures,

To return from this digression. When I asserted
that the Yahoos were the only governing animals in
my country, which my master said was altogether
past his conception, he desired to know whether we
had Houvhnhnms among us, and what was their
employment? I told him we had great numbers;
that in summer they grazed in the fields, and in
winter were kept in houses with hay and oats, where
Yahoo servants were employed to rub their skins
smooth, comb their manes, pick their feet, serve them
with food, and make their beds. I understand you
well, said my master: it is now very plain, from all
vou have spoken, that whatever share of reason the
Yahoos pretend to, the Houyhnhnms are your
masters. I heartily wish our Yahoos would be so
tractable. I begged his honour would please to
excuse me from proceeding any further, because] was
very certain that the account he expected from me
would be highly displeasing. But he insisted in
commanding me to let him know the best and the
worst. I told him he should be obeved. I owned
that the Houyhnhnms among us, whom we called
horses, were the most generous and comely animals
we had; that they excelled in streneth and swift-
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS. 289

ness; and when they belonged to persons of quality,
were employed in travelling, racing, or drawing
chariots: they were treated with much kindness
and care, till they fell into diseases, or became
foundered in the feet; but then they were sold, and
used to all kind of drudgery till they died; after
which their skins were stripped, and sold for what
they were worth, and their bodies left to be devoured
by dogs and birds of prey. But the common race
of horses had not so good fortune: being kept by
farmers and carriers, and other mean people, who
put them to greater labour, and fed them worse.
I described, as well as I could, our way of riding ;
the shape and use of a bridle, a saddle, a spur, and
a whip; of harness and wheels. I added that we
fastened plates of a certain hard substance, called
iron, at the bottom of their feet, to preserve their
hoofs from being broken by the stony ways on
which we often travelled.

My master, after some expressions of great indig-
nation, wondered how we dared to venture upon a
Houyhnhnm’s back; for he was sure that the
weakest servant in his house would be able to shake
off the strongest Yahoo, or, by lying down, and
rolling on his back, squeeze the brute to death. I
answered, that our horses were trained up, from
three or four years old, to the several uses we
intended them for; that if any of them proved
intolerably vicious, they were employed for carriages;
that they were severely beaten, while they were
young, for any mischievous tricks; that the males,
designed for the common use of riding or draught,

were generally castrated about two years after their
7
290 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

birth, to take down their spirits, and make them
more tame and gentle; that they were indeed sen-
sible of rewards and punishments; but his honour
would please to consider, that they had not the
least tincture of reason, any more than the Yahoos
in this country.

It put me to the pains of many circumlocutions
to give my master a right idea of what I spoke; for
their language doth not abound in variety of words,
because their wants and passions are fewer than
among us. ut it is impossible to express his noble
resentment at our savage treatment of the Houyhnhnm
race; particularly after I had explained the manner
and use ‘of castrating horses among us, to hinder
them from propagating their kind, and to render
them more servile. He said, if it were possible there
could be any country where Yahoos alone were
endued with reason, they certainly must be the
governing animal; because reason, in time, will
always prevail against brutal strength. But, con-
sidering the frame of our bodies, and especially of
mine, he thought no creature of equal bulk was so
ill contrived for employing that reason in the com-
mon offices of life; whereupon he desired to know
whether those among whom I lived resembled me or
the Yahoos of his country. I assured him that I
was as well shaped as most of my age; but the
younger, and the females, were much more so, and
tender, and the skins of the latter generally as white
as milk. He said, I differed indeed from other
Yahoos, being much more cleanly, and not altogether
so deformed; but, in point of real advantage, he
thought I differed for the worse. That my nalis
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS. 291

were of no use either to my fore or hinder feet. As
to my fore-feet, he could not properly call them by
that name, for he never observed me to walk upon
them; that they were too soft to bear the ground ;
that I generally went with them uncovered ; neither
was the covering I sometimes wore on them of the
same shape, or so strong as that on my feet behind.
That I could not walk with any security, for if either
of my hinder feet slipped, I must inevitably fall.
Fle then began to find fault with other parts of my
body: the flatness of my face, the prominence of
my nose, mine eyes placed directly in front, so that I
could not look on either side without turning my
head: that I was not able to feed myself without
lifting one of my fore-feet to my mouth; and there-
fore nature had placed those joints to answer that
necessity. He knew not what could be the use of
those several clefts and divisions in my feet behind;
that these were too soft to bear the hardness and
sharpness of stones, without a covering made from
the skin of some other brute; that my whole body
wanted a fence against heat and cold, which I was
forced to put on and off every day, with tediousness
and trouble. And lastly, that he observed every
animal in this country naturally to abhor the Yahoos,
whom the weaker avoided,.and the stronger drove
from them. So that, supposing us to have the gift of
reason, he could not see how it were possible to cure
that natural antipathy which every creature discovered
against us; nor, consequently, how we could tame
and render them serviceable. However, he would,
as he said, debate the matter no further, because he
was more desirous to know my own story, the country
292 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

where I was born, and the several actions and events
of my life before I came hither. |

I assured him how extremely desirous I was that
he should be satisfied on every point ; but I doubted
much whether it would be possible for me to explain
myself on several subjects, whereof his honour could
have no conception, because I saw nothing in his
country to which I could resemble them; that, how-
ever, I would do my best, and strive to express myself
by similitudes, humbly desiring his assistance when
I wanted proper words; which he was pleased to
promise me.

I said, my birth was of honest parents, in an island
called England, which was remote from his country
as many days’ Journey as the strongest of his honour’s
servants could travel in the annual course of the sun;
that I was bred a surgeon, whose trade it is to cure
wounds and hurts in the body, gotten by accident or
violence ; that my country was governed by a female
man, whom we called queen; that I left it to get
riches, whereby I might maintain myself and family,
when I should return; that, in my last voyage, I was
commander of the ship, and had about fifty Yahoos
under me, many of which died at sea, and I was forced
to supply them by others picked out from several
nations ; that our ship was twice in danger of being
sunk; the first time by a great storm, and the second
by striking against a rock, Here my master inter-
posed, by asking me, how I could persuade strangers,
out of different countries, to venture with me, after
the losses I had sustained, and the hazards I had
run? I said, they were fellows of desperate fortunes,
forced to fly from the places of their birth on account
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS. 293

of their poverty or their crimes. Some were undone
by lawsuits; others spent all they had in drinking,
whoring, and gaming; others fled for treason ; many
for murder, theft, poisoning, robbery, perjury, forgery,
coining false money, for committing rapes, or sodomy,
for flying from their colours, or deserting to the enemy;
and most of them had broken prison: none of these
durst return to their native countries, for fear of being
hanged, or of starving in a jail; and therefore thev
were under a necessity of seeking a livelihood in
other places. ©

During this discourse my master was pleased to
interrupt me several times. I had made use of
many circumlocutions in describing to him the
nature of the several crimes for which most of our
crew had been forced to fly their country. This
labour took up several days’ conversation, before he
was able to comprehend me. He was wholly at a
loss to know what could be the use or necessity of
practising those vices: to clear up which, I endea-
voured to give him some ideas of the desire of power
and riches; of the terrible effects of lust, intemper-
ance, malice, and envy. All this I was forced to
define and describe by putting cases, and making
suppositions, After which, like one whose imagina-
tion was struck with something never seen or heard
of before, he would lift up his eyes with amazement
and indignation. Power, government, war, law,
punishment, and a thousand other things had no
terms wherein that language could express them,
which made the difficulty almost insuperable, to
sive my master any conception of what I meant.
But being of an excellent understanding, much
204 | GULLIVER’S TRAVELS,

improved by contemplation and converse, he at last
arrived at a competent knowledge of what human
nature, in our parts of the world, is capable to per-
form, and desired I would give him some particular
account of that land which we: call Europe, but
especially of my own country.

CHAPTER V.

THE AUTHOR, AT HIS MASTER'S COMMAND, INFORMS HIM
OF THE STATE OF ENGLAND—THE CAUSES OF WAR
AMONG THE PRINCES OF EUROPE—-THE AUTHOR BEGINS
TO EXPLAIN THE ENGLISH CONSTITUTION. |

THE reader may please to observe, that the follow-
ing extract of many conversations I had with my
master contains a summary of the most material
points which were discoursed at several times for
above two years; his honour often desiring fuller
satisfaction, as I further improved in the Houyhnhnm
tongue. I laid before him, as well as I could, the
whole state of Europe; I discoursed of trade and
manufactures, of arts and sciences; and the answers
I gave to all the questions he made, as they arose
upon several subjects, were a fund of conversation not
to be exhausted. But I shall here only set down the
substance of what passed between us concerning my
own country, reducing it in order as well as I can,
without any regard to time or other circumstances,
while I strictly adhere to truth. My only concern is,
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUYHNHNMS. 295

that I shall hardly be able to do justice to my master’s
arguments and expressions, which must needs suffer
by my want of capacity as well as by a translation
into our barbarous English,

In obedience, therefore, to his honour’s commands,
I related to him the revolution under the Prince of
Orange; the long war with France, entered into bv
the said prince, and renewed by his successor, the
present queen, wherein the greatest powers of Chris-
tendom were engaged, and which still continued.
I computed, at his request, that about a million of
Yahoos might have been killed in the whole progress
of it; and perhaps a hundred or more cities taken,
and five times as many ships burnt or sunk.

He asked me, what were the usual causes or
motives that made one country go to war with
another? I answered, they were innumerable; but
I should only mention a few of the chief. Some-
times the ambition of princes, who never think they
have land or people enough to govern: sometimes
the corruption of ministers, who engage their master
in a war in order to stifle or divert the clamour of
the subjects against their evil administration. Dif-
ference in opinions has cost many millions of lives:
for instance, whether flesh be bread, or bread be
flesh ; whether the juice of a certain berry be blood
or wine; whether whistling be a vice or a virtue;
whether it be better to kiss a post, or throw it into
the fire; what is the best colour for a coat, whether
black, white, red, or gray; and whether it should
be long or short, narrow or wide, dirty or clean, with
many more. Neither are any wars so furious and
bloody, or of so long continuance, as those occasioned
296 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

by difference in opinion, especially if it be in things
indifferent.

Sometimes the quarrel between two princes is to
decide which of them shall dispossess a third of his
dominions, where neither of them pretend to any
right. Sometimes one prince quarrels with another,
for fear the other should quarrel with him. Some-
times a war is entered upon, because the enemy is
too strong, and sometimes because he is too weak.
Sometimes our neighbours want the things which
we have, or have the things which we want, and we
both fight till they take ours, or give us theirs, It is
a very justifiable cause of war to invade a country
after the people have been wasted by famine, de-
stroyed by pestilence, or embroiled by factions among
themselves, It is justifiable to enter into war against
our nearest ally, when one of his towns lies conve-
nient for us, or a territory of land, that would render
our dominions round and compact. If a prince
sends forces into a nation where the people are poor
and ignorant, he may lawfully put half of them to
death, and make slaves of the rest, in order to civilise
and reduce them from their barbarous way of living.
It is a very kingly, honourable, and frequent practice,
when one prince desires the assistance of another to
secure him against an invasion, that the assistant,
when he has driven out the invader, should seize on
the dominions himself, and kill, imprison, or banish
the prince he came to relieve. Alliance by blood or
marriage is a frequent cause of war between princes ;
and the nearer their kindred is, the greater their dis-
position to quarrel. Poor nations are hunery, and
rich nations are proud: and pride and hunger will
A VOYAGE 70 THE HOUYHUNUNMS. 297

ever be at variance. For these reasons, the trade of
a soldier is held the most honourable of all others:
because a soldier is a Yahoo hired to kill, in cold
blood, as many of his own species, who have never
offended him, as possibly he can.

There is likewise a kind of beggarly princes in
Europe, not able to make war by themselves, who
hire out their troops to richer nations, for so much a
day to each man; of which they keep three-fourths
to themselves, and it is the best part of their main-
tenance: such are those in many northern parts of
Europe.

What you have told me, said my master, upon the
subject of war, does, indeed, discover most admirably
the effects of that reason you pretend to: however,
it is happy that the shame is greater than the danger ;
and that nature has left you utterly incapable of doing
much mischief: for your mouths lying flat with your
faces, you can hardly bite each other to any purpose,
~unless by consent. Then as to the claws upon your
feet, before and behind, they are so short and so tender,
that one of our Yahoos would drive a dozen of yours
before him. And therefore, in recounting the numbers
of those who have been killed in battle, I cannot but
think you have said the thing which is not,

I could not forbear shaking my head, and smiling
a little at his ignorance. And being no stranger to
the art of war, I gave him a description of cannons,
culverins, muskets, carabines, pistols, bullets, powder,
swords, bayonets, battles, sieges, retreats, attacks,
undermines, countermines, bombardments, sea-fights,
ships sunk with a thousand men, twenty thousand
killed on each side, dying groans, limbs flying in the
298 | GOULLIVER’S TRAVELS. |

air, smoke, noise, confusion, trampling to death under
horses’ feet, flight, pursuit, victory; fields strewed
with carcasses, left for food to dogs, and wolves, and
birds of prey ; plundering, stripping, ravishing, burn-
ing and destroying. And to set forth the valour of
my own dear countrymen, I assured him that I had
seen them blow up a hundred enemies at once in a
siege, and as many in a ship; and beheld the dead
bodies drop down in pieces from the clouds, to the
creat diversion of the spectators. :

I was going on to more particulars, when my master
commanded me silence. He said, whoever. under-
stood the nature of Yahoos might easily believe it
possible for so vile an animal to be capable of every
action I had named, if their strength and cunning
equalled their malice. But as my discourse had
increased his abhorrence of the whole species, so he
found it gave him a disturbance in his mind, to which
he was wholly a stranger before. He thought his
ears, being used to such abominable words, might,
by degrees, admit them with less detestation: that
although he hated the Yahoos of this country, yet he
no more blamed them for their odious qualities, than
he did a guuayh (a bird of prey) for its cruelty, or a
sharp stone for cutting his hoof. But whena creature
pretending to reason could be capable of such enor-
mities, he dreaded least the corruption of that faculty
might be worse than brutality itself. He seemed,
therefore, confident, that, instead of reason, we were
only possessed of some quality fitted to increase our
natural vices; as the reflection from a troubled stream
returns the image of an ill-shapen body, not only
larger, but more distorted.
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVYHNANMS. 209

He added, that he had heard too much upon the
subject of war, both in this and some former dis-
courses. There was another point which a little
perplexed him at present. I had informed him that
some of our crew left their country on account of
being ruined by law; that I had already explained
the meaning of the word; but he was at a loss how
it should come to pass, that the law, which was
intended for every man’s preservation, should be any
man’s ruin. Therefore he desired to be further satis-
fied what I meant by law, and the dispensers thereof,
according to the present practice in my own country ;
because he thought nature and reason were sufficient
guides for a reasonable animal, as we pretended to
be, in showing. us what we ought to do, and what to
- avoid, —_ |
I assured his honour, that law was a. science in
which I had not much conversed, further than by
employing advocates, in vain, upon some injustices
that had been done me: however, I would give him
all the satisfaction I was able.

l said, there was a society of men among us, bred
up from their youth in the art of proving, by words
multiplied for the purpose, that white is black, and
black is white, according as they are paid. To this
society all the rest of the people are slaves. For
example, if my neighbour has a mind to my cow,
he has a lawyer to prove that he ought to have my
cow from me. I must then hire another to defend my
right, it being against all rules of law that any man
should be allowed to speak for himself. Now, in this
case, I, who am the right owner, lie under two great
disadvantages: first, mylawyer, being practised almost
300 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

from his cradle, in defending falsehood, is quite out
of his element when he would be an advocate for
justice, which is an unnatural office he always attempts
with great awkwardness, if not with ill-will. The >
second disadvantage is, that my lawyer must proceed
with great caution, or else he will be reprimanded by
the judges, and abhorred by his brethren, as one that
would lessen the practice of the law. And therefore
I have but two methods to preserve my cow. The
first is, to gain over my adversary’s lawyer with a
double fee, who will then betray his client, by insinuat-
ing that he has justice on his side. The second way
is, for my lawyer to make my cause appear as unjust
as he can, by allowing the cow to belong to my adver-
sary: and this if it be skilfully done, will certainly
bespeak the favour of the bench. Now your honour
is to know, that these judges are persons appointed
to decide all controversies of property, as well as for
the trial of criminals, and picked out from the most
dexterous lawyers, who are grown old or lazy; and
having been biassed all their lives against truth and
equity, he under such a fatal necessity of favouring
fraud, perjury, and oppression, that I have known
some of them refuse a large bribe from the side
where justice lay, rather than injure the faculty,
by doing anything unbecoming their nature or their
office.

It is a maxim among these lawvers, that whatever
has been done before may legally be done again ; and
therefore they take special care to record all the
decisions formerly made against common justice and
the general reason of mankind. These, under the
name of precedents, they produce as authorities to
A VOVAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS. 301

justify the most iniquitous opinions; and the judges
never fail of directing accordingly. |

In pleading, they studiously avoid entering into the
merits of the cause, but are loud, violent, and tedious
in dwelling upon all circumstances which are not to
the purpose. For instance, in the case already men-
tioned, they never desire to know what claim or title
my adversary has to my cow; but whether the said
cow were red or black; her horns long or short;
whether the field I graze her in be round or square;
whether she was milked at home or abroad; what
diseases she is subject to, and the like; after which
they consult precedents, adjourn the cause from time
to time, and in ten, twenty, or thirty years come to
an issue. |

It is likewise to be observed that this society has
a peculiar cant and jargon of their own, that no other
mortal can understand, and wherein all their laws are
written, which they take special care to multiply;
whereby they have wholly confounded the very
essence of truth and falsehood, of right and wrong;
so that it will take thirty vears to decide whether the
field left me by my ancestors for six generations be-
longs to me, or to a stranger three hundred miles off.

In the trial of persons accused for crimes against
the state, the method is much more short and com-
mendable: the judge first sends to sound the dis-
position of those in power; after which, he can easily
hang or save a criminal, strictly preserving all due
forms of law. |

Here my master interposing, said, it was a pity
that creatures endued with such prodigious abilities of
mind, as these lawyers, by the description I gave of
502 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

them, must certainly be, were not rather encouraged
to be instructors of others in wisdom and knowledge.
In answer to which I assured his honour, that in all
points out of their own trade they were usually the
most ignorant and stupid generation among us, the
most despicable in common conversation, avowed
enemies to all knowledge and learning, and equally
disposed to pervert the general reason of mankind in
every other subject of discourse as in that of their
own profession, :

CHAPTER VI.

A CONTINUATION OF THE STATE OF . ENGLAND UNDER
QUEEN ANNE—THE CHARACTER OF A FIRST MINISTER
OF STATE IN EUROPEAN COURTS.

My master was yet wholly at a loss to understand
what motives could incite this race of lawyers to per-
plex, disquiet, and weary themselves, and engage in
a confederacy of injustice, merely for the sake of
injuring their fellow-animals: neither could he com-
prehend what I meant in saying they did it for hire:
whereupon [I was at much pains to describe to
him the use of money, the materials it was made
of, and the value of the metals; that when a Yahoo
had got a great store of this precious substance,
he was able to purchase whatever he had a mind
to; the finest clothing, the noblest houses, great
tracts of land, the most costly meats and drinks, and
have his choice of the most beautiful females. There-
A VOYAGE T0.THE HOUVYHNANMS, 303

fore, since money alone was able to perform all these
feats, our Yahoos thought they could never have
enough of it to spend, or to save, as they found
themselves inclined, from their natural bent, either
to profusion or avarice; that the rich man enjoyed
the fruit of the poor man’s labour, and the latter
were a thousand to one in proportion to the former ;
that the bulk of our people were forced to live miser-
ably, by labouring every day for small wages, to
make a few live plentifully.

I enlarged myself much on these, and many other
particulars, to the same purpose; but his honour was
still to seek ; for he went upon a supposition that all
animals had a title to their share in the productions
of the earth, and especially those who presided over
the rest. Therefore he desired I would let him know
what these costly meats were, and how any of us
happened to want them? Whereupon I enumerated
as many sorts as came into my head, with the various
methods of dressing them, which could not be done
without sending vessels by sea to every part of the
world, as well for liquids to drink as for sauces, and
innumerable other conveniences, I assured him that
this whole globe of earth must be at least three times
gone round, before one of our better female Yahoos
could get her breakfast, or a cup to put it in. He
said, that must needs be a miserable country, which
cannot furnish food for its own inhabitants. But
what he chiefly wondered at was, how such vast
tracts of ground as I described should be wholly
without fresh water, and the people put to the neces-
sity of sending over the sea for drink. I replied, that
England (the dear place of my nativity) was com-
304 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS,

puted to produce three times the quantity of food
more than its inhabitants are able to consume, as
well as liquors extracted from grain, or pressed out
of the fruit of certain trees, which made excellent
drink, and the same proportion in every other con-
venience of life. But in order to feed the luxury
and intemperance of the males, and the vanity of
the females, we sent away the greatest part of our
necessary things to other countries, whence, in return,
we brought the materials of diseases, folly, and vice,
to spend among ourselves. Hence it follows, of
necessity, that vast numbers of our people are com-
pelled to seek their livelihood by begging, robbing,
stealing, cheating, pimping, flattering, suborning, for-
swearing, forging, gaming, lying, fawning, hectoring,
voting, scribbling, star-gazing, poisoning, whoring,
canting, libelling, free-thinking, and the like occupa-
tions: every one of which terms I was at much pains
to make him understand.

That wine was not imported among us from foreign
countries to supply the want of water or other drinks,
but because it was a sort of hquid which made us
merry, by putting us out of our senses, diverted all
melancholy thoughts, begat wild extravagant ima-
ginations in the brain, raised our hopes and banished
our fears, suspended every office of reason for a time,
and deprived us of the use of our limbs, till we fell
into a profound sleep; although it must be confessed
that we always awaked sick and dispirited, and that
the use of this liquor filled us with diseases which
made our lives uncomfortable and short.

But, beside all this, the bulk of our people sup-
ported themselves by furnishing the necessities or
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS. 305

conveniences of life to the rich, and to each other.
For instance, when I am at home, and dressed as I
ought to be, I carry on my body the workmanship of
a hundred tradesmen, the building and furniture of
my house employ as many more, and five times the
number to adorn my wife.

I was going on to tell him of another sort of people,
who get their livelihood by attending the sick, having
upon some occasions informed his honour that many
of my crew had died of diseases. But here it was
with the utmost difficulty that I brought him to ap-
prehend what I meant. He could easily conceive that
a Houyhnhnm grew weak and heavy a few days
before his death, or by some accident might hurt a
limb: but that Nature, who works all things to per-
fection, should suffer any pains to breed in our bodies,
he thought impossible, and desired to know the reason
of so unaccountable an evil.

I told him we fed on a thousand things which
operated contrary to each other; that we ate when
we were not hungry, and drank without the provoca-
tion of thirst; that we sat whole nights drinking
strong liquors, without eating a bit, which disposed
us to sloth, inflamed our bodies, and precipitated or
prevented digestion; that prostitute female Yahoos
acquired a certain malady which bred rottenness in
the bones of those who fell into their embraces; that
this and many other diseases were propagated from
father to son, so that great numbers came into the
world with complicated maladies upon them: that it
would be endless to give him a catalogue of all
diseases incident to human bodies, for they would

not be fewer than five or six hundred spread over
U
308 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

every limb and joint; in short, every part, external
and intestine, having diseases appropriated to itself:
To remedy which there was a sort of people bred up
among us in the profession, or the pretence, of curing
the sick. And because I had some skill in the
faculty, I would, in gratitude to his honour, let him
know the whole mystery and method by which they
proceed.

Their fundamental is, that all diseases arise from
repletion, whence they conclude, that a great evacua-
tion of the body is necessary, either through the
natural passage, or upwards at the mouth. Their
next business is, from herbs, minerals, gums, oils,
shells, salts, juices, seaweed, excrements, barks of
trees, serpents, toads, frogs, spiders, dead men’s flesh
and bones, birds, beasts, and fishes, to form a com-
position, for smell and taste, the most abominable,
nauseous, and detestable they can possibly contrive,
which the stomach immediately rejects with loathing,
and this they call a vomit; or else, from the same
storehouse, with some other poisonous additions,
they command us to take in at the orifice above or
below (just as the physician then happens to be dis-
posed) a medicine equally annoying and discustful
to the bowels, which, relaxing the belly, drives down
all before it; and this they call a purge or a clyster,
For Nature (as the physicians allege), having intended
the superior anterior orifice only for the intromission
of solids and liquids, and the inferior posterior for
ejection, these artists, ingeniously considering that in
all diseases Nature is forced out of her seat, therefore,
to replace her in it, the body must be treated in a
manner directly contrary, by interchanging the use
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUYHNHNMS. 307

of each orifice, forcing solids and liquids in at the
anus, and making evacuations at the mouth.

But, besides real diseases, we are subject to
many that are only imaginary, for which the phy-
sicians have invented imaginary cures; these have
their several names, and so have the drugs that are
proper for them; and with these our female Yahoos
are always infested.

One great excellency in this tribe is their skill at
prognostics, wherein they seldom fail; their predic-
tions in real diseases, when they rise to any decree
of malignity, generally portending death, which is
always in their power, when recovery is not; and,
therefore, upon any unexpected signs of amendment,
after they have pronounced their sentence, rather
than be accused as false prophets, they know how to
approve their sagacity to the world by a seasonable
dose.

They are likewise of special use to husbands and
wives who are grown weary of their mates, to eldest
sons, to great ministers of state, and often to princes.

I had formerly, upon occasion, discoursed with
my master upon the nature of government in
general, and particularly of our own excellent consti-
tution, deservedly the wonder and envy of the whole
world. But having here accidentally mentioned a
minister of state, he commanded me, some time
after, to inform him what species of Yahoo J parti-
cularly meant by that appellation.

I told him that a first or chief minister of state,
who was the person I intended to describe, was a
creature wholly exempt from Joy and grief, love and
hatred, pity and anger; at least, makes use of no
308 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

other passion but a violent desire of wealth, power,
and titles; that he applies his words to all uses, except
to the indication of his mind; that he never tells a
truth, but with an intent that you should take it for
a lie; nor a lie, but with a design that you should
take it for a truth; that those he speaks worst of
behind their backs are in the surest way of prefer-
ment; and whenever he begins to praise you to
others, or to yourself, you are from that day forlorn.
The worst mark you can receive is a promise, espe-
cially when it is confirmed with an oath; after which
every wise man retires, and gives over all hopes.

There are three methods by which a man may rise
to be chief minister. The first is, by knowing how,
with prudence, to dispose of a wife, a daughter, or a
sister ; the second, by betraying or undermining his
predecessor; and the third is, by a furious zeal in
public assemblies against the corruptions of the
court. But a wise prince would rather choose to
employ those who practise the last of these methods;
because such zealots prove always the most obse-
quious and subservient to the will and passions of
their master. That these ministers, having all em-
ployments at their disposal, preserve themselves in
power by bribing the majority of a senate or great
council; and at last, by an expedient, called an act
of indemnity (whereof I described the nature to
him), they secure themselves from after reckonings,
and retire from the public laden with the spoils of
the nation.

The palace of a chief minister is a seminary to
breed up others in his own trade; the pages, lackeys,
and porter, by imitating their master, become ministers
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVYHNHNMS. 309

of state in their several districts, and learn to excel
in the three principal ingredients of insolence, lying,
and bribery, Accordingly, they have a subaltern
court paid to them by persons of the best rank; and
sometimes, by the force of dexterity and impudence,
arrive, through several gradations, to be successors to
their lord.

He is usually governed by a decayed wench, or
favourite footman, who are the tunnels through
which all graces are conveyed, and may properly
be called, in the last resort, the governors of the
kingdom.

One day, in discourse, my master having heard
me mention the nobility of my country, was pleased
to make me a compliment which I could not pretend
to deserve: That he was sure I must have been born
of some noble family, because I far exceeded in shape,
colour, and cleanliness all the Yahoos of his nation,
although I seemed to fail in strength and agility,
which must be imputed to my different way of living
from those other brutes ; and, besides, I was not only
endued with the faculty of speech, but likewise with
some rudiments of reason, to a degree that, with all
his acquaintance, I passed for a prodigy.

He made me observe, that among the Houy
hnhnms, the white, the sorrel, and the iron-gray,
were not so exactly shaped as the bay, the dapple-
gray, and the black ; nor born with equal talents of
mind, or a capacity to improve them, and therefore
continued always in the condition of servants, with-
out ever aspiring to match out of their own race,
which, in that country, would be reckoned monstrous
and unnatural.




Sly GULLIVER'’S TRAVELS.

I made his honour my most humble acknowledg-
ments for the good opinion he was pleased to con-
ceive of me, but assured him, at the same time, that
my birth was of the lower sort, having been born of
plain honest parents, who were just able to give me
a tolerable education; that nobility among us was
altogether a different thing from the idea he had of
it; that our young noblemen are bred from their
childhood in idleness and luxury; that as soon as
years will permit, they consume their vigour and
contract odious diseases among lewd females; and
when their fortunes are almost ruined, they marry
some woman of mean birth, disagreeable person, and
unsound constitution (merely for the sake of money),
whom they hate and despise; that the productions of
such marriages are generally scrofulous, rickety, or
deformed children; by which means the family seldom
continues above three generations, unless the wife
takes care to provide a healthy father, among her
neighbours and domestics, in order to improve and
continue the breed: that a weak, diseased body, a
meagre countenance, and sallow complexion are the
true marks of noble blood; and a healthy, robust
appearance is so disgraceful in a man of quality, that
the world concludes his real father to have been a
groom or a coachman, ‘The imperfections of his
mind run parallel with those of his body, being a
composition of spleen, dulness, ignorance, caprice,
sensuality, and pride.

Without the consent of this illustrious body, no
law can be enacted, repealed, or altered; and these
nobles have likewise the decision of all our posses-
sions, without appeal.
A VOYAGE TO TH:



HOUYVYHNHNMS. git

CHAPTER VIL

THE AUTHOR'S GREAT LOVE OF HIS NATIVE COUNTRY—
HIS MASTER'S OBSERVATIONS UPON THE CONSTITU-
TION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ENGLAND, AS DE-
SCRIBED BY THE AUTHOR, WITH PARALLEL CASES
AND COMPARISONS — HIS MASTER'S OBSERVATIONS
UPON HUMAN NATURE.



THE reader may be disposed to wonder how I could
prevail on myself to give so free a representation of
my own species, among a race of mortals who are
already too apt to conceive the vilest opinion of
human kind, from that entire congruity between me
and their Yahoos. But I must freely confess, that
the many virtues of those excellent quadrupeds,
placed in opposite view to human corruptions, had
so far opened my eyes, and enlarged my understand-
ing, that I began to view the actions and passions of
man in a very different light, and to think the honour
of my own kind not worth managing ; which, besides,
it was impossible for me to do before a person of so
acute judgment as my master, who daily convinced
me of a thousand faults in myself, whereof I had not
the least perception before, and which, with us, would
never be numbered, even among human infirmities.
I had likewise learned, from his example, an utter
detestation of all falsehood or disguise; and truth
appeared so amiable to me, that I determined upon
sacrificing everything to it.

Let me deal so candidly with the reader, as to
iZ GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

confess that there was yct a much stronger motive
for the freedom which I took in my representation of
things. I had not yet been a year in this country
before I contracted such a love and veneration for
the inhabitants, that I entered on a firm resolution
never to return to humankind, but to pass the rest
of my life among these admirable Houyhnhnms, in
the contemplation and practice of every virtue, where
I could have no example or incitement to vice. But
it was decreed by fortune, my perpetual enemy, that
so great a felicity should not fall to my share. How-
ever, it is now some comfort to reflect, that in what I
said of my countrymen I extenuated their faults as
much as I durst before so strict an examiner, and
upon every article gave as favourable a turn as the
matter would bear, For, indeed, who is there alive
that will not be swayed by his bias and partiality to
the place of his birth?

T have related the substance of several conversa-
tions I had with my master during the greatest part
of the time I had the honour to be in his service, but
have, indeed, for brevity’s sake, omitted much more
than is here set down,

When I had answered all his questions, and his
curiosity seemed to be fully satisfied, he sent for me
one morning early, and commanded me to sit down
at some distance (an honour which he had never
before conferred upon me). He said, he had been
very seriously considering my whole story, as far as
it related both to myself and my country; that he
looked upon us asa sort of animals, to whose share,
by what accident he could not conjecture, some small
pittance of reason had fallen, whereof we made no
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUYHNHNMS. 313,

other use than, by its assistance, to aggravate our
natural corruptions, and to acquire new ones which
nature had not given us; that we disarmed ourselves
of the few abilities she had bestowed, had been very
successful in multiplying our original wants, and
seemed to spend our whole lives in vain endeavours
to supply them by our own inventions; that as to
myself, it was manifest I had neither the strength nor
agility of a common Yahoo; that I walked infirmly
on my hinder feet, had found out a contrivance to
make my claws of no use or defence, and to remove
the hair from my chin, which was intended as a
shelter from the sun and the weather: lastly, that I
could neither run with speed, nor climb trees like my
brethren, as he called them, the Yahoos in his country.

That our institutions of government and law were
plainly owing to our gross defects in reason, and by
consequence in virtue; because reason alone is suffi-
cient to govern a rational creature; which was, there-
fore, a character we had no pretence to challenge,
even from the account I had given of my own people ;
although he manifestly perceived that, in order to
favour them, I had concealed many particulars, and
often said the thing which was not.

He was the more confirmed in this opinion, because,
he observed, that, as I agreed in every feature of my
body with other Yahoos, except, where it was to my
real disadvantage, in point of strength, speed, and
activity, the shortness of my claws, and some other
particulars, where nature had no part; so from the
representation I had given him of our lives, our man-
ners, and our actions, he found as near a resemblance
in the disposition of our minds, He said, the
34 GULLIVE



Yahoos were known to hate one another more than
they did any different species of animals; and the
reason usually assigned was the odiousness of their
own shapes, which all could see in the rest, but not
in themselves. He had therefore begun to think it not
unwise in us to cover our bodies, and by that invention
conceal many of our deformities from each other, which
would else be hardly supportable, But he now found
he had been mistaken, and that the dissensions of
those brutes in his country were owing to the same
cause with ours, as I had described them. For if,
said he, you throw among five Yahoos as much food
as would be sufficient for fifty, they will, instead of
eating peaceably, fall together by the ears, each
single one impatient to have all to itself; and there-
fore a servant was usually employed to stand by while
they were feeding abroad, and those kept at home
were tied at a distance from each other; that if a
cow died of age or accident, before a Houyhnhnm
could secure it for his own Yahoos, those in the
neighbourhood would come in herds to seize it, and
then would ensue such a battle as I had described,
with terrible wounds, made by their claws, on both
sides, although they seldom were able to kill one
another, for want of such convenient instruments of
death as we had invented. At other times, the like
battles have been fought between the Yahoos of
several neighbourhoods, without any visible cause;
those of one district watching all opportunities to
surprise the next, before they are prepared. But if
they find their project has miscarried, they return
home, and, for want of enemies, engage in what I
call a civil war among themselves,
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUYHNHNMS. 315

That in some fields of his country there are certain
shining stones of several colours, whereof the Yahoos
are violently fond; and when part of these stones is
fixed in the earth, as it sometimes happens, they will
dig with their claws for whole days to get them out:
then carry them away, and hide them by heaps in their
kennels; but still looking round with great caution,
for fear their comrades should find out their treasure.
My master said, he could never discover the reason of
this unnatural appetite, or how these stones could be of
any use toa Yahoo; but now he believed it might pro-
ceed from the same principle of avarice which I had
ascribed to mankind: that he had once, by way of
experiment, privately removed a heap of these stones
from the place where one of his Yahoos had buried
it; whereupon the sordid animal, missing his trea-
sure, by his loud lamenting brought the whole herd
to the place, there miserably howled, then fell to bit-
ing and tearing the rest, began to pine away, would
neither eat, nor sleep, nor work, till he ordered a
servant privately to convey the stones into the same
hole, and hide them as before; which, when his
‘Yahoo had found, he presently recovered his spirits
and good-humour, but took care to remove them to
a better hiding-place, and has ever since been a very
serviceable brute,

My master further assured me, which I also observed
myself, that in the fields where the shining stones
abound, the fiercest and most frequent battles are
fought, occasioned by perpetual inroads of the neigh-
bouring Yahoos.

He said, it was common when two Yahoos dis-
covered such a stone in a field, and were contend-


316 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

ing which of them should be the proprietor, a third
would take the advantage, and carry it away from
them both; which my master would needs contend
to have some kind of resemblance with our suits at
Jaw; wherein I thought it for our credit not to unde-
ceive him; since the decision he mentioned was
much more equitable than many decrees among us;
because the plaintiff and defendant there lost nothing
beside the stone they contended for; whereas our
courts of equity would never have dismissed the
cause, while either of them had anything left.

My master, continuing his discourse, said there
was nothing that rendered the Yahoos more odious
than their undistinguishing appetite to devour every-
thing that came in their way, whether herbs, roots,
berries, the corrupted flesh of animals, or all mingled
together: and it was peculiar in their temper, that
they were fonder of what they could get by rapine or
stealth, at a greater distance, than much better food
provided for them at home, If their prey held out,
they would eat till they were ready to burst; after
which, nature had pointed out to them a certain root
that gave them a general evacuation,

There was also another kind of root, very juicy,
but somewhat rare and difficult to be found, which
the Yahoos sought for with much eagerness, and
would suck it with great delight: it produced in
them the same effects that wine has upon us. It
would make them sometimes hug, and sometimes
tear one another: they would howl, and grin, and
chatter, and reel, and tumble, and then fall asleep in
the mud.

I did indeed observe that the Yahoos were the


A VOYAGE TO THE HOUYHNHNMS. 317

only animals in this country subject to any diseases;
which, however, were much fewer than horses have
among us, and contracted, not by any ill treatment
they meet with, but by the nastiness and greediness
of that sordid brute. Neither has their language any
more than a general appellation for those maladies,
which is borrowed from the name of the beast, and
called Hca-yahoo, or Yahoo's-evil; and the cure pre-
scribed is a mixture of their own dung and urine,
forcibly put down the Yahoo's throat. This I have
since often known to have been taken with success,
and do here freely recommend it to my countrymen,
for the public good, as an admirable specific against
all diseases produced by repletion.

As to learning, government, arts, manufactures,
and the like, my master confessed he could find little
or no resemblance between the Yahoos of that country
and those in ours ; for he only meant to observe what
parity there was in our natures. He had heard,
indeed, some curious Houyhnhnms observe, that in
most herds there was a sort of ruling Yahoo (as
among us there is generally some leading or principal
stag in a park), who was always more deformed in
body and mischievous in disposition than any of the
rest; that this leader had usually a favourite as like
himself as he could get, whose employment was to
lick his master’s feet and posteriors, and drive the
female Yahoos to his kennel; for which he was now
and then rewarded with a piece of ass’s flesh. This
favourite is hated by the whole herd, and, therefore,
to protect himself, keeps always near the person
of his leader. He usually continues in office till a
worse can be found; but the very moment he is dis-




gis GUILIVER’S TRAVELS.

carded, his successor, at the head of all the Yahoos
in that district, young and old, male and female,
come in a body, and discharge their excrements upon
him from head to foot, But how far this might be
applicable to our courts, and favourites, and ministers
of state, my master said I could best determine,

I durst make no return to this malicious insinuation,
which debased human understanding below the saga-
city of a common hound, who has judgment enough
to distinguish and follow the cry of the ablest dog in
the pack, without being ever mistaken.

My master told me, there were some qualities
remarkable in the Yahoos, which he had not observed
me to mention, or at least very slightly, in the accounts
T had given him of humankind. He said, those
animals, like other brutes, had their females in
common ; but in this they differed, that the she
Yahoo would admit the males while she was pregnant;
and that the he’s would quarrel and fight with the
females, as fiercely as with each other; both which
practices were such degrees of infamous brutality,
as no other sensitive creature ever arrived at.

Another thing he wondered at in the Yahoos,
was their strange disposition to nastiness and dirt:
whereas there appears to be a natural love of cleanli-
ness in all other animals, As to the two former, accu-
sations, I was glad to let them pass without any reply,
because I had not a word to offer upon them in
defence of my species, which otherwise I certainly
had done from my own inclinations. But I could
have easily vindicated humankind from the imputa-
tion of singularity upon the last article, if there had
been any swine in that country (as, unluckily for me,
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS. 319

there were not), which, although it may be a sweeter
quadruped than a Yahoo, cannot, I humbly conceive,
in justice, pretend to more cleanliness; and so his
honour himself must have owned, if he had seen their
filthy way of feeding, and their custom of wallowing
and sleeping in the mud,

My master likewise mentioned another quality
which his servants had discovered in several Yahoos,
and to him was wholly unaccountable. He said a
fancy would sometimes take a Yahoo to retire into
a corner, to lie down, and howl and groan, and spurn
away all that came near him, although he were young
and fat, wanted neither food nor water; nor did the
servant imagine what could possibly ail him, And
the only remedy they found was, to set him to hard
work, after which he would infallibly come to himself.
To this I was silent, out of partiality to my own
kind ; yet here I could plainly discover the true seeds
of spleen, which only seizes on the lazy, luxurious,
and the rich; who, if they were forced to undergo
the same regimen, I would undertake for the cure,

His honour had further observed that a female
‘Yahoo would often stand behind a bank or a bush, to
gaze on the young males passing by, and then appe:
and hide, using many antic gestures and grimaces ;
at which time it was observed that she had a most
offensive smell ; and when any of the males advanced,
would slowly retire, looking often back, and with a
counterfeit show of fear, run off into some convenient
place, where she knew the male would follow her.

At other times if a female stranger came among
them, three or four of her own sex would get about
her, and stare, and chatter, and grin, and smell her




320 GULLIT



all over, and then turn off, with gestures that seemed
to express contempt and disdain,

Perhaps my master might refine a little in these
speculations, which he had drawn from what he ob-
served himself, or had been told him by others: how-
ever, I could not reflect, without some amazement
and much sorrow, that the rudiments of lewdness,
coquetry, censure, and scandal should have place by
instinct in womankind,

I expected every moment that my master would
accuse the Yahoos of those unnatural appetites in
both sexes, so common among us, But Nature, it
seems, has not been so expert a schoolmistress; and
these politer pleasures are entirely the productions
of Art and Reason on our side of the globe.



CHAPTER VIII.

THE AUTHOR RELATES SEVERAL PARTICULARS OF THE
VYAHOUS—THE GREAT VIRTUES OF THE HOUYHNHNMS
THE EDUCATION AND EXERCISE OF THEIR Yourit
— THEIR GENERAL ASSEMBLY,

As I ought to have understood human nature much
better than I supposed it possible for my master to
do, so it was easy to apply the character he gave of
the Yahoos to myself and my countrymen; and I
believed I could yet make further discoveries from
my own observation. I therefore often begged h
honour to let me go among the herds of Yahoos in


A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVYHNHNMS. 321

the neighbourhood; to which he always very graci-
ously consented, being perfectly convinced that the
hatred I bore these brutes would never suffer me
to be corrupted by them; and his honour ordered
one of his servants, a strong sorrel nag, very honest
and good-natured, to be my guard; without whose
protection I durst not undertake such adventures;
for I have already told the reader how much I was
pestered by these odious animals upon my first
arrival: and I afterwards failed very narrowly, three
or four times, of falling into their clutches, when I
happened to stray at any distance without my hanger.
And I have reason to believe they had some imagi-
nation that I was of their own species ; which I often
assisted myself, by stripping up my sleeves, and
showing my naked arms and breasts in their sight,
when my protector was with me. At which times
they would approach as near as they durst, and
imitate my actions, after the manner of monkeys,
but ever with great signs of hatred: as a tame jack-
daw, with cap and stockings, is always persecuted
by the wild ones, when he happens to be got among
them,

They are prodigiously nimble from their infancy.
However, I once caught a young male of three years
old, and endeavoured, by all marks of tenderness, to
make it quiet; but the little imp feil a squalling, and
scratching and biting with such violence, that I was
forced to let it go; and it was high time; for a whole
troop of old ones came about us at the noise, but
finding the cub was safe (for away it ran), and my
sorrel nag being by, they durst not venture near

us. I observed the young animal’s flesh to smell
x




3a GULLIVER'S TRAVELS.

very rank, and the stink was somewhat between a
weasel and a fox, but much more disagreeable. I
forgot another circumstance (and perhaps I might
have the reader's pardon if it were wholly omitted),
that while I held the odious vermin in my hands, it
voided its filthy excrements, of a yellow liquid
substance, all over my clothes; but by good fortune
there was a small brook hard by, where I washed
myself as clean as I could, although I durst not come
into my master’s presence until I were sufficiently
aired,

By what I could discover, the Yahoos appear the
most unteachable of all animals; their capacities
never reaching higher than to draw or carry burdens,
Yet Iam of opinion this defect arises chiefly from a
perverse, restive disposition; for they are cunning,
malicious, treacherous, and revengeful, They are
strong and hardy, but of a cowardly spirit, and by
consequence, insolent, abject, and cruel. It is ob-
served that the red-haired of both sexes are more
libidinous and mischievous than the rest, whom yet
they much exceed in strength and activity.

The Houyhnhnms keep the Yahoos for present use
in huts not far from the house; but the rest are sent
abroad to certain fields, where they dig up roots, eat
several kinds of herbs, and search about for carrion,
or sometimes catch weasels and /uhimufs (a sort of
wild rat), which they greedily devour. Nature has
taught them to dig deep holes with their nails on the
side of a rising ground, wherein they lie by them-
selves; only the kennels of the females are larger,
sufficient to hold two or three cubs.

They swim from their infancy like frogs, and are


A VOYAGE TO THE HOUYHNHNMS. 323

able to continue long under water, where they often
take fish, which the females carry home to their
young. And upon this occasion I hope the reader
will pardon my relating an odd adventure.

Being one day abroad with my protector, the sorrel
nag, and the weather exceeding hot, I entreated him
to let me bathe in a river that was near, He con-
sented,and I immediately stripped myself stark naked,
and went down softly into the stream. It happened
that a young female Yahoo, standing behind a bank,
saw the whole proceeding, and inflamed by desire, as
the nag and I conjectured, came running with all
speed, and leaped into the water, within five yards of
the place where I bathed. I was never in my life so
terribly frightened. The nag was grazing at some
distance, not suspecting any harm. She embraced
me after a most fulsome manner. I roared as loud
as I could, and the nag came galloping towards me,
whereupon she quitted her grasp with the utmost
reluctancy, and leaped upon the opposite banks,
where she stood gazing and howling all the time I
was putting on my clothes.

This was a matter of diversion to my master and
his family, as well as of mortification to myself; for
now I could no longer deny that I was a real
Yahoo in every limb and feature, since the females
had a natural propensity to me, as one of their
own species, Neither was the hair of this brute of
a red colour (which might have been some excuse
for an appetite a little irregular), but black as a sloe,
and her countenance did not make an appearance
altogether so hideous as the rest of her kind; for I
think she could not be above eleven years old.




324 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS,

Having lived three years in this country, the
reader, I suppose, will expect that I should, like other
travellers, give him some account of the manners and
customs of its inhabitants, which it was indeed my
principal study to learn.

As these noble Houyhnhnms are endowed by
nature with a general disposition to all virtues, and
have no conceptions or ideas of what is evil in a
rational creature, so their grand maxim is, to cultivate
reason, and to be wholly governed by it. Neither is
reason among them a point problematical, as with
us, where men can argue with plausibility on both
sides of the question, but strikes you with immediate
conviction, as it must needs do, where it is not
mingled, fobscured, or discoloured, by passion and
interest, I remember it was with extreme difficulty
that I could bring my master to understand the
meaning of the word opinion, or how a point could
be disputable; because reason taught us to affirm or
deny only where we are certain; and beyond our
knowledge we cannot do either: so that contro-
versies, wranclings, disputes, and positiveness, in false
or dubious propositions, are evils unknown among
the Houyhnhnms, In the like manner, when I used
to explain to him our several systems of natural
philosophy, he would laugh, that a creature pretend-
ing to reason should value itself upon the knowledge
of other people’s conjectures, and in things where
that knowledge, if it were certain, could be of no use.
Wherein he agreed entirely with the sentiments of
Socrates, as Plato delivers them; which I mention
as the highest honour I can do that prince of philo-
sophers. I have often since reflected what destruc-


A VOYAGE 10 THE HOUYHNHNMS. 325

tion such doctrine would make in the libraries of
Europe, and how many paths of fame would be then
shut up in the learned world,

Friendship and benevolence are the two principal
virtues among the Houyhnhnms, and these not con-
fined to particular objects, but universal to the whole
race; for a stranger from the remotest part is equally
treated with the nearest neighbour, and wherever he
goes, looks upon himsclf as at home. They preserve
decency and civility in the highest degrees, but are
altogether ignorant of ceremony, They have no
fondness for their colts or foals, but the care they
take in educating them proceeds entirely from the
dictates of reason. And I observed my master to
show the same affection to his neighbour's issue that
he had for his own, They will have it that nature
teaches them to love the whole species, and it is reason
only that makes a distinction of persons, where there
is a superior degree of virtue.

When the matron Houyhnhnms have produced
one of cach sex, they no longer accompany with
their consorts, except they lose one of their issue by
some casualty, which very seldom happens; but in
such a case they meet again; or when the like acci-
dent befalls a person whose wife is past bearing,
some other couple bestow on him one of their own
colts, and then go together again until the mother
is pregnant. This caution is necessary to prevent
the country from being overburdened with numbers.
But the race of inferior Houyhnhams, bred up to be
servants, is not so strictly limited upon this article ;
these are allowed to produce three of each sex, to be
domestics in the noble families.


326 GULLIVER S TRAVELS.



In their marriages they are exactly careful to
choose such colours as will not make any disagree-
able mixture in the breed. Strength is chiefly
valued in the male, and comeliness in the female;
not upon the account of love, but to preserve the
race from degenerating ; for where a female happens
to excel in strength, a consort is chosen with regard
to comeliness.

Courtship, love, presents, jointures, settlements,
have no place in their thoughts, or terms whereby to
express them in their language. The young couple
meet and are joined, merely because it is the deter-
mination of their parents and friends: it is what they
see done every day, and they look upon it as one of
the necessary actions of a reasonable being. But
the violation of marriage, or any other unchastity,
was never heard of; and the married pair pass their
lives with the same friendship and mutual benevo-
lence that they bear to all others of the same species
who come in their way, without jealousy, fondness,
quarrelling, or discontent.

In educating the youth of both sexes their method
is admirable, and highly deserves our imitation,
These are not suffered to taste a grain of oats, except
upon certain days, till eighteen years old; nor milk,
but very rarely ; and in summer they graze two hours
in the morning, and as many in the evening, which
their parents likewise observe : but the servants are
not allowed above half that time, and a great part of
their grass is brought home, which they eat at the
most convenient hours, when they can be best spared
from work,

Temperance, industry, exercise, and cleanliness,


A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVYHNHNMS. 327

are the lessons equally enjoined to the young ones of
both sexes; and my master thought it monstrous in
us to give the females a different kind of education
from the males, except in some articles of domestic
management; whereby, as he truly observed, one half
of our natives were good for nothing but bringing
children into the world; and to trust the care of our
children to such useless animals, he said, was yeta
greater instance of brutality,

But the Houyhnhnms train up their youth to
strength, speed, and hardiness, by exercising them in
running races up and down steep hills and over hard
stony grounds; and when they are all in a sweat,
they are ordered to leap over head and ears into a
pond or river, Four times a year the youth of a
certain district meet to show their proficiency in
running and leaping, and other feats of strength and
agility, where the victor is rewarded with a song in
his or her praise. On this festival the servants drive
aherd of Yahoos into the field, laden with hay and
oats and milk, for a repast to the Houyhnhnms;
after which these brutes are immediately driven back
again, for fear of being noisome to the assembly.

Every fourth year, at the vernal equinox, there is
a representative council of the whole nation, which
meets in a plain about twenty miles from our house,
and continues about five or six days, Here they
inquire into the state and condition of the several
districts; whether they abound or be deficient in hay
or oats, or cows or Yahoos; and wherever there is
any want (which is but seldom), it is immediately
supplied by unanimous consent and contribution,
Here, likewise, the regulation of children is settled ;


338 GULLIVER'S TRAVELS.

for instance, if a Houyhnhnm has two males, he
changes one of them with another that has two
females; and when a child has been lost by any
casualty, where the mother is past breeding, it is
determined what family in the district shall breed
another to supply the loss,



CHAPTER IX,

A GRAND DEBATE AT THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE
HOUYHNHNMS, AND HOW IT WAS D. MINED —THE
LEARNING OF THE HOUVHNHNMS—THEIR BUILDINGS
THEIR MANNER OF BURIALS-—THE DEPECTIVENESS
OF THEIR LANGUAGE,



ONE of these grand assemblies was held in my time,
about three months before my departure, whither
my master went, as the representative of our district.
In this council was resumed their old debate, and in-
deed the only debate that ever happened in their
country ; whereof my master, after his return, gave
me a very particular account.

The question to be debated was, Whether the Yahoos
should be exterminated from the face of the earth?
One of the members for the affirmative offered several
arguments of great strength and weight, alleging
that as the Yahoos were the most filthy, noisome,
and deformed animal which nature ever produced, so
they were the most restive and indocible, mischiev-
ous and malicious. They would privately suck the
aA VOYAGE 70 THE HOUVYHNHNMS. 329

32

teats of the Houyhnhnms' cows, kill and devour their
cats, trample down their oats and grass, if they were
not continually watched, and commit a thousand
other extravagances. He took notice of a general
tradition, that Yahoos had not been always in their
country; but that, many ages ago, two of these brutes
appeared together upon a mountain; whether pro-
duced by the heat of the sun upon corrupted mud
and slime, or from the ooze and froth of the sea,
was never known; that these Yahoos engendered,
and their brood in a short time grew so numerous
s to overrun and infest the whole nation: that the
Houyhnhnms, to get rid of this evil, made a general
hunting, and at last enclosed the whole herd; and,
destroying the elder, every Houyhnhnm kept two
young ones in a kennel, and brought them to such
a degree of tameness, as an animal, so savage by
nature, can be capable of acquiring; using them for
draught and carriage: that there seemed to be much
truth in this tradition; and that those creatures
could not be ylnhniamshy (or aborigines of the land),
because of the violent hatred the Houyhnhnms,
as well as all other animals, bore them; which,
although their evil disposition sufficiently deserved,
could never have arrived at so high a degree, if they
had been aborigines ; or else they would have long
since been rooted out; that the inhabitants, taking
a fancy to use the service of the Yahoos, had very
imprudently neglected to cultivate the breed of asses,
which are a comely animal, easily kept, more tame
and orderly, without any offensive smell; strong
enough for labour, although they yield to the other in
agility of body ; and if their braying be no agreeable



33° GULLIVER'S TRAVELS.

sound, it is far preferable to the horrible howlings of
the Yahoos.

Several others declared their sentiments to the
same purpose, when my master proposed an expedi-
ent to the assembly, whereof he had indeed borrowed
the hint from me. He approved of the tradition
mentioned by the honourable member who spoke
before, and affirmed that the two Yahoos, said to be
first seen among them, had been driven thither over
the sea; that coming to land, and being forsaken by
their companions, they retired to the mountains, and,
degenerating by degrees, became in process of time
much more savage than those of their own species in
the country whence these two originals came. The
reason of this assertion was, that he had now in his
possession a certain wonderful Yahoo (meaning my-
lf), which most of them had heard of, and many of
them had seen. He then related to them how he
first found me; that my body was all covered with
an artificial composure of the skins and hairs of other
animals ; that I spoke in a language of my own, and
thoroughly learned theirs; that I had related to him
the accidents which brought me thither; that when
he saw me without my covering, I was an exact
Yahoo in every part, only of a whiter colour, less
hairy, and with shorter claws. He added how I had
endeavoured to persuade him that in my own and
other countries the Yahoos acted as the governing,
rational animal, and held the Houyhnhnoss in servi-
tude; that he observed in me all the qualities of a
Yahoo, only a little more civilised by some tincture
of reason; which, however, was in a degree as far
inferior to the Houyhnhnm race as the Yahoos of





A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVYHNHNMS. 334

their country were to me; that, among other things,
I mentioned a custom we had of castrating Houy-
hnhnms when they were young, in order to render
them tame; that the operation was easy and safe ;
that it was no shame to learn wisdom from brutes,
as industry is taught by the ant, and building by the
swallow (for so I translate the word /y/annh, although
it be a much larger fowl); that this invention might
be practised upon the younger Yahoos here, which,
besides rendering them tractable and fitter for use,
would, in an age, put an end to the whole species,
without destroying life: that in the meantime the
Houyhnhnms should be exhorted to cultivate the
breed of asses, which as they are in all respects more
valuable brutes, so they have this advantage to be
fit for service at five years old, which the others are
not till twelve,

This was all my master thought fit to tell me at
that time of what passed in the grand council. But
he was pleased to conceal one particular, which
related personally to myself, whereof I soon felt the
unhappy effect, as the reader will know in its proper
place, and whence I date all the succeeding mis-
fortunes of my life.

The Houyhnhnms have no letters, and conse-
quently their knowledge is all traditional: but
there happening few events of any moment among a
people so well united, naturally disposed to every
virtue, wholly governed by reason, and cut off from
all commerce with other nations, the historical part
is casily preserved, without burdening their memories.
I have already observed that they are subject to no
diseases, and therefore can have no need of physicians.


332 GULLIVER'S TRAVELS,

Ilowever, they have excellent medicines, composed
of herbs, to cure accidental bruises, and cuts in the
pastern, or frog of the foot, by sharp stones, as well as
other maims and hurts in the several parts of the
body.

They calculate the year by the revolution of the
sun and the moon, but use no subdivisions into weeks.
They are well enough acquainted with the motions of
th two luminaries, and understand the nature of
eclipses; and this is the utmost progress of their
astronomy.

In poetry they must be allowed to excel all other
mortals, wherein the justness of their similes, and the
minuteness, as well as exactness, of their descriptions,
are indeed inimitable. Their verses abound very
much in both of these, and usually contain either
some exalted notions of friendship and benevolence,
or the praises of those who were victors in races and
other bodily exercises. Their buildings, although
very rude and simple, are not inconvenient, but well
contrived to defend them from all injuries of cold
and heat. They have a kind of tree, which, at forty
years old, loosens in the root, and falls with the first
storm: it grows very straight, and being pointed like
stakes with a sharp stone (for the Houyhnhnms know
not the use of iron), they stick them erect in the
ground, about ten inches asunder, and then weave in
oat straw, or sometimes wattles, between them. The
roof is made after the same manner, and so are the
doors.

The Houyhnhnms use the hollow part, between
the pastern and the hoof of their fect, as we do our
hands, and this with greater dexterity than I could




A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS. 333

at first imagine, I have seen a white mare of our
family thread a needle (which I lent her on purpose)
with that joint, They milk their cows, reap their
oats, and do all the work which requires hands in
the same manner. They have a kind of hard flints,
which, by grinding against other stones, they form
into instruments that serve instead of wedges, axes,
and hammers. With tools made of these flints they
likewise cut their hay and reap their oats, which there
grow naturally in several fields; the Yahoos draw
home the sheaves in carriages, and the servants tread
them in certain covered huts, to get out the grain,
which is kept in stores, They make a rude kind of
earthen and wooden vessels, and bake the former in
the sun.

If they can avoid casualties, they die only of old
age, and are buried in the obscurest places that can
be found; their friends and relations expressing
neither joy nor grief at their departure; nor does
the dying person discover the least regret that he is
leaving the world, any more than if he were upon
returning home from a visit to one of his neighbours.
I remember my master having once made an appoint-
ment with a friend and his family to come to his house
upon some affair of importance: on the day fixed,
the mistress and her two children came very late;
she made two excuses; first for her husband, who,
as she said, happened that very morning to dhuuwwuh,
The word is strongly expressive in their language,
but not easily rendered into English: it signifies to
retire to his first mother. Her excuse for not coming
sooner was, that her husband dying late in the morn-
ing, she was a good while consulting her servants






354+ GULLIVER'S TRAVELS.

about a convenient place where his body should be
laid: and I observed she behaved herself at our
house as cheerfully as the rest. She died about
three months after.

They live generally to seventy, or seventy-five
years, very seldom to fourscore. Some weeks before
their death they feel a gradual decay, but without
pain, During this time they are much visited by
their friends, because they cannot go abroad with
their usual ease and satisfaction, However, about
ten days before their death, which they seldom fail
in computing, they return the visits that have been
made them by those who are nearest in the neich-
bourhood, being carried in a convenient sledge,
drawn by Yahoos; which vehicle they use, not only
upon this occasion, but when they grow old, upon
long journeys, or when they are lamed by any acci-
dent, And therefore when the dying Houyhnhnams
return those visits, they take a solemn leave of their
friends, as if they were going to some remote part of
the country, where they designed to pass the rest of
their lives.

I know not whether it may be worth observing,
that the Houyhnhnms have no word in their lan-
guage to express anything that is evil, except what
they borrow from the deformities or ill qualities of
the Yahoos, Thus they denote the folly of a servant,
an omission of a child, a stone that cuts their feet, a
continuance of foul or unseasonable weather, and the
like, by adding to each the epithet of Yahoo. For
instance: Aknm Yahoo, whnaholm Yahoo, ynlhmnd-
wiklma Yahoo, and an ill-contrived house, ynkolmhn-
wrohlnw Yahoo.


A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS. 33

I could, with great pleasure, enlarge further upon
the manners and virtues of this excellent people;
but intending in a short time to publish a volume
by itself expressly upon that subject, I refer the
reader thither, and in the meantime proceed to relate
my own sad catastrophe.

CHAPTER X.

THE AUTHOR'S ECONOMY AND HAPPY LIFE AMONG THE
HOUYHNHNMS—HIS GREAT IMPROVEMENT IN VIRTUE
BY CONVERSING WITH THEM—THEIR CONVERSATIONS
—THE AUTHOR HAS NOTICE GIVEN HIM BY HIS MASTER,
THAT HE MUST DEPART FROM THE COUNTRY—HE
FALLS INTO A SWOON FOR GRIEF, BUT SUBMITS—HE
CONTRIVES AND FINISHES A CANOE BY THE HELP OF
A FELLOW-SERVANT, AND PUTS TO SEA AT A VEN-

URE,





I HAD settled my little economy to my own heart’s
content. My master had ordered a room to be made
for me, after their manner, about six yards from the
house, the sides and floors of which I plastered with
clay, and covered with rush-mats of my own con-
triving. I had beaten hemp, which there grows wild,
and made a sort of ticking: this I filled with the
feathers of several birds I had taken with springes
made of Yahoos’ hairs, and were excellent food. I
had worked two chairs with my knife, the sorrel nag
helping me in the grosser and more laborious part.
When my clothes were worn to rags, I made myself
330 GULLIVER'S TRAVELS.

others with the skins of rabbits, and of a certain
beautiful animal about the same size, called xnuwhnoh,
the skin of which is covered with a fine down. Of
these I also made very tolerable stockings, I soled
my shoes with wood, which I cut from a tree, and fitted
to the upper-leather; and when this was worn out, I
supplied it with the skins of Yahoos dried in the sun.
I often got honey out of hollow trees, which I mingled
with water, or ate with my bread. No man could
more verify the truth of these two maxims, That
nature is very easily satisfied; and, That necessity is
the mother of invention. I enjoyed perfect health of
body, and tranquillity of mind; I did not feel the
treachery or inconstancy of a friend, nor the injuries
of a secret or open enemy; I had no occasion of
bribing, flattering, or pimping, to procure the favour
of any great man, or of his minion; I wanted no fence
against fraud or oppression: here was neither phy-
sician to destroy my body, nor lawyer to ruin my for-
tune; no informer to watch my words and actions,
or forge accusations against me for hire: here were
no gibers, censurers, backbiters, pickpockets, high-
waymen, housebreakers, attorneys, bawds, buffoons,
gamesters, politicians, wits, splenetics, tedious talkers,
controvertists, ravishers, murderers, robbers, virtuo-
soes; no leaders or followers of party and faction;
no encouragers to vice by seducement or examples
no dungeon, axes, gibbets, whipping posts, or pillories ;
no cheating shopkeepers or mechanics; no pride,
vanity, or affectation; no fops, bullies, drunkards,
strolling whores, or poxes; no ranting, lewd, expen-
c wifes; no stupid, proud pedants ; no importunate,
overbearing, quarrelsome, noisy, roaring, empty, con-










4A VOVAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS 337

ceited, swearing companions; no scoundrels raised
from the dust upon the merit of their vices, or no-
bility thrown into it on account of their virtues; no
lords, fiddlers, judges, or dancing-masters,

I had the favour of being admitted to several
Houyhnhnms, who came to visit or dine with my
master; where his honour graciously suffered me to
wait in the room and listen to their discourse. Both
he and his company would often descend to ask me
questions, and receive my answers, I had also some-
times the honour of attending my master in his visits
to others. I never presumed to speak, except in
answer to a question; and then I did it with inward
regret, because it was a loss of so much time for
improving myself: but I was infinitely delighted
with the station of a humble auditor in such con-
versations, where nothing passed but what was useful,
expressed in the fewest and most significant words;
where, as I have already said, the greatest decency
was observed, without the least degree of ceremony ;
where no person spoke without being pleased himself,
and pleasing his companions; where there was no
interruption, tediousness, heat, or difference of senti-
ments, They have a notion, that when people are
met together, a short silence does much improve
conversation: this I found to be true; for during
those little intermissions of talk, new ideas would
arise in their minds, which very much enlivened the
discourse. Their subjects are generally on friend-
ship and benevolence, on order and economy ; some-
times upon the visible operations of nature, or ancient
traditions ; upon the bounds and limits of virtue; upon

the unerring rules of reason; or upon some deter-
¢




‘S TRAVE



minations to be taken at the next great assembly}
and often upon the various excellences of poetry.
I may add, without vanity, that my presence often
gave them sufficient matter for discourse, because it
afforded my master an occasion of letting his friends
into the history of me and my country, upon which
they were all pleased to descant, in a manner not
very advantageous to humankind; and for that
reason I shall not repeat what they said: only I may
be allowed to observe, that his honour, to my great
admiration, appeared to understand the nature of
Yahoos much better than myself, He went through
all our vices and follies, and discovered many, which
I had never mentioned to him, by only supposing
what qualities a Yahoo of their country, with a small
proportion of reason, might be capable of exerting;
and concluded, with too much probability, how vile,
as well as miserable, such a creature must be.

I freely confess that all the little knowledge I have
of any value was acquired by the lectures I received
from my master, and from hearing the discourses of
him and his friends; to which I should be prouder
to listen than to dictate to the greatest and wisest
assembly in Europe. I admired the strength, comeli-
ness, and speed of the inhabitants; and such a con-
stellation of virtues in such amiable persons, produced
in me the highest veneration. At first, indeed, I did
not fecl that natural awe which the Yahoos and all
other animals bear towards them; but it grew upon
me by degrees, much sooner than I imagined, and
was mingled with a respectful love and gratitude,
that they would condescend to distinguish me from
the rest of my species.


A VOYAGE TO THE HOUYHNHNMS. 339

When I thought of my family, my friends, my
countrymen, or the human race in general, I con-
sidered them, as they really were, Yahoos, in shape
and disposition, perhaps a little more civilised, and
qualified with the gift of speech; but making no
other use of reason than to improve and multiply
those vices whereof their brethren in this country
had only the share that nature allotted them, When
I happened to behold the reflection of my own form
in a lake or a fountain, I turned away my face in
horror and detestation of myself; and could better
endure the sight of a common Yahoo, than of my
own person,

By conversing with the Houyhnhnms, and looking
upon them with delight, I fell to imitate their gait
and gesture, which is now grown into a habit; and
my friends often tell me in a blunt way that I trot
like a horse; which, however, I take for a great
compliment. Neither shall I disown that in speak-
ing I am apt to fall into the voice and manner of the
Houyhnhnms, and hear myself ridiculed on that
account, without the least mortification,

In the midst of all this happiness, and when 1
looked upon myself to be fully settled for life, my
master sent for me one morning a little earlier than
his usual hour, I observed by his countenance that
he was in some perplexity, and at a loss how to begin
what he had to speak. After a short silence, he told
me he did not know how I would take what he was
going to say. That in the last general assembly,
when the affair of the Yahoos was entered upon, the
representatives had taken offence at his keeping a
Yahoo (meaning myself) in his family, more like a
340 GULLIVER'S TRAVELS.

Houyhnhnm than a brute animal; that he was known
frequently to converse with me, as if he could receive
some advantage or pleasure in my company; that
such a practice was not agreeable to reason or nature,
ora thing ever heard of before among them, The
assembly did therefore exhort him either to employ
me like the rest of my species, or command me to
swim back to the place whence I came. That the
first of these expedients was utterly rejected by all
the Houyhnhnms who had ever seen me at his house
or their own; for they alleged that because I had
some rudiments of reason added to the natural
pravity of those animals, it was to be feared I
might be able to seduce them into the woody and
mountainous parts of the country, and bring them in
troops by night to destroy the Houyhnhnms’ cattle,
as being naturally of the ravenous kind, and averse
from labour.

My master added that he was daily pressed by
the Houyhnhnms of the neighbourhood to have the
assembly’s exhortation executed, which he could not
put off much longer. He doubted it would be im-
possible for me to swim to another country, and
therefore wished I would contrive some sort of
vehicle, resembling those I had described to him,
that might carry me on the sea, in which work T
should have the assistance of his own servants, as
well as those of his neighbours. He concluded, that,
for his own part, he could have been content to keep
me in his service as long as I lived, because he found
I had cured myself of some bad habits and disposi-
tions, by endeavouring, as far as my inferior nature
was capable, to imitate the Houyhnhnms,


A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS. 34

I should here observe to the reader, that a decree
of the general assembly in this country is expressed
by the word Auhloayn, which signifies an exhortation,
as near as I can render it; for they have no concep-
tion how a rational creature can be compelled, but
only advised or exhorted; because no person can
disobey reason, without giving up his claim to be a
rational creature.

I was struck with the utmost grief and despair at
my master’s discourse; and being unable to support
the agonies I was under, I fell into a swoon at his
feet. When I came to myself, he told me that he
concluded I had been dead; for these people are
subject to no such imbecilities of nature. I answered
in a faint voice that death would have been too great
a happiness; that although I could not blame the
assembly’s exhortation, or the urgency of his friends,
yet, in my weak and corrupt judgment, I thought it
might consist with reason to have been less rigorous;
that I could not swim a league, and probably the
nearest land to theirs might be distant above a
hundred; that many materials necessary for making
a small vessel to carry me off were wholly wanting
in this country ; which, however, I would attempt, in
obedience and gratitude to his honour, although I
concluded the thing to be impossible, and therefore
looked on myself as already devoted to destruction ;
that the certain prospect of an unnatural death was
the least of my evils; for supposing I should escape
with life, by some strange adventure, how could I
think with temper of passing my days among
Yahoos, and relapsing into my old corruptions, for
want of examples to lead and keep me within the
342 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

paths of virtue? that I knew too well upon what
solid reasons all the determinations of the wise
Houyhnhnms were founded, not to be shaken by
arguments of mine, a miserable Yahoo; and there-
fore, after presenting him with my humble thanks
for the offer of his servants’ assistance in making a
vessel, and desiring a reasonable time for so difficult
a work, I told him I would endeavour to preserve a
wretched being; and if ever I returned to England,
was not without hopes of being useful to my own
species, by celebrating the praises of the renowned
Houyhnhnms, and proposing their virtues to the
imitation of mankind.

My master, in a few words, made me a very
gracious reply; allowed me the space of two months
to finish my boat; and ordered the sorrel nag, my
fellow-servant (for so, at this distance, I may pre-
sume to call him), to follow my instructions ; because I
told my master that his help would be sufficient, and
I knew he had a tenderness for me.

In this company, my first business was to go to
that part of the coast where my rebellious crew had
ordered me to be set on shore, I got upon a height,
and looking on every side into the sea, fancied I saw
a small island towards the north-east. I took out
my pocket-glass, and could then clearly distinguish
it about five leagues off, as I computed; but it ap-
peared to the sorrel nag to be only a blue cloud; for
as he had no conception of any country beside his
own, so he could not be as expert in distinguishing
remote objects at sea as we who so much converse in
that element.

After I had discovered this island, I considered no


A VOYAGE TO THE HOUYHNHNMS. 343,

farther, but resolved it should, if possible, be the first
place of my banishment, leaving the consequence to
fortune.

I returned home, and consulting with the sorrel
nag, we went into a copse at some distance, where I
with my knife, and he with a sharp flint, fastened
very artificially, after their manner, to a wooden
handle, cut down several oak wattles about the
thickness of a walking-staff, and some larger pieces.
But I shall not trouble the reader with a particular
description of my own mechanics: let it suffice to
say, that in six weeks time, with the help of the
sorrel nag, who performed the parts that required
most labour, I finished a sort of Indian canoe, but
much larger, covering it with the skins of Yahoos,
well stitched together with hempen threads of my
own making, My sail was likewise composed of the
skins of the same animal; but I made use of the
youngest I could get, the older being too tough and
thick; and I likewise provided myself with four
paddles. I laid in a stock of boiled flesh, of rabbits
and fowls, and took with me two vessels, one filled
with milk, and the other with water.

I tried my canoe in a large pond near my master’s
house, and then corrected in it what was amiss, stop-
ping all the chinks with Yahoos’ tallow, till I found it
staunch, and able to bear me and my freight; and
when it was as complete as I could possibly male it,
Thad it drawn on a carriage very gently by Yahoos
to the seaside, under the conduct of the sorrel nag
and another servant.

When all was ready, and the day came for my
departure, I took leave of my master and lady, and
st GULLIVER’S TRAVE



Se

the whole family, my eyes flowing with tears, and
my heart quite sunk with grief. But his honour, out
of curiosity, and perhaps (if I may speak it without
vanity) partly out of kindness, was determined to see
me in my canoe, and got several of his neighbouring
friends to accompany him. I was forced to wait
above an hour for the tide; and then observing the
wind very fortunately bearing toward the island to
which I intended to steer my course, I took a second
leave of my master; but as I was going to prostrate
myself to kiss his hoof, he did me the honour to raise
it gently to my mouth. I am not ignorant how much
I have been censured for mentioning this last parti-
cular. Detractors are pleased to think it improbable
that so illustrious a person should descend to give so
great a mark of distinction to a creature so inferior as
I, Neither have I forgotten how apt some travellers
are to boast of extraordinary favours they have re-
ceived. But if these censurers were better acquainted
with the noble and courteous disposition of the Houy-
hnhnms, they would soon change their opinion.

I paid my respects to the rest of the Houyhnhnms
in his honour’s company, then getting into my canoe,
I pushed off from the shore.
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUYHNHNMS. 345

CHAPTER XI.

THE AUTHOR'S DANGEROUS VOVAGE—HE ARRIVES AT
NEW HOLLAND, HOPING 10 SETTLE THERE —1S
WOUNDED WITH AN ARROW BY ONE OF THE NATIVES
—IS SEIZED, AND CARRIED BY FORCE INTO A PORTU-
GUESE SHIP—THE GREAT CIVILITIES OF THE CAPTAIN
—THE AUTHOR ARRIVES AT ENGLAND,







I BEGAN this desperate voyage on February 15,
1714-18, at nine o'clock in the morning. The
wind was very favourable; however, I made use at
first only of my paddles; but considering I should
soon be weary, and that the wind might chop about,
I ventured to set up my little sail, and thus, with the
help of the tide, I went at the rate of a league and a
half an hour, as near as I could guess. My master
and his friends continued on the shore till I was
almost out of sight ; and I often heard the sorrel nag
(who always loved me) crying out, Huy illa nyha
majak Yahoo ; Take care of thyself, gentle Yahoo.
My design was, if possible, to discover some small
island uninhabited, yet sufficient, by my labour, to
furnish me with the necessaries of life, which I would
have thought a greater happiness than to be first
minister in the politest court of Europe; so horrible
was the idea I conceived of returning to live in the
society, and under the government, of Yahoos, For
in such a solitude as I desired, I could at least enjoy
my own thoughts, and reflect with delight on the
virtues of those inimitable Houyhnhnms, without
346 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

any opportunity of degenerating into the vices and
corruptions of my own species.

The reader may remember what I related when
my crew conspired against me, and confined me to
my cabin; how I continued there several weeks,
without knowing what course we took; and when I
was put ashore in the long-boat, how the sailors told
me, with oaths, whether true or false, that they knew
not in what part of the world we were. However,
I did then believe us to be about 10 degrees south-
ward of the Cape of Good Hope, or about 45 degrees
southern latitude, as I gathered from some general
words I overheard among them, being, I supposed,
to the south-east in their intended voyage to
Madagascar. And although this were little better
than conjecture, yet I resolved to steer my course
eastward, hoping to reach the south-west coast of
New Holland, and perhaps some such island as I
desired, lying westward of it. The wind was full
west; and by six in the evening, I computed I had
gone eastward at least eighteen leagues, when I spied
a very small island about half a league off, which I
soon reached. It was nothing but a rock with one
creek naturally arched by the force of tempests.
Here I put in my canoe, and climbing a part of the
rock, I could plainly discover land to the east, ex-
tending from south to north. I lay all night in my
canoe, and repeating my voyage early in the morn-
ing, I arrived in seven hours to the south-east point
of New Holland. This confirmed me in the opinion
I have long entertained, that the maps and charts
place this country at least three degrees more to the
east than it really is; which thought I communicated


4 VOYAGE TO THE HOUYHN: Ss 347
many years ago to my worthy friend Mr. Herman
Moll, and gave him my reasons for it, although he
has rather chosen to follow other authors.

I saw no inhabitants in the place where I landed,
and being unarmed, I was afraid of venturing far into
the country, I found some shell-fish on the shore,
and ate them raw, not daring to kindle a fire, for fear
of being discovered by the natives, I continued
three days feeding on oysters and limpits to save
my own provision ; and I fortunately found a brook of
excellent water, which gave me great relief,

On the fourth day venturing out early, a little too
far, I saw twenty or thirty natives upon a height, not
above five hundred yards from me, They were stark
naked, men, women, and children, round a fire, as I
could discover by the smoke. One of them spied me,
and gave notice to the rest: five of them advanced
toward me, leaving the women and children at the
fire, I made what haste I could to the shore, and
getting into my canoe, shoved off: the savages ob-
serving me retreat, ran after me, and before I could
get far enough into the sea, discharged an arrow,
which wounded me deeply on the inside of my, left
knee: I shall carry the mark to my grave. I appre-
hended the arrow might be poisoned; and paddling
out of the reach of their darts (being a calm day), I
made a shift to suck the wound, and dress it as well
as I could.

I was at a loss what to do; for I durst not return
to the same landing-place, but stood to the north, and
was forced to paddle: for the wind, though very
gentle, was against me, blowing north-west. As I
was looking about for a secure landing-place, I saw a
348 GULLIVER'S TRAVELS.

sail to the north-north-east, which appearing every
minute more visible, I was in some doubt whether I
should wait for them or not: but at last my detes-
tation of the Yahoo race prevailed, and turning my
canoe, I sailed and paddled together to the south,
and got into the same creek whence I set out in the
morning, choosing rather to trust myself among these
barbarians, than live with European Yahoos. I
drew up my canoe as close as I could to the shore,
and hid myself behind a stone by the little brook,
which, as I have already said, was excellent water,
The ship came within half a league of this creek,
and sent her long-boat with vessels to take in fresh
water (for the place, it seems, was very well known) ;
but I did not observe it till the boat was almost on
shore, and it was too late to seek another hiding-
place. The seamen, at their landing, observed my
canoe, and rummaging it all over, easily conjectured
that the owner could not be far off. Four of them,
well armed, searched every cranny and lurking-hole,
till at last they found me, flat on my face, behind
the stone. They gazed a while in admiration at my
strange uncouth dress: my coat made of skins, my
wooden-soled shoes, and my furred stockings ; whence,
however, they concluded I was not a native of the
place, who all go naked. One of the seamen, in
Portuguese, bid me rise, and asked who I was, I
understood that language very well, and getting upon
my feet, said, I was a poor Yahoo, banished from the
Houyhnhnms, and desired they would please to let me
depart. They admired to hear me answer them in
their own tongue, and saw by my complexion I must
be a European ; but were at a loss to know what I


A VOYAGE TO THE HOUYHNHNMS. 349

meant by Yahoos and Houyhnhnms; and at the
same time, fell a laughing at my strange tone in
speaking, which resembled the neighing of a horse.
I trembled all the while, betwixt fear and hatred. I
again desired leave to depart, and was gently moving
to my canoe; but they laid hold of me, desiring to
know what country I was of? whence I came? with
many other questions, I told them.I was born in
England, whence I came about five years ago, and
then their country and ours were at peace. I there-
fore hoped they would not treat me as an enemy,
since I meant them no harm, but was a poor Yahoo,
seeking some desolate place where to pass the
remainder of his unfortunate life.

When they began to taik, I thought I never heard
or saw anything so unnatural ; for it appeared to me
as monstrous as if a dog or a cow should speak in
England, or a Yahoo in Houyhnhnm-land. The
honest Portuguese were equally amazed at my strange
dress, and the odd manner of delivering my words,
which, however, they understood very well. They
spoke to me with great humanity, and said, They
were sure the captain would carry me gratis to
Lisbon, whence I might return to my own country ;
that two of the seamen would go back to the
ship, inform the captain of what they had seen
and receive his orders: in the meantime, unless
I would give my solemn oath not to fly, they would
secure me by force. I thought it best to comply
with their proposal. They were very curious to
know my story, but I gave them very little satis-
faction, and they all conjectured that my misfortunes
had impaired my reason. In two hours, the boat,
350 GULLIVER'S TRAVELS.

which went loaden with vessels of water, returned
with the captain’s command to fetch me on board.
I fell on my knees to preserve my liberty, but all
was in vain; and the men, having tied me with cords,
heaved me into the boat, whence I was taken into
the ship, and thence into the captain’s cabin.

His name was Pedro de Mendez; he was a very
courteous and generous person. He entreated me to
give some account of myself, and desired to know
what I would eat or drink; said, I should be used as
well as himself; and spoke so many obliging things,
that I wondered to find such civilities from a Yahoo.
However, I remained silent and sullen; I was ready
to faint at the very smell of him and his men. At
last, I desired something to eat out of my own canoe;
but he ordered me a chicken, and some excellent
wine, and then directed that I should be put to bed
in a very clean cabin, I would not undress myself,
but lay on the bed-clothes, and in half an hour stole
out, when I thought the crew was at dinner, and
getting to the side of the ship, was going to leap
into the sea, and swim for my life, rather than con-
tinue among Yahoos. But one of the seamen pre-
vented me, and having informed the captain, I was
chained to my cabin.

After dinner, Don Pedro came to me, and desired
to know my reason for so desperate an attempt;
assured me, he only meant to do me all the service
he was able; and spoke so very movingly, that at
last I descended to treat him like an animal which
had some little portion of reason. I gave him a very
short relation of my voyage ; of the conspiracy against
me by my own men; of the country where they set me
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUYHNHNMS. 351

on shore, and of my five years’ residence there. All
which he looked upon as if it were a dream or a
vision; whereat I took great offence: for I had quite
forgot the faculty of lying, so peculiar to Yahoos in all
countries where they preside, and consequently the
disposition of suspecting truth in others of their own
species. I asked him, whether it were the custom
in his country to say the thing which was not? I
assured him I had almost forgot what he meant by
falsehood, and if I had lived a thousand years in
Houyhnhnm-land, I should never have heard a lie
from the meanest servant; that I was altogether
indifferent whether he believed me or not; but, how-
ever, in return for his favours, I would give so much
allowance to the corruptions of his nature as to
answer any objection he would please to make, and
then he might easily discover the truth.

The captain, a wise man, after many endeavours
to catch me tripping in some part of my story, at
last began to have a better opinion of my veracity.
But he added, that since I professed so inviolable
an attachment to truth, I must give him my word
and honour to bear him company in this voyage,
without attempting anything against my life; or
else he would continue me a prisoner till we arrived
at Lisbon. I gave him the promise he required; but
at the same time protested that I would suffer the
greatest hardships rather than return to live among
Yahoos.

Our voyage passed without any considerable acci-
dent. In gratitude to the captain, I sometimes sat
with him at his earnest request, and strove to conceal
my antipathy against humankind, although it often


352 GULLIVER'S TRAVELS.

broke out ; which he suffered to pass without observa-
tion, But the greatest part of the day I confined
myself to my cabin, to avoid seeing any of the crew.
The captain had often entreated me to strip myself
of my savage dress, and offered to lend me the best
suit of clothes he had. This I would not be prevailed
on to accept, abhorring to cover myself with anything
that had been on the back of a Yahoo. I only desired
he would lend me two clean shirts, which, having been
washed since he wore them, I believed would not so
much defile me. These I changed every second day,
and washed them myself.

We arrived at Lisbon, November 5, 1715. At our
jJanding, the captain forced me to cover myself
with his cloak, to prevent the rabble from crowd-
ing about me. I was conveyed to his own house;
and at my earnest request he led me up to the
highest room backwards. I conjured him to conceal
from all persons what I had told him of the
Houyhnhnms; because the least hint of such a story
would not only draw numbers of people to see me,
but probably put me in danger of being imprisoned,
or burnt by the Inquisition. The captain persuaded
me to accept of a suit of clothes newly made; but I
would not suffer the tailor to take my measure: how-
ever, Don Pedro being almost of my size, they fitted
me well enough. Heaccoutred me with other neces-
saries, all new, which I aired for twenty-four hours,
before I would use them.

The captain had no wife, nor above three servants,
none of which were suffered to attend at meals; and
his whole deportment was so obliging, added to a
very good human understanding, that I really began
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUYHNHNMS. 353

to tolerate his company. He gained so far upon me
that I ventured to look out of the back window. By
degrees I was brought into another room, whence I
peeped into the street, but drew my head back in a
fright, In a weck’s time he seduced me down to the
door, I found my terror gradually lessened, but my
hatred and contempt seemed to increase. I was at
last bold enough to walk the street in his company,
but kept my nose well stopped with rue, or some-
times with tobacco.

In ten days Don Pedro, to whom I had given
some account of my domestic affairs, put it upon
me, as a matter of honour and conscience, that I
ought to return to my native country, and live at
home with my wife and children. He told me there
was an English ship in the port just ready to sail,
and he would furnish me with all things necessary.
It would be tedious to repeat his arguments, and
my contradictions, He said, it was altogether im-
possible to find such a solitary island as I had de-
sired to live in; but I might command in my own
house, and pass my time in a manner as recluse as
T pleased.

I complied at last, finding I could not do better.
I left Lisbon the 24th day of November, in an
English merchantman, but who was the master I
never inquired. Don Pedro accompanied me to the
ship, and lent me twenty pounds. He took kind
leave of me, and embraced me at parting, which I
bore as well as I could, During this last voyage I
had no commerce with the master or any of his men;
but, pretending I was sick, kept close in my cabin,

On the 5th of December 1715, we cast anchor in the
Zz


354 GULLIVER'S TRAVELS.

Downs about nine in the morning, and at three in
the afternoon I got safe to my house at Redriff.

My wife and family received me with great sur-
prise and joy, because they concluded me certainly
dead ; but I must freely confess the sight of them
filled me only with hatred, disgust, and contempt ;
and the more, by reflecting on the near alliance I
had to them. For although, since my unfortunate
exile from the Houyhnhnm country, I had compelled
myself to tolerate the sight of Yahoos, and to con-
verse with Don Pedro de Mendez, yet my memory
and imagination were perpetually filled with the
virtues and ideas of those exalted Houyhnhnms,
And when I began to consider that by copulating
with one of the Yahoo species I had become a parent
of more, it struck me with the utmost shame, confu-
sion, and horror.

As soon as I entered the house, my wife took me
in her arms and kissed me; at which, having not
been used to the touch of that odious animal for so
many years, I fell into a swoon for almost an hour.
At the time I am writing, it is five years since my
last return to England : during the first year I could
not endure my wife or children in my presence; the
very smell of them was intolerable; much less could
I suffer them to eat in the same room. To this hour
they dare not presume to touch my bread, or drink
out of the same cup; neither was I ever able to let
one of them take me by the hand. The first money
I laid out was to buy two young stone-horses, which
I keep ina good stable; and, next to them, the groom
is my greatest favourite; for I feel my spirits revived
by the smell he contracts in the stable. My horses
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS. 355

understand me tolerably well; I converse with them
at least four hours every day, They are strangers to
bridle or saddle; they live in great amity with me,
and friendship to each other.

CHAPTER XII.



THE AUTHOR'S VERACITV—HIS DESIGN IN PUBLISHING
THIS WORK—HIS CENSURE OF THOSE TRAVELLERS
WHO SWERVE FROM THE TRUTH—THE AUTHOR
CLEARS HIMSELF FROM ANY SINISTER ENDS IN
WRITING—AN OBYECTION ANSWERED—THE METHOD
OF PLANTING COLONIES—HIS NATIVE COUNTRY CoM-
MENDED—THE RIGHT OF THE CROWN TO THOSE
COUNTRIES DESCRIBED BY THE AUTHOR 1S FUSTIFIED
—THE DIFFICULTY OF CONQUERING THEM—THE
AUTHOR TAKES HIS LAST LEAVE OF THE READER—
PROFOSES HIS MANNER OF LIVING FOR THE FUTURE—
GIVES GOOD ADVICE, AND CONCLUDES.

Tuus, gentle reader, I have given thee a faithful
history of my travels for sixteen years and about
seven months; wherein I have not been so studious
of ornament as of truth. I could perhaps, like
others, have astonished thee with strange improbable
tales; but I rather chose to relate plain matter of
fact in the simplest manner and style; because my
principal design was to inform, and not to amuse
thee.

It iseasy for us who travel into remote coun-
tries, which are seldom visited by Englishmen or
other Europeans, to form descriptions of wonderful


359 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS.

animals both at sea and land, Whereas a traveller's
chief aim should be to make men wiser and better,
and to improve their minds by the bad, as well as
good example, of what they deliver concerning
foreign places.

I could heartily wish a law was enacted that every
traveller, before he were permitted to publish his
voyages, should be obliged to make oath before the
Lord High Chancellor, that all he intended to print was
absolutely true to the best of his knowledge; for then
the world would no longer be deceived, as it usually
is, while some writers, to make their works pass the
better upon the public, impose the grossest falsities
on the unwary reader. I have perused several books
of travels with great delight in my younger days;
but having since gone over most parts of the globe,
and been able to contradict many fabulous accounts
from my own observation, it has given me a great
disgust against this part of reading, and some indig-
nation to see the credulity of mankind so impudently
abused. Therefore, since my acquaintance were
pleased to think my poor endeavours might not be
unacceptable to my country, I imposed on myself, as
a maxim never to be swerved from, that I would
strictly adhere to truth ; neither indeed can I be ever
un the least temptation to vary from it, while I
retain in my mind the lectures and example of my
noble master and the other illustrious Houyhnhnms,
of whom I had so long the honour to be an humble
hearer,






cst miserum Fortuna Sinonen

Finxit, vanum etiam, mendacemgue improba finget.
dl VOYAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS. 357

I know very well how little reputation is to be got
by writings, which require neither genius nor learn-
ing, nor indeed any other talent, except a good
memory, or an exact journal. I know likewise, that
writers of travels, like dictionary makers, are sunk
into oblivion by the weight and bulk of those who
come last, and therefore lie uppermost. And it is
highly probable that such travellers, who shall here-
after visit the countries described in this work of
mine, may, by detecting my errors (if there be any),
and adding many new discoveries of their own, jostle
me out of vogue, and stand in my place, making the
world forget that ever I was an author. ‘This indeed
would be too great a mortification if I wrote for
fame; but as my sole intention was the public good,
I cannot be altogether disappointed. For who can
read of the virtues I have mentioned in the glorious
Houyhnhnms, without being ashamed of his own
vices, when he considers himself as the reasoning,
governing animal of his country? I shall say nothing
of those remote nations where Yahoos preside;
among which the least corrupted are the Brobding-
nagians; whose wise maxims in morality and govern-
ment it would be our happiness to observe. But I
forbear descanting further, and rather leave the judi-
cious reader to his own remarks and application,

Tam not a little pleased that this work of mine
can possibly meet with no censur for what ob-
jections can be made against a writer who relates
only plain facts that happened in such distant
countries, where we have not the least interest with
respect either to trade or negotiations? I have care-
fully avoided every fault with which common writers


338 GULLIVER’S TRAVELS,

of travels are often too justly charged. Besides, I
meddle not the least with any party, but write with-
out passion, prejudice, or ill-will against any man, or
number of men, whatsoever. I write for the noblest
end, to inform and instruct mankind; over whom I
may, without breach of modesty, pretend to some
superiority, from the advantages I received by
conversing so long among the most accomplished
Houyhnhams. I write without any view to profit or
praise, I never suffer a word to pass that may look
like reflection, or possibly give the least offence, even
to those who are most ready to take it. So that I
hope I may with justice pronounce myself an author
perfectly blameless; against whom the tribes of
Answerers, Considerers, Observers, Reflectors, De-
tectors, Remarkers, will never be able to find matter
for exercising their talents.

I confess it was whispered to me, that I was bound
in duty, as a subject of England, to have given ina
memorial to a secretary of state at my first coming
over ; because whatever lands are discovered by a
subject belong to the crown. But I doubt whether
our conquests in the countries I treat of would be
as easy as those of Ferdinando Cortez over the naked
Americans, The Lilliputians, I think, are hardly
worth the charge of a fleet and army to reduce them;
and I question whether it might be prudent or safe
to attempt the Brobdingnagians; or whether an
English army would be much at their ease with the
Flying Island over their heads. The Houyhnhnms
indeed appear not to be so well prepared for war, a
science to which they are perfect strangers, and
especially against missive weapons. However, sup-
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUYHNHNMS. 359

posing myself to be a minister of state, I could never
give my advice for invading them. Their prudence,
unanimity, unacquaintedness with fear, and their love
of their country, would amply supply all defects in
the military art. Imagine twenty thousand of them
breaking into the midst of an European army, con-
founding the ranks, overturning the carriages, batter-
ing the warriors’ faces into mummy by terrible yerks
from their hinder hoofs; for they would well deserve
the character given to Augustus, Recalcitrat undigue
tutus, But, instead of proposals for conquering that
magnanimous nation, I rather wish they were in a
capacity, or disposition, to send a sufficient number
of their inhabitants for civilising Europe, by teaching
us the first principles of honour, justice, truth, tem-
perance, public spirit, fortitude, chastity, friendship,
benevolence, and fidelity, the names of all which
virtues are still retained among us in most languages,
and are to be met with in modern, as well as ancient
authors; which I am able to assert from my own
small reading.

But I had another reason, which made me less
forward to enlarge his majesty’s dominions by my
discoveries. To say the truth, I had conceived a few
scruples with relation to the distributive justice of
princes upon those occasions. For instance, a crew
of pirates are driven by a storm they know not
whither; at length a boy discovers land from the
topmast ; they go on shore to rob and plunder; they
see a harmless people ; are entertained with kindness ;
they give the country a new name; they take formal
possession of it for their king; they set up a rotten
plank, or a stone, for a memorial; they murder two


'S TRAVE



300 GULLIVE

or three dozen of the natives, bring away a couple
more, by force, for a sample; return home, and get
their pardon. Here commences a new dominion
acquired with a title by divine right. Ships are sent
with the first opportunity; the natives driven out or
destroyed; their princes tortured to discover their
gold; a free license given to all acts of inhumanity
and lust, the earth reeking with the blood of its
inhabitants: and this execrable crew of butchers,
employed in so pious an expedition, is a modern
colony, sent to convert and civilises an idolatrous and
barbarous people!

But this description, I confess, does by no means
affect the British nation, who may be an example to
the whole world for their wisdom, care, and justice in
planting colonies; their liberal endowments for the
advancement of religion and learning; their choice
of devout and able pastors to propagate Christianity ;
their caution in stocking their provinces with people
of sober lives and conversations, from this the mother
kingdom ; their strict regard to the distribution of
justice, in supplying the civil administration through
all their colonies with officers of the greatest abilities,
utter strangers to corruption; and, to crown all, by
sending the most vigilant and virtuous governors,
who have no other views than the happiness of the
people over whom they preside, and the honour of
the king their master.

But as those countries, which I have described, do
not appear to have any desire of being conquered
and enslaved, murdered or driven out by colonies ;
nor abound either in gold, silver, sugar, or tobacco, I
did humbly conceive, they were by no means proper
«l VOYAGE TO THE HOUYHNHNMS. gor

objects of our zeal, our valour, or our interest, How-
ever, if those whom it more concerns think fit to be
of another opinion, I am ready to depose, when I
shall be lawfully called, that no European did ever
visit those countries before me. I mean, if the inhabi-
tants ought to be believed, unless a dispute may arise
concerning the two Yahoos, said to have been seen
many years ago upon a mountain in Houyhnham-land,

But, as to the formality of taking possession in my
sovereign’s name, it never came once into my
thoughts ; and if it had, yet, as my affairs then stood,
I should perhaps, in point of prudence and self-pre-
servation, have put it off to a better opportunity.

Having thus answered the only objection that can
ever be raised against me as a traveller, I here take a
final leave of all my courteous readers, and return to
enjoy my own speculations in my little garden at
Redriff; to apply those excellent lessons of virtue
which I learned among the Houyhnhnms ; to instruct
the Yahoos of my own family, as far as I shall find
them docible animals; to behold my figure often in a
glass, and thus, if possible, habituate myself by time
to tolerate the sight of a human creature; to lament
the brutality of Houyhnhnms in my own country, but
always treat their persons with respect, for the sake
of my noble master, his family, his friends, and the
whole Houyhnhnm race, whom these of ours have
the honour to resemble in all their lineaments, how-
ever their intellectuals came to degenerate.

I began last week to permit my wife to sit at
dinner with me, at the furthest end of a long table ;
and to answer (but with the utmost brevity) the
few questions I asked her, Yet the smell of a
362 GULLIVER'S TRAVELS.

Yahoo continuing very offensive, I always keep my
nose well stopped with rue, lavender, or tobacco
leaves. And although it be hard for a man late in
life to remove old habits, I am not altogether out of
hopes, in some time, to suffer a neighbour Yahoo in
my company without the apprehensions 1 am yet
under of his teeth or his claws.

My reconcilement to the Yahoo kind in general
might not be so difficult, if they would be content
with those vices and follies only which nature has
entitled them to. I am not in the least provoked at
the sight of a lawyer, a pickpocket, a colonel, a fool,
a lord, a gamester, a politician, a whoremonger, a
physician, an evidence, a suborner, an attorney, a
traitor, or the like; this is all according to the due
course of things: but when I behold a lump of de-
formity and diseases, both in body and mind, smitten
with pride, it immediately breaks all the measures of
my patience; neither shall I be ever able to compre-
hend how such an animal and such a vice could tally
together. The wise and virtuous Houyhnhnms, who
abound in all excellences that can adorn a rational
creature, have no name for this vice in their language ;
which has no terms to express anything that is evil,
except those whereby they describe the detestable
qualities of their Yahoos ;’ among which they were not
able to distinguish this of pride, for want of thoroughly
understanding human nature, as it shows itself in
other countries where that animal presides. But I,
who had more experience, could plainly observe some
rudiments of it among the wild Yahoos.

But the Houyhnhnms, who live under the govern-
ment of reason, are no more proud of the good
A VOYAGE TO THE HOUVHNHNMS. 363

qualities they possess, than I should be for not want-
ing a leg or an arm; which no man in his wits would
boast of, although he must be miserable without them.
I dwell the longer upon this subject, from the desire I
have to make the society of an English Yahoo by any
means not insupportable; and therefore I here entreat
those, who have any tincture of this absurd vice, that
they will not presume to come in my sight,

THE END.

PRINTED BY BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO:
EDINEURGH AND LONDON
LONDON,
14 Kine Wittiam Srreer, Strap, W.C.
Fanuary 1882.

Ix Twetve VotumEs, Crown Syo, Parcument Boarps on
CLori, ver VoLume, 7s. 6p.

THE

OLD SPANISH ROMANCES

ILL



TRATED WITH ETCHINGS.

——



ASMODEUS. Ly Lx Sacer. ‘Translated from the French, Tllus-
trated with Four Original Etchings by R. pe Los Rios, Crown
8vo.

THE BACHELOR OF SALAMANCA. By Lr Sacer. Trans.
lated from the French by James To D, Illustrated with
Four Original Etchings by R. pz Los Rios,

VANILLO GONZALES; or, The Merry Bachelor. By Le Sacer.
‘Translated from the French, Illustrated with Four Original
Etchings by R, DE Los Rios.

THE ADVENTURES OF GIL BLAS OF SANTILLANE,
‘Translated from the French of Le Sace by Touras SMOLLErt
phical and Critical Notice of Lr SacE by Groxe
New Edition, carefully revised. Ilustrated with
lve Original Etchings by R. pz Los Rios. Three volumes.

THE HISTORY OF DON QUIXOTE DE LA MANCHA.
Translated from the Spanish of MIGUEL DE CERVANTES SAV!
DRA by Mortevx. With copious Notes (including the Spanish
Ballads), and an Essay on the Life and Writings of Curvan‘re
by Joun G. Lockuart, Preceded by a Short Notice of the Life
and Works of Perr ANTHONY MorTeux by Henri VAN LAN.
Illustrated with Sixteen Original Etchings by R. pe Los Rios,
Four volumes,

LAZARILLO DE TORMES. By Don Dirco Menpoza.
Translated by Tomas Roscor, And GUZMAN D’ALFA-
RACHE. By Marro Ateman, Translated by Bravy,
Illustrated with Eight Original Etchings by R. pe Los Kros,
‘Two volumes,


















Motices of the Press,

=p

“The Daily News,” October 5, 1881,

“ Our age has been described as one of abridgments and of
little books. ‘There are pocket manuals of all the sciences, and
all knowledge has been condensed till it could almost be forced
into the proverbial nutshell. We seem to be coming round to
Edgar Poe's opinion, that a long poem is a contradiction in terms.
‘Selections’ are made from all the poets for the comfort of
people of moderate leisure and limited perseverance. Mr.
Matthew Arnold has relieved Byron and Wordsworth of their
superfluous baggage, and much of the wealth of English lyrics
is commodiously packed in the ‘Golden Treasury.’ Messrs,
Nimmo & Bain, the publishers of a very handsome edition of
the old Spanish romances of adventure, seem to have a higher
opinion of the perseverance of modern readers. In twelve
pretty volumes, bound in parchment and illustrated with etch-
ings, we have English versions of ‘Don Quixote, ‘ Gil Blas,’
‘Vanillo Gonzales, ‘Asmodeus,' ‘Lazarillo de Tormes,
and ‘Guzman d’Alfarache, that ‘famed picaroon and noted
rogue of Spain. Many of these romances are Spanish chiefly
in local colour and in remote origin. Others are the work, sug-
gested by Spanish models, of the illustrious Le Sage, whose
biography, by that accomplished and learned critic, Mr, Saints-
bury, is prefixed to ‘ Gil Blas.’ The merit for modern readers
of these old stories lies partly in their inexhaustible wit, their
Knowledge of human nature, which never grows stale, and
partly in their pictures of the old reckless life of Spain. A
typical example of these novels is the fictitious autobiography
of Guzman @Alfarache, the Spanish rogue, written by Matthew
Aleman at the beginning of the seventeenth century.”

“The Daily Telegraph,” December 10, 1881.

“A handy and beautiful edition, in twelve volumes, of the
works of the Spanish masters of romance calls for a word of
acknowledgment from all who desire to see the lights of foreizn
literature fitly presented to the notice of English readers. We
may say of this edition of the immortal work of Cervantes,
that it is most tastefully and admirably executed, and that it is
embellished with a series of striking etchings from the pen of
the Spanish artist, De Los Rios, ‘This admirable etcher has
added similar characteristically Spanish illustrations to all
the volumes of the present series of Spanish romance-writers,
and, as a yeneral rule, with the happiest effect. We may men-
tion, as among the very best of the etchings contained in. these
volumes, the duel in ‘Gil Blas’ and the last scene of all in the
history of the Knight of La Mancha, ‘The best known of the












3

other works comprised in the series is undoubtedly Le Sage’s,
‘The Adventures of Gil Blas of Santillane’ rendered into
English by Tobias Smollett, and with a biographical and
critical notice of Le Sage ‘by George Saintsbury. Three
volumes of beautifully-perspicuous type dispose of the story
of ‘ Gil Blas; and the rest of the series is devoted to less famous
but not less attractive works. Le Sage contributes his ‘ Asmo-
deus’ and ‘ The Bachelor of Salamanca, as well as the story of
‘Vanillo Gonzales. In two other volumes we are introduced
to the admirable comic and amorous romances of ‘ Lazarillo de
Tormes, by Mendoza, and ‘Guzman d’Alfarache,” by Mateo
Aleman, Tt may safely be stated that an introduction to the
study of these great Spanish authors could not be more agree-
ably effected than through the medium of the present edition.
Those who have already made acquaintance with these master-
pieces of exotic humour will need no encouragement to send
them once again to a fountain from which such pure enjoyment
is to be derived, and in so acceptable a shape as Messrs. Nimmo
and Bain have provided.”

“The Scotsman,” October 7, 1881.

“ What man of middle age is there, who has been a reader of
books, who does not look back with pleasure to his first ac-
quaintance with ‘Don Quixote’ or the ‘Adventures of Gil
Blas’? If he has been a wise man of equal mind, he has gone
further afield in these romances, and has made ‘acquaintance
with ‘Asmodeus,’ The Bachelor of Salamanca,’ and other
works of a like kind. ‘They have been read by many thousands
of British readers, and they will be read by many thousands
more. Towards this result the publication of the twelve volumes
named above will greatly contribute, They are good and good-
looking books. Handy in form, they are well printed irom
clear type, and are got up with much elegance. French etchers
have turned their attention to the work of illustrating romances
and novels and plays of the period to which most of these stories
belong, and they have added greatly to their value as works of
art. In regard to these volumes, the etchings which have been
produced by R. de Los Rios are full of humour and force,
What the reading public have reason to congratulate themselves
upon is, that so neat, compact, and well-arranged an edition
of romanees that can never die is put within their reach. ‘The
publishers have spared no pains with them. It has already
been said that Mr. Saintsbury has written a prefatorial notice
of Le Sage; a similar work has been done by other hands in
the case of Ceryantes. It is satisfactory to find publishers turn-
ing their attention to the reproduction, in worthy form, of classic
fiction ; and the hope may be entertained that in this case the
enterprise will meet with merited reward.


4

“The Figaro,” December 1881.

“Tt is difficult to speak too highly of the manner in which
the publishers of these tasteful volumes have fulfilled their
task. The complete set of ‘Old Spanish Romances,’ which
they have taken such obvious pains to render in every way
attractive to the public, will, we do not doubt, be widely appre-
ciated. No library can, of course, be worthy of the name which
does not include the principal literature of other countries,
‘Those who are familiar with ‘Don Quixote’ and ‘ Gil Blas’ do
not require to be told that there is plenty of capital reading in
the old Spanish romances, ‘The less known works are scarcely
less entertaining. But the set now published will be particu-
Jarly welcome on account of the original etchings, which are a
great feature, and ate really admirable, The books, which
make a handsome present, are well got up in respect to binding
and paper, and the type is excellent, We believe they have
only to be known to obtain the lasting measure of popularity
they so richly merit. The publishers, in short, are to be con-
gratulated upon having achieved a marked success.”







“The Bookseller,” December 1881.

“Tt was fitting that this choice edition of the great humorist
of Spain should be illustrated by the foremost etcher of that
country, one who completely understands the characteristics of
the people and the places described by Le Sage. In these
charming etchings the artist proves himself a versatile and
faithful depicter of character. His men and women are real
people, the play of their features is unmistakable, they think
nd act the very thoughts of their creator, and a study of any
one of these sketches is a key to the whole of the book, So
much for the intrinsic merits of the artist’s conceptions. In
point of technical quality these etchings are among the first of
any yet produced for book illustrations. Their comparatively
small scale increases the delicacy of execution. Every line has
its meaning; there is no coarse work nor over-elaboration. The
management of the lights is that of a consummate master of
effect. There have been no such illustrations of Le Sage’s
books before, and the exquisite daintiness of this edition is
immensely enhanced by these wonderful etchin; Connois-
seurs of good books will be glad to meet with the series, and
those who are commencing to form a library could not receive
a more welcome addition as a Christmas gift than these sump-
tuous octavos in their parchment bindings.”

J. C NIMMO & BAIN,
14 KING WILLIAM STREET, STRAND, LONDON, W.C.








LONDON,
14, Kine Winiiam Srreer, Steanp, W.C.
March 1883.

In Twetve Vorumes, Crown Svo, PARCHMENT BoaRps on
Cuorn, per Vouume, 7s. 6p.

THE

OLD SPANISH ROMANCES

——g

THE HISTORY OF DON QUIXOTE DE LA MANCHA.
‘Translated from the Spanish of MIGUEL DE CERVANTES SAAVEDRA
by Morreux. With copious Notes (including the Spanish Ballads),
and an Essay on the Life and Writings of CERVANTES by Joun G.
Locknarr. Preceded by a Short Notice of the Life and Works of
Perer ANTHONY Morrevx by Henrr VAN Lawn. Illustrated
with Sixteen Original Etchings by R. pE Los Rios, Four Volumes.

LAZARILLO DE TORMES. By Don Disco Menpoza. Trans-
lated by Tuomas Roscoz, And GUZMAN D'ALFARACHE.
By MATEO ALEMAN. Translated by BRapy. Illustrated with Eight
Original Etchings by R. pe Los Rros. Two Volumes.





ASMODEUS. By Lx Sacer. Translated from the French, Illus-
trated with Four Original Etchings by R. De Los Rros.

THE BACHELOR OF SALAMANCA. By Le Sac. Trans-
lated from the French by James TOWNSEND, Illustrated with Four
Original Etchings by R. DE Los Rios,

VANILLO GONZALES; or, The Merry Bachelor. By Le Sacer,
Translated from the French. Ilustrated with Four Original Etchings
by R, DE Los Rros.

THE ADVENTURES OF GIL BLAS OF SANTILLANE.
Translated from the French of Le Sace by Topras SMOLLETT.
With Biographical and Critical Notice of Le SAGE by GEORGE
SatntsbuRY, New Edition, carefully revised. Tllustrated with
Twelve Original Etchings by R. DE Los Rios, ‘Three Votumes.
In TweLve VotuMes, Crown Syo, PARCHMENT Boarps on
CLorH, PER VoLuME, 75. 6p.

OLD ENGLISH ROMANCES

————

THE LIFE AND OPINIONS OF TRISTRAM SHANDY,
TLEMAN., By LAURENCE STERNE, In Two Vols, With Eight
Etchings by DaMMan from Original Drawings by HARRY FURNISs,



THE OLD ENGLISH BARON: A Gornic Srory, By CLARA

REEVE.
ALSO

THE CASTLE OF OTRANTO: A Gornic Srory. By Horace
Watrois. In One Vol. With Two Portraits and Four Original
Drawings by A, H. Tourrrer, Etched by DAMMAN.

THE ARABIAN NIGHTS ENTERTAINMENTS. In Four
Vols. Carefully Revised and Corrected from the Arabic by JONATHAN
Scorr, 1LL.D., Oxford. With Nineteen Original Etchings by AD.
LaLauze.

THE HISTORY OF THE CALIPH VATHEK. By Wm.
Beckrorp. With Notes, Critical and Explanatory.

ALSO
RASSELAS, PRINCE OF ABYSSINIA. By Samuet Jonnson.

In One Vol. With Portrait of Beckrorp, and Four Original
Etchings, designed by A. H. TOURRIER, and Etched by DamMan,

ROBINSON CRUSOE. By Danret Deror, In Two Vols. With
Biographical Memoir, Illustrative Notes, and Eight Etchings by M.
MOUILLERON, and Portrait by L. FLAM





GULLIVER’S TRAVELS. By Jonarmay Swirr, With Five
Etchings and Portrait by Ap. LALAUZI



A SENTIMENTAL JOURNEY. By Laurence STERNE.

ALSO

A TALE OF A TUB. By Jow.
Five Etchings and Portrait by



rHaN Swirt. In One Vol. With

Hepourn.


SOME PRESS NOTICES.

Daily Telegraph.

“These editions are noteworthy as containing original etchings by artists
of high repute. Thus nineteen exquisite plates by the French etcher, M.
Lalauze, gives especial attractiveness to the ‘Thousand and One Nights ;°
and the two fancifal histories of the Caliph Vathek and Prince Rasselas are
illustrated by designs of Mr. A. H. Tourrier, etched by M, Damman, It is
a pleasure to hold a ‘Robinson Crusoe’ or the ‘Tale of 2 Tub’ in one’s
hands; it is a_positive luxury to read those masterpieces in a Iusurious
shape, large print, on good paper, accompanied by exquisite illustrations.”

The Scotsman.
“These volumes will take rank, for beauty of typography and general
excellence of appearance, with any books of the kind that have recently
been published; while the etchings by M. Lalauze are among some of the
finest of his productions. They are full of vigour and striking originality,
and are what they profess to be—good illustrations of the story to which
they relate. There are not many men of wholesome minds who do not find
enjoyment in ‘ Robinson Crusoe’ whenever they can lay hands on it; and
assuredly there is no one possessing anything in the shape of a library who
would not desire to have a good edition of the work among his books; in
short, nothing but praise can be given to this edition of these books. No
one can pretend to be acquainted with English literature who is ignorant
of any of the works here published.”







Glasgow Herald.

“The merits of this new issue lie in exquisite clearness of type, complete-

ness; notes and biographical notices, short and pithy, and a mumber of

very fine etchings and portraits. ‘The illustrations of Gulliver are particu-

larly effective, ‘such as the ‘Academy of Laputa’ and the ‘Visions of
Glubbdubdrib.?”



London Figaro.

“We congratulate the publishers upon the issue of a capital series of
Old English Romances, ‘They will form a most delightful collection.”

Magazine of Art,
“The text of the new four volume edition of the ‘Thousand and One
Nights’ is that revised by Jonathan Scott from the French of Galland. It
is, in fact, the text in which the incomparable ‘Arabian Nights’ became
in England the classic it is, The etchings are uncommonly skilful and
finished work ; they contain some charming figures ; they constitute a true
attraction. In another volume of this series Beckford’s wild and gloomy

*Vathek’ appears side by side with Johnson’s admirable ‘ Rasselas.'””

The Literary World,

“A publishers’ notice prefixed to each volume states that ‘one thousand
copies of this edition have been printed and the type distributed, No more
will be published.’ Although some of these works are now easily obtain-
able ina cheap form, good editions are rare and eagerly sought by those
who make any pretence of making a library. Here is an opportunity of
securing as choice an edition as can be desired at a comparatively low
price, the value of which will be enhanced before long by its scarcity."”


The Times.

“ Prettily printed and prettily illustrated, these attractive volumes de-
serve their welcome from all students of seventeenth century literature.

The Daily News.

“The merit for modern readers of these old stories lies partly in their
inexhaustible wit, their knowledge of human nature, which never grows
stale, and partly in their pictures of the old reckless life of Spain. A
typical example of these novels is the fictitious autobiography of Guzman
d’Alfarache, the Spanish rogue, written by Matthew Aleman at the begin-
ning of the seventeenth century."”

Daily Telegraph.

“A handy and beautiful edition, in twelve volumes, of the works of
the Spanish masters of romance calls for a word of acknowledgment from,
all who desire to see the lights of foreign literature fitly presented to the
notice of English readers. We may say of this edition of the immortal
work of Cervantes, that it is most tastefully and admirably executed, and
that it is embellished with a series of striking etchings from the pen of the
Spanish artist, De Los Rios. . . . Those who have already made acquaint-
ance with these masterpieces of exotic humour will need no encouragement
to send them once again to a fountain from which such pure enjoyment is
to be derived, and in so acceptable a shape as Messrs. Nimmo & Bain
have provided.”





The Scotsman.

“What man of middle age is there, who has been a reader of books,
who does not look back with pleasure to his first acquaintance with ‘Don
Quixote? or the ‘Adventutes of Gil Blas’? If he has been a wise man
of equal mind, he has gone further afield in these romances, and has made
acquaintance with ‘Asmodeus,’ ‘The Bachelor of Salamanca,’ and other
works ofa like kind. “They have been read by many thousands of British
readers, and they will be read by many thousands more. ... What the
reading public have reason to congratulate themselves upon is, that so
compact, and well-arranged an edition of romances that can never
die is put within their reach. ‘The publishers have spared no pains with
them. It has already been said that Mr. Saintsbury has written a
prefatorial notice of Le Sage; a similar work has been done by other
hands in the case of Cervantes, It is satisfactory to find publishers tumn-
ing their attention to the reproduction, in worthy form, of classic fiction ;
and the hope may be entertained that in this case the enterprise will meet
with merited reward.”







‘Westminster Review.

“We notice with warm welcome a new and very handsome illustrated
edition of the original ‘ Arabian Nights Entertainment,’ the ‘real Simon
pure,’ and never have we seen the fascinating companion of our youth
more ‘daintily dight.’ ‘Type and paper are both of the finest quality,
while M. Lalauze’s graceful and delicate etchings lend an additional charm
to the text, ‘The Thousand and One Nights of Schéhérézade’ occupy
four goodly volumes, and uniform with them is Beckford’s ‘ Vathek’ and
Dr. Johnson’s ‘ Rasselas’ in one volume.

J. C. NIMMO & BAIN,
14, KING WILLIAM STREET, STRAND, LONDON, W.C.
HAW LIAS







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