Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Our Cottage
 Spring in our wood
 How we went fishing
 Our garden
 By the sea
 Tom's tricycle trip
 Fern hunting
 Pond fishing
 Over the hills
 Under the microscope
 Through the lanes
 Through a cornfield
 In a conservatory
 On a steam launch
 List of Illustrations
 Back Cover

Group Title: Dick's holidays and what he did with them : a picture book of country life for young folks
Title: Dick's holidays and what he did with them
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053178/00001
 Material Information
Title: Dick's holidays and what he did with them a picture book of country life for young folks
Physical Description: 152 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill. ; 21 x 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Step, Edward, 1855-1931
Unwin, T. Fisher ( Thomas Fisher ), 1848-1935 ( Publisher )
Unwin Brothers (Firm) ( Printer )
Publisher: T. Fisher Unwin
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Unwin Brothers
Publication Date: 1883
Subject: Natural history -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Country life -- Juvenile fiction -- Great Britain   ( lcsh )
Uncles -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Plants -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Animal welfare -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1883
Genre: novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
England -- Chilworth
Citation/Reference: Osborne catalogue,
Statement of Responsibility: edited by James Weston.
General Note: James Weston is a pseudonym used by Edward Step.
General Note: The introduction addressed to Mr. Weston and signed "Dick" explains that the book is supposedly written by an eleven-year-old boy.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053178
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002224913
notis - ALG5185
oclc - 62998420

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Our Cottage
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Spring in our wood
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    How we went fishing
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Our garden
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    By the sea
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Tom's tricycle trip
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Fern hunting
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Pond fishing
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Over the hills
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Under the microscope
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Through the lanes
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Through a cornfield
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    In a conservatory
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    On a steam launch
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    List of Illustrations
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    Back Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
Full Text

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I 0 0D







I write to tell you that the Book Post will bring you a big packet of exercise
books, which Uncle Charlie and I have been filling up with an account of some of the things we did whilst we were
away in the country. You know papa took a cottage for six months, because the doctor said he was to go right
away from London and not far from the sea, and we have had the most splendid time. Urcle Charlie says he knows
we have had a better time than most of the people who go abroad for their holidays. He says lots of them write
books about their holidays, and I thought if we could write about some of the things we saw and the jolly places we
went to, other boys, and girls too, who don't get such long holidays, would like to read about them. (Governess was
with us at the cottage, so it was not a holiday every day.) Uncle Charlie said it was a happy thought,-that's
what he always says if anyone says anything very good,-and he believed that if we did it and sent it to you, you'd
put in the stops and perhaps print it with some pictures of the things we found. And please, Mr. WESTON, will you
come over to tea next Friday, and then Uncle Charlie and I will be able to have a quiet talk with you afterwards.
Be sure and come.
From your old Friend,


[It is only necessary to add to Dick's letter that I accepted the invitation ot my old friend-aged twelve next
birthday-and was duly talked over by him and his precious Uncle.-J. W.]




















IT was'nt much to look at from the outside, but it was jolly inside. Uncle Charlie said it
was two cottages knocked into one, and it looks like it, does it not ? Tom and Alf and I
slept upstairs, at the back, where the old apple-tree taps at the window when the wind blows.
When we first went there it was all in blossom, and the birds sang so loud
in among the flowers that they woke us up as soon as it was light. But
what a garden it was! It was always full of
flowers and nice ripe fruit, but I mean to tell you
all about the garden further on, and how we found -
the hedgehog's nest.
Well, just at the back there was a great _
THE END OF OUR GARDEN. wood, full of fir-trees, and holly, and birch, and the APPLE.BLOSSOM.


J f garden ran right up to it with only a low wooden
railing between. 'We soon learnt the way over that
railing, and were always away in the wood hunting
the rabbits and squirrels, if they only gave us a
b- dance.
Our cottage was right at the end of the village, OUR VILLAE.
and as soon as you got in at the other end you could see the big yellow sunflowers
SUN-FLOWEB. in our front garden. Tom said you had only to stand at our front gate to see
all that was going on in the village. I used to like to sit there and watch the birds. There
was an old starling had a nest among the chimney-pots, and under the edge of the roof
the swallows were building a nest of clay and m-.
straw when we came. First they would bring a,
little mud, and then a wisp of straw, then 'some
more mud. And so on till the nest was finished.





UR wood is always a jolly place, but in Spring-time it is the grandest you can think of.
All the trees are getting tinged with bright green, and the willows and
hazels hang out the pssy's-tails" and "ba-lambs." Just as you get inside
the wood from the lane you come across the funny "Lords
Sand Ladies" in their queer green hoods. But I like to
Spush through the trees and bushes, and get down to the
slopes where the primroses lie so thick and look so bright.
Father came with us one day to pick the primroses, and
Alf was showing him the pin-eyed" and "thrum-eyed"
flowers. Father told us all about them; how the bees fly from' the
DAFFODIL,. one kind to the other, carrying the yellow powder with them. He
says it is this that causes the woods to be so full of primroses, and if it wasn't LOS &LADIES
for the bees we should not have such large bright flowers.

-R-R "
/ ';.:* ^ ':~ '

I know a quiet corner in the wood where scarcely anybody but the rabbits go. Down
there, under the trees, the daffy-down-dillies grow thick together. Wasn't mother delighted
when I first found them out, and brought home a great bunch of the nodding flowers Then
there were the fine purple bells of the hyacinth which grew all over the wood, and every old
tree-stump was covered with the pinky cups of wood-sorrel.
What fun it was to watch the woodpecker climb up the trees, and dodge
round the trunk! Tap, tap, tap. You heard him knock on the tree as if
advising the insect to come out quietly, and then, as there was no reply, he'd
give a louder knock. He seemed to know just where the grub was, for this time
his beak went through the bark, and as he drew it out again you could just
catch sight of the white fat maggot before it slipped down his
Throat. Uncle Charlie and I have sat for hours on the mossy
WILD HYACINTH. banks in our wood watching the birds and listening to their songs. H
I dare say some of you will expect me to tell you how many bird's eggs
and nests we took ? We found plenty and often had a good look at them and
counted the eggs, but we never took one and I'll tell you why. Uncle Charlie
said the country would be very wretched without the birds, and used to tell us }
what a lot of good they did by killing insects that destroy the flowers and fruit. WOODPECKEB.


He said, for every egg you take there will be one bird less than there would have been if you
had let it alone, and if every boy took bird's-eggs there would soon be no birds to lay them; and
all the green things would be eaten up by caterpillars. So we never touch them, and I think
it is far better to sit and watch the birds than to destroy their nests and eggs.
We often used to see the long-tailed tit swinging about on the willow-boughs
ais lie chased the insects. Queer little fellow he is with his long tail sticking out
straight as he twists about this way and that way; upside down or right way up.
SLONGAII.ED Sometimes in the evening we all used to go just
inside the wood ad sit quietly on the bank and hear the nightingales.
SDid you ever hear them ? Well, I can't exactly tell you what they
sing like, but if you are ever in the country about June, listen for
t: hem in the evening.
But in Spring there were the grand
i golden flowers of the marsh marigold: 'D, TISN.ALE
"that shine like fire
y In swamps and hollows grey."
You recollect that from Tennyson's May Queen," do you not ?
SH MARIGOLD. I know a silent pool and a bog, in a misty hollow of the wood, where

they crowded thick together, and were well worth going to see. The first time I went, I
walked bravely over the bright green bog-moss as though I was on the lawn at home.
Splush splush first one foot then the other, and I went home with two boots full of water
and my stockings pretty muddy. There was trouble in our cottage that day and I have
since learnt to step carefully over bog-moss.
__What a wonderful .place that wood is! I believe if you got
a clever man like Uncle Charlie, who knows all about everything
Syou see in the county, he could write you a big book on a wood
DA SIES. in springinmne. There were the daisies with their crimson.
tipped flowers," and the sky-blue speedwells climbing up the banks, as the periwinkles trailed
down them. There were violets and bitter-cress, and a little later the May-,
w blossom, and a host of other beautiful things that never stayed with
us long enough for us to tire of them. Our wood was one of the
jolliest places you ever saw, and I may tell you something more
VIOLET. aboLut it by-and-by. .PEEDWELL.




TOM said it was a waste of time for Uncle Charlie and I
Sto be spending hours in the woods looking after birds and
flowers. "If you were to find out a good place and go fishing,"
he said, "it would be something like, and Iwould'nt mind going
With you for once."
Tom's the eldest, and thinks himself too old to go out with "
Alf and Mabel and I, but Uncle Charlie's much older than Tom,
and he lilies to come with us. It was so unusual to have Tom
with us that we said we knew there must be1 places near where
S Twe could fish, and we promised to find out.
We soon found out a fine stream that Uncle Charlie said BY THE STREAM.


must be full of fish. So we got our tackle in order and prepared
for a day of it. Uncle Charlie and Tom both had big rods, but
Alf and I had to be content with hazel rods and hooks made of
bent pins. However, Uncle Charlie said, "It is not always the
-B one that has the most expensive rod that catches most fish," and
.I so it seemed. Soon after Uncle had thrown out his line, we saw
"his float bobbing up and down as though there was something at
the end of it.
"It must be -
"DIK FISHING. a big jack or -. .
a trout," said Tom, "let out your line."
So Uncle Charlie let out his' line a little,
but the fish did'nt seem to pull very much,
and after a little while he thought he
would wind up again and pull his fish up.
He gave it a jerk and up came a big black
object to the surface; the line snapped,
and down went the black thing again. ALF.'S FIRST CATCH.


--- Ti It was the root of a tree in which
Uncle's hook had caught, and which was too
ate -io heavytobe pulled out, so theline had snapped.
e You may guess we had a good laugh over

turn. Tom caught a gudgeon, put in his
e n te British Museum stuffed. Uncle CharCharlieie says he has
sien them sit on a branch quite still for a lono time, if they eIfiNE.st
________- capture, for he brought out a splendid dace.
__ _Alf felt big, especially as nothing else wats
Scaug- forhalf-anit was Tom's
turn. Tom caught a gudgeon, put in his
TOWSn Cai RE-adJDGEO. 4dcaught another; then another.
Uncle Charlie said it looked like business, and'called our
attention to the opposite bianlk where a beautiful bird was sitting
on a branch. Its back and wings were richly coloured with black
and green, and along each side of its neck there was a bright
red stripe. Toni said it was a kingrfislier, and that he had seen
rO'~~ in the British Museum stuffed. Uncle Charlie says he has
xien them sit on a branch quite still for a longr time, if they KNGFISHER


Knew there were fish about, and that the moment a poor fish appears he
is snapped up by the strong beak and soon swallowed. People used to
believe that the kingfisher built its nest on the water, and that whilst
the eggs-were being hatched there would be no storms, and that then
was the time for ships to sail.
Tom caught some more gudgeon and a dace, and said it wan-( quite
TEATER-.LILIESGROW. jolly, and he would not mind coming again to-morrow. Uncle Charlie
thought we had better try a little farther up the stream where the water-lilies
grow, for the fish are fond of resting under the shadow of their broad, round leaves.
SWe walked along the stream-side for about a quarter of a mile,
( passing great beds of bright blue forget-me-nots, 'among tall
Sflags and purple loose strife. 'But best of all was the great creamy FORGET.ME NOT.
masses of meadow-sweet which you could smell
a good distance off.
Then we took up our positions again, Alf
startling a moorhen from the bushes on the
bank. Uncle said he knew there were some
[En.,iV,-.WEET, fine trout in the stream if he could only entice WATER-LILIES.


/ them to try his bait. He was trying what they call fly-fishing, and
\ was artfully dropping his fly on the top of the water and then jerking
.,' ')*, it lightly up again. Well, after he had been trying that game for
'. a long time, I thought it was no good, when all of a sudden the fly
"was gone. We saw a fish's open jaws, and then Uncle Charlie's
f line was pulled tight, but he let it run out and walked in the direction
that the fish was pulling.
Pull it up quick, Uncle," Alf. and I called out, for we thought
MOORHEN. he would lose it. But lie said it was all right, and after a time he
called Tom to bring the landing-net. Between them they brought out a splendid trout, which
we had for dinner next day.
S-- Father said there was something sensible about fishing
of that kind, and wanted to see what I had caught. All
I had to show consisted of a bright
little minnow and five sticklebacks !
1 So ended our first day's fishing. STICKLEBACK.



IT was a garden. Uncle Charlie said it was a sensible garden, and one that was meant for
use as well as show. He says most gardens now-a-days are all alike. Beds laid out in
rows. and circles of red, white, blue and green; houseleeks, lobelia, geraniums, &c., which
Smustn't be picked for fear of spoiling the effect. Here you could always
pick a good bunch of flowers without their being missed.
All the back of our cottage was covered with clematis
an( jasmine. Clematis with great violet flowers, and
jasmine with small sweet-scented white ones. Then there
were the climbing roses that were trained round mamma's
-1;window, and there were plenty of great rose bushes
"-- scattered about the garden. They all seemed to come out
ROSE. at the proper time without anybody paying much attention JMINE.


to them. in the spring we had hosts of
snowdrops, that came up in the strawberry
/ beds, and with them the silky crocuses.
-NOWDROPS. Then there were always plenty of wild violets,
that seemed to have come in of their own accord. Great white lilies stood
proudly in clumps, their feet among sweet mignonette. Beds of thyme and TULIP.
sage for the kitchen, their borders edged side borders among the wild primroses,
with thick fresh stonecrop. Gaudy cowslips, and daffodils.
tulips, proud-looking Quiet little arbours
flowers, grew in the VIOL'. where you could sit in
"the shade, and look at the flowers, and the birds and
trees. Plenty of birds built their nests in the garden, and
came to catch caterpillars and worms for their young ones.
At the first bend in the path you came upon a couple of
old-fashioned bee-hives, from which we got lots of nice honey.
We only had one hive at first, but one day there was an awful
commotion, and thousands of bees came running out and
CROCus. settled in two great clusters on the trees. Father made us WHITE LILY.


youngsters go indoors, and sent for old John Dixon, who under-
"/ 1 4/ *,. stands all about bees. Well, he brought another hive with
him, a "skip he called it, and by some means or other I could
not quite understand, he enticed one of these swarms into the
BEE-HIVES empty hive. So now, you see, we have two hives, and get
double the quantity of honey.
Just beyond the bee-hives is a rocky mound, all covered with SWARM o1 BEES.
stonecrop, houseleeks, and London-pride, which is splendid when the London-
Sj pride is in flower. That's where we find the toads hidden away behind the stones,
and at the back there is a hole like a rabbit's burrow. That's the hole where
we found old mammy hedgehog and the five little ones. Tom wanted to catch
them and make a hutch for them, but
;,, father and Uncle Charlie said it would be
far better to let them be where they were,
and feed them. So we used to take them
worms, and slugs and brown snails,
until at last they got quite tame, and
LONDON PRIDE. didn't much mind our looking at them. HEDGEHOG.

S We could not well play with them, they were far too
"o-C' 0 "N On this same rockery were wallflowers and snapdragon, .
Imusk, and ferns and creeping jenny. We used to pull
^- ^the flowers of snapdragon and press them, sideways,
between our fingers to make the "dragon's mouth" open. Al s.
The bees used to settle on these flowers, and push themselves right in.
S Uncle Charlie said they went in after the honey, and he showed us how some of
WALLFLOWER. the bees were getting artful or lazy. Instead of taking the trouble to push open
the dragon's mouth, they bit a hole through the flower
close to the stalk, just where the honey is. He showed ,
us lots of flowers bit through like this. Bees are smart. .
Over the rockery the trees threw their branches,
"and up them climbed the passion-flower and the
t^ sweet-pea, with its pretty flowers like butterflies. One
afternoon, when we were in the garden with mamma,
she gathered some passion-flowers, and asked us if we
SNPPDRAGON. knew why they were so called. None of us knew, so SWET PEA.


she offered to tell us. She said that a long, long time
ago, people believed that this flower was an emblem
Sof the passion and crucifixion of our Saviour. In the
PASSION-FLOWER. middle of the flower is a kind of stalk, divided into three
at the end. This, they said, means the three nails used to nail Him to the cross-two for
the hands, and one for the feet. The five "anthers are the five wounds. The inner rays
represent the crown of thorns, and the outer rays the halo of glory. The ten petals show ten
of the Apostles, that is all except Peter, who denied .
the Lord, and Judas who betrayed Him. The
leaves are said to be the hands of those who smote
Him, and the tendrils the whips with which they OOSEBERIES.
scourged Him. But mamma says that when people believed in images of this kind they
thought less of the Lord Himself.
Just beyond the low wall that separates the garden into two
was the fruit and vegetable garden, where we used to go to catch
the caterpillars and snails. Uncle said the caterpillars were not
Sthe only attractions there, and one day asked me a question in
SNAIL. arithmetic. He said, suppose the big apple-tree had two hundred


apples on it, and we youngsters went to catch caterpillars in the fruit garden, how
many apples would there be left? I gave it up, of course, but it was jolly to get in
there when the gooseberries and the red and black -
currants were ripening, and hunt for the slugs and
snails that do so much damage to the fruit. I don't
BLACK deny that we sometimes had an apple-a windfall, ED CURRANTS
"FLOWERS. you know-or a bunch of currants, but mother didn't mind us having a little.





FATHER thought it would be a good thing to have a few days by the sea, and as we were
not many miles away from it, we all went. We had an early breakfast one morning, and
started off across the meadows to the little station, where the train was waiting. A rush past
woods and corn-fields, farmhouses and orchards, two or three short stoppages at stations, and
we were walking down to the beach.
It was a quiet little fishing village, with no crowded grand parade like there is at some of
the seaside places we have been staying at. But there was a beautiful beach of fine yellow
_____sand, where we could dio with our wooden
.-, spades, and build sand castles. All among
~~ ... ?:--; _:
S... / the sea-weeds thrown up by the waves
were mermaid's-purses, and cuttle-fishes
CUTTLE FISH. like bunches of races and what ws CUTTLE FISH.
eggs like bunches of grapes, and, what was


better, in one heap we found a small cuttle-fish. It had evidently been thrown up by a big
wave, and rolled among the sea-weed and rubbish. Uncle Charlie got it into a little basket,
and we ran off to where the ground is covered with low rocks, among which there are lots of
pools. Into one of these Uncle let the cuttle
loose, and it darted very quickly backwards into
a mass of silky green weed that grew in one
corner of the pool. We waited and watched for
him. Of course we could easily have routed
him out, but Uncle Charlie said it would be
better to watch him, and see what he would do
of his own accord.
So we sat there, and kept our eyes on the
clear crystal water of the pool, and popped off the bladders of the knotted wrack
between our fingers. That pool was the best aquarium
I have seen. All around it was hung with delicate silky
red and green weeds, and at the bottom lovely sea- KNOTTED WRACK.
anemones spread out their rays like flowers. Then the pale shrimps
"SRIP. jerked backwards across the pool, and tiny little pearly crabs, no

bigger round than the top of my finger, sidled along, sometimes into the clutches of the
anemones. Then there were wonderful things like twisted pipe-stems attached to old oyster
shells. Uncle said it is called serpula, because it is twisted about like a serpent.
As we watched these shabby-looking pipes, we
J were astonished to see a lovely crimson plume i-
/, thrust out of several of the tubes. It was one of
the most beautiful things I have ever seen.
After we had been looking at all these
6 things for some time, Tom said he thought it was time for us to get
back to where we had left the others on the beach. Just then we saw a
movement among the weeds, and who should appear but Mr. Cuttle himself
SERPULA. from behind a mass of sea-weed, which is called the sea-lettuce, though of
course it is nothing like a lettuce. The funny part of it was he came backwards, very quick,
and left a dark cloud in the water would really be more correct to
where he had come from. Uncle n call them snails than fish.
Charlie said that these strange Uncle Charlie was going to tell
animals are not fish, although us something more about them,
people call them cuttle-fish, it SEA LETTUCE. but just then we noticed a bright

little fish, about as big as a minnow, rush away from the cuttle-fish. Uncle couldn't be sure,
but he believed it was a whitebait, like the government gentlemen have for dinner once a year
when they go to Greenwich.
W ell, that cuttle was after the poor little fish in an
i i instant, and was soon eating him up. Tom made a
-- -. splash in the water to frighten him off, but the only
effect was to make the cuttle throw out some more of
his inky cloud, and the water
in the pool got so dark that we
.... p cice couldn't see anything. So we
went back to the beach where
father and mother were waiting SEA-URCH
WHITEB.IT. sea-urchin. The picture shows one
for us. On our way we turned that has had half of its spines
over the heaps of "wrack" and cleaned off.
"tangle," picking up choice little In the evening, Uncle Charlie
bunches of Irish moss, and here and and I went down to the beach for a
there a tiny crab, or star-fish, or a IRISH MOSS. stroll, but although the stars were


out, and the moon threw a track of silvery light across the dancing waves, there was little to
be seen. A long way down the coast we saw the revolving light flashing from the top of the
lighthouse, warning the big ships to keep away from the shore, because of the hidden rocks.
As we watched we saw the lights of a ship that seemed to come up out of the sea, and when
it crossed the track of moonlight, with him. He had been down to
we saw it was one of the great -the beach, and had met the fishing
steamships that go on long voyages, _. boats as they came in after their
for thousands of miles. night's work. From one of these
In the morning Uncle Charlie boats he had bought a fine turbot,
was out before we were up, and a big flat fish like a plaice, only
back again, bringing a great fish THE STEAMSHIP. much larger. In his other hand
lie held a great purple lobster, with strong
claws that would be very unpleasant for one's '"/.
fingers, if he could get hold of them. Alf -
said he had never seen a purple lobster before,
and they laughed. But I don't know why
they should laugh, because nobody had LOBSTER.
TURBOT. ever told Alf that it was the boiling that


turned them red, and that he had only seen boiled lobsters. We had the turbot for
After breakfast, Uncle Charlie and I went out alone. The others were going to the beach
to make sand castles again, but Uncle Charlie had arranged with an old fisherman that we
should go out to sea in a sailing boat. So we went along to the
further end of the town, and over the hill where we got such
splendid views right out to sea. A long way out we saw a fine
ship tossing about a good deal, for the sea was rough, and the
petrels were flying round it.
U Uncle thought it looked too rough to venture out, but when
S-a we reached old Simpson's cottage below the cliffs, we saw him in
OUT A tSEA. his garden looking out to sea through his spy-glass.
Morning, Cap'n," he called out to Uncle, "a bit squally, but it'll soon calm down."
Of course, Uncle isn't a captain, but these old sailors and .
fishermen always call a gentleman cap'n," they think it pleases _-
We went inside his cottage, and, though it smelt very strong
of tobacco-smoke, it was a jolly place. The old man had been a PETREL.

sailor, and had brought home curiosities from all parts of the world, besides a lot of things he
had made on board ship. He knew how to stuff birds and fish, and had got a lot in cases all
round his room. There was a splendid Flying-fish, which he said he
had caught on the deck of the ship, when hundreds of them were
flying over it. He said they can only fly about two hundred yards
at the time, and that they frequently fell on the deck, and were FLYING-FIbH.
C;iug-ht by the sailors. Over the fire-place he had a long thing which
S he said was the snout of the Saw-fish, a kind of shark. Its snout or
Sy nose is very long, and covered on each side with sharp bony spines,
S"- so that it is like a double saw. Old Simpson tells me that with this
A-SELL. weapon the saw-fish attacks the big whales, and kills them.
Then there was a big glass case with a stuffed Cormorant in it, a bird that
"i builds its nest among the tall rocks, and catches fish.
S There was another fishing bird, with a big bag under its
S, beak, which he called a Pelican, and on the opposite side
was another case with He said it was a
one of the queerest a Penguin, and you can
PENGUIN. creatures I have seen. PELICAN. guess what a funny bird CORunei.a.


it is from this picture, which Mr. Weston said he would put in the book. You see its wings
are so very small that the bird cannot fly at all.
He had lots of beautiful corals in glass cases, and some of them, le said, lie had when the
animal still covered them. All these corals were made -
by soft-bodied animals that look like jelly, and in some
parts of the world, especially in what they call the Pacific
"Ocean, they form coral islands. Old Simpson had been
on lots of coral islands, and told me all about them, and
how they are formed. I haven't got time just now to
repeat what he told me
about the cocoa-nut groves
"and all that, but Mr.
Weston has got a nice
MR-L0 : In picture of the living coral
to show you.
It began to clear up -
--- now, and Simpson thought
SIMPSON' BOAT. we might venture out a LtVING CORAL.

little way. So we walked down the beach, hauled down his boat, and pushed away from shore.
It was jolly to rock up and down on the top of the big waves, as we shot through the beds of
sea-weeds at each stroke of Simpson's oars.
We rowed round the cliffs where the sea washes right up to them, and prevents anybody
walking past, unless they go over the top. Some distance further round was a quiet, rocky
cove, where Simpson had let down his lobster-traps the day before, and now was going to haul
them up, and take up the lobsters.
Of course you know what a lobster-trap is ? Well, it's a kind of basket with a hole at
the top, so made that a lobster can get in, but can't get out. They put pieces of fish and some
heavy stones into it, and let it down where the rocks are covered with water. The lobsters
soon find out that there is something good to eat, and as the trap has open sides they can
see inside. So they look all round for a way to get in to the nice pieces of fish. At last they
climb to the top where there is a hole through which they get easily, and they have a good
feed. But when they wish to get out again they cannot find a way at all. The door they
came in by only opens one way, and they have to wait until the lobster-man comes and hauls
up the traps. Then the poor lobsters are either sent away to the markets to be sold alive,
or put into boiling water to kill and cook them. Then they turn red.
The sea was now splendidly clear and calm, and as you looked over the side of the boat,


you could see the bottom of the rocky cove, for the water
was not very deep there. And all over the rocks were
thousands of fine oysters, all thick together as they are
in the picture. And there were ever
so many sea-weeds growing up among
them, some large and some small, all
colours. One I found floating on the
top, was a beautiful crimson weed,
which Uncle told me the name of, but CRIMSON SEA-WEED.
OYSTERS. it was Latin, so I forgot it. Down among the oysters

I could see a crab or two walk- the steep cliffs, and soon reached
ing about, and an occasional flat- old Simpson's cottage by the sea.
fish flitted quietly through the We had lots of walks, and
water. some sea-bathing too. But the
Then we turned back past time went away very quick, and
the rocky cove again, where the before we were able to carry out
sea-birds were shrieking and all our plans, the day came for our
croaking on the high ledges of BY THE Sreturni to our country cottage.



UNCLE CHARLIE is very fond of old ruins and out-of-the-way places. He says it is a
good way to freshen up your English History by visiting the places that have historical
interest. I have heard him say that the people who ride bicycles from London to Brighton in
a few hours can't get much pleasure out of it, because they are trying to do it as quick as they
can. He likes to go a long way round to get to a place.
Uncle Charlie rides a bicycle, but he had not brought it with him from London. He told
Tom that if he went up to London with him, he would borrow a tricycle for him, and they
could come down to our cottage together by road. Tom, of course, was only too glad to go,-
I was not big enough to ride a tricycle, or perhaps I should have gone. Uncle's friend, who
was going abroad for his holidays, and didn't want to use his tricycle, lived at Woolwich. So
Uncle rode down from London on his bicycle, and Tom went by steamboat and met him at

Of course, this isn't part of my holidays, but it is part of Uncle Charle's, and you know
there is a kind of partnership between us. Tom has talked so much about it that I seem to
know all about it, and trace it all on the map. First, they crossed Woolwich Common, then
Shooter's Hill, taking the road to Eltham Village, where they got off their machines to have
a look at the old ruins of Eltham Palace, where several of our kings resided. You recollect it
was here that King Edward the Third entertained his old enemy
and former prisoner, King John of France, after the battle of
--- --= Poictiers.
Sli From the ruins they wheeled along through pleasant roads
until they reached Chislehurst,
*I .. where Uncle Charlie showed Tom
SCamden House, where Napoleon -
the Third lived after the Franco-

"i"-emory of his son, the Prince IOAT, ELTHAM PALACE.
SPLC.GImperial, who was killed in the Zulu war. Then they went on


through Bickley and across Keston Common until [they came to Holwood Park, which was
once the residence of William Pitt, the great minister of George the Third's time. Leaving
their machines in charge of a man living close by, they walked through a gate into the park,
whilst Uncle told Tom that this was once the scene of a great Roman encampment. Soon
they came to a stone Commnons to do away with
seat near an old tree, the terrible slave-trade.
and on the back of this It was not until twenty
seat was an inscription years after that the slaves
stating that here the were set free, and the
great William Wilber- trade in them stopped,
force, in convcl'sation so far as England could
with Pitt, explrA(.-ed his stop it.
intention of trying to I amn not surprised
induce the House of ,LLBERFORCE'S . that Uncle Charlie
stopped to show Tom that spot. Again mounting, they rode through Down, past Mr. Darwin's
house, to Cudham and Knockholt, where they saw a fine group of beech-trees Soon after they
passed through Sevenoaks and about half an hour later were in Tunbridge.
Here they had a jolly tea, and after a good rest, rode on to Tunbridge Wells, where


they stayed for the night. After a substantial
breakfast in the morning, they started off
across Bishop's Down Common and Rusthall
Common, where there are great rocks
scattered about. They tell me that these
rocks are very funnily shaped. One looks
like a great loaf of bread, and is known as
the "Loaf-rock." Another is called the
"Parson's Head;" whilst another is styled ON RUSTALL COMMON.
I- -- --- --_ :- -- the Toad" rock, because it looks like a
S- great ft toad perched on a rock. Lots of
these sandstone rocks are scattered about the
commons and woods of the district, and some
of the lanes are deep down 1:etween high
sandstone walls where the ivy-leaved toad-
flax'trails with its purple-tinted leaves among
the beautiful mosses and ferns.
THE TO.D ROCK. Soon they reached Speldhurst, and after


awhile crossed the river Medway and found
themselves in .the quiet village of Penshurst.
Then over the little river Eden, and along
beautiful roads and lanes to Hever Castle,
where they got off their machines to have a
look round. In this castle lived Sir Thomas

Boleln, whose daughter Anne became one of
the wives of Henry the Eighth. In the
churchyard they saw many tolmbstolnes with
the name of Boleyn on them. The Castle,
which is in good condition, is occupied as a
IIEVER CASTLE AT NIGHT. _i-l_11-ouse, -t it _still looks grim and


imposing with its towers and battlements, its portcullis and moat. The moat is supplied b)y
a little river called the Eden, and this stream our cyclists followed after quitting the Castle.
This they found led to the town of Edenbridge, which gets its name from a bridge over the
river. This they crossed, and then went on to Redhill by way of Crowhurst, Tilburstow Hill,
and Bletchingley. From Redhill they wheeled on to Reigate, but did not go up the hill, much
as they would have enjoyed the fine view from the top. I have been on Reigate Hill myself,
and crossed over the suspension bridge. It's
a jolly hill, with a beech-wood on the top; in
spring-time full of blue-bells, anemones, violets,

-E..' _- -- -


and woodruffe. When I was there last we found some Bee Orchids in bloom on the side of the
hill; there were also lots of the beautiful flowers of Viper's Bugloss, and thousands of the brilliant
Burnet Moths were flying about. Reigate Hill's a splendid place in summer when the wild
Marjoram is in flower, and the Soldier-beetles swarming on it. Uncle Charlie says we ought
always toluse our eyes by looking for beautiful things when we are in \
S.. th e cou n try so I alw ay s try to
Find out the names of the plants
and birds and insects I see, and
then try to recollect what they
are and where I saw them. I
Should tell you a lot of things
"about Reigate Hill, but this is an
.. account of Tom's Tricycle Trip,
Sand I am going away fiom it. i TILL TO

After they left Reigate Hill they went along ,pa.st the Castle-grounds and along the high
road through Buckland to Betchworth. Then over the pretty river Mole and round the
foot of Box-hill, another hill I could tell you something about if I had time. Then they passed
through Dorking and along lovely lanes, between woods and fields, until they came close to a


high hill with a tower on it. This was Leith Hill, nearly a thousand feet high, and from
which you get lovely views over twelve counties, and out to sea. They knew they had not a
very great distance to go then. In fact, after riding carefully down some hilly lanes between
copses where, if they had known it, they would have found us youngsters busy pulling the
wood-nuts from the hazel-trees, they were home at our cottage in another half hour.




AT the back of our house in town we have got a little garden,
:.i- -, enclosed by high walls. Mother buys lots of geraniums and
fuchsias and other plants for it, but they soon die off, because the
"- garden doesn't get enough sunshine. At the shadiest and dampest
end Uncle Charlie showed us how to make a rockery with a lot of old
Bricks and other rubbish. Then he brought us some ferns, and
"planted them on it, and soon it began to look quite pretty.
'. ,T One day whilst we were in the country, Uncle said he was going
"-"'? \ : ".. up to London for a few days, and if we liked to get some ferns he
Should take them up and have them planted on our rockery. We
">1, t ;- thought it would be a good thing to have ferns of our own finding, so
POLYPODY FERN. we set out through the lanes and over the hills in search of them.

60 1; I A' H U XT I G

Of course, we could have got our basket filled close to our cottage in a very few minutes, but
Uncle Charlie said we were never to take many of any plant from one spot. The best plan,
he said, was to carefully take up two or three where they grew very thick together, and so allow
the others more room to grow. Then we were to go on further till
:. we found them thick together again. In this way, Uncle said, we
.-.' .shouldn't be doing much towards spoiling the country.
(So off we started, an first made for Birket's Lane, that leads to
Z \ Oakhurst Copse. You know that all along one side there is a stone
', I hedge, with great trees behind it, and bramble and hawthorn growing
S4 from the top. Well, all that hedge is covered with polypody fern,
''', :" -- and the bright green fronds-Uncle says we must not call them
L _I ._ leaves, because they are different-hung out all along. Some were
..' splendidly large, and we took them carefully up with the light mould
still on their roots. Then we got up to the Abbey Farm, and on the
u" ": \". ruined walls of the old Abbey we found a few plants of the Scaly
WALL RUE FERN. Spleenwort, but we only took one of them b.aunse there were not many.
From here, you recollect, the lane goes up pretty steep between high s;, ilstone rocks, and
blocks of sandstone lie all around. That lane seems full of ferns. Round the masses of rock,

FE RN H TI 'I NG. 61

great male ferns, taller than I, threw up their fronds, and under the rocky ledges beautiful
clusters and rosettes of tiny seedlings were scattered thickly among the soft green mosses.
Here we found the Maidenhair Spleenwort-not the Maidenhair mind, but Maidenhair Spleen-
wort, which is very different. On the rocks we found plenty of the flat green creeping scales of
the Liverwort, and Uncle Charlie says that all ferns, when they are very young, look very much
': like little liverworts. That seems funny, but Uncle says he will show
"me one some day, when he brings his microscope down from London.
Next we found some beautiful Hart's-tongue ferns, with green smooth
S S ,; fronds, that look something like dock-leaves. A little later, Tom
brought a great dock to us, and asked Uncle if it wasn't a fine hart's-
.,- -. tongue. So Uncle told us how we could know a fern from any other
"V plant. Taking a frond of hart's-tongue he showed that the back of it
S is covered with long, rough, reddish stripes, each of which consists of
S... thousands of tiny spores from which the plants grow. These
spores, he said, are so small that you can scarcely see one by
: itself, but when lie gets that microscope down, lie will
I, show us some.
MAIDENHAIR PLEENvoT., Just then I found a funny little thing growing from the LvERWORT.

62 'E RN H U N T I G.

S sandy bank. It was a little brown cup, with something like tiny beans inside.
Uncle Charlie said it was the Bird's-nest fungus. It is very pretty.
1 -- Now we reached the top of the lane where it opens out on to the moor, and
FUNGUS. here we found the Mountain Buckler fern, and under the hedges the Broad Buckler
fern. Then we went down the sloping path under the trees where the Hard ferns crowd closely
together on each side of you. Down, down the zigzag path to the bottom of the rocky hollow
where the water comes splashing and tumbling over from the stone basin of St. Margaret's Well.
Oh what a sight that was. The well was really not a well, but a spring
from the side of the rocky hollow, which flowed into a rough stone basin, hewn
out of the solid rock. As it fell into the basin the water splashed all around,
and the wet rocks were covered with liverworts and tiny ferns ; whilst all round
the outside of the basin delicate pale green Lady ferns grew up. Uncle said it
"was one of the prettiest spots he had ever seen, and that's saying a good deal,
because Uncle Charlie has been almost everywhere. Whilst we were looking
round, Uncle came across another kind growing on a wet rock. He said it
Swas called the Tunbridge fern, and was a great rarity. I asked him why they
called it Tunbridge fern, and he said because it used to be pretty common
TUNUIIDGE FERN. there, though rare in other places. But now, he says, you can't find it at

Tunbridge, because people in former times have been so greedy, and taken away all the
specimens they could lay their hands on. He said we must not take away any of these, nor
tell anybody the exact spot where we found them, so that this fern might have a chance of
getting plentiful again.
Then we strolled along the valley by the tiny stream that flows from
the well. The ground is marshy here, and Uncle told us to keep a sharp
look out for a plant something like the lords-and-ladies we found in the
wood in spring-time. Tom found it. There was a great clump of them
growing close together. Uncle said they were the Adder's-tongue ferns, and
that when we go up on the moor again, we must look for one something like
it called the Moonwort. We did look for it, but we couldn't find it. Whilst
we looked for it, Uncle told us how hundreds of years ago people used to I
believe that if you touched a locked and bolted door with a moonwort fern,
it would open at once. They used to tell stories of troops of horse-soldiers
marching over downs where the moonwort grew, and of the horses all losing i
their shoes, because the moonwort made the nails drop out. But that was -
all nonsense, and not a bit true. Having now got our baskets full, we -*
turned back, and the next day Uncle took the ferns up to London. ADDERS-TONGUE FERN.




ONE day I discovered a fine pond down in the meadow behind Turner's Copse, and made
Uncle Charlie promise that he would come down one day and see what we could get.
One of the boys at the farm told me there were lots of fish there. I could see plenty of
Sticklebacks, but George said there were Bream and Tench in there,
and one solitary old Pike, who ate up scores of other fish.
When I told Uncle about the old pike, that was enough. He soon
fixed a day, and helped me to make a net, so that I might go in for
sticklebacks and newts, and other things you find in ponds. We soon
got down to the pond, and by the help of my net I had caught a good
7f number of bright little sticklebacks in very little time. As I was
putting them into my can, Uncle Charlie asked me if I had ever heard
of fishes building nests. I had not, and thought he was poking fun at
STICKLEBACKS AND NEST. me. The idea seemed so absurd. But it is true though, said he.


That fierce little fish you are catching so easily builds a wonderful nest, and takes care of the
eggs until they hatch. Isn't that funny ? In the picture you see the fish in the nest, which
is a hollow tube made of weeds. You know what red-throats are, don't you ? Well, the red-
throat is really old Daddy Stickleback, and he has to take care of the eggs until they are
S .---hatched, or else some other stickleback
S would gobble them up. And he does take
k ...._-- -.- -.- ....
.. ---_ care of them too. Watch him until another
red-throat comes sniffing about after eggs
for breakfast. Daddy Red-throat has his
-- eye on him, and his colours flare up brighter
=_-___ than ever-gold and green and fiery red.
_-_ He sticks up his back spines, and sticks
1 ...i- -0 out his side spines, and rushes after the
poacher. Then they fight until most likely
BREAM. one of them is ripped up, and falls dead to
the bottom. Uncle Charlie says this is quite true, he has seen the whole performance, and I
am keeping a lot of sticklebacks in my aquarium in the hope that they will build their
nest there.


Uncle had thrown in his line, and soon the float was bobbing about, for a good sized fish
had got his bait. I could see it through the clear water, and soon saw it on dry land. Uncle
said it was a Bream, and that there were lots more in the pond. We found out that this was
true, for he caught no less than seven before we had done, and besides these he caught three
--- _-_ .-- fine Tench, a fish that looks something like the
.. All this time I was pretty busy, and every
I- time I pulled my net through the thick weeds, it
,,.,F,,, i brought out something interesting. Snails,

T. NC I.

beetles, caddis-worms, newts, sticklebacks, fresh-water shrimps, and lots of other things.
There were lots of different kinds of water-beetles. Big black fellows with a brown margin
S.....I .. ... '" b /LES

to the wing-cases, who could dive to the bottom in an instant. Some, on the other hand,
were tiny little fellows, no bigger than a good-sized pin's head. I got about eight different
kinds altogether that day, but Uncle says that's nothing. He says there are several dozens
of different kinds to be found in our ponds and streams. Doesn't it seem funny that these
beetles can live under water without drowning ? If you find a garden-beetle that has tumbled
into a pail of water, you see that it has killed him, but these can live in the water or out of it.
Uncle Charlie says it is because Several large Dragon-flies in
they carry down a lot of air under splendidly bright colours were fly-
their wing-cases, and that they ing over the pond, and I made a
breathe this through holes on their i dash at one with my water-net,
back and sides-not through their and knocked him down. But he
mouths as we do. DRAGON-FLY. was soon up again, and over to the
other side. Soon after that I found such a funny creature in my net, with six long legs, and
big eyes, and a sort of hump on his back. Of course, I ran with it to Uncle, who said it was
the larva of a Dragon-fly. I didn't know what he meant by a larva, so asked him to explain.
" Certainly, Dick," he said. You know that a caterpillar some day becomes a butterfly or a
moth ? Well, all insects don't come from caterpillars, but they come from something similar.
The blow-fly comes from a maggot, and the stag-beetle comes from a great white fleshy grub,


like a large maggot, that lives in the heart of trees. The gnat comes from a curious creature
without legs, or any other limbs, that lives in the water. But each of these early forms of
insects, whether caterpillar, maggot, or grub, is known to naturalists by the general name of
larva. We can't call this funny animal you have just caught a caterpillar, or a maggot, or a
grub, because it isn't like either; so we are just compelled to say it is a dragon-fly larva, and if
you keep it in your aquarium for a few months, it will cast off its dingy brown coat, and come
out as a beautiful Dragon-fly, all green and blue and golden."
And sure enough it did, and I have its dried body now in my case of insects.
Just then Uncle quietly called my attention to a big fish that
was prowling about after smaller ones, and expressed the belief that F
it was tlie old pike George had told us about. Soon he came quite i
close, chasing a small fish, and then -
... "j- -- '- i
,.,. _.:'; we saw that it really was a great -
," -.:'(' .<* ^-.' /^^'S' X ... .2:-- _. -_ ..- -- FROG.
Pike. Then Uncle changed his bait, and expressed his
intention of catching Mr. Pike, but he didn't, although we
stayed there for three hours after that. Of course, he was
old and artful, and had a chance of plenty of fresh food in
"PIKE. the pond around him, without bothering about Uncle's bait.

I left off my netting for fear of spoiling Uncle's chance, and tried to keep my eyes on the
pike, but he soon passed out of sight. Then I caught sight of something moving among the
leaves on the opposite bank of the pond, and told Uncle Charlie so. We continued to look,
and soon saw that it was a Water-Vole-or, perhaps, you '
know it as a water-rat-looking about for his hole on r '" '"
the bank. Well, it seems that somebody else was on -'I'
the look-out, besides Uncle and I, for the poor harm-
less little vole was just going to turn into his lodgings
at the edge of the water, when up sprang the big pike,
and, seizing him in his jaws, pulled him down under -
water in less time than I could say "Uncle Charlie."
"That was the last we saw of the big pike that day, but WATER-VOLE.
Uncle is determined to catch him some day.
I had got a fine collection of living things in my can and pickle-bottle, and they did
amuse us all at home that evening, as Uncle Charlie and I sorted them out and put them into
different vessels. It wouldn't do, you see, to keep them all together, for they would fight and
eat each other.




{ OST people prefer going by the road which winds slowly round and gradually reaches the
brow of the hill, where you can look down and see them carting the hay in the meadows
below. But I prefer climbing straight up by the donkey-paths,
: ,i among fern, and bramble, and heather. I know it's a little harder
for the old folks, who can't run up the steep paths as quickly as we
"can, but you see a lot of things you can't see by the road. There
CARTING THE HAY. are the pits near the top where they have ---- --
been digging out sand and gravel, and then left them for years
until the brambles and gorse and heather have grown over them -
again, and the sand-martins have come back again to dig their 4 4
tunnels for their nests in the sandy banks. It's up among those
disused sand-pits, just below the funny little church on the hill, that THE CHURCH ON THE HILL.


4, 1 you find the very finest Blackberries you ever tasted. And
4 then the Foxgloves I never did see such glorious Foxgloves
".L S anywhere, nor so many. As soon as you pass the churchyard
and get away from the windy road, it is all bracken and
purple heather, with paths of the sweetest, shortest, closest,
and most springy turf you ever walked over. The quiet, old
S Hares come peeping out from the fern, and gallop away at a
terrific rate, and the Black Grouse start up before you with
a noise and suddenness that almost frighten you. BLACKBERRIES.
FOLOES. As you pass over the heather again, beyond the windmill, you notice
that the ground among the heather-plants is white with the growth of two lichens, known as
the Reindeer-moss and Cup-moss. The reindeer-moss you
know is very abundant in the cold-parts of the earth, and
often forms the sole food of the reindeer. On the banks
of the dry ditch by the side of the wood, under the over-
hanging hollies, you may find plenty of ferns, and as your
feet push aside the dead leaves you may hear the rustle -:
"HARE. of a snake or a slow-worm, he hurries away from ouP-Moss.

you. If it is a Slow-worm, we need not be afraid of it, because it is perfectly harmless. The
country boys-and men too-are afraid of it, and tell you it bites and is poisonous like a snake,
in fact, they believe it is a snake. Uncle says it is not a snake but a lizard, and that it is
incapable of hurting anything but __;- it feeds. It's quite clear that the
the slugs and insects upon which SLOW-WORM. country people don't take much
notice of things, or they would never have called it slow-worm, for it darts away as quickly
as a snake could do. They also call it blind-worm, which is equally absurd, because it has
a pair of pretty bright eyes, which must be very sharp, or it would never be able to catch its food.
In the same spots we may come across the pretty brown Lizard, basking itself in the sun-
shine, but quickly darting away at our approach. I -: )
caught one one day by popping my butterfly net down \\ V "
sharp in front of it, and of course in its hurry to get "
away it darted,right into my net. We kept it in a fern- :
case, and fed it with live flies and small worms.
Up here the turf is cropped fine and short by the shy, .-
woolly sheep that are turned out to fatten on the hills.
The turf is all dotted with the small white flowers of I
the Flax, and the streaked blossoms of the Eyebright, LIZARD.


which the country folk used to think a fine cre for bad sight.
Then, what a number of lovely Harebells, all along the paths, and
by the furze clumps and fern They say the fairies shake the
slender stalk and make not fine enough to catch
the bells ring out a splen- such exquisite sounds.
did music, only, of course, One can easily picture the
our sense of hearing is FLAX. fairies trooping out over
this beautiful hill, and dancing in the moonbeams to the music
of the harebells.
SHEEP ON THE HILLS. Still keeping round the borders of the
wood we find some splendid wild Raspberries growing in the hedge,
and, of course, pick the ripe ones and eat them. Close by, the great
purple bronzed leaves of the Black Bryony show up all over the bushes, f V
with the clusters of green berries that bye and bye will turn to orange,
and late in the autumn will be a beautiful crimson colour. //. N\,
Now we have reached the highest part of the hills, and can look \
down over miles of woods and cornfields, deep valleys and steep hillsides.
Far down in the valley to the right is a large lake, and on its margin EYEBRIGHT.

three or four large long-legged birds
S..... ',\ like storks. These are herons, which \'. '
S /i are encouraged by the gentleman
Sr- \ who owns that land, and who has
,- ) established what they call a heronry
-[' '- .N '^ ^)close by. They stand patiently on I l 1
the lake shore for hours, until they
see a fish come near, and then the -"
long neck goes down and the poor
j, / fish is snapped up by the long
/ Over on the opposite hillside HERON.
BLACK BRYONY. the village boys and girls are busy among the heath and
heather gathering Whortleberries. Do you know what they are ? They are fine purple berries
like large black-currants, but much nicer I think. All these hillsides are ,fp
covered witl them, and we can gather as many as we like, either to eat i
or to take home to be made into a pie. .
HEATH. There, to the left, is a wood of fine young fir-trees, where these WHORTLEBERRY.

whortleberries grow thick, and, where the rabbits and hares run about in great numbers.
Perhaps we shall see a pretty little creature which you might take to be a mouse, but which
is really a Shrew. I have seen lots of them up here, and very often on the paths you will come
\ <, *across a dead one. You don't very often find dead ani-
V mals in the country, because most of them go away into
Holes or out-of-the-way places to die, or else are killed by
Sll- other animals who eat them up ; but you will very often
--' find these dead shrews lying about. One
day I turned one over with a stick, and a
SHREW. black flat beetle ran away from under it.
Uncle was there and quickly caught it. He said it was a Carrion-beetle, one
that finds out dead bodies and feeds on them. Another time we found a CARRION BEETLE.
dead shrew half-buried, and Uncle said it looked as though it had been done by Burying-
beetles. So it proved, for when he pulled it out of the ground there were several
beetles with red bands across their backs, and which, he said, were the Burying-
beetles. It seems that these beetles have a very keen sense of smell, and that no
sooner does any small animal die than these beetles smell where the carcase is and fly to
it. They then burrow underneath it and begin scooping away the earth from under it. The

body thus drops gradually into the earth, and the beetle, besides feeding upon it, lays a number
of eggs on the body. These soon hatch, and the grubs also help to consume the dead
animal, which is soon cleared away. Uncle says that if it were not for the activity of these
and similar creatures the country would not be a pleasant place, owing to the large number of
animals which die every day.
As you wade, knee-deep through the bracken and heather, you startle the game birds,
especially the Black Grouse and the Partridge, and they fly or run screaming away. What a lot
of toadstools you find along these hill-paths. Some are
P-' great sticky ones looking like rotting '-
/ -- .---. apples, others look like halves of -' '
(- ." oranges lying about, whilst others :
I again are of the greatest delicacy,
being tiny white caps on the top of ':-.
long slender stalks, hardly thicker
TOADSTOOL CUT THROUGH. than a stout pin. Many of these toad-
stools are poisonous to us, but they are not so to beetles. PARTRIDGES.
I have broken open lots of toadstools, and found several small red and black beetles inside.
Uncle tells me that they feed upon the toadstool. These beetles are not so large as the


picture, hut just the length of the thin black line which is drawn at the side. You can find
beetles almost everywhere. At the roots of grass, in the water, in decayed trees, old posts,
anything decaying, and in fact almost wherever you
will take the trouble to look for them. Here is the
S picture of one I found at the roots of grass. I don't I
know what the country people call it, or if they have
BEETLES. ever seen it, but Uncle only knows it by a long
Latin name which I am not going to write down. BEETLE.
You can find many different kinds of mosses up here in the woods. About the spreading
roots of the great beeches they abound, in round dome-shaped clusters of furry green. On the
decayed stumps that you find scattered about the woods you will find others that
creep flatly along the surface of the bark, others have quite a red
SI and spiky appearance from the queer little Robinson Crusoe hats
SP that cover up their spore-cases. Here's a picture showing this )
Hair-moss, as it is called, with its cap on and its cap off. Then
there are other and more delicate kinds called Scale-mosses and
Crystal-worts, and on the trunks of the trees are the beautiful
HAIR-MOSS. silver and orange and grey flakes of the lichens. CLUB-MOSS

When we reach the giant beech where the path divides, we take the left branch, which
leads us down the hillside, by a tiny stream that several times during its course tries to become
a waterfall, but there is not enough of it. Down at the
S bottom it flows into a pond, where we can find the funny
Looking pillwort growing on its margin. At one end this
pond flows over through a bed of sphagnum-moss, and in
l I summer this is studded with the pretty crimson leaves of
Sthe Round-leaved Sundew, a plant that catches flies. Here
Sis a picture of the plant, which is one of the prettiest that
PILLWORr. grows. You can see the form of the leaves from the
picture. They are covered all over with fine red threads,
each one tipped with a small knob which is very sticky.
If you look at a live plant you will see that nearly every
leaf is curled up with these threads lying towards the
centre, and a fly or some other small insect underneath SUNDEW,
them. This is how it happens. The flies think, from its red appearance, that the
leaf is a flower and settle on it, and when they want to go away again they find they
SUNDE cannot because their feet have stuck to the sticky knobs of the crimson threads.
HOLDING A FLY. cannot because their feet have stuck to the sticky hnobs of the crimson threads.

Then the fly loses its temper, and begins to stamp and kick, which only makes it worse, for it
irritates the threads, which bend over it and hold it till it dies. I know this is all true, because
*: Uncle Charlie brought some of the plants home, and we had them growing
_in a saucer amongst some wet sphagnum. We got so interested in this
Plant, at home, that Uncle brought us another plant that catches flies,
Sbut it comes from North Carolina. Its leaves fold up in the middle,
j with a sudden jerk, as though the fly had touched a hidden spring. It
VENUS'S FLY TRAP. is called the Venus fly-trap.
The seaside, the rivers, and the lowlands generally are very nice, but Dick likes the hills
best of all.


Fig. 1i.


U NCLE CHARLIE promised lots of times to bring his microscope down from London, and
at last he did so. For the last week or so he had been picking up all sorts of things
that I thought were not of the slightest use, but he said, Wait till you see it under the
microscope." If we went near a dirty little ditch he would be sure to take away a bottlefull of
the water, for Uncle always goes about with his pockets full of little bottles and pill-boxes, In
case anything should turn up." Well, the very next day after he had brought this microscope
down it turned out wet. A regular steady downpour from morning till night. This was just


the time for something fresh to amuse us indoors, so we got Uncle to get out his microscope
and let us see what was to be seen. What a life we did lead him that day! We kept him
busy all the time preparing slides to put under it. But it's little use my trying to tell you the
names of many of the things we saw, because they are nearly all Latin; and such long ones
too, although their owners are so very, very small. So when I wish you to understand what the
pictures represent, I shall refer to them as figure so-and-so.
SFi r s t h e t o o k a l i t t l e b o t t l e o f d i r t y w a t e r h e h a d g o t t h e d a y b e f o r e f r o m
r a ditch, and, dipping a glass rod into it, let a tiny drop fall on the glass slide,
Sand covered it over with another bit of glass, so thin. Then he put it under the
S microscope and told us to look without shaking the table. Well, it looked just
like fig. 1. There were four great green plants right across the glass, and
from one of these there seemed to grow a bunch of little things that looked like
tiny wineglasses fastened to very long corkscrews (fig. 2.) The large plants
Fig. 2. he said were very small portions of the green silky scum that we find growing
on stones in water, and which is called crow-silk and yoke-threads. Figs. 3 and 4 represent
\\W\\ ___ ~other kinds of these plants. The object I called a
Fig. 3. YOKE THREAD. wineglass fastened to a corkscrew is an animal.
Round its mouth it has a fringe of what looks like very fine hairs, and Fig. 4. OSCILLATORIA.



these are always moving. Tom says the whole thing looks like a harebell that has had its
stalk twisted, but the funny thing about it is that while you look at it the curl goes out of its
stalk. Then a great clumsy fringed animal comes blundering up against one of the bells,
and it twists its stalk up in an instant. Then out it starts again, and you see it catch
something small that passes by. There was something else that we saw on that slide, and
you can see in fig. 1 two little objects without any regular shape. Uncle said this was
called the Amoeba, a name which means always changing." As we looked we saw it
continually altering its form. It is one of the strangest things I ever saw; it has not got any
limbs, and no mouth, and yet it takes food. It is just like a little dab of clear jelly, and
when it wants to eat anything it glides quietly up to what it wants, and the next thing you
S know is that it is inside the amoeba. How it got there you hardly know, but
the amceba seems to flow round it. It is like the apple dumpling that so
bothered King George; the apple was evidently inside, but how it got there, there
was no opening or mark to show.
Uncle now put on another slide, which contained a most peculiar creature;
a regular giant compared with the others. On his head he had what looked like
two cog-wheels, which seemed to be going round at a terrific rate. It is called
oFER. Rotifer, or wheel-bearer, because the old naturalists thought these really were wheels,


but Uncle says it is an optical delusion. The creature's head is provided with two lobes, which
are edged by a fringe, something like the leaves of the sundew, and this fringe moves up and
down so regularly as to appear like a wheel moving round. Another one of these strange
creatures he showed us, whi6h builds a house round itself. This fringe, he said, is called
" cilia," which means that they are like eyelashes. Many very small animals and plants are
l provided with them, and some of them move through the water by
Slashing their cilia about. One of these is the clear, greenish globe in
Fig. 6.
PANDINA. fig. 6, but a much finer specimen is fig. 7, known as Volvox. It is
an exquisite globe covered with a fine network of threads which connect together
a number of tiny cells, each furnished with two of these cilia. Inside there are Fig. 7. VOLvox.
a number of smaller globes moving about, and the whole thing looked very beautiful. We
kept that slide on for a long time, in fact we had it on several times.
"Next we had what are called Water-fleas, but they are not fleas, although
Sth ey are very lively T h ey are little an im als related to th e crab s an d lob sters,
Fig. 8. WATER-FLEAS. and like them are enclosed in shells, but in this case the shell is so thin and
clear that you can see the whole of the animal's organs through it. We could see
the beating of its heart quite plain. Then we had a lot of beautiful things which I
have not got time to properly describe, as Uncle Charlie explained them to us, but


here are pictures of some of them,
and Uncle has put the right names
to them. They were all found in
pond or ditch-water. After these Fig. 9. EUGLENA. Fig. 10. PED1ASTRUM. Fig. 11. CosMARIRU. Fig. 12. CLosTrEIUM. Fig. 13. SCENEDEbMUS.
we had a lot of little things in pure flint boxes, called Diatoms. Some were shaped like little
boats, and moved slowly through the water, although they were only plants.
Then Uncle thought it would be well to give us a
change, and he accordingly showed us some dry objects.
_-_ First he showed us a lot of butterflies' eggs, and the butter- E Fis O5F BUT' LIES.
ig. 14. DIATOM.S flies too, but ie didn't put these under the microscope, they were too
large. You really would not believe what pretty things their eggs are. Fig 15 is the egg of
the common Small Garden White butterfly, and is shaped something like a sugar-loaf. Fig. 16
.-- is the egg of the beautiful Peacock butterfly. Figs. 18, 19,
and 20 are those of three of the brown butterflies, so common
on heaths and in woods.
Fig.7. WHITE BUTTERFLY. Uncle Charlie takes sketches of all these things from the
microscope, and has an album full of them. Some of these are very fine. I
was specially taken with some sketches which he says he took one day last BUTT ,LS'S EGXS.

winter. He caught some snowflakes on a glass slide, and putting them under the microscope
quickly sketched them before they melted. He says they are formed of the most beautiful
crystals. Here are two of them.
Did you ever see a butterfly's tongue ? I never had a
until Uncle Charlie showed us one that day. It is for all
the world like an elephant's trunk. You know that an
SNOW CRYSTALS. elephant's trunk is hollow, because you have seen the
elephants at the Zoo sucking water through their trunks, and then pour it down "'"o'"
their throats. Well, although the butterfly's tongue is very much like this trunk, it is also
very different, because the elephant's trunk is really his nose. But the butterfly's is a
true tongue, and as he flies about from flower to flower he pushes it right down to the
bottom of the deepest, and feels about with it until he finds out where the honey is.
When he has found out, he loses no time in sucking it up. Moths and a good many kinds of
bees have got similar tongues, and use them for the same purpose. But sometimes, you know,
on windy or rainy days, bits of dust get blown or washed into the honey, although many flowers
take care to close up when it is about to rain. The butterfly's tube is so fine that if a speck of
dirt got into it it would stop it up, and the poor insect would get no more sweets. Here's the
wonderful part of it. The tongue, or tube, splits into two parts right the way down, and these


two halves can be separated so that the insect can clean it. And yet the two halves fit so
closely together that not a drop of honey leaks out. In the little picture only one half of this
tongue is shown, and is marked B. C is its eye, and D is one of its lips. When the tongue
is not in use it rolls carefully up, like a tiny watch-spring, and packs away between the two lips.
\ Up in a quiet corner of the window, where it was nice and
---- dry, a plump old garden spider had been busy since the previous
: evening in spinning a beautiful web. I had never before
S n oticed th at th e th read s are so reg ularly arran ged T h ere sat
the cunning old fellow in the centre of his net, waiting for
some poor fly to drop in and have a chat about the shocking
state of the weather. All of a sudden it struck me that there
/% might be something interesting in spiders to look at through
the microscope; so I asked Uncle.
GARDEN SPIDER AND WEB. Spiders ? Yes, rather! he replied.
So he goes to his cabinet and brings out a slide, showing a spider's eyes. We found that
he had eight, and they are well worth seeing. Then he caught my friend in the window, and
carefully fastened him somehow, so that we could look at him through the microscope. Of
course he was too big to see all at once through the glasses, because the microscope is only


intended to show very little things, and make them appear big. Uncle says that to attempt to
see a big thing like a garden spider through it is as sensible as trying to see a whale through
opera glasses when the animal is only a few inches away from your nose. Of course, you
couldn't see anything.
But Uncle, first of all, showed us the tip of the spider's
: foot. It did look a great, rough hairy foot, with two terrible
_* toothed claws, with which it holds on to its web. Then he ,, 'le
showed us the spider s spinning apparatus, from which a large APPARATUS
number of smooth, shining threads came out. Uncle told us that if
"- the spiderwas free all those fine threads
would be twisted into one strong line
to mend his web with. He got a little
of one of these fine threads on a piece
-7 Rof glass, and then took a bit of the web 8
0 from the window and placed by the side
-- 3 tof it. One looked like a piece of cotton
7 compared with a stout rope.
Fig. 27. FERN FRUITS. I reminded Uncle of his promise Fig. 28. FERN FRUITS.

to show us the spores," which he said all ferns grew from instead of from seeds, as plants
with flowers do. He expected this, and was ready for me, for he had been into our little
greenhouse and clipped off bits of different kinds of ferns. There were ten different kinds, and
they all had the spores arranged differently. Uncle says you can usually tell the different
kinds of ferns by the way these spores are arranged, and some of you may be interested to
know more about them. In the last two pictures these ten kinds are shown, but, of course,
there are many more kinds to be found. Number 1 is a little bit snipped off the Polypody, and
& you see that it looks like a little heap of seeds. But they are neither seeds
nor spores, but fruits. A fruit is the vessel or case which contains the
seeds or the spores. Here are two single fruits, or spore cases, taken
away from the heap, and several others that have split open and discharged
S .the spores. Some of these we saw burst open under the microscope, and turn
Almost inside out, throwing the tiny spores a long way off.
FERN FRUITS. Returning to our clusters of fern fruits in the two pictures, 27 and 28,
the one marked 3 is from the Soft Prickly Shield-fern, 4 from the Hart's-tongue, and 5 from
the Hard-fern, 6 is from the Bracken, 7 the Maidenhair, 8 the Bladder-fern, 9 the Woodsia,
and 10 the Bristle-fern. When these split open, the spores are thrown about amongst the
moss, and after a time they grow into little plants like liverworts. From the under side of


this, a little later, very delicate little fronds shoot up, but they are very different from the
fronds on old plants. Each year the new fronds get nearer and nearer in resemblance to the
old ones.
Uncle showed us many more things that day, and on several other days, too; but I think
I must stop talking about the microscope now, because I want to tell you about a few other
walks we had.

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