Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Front Matter
 Preserving hints
 Crystallizing citrus fruit
 Juice preservation

Title: Preserving Florida citrus fruits
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049941/00001
 Material Information
Title: Preserving Florida citrus fruits
Alternate Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service ; 75
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Thursby, Isabelle S.
Publisher: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1933
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00049941
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Front Matter
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Preserving hints
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Crystallizing citrus fruit
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Juice preservation
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
Full Text

(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)




FIG. 1.-Preparing the delicious, juicy "hearts" of grapefruit for canning.
Both juice and "hearts" are easily prepared and may be canned by means of
ordinary household equipment.

Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the

________________ rU. LtHRAKVLJL

Bulletin 75

April, 1933


RAYMER F. MAGUIRE, Chairoman, Orlando.
A. H. WAGG, West Palm Beach
GEO. H. BALDWIN, Jacksonville
.J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee


JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest


W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
N. R. MEHRIIOF, M. AGR., Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry'
J. E. TURLINGTON, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist2
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
W. R. BRIGCG, B.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
CARLYLE CARR, B.S., Specialist in Rodent Control'


Lucy BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY McDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist


A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
ROSA J. BALLARD, Local District Home Demonstration Agent

lIn cooperation with U. S. D. A.

PRESERVING H INTS ............................................... 6

PRESERVES ....................... ............................... 7
Preserved whole kumquats No. 1 .............................. 7
Kumquat preserves No. 2 ................................... 8
Grapefruit preserves ...................................... 8
Sour orange preserves ...................................... 9
Florida conserve ......................................... 9
Sweet pickles from citrus fruits ............................. 10

MARMALADES .................. .................................. 10
Sunshine marmalade ........................ ..... .......... 10
Pectin test ............................ .. .............. 10
Sour orange marmalade .................. ............... 11
Sweet orange marmalade ... ................................. 11
Orange marmalade ...................................... 12
Combination marmalade .................................. 12
Orange and lemon marmalade ................................ 12
Grapefruit marmalade No. 1 ............................... 13
Grapefruit marmalade No. 2 .................................. 13
Golden Glow marmalade ............... ..................... 13
Lemon marmalade ...........................; ............... 14
Tangelo marmalade .........; ....................... ........ 14
Tangerine marmalade ................................... 14
"Coolidge" tomato citrus marmalade........................... 15
Marmalade stock ............................ ............ 15

JELLIES ......................................................... 16
K um quat jelly ..... ....... .............................. 16
Mint and pectin jelly ................. ...................... 16
Orange pectin ........................................ 16
Sour orange jelly ..................... ..................... 17
Grapefruit jelly .. ....................................... 17

B UTTERS ...................................... ................... 17
Kumquat butter No. 1 and No. 2 ............................... 17
Orange butter .... ............... ................... ... 18
Kumquat jam .......................................... 18
Quick tangerine jam ..................... .................. 18

CRYSTALLIZING CITRUS FRUITS .................................. 19
The crystallizing process .................................... 19
Utilizing the crystallizing syrups .............................. 21
Crystallized whole grapefruit .......... .................. 21
Quick methods of crystallizing for immediate consumption........ 21
Grapefruit peel No. 1 .................. ...................... 21
Grapefruit peel No. 2 ....................................... 22
Grapefruit peel No. 3 ....................................... 22
Grapefruit peel No. 4 ...................................... 23
Ponderosa lemon ....................... ................. 24
Crystallized kumquat chips................................. 24
Crystallized sour orange peel .................................. 24

THE CITRON ................ ....................................... 24

CANNING GRAPEFRUIT ........... .. ................................ 26

JUICE PRESERVATION ................................................. 26
Grapefruit juice ............................................ 26
Orange juice ................................. ............ .. 27
Fruit punch ................................................ 28

"Dost thou know that sweet land
Where the orange flowers grow?
Where the fruits are like gold
And the red roses blow?
Where the breeze ne'er is cold
And the birds sing so sweet?
Where each day of the year,
The honey bees appear?
Where exists like a smile or a
rainbow quite new,
One eternal springtime, and sky
ever blue."



In Florida's citrus there exists a veritable Klondyke of won-
derfully attractive fruits. Their diversity of appearance, color,
texture, flavor and quality present a fascinating field to the pre-
server. These fruits-kumquats, limequats, orangequats, tan-
gerines, tangelos, pomelos, lemons, sweet, bitter-sweet, and sour
oranges and many other interesting types, combine into jellies,
marmalades, spreads, crushes, juices, syrups, relishes, preserves,
conserves, spiced and crystallized products that are not only
beautiful but better yet, toothsome and wholesome.
The kumquat, the smallest member of the citrus family, is
hardy even in the northern sections of Florida. The skin of the
kumquat is spicy and aromatic and the pulp delightfully acid. It
enjoys the distinction of being the only citrus fruit that is eaten
skin and all. Kumquats make excellent preserves, marmalades
and jellies and are an ideal fruit for crystallizing when fully
The limequat is a comparatively recent introduction of the
United States Department of Agriculture and is, as the name
indicates, a cross between the lime and the kumquat, with the
yellow color of the lime but none of the bitterness and all the
piquant flavor of the kumquat. Limequats make excellent jellies,
marmalades and preserves with a lemon flavor. They may be
used for making "ade" and are excellent to use in any way that
lemons are used in general cookery.
The calamondin is a small, tangerine-like, very acid fruit of
high color and is used for punch, for slicing, for tea, and for
The so-called Rangpur lime is larger than the calamondin but
has the same deep orange coloring. The Rangpur also may be
used in the same way as lemons are used for seasoning food and
in the making of "ades." Many prefer them, in fact, to the lemon,
because of their color and flavor.
The Ponderosa lemon resembles a grapefruit in size and color,
is somewhat oblong in shape and the whole fruit, with its thick,
clean-cut lemon flavored peel, cooks clear and translucent.
The grapefruit perhaps is the most popular of the citrus fruits
and is most commonly preserved, spiced and crystallized.

Florida Cooperative Extension

The so-called Seville, sour, or "wild" orange, growing at our
very doors, makes a delightfully appetizing marmalade.
The kid glove group-tangerines, mandarins, Satsumas, and
Temple oranges-may be combined into delicious variations of
marmalades and jellies when used with more acid citrus fruits-
limes, lemons, calamondins and others. These cook clear and
colorful and may be of as many intriguing flavors. They may all
be developed from any of the standard recipes at hand.
Citrus jellies, marmalades, butters, preserves and conserves
not only have their place as a delicious "spread" for sandwiches,
for the breakfast toast, griddle cakes, waffles, hot biscuits and
butter, but may be served as a pudding sauce, and as a dressing
for ice cream and sundaes. They may be used also as filling and
flavor for cakes, trimming for pies and puddings, or combined
with whipped cream, with frostings and meringues, and are even
suitable as a meat accompaniment.

A preserved fruit is one which has been cooked in sugar syrup
until it is clear, tender, and transparent. It should keep its form
and plumpness, and be crisp rather than tough or soft. When
finished the cells of the fruit should be filled with the flavored
syrup in place of the fruit juice.
The small citrus fruits like the kumquats, limequats, orange-
quats and calamondins may well be preserved in their entirety.
While the larger, heavier fruits, as the bitter-sweets, grapefruit,
ponderosa lemon, and shaddock, should be cut into convenient
halves or quarters as preferred. Or a slice may be removed from
one end, the inside pulp removed and only the shells preserved.
When preserving any of these fruits it is essential that they
be cooked tender in an abundance of water, after the outer rind
has been carefully removed by grating the larger ones and punc-
turing the skins of the smaller fruits. In the case of the strong
flavored varieties, like grapefruit, shaddock and calamondin,
it may be necessary to parboil them in several changes of water
in order to rid them of the excess, undesirable flavor. The grating
and puncturing of the skin allows for better sugar penetration,
and makes for a more tender and delicious product. In these pre-
liminary cooking the fruits should always be kept well covered
with water and later when in the syrup, if it is desired to keep
the fruits in good shape, they should have sufficient syrup to be
completely submerged at all times.

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

Cooking: Begin preserving in a thin syrup and cook rapidly
until fruit is clear. Rapid cooking gives a light, bright product
of good color, while slow cooking produces a dark, dull, unattrac-
tive product. Standing overnight or longer immersed in the
syrup to "plump", gives a better product in color, flavor and tex-
ture. Cover closely before removing from fire.
Density of Syrup: Uncooked fruit should never be dropped in
a heavy syrup, as the fruit will become tough and shrivelled be-
cause the fruit juices will be drawn out too rapidly. Little syrup
can enter the fruit, since the outside of the fruit will be coated
with the heavy syrup. Hence the correct method is to build up
gradually a heavy syrup so the syrup can permeate the fruit
slowly and thoroughly, thus avoiding shrinking and toughening.
Allowing kumquats, grapefruit, etc., to stand overnight or longer
immersed in their syrup causes more of it to permeate the fruit.
In fact, much of the fruit may be prepared by very little cooking
in the syrup on the fire. It is the hot syrup in which they are
submerged that may be allowed to do the cooking. For this
reason, after being covered with the boiling syrup, the product
is set aside, allowed to stand overnight; then the syrup is drained
off, reheated, added to the fruit and the product is left to stand
as before. Larger fruits require a longer time for finishing;
smaller fruits a shorter period. The essential point is that the
syrup should permeate the fruit thoroughly. The processes are
not difficult but watchfulness, care, time and patience are required
for quality products.
Caution: Avoid cooking a small amount of fruit in a large kettle,
as evaporation takes place too rapidly over the broad surface.
Sufficient syrup should be used to cover completely the fruit at
all times. Heavy aluminum or porcelain lined kettles are the
best to use in preserving.


Preserved Whole Kumquats No. 1.
2 lbs. whole kumquats 2 lbs. sugar
(after cooking) 1 qt. water
Thoroughly clean the kumquats-if necessary scrub fruit with
mild soap and warm water-rinse well and drain. Scald the
kumquats with boiling soda water, or sprinkle the fruit with the
dry soda (about one heaping tbsp. soda to one quart of fruit),
then cover with boiling water, and let stand in the soda bath 10

Florida Cooperative Extension

minutes. Pour the soda water off and rinse the fruit thoroughly
in two or three changes of cold water. Drain well and slit each
kumquat with a sharp-pointed knife across the sections to prevent
them from bursting open while cooking and to facilitate pene-
tration of the syrup. Drop into an abundance of boiling water
and cook until tender. Drain. Boil the sugar and water together
for 10 minutes, add the drained kumquats, and cook until the fruit
is shining, clear, and transparent. Then cover tightly and allow
to plump 24 hours. The fruit will keep its shape better if the
cooking is done in a partially covered kettle. Reheat and pack
the kumquats into sterilized jars, strain and pour the hot syrup
over them, and process pint jars for 10 minutes at 1800 F. and seal.
A group of 5 or 6 copper nails placed in a circle about 1/8 to
3/16 inches apart in a wooden spatula is convenient and effective
for puncturing small fruits like kumquats, limequats and cala-
mondins. Puncture both blossom and stem ends. Thus treated,
the fruit is not as likely to burst or split in cooking as when cut
with a knife.
Kumquat Preserves No. 2
Clean kumquats and puncture carefully. Drop into slightly
salted water and soak overnight; next day pour off salted water,
cover with fresh water and bring to a boil. Drain and repeat twice
in fresh water, cooking until tender.
For 1 pint of fruit add 1/2 pint of sugar, 1/4 pint orange blossom
honey and 1 pint of water or orange juice. Drop fruit in the
boiling syrup and simmer until clear and syrup is slightly thick-
ened. Cover tightly while still boiling and remove from fire.
Plump over-night in the same vessel. The second or third day
place back on fire and cook until syrup is heavy.
Pack in jars as suggested in previous recipe. If candied kum-
quats are desired for immediate consumption, drain, put on wire
racks to dry and when dry, roll in granulated sugar.

Grapefruit Preserves
Select well-ripened grapefruit of good color and thick peel.
Wash and grate carefully, removing all the yellow rind. Remove
peel and cut it into strips 1/2 inch wide. If preferred, the pulp
may be left in the fruit, and the fruit may be cut in halves, fourths
or eighths or in fancy shapes. To one pound of fruit add 3 pints
of cold water. Bring slowly to a boil. Then change water and
bring to a boil again. At the end of 10 minutes taste liquid on
peel; if very bitter, drain off and renew. If only slightly bitter,

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

boil peel until tender. Drain and add peel to a syrup made by
using 3/4 pound of sugar to 1 pint of water for each pound of peel
taken and boil until sugar is dissolved. Boil rapidly until peel is
clear and syrup heavy. Cover and let stand 24 hours. Next
add the juice from the grapefruit used, 1/4 pound sugar and cook
until peel is beautifully clear, tender, yet firm, well-flavored and
the syrup heavy. If evaporation during cooking is great it may
be necessary to add a little boiling water at times in order to keep
plenty of syrup on peel. Let stand 24 hours again. The preserves
may be packed cold. Strain syrup through cheesecloth. Simmer
pints 15 minutes, having jars completely immersed in the sim-
mering liquid.
Sour Orange Preserves
Cut or grate off the outer oil cells from the oranges. Cut in
halves, squeeze out juice, being careful not to break the peel. Put
the orange halves into an abundance of water and boil 10 minutes.
Change to fresh water and boil again. Change water until as
much of bitter flavor is removed as desired and fruit is tender.
Drain and boil in a syrup made of 1 part sugar and 1 part water,
until fruit is transparent. As syrup boils down, add water to
keep at original density.
When transparent, cover; remove from fire and allow to stand
over night. The next day add the juice previously removed from
the fruit and cook again until syrup is somewhat thickened. Pack
in hot, sterilized jars, strain the syrup over the fruit and process
10 minutes at simmering. Seal.

Florida Conserve
2 cups grapefruit pulp % cup seeded raisins
2 cups orange pulp % grated pineapple (canned)
% cup nut meats 2 cups sugar
Peel from one orange run
through chopper
Preparation: To finely cut orange peel add one cup of water and
boil gently 10 minutes, cover and set aside to cool. If fresh pine-
apple is used cover the pineapple with water and boil briskly for
5 minutes as pineapple contains an enzyme which will act upon
the pectin and prevent the mass from jellying unless this enzyme
is destroyed by a sufficiently high temperature before it is added
to the other fruit.
Mix the grapefruit, orange pulp and orange peel, boil gently for
20 minutes, add the sugar and when the sugar has dissolved, add
the pineapple. Cook until the mass thickens and will give the

Florida Cooperative Extension

jelly test. Add the nuts and raisins, boil for 2 minutes, pour into
sterilized glasses and seal.

Sweet Pickles from Citrus Fruit
Pickles may be made from all fruits that can be preserved. To
a rich preserve syrup, add a small amount of high-grade vinegar.
Stick cinnamon and whole cloves are the spices commonly pre-
ferred; allspice, mace and whole ginger may be added. Pour
boiling-hot spiced syrup over the preserves, and let stand until
the next day. Drain off the syrup, boil again and pour it boiling-
hot over fruit. Repeat until the fruit is thoroughly saturated and
flavored. Grapefruit, kumquats, limequats and many other citrus
fruits make excellent sweet pickles.

Sunshine Marmalade
When oranges have been cut in halves and the juice has been
squeezed from them or the pulp removed with a spoon, a delicious
marmalade may be made from what remains. Separate the rind
and the membranous skin or rag that covers the section of fruit.
Discard the rag.
Shred peel very thinly or put the peel through a food chopper.
To the shredded or chopped peel add twice its weight in water and
2 tbsp. lemon juice for each cup of water used. Let this stand for
1 hour, then add the same amount of water as originally taken
and boil gently for 3 minutes, cover and set aside to cool. When
cold, press through a jelly bag to extract the juice. Keep one-half
of the prepared peel to add later to the boiling juice. Test for
pectin and add such an amount of sugar as the pectin test indi-
cates that the juice will carry. Bring to a boil, add one-half of
the prepared peel and cook until the jellying point is reached
(2220 F. or 1060 C.).
Pectin Test
A most valuable aid in determining when a juice contains suffi-
cient pectin is the alcohol-pectin test. Pour a teaspoonful of
cooked and strained fruit juice into a clean cup and put into the
cup a teaspoonful of grain alcohol of 95% strength. (If grain
alcohol cannot be obtained, use denatured alcohol. The test is
not as accurate, but is of practical value). Mix by gently shaking,
then pour into a spoon. If the precipitated pectin is in a solid
clot it is safe to add an equal volume of sugar to a volume of juice

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

in making jelly; if, however, it has not gathered in a clot, the
amount of sugar should be decreased. When the test is made
with denatured alcohol, the precipitate is usually not so heavy.
If fruit sufficiently acid for jelly making is deficient in pectin,
this deficiency may be supplied by the addition of pectin extracted
from some other source. The peel and core of apples, the white
part of the orange peel and the fleshy part of the citron melon
are rich in pectin, and the extraction from these is often used
with fruits deficient in this property.
Sour Orange Marmalade
1 lb. peeled sour oranges % of peel removed from oranges
2 pts. water 12 lbs. sugar
Preparation of Peel: Wash fruit, remove peel, discard two-
thirds of the peel, reserving the third freest from blemish and
with a knife remove any blemishes that may be on the peel. Cut
this peel in thin slices. Place in a kettle and add water (four
times weight of peel). Boil 10 minutes, then drain. Repeat this
process from three to five times, each time boiling the water for
5 minutes. Peel should be tender. Bitter taste may be removed
by changing the water a sufficient number of times.
Preparation of the Juice: After the peel has been removed,
weigh the remaining fruit, cut into small pieces, place in a kettle
and for each pound of orange taken add 2 pints of water. Boil
until it thoroughly disintegrates. Pour into a flannel jelly bag
and press until no more juice can be obtained. Strain this juice
again through a clean flannel jelly bag without pressing.
Making the Marmalade: Pour this juice into a kettle, add peel
and bring to a boil. Add 11/2 Ibs. of sugar for each pound of fruit.
Continue the boiling until the jellying point has been reached,
which is indicated by the flaking or sheeting from spoon.
When over-ripe oranges are used, the amount of sugar should
be reduced to 11/4 pounds for each pound of fruit.

Sweet Orange Marmalade
1 lb, peeled sweet oranges 2 pts. water
1/4 peel removed from oranges %/ cup sugar
Preparation of Peel: Wash fruit, remove 1/4 of the peel, which
should be free from blemish. Cut this peel in as thin slices as
possible or run through a food chopper. Place in a kettle with
four times its weight in water. Boil 10 minutes, drain free of
water. Repeat this process twice, cooking in the last change of
water until tender.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Preparation of Juice: After 1/4 of the peel has been removed
from the oranges, with a sharp knife remove the yellow part
from the remaining peel, leaving the white part containing pectin.
Weigh the fruit; cut it into small pieces; place in a kettle, and
for each pound of orange taken add 2 pints water. Boil until it
thoroughly disintegrates (about 20 minutes). Pour into a cheese-
cloth bag and press until no more juice can be obtained. Strain
the juice again through a clean flannel bag without pressing.
Making the Marmalade: Pour the juice into a kettle and bring
to a boil. For each pound of fruit taken add 7/8 cup of sugar.
When this comes to a boil add the peel which has been sliced or
run through a food chopper and cooked until tender. Bring the
whole to a boil and continue boiling until the jellying point has
been reached. (Usually obtained at 2220 F. or 106 C.)

Orange Marmalade
3 lbs. oranges 1/2 pts. water
3 lemons 3 lbs. sugar
Wash, remove peel and seeds, cutting one-half of peel into very
thin strips, and add it to pulp and remainder of peel, which has
first had the yellow portion grated off and has been passed through
a food chopper with the pulp. Cover with water and let stand
over night. Boil for 10 minutes the next morning; allow to stand
for 12 hours; add sugar and again let stand over night. Cook
rapidly next morning until the jelly test can be obtained (about
2220 F.). Cool to 176 F. Pour into sterilized glasses and seal.
Combination Marmalade
1 orange 1 grapefruit
1 lemon Sugar
Wash and run the fruit through a food chopper, add three times
the bulk of water, boil for 15 minutes, and let stand over night.
Next morning boil for 15 minutes, or until the peel is tender, and
let stand again. When cold measure pint for pint of sugar and
cook over a rapid fire until jelly stage is reached (222 F.). A
variation may be made in this by the addition, when sugar is
added, of 1 cup shredded pineapple previously boiled for 5 minutes.

Orange and Lemon Marmalade
4 medium or 4 lemons
3 large oranges
Slice the fruit, unpeeled, paper thin. Measure and add 5 times
as much cold water as fruit. Allow to stand from 12 to 24 hours,
then boil vigorously for 35 to 45 minutes. This should render peel

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

tender and reduce quantity one-half. Measure into two or four-
cup lots. Cooking four cups or less at one time gives better flavor
and color.
If oranges are rather sweet or over-ripe, add additional lemon
juice at this stage-about 1 tbsp. to 1 cup fruit. Boil 8 minutes.
Add 3/4 cup sugar for each cup of fruit. Boil rapidly until the
jelly point is reached.
Pour into hot, sterilized glasses or seal in jars. This yields 12
to 18 glasses.
The tree-ripened Florida Villa Franca lemon is ideal for jelly
Grapefruit Marmalade No. 1
1 lb. grapefruit 1 lb. sugar
2 pts. water (based on pectin test)
1/3 peel removed from grapefruit
This marmalade is made by following the same directions as
for making sour orange marmalade.
Grapefruit Marmalade No. 2
A second method of making grapefruit marmalade which gives
a product that is but slightly bitter is as follows:
Peel the grapefruit, remove and discard the white membranous
skin that covers the pulp. Measure the pulp and for each cup of
pulp taken add 1 cup of water and boil gently 20 minutes. Cover
and set aside until cold. Strain a small portion of the juice and
test for pectin. If the pectin precipitate is very light, return the
vessel to the fire and boil the contents for 5 minutes more. Cover
and set aside until cold. Strain the juice through a jelly bag,
pressing the fruit so as to obtain all the juice. Strain through a
second bag without pressing to remove particles of fruit from the
juice. Test the juice so obtained for pectin and determine the
amount of sugar to be used for each cup of juice that is taken.
Bring the juice to a boil. Add the sugar and peel prepared as in
Recipe No. 1, boil until the mixture reaches the jelly point.
Golden Glow Marmalade
Wash grapefruit, peel with knife, leaving on the white mem-
branous skin or "rag" that lies under the peel. Break in half and
cut out tough, pithy portion of rag that lies in central part of
fruit around seed, also discard the seed. Cut sections of fruit
and rag in half lengthwise.
To each measure of pulp add three measures of water. Let
stand over night, then boil gently until rag is tender, about 1/2 to

Florida Cooperative Extension

3/-hour. Let stand again over night, then measure. Add pint
for pint of sugar, 1/ as much grated pineapple, and cook rapidly
until jelly stage is reached (2220 F.). Pour into sterilized jars
and seal immediately.
Lemon Marmalade

Cut firm, brightly-colored lemons in very thin slices, discarding
only the seeds. Allow one orange to each six lemons, cutting it
also into very thin slices or use sliced kumquats instead of the
orange. Measure the fruit and mix each quart of fruit with three
quarts of cold water. Cover and let stand over night. Next day
boil rapidly until the fruit is tender, measure and add one cup
sugar to each cup fruit. Heat slowly to boiling point, then boil
rapidly until the mixture gives the jelly test. Pour into hot jars
and seal.
Tangelo Marmalade
1 lb. peeled tangelos % of the peel removed
1 Ib. sugar from tangelos
1% pts. water
Preparation of Peel: Wash the fruit, remove the peel, discard
one-half, reserving the portion freest from blemish, and cut into
slices as thin as possible or run through food chopper. Boil for
10 minutes, drain free of water, and add water again. Bring to
a boil and allow to simmer until tender.
Preparation of Juice: After the peel has been removed, weigh
the fruit, cut into small pieces and place in a kettle. For each
pound of tangelo taken add 11/2 pints of water. Boil until it
thoroughly disintegrates, about 20 minutes. Pour into a cheese-
cloth jelly bag and press until no more juice can be obtained.
Strain the juice again through a clean flannel jelly bag without
Making the Marmalade: Pour this juice into a kettle, add
drained peel, bring to a boil, add 1 pound of sugar for each pound
of fruit. Continue the boiling until the jellying point has been -
Tangerine Marmalade
(Makes 24 glasses)
3 lbs. tangerines 3 large lemons
Quarter tangerines, but do not remove peel. Slice very thin,
removing all seeds. Add finely shredded or sliced lemons. Meas-
ure fruit and add five times as much water. Boil until quantity

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

is reduced nearly one-half-from 1 to 11/4 hours. For light amber
marmalade, cook 2-3 cups at a time. Add 3/~ cup sugar to each
cup boiling fruit and continue boiling until it gives the jelly test
of thick heavy drops from the side of a spoon. It will take 10
to 20 minutes. Pour into sterilized glasses and when cool, seal
with paraffin.
Serve with hot toast, biscuit or as meat accompaniment. This
marmalade may be used also in cooking to flavor icings, make
cake fillings and so on.
"Coolidge" Tomato Citrus Marmalade
4 qts. ripe tomatoes 3 oranges, thinly sliced
(dry measure) 1 full stick cinnamon
3 lemons or 1 tbsp. whole cloves
1 qt. kumquats or Sugar
18 calamondins, thinly sliced
Scald, cold dip and peel tomatoes. Remove core. Pour off
juice from tomatoes. Don't discard, as it is a delicious, wholesome
drink. Weigh the tomatoes and set aside an equal weight of
sugar. Add thinly sliced fruits and put in heavy aluminum or
iron kettle and cook moderately until the citrus peel is tender.
Then add sugar and spice and cook to the jelly stage.
Green tomatoes may be used equally as well as the ripe fruit
in which case add 1/2 cup water to the sliced fruit.
Note: The above marmalade was said to be a great favorite
with the late President Coolidge, hence the name.
Marmalade Stock
Marmalade stock may be prepared for later finishing by boiling
thinly-sliced or ground sweet and sour oranges, grapefruit, lime-
quats, lemons, or calamondins, or a mixture of any of the fruits
with water and then canning or sealing, boiling hot, the product
so obtained. It will be rich in pectin and acid if prepared before
the fruit becomes over-ripe. The mixture will be amber in color,
slightly cloudy, and possess the characteristic flavor of the cooked
When concentrated by boiling with the proper proportion of
sugar it should yield a clear, firm jelly of pleasing color and
flavor. It is necessary that the mixture of thinly-sliced peel and
the juice be cooked only until tender-without sugar. Place in
glass jars while boiling hot. Seal immediately. Sterilize quarts
10 minutes at boiling. Store stock in cool place. When wanted
for marmalade making, add required amount of sugar and cook
to jelly stage.

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Kumquat Jelly
1 lb. kumquats 1% pts. water
1 lb. sugar
The kumquats are washed, scraped, and cleaned thoroughly,
and cut in slices. For each pound of fruit add 11/2 pts. water.
Boil for 15 minutes, cover and set aside over night. Boil again
about 5 minutes, then remove from the stove and allow to stand
for 1 hour, then pour into a flannel jelly bag, press to obtain all
possible juice; drip through another bag to remove all particles
of fruit. This juice is placed in a kettle and brought to a boil, at
which time there is added 1 lb. of sugar for each pound of fruit
taken. Stir until the sugar is thoroughly dissolved and continue
boiling until it reaches the jellying point.
The jellying point is determined by dipping a spoon or wooden
paddle into the boiling solution and then holding it above the
kettle, allowing the syrup to drop. When it drops in thick, reluc-
tant flakes or sheets from the spoon, pour immediately into clean,
sterilized jelly glasses. After a few minutes the scum may be
easily removed with a spoon. When jelly is cold, pour hot paraffin
over it and store away in cool, dry place.
Mint and Orange Pectin Jelly
1 pt. orange pectin juice 2 drops oil of mint
2 tbs. lemon juice 2 drops green vegetable
1 lb. sugar coloring
One pint orange pectin juice (as prepared in following recipe)
is poured into a kettle, heated to boiling and 1 pound of sugar and
2 drops of green vegetable coloring matter are added. The boiling
is continued until the jellying point is reached. At this point
2 drops of oil of mint are added. Stir thoroughly and pour,
while hot, into clean, sterilized jelly glasses. After a few moments
the scum which rises to the top may be easily removed from the
jelly with a spoon. Seal jelly as previously directed.

Orange Pectin
% lb. white portion orange 2 tbs. lemon juice
peel 1 pt. water
Cut or grate the yellow from the peel of the orange; pass the
remaining white portion through a food chopper and weigh it.
For each 1/4 pound of the white portion of the peel, add 1/2 pint
of water; add the lemon juice; mix thoroughly and allow to stand
4 to 5 hours. At the end of this time add 11/4 pints of water and
allow to stand over night. The next morning boil 10 minutes and

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

allow to cool. Place in a flannel jelly bag, press it to remove the
juice and strain through a clean flannel jelly bag.
A greater amount of pectin will be developed by letting the
materials stand over the second night and boiling 10 minutes the
third day.
This pectin may be used as a foundation in making jellies from
fruit which do not contain a sufficient amount of pectin. It may
be prepared, poured into jars while hot, sealed and kept for later
Sour Orange Jelly
1 lb. peeled sour 2 pts. water
oranges 1 lb. sugar
The sour orange jelly is made by preparing the juice as directed
in recipe for sour orange marmalade. No peel is used in the jelly.
For each pound of fruit taken add to the juice 1 pound of sugar.
This is boiled until it reaches the jellying point.
Grapefruit Jelly
1 lb. peeled 2 pts. water
grapefruit V% lb. sugar
After the peel has been removed, weigh the fruit, cut into small
pieces, place in a kettle and for each pound of grapfruit taken,
add 2 pints of water. Boil until it thoroughly disintegrates.
Pour into a flannel jelly bag and press until no more juice can be
obtained. Drain this juice into a kettle, and bring to a boil. Add
% pound of sugar for each pound of fruit taken. Continue boiling
until the jellying point has been reached.
Kumquat Butter, No. 1
Wash and scrape thoroughly ripe, juicy kumquats. Cut in half
and take out all seed. Run halves through food chopper, using
medium blade. Measure and set aside for each cup of ground
fruit 1/2 cup of sugar. To each cup of ground kumquats, add 3/
cup water. Let stand 2 hours. Put in smooth sauce pan, prefer-
ably heavy aluminum, and cook rapidly until peel is tender and
pulp is thickened. Now add sugar, continue cooking, stirring
carefully until thick and clear. Pour into small jars. Seal and
simmer 10 minutes.
Kumquat Butter, No. 2
Prepare kumquats as in preceding recipe. Put through food
chopper. Measure. To each measure of fruit add 1 measure of
water and cook for 20 minutes. Allow to stand over-night. To

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each cup of this mixture add % cup sugar and cook rapidly until
it gives the jelly test.
This recipe makes a product that is lighter in color, more jelly-
like in consistency than No. 1, and is of a delicate, delightful
flavor that is generally liked.
Caution: All butters should be cooked rapidly and in small
quantities to retain the desired flavor and color.
Do not over-cook-the product thickens considerably when cool.

Orange Butter
The following recipe makes a product similar in many ways to
apple butter. It spreads better than most marmalades or jellies,
and is not so sweet. It is especially popular with children.
The fruit is washed, the stems and blemish spots being care-
fully removed. It is then cut into slices or small pieces, covered
with water and cooked until the peel is tender; usually this takes
two or three hours.
Sugar is added, 1/2 pound for each pound of cooked fruit. The
mixture is cooked rapidly with constant stirring until the desired
consistency is reached. It is best cooked beyond the jellying point.
Kumquat Jam
The cooked pulp remaining in the jelly bag after the juice for
jelly-making has been strained off is very good stock for making
into jam. Combine with one pint of water for each pound of fruit.
Boil slowly for 15 to 20 minutes and add 3/ pound of sugar for
each pound of original fruit taken. Boil until clear.
If fresh fruit is used, clean it in the same manner as for pre-
serves with the soda solution. After rinsing well and draining
the fruit, cover with water. Cook until tender, remove seeds and
slice or grind fruit, measure the pulp and allow 1 to % pound
of sugar for each pound of fruit, according to the acidity of the
fruit being used. Recook the pulp before adding the sugar, then
proceed as for making other jams.
Calamondins, orangequats, Temples, or tangerines blended with
lemons or other fruit containing more acid, make fine jams.

Quick Tangerine Jam
(Makes 2 glasses)
2 cups tangerine, pulp and juice 1 tsp. grated tangerine rind
1 lemon, pulp and juice 1 cups sugar
Be sure seeds are removed from tangerine pulp and juice. Com-
bine ingredients and boil quickly about 10 minutes, or until syrupy
and clear. Very good served warm on hot biscuit.

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

The preservation of fruits by saturating them with sugar and
then covering them with a coat of sugar crystals is one of the
oldest known methods of fruit preservation. Because of the
lengthy and tedious process involved in the manufacture of crys-
tallized fruit and the excessive amount of sugar used, the product
must of necessity command a high price.
Crystallized or glac6d products are fruit impregnated with
sugar-75 to 80% of their total weight being sugar. The crys-
tallized fruit has a coating of tiny crystals, while glac6 fruit has
a dry, smooth, shining surface. The two products are prepared
in the same way, differing only in the mode of finish.
Both are prepared by allowing the fruit to boil and stand in
a thin syrup until the fruit juice gradually diffuses out and the
sugar slowly diffuses into the fruit. The sugar syrups are slowly
built up as the fruit gradually takes up more and more of the
syrup. Care must be taken not to apply too heavy a syrup at
the beginning or at any stage of the process, as the water will be
drawn from the fruit more quickly than the sugar will be ab-
sorbed and the cell walls of the fruit will then become shrivelled
and hardened.
Since delicate flavors will be masked by the large quantity of
sugar absorbed in the crystallizing process, citrus fruits because
of their pronounced and varied flavors are ideally suited for this
The fruit used should be well ripened and full flavored for high
quality products.
For crystallizing fruit when it is desired to keep the fruit for a
long period of time:
1. Preparation of Fruit: All citrus fruits should be of a bright
color, without blemish. Grapefruit, ponderosa lemon, sour orange
and other large fruits must be grated sufficiently to break the oil
cells and to remove blemishes. The bitter in the peel is removed
by changing the water in boiling to make tender, the number of
changes depending upon the individual taste.
Kumquats and other small citrus fruits are first washed, then
treated with a hot soda bath-one tablespoon of soda to one
pound of fruit, covering with boiling water for 10 minutes-then
washing the fruit in clear, cold water before boiling tender.
2. All fruits must be cooked until tender before being put into
first syrup. Make a syrup of equal weights of sugar and water to
cover fruit completely; to this add fruit equal in weight to that

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of sugar and boil to 2180 F. or until fruit is clear. If fruit is not
clear, cook at this temperature until clear. This temperature is
maintained as long as desired by the addition of boiling water at
necessary intervals. Let stand in this syrup at least 24 hours.
The fruit should be kept weighted down below the surface of the
syrup at all times. A dinner plate may be used.
3. At the end of 24 hours cook to 224 F. or 107 C. Seal while
hot. To make a marketable product, keep this preserve sealed for
at least six weeks before finishing. The process of crystallizing
fruit will give the most satisfactory results if it is extended over
a period of several weeks, at least.
If the fruit does not appear clear, plump and glistening in the
last stages of the syruping, it may be improved by bringing syrup
to a boil and boiling gently 10 to 15 minutes. Boil the fruit in
the last syrup for several minutes, pack hot, into hot jars or cans,
and seal immediately to avoid any chances of fermentation oc-
curring during the storing period.
If crystals of sugar appear during this time, heat until they
dissolve before draining the fruit to dry to make ready for finish-
ing coat.
4. After storing the fruit for several weeks (or months) re-
move from the syrup, dip for a moment in hot water to clear the
surface from adhering syrup, and dry for about 24 hours at room
temperature in hot sunshine or in an evaporator at 100 to 120 F.
5. Allow about 3 lbs. sugar and 1/2 pint water for about 4 pounds
of fruit. Mix well and bring slowly to a boil, dissolving all the
sugar. Cook without stirring to 2280 F. The sides of the kettle
should be brushed with a fondant brush or wiped with a damp
cloth to keep down crystals. Remove carefully from fire, keeping
kettle covered with damp cloth. The fruit may be dipped in the
same kettle, or a portion removed and used for dipping until the
syrup appears cloudy, when a new batch must be taken from the
warm, clear syrup. Unless the dipping syrup is kept fresh and
clear, the coating on the fruit will appear white and opaque.
The pieces of candied fruit may be dipped, then lifted with two
forks and placed on a wire rack or tray to drain and dry in hot
sunshine or in the evaporator, being turned occasionally if needed,
so that they will dry evenly on all sides.
Wooden boxes, lined with oiled or moisture-proof cellophane
paper, are considered the best type of containers for packing
candied fruit and fruit pastes. These candied fruits do not keep
well over a long period of time, even if stored under the best
conditions. Hence, the storage period should not exceed two or
three months.

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

If crystallized fruits are stored in tin boxes or glass jars, they
should first be wrapped in wax paper, even when kept for only a
short time. Containers that allow ventilation are to be preferred.
The finishing syrup drained off may be diluted with water and
used in the initial preserving stages.
The other syrup remaining may be bottled boiling hot and
sealed for future use in canning fruit macedoines, fruit chutneys,
for sweetening punch, for pudding sauces, for dressing ice cream
and in many other ways.
Crystallized Whole Grapefruit
Select bright, smooth fruit with thick peel. Wash and grate
lightly with medium fine grater, removing all yellow oil cells.
Cut circles three inches in diameter from stem end of fruit and
remove meat and connective tissue, being careful to leave all of
the thick part of peel. ,Boil until tender and if it is desired to
remove the bitter, change the water during cooking, each time
putting the fruit into cold water and bringing it slowly to the
boiling point.
Several changes of water often are necessary to accomplish
this. If too much of the bitter flavor is removed, an undesirable,
insipid, characterless product results.
Cool fruit and put into a syrup made of equal parts of sugar and
water. Sufficient syrup must be made to float the fruit. Cook
to 2200 F. and let fruit stand in syrup 24 hours, then cook to
228 F. Take immediately out and put in sun to cool. If fruit
is very large and will not hold its shape, turn over a glass or olive
bottle to dry (for 24 hours).
Fill the fruit with small pieces of crystallized fruits, nuts or
other confections. French fondant with nuts may be used as a
filling. When this is done it is then cut as one cuts a cake. It
may be used for a garnish when prepared in this way.
If it is desired to keep the fruit any length of time it is necessary
to leave the fruit in the heavy syrup for at least three weeks.

Grapefruit Peel No. 1.
1 lb. grapefruit peel 6 oz. water
1% lbs. sugar
Preparation of Peel: Select bright fruit with a thick peel.
Wash carefully. Grate lightly on an ordinary grater to break
the oil cells. Cut the peel in quarters and remove from the fruit

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and weigh. Cut this peel into strips 1/4 to 1/2 inches wide; or cut
into small shapes. Place in a saucepan of water and for each
quart of peel taken add 3 pints or more of cold water. Boil 10
minutes and pour off the water. Repeat three times or until as
much of the bitter flavor is removed as is desired. Dry the peel
between folds of cloth, pressing gently.
For each pound of peel used add 11/2 lbs. of sugar to 6 ozs. of
water. Bring to a boil and cook until the sugar is dissolved.
Add the prepared peel and boil until the syrup is absorbed.
Remove immediately from the fire and roll the fruit in granulated
or powdered sugar.
Finishing Point: Cooking continued too long and evaporation
carried too far will cause the product to be hard and unattractive.
The point at which the product shall be finished may be deter-
mined by rolling a piece of fruit when it has become transparent,
in granulated sugar. If after a few minutes the fruit stiffens
enough to retain its shape it is sufficiently cooked. A strip of
peel is preferred to the small shapes in making this test.

Grapefruit Peel No. 2.
1 lb. grapefruit peel 1/4 pt. clear corn syrup
1% lbs. sugar 1% pt. water
Proceed as in Method No. 1. It is more difficult to reach
crystallization by this method, slower cooking being required,
but due to the glucose in the corn syrup the finished product
remains soft much longer than when prepared by Method No. 1.

Grapefruit Peel No. 3.
Wash the fruit and remove the peel, leaving as little of the
white material attached to the fruit as possible. The peel can
be more readily detached if the fruit is dipped in boiling water
for a few minutes. If peel is to be used from fruit from which
the juice has been pressed, the segment walls can be easily
removed with the fingers. The peel is cut into strips 2 inches
long by 1/4 inch wide, into disks 1/2 inch wide or into squares of
the same size, as preferred.
Two methods of cooking can be followed, one using water alone,
the other giving a preliminary treatment with lime water. Under
certain conditions, the finished product has a slightly tough layer
at the surface which was the outer surface of the original peel.
This tendency can be overcome by the use of the lime water
method, but usually results are almost as good where water alone
is used. In using lime water, use only the clear water, do not

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

use milk of lime. Lime water contains only a few tenths of 1
percent of lime in solution and will not injure the peel.
Place the prepared peel in a kettle and cover with a mixture
consisting of 2 parts of water and 1 part of clear lime water,
cover and boil for half an hour. Pour off the liquid, again cover
with water and boil for half an hour. Do not use lime water
after the first cooking. Where lime water is not available, use
plain water for all cooking. Repeat the boiling with fresh water
each time until a piece of the peel, when removed, cooled, and
tasted, has about the same bitter taste as desired in the finished
product. The final product will be a little less bitter than the
peel at this stage, as some of the bitterness disappears on further
cooking. Usually three treatments will be sufficient where a
rather bitter flavor is desired; five or six produce a mild flavored
peel; more than that number will result in a product without
grapefruit flavor-not to be desired. When the peel has reached
the desired flavor, pour off the water and drain the peel; the
excess of water can be removed by gentle pressure.
Now prepare a syrup, using equal parts of granulated sugar
and water, and cover the peel with it. Boil very slowly for an
hour or so, and allow the peel to remain in the syrup over night
or longer if convenient. Finally, boil again until the syurp
becomes thick, stopping the cooking at the usual point for jelly
making; on a candy thermometer this is about 219 to 2220 F.
The peel is satisfactory even if taken off before it reaches this
point; over-cooking tends to make it hard. While hot, drain the
syrup from the peel as completely as possible, shaking repeatedly
to remove the last drops. Now roll the peel in powdered sugar,
separating any pieces that stick together. Cool and allow to
remain in the air for several days to dry. Then place in air-
tight jars or cans where it will keep for months. A better keeping
and softer product will result if one of the commercial invert
sugars is used in place of cane sugar.
This peel makes a fine center for chocolates and can be used
as a substitute for citron in baking.
Grapefruit Peel No. 4.
Prepare peel as in Method No. 1. Boil sugar and water until
the syrup will spin a thread. Add the peel and cook until trans-
parent. Pour this into containers and let it stand for 10 days
or longer. When ready to finish, lift from the syrup, put on .a
rack and sun. If the day is clear and dry a few hours will com-
plete the product. This product remains in good condition for
several weeks.

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Ponderosa Lemon
Follow the same directions as for grapefruit peel. The oily part
of the rind should be grated from the peel before boiling. This
makes a more tender product and reduces the time of cooking.

Crystallized Kumquat Chips
Clean kumquats thoroughly, sprinkle with soda, using 1 table-
spoonful of soda to 1 pound of kumquats. Pour sufficient boiling
water over this to cover fruit. Let stand for 10 minutes, pour off
water and rinse through three changes of water. Cut kumquats
into quarters. These slices are dropped into a boiling sugar solu-
tion, prepared by dissolving 1 cup of sugar in 2 cups of water. Boil
for 30 minutes, and then drop into a heavy syrup made by dissolv-
ing 1 cup of sugar in 1 cup of water. Boil for 30 minutes, allow
to stand until cool and the next day boil for 30 minutes in the
same sugar solution. Remove and place on a platter to dry. The
chips may then be rolled in sugar.

Crystallized Sour Orange Peel
Follow the same directions as for grapefruit peel, except that
two changes of water are sufficient.

The citron, known as "citron of commerce", is used widely in
making fruit cakes and plum puddings. The fruit is large and
the skin is thick and usually rough. The fruit when ready for
use should be still green in color but fully mature.
Brining or Curing Citron: Cut the fruit lengthwise in halves.
The pulp is difficult to remove from fresh citron and may be left
in during the fermentation process. Put in a brine made from
6 to 7 ounces dairy salt and 1 gallon water, keeping the pieces
completely submerged. Any weight such as is used for pickles
is suitable for this purpose and the container may be wood,
crockery or glass. The citron should be put into the brine very
shortly after removal from the trees, as the undesirable yellow
color tends to develop even after' the fruit is in the brine. Use
only sufficient salt to prevent spoiling; an excess has a tendency to
extract flavor and to toughen the citron.
The desired result in curing citron is to obtain a firm, yet tender
rind, with the bitter flavor removed and the agreeable citron
flavor retained. The time required for curing varies with the
size of the pieces of citron, the degree of maturity of fruit and

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

the temperature. The tissues expand and become translucent.
This takes from 15 to 30 days and even longer.
Preserving the Citron: When the fermentation is completed,
remove the pulp, place the citron in water, changing until suffi-
ciently freshened. Do not remove all salt, as a small quantity
improves the flavor. Cover with cold water and bring to a boil.
Boil until fairly tender. Put in cold water 24 hours to restore

FIG. 2.-The citron is a favorite ingredient for fruit cakes, fruit puddings,
and various fancy breads. Shown in the container is preserved citron and
in the platter is preserved citron which has been removed, drained and
allowed to crystallize, and is now ready for use.

Crisping is followed by the sugar preserving. Begin with a
thin syrup and gradually increase its density. The rapidity of
passage from syrup to syrup depends somewhat on the size of
the pieces and the temperature maintained. By using more heat
the preserving process can be shortened, but the product will be
darker in color and less delicate in flavor. Slower processes in
which little or no heat is used are tedious but more likely to result
in fine quality. After the citron has been in the first syrup 24
hours, taste to see if enough salt has been removed. If too salty,
this syrup should be discarded. Do not make separate lots of
syrup, merely add sugar to increase the density of the one pre-
viously used, each time heating the syrup and pouring it over the

Florida Cooperative Extension

citron in the syrup. More than 24 hours between changes, espe-
cially in the last heavy syrups, is advisable.
The portion of sugar the citron should absorb is about 8 pounds
of sugar to 10 pounds of citron. Spread on wire racks to dry if
desired to use fairly soon. It is recommended otherwise that the
fruit be brought to a quick boil, then placed in jars and sealed
immediately. Remove and drain for use as needed.

Canning grapefruit provides tasty, juicy "hearts" for salads
and for desserts.
Method: Wash and dry good, sound grapefruit. With a sharp
knife, remove all peeling and rag. There are different methods of
doing this: one is to cut a slice from both ends past the rag into
the flesh of the hearts; then cut the rest of the peel and rag off
in wide slices, cutting from one end to the other. When this
operation is completed, there remains a juicy ball, minus all rag,
with all the "hearts" exposed. It is then an easy matter to run
the blade of a knife-or better yet, a pliable, flexible, bamboo
paddle-between each two "hearts" and separate the segments
from the rest of the membrane or rag. It is possible in this way
to remove every "heart" entirely whole, free from all rag and
seed. (The seed usually remain attached to the core.)
With the "hearts" freed from rag and seed, pack solidly in a
sterilized fruit jar after adding one tablespoonful of heavy sugar
syrup to bottom of each pint jar (1/4 tsp. salt may be substituted
for the sugar). When jar is full, adjust rubber and cover and
process 35 minutes at 1800 F. If canning in tin, exhaust for 10
minutes, process for 30 minutes and plunge into cold water to
stop further cooking. Store in cool, dry place.
Cull Fruits: Sound, ripe fruits, free from all decay, but under-
sized, oversized, or mis-shapen in some way, may be used for

Grapefruit Juice
Grapefruit juice, unlike orange juice, may be bottled most suc-
cessfully and is very popular as a "before breakfast" appetizer
and for punch. There are many good devices for extracting the
Grapefruit juice darkens in the bottle unless air is excluded.
This can best be done, so the United States Department of Agri-

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

culture investigators have found, by heating the juice to 1650 F.
in an open aluminum vessel, filling hot, sterilized bottles imme-
diately with the hot juice to overflowing and capping at once.
Thus all air is excluded. Place bottled juice in water at 165 F.
and hold 30 minutes to sterilize. Experiments show that it is
highly important that the bottles be completely filled, so that no
layer of air will be left between the top of the juice and the cork
or seal. When air in any amount comes in contact with the top
of the sterilized juice it will cause the juice to change its color.
In handling the juice it is also important that it be kept from
coming into contact with iron or other metals easily acted upon
by fruit acids.
Grapefruit juice so handled will keep from season to season,
and provides a base for "grapefruit ade" or other acid beverages
and has the characteristic acid, somewhat bitter flavor of the fruit.
Orange Juice
Orange juice is delicious and wholesome, however no satisfac-
tory method for keeping bottled orange juice in the home any
great length of time has yet been devised.
Orange juice does not retain its fresh, delightful flavor in the
bottle but tends in six to eight weeks to develop a "stale" and
disagreeable taste. However, it may be bottled in combination
with other citrus juices for home use if conditions warrant it. In
this case, cut the oranges in halves and extract juice with a
reamer. Or the fruit may be washed, crushed and pressed. Leav-
ing the oil and yellow pulp in juice adds flavor. Bottle and pas-
teurize 30 minutes at 1650 F.
The use of sugar greatly decreases the tendency of orange juice
to become "stale." A mixture of sweet orange juice, lemon,
Rangpur lime, calamondin or Seville or sour orange juice and
sugar, makes a most palatable and wholesome orange juice, even
after a year's storage.
To, extract the juice, wash fruit thoroughly, crush and press.
Mix one part sour orange juice to four parts sweet orange juice
and add 2 to 3 pounds of sugar, depending upon acidity of fruit
used, to one gallon juice. Heat until all sugar is dissolved. Bottle
while hot and pasteurize at 1650 F. for 30 minutes.
To serve, dilute with twice its volume of water, carbonated
preferred. Fresh, cloudy, unfiltered juices are much superior in
flavor to the filtered juices.

28 Florida Cooperative Extension

Fruit Punch
An excellent light syrup for use in punch can be made by
blending one part of sour fruit juice (lemon, Seville orange,
limequat), three parts of sweet orange juice pressed from un-
peeled fruit, and two parts of juice of grapefruit of high flavor
or red plum or pineapple. Preserve by sterilizing at 1750 F. for
30 minutes.
To this mixture may be added crushed pineapple, shredded
oranges, sliced peaches, mangoes, bananas, berries or other fruit,
to improve the appearance in the punch bowl.

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