Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Homemaker's appreciation to the...
 Citrus juices
 Citrus preserves
 Butters and jams
 Sweet and fermented pickles
 Crystallizing citrus fruits

Title: Preserving Florida citrus fruits
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049939/00001
 Material Information
Title: Preserving Florida citrus fruits
Alternate Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service ; 144
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Thursby, Isabelle S.
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1950
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00049939
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Homemaker's appreciation to the citrus industry
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Citrus juices
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Citrus preserves
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Butters and jams
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Sweet and fermented pickles
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Crystallizing citrus fruits
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
Full Text

Ei ii

I -


44 1


(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Frank M. Harris, Chairman, St. Petersburg
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
Eli H. Fink, Jacksonville
George J. White, Sr., Mount Dora
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., President of the University'
J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agriculture'
H. G. Clayton, M.S.A., Director of Extension
Marshall O. Watkins, M.Agr., Assistant to the Director
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor'
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor'
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
K. S. McMullen, M.Agr., District Agent
F. S. Perry, B.S.A., District Agent
H. S. McLendon, B.A., Soil Conservationist
R. S. Dennis, B.S.A., Executive Officer, P. & M. Admin.2
W. W. Brown, B.S.A., Boys' Club Agent
C. W. Reaves, B.S.A., Dairy Husbandman
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman'
J. S. Moore, M.S.A., Poultryman
A. W. O'Steen, B.S.A., Supervisor Egg-Laying Test, Chipley
L. T. Nieland, Farm Forester
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist'
Charles M. Hampson, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management'
D. E. Timmons, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing
F. W. Parvin, B.S.A., Asso. Economist, Marketing and Farm Management
John M. Johnson, B.S.A., Agricultural Engineer
Fred P. Lawrence, B.S.A., Citriculturist
A. M. Pettis, B.S.A., Farm Electrification Specialist2
John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist
V. L. Johnson, Rodent Control Specialist2
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agronomist'
F. S. Jamiscn, Ph.D., Vegetable Crop Specialist'
Stanley E. Rosenberger, M.Agr., Asst. Veg. Crop Specialist
Forrest E. Myers, M.Agr., Asst. Veg. Crop Specialist
O. F. Goen, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist
James A. McGregor, B.S., Asst. Animal Industrialist
Mary E. Keown, M.S., State Agent
Ethyl Holloway, B.S., District Agent
Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus, B.S.H.E., District Agent
Anna Mae Sikes, M.S., District Agent
Joyce Bevis, A.M., Clothing Specialist
Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter, B.S., Home Improvement Specialist
Grace I. Neely, M.S., Asso. Economist in Food Conservation
Lorene Stevens, B.S., State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Mrs. Gladys Kendall, A.B., Home Industries and Marketing Specialist
Floy Britt, B.S.H.E., Negro Home Demonstration District Agent
J. A. Gresham, B.S.A., Negro District Agent

SCooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
2In cooperation with U. S.


FLORIDA GOLD FOR HOME PANTRY SHELVES ......--------.........-- ................. 7
CITRUS FRUITS FOR NUTRITIONAL DIVIDENDS -----------------......-----...--_ 8
CITRUS FRUITS ESPECIALLY ADAPTED TO PRESERVING --....--................-------.------ 8
The Orange ---...........---------..--------.-...... 8
Kumquats ._------.. --- --..-...------ ......- 9
Limequats ......---------........---...... ...--- 9
Calamondin ----- -------------------- --------- 9
Glen Citrangedin -------- --- --------......... ... 10
Rangpur Lime --------------- ------ ---- 10
Ponderosa Lemon ___...-_--_ .. .......----- --... --- 11
Citron ...........--------.. ------------------ 12
"Kid Glove" Group ----------------------------------------------- 13
Pomelo or Grapefruit ...------- ----- -------- --------- 13
Oranges-Sour-Seville ....----..... ----------------------.-- 8-13
CANNING CITRUS FRUITS _...- --------------- 13
Grapefruit Segments 13
Orange and Grapefruit Segments--------- -------------- 15
CITRUS JUICES ....---------------------- -.15
Grapefruit Juice --------------------- 17
Orange Juice ---------------- --- 17
CITRUS PRESERVES .............--------------------- 17
Preserving Hints -----------------. 17
Cooking -...------------------------------ 18
Density of Syrup ------------- 18
Caution _--_-__-----------.-----. 19
Preserved Whole Kumquats, Number 1 ---------19
Preserved Whole Kumquats, Number 2 ....------------------------- 19
Grapefruit Preserves ....---------.--------------------- 20
Sour Orange Preserves --------------- 21
Florida Conserve .-- --------------21
JELLIES AND MARMALADES ...--- ------------------..........----- 21
Pectin --------------------- ------------------ 22
Alcohol Test for Pectin ---.... -------------- 22
Jelmeter Test for Pectin -...----.... ..-- 2...--------- 23
General Directions ----- ------------ -. --------------- 23
Kumquat Jelly .........------------------ 23
Sour Orange Jelly -...----------------------..... ...-.... 24
Grapefruit Jelly -------... ---- .........----- 24
Seville Orange Marmalade ----------------24
Sunshine Marmalade (Sweet Orange) ---- ------- 25
Orange Marmalade (Quick Method) ---------- -----25
Orange and Lemon Marmalade ----------- 26
Combination Marmalade --------------26
Grapefruit Marmalade, No. 1. ----------- 26
Grapefruit Marmalade, No. 2 ------------ 27
Golden Glow Marmalade -------------------------- 27
Grapefruit and Papaya Marmalade (Quick Method) ------- 27
Tart 'n Sweet Marmalade (Quick Method) .--...---------------------. 28
Tangerine Marmalade ...------- --------- ------------- 28
Satsuma Blend Marmalade (Quick Method) -------------- 28
Calamondin Marmalade (Quick Method) .....------------------_-------- 29

Kumquat Marmalade (Quick Method) ..------..-----------------. ...... 29
Calamondin-Kumquat Marmalade -------------------. --------.... ...-.. 30
Kumquat-Loquat-Limequat Marmalade (Quick Method) -....-----0-------... 30
Tropical Spread -----------...-.-...... 30
Lemon Marmalade ........-----------------.. ----- 31
Marmalade Stock-Canning for Future Use 1... .--------- ----....._ .... 31
BUTTERS AND JAMS --. -- --------.....--....---. ...-..... ....... 31
Orange Butter .-. -... .------------------.-... -..-.... 32
Kumquat Butter, Number 1 .--.....-..- ...---....-___--_------ 33
Kumquat Butter, Number 2 -----....-...._.----- ---.-__-.. ............. 33
Quick Tangerine Jam .-..-.--.- .. .---------_-------.. -.-...... 33
Orangequat Butter .. ---------------- -................... .... .-- 33
SWEET AND FERMENTED PICKLES -.-.......------------..........._--__._._...._ 33
Sweet Pickled Grapefruit --- -----------------... ... ...--.. 34
Sweet Pickled Kumquats ..-- -----------------35
Sweet Pickled Calamondins -------------------------- ... .. ... 35
Sweet Pickled Orangequats .-...- --------------.- --.. -...-- ....- 35
Tangerine Sweet Pickles --..-- ---------------..- --... ... -..... .... 35
Baked Pickled Orange Slices -. -- ----..-.. .. . .....---- ... _... 36
Pickled Kumquats-Fermented .---------------------------.. ...... 36
Citrus Syrups and Sweet Spiced Vinegar Syrups ------- --.. --.-.....___........- 37
CRYSTALLIZING CITRUS FRUITS ---..........--------------........... 37
The Crystallizing Process _. --------......------..... .... ....... 39
Utilizing the Crystallizing Syrups ----------..--..............---------- 40
Crystallized Whole Grapefruit ....__--- --------------.-.- --..... ... ... 41
Grapefruit Peel, Number 1 .... -----------.....--.._.._. .. .. ..._. _...... 41
Grapefruit Peel, Number 2 ----------.... -__...... ......-------------- 42
Grapefruit Peel, Number 3 -----------------------------------------------.... 42
Orange, Ponderosa Lemon, Shaddock, Seville or Sour Orange -----........_-- 43
Kumquat Chips __--.. ... ............- -----------43
Citrus Tutti-Frutti ----------------------------------------...--------- -----................ .. 43
Citrus Peel, Chocolate Dipped ----..----...-.-------.... ...... -------43
THE CITRON .--__ --..... __ --_-.--------------........ .. 44
Brining and Curing Citron ---.....__...---------.. -.---........---- 44
Preserving Citron -...--_--. ..__ .... .. ------------------- 45
THE SHADDOCK -...-...--.---------....-_. .........------ 46
Shaddock Sundae .........--------.---------- ....---- -.-- 46

Homemakers of Florida profit daily from the results of scien-
tific research and the forward progress of industry. Their
families enjoy improved nutrition and health, and their homes
gain in thrift and better management when thoughtful house-
wives avail themselves of recent advances made in the technology
of growing and conserving Florida food crops. In no place is
there better evidence of progress which benefits the homes of
this country than in the remarkable development in the Florida
citrus industry.
The citrus grower has done his part to provide a bountiful
supply of fine fresh fruit of numerous varieties and uses. Many
Florida people do not realize the extent of the citrus-growing
areas of this State, which produced 100 million boxes of fruit
last year to supply the fortunate consumer with citrus fruits to
be served in a variety of delectable ways.
The remarkable and comparatively recent advancement made
in the utilization and distribution of the great yearly citrus crop
provides a view of steady progress which can be noted with
justifiable pride.
Methods of preservation of citrus fruits have developed rapid-
ly. Because grapefruit yields the most stable canned juice,
grapefruit juice and segments were the first citrus products to be
canned and distributed. The first citrus canning plant was
established in 1915. The round orange has been canned to any
extent only since the middle nineteen-thirties. Today the many
difficulties encountered in their preservation have been mastered.
The orange now appears on the market as a sweetened or un-
sweetened juice, as a juice concentrate or beverage base, as a
juice blend with grapefruit juice, as whole sections in a syrup,
and as a "citrus salad," a combination of orange and grapefruit.
The newest development in Florida's $600,000,000.00. citrus
industry generally available to the housewife is the frozen concen-
trate, which overcomes the long-standing problems of bulk and
decay of fresh fruit. This concentrate was first manufactured
commercially in the 1945-46 season. Another quick-frozen
product with all the original flavor of the fresh fruit is orange
puree containing the fruit pulp, to be used for ice cream, sherbet
and pie fillings.
Modern citrus processing plants observe special precautions to
conserve quality, which includes the high degree of color and

flavor, and retain vitamins and other important constituents of
the fresh product.
The homemaker, working in her home kitchen or in the small
community center to conserve her citrus fruits, must meet the
same standard of high quality set up by the commercial canner if
her preserved citrus products are to be worthy of home consump-
tion. She will not try to duplicate some of the newer products
available to her on the market, and which require highly special-
ized equipment, but many delightful citrus creations are hers to
achieve when she follows carefully scientific directions and uses
the proper equipment, readily available to her at small cost.
Perhaps too the thoughtful home canner in her home labora-
tory-her kitchen-will learn methods and interesting combina-
tions which will provide useful suggestions to the industrial
canner in his larger field.
All Floridians and their friends here and in other states can
well become better acquainted with Florida citrus in its present-
day availability. They can well use the information at hand and
their energy to conserve the wonderful citrus fruits of Florida
for their own health and enjoyment, and for the wider use of this
valuable economic resource of our State.
State Home Demonstration Agent.
Fig. 1.-Home equipment for canning and preserving Florida citrus
products. Preserving kettle, heavy, smcoth finish; containers with air-
tight seal; jar filler; pressure cooker; grater; thermometer for testing
jellies and jams and temperature in cans; knives; ladle; wooden paddle
for stirring heavy jams and butters; wooden spoon; jar tongs; tongs for
handling hot lids, rubbers, etc.; stickers for puncturing kumquats and
other small citrus fruits; food chopper. Most of this equipment is found
in the well-stocked home kitchen.

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits
Economist in Food Conservation, Retired

Florida Gold for the Home Pantry
In Florida's citrus there may be found a gold mine of wonder-
fully attractive fruit. The diversity of appearance, color, texture,
flavor and quality presents a fascinating field to those interested
in preserving this sunny gold for their pantry shelves. These
fruits with interesting names-kumquats, limequats, orange-
quats, calamondins, tangelos, tangerines, pomelos, sweet and sour
Seville oranges, lemons and limes and many others-combine into
jellies, marmalades, butters, crushes, juices, syrups, relishes,
preserves, sweet spiced pickles, conserves and crystallized prod-
ucts that are not only beautiful to the eye but, better yet, tooth-
some and healthful.
These diverse citrus products have their unique place as
delicious "spreads" for sandwiches, for breakfast toast, griddle
cakes, waffles, hot biscuits and butter, and may be served as a
pudding sauce, as a dressing for ice cream sundae and in a
hundred other ways.
Citrus fruits have a variety of uses in fancy breads, cakes,
tarts and pastries. The juice may be used as liquid and the pulp
and peel as filling and flavor for cakes, pastry and puddings or be
combined with whipped cream and meringues. Fresh grated peel
lends itself to fine icings and frostings in a variety of delectable
The delightful culinary uses of citrus fruits are legion. Grape-
fruit, oranges and indeed all citrus fruits are excellent in salads
of all types and in any number of dessert combinations. They
may well form the basis of fruit appetizers, salads of all kinds,
meat and vegetable accompaniments, sauces, garnishes and
desserts, cooked and uncooked. Of their tart, zestful flavor, the
family never tire.
Spreads and relishes, sweet spicy preserves and pickles, con-
fections from pulp and peels-kumquat, calamondin, tangelo,
shaddock, to name only a few-each with its own intriguing flavor
and sparkle of beautiful color, are products seldom produced out-
side the home laboratory-the kitchen-and they await only the
skill and ingenuity of the woman who has a way with a ladle.
Florida homemakers have many pleasurable opportunities

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

ahead and a direct challenge today as useful citizens to learn to
use the great variety of citrus fruits of the state to best advan-
tage on their family tables.

Citrus Fruits for Nutritional Dividends
The established value of citrus fruits in nutrition is generally
well known today. Their value as healthful and delightful sources
of the needed minerals and vitamins, their importance in clinical
medicine and in preventing and curing disease is clearly recog-
nized. Today their vitamin content is rated as the most common
source of ascorbic acid or vitamin C and stressed as one of the
necessities of human life.
During war years citrus fruits took on added value and im-
portance in the diet of all people. It was then we were first urged
to make wider use of the portion commonly discarded. Research
had shown the peel of oranges, lemons and other citrus fruits
contained nearly three times as much vitamin C as the pulp and
juice. Hence, adding thin slices or grating of the peel to sauces,
spreads and desserts will not only give that likeable citrus flavor
but will add vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
The favorite citrus fruits of children are of the "kid glove"
group. Whether you call them mandarins or tangerines or satsu-
mas they are sweet, juicy and easy to peel. In addition, they
offer a bonus in nutrition. Like other citrus fruits, they contain
valuable vitamin C, as well as riboflavin and thiamin, two mem-
bers of the vitamin B family. To give extra good vitamin measure,
red-gold tangerines exceed both oranges and grapefruit in their
quantity of vitamin A, the vitamin so essential to good eyesight.

Citrus Fruits Particularly Adapted to Preserving
The citrus fruits discussed here provide peel and pulp well
suited for preserving. Limes, lemons and other comparable acid
fruits supply the acidity needed in preserved products to supple-
ment the mild flavor of the common orange. These fruits grow
well and yield bountifully in those areas visited only occasionally
by heavy frost. No Florida home garden should be without one
or more trees of the variety best suited to that locality.
The Orange.-All Floridians should be familiar with many of
the varieties of sweet oranges that are common to the citrus
areas. Certainly every home garden with the space should have
its early Hamlin, its mid-summer Pineapple perhaps and the
later maturing Valencia; or they should select the fine flavored

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

and textured Temple, one or more tangelos, some sweet and some
tart, according to family preference. Even if groves of sweet
oranges are widely found from Central Florida south, they
deserve generous space in the home yard too. Fine satsumas may
be generally grown over North Florida where the sweet orange
may seem not adaptable. Every family in Florida, old and young,
needs vitamin C and citrus fruits all supply that vitamin in the
most enjoyable way.
The Kumquat.-The kumquat, the smallest member of the
citrus family, bears early, abundantly and with never an "off"
year, given proper care. It is hardy, when on the right rootstock,
even in the northern-most sections of Florida. The skin of the
kumquat is spicy and aromatic and the pulp delightfully acid. It
enjoys the distinction of being the only citrus fruit that is always
eaten skin and all. Kumquats make excellent preserves, sweet
pickles, marmalades and jellies and are ideal for crystallizing.
The Nagami, the largest oblong kumquat, and the Marumi,
the smallest round kumquat, are both golden yellow in color, with
a sweet aromatic rind and very acid juice and pulp of fine flavor.
The Meiwa, larger than the round Marumi kumquat, has a pulp
that is of sweet and intriguing flavor and is considered the most
delightful of all for eating out of hand. Every home should have
at least one planting of both varieties of these fruits that for
centuries have played such an important part in the dietary of
the cultured Chinese.
The Limequat.-The limequat is an introduction of the United
States Department of Agriculture and is, as the name indicates,
a cross between the lime and the kumquat, with the yellow of the
lime, but none of the bitterness, and all the piquant flavor of the
kumquat. Limequats make excellent jellies, marmalades and
preserves with a lemon flavor. They may be used for making
"ade" and are excellent for use in any way that lemons are used
in general cookery.
The Calamondin or "Panama Lime."-The calamondin is a
small, beautiful, tangerine-like, very acid, very juicy fruit of high
color used for punch, and halved for tea or made into a heavy,
sundae-like syrup that both sweetens and flavors tea. For mar-
malades, preserving and crystallizing it has no equal. The cala-
mondin is perhaps the most ornamental of all citrus fruits and
deserves a place, not only for the beauty it lends to the garden
but for its almost continuous fruiting habit, a crop of orange-red
fruit maturing nearly every month in the year. Unlike most

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

fruits, the calamondin comes true to seed, but in order to secure
earlier fruiting, it is usually grown as a budded tree. It may be
budded on any of the common citrus stocks, except in northern
Florida. There, to insure hardiness and adaptability, trifoliate
orange stock should be used.
The Glen Citrangedin.-From crosses with the calamondin and
the citrange has come an interesting hybrid, the Glen Citrange-
din. The tree itself is hardier, of even more vigorous growth
and quite as ornamental as the calamondin. The fruit is of the
same shape, size and color, but is lime or lemon-like in flavor. No
home garden in Florida, especially in northern Florida, is com-
plete without some plantings of these attractive and valuable
small citrus fruits, budded to the rootstock best adapted to that
particular locality.
The Rangpur Lime.-The so-called Rangpur lime is larger
than the calamondin but has the same deep orange coloring; even

Fig. 2.-The Eustis limequat, a hybrid between lime and kumquat, is a
horticulturally hardy variety of the lime, having the acid pulp quality of
the key lime parent. The rind partakes of the kumquat character, making
it useful as a marmalade, preserving and crystallizing fruit. The Lake-
land limequat is a newer variety. (Cut reproduced from Journal of
Agricultural Research.)

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

Fig. 3.-The calamondin is a prolific and continuous fruiter, is very
acid, tangerine-like fruit of high color. Unequaled for marmalades, pre-
serving and crystallizing, the fresh fruit is used in punch and tea.
(Courtesy Citrus Experiment Station.)

the flesh is orange colored. The Rangpur lime may be used in the
same way lemons are used for seasoning food and making "ades."
In fact, many prefer it to the lemon, because of its high color
and tangy flavor. It makes a beautiful big tree and bears heavily.
Another "must" for home grounds.
The Ponderosa Lemon.-The ponderosa lemon resembles a
grapefruit in size and color, but is somewhat oblong in shape.
The whole fruit, with its thick, clean-cut, lemon-flavored peel,

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

cooks clear and translucent. It is a dwarf tree and starts pro-
ducing early.
Citron.-Fragrant, translucent, preserved citron, as found in
the grocery store during the mid-winter season and purchased
for use in fruit cakes and puddings, is usually an imported prod-
uct. Yet the citron of commerce, as distinguished from the citron
melon which grows on a vine, may be found growing thriftily and
fruiting heavily in many Florida dooryards in the citrus belt.

Fig. 4.-A calamondin tree growing in Pinellas County. This is a
prolific fruit. The distinctive deliciousness and dietetic value of this and
other citrus fruits have endeared them to millions.

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

This citrus fruit which resembles an enormous lemon of hand-
some appearance and delicious fragrance when mature has only
one use, the making of candied rind. (See page 45 for directions.)
The "Kid Glove" Group-The kid glove group-tangerines,
mandarins, Satsumas and Temple oranges-may be combined
into delicious variations of marmalades and jellies when used
with more acid citrus fruits such as limequats, lemons, limes, and
calamondins. These cook clear and colorful and may be blended
into many intriguing flavors.
The Pomelo or Grapefruit.-The grapefruit is most commonly
canned and made into juice and also preserved, spiced and
crystallized. The delicious, juicy segments or "hearts," as well
as the juice, are easily prepared ("sectionized") and may be
canned or frozen by means of ordinary household equipment, thus
insuring a year-round supply of this healthful, zestful, appetizing
The fact that properly canned or frozen grapefruit segments
have practically the same vitamin value as the fresh fruit should
be a matter of great satisfaction to those particular housewives
concerned with the family's food supply. Many there are who
enjoy the canned product, in all its ready availability, as much
as the fresh fruit.
The Old Spanish Adventurer, the Seville or Sour Orange.-
From the Seville or sour orange, brought to Florida during the
days of the early Spanish explorers, is manufactured the orange
marmalade with such a tang and aftertaste as to have made
England and Scotland famous in every corner of the globe. Just
as this popular delicacy, the Dundee marmalade, has established
a place for itself in the dietary of the entire world, so should this
or some other delightful tonic and appetite-and-digestion-awaken-
ing marmalade be served at breakfast in every Florida home. A
large proportion of the orange groves in Florida are budded or
grafted on sour stock. Often this rootstock may be found fruit-
ing at the doorstep-in remnants of nurseries and in other
places. Grapefruit, of course, substitutes admirably for the sour
orange where that bitter-sweet flavor is desired.
Canning Citrus Fruits
Grapefruit Segments.-Grapefruit segments are deservedly
popular in their ready-to-serve form, whether canned or frozen.
They are excellent for breakfast, fruit cocktails, salads in many
combinations and for desserts of all kinds. It is most important

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

that only fine, sound fruit, free from any unusual defects, be
used. No under or over-ripe, decayed or split fruits are suitable
for any canning or freezing purpose. The Duncan grapefruit is
considered one of the best to use; while the McCarty is perhaps
next in canning excellence. Both are seedy varieties. Some
years ago glass jars were commonly used for canning grapefruit
products. Today only tin is recommended for this purpose,
though glass may be used when freezing.
Wash and dry strictly good sound fruit of suitable variety.
Remove all peel and white membrane. Sharp knives are a "must,"
preferably of stainless steel. Peel the grapefruit round and
round like an apple is peeled. Cut only deep enough to remove
all white membrane with the peel. Or, if you prefer, peel from
stem to blossom end-first taking a slice from each end just cut-
ting into the segments, then holding the fruit on a cutting board,
slice off the peel starting at the top and cutting to the bottom
following the rounded surface of the fruit. Cut only deep enough
to remove the membrane with the peel and turn grapefruit as
needed. Trim off any bits of white membrane with the knife,
always kept razor sharp.
Now there is a juicy ball minus all rag, with all segments ex-
posed. Insert blade of knife close to membrane on one side of a
section near center of fruit. Cut loose this side of section from
inside to outer edge. Cut loose other side and ease out the
segment in one perfect piece, one by one. Remove any clinging
seeds, work over a bowl to catch any juice. If knife is kept
sharp, there need be little drip or waste.
Pack segments carefully in clean, hot, plain #2 cans, placing
rounded side next to tin. Alternate hearts in rows to perfect
good fit and fill. When half full add 1 to 2 tablespoons of heavy
sugar syrup (1 cups of sugar to 1 cup of water or grapefruit
juice boiled together until sugar dissolves). When filled solidly,
jar the container sharply to release any entrapped air bubbles.
Place on rack in water bath. The pressure cooker, if available, is
perhaps the most convenient appliance to use as a water bath.
Stagger rows of tins to allow a free circulation of steam up and
around them. Place cover on steamer or pressure cooker and
hold until center of can when tested with a thermometer registers
185 to 190 degrees F. Just as in making fine, standardized jellies
and marmalades, a thermometer is a necessity, so in preservation
of grapefruit juice and segments or "hearts" the thermometer is
needed in order to hold to the recommended temperatures. A

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

chemical or an accurate dairy thermometer may be used. Leave
thermometer in the cans only when reading the temperature.
Remove containers, one by one (see that they are completely
filled), then seal immediately. Drop in water bath registering
185 to 190 degrees F. and leave for 10 minutes at the same tem-
perature. Remove to cold or running water and cool as promptly
as possible. Do not store until all heat has left container. Store
in cool, dry, well ventilated pantry.
Orange and Grapefruit Segments.-Orange segments are to
be canned only in combination with grapefruit, using equal parts
of both fruit.

Freezing Citrus Products
The Florida Agricultural Experiment Station has issued
Bulletin 441, Freezing Fruits and Vegetables on Florida Farms,
giving the results of their research on methods of freezing Flor-
ida food products.
Few food products can match the production and sales record
made by commercially frozen concentrated orange juice in the
last four years, according to the USDA Bureau of Agricultural
Interest among Florida homemakers in learning desirable
methods of freezing for use in the homes is increasing rapidly as
home freezing equipment becomes a part of their household

Citrus Juices
Because grapefruit juice offers the most stable of all the
citrus juices, it is more widely and successfully canned than any
other variety of citrus. It holds second place in popularity in the
United States as a "before breakfast" appetizer and for the party
punch. Although the vitamin content of citrus juices is not their
only virtue, it has been largely responsible for bringing their use
into vogue, particularly in the diet of children. Therefore, juices
from citrus fruits should be from selected fruit, extracted and
processed or frozen so that they retain their original vitamin C
content and the full, fine flavor of the fresh fruit as nearly as
First of all, it is highly important that the juice used for
canning come from freshly picked, tree-ripened fruit, free from

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

any unusual defects, except that they
may be off size, blemished or perhaps
have some mechanical damage. The
quality of a food product cannot be any
1 better than the raw material from
which it is prepared. There is no magic
in canning methods that can introduce
rf or restore flavoring constituents lost
S through staleness, decay or other
means. Good juice can be made only
from freshly picked, sound fruit of a
suitable variety and of optimum matu-
Srity. Proper extraction of juice is also
highly important. There are many
Good devices for extracting the juice,
S- which should be reamed from the fruit.
The glass or porcelain juice cone is
Fig. 5.-New equipment satisfactory for preparing a small
now on the market makes amount of juice. For larger quantities
juice extraction easier and
more satisfactory, the mechanical juice extractor used at
soda fountains is especially good.
By use of this reaming method much of the rag and cell
tissue and oil is kept out of the juice. This is desirable because
there are substances in this "rag juice" brought out when the
fruit is crushed that considerably affect the keeping quality of
canned juices. There is danger also that when oil is introduced
it will impart a strong, objectionable flavor which becomes de-
cidedly worse upon storage of the juice. Extraction under condi-
tions that curtail the amount of air incorporated into the juice is
also important.
The juice to be canned must not be allowed to stand exposed
to air. The entire procedure from extraction to the final sterili-
zation process should be carried on continuously.
In some commercial plants the apparatus or equipment used
in canning juices permits the entire process being done in ap-
proximately 5 minutes. Such speed, of course, is not possible in
the home under the limited facilities available.
All home canners must realize that citrus juices, or indeed any
food product, will deteriorate and lose valuable constituents not
only in processing but also during improper storage. Too much
food is poorly handled by being over-cooked, by insufficient cool-
ing or by storing on kitchen shelves or in grocery store windows

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

where it may be exposed to both heat and light. Ask your Home
Demonstration Agent for directions for making a ventilated
Grapefruit Juice.-Collect all equipment needed for canning
before extracting the juice in order to complete the work in the
shortest time possible. This will tend to prevent change in flavor
and loss of vitamin C. Wash and dry fruit. Extract juice with
electric or hand reamers, being careful not to get too much of the
oil from the fruit peel or the "rag juice" in it. Strain out all seed
and coarse pulp or membrane. Work fast to avoid unnecessary
exposure to the air. Fill clean, hot, plain #2 cans and place on
rack in pressure cooker (use as a water bath) or wash boiler or
other vessel. .Heat rapidly until center of can registers 185 to 190
degrees F. Seal at once. If tin is not brimming full when ready
to be sealed, fill with hot juice from another can. Following seal-
ing, invert tin for 2 minutes to sterilize lid. Cool immediately in
cold water. Rapid cooling of the tin helps to retain the natural
flavor of the juice. Store in cool, dry place.
Orange Juice.-Fresh orange juice is delicious and healthful.
However, no satisfactory method has been devised for keeping
orange juice or segments canned in the home any great length of
time. In a bottle or tin in six to eight weeks orange juice tends
to lose its original fresh, delightful flavor and develop a stale
flavor. For this reason it is not recommended that it be canned
unless blended with the more stable grapefruit juice or perhaps
with tangelo (Sampson) juice, the latter being of high color,
flavor and acidity.
The use of sugar with citrus juices, particularly orange,
greatly decreases the tendency to develop "stale" or "off" flavors.
A mixture of orange juice, grapefruit juice, sour orange juice,
lemon, calamondin, Sampson or sweet tangelo or other acid juice
make a palatable and wholesome drink.
Mix 2 parts acid juice to 3 parts of sweet orange and grape-
fruit juice, add 2 to 3 parts of sugar to each gallon of juice, de-
pending upon the acidity of the juice. Stir until all sugar is dis-
solved. Seal at 1850 F. Sterilize for 10 minutes at 1850 to
190 F. To serve, dilute with twice its volume of water, carbon-
ated preferred.

Citrus Preserves
Preserving Hints.-A preserved fruit is one which has been
cooked in sugar syrup until it is clear, tender and transparent. It

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

should keep its form and plumpness and be crisp rather than
tough or soft. When finished, the cells of the fruit should be filled
with the flavored syrup in place of the fruit juice.
The small citrus fruits like the kumquats, limequats, orange-
quats and calamondins may be preserved whole. They should be
of good color and free of blemishes. The larger, heavier fruits,
as the sweet orange, bittersweets, grapefruit, ponderosa lemon
and shaddock, should be cut into convenient halves or quarters,
with or without inner pulp and juice cells removed, as preferred;
or a slice may be removed from one end, the inside pulp removed
and only the shells preserved.
Cooking.-When preserving these citrus fruits, cook them
tender in an abundance of water, after the outer rind has been
carefully removed by grating the larger fruits or after punctur-
ing the skins of the smaller fruits. In the case of the strong
flavored varieties, like grapefruit, shaddock and calamondin, it
may be necessary to parboil them in several changes of water to
rid them of excess undesirable flavor. Grating and puncturing
the skin allows for better sugar penetration and makes for a more
tender and delicious product. In these preliminary cooking the
fruits should always be kept well covered with water. Later when
in the syrup, if it is desired to keep the fruits in good shape, they
should have sufficient syrup to be completely submerged at all
times. The fruit should not be overly crowded in the kettle.
Begin preserving in a thin syrup and cook rapidly until fruit
is clear. Rapid cooking gives a light, bright product of good
color. Slow cooking produces a dark, dull, unattractive product.
Standing over night or longer immersed in the syrup to "plump"
gives a better product in color, flavor and texture. Cover kettle
tightly before removing from fire. Leave covered until cool.
Density of Syrup.-Uncooked fruit should never be dropped
in a heavy syrup, as the fruit will become tough and shriveled
from the fruit juices being drawn out too rapidly. The outside
of the fruit becomes coated with heavy syrup and little syrup can
enter the fruit. Hence the correct method is to build up gradually
a heavy syrup so it can permeate the fruit slowly and thoroughly,
thus avoiding shrinking and toughening. Allowing kumquats,
grapefruit and similar fruits to stand over night or longer
immersed in their syrup causes more of it to permeate the fruit
and reduces the cooking period. In fact, much of the fruit may
be prepared by very little cooking in the syrup. It is the hot
syrup in which they are submerged that will do the cooking. For

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

this reason, after being covered with the boiling hot syrup the
product is set aside and allowed to stand over night. The next
day the syrup is drained off, more sugar is added, the syrup is
reheated and added to the fruit and the product is left to stand
as before. Larger fruits require a longer time for finishing;
smaller fruits a shorter period. The essential point is that the
syrup should thoroughly permeate the fruit. The processes are
not difficult, but watchfulness, care, time and patience are re-
quired for quality products.
Caution.-Avoid cooking a small amount of fruit in a large
kettle, as evaporation takes place too rapidly over the broad
surface. Sufficient syrup should be used to cover the fruit com-
pletely at all times. Heavy aluminum or porcelain-lined kettles
are the best to use in preserving.

Preserved Whole Kumquats No. 1
2 pounds whole kumquats 2 pounds sugar
(after cooking) 1 quart water
Thoroughly clean the kumquats, rinse well and drain. If
necessary scrub the fruit with mild soap and warm water. Kum-
quats may or may not be given the soda bath. If soda is used,
either scald the kumquats with boiling soda water or sprinkle the
fruit with the dry soda (about 1 heaping tablespoon of soda to 1
quart of fruit), then cover with boiling water and let stand in the
soda bath 10 minutes. Pour the soda water off and rinse the
fruit thoroughly in two or three changes of cold water. Drain
well. Slit each kumquat with a sharp-pointed knife across the
sections to prevent them from bursting open while cooking and
to facilitate penetration of the syrup. Drop into an abundance
of boiling water and cook until tender. Drain. Boil the sugar
and water together for 10 minutes. Add the drained kumquats.
Cook until the fruit is shining, clear and transparent. Cover
tightly and allow to plump 24 hours. The fruit will keep its shape
better if the cooking is done in a partially covered kettle. Reheat
and pack the kumquats into sterilized jars. Strain and pour the
hot syrup over them. Seal immediately. Process pint jars for
10 minutes at 1800 F.

Preserved Whole Kumquats No. 2
Clean kumquats and puncture carefully. Drop into slightly
salted water, 1/3 cup salt to 1 quart water. Soak over night.
Next day pour off salted water, cover with fresh water and bring

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to a boil. Drain. Repeat twice in fresh water, cooking until
For 1 pint of fruit add 1/ pint of sugar, 1/4 pint orange blos-
som honey and 1 pint of water or orange juice. Drop fruit in the
boiling syrup. Simmer until clear and syrup is slightly thickened.
Cover tightly while still boiling. Remove from fire. Plump over
night in the same vessel. The second or third day place back on
fire and cook until syrup is heavy.
Pack in jars as suggested in previous recipe. If candied kum-
quats are desired for immediate consumption, drain, put on wire
racks to dry. When dry, roll in granulated sugar.
Note.-A group of 5 or 6 copper nails placed in a circle about %s to
3/16 inch apart in a wooden spatula is convenient and effective for punc-
turing small fruits like kumquats, limequats and calamondins. A stainless
steel skewer also is good for puncturing. Puncture both blossom and
stem ends. Thus treated, the fruit is not as likely to burst or split in
cooking as when cut with a knife.

Grapefruit Preserves

Select well ripened grapefruit of good color and thick peel.
Wash. Grate carefully, removing all the yellow rind. Remove
peel and cut it into strips 1/ inch wide. If preferred the pulp may
be left in the fruit and the fruit cut in halves, fourths or eighths
or in fancy shapes, removing only the seed. To 1 pound of fruit
add 3 pints or more of cold water. Bring slowly to a boil. Boil
for 10 minutes. Change water and bring to a boil again. Boil for
another 10 minutes. Taste liquid on peel; if very bitter, drain
off and renew. If only slightly bitter, boil peel until tender. Drain.
Make syrup by using 3/4 pound of sugar to 1 pint of water for
each pound of peel taken and boil until sugar is dissolved. Add
drained peel to syrup. Boil rapidly until peel is clear and syrup
heavy. Cover and let stand 24 hours. Then add the juice from
the grapefruit used and 1/ cup sugar. Cook until peel is beauti-
fully clear, tender, yet firm and well-flavored and the syrup is
heavy. If evaporation during cooking is great it may be necessary
to add a little boiling water or grapefruit juice at times in order
to keep plenty of syrup on peel. Let stand 24 hours again. The
preserves may be packed cold. Strain syrup through cheesecloth,
bring -to a boil and pour over preserves. Seal. Simmer pints 15
miintes, having jars completely immersed in the simmering

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

Sour Orange Preserves
Cut or grate off the outer oil cells from the oranges. Cut in
halves, squeeze out juice, being careful not to break the peel. Put
the orange halves into an abundance of water and boil 10 min-
utes. Change to fresh water and boil again. Repeat until as
much of bitter flavor is removed as desired and fruit is tender.
(Many prefer the bitter flavor left in the fruit.) Drain. Boil in
syrup made of 1 part sugar and 1 part water, until fruit is trans-
parent. As syrup boils down, add water to keep at original
When transparent, cover; remove from fire and allow to stand
over night. The next day add the juice previously removed from
the fruit and held in refrigerator and cook again until syrup is
somewhat thickened. Pack in hot, sterilized jars, strain the
syrup over the fruit. Seal and process 10 minutes at simmering.
Florida Conserve
2 cups grapefruit pulp 1/ cup seeded raisins
2 cups orange pulp 1/2 cup grated pineapples
3 cup nut meats (canned)
Peel from one orange run 2 cups sugar
through chopper
To finely cut orange peel add 1 cup water and boil gently 10
minutes, cover and set aside to cool. If fresh pineapple is used
cover the pineapple with water and boil briskly for 5 minutes
before adding to other fruit. Pineapple contains an enezyme
which will act upon the pectin and prevent the mass from jelling
unless this enzyme is destroyed by a sufficiently high tem-
Mix the grapefruit pulp, orange pulp and orange peel and boil
gently for 20 minutes. Add the sugar and when the sugar has
dissolved add the pineapple. Cook until the mass thickens and
will give the jelly test. Add the nuts and raisins, boil for 2 min-
utes, put into sterilized glasses and seal.

Jellies and Marmalades
Of all the many fruit jams and jellies, citrus marmalades and
jellies are the best suited for serving with hot toast, muffins and
biscuits. Literally thousands of families start the day right in
many parts of the world by using a zestful orange marmalade.
With the opening of the Florida citrus season in the fall and
winter months, the many colorful and flavorful citrus fruits
should receive the enthusiastic attention of the particular Florida
housewife who wishes to add interest and enjoyment to her menu.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

In addition to being an excellent sandwich spread, marmalades
may be used as a filling for cakes and pies, as a pudding sauce;
as an accompaniment for meats, griddle cakes, toast and waffles,
for many cooking purposes, to make marmalade biscuit, to flavor
cakes, pastry, fancy breads, frostings, sundae dressings, and for
other special purposes.
A good marmalade should be bright and clear, free from all
cloudiness, with the pulp and peel suspended in the jellied juice.
The jelly should be sufficiently soft to spread easily, the solids
evenly distributed throughout and transparent to translucent,
according to the variety of citrus fruit used. Most citrus fruits
cook to the utmost transparency. However, the sweet orange and
some few others do not. The fruits should be in thin, uniform
shreds or slices of a length that allows for ease in serving. While
the fruits used may be prepared either by slicing thinly or by
grinding through the food chopper, a sliced marmalade rates the
higher of the two types in appearance and nicety.
Pectin.-Pectin, as well as acid, is necessary for making high
quality jellies and marmalades. Citrus fruits in general are rich
in pectin when used at the proper stage of their maturity. Both
acid and pectin content varies with the different citrus fruits and
may vary also with the season or locality. A powdered pectin
made from lemons can be bought at many grocery stores, to be
used according to the detailed directions supplied by the manu-
facturer. Pectin made from citrus fruits is preferable for use in
making citrus jellies and marmalades when additional pectin is
desired. Its use is optional but may give a more firm jelly when
the condition of the fruit for jelly making is questioned. Slicing
the peel very thin facilitates the extraction of pectin and flavor-
ing constituents. Fruits lacking both acidity and pectin, like
tangerines for instance, should be combined with those high in
acidity, like lemons and limequats.
Alcohol Test for Pectin.-This test, while not altogether
accurate, has its practical value. Either pure grain or denatured
alcohol may be used. Into a small glass or cup put 1 tablespoon
of the cooled jelly stock. Gently add to this 1 tablespoon of
alcohol. Mix by gently turning the container from side to side.
Let stand half a minute. If the pectin forms a single large lump
of jelly-like material, it is safe to add an equal amount of sugar
to stock. If the pectin "precipitate" is slightly broken, use only
one-half to three-fourths amount of sugar to one of stock. If the
pectin is in small flecks, the stock has not sufficient pectin to

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

make a good jelly. Watch carefully, as there may be a tendency
for the pectin to go back into solution in a short time.
Jelmeter Test for Pectin.-Measuring the viscosity or rate of
flow of the jelly stock with a jelmeter is another means of de-
termining the pectin content. By following the simple directions
which come with the jelmeter (a tube similar to a graduated
pipette) this test is easily made. The tube is inexpensive and
easy to use. If interested, ask the County Home Demonstration
Agent where purchase can be made.
General Directions for Making Jellies and Marmalades.-
Weigh or measure the combined fruit pulp and water. Use sugar
at the rate of 8/ to 1 pound per pound of fruit, depending on the
acidity of the fruit and the amount of pectin present. The jelly
stock is boiled until the fruit is tender. The mixture is usually
allowed to stand for several hours. Then the required amount of
sugar is added and the cooking is continued rapidly until the
jelly stage is reached. The mixture must be allowed to cool
slightly with gentle stirring before being poured into the contain-
ers. This permits an even distribution of the peel throughout the
jelly, rather than rising to the top when poured in the jar. The
containers should be filled, sealed and processed below simmering
for 10 minutes, for 12 ounce or pint jars to insure a perfect seal.
The above directions cover the open kettle or "long" method.
All marmalades can be made by this method or by the "quick"
method, using a pressure cooker or pressure pan. Directions for
using the "quick method" are included in some of the recipes.
Kumquat Jelly
1 lb. kumquats 1%' pints water 1 lb. sugar
The kumquats are washed, scraped, cleaned thoroughly and
cut in slices. For each pound of fruit add 11/2 pints water. Boil
for 15 minutes. Cover and set aside over night. Boil again about
5 minutes. Remove from heat and allow to stand for 1 hour.
Pour into a flannel jelly bag, press to obtain all possible juice.
Drip through another bag to remove all particles of fruit. Place
juice in a kettle and bring to a boil. Add 1 pound of sugar for
each pound of fruit taken. Stir until the sugar is thoroughly
dissolved. Continue boiling until it reaches the jellying point.'
I A chemical or a candy thermometer may be used as an aid in de-
termining when jelly is cooked sufficiently. A good thermometer may
be purchased for as little as $1.50 and is a splendid investment for the
housewife or club girl who wishes to take the guess out of jelly and
marmalade making. Jellying point of citrus fruits varies from 219 F. to
222F., depending on maturity of fruit, variety and other conditions. Use
both spoon and thermometer test.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

The jellying point is determined by dipping a spoon or wooden
paddle into the boiling solution and then holding it above the
kettle, allowing the syrup to drop. When it drops in thick, re-
luctant flakes or sheets from the spoon, pour immediately into
clean, sterilized jelly glasses fitted with air-tight caps. If such
type covers are lacking, when jelly is cold, pour hot paraffin over
it and store away in cool, dry place.

Sour Orange Jelly
1 lb. peeled sour 2 pts. water
oranges 1 lb. sugar
The sour orange jelly is made by preparing the juice as di-
rected in recipe for sour orange marmalade. No peel is used in
the jelly. For each pound of fruit taken add to the juice 1 pound
of sugar. This is boiled until it reaches the jellying point, about
220 F. Pour into sterilized jelly glasses. Seal. Process if

Grapefruit Jelly
1 lb. peeled 2 pints water
grapefruit % pound sugar
After the peel has been removed, weigh the fruit, cut into
small pieces, place in a kettle and for each pound of grapefruit
add 2 pints of water. Boil until it thoroughly cooks. Pour into
a flannel jelly bag and press until no more juice can be obtained.
Drain this juice into a kettle and bring to a boil. Add 3/ pound
of sugar for each pound of fruit. Continue boiling until the jelly-
ing point has been reached. Fill sterilized jelly glasses. Seal.

Sour (Seville) Orange Marmalade
1 lb. peeled sour oranges 1/3 of peel removed from oranges
2 pts. water 11/2 lbs. sugar
Preparation of Peel.-Wash fruit. Remove peel. Discard
two-thirds of the peel, reserving the third freest from blemish,
and with a knife remove any blemishes that may be on the peel.
Cut this peel in thin slices. Place in a kettle and add'water (4
times weight of peel). Boil 10 minutes, then drain. Repeat this
process from 3 to 5 times, each time boiling the water for 5 min-
utes. Peel should be tender. Bitter taste may be removed by
changing the water a sufficient number of times.
Preparation of Juice.-After the peel has been removed,
weigh the remaining fruit, cut into small pieces, place in a kettle
and for each pound of orange taken add 2 pints of water. Bdil

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

until it thoroughly disintegrates. Pour into a flannel jelly bag
and press until no more juice can be obtained. Strain this juice
again through a clean flannel jelly bag without pressing.
Making the Marmalade.-Pour this juice into a kettle, add
peel and bring to a boil. Add 11/2 pounds of sugar for each pound
of fruit. Continue the boiling until the jellying point has been
reached, which is indicated by the flaking or sheeting from spoon.
When over-ripe oranges are used, the amount of sugar should
be reduced to 11/4 pounds for each pound of fruit.
Sunshine Marmalade
When oranges have been cut in halves and the juice has been
squeezed from them or the pulp removed with a spoon, a delicious
marmalade may be made from what remains. Separate the rind
and the membranous skin or rag that covers the section of fruit.
Discard the rag.
Shred peel very thinly or put the peel through a food chopper.
To the shredded or chopped peel add twice its weight in water
and 2 tablespoons lemon juice for each cup of water used. Let
this stand for 1 hour, then add the same amount of water as
originally taken and boil gently for 3 minutes, cover and set aside
to cool. When cold, press through a jelly bag to extract the juice.
Keep one-half of the prepared peel to add later to the boiling
juice. Test for pectin and add such an amount of sugar as the
pectin test indicates that the juice will carry. Bring to a boil,
add one-half of the prepared peel and cook until the jellying point
is reached (2200 F. or 1060 C.).
Orange Marmalade-Quick Method
1 pound, or 3 to 4 medium oranges, /4 cup sliced lime
or 3 cups sliced oranges or lemon
Preparation of Stock.-Select ripe, firm, bright-colored fruit.
Wash. Grate lightly to remove outer rind. Remove stem end
from fruit. Cut fruit into thin slices. Keep knife sharp. Cut
slices into quarters. Remove seeds and core. Measure. Place
in pressure saucepan. Add 2 cups of water for each cup of sliced
fruit. Cook at 10 pounds pressure for 3 minutes. Cool cooker
4 cups of orange marmalade stock 1 teaspoon citrus pectin
4 cups of sugar (optional)
Making Marmalade.-Measure 4 cups marmalade stock. Place
in heavy kettle. Add 4 cups sugar slowly. Mix 1 teaspoon citrus
pectin thoroughly with last of sugar before adding to stock. Stir

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

gently until sugar is dissolved. Boil rapidly until jelly stage is
reached, which is indicated by the flaking or sheeting from the
spoon (about 20 minutes to reach 2200 F.). Cool to about 1800 F.
Pour into sterilized containers. Seal immediately.
NOTE: If desired, 3 cups of sugar to 4 cups of marmalade
stock may be used. This makes a more tart marmalade.

Orange and Lemon Marmalade
4 medium or 4 lemons
3 large oranges
Slice the fruit, unpeeled, paper thin. Measure and add 5 times
as much cold water as fruit. Allow to stand from 12 to 24 hours,
then boil vigorously for 35 to 45 minutes. This should render
peel tender and reduce quantity one-half. Measure into 2 or 4-
cup lots. Cooking 4 cups or less at one time gives better flavor
and color.
If oranges are rather sweet or over-ripe, add additional lemon
juice-about 1 tablespoon to 1 cup fruit. Boil 8 minutes. Add
,/4 cup sugar for each cup of fruit. Boil rapidly until the jelly
point is reached.
Pour into hot, sterilized glasses or seal in jars. This yields
12 to 18 glasses.
The tree-ripened Florida Villa Franca, Perrine or Meyer lemon
is ideal for jelly or marmalade making.

Combination Marmalade
1 orange 1 grapefruit
1 lemon Sugar
(Shredded pineapple optional)
Wash and run the fruit through a food chopper, add 3 times
the bulk of water, boil for 15 minutes and let stand over night.
Next morning boil for 15 minutes, or until the peel is tender, and
let stand again. When cold measure pint for pint of marmalade
stock and sugar and cook over a rapid fire until jelly stage is
reached (2220 F.). A variation may be made in this by the addi-
tion, when sugar is added, of 1 cup or less of shredded pineapple
previously boiled for 5 minutes, used fresh.

Grapefruit Marmalade No. 1
1 lb. grapefruit 1 lb. sugar
2 pts. water (based on pectin test)
1/3 peel removed from grapefruit
This marmalade is made by following the same directions as
for making sour orange marmalade.

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

Grapefruit Marmalade No. 2
A second method of making grapefruit marmalade which
gives a product that is but slightly bitter is as follows:
Peel the grapefruit, remove and discard the white mem-
branous skin that covers the pulp. Measure the pulp and for
each cup of pulp taken add 1 cup of water and boil gently 20 min-
utes. Cover and set aside until cold. Strain a small portion of
the juice and test for pectin. If the pectin precipitate is very
light, return the vessel to the fire and boil the contents for 5 min-
utes more. Cover and set aside until cold. Strain the juice
through a jelly bag, pressing the fruit so as to obtain all the
juice. Strain through a second bag without pressing to remove
particles of fruit from the juice. Test the juice so obtained for
pectin and determine the amount of sugar to be used for each cup
of juice that is taken. Bring the juice to a boil. Add the sugar
and peel prepared as in Recipe No. 1, boil until the mixture
reaches the jelly point.
Golden Glow Marmalade
Wash grapefruit, peel with knife, leaving on the white mem-
branous skin or "rag" that lies under the peel. Break in half and
cut out tough, pithy portion of rag that lies in central part of
fruit around seed, discarding both pith and the seed. Cut sections
of fruit and rag in half inch slices lengthwise.
To each measure of pulp add 3 measures of water. Let stand
over night, then boil gently until rag is tender, about 1/2 to 3/
hour. Let stand again over night, then measure. Add pint for
pint of sugar, 1/2 as much grated pineapple, and cook rapidly until
jelly stage is reached (222 F.). Pour into sterilized jars and
seal immediately.

Grapefruit and Papaya Marmalade-Quick Method
2 cups sliced grapefruit (1 medium-sized grapefruit)
2 cups diced or sliced papaya
8 cups water
Preparation of Marmalade Stock.-Select ripe, firm grape-
fruit and a papaya. Wash. Peel yellow outer rind from fruits.
Divide into quarters. Remove core and seeds. Using sharp knife,
slice quarters of fruits into slices about 1/8 inch thick and about
2 inches in length. Measure each fruit, firmly packing the
measuring cup. Place fruits in pressure cooker. Add twice as
much water as fruit by measure. Cook at 10 pounds pressure for
3 minutes. Cool quickly.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Making the Marmalade.-
4 cups of marmalade stock (grapefruit and papaya)
4 tablespoons limequat, lime or lemon juice
4 cups sugar
1 teaspoon citrus pectin (optional)
Measure 4 cups marmalade stock and add limequat or other
sour juice. Place in kettle and bring to a boil. Add slowly 4 cups
sugar to which the citrus pectin has been added. Stir gently until
dissolved. Boil rapidly until jelly test is obtained (about 35 min-
utes to 222 F.). Remove from fire, cool slightly, then pour into
sterilized jars and seal at once.

Tart 'n Sweet Marmalade
3 cups grapefruit marmalade stock 1% cup calamondin marmalade stock
12 cup crushed or finely chopped 4 cups sugar
pineapple 1 teaspoon citrus pectin (optional)
Measure grapefruit and calamondin marmalade stock. Place
in kettle and bring to a boil. Add pineapple. Add equal parts of
sugar. Mix the citrus pectin thoroughly with the last cup of
sugar before adding to the marmalade stock. Stir gently until
sugar is dissolved. Boil rapidly until jelly is reached (approxi-
mately 20 minutes to reach 222 F.). Remove from heat. Cool
slightly. Pour into sterilized containers. Seal.

Tangerine Marmalade
3 lbs. tangerines 3 large lemons
Sugar 1 teaspoon pectin
Quarter tangerines but do not remove peel. Slice very thin,
removing all seeds. Add finely shredded or sliced lemons. Meas-
ure fruit and add 5 times as much water. Boil until quantity is
reduced nearly one-half-from 1 to 11/4 hours. For light amber
marmalade, cook 2 to 3 cups at a time. Add 3/4 cup sugar to each
cup boiling fruit and continue boiling until it gives the jelly test
of thick heavy drops from the side of a spoon. It will take 10 to
20 minutes. Pour into sterilized glasses and seal.
Serve with hot toast, biscuit or as meat accompaniment. This
marmalade may be used also in cooking to flavor icings, making
cake fillings and so on.

Satsuma Blend Marmalade-Quick Method
2 cups satsuma, thinly sliced or ground 6 cups water
S1 cup kumquat and citrangedin sliced or ground Sugar
1 teaspoon powdered pectin

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

Preparation of Marmalade Stock.-Select ripe, firm, brightly
colored fruit and wash thoroughly. Grate all fruit except kum-
quats lightly to remove outer rind. Remove stem and blossom end
of satsuma. Cut fruit into thin slices, discarding seed; or if pre-
ferred, grind fruit with a food chopper, using coarse blade.
Measure and add 2 cups of water for each cup of prepared fruit.
Cook in pressure cooker at 10 pounds pressure for 3 minutes.
Cool immediately.
Making Marmalade.-Place 4 cups marmalade stock in kettle.
When boiling add slowly 3 cups sugar mixed with the pectin.
Stir until sugar is dissolved, then boil rapidly until jelly stage
is reached. This is indicated by the flaking or sheeting from
the spoon (about 30 minutes to 2220 F.). Cool to 180 F. to expel
air bubbles. Pour into sterilized containers. Seal immediately
if containers with hermetic (air-tight) tops are used.

Calamondin Marmalade-Quick Method
Preparation of Marmalade Stock.-Select solid, well-colored
fruit. Wash fruit. Place fruit in kettle. Add 1 tablespoon bak-
ing soda for each quart of fruit. Add boiling water to cover fruit.
Cover kettle and let stand for 10 minutes. Pour off hot soda
water. Wash thoroughly several times in cold water. Cut cala-
mondins into rings or small pieces, using a sharp knife, and re-
move seeds. If preferred, grind fruit in the food chopper, using
coarse blade. Measure fruit. Place in pressure cooker. Add 3
cups of water for each cup of fruit. Cook at 10 pounds pressure
for 3 minutes. Cool cooker quickly.
3 cups calamondin marmalade stock 3 cups sugar
1 teaspoon powdered pectin (optional)
Making the Marmalade.-Measure marmalade stock. Place in
kettle and bring to a boil. Add sugar slowly, stirring until dis-
solved. Mix pectin with sugar if used. Boil rapidly until jelly
stage is reached (approximately 20 minutes to 222 F.). Remove
from heat. Cool for few minutes to expel air bubbles. Pour into
sterilized containers and seal immediately.

Kumquat Marmalade-Quick Method
Preparation of Marmalade Stock.-Prepare according to direc-
tions given in Calamondin Marmalade recipe.
Making the Marmalade.-
4 cups kumquat marmalade stock 3 cups sugar
1 teaspoon powdered pectin (optional)

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Prepare according to directions given for Calamondin Marma-

Calamondin and Kumquat Mixture
1 z cups calamondin marmalade 1% cups kumquat marmalade stock
stock 1 teaspoon pectin (optional)
3 cups sugar
Use marmalade stocks prepared according to directions given
in Calamondin Marmalade recipe. Measure marmalade stocks.
Place in kettle with heavy bottom. Bring to a boil. Add sugar
mixed with pectin slowly. Stir gently until sugar is dissolved.
Cook rapidly until jelly stage is reached (approximately 20 min-
utes to 2220 F.). Remove from heat. Cool for few minutes to
expel air. Pour into sterilized containers. Seal immediately in
air-tight containers.

Kumquat-Loquat-Limequat Marmalade-Quick Method
2 cups sliced kumquats 2 cups loquat2 meats, peeled, seed
firmly packed and inside membrane removed
/2 cup limequat, lime or lemon, include all juice
Marmalade Stock.-Select fruit (all kinds), ripe, firm, bright
colored. Wash fruit. With sharp knife cut kumquats and lime-
quats crosswise into thin circles, discarding seed. Measure. Place
in pressure cooker. Add 3 cups of water for each cup of fruit.
Cook at 10 pounds pressure for 3 minutes.
Making Marmalade.-Put 4 cups of the above marmalade
stock in pan with a heavy bottom. Bring to a boil. Add 3 cups
of sugar. Boil rapidly until jelly stage is reached (about 25 min-
utes to 2220 F.). Remove from fire. Let stand a few minutes for
air bubbles to disappear, stirring gently. Pour into hot jars and
seal immediately. Store in dark, cool, well-ventilated pantry.

Tropical Spread-
1 cup calamondin marmalade stock 21 cups kumquat, loquat and
V2 cup crushed pineapple limequat marmalade stock
3 cups sugar

2 The loquat, a beautiful evergreen tree, may well be termed an "eco-
nomic ornamental". It is one of the hardiest of the sub-tropical trees
and grows well over most of the state, perhaps reaching perfection in
the Orlando, Tampa, Brooksville areas. The fruit ripens from February
to April when other fruit is scarce. The fruit, often called "Japanese
plum," grows in open clusters, has yellow and orange colored skins and
white or orange colored flesh and makes zippy, zestful eating. The
orange-fleshed varieties are sweeter than the white ones but all are de-
lightful when well mature. Loquat jelly is most delicious and a loquat
pie is a gastronomic treat. Only those trees bearing large, fleshy fruits
should be grown. Even if no fruit is ever set, the tree would deserve
a place on the home grounds for its ornamental value alone.

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

Measure marmalade stocks as previously prepared and place
in kettle. Add pineapple. When boiling point is reached stir in
sugar. Boil rapidly until jelly stage is reached (approximately
25 minutes to 2220 F.). Remove from fire. Cool until air bub-
bles disappear. Pour into sterilized containers and seal immedi-
Lemon Marmalade
Cut firm, brightly colored lemons in very thin slices, discard-
ing only the seeds. Allow one orange to each 6 lemons, cutting
it also into very thin slices, or use sliced kumquats instead of the
orange. Measure the fruit and mix each quart of fruit with
3 quarts of cold water. Cover and let stand over night. Next day
boil rapidly until the fruit is tender, measure and add 1 cup
sugar to each cup fruit. Heat slowly to boiling point, then boil
rapidly until the mixture gives the jelly test. Pour into hot jars
and seal.
Marmalade Stock
Marmalade stock may be prepared for later finishing by boil-
ing thinly sliced or ground sweet and sour oranges, grapefruit,
limequats, lemons, or calamondins, or a mixture of any of the
fruits with water and then canning the product so obtained by
packing boiling hot in sterilized containers and sealing. It will
be rich in pectin and acid if prepared before the fruit becomes
over-ripe. The mixture will be amber in color, slightly cloudy,
and possess the characteristic flavor of the cooked fruit.
When concentrated by boiling with the proper proportion of
sugar it should yield a clear, firm jelly of pleasing color and
flavor. It is necessary that the mixture of thinly sliced peel and
the juice be cooked only until tender-without sugar. Place in
tins, preferably citrus enamel, while boiling hot, 185-200 F.
Seal immediately. Sterilize pints 10 minutes at boiling. Cool
immediately and store in cool place. When wanted for marmalade
making, add required amount of sugar and cook to jelly stage.
By preparing jelly or marmalade stock in this way, small lots
of jelly or marmalade may be prepared at any time of the year,
and the storage of large quantities of jelly or marmalade in
paraffin covered glasses may be avoided.

Butters and Jams
Citrus butters and jams are easy to prepare, economical of
sugar, and are wholesome, healthful spreads for hot breads,

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

snacks and lunch boxes. They may be made from oranges, kum-
quats or calamondins alone, but preferably are made in combina-
tions with grapefruit, tangelo, lime or a bit of tangerine.
Papaya, pineapple or loquat may be added for other interesting,
pleasing flavors. Kumquats alone make a particularly pleasing
The whole fruit is used, the peel of large fruit is grated, and
seed and hard cores or pith removed. Pulp and peel are cooked
until tender in a measured amount of water, then worked through
a sieve to obtain a smooth consistency. Sugar is added with
some additional fruit juice and cooked rapidly to a thick butter-
like spread. A small wooden paddle, similar to a butter paddle,
is needed for stirring these thick mixtures. A paddle may be
fashioned easily of non-resinous wood by the handy man of the
The pressure cooker is an ideal cooking utensil to use for
tendering the peel and pulp. Its use reduces the cooking time
from several hours needed with the old-time way to less than 10
minutes when the pressure cooker or pressure saucepan is used.
In addition, there is less loss of valuable food elements when the
product is cooked in a closed container, in the absence of air, as
in the pressure saucepan or cooker.
Caution.-All butters should be cooked rapidly and in small
quantities to retain the desired flavor and color.
Do not over-cook. The product thickens considerably when

Orange Butter
Orange butter spreads better than most marmalades or jellies,
and is not so sweet. It is especially popular with children.
The fruit is washed, the stems and blemish spots being care-
fully removed. It is then cut into slices or small pieces or run
through a food chopper, covered with water and cooked until the
peel is tender; usually this takes two or three hours. Put through
a fruit press or sieve to insure a smooth texture.
Sugar is added, 1/2 pound for each pound of cooked fruit. The
mixture is cooked rapidly with constant stirring until the desired
consistency is reached. It is best cooked slightly beyond the
jellying point. The addition of a small amount of shredded pine-
apple gives another likeable flavor.

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

Kumquat Butter No. 1
Wash and scrape thoroughly ripe, juicy kumquats. Cut in
half and take out all seed. Run halves through food chopper,
using medium blade. Measure ground fruit. For each cup of
ground fruit measure 1/2 cup of sugar and set aside. To each
cup of ground kumquats add 3/ cup water. Let stand 2 hours.
Put in smooth saucepan, preferably heavy aluminum, and cook
rapidly until peel is tender and pulp is thickened. Now add sugar,
continue cooking, stirring gently from bottom of kettle until
thick and clear. Pour into small jars. Seal and simmer 10
Kumquat Butter No. 2
Prepare kumquats as in preceding recipe. Put through food
chopper. Measure. To each measure of fruit add 1 measure of
water and cook for 20 minutes. Allow to stand over night. To
each cup of this mixture-add % cup sugar and cook rapidly until
it gives the jelly test.
This recipe makes a product that is lighter in color and more
jelly-like in consistency than No. 1, and is of a delicate, delightful
flavor that is liked generally.

Quick Tangerine Jam
(Makes 2 glasses)
2 cups tangerine, pulp and 1 tsp. grated tangerine rind
juice 1% cups sugar
1 lemon, pulp and juice
Be sure seeds are removed from tangerine pulp and juice.
Combine ingredients and boil quickly about 10 minutes, or until
syrupy and clear. Very good served warm on hot biscuit. Also
makes a splendid dressing for ice cream.

Orangequat Butter
Peel orangequats. Discard peel. Cut pulp in pieces. To
each pound of fruit used add 1 quart of water. Let boil for 20
minutes and put aside until thoroughly cool. Put through a
food mill or sieve to remove pith and seeds. To this amount of
stock add measure of sugar for measure of stock and cook to
the jellying point, 2220 F. Put in jars and seal while hot.

Sweet and Fermented Pickles
Delicious and most interesting pickles may be made from all
the citrus fruits that can be preserved. Grapefruit in particular,

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kumquats, orangequats, calamondins, citragedins, which Florida
grows so well, can be made into the most delectable and
inimitable sweet pickles. Grapefruit, shaddock, Seville orange
and other large citrus fruits should be carefully grated and cut
into convenient halves, quarters or strips, as desired; the smaller
fruits, like kumquats, should be left whole. These fruits when
preserved can easily be made into pickles by draining off the
rich preserve syrup and adding to it a small amount of high
grade vinegar, lemon juices and whole spices-cinnamon, cloves,
allspice and ginger being preferred usually Pour this boiling hot
spiced syrup over the preserves and allow to stand to permeate
and penetrate the fruit. Within the next day or two, drain off
the syrup, reheat and repeat the operation until the fruit is
thoroughly saturated and flavored and is clear, translucent and
With some of the more acid citrus fruits, a higher proportion
of sugar, 3/4 pound to 11/4 pound of fruit, produces a finer quality
product than when less sugar is used. Spices should be tied
loosely in a cheesecloth bag and be pounded lightly to increase
the flavor.
These sweet pickles call for several boiling of syrup, which is
poured back, boiling hot, over the fruit on successive days rather
than giving one long cook. Too much cooking will spoil the
shape and texture. On the other hand, too short a cook, when
being made tender in water, will result in slow penetration of the
sugar, dark color and toughness. Citrus preserves and pickles
should never be "mushy" or excessively soft. At all times have
sufficient syrup to cover the fruit well.
Sweet Pickled Grapefruit
The grapefruit shells left from the breakfast or other service
may well be used for this delicious and unique pickle. The whole
fruit may be used, leaving the segments intact, or they may be
removed as preferred.
Wash and grate carefully, removing all the yellow rind. Leave
in halves or cut into convenient quarters or in half-inch strips.
Allowing fruit to stand 24 hours in salt-water tends to remove
bitter flavor if it is objectionable. Cover abundantly with water
and bring slowly to a boil and boil 10 minutes. Then change
water and bring to boil as before. Taste liquid and, if too bitter,
drain off and renew. When of desired flavor, boil peel until
tender. Drain and add peel to a syrup made by adding 3/4 pound
of sugar to 1 pint of water for each pound of fruit used. Boil

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

until peel is clear and syrup heavy. Add 1 cup of white vinegar
to each pound of fruit, and whole spice-cinnamon and cloves,
ginger perhaps-tied in cheesecloth bag and lightly bruised.
Bring to a boil and let stand covered 24 hours. Reheat and pack.
The peel should be beautifully clear, tender, yet firm and well-
flavored, and the syrup heavy.
Sweet pickled grapefruit and other citrus fruit should be
among the most popular of Florida pickles.

Sweet Pickled Kumquats
2 lbs. whole kumquat 1 cup vinegar
12 lbs. sugar Whole spice
1 pts. water
Thoroughly clean well-ripened kumquats by scraping with a
paring knife and stiff brush. Rinse well and drain. Make a slit
with a sharp-pointed knife into and across the sections of each
kumquat to prevent them from bursting open and to facilitate
penetration of the spiced syrup. The procedure also allows some
of the seed to work out. Some prefer to pierce or puncture the
fruit from stem to blossom end with a stainless steel skewer or
an ice pick. Drop kumquats into an abundance of boiling water
and cook until tender.
Drain and add to sugar syrup. Cook briskly until kumquats
are clearing and syrup is becoming thick. Cover and allow to
stand over night. The next day drain off syrup, add vinegar, 1
stick cinnamon broken, 1 tablespoon each of cloves and allspice
tied in bag. Bring mixture to a boil and boil 5 minutes. Add
kumquats and allow to stand covered over night again. Drain
off syrup again and repeat as before. When fruit is well-flavored
and syrup spicy and thick, pack kumquats in sterile jars, adding a
small amount of fresh spice. Heat syrup, strain over fruit, seal
and process pints at simmering for 10 minutes.

Sweet Pickled Calamondins
(Follow directions as given for kumquats.)

Sweet Pickled Orangequats
Orangequats may be pickled as directed for kumquats; also
limequats may be used in the same way.
Tangerine Sweet Pickle
Choose small, full ripened, firm tangerines of uniform size and
unblemished skins. Wash. Push a large knitting needle entirely

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

through each fruit 6 or 8 times. Let fruit stand over night well
covered with salt water and weighted down with a plate. Use
1/3 cup salt to 1 quart water.
In the morning put the fruit with an abundance of cold water
in a large preserving kettle and boil gently until tender, changing
the water twice. Remove fruit with skimmer. Make a syrup
sufficient to cover the tangerines well, using 1 cup water and 1
cup pickle vinegar to each pint of sugar, 1 stick cinnamon, 10
whole cloves and 1 lemon sliced. Stir until sugar is dissolved,
add fruit and cook until syrup is thickened and tangerines are
somewhat clear. Let stand over night or several nights. Boil
again until fruit is translucent and syrup heavy. Pack carefully
in jars. Process pints at simmering 15 minutes. This is an
unusual and delicious pickle to serve with chicken, veal and other
meats. If additional flavor is desired, use tangerine, grapefruit
or orange juice in place of half the water.

Baked Pickled Orange Slices
Navel, Temple, tangelo, or other seedless oranges with tender
core are preferable for these delicious slices. Use 4 medium-size
fruits. Grate carefully, puncture and cook in an abundance of
water 1 hour or until tender, changing water once and adding
salt to the first boiling. Drain,cut into 1/, inch slices. Prepare
the following spiced syrup:
2 cups sugar 20 whole cloves
V' cup corn syrup 2 two-inch pieces stick cinnamon
1 cup vinegar 12 bruised coriander seeds
1 cup water
Boil 5 minutes, add orange slices and boil 15 minutes. Trans-
fer to a casserole and bake 3/4 hour in a slightly hotter than
moderate oven (400' F.). If syrup does not completely cover
the fruit, baste occasionally. This is delicious to serve with hot
or cold meats.
Kumquats, cut in half, cooked tender (about 20 minutes) are
nice to bake and use, as in above recipe.

Pickled Kumquats-Fermented
Use either fully mature kumquats still in the green stage-
but just before they turn yellow-or ripe, well-colored fruit for
making fermented pickles. The little Meiwa is especially nice
to use.
Use freshly gathered fruit, in their prime, clipped, not pulled,
from the trees. Wash and scrape thoroughly to remove any scale

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

or dust. Pack, without crushing, in all-glass containers to within
1 inch of top, and place kumquat stems and foliage across the
fruit in such way as to prevent their rising in the pickling
solution. Cover to overflowing with a pickling solution made in
the proportion of 1/4 cup cooking salt and 1/4 cup vinegar to 1
quart water. At no time should the kumquats be exposed above
the solution. Adjust rubber and glass top on jar and partially
seal. As fermentation takes place and liquid recedes, it should
be replaced with new brine. In 4 or 5 days the jar may be
completely sealed.
Kumquats should be cured in about 6 weeks to 2 months. They
will be found to make an admirable substitute for olives and for
the imported pickled limes, a popular product with the generation
past. With the superabundance of kumquats in Florida they
should be pickled in quantities. Calamondins, orangequats and
other small citrus fruits may be used in the same way.
Citrus Syrups and Sweet Spiced Vinegar Syrups
Citrus syrups and sweet spiced vinegars left from preserving,
crystallizing or pickling, with their rich, characteristic flavors,
are especially desirable for use in general cookery and for both
sweetening and flavoring party punches-hot or cold.
Citrus syrups are delicious to use diluted with hot water to
baste baked ham or roast lamb, the sweet, spice and sour all
adding greatly to the final flavor. The syrup stiffened with
gelatine as a jelly for piquant garnish for cold meats or for
jellied fruit or vegetable salads, for fruit salad dressings, or the
sweetened vinegar used alone as a dressing for lettuce is liked
by many. A half cup of the rich syrup may serve for part
liquid and part sweetening in spice cake and for sweetening fruit
juices. In all there are many uses for this combination-good
vinegar, sugar and spices combined with flavorful Florida citrus
fruit juices.

Crystallizing Citrus Fruits
The preservation of fruits by saturating them with sugar and
then covering them with a coat of sugar crystals is one of the
oldest known methods of fruit preservation. Because of the
lengthy and tedious process involved in the manufacture of high
grade crystallized fruit and the excessive amount of sugar used,
the product is of necessity a delicacy commanding a high price.
Crystallized or glaced products are fruit impregnated with

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

sugar, 75 to 80 percent of their total weight being sugar. The
crystallized fruit has a coating of tiny crystals, while glace fruit
has a dry, smooth, shining surface. The two products are pre-
pared in the same way, differing only in the mode of finish.
Both are prepared by allowing the fruit to boil and stand in a
thin syrup until the fruit juice gradually diffuses out of, and the
sugar slowly diffuses into, the fruit. The sugar syrups are
slowly built up as the fruit gradually takes up more and more
of the syrup. Care must be taken not to apply too heavy a syrup
at the beginning or at any stage of the process, as the water will
be drawn from the fruit more quickly than the sugar will be
absorbed and the cell walls of the fruit will then become shriveled
and hardened. Instead, build up the concentration of sugar in
syrup gradually.
Since delicate flavors will be masked by the large quantity of
sugar absorbed in the crystallizing process, citrus fruits, because
of their pronounced and varied flavors, are ideally suited for
this purpose. However, for the best retention of color, flavor

Fig. 6.-Crystallized slices of choice pink shaddock, candied grape-
fruit peel and shells of kumquat combined with pecans. Note the thick
peel of the pink shaddock. This thick peel with the tasty rose red seg-
ments adds both a new and intriguing flavor and beautiful color to a plate
of Florida citrus confections. It also adds further variety of both flavor
and color to cake fillings and icings, to steamed puddings and to fancy

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

and texture, the fruit should never be heated in the syrup, but
instead the syrup should be drained off, brought to a boil and
poured hot over the fruit. Allow the fruit to stay in that syrup
for 1 to 2 days before draining off, adding more sugar, a slight
amount of water, and again reheating and concentrating as
The Crystallizing Process
This process is used for crystallizing fruit when it is desirable
to keep the fruit for a long period of time. Observe the following
1. All citrus fruits should be of a bright color, without
blemish. Grapefruit, Ponderosa lemon, shaddock, sour orange
and other large fruits must be grated sufficiently to break the oil
cells and to remove blemishes. The bitterness in some is removed
by changes of water in boiling to make tender, the number of
changes depending upon individual taste; or the peel may be
soaked in a salt solution previous to the tendering process.
Kumquats and other small citrus fruits are left whole, first
washed, thoroughly cleaned, and then punctured or pricked for
better penetration of syrup, then boiled until tender in- an
abundance of water.
2. All fruits must be cooked until tender before being put
into a syrup. Make a syrup of equal weights of sugar and water
to cover fruit completely; to this add fruit equal in weight to that
of sugar and boil to 218 F., or until fruit is clear. If fruit is
not clear, cook at this temperature until clear. This temperature
is maintained as long as desired by the addition of boiling water
at necessary intervals. Let stand in this syrup at least 24 hours.
The fruit should be kept weighted down below the surface of the :
syrup at all times. A dinner plate may be used.
3. At the end of 24 hours cook to 224' F. or 107 C. Seal
while hot. To make a marketable product, keep this preserve
sealed in the syrup for at least 6 weeks before finishing. The
process of crystallizing fruit will give the most satisfactory re-
sults if it is extended over a period of several weeks, at least.
If the fruit does not appear clear, plump and glistening in the
last stages of the syruping, it may be improved by bringing syrup
to a boil and boiling gently 10 to 15 minutes. Boil the fruit in
the last syrup for several minutes, pack hot into hot jars or cans,
and seal immediately to avoid any chances of fermentation
occurring during the storing period.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

If crystals of sugar appear during this time, heat until they
dissolve before draining the fruit to dry to make ready for
finishing coat.
4. After storing the fruit for several weeks (or months),
remove from the syrup, dip for a moment in hot water to clear
the surface from adhering syrup, and dry for about 24 hours at
room temperature in hot sunshine or in an evaporator at 100 to
120 F.
5. Allow about 3 pounds sugar and 1/2 pint water for about 4
pounds of fruit. Mix well and bring slowly to a boil, dissolving
all the sugar. Cook without stirring to 2280 F. The sides of
the kettle should be brushed with a fondant brush or wiped with
a damp cloth to keep down crystals. Remove carefully from fire,
keeping kettle covered with damp cloth. The fruit may be dipped
in the same kettle, or a portion of the syrup removed and used
for dipping until it appears cloudy, then a new batch must be
taken from the warm, clear syrup. Unless the dipping syrup is
kept fresh and clear, the coating on the fruit will appear white
and opaque.
6. The pieces of candied fruit may be dipped, then lifted with
2 forks and placed on a wire rack or tray to drain and dry in hot
sunshine or in the evaporator, being turned occasionally if needed,
so that they will dry evenly on all sides.
DLo not dry too quickly or coating turns white. The coating
must remain colorless, as its object is not only to help preserve
the fruit but also to give the fruit a "glace," to make its color
appear brighter. This sugar coating must improve the appear-
ance of the fruit, not cover up defects or detract from its appear-
ance. Many confectioners use glucose in part, claiming it gives
brighter color and fruits are firmer and more transparent.
7. Wooden boxes lined with oiled paper or moisture-proof
cellophane are considered the best type of containers for packing
candied fruit and fruit pastes. These candied fruits do not keep
well over a long time, even if stored under the best conditions;
the storage period should not exceed 2 or 3 months.
If crystallized fruits are stored in tin boxes or glass jars they
should first be wrapped in waxed paper, even when kept for only
a short time. Containers that allow ventilation are to be pre-
Utilizing the Crystallizing Syrups
The finishing syrup drained off may be diluted with water and
used in the initial preserving stages.

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

The other syrup remaining may be bottled boiling hot and
sealed for future use in canning fruit macedoines or fruit chut-
neys, for sweetening punch, for pudding sauces, for dressing ice
cream and in many other ways.
Crystallized Whole Grapefruit
Select bright, smooth fruit with thick peel. Wash and grate
lightly with medium fine grater, removing all yellow oil cells. Cut
circles 3 inches in diameter from stem end of fruit and remove
juice cells and connective tissues, being careful to leave all of
the thick part of peel. Boil until tender and if it is desired to
remove the bitter, change the water during cooking, each time
putting the fruit into cold water and bringing it slowly to the
boiling point.
Several changes of water are usually necessary to accom-
plish this. But if too much of the bitter flavor is removed, an
undesirable, insipid, characterless product results. Be careful
not to get peel overly soft or the fruit will not retain its original
shape. Cool fruit and put into a syrup made of equal parts of
sugar and water. Sufficient syrup must be made to float the
fruit. Cook to 220 F. and let fruit stand in syrup 24 hours.
Then cook to 2220 F. Let stand again, then drain off syrup, add
1 cup of sugar and 1 tablespoon of water and bring to boil. Boil
3 to 5 minutes. Pour over fruit and allow to stand as before.
Repeat, gradually building up syrup until a density of 226 or
228' F. is reached. Finally, take out and put in sun to dry. If
fruit is very large and will not hold its shape, turn over a glass
or olive bottle to dry (24 hours).
Fill the fruit with small pieces of crystallized fruits, nuts or
other confections. French fondant with nuts may be used as a
filling. When this is done, it is then cut as one cuts a cake. It
may be used for a garnish when prepared in this way.
If it is desired to keep the fruit any length of time, it is neces-
sary to leave the fruit in the heavy syrup for at least three weeks.
Crystallized Grapefruit Peel No. 1
1 lb. grapefruit peel 3 cup water and juice, or
11/2 lbs. sugar all juice
Select bright fruit with a thick peel. Wash carefully. Grate
lightly on an ordinary grater to break the oil cells. Cut the peel
in quarters and remove from the fruit and weigh. Cut this peel
into strips 1/4 to 1/2 inch wide; or cut into small shapes. Place in
a saucepan of water and for each quart of peel taken add 3 or 4

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

pints or more of cold water. Boil 10 minutes and pour off the
water. Repeat 3 times, or until as much of the bitter flavor is
removed as is desired. Dry the peel between folds of cloth,
pressing gently.
For each pound of peel used, add 11/2 pounds sugar to 3/4 cup
water or grapefruit juice. Bring to a boil and cook until all of
the sugar is dissolved. Add the prepared peel and boil until all
the syrup is absorbed. Remove immediately from the fire and
roll the fruit in granulated or powdered sugar, separating any
pieces that stick together.
Cooking continued too long and evaporation carried too far
will cause the product to be hard and unattractive. The point at
which the product shall be finished may be determined by rolling
a piece of fruit, when it has become transparent, in granulated
sugar. If after a few minutes the fruit stiffens enough to
retain its shape it is sufficiently cooked. A strip of peel is pre-
ferred to the small shapes in making this test.

Grapefruit Peel No. 2-Quick Method
(Quick method using Pressure Cooker)
Select grapefruit-fresh, firm, and bright in color with no
blemishes. Wash well and grate lightly to remove oil cells. Cut
peel lengthwise into sections and remove from fruit. With sharp
knife cut peel into strips of size desired. Thin strips have mild
flavor, larger pieces have stronger flavor. Place in pressure
saucepan, cover well with cold water. Cook at 10 pounds pres-
sure for 4 minutes. Drain well. Wash 2 or 3 times in cold
water. Let stand in the cold water about 5 minutes each time.
Drain well. In a heavy pot or bottom of pressure saucepan, make
syrup of 11/2 cups sugar and 1/2 cup of grapefruit juice. To boil-
ing syrup, add the cooked grapefruit peel (1/2 pound-weight
after cooking). Peel should be barely covered with syrup. Cook
slowly, turning and stirring occasionally, until all syrup is
absorbed well. Roll in sugar and dry.

Grapefruit Peel No. 3
1 lb. grapefruit peel 1/4 pint white corn syrup
1%1 lbs. sugar /4 pint water
Proceed as in Method No. 1. It is more difficult to reach
crystallization by this method, slower cooking being required; but
due to the glucose in the corn syrup the finished product remains
soft much longer than when prepared by Method No. 1.

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

Orange, Ponderosa Lemon, Shaddock, or Sour Orange
For thick peel citrus fruit follow the same directions as for
grapefruit peel. The oily part of the rind should be grated from
the peel before boiling. This makes a more tender product and
reduces the time of cooking.
Kumquat Chips
Clean kumquats thoroughly, sprinkle with soda, using 1 table-
spoon of soda to 1 pound of kumquats. Pour sufficient boiling
water over this to cover fruit. Let stand for 10 minutes, pour
off water and rinse through 3 changes of water. Boil fruit for
10 minutes well covered with water. Drain. Now cut kumquats
into quarters. Sharp kitchen shears work well. Drop these
slices into a boiling sugar solution, prepared by dissolving 1 cup
of sugar in 2 cups of water. Boil for 30 minutes, and then drop
into a heavy syrup made by dissolving 1 cup of sugar in 1 cup of
water. Boil for 30 minutes, allow to stand until cool and the
next day boil for 30 minutes in the same sugar solution. Remove
and place on a platter to dry. The chips may then be rolled in
Citrus Tutti-Frutti
Chocolate blends well with all citrus products and mixtures
of fruit. Cocoanut and pecans may be made into an attractive
and delicious assortment of candies. Orange, kumquat, calamon-
din, finely cut-with or without toasted nuts-may be added to
the chocolate mixture when it begins to thicken, or the blended
crystallized fruit or pastes made by cooking the fruit butters to a
stiff consistency or a paste, may be used. Place the fruit mix-
ture or the fruit paste in lined pans and cover with the melted
chocolate. Let stand in cool place to harden. Cut in bars or
squares as preferred.
Citrus Peel-Chocolate-Dipped
Prepare candied orange, grapefruit, shaddock, halved or small
whole kumquats, or other citrus fruits according to directions for
preserving or candying, having it in not too large pieces.
Melt 2 or 3 ounces of dipping chocolate in top of double boiler
over gently boiling water. (Never melt over direct heat or allow
moisture to get into the chocolate.) Stir chocolate continually
and rapidly while it is melting so that it may not become over-
heated at any point and will melt evenly. Turn heat very low or
remove from heat while dipping fruit.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Use a toothpick or skewer to pick up pieces and dip in choco-
late. Coat completely. A fork may be slipped under the peel,
then be lifted out. Work rapidly. Leave on waxed paper to

The Citron
The citron, known as the "citron of commerce" as distin-
guished from the citron melon which grows on a vine frequently
found in Florida fields, is used widely in making fruit cakes and
plum puddings. The fruit is large and the rind is thick and
usually rough. The fruit when ready for use should be still
green in color but fully mature. A well-ripened, yellow citron
may have a rich, agreeable fragrance, but when preserved it has
less flavor than the fruit that is mature but still green in color.
Brining or Curing Citron.-Cut the fruit lengthwise in halves.
The pulp is difficult to remove from fresh citron and may be left
in during the fermentation process. Put in a brine made from 6
to 7 ounces dairy salt and 1 gallon water, keeping the pieces com-


~.2i ~


Fig. 7.-The citrcn is a favorite ingredient for fruit cakes, fruit pud-
dings, and various fancy breads. Shown in the container is preserved
citron and in the platter is preserved citron which has been removed,
drained, and allowed to crystallize and is now ready for use. Both a
large and a small variety of citron are pictured on the platter.

Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits

pletely submerged. Any weight such as is used for pickles is
suitable for this purpose and the container may be wood, crockery
or glass. The citron should be put into the brine very shortly
after removal from the trees, as the undesirable yellow color
tends to develop even after the fruit is in the brine. Use only
sufficient salt to prevent spoiling; an excess has a tendency to
extract flavor and to toughen the citron.
The desired result in curing citron is to obtain a firm, yet
tender rind, with the bitter flavor removed and the agreeable
citron flavor retained and developed. The time required for cur-
ing varies with the size of the pieces of citron, the degree of
maturity of fruit and the temperature. The tissues expand and
become translucent. This takes from 15 to 30 days and even
Preserving the Citron.-When the fermentation is completed,
remove the pulp, place the citron in water, changing until suffici-
ently freshened. Do not remove all salt, as a small quantity im-
proves the flavor. Cover with cold water and bring to a boil.
Boil until fairly tender. Put in cold water 24 hours to restore
Crisping is followed by the sugar preserving. Begin with a
thin syrup and gradually increase its density. The rapidity of
passage from syrup to syrup depends somewhat on the size of the
pieces and the temperature maintained. By using more heat the
preserving process can be shortened, but the product will be
darker in color and less delicate in flavor. Slower processes in
which little or no heat is used are tedious but more likely to
result in fine quality. After the citron has been in the first syrup
24 hours, taste to see if enough salt has been removed. If too
salty, this syrup should be discarded. Do not make separate lots
of syrup, merely add sugar to increase the density of the syrup
previously used. Each time heat the syrup and pour it over the
citron already in the syrup. More than 24 hours between
changes, especially in the last heavy syrups, is advisable.

The citron should absorb about 8 pounds of sugar to 10 pounds
of citron. Spread on wire racks to dry if desired to use fairly
soon. Otherwise it is recommended that the fruit be brought to
a quick boil, then placed in jars and sealed immediately. Open
jar, remove and drain citron for use as needed, throughout the

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

The Shaddock
The West Indian pink shaddock is a large, succulent variety of
citrus fruit with a thick, flesh-colored rag and watermelon pink
pulp. It is far less sweet and much more acid than the grape-
The flesh is firm and its beautiful coloring and high flavor
make it a salad fruit de luxe. In addition, the flesh-colored peel
and segments make excellent preserves and confections of a flavor
and coloring all their own.
This fruit is often called the "marmalade fruit" by Eurasians,
due to the flavor resembling the imported British marmalade.
There are 2 varieties of this fruit, those of pink pulp and those
with straw yellow pulp. Many other interesting varieties of
shaddock are found growing in Florida that have been introduced
into this country through the efforts of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture.

Shaddock Sundae
This is a distinctive and delicious dressing for ice creams or
puddings or for use in punch.
1 large shaddock /4 cup juice lemon, calamondin
Sugar or other sour fruit
Wash and dry the shaddock. With a sharp knife cut a thick
slice from both ends into the flesh of the hearts. Then cut the
rest of the peel and rag off in wide slices, cutting from one end to
the other, following the rounded outline of the fruit with the
knife to avoid waste. Remove segments from the remaining rag
and separate each juice sac. Drop these juice sacs into a medium
syrup (1 cup sugar to 2 cups water) and cook rapidly for about
15 minutes. Cover container and let stand over night. In the
morning add lemon juice and 1 cup sugar and cook until thick.
Pour immediately into hot, sterile jars.
Grapefruit sundae may be made in the same way as the
shaddock sundae.

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