Florida citrus spray guide

Material Information

Florida citrus spray guide
Series Title:
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Florida Cooperative Extensive Service, Institute of Food Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Creation Date:
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
v. : ; 23 cm. (fold.)


Subjects / Keywords:
Citrus -- Diseases and pests -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Spraying and dusting in agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Pests -- Control -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
197 -
General Note:
Desciption based on: 1980 edition.
Circular (Florida Cooperative Extension Service)
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

Record Information

Source Institution:
Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location:
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
021581503 ( ALEPH )
08265115 ( OCLC )
AEM7601 ( NOTIS )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Florida citrus spray and dust schedule.


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The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

January 1978

Circular 393-D

Florida Citrus

Spray Guide


Effective and

Safe Use of Agricultural Chemicals
in Citrus Production


Before using any pesticide:
Read the complete label and the general
instructions in this guide.

This program was compiled by the University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, and
U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.
For additional information, consult your
County Extension Director or Citrus Agent.

Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean


Federal and state regulations set general and specific
standards that the applicators must meet before they can
use restricted pesticides. The core manual entitled "Apply
Pesticides Properly--A Guide for Pesticide Applicators,"
should be studied and followed by anyone using pesticides.
Products mentioned in this guide are subject to changing
EPA rules, regulations and restrictions. Information
presented is current at the date of publication. Additional
information is available from your Cooperative Extension
Service. (See Table 1.)

Pesticide Safety
All precautions on the labels of pesticide containers must
be read and observed at all times with all pesticides.
Florida regulations require labels to carry instructions for
decontamination and disposal of empty containers of
highly toxic pesticides. Read and heed these instructions.
Check for local regulations concerning the disposal of
empty containers. Do not reuse containers.
Re-entry times (the period of time immediately
following time of application of a pesticide to a field when
unprotected workers should not enter) were established by
EPA effective June 10, 1974 (see Table 1). Re-entry of
workers into pesticide-treated citrus groves is prohibited
until sprays have dried or dust has settled, unless specified
differently on the label.
Pesticides should not be discharged in or near the
immediate vicinity of any body of water. Due care must be
exercised by anyone adding pesticides to spray tanks or
other pesticide application equipment to preclude contami-
nation of any body of water.
Protective canopies should be placed on tractors pulling
airblast sprayers in order to minimize the hazards of spray
drift to the operator.
Wash spray equipment daily to avoid hazardous
All pesticides should be kept in locked storage. Unused
materials should be returned to locked storage at the end of
each day.
Applicators should change coveralls and clothing daily.

Other Sources of Information
This Guide does not include recommendations for
control of minor pests or pests occurring infrequently. See
"Florida Guide to Citrus Insects, Diseases, and Nutritional
Disorders"; "Citrus Diseases and Disorders," Univ. of Fla.
Press; Fla. Agr. Ext. Cir. 137C, "Insects and Mites of
Florida Citrus"; IFAS "Florida Insect Control Guide"; and
IFAS 'Florida Plant Disease Control Guide"; or consult
your County Extension Director.

Pesticide Application
Dilute: Rates recommended in this Guide are for dilute
sprays using ground equipment only unless otherwise
For pesticides to be effective, thorough coverage of both
inside and outside foliage is essential. All recommended
miticides and scalicides except sulfur kill only upon contact
with the pest. Maximum control is possible only when
sprays contact the pests by thoroughly wetting all fruit,
leaf, and twig surfaces before the pests can become
numerous. Poor coverage means poor control and costly
For complete spray distribution, the following recom-
mendations will serve as a guide for gallonage based on tree

Large grapefruit (18' and larger) 1,500 gal./acre
Large orange and medium grapefruit (14' to 16') 1,000 gal./acre
Medium orange and small grapefruit (10' to 12') 750 gal./acre
Small orange (smaller than 10') 500 gal./acre

Pests to be controlled, speciality varieties, tree spacing,
and pruning may affect spray distribution requirements.
Check with your local Cooperative Extension Agent.
The sprayer should be nozzled to deliver two-thirds of
the volume of spray into the upper one-half of the tree.
Airblast sprayers should be pulled at 1 mph for maximum
spray penetration. One mile per hour is equivalent to 88
feet per minute. For additional information on sprayers, see
IFAS Circular 351, "Citrus Growers' Guide to Air
Concentrate spray: Programs should be based on a dilute
program that has provided thorough coverage. Factors
contributing to the success of a concentrate spray program
include: (1) The use of only well-trained, competent spray
operators; (2) not spraying when the wind is above 8 mph

in the grove; (3) nozzling sprayer for two-thirds output in
the upper one-half of the trees; (4) reducing spray materials
by 25 percent at 3X (1/4 dilute gallonage) or higher
concentrations to avoid excessive residues; (5) not
exceeding a ground speed of 1 mph; (6) using concentrate
oil sprays only upon recommendation of sprayer
manufacturer; (7) shutting sprayers off at the end of rows
to avoid over-spraying; and (8) disconnecting oscillators on
dilute airblast machines at concentration of 3X (1/4 dilute
gallonage) or above. See Table 5 for examples.
Aerial application: Can be successfully used in control
citrus rust mite and aphids, but not scale insects and gre y
spot. The following should be considered in planning n
aerial application: (1) rates of material per acre should be
equal to the quantity required for a dilute spray (e. an
acre requiring two 500-gallon tanks of dilute spray uld
receive 2.5 pints of chorobenzilate 4E); (2) materials would
be mixed with sufficient water to make 10 to 15 gal ns of
finished spray per acre for mature groves and o 10
gallons per acre in groves that require one or le dilute
tanks; (3) do not spray when wind is above 5 m in the
grove; (4) spray only one row of trees per ass; (5)
helicopter applications are more effective at gro d speeds
of 20 to 25 mph between the tree rows; (6) ed wing
aircraft should be operated at speeds manufacturers; and (7) use only manicri- i1\ng label
approval for aerial applications.

Mites and Their Control
Citrus Rust Mite: When citrus is grown for the fresh fruit
market, rust mite must be controlled to prevent russeting of
the fruit. Injurious mite populations can-develop anytime;
therefore, thorough inspections (every other week) should
be made during the late spring, through fall when weather
favors rapid rust mite buildup. Inspections should be
conducted even after sprays have been applied. When
appropriate, control for rust mite should be combined with
other necessary pest control measures.
When citrus is grown for processing, rust mite control
can be related more to overall tree vitality and less to
pack-out. Therefore, higher mite populations can be
tolerated on fruit for processing. Frequent inspections
(every other week) should be made during the late spring
and early summer while fruit are still small. At times, rust
mite control may be required in the fall when rust mites
reach high densities on the foliage. (See Table 2.)

Spider Mites: The Texas citrus mite and citrus red mite
are the most common spider mites found on citrus. Both
species feed on leaves, fruit and green twigs and at times
can be found together on the same foliage. Spider mites
generally appear during dry periods, usually in the spring,
fall, or early winter. Spider mites are important inthe fall
and winter when high populations occasionally cause leaf
drop and twig injury. Spider mites are generally no problem
in the fall in groves where oil has been applied in the
summer. Six-spotted mites occasionally cause damage in the
spring period. Some pesticides are known to cause increases
in spider mites. (See Table 2.)

Insects and Their Control
Several species of natural enemies are regulating
populations of many insect pests that attack Florida citrus.
Pesticides should be selected and used with care in order to
preserve these important natural enemies.
Scales: Populations of both armored and soft scale
should remain below economic levels unless parasite
activity is seriously retarded by excessive use of pesticides
harmful to these parasites.
Serious infestations of citrus snow scale may exist
locally. If infestations become so heavy as to infest fruit
and leaves or to damage bark, two dilute sprays per year,
preferably at postbloom and summer, are recommended.
Thoroughness of application, especially on interior wood, is
just as important as the selection of an effective scalicide.
Postbloom and summer scalicide sprays are recom-
mended to prevent persistent green spots and subsequent
decay on tangerines and other varieties intended for the
fresh fruit market.
Aphids may attack trees of all ages, but control measures
are generally warranted only for young trees or topworked
trees where the proportion of new growth to old is greater.
Aphids should be controlled on Temple orange trees of all
Mealybugs can be controlled most effectively by
applying a recommended insecticide before the fruit
becomes infested. Insecticides applied after fruit set will kill
exposed mealybugs but not those under the button.
Mealybugs are not a regular problem.
Whitefly larvae often become numerous on the lower leaf
surfaces on new growth. Occasionally, a postbloom and
summer spray may be required to control the different
stages of this pest.

Sooty mold grows on excretions from whiteflies, black
scale, brown soft scale, mealybugs and aphids. It is
prevented by controlling these insects. Existing mold may
be loosened by a summer oil spray. (See Table 2.)

Fresh Fruit
Melanose: All locally grown citrus varieties are subject to
melanose attack. Precautionary spraying for this disease is
often necessary to assure a good packout.
Disease incidence varies from year to year according to
the amount and frequency of rainfall during the period of
fruit susceptibility, which lasts for about 12 weeks after
fruit set. Melanose usually is more serious in older groves
than in younger ones. Disease severity depends on the
amount of inoculum-bearing deadwood in the tree canopy
(see Table 3).
Scab: This disease affects Temples, Murcotts, lemons,
grapefruit and some tangelos. It generally is more severe in
flatwoods and coastal areas than on the sandhills (see Table
Greasy spot: This disease can cause serious premature
defoliation during fall and winter on varieties grown for
both fresh and processed market. Infection occurs mostly
in the summer, but symptoms do not appear until 2 to 9
months later, the incubation period depending partly on
the variety affected. The greasy spot fungus also infects
fruit rind, causing specks to appear in areas between-the oil
glands. Living cells adjacent to the specks retain a green
color for longer than normal and such areas often fail to
respond to ethylene degreening treatment. On grapefruit,
the specks tend to be larger, giving rise to a condition that
has been described as "pink pitting" (see Table 3).

Processed Fruit
Greasy spot: (See discussion under Fresh Fruit). Infects
all varieties of citrus grown for processing and must be
controlled on trees of all ages. Disease history of the grove
influences the choice of material. Good spray coverage of
the lower leaf surface is essential for satisfactory greasy
spot control. (See Table 4.)

Other Fungus Diseases
Postharvest decay (stem end rot and green mold) in fruit
requiring degreening can be reduced by spraying Benlate
50W at 1 to 2 Ib/A within 3 weeks to the day of harvest.

This treatment provides protection against decay initiated
in the degreening room that is not effectively controlled by
subsequent postharvest fungicide treatments.
Brown rot control can be obtained by spraying the lower
6 feet of the tree with neutral copper (1/2 the amount
shown in Table 7), applying the spray about the middle of
August in groves where the disease has been troublesome in
the past. Where brown rot is only an occasional problem,
spraying may be deferred until immediately after the first
appearance of affected fruit, when the entire tree should be
sprayed. Chopping of cover crops, hedging of trees, and
pruning off low hanging branches will improve ventilation
and reduce the likelihood of infection.

Physiological Sprays
Nutritional Sprays--Application of zinc in nutritional
sprays is not economically justified in groves where only
widely-scattered or very mild symptoms of zinc deficiency
appear. When extensive deficiency symptoms appear, zinc
should be sprayed, preferably in the post-bloom period.
The amount of zinc (as metal) used in the spray may be
varied from 2.5 Ib per 500 gal for mild to moderate
deficiency to 5 Ib for moderately severe deficiency and up
to 10 Ib per 500 gal for very severe deficiency (see Table 7).
These rjaes. pl', to inorganic zinc sources, such as basic
zinc salts o-r inc oxide. Application of 0.7 Ib zinc (Zn) per
acre in the rm of liquid zinc chelate with low-volume
ground spray equipment has controlled moderate zinc
Spray applic ions of manganese are recommended for
any grove havi persistent manganese deficiency symp-
toms, and partic rly for groves on alkaline soils. Copper is
recommended in itritional sprays only where a deficiency
actually exists an when this element is not used in a
disease control gram. Where boron deficiency is
suspected use 1.25 of soluble borate containing 58 or 66
percent B203 equi lent or 1.67 Ib of 46 percent soluble
borate per 500 gal. S lium molybdate sprays at 5.0 to 10.0
oz per 500 gal are rec mended to control yellow spot.
For additional inf nation on nutritional sprays and
fertilization, see Fla. A Expt. Stat. Bul. 536C.
Maturity Sprays--Le arsenate is the only arsenical
compound cleared for e on grapefruit to reduce acidity.
Use of arsenic on other itrus is illegal. To avoid excessive
phytotoxicity, arsenic sh uld not be applied to trees less
than 7 years of age. Th most effective use of arsenic is


obtained by spraying within 1 to 6 weeks after bloom. Use
4.0 to 12.5 pts--4 Ib flowable lead arsenate per 500 gal for
white varieties and 4.0 to 6.0 pts for pink and red
grapefruit. The lower amount is used for a high ratio of
solids to acids in mid-season, and the higher amount for a
high ratio in the early season.
Preharvest-Drop Control Sprays--2,4-D is effective for
reducing pre-harvest drop of Pineapple, seedling oranges,
and Temple oranges. Sprays applied to other citrus varieties
have been ineffective. Sprays containing 20 ppm (acid
equivalent) of 2,4-D are recommended for application
separately or in combination with wettable sulfur, but only
as dilute sprays. For best results, make a single application
during October or November, but do not apply after
January 1. Unused spray solution should be discarded in a
waste area and spray machines thoroughly cleaned. Fill the
tank full of water, add 6 Ib of washing soda, agitate, and
then pump out through the guns. Rinse with clean water.
Do not use 2,4-D sprays in wooden tanks that are to be
used for other sprays.
To prepare 20 ppm, divide the constant 10.7 by the Ib of
acid per gal as shown on the label to obtain the liquid oz of
concentrate required to give 20 ppm in 500 gal of spray
mixture. For example, the concentrate contains 4.0 Ib acid
per gal; 10.7 4 = 2.67 liquid oz per 500 gal of spray
Abscission or Fruit Coloring Sprays--Acti-Aid at 1 to 2 pt
(1/2 to 1 unit) per 500 gal can be applied preharvest to
early and midseason oranges to loosen fruit for processing.
Not more tha 1000 gal/acre of spray should be applied. Use
1 can (3 pt) of Component B (normally supplied with
Acti-Aid or an equivalent surfactant at comparable rates)
per 500 gal. Do not reduce rate of surfactant when
concentrate of Acti-Aid is reduced. Material should not be
applied after the spring flush begins.
Ethrel can be applied to tangerines and tangelos to
reduce postharvest degreening time and partially loosen the
fruit, thereby reducing plugging. Do not apply before fruit
is passing minimum internal quality requirements and 10 to
20 percent colorbreak is present. Use 4 pt per 500 gal on all
tangerine and tangelo varieties except 'Orlando' which
should receive 3-1/3 pt per 500 gal. Avoid using on low
vigor, freeze injured, or drought' stressed trees. Do not
apply if rain is expected within 1l2 hours. Do not use a
surfactant and do not combine' Ethrel with any other
materials containing surfactants. Use only dilute sprays.

Table 1. Extracted from the EPA Compendium of Registered Pesticides as of December 2, 1977, from other federal and
state regulations, and from registered labels.

(Al Active








Waiting time until

Reentry Harvest

02 NTL2

02 NTL2

02 7 days

02 NTL2




21 days


15 days

Other use requirements



Only 2 applications per year.

Only 2 applications per year at least 4 months apart on lemon and lime;
at least 3 months apart on other citrus if fruit is present during first


Apply only when trees are dormant and do not apply when mature fruits are on tree.

Only 2 applications to mature fruit. Do not apply during bloom period.
Registered for oranges, grapefruit, lemons and tangerines.


up to 7.5 Ib Al/acre 24 hrs. 24 hrs. 90 days between applications on grapefruit, orange, tangelo, and tangerine.
Only 2 applications per season on tangerines and tangelos.
up to 7.5 Ib Al/acre 24 hrs. 21 days Lemons and limes; do not apply more than once per season.

(Guthion) RESTRICTED PESTICIDE'. Only 2 applications per season.

1 application/season 24 hrs. 7 days

2 applications/season 24 hrs. 28 days

Kelthane 02 7 days None

Lead Arsenate 02 NTL2 RESTRICTED PESTICIDE Grapefruit only 1-6 weeks after bloom.

Malathion 02 7 days Do not apply during full bloom.

Meta Systox-R 48 hrs. 7 days Registered for oranges, grapefruit, and lemons. Only 2 applications per season.


up to 4.0 Ib Al/acre

4-10 Ib Al/acre








2.5 Ib Al/acre

2.5-3.75 Al/acre

3.75-5.0 Al/acre


48 hrs.

48 hrs.





48 hrs.


48 hrs.

48 hrs.

48 hrs.


14 days

30 days

15 days



14 days

21 days

7 days

RESTRICTED PESTICIDE Registered for oranges, grapefruit and lemons.

Registered for oranges, grapefruit, lemons, limes, tangerines.


Registered for oranges, grapefruit and lemons. Only 2 applications per season.
45 days between applications.

RESTRICTED PESTICIDE1. Registered for oranges, grapefruit and lemons.

RESTRICTED PESTICIDE'. Only 2 applications per year. Allow 3 months between
applications if fruit was present during first application.

30 days between applications.

48 hrs.

14 days

30 days

7 days

Registered for oranges, grapefruit and lemons. Only 4 applications in any 12
month period. Only dilute sprays on lemons.

SRestricted pesticides require a certification license to purchase and apply under Federal and Florida State Law.

2 Reentry and harvest prohibited until sprays have dried or dust has settled unless label specifies differently. NTL = No time limitation.


Other use requirements


Rate/500 gal.


Other Pests Controlled

Diazinon 4 L
(50 W also available)

5.0 pts.

For control of citrus snow
scale only.

Dimethoate 2.67 EC 4.0 pts Does not control citrus snow Citrus red mite
(also 4 L) (2.67 pts) scale or-black scale. Aphids
Highly toxic to honey bees--
avoid application where the
potential for poisoning of
foraging bees exists for
several days.

Ethion 4 EC 3.75 pts. Dilute Spray only. Rust mites
(25 WP also available) Snow scale only. Spider mites fall & winter

Ethion + Oil 3.75 pts. + CONCENTRATE Spray--use exact Rust mites
0.5-0.7% rate to prevent excessive leaf Spider mites in summer
drop and/or fruit burn.

Azinphosmethyl 2 EC 5.0 pts. Do not use spray solutions Rust mites
(Guthion) above pH8. Use wettable powder Whiteflies
(50 WP also available) formulation when tank mixing Mealy bugs
with oil.

Malathion 5 EC 6.0-10.0 pts. Use high rate for high infestations
and for snow, Glover, and yellow
scale. Does not control chaff scale.

Malathion + Oil 5.0 pts. + Not for the control of black scale.

Oil (FC 435-66) 1% Does not control snow scale. Do Whiteflies
not apply if trees are wilting or Spider mites
in a near wilt state. Do not apply Greasy spot
within 3 weeks of sulfur. Oil Loosens sooty mold
applied after October may increase
susceptibility of trees to cold
damage and may reduce crop the
following year. Oil applied in
the fall may inhibit solids forma-
tion and retard fruit coloring.

Parathion 4 EC 2.5 pts. Does not control brown soft scale.

Parathion + Oil 1.5 pts. +

Supracide 2 EC 2.5-5.0 pts. Does not control Florida red scale or
brown soft scale. Miticide should
be added for rust mite control.

Trithion 4 EC 3.75 pts.
(8 EC and 25 WP also available)

DILUTE Spray only.
Snow scale only.
See comments under rust mites.

Citrus rust mites
Spider mites, fall-winter

Chlorobenzilate 4 EC 1.25 pts.

Do not use in spray solution
above pH 8

Comite 6.75 EC 16-25 oz. Do not use in spray solution Spider mites, late fall
above pH 10.
Do not tank mix with oil or
apply within 2 weeks of oil.

Delnav 8 EC 2.0 pts Spider mites, fall-winter

Dimethoate 2.67 EC 4.0 pts Highly toxic to honey bees; Citrus red mite
(4 L also available) (2.67 pts.) avoid application for several Scale except citrus
days where the potential for snow and black
poisoning of foraging bees exists.

Ethion 4 EC 2.5-3.75 pts. Use higher rates in spring and Spider mites, fall-winter
(25% WP also available) summer Scale as dilute spray

Ethion + Oil 3.75 pts. + CONCENTRATE Spray--use exact Scale and spider mites
0.5-0.7% rate to prevent excessive leaf in summer
drop and/or fruit burn.

Azinphosmethyl 2 EC 5.0 pts. Do not use in spray solutions Scale
(Guthion) above pH 8. Use wettable powder
(50 WP also available) formulation when tank mixing with oil.

Kelthane 4 MF 3.0 pts. Do not use in groves with snow Spider mites, fall-winter
scale unless scalicide is added.
Do not use in spray solutions
above pH 8.

Plictran 50 WP

20-30 oz. Do not tank mix with oil or apply
within 4 weeks of an oil application.
If possible, avoid application
during "feather" growth flush.




Rust Mites


Rate/500 gal.

25 Ibs.


Other Pests Controlled

Use where supplemental rust mite
control is needed between main
sprays. Prolonged use increases
citrus red mite and armored scale
populations. Do not combine with
oil or apply within 3 weeks of oil.

Torak 4 EC 2.5-5.0 pts Spider mites, fall-winter

Trithion 4 EC 2.5-3.75 pts. Use high rate when used other than Spider mites, fall-winter
(8EC and 25WP also available) fall and winter. May injure
grapefruit if applied in fall
before fruit is fully colored.

Vendex 50WP

20-40 oz. Do not tank mix with oil or
apply within 4 weeks of an oil
application when applied to
immature fruit and foliage.

Texas citrus mite

Comite 6.75 EC

16-25 oz. Fall, winter only. Don't use in
spray solution above pH 10.
Do not tank mix with oil or
apply within 2 weeks of oil.

Rust mites

Delnav 8 EC 2.0 pts. Fall and winter use only Rust mites

Dimethoate 2.67 EC 4.0 pts. Citrus red mite only. Rust mites
(4 L also available) (2.67 pts.) Highly toxic to honey bees; Aphids
avoid application for several
days where the potential for
poisoning of foraging bees exists.

Ethion 4 EC 2.5 pts Fall and winter use only. Rust mites
(25% WP also available)

Ethion + Oil 3.75 pts. + Summer use only. Scale and rust mites
0.5-0 7% CONCENTRATE Spray--use exact
rate to prevent excessive leaf
dropand/or fruit burn.

Kelthane 4 MF 3.0 pts. Fall 2nd winter use only. Rust mites
Do not use in groves with snow
scaleunless a scalicide is added.

Trithion 4 EC 2.5-3.75 pts. Fall and winter use only.
(8EC and 25WP also available) May injure grapefruit if applied
before fruit is fully colored.

Oil (FC 435-66) 0.5-1.0% See comments under scale insects Higher rate for scale
Greasy spot
Loosening sooty mold

Vendex 50 WP

20-40 oz. Texas citrus mite only. Do not
tankmix with oil or apply within
4 weeks of oil when applied to
immature fruit and foliage.

Dimethoate 2.67 EC
(4 L also available)

4.0 pts. Highly toxic to honey bees; avoid
(2.67 pts. application where the potential
for poisoning of foraging bees
exists for several days.

Citrus red mite
rust mite
Scale insects
except citrus snow
and black

Meta-Systox-R 2 EC 5.0 pts. Moderately toxic to honey bees--
apply in late afternoon

Phosphamidon 8 EC 5.0 pts. Highly toxic to honey bees--
avoid application where the
potential for poisoning of
foraging bees exists for several days.

Systox 2 EC

5.0 pts.

Moderately toxic to honey bees--
apply in late afternoon

Mealybugs Apply recommended scalicide before
fruit becomes infested. Application
after the fruit has set will kill
exposed mealybugs but not those that
have settled under the button.

Whiteflies Apply recommended insecticide postbloom
after the adult females have deposited
their eggs followed by a summer application.

1 See Table 1 for use restrictions.


Rust Mites



Spider Mites


Rust mites

Table 3. Treatment guide for control of scab, melanose, and greasy spot in groves
where fruit is intended for fresh market

Diseases to be I--Spray program' based on spring growth or bloom behavior
controlled: previous
severity light (L), Trees remain dormant through February, Growth flush and/or bloom commences before March,
moderate (M), or and bloom is of short duration and bloom is extended
heavy (H) 2

Scab H Late dormant: Difolatan or Benlate February: Benlate
Melanose M to H Bloom peak: Benlate3 4 to 6 wk later: Benlate
Greasy spot L Postbloom: copper6 postbloom: copper4
(e.g. old Temple trees) July: oil July: oil

Scab H Late dormant: Difolatan or Benlate February: Benlate
Greasy spot L Bloom peak: Benlate3 4 to 6 wk later: Benlate
(e.g. young Temple) June-July: oil June-July: oil

Scab L to M Bloom peak: Benlate February:Benlate
Greasy spot L June-July: oil 4 to 6 wk later: Benlate
(e.g. young Temple) June-July: oil

Scab L Bloom peak: Benlate February: Benlate
Melanose L Postbloom: copper4 4 to 6 wk later: Benlate
Greasy spot H July: oil + Benlate5 Postbloom: copper4
(e.g. young grapefruit) July: oil + Benlate5

II-Spray programs not affected by spring growth or bloom behavior

Melanose L, M, or H Postbloom: copper4
Greasy spot H July: oil + Benlate5
(e.g. old Hamlin, grapefruit and Pineapple)

Melanose L to H Postbloom: copper4
Greasy spot L to H July: oil
(e.g. old Valencia)

Greasy spot M to H June-July: oil + Benlate
(e.g. young Hamlin and Pineapple)

Greasy spot L June-July: oil
(e.g. young Valencia)

1Amount of material (formulated commercial product) per 500 gal (dilute spraying)-Difolatan 4F for melanose and scab, 4 to 5 gal; oil (FC 435-66
specifications) for greasy spot, 5 gal; Benlate 50W for scab and greasy spot, 1.0 to 1.5 Ib; copper fungicide for melanose, 3 to 4 Ib metallic copper.
2Based arbitrarily on heaviest infection during the preceding 5 year period.
3Where Difolatan was applied late dormant and peak of bloom occurs within 6 wk after spraying, the Benlate spray at peak bloom could be omitted
except in exceptionally wet springs.
4In most years, a single spray gives best results if applied late April-early May. A better assurance of control is provided by applying one spray 2-3 wk
after petal fall and a second spray 2-3 wk later.
Benlate is more reliable than oil for greasy spot control when disease pressure is heavy. To obtain greasy spot control on summer flushes that grow out
after spraying, another spray application would be required in August or September. Later growth flushes are affected much less by greasy spot than are
those of the spring and early summer. A second spray is therefore seldom necessary.
6Where Difolatan has been applied, this spray should be required only if bloom peak occurs later than early April, or if rainfall in March-April
is unusually heavy.
Note: Copper sprays applied after mid May may blacken any existing corky areas on the rind and lead to a further downgrading of fruit, especially
on oranges.

Table 4. Chemical control of greasy spot disease processed fruit

Fungicide Rate/500 gal. Comments

Oil (FC 435-66) 1% Apply June or July.
See restrictions under Table 2.

Copper 1.25-2.50 Ibs. Apply June or July.
Generally more effective than oil.

Benlate 50W metallic Apply in June or July.
1.0 Generally more effective than oil.

Comments: Groves in which greasy spot is severe may need an
additional spray in August to control greasy spot on the later
flushes. Benlate or oil would be the preferred materials for control
in groves that have excessively high copper content in the soil.


Table 5. Example of dilute vs concentrate sprays

If the dilute recommendation is 2 pints pesticide per 500
gallons and 1000 gallons per acre are required for thorough
coverage, then:
X = 2 Dints/00n eal/C

3X (1/4 gallonage)
6X (1/8 gallonage)
7.5X (1/10 gallonage)
15X (1/20 gallonage)

1.5 acres

= 4 pints/... gal/acre
= 6 pints/500 gal/20 acre
= 1 pints/500 gal/4.0 acres
= 15 pints/500 gal/5.0 acres
=30 pints/500 gal/5.0 acres
=30 pints/S00 gal/10.0 acres

Table 6. Gallons of oil concentrates to use for each
500 gallons of dilute spray

If % oil in the stock is and the percentage oil desired in
the spray tank is:

0.5% 0.7% 1.0%

97+ 2.55 3.55 5.10

90-92 2.75 3.85 5.50

83-84 3.00 4.20 6.00

Table 7.1 Pounds of copper, zinc, and manganese
compounds to equal the standard dosage2
per 500 gallons of water2.3
Metallic Content shown on label(%)
34-36 48 52-56 75 80 85-90

Copper 11.0 8.5 7.0 5.0 4.5

Zinc -- 10.0 -- 7.0 -

Manganese 8.5 6.5 4.5

Standard dosage required to correct deficiencies, based on the
metal content per 500 gal., is 3.75 lb. for copper; 5.0 Ib. for zinc;
and 3.75 Ib. for manganese.
2For concentrate sprays, multiply the pounds required by 0.75.
For soluble sulfates, see Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 536C.


Single copies are free to residents of Florida and may be obtained 1
from the County Extension Office. Bulk rates are available upc I
request. Please submit details of the request to C.M. Hinton, Publ
cation Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University i
Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.

This publication was promulgated at a cost of
$498.90 or .066 cents per copy to advise citrus
growers about recommended practices for con-
trol of pests attacking citrus.

(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida
and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
K. R. Tefertiller, Director