Guide to the poisonous and irritant plants of Florida

Material Information

Guide to the poisonous and irritant plants of Florida
Series Title:
Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville
Perkins, Kent D
Payne, Willard W
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Cooperative Extension Service University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
91 p. : ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Poisonous plants ( lcsh )
Botany -- Florida ( lcsh )
South Florida ( local )
City of Miami ( local )
Poisoning ( jstor )
Death ( jstor )
Toxicity ( jstor )
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographies and index.
General Note:
Cover title.
Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
Statement of Responsibility:
Kent D. Perkins and Willard W. Payne.

Record Information

Source Institution:
Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location:
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
09085127 ( OCLC )


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The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida









The flora of Florida is an unusually diverse one within the contiguous
United States. It contains many species that are unique, being found only
there, and is further enriched and diversified by extensions of northern
and southern species that reach their extreme distribution limits in the
state. In addition, the salubrious climate enables cultivation of an
exceptionally diverse selection of fruits, vegetables, nuts, fiber plants,
ornamentals, and other cultivars of value to society and commerce. A minor
proportion of these plants is poisonous or irritant to humans and other
animals, but though the percentage is small the actual number is large
because the total is large. The purpose of this Guide is to consolidate
information on these plants, providing a reference work that gives informa-
tion about them and facilitates access to the literature. The plants
treated here are only the vascular plants; non-vascular plants, including
fungi, algae, mosses and their relatives are omitted.

Numerous other books and articles have been written about plant
poisoning, more than 630 of which are enumerated in the bibliography of
this volume, but there is no other comprehensive work for the toxic and
irritant plants of Florida. This Guide is a step toward complete survey
of the native, naturalized, introduced and cultivated plants of importance
in this regard. Although 500 entries are included, comprehensiveness


cannot be claimed and will not be possible until every plant kind in
Florida has been carefully studied and tested; the vast majority of species
remain essentially unknown. The user should be aware that many plants not
incorporated in this volume are potentially problematic, especially under
the special circumstances of particular situations or with unusually
susceptible persons or animals.

Similarly, this is not a work intended to give authoritative advice on
treatment. Data have been compiled from many sources, and are only as
trustworthy as those sources after interpretation by the authors. If
serious poisoning is suspected, seek competent medical help immediately.


Children, especially from the ages one to nine, are most frequently
poisoned from ingesting toxic plant materials. They sometimes eat the most
unpleasant and unlikely things out of curiosity or while at play. They are
also susceptible to "taking a dare" from a playmate, even when they themselves
and the child offering the dare suspect the possible danger. Parents and
educators should emphasize the foolhardiness of taking unnecessary risks
because of taunts, and should forbid eating unknown leaves, nuts or berries.

Adults are increasingly drawn back to nature, with greatly heightened
interest in the use of "natural" plants and weeds, especially for their
comestible and medicinal properties. Yet, many of the enthusiasts know
relatively little about the plants around them, and are heedless of the
dangers of ill-informed experimentation. Even rather innocuous plants that
are well-known can be harmful when used in novel ways; for instance, the
tomato and potato, both important and common food plants, produce poisonous
foliage and stems that have caused human poisoning and livestock deaths.
Always remember that most of the world's powerful, biologically produced
drugs, including tranquilizers, allergens, hallucinogens, stimulants,
depressants, and poisons, are plant products. In part, they are defense
mechanisms evolved to protect the plants against animal predation, and they
work. It is obvious that these mechanisms are especially potent and
effective for wild plants, plants that have not historically been found
edible, and that have not been made more palatable, nutritious and harmless
by selective breeding.

These remarks are not meant to discourage experimentation with wild
species. They do suggest, however, that intelligent and careful experimen-
tation will reduce the probability of accidental poisoning. As a first
step, learn to identify plants yourself (colleges and universities usually
provide plant identification courses), and be cautious with unknown plants.
Seek advice and guidance from people with experience, and familiarize
yourself with agencies that can provide assistance, including schools,
colleges, hospitals, clinics, and government agencies, such as your county
agricultural or extension agent.


Livestock poisoning is different in many respects from human poisoning.
Humans are seldom forced to eat unusual foods by circumstances beyond their
control, and are likely to ingest relatively little and to know what they
have eaten. Animals often eat poisonous plants only when they are provided
inadvertently as fodder, or when starvation forces unusual grazing and
browsing. The animal cannot explain or comment upon its symptoms, nor can
it communicate information as to the plant or plants involved. Thus, while
humans can be educated to careful avoidance, animals must be protected from
harm by removing dangerous plants from the areas they occupy and in which
they forage, and by intelligent feeding by the farmer or keeper.


Prevention is the best cure. Adults should know the hazards in their
homes, yards, and environs, and should educate themselves and their children
for intelligent behavior, including avoidance. Wild plants should be used
in medicine and cooking only when they are known with absolute certainty
to be innocuous. There are no easy rules to distinguish poisonous from
harmless and beneficial plants, and closely similar, sometimes related
species may be easily confused with tragic results.

If poisoning is suspected, consult a physician or the poison control
center of your local hospital immediately. When the plant is known, take
as good an example of it as you can to the treatment center so that it can
be identified exactly, and the nature of its toxic substances and the
effective treatments determined with precision. For herbaceous plants, try
to take an entire plant, with leaves, stems, flowers, fruits and roots,
or as complete a specimen as is available. If the plants are large, as
for trees and shrubs, take a large branch with several leaves, flowers and
fruits, and note carefully whether it appears to be cultivated or wild. It
is far better to have too large a specimen than one inadequate for deter-

If absolutely no professional help is available, it is usually helpful
to empty the stomach by induced vomiting (emesis). Give the sufferer a
glass or more of warm water, followed by mustard water, ipecac, or physical
gagging. After the stomach contents are emptied, a process that may require
several repeated vomits, the victim may benefit from administration of
soothing protective, such as flour mixed to the consistency of cream in
water, egg white, milk, or a suspension of activated charcoal in water.
Note that these treatments are different from those used in many kinds of
chemical poisoning, and they should not be confused. Not infrequently,
plant poisoning is accompanied by convulsions, and lavage and emesis should
never be attempted when convulsions are imminent or in progress because
the person may choke to death on liquids or vomit. In all cases, the
patient should be kept calm, and medical advice should be sought as quickly


Livestock poisoning is different in many respects from human poisoning.
Humans are seldom forced to eat unusual foods by circumstances beyond their
control, and are likely to ingest relatively little and to know what they
have eaten. Animals often eat poisonous plants only when they are provided
inadvertently as fodder, or when starvation forces unusual grazing and
browsing. The animal cannot explain or comment upon its symptoms, nor can
it communicate information as to the plant or plants involved. Thus, while
humans can be educated to careful avoidance, animals must be protected from
harm by removing dangerous plants from the areas they occupy and in which
they forage, and by intelligent feeding by the farmer or keeper.


Prevention is the best cure. Adults should know the hazards in their
homes, yards, and environs, and should educate themselves and their children
for intelligent behavior, including avoidance. Wild plants should be used
in medicine and cooking only when they are known with absolute certainty
to be innocuous. There are no easy rules to distinguish poisonous from
harmless and beneficial plants, and closely similar, sometimes related
species may be easily confused with tragic results.

If poisoning is suspected, consult a physician or the poison control
center of your local hospital immediately. When the plant is known, take
as good an example of it as you can to the treatment center so that it can
be identified exactly, and the nature of its toxic substances and the
effective treatments determined with precision. For herbaceous plants, try
to take an entire plant, with leaves, stems, flowers, fruits and roots,
or as complete a specimen as is available. If the plants are large, as
for trees and shrubs, take a large branch with several leaves, flowers and
fruits, and note carefully whether it appears to be cultivated or wild. It
is far better to have too large a specimen than one inadequate for deter-

If absolutely no professional help is available, it is usually helpful
to empty the stomach by induced vomiting (emesis). Give the sufferer a
glass or more of warm water, followed by mustard water, ipecac, or physical
gagging. After the stomach contents are emptied, a process that may require
several repeated vomits, the victim may benefit from administration of
soothing protective, such as flour mixed to the consistency of cream in
water, egg white, milk, or a suspension of activated charcoal in water.
Note that these treatments are different from those used in many kinds of
chemical poisoning, and they should not be confused. Not infrequently,
plant poisoning is accompanied by convulsions, and lavage and emesis should
never be attempted when convulsions are imminent or in progress because
the person may choke to death on liquids or vomit. In all cases, the
patient should be kept calm, and medical advice should be sought as quickly

as possible. Be alert to the symptoms of poisoning, and remember that they
may not be evident for several hours or days.

The authors of this Guide and its publishers have not tested the
treatments listed herein, and are in no way responsible for their efficacy
or failure. As stated above, treatment data have been garnered wholly from
the literature, and are provided for assistance to the professional physician
or veterinarian, trained to treat patients and animals suffering from poi-
soning or exposure to irritants, and capable of checking or extrapolating
from the information here.


The Guide is divided into six main sections. The organization of these
is described below:

1. Introduction.

2. Table of Florida Plants with Poisonous and Irritant Properties.

This section includes data in five columns:

A) Number. Each entry is numbered in the left-hand column, and the
numbers are used in the Index for ready location of plants and
data about them.

B) Names. The scientific name, consisting of the genus and species,
together with the author, are presented in large type. If the
species of a plant is questionable, or if several species of the
same genus are believed to have essentially identical properties,
the scientific name is given only as the generic name, followed
by "spp." Synonymous scientific names (names used in former times
or by other authors, necessary for literature access) are presented
in parentheses. Common names follow the scientific names, and are
not underlined.

C) Family Name and Literature References. In the third column, headed
"FAMILY (References)", the scientific name of the family is given
in large capitals, followed by the common name for the family in
smaller capitals. Numbered references are provided in parentheses,
and these numbers correspond to alphabetically arranged, numbered
references in the Bibliography.

D) Toxic Parts and Constituents. Here the known toxic parts and
materials are listed, reflecting reports in the literature cited.
The abbreviation "w/", means with, containing, or containss. A
question mark inside parentheses, (?), indicates the information is
uncertain. Words in parentheses are either other names given to

constituents, or are general terms for the chemical groups to
which a substance belongs, such as alkaloids, glycosides, proteins,
and pigments. The toxic parts and constituents of many plants are
unknown, and every part should be suspect if the plant is known
to be poisonous in any way.

E) Effects and Remarks. In the far right column, the code (NCHLPSD)
stands for the following:

N = Native or naturalized in Florida.

C = Cultivated in Florida as a crop, landscape plant, or

H = The plant or an extract has caused the death of humans.

L = The plant has caused the death of livestock or domestic

P = The plant has caused poisoning of humans and/or livestock
or domestic animals.

S = The plant is suspected of being poisonous, although the
supporting data are uncertain.

D = The plant is a cause of dermatitis (skin irritation)
allergy, eye irritation, and/or respiratory problems in
humans (and possibly some animals).

= A line above any of the letters means that the information
available is questionable.

Effects and remarks, including symptoms and treatments, complete
the right-hand column. All of the material that is indented, that
is, remains to the right of the (NCHLPSD) code, pertains particu-
larly to all the plants opposite the indentation. Remember that
symptoms vary greatly with the individual person or animal.
Symptoms in parentheses are thought to occur only occasionally.

3. Bibliography. The references in the bibliography are listed alpha-
betically and numbered sequentially for each letter group, permitting
unambiguous and brief identification in the table. Starred references (*)
include large numbers of species, and may be especially useful as general
references or for further research for the plants of Florida. A few
references added late, and out of alphabetical sequence at the end of a
particular letter group, have their alpha-numeric numbers compressed to
the right and preceded by a slash (e.g.,/M62, found after entry M27,
indicates a reference that should occur alphabetically as the 28th entry
under "M", but has been included as the 62nd entry).

4. List of Genera by Family. This compact list, organized alphabetically
by family, shows the nature of plant coverage in the work, and is helpful
to the specialist or amateur familiar with the nature and classification
of vascular plants.

5. Index. The Index includes common and scientific names listed alpha-
betically, with the numbers allotted them in the table. CAUTION: Common
names are inexact for plants, and may be applied to different species by
people with different cultural or geographic backgrounds.

6. Addendum. A few last-minute items that came to the authors' attention
after the body of the work was completed and typed.


We are grateful to Elizabeth Green, Joan Crisman, and William Ruff for
their support, advice, and active assistance. The work would not have been
possible without the facilities of the Florida State Museum, the Herbarium
of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, and the libraries of
the University of Florida.

January, 1978

Kent D. Perkins

Willard W. Payne



1. ABuS PRECATORIUS L. LEGUMINOSAE All parts, esp. seeds w/ (NCHLP ) Gastroenteritis, vomiting, severe di-
Crab's-eye; Indian-licorice; PEA FAMILY abrin (a toxalbumin) & arrhea, abdominal pains, trembling, weakness,
Jequirity Bean; Licori abric acid (a glycoside). cold sweat, weak & accelerated pulse, cardiac &
vine ove Bean; Lck Bean (A16, B33, C23, G4, circulatory failure, hemorrhaging, liver & kidney
Mienie-mienie Indian Bead; H16, K1, K15, L4, damage. Reaction may be delayed for 2 days.
Prayer Bean; Precatory Pea; L20, L21, L22, M9, Very toxic, 1 chewed seed may be fatal; unchewed,
Rosary Pea; Seminole Bead; M36, M53, M60, N8, may pass through system with no harm. Treatment:
Weather-vine. N9, N10, 01, S60, external cooling, fluids, electrolytes, calcium
W7) gluconate, arecoline under a physician.

2. ACALYPHA SPP. EUPHORBIACEAE All parts w/ unknown. (N S ) Caution, toxicity unknown. Acalypha
Three-seeded Mercury SPURGE FAMILvi nica L., which occurs north of Florida, is
Three-seeded Mercury SPURGE FAMILY suspected of poisoning livestock.

3. AER NEGUNDO L. ACERACEAE Pollen w/ oil. (N D) Tests indicate the pollen oil, in rare
(Negundo negundo (L.) Karst.) MAPLE FAMILY kinrass and lisergic dermatitis with a re
Ash-leaved Maple; Box-elder; (L4, L32)

4, ACONITUM SPP, RANUNCULACEAE All parts w/ esp. aconitine ( CHLP ) Nausea, vomiting, skin tingling,
M and also other alkaloids, respiratory difficulty, weakness, irregular heart-
5. ACoIm NAPELLUS L, BUTTERCUP FAMILY beat & pulse. Small amounts may cause serious
Aconite; Monks-hood; (K15, L4, M9, M60) poisoning and death in 1 to 6 hrs. Less than 1
Wolfbane lb. may be lethal to the horse.

6. ACTAEA SPP. RANUNCULACEAE All parts, esp. root & (N H ) Internally: burning, vomiting,
Baneberry; Doll's-eyes; BUTTERCUP FAMILY berries w/ a glycoside gastroenteritis, diarrhea, headache, dizziness,
Necklace-weed which forms protoanemonin delirium, very rarely convulsions & death.
ecace-wee(H16, M60, N14) (an irritant oil). Externally: dermatitis, respiratory & eye

7, ADENANTHERA PAVONIA L, LEGUMINOSAE Seeds when raw w/ lignoceric (NC S ) Intoxicant and poisonous. Has been
Bead-tree; Circassian Bean; PEA FAMILY acid. w/ a saponin? used as an insecticide.
Peacock Flower-fence; Red (M4, M52, W7)

8. AESCULUS PARVIFLORA WALT. HIPPOCASTANACEAE As below? (N S ) Suspected to be as below.
Bottlebrush Buckeye BUCKEYE FAMILY
9. AESCULUS PAIA L. HORSE-CHESTNUT FAM. All parts, esp. seeds & (N HLP ) Gastroenteritis, nausea, vomiting,
(B57, B58, C40, F4, leaves, abdominal pain, fever, incoordination, weakness,
Firecracker-plant; Horse- H15, H16, K15, L4, pupil dilation, circulatory & respiratory
chestnut; Red Buckeye; M60) failure, convulsions, paralysis & death. The dust
Scarlet Buckeye may be a respiratory and eye irritant.

10. AGAVE SPP, AGAVACEAE Juice in all parts w/ (NC D) May cause a rash, burning and itching
Century-plant; Sisal; AGAVE FAMILY skin irritants saponinn? of the skin & eye damage. There have been
SCen y-pla oxalic acid?) allergic reactions to dry Sisal fibers. Wash any
Sisal-hemp (12, M53) area where the juice has come in contact. Apply a
soothing ointment or lotion. Consult a physician
if irritation persists.

11. AGROSTEMMA GITHAG L. CARYOPHYLLACEAE All parts, esp. seeds w/ (F HLP ) Gastroenteritis, nausea, vomiting,
Corn Cockle PINK FAMILY githagenin (a saponin). diarrhea, abdominal pain, weakness, labored
respiration, death. Hazard to grazing livestock.
(G27, H16, K15, M60) Rarely a contaminant of milled grains. May no
longer be present in Florida.

12. AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA SIMAROUBACEAE Leaves & flowers w/ unknown. (NC SD) A cause of dermatitis. Suspected may
(MILLER) SINGLE QUASSIA FAMILY cause gastroenteritis.
Copel-tree, Tree-of-Heaven (M60, W7)


enus species names) (References)
Common Names

13. ALEURITES CORDATA EUPHORBIACEAE All parts, esp. seeds w/ ( C SD) Toxicity probably similar to
(THUNB.) MUELL.-ARG. SPURGE FAMILY a toxalbumin and a saponin. Aleurites fordii, see below.
Japan Wood-oil Tree (B6, D2, D8, E9,
E1O, Ell, E14, E17,
H16, H35, K15, L4,
14. ALEURITES FORDII HEMSL, L17, M3, M53, M60, As above. (NCHLP D) Gastroenteritis, nausea, vomiting,
Tung Tree, Tung-oil Tree R19, S9, W7) abdominal cramps, diarrhea, dizziness, weakness,
Tung Tree, Tung-oil Tree poor reflexes & dehydration. Onset in 30 min. &
recovery in 24 hrs. is usual. Causes dermatitis.

15. ALEURITES MOLUCCANA As above. (NC P D) Seeds are toxic raw, but are cooked
and eaten in Hawaii. Caution, about as toxic
(L,) WILLD. as Aleurites fordii.

16, ALEURITES MONTANA As above. (NC SD) Toxicity probably similar to
lourR.) WILS. Aleurites fordii, see above.
Mu-oil Tree

17. ALEURITES TRISPERMA As above. (NC P D) Toxicity probably similar to
Aleurites fordii, see above. Initially there
BLANCO is a very distinct burning in the mouth and
Lumbang Nut throat.

18. ALLAMANDA CATHARTICA L. APOCYNACEAE All parts, esp. sap w/ (NC P D) Emetic and purgative (cathartic).
Yellow Allamanda DOGBANE FAMILY unknowns. Toxin is self-limiting, treatment usually not
Yellow Allamanda DOGBANE FAMILY necessary. Not as serious as is often considered.
(H16, K15, L4, M53, A cause of dermatitis to sensitive persons.
M60, W7)

19. ALLAMANDA VIOLACEA As above. (NC P D) As above.
Purple Allamanda, Violet

20. ALLLUM SPP, AMARYLLIDACEAE All parts w/ many consti- (NC L D) Alliaceous odor and taste may contam-
Chives Garlic Leek, Onion AMARYLLIS FAMILY tuents. inate milk, etc., when grazed. Anemia (rarely
Chives Gar Leek, Onion AMARYLLIS FAMILY death) may result from repeated grazing of large
(Wild or Cultivated) (K15, M60, W7) amounts of only Allium.

21. ALOCASIA MACRORRHIZA ARACEAE All parts, esp. raw corm w/ (NC P D) Gastroenteric irritant, chiefly to the
SCHOTT ARUM AMILY calcium oxalate crystals & mouth and throat, causing burning and inflammation.
CHOTT AM AMILY unknowns. Ingestion is usually small due to immediate pain.
Giant Elephant's-ear (A16, H16, K15, L4, Juice may cause dermatitis to sensitive skin and
M53, M60, W7) eye irritation. Corm specially prepared & eaten.

22. AMARANTHUS SPP. AMARANTHACEAE All parts w/ oxalates, (N LP ) Vitamin deficiency, bloat, gastroen-
Amaranth; Green Amaranth; AMARANTH FAMILY nitrates & unknowns. teric irritation or rarely death, result from
Amaranthprolonged excessive grazing by livestock. Cases
Pigweed; Tumbleweed (B49, K15, M60, are rare due to the low concentration of toxins.
S10) Some species are popular and safe potherbs.

24, AMARYLLIS BELLADONNA L. AMARYLLIS FAMILY Bulb and seed. Other parts? ( C LP 5) Used medicinally. No human poisonings
Belladonna-lily (S62, W7, W26, W28 W/ Lycorine, amaryllidine, on record. In animals has caused gastroenteritis,
W30) ambelline, caranine & other vomiting, shivering, sometimes diarrhea, cardiac
alkaloids, effects, respiratory & CNS depression, paralysis &
death. Other lycorine containing plants have
caused, to humans: gastroenteritis, vomiting,
shivering & sometimes diarrhea, to animals:
stupor, convulsions, low blood pressure & liver

25. AMBROSIA COMPOSITAE Leaves, stem & pollen w/ (N D) Cause of allergic contact dermatitis.
(Ambrosia elatior L.) SUNFLOWER FAMILY Pollen w/ water soluble Cause of allergy, hayfever and asthma.
Ragweed (C32, F19, H16, H40 proteins.
L4, L32, Ml, M60,
S36, S44, S70, Tll)


t er enus species names) (References)
Common Names (References)

26, AMPELOPSIS ARBOREA VITACEAE Leaves w/ unknown. (N S5) Suspected of causing dermatitis.
(L.) KOEHNE GRAPE FAMILY Berries w/ unknown. Peppery tasting. Considered inedible.
(Cissus stans Pers.) (H16, P1, S45)

27. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L. ANACARDIACEAE Nut shell w/ anacardic acid ( C P D) Burning, blistering and swelling of the
Cashew Tree CASHEW FAMILY and cardol (a caustic oil). mouth, lips and skin. Fumes from the roasting
detoxifyingg) shells are toxic, may irritate the
(AS, B18, B33, C23, face and eyes. Ripe, fleshy receptacle is edible,
Dl, 05, L4, M53, 01, but astringent.
P20, R8, 56, S71, Sap and gum w/ unknown. Said to be poisonous.

28. ANAGALLIS ARVENSIS L. PRIMULACEAE Leaves w/ a saponin, (N LP D) Has been fatal to dogs and horses.
Pimpernel; Poison Chickweed; PRIMROSE FAMILY cyclamin (a glycoside) & Symptoms: depression, loss of appetite & diarrhea.
Poor-man's-weatherglass; Red (57, H16, H46, Kt knowns.
Chickweed; Red Pimpernel;Plant hairs w/ primin. A cause of dermatitis.
Scarlet Pimpernel; Shepherd's- W7) 8, R9

29. ANANAS COMOSUS MERR, BROMELIACEAE Juice of plant w/ bromelin ( C D) Occasionally causes dermatitis to
(Ananas ananas (L.) Lyons) AIR-PLANT FAMILY (a proteolytic enzyme), workers, when the juice is rubbed into the skin.
(Ananas iativus Schult.) PINEAPPLE FAMILY
Pineapple (L4, P5, P19)

30, ANDIRA INERMIS LEGUMINOSAE Bark & seeds w/ andirine ( C P ) Used medicinally. Overdoses cause
(WRIGHT) DC. PEA FAMILY and alkaloids, vomiting, fever, delirium and possibly death.
Bark a fish poison.
(Andira jamaicensis Urban) (Al, AS, B33, H27,
Cabbage-bark Tree 09, S55)

31, ANEMONE CAROLINIANA WALT. RANUNCULACEAE All parts w/ a glycoside (NC LP D) Internally: Burning and redness in
Anemone, Pasque-flower, BUTTERCUP FAMILY which forms protoanemonin the mouth and throat, gastroenteritis, vomiting,
Thimbleweed, Wind-flower (an irritant oil). (bloody) diarrhea, dizziness, fainting, urinary
imbeweed, (H16, K15, M60) trouble, blister eruptions, very rarely convul-
sions & death. Drying or cooking destroys the
toxicity. Externally: dermatitis, respiratory &
eye irritation.

32, ANGADENIA BERTERII APOCYNACEAE Milky sap in all parts w/ (N SD) Caution. Similar & related to many
(A. DC.) MIERS DOGBANE FAMILY unknowns, plants with irritant and blistering sap. Toxicity
(Rhabdadenia corallicola
Pineland Allamanda

33, ANISOSTICHUS CAPREOLATA BIGNONIACEAE All parts w/ unknowns. (N S5) Caution. Used as a fish poison. Said
(L,) BUREAU BIGNONIA FAMILY to be toxic, but toxicity unknown.
(Bignonia capreolata L.) (P1)

34. ANNONA SPP, ANNONACEAE Seeds w/ unknowns. ( C S ) Seeds said to be toxic, have been used
35, ANNNA CHERMOLA MILL. CUSTARD-APPLE As above. ( C S ) as a fish poison and insecticide.
35 A CHER LA MILL CUSTARDAPPLE As above. ( C S ) Juice of the crushed seeds of Aonona
Cherimoya; Sugar-apple LY cherimola is reported cause of -Mli-
S(A, C23, M49 N4, ness. Bark of Annona muricata and
36a ANNNA GLABRA L. P, s69, W7) As above. (NC S ) Annona reticulataud as a f-sh
Alligator-apple; Corkwood; poison. Bark of Annona reticulata
"Custard-apple", Pond-apple exudes an irritant juice which
36b ANNoA MuacAIT L. As above. ( C S ) produces eye inflammation. The fruit
of some species is sour and of others
Guanabana, Sour-sop is sweet. All are edible and many
37. ANNONA RETICULATA L, As above. ( C S ) make excellent jellies and sherberts.
Bullock's-heart, Custard-
apple, Jamaica-apple
38, ANNNA SQUAMOSA L, As above. (RC S )
Sugar-apple, Sweet-sop


er species names) (References)
Common (References

39, ANTHEMIS ARVENSIS L. COMPOSITAE Leaves & flowers w/ an acrid (N D) Irritant to the skin and mucous
40. AN EMIITE F Y substance. (N D membranes, if eaten or grazed. Plant
40. ANTHEMIS COTULA L. COMPOSITE FAMILY (N D) is distasteful. Grazing causes unde-
Dog's-camomile; Dog-daisy; SUNFLOWER FAMILY sirably flavored milk, etc.
Dog-fennel; Mayweed; Stinking (H16, L4, L32, K15,
Mayweed M23, M60)

41. ANTHURIUM SPP. ARACEAE All parts w/ calcium oxalate ( C S5) Gastroenteric irritant, chiefly to the
Anthurium ARUM FAMILY crystals & unknowns, mouth and throat, causing burning and inflammation.
Juice may cause dermatitis to sensitive skin and
(K15, L4, PI) eye irritation.

42. AEPUM GRAVEOLENS L. UMBELLIFERAE All parts w/ a furocoumarin. ( C D) Severe dermatitis with blistering
(Ce i e T FAMIY occurs among celery harvesters. Some believe that
(C. Britoens ARSY FAMILY "pink-rot disease" is responsible, while others
n) PARSLEY FAMILY maintain that it is the celery oil. Cases from
Celery (B28, L4, P5, W35) Florida have been described.

43. APOCYNUM CANNABINUM L. APOCYNACEAE All parts w/ the glycosides, (N LP ) Plant distasteful. Symptoms to cow &
Dogbane; Indian-hemp DOGBANE FAMILY apocannoside (apocynein) & horse: increased pulse & temperature, dilated
cymarin, the resin, apocynin pupils, sweating, cold extremities, discolored &
(C39, C40, E20, F6, (acetovanillon), (cyno- sore mouth & nose, refusal of food & drink, mild
H15, H16, K15, K26, toxin?) & other substances, diarrhea, death. Emetics, tannic acid, protec-
M43, M50, M60, S52) tives & atropine have been helpful. Used medic-
inally. Overdoses may have similar effects.

44. ARALIA SPINOSA L. ARALIACEAE Root, bark & berries w/ (N SD) Medicinal in small amounts. Large
Devil's-walkingstick ARALIA FAMILY unknowns, possibly araliin, amounts are said to be poisonous. Bark and root
Hercules'-club; Pricly-ash; Fa volatile oil & a resin. may cause dermatitis.
Hercules'-club; Prickly-ash; (857, F4, Hit, KiS,
Prickly-elder; Toothache-bush; (BM5, M6, 08, P1,
Toothache-tree P21)

45. ARECA CATECHU L. PALMAE Nut w/ alkaloids including: ( C P ) Narcotic. Large amounts cause vom-
(Areca cathecu L.) PALM FAMILY arecolin, arecain, iting, diarrhea, heart & respiratory disturb-
(Areca cathecu L.) PALM FAMILY arecaidin & guvacin. ances, convulsions & coma. Death possible, not
Areca-nut; Betel-nut (C36, H16, H46, N4, reported in the U.S. Nut used to make a dye in
PI) Tropical Asia and Malaysia. Arecain is used for
worms by veterinarians.

46. ARECASTRUM ROMANZOFFIANUM PALMAE Fruit w/ unknown. ( C [PS ) Ripe fruit sweet, apparently safe.
( ) B I PM AMIY Unripe fruit suspected cause of scouring & death
(CHAM.) BECCARI PALM FAMILY of calves in Queensland, Australia.
(Cocos romanzoffiana Cham.) (H16, H46, M52)
(Cocos plumosa Hook.)
Queen Palm

47, ARGEMONE ALBIFLORA PAPAVERACEAE Root, leaves & esp. seeds (N L 5) Plant distasteful & spiny, unlikely to
w/ the alkaloids berberine be eaten. Effects have been vomiting, diarrhea,
HORNEMANN POPPY FAMILY & protopine. circulatory, nervous, respiratory & kidney
(Argemone alba Lestib.) (Al, B33, 844, 01) disorders, mild narcotic effects & death in a few
(Aremone intermedia Sweet) cases. Chiefly a problem to fowl, which may eat
White Prickly-poppy the seeds. Prickles may cause skin irritation.
48. ARGEMONE MEXICANA L. As above. (N L 5) As above. The seeds have been a
-problem as a contaminant in grain, flour and
Mexican Prickly-poppy; livestock feed.
Thistle-root; Yellow Prickly-
poppy; Yellow-thistle

49. ARISAEMA DRACONTIUM ARACEAE All parts, esp. corm w/ (N p 5) Gastroenteric irritant, chiefly to the
(L) SCHOTT ARUM FAMILY calcium oxalate crystals & mouth & throat, causing burning & inflammation.
(L.) SCHOTT A AIL unknowns. The juice of the plant may cause dermatitis to
(Muricauda dracontium (B57, F4, F21, G29, sensitive skin and eye irritation. The corms,
(L.) SmaTl) H16, J3, K15, L4, after lengthy preparation, are made into a tasty
Green-dragon; Dragon-root M60) flour. The berries have been eaten raw, but taste
Green-dragon; Dragon-root peppery.
50. ARISAEMA TRIPHYLLUM As above. (N LP D) As above.
(Arisaema acuminatum Small)
Arisaea pusium (Peck) Nash)
(Arisaema uinatum (Nuttall) Schott)
Indian-turnip; Jack-in-the-Pulpit;


(Other Genus species Names) (References)
Common Names

51, ARISTOLOCHIA ARISTOLOCHIACEAE Root w/ aristolochine (an (N S ) Used medicinally, a reputed snake-bite
SERPENTARIA L BIRTHWORT FAMILY alkaloid), aristolochin & antidote. Large doses may cause gastroenteric
serpentarine (bitter princi- irritation, vomiting, abdominal pain, dizziness &
(Aristolochia (B58, C47, M35, ples), a resin & aristinic diarrhea.
convolvulacea Small) M50) acid?
(Aristolochia hastata Nuttall)
Birthwort; Snakeroot

52, ASCLEPIAS SPP, ASCLEPIADACEAE All parts w/ glycosides & (N S ) There are many species in Florida.
Milkweed MILKWEED FAMILY resinoids. Although some species may not be toxic, all should
be suspected. The young shoots and young pods are
(B33, E20, F4, H15, eaten after cooking, but are toxic when raw. In
H16, K15, M11, M60, humans, some species have caused vomiting, stupor
08, P1, S52) & weakness.
53. ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA L, (Al, A5, 833, 855, All parts w/ asclepiadin (N LP D) In cattle has caused salivation,
Bloodflower; Kittie McWanie C23, 023, 24, H46, (a glycoside) & unknowns. nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, incoordination,
Weed; Red-head, Red-top; N13, 01, Q1, S53) muscular paralysis, respiratory difficulty,
Scarlet Milkweed cardiac disturbances & death from large amounts.
The milky sap is a skin and eye irritant.
54, ASCLEPIAS TUBEROSA L, (B57, C47, M35, All parts w/ glycosides & (N P ) The root is used medicinally. Large
Butterfly Milkweed; M50) resinoids. amounts cause irritation, severe vomiting &
Pleurisy-root diarrhea.
55, ASCLEPIAS VERTICILLATA L, (E20, H15, K15, All parts w/ glycosides & (N LP ) Ingestion by livestock causes
Horsetail Milkweed; Whorled M11, M60, 08, P1, resinoids. dizziness, incoordination, loss of appetite,
Milkweed S52) tremors or spasms, fever, rapid & weak pulse,
difficulty breathing, respiratory paralysis &
death. Older plants are more toxic, but turkeys
have been poisoned from the sprouts.

56. ASIMINA SPP. ANNONACEAE Fruit w/ unknowns. (N S ) Toxicity may be similar to the
Dog-apple; Dog-banana; False- CUSTARD-APPLE species below.
banana; Papaw; Pawpaw FAMILY
57! ASIMINA PARVIFLORA (B9, B57, F4, K15, Fruit w/ unknowns. (N P ) Suspected cause of vomiting, severe
(MICHX,) DUNAL M60, W35) gastro-intestinal pains & headache.
57i ASIMINA TRILOBA Fruit w/ unknowns. (N P D) Cause of dermatitis and/or gastro-
(L,) DUNAL intestinal problems to some persons. Fruit is
sometimes cooked and eaten.

58, ASPARAGUS SPRENGERI LILIACEAE All parts w/ unknowns. ( C S ) Caution, toxicity unknown. The
REGEL LILY FAMILY foliage, red berries & seeds may be toxic if

59. ATRIPLEX SPP. CHENOPODIACEAE All parts w/ soluble (N S ) All species are generally safe when
Beach-orach; Orach; Salt-bush GOOSEFOOT FAMILY oxalates, nitratess?) & cooked as a pot-herb and the first water is poured
saponins. off. Large quantities may be dangerous due to the
(F17, H15, W7) accumulation of oxalates (see Oxalis), (nitrates?)
& saponins. No cases known in lorida.

60, ATROPA BELLADONNA L. SOLANACEAE All parts w/ atropine, ( CHLP D) Cooked ripe berries may be edible, but
Belladonna; Deadly Nightshade NIGHTSHADE FAMILY hyoscyamine, scopolamine & should be avoided. Symptoms: dilated pupils,
many other alkaloids. fever, hot, dry & flushed skin, rapid & weak pulse,
(B47, F7, H16, K15, headache, incoordination & confusion; sometimes
L4, L8, M9, M23, delirium, hallucinations, convulsions, stupor,
M60, M61, W29, W30) coma with low temperature, labored respiration &
oxygen deficiency; deaths are rare. Amnesia of
poisoning is common. Recovery is in several days,
if stomach contents are removed. Sap may cause

61, AVICENNIA GERMINANS AVICENNIACEAE Seed w/ unknowns. (N S ) Reputed to be toxic. Toxicity unknown.
(Avicennia nitida (L.) Jacq.) FAMILY
Black Mangrove; Honey (M49, M59)
Mangrove; Salt-bush


renus species Names) (References)
Common Names

62. BACCHARIS ANGUSTIFOLIA COMPOSITAE Leaves & flowers w/ a (N S ) Used medicinally. Distasteful,
MIcHx. COMPOSITE FAMILY glycosidal saponin chiefly a danger to hungry livestock.
M C OSITE FAMILY Symptoms (not well documented): inco-
Baccharis; False-willow; SUNFLOWER FAMILY ordination, diarrhea, weakness, heart
Silverling (D21, H15, K15, M50) & respiratory disturbance. Tests on
SG ( L chicks & mice at the University of
63. BACCHARIS GLOMERULIFLORA (N LP ) Georgia rank most to least toxic as:
PERS, Baccharis glomeruliflora, Baccharis
fifhailiifTlia. Baccharis ang.tifil.
Baccharis; Silverling Only extracts of the latter species
64. BACCHARIS HALIMIFOLIA L, (N LP ) caused death. The leaves of of the
Bacchari s; Groundsel-tree; first two caused death to the chicks.
Baccharis; Groundsel-tree;

65. BAPTISIA SPP. LEGUMINOSAE All parts w/ alkaloids & (N [ES ) Data lacking, toxicity of Florida
False-indgo; Wild Indigo PEA FAMILY glycosides. Cytisin (an species is unknown. Some species are considered
alkaloid) & baptisin (a medicinal, but poisonous in overdoses. Baptisia
(B57, B58, C40, glycoside) are present in leucantha Torr. & Gray (occurs in Florida) s said
D20, G6, H8, H15, B. tinctoria R. Br. (not to be the cause of diarrhea, loss of appetite &
K15, M60, P1, W30) a FTorida pant). death of 3 cows. Tests at the University of
Georgia on 6 species indicated they were non-toxic.

66. BATIS mARITIM L. BATIDACEAE All parts w/ unknowns, (N S ) Small amount may be safely eaten raw,
Beachwort; Saltwort BATIS FAMILY possibly accumulated but is best when cooked. Caution, large amounts
SALTWORT FAMILY nitrates & oxalates. are implicated as cause of poisoning to livestock,
but no data are available.
(H15, M59)

67. BELAMCANDA CHINENSIS IRIDACEAE All parts w/ unknowns. ( C S ) Caution, data lacking. The rhizome is
(L. ) DC, IS F Y said to be acrid. The plant is used to induce
(L,) DC, IRIS FAMILY sleep and is reputed to be poisonous.
(Belamcanda punctata Moench) (B57, P1, S68)
(Gemingia chinensis Kuntze)
(Ixia chinensis L)
(ardanthus chinensis Ker.)
Blackberry-lily; Pardelle

68, BERCHEMIA SCANDENS RHAMNACEAE All parts, esp. berries? (N S ) Caution. Toxicity unknown. The fruit
(HILL) K. KOCH. BUCKTHORN FAMILY W/ unknown, and leaves of many Rhamnaceae are poisonous.
Supple-jack; Rattan (B57, H16, L24)

69, BERTHOLLETIA EXCELSA LECYTHIDACEAE Seed oil. ( C D) Skin rash & eruptions have been obser-
HUMB, & BONPL. LECYTHIS FAMILY ved among workers handling Brazil Nuts.
Brazil Nut, Para Nut (L4, M10)

70. BETA VULGARIS L, CHENOPODIACEAE Leaves w/ soluble oxalates ( C LP ) Small amounts of Beta leaves are
&Beet, Sws Chard GO FAMILY unknowns, safely enjoyed as a potherb by humans. Frequent
Beet, Swiss Chard GOOSEFOT FAMILY eating of large amounts by livestock or humans has
(F17, K15, W7) caused poisoning and livestock deaths in Europe.
The plants are of little danger in Florida since
large amounts are not cultivated.

71. B.LIGHA SAPIDA KOENIG SAPINDACEAE Unripe & spoiled aril w/ ( CHLP ) The ripe, fresh aril is sometimes
Ackee, Akee SOAPBERRY FAMILY Hypoglycin A, only a slight eaten in Jamaica. Thousands of deaths have
Ackee, Akee SOAPBERRY FAMILY amount in the ripe aril. resulted because of its highly variable toxicity,
(Al, A5, A16, A17, Seeds w/ Hypoglycin A & improper preparation & selection of the fruit.
B33, D3, D13, E19, Hypoglycin B (polypeptides). Several hours after eating the Ackee, there may be
H16, H21, H31, J13, Rind of fruit w/ a saponin. nausea & vomiting of a variable length, then a
K5, K15, L8, L9, Other parts w/ unknowns, quiescent period of apparent recovery with drowsi-
L34, M6, M27, M53, ness & sleep. Later, usually in 3-4 hours, there
P1, P15, 527, S28, is intense vomiting, which is soon followed by
S29, W7) convulsions, coma & death. During the course of
the poisoning the blood pH becomes altered & the
blood sugar decreases. The toxins cause marked
fatty change in the liver & kidneys and small
hemorrhages in the intestines, brain & lungs.
Immediate induction of vomiting or gastric lavage,
glucose intravenously -for hypoglycemia & sympto-
matic treatment may be effective, but are often
inadequate. The rind of the fruit is used as a
fish poison.


Other enus species Names) (References)
Common Naiiimes (References)

72. BRASSAIA ACTINOPHYLLA ARALIACEAE Leaves & stems w/ oxalates ( C S ) Data uncertain. Leaves cause tingling
ENDLICHER ARALIA FAMILY and unknowns. & numbing to the mouth? Ingestion by a poodle
Sa ( may have caused vomiting & confusion.
(Schefflera actinophylla (S67)
(Endlicher) Harms)
Queensland Umbrella Tree;
Schefflera; Umbrella Tree

73. BUXUS. HARLANDI HANCE BUXACEAE Leaves, twigs, bark, root ( C S ) The leathery & bitter leaves do not
Harland's Box(wood) BOXWOOD FAMILY (& berries) w/ buxene & invite consumption by livestock or
other alkaloids, humans. Nevertheless, there have been
74. BUXS. MICROPHYLLA (A15, C40, F17, H15, ( C S ) fatalities in sheep, pigs (in 24 hrs.),
SIEBR. ZUYcc H16, H46, K15, L27, cattle, horses (1.5 Ibs.) & camels.
SIEB ZuCc M60, 08, P1, R9, Clippings thrown in the pasture have
Japanese Box(wood) W19) poisoned curious animals. In live-
75. BIUS SEMPERVIRENS L, ( CiLP ) stock, small amounts produce diarrhea
B SEMER E L, (CLP ) & vomiting, while in larger amounts
Box; Boxwood; there is abdominal pain, intense thirst, convul-
Common Box(wood) sions & death due to respiratory failure. The
effects on humans are probably similar. Following
gastric lavage or emesis, treatment should be
symptomatic, giving special consideration to the
maintenance of respiration & circulation & the
prevention of convulsions.

76. CAESALPINIA BONDUC LEGUMINOSAE Prickles. (N D) A cause of painful physical injury.
(L,) ROXB, PEA FAMILY All parts w/ bonducin. All parts, esp. the seeds, are used medicinally in
(Guilandina bonduc L.) (01, W7) Various other parts w/ many countries. No report of toxicity.
other compounds.
Hold-back; Wait-a-bit-vine;
Yellow Nicker
77. CAESALPINIA CRISTA L, (01, W7) As above. (N D) As above.
(Guilandina crista (L.) Small)
Gray Nicker; Hold-back;
78, CAESALPINIA GILLESII (A12, C2, H16, K15, Green seed pods (& other ( C P ) In two cases in Arizona, symptoms
(HOOKER) WALL.) L4, S62) parts?) w/ unknowns, which appeared in 30 minutes were gastroenteric
irritation, nausea, vomiting & profuse diarrhea
(Poinciana gillesii Hooker) for 24 hrs. Before symptoms appear give egg
Bird-of Paradise; whites or flour beaten with water, induce vomiting
Paradise Poinciana (or perform gastric lavage), then give more pro-
tectives such as egg whites, flour or milk.
79. CAESALPINIA PAUCIFLORA (01) Prickles. (N D) A cause of painful physical injury.
80. CAESALPINIA PULCHERRIMA (M52, W7) Leaves w/ a resin, gallic ( C LP D) Small amounts of all parts are used
(L.) SWARTZ acid & HCN. Leaves, flow- medicinally, cause diarrhea. Whole plant used as
ers & fruit w/ tannin. All a fish poison. Leaf & seed used to cause abortion.
(Poinciana pulcherrima L.) parts w/ unknowns. Dry leaves caused increased pulse, weakness &
Barbados-pride; Dwarf Poin- death of rabbits.
ciana; Flower-fence;

81. CALADIUM BICOLOR VENTENAT ARACEAE All parts, esp. the corm ( C L D) Gastroenteric irritant, chiefly to the
82. CALADIUM PICTURATUM KOCH ARUM FAMILY w/ calcium oxalate crystals CL D mouth & throat, causing burning & In-
8PICTURATUM H unknowns. C L flammation. The juice of the plant
Caladium (H16, K15, L4, may cause dermatitis to sensitive skin & eye irri-
M52, M53) station. The leaves & corm are specially prepared
(cooked) & eaten in Tropical America & the West In-
dies. The powdered leaf is used as an insecticide.

83. CALOPHYLLUM ANTILLANUM GUTTIFERAE Unknown. ( C S ) Toxicity unknown. May be similar to
BRITTON GARCINIA FAMILY Calophyllum inophyllum L., below.
(Calophyllum brasiliense var. (B12)
antillanum (Britt) Standl.)
(Calophyllum calaba Jacq.)
Brazil Beauty-leaf; Calaba;
Calaba Beaty-leaf; Santa
Maria Tree
84. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM L, (B12, C23, M53, Leaves w/ a saponin & ( C P ) Seed eaten after special preparation
Alexandrian-laurel; Kamani; N4, Pl) HCN. Seed oil (domba by a few native tribes, but when raw may cause
Mast-wood oil) w/ calophyllic acid, severe vomiting. Human poisoning by the seed has
inophyllic acid & occurred in Florida. Seed oil used externally for
calophyllolide. skin diseases. Leaves used as a fish poison. Sap
irritant, emetic & purgative; used as an arrow
poison (fatal intravenously).



th er Genus species Names) (References)
Common Names

85. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA ASCLEPIADACEAE Milky juice w/ calotropin ( CHLP D) Internally, small amounts of all parts
MILKWEED FAMILY (a very active bitter prin- are used medicinally; cause poisoning
R. BROWN MILKWEED FAMILY ciple), calactin, calotoxin, in large amounts. Used for insecti-
Crown Flower; Giant Milkweed (A16, B33, C23, uscharidin & uscharin. cide, infanticide, suicide, arrow
H16, L4, M49, 01, poison, cheese-making and in brewing
86 CALOTROPIS S30, W7) ( CHLP D) an alcoholic beverage. Effects:
(AITON) R. BROWN (vomiting), (diarrhea), slowed but stronger heart-
o beat, labored respiration, increased blood
Crown Flower; French-jasmine; pressure, (convulsions), death. Protectives &
Giant Milkweed; Wild Cotton; morphine or atropine to allay pain have been help-
Wild Down ful as treatment for internal poisoning. Used
externally for skin problems, may cause irritation
to sensitive areas.

87, CALYCANTHUS FJ.nORus L. CALYCANTHACEAE Seeds w/ calycanthidine & (NC S ) Suspected cause of cattle poisoning.
VAR, RIDUS. CALYCANTHUS FAMILY calycanthine (alkaloids). Toxicity strychnine-like with increased percep-
VAR CALYCANTHUS FAMILY tions, muscular rigidity, twitching & intermittent
Bubby-blossoms; Carolina (B57, C15, H15, spasms, difficulty swallowing, slight fever,
Allspice; Shrub; Spicebush; K15, L4, M26, M60, sweating, (depressed heart muscle?) & (increased
Strawberry-shrub; Sweet-shrub P1, P21, P22) heart rate?).

88, CAMPSIS RADICANS BIGNONIACEAE Leaves & flowers w/ (NC SD) Cause of inflammation & blistering
(L.) SEEAN BIGNONIA FAunknowns, dermatitis to some people. Caution, reputed to
(L,) SEEMANN BIGNONIA FAMILY be poisonous. May be serious, if ingested.
(Bignonia radicans L.) (B58, H16, H46,
(Tecoma radicans Juss.) M60, 08)
Cow-itch; Trumpet-creeper

89, CANNAIS SATIVA L, CANNABACEAE Leaves, stems & flower buds ( C P ) The effects of smoking or other forms
P FAMILY w/ tetrahydrocannabinols. of ingestion of this drug vary among individuals,
Grass; Hemp; Indian Hemp; HEMP FAMILY a feeling of euphoria is most common. Large
Marijuana; Mary Jane; Pot; (H15, L4) amounts are suspected to cause livestock poison-
Reefer; Weed ing, but are unlikely to be accessible.

90. CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. SOLANACEAE Leaves w/ solanine, (NC SD) Toxicity unknown. Caution, probably
VAR. A NIGHTSHADE FAMILY scopoletin & other, similar to other solanine containing
VAR ANNIGHTSHADE FAMILY plants (see Cestrum).
Red Pepper (A5, H46, M53, W7) Fruit w/ capsaicin & other. Used as a medicine & condiment. Large
91, CAPSICU ANNUUM L, (NC SD) amounts may cause gastroenteric irri-
tation with vomiting or diarrhea.
VAR. AVICULARE (DIERB.) Externally, may cause inflammation &
D'ARCY & ESHB, blistering of the skin after prolonged
Chilipiquin exposure. Also, an eye irritant.
Bird Pepper; Chili Pepper

93. CARICA PAPAYA L, CARICACEAE Sap w/ an irritant prin- (NC D) Various parts used for food & medicine.
ciple & the enzymes papain Carpaine in large amounts (esp. in young leaves)
Papaw, Papaya PAPAYA FAMILY & chymopapain. Leaves w/ is a cardiac depressant. Sap, seed & root used to
(C23, H16, H27, carpaine (an alkaloid), induce abortion. Sap may cause skin or eye irri-
H46, K18, W7, W8) carposide (a glycoside) & station & blistering. Rarely a problem.
the sap. Seeds w/ carpase-
mine (an alkaloid), carcin
(a glycoside) & myrosin.

94, CARYOTA MiTmi LOUR. PALMAE Fruit pulp & juice. ( C SD) An internal irritant, but is usually
spit out. Also, irritant to the skin
Tufted Fishtail Palm PALM FAMILY & eyes. Seed kernels said to be
95. CARYoTA IREN L. (A5, M49, M53) As above. ( C SD) edible. Fibers at the base of Caryota
urens may be irritating. Sap from the inflores-
Toddy Fishtail Palm; cence of Caryota urens is tapped and made into
Wine Palm sugar and wine.

96. CASIMIROA EDULIS RUTACEAE Seeds w/ unknowns (sedative ( C S ) Seeds are reputed to be toxic &
LLAVE & LEX. CITRUS FAMILY glycosides?). narcotic. Fruit pulp is edible.
White Sapote
97, CASIMIROA TETRAMERIA (B12, M49, P1, W7) As above. ( C S )
Woolly-leaved White Sapote


rComon Names (References)

(Adipera spp., Chamaecrista
spp., Ditremexa spp., Emelista
spp., Herpetica spp., Peirani-
sia spp., Pseudocassia spp.,
Psilorhegma spp., Sciacassia
Senna; Shower
(Herpetica alata Raf.)
Candle-bush; Cure-all;
Ringworm Cassia
(Adipera bicapsularis
Britt. & Rose)

(B57, B58, C23, C47,
HIS, H46, K15, L4,
M49, PI, P21, S68,

Leaves (& other parts?) w/

(C23, M49, W7) Leaves w/ rhein (an anthra-
quinone). Fruit w/ oxy-
Whole plant w/ some HCN.

(B58, H46, M49)

Christmas Senna
(Chamaecrista deeringiana P21)
Small & Pennell)
(Chamaecrista depressa
(Pollard Greene
(Chamaecrista fasciculata
(Michx.) Greene)
(Chamaecrista littoralis
(Chamaecrista robusta

(NC S ) Toxicity unknown. Caution, may
contain anthraquinones which are purgative &
harmful in large amounts.

(NC S ) Leaves used as an application for
skin diseases, a fish poison & a purgative. May
be harmful in large amounts. Fruit is also

Leaves (& other parts?) w/ (NC S ) A purgative, large amounts may be
an anthraquinone. harmful. The nectar is said to be toxic to bees.

Seeds & leaves w/ anthra- (N PS ) A purgative, large amounts may be
quinones. harmful. Animal poisonings have been reported.

Golden Shower; Indian
Laburnum; Midas Tree; Pudding-
pipe Tree; Purging Cassia;
Shower-of-gold; Sweet Bark

(Ditremexa marylandica (L.)
rtt. & Rose)
(Ditremexa medseri (Shafer)
Britt. & Rose
American Senna; Locust Plant;
Maryland Cassia; Wild Senna
(Cassia tora L.)
(WEimeTT-atora (L.)
Britt. & Rose)
Coffee-pod; Sicklepod
(Ditremexa occidentalis
(L.) Britt, & Rose)
Coffee Senna; Coffee-weed;
Florida-coffee; Styptic-weed;
(Sciacassia siamea Britt.)
Kassod-tree; Siamese Shower

(C23, C47, L4, S68, Fruit, esp. the pulp w/
W7) emodin glycosides, oxy-
methylanthraquinone & other
anthraquinones. Leaves (&
other parts?) w/ anthra-
(B57, B58, C47, P21) Leaves w/ anthraquinones.
Root w/ unknowns.

(B58, F4, H15, K15) Leaves w/ anthraquinones.

(A16, 857, B58, C23, Root, leaves & fruit w/
F4, K15, 01, 06, oxymethylanthraquinone.
P21, S52, W7) Seeds w/ emodin glycosides
(anthraquinones) & chrysa-
robin (a toxalbumin).

(M49, 01, W7) Leaves, pod, bark & root w/

Pockets of yellow powder in
the bark w/ chrysophan-

( C P ) Used medicinally as a purgative.
Overdoses cause nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting,
dizziness, bloody diarrhea, kidney damage & dark
or red urine.

(N S ) Leaves used as a purgative. Root used
for fever and as an application to sores. Large
amounts internally may be harmful.

(N S ) Used as a laxative & an application
for skin diseases. Large amounts internally may
be harmful. Seed reported to be toxic to quail.

(N LP ) Roasted seeds are an excellent coffee
substitute & are used medicinally. Raw seeds are
toxic. Tea from the leaves is used externally for
for skin diseases and internally as a laxative.
It is harmful in large amounts. Feeding 1% of
body weight for 7 days has caused death of live-
( C LP D) Purgative, large amounts are harmful.
Has caused death of livestock, esp. hogs, from
feeding on the very palatable leaves.
A skin & eye irritant.

107, CASSYTHA FILIFORMIS L. LAURACEAE All parts w/ laurotetanine (N PS ) Used medicinally in India & Africa.
Devil's-gut; Dodder; Laurel- LAUREL FAMILY (an alkaloid). May cause abdominal pain & death in large doses.
vine; Love-vine; Strangle- (Al, C23, M59, W7)
weed; Woe-vine


(Other Genus species Names) (References)
Common Name

108. CATALPA BIGNONIOIDES BIGNONIACEAE Flowers w/ unknown irritant. (NC SD) Handling the flowers may cause derma-
titis to some persons. They are said to be intox-
WALTER BIGNONIA FAMILY icating when smelled for a long time. The pods
(Bignonia catalpa L.) (B57, H46, K11, P1) are used medicinally. They are smoked to help
(Catalpa catalpa (L.) Karst.) relieve asthma. Both the bark & the pods contain
Bean-tre e-the glycoside, catalpin, a bitter principle, a
Bean-tree; Candle-tree; sugar & tannin, but there are no reports of tox-
Catalpa; Catawba-tree; Cigar- city.
tree; Indian-bean; Indian-
cigar; Smoking-bean

109. CATHARANTHUS BQSEUS APOCYNACEAE All parts. Over 30 alka- (NC p ) Used medicinally. Leaves, when smoked,
(L) D GBANE FAMY loids have been isolated, cause hallucinations, confusion, loss of hair &
L,) G. DON OGBAN ILY skin tingling. Liver, kidney & nervous system
(Lochnera rose Relchb.) (Al, A16, J12, L4, damage may result from excessive or prolonged use.
(nca rose M5, T3, W7) The alkaloids vincristine, vinblastine, vinleu-
rosine & vinrosidine, when isolated from the plant,
Madagascar Periwinkle; have been useful against leukemia.

110. CEPHALANTHUS RUBIACEAE All parts w/ cephalin & (N p ) Bark, leaves & root used medicinally.
c-IE 1 & L, MADDER FAMIY cephalanthin (glycosides). Grazing by horses has caused vomiting, paralysis,
OCCIENTAL L, MADDER FAMILY spasms, destruction of the red blood cells &
Buttonbush (B58, C6, H15, M49, freeing of the hemoglobin. The plant is grazed by
M50, M60, S52) some wildlife with no apparent harm.

111. CESTRUM DIURNUM L. SOLANACEAE Leaves w/ saponic glycosides ( C P ) Cestrum diurnum leaves have caused
Day Jsamine NHTS E FAMIY & alkaloids?). Parquine increased then decreased or arrest
y Jessamine NIGHTSHADE FAMILY (an alkaloid) is present in of heart activity. Effects of Cestrum
112. CESTRUM NOCTURaUM L, (A15, B33, B58, Cestrum parqui. ( C LP ) nocturnum on a cow were salivation,
g ht-m in J mi F20, H16, H46, K15, -weakness, great pain, abdominal infla-
Night-blooming Jessamine K25, L4, L13, M9, mation, collapse & death in 2 days.
113. CESTRUM PARQUI L'HERITIER M51, M53, M60, W7) ( C LP ) Gastroenteritis, liver, kidney, brain
Willow-lev & spinal congestion were found in post mortem.
Willow-leaved Jessamine Cestrum parqui has had similar effects & has
caused paralysis to horses, sheep, cattle, hogs &
Flower odor w/ unknown. Esp. Cestrum nocturnum & occasionally Cestrum
diurnum cause respiratory problems, throatirrita-
tion, dizziness, nausea & headache.
Unripe berries w/ solanine- Solanine poisoning has two forms, one form may be
type glycoalkaloids. more evident, or both equally evident. Saponin-
like glycoalkaloids cause gastroenteric symptoms:
irritated throat, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting
& (bloody) diarrhea. Alkamines,-which are formed
from the glycoalkaloids, cause nervous & systemic
symptoms: headache, salivation, fever, sweating,
dilated pupils, apathy, stupefaction, difficulty
breathing, slow pulse, delirium, progressive weak-
ness or paralysis, trembling, (convulsions),
falling body temperature, coma & death.
Ripe berries w/ atropine- Effects have been rapid heartbeat, hallucinations
like alkaloids, muscular incoordination, difficult respiration,
fever & partial paralysis. For other possible
effects see Atropa.

114. CHAMAESYCE SPP, EUPHORBIACEAE Milky juice in all parts w/ (N S5) Suspected to have toxicity similar to
Spurge SPURGE FAMILY unknown. Chamaesyce hirta & Euphorbia spp.
115. CHAMAESYCE HRTA (W7) Milky juice in all parts w/ (N SD) May cause dermatitis to some persons.
euphorbon (an irritant) & Suspected of causing sickness of cows in Australia.
(L,) MILLSP, many other substances. May have toxicity similar to Euphorbia spp.
(Chamaesyce pilulifera
(L.) Small)
(Euphorbia hirta L.)

116. CHENOPODIUM ALBUM L, CHENOPODIACEAE All parts w/ soluble (N S ) Excellent potherb (should be cooked).
Goosefoot; Lambsquarters; GOOSEFOOT FAMILY oxalates, nitrates & HCN. Caution, excessive grazing is hazardous if
Wild Spinach nitrates are accumulated. For possible oxalate
Wild Spinach (F17, 4, M60, R) problems see Oxalis.


Comron ec Names ) (References)

117. CHENOPODIUM CHENOPODIACEAE All parts w/ oil w/ (NCHLP ) Plant used medicinally as a tea, inter-
AMROSInDE L. GOOSEFOOT FAMILY ascaridol. nally & externally. Rarely eaten by animals
because of its disagreeable flavor. Taints milk &
(Ambrina ambrosloides (B8, G4, H15, H46, dairy products. Oil extracted & used medicinally.
(L.T Spach)T K15, M50, PI) It is 40-75% ascaridol (a terpene). Overdoses of
Mexican-tea; Stinkweed; the oil have caused headache, nausea, hallucina-
Wormseed tions, gastroenteritis, dizziness, (bloody) vom-
iting, central nervous system disturbances, weak-
ness, convulsions, liver & kidney damage, paral-
ysis, coma & fatalities in humans & livestock.

118. CHIONANTHUS VIRGINICA L, OLEACEAE Root w/ unknown. (N S ) Used medicinally, esp. as a tincture.
Fringe-tree; Old Man's Beard OLIVE FAMILY Overdoses cause severe frontal headache, sore eyes,
nausea, gas, severe vomiting, black stools, slow
(B57, M35) pulse, cold perspiration & weakness.

119. CHRYSANTHEMUM SPP. COMPOSITAE Leaves w/ an irritant ( C D) A cause of contact dermatitis to some
Chrysanthemum; Daisy COMPOSITE FAMILY oleoresin. individuals, esp. to those who work with the plant
SUNFLOWER FAMILY frequently such as florists.
(D12, G20, H16, L4,
MI, M23, R12, S70)

120. CICUTA MACULATA L. UMBELLIFERAE All parts, esp. the root (N HLP ) The plants of this genus are the cause
121. ClCUA MEXICANA COULTER CARROT FAMILY w/ cicutoxin (an unsaturated o f a great number of plant poisonings
PARSLEY FAMILY alcohol, known also as a N HLP & death. A single root or a large
& ROSE resenoid). Seeds & flowers mouthful (i.e. a small amount) is the fatal dose.
(Cicuta curtissii Coulter (A4, A6, B39, B45, w/ only a slight amount. The seeds or flowers usually only produce mild
& Rosei C7, C20, C40, C46, gastroenteric irritation. Symptoms appear in 15
(Cicuta maculata var F11, F12, G16, G29, min. to 1 hr. & death may be soon thereafter.
curtis (C. & R.) Fern.) H1, H7, H12, H15, There is frothing at the mouth, nausea & diarrhea,
H16, H22, H23, J2, abdominal pain, dilated pupils, delirium, tremors
Musquash Root; Spotted- K15, L1, L4, L8, & periodic violent convulsions between short
cowbane; Water-hemlock M9, M12, M13, M60, periods of relaxation. The convulsions may be so
08, PI, P3, P4, strong that vomiting is prevented, the tongue is
R9, S3, S43, S46, chewed up & treatment is practically impossible to
S52, S57, T9, V4, administer. Death is due to respiratory or
V9) cardiac failure. The rapid & violent reactions
make treatment difficult. Convulsions must first
be treated before gastric lavage or emesis can be
performed. An anesthesiologist is likely to be
needed. Treat symptomatically and esp. watch for
oxygen deficiency. Recovery should be complete in
24 hrs.

122. CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA LAURACEAE All parts w/ camphor (a (NC P D) The fresh plant should cause no prob-
NEES & EBERM, LAUREL FAMILY ketone). lem, except in large amounts. It is used as an
insect repellent. Camphor is extracted from the
(Camphora officinarum Nees.) (B58, C47, H46, W7) plant and is used as an external medicine. When
(Laurus camphora L.) not allowed to evaporate, it may be a skin irri-
Camphor Laurel; Camphor-tree tant. Internally, small amounts may help expel
gas & cause warmth & comfort to the stomach.
Large doses cause burning & irritation, nausea,
vomiting, headache, paleness, confusion &
delirium; convulsions & death are unlikely.

12,. CITRUS SPP. RUTACEAE Oil of peel w/ d-limonene (NC D) A cause of photodermatitis.
Bergamot; Citron; Grapefruit; CITRUS FAMILY or other irritant.
Lemon; Lime; Mandarin; RUE FAMILY Thorns. May cause physical injury.
Orange; Pummelo; Satsuma; (F1, L4, M4, PS,
Tangelo; Tangerine; Key Lime S4, S24, V1)

124. CITRUS ARANTIUM L. (M59) As above. (NC D) As above.
Bittersweet Orange; Seville Leaves & fruit w/ a saponin. Used as a soap substitute, even for shampooing
Orange; Sour Orange hair. Fruit too sour to eat raw, but good as a
beverage, jelly or marmalade.

125. CLEMATIS SPP. RANUNCULACEAE Leaves w/ acrid juice. (N SD) A cause of dermatitis to some persons.
Virgn's-b TTERCUP FMILY Caution, internal toxicity unknown. Some of the
Virgin's-bower BUTTERCUP FAMILY species are locally rumored to cure or alleviate
(H16, L4, L6, M23)


ter Genus species Names) (References)
Common Names

126. CLIvIA MINIATA REGEL AMARYLLIDACEAE Bulb, root (& other parts?) ( C S ) Used medicinally in Africa. A lyco-
( ntoh m miniatum AMARYLLIS FAMIY w/ clivonine, lycorine & rine containing plant, toxicity probably similar
umAMARYLLIS FAMILY other alkaloids to Amaryllis belladonna L.
Hooker) (L4, W7, W28, W30)
127. CLIVIA mNOBLIS LINDL, (W7) Bulb w/ cliviine & clivia- ( C S ) Suspected cause of an African's death.
nine (alkaloids) & a glyco- Slightly emetic. Toxicity may be similar to
side. Amaryllis belladonna L.

128. CLUSIA BOSEA JACQ. GUTTIFERAE Fruit & golden-yellow (NC S ) Sap used externally for soreness. In-
Balsam-apple; Copey; Monkey- GARCINIA FAILY viscous sap w/ unknowns, ternally it causes violent diarrhea. The fruit is
Balsam-apple; Copey; Monkey- GARCINIA FAMILY reputed to be poisonous. It is used externally
apple; Pitch-apple (AS, L4, M52) with the bark & flowers in a bath for rheumatism.

129, CNIDOSCOLUS STIMULOSUS EUPHORBIACEAE Bristly stinging hairs w/ (N D) Cause of painful dermatitis, inflamma-
(MICHX.) ENGELM. & GRAY SPURGE FAMILY an irritant juice. tion, red rash & itching. Root edible & used
(Bivonea stimulosa (B58, K15, L4, M50,
(Michx. Raf.) M60, P21)
(Jatropha stimulosa Michx.)
Bull-nettle; Finger-rot;
Spurge-nettle; Stinging-
nettle; Tread-softly

130, CoccuLUs CAROLINUS MENISPERMACEAE All parts, esp. seeds w/ (N S ) Caution, toxicity unknown. No reports
(L.) DC. MOONSEED FAMILY unknown (an alkaloid?). of poisoning.
(Cebatha carolina L.)
(L.) Britton)
Carolina Moonseed; Coral-
beads; Coral-berry; Red-
berried Moonseed; Red-
Moonseed; Snailseed
131. COCCULUS LAURIFOLIUS DC, (C23, M49, M52, Leaves w/ cocculidine & ( C S ) Seeds useds as an arrow poison in SE
Laurel-leaf; Laurel-leaved W30) coclifoline (alkaloids). Asia. All parts are strongly suspected as toxic,
a ellea; Snailseed All parts w/ coclamine & although there are no reports of poisoning in the
coclifoline (alkaloids) & U.S.
other unidentified sub-
Bark & wood w/ coclaurine
(a curare-like alkaloid),
laurafoline & trilobine
(alkaloids). Seeds w/

132. CoDInEUM VARIEGATUM (L.) EUPHORBIACEAE All parts w/ unknowns. ( C D) Bark & root acrid, skin & mouth irri-
tants. Leaves vary from sweet & edible to acrid,
BLUME VAR. PICTUM SPURGE FAMILY rarely a cause of allergic dermatitis. The sap
MUELL.-ARG. (A5, M52) stains cloth.

133. COLCHICUM SPP. LILIACEAE All parts esp. w/ colchicine ( CHLP ) Colchicine is a mitotic poison, which
utu cro ; LY FM & related alkaloids. inteferes with cell division. In 2-7 hrs. there
Autumn-crocus; LILY FILY is burning throat, difficulty swallowing, thirst,
Meadow-saffron; (C23, E2, H16, K15, nausea, abdominal pains, profuse vomiting &
Naked-ladies L4, M9, M60) (bloody) diarrhea, kidney damage, dehydration,
shock & collapse. Recovery may begin or there may
be a relapse with low blood pressure & temperature,
slow pulse, difficulty breathing, ascending
central nervous system paralysis, respiratory or
circulatory failure & death. In recoveries there
may be a temporary loss of hair. This poison is
very strong & long-acting, recovery is slow.
Treatment: immediate gastric lavage, symptomatic
for dehydration, electrolyte loss, central nervous
system, circulatory & respiratory disturbances.


Common eces e (References)

134. COLOCASIA ANTIQUORUM ARACEAE All parts, esp. the rhizomes ( C P D) Gastroenteric irritant, chiefly to the
(L.) SCHOTT ARUM FAMILY w/ calcium oxalate crystals mouth & throat, causing burning & in-
& unknowns. flammation. The juice may cause derm-
(Arum colocasia L.) (A16, B30, H16, atitis to sensitive skin & eye irrita-
(oocaiesculenta var. H46, K15, L4, M53, tion. The rhizome is specially pre-
antuorum Hubbard & Rehd.) M60, W7) pared & eaten.
(Arum esculentum L.)
(Caadum esculentum Vent.)
(Coocasia antiquorum var.
esculenta Schott)
Eddo; Elephant's-ear; Dasheen;
Taro; Wild Taro

136. CONYZA CANADENSIS COMPOSITAE Leaves w/ an irritant (N D) Suspected cause of contact dermatitis
(L.) CRONQUIST COMPOSITE FAMILY oleoresin. to some individuals.
(Erigeron canadensis L.) SUNFLOWER FAMILY
(Lepion canadensis (H16, L4, L32, M23)
(L.) Britton)
Butterweed; Hogweed;
Horseweed; Mare's-tail

137. COOPFRIA DRllMMONDII HERB, AMARYLLIDACEAE Bulb w/ lycorine & other ( C S ) Toxicity unknown. Suspected to be
138 COOPERA PEDUNCULATA alkaloids. similar to other lycorine containing
ERIA DUNCULAA AMARYLLIS FAMILY akaloids ( C S ) ants, see Amaryllis belladonna L.
HERB, (L4, W30)
Prairie-lily; Rain-lily

139, CORYDALIS SPP. FUMARIACEAE All parts w/ alkaloids. (N C S ) No cases have been reported in Florida.
(Captioides spp.) FUMITORY FAMILY The large quantity necessary for poisoning is usu-
ally not available. 2-5% of body weight has
Harlequin (F10, H15, K15, caused: weak breathing & heartbeat, staggering,
M17, M60, S52, W30) convulsions & death to cattle, sheep & horses.

140. CRESENTIA CUJE.T L, BIGNONIACEAE Fruit pulp w/ HCN, citric, ( C S ) Used medicinally as a purgative.
Calabash Tree; Cujete BIGNONIA FAMILY cresentic, tannic, chloro- Large amounts have caused abortion in cattle and
genic, tartaric & other are suspected of poisoning birds & small animals.
(B33, Q1, W7) acids.

141, CRINUI SPP, AMARYLLIDACEAE Bulb w/ lycorine, crinidine, (NC S ) Raw bulb of some species has caused
Crinum-lily; String-lily; AMARYLLIS FAMILY crinamine & other alkaloids. vomiting & diarrhea. Toxicity simil
Swamp-lily to other plants containing lycorine.
wamp- y (C23, H16, H46, (See Amaryllis belladonna L.)
142. CRINUM AMERICANUM L. K15, L4, M53, M60, (NC S )
Florida Crinum; Southern R20, W7, W26, W28)
Swamp Crinum; Southern Swamp-
(Amaryllis zeylanica L.)

145, CROTALARIA SPP, LEGUMINOSAE All parts w/ pyrrolizidine (N S ) Toxic to all livestock & fowl. The
Crotalaria; Rattlebox PEA FAMILY alkaloids? alkaloids cause congestion of the
liver. In acute poisoning (soon after
146. CROTALARIA RETuSA L, (Al, B25, B57, B58, Leaves, stem, seed (& root?) (N LP ) ingestion of large amounts): gastro-
020, E4, E5, E6, w/ monocrotaline, monocrot- enteritis, depression, bloody feces,
E13, E15, E16, K15, aline N-oxide, retronecine (N S ) (diarrhea), yellowish mucous membranes
L19, M25, M60, N5, N-oxide, retusamine, retus- (NC LP ) & mucous. Death in 1-2 weeks. In
P1, P10, P14, R1, amine N-oxide, retusine. chronic poisonings (small amounts over
147. CROTA A SAGITTAL L. 4, All parts w/ pyrrolizidine (N S ) period) there may be no symptoms for
7 W alkaloids? (2-9 months after the plant has been
alkaloids? consumed until 1-2 weeks before death.
148, CROTALARIA SPECTABILIS Leaves, stem, seed & root w/ (NC LP ) Chronic symptoms: listlessness, loss
ROH monocrotaline, spectabiline of appetite, diarrhea, bloody feces, stumbling &
ROTH & other pyrrolizidine alka- falling down, weakness & death possibly due to
loids. cardiac failure. The animal may die also from
getting tangled or not being able to get up.
Little can be done to bring about recovery.


Co r Genu species Names) (References)
Common Names

149. CROTON SPP, EUPHORBIACEAE Croton oil esp. concentrated (N SD) Croton oil is known to be present in
150. CAPITATUS MICHX SPRGE FAMILY in the seed, present in the Croton capitatus & is suspected of
leaves & stem. p(N LP D) being present In the other Florida
(Croton engelmanii Ferguson) (H15, K15, M60, 01, species. 10 drops of pure oilhave been fatal to a
(Croton engelmanii (Englm. PI, Q1) dog. In cattle, grazing the plant has caused
Gray) Wood diarrhea, stomach pains, nervousness, but rarely
death. Plant odorous & very distasteful, not usu-
Capital Croton; Hogwort ally eaten except accidentally. The plant juice
Croton; Woolly Croton is very irritant to the skin & eye.

151. CROTONOPSIS ELLIPTICA EUPHORBIACEAE All parts w/ unknowns. (N SD) Caution, toxicity unknown. Suspected
WILLD. SPURGE FAMILY to be similar to Croton.
152. CROTONOPSIS LINEARIS As above. (N SD) As above.
(Crotonopsis spinosa Nash)

153. CRYPTOSTEGIA GRANDIFLORA PERIPLOCACEAE All parts, esp. the milky (NCHLP D) Small amounts, internally, have caused
SB SILK-VINE FAMILY sap w/ cryptograndoside violent diarrhea & death from cardiac
R. BROWN SILK-VINE FAMILY A & B (cardiac glycosides). failure. The milky sap is a severe
Palay Rubbervine; Pink (Al, C23, H46, M53, skin irritant. The dry vine emits a
Allamanda; Purple Allamanda; 01, Q1, W7) dust which is irritant to the eyes,
Rubbervine nose & throat causing coughing &
154. CRYPTOSTEGIA (NCHLP D) swelling.
Madagascar Rubbervine;
Purple Allamanda; Rubbervine

155, CUSCUTA SPP, CUSCUTACEAE All parts w/ unknowns. (N S ) Some species have caused digestive up-
sets in horses & diarrhea in cattle. An (East)
Devil's-guts Dodde; DODDER FAMILY Indian used the plant to induce abortion; it also
Love-vine; Strangle-weed; (B58, C23, H46, W7) caused depression, nausea & vomiting. There are
Woe-vine no reports of poisoning In the U.S.

156. CYCAS CIRCINALIS L. CYCADACEAE Seeds, unprepared root & ( CHLP D) Cycasin is a cancer-inducing, liver &
Crozr Cycad; False Sag CYCAD FAMILY pith of trunk (& leaves?) kidney damaging glycoside. Symptoms
Crozer Cycad; False Sago CYCAD FAMILY w/ cycasin (a glycoside), produced: vomiting, (bloody) diarrhea,
Palm; Fern-palm (A, All, 38, N-methyldiaminopropionic depression, coma & paralysis, may be
157. CYCAS REOLTA THUNB, H46, K27, K28, L4, acid (a neurotic factor) & ( CHLP D) fatal. The root and pith of the trunk
L7, M53, M55, N15, compounds closely related are made into an excellent starch by a special
False Sago Palm; Sago Cycas 21, W22) to methylazoxymethanol. process. The frequent use of this starch in the
diet in some tropical areas Is suspected to cause
increased liver problems & cancer.
Male "cones" w/ Emit a distressing odor & respiratory irritant to
azoxyglycosides. some persons. It may cause rawness & cough.

158. DATURA SPP. SOLANACEAE All parts including the (NCHLPSD) Onset & symptoms vary to the mode of
(Aeon spp. rumansa spp., NIGHTSHADE FAMILY pollen & esp. the seeds ingestion and proportion of the alka-
Ceratocaulos s.,PseuiIdoS- F w/ varying amounts of loids. Symptoms: dilated pupils,
datura spp., Stram spp.) (Al, A5, A14, A16, atropine, scopolamine (hyo- thirst, fever, hot, dry & flushed
831, 833, B57, 858, scine), hyoscyamlne & other skin, rapid & weak pulse, headache,
159, DATURA ARBOREA L. C23, D19, G3, G5, tropane alkaloids. ( CHLP D) incoordlnatlon & confusion; sometimes
(Brugmansa arborea Steud.) G10, G18, H15, H16, delirium, hallucinations, convulsions,
H41, H44, H46, H48, stupor, coma with low temperature,
Angel's-trumpet JS, J9, KIO, K15, labored respiration, oxygen defi-
16 RA N L4, L8, M, M30, ( CHLP D) ciency; rarely vomiting. Deaths are
160. DATURA CAN nIA M37, M4g, M53, M60, CHLP D) rare. Recovery In several days Is
(PERSOON) SAFF, N6, 01, P1, P18, usual, if the stomach contents are re-
(Brugmansa candida Persoon) Q1, R15, R18, S22, moved. Amnesia of the poisoning is
S42, S52, S62, S63, common. Treatment: Immediate gastric
Angel's-trumpet V6, W7, W12, W30) lavage (with lubricated tube) or eme-
sis, cholinergic drugs, tannic acid,
161. DAIURA MEIEL L. (NCHLP D) barbituates for convulsions & mania
(Datura alba Nees) or phenothiazines for mania, external
(Datura Tastuosa L.) cooling, darkness, pilocarpine for the
Black Datura; Devil's-trpet; eyes, keep check on the respiration.
Black Datura; Devil's-trumpet; The sap may cause dermatitis. The
Hairy Thorn-apple fragrance of the flowers may cause
162. DATUA STRAMONIUM L. (N HLP D) headache, dizziness, weakness or stu-
Devil's-trumpet; Jamestown- por & nausea.
weed; Jimsonweed; Thorn-apple


Common ecies Names) (References)

164. DAulCS CAROTA L. UMBELLIFERAE Leaves w/ furocoumarins or ( C 5) Only very slightly a cause of photo-
VAR. SATIVA DC. CARROT FAMILY unknowns. dermatitis in experiments.
Cultivated Carrot PARSLEY FAMILY
(H16, L4, VI)

165. DELPHINIUM SPP. RANUNCULACEAE Young leaves, seeds & rest (NCHLPSD) Seeds & young plant most toxic. The
Larkspur; Staggerweed BUTTERCUP FAMILY of plant to a lesser degree plants are rare in Florida. Symptoms
CROWFOOT FAMILY W/ various alkaloids includ- of human poisoning are burning in the
ing delphinine (very active), mouth, tingling skin, nausea, abdomi-
(B33, C23, C40, delphinoidine, delphisine nal pain, weak pulse, labored respir-
H15, H16, H46, K15, & staphisagroine. ation & nervous excitement or depres-
166. DELPHINIUM Aims L K 31, L4, L8, M60, Young leaves, seeds & rest ( C sLion. In animals, esp. cattle, symp-
166. D PHIN L Young leaves, seeds rest ( CWLP D) t are nervousness, weakness, con-
Annual Larkspur; Rocket W30) of plant to a lesser degree stipation stiffness collapse, nausea, abdominal
Larkspur; Staggerweed inoidine, ajaconine & other pain, vomiting & death from respiratory paralysis,
alkaloids, if very large amounts have been consumed. Has been
used medicinally in small amounts. Leaves & seeds
may cause dermatitis and are also used in insecti-
cides including those for bodily parasites.

167. DESCURAINIA PINNATA CRUCIFERAE All parts w/ unknown. (N PS ) Not a problem in Florida. In Southern
(WALTER) BRITTON MUSTARD FAMILY New Mexico, when cattle graze this plant exclu-
sively for a long time, it may cause partial or
Tansy Mustard (H29, K15, M60) complete blindness, paralyzed tongue & weakness
due to inability to eat or drink. Treatment:
give 2-3 gallons of water with nutrients by sto-
mach tube, twice daily.

168. DIEFFENBACHIA PICTA ARACEAE All parts, esp. the sap w/ ( CHLP D) Gastroenteric irritant, chiefly to the
(LonD.) SCHOTT ARUM FAMILY calcium oxalate crystals & mouth & throat, causing burning & in-
unknowns, possibly a toxic flammation. Ingestion is usually
169. DIEFFENBACHIA SEGUINE (A5, A16, Bll, D14, protein such as asparagine ( CHLP D) small due to immediate pain, but has
(JAC ) SCHOT 16, K15, L4, M4, or protoanemonin. caused death from choking. Sap is irritant &
JACQ.) SCHOTT M9, M53, M60, 01, blistering to the skin.
Dieffenbachia; Dumb Cane 08, P1, P16, W2)

170. DIGITALIS PURPUREA L. SCROPHULARIACEAE All parts w/ the cardiac ( CHLP ) Not commonly cultivated in Florida.
Foxglove FIGWORT FAMILY glycosides digitoxin, The toxins are cumulative. Extracts of the plant
gitoxin & gitalin & their are used to make the drug, digitalis. At first
(B57, C13, C14, aglycones (es. active) there is nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache &
C42, H16, K15, K23, digitoxigenin, gitoxigenin & slow but strong heartbeat. Then later, drowsiness,
L4, L8, L28, M9, gitaloxigenin. Other glyco- fatigue, abdominal pains, tremors, convulsions,
M60, 08, P6, S65, sides including digitalin, rapid & irregular heartbeat & death in severe
W7) digitonin, digitalein & cases. Treat as for digitalis drug overdose.
digitophyllin have been re- Perform gastric lavage or emesis, give systemic
ported, support, treat for alkaloid poisoning & use short
acting barbituates for excitation.

171. DIOSCOREA BULBIFERA L. DIOSCOREACEAE Subterranean &aerial tubers (N p ) Caution. Poisonous raw. Said to be
Air-potato YAM FAMILY (& other parts?) w/ glyco- edible when cooked, but has caused gastroenteritis,
Air o YAM sides, nausea & bloody diarrhea.
(A16, B33, W7)

172. DIRCA PALUSTRIS L. THYMELAEACEAE Bark w/ a bitter resin & (N PSD) Irritant to the gastrointestinal tract,
Leather-bark; Leatherwood; MEZEREUM FAMILY an acrid principle. may cause vomiting & diarrhea. Also irritant to
Swamp-wood; Wicopy the bladder & nerves. May cause irritation, in-
wamp-woo copy (B57, F21, H16, L4, flammation & blistering of the skin of some indi-
M35, M60, PI, P21) viduals.
Berries w/ unknown. Reputed to be narcotic & poisonous.

173. DoLICHOS LABLAB L. LEGUMINOSAE Raw beans (& other parts?) (NC S ) Well cooked seeds eaten in the tropics.
Hyacinth Bean; Lablab PEA FAMILY w/ glycosides which release When raw, they may cause vomiting, weakness,
HCN. labored respiration, twitching, stupor, convul-
(H16, L4, M2) sions & unconsciousness.

174. DURANTA REPENS L. VERBENACEAE Fruit (A leaves?) w/ a (NCHLP D) Irritant to the stomach & intestinal
(Duranta plumieri Jacq.) VERBENA FAMILY saponic glycoside. regions. Causes drowsiness, nausea, vomiting,
fever, convulsions & occasionally, a death.
Golden Dewdrops; Pigeon- (C23, H16, H46,
berry; Sky-flower L4, M53) Sharp spines. A cause of physical injury.


CoiGenus species Names) (References)
Common e

175. ECHTIES UMBELLATA JACQ, APOCYNACEAE Root & milky sap in all (N s5) Caution, toxicity unknown. Similar &
(Echites echites (L.) Britton) DOGBANE FAMILY parts w/ unknowns, related to many plants with irritant & blistering
Ssap. Root & other parts may be toxic internally
Devil's-potato; Rubbervine also.

176. EQUISETUM HYEJALE L. EQUISETACEAE All parts w/ unknowns. (N S ) No danger in Florida, the plant is
orsetai Suring-rush H T FAMIL Toxin was once thought to rare here. In the U.S. poisonings in livestock
Horsetail Scouring-rush HORSETAIL FAMILY be silica. Toxicity may be have occurred only when fed hay with a large por-
SCOURING-RUSH FAMILY partially due to the alka- tion of Equisetum in it. No cases from grazing
(H15, K15, M60) loid, equisetin. have been reported. The cultivated species should
cause no problem, unless eaten in large amounts.

177. ERECHTITES HIERACIFOLIA COMPOSITAE Leaves w/ hieracifoline & (N S ) Leaves used medicinally & eaten as a
(L) RAF, COMPOSITE FAMILY other pyrrolizidine alka- potherb. Caution, toxicity unknown. Continuous
AF Toids. use or large amounts may be harmful. Suspected
Fireweed (Al, G4, M35) effects are gastro-intestinal upset, liver damage
& problems similar to Senecio poisoning.

178. ERIOBOTRYA JAPONICA ROSACEAE Seed w/ amygdalin (a cyan- (NC S ) No cases are known. See Prunus for
LINDLEY ROSE FAMILY ogenic glycoside) which possible symptoms.
(Mespilus japonica Thunb.) (L4, W7)
(Photinia japonica Gray)
Japanese Plum; Loquat

179. ERVATAMIA CORONARIA STAPF APOCYNACEAE Leaves, stem, bark, root & ( C PS ) Various parts used medicinally. Root
(Ervatamia divaricata L.) DOGBANE FAMILY milky juice w/ unknowns. (& other parts?) may be poisonous in large amounts.
(r divarcata L.) DOGBANE FAMIL Root w/ tabernaemontanine & Toxicity unknown. The root is reputed to be toxic.
( er n d a co ara (C23, H16, K15, coronarine (alkaloids).
(Tabernaementana coronaria M49, Q1, R5, W30)
(Tabernaemontana coronaria
(Jacq.) R. Brown)
(Tabernaemontana divaricata
(L.) R. Brown)
Crape-jasmine; East Indian
Rosebay; Nero's Crown; Wax-
flower Plant

180, ERYTHRINA HERBACEA L. LEGUMINOSAE Raw seeds w/ alkaloids (NC LPS ) Young leaves (cooked) & flowers are
rdin r; Chero AMI including erysodine, eryso- edible & used medicinally. The seeds are used to
Cardinal-spear; Cherokee PEA FAMILY pine, erysothiopine, eryso- poison rats & dogs in Mexico. Erythrina crista-
Bean; Coral Bean; Eastern (M50, M52, M53, thiovine, erysovine & hypa- alli L., Cockspur Coral Tree, contains similar
Coral Bean; Snakeweed M59, W30) phorine. akaToids, but there are no reports of its toxi-

181. ERYTHRINA POEPPIGIANA (B33, W30) Raw seeds w/ alkaloids ( C S ) Relatively small amounts will cause
) COK including erysodine, eryso- muscle paralysis of a frog. Suspected as toxic,
(WALP.) 0, F. COOK pine, erysothiovine, eryso- but no further data available.
Erythrina amasisa Spruce) vine & hypaphorine.
E in ariensis Standley)
Erythrina micropteryx
(Micropteryx poeppigiana
182, ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L, (Al, AS, A16, F14, Raw seeds w/ erythraline & ( C LP ) The seeds are said to be edible when
F15, H46, K1, M8, hypaphorine (alkaloids) & a cooked. They have been used raw, to poison ani-
VAR. ORIENTALIS MERR, M52, M53, Q1, W30) saponic glycoside. Leaves & mals. The leaves & bark have been used medici-
(Erythrina indica Lam.) bark w/ erythrinine (an al- nally, but contain erythrinine, a narcotic alka-
oral Tr L T kaloid) & a saponic glyco- loid which causes central nervous system depres-
CoralTree; Lenten Tree; side. sion. HCN is present in the leaves, stem, fruit
iger's Claw & root. The raw seeds have caused diarrhea &
vomiting to children & have poisoned animals.

183. EUCALYPTUS SPP, MYRTACEAE Leaf w/ Oil of Eucalyptus ( CHLPS ) All species contain varying amounts of
Bloodwood; Blue Gum; Brown MYRTLE FAMILY a volatile oil, which is extracted & used as an
Bloodwood; Blue Gum; Brown MYRTLE FAMILY internal & external medicine, insecticide & insect
Gum; Eucalypt; Gum-tree; (B12, C23, H46, L4, repellent. Death has been recorded from internal
Ironwood; Red Gum; Stringy- W7) ingestion of amounts of the extracted oil from 4-
bark 24 ml, but there have been recoveries from simi-
lar amounts. Effects: gastroenteric burning &
irritation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, oxygen de-
ficiency, weakness, dizziness, stupor, difficult
respiration, delerium, paralysis, convulsions &
death, usually due to respiratory failure. Exter-
nally, prolonged contact may cause a burning der-
matitis & even blistering of the skin.


Common Nameii (References)

184. EUCHARIS GRANDIFLORA AMARYLLIDACEAE Root w/ lycorine (& other ( C S ) Toxicity unknown. Suspected to be
PLANCHON & LINDEN AMARYLLIS FAMILY alkaloids?). similar to other lycorine containing plants.
See Amaryllis belladonna L.
Amazon-lily (W30)

185. EUONYMUS AMERICANUS L, CELASTRACEAE Leaves, bark, seed & root (N S ) Bark & root used medicinally as a pur-
Hearts-a-bustin'; Strawberry- CELASTRUS FAMILY w/ unknowns. gative. Toxicity unknown. Caution, closely rela-
bush -STAFF-TREE FAMILY ted to Euonymus europaeus & Euonymus atropurpureus
bush STAFF-TREE FAMILY wh(ot ichh s vomithung,
(857, H15, H16, diarrhea, weakness, chills, convulsions & coma.
K15, P21) This species is suspected of having caused simi-
lar symptoms.

186. EUPATORIUM PERFOLIATUM L. COMPOSITAE All parts w/ unknown. (N S ) A popular medicinal herb used by vari-
Ague-weed; Boneset; COMPOSITE FAMILY ous preparations as a laxative, emetic, tonic,
Thoroughwort stimulant & to break up colds & fevers. Overdoses
(M35) may cause abdominal pain, vomiting, fever, sleepi-
ness, circulatory & cardiac disturbances, severe
headache, soreness & pains.
187. EUPATORIUM RUGOSUM (D19, E20, H15, All parts w/ tremetol (a (N HLP ) No cases of poisoning have been report-
HOUTTUYN H16, K15, M60) complex alcohol), glyco- ed in Florida, the plant is not common here.
OU UN sides & unknowns. "Trembles" (poisoning from ingestion of the plant)
(Eupatorium roanensis Small) & "milk sickness" (poisoning from ingestion of a
(Eupatorium urticefoium poisoned animal's milk, milk product or meat) have
Reichard) caused the death of an especially large number of
Fall Poison; White Snakeroot; humans & livestock in North Carolina, Tennessee,
Thoroughwort Ohio, Indiana & Illinois. Poisonings are usually
the result of daily ingestion of small amounts.
The lethal dose & time to appearance of symptoms &
death are highly variable. Symptoms in livestock:
sluggishness, loss of appetite, trembling, (nau-
sea), (vomiting), weakness, constipation, rapid &
labored respiration, acetone breath, collapse, coma
& death. Symptoms in humans: weakness, nausea,
severe vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation,
trembling, acetone breath, delirium, jaundice,
collapse, coma & death. Recoveries are rare, slow
& incomplete. Fatal relapses may occur. Modern
methods of milk preparation & the scarcity of this
plant in Florida, make poisoning by it highly un-

188, EUPHORBIA SPP, EUPHORBIACEAE Milky sap in all parts w/ (NCiLPSD) The sap is a severe external irritant
Spurge SPURGE FAMILY unknowns (resins, glyco- to many persons & animals causing
sides, euphorbon?). burning, inflammation & blistering,
189, EUPHORBIA COTINIFOLIA L. (A5, A16, B33, 855, ( CHLP D) eye irritation & temporary blindness.
Red Spurge C23, C45, F17, H15, Internally it will cause inflammation
Hpure 16, H46, K15, L8, & burning of the mouth & throat. Some
190, EUPHORBIA LACIEA HAW. M9, M53, M60, N4, ( C P D) species have also caused vomiting,
Candelabra-cactus; False- 01, Q1, RIO, 556, diarrhea, delirium, shock & death.
cactus; Mottled Spurge; 566, W7, W18) The seeds are also poisonous. The
Milkstripe Euphorbia plants are distasteful, thus seldom
grazed by livestock. Prolonged inges-
VAR. 'CRISTATA' ( C SD) tion, as in hay, may become so severe
Brain-cactus; Cockscomb- as to cause weakness, collapse &
cactus; Crested Milkstripe death.
Euphorbia Sharp spines. The sharp spines of Euporbia lactea &
1 E h rbi, milii are a cause of painful
191. EUPHORBIA MLLI ( C P D) physca a cause injfu
(Euphorbia splendens Hooker)
(Poinsettia pulcherrima
Christmas Flower; Poinsettia
African Spurge-tree; Indian
Spurge-tree; Malabar-tree;
Milk-bush; Pencil-tree


r Genu cies Names) (References)
Common Names

194. FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM POLYGONACEAE All parts w/ unknowns. ( C D) Has been no problem in Florida, since
the plant is rarely cultivated here. Grazing of
MOENCH, BUCKWHEAT FAMILY moderate amounts causes photosensitization of
(F~aorum fa m (B34, B35, B51, livestock with areas of non-pigmented skin.
L. Karsten) C25, C26, C39, H15, Symptoms are reddening, swelling with fluid accum-
(Fago um sagittatum K15, M19, S33, W15, ulation, nervous excitement, convulsions & death.
Gilibert) W16) Humans have had allergic skin reactions from con-
Buckwheat tact with the plant.

195, EAGUS GRANDIFOLIA EHRH. FAGACEAE Unknown. (N S ) This species is not known to have
American Beech BEECH FAMILY caused poisoning. The seeds have been eaten.
SFAMILY Poisonings have been reported in Europe from
OAK FAMILY humans or livestock eating the seeds of Fagus
(G4, H16, K15) sylvatica L., the European Beech.

196, EICU SPP. MORACEAE Latex of leaves & stems w/ (NC SD) A cause of photodermatitis. In sensi-
Fi Tree Rubber Tree FIG FAMILY fucusin (a furocoumarin). tized persons, contact followed by ex-
FIG FAMILY posure to the sun may cause burning,
197, ErLc CARicA L, MULBERRY FAMILY ( C D) itching & blistering of the skin.
(012, H16, K20, L4, The leaves, fruit & latex of Ficus
Fg M50, Q1, W7, V1) carica are used medicinally, internal-
198. ELcu PUMILA L, ( C D) ly & externally.
Creeping Fig

199. FRAXINUS SPP. OLEACEAE Pollen oil. (N 5) Tests indicate the pollen oil, in rare
Ash OLIVE FAMILY cases, may cause allergic dermatitis with a red
skin rash & blisters.
(L4, L32)

200, GAILLARDIA SPP, COMPOSITAE Leaves w/ an irritant (NC D) A cause of contact dermatitis to some
Bandana Daisy; Blanket- COMPOSITE FAMILY oleoresin. individuals.
flower; Fire-wheel; SUNFLOWER FAMILY
Gaillardia (L4, M23, R16)

201, GELSEM'IUM RANKIH.I SMALL LOGANIACEAE See below. (N SD) Toxicity suspected to be similar to
Yellow Jessamine LOGANIA FAMILY Gelsemium sempervirens.
202 GELSEMIUM SEMPERVIRENS (C16, D19, G24, All parts, including the (NCHLP D) The poisons are cumulative. They de-
H15, H16, K15, L4, flower nectar w/ gelsemine, press & paralyze the motor nerve endings. Symp-
(L.) AITON M9, M51, M53, M60, gelseminine, gelsemicine & toms in humans & animals: headache, dizziness,
Carolina Jessamine; False P1, P5, S14, W18, other alkaloids, dilated pupils, double vision, dry mouth, diffi-
Jessamine; Yellow Jessamine W19, W30) culty swallowing & talking, muscular weakness,
nausea, sweating, difficulty breathing, weak pulse,
convulsions oxygen deficiency & death due to res-
piratory failure. The root was once used medici-
nally, but many deaths resulted. The honey from
the nectar is deadly. Treatment: gastric lavage
or emesis, control respiration & convulsions, mor-
phine has been helpful. The plant is also a cause
of dermatitis.

203, GINKGO BILBA L, GINKGOACEAE Fleshy part of seed (fruit ( C D) A cause of severe skin irritation,
Ginkgo; Maidenhair-tree GINKGO FAMILY pulp) w/ ginkgolic acid, which may be spread by touch. Internally, the pulp
go; bilobol & other substances, causes violent irritation of the stomach, intes-
(B38, H16, H46, L4, tines & kidneys. The nut is said to be edible.
L14, M60, S1, S50, The seeds give off an offensive putrid odor.

204. GLADIOLUS SPP, IRIDACEAE Corm w/ unknowns. ( C P ) An irritant. Ingestion has caused
Gladiolus IRIS FAMILY Other parts? vomiting.
(08, P1)

205, GLIRICIDIA SEPIU LEGUMINOSAE Leaves, bark, seed & root ( C LP ) The root, seed & leaves are used to
(JAC.) STEUDEL PEA FAMILY w/ unknowns, poison rats, mice & other rodents in various trop-
) TEUDEL PEA FAMILY ical countries. Said to be toxic to horses & dogs,
(Gliricidia maculata HBK) (A5, A16, B33, L25, but evidently safely eaten by cows & goats. The
Madre; Madre-de-Cacao; M49, W7) flowers are boiled or fried, and eaten.
Mother-of-Cocoa; Quick Stick


Common Names (References)

206. GLORIOSA ROTHSCHILDIANA LILIACEAE All parts w/ colchicine & ( CHLP ) See Colchicum spp.
O'BRIEN LILY FAMILY colchicine-type alkaloids.
207. GLORIOSA SUPEBA L. (A7, A16, C23, G22, ( CHLP )
Climbing Lily; Gloriosa Lily: H16, K15, H46, L4,
Glory Lily Nl, W7, W27)

208. GOSSYPIUM BARBADENSF L. MALVACEAE Seed & cottonseed meal w/ (NC LP ) Most often, poisonings arise when cot-
Sea-island Cotton MALLOW FAMILY gossypol (a phenol). tonseed meal is fed to livestock in
large amounts for a long time. Horses,
209. GOSSYPIUM HRsuu L. (H46, K15, M50, (NC LP ) mules, donkeys, rabbits, guinea pigs &
(Gossypium herbaceum L.) M6, 01, S26, W7, swine are most susceptible; rats & poultry have
(Gossypium mexicanum Todd.) W36) intermediate sensitivity; and cattle & sheep have
the least sensitivity. Symptoms for gossypol poi-
Common Cotton; Cotton; Upland soning are labored respiration, progressive weak-
Cotton; Wild Cotton ness & emaciation, but still with a good appetite,
possibly convulsions, weakened heart, oxygen defi-
ciency & death. The low level of vitamin A in
cottonseed meal may cause vitamin A deficiency.
Symptoms are loss of appetite, swelling of joints
& confusion.

210, GREVILLEA BANKSi1 R. BR. PROTEACEAE Sap in all parts w/ ( C SD) A cause of skin irritation & inflam-
211. GREVILLEA ROBUSTA PROTEA FAMILY unknown. nation of the eyelids.
Australian Silk-oak; (A16, D12, G3, H46,
Silk-oak; Silver-oak M22, M52, W7)

212, GUAIAcuM OFFICINALE L. ZYGOPHYLLACEAE Resin in wood & fruit w/ ( C S ) Caution, toxicity unknown. Reputed to
Lignum vitae CALTROP FAMILY unknown, possibly guaiacum be poisonous in quantity. The leaves are said to
& lignum vitae are the be acrid.
(C23, H16) active irritants.

213. HAEMANTHUS SPP, AMARYLLIDACEAE Bulb w/ lycorine & other ( CHLPS ) Many species are used medicinally & as
Blood-lily AMARYLLIS FAMILY alkaloids, a fish poison. Some species have
caused poisoning of humans & death of
214. HAEMANTHUS COCCINFUS L. (M53, S62, W7, W26, Bulb w/ lycorine, coccinine, ( C S ) animals. The juice of Haemanthus
Blood-lily W30) manthidine, montanine & multiflorus is irritant. It causes
other alkaloids, swelling of the lips & tongue. See
215. HAEMANTHUS MULTIFLORUS Bulb w/ lycorine, chlidan- ( C PS ) i eladonna L. for other pos-
MARTYN thine, haemanthidine, sible effects.
MARN haemultine, hippeastrine &
Blood-lily; Powderpuff-lily other alkaloids.

216. HEDERA CANARIENSIS WILLD, ARALIACEAE All parts, esp. the leaves ( C SD) Has caused dermatitis. Toxicity prob-
Algerian Ivy ARALIA FAMILY & berries w/ unknowns, ably similar to Hedera helix, see below.
(09, D10, 012, L4)
217. HEDERA HELIX L. (F17, G19, H16, All parts, esp. the leaves (NCH P D) Sensitive persons may have severe
English Ivy; Ivy H46, K15, L4, M42, & berries w/ hederagenin & allergic dermatitis within 48 hrs. of contact with
M60, Pl, W7) hederin (saponic glycosides) the plant. A large quantity taken internally may
& unknowns, cause diarrhea, excitement, nervousness, labored
respiration, convulsions, coma & possibly death.
The plant has been used medicinally.

218. HELENIUM AMARUM COMPOSITAE The tops, including the (N LP D) Plant distasteful, causes bitter taste
(RAF.) H. ROCK COMPOSITE FAMILY leaves, flowers & seed w/ to milk. Poisonous to sheep, cattle,
(Helenlum tenuifolium Nutt.) SUNFLOWER FAMILY a glycoside, a phenol & goats & esp. horses & mules. Symptoms
selenium tenuifolium Nutt.) a (non-poisonous?) bitter are weakness, diarrhea, vomiting,
Bitter Sneezeweed; Bitterweed; (857, C16, C19, principle, bloating, staggering, salivation, la-
Sneezeweed H15, K9, K15, L4, bored respiration, rapid & irregular
M1Sne M50, M60, P1, pulse, spasms, convulsions & death.
219. HELENIUM AUTUMNALE L. S36, S52, W19) (N LP D) Antidotes: mineral oil or lard. The
Bitter Sneezeweed; Bitterweed; seeds have poisoned humans by contaminating flour.

220. HELIOTROPIUM SPP, BORAGINACEAE All parts w/ pyrrolizidine (N S ) May cause liver damage & other compli-
(Cochranea spp., Lithococca BORAGE FAMILY alkaloids. cations, if large amounts are grazed or used for
spp., Schobera spp., tea over extended periods. See Senecio.
TiaridTum s.) (Al, B42, H30, H46,
L4, M20, S19, w2g,
Heliotrope W30)


S species Names) (References)
Common ames

221. HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS L. MALVACEAE Irritant hairs of stem & ( C D) Occasionally a cause of dermatitis to
(Abelmoschus esculentus MALLOW FAMILY pod. okra pickers.
(L.) Moench) (Wil)
Gumbo; Okra

222. HIPPEASTRUM VITIATUM AMARYLLIDACEAE Bulb w/ haemanthamine, ( C PSD) Has caused vomiting in humans. Toxic-
HERBERT AMARYLLIS FAMILY hippeastrine, homolycorine, ity suspected to be similar to other lycorine
lycorine, tazettine, vitta- containing plants, see Amaryllis belladonna L.
(Amaryllis vittata Aiton) (A5, H46, K15, L4, tine & other alkaloids. Suspected as a cause of dermatitis.
Amaryllis; Barbados-lily; 3, R20, W26
Common Amaryllis W30)

223, HIPPOMANE MANCINELLA L. EUPHORBIACEAE All parts, esp. the milky (N HLP D) In hour, the sap causes severe con-
Manchineel SPURGE FAMILY sap & fruit w/ an alkaloid tact dermatitis with burning, swelling & blister-
Manchneel SPURGE FAMILY similar or identical to ing of the skin. It is an eye irritant, may cause
(A5, B33, C5, C41, physostigmine, a sapogenin blindness. The smoke of the burning plant is a
El, G8, H16, K15, & unknowns, respiratory, eye & skin irritant. The attractive
L4, L11, L12, L25, fruit & leaves, in 1-2 hrs. after ingestion, cause
M49, M53, M60, 01, pain, swelling & blistering of the mouth, throat
S12, S15, S48) & lips, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, vomiting,
intense gastro-intestinal irritation & inflamma-
tion, shock & sometimes death, if untreated.
Some writers have exaggerated the toxicity of the

224, HYa CARNOSA R. BROWN ASCLEPIADACEAE Unknown. ( C S ) Toxicity unknown. Hoya australis R.
Wax Plant MILKWEED FAMILY Brown is said to cause livestock poiTnng n
(G3, H46, M49)

225. uRA CREPITANS L, EUPHORBIACEAE All parts, esp. milky sap (NCHLP D) The sap is irritant to the skin,
Monkey Dinner Bell; Monkey- SPURGE FAMILY & seeds. Sap w/ hurin & causing swelling & blistering. It is an eye irri-
Monkey Dinner Be; Monkey- SPURGE FAMILY crepitin (toxalbumins) & tant, may cause temporary blindness. The smoke of
pistol; andox ree (A, A16, B33, L4, an irritant principle, the burning wood is irritant to the eyes. The
L25, M49, M53, 01) Seeds w/ a purgative oil & seed tastes good, but causes vomiting, (bloody)
a toxalbumin (crepitin?). diarrhea, abdominal pain, rapid pulse, dim vision,
delirium, convulsions, collapse & death. 2-3
seeds produce moderate poisoning. The seeds are
used to poison fish & undesirable animals in some

226, HYACINTHUS ORIENTALIS L. LILIACEAE Bulb w/ unknowns. ( C SD) A cause of dermatitis to sensitive in-
Hyacinh LY AMIY dividuals. Internally, has caused vomiting, diar-
Hyacinth LILY FAMILY rhea & stomach pains in humans & cattle.
(G4, H16, H46, J10,
K15, L4)

227, HYDRANGEA SPP. SAXIFRAGACEAE Leaves & buds w/ hydrangin (NC S ) Hydranea arborescens & Hydrangea
ydrng SAXIFRAGE FAMILY (a cyanogenic glycoside). quercifolia have caused restlessness,
Hyrangea SAll parts w/ other toxins? abdominal pain & bloody diarrhea with
228. HYDRANGEA ARBORESCENS L. (A13, B52, B57, (NC P ) mucous to horses & cows. Leaves &
Hyd ; H16, K15, W7, W18, buds of Hydranea macrophylla, eaten
Hydrangea; Seven-bark Wig) with a salad by several persons,
229. HYDRANGEA MACROPHYLLA ( C P ) caused nausea, vomiting & diarrhea.
For other possible symptoms, see
Garden Hydrangea; Seven-bark
Gray-beard; Oak-leaf
Hydrangea; Old-man's-beard;

231, HYMENOCALLIS SPP. AMARYLLIDACEAE Bulb w/ lycorine & other (NC S ) Many species native & cultivated in
(Ismene spp., Pancratium spp.) AMARYLLIS FAMILY alkaloids. Florida. Toxicity probably similar to other
(Iene Pancratium spp.) AMARYLLIS FAMILY lycorine containing plants, see Amaryllis bella-
Spider-lily (M53, W30) donna L.
232. HYMENOCALLIS LITTORALIS Bulb w/ lycorine, tazettine (NC S ) Reputed to be a hazard to grazing
Y & other alkaloids, livestock. Used as an emetic in the Caribbean
SALISBURY Islands. Lycorine is an emetic & tazettine
(Hymenocallis americana Roem.) lowers the blood.pressure. Toxicity probably
(Pancratium americanum Mill.) similar to other lycorine containing plants,
Spider-lily see Amaryllis belladonna L.
Spider-lily-- ---


Other Genus species Names) (References)
Common Names

233. HYPERICUM SPP, GUTTIFERAE Unknown. (N S ) Toxicity unknown. Some species are
(Ascyrum spp.) GARCINIA FAMILY used medicinally.
St. John's-wort; (B57)
St. Peter's-wort
234. HYPERICUM PERFORATUM L, (B57, E20, H15, All above ground parts w/ (N LP D) Photosensitizer to cattle, sheep, hori
Goat-weed; Klamath-weed; K15, M60) hypericin (a pigment). ses, goats & other livestock with pale skin. When
St. John's-wort Hypericum red & a volatile exposed to the sun, animals have developed derma-
oil are present, but have titis with blistering & scabs on the facial parts
unknown activity. & feet, labored respiration, fever & sometimes
death. The plant is used medicinally by humans.
235. HYPERICUM PUNCTATUM LAM. (857, E20) Unknown. (N S ) Suspected of having toxicity similar
Flux-weed; St. John's-wort to Hypericum perforatum L. Used medicinally by

236. ILEX SPP, AQUIFOLIACEAE Berries w/ unknowns. (NC PS ) Said to cause nausea, vomiting & stu-
Holly HOLLY FAMILY por, even in small amounts. The basis of these
SH F reports are from old European literature. Toxic-
(A15, B57, H16, ity uncertain.
K12, M50, M60)

237. IMPATIENS SPP. BALSAMINACEAE Juice, stem, leaves & root ( C S ) Caution, toxicity not well defined.
Balsam; Garden Balsam; BALSAM FAMILY w/ unknowns. Some species are said to be acrid with a burning
Jewel-weed; Snapweed; TOUCH-ME-NOT FAMILY taste & promote vomiting & diarrhea. Thought to
Sultana; Touch-me-not be dangerous internally. Small amounts have been
(B57, F4, K2, P1, used medicinally.
Q1, S68)

238, INDIGOFERA SPP, LEGUMINOSAE All parts w/ indigo. (NE LPS ) Some species contain the blue dye,
Indigo; Wild Indigo PEA FAMILY indigo, which is medicinal in small amounts, but
toxic in large amounts. It may cause diarrhea,
(B33, 01) vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, swelling of the
joints, dizziness & twitching. Caution, seeds of
some species are toxic, while seeds of some spe-
cies are edible.
239. INDIGOFERA ENDECAPHYLLA (B33, C34, C37, All parts w/ beta-nitro- (NC LP ) Has caused abortion, depression, liver
JACQ, E12, H47, J8, K15, propionic acid & unknowns. & kidney damage & death in feeding trials on vari-
JACQ. M46, N11, N12, 01, ous livestock.
Creeping Indigo; Trailing Y1)
240. INDIGOFERA HIRSuTA L. (W19) Irritant hairs. (N SD) Hairs cause skin irritation, esp. to
(Indigofera hirsuta Harv.) grazing animals and when damp. Internal toxicity
Hairy Indigo
241, INDIGOFERA SUFFRUTICOSA (B33, 01) All parts w/ indigo & (N S ) Used as a fish poison, insecticide &
MLLR unknowns, medicine. The blue dye, indigo, may be extracted
MILLER from the plant. The plant causes diarrhea. Tests
(Indigofera anil L.) indicate it to be toxic.
Indigo; Wild Indigo

242. EIP~MEA SPP. CONVOLVULACEAE Seeds & root w/ unknowns (NC S ) Varying amounts of many species cause
(Calonyction spp., Exogonium MORNING-GLORY FAMILY (a resin, glycoside or con- diarrhea & are used medicinally for that purpose.
spp Pharbitis sO.R B volvulin in some species). Large amounts may be harmful.
spp -harTt spp., (B57, B58, C23, G3,
uamo it spp H46, K15, P1, P23,
Morning-glory P24, Q1, W7)
243. IPOMOEA ALBA L. (M53) Prickly stems & milky sap (NC D) May cause dermatitis to some persons.
(Calonyction aculeatum w/ unknowns.
(L.) House) Young leaves, immature Cooked & eaten in the East Indies.
(Ipomoea bona-nox L.) seeds & flowers.
Moonflower; Moon-vine
244. IBPOMEA BATATAS (L.) LAM, "(H9, H46, K15, W7) Tuber infected with black ( C LP ) The feeding of rotted Sweet Potatoes
Sweet Potato rot w/ an oil w/ ipomarone has caused the death of cattle & other livestock.
(a ketone) & unknowns. Symptoms: loss of appetite, difficulty breathing,
weakness, poor condition & death in 2-5 days.
Leaves & stems (& flowers?) Said to be edible, but large amounts are highly
w/ HCN. suspected as a cause of livestock poisoning &


S er e species Names) (References)
Common Names

245. IPOMOEA PES-CAPRAE CONVOLVULACEAE All parts w/ unknowns (a (N S ) Much used medicinally in some coun-
(L.) SWEET MORNING-GLORY FAMILY resin & a glycoside?), tries. Large amounts cause nausea & diarrhea.
(L. ) SWEET MORNING-GLORY FAMILY Caution, may be harmful.
(Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) (A16, M49, W7).
R. Brown var. emarginata
(Ipomoea pes-caprae Roth)
Bay Hops; Beach Morning-glory;
Goat's-foot Morning-glory;
246, .1PMOEA VIOLACEA L. (C33, F5, H16, 11, Seeds w/ alkaloids similar ( CH P ) Effects vary in intensity with the in-
Iomoe rubrocaerulea Hooker) L4, Mg, S21) to LSD, including ergine dividual. From 50-300 seeds induce altered per-
ri rocaeruvalesa H e) (d-lysergic acid amide), ceptions, intensified feelings & often, halluci-
( a tricolor Cavanilles) isoergine (isolysergic acid nations (an LSD-like experience). Nausea, vom-
Blue Star Morning-glory; amide), chanoclavine, ely- iting, diarrhea, panic, incoherence, chills, mus-
Flying Saucers; Heavenly Blue moclavine & ergometrine cular tightness & shock may also occur. Some
Morning-glory; Morning-glory; (ergonovine). symptoms may be due to pesticides used on the
Sumner Skies; Wedding Bells seeds. The effects usually begin in -1 hr. &
last for 5-8 hrs., but there may be confusion,
VAR. ALBA mental & emotional disturbance, & recurrences of
Pearly Gates Morning-glory altered perceptions for several weeks. This
caused a man to commit suicide 3 weeks after eat-
ing the seeds, because he thought he was going
crazy. Chlorpromazine has been an effective anti-

247, IRIS SPP. IRIDACEAE Leaves, but esp. the (NC LP D) Gastro-intestinal irritant, causes ab-
Ble F ; s I FI rhizome w/ irisin (an dominal pain, diarrhea & vomiting. May also
Blue Flag; Iris IRIS FAMILY acrid resinous substance), affect the liver & pancreas. Iris versicolor L.
(A15, B53, F4, F21, Flavanoids & dipeptides in caused the death of calves. Externally, a cause
H16, K15, L4, M9, the leaves? of contact dermatitis to some.individuals, esp.
M23, M60) noted among florists.

248. JACQlINIA SPP. THEOPHRASTACEAE All parts w/ unknowns. (N S ) Used as a fish poison & said to be
(Jaguinia spp.) JOEWOOD FAMILY toxic.
Barbasco; Cudjoe-wood; THEOPHRASTUS FAMILY
Joewood (A5, M49, P1)

249. JATROPHA SPP, EUPHORBIACEAE See below. ( C PS ) See below.
250. JATROPHA cuRAS L. SPURGE FAMILY Seeds & sap of all parts w/ (NCHLP D) In -l hr. after 1-20 or more seeds are
arbados Nut; Curcas; (Al, A2, A5, A16 jatrophin (=curcin, a tox- eaten, there is burning in the throat, nausea, ab-
Barbados Nut; Curgcas;e Nt B A, A16, H albumin), a purgative oil dominal pain, vomiting & diarrhea. In severe
Physic Nut; Purge Nut 33 B40, H16, H33 & a resin. Leaves w/ cases, muscle spasms, labored respiration, pupil
H46, K15, L4, M49, jatrophin, a purgative oil, dilation, dehydration, collapse & sometimes death
M3, N3, 1R, 02, a resin & a saponin-like occur. The leaves have a similar effect. The
Pl, Qi, R, W7) substance, seeds are tasty & are therefore a frequent cause
of poisoning in South Florida. The sap may cause
dermatitis & eye irritation, but it is also used
to stop bleeding.
251. JATROPHA GOSSYPIFOLIA L, (B33, M49, M53, 01) As above. Root & stem w/ (NCHLP D) As above. In some tropical countries
(L.) ohl) a resin & jatrophone (a
cancer inhibiting prin-
Bellyache-bush ciple).
252. JATROPHA INTEGERRIMA (M49) As above? (NC PSD) Suspected to be as above.
(Jatropha hastata Griseb.)
(atrpha pandurifolia Andr.)
253, JATROPHA MULTIFIDA L. (B33, L4, M49, 01, As above. (NCHLP D) As above. Seed & oil more potent.
(Adenoropium multifidum W7)
(L.) Pohl)
Coral Plant; Physic Nut
254. JATROPHA PODAGRICA HOOKER (M49, L4) As above? ( C SD) Suspected to be as above.
Coral Plant; Podagrica

255, JUGLANS NIGRA L. JUGLANDACEAE Juice of stem w/ juglandic ( C D) Prolonged contact with the juice of
(Wallia nigra (L.) Alefeld) WALNUT FAMILY acid? the stem has caused dermatitis to some divid-
Buals, sp. among black Walnut L4)harvesters.
Black Walnut (539, L4)


Common Names (References)

256. JUNIPERUS SPP. CUPRESSACEAE Foliage w/ oil & unknowns. ( c PSD) May cause dermatitis to some persons.
257 JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA L, CEDAR FAMILY ( C p ) Grazing of large amounts of Juniperus
257 Juniper Red Cedar L CYPRESS FAMILY virginiana by livestock has caused -
Junip; R C C F gestive upsets. The trees are dis-
258. J IERUS S C, H16, K15, ) tasteful & undesirable as forage.
5 (SMA CCLLA Wl) (NC S) Poisoning is not likely in Florida,
(SMALL) BAILEY more desirable forage is usually available.
(Sabina silicicola Small)
Juniper; Red Cedar;
Southern Red Cedar

259, KALANCijO EPNNATA PERS, CRASSULACEAE Unknown. (NC S ) Much used as a medicinal plant. Said to
Bryophyllum calycinum Salis.) CRASSULA FAMILY be toxic to livestock in large amounts by Zschokke
(Bryophyum germinans ORPINE FAMILY (in error?). There are no other reports of toxi-
Blanco) city.
(Bryophylum pinatum (A16, M49, N4, Q, cty
(Lam.) Kurz)-- Zli)
(Cot ledon paniculata
(Cotyledon pinnatum Lam.)
Air-plant; Cathedral-bells;
Life-plant; Live-forever

260, KALMIA HRSUTA WALTER ERICACEAE All parts, including the (N S ) Soon after ingestion, humans & live-
(Kalmiella hirsuta HEATH FAMILY pollen w/ andromedotoxin stock exhibit watering of the mouth,
(Walter) a (a resinoid). eyes & nose. Other effects, which be-
Wtr)S- (C23, C30, C47, gin in 2-6 hrs., are nausea, vomiting,
Wicky D19, H15, H16, K15, sweating, abdominal pain, headache,
SL8 M9, M60, N drowsiness, weakness, tingling of the
261. KALmIA LAIOLI L, P1 (N HLP skin, slow pulse, incoordination, low
Calico-bush; Ivy; Ivy-bush; blood pressure, respiratory difficulty, convul-
Laurel; Mountain-ivy; sions, progressive paralysis, coma & death due to
Mountain-laurel; Spoon-wood respiratory failure. Some wild animals, including
deer, are able to eat the plant with no ill ef-
fects. The honey, made from the nectar of this
plant, is toxic & bitter. Treatment: diuretics,
laxatives, nerve stimulants, atropine, activated
charcoal & demulcents have been helpful.

262, LACHNANTHES CAROLINIANA HAEMODORACEAE Leaves, stem, flowers & (N S ) Old legends say that the root of this
(LAM.) DANDY BLOODWORT FAMILY root w/ unknown. plant is fatal to white pigs, but not to black
ones. It is said to make their bones turn pink &
( ca tinctoria (F4, 30, H15, K15, their hooves fall off. The accuracy of this
(Water) Sasbury) M60) legend is not known. The root is used medicinally
(Lachnanthes tinctoria & as a dye. Overdoses of a tincture from the root
(Walter) Etliott are reported to cause dizziness & headache. Fern-
Bloodwort; Dye-root; Paint- ald & Kinsey suggest that the cooked root may be
root; Red-root edible. Caution.

263, LAGERSTROEMIA INDCA L. LYTHRACEAE Bark, leaves & flowers of (RC S ) Large amounts (eaten, used as tea,
(Lagerstroemia chinensis L.) LOOSESTRIFE FAMILY both species w/ unknowns. etc.) are purgative & increase urina-
tion. Used medicinally for these pur-
Crape-myrtle; Crepe-myrtle (B12, C23, Q1, W7) poses.
264. LGERSTROEMIA SPECEISA Seeds of both species w/ ( C S ) Reputed to be narcotic & strongly pur-
(L.) PERSOON unknowns, gative. Used medicinally, may be dangerous in
large amounts.
(Lagerstroemia flos-reginae
(L.) Retzius)
(Lagerstroemia renae
(L.) Roxburgh)
(Munchausia speciosa L.)
Crepe Flower; Flowering
Crape-myrtle; Queen's Crape-
myrtle; Rose-of-India

265, LAMIM AMPLEXICAULE L. LABIATAE All parts w/ unknowns. (N PS ) Has caused staggers to livestock in
Deadnettle; Henbit MINT FAMILY Australia. No cases are known elsewhere.
(B58, H46, K15)

. L --uj


"tner enus species Names) (References)
Common Names

266. LANANA SPP. VERBENACEAE As below? (NC St ) Toxicity unknown. May be similar
(Goniostachyum spp.) VERBENA FAMILY Lantana camera, see below.
Lantana; Wild Sage
267. LANANA CAMARA L (A15, B13, B14, All parts, esp. the leaves (NCHLP D) Grazing of large amounts of stems,
anana acleata L. C23, H15, H16, H46, & green berries w/ lantadene leaves & berries by cattle & sheep (goats & birds
(Lantana aculeata L.) 15, L4, L5, L30, A (lantanin) & unknowns, are unaffected) causes acute poisoning. In 12-24
Lantana; Red Sage; Wild Sage; L31, M9, M49, M53, hrs. there is weakness, gastroenteritis with
Yellow Sage M60, 01, S7, S8, bloody diarrhea, loss of appetite & weight, eye
S52, T15, W7, W19, irritation even to blindness, sores in the mouth,
W38, W39) photosensitization & partial paralysis. When ex-
posed to the sun, the tender areas become swollen,
yellow, hard, cracked & peel to expose raw (bleed-
ing) areas. Small amounts cause chronic poisoning
with symptoms like those of acute poisoning, but
slower & milder in appearance. In either case,
recoveries are few. Poisonings in humans, includ-
ing a death in Tampa, Florida, have resulted from
children eating the green berries. Symptoms,
which appear in 2-5 hrs., are vomiting, lethargy
and dilated pupils, then weakness, labored, slow
respiration, (diarrhea), circulatory disturbance,
circulatory collapse & death. Late stages resem-
ble atropine poisoning. No photosensitization
has occurred in humans, but the leaves cause con-
tact dermatitis. Gastric lavage should bring
about complete recovery, if performed in the first
few hours. Poisoned livestock should be kept out
of the light & given treatment for irritated skin.
Soft laxative feeds may be of benefit. The na-
tives of many tropical countries eat the ripe
blue-black berries with no apparent harm.
Caution, this is not recommended.

268, LAPDRTEA CANADENSIS URTICACEAE Bristly, stinging hairs w/ (N D) Contact will cause a painful dermati-
(L.) WEDDELL NETTLE FAMILY irritant juice. tis, red rash & itching for a short while.
(Urticastrum divaricatum (K16, L4, M60)
(L.) Kuntze)
Nettle; Stinging-nettle;

269. LATHYRUS HIRSUTus L. LEGUMINOSAE Seeds w/ beta-(gamma-L- ( C P ) Lameness, paralysis & skeletal deform-
Caly Pea; casting Pa; P F LY glutamyl)-aminopropioni- ities have resulted when livestock
Caley Pea; Everlasting Pea; PEA FAMILY trile graze exclusively this plant while it
Singletary Pea; Vetchling; (H16, K15, L8, M60) is in seed. Casein protects against
Wild Winter Pea the paralytic effect.
Everlasting Pea; Singletary
Pea; Vetchling

271, LEONOTIS NEPETAEFOLIA LABIATAE Hairs on leaves. (N SD) It has been said that contact with the
(L,) R, BROWN MINT FAMILY plant may cause a burning rash to some individuals.
Hollowst ; L ; G4 0, W7 Leaves (& other parts) w/ Rabbits eat the leaves as food. Toxicity unknown.
Hollowstalk; Lion's-ears; (624, 01, W7) unknowns. Preliminary tests indicate the leaves are toxic to
Lion's-tail; Rabbitfood chicks. Small amounts are safely used medicinally,
internally & externally. The plant has a disa-
greeable taste.
Pollen. A cause of hay fever.

272, LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA LEGUMINOSAE Seed & young leaves w/ (NC LP ) Used as fodder for cattle, sheep,
(LM.) DE WIT PEA FAMILY mimosine (an alpha-amino goats & poultry. Large amounts eaten by horses,
(LAM) DE WIT PEA FAMILY acid). mules, donkeys, pigs & rabbits have caused loss of
(Leucaena glauca (L.) Bentham) (A16, G4, H5, H16, hair, poor condition, lack of coordination & in
(Mimosa glauca L.) K15, L8, L25, M49, severe cases loss of hooves, lameness & death.
Jumbe Bean; Lead Tree; 01, T12, W7) Recovery is rapid when the plant is eliminated
Jumbe Bean ; Lead Taree from the diet. When cattle or sheep are fed al-
Tan-tan Tree; Wild Tamarind most exclusively this plant, they may develop
the symptoms. The plant is a selenium absorber,
but Florida soil does not contain significant
amounts of selenium.


Common Names) (References)

273. LEU1COu E AXILLARIS ERICACEAE All parts, including the (N S ) Toxicity said to be the same as for
(LM.) D. DON HEATH FAMILY ollen w/ andromedotoxin Kalmia latifolia.
(LAM,) D. DON HEATH FAMILY aresinoid)?
(Leucothoe platyphylla Small) (D17, 019)
(Leucothoe acuminata
(Aiton) D. Don)
(Eubotrys elongata Small)
(Eubotrys racemosa (L.) Nutt)

276. LiGu.ITRUMl SPP, OLEACEAE Unknown. (NC SD) Suspected as toxic.
ligustrum; Privet OLIVE FAMILY
277, LIGusTRum VULGARE L. (F17, H46, K15, Leaves w/ unknowns. (NCHLP D) The leaves & fruit are gastroenteric
Ligustrum; Privet L4, L28, M53, M55, Fruit w/ ligustrin, ligus- irritants. They cause vomiting, diarrhea, pain,
P1, R9, W7) tron, syringin, syringopic- drowsiness, loss of coordination, weak pulse,
rin & unknowns, low temperature & convulsions. Fatalities are re-
ported for children (in Europe) & animals. Treat-
ment: gastric lavage or emesis, correct for dehy-
dration, symptomatic & supportive. All species
are respiratory irritants when in bloom.

278. LOBELIA SPP. CAMPANULACEAE All parts w/ lobeline & (NCHLP D) Used medicinally, deaths have resulted
Cardinal Flower; Indian BELLFLOWER FAMILY many related alkaloids, from overdoses of the Northern herb, Lobelia
Tobacco; Lobelia inflata L., Indian Tobacco. Symptoms produced are
T'bacc; L lia (B57, B58, H16, nausea, vomiting, headache, sweating, pain, weak-
K15, L4, W30) ness, rapid but feeble pulse, stupor, tremors,
collapse, convulsions, coma & death. All species
are suspected to have similar effects.

279, ILLUfm SPP, GRAMINEAE As below? (NC S ) As below?
':,egrass GRASS FAMILY
280, iLIUUL TEMULENTUM L. (H15, H46, K15, Grains (& leaves?) w/ (NCHLP ) The plant is rare in Florida. Grains
rnel; Poison R ass; M60, W7, W30) loliine, perloline, temu- have caused giddiness, weakness, dizziness, dila-
rel Poison Ryegrass; line, temulentine (alka- ted pupils, headache, confusion, trembling, vomit-
yegrass loids) & temulentic acid. ing, delirium & death due to respiratory paralysis
in both humans & animals.

281, LC(JmERA SPP, CAPRIFOLIACEAE Unknown. (NC S ) Caution, toxicity unknown. The leaves
neysuckle; Woodbine HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY of Lonic e uie d for teaveo
in Africa. The berries & leaves of
282, iCICERA JAPONICA THUMB, (K12, L4, W7) (NC S ) non-Florida species (cultivated spe-
(rfint 0a ianira cies in the North U.S.) have caused
-Tunb T wt death to humans & livestock.
japanese Honeysuckle; Woodbine
(F-enianthus sempervirens
'(L.) Raf.)
Ccral Honeysuckle; Trumpet
Honeysuckle; Woodbine

284. IpJ'mUS SPP. LEGUMINOSAE Leaves, pod & esp. the (NC PS ) Very little is known about the toxi-
Blie-bonnet; Lupine PEA FAMILY seed w/ lupinine, sparteine, city of the Florida species of Lu inus. Of the
bonnet; Lupine PEA FMILY hydroxylupanine or other 6 Florida species: Lupinus cumulico a Small has
(B33, D20, G2, H15, alkaloids, been shown to be toxic to fowl. Lupinus diffusus
K15, L8, M60, R1, Nutt. contains multiflorine & sparteine. Lu inus
W29, W30) nuttallii S. Wats. contains an unknown alkaloid.
Luinus perennis L. contains angustifoline, hy-
droxylupanne & lupanine. It has been reported
to be poisonous, but there is no definite evidence.
Lupinus villosus Willd. contains an unknown alka-
loid. Lupinus westianus Small contains lupinine,
multiflorine & sparteine. The alkaloids lupinine
& sparteine have been shown to be toxic, but no
cases have been reported for the Florida species
containing these alkaloids.


er nus species Names) (References)
Common Names

285. LYciuM CAROLINIANUM SOLANACEAE Unknown. (N S ) Caution, toxicity unknown.t
halimifolium Mill., Matrimony Vine (not -cut-Tvated
WALTER NIGHTSHADE FAMILY in Florida), has caused livestock deaths & is sus-
Christmas Berry; (K15, L4, M60) pected to contain solanaceous alkaloids. See
Matrimony Vine Cestrum for solanine poisoning symptoms.

286, LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM SOLANACEAE Leaves (& other parts?, (NC LP D) Has caused poisoning & death of live-
MILLER NIGHTSHADE FAMILY except ripe fruit) w/ stock & poisoning of children. Symptoms are simi-
MILLER NIGHTSHADE FAMILY solanine alkaloids. lar to solanine poisoning, see Cestrum. Also, a
(Lycopersicon lycopersicon (C2, C8, C9, F17, cause of contact dermatitis when frequently han-
TL.) Karsten) H16, K15, L4, P1, died.

287. LYONIA LIGUSTRINA ERICACEAE All parts, including the (N PS ) Toxicity said to be the same as for
(L,) DC. HEATH FAMILY pollen w/ andromedotoxin Kalmia latifolia L. The toxicity of Lyonia
(L.) DC. HEATH FAMILY (aresinoid)? ferruinea later ) Nuttall (Xolisma sp &
(Arsenococcus frondosus (857, B58, D17, onia lucda (Lam.) K. Koch (Desmothamnus lucida &
(Pursh) SmaTl) D19, H15, H15) eris uida) is unknown. Lyonia lucida is saiTTo
(Arsenococcus ligustrinus be non-toxic but nevertheess ittshouid be
(L.) Small) regarded with caution.
He-huckleberry; Male-berry;
Male-blueberry; Stagger-bush
288. LYo.NA MARIANA As above. (N PS ) As above.
(L,) D. DON
(Neopieris mariana
(L.) Britton)--

289. MACADAMIA INTEGRIFOLIA PROTEACEAE Young leaves & shell of ( C S ) Caution, with very high amounts of HCN,
nut (& milky sap?) w/ may cause poisoning. See Prunus for possible
MAIDEN & BETCHE PROTEA FAMILY HCNymptoms. The nut is edible, nutritious & deli-
(Macadamia ternifolia Muell.) SILK-OAK FAMILY cious.
Macadamia Nut; Queensland (B12, H46, N4, 08)
Nut; Smooth Macadamia Nut

290, MACLURA POMIFERA MORACEAE Milky sap in stem, leaves (N SD) Causes contact dermatitis to some per-
& fruit w/ unknowns, sons.
(RAF,) SCHNEIDER FIG FAMILY & fruit w/ unknowns. sons.
(Toxylonomiferum Raf.) MULBERRY FAMILY Fruit w/ unknowns. Inedible. May be slightly toxic, but toxicity un-
(Toxylon pomiferum Raf.) known. Suspected as cause of a cow's death, yet
Horse-apple; Osage-orange ( H46, K* feeding trials were negative, except for slight
M60) intestinal disturbance (in Australia). The plant
is very rare in Florida.

291. MALUS ANGUSTIFOLIA ROSACEAE As below. (N S ) Suspected to be as below. Fruit very
(AITON) MICHAUX ROSE FAMILY bitter & sour, may be eaten only when prepared.
Crab-apple; Southern
292. MALUS SYLVESTRIS MILL, (K15, R9, W7) Seeds (& leaves?) w/ ( CHLP ) Fallen apples have caused poisoning of
S u D. amygdalin (a cyano- grazing livestock when eaten in large amounts. No
Malus comunis DC. genic glycoside), which problem in Florida, since apples are usually im-
maus .) forms HCN. ported, rather than cultivated. A man, who rel-
Apple ished apple seeds, saved a cup of them & ate them.
He died from cyanide poisoning. See Prunus for
symptoms of cyanide poisoning.

293. MAMMEA AMERICANA L. GUTTIFERAE Seeds w/ unknowns ( C P ) The seeds are said to be highly toxic.
Mamey; Mammee-apple GARCINIA FAMILY (acids?). They are used to poison insects & fish. Feeding
Mamey; Mamee-apple GARCINIA FAMILY trials indicate that they are very toxic to chicks.
(A5, B12, N4, 01) The fruit pulp is edible, raw or cooked.

294. MANGIFERA IND1CA L. ANACARDIACEAE Sap of various parts, (NC P D) Irritant to the many persons who are
SCASEW FAM including the skin of sensitive to it. May cause an itching & burning
Mango CASHEW FAMILY the fruit w/ a resin-like rash or even blistering & swelling. Also, irri-
(B33, B48, K6, K15, substance, tant to the eyes. The smoke of the burning wood
L4, L25, M49, M53, & foliage may cause dermatitis & eye irritation.
01, W7) Flowers w/ unknowns. The flowers emit an odor which causes respiratory
irritation & facial dermatitis to some persons.
All parts, except the ripe Suspected to be poisonous internally.


Common Names (References)

295, MAN T ESCULENTA CRANTZ EUPHORBIACEAE Seed w/ a purgative oil. (NCHLP ) May cause profuse diarrhea.
(Manihot manihot (L.) Karst.) SPURGE FAMILY Root (esp. skin & juice), Bitter varieties of Cassava have a high HCN con-
(anit m ima Pohl) (B33, L8, M49 stem & fruit (& mature tent & sweet varieties have a lower HCN content.
(Ja amanihot L.) 7) leaf?) w/ phaseolunatin (a The root is edible only after special preparation,
Bitter Cassava; Cassava; cyanogenic glycoside) & the bitter variety is used for making starch only.
Manioc; Tapioca-plant; Yuca HCN. See Prunus for symptoms of cyanide poisoning.

296. MANILKARA JAIMIpUI SAPOTACEAE As below? (N S ) Suspected to be as below.
(Achras emarginata SAPOTE FAMILY
T--7 Little)
(Manilkara emarginata
(T) Bitton & Wilson)
(Mimuso s emarginata
(L. Britton)
Wild Dilly; Wild Sapodllla
297. MANILKARA ZAPaTA (C23, H16, M49, Bark & seeds w/ sapotin (NC S ) A cause of gastroenteritis. The fruit
(L.) v. ROYEN PI) (a saponic glycoside). pulp is edible & tasty, when ripe.
Achras zapota L.) Dilly;
anikara zapoilla Sapodilla
(Jacq.) Gi lly)
(Sapota achras Mill.)

298. MELALEUCA QUING UENERVIA MYRTACEAE Cajeput oil in all parts (NC D) A cause of respiratory irritation to
(CAV.) S. T. BLAKE MYRTLE FAMILY w/ a volatile substance & some persons, esp. when in bloom, occasionally
(Melaeuca leucaden L. f.) M, M) unknowns, even causing a facial rash, headache & nausea.
(Melaleuca leucadendron L. f.) (M49, M53, M58) Contact with the bark may cause dermatitis. Ex-
Cajeput; Punk-tree; tracted cajeput oil is used medicinally. Over-
Bottlebrush-tree doses cause gastro-intestinal & kidney irritation.

299. MEA AZEDERACH L. MELIACEAE All parts w/ a saponin & (NCHLP ) Deaths have resulted in humans & live-
African Lilac Tree; MAHOGANY FAMILY a bitter principle (man- stock (esp. pigs & sheep) from eating the fruit or
Chinaberry; China-tree; grovin?). Leaves also from preparations of other parts. The ripe fruit
Chinese Umbrella Tree; False (A3, A5, A16, B33, w/ paraisine (an alkaloid). is more toxic than the unripe fruit.
Sycamore; Indian Lilac Tree; B58, C4, C15, C23, Fruit also w/ azaridine Symptoms differ, depending on the plant part in-
Pride-of-India; Texas Umbrella F4, H15, H16, K15, (an alkaloid), a resin & gested. They may occur in less than an hour, or
Tree; Umbrella Tree; K30, L4, L8, M47, an organic acid. Bark be delayed for several hours. In man, overdose of
White Cedar M53, M60, P1, P2, also w/ margosine (an a leaf decoction has caused burning of the mouth,
S47, S52, S62, W7, alkaloid) & tannin, scant urine, bloody vomiting, lethargy & occasion-
W19, W30) ally a death. The symptoms of fruit poisoning in
man are nausea, abdominal pains, vomiting, (bloody)
diarrhea, thirst, cold sweat, incoordination, weak
pulse, labored & irregular respiration, paralysis,
(convulsions) & death due to respiratory failure
in 12-15 hrs.
Animals poisoned by the fruit initially display
restlessness, excitement & rapid heartbeat & then
depression, extremely weak heartbeat, vomiting,
bloody diarrhea, labored respirationwith gasping,
cyanosis & death due to respiratory failure in 24
hrs. to several days. Fatty degeneration of the
kidney & liver has been found in livestock which
died after one or two days.
The lethal dose for a 50 lb. pig is approximately
5s oz. of the ripe fruit or 8 oz. of the unripe
fruit. In India, 6-8 ripe fruits caused the death
of a young girl. Birds have become intoxicated
after eating the ripe or overripe fruits. The
leaves & bark have been used to stupefy fish.
Various parts are used medicinally, both exter-
nally & internally.
Gastric lavage or emesis should be performed as
quickly as possible. Protectives such as egg
whites & milk should be given to reduce the
effects. Give symptomatic treatment. In severe
cases measures should be taken to prevent shock.

300, MELILTUS ALBA DESR. LEGUMINOSAE All parts w/ coumarin (N LP ) Large amounts of the molded plants,
White Melilot; White PEA FAMILY (harmless), which forms used as hay, have caused poisoning &
Sweet-clover dicoumarin. death in cattle. Dicoumarin, which
(B58, H15, H16, may form when the plants mold, pre-
301. MELILOTUS INDICA K15) (N LP ) vents blood clotting, causing massive
(L.) ALLIONI hemorrhaging. Antidote: Vitamin K.
Indian-clover; Sour-clover;
Sour Sweet-clover


t er Gnus scies Names) (References)
Common Names

302. METOPIUM TOXIFERUM (L.) ANACARDIACEAE All parts, esp. the sap w/ (N P D) 24 hrs. after contact may cause a mild
a mono- or di-hydric phenol, rash to severe blistering & even fever & internal
KRUG & URBAN CASHEW FAMILY complications. Hospitalization is sometimes nec-
Coral-sumac; Doctor-gum; (H16, J1, K15, L4, essary. The sap may leave black stains on the
Poisonwood M49, M53, M59) skin. This small tree is very common in South

303, MIMOSA PUDICA L, LEGUMINOSAE Roots w/ unknown. ( C S ) In Panama, the roots are used to re-
lieve toothache, but if swallowed they may cause
Sensitive-plant PEA FAMILY vomiting.
(A5, T12) Seeds w/ mimosine (an Toxicity uncertain. May be similar to Leucaena
alpha-amino acid), leucocephala.

304. MIMOSA STRIGILLOSA Unknown. (NC S ) Toxicity unknown, may be similar to
Mimosa pudica.
Baby's Bath-brush

305. MIRABILIS JALAPA L. NYCTAGINACEAE Seeds & root w/ oxymethyl- (NC P ) Reported to be a laxative and possible
anthraquinone, tribonelline cause of stomach pain, vomiting & diarrhea. Trig-
Flower-of-Peru; Four-0'clock; FOUR-O'CLOCK FAMILY & unknowns. onelline, a non-toxic(?) laxative alkaloid is
Marvel-of-Peru (A5, H16, H46, M9, present in the root.
M49, M52, 01, W7)

306. MnDiLA CAROLINIANA MALVACEAE All parts w/ unknowns. (N PS ) Suspected cause of incoordination,
posterior paralysis & collapse in goats. In sheep
(L.) G, DON MALLOW FAMILY & cattle, incoordination, collapse, nervous dis-
(Modiola multifida Moench) (H46, K9, K15) turbances with convulsions, then death have been
noted. Staggering in sheep has been observed in
Ground Ivy Australia. Probably no hazard in Florida, since
the plant is rarely abundant.

307. MOMORDICA BALSAMINA L. CUCURBITACEAE Ripe fruit & seeds w/ (NCHLP ) Both species are poisonous & have
Balsam-apple CUCUMBER FAMILY unknowns, caused the poisoning of children (vom-
Baam-apple CUCUMBER FAMILY iting & diarrhea) & the death of small
308. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L (C23, M53, M57, (NCHLP ) animals. The ripe fruit & seeds cause
01, P1, W7) severe diarrhea & vomiting, & are used
(Momordica balsamina Blanco) to induce abortion.
(a Blanco) Juice of the plant w/ Administration of the juice of Momor-
Balsam-pear; Bitter Gourd unknowns. dica charantia L. to a child in Idia
309. MOMORDIc CHARANTIA L. (NCHLP ) caused violent vomiting, diarrhea &
death. A hypoglycaemic principle, charantin, is
VAR. ABBREVIATA SER, present in the juice of the plant, but the effec-
(Momordica zeylanica Miller) tive dosage is poisonous because of other constit-
Wild Balsam-pear uents.
Wild Balsam-pear All parts are used medicinally, caution. The un-
ripe fruits of Momordica charantia L. are cooked &
eaten in the orient. The ripe fits are never
eaten, because they are toxic & bitter. The
cooked leaves, when drained of the bitter liquid,
are said to be edible.

310, MNSTERA DELICIOSA LIEBM. ARACEAE All parts, except the ( C PSD) Gastroenteric irritant, chiefly to the
ripe fruit w/ calcium mouth & throat, causing burning & inflammation.
(Philodendron pertusum Hort.) ARUM FAMILY oxalate crystals & The juice of the plant may cause dermatitis to
(Potos pertusa Hort.) (A, H16, H46, L4, unknowns. sensitive skin & eye irritation. Some people are
Ceriman; Cut-leaf M49, P1) allergic to the edible ripe fruit.

311, MRiNGA OLEIFERA LAM. MORINGACEAE Fresh crushed leaves & ( C SD) Irritant to the skin & causes diarrhea
the root w/ unknowns, when ingested. Large amounts of the root are said
(Morina pterygosperma MORINGA FAMILY Root w/ moringine (inert) to be toxic. The leaves, flowers & esp. the
Gaertner) (A5, B12, C23, & moringinine (active). fruits are eaten as a vegetable & the foliage is
Ben Tree; Drumstick Tree; L25, M52, Q1, W7) used as fodder in India. The seeds yield Ben Oil,
Horseradish Tree; Maidenhair an excellent lubricant & perfume base. Various
Tree parts are used medicinally. The young roots &
the root bark are used as a condiment. They have
a flavor similar to Horseradish.

312. M~IR RBnRA L. MORACEAE Milky sap & unripe fruit (NC SD) Toxicity uncertain. Reputed to cause
Red Mulberry FIG FAMILY w/ unknowns, stomach upset, nervous system stimulation & hallu-
Red Mulberry FIG FAMILY cinations. Suspected cause of dermatitis to some
(A15, H16)


Common a es (References)

313, MUCUNA DEERINGIANA LEGUMINOSAE Seeds w/ a volatile oil & (NC S ) The seeds are not edible. Even after
(BORT) MERRILL PEA FAMILY unknowns, extended boiling, they taste bad & cause nausea &
digestive upset in about an hour. A volatile oil
(Stizolobium deeringianum (K15) given off while cooking causes burning of the eyes
Bort) & headache.
314. MUCUNA PRURIENS (L.) DC. (Al, A5, A19, A20, Minute velvety hairs on (N D) The easily detachable hairs penetrate
(Dolichos pruriens L.) 33, Dl, 01, S34, the pods w/ mucunain (a the skin & cause itching & irritation. They may
(Mucuna prurita Wight) S35, S56, W7) proteolytic enzyme), also cause eye inflammation & burning. They may
(Stizolobium pruriens serotonin & unknowns, be carried by the wind.
(Stickm.) Medic.) Toxicity of the seeds is unknown. Large amounts
(Stizolobium pruritum Piper) are suspected to be poisonous.
Cowage; Cowhage; Cow-itch
315. MUCUN SLOANEI (S45) As above. (N c) As above.
Cow-itch; Donkey-eye

316. NARCISSUS SPP. AMARYLLIDACEAE As below? ( C LP D) As below?
317. NARCISSUS JONQUILLA L. AMARYLLIS FAMILY Bulb w/ galanthamine, ( C LP D) Narcissus sp. bulbs used as feed
Jonquil; Narcissus (B32, E21, G4, haemanthamine, homolycorine, causedthe death of cattle in Holland.
H46, K15, M23, S60, lycorenine, lycorine & Experimental feedings of Narcissus
318. NARCISSUS POETIS L. 561, W7, W29, W30, other alkaloids, including ( C LP D) jonquilla bulbs to rabbitsshowed that
Poet's Narcissus W34) narcissine in Narcissus 50 gm. cause death from respiratory
pseudo-narcissus, failure in 24 hrs. All species are
319. NARCISSUS PSEUDO- ( C [P D) expected to have similar toxicity.
NARCISSUS L, Symptoms produced are like those of other lycorine
NA issJs. L containing plants, see Amaryllis belladonna L.
Daffodil The bulbs, petals & sap are a cause of dermatitis
to some persons.

320. NERIUM OLEANDER L, APOCYNACEAE All parts w/ neriin (NCHLP D) All parts of the plant are poisonous to
(Nerium indicum Miller) DOGBANE FAMILY (nerioside) & oleandrin humans & livestock. One leaf is reported to be
(oleandroside) (cardiac sufficient to kill an adult human & 15-20 gm.
Common Oleander; Oleander (Al, A5, A16, B33, glycosides resembling will kill mature cattle or horses. The dry leaves
C23, H16, H46, K15, digitalis) & possibly are as toxic as the green ones. Children may be
L4, L8, M49, M53, saponins & unknowns, poisoned from carrying the flowers in their mouth.
M60, 01, P1, S25, Bark w/ rosagenin. Deaths have resulted from persons consuming food
W7, W18, W19) which was roasted on oleander stems. Inhaling the
smoke from the burning plant has caused serious
poisoning. Honey made from oleander nectar is
bitter & toxic. Contact with the leaves or sap
may cause dermatitis to some individuals.
Symptoms in humans include nausea, vomiting, sto-
mach pains, dizziness, decreased & irregular
heartbeat, bloody diarrhea, dilation of the pupils,
drowsiness, unconsciousness, respiratory paralysis
& death. Symptoms are similar in animals, except
there is also weakness, cold extremities, profuse
sweating & initially, an increased heartbeat.
Treatment: see Digitalis.

321. NICANDRA PHYSALODES SOLANACEAE All parts (except the ripe (NC S ) Caution, toxicity unknown. Reputed to
(L.) GAERTNER NIGHTSHADE FAMILY fruit) w/ unknowns, possi- be poisonous.
bly solanine-type glyco-
(Atropa physalodes L.) (A16, H16, W9, alkaloids. Root w/
(Physais daturaefolia Lam.) W29) hygrine (an alkaloid) &
(Phsaodes peruvianum unknowns.
(Physalodes physalodes
Apple-of-Peru; Shoofly-plant

322. NICOTIANA SPP. SOLANACEAE All parts w/ nicotine-like (NC S5) Symptoms from ingestion may appear im-
NIGHTSHADE FAMILY alkaloids, mediately or in several hrs.: shaking,
323, NICTIANA GLAUCA GRAHAM (B33, H15, H16, All parts w/ anabasine, ( CHLP D) vmu t iing, nal knes, diarpid eak
Tobacco Tree; Tree Tobacco H46, K15, L4, small amounts of nicotine & pulse, difficulty breathing, clammy
M60 R, 52, 7, other alkaloids skin, paralysis & death due to respir-
324. NICOTIANA TABACUM L, W13, W18) All parts w/ nicotine & (NCHLP D) atory paralysis. Nicotiana tabacum is
Tobacco other alkaloids, frequently smoked. First-time effects are gi- i-
ness, nausea, dizziness, weakness, (vomiting) &
sweating. The juice of the plant is a skin irri-
tant. A wild species caused a death when it was
cooked & eaten in California. Although the plants
are unpalatable, numerous livestock poisonings
have been reported.


oer enus es cies Names) (References)
Common Names

325. NOLNA ATOPOCARPA LILIACEAE Flower buds, flowers & (N S ) Toxicity unknown. The leaves of
fruits w/ unknowns? Nolina texana Wats. are safely grazed,
BARTLETT LILY FAMILY but the flower buds, flowers & fruits
326, NOLINA BRITTONIANA NASH (D17, H12, K15, (N S ) cause liver & kidney damage & photo-
M60, RI, S52) sensitization to cattle, sheep & goats. Nolina
Florida Beargrass g, eorgiana Michx. (of Georgia) is also saiftoelie

327. 0CHROSIA ELLIPTICA LABILL APOCYNACEAE Fruit w/ unknowns (w/ an ( C S ) Caution, toxicity unknown. Considered
DOGBANE FAMILY alkaloid?). to be poisonous.
Kopsia; Ochrosia-plum
(H16, H46, M49,
M51, W9)

328, 0NOCLEA SENSIBILIS L. POLYPODIACEAE All parts w/ unknowns. (N S ) Feeding trials in New Hampshire with
Meadow Fern, Sensitive Fern FERN FAMILY 17% of this fern in hay, after 6 weeks, caused
Meadow Fern, Sensitive Fern FERN FAMILY incoordination & collapse of a cow & insignificant
(017, K15, M60) effects to another. This fern should be of little
problem in Florida, since it is not very common.

329. IAOIus SPP, OXALIDACEAE Leaves w/ soluble oxalates. (N PS ) The small size of the plants of this
(In S W S L FAMLY genus make them unlikely to be consumed in large
(Inoxalis spp.) WOOD SORREL FAMILY quantities. Large amounts of soluble oxalates or
(Xanhxais spp.) (F4, F17, K15, P1, oxalic acid may cause calcium deficiency. In suf-
Wood Sorrel W7) ficient quantity they will rapidly cause electro-
lyte imbalance, nervous symptoms, reduced blood
coagulation, formation of oxalate crystals in the
kidney tubules & calculi in the urinary tract.
Small amounts may be eaten raw or as a pot-herb.
Cooking with a pinch of baking soda & discarding
the cooking water may help to neutralize the ox-
alic acid.

330. PACHYRRHIZUS EROSUS LEGUMINOSAE Leaves w/ pachyrrhizid (N LPS ) Said to be poisonous, but no further
(L.) URBAN PEA FAMILY (a glycoside). information has been mentioned. Toxicity probably
(L) URBAN PEA FAMILY similar to the toxicity of the seeds.
(Dolichos erosus L.) (B4, B33, Q1, W9) Seeds w/ pachyrrhizid Seeds used as a fish poison & insecticide. They
(L. Rlchari latus (a glycoside), rotenone have been fatal to dogs. seed is laxative, lar-
L. Richard ex. DC.) (a resin), saponins & ger amounts may have severe action. Roots & young
Yam-bean unknowns, pods are cooked & eaten as a vegetable.

331. PAPAVyE SPP, PAPAVERACEAE All parts (except the seeds ( C LPS ) Rarely cultivated in Florida. Some
Poppy P Y FMIL of some species) w/ var- species have caused poisoning of livestock in other
Poppy POPPY FAMILY ious alkaloids in each countries. All species should be suspected as po-
(C23, F17, G3, part (isoquinoline alka- tentially harmful.
H16, H46, K15, P1, loids).
S62, W7, W30)
332. PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM L. (C23, C47, F17, Latex of unripe capsule w/ (RNHLP ) The dried latex is known as Opium.
G3, H16, H46, K15, narcotic alkaloids, includ- Many useful drugs are obtained from this plant,
Carnation Poppy; Opium Poppy; L8, P1, W7, W30) ing morphine, codeine, nar- some are narcotics (morphine & opium), which may
Poppy; White Poppy cotine & papaverine. cause addiction or death when abused. This plant
was once a popular cultivar of flower gardens, but
is now illegal, except by license. There may be a
few illegally cultivated or rarely some persisting
from cultivation. Effects are euphoria & depres-
sion of the central nervous system, respiration &
circulation, which may result in death, if an
overdose is taken.
Leaves, stems & root w/ Similar to above, but with much smaller amounts of
alkaloids, the narcotic alkaloids.
Seeds w/ only a slight Safely used as a condiment, esp. on cakes & des-
amount of alkaloids. serts.

333, PARTHENOCISSUS UINQUE- VITACEAE Berries w/ unknowns (Oxalic (NCHEPS ) The berries are suspected of causing
acid? Glycollic acid? the death of children & the leaves of causing vom-
EULA (L.) PLANCHON GRAPE FAMILY Calcium glycollate?) iting, diarrhea, dilated pupils, sweating, weak
(Ampelopsis hederacea DC.) (16, K15, L4, Leaves w/ unknowns (Pyro- pulse, collapse & sleep, then a return of vomiting
(Apelosis M35, W6) catechin? Cisso-tannic & diarrhea.
uinquefolia Michx.) acid?).
(Cissus hederacea Pers.)
(-edera uinuefolia L.)
(Pse-dera quinquefolia
(T Greene)
(Vitis hederacea Willd.)
(V quinquefolia Lam.)
American Ivy; Virginia
Creeper; Woodbine


Common us species Names) (References)
Cormeon Names

334. PEDILANTHUS EUPHORBIACEAE Seeds & milky sap in all (NC P D) Very irritant to the skin of some per-
TITHYMALOIDES (L) POIT, SPURGE FAMILY parts w/ unknowns. sons. May cause a rash, burning or blistering of
the skin. Irritant to the eye, causes inflamma-
Christmas Candle; Devil's- (B33, H16, L4, M49, tion, pain & possibly permanent injury. When
backbone; Jacob's-ladder; M53, 01) taken internally, the plant causes violent vomit-
Jew-bush; Redbird-cactus; ing & diarrhea.

335. PERSEA AMERICANA MILLER LAURACEAE All parts except the ripe (NC LPS ) Caution, there have been reports of
Avocado LAUREL FAMILY fruit, esp. the leaves w/ livestock poisonings in California. Toxicity var-
unknowns. ies greatly with the variety.
(K15, Q1)

336. PETIVERIA ALLACEA L. PHYTOLACCACEAE All parts, esp. the root (N S ) Used medicinally. Caution, is reputed
Garlic Guinea Hen Weed; POKEWEED FAMILY w/ unknowns. to be toxic to cattle. Taints the flavor of milk
Guinea Hen Weed when grazed. The root is used in some countries
(B33, 858, M16, to cause abortion.
P1, S55, V8)

337. PHASEOLUS LUNATUS L, LEGUMINOSAE Leaves, stems & beans w/ ( CHLP ) The cultivated Lima Bean is safe, but
Lima Bean; Sieva Bean; PEA FAMILY phaseolunatin (a cyano- many varieties (esp. those with purple or brown
Wild Sieva Bean enic glycoside which markings) contain large amounts of phaseolunatin.
Wild Siev Bean (C23, H16, H46, forms HCN). For possible symptoms see Prunus. The foliage of
K15, M60, W7) other species of Phaseolus sholTd also be avoided.
Root w/ unknowns. The root is said to be poisonous. It has caused
giddiness, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain,
fever, weakness & quick pulse.

338. PHILODENDRON SPP, ARACEAE All parts w/ calcium ( C LP D) Gastroenteric irritant, chiefly to the
Philodendron ARUM FAMILY oxalate crystals & mouth & throat, causing burning & inflammation.
unknowns. The juice of the plant may cause dermatitis to
(D11, H16, K15, sensitive skin & eye irritation. The plant is be-
L4, M53, M60) lived to be responsible for the death of a cat.

339. PHORADENDRON SEROTINUM LORANTHACEAE All parts, esp. the berries (N HLP D) The berries & tea from the berries
(RAF.) M. C, JOHNSTON MISTLETOE FAMILY w/ beta-phenylethylamine & havecaused poisoning & deaths of humans & live-
tyramine (toxic proteins) stock. Symptoms, which appear in 1-2 hours, are
(Phoradendron flavescens (A15, 857, HI, (& unknowns?). nausea, vomiting, profuse diarrhea, sweating, di-
(Pursh) Nuttall) H13, H15, H16, K15, lated pupils, rapid & labored respiration, delir-
American Mistletoe; Mistletoe L4, M9, M44, M52, ium, shock & death due to cardiovascular collapse
M53, M60, 04, R14, in about 10 hrs. Deaths have resulted from using
S5) the berries to procure an abortion. There have
been no reports of the foliage causing poisoning,
but the foliage of other species is responsible
for livestock loss. Treatment: immediate gastric
lavage or emesis, symptomatic & supportive, mea-
sures to prevent shock.

340. PHYSALIS SPP, SOLANACEAE All parts (except the (N PS ) Caution. These plants are suspected
Husk-tomato; Ground Cherry NIGHTSHADE FAMILY ripe fruit?) w/ unknowns, of causing poisoning. For solanine-type poisoning
possibly solanine-type symptoms see Cestrum. The ripe fruit is edible.
(H15, H16, H46, glyco-alkaloids.
K15, L4, W7, W9, Root w/ hygrine (an
W29, W30) alkaloid) & unknowns.

341. PHYTOLACCA AMERICANA L, PHYTOLACCACEAE All parts, esp. the root (N HLP ) Pokeweed is a common cause of poison-
(Phytolacca decandra L.) POKEWEED FAMILY & purple stems w/ ing to humans & livestock in the State.
phytolaccotoxin (a resin), Ingestion of the root, purple stem,
342. PHYTOLACCA RIGIDA SMALL (A16, B10, C19, phytolaccine (an alka- (N LP ) raw stem & raw leaves is followed im-
Pokeweed; Coakum; Garget; F4, F18, G6, G25, loid) & a saponin. mediately by burning in the mouth & throat. In 2
Inkberry; Pigeon-berry; G29, G31, H8, H12, hours other symptoms begin to appear: severe ab-
Poke; Pokeberry; Scoke H15, H16, H24, H25, dominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sweat-
H26, J4, K15, K12, ing, salivation, visual disturbance, weakness,
K17, L3, L4, L8, spasms, convulsions & death due to respiratory
Mg, M35, M41, M53, failure within 24 hours or else rapid recovery is
M60, 05, P1, P8, then likely. Treatment should be sought immedi-
R9, S13, S37, W7, ately. Death may occur very soon after the symp-
W18, W19) toms have begun. Gastric lavage should be per-
formed & symptomatic treatment given. Respiratory
stimulants may be helpful.
Berries w/ above constit- The ripe berries have been prepared into cooked
uents and/or unknowns, pies & eaten with no harm. Their purple juice has
been used as a coloring agent. A few (1-10) un-
*.(Phytolacca (cont.))** cooked berries have been eaten with no ill effects,


iter enus ecies Names) (References)
Common lames

341. PHYTOLACCA (CONT.) PHYTOLACCACEAE Berries (cont.) but they have also been fatal. A 5 year-old died
from drinking "grape juice" made from the crushed
& Pokeweed POKEWEED FAMILY berries. The green berries have been preserved &
342. eaten. Caution, the toxicity of the berries is
still not understood. They should be eaten only
by those who know exactly how to use them.
Leaves also w/ soluble The young leaves & shoots are eaten as a pot-herb.
oxalates. It is wise to discard the cooking water when from
young plants & to cook in & discard several waters
when taken from older plants. This practice will
help reduce the amount of toxins & soluble oxa-
lates in the food. Frequent eating of large
amounts could cause calcium deficiency & possibly
other symptoms (see Oxalis).
The root, leaves & berries, in small doses, have
been much used medicinally as a purgative, emetic,
cathartic & anti-rheumatic. Much caution should
be observed, since even very small amounts may
cause death.

343. PIERIS PHILLYREIFOLIA ERICACEAE All parts, including the (N S ) Toxicity said to be the same as for
(HOOKER) DC. HEATH FAMILY pollen w/ andromedotoxin Kalmia latifolia.
(HOOKER) DC, HEATH FAMILY (a resinoid)?
(Ampelothamnus re- (D17)
folius (Hooker) Small)
Climbing-heath; Climbing-vine

344. PN Ul TAEDA L. PINACEAE Leaves (needles) w/ (NC LPS ) Ingestion of the leaves is reputed
unknown toxin, cause of the death of calves. The leaves were
Loblolly Pine PINE FAMILY used as bedding. They are usually not eaten be-
(K15, R9) cause of their unpalatable resinous taste.
Other species are also suspected.

345, PiscmI PISCIPULA LEGUMINOSAE Leaves, twigs, bark & root (NC S ) Used to stupefy fish. Used medicinal-
SPEA FAMILY w/ rotenone (a resin), ly in small amounts, but is suspected to be toxic
(L) SARGENT PEA FAMILY B-sitosterol & unknowns in large amounts.
(Erythrina iscipula L.) (A16, B33, M49, Pods & seeds w/ unknowns. Used in arrow poisons. Considered toxic & the
(Ichthyomethia iscipula N4) cause of dizziness & coma.
(L.) Hitchc. ex Sarg.)
(Piscidia erythrina L.)
Fish-fuddle; Fish-poison Tree;
Jamaica Dogwood

346. PISTIA STRATIOTES L. ARACEAE All parts w/ calcium (N S5) Gastroenteric irritant, chiefly to the
oxalate crystals & mouth & throat, causing burning & inflammation.
Water-lettuce ARUM FAMILY unknowns. The juice of the plant may cause dermatitis to
sensitive skin & eye irritation.

347. PITHECELLOBIUM SPP. LEGUMINOSAE Unknown. ( C S ) There are many species cultivated in
(Pithecolobium spp.) PEA FAMILY
348, PITHECELLOBIUM IDLCE (B12, M52, N4, Q1, Bark w/ unknown. (NC SD) A cause of skin irritation (welts) &
W24) eye irritation with swelling of the eye lids &
(ROXB.) BENTHAM weakened sight. The aril surrounding the seed is
(In a dulcis Willd.) sweet & edible. The leaves, seeds, bark & root
(Mmosa~j dulTis Roxb.) are used medicinally. Use with caution.
Ape's-earring; Guamuchil; Spines. A cause of painful physical injury.
Guaymochil; Huaymuchil;
Manilla Tamarind; Monkey-pod
349. PITHECiELLOBIUM UADALU- Spines on the trunk. (N D) A cause of painful physical injury.
April is sweet & edible. Caution, toxicity of
PENSE (PERS.) CHAPM, other parts is unknown.
(Pithecellobium keyense
Britt. ex Coker)
350, PITHECELLOBIUM UNGU- Spines. (N D) A cause of painful physical injury.
Aril is sweet & edible. Caution, toxicity of
cATI (L,) BENTHAM other parts is unknown.
(Mimosa unquis-cati L.)
Black-bead; Cat's-claw


Common Names N (References)

351. PLEEA TENUIFOLIA MICHX. LILIACEAE Unknown. (N S ) Caution, toxicity unknown. Reputed to
Rush-featherling LILY FAMILY be poisonous.
(D17, HIS)

352. PLUMBAGO AURICULxTA LAM. PLUMBAGINACEAE Leaves, stems & esp. the (NC PSD) Very irritant to the skin, may blister
(Plumbago capensis Thunb.) LEADWORT FAMILY root w/ plumbagin (a the skin of some people. The powdered
naphthaquinone derivative) bark of Plumbag capensis was rubbed
Cape Plumbago; Leadwort (C23, H16, M49, & oil of Plumbago. on an African woman caused her death.
353. PLUBAG A L, M52, Qi, w7) ( c PS) Reputed to be a severe Internal irri-
353.-ucmB iu L. C r j tant. The foliage is eaten by poultry
Plumbago & livestock (esp. sheep) in South Africa, but it
has been toxic under certain unknown conditions.
The root is used medicinally & as an emetic.
354. PLUMBAGO SCANDENS L. Unknown. (N S ) Toxicity unknown.

355. PLUMERIA SPP. APOCYNACEAE As below? ( C PSD) Toxicity similar to below.
Frangipani; Graveyard Flower; DOGBANE FAMILY
Temple Flower (A16, B12, B33,
356. PLUMERIA RUBRA L, C23, H16, M52, Latex w/ resins, caoutchouc ( C PSD) Used as a rubefacient for skin prob-
(Plumeria acuminata Alton) Q1, W7) & the calcium salts of plu- lems, warts & rheumatism. Very irritating to the
(Pluria acutifolia Poiret) mieric acid, cerotinic acid skin of some people after prolonged contact.
Plumiia lambertiana Lind.) & lupeol. Causes burning & blistering of the skin. Inter-
Plumria lutea Ruiz & Pavon) nally,.a few drops are laxative, larger amounts
(Pumeia mexcana Loddiges) cause increased urination, profuse diarrhea & gas-
(P meia ricolor troenteric irritation.
Ruiz & Pavon) Bark w/ plumierid (a Mildly laxative except in large amounts. Plumierid
Frangipani; Graveyard Flower; bitter glycoside). may be changed to plumieric acid in the stomach.
Temple Flower Root bark w/ unknown. A powerful laxative.
Many other constituents The separation of this genus into species is still
of unknown activity are not clear.
present in various parts
of the plant.

357. PODOPHYLLUM PELTATUM L. BERBERIDACEAE Leaves, stem, flowers, (N HLP D) The plant & the extracted podophyllin
Ground-lemon; Mandrake; BARBERRY FAMILY rootstock & green fruit are used medicinally as a purgative & externally
May-apple; Umbrella-leaf w/ podophyllin (a crude for certain venereal warts. Even small amounts,
(B7, C27, C47, resinous substance with raw or cooked, may cause poisoning with severe di-
D16, H16, H18, at least 16 active con- arrhea, vomiting, gastroenteric irritation & ab-
K15, K24, L4, M9, stituents). dominal pain. Larger amounts will then cause diz-
M35, M60, V6, W5) ziness, headache, fever, increased breathing & af-
ter 12 hours, lethargy, rapid pulse, low blood
pressure & then coma. The rootstock (other parts?)
may cause severe dermatitis & eye irritation, esp.
to workers with the plant. The plant is distaste-
ful, rarely eaten by livestock. The ripe yellow
fruit is edible. In excessive amounts or when not
quite ripe it may cause mild diarrhea. The plant
is rare in Florida, but the root is sold in herb

358, POINSETTIA CYATHOPHORA EUPHORBIACEAE As below? (N SD) Toxicity suspected to be as below.
(Euphorbia heterophylla L.) (W7, W9)
359. POINSETTIA HETEROPHYLLA Milky sap in all parts w/ (N H P D) Ingestion of the leaves of this plant
(L,) SMALL unknowns (a resin?), is the suspected cause of death of a child in
(E. b S. Australia. Toxicity probably similar to Euphorbia
(Euphorbia heterophylla L.) spp. The sap is a skin irritant.
Fiddler's Spurge;
360. POINSETTIA PINETORUM As above? (N SD) Toxicity suspected to be as above.
(Euphorbia heterophylla L.)

361. POLYGONUM SPP, POLYGONACEAE Juice in all parts w/ (N SD) May cause dermatitis to some persons
(Persicaria spp., BUCKWHEAT FAMILY unknown, or grazing livestock. Some species are suspected
Traucaulon spp.) of causing gastroenteritis to grazing animals.
T sp.) (B51, B57, C28, Various species are used medicinally, eaten as
Knotweed; Pinkweed; Smartweed G6, H15, H16, K15, a cooked potherb & are seed food for wild birds.
M50, M60)


Comer enus species Names) (References)
Common Names

362, POLYSCIAS BALFOURIANA ARALIACEAE Foliage (& other parts?) ( C SD) Causes an itching rash to many persons
w/ saponins (& unknowns?). with sores & swelling in the very sen-
BAILEY ARALIA FAMILY sitive. Ingestion of the leaves is
(Aralia balfouriana Hort.) (C23, M49, M53, suspected cause ofsystemic distur-
Balfour Po1) bances. A child, which chewed (& swal-
Balfour Polyscias; Qi lowed?) the leaves of a Polscias sp.,
Geranium-leaf Aralia developed a red face, fever,peculiar
363, POLYSCIAS GUILFOYLE ( C SD) actions, dilated pupils, inability to
(BULL.) BAUILEY stand & dryness of the mouth.
(BULL.) BAILEY Both species are commonly known as "Aralia".
(Aralia guilfoylei Bull.)
(No pnax guilfoylei
(Cogn. & March) Merri11)
Gallego; Guilfoylei Polyscias

364. PoNcir s TRIFOLIATA RAF. RUTACEAE Fruit w/ an oil, an acrid (NC SD) The fruit may cause dermatitis to sen-
(Ctrs trifoliata L.) CITRUS FAMILY principle & a saponin. sitive skin after prolonged exposure. Large
(Citrus folate L.) CITRUS FAMILY amounts raw, may cause gastroenteric irritation.
Mock Orange; Trifoliate RUE FAMILY The fruit pulp makes an excellent jelly & cordial.
Orange (H37, L4, M15) Thorns. A cause of painful physical injury.

365. PONGAMIA PINNATA LEGUMINOSAE Seeds & root w/ pongamiin ( C pS ) Used as a fish poison. Only slightly
(L.) MERRILL PEA FAMILY & unknowns, toxic to humans. All parts, esp. the seed oil, are
(L.) MERRILL PEA FAMILY used medicinally.
(Pongamia glabra Vent.) (C23, C24, H16,
Kurum Oil Tree; Poonga Oil L4, M51, Q1)
Tree; Pongam, Pongam Nut
Tree; Tallow Tree

366. PoPULus SPP, SALICACEAE Pollen oil. (NC ) Tests indicate that the pollen oil, in
WILLOW FAMILY rare cases, may be a cause of allergic dermatitis
Cottonwood; Poplar WILLOW FAMILY with a red skin rash & blisters.
(L4, L32, W10)

367, PORTULACA OLERACEA L, PORTULACACEAE All parts w/ soluble (N S ) This plant is a popular potherb.
Purslane; Pusley; Pussley PURSLANE FAMILY oxalates. Caution, in some conditions it may accumulate
Purslane; Pusley; Pussley PURSLANE FAMILY large quantities of soluble oxalates. No cases
(Al, K15, W7) are known in Florida or North America. It is sus-
pected of causing livestock loss in Australia.
See Oxalis.

368. PRIMULA SPP. PRIMULACEAE As below. ( C 5) The toxicity of some species is suspec-
Primrose PRIMROSE FAMILY ted to be a below.
369. PRIMULA OBCOmcA HANCE (F13, H16, L4, M60, Hairs of the stem & ( C D) Contact causes an itching dermatitis
Primrose; Top Primrose PI, R13, S31, W18) leaves w/ primin. to some persons (about 6% of the population).
Primrose; Top Primrose

370. PRUNUS SPP. ROSACEAE Leaves (esp. when wilted), (NCHLPS ) Cyanide poisoning symptoms: Within one
al species, including te R F L bark & seeds w/ the cyano- hour, lethal amounts may cause spasms & death due
all species, including the ROSE FAMILY genic glycosides, amygdalin to respiratory failure. Smaller amounts cause
ones listed) (57, B58, C23, & mandelonitrile glucoside stimulated,changing to weak & irregular.respira-
Apricot; Bitter Almond; E20, H15, H16, H46, (d form is prunasin dl tion, gasping, excitement then depression, weak-
Cherry; Peach; Plum; Prune 37, K15, L4, L8, form is prulaurasin), which ness, staggering, pupil dilation with glassy, prom-
L23, M9, M48, M60, are acted upon by enzymes to inent eyes, twitching, spasms, convulsions, coma &
P1, R1, S52, W7, form toxic HCN. death due to respiratory failure. Rarely there
W19) will be nausea & vomiting as initial symptoms.
Treatment: Glucose, potassium permanganate, hy-
drogen peroxide, sodium thiosulfate, sodium ni-
trite, nerve stimulants & respiratory support have
been beneficial when properly administered.
371, PRUUS ARMENIACA L. As above. ( CHLP ) The kernels caused the death of a boy
in Australia. 20 caused serious poisoning of a
(Armenlaca vulgaris Lam.) woman within hour. The kernels are sold & eaten
Apricot for the principle, Laetrile, which promotes re-
sistance to malignancies. Usual dosage is 3 ker-
nels/day. Larger amounts may be fatal.
372. PRuNUS CAROLINIANA AITON As above. (NC LP ) Has caused livestock loss.
(Laurocerasus carolinlanus
(Miller) Roemer)
Carolina Laurel Cherry;
Laurel Cherry; Mock-orange


Common Names (References)

373, PRUNUS PERSICA ROSACEAE As above. ( C P ) Has caused severe poisoning of child-
(L.) BATSCH ROSE FAMILY ren & livestock.
(Amygdalus persica L.)
(Persa vuga Mill.)
374, PRUNus SEROTINA EHRHART As above. (NC LP ) Has caused poisoning & death of live-
(Padus virginiana (L.) Mill.) stock & poisoning of humans.
Black Cherry; Rum Cherry;
Wild Black Cherry

375. PSEUDOCALYMMA BIGNONIACEAE All parts w/ a volatile ( C SD) Usually of no problem, but prolonged
ALLIACEUM SANDW, BIGNONIA FAMILY odor. exposure to the odor has caused facial burning &
Garlic Vine (M53, M55) swelling, gagging & coughing.

376. PTERIDIUM AQUILINUM POLYPODIACEAE All parts w/ thiaminase (N LP ) Monogastric animals (horses, rats,
(L.) KUHN FERN FAMILY (an enzyme). chickens, etc.): In these animals, thiaminase de-
stroys the necessary vitamin, thiamin. Large
(Pterldium caudatum Maxon) (B33, C23, E18, amounts consumed daily, grazed or in hay, in about
(Pterdum latiusculum E20, H15, H46, K15, one month will cause poor condition, incoordina-
(esv.) Hieron) M59, M60, PI, S52, tion, lethargy, difficulty standing, tremors, (ir-
(Pteridium latiusculum Maxon) W7, W19) regular heartbeat), collapse, convulsions & death
Pterdum pseudocaudatum in a few days to several weeks after the onset of
SClute) symptoms.
(Pterls aquillna L.)
(Pters caudata L.) All parts w/ unknowns Ruminants (esp. cows): The toxins cause hemor-
(Pteris Tatiuscula Desv.) (cyclic compounds?). rhaging throughout the body. Large amounts con-
sumed daily, grazed or in hay, in 1 to 4 months
Brake; Braken Fern; Pasture- will cause unkept appearance, listlessness, runny
brake; Southern Braken Fern; nose, fever, bloody feces, bleeding from the nose,
Tropical Braken Fern rapid & weak pulse, labored breathing & death us-
ually within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms.
General notes: The rhizome is considered 5 times
more toxic than the frond. Humans enjoy the young
tender uncurling leaves as a potherb. Caution, a
cancer-inducing agent (carcinogen) has been found
to be present in the young leaves even after cook-

377. PUNtCA GRANATUM L. PUNICACEAE Bark of the stem & bark ( C S ) A strong tea (2 oz. to 1 pt. water
Pomegranate POMEGRANATE FAMILY of the root w/ pelle- boiled down to 3/4 pt., taken a wineglass-full
tierine & related alka- every hour) is used to expel & kill worms. Over-
(Al, C23, H46, W7) loids, a glycoside, tannic doses may cause nausea, vomiting & possibly sys-
acid & unknowns. temic disturbances. All parts are used medicinal-
ly. The fruit is edible & very tasty.

378, PYRACANTHA COCCINEA ROEM, ROSACEAE Berries (& other parts?) (NC SD) Eating large amounts of the berries by
(Cotoneaster pyracantha Spach) ROSE FAMILY w/ unknown, children is reported to cause stomachache,
egus pyracani orkh.) blistering of the tongue & vomiting. Apparently
py nta orkh.) (A15, C2, K4, 08) of low toxicity, since feeding trials with animals
Everlasting Thorn; Fiery have shown no toxicity.
Thorn; Firethorn; Pyracantha
Thorn; Firethorn; Pyracantha Thorns. A cause of painful physical injury.

379. PYRUS cCOMMUNI L. ROSACEAE Seeds & leaves w/ (NC S ) Toxicity unknown. No cases have been
Pear ROSE FAMILY amygdalin (a cyanogenic reported. Strongly suspected to contain cyano-
glycoside) & unknowns? genic glycosides. See Prunus for possible symp-

380, QUERCUS SPP. FAGACEAE Leaves, acorns & other (NC EPS ) Oak poisoning, a problem in the South-
Oak BEECH FAMILY parts w/ tannin (& a western United States, is not known or likely to
OAK FAMILY volatile oil?), occur in Florida. It occurs when livestock graze
almost exclusively oak, usually because no other
(H15, H16, K15, R1) forage is available. A diet of up to 50% oak may
be of no harm to livestock, it may even be nutri-
tious. Humans should not eat large amounts of raw
acorns. Their tannin content should be leached
out before eating.

381. QUISQUALIS INIICA L. COMBRETACEAE Seeds w/ unknown. ( C S ) In China, 4-5 seeds are roasted &
Rangoon Creeper COMBRETUM FAMILY eaten in the morning before eating as an effective
means of expelling worms, esp. for children. Lar-
(H37, M49, M52, ger amounts are said to cause spasms & other ill
Q1, S68, W9) effects.


Genus cies Names) (References)
Common N-ames

382. RANUNCULUS SPP. RANUNCULACEAE All parts w/ ranunculin (N S ) A cause of dermatitis, respiratory &
fTTER FAMIL (a non-toxic(?) glycoside), eye irritation. If ingested, will cause burning &
Buttercup; Crowfoot BUTTERCUP FAMILY which forms protoanemonin redness in the mouth & throat, gastroenteritis,
Gold-cup; Spearwort CROWFOOT FAMILY (an irritant volatile oil). vomiting, (bloody) diarrhea, dizziness, fainting,
(B57, H15, H16, Anemonol (an alcohol) may urinary trouble, blister eruptions, very rarely
K15, L4, M60, W7) also be present, convulsions & death. Drying or cooking destroys
the toxicity. The plant is distasteful to live-
stock. The plants are rare in Florida.

383, RAPHAN RAPHANISTRUM L. CRUCIFERAE Seeds w/ a fixed oil (N S ) Ingestion of large amounts may cause
Jointed Charl ; Wild Rdish TARD F Y (irritant), a sinalbin- gastroenteric irritation with abdominal pain &
Jointed Charlock; ild Radish MUSTARD FAMILY like sulphur containing bloody diarrhea. The plant is abundant in Florida,
(H46, K15, M35 glycoside, an alkaloid, yet no cases of poisoning are known from here.
M60, S62, W7) rhoden & myrosin. The leaves may be eaten as a potherb after thor-
ough cooking. The root & seeds are used medici-

384. RAPHIDOPHORA AUREA ARACEAE All parts w/ calcium ( C PSD) Gastroenteric irritant, chiefly to the
M, R, BIRDSEY ARUM FAMILY oxalate crystals & mouth & throat, causing burning & inflammation.
unknowns. The juice of the plant is a frequent cause of
(Pothos aureus Lind. & Andre) (H16, L4, M49, M53) dermatitis with burning & blistering of the skin.
(~iid apsus aureus Engl.) It is also a severe eye irritant.
Hunter's-robe; Pothos

385. RHABDADENIA BLFLO.RA APOCYNACEAE Milky sap in all parts w/ (N SD) Irritant & blistering to the skin &
(JAC ) MUELL.-ARG. DOGBANE FAMILY unknowns, irritant to the eyes. Caution, internal toxicity
not known. Related to very harmful plants. High-
Rubbervine (A5) ly suspected as a powerful internal poison.

386. RHAMNUS CAROLINIANA WALT, RHAMNACEAE Bark, leaves & berries (N S ) Caution, toxicity unknown. Rhamnus
Carolina Buckthorn; Indian- BUCKTHORN FAMILY w/ unknowns (anthraqui- cathartic L. and other European species are used
Carolinry; Buckthrn Ind B THON FA Y none glycosides such as as a axative, but have caused serious gastroen-
cherry; Pole-cat-ree (17, H16, L4, M35, emodin?). teric irritation with abdominal pain & severe di-
Yellow-wood M60, P1, W44) arrhea. The berries are a source of yellow dye.

387. RHODODENDRON SPP. ERICACEAE All parts, including the (NCHLP ) Toxicity the same as for Kalmia lati-
Azalea, Laurel HEATH FAMILY pollen w andromedotoxin folia.
(a resinoid).

388, RHOEO SPATHACEA COMMELINACEAE Juice of the stem & leaves (NC PSD) Causes an itching & burning rash &
(SWARTZ) STEARN COMIELINA FAMILY w/ unknown, respiratory difficulty. Chewing the leaves or
stem may cause gastroenteric irritation, chiefly
(Rhoeo discolor Hance) (H16, M49, M52, of the mouth & throat, with burning, inflammation
(Tradescantia discolor L'Her.) M53) & abdominal pain. The plant is used medicinally
Boat-lily; Moses-in-a-boat; in the American tropics.

389. RicINus COmMUNIS L. EUPHORBIACEAE All parts, esp. the seeds (NCHLP D) This plant is very common in Florida.
Castor Bean; Castor-oil SPURGE FAMILY w/ esp. ricin (a toxalbu- It lines the highways for miles in South Florida.
at ; SPURGE FA Y min), also ricinine (an It is a very poisonous & irritant plant. Symptoms
Plant; Palma Christi (Al, A5, A16, B33, alkaloid), HCN, allergens may appear immediately or be delayed for 2 days.
B55, C23, C47, D12, & unknowns. There is burning in the mouth, throat & abdomen,
G4, H15, H16, H27, thirst, nausea, bloody gastroenteritis with pro-
H46, K3, K15, L4, fuse bloody vomiting & diarrhea, abdominal pain,
L8, L16, L23, M9, headache, dizziness, dull vision, liver & kidney
M31, M49, M60, N4, impairment (causes an accumulation of poisons in
01, 09, P1, R1, the blood), weakness, convulsions & death. Ef-
R7, S11, S52, S62, fects vary with the sensitivity of individuals.
W7, W18, W19) A few seeds have caused death, yet there have been
survivals after ingestion of many chewed seeds.
Uncracked seeds may cause only mild symptoms. Al-
lergic responses (from all parts), such as eye ir-
ritation, dermatitis & bronchial asthma, are very
common. These reactions may result from merely
handling a seed or leaf. They may be so severe,
that hospitalization is required. Treatment:
immediate gastric lavage or emesis, seek the care
of a physician, saline cathartics, gastroenteric
protective, maintain fluid & electrolyte balance,
symptomatic. Castor Oil is pressed from the seeds
by a special process.


Common Names (References)

390. RIVINA HUMILIS L. PHYTOLACCACEAE All parts w/ unknowns (NC S ) Caution, toxicity unknown, reputed to
Baby-pepper; Bloodberry; POKEWEED FAMILY (a resin?), be similar to that of Phytolacca spp. The red
Inkberry; Pigeon-berry; berries are used for ink, dye rouge. The leaves
Rouge-plant (A16, B58, L4) are used medicinally.

391, RBiNA PSEUDO-ACACIA L. LEGUMINOSAE Inner bark, sprouts, young (NC LP ) This tree is uncommon in Florida. It
Black Acacia; Black Locust PEA FAMILY leaves & seeds (& leaves? is occasionally a cause of poisoning elsewhere.
w/ robin (a toxalbumin) & Symptoms in livestock: loss of appetite, fatigue,
(E3, E20, H15, robitin (a glycoside). weakness, nausea, cold extremities, dilated pupils,
H16, K15, L4, M9, weak & irregular pulse, labored respiration,
M60, P25, T2, W7) (bloody) diarrhea, recovery or death in several
days. Symptoms are similar in humans, but there
may also be dryness of the mouth & throat, (bloody)
vomiting, stupor, paleness & shock. The bark &
root have been used medicinally. Caution.

392. RUDBECKIA HIRTA L. COMPOSITAE Leaves w/ an irritant (NC D) Suspected cause of contact dermatitis
Black-eyed Susan COMPOSITE FAMILY oleoresin. to some individuals.
(L4, L32, M1, M23)

393. RUMEX SPP, POLYGONACEAE Leaves w/ soluble oxalates. (N LP D) Dangerous levels of oxalates are some-
Curled Dock; Curly Dock; BUCKWHEAT FAMILY times accumulated. See Oxalis. Some species are
Dock; Sheep Sorrel; Sorrel; suspected as the cause ofTTistock poisoning in
Yellow Dock (G4, H15, H16, Europe, Australia & New Zealand. The juice of the
H46, K15, M60, P1, leaves may cause dermatitis to very sensitive per-
R1, W7) sons. Rumex hastatulus Baldwin ex Ell., Sorrel, &
Rumex c pus L.,Curly Dock, are sometimes eaten
as a potherb in Florida. It is best to cook them
in milk, baking soda or discard the water to help
neutralize & lower the amount of oxalates in the

394. RUTA GRAVEOLENS L. RUTACEAE All parts w/ unknown (an ( C D) Contact with the plant & then prolong-
Garden Rue; Rue CITRUS FAMILY oleoresin? or furo- ed exposure to the sun may cause photodermatitis.
RUE FAMILY coumarin?)
(K20, L4, S69)

395. SALICORNIA BIGELOVII TORR, CHENOPODIACEAE Leaves w/ unknown. (N s ) Edible, best when cooked in 2 or 3 wa-
(Salicornia mucronata Bigel.) GOOSEFOOT FAMILY ters & strained or pickled. Listed as
a suspected toxic plant, yet no fur-
396. SALICORNIA VIRGTNICA L. (D17, H15, M59) (N ) her data is available. Livestock
(Salicornia ambigua Michx.) poisoning could possibly result from the high salt
(Salicornia perennis Miller) content (or oxalates?) of the plant, if large quan-
tities were grazed. This is highly unlikely,
Glasswort; Samphire since the plant grows on the coast at the edge of
salt water. Livestock are seldom in these loca-

397. SALSOLA KAL L. CHENOPODIACEAE All parts w/ soluble (N S ) See Oxalis. The plants grow on the
Russian-thistle; Saltwort GOOSEFOOT FAMILY oxalates. seacoast, where livestock are unlikely to have
access to them.
(G3, K15)

398. SAMBUCUS CANADENSIS L. CAPRIFOLIACEAE Root, bark, stem & leaves (NC EP ) Has caused nausea, vomiting & diarrhea
399. SAMBCUs SIMPSONII REHD. HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY (slightly the flowers & to children who use the hollow stem as
S berries) w/ an alkaloid & (NC IP ) a toy. Deaths of livestock have re-
Elder, Elderberry (H15, H16, K10, a cyanogenic glycoside. suited from eating the root, leaves or young
K15, M50, M59, P1) growth. The fruit is made into pies, jellies &
wines. It should be cooked; moderate quantities
raw have caused nausea. The flowers are used in
pancakes, muffins, wine, as a medicinal tea and
are made into fritters.


Co r monuNlas ies Names) (References)

400. SANGUINARIA CANADENSIS L. PAPAVERACEAE Root & red juice w/ (N HLP D) This plant is rare in Florida. The
loodroot; Rd-puoon P FMIL sanguinarine & related root is sold in herb stores. A medicinal herb,
Bloodroot; Red-pucoon POPPY FAMILY alkaloids. but in overdoses it is an irritant poison, causing
(B58, C23, H16, burning of the mucous membranes of the mouth,
K15, L4, M9, M35, throat, stomach & intestines, nausea & vomiting.
M60, P1) When absorbed into the system there is reduced
nerve, heart & respiratory strength, difficulty
breathing, dilated pupils, faintness, muscular
failure & death due to cardiac paralysis. The ac-
rid taste makes the plant unlikely to be consumed
in quantity. The juice of the plant is a skin &
eye irritant.

401, SAPINDUS MARGINATUS SAPINDACEAE Leaves w/ a saponin. (NC S ) Used medicinally. Caution, may be
402 BSAPIN SAPNARA ( B33, B58 Fruit w/ +30% saponin. (N Used as a fish poison & soap substi-
402. SAEi R SArPNARIA L. (AS, B33, BS8, F (NC S ) tute. Said to be toxic, causes con-
Soapberry L, 25, 49 vulsions, paralysis & respiratory failure. May
) cause dermatitis to some persons.
Seeds w/ unknowns. Crushed & used as a fish poison. Ground & used as
an insecticide. Yields a medicinal oil. Caution,
said to be toxic.
Bark w/ a saponin. Caution, said to be toxic.
Root w/ a saponin. Pounded & used as a fish poison. Used medicinally
in small amounts, but said to be dangerously

403, SAPIUM SEBIFERUM EUPHORBIACEAE Milky juice w/ unknowns. (NC S ) Caution, toxicity unknown. Reputed to
(L,) ROXB, SPURGE FAMILY be poisonous.
(Stillingi sebifera Michx.) (B4, S68, S69) Fruit. A source of vegetable tallow, which is used medi-
( ica L.) Small) finally & to make candles.
Chinese Tallow-tree; Tallow- Leaves w/ unknowns. Yield a black dye with sulfate of iron. Leaves
tree; Vegetable Tallow used medicinally.
Bark of root w/ unknowns. Used medicinally, but also said to be slightly

404. SCHINUS TEREBINTHIFOLIUS ANACARDIACEAE All parts w/ a volatile (NC P D) Trimming this plant, esp. when in
Brazilian Peer-tre; FAMILY resin & unknowns, bloom, causes an itching dermatitis to many people
razilian P r-tr ASEW FAMILY & sometimes eye & facial inflammation. The flow-
Florida-holly (H16, M49, M51, ers & crushed fruit cause respiratory irritation.
M53, M55) Internally, the berries & sap (leaves?) produce
gastroenteric irritation with vomiting. A calf,
that ate a large quantity of leaves, suffered with
swollen head & eye hemorrhages.

405. SENECIO SPP, COMPOSITAE All parts w/ pyrrolizidine (NCHLPSD) Many species (not of Florida) are re-
Groundse; Ragwort COMPOSITE FAMILY alkaloids. sponsible for poisoning of humans & livestock. In
roundsel; Ragwort OOE FAMILY acute cases (result from ingestion of very large
SUNFLOWER FAMILY amounts) there is immediate central nervous system
(Al, B42, G4, G9, disturbance, abdominal pain & death in a few hours.
H30, L4, LB, M53, Smaller amounts will cause accelerated pulse &
R1, S18, S19, W30) respiration, nervous excitement, weakness, gastro-
enteritis with abdominal pain, (jaundice) & death
in several days to a week. Chronic poisoning is
the most common. It results from ingestion of
small amounts for a long time, such as by grazing
or in hay of livestock or as a "bush tea" of
humans. The most distinctive effect is hemorrhag-
ing, cirrhosis & cancer of the liver. Symptoms
(slow in appearance) may be loss of appetite &
condition, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, drowsiness,
weakness, staggering, nervous derangement & jaun-
dice. Death may eventually result. Seeds contam-
inating grains have caused poisoning. All species
should be suspected as harmful.
406. SENElIO CONFUSUS (H16, M49, M53) All parts w/ unknowns. (NC SD) May cause dermatitis (a rash, itching
&I swelling)to some persons. Internal toxicity
BRITTEN unknown. Caution.
Mexican Flame Flower Vine
407. SENECIO GLABELLUS POIRET (M53, W30) All parts w/ senecionine (N PSD) This species is suspected of causing
(Senecio lobatus Pars.) (a pyrrolizidine alkaloid) livestock poisoning in Florida. Toxicity unknown,
(Senecio lotus ers.) & other alkaloids, suspected to be similar to Senecio spp. The plant
Butterweed may cause severe dermatitis.


t er Genus species Names) (References)
Common Names

408. SESBAlilA DRUMMONDII LEGUMINOSAE Seeds (& other parts?) (N LP ) Poisonous to l n

(Daubentonia drummondii Rydb.)
(Daubentonia longifolia DC.)
(Daubentonia texana Pierce)
(Sesbania cavanTTTessii Wats.)
Coffee-bean; Daubentonia;
False Poinciana; Poison Bean;
Rattlebox; Rattlebush
(Sesban emerus (Aubl.)
Britton & Wilson)
(Agati grandiflora Desv.)
Corkwood Tree; Parrot Flower;
Sesban; Vegetable Hummingbird
(Sesban exaltata (Raf.) Rydb.)
(Sesbania exaltat (Raf.)
Rydb. exA. W.Hill)
(Daubentonia punicea
(Cav.) DC.)
Daubentonia; False Poinciana;
Purple Rattlebox; Purple
Sesban; Purple Sesbania;
Rattlebox; Rattlebush
(Glottidium vesicarium
(Jacq.) Harper)
(Sesbania platycarpa Pers.)
Bagpod; Bladder-pod;

(D17, D20, H16,
K15, M49, M6D,
P1, 552, W19)

w/ saponins (& unknowns?).

As above?

As above?

As above?

Seeds (& other parts?)
w/ saponins (& unknowns?).

As above?

Seeds (& other parts?)
w/ saponins (& unknowns?).

Symptoms observed in livestock have been weakness,
depression, diarrhea, rapid & irregular pulse,
difficulty breathing, coma & death. Symptoms
appear in approximately 1 day after ingestion.
1-2 oz. has been fatal to livestock.

(N S ) Toxicity unknown, suspected to be
similar to Sesbania drummondii.

(NC S ) Toxicity unknown, suspected to be
similar to Sesbania drummondii. The young fruit,
flowers & foliage are sai to be edible, but the
mature seeds are not eaten. The bark is used

(N S ) Toxicity unknown, suspected to be
similar to Sesbania drummondii. The leaf pro-
duced no symptoms in chicks in feeding trials.

(NC LP ) Poisonous to livestock, fowl & man.
Symptoms observed in livestock have been weakness,
depression, diarrhea, rapid & irregular pulse,
slow & difficult breathing, coma & death. Symp-
toms appear in approximately 1 day after ingestion.

(N S ) Toxicity unknown, suspected to be
similar to Sesbania drummondil.

(N LP ) Poisonous to livestock, fowl & man.
Symptoms observed in livestock have been weakness,
depression, diarrhea, rapid & irregular pulse,
rapid & difficult breathing, coma & death. Symp-
toms appear in approximately 1 day after ingestion.

415. SETCREASEA PURPUREA BOOM COMMELINACEAE Juice of the stem & (NC D) A cause of an itching skin rash & eye
Moses-in-the-Bullrush; COMMELINA FAMILY leaves w/ unknowns. irritation. Burning & blistering of the skin may
Purple Queen ,result in very sensitive persons.
(H16, M49, M53)

416, SOLANDRA GRANDIFLORA SOLANACEAE All parts (except the ripe ( C SD) The toxicity of all species of Solan-
SWARTZ NIGHTSHADE FAMILY fruit) w/ alkaloids. dra is believed to be similar. i-ges-
tionof the flowers of Solandra nitida
417. SOLANDRA GUTTATA D, DON (H16, H46, L4 All parts (except the ripe ( C SD) has caused incoordination, excitabTE
(Swartzia guttata Standley) M49, M53, P1, W30) fruit) w/ alkaloids. ity, dilated pupils, swelling & numb-
ness of the hands & feet, & delirium.
418. QSLANDRA LONGIFLORA All parts (except the ripe ( C PSD) More severe effects & effects from
TUSSAC fruit) w/ solandrine (nor- other parts are suspected to be atro-
hyoscyamine) & similar pine-like (see Atropa) or solanine-
atropine-like alkaloids, like (see Cestrum). The sap, an eye
419. SOLANDRA Nn1 ZUCC. All parts (except the ripe ( C P D) hazard may cause pupil dilation
(Solandra hartwegli N.E. Br.) fruit) w/ atropine, solan- even blindness. Prolonged inhltion
drine (norhyoscyamine) & of the flower fragrance has caused dizziness, nau-
Chalice-vine; Cup-of-gold; similar atropine-like sea, headache, pupil dilation &/or a crushed feel-
Golden-cup; Trumpet Flower alkaloids. ing. Solandra grandiflora & Solandra nitida are
large high-clmbing vines. S uttata &
Solandra longiflora are large shrub-i ike vines to
10 feet tall.


er enus species Names) (References)
Common Names

(all species, including
the ones listed)
Cockroach-berry; Devil's-
apple; Love-apple; Soda-
Black Nightshade; Common
Nightshade; Deadly Night-
shade; Nightshade

Horse-nettle; Love-apple;

Silverleaf Nightshade;
White Horse-nettle
Black Nightshade; Common
Nightshade; Deadly Night-
shade; Graceful Nightshade;

Black Nightshade; Common
Nightshade; Deadly Night-
shade; Garden Huckleberry;


Black Nightshade; Common
Nightshade; Deadly Night-
shade; Nightshade

Brazilian Nightshade
Irish Potato; Potato;
White Potato

Costa Rican Nightshade;
Divorce-vine; Marriage-vine

(Al, A5, A9, A15,
A16, B33, C23, C39,
E20, F4, H15, H16,
H46, K15, L4, M9,
M35, M49, M53, M60,
P1, P9, S52, T10,
W7, W19, W29, W30)

All parts w/ solanine-type (NCHLPSD) See Cestrum for Solanine Poisoning
glycoalkaloids & solanidine- Symptoms.
type alkamines.

All parts w/ solanine,
solanidine & related
glycoalkaloids & alkamines.

All parts (except the ripe
berries?) w/ solasonine,
solasodine & related
glycoalkaloids & alkamines.

All parts w/ solanine,
solasonine, solanidine,
solasodine & related
glycoalkaloids & alkamines.
All parts w/ solasonine,
solasodine & related
glycoalkaloids & alkamines.

All parts (except the ripe
berries?) w/ solasonine,
solanigrine, solasodine &
related glycoalkaloids &
alkamines. Fruit with
solamargine & other.
All parts (except the ripe
berries) w/ solanine-type
glycoalkaloids & solani-
dine-type glycoalkaloids.

All parts (less in the
fruit) w/ solanine,
solasonine, solanidine,
solasodine, trigonelline &
related glycoalkaloids &
All parts (except the ripe
berries?) w/ solanine,
solasonine, solanidine,
solasodine, solamargine &
related glycoalkaloids &
All parts w/ solanine,
solanocapsine, solanidine,
solanocapsidine & related
glycoalkaloids & alkamines.
All parts w/ unknown
glycoalkaloids & alkamines.

All parts, except the un-
spoiled tuber w/ solanine,
solanidine, trigonelline
& related alkaloids &
alkamines. The tuber also
w/ narcotine & norepineph-
All parts w/ solanine-
type glycoalkaloids &
solanidine-type alkalmines?

( C P ) The berries caused gastroenteritis
with blood & mucous in the stools to a calf in
Australia. The berries are cooked & eaten in Java
& Siam. Cooking partially destroys the toxins.

(N HLP ) The fully ripe berries are said to be
edible & are made into jam. These should be
avoided, since the unripe berries are highly
toxic. This species is very similar to Solanum
intrusum & Solanum nigrum. Reports of poisoning
from those three species are confused. It is
impossible to know which species was responsible
in each case. This species is native to America.
(N HLP D) The berries have caused the death of
cattle & possibly a child. The plant is covered
with prickles which cause skin irritation & inter-
nal irritation when grazed.
(NC LP ) Not common in Florida. Has caused
livestock loss in the Southwestern States. The
plant is covered with prickles which cause skin
irritation & internal irritation when grazed.

(N HLP ) The fully ripe berries are said to be
edible & are made into jam. These should be
avoided, since the unripe berries are highly

( CHLP ) The fully ripe berries are said to be
edible & are made into jam. Observe great cau-
tion, the unripe berries are very toxic. This
species is often considered a variety of Solanum
nigrum. It is very similar to Solanum americanum&
Soanum nirum. This is the species cultivated in
garens for its berries.
( C S ) All parts are used medicinally in many
parts of the world. There are no reports of se-
vere poisoning from this plant, but large amounts
of the root & green parts should not be taken in-
ternally. The plant is widely cultivated, commer-
cially & at home, for its edible fruit.
(N HLP ) The fully ripe berries are said to be
edible & are made into jam. These should be
avoided, since the unripe berries are highly
toxic. This species is very similar to Solanum
americanum & Solanum intrusum. It is nativeto
Europe & widely natural-ized in America.
( CHLP ) Frequently sold as a potted plant at
Christmas & as an ornamental for its bright red
berries. The plant has caused the death of humans
& livestock.
( C LP ) The fruits have caused the poisoning of
humans & livestock in Australia. The foliage has
also caused poisoning.

( CHLP ) The tuber, except for green spots &
sprouts, is a safe & nutritious food. It should be
cooked before being eaten. The green parts &
spoiled tubers have caused death to humans &

( C L S ) Suspected as the cause of sickness &
death of horses in Australia.


# er G enus species Names) FAM I LY
Common Names (References)



Columbus Grass
(Andropogon sorghum Brotero)
Holcus sorghum L.)
(Sorgum vulgare
(L.) P~ersoonT
Broomcorn; Durra; Feterita;
Kafir; Kaoliang; Milo;
Shallu; Sorgho; Sorghum;
Sorgo; Sweet Sorghum;
Sudan Grass; Sugar Sorghum

(Andropogon halepense
(Holcus halepense L.)
Johnson Grass

(B33, D17, D19,
E20, HIS, H46, K15,
M60, 01, P1, S52,
W7, W19)

All parts, esp. the leaves, (NC LPS ) Toxicity unknown, suspected to be
w/ a cyanogenic glycoside, similar to the species below.
which forms HCN?
All parts, esp. the leaves, (NC LP ) This species is believed to be a natu-
w/ dhurrin (a cyanogenic ral hybrid of Sorhum bicolor & Sorghum halepense.
glycoside), which forms HCN. See below for toxicity.
All parts, esp. the leaves, (NC LP ) There are many varieties of Sorghum
w/ dhurrin (a cyanogenic spp., especially of Sorghum bicolor. The HCN con-
glycoside), which forms HCN. tent potential varies greatly from variety to va-
riety. In some it is very high, while in othersit
is very low. Some varieties are frequently used
for livestock fodder, but they have caused numer-
ous cases of poisoning & death. When grown under
adverse conditions (frost, drought, hot sun, etc.)
the amount of toxin becomes especially high. See
Prunus spp. for symptoms of cyanide poisoning.
All parts w/ a photosensi- Sudan Grass, a variety of Sorghum bicolor, is re-
tizing pigment, ported to have caused photosensiti on of sheep
which grazed on it in California & Texas.
All parts, esp. the leaves, (NC LP ) This species is usually not cultiva-
w/ dhurrin (a cyanogenic ted. It has become an abundant & troublesome weed
glycoside), which forms HCN. in many places. Toxicity is the same as Sorghum
bicolor, but no cases of photosensitization have
been reported.

All parts, esp. the leaves ( C S ) This species is very rarely cultivated
w/ a cyanogenic glycoside in Florida. Very high amounts of HCN have been
(dhurrin?), which forms HCN. found to be present in it. It is believed to form
the highest amount of HCN of the Sorghums.

438. SIGELIA ANTHELMIA L LOGANIACEAE All parts w/ spigeline (N HLP ) Caution, used medicinally to kill &
West Indian Pink-root LOGANIA FAMILY (an alkaloid) & an unknown expel intestinal worms, but overdoses
acrid bitter substance, frequently occur. Symptoms of over-
439. SpIELIA GENTIANOIDES (Al, B33, M35, (N S ) dose are increased circulation, dim-
CHAPMAN M60, 08, P1, W30) ness of vision with dilated pupils,
dizziness, spasms of the eye & facial
440. SPI.ELIA MARYLANDICA L. (N HLP ) muscles, (vomiting), convulsions &
Carolina-pink; Indian-pink; death.
Pink-root; Worm-grass

441. SPINACIA LERACEA L. CHENOPODIACEAE Leaves w/ soluble ( C PS ) See Oxalis spp. for a description of
Spinach; Spinage GOOSEFOOT FAMILY oxalates. oxalate poisoning.-This plant is safely enjoyed
as a potherb. Moderate amounts should cause no
(F17, K15) problem, when cooked.

442. STERCULIA APETALA STERCULIACEAE Pods w/ irritant hairs. ( C D) The interior of the pods are lined
(JACQ.) KARSTEN CHOCOLATE FAMILY with hairs which are Irritant to the skin & eyes.
Panama Tree (A5, B12) Seeds. Toxicity unknown. They are used for food & medi-
cine. A useful oil is extracted from them.
443. STERCULIA FOETIDA L. (A5, 812, M49, Raw seeds w/ unknown. ( C S ) The seeds are edible when roasted, but
Bangor Nut; Fetid Sterculia W7) cause diarrhea when raw. Toxicity unknown.

444. STILLINGIA SYLVATICA EUPHORBIACEAE Fresh root w/ stillingine (N P ) Small amounts are used medicinally;
GARDEN SPURGE FAMILY (an alkaloid), a resin & excellent for laryngitis, bronchitis & syphilis.
unknowns. Oil of Stillingia is very powerful & irritant.
Sapum sylvaticumTorrey) (B57, 858, M35, Overdoses are said to cause dizziness, burning in
(Stillingia sylvatica L.) M50, W30) the mouth, throat & gastrointestinal tract, nausea,
Queen's Delight; Queen's Root; vomiting, diarrhea, depression, cough, increased &
Silver-leaf; Yaw Root burning urine, aches & pains, burning, itching &
eruptions of the skin, perspiration & fatigue.

445. SUAEDA LINEARIS CHENOPODIACEAE Leaves w/ unknown. (N ) Edible, best when cooked in 2 or 3 wa-
(ELLIOTT) MOQ. GOOSEFOOT FAMILY: ters & strained or pickled. Listed as a suspected
toxic plant, yet no further data is available.
(Dondia linearis (D17, F4, H15, M59) Livestock poisoning could possibly result from the
(Elliottt Miltsp. high salt content (or oxalates?) of the-plant,.if
Sea-blite large quantities were grazed. This is highlyun-
likely, since the plant grows on the coast:at'the
edge of salt water. Livestock are seldom in these


Wt er Ienus species Names) (References)
Common Names

446. IAxuS SPP, TAXACEAE Leaves, stems, seeds, bark ( CHLP ) Death due to circulatory or respira-
& wood (only slight in the tory collapse may occur with little or no symptoms
Yew YEW FAMILY fruit) w/ taxine alkaloids after ingestion of a large quantity. Symptoms
(F17, 64, H16, & a volatile oil. usually appear in 1 hour, but may not appear for
K15, L4, L27, M9, 2 days in livestock. Symptoms are diarrhea, vom-
M60, Pl, W7) citing, abdominal pain, pupil dilation, trembling,
muscular weakness, circulatory depression with
slow, irregular heartbeat & low blood pressure,
difficulty breathing, collapse, coma, convulsions
& death. In humans there may be red spots on the
skin & purple lips. Human deaths have resulted
from the use of the leaves as a tea. Caution, al-
though the red aril around the seed is said to be
edible in small quantities, it should be left
alone. The seed is highly toxic. Treatment:
gastric lavage or emesis, circulatory & respirat-
ory support, control pain with meperidine or Dem-
erol, symptomatic.

447. TAXUS FLORIDANA NUTTALL As above. (NC S ) This is the only species of Taxus na-
tive to Florida. Its distribution is limited to
Florida Yew; Savin a small area along the Apalachicola River. No
cases of poisoning have been reported for this
species, but it is believed to have a toxicity
similar to the other species of Taxus.

448. TEPHROSIA VIRGINIANA LEGUMINOSAE All parts w/ alkaloids (N S ) Used as a medicine, insecticide & fish
& unknowns, poison. Caution, toxicity unknown. Feeding tri-
(L,) PERSOON PEA FAMILY als at the University of Georgia with chicks &
(Cracca virginiana L.) (B58, D20, H15, rats indicated no effects. The wood & seed are
Goats-rue; Rabb s-pea; W30) sometimes reputed to be toxic.
Goat's-rue; Rabbit's-pea;

449. TETRAGONIA EXPANSA MURR, AIZOACEAE Leaves w/ soluble ( c s ) See Oxalis for oxalate poisoning prob-
New Zealand Spinach CARPET-WEED FAMILY oxalates. lems. Safely enjoyed as a potherb. Should not be
New Zealand Spinach CARPET-EED FAMILY eaten raw, except in small amounts.

450, TETRAPANAX PAPYRIFERUS ARALIACEAE Pollen w/ unknowns. (NC D) May cause severe dermatitis to some
(Aralia papyrifera Hooker) ARALIA FAMILY persons.
(Fatsia pyfera (D12, L4)
Bentham& Hooker)
Rice-paper Plant

451, THEVETIA PERUVIANA APOCYNACEAE All parts, esp. the seeds, ( CHLP D) Symptoms produced are numbness & burn-
(PERSOON) SCHUMANN DOGBANE FAMILY w/ esp. thevetin (a cardiac ing in the mouth, dryness of the throat, diarrhea,
(PERSN) SCHUMANN DOGBANE FAMILY glycoside), other glycosides vomiting, dilated pupils, slow, irregular heart-
(Cerbera peruviana Persoon) (Al, A5, A16, A18, including neriifolin, peru- beat, high blood pressure, (convulsions), heart
(Cerbera theveia .) 833, Cll, C12, C23, voside & ruvoside, & many failure & death. Treatment: gastric lavage or
(Thevetia neriilia Juss.) H16, L4, L8, K15, unknowns. emesis, atropine, symptomatic & supportive. 1-2
M4g, M53, N4, 01, seeds have been fatal to children & 15-20 gm. of
Be-still Nut; Lucky Nut; P, P12 1, 7 leaves have been fatal to horses. The seeds are
Milk-bush; Tiger-apple; W18) used as an insecticide, a fish poison, for suicide
Trumpet-flower; Yellow & for homicide. Many deaths result from the use
Oleander of the plant in folk medicine. The sap is a se-
vere skin irritant, causing burning & inflammation.
It is also very irritant to the eyes.

452, ITHJA OCCIDENTALIS L CUPRESSACEAE Foliage w/ unknowns. ( C S ) Caution, toxicity unknown. Said to be
S Aoharmful if eaten by livestock in large amounts.
American Arbor-vitae; CEDAR FAMILY Not likely to cause a problem in Florida since it
Arbor-vitae; False White CYPRESS FAMILY Is only occasionally cultivated as a landscape
Cedar; Yellow Cedar (HIS, M60, 08, plant. The foliage has an unpalatable resinous
W11) taste.
Foliage w/ unknowns Suspected to be a cause of skin irritation to some
(oils?). persons.

453. TITHYMALOPSIS EUPHORBIACEAE Root (other parts to (N p ) Small amounts (10-15 grains) were used
T A (L.) SMALL SPURGE FAMILY a lesser extent?) w/ by the Indians as an emetic & extreme laxative.
IPECACUANHAE (L.) SMALL SPURGE FAMILY unknowns. Larger doses are very dangerous & may cause nausea,
(Euphorbia ipecacuanhae L.) (B57, M35) persistent vomiting, profuse watery diarrhea, gen-
Amerin I ; I eral weakness, shock &/or collapse.
American Ipecac; Ipecac-
spurge; Wild Ipecac


Omtr species Names) RFAenI L
Common Niames N (References)


(Rhus quercifolia Steudel)
(us toxicodendron L.)
(Toxicodendron toxicodendron
(L.) Britton
Poison Oak
(Rhus radicans L.)
Poison Ivy
(Rhus vernix L.)
Poison Sumac; Poison Ash;
Poison Elder; Swamp Sumac;

(B57, 858, C23,
C44, D4, 5D, H16,
H39, H46, K6, K15,
K16, K21, L4, L8,
M9, M35, M53, M59,
M60, 08, P11, W7)

All parts, including the
smoke of the burning plant
w/ "urushiol" (3-n-penta-
decylcatechol, a phenol)
& its oxidative & polym-
erization products.

As above.

As above.

(N H P D) An oily sap is present in the ducts of
all parts & at the surface where
bruised. Poisoning results only from
contact with the sap, which is readily
spread. There are two forms of con-
tact: a) direct contact touching
the plant, b) indirect contact -
picking up the toxins from animals,
clothes or items which it is on. Par-
ticles in the smoke of the burning
(N P D plant may carry the toxins.
(N H P D' Individuals vary in susceptibility,
approximately 25% are not sensitive,
but anyone may become sensitive after
repeated exposure. Symptoms of derma-
titis appear in a few hours to a few
(N D) days. Itching & burning of the skin
(N P P D) may be followed by a rash, redness,
swelling & watery blistering. Infection of the
blisters may cause systemic complications. The
dermatitis should last only 7-14 days, otherwise
it is likely that recontamination is occurring.
Washing with yellow soap may help wash away ex-
cess.toxins, but much of the toxins bind to the
skin proteins. Lotions, creams, baking soda or
epsom salt solutions help to relieve symptoms. In
severe reactions a physician should be consulted.
All articles which may have picked up the toxins
should be washed. Eating of the berries or leaves
has caused gastroenteric upsets & even death.
Livestock & other animals seem to be immune to the

457, TRIANTHEMA AIZOACEAE All parts w/ soluble (N S ) No cases of poisoning have been re-
PORTULACASTRUM CARPET-WEED FAMILY oxalates & alkaloids, ported from North America. Suspected to be poi-
sonous if grazed in large amounts by livestock.
(Trianthema monogyna L.) (Al, C23) See Oxalis for oxalate poisoning effects.
.Horse Purslane; Sea Purslane Root w/ alkaloids & The roots are reputed to be irritant & to cause
unknowns, diarrhea. In India they are used to induce abor-
Leaves & stems w/ soluble The leaves & stems are cooked & eaten, but it is
oxalates, alkaloids & said that they sometimes cause diarrhea & paral-
unknowns. ysis.

458. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS L, ZYGOPHYLLACEAE All parts w/ steroidal (N LPS ) This plant is reported to cause photo-
Bur-nut; Caltrop; CALTROP FAMILY saponins(?) & unknowns, sensitization of livestock in Australia & South
Puncture-weed Africa. It is suspected in the Western United
Puncture-weed (C23, D22, G3, States. There have been no reports of cases in
H29, H46, K15, M60, Florida. The toxicity of the plant is not
S52, S62, W7) well understood. Some believe that subtoxic
amounts of selenium accumulated in the plant are
responsible. If this is true, there should be no
problem in Florida.
Fruit (a capsule) w/ The spiny burs are a cause of painful physical in-
spiny burs. jury.

459. TRIFOLIUM HYBRIDUM L. LEGUMINOSAE All parts w/ unknown. (NC P D) Has caused allergic dermatitis to some
Alsatian Clover; Alslike PEA FAMILY persons. Horses, cows, sheep & pigs which have
Clover; Swedish Clover eaten very large amounts have had dermatitis due
Clover; Sweish Clover (H16, K15, M60, to photosensitization, liver, digestive & nervous
R9, W7) disorders.
460, TRIFOLIUM INCARNATUM L, (B57, H46, K15, The hairy calyx lobes of (NC P ) Grazing or eating hay of the "over-
Crimson Clover M60) the flowers. ripe" plants has caused hairballs, impaction &
death of livestock.
461. TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE L, (B57, G4, H46, All parts w/ unknowns. (NC P D) Used medicinally. Large amounts (10
Red Clover K15, W7) lb/day for 3 days) as "late-season" hay has caused
dermatitis due to photosensitization, visual dis-
turbances, stiffness of walk, slobbering, diarrhea,
anemia & abortion in cattle, horses & sheep.
462, TRIFOLIUM REPENI L, (B57, B58, C23, All parts w/ unknowns & (N P D) Small amounts are safely eaten, grazed
Dutch Clover; White Clover G4, H46, K15, W7) sometimes w/ a cyano- or used medicinally (may be beneficial). Very
genic glycoside. large amounts have caused bloat in cattle, slob-
bering in horses & dermatitis due to photosensiti-
zation. Some strains may contain a cyanogenic
glycoside which in large amounts could cause cya-
nide poisoning (see Prunus).


tner enus species Names) (References)
Common Names

463. TRIGLOCHIN SIRIATA JUNCAGINACEAE All parts, esp. the leaves, (N LP ) Has caused cyanide poisoning in live-
w/ HCN. stock (cattle & sheep). See Prunus spp. for cya-
RUIZ & PAVON ARROW-GRASS FAMILY nide poisoning symptoms. Invstigtions seem to
Arrow-grass; Ridged Pod-grass (H15, K15, M60, W7) indicate that HCN is not present in the form of
a cyanogenic glycoside. This is very unusual.
The plant grows in brackish marshes along the
coast. Livestock usually do not have access to it.

464. TRILLIIM SPP. LILIACEAE Rhizome & roots (& other (N S ) The roots & rhizomes are very acrid &
Bethroot; Birthwort; LILY FAMILY parts?) w/ unknowns cause vomiting & severe irritation. Very small
Bethroot; Birthwort; LILY FAMILY (trilline?). amounts have been used medicinally. Caution.
Trillium; Wakerobin (B57, M35, P1)

465, TULIPA SPP, LILIACEAE Bulb, stem & flower w/ ( C D) A cause of contact dermatitis to some
Tulip LILY FAMILY unknowns, individuals. Known by florists as "tulip fingers".
(B22, C10, G23,
L4, M23, 011, R4)

466. TURBINA CORYMBOSA CONVOLVULACEAE Seeds w/ alkaloids similar (NC P ) The Indians of the Southwestern United
L.) R INESQUE NIN LY ILY to LSD, including ergine States and Mexico used the plant for medicinal,
(L,) RAFINESQUE MORNING-GLORY FAMILY (d-lysergic acid amide), religious & hallucinogenic purposes. See Ipomoea
(Ipomoea sidaefolia Choisy) (H16, L4, S21) isoergine (d-isolysergic violacea for effects.
(Rivea corymbosa .) Hallier) acid amide), chanoclavine,
Olo i elymoclavine & ergometrine
Ololiuqui (ergonovine).

467. ILMUS SPP, ULMACEAE Pollen Oil. (N D) Tests indicate the pollen oil, in rare
Elm ELM FA Y cases, may cause allergic dermatitis with a red
Elm ELM FAMILY skin rash & blisters.

468. URECHITES LUTEA APOCYNACEAE Seeds (& other parts?) w/ (N P D) In large amounts, the effects are
urechitoxin & urechitin similar to those of Thevetia peruviana. They are
(L.) BRITTON DOGBANE FAMILY (cardiac glycosides) & burning in the mouth throat, drowsiness, diar-
(Echites andrewsii Chapm.) (Al, C14, H16, unknowns. rhea, vomiting, slow, irregular heartbeat, paral-
(Urechites lutea (L.) W7) ysis, convulsions, heart failure & death.
Britton var. lutea) Milky sap in all parts w/ A severe skin irritant causing inflammation &
(Urechites suberecta unknowns, blistering of the skin.
(Jacq.) J. Mull.)
Nightsage; Wild Allamanda;
Yellow Nightshade
469. URECHITES PINETORUM SMALL As above. (N FSD) Toxicity probably the same as above.
The two plants are considered the same species by
(Urechtes lutea (L.) Britton some persons.
var. sercea R. W. Long)
Wild Allamanda

470. URTICA CHAMAEDRYOIDES URTICACEAE Stinging hairs w/ unknowns. (N D) The stiff hairs, upon contact with the
skin, inject an irritant substance
PURSH NETTLE FAMILY which causes reddening and intense
471. URTICA URENS L, (B57, C23, H16, (N D) itching, usually of short duration.
HN Snn tte 46, K15, K16, L4, Occasionally, in the very sensitive, there will be
Nettle; Stinging Nettle M60, Pl, W7) swelling & burning. There has been a great deal
of investigation to determine the identity of the
irritant principles. At one time, formic acid was
believed to be responsible. Recent experimentation
indicates that acetylcholine, histamine & 5-hy-
droxytryptamine (5-HT) may be the irritants, but
there has also been doubt of this. The more
northern species, Urtica dioica L., has the same
action as our 2 species. This species is dried &
much used medicinally (often as a tea) & as a hair
rinse. If eaten raw, it may cause gastrointesti-
nal irritation, but makes an excellent & nutri-
tious potherb. The edible & medicinal properties
of our 2 species are not known. Urtica urens L.
has been used medicinally in South Africa.

472. VANILLA PIANIFOLIA ANDR. ORCHIDACEAE Juice of the vine w/ ( C SD) Has caused skin irritation to some
VaCHID FAMIY unknowns (calcium oxalate?). persons. This usually occurs when trimming back
Vanilla ORCHID FAMILY the vine. Internal toxicity unknown.


# ter euspecies Names) FAMILY
Common Names (References)


Melanthium dispersum Small)
(Melanthium virginicum L.)
(Veratrum intermedium Chapm.)
False Hellebore; Hellebore;
Indian-poke; Varebell

(H15, K15, M60)

(826, B27, HIS,
H16, K10, K15, L4,
L8, M9, M60, 07,

Leaves & seeds w/ unknowns
(veratrum alkaloids?).

All parts w/ many veratrum

(N PS ) Caution, toxicity not well understood.
Suspected as a cause of rapid & weak heartbeat,
labored respiration, muscular weakness, loss of
appetite & stupor to cattle, sheep & horses. No
deaths are known. The plant is rare in Florida.

(N S ) A rare plant in Florida. Toxicity un-
known, may be similar to Veratrum viride Aiton
which causes burning in the mouti h throat, sali-
vation, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, sweat-
ing, muscular weakness, difficulty walking, shal-
low breathing, slow then rapid (irregular) & weak
heartbeat, spasms, (convulsions), low temperature,
semiconsciousness & death from asphyxia. There
are few deaths since large amounts are necessary.
Also, rapid emesis removes the slowly absorbed al-
kaloids. Treatment: gastric lavage or emesis,
support respiration & blood pressure, atropine may
be helpful. Do not give epinephrine.

475. VICIA SPP, LEGUMINOSAE Leaves & seed w/ unknown? (N S ) The toxicity of Florida species of
Vetch PEA FAMILY Vicia is unknown. No cases are on record. Some
species have been reported to cause livestock poi-
(C23, G3, H46, soning in other countries.
K15, W7)
476. Y IA EABA L. (C23, G3, H16, Seeds & pollen w/ unknowns. ( CH ) Ingestion of the raw or cooked seeds
Broad Bean; English Bean; H46, K15, 08, W7) may cause "favism" in persons with a certain in-
Fava Bean; Horse Bean; herited enzyme deficiency (glucose-6-phosphate
Windsor Bean dehydrogenase). The genes for this condition are
most frequent, yet still quite rare, among Greeks,
Italians & Blacks. Symptoms produced in 2-3 days
are headache, dizziness, anemia, diarrhea, nausea,
vomiting, abdominal pain, fever & sometimes death.
The pollen may cause headache & dizziness soon af-
ter inhalation & other symptoms later.

477. VitcA MAJO L. APOCYNACEAE All parts w/ alkaloids, ( C PS ) Small amounts have been used medici-
Blue Periwinkle; Greater DOGBANE FAMILY including reserpinine, nally. Caution, toxicity unknown. Has been used
Periwinkle; Periwinkle; vincamajine, vincamajoreine to induce abortion. Preliminary tests on mice in-
Running-myrtler (H46, J12, M5, & vincamajoridine (& other dicate the alkaloids are toxic.
T3, W7, W30) substances?).
478. VINCA MINOR L. (J12, M5, T3, W7, All parts w/ alkaloids, ( C PS ) Small amounts have been used medici-
Common Periwinkle; Periwinkle; W30) including isovincamine, nally. Caution, toxicity unknown. Preliminary
Running-myrtle minorine, vincamine & tests on mice indicate the alkaloids are toxic.
vincaminorine, vincin (a
bitter substance), vin-
coside (a glycoside) &
other substances.

479. Y=l TRIFOLIATA L. VERBENACEAE Leaves & twigs w/ volatile ( C SD) Many persons experience asthma-like
AND VERBENA FAMILY substances & unknowns, respiratory irritation when trimming this plant.
Occasionally there is also dizziness, headache &
VAR. VARIEGATA MOLDENKE (M52, M53) nausea. The leaves are used as an insecticide.
Vitex The leaves & fruit are used medicinally.

480, WISTERIA SPP, LEGUMINOSAE Pod, seeds & bark w/ (NC PS ) Human poisoning from eating the seeds
481, WISTERIA LORIBUNDA PEA FAMILY wisterin (a glycoside) & of isteria has occurred in the United
1.a resin (& unknowns?). C P states. Symptoms: mild to severe
(WILLD.) DC. (B57, B58, F4, gastroenteritis with nausea, repeated
(Gycine floribunda Willd.) H16, J6, K15, L4, vomiting, abdominal pain & diarrhea.
(Kr~ hiafloribunda M9, 08, P1, V3, In serious cases dehydration & col-
(Wid.) Taubert) W7) lapse may occur. 2 seeds have caused
severe poisoning. Recovery is usually
Japanese Wisteria in 24 hours. Treatment: induce vom-
82 WISERIA FRTESCENS ( P ) iting if it has not begun; symptoma-
*482. Wi FRUTENSm (NC P ) tic. The flowers are reputed to be
(L.) POIR edible.
(Bradleia frutescens Britton)
(Glycine frutescens L.)
(Kraunhia frutescens
(L.r) Britton)-
American Wisteria; Wisteria
**(Wisteria (cont.))**


omtner benus secies Names) (References)
Common Names

(Bradleia macrostachya Small)
(Krauh macrostachya
(NuttalT) Sma l)
(Wisteria frutescens var.
macrostachya orr. & Gray)
Kentucky Wisteria
484, WISTERIA SINENSIS SWEET See above. ( C ) See above.
Gcine sinensis Sims)
Krauhia sinensis Makino)
( teria chinensis DC.)
Chinese Wisteria

485. XANTHlIiM SPP COMPOSITAE Seeds & young seedlings w/ (N LP ) When eaten by livestock, esp. pigs,
hydroquinone (once thought sheep & cattle, it causes vomiting (in pigs), de-
Clotbur; Cocklebur COMPOSITE FAMILY to be xanthostrumarin) pression, weakness, confusion, inability to stand,
SUNFLOWER FAMILY (& unknowns?). rapid & weak pulse, difficulty breathing, low tem-
(C23, E20, H15, perature & muscular spasms. A large amount (A
H46, K15, M14, M60, lb. for a 50 lb. pig) will cause death in 12 48
P1, Rl, W7, W19) hours. Symptoms & death are more prolonged when
small amounts are eaten daily.
Burs. May cause painful physical injury.

486. XANTHOSOMA SAGITTIFOLIUM ARACEAE All parts, esp. the (NC P D) Gastroenteric irritant, chiefly to the
rhizome w/ calcium mouth & throat, causing burning & in-
SCHOTT ARUM FAMILY oxalate crystals & flammation. The juice of the plant
Cocoyam; Elephant's-ear; (H16, K15, L4, unknowns, may cause dermatitis to sensitive skin
Malanga; Tanier; Yautia M49, M53, M59, M60, & eye irritation. The rhizome is spe-
P1) cially prepared & eaten. Other spe-
487. XANTHOSOMA VIOLACEU C PSD) cies have a similar toxicity & edibil-
SCHOTT ity. Caution, if not properly prepared, the rhi-
zome is very acrid.
Malanga; Purple Stemmed
Elephant's-ear; Tanier;

488, XIMENIA AMERICANA L. OLACACEAE Kernel of the fruit w/ (N S ) When raw, the kernel may be purgative
Hog-plum; Mou ; OLAX FAMILY unknowns. & deleterious in large amounts. It may be roasted
Hog-plum; Mountain-plum; OLAX FAMILY & eaten. It yields a useful oil.
Purge-nut; Tallowwood-plu (33, M49, 59) Leaves w/ HCN? Suspected of containing HCN, yet the young leaves
are sometimes cooked & eaten with no harmful ef-
fects reported.
Fruit. Edible, raw or cooked.

489. ZAIA SPP, CYCADACEAE Seeds & unprepared root (NCHLP ) The unprepared root is reported to
490. F (& leaves?) w/ cycasin (Nhave caused the death of a member of
9 INTEGRIFOLIA ATON CYCAD FAMILY (a glycoside) & closely (NCHLP ) DeSoto's Army while in Florida in 1539.
(Zamia angustifolia Jacq.) (A5, A10, All, related compounds. The raw roots have caused severe vomiting & abdom-
amia silvicola Small) Bl, B33, Gll, H16, final pain. The plant is suspected to have a tox-
(mia umbrosa Small) K15, K27, K28, L4, city similar to Cycas. The leaves of South Amer-
L7, M53, M59, W21, ican species are said to cause livestock poisoning,
Coontie; Florida Arrowroot; W22) but no cases are known from Florida. By a special
Konti; Seminole Bread process, the root is prepared into an excellent
starch. The waste water from preparing it is poi-
sonous & has a putrid odor.

491, ZANTEDESCHIA SPP, ARACEAE All parts w/ calcium ( C PSD) Gastroenteric irritant, chiefly to the
(Ricd ia sp.) oxalate crystals & mouth & throat, causing burning & in-
(Richardia spp.) ARUM FAMILY unknowns flammation. The juice of the plant
Arum-lily; Calla-lily (84, H46, N4, P1, may cause dermatitis to sensitive skin
W7) & eye irritation. The leaves, stem &
492. ZANTEDESCHIA AETHIOPICA ( C P D) rhizome of Zantedeschia aethiopica are
(L.) SPRENGEL cooked & eaten by many persons. This process de-
___ Kunth) astroys the irritant principles. Other species are
(Richardia africana Kunth) cultivated for their showy flowers, but are not
Calla of Gardeners; said to be eaten. They are: Zantedeschia albo-
Common Calla maculata (Hooker f.) Baillon, Spotted Calla;
Zantedeschia elliottiana (Knight) Engler, Golden
Calla; and Zantedeschia rehmannii Engler, Pink
Calla or Red Calla.


Common Names (References)

493. ZEA MamS L. GRAMINEAE Leaves & stalks w/ ( C EPSD) The amount of cyanogenic glycosides
Corn; Indian Corn; Maize; GRASS FAMILY cyanogenic glycosides, present in corn slowly increases until the time of
Mealies which form HCN. flowering & then rapidly decreases as the cobs be-
(B33, H46, PI, gin to form. Even at its highest concentration,
S62, W7) it is present in very low amounts. Occasionally,
corn grown under adverse conditions will have a
high concentration.and is suspected of causing
livestock poisoning. Symptoms should be similar
to cyanide poisoning in Prunus.
Male inflorescence. The pollen is said to be a cause of hay fever, al-
though it is large & not carried far by the wind.

494. ZEPHYRANTHES SPP. AMARYLLIDACEAE All parts, esp. the bulb ( C S ) Small amounts may be harmless, but
Zephyr-lily AMARYLLIS FAMILY w/ an acrid principle, large amounts cause "staggers" to
possibly lycorine & horses, cattle & chickens. Symptoms
495. ZEPHYRANTHES ATAA (F4, K15, M53, other alkaloids. (NC LP ) are soft feces w/ bloody mucous, stag-
(L.) HERBERT M60, W19) gering in 48 hours, then collapse &
death. 40 gm. of bulb has been fatal
(Atamasco atamasco to the chicken & 2 Ibs. has been fatal
(L.) Greene) to a 350 lb. steer.
Atamasco-lily; Easter-lily;
Fairy-lily; Rain-lily;
Stagger-grass; Zephyr-lily
496. ZEPHYRANTHES SIMPSONII As above? (NC S ) Believed to be as above.
(Atamasco simpsonii
(Chapman Greene)
Atamasco-lily; Fairy-lily;
Rain-lily; Stagger-grass;
497. ZEPHYRANTHES TREATIAE As above. (NC LP ) As above.
(Atamasco treatiae
(S. Watson) Greene)
Atamasco-lily; Fairy-lily;
Rain-lily; Stagger-grass;

498. ZIGADENUS IDENSUS LILIACEAE All parts w/ many alkaloids (N LP ) Very small amounts may cause poisoning.
(DESR.) FERNALD LILY FAMILY including zygadenine & I lb. of Zigadnus muscaetoxicus has
zygacine, & other compounds, caused the eat of a 100 b. sheep.
(Amianthium angustifolium (B57, 017, 019, Symptoms in livestock are salivation,
A. Gray) F4, H15, H16, K15, nausea, vomiting, incoordination,
(Helonias anustifolia Michx. L4, L8, M60, P1, trembling, muscular weakness & even-
(chyathus angustifolia S17, w29, W30) tual prostration, weak heartbeat, dif-
(Michx.) Small) faculty breathing & gasping, coma for
Black Snakeroot; Crow-poison; a few hours to several days & death.
St. Agnes'-feather Symptoms in humans are (burning In the
mouth & throat), salivation, vomiting,
499. ZIGADENUS GLABERRIMUS (N LP ) diarrhea, abdominal pain, muscular
MICHX, weakness, slow & weak heartbeat, low
M C. blood pressure, low temperature, coma
(Zygadenus glaberrimus Michx.) & death. Recovery may occur if vom-
Death Camas iting is early enough to empty the
stomach before the alkaloids are ab-
500, ZIGADENUS MUSCAETOXICUS (N LP ) sorbed. Treatment: gastric lavage or
(WALT.) ZIMMERMAN emesis, atropine & symptomatic. For sheep, 2 mg.
of atropine sulfate & 8 mg. of picrotoxin per 100
(Amianthium muscaetoxicum Ibs. given at the onset of symptoms & repeated
(Walt.) Gray) if they reappear has been effective. Humans are
(Chrosperma muscaetoxicum poisoned from mistaking the plants for wild
(Walt.) Kuntze) onions.
Black Snakeroot; Crow-poison;
Death Camas; Fly-poison;
St. Elmos'-feather


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Amar ylis



Ma iUsenia



Ra phiophora



















su ea










C cas
























































FPp lus






Atr a
a scum








F -tiu







Abelmoschus esculentus, 221
Abrus precatorius, I
Acacia, Black, 391
Acalypha spp., 2
Acer negundo, 3
emarginata, 296
zaotai 297
Ackee, 1
Aconite, 4, 5
spp., 4
napellus, 5
Actaea spp., 6
iAdenathera pavonia, 7
ossypiifolium, 251
multifidum, 253
spp., 98
bicapsularis, 100
par-irlora, 8
pavia, 9
African Lilac Tree, 299
African Spurge-tree, 193
A ati grandiflora, 410
Agave Family = Agavaceae
Agave spp., 10
gostema eitha o, 11
gue-weed, 186
Ailanthus altissima, 12
Air-plant, -59-
Air-plant Family = Bromeliaceae
Air-potato, 171
Akee, 71
cordata, 13
fordil", 14
moluccana, 15
montana, 16
trisperma, 17
Alexandrian-laurel, 84
Algerian Ivy, 216
Allamanda, 18, 19
cathartica, 18
violacea, 19
Pineland, 32
Pink, 153
Purple, 19, 153, 154
Violet, 19
Wild, 468, 469
Yellow, 18
Alligator-apple, 36a
Allium spp., 20
AspiTce, Carolina, 87
Almond, Bitter, 370
Alocasia macrorrhiza, 21
Alsatian Clover, 459
Alslike Clover, 459
Amaranth, 22
Amaranth Family = Amaranthaceae
Amaranthus spp., 22
Amaryllis, 222
Amaryllis Family
= Amaryllidaceae
spp., 23
belladonna, 24
vittata, 222
zeylanca, 144
Amazon-ily, 184
Ambrina ambrosioides, 117
artemisiifolia, 25
elatior, 25
American Arbor-vitae, 452
American Beech, 195
American Ipecac, 453
American Ivy, 333
American Mistletoe, 339
American Senna, 103
American Wisteria, 482

angustifolium, 498
muscaetoxicum, 500
arborea, 26
hederacea, 333
quinquefolia, 333
Ampelothamnus pillyreifolius, 343
Amygdalus sic, 373
Anacardiumoccidentale, 27
Anagallis arvensis, 28
ananas, 29
comosus, 29
sativus, 29
inermis, 30
Jamaicensis, 30
halepense, 436
sorg 435
Anemone, 31
Anemone caroliniana, 31
ngadenia berterii, 32
Angel's-trumpet, 159, 160, 163
Anisostichus capreolata, 33
spp., 34
cherimola, 35
glabra, 36a
muricata, 36b
reticulata, 37
squamosa, 38
Annual Larkspur, 166
arvensis, 39
cotula, 40
Anthurium, 41
Anthurium spp., 41
Apemon spp., 158
pes-earring, 348
Aium graveolens, 42
Apocnum cannabinum, 43
Apple, 292
Apple-of-Peru, 321
Apricot, 370, 371
Aralia, 44, 362, 363
Aralia Family = Araliaceae
Aralia, Geranium-leaf, 362
T--Touriana, 362
guilfoylei, 363
papyriferus, 450
spinosa, 44
Arbr-vitae, 452
catechu, 45
cathecu, 45
Areca-nut, 45
Arecastrum romanzoffianum, 46
alba, 47
aIfIflora, 47
intermedia, 47
mexicana, 48
acuminatum, 50
dracontium, 49
pusillum, 50
atm, 50
tripytum, 50
convolvulacea, 51
hastata, 51
serpentaria, 51
Armeniaca vulgaris, 371
Arrow-grass, 463
Arrow-grass Family
= Juncaginaceae
Arrowroot, Florida, 490
Arsenococcus frondosus, 287
colocasia, 134
esculentum, 135
Arum Family = Araceae
Arum-lily, 491

spp., 52
curassavica, 53
tuberosa, 54
verticillata, 55
Ascyrum spp., 233
Ash-leaved Maple, 3
ash, Poison-, 456
ash, Prickly-, 44
ash, Water-, 3
spp., 56
parviflora, 57a
triloba, 57b
Asparagus-fern, 58
Asparagus sprengeri, 58
atamasco, 495
simpsonii, 496
treatise, 497
Atamasco-lily, 495, 496, 497
Atriplex spp., 59
belladonna, 60
physalodes, 321
Australian Silk-oak, 210, 211
Autumn-crocus, 133
germinans, 61
nitida, 61
Avocado-, 335
Azalea, 387

Baby-pepper, 390
Baby's Bath-brush, 304
Baccharis, 62, 63, 64
angustifolia, 62
glomeruliflora, 63
halimifolia, 64
Bagpod, 414
Balfour Polyscias, 362
Balsam, 237
Balsam-apple, 128, 307
Balsam Family = Balsaminaceae
Balsam-pear, 308
Balsam-pear, Wild, 309
Bandana-daisy, 200
Baneberry, 6
Bangor Nut, 443
Baptisia, 65
Baptisia spp., 65
Barbados-lily, 222
Barbados Nut, 250
Barbasco, 248
Barberry Family
= Berberidaceae
Batis Family = Batidaceae
Batis maritima, 66
Bay Hops, 245
Beach Morning-glory, 245
Beach-orach, 59
Beachwort, 66
Bead-tree, 7
Bean Family = Leguminosae
Bean-tree, 108
Beargrass, Florida, 325, 326
Brazil, 83
Calaba, 83
Beech, 195
Beech, American, 195
Beech Family = Fagaceae
Beet, 70
chinense, 67
punctta, 67
Belladonna, 60
Belladonna-lily, 24
Bellflower Family
= Campanulaceae


Bellyache-bush, 251
Ben Tree, 311
Berchemia scandens, 68
Bergamot, 123
Bertholletia excelsa, 69
Be-still Nut,--"
Beta vulgaris, 70
Betel-nut, 45
Bethroot, 464
capreolata, 33
catalpa, 108
radicans, 88
Bignon-iaFamily = Bignoniaceae
Bird-of-Paradise, 78
Bird Pepper, 92
Birthwort, 51, 464
Birthwort Family
= Aristolochiaceae
Bitter Almond, 370
Bitter Cassava, 295
Bitter Gourd, 308
Bitter Sneezeweed, 218, 219
Bittersweet Orange, 124
Bitterweed, 218, 219
Bivonea stimulosa, 129
Black Acacia, 391
Blackberry-lily, 67
Black-bead, 349, 350
Black Cherry, 374
Black Datura, 161
Black-eyed Susan, 392
Black Locust, 391
Black Mangrove, 61
Black Mangrove Family
= Avicenniaceae
Black Nightshade, 422, 425,
426, 428
Black Snakeroot, 498, 500
Black Walnut, 255
Bladder-pod, 414
Blanket-flower, 200
Blighia apida, 71
Booberry, 390
Bloodflower, 53
Blood-lily, 213, 214, 215
Bloodroot, 400
Bloodwood, 183
Bloodwort, 262
Bloodwort Family = Haemodoraceae
Blue-bonnet, 284
Blue Flag, 247
Blue Gum, 183
Blue Periwinkle, 477
Blue Star Morning-glory, 246
Boat-lily, 388
Boneset, 186
Borage Family = Boraginaceae
Bottlebrush Buckeye, 8
Bottlebrush-tree, 298
Box, 75
Box-elder, 3
Boxwood, 75
Boxwood Family = Buxaceae
frutescens, 482
macrostachya, 483
Brain-cactus, 190
Brake, 376
brake, Pasture-, 376
Braken Fern, 376
Brassaia actinophylla, 72
Brazil Beauty-leaf, 83
Brazilian Nightshade, 430
Brazilian Pepper-tree, 404
Brazil Nut, 69
Broad Bean, 476
Broomcorn, 435
Brown Gum, 183
spp., 158
arborea, 159
candida, 160
calycinum, 259
germinans, 259
pinnatum, 259

Bubby-blossoms, 87
Bottlebrush, 8
Red, 9
Scarlet, 9
Buckeye Family
= Hippocastanaceae
Buckthorn, Carolina, 386
Buckthorn Family = Rhamnaceae
Buckwheat, 194
Buckwheat Family
= Polygonaceae
Bull-nettle, 129
Bullock's-heart, 37
Bunchflower, 473
Bur-nut, 458
Buttercup, 382
Buttercup Family
= Ranunculaceae
Butterfly Milkweed, 54
Butterweed, 136, 407
Buttonbush, 110
harlandi, 73
microphylla, 74
sempervirens, 75

Cabbage-bark Tree, 30
cactus, False-, 190
bonduc, 76
crista, 77
aesii, 78
pauciflora, 79
pulcherrima, 80
Cajeput, 298
Calaba, 83
Calaba Beatuty-leaf, 83
Calabash Tree, 140
Caladium, 81, 82
ico~lor, 81
esculentum, 135
picturatum, 82
Caley Pea, 269
Calico-bush, 261
Calla-lily, 491, 492
Calla of Gardeners, 492
spp., 242
aculeatum, 243
antillanum, 83
brasiliense, 83
calaba, 83
ophyllum, 84
gigantea, 85
procera, 86
Caltrop, 458
Caltrop Family
= Zygophyllaceae
Calycanthus Family
= Calycanthaceae
Calycanthus floridus
var. floridus, 87
Camas, Death, 99, 500
camomile, Dog's-, 40
Camphor Laurel, 122
Camhora officinarum, 122
amphor-tree, 122
Campsis radicans, 88
Candelabra-cactus, 190
Candle-bush, 99
Candlenut, 15
Candle-tree, 108
Cannabis sativa, 89
Cape PIumbEago,352
Capital Croton, 150
Capnoides spp., 139
Capsicum annuum
var. annuum, 90
var. aviculare, 91
Capsicum frutescens, 92

Cardinal Flower, 278
Cardinal-spear, 180
Carica papaya, 93
Carnation Poppy, 332
Carolina Allspice, 87
Carolina Buckthorn, 386
Carolina Jessamine, 201, 202
Carolina Laurel Cherry, 372
Carolina Moonseed, 130
Carolina-pink, 440
Carpet-weed Family
= Aizoaceae
Carrot, Cultivated, 164
Carrot Family Umbelliferae
mitis, 94
urens, 95
Cashew Family = Anacardiaceae
Cashew Tree, 27
edulis, 96
tetrameria, 97
Cassava, 295
spp., 98
alata, 99
bicapsularis, 100
fasciculata, 101
fistula, 102
marylandica, 103
obtusifolia, 104
occidentalis, 105
siamea, 106
tora 104
Caiytha filiformis, 107
Castor Bean, 389
Castor-oil Plant, 389
Catalpa, 108
bignonioides, 108
catalpa, 108
Catawba Tree, 108
Catharanthus roseus, 109
Cathedral-bells, 59
Cat's-claw, 350
Cebatha carolina, 130
Cedar Family Cupressaceae
False White, 299, 452
Red, 256, 257, 258
White, 299
Yellow, 452
Celastrus Family
= Celastraceae
Celeri graveolens, 42
Celery, 42
Century-plant, 10
occidentalis, 110
Ceratocaulos spp., 158
peruviana, 451
thevetia, 451
Ceriman, 310
diurnum, 111
nocturnum, 112
par ui, 113
Chalice-vine, 416, 417, 418,
spp., 98
deeringiana, 101
depressa, 101
fasiculata, 101
littoralis, 101
robusta, 101
spp., 114
hirta, 115
Char-d, Swiss, 70
Charlock, Jointed, 383
album, 116
aEmbosioides, 117
Cherimoya, 35
Cherokee Bean, 180


Cherry, 370
Black, 374
Ground, 340
Indian-, 386
Jerusalem-, 429
Laurel, 372
Wild Black, 374
Poison, 28
Red, 28
Chili Pepper, 92
Chilipiquin, 91
Chinaberry, 299
China-tree, 299
Chinese Tallow-tree. 403
Chinese Umbrella Tree, 299
Chionanthus virginica, 118
Chives, 20
Chocolate Family
= Sterculiaceae
Christmas Berry, 285
Christmas Candle, 334
Christmas Flower, 192
Christmas Senna, 100
Chrosperma muscaetoxicum, 500
Chrysanthemum, 119
Chrysanthemum spp., 119
curtissii, 121
maculata, 120
maculata var. curtissii, 121
mexicana, 121
Cigar-tree, 108
Cinnamomum camphora, 122
Circassian ean,
h-deracea, 333
stans, 26
Citron, 123
Citrus Family = Rutaceae
spp., 123
aurantium, 124
trifoliata, 364
Clematis spp., 125
Climbing-heath, 343
Climbing Lily, 206, 207
Climbing-vine, 343
miniata, 126
inolTls, 127
Clotbur, 485
Clover, 459, 460, 461, 462
Indian-, 301
Sour-, 301
Sweet-, 300, 301
Clusia rose, 128
Cnidoscolus stimulosus, 129
Coakum, 341, 342
carolinus, 130
laurifolius, 131
Cochranea spp., 220
Cocklebur, 485
Cockle, Corn, 11
Cockroach-berry, 421
Cockscomb-cactus, 190
Cocoyam, 486
plumosa, 46
romanzoffianum, 46
Codiaeum variegatum
var pictum, 132
Coffee-bean, 408, 414
Coffee, Florida, 105
Coffee-pod, 104
Coffee Senna, 105
Coffeeweed, 105, 409, 411
Colchicum spp., 133
antiquorum, 134
var. esculenta, 135
var. antiquorum, 134
esculentum, 1353

Columbus Grass, 434
Combtretum Family
Commelina Family
Common Amaryllis, 222
Common Box(wood), 75
Common Calla, 492
Common Cotton, 209
Common Nightshade, 422, 425,
426, 428
Common Oleander, 320
Composite Family = Compositae
Conyza canadensis, 136
Coontie, 490
Coop eria
rummondii, 137
pedunculata, 138
Copel-tree, 12
Copey, 128
Coral-beads, 130
Coral Bean, 180
Coral-berry, 130
Coral Honeysuckle, 283
Coral Plant, 253, 254
Coral-sumac, 302
Coral Tree, 182
Corkwood, 36a
Corkwood Tree, 410
Corn, 493
Corn Cockle, 11
Corydalis spp., 39
Costa ican Nightshade, 432
Cotoneaster pyracantha, 378
Cotton, 208, 209
Cotton, Wild, 86, 209
Cottonwood, 366
paniculata, 259
pinnatum 259
Cowage, 4
Cowbane, Spotted, 120, 121
Cowhage, 314
Cow-itch, 88, 314, 315
Crab-apple, Southern, 291
Crab's-eye, 1
Cracca virginiana, 448
Crape-jasmine, 179
Crape-myrtle, 263, 264
Crassula Family = Crassulaceae
Crataegus pyracantha, 378
Creeping Fig, 198
Creeping Indigo, 239
Crepe Flower, 264
Crepe-myrtle, 263, 264
Cresentia cujete, 140
Crested Milkstripe
Euphorbia, 190
Crimson Clover, 460
spp., 141
americanum, 142
asiaticum, 143
zeylanicum, 144
Crinum-lily, 141, 142, 143,
Cross-vine, 33
Crotalaria, 145, 146, 147,
spp., 145
retusa, 146
sagialis, 147
spectabilis, 148
Croton, 132, 149, 150
spp., 149
capitatus, 150
engelmanii, 150
elliptica, 151
linearis, 152
T 152
Crowfoot, 382
Crowfoot Family
= Ranunculaceae
Crown Flower, 85, 86
Crown-of-thorns, 191

Crow-poison, 498, 500
Crozier Cycad, 156
grandiflora, 153
madagascariensis, 154
Cucumber Family
Cudjoe-wood, 248
Cujete, 140
Cup-of-gold, 416, 417, 418, 419
Curcas, 250
Cure-all, 99
Curled Dock, 393
Curly Dock, 393
Cuscuta spp., 155
Custard-apple, 36a, 37
Custard-apple Family
Cut-leaf Philodendron, 310
Cycad, 156, 157
Cycad Family Cycadaceae
circinalis, 156
revoluta, 157
Cypress Family
= Cupressaceae

Daffodil, 319
Daisy, 119
Darnel, 280
Dasheen, 134, 135
spp., 158
alba, 161
arborea, 159
candida, 160
metal, 161
stramonium, 162
suaveolens, 163
Daubentonia, 408, 412
drummindii, 408
longifolia, 408
punicea, 412
texana, 408
Daucus carota var. sativa, 164
= Commelinaceae
Day Jessamine, 111
Deadly Nightshade, 60, 422,
425, 426,
Deadnettle, 265
Death Camas, 499, 500
spp., 165
ajacis, 166
Descurania pinnata, 167
Desmothamnus lucidus, 287
Devil's-apple, 161, 162, 421
Devil's-backbone, 334
Devil's-gut, 107, 155
Devil's-potato, 175
Devil's-trumpet, 161, 162
Devil's-walkingstick, 44
Dew-drops, Golden, 174
Dieffenbachia, 168, 169
picta, 68
seuine, 169
Di7a l purpurea, 170
Dilly, 297
Dilly, Wild, 296
Dioscorea bulbifera, 171
Dirca palustris, 172
spp., 98
marylandica, 103
medsaeri, 103
occidentalis, 105
Divorce-vine, 432
Dock, 393
Doctor-gum, 302
Dodder, 107, 155
Dodder Family Cuscutaceae


Dog-apple, 56, 57a, 57b
Dog-banana, 56, 57a, 57b
Dogbane, 43
Dogbane Family Apocynaceae
Dog-daisy, 39, 40
Dog-fennel, 39, 40
Dog's-camomile, 39, 40
Dogwood, Jamaica, 345
erosus, 330
I-laEi, 173
pruriens, 314
Dolls-eyes, 6
Dondia linearis, 445
Donkey-eye, 315
Down, Wild, 86
Dragon-root, 49
Drumstick Tree, 311
Dumb Cane, 168, 169
plumieri, 174
greens, 174
Durra, 435
Dutch Clover, 462
Dwarf Poinciana, 80
Dye-root, 262

Easter-lily, 495
Eastern Coral Bean, 180
East Indian Rosebay, 179
andrewsii, 468
echites, 175
ubellata, 175
Eddo, 134, 135
Eggplant, 427
Elder(berry), 398, 399
elder, Poison-, 456
Elephant's-ear, 21, 134, 135,
486, 487
Giant, 21
Purple-stemmed, 487
Elm, 467
Elm Family = Ulmaceae
spp., 98
tora, 104
English Bean, 476
English Ivy, 217
Epibaterium carolinum, 130
Equisetum female, 176
Erechtites hieracifolia, 177
Engeron canadensis, 136
riootrya japonica, 178
coronaria, 179
divaricata, 179
amasisa, 181
dariensis, 181
herbacea, 180
indica, 182
micropteryx, 181
piscipula, 345
poeppigiana, 181
var. orientalis, 182
elongata, 275
racemosa, 275
Eucalypt, 183
Eucalyptus, 183
Eucalyp spp., 183
Eucharisgrandiflora, 184
Euonus americanus, 185
perfoliatum, 186
roanensis, 187
rugosum, 187
urticaefolium, 187
spp., 188
cotinifolia, 189
heterophylla, 358, 359, 360

hirta, 115
Ipecacuanhae, 453
lactea, 190
lactea var. cristata, 190
muIII, 191
plerrima, 192
splendens, 191
tirucalli, 193
Everlasting Pea, 269, 270
Everlasting Thorn, 378
Exogonium spp., 242

esculentum, 194
fagopyrum, 194
sagittatum, 194
Fagus grandifolia, 195
Fairy-lily, 495, 496, 497
Fall Poison, 187
False-banana, 56, 57a, 57b
False-cactus, 190
False Hellebore, 474
False-indigo, 65
False Jessamine, 201, 202
False Poinciana, 408, 412
False Sago Palm, 156, 157
False Sycamore, 299
False White Cedar, 299, 452
False-willow, 62
Fatsia paprifera, 450
Fava Bean, 476
Fern Family = Polypodiaceae
Fern-palm, 156
Feterita, 435
Fetid Sterculia, 443
Fetter-bush, 273, 274, 275
spp., 196
carica, 197
pumia, 198
Fiddler's Spurge, 359
Fiery Thorn, 378
Fig, 196, 197
Fig, Creeping, 198
Fig Family = Moraceae
Fig Tree, 196, 197
Figwort Family
= Scrophulariaceae
Finger-rot, 129
Firecracker-plant, 9
Firethorn, 378
Fireweed, 177
Fire-wheel, 200
Fish-fuddle, 345
Fish-poison Tree, 345
Fishtail Palm, 94, 95
Flame Flower Vine, Mexican, 406
Florida Arrowroot, 490
Florida Beargrass, 325, 326
Florida-coffee, 105
Florida Crinum, 142
Florida-holly, 404
Florida Yew, 447
Flowering Crape-myrtle, 264
Flower-fence, 80
Flower-fence, Peacock, 9
Flower-of-Peru, 305
Flux-weed, 235
Flying Saucers, 246
Fly-poison, 500
Four-O'clock, 305
Four-O'clock Family
= Nyctaginaceae
Foxglove, 170
Frangipani, 355, 356
Fraxinus spp., 199
French-jasmine, 86
Fringe-tree, 118
Fumitory Family = Fumariaceae

Gaillardia, 200
Gaillardia spp., 200
Gallego, 363
Garcinia Family = Guttiferae
Garden Balsam, 237
Garden Huckleberry, 426
Garden Hydrangea, 229
Garden Rue, 394
Garget, 341, 342
Garlic (Wild or Cult.), 20
Garlic Guinea Hen Weed, 336
Garlic Vine, 375
rankii, 201
sempervirens, 202
Gemmingia chinensis, 67
Geranium-leaf Aralia, 362
Giant Elephant's-ear, 21
Giant Milkweed, 85, 86
Ginkgo, 203
Ginko biloba, 203
inkgo Family = Ginkgoaceae
Ginseng Family = Araliaceae
Gladiolus, 204
Gladiolus spp., 204
Glasswort, 395, 396
maculata, 205
septum, 205
Gloriosa Lily, 206, 207
rothschildiana, 206
superba, 207
Glory Lily, 206, 207
Glottidium vesicarium, 414
orTibunda, 481
frutescens, 482
sinensis, 484
Goat's-foot Morning-glory, 245
Goat's-rue, 448
Goat-weed, 234
Gold-cup, 382
Golden-cup, 416, 417, 418, 419
Golden Dewdrops, 174
Golden Shower, 102
Goniostachyum spp., 266
Goosefoot, 116
Goosefoot Family
barbadense, 208
herbaceum, 209
hirsutum, 209
mexicanum, 209
Graceful Nightshade, 425
Grape Family = Vitaceae
Grapefruit, 123
Grass, 89
Grass Family = Gramineae
Graveyard Flower, 355, 356
Gray-beard, 230
Gray Nicker, 77
Greater Periwinkle, 477
Green Amaranth, 22
Green-dragon, 49
banksii, 210
robusta, 211
Ground Cherry, 340
Ground Ivy, 306
Ground-lemon, 357
Groundsel, 405
Groundsel-tree, 64
Guaiacum officinale, 212
Guamuchi 348
Guanabana, 36b
Guaymochil, 348
bonduc, 76
crista, 77
Guiloylei Polyscias, 363
Guinea Hen Weed, 336
Gum, 183
Gumbo, 221
Gum-tree, 183
Gyrotheca tinctoria, 262

INDEX count. )

spp. .213
coccineus, 214
multiflorus, 215
Hairy Indigo, 240
Hairy Thorn-apple, 161
Harland's Box(wood), 73
Harlequin, 139
Heart's-a-bustin', 185
heath, Climbing-, 343
Heath Family = Ericaceae
Heavenly Blue Morning-glory, 246
canariensis, 216
helix, 217
quinquefolia, 333
Hedge-apple, 290
He-huckleberry, 287
amarum, 218
autumnale, 219
tenuifolium, 218
Heliotrope, 220
Heliotropium spp., 220
Hellebore, 474
Hellebore, False, 474
Helonias angustifolia, 498
hemlock, Water-, 120, 121
Hemp, 89
Hemp Family = Cannabaceae
Indian, 43, 89
Sisal, 10
Henbit, 265
Hercules'-club, 44
spp., 98
alata, 99
Hi iscus esculentus, 221
Hippeastrum vittatum, 222
Hippomane mancella, 223
Hog-plum, 488
Hogweed, 136
Hogwort Croton, 150
halepense, 436
sorghum, 435
Hold-back, 76, 77
Hollowstalk, 271
Holly, 236
Holly Family
= Aquifoliaceae
holly, Florida-, 404
Honey Mangrove, 61
Honeysuckle, 281, 282, 283
Honeysuckle Family
= Caprifoliaceae
Horse-apple, 290
Horse Bean, 476
Horse-chestnut, 9
Horse-chestnut Family
= Hippocastanaceae
Horse-nettle, 423
Horse-nettle, White, 424
Horse Purslane, 457
Horseradish Tree, 311
Horsetail, 176
Horsetail Family
= Equisetaceae
Horsetail Milkweed, 55
Horseweed, 136
australis, 224
carnosa, 224
Hua~yiiuiTl, 348
Huckleberry, Garden, 426
Hunter's-robe, 384
Hura crepitans, 225
Husi-tomato, 340
Hyacinth, 226
Hyacinth Bean, 173
Hyacinthus orientalis, 226
Hydrangea, 227, 228, 229, 230
spp., 227
arborescens, 228
macrophylla, 229
quercifolia, 230

spp., 231
americana, 232
littoralis, 232
spp., 233
perforatum, 234

Ichthyomethia piscipula, 345
Ilex spp., 236
Imantophyllum miniatum, 126
Impatiens spp., 237
Indian-bean, 108
Indian-cherry, 386
Indian-cigar, 108
Indian-clover, 301
Indian Corn, 493
Indian Hemp, 89
Indian-hemp, 43
Indian Laburnum, 102
Indian-licorice, 1
Indian Lilac Tree, 299
Indian-pink, 440
Indian-poke, 474
Indian Spurge-tree, 193
Indian Tobacco, 278
Indian-turnip, 50
Indigo, 238, 239, 240, 241
Indigo, Creeping, 239
indigo, False-, 65
Hairy, 240
Trailing, 239
Wild, 65, 238, 239, 240, 241
spp., 238
anil, 241
eniecaphylla, 239
hirsuta, 240
suffruticosa, 241
Inga dulcis, 348
nkberry, 41, 342, 390
Inoxalis spp., 329
Ipecac, American, 453
Ipecac-spurge, 453
Ipecac, Wild, 453
spp., 242
alba, 243
batatas, 244
bona-nox, 243
pes-caprae, 245
rubrocaerulea, 246
sidaefolia, 466
tricolor, 246
violacea, 246
violacea var. alba, 246
Iris Family = Iridaceae
spp., 247
versicolor, 247
Irish Potato, 431
Ironwood, 183
Ismene spp., 231
7 217, 261
Algerian, 216
American, 333
English, 217
Ground, 306
Ivy-bush, 261
Ixia chinensis, 67

Jack-in-the-Pulpit', 50
JAcquinia spp;, 248
Jamaica-apple, 37
Jamaica Dogwood, 345
Jamestown-weed, 162
Japanese Box(wood), 74
Japanese Honeysuckle, 282
Japanese Plum, 178
Japanese Wisteria, 481

Japan Wood-oil Tree, 13
Jaquinia spp., 248
jasmine, French-, 86
spp., 249
curcas, 250
gossypifolia, 251
hastata, 252
integerrima, 252
manihot, 295
multifida, 253
panduriolia, 252
podagrica, 254
stimulosa, 129
Jequirity Bean, 1
Jerusalem-cherry, 429
Day, 111
Night-blooming, 112
Willow-leaved, 113
Yellow, 201, 202
Jew-bush, 334
Jewel-weed, 237
Jimsonweed, 162
Joewood, 248
Joewood Family
= Theophrastaceae
Johnson Grass, 436
Jointed Charlock, 383
Jonquil, 317
Juglans nigra, 255
Jumbe Bean, 272
Juniper, 256, 257, 258
spp., 256
silicicola, 258
virginiana, 257

Kafir, 435
Kafir-lily, 126
Kalanchoe pinnata, 259
hirsuta, 260
latifolia, 261
Kalmiella hirsuta, 260
Kamani, 84
Kaoliang, 435
Kassod-tree, 106
Kentucky Wisteria, 483
Key Lime, 123
Kittie McWanie Weed, 53
Klamath-weed, 234
Knotweed, 361
Konti, 490
Kopsia, 327
floribunda, 481
frutescens, 482
macrostachya, 483
sinensis, 484
Kurum Oil Tree, 365

Lablab, 173
Laburnum, Indian, 102
caroliniana, 262
tinctoria, 262
chinensis, 263
flos-reginae, 264
., 264
regime, 264
speciosa, 264
Lambsquarters, 116
Lamium amplexicaule, 265
Lantana, 266, 267
aculeata, 267
camera, 267
Laportea canadensis, 268
Larkspur, 165, 166
hirstus, 269
usilus, 270


Laurel, 261, 387
Laurel Cherry, 372
Laurel Family Lauraceae
Laurel-leaf, 131
Laurel-leaf Snailseed, 131
Laurel-vine, 107
Laurocerasus carolinianus, 372
Laurus camphora, 122
Lead Tree,272
Leadwort, 352
Leadwort Family
= Plumbaginaceae
Leather-bark, 172
Leatherwood, 172
Lecythis Family
Leek, 20
Lemon, 123
Lenten Tree, 182
Leonotis nepetaefolia, 271
Lepton canadensis, 136
lettuce, Water-, 346
,auca, 272
leucocephala, 272
acuminata, 274
axillaris, 273
platyphyvla, 273
popuifolia, 274
racemosa, 275
Licorice-vine, 1
Life-plant, 259
Lignum-vitae, 212
Ligustrum, 276, 277
spp., 276
vulgare, 277
Lilac Tree,
African, 299
Indian, 299
Amazon-, 184
Arum-, 491, 492
Atamasco-, 295, 296, 297
Barbados-, 222
Belladonna-, 24
Blackberry-, 67
Blood-, 213, 214, 215
Boat-, 388
Calla-, 491, 492
Lily, Climbing, 206, 207
Crinum-, 141, 142, 143, 144
Easter-, 495
Fairy-, 495, 496, 497
Lily Family = Liliaceae
Gloriosa, 206, 207
Glory, 206, 207
Kafir-, 126
Powderpuff, 215
Prairie-, 137, 138
Rain-, 137, 138, 495, 496, 497
Southern Swamp-, 142
Spider-, 231, 232
String-, 141, 142, 143, 144
Swamp-, 141, 142, 143, 144
Zephyr-, 494, 495, 496, 497
Lima Bean (colored varieties), 337
Lime, 123
Lion's-ears, 271
Lion's-tail, 271
Lithococca spp., 220
Live-forever, 259
Lobelia, 278
spp., 278
inflata, 278
Lo~lolly Pine, 344
Lochnera rose, 109
Locust, Black, 391
Locust Plant, 103
Logania Family = Loganiaceae
spp., 279
temulentum, 280

spp., 281
japonica, 282
sempervirens, 283
Loosestrife Family
= Lythraceae
Loquat, 178
Love-apple, 421, 423
Love Bean, 1
Love-vine, 107, 155
Lucky Bean, 1
Lucky Nut, 451
Lumbang Nut, 17
Lupine, 284
spp., 284
cumulicola, 284
diffusus, 284
nuttallii, 284
perenis, 284
villosus, 284
estlanus, 284
carolinianum, 285
halimifolium, 285
esculentum, 286
lycopersicon, 286
ferruginea, 287
ligustrina, 287
lucida, 287
mariana, 288

interifolia, 289
ternifola, 289
Macadamia Nut, 289
Maclura pomifera, 290
MaFagascar eriwinkle, 109
Madagascar Rubbervine, 154
Madder Family = Rubiaceae
Madre, 205
Madre-de-Cacao, 205
Mahogany Family = Meliaceae
Maidenhair Tree, 311
Maidenhair-tree, 203
Maize, 493
Malabar-tree, 193
Malanga, 486, 487
Male-berry, 287
Male-Bluberry, 287
Mallow Family = Malvaceae
angustifolia, 291
sylvestris, 292
Mamey, 293
Mammea americana, 293
Mammee-apple, 293
Manchineel, 223
Mandarin, 123
Mandrake, 357
Mangifera indica, 294
Mango, 294--
Mangrove, Black, 61
esculenta, 295
manihot, 295
utiissima, 295
emarginata, 296
Tiaimiui, 296
zapota, 297
Manffla Tamarind, 348
Manioc, 295
Maple, Ash-leaved, 3
Maple Family = Aceraceae
Mare's-tail, 136
Marijuana, 89
Marriage-vine, 432
Marvel-of-Peru, 305
Mary Jane, 89
Maryland Cassia, 103
Mast-wood, 84
Matrimony Vine, 285

May-apple, 357
Mayweed, 40
Meadow Fern, 328
Meadow-saffron, 133
Mealies, 493
leucadendron, 298
Mqu enervia, 298
Me ant uum
dispersum, 473
virgnicum, 473
Melia azederach, 299
Metilot, White, 300
alba, 300
inica, 301
MespFus japonica, 178
Metopium toxifeim, 302
Mexican Flame Flower Vine, 406
Mexican-tea, 117
Mezereum Family
= Thymelaeaceae
Micropteryx poeppigiana, 181
Midas Tree, 102
Mienie-mienie Indian Bead, 1
Milk-bush, 193, 451
Milkstripe Euphorbia, 190
Milkweed, 52, 85, 86
Milkweed Family
= Asclepiadaceae
Milo, 435
--dulcis, 348
g~I a, 272
pudica, 303
strigillosa, 304
unguis-cati, 350
imuso emarginata, 296
Mintamily = Labiatae
Mirabilis jalapa, 305
Mistletoe, erican, 339
Mistletoe Family
= Loranthaceae
Mock Orange, 364
Mock-orange, 372
caroliniana, 306
multifida, 306
balsamina, 307, 308
charantia, 308
var. abbreviata, 309
cylindrica, 308
zeylanica, 309
Monkey-apple, 128
Monkey Dinner Bell, 225
Monkey-pistol, 225
Monkey-pod, 348
Monks-hood, 5
Monstera deliciosa, 310
Moonflower, 243
Moonseed, Carolina, 130
Moonseed Family
= Menispermaceae
Moonseed, Red-berried, 130
Moon-vine, 243
Moringa Family = Moringaceae
oe era, 311
pterygosperma, 311
Morning-glory, 242, 245, 246
Morning-glory Family
= Convolvulaceae
Morus rubra, 312
Moses-in-a-boat, 388
Moses-in-the-Bullrush, 415
Mother-of-Cocoa, 205
Mottled Spurge, 190
Mountain-ivy, 261
Mountain-laurel, 261
Mountain-plum, 488
deeringiana, 313
pruriens, 314
uta, 314
Mulberry Family = Moraceae


Mulberry, Red, 312
Munchausia speciosa, 264
Mu-oil Tree, 16
Muricauda dracontium, 49
Musquash Root, 120, 121
Mustard Family = Brassicaceae
Mustard, Tansy, 167
Myrtle Family = Myrtaceae

Naked-ladies, 133
Narcissus, 316, 317, 318
spp., 316
jonquilla, 317
oeticus, 318
seudo-narcissus, 319
Necklace-weed, 6
Negundo negundo, 3
eopieris mariana, 288
divaricatum, 179
indicum, 320
oleander, 320
Nero-'sC-own, 179
Nettle, 268, 470, 471
Nettle, Stinging, 470, 471
nettle, Stinging-, 129, 268
New Zealand Spinach, 449
Nicandra physalodes, 321
Gray, 77
Yellow, 76
spp., 322
lauca, 323
tabacum, 324
Night-EIooming Jessamine, 112
Nightsage, 468
Nightshade, 60, 422, 424, 425,
426, 428, 430, 431
Nightshade Family = Solanaceae
Nightshade, Yellow, 468
Nintooa japonica, 282
atopocarpa, 325
brittoniana, 326
Nothopanax guilfoylei, 363

Oak, 380
Oak Family = Fagaceae
Oak-leaf Hydrangea, 230
Ochrosia elliptica, 327
Ochrosia-plum, 327
Okra, 221
Olax Family = Olacaceae
Old Man's Beard, 118
Old-man's-beard, 230
Oleander, 320
Oleander, Yellow, 451
Olive Family = Oleaceae
Ololiuqui, 466
Onion (Wild & Cult.), 20
Onoclea sensibilis, 328
Opium Poppy, 332
Orach, 59
Orange, 123
Bittersweet, 124
Mock, 364
orange, Mock-, 372
Seville, 124
Sour, 124
Trifoliate, 364
Orchid Family = Orchidaceae
Orpine Family = Crassulaceae
Osage-orange, 290
Oxalis spp., 329
Oyster-plant, 388

angulatus, 330
erosus, 330
Padu3s irginiana, 374
Painted-leaf, 358, 359, 360
Paint-root, 262
Palay Rubbervine, 153
Palm Family = Palmae
Palma Christi, 389
Panama Tree, 442
spp., 231
americanum, 232
spp., 331
somniferum, 332
Papaw, 56, 93
Papaya, 93
Papaya Family = Caricaceae
Paradise Poinciana, 78
Para Nut, 69
Pardanthus chinensis, 67
Pardelle, 67
Parrot Flower, 410
Parsley Family = Umbelliferae
Parson-in-the-Pulpit, 50
Parthenocissus quinquefolia, 333
Partridge-pea, 101
Pasture-brake, 376
Pasque-flower, 31
Pawpaw, 56, 57a, 57b
Peach, 370, 373
Peacock Flower-fence, 7
Pea Family = Leguminosae
Pear, 379
Pearly Gates Morning-glory, 246
Pedilanthus tithymaloides, 334
Peiranisia spp., 98
Pencil-tree, 193
Bird, 92
Red, 90
Pepper-tree, Brazilian, 404
Pepper-vine, 26
Peregrina, 252
Periwinkle, 109, 477, 478
Blue, 477
Common, 478
Greater, 477
Madagascar, 109
Persea americana, 335
Persicaria spp., 361
Petiveria alliacea, 366
Pharbitis spp., 22
Phaseolus lunatus, 337
Phenianthus sempervirens, 283
Philodendron, 338
Philodendron, Cut-leaf, 310
spp., 338
pertusum, 310
Phoraden ron
flavescens, 339
serotinum, 339
Photinia Japonica, 178
spp., 340
daturaefolia, 321
peruvianum, 321
physalodes, 321
Physic Nut, 250, 253
americana,' 341
decandra, 341
rigid:, 342
nitida, 287
phillTreifolia, 343
Pigeon-berry, 174, 341, 342,

Pigweed, 22
Pigweed Family = Amaranthaceae
Pimpernel, 28
Red, 28
Scarlet, 28
Pine Family = Pinaceae
Pine, Loblolly, 344
Pineapple, 29
Pineapple Family = Bromeliaceae
Pink Allamanda, 153
Pink Family = Caryophyllaceae
Pink-root, 440
Pink-root, West-Indian, 438
Pinkweed, 361
Pinus taeda, 344
erythrina, 345
isipua, 345
Pistia stratiotes, 346
Pitcf-aple, 128
spp., 347
dulce, 348
guadalupense, 349
kpyene, 349
unguis-cati, 350
Pithecolobium spp., 347
Pleea tenuifolia, 351
Pleurisy Root, 54
Plum, 370
plum, Hog-, 488
Plum, Japanese, 178
Mountain-, 348
Ochrosia-, 327
Tallowwood-, 348
Plumbago, 352, 353
auriculata, 352
caensis, 352
indica 353
scandens, 354
spp., 355
acuminata, 356
acutifolia, 356
lambertiana, 356
lutea, 356
mexicana, 356
rubra, 356
tricolor, 356
Podagrica, 254
Pod-grass, Ridged, 463
Podophyllum peltatum, 357
Poet's Narcissus, 318
Dwarf, 80
False, 408, 412
Paradise, 78
gillesi, 78
pulcherrima, 80
Poinsettia, 192
cyathophora, 358
heterophylla, 359
pinetorum, 360
pulcherrima, 192
Poison Ash, 456
Poison Bean, 408
Poison Elder, 456
Poison Ivy, 455
Poison Oak, 454
Poison Ryegrass, 280
Poison Sumac, 456
Poisonwood, 302
Poke, 341, 342, 474
Pokeberry, 341, 342
Poke, Indian, 474
Pokeweed, 341, 342
Pokeweed Family
= Phytolaccaceae
Pole-cat-tree, 386
Polygonum spp., 361


balfouriana, 362
guilfoylei, 363
Pomegranate, 377
Pomegranate Family = Punicaceae
Poncirus trifoliata, 364
Pond-apple, 36a
Pongam, 365
Pongam Nut, 365
abra, 365
pinnata, 365
Poonga Oil Tree, 365
Poor-man's-weatherglass, 28
Poplar, 366
Poppy, 331, 332
Poppy, Carnation, 332
Poppy Family = Papaveraceae
Poppy, Opium, 332
poppy, Prickly-, 47, 48
Poppy, White, 332
Populus spp., 366
Portuaca oleracea, 367
Pot, 89-
Potato, 431
potato, Air-, 171
Irish, 431
Sweet, 244
White, 431
Pothos, 384
aureus, 384
ertusa, 310
Pow.euff-lily, 215
Prairie-lily, 137, 138
Prayer Bean, 1
Precatory Bean, 1
Precatory Pea, 1
Prickly-ash, 44
Prickly-elder, 44
White, 47
Mexican, 48
Yellow, 48
Pride-of-Barbados, 80
Pride-of-India, 299
Primrose, 368, 369
Primrose Family = Primulaceae
Primrose, Top, 369
spp., 368
obconica, 369
PrTivet2T76, 277
Protea Family = Proteaceae
Prune, 370
spp., 370
armeniaca, 371
caroliniana, 372
persica, 373
serotina, 374
Psedera quinqueflia, 333
Pse alyma alliaceum, 375
Pseudocassia spp., 98
Pseudodatura spp., 158
Psilorhegma spp., 98
auilinum, 376
1iTusculum, 376
pseudocaudatum, 376
aquilina, 376
caudata, 376
latiuscula, 376
pucoon, Red-, 400
Pudding-pipe Tree, 102
Pulse Family = Leguminosae
Pummelo, 123
Puncture-weed, 458
Punica granatum, 377
Purge Nut, 250
Purge-nut, 488
Purging Cassia, 102
Purple Allamanda, 19, 153, 154
Purple Queen, 415

Purple Rattlebox, 412
Purple Sesban, 412
Purple Sesbania, 412
Elephant's-ear, 487
Purslane, 367
Purslane, Horse, 457
Purslane Family
= Portulacaceae
Purslane, Sea, 457
Pusley, 367
Pussley, 367
Pyracantha coccinea, 378

communis, 379
malus- 292

Quamoclit spp., 242
Quassia Family
= Simaroubaceae
Queen Palm, 46
Queen's Crape-myrtle, 264
Queen's Delight, 444
Queensland Nut, 289
Queensland Umbrella Tree, 72
Queen's Root, 444
Quercus spp., 380
uck tick, 205
Quisqualis indica, 381


Rabbitfood, 271
Rabbit's-pea, 448
Radish, Wild, 383
Ragweed, 25
Ragwort, 405
Railroad-vine, 245
Rain-lily, 137, 138, 495, 496,
Rangoon Creeper, 381
Ranunculus, 382
Raphanus raphanistrum, 383
Rap op hra area, J84
Rattan, 68
Rattlebox, 145, 146, 147, 148,
408, 412
Rattlebush, 408, 412
Red-berried Moonseed, 130
Red-bird Cactus, 334
Red Buckeye, 9
Red Cedar, 257, 258
Red Clover, 461
Red Gum, 183
Red-head, 53
Red Moonseed, 130
Red Mulberry, 312
Red Pepper, 90
Red Pimpernel, 28
Red-pucoon, 400
Red-root, 262
Red Sage, 267
Red Sandalwood, 7
Red Spurge, 188
Red-top, 53
Reefer, 89
biflora, 385
corallcola, 32
Rhamnus caroliniana, 386
Rhododendron spp., 387
quercifolia, 454
radicans, 455
toxicodendron, 454
vernix, 456
Rice-paper Plant,.,450
spp., 491
,africana, 492

Ricinus communis, 389
Riged Pod-grass, 463
Ringworm Cassia, 99
Rivea corymbosa, 466
Rivinahumilis, 390
Rob-inia ap o-acacia, 391
RocetLarkspur, 166
Rosary Pea, 1
Rosebay, East Indian, 179
Rose Family = Rosaceae
Rose-of-India, 264
Rouge-plant, 390
Rubber Tree, 196
Rubbervine, 153, 154, 175, 385
Rudbeckia hirta, 392

Rue Family = Rutaceae
Rum Cherry, 374
spp., 393
crispus, 393
astatulus, 393
Running-myrtle, 477, 478
Rush-featherling, 351
Rushfoil, 151, 152
Russian-thistle, 397
Ruta graveolens, 394
Ryegrass, 279, 280


Sabina silicicola, 258
saffon, Meadow-, 133
Red, 267
Wild, 266, 267
Yellow, 267
Sago Cycas, 157
Sago Palm, False, 156, 157
St. Agnes'-feather, 498
St. Elmos'-feather, 500
St. John's-wort, 233, 234, 235
St. Peter's-wort, 233
ambiua, 396
eovii, 395
mucronata, 395
perenn, 396
v1rginica, 396
Salsola kali, 397
Salt-bush, 59, 61
Saltwort, 66, 397
Saltwort Family = Batidaceae
canadensis, 398
simpsonii, 399
Samphre, 395, 396
Sandalwood, Red, 7
Sandbox Tree, 225
Sanguinaria canadensis, 400
Santa Maria Tree, 83
marginatus, 401
saponara, 402
sebiferum, 403
sylvaticum, 444
Sapodilla, 97
Sapodilla Family = Sapotaceae
Sapodilla, Wild, 296
Sapote Family = Sapotaceae
White, 96
Woolly-leaved White, 97
Satsuma, 123
Savin, 447
Saxifrage Family
= Saxifragaceae
Scarlet Buckeye, 9
Scarlet Milkweed, 53
Scarlet Pimpernel, 28
eSchefflera, 72
*Schefflera actinophylla, 72
'.Schinus terebinthifolius, 404
'Schobera spp,..220


spp., 98
siamea, 106
Scindapus aureus, 384
Scoke, 341,32-
Scouring-rush, 176
Scouring-rush Family
= Equisetaceae
Sea-blite, 445
Sea-island Cotton, 208
Sea Purslane, 457
Seminole Bead, 1
Seminole Bread, 490
spp., 405
confusus, 406
gablus, 407
lobatus, 407
American, 103
Christmas, 100
Coffee, 105
Sensitive Fern, 328
Sensitive-plant, 303
Sesban, 410, 411, 412
emerus, 409
exaltata, 411
cavanillessii, 408
drummondii, 408
emerus, 409
exaltata, 411
grandifora, 410
macrocarpa, 411
platycarpa, 414
puThiea, 412
sercea, 413
vesicaria, 414
Setcreasea purpurea, 415
Seven-bark, 22, 229, 230
Seville Orange, 124
Shallu, 433
Sheep Sorrel, 393
Shepherd's-weatherglass, 28
Shoofly-plant, 321
Shower, 98
Golden, 102
Siamese, 106
Shower-of-gold, 102
Shrub, 87
Siamese Shower, 106
Sicklepod, 104
Sieva Bean, 337
Silk-oak, 210, 211
Silk-oak Family = Proteaceae
Silk-vine Family
= Periplocaceae
Silver-leaf, 444
Silverleaf Nightshade, 424
Silverling, 62, 63, 64
Singletary Pea, 269, 270
Sisal, 10
Sisal-hemp, 10
Sky-flower, 174
Slipper-flower, 334
Smartweed, 361
Smoking-bean, 108
Smooth Macadamia Nut, 289
Snailseed, 130, 131
Snakeroot, 51
Snakeroot, Black, 498
Snakeroot, White, 187
Snakeweed, 180
Snapweed, 237
Sneezeweed, 218, 219
Soapberry, 401, 402
Soapberry Family = Sapindaceae
Soda-apple, 421
grandiflora, 416
guttata, 17
hartwegii, 419
oni ora, 418
nitida, 419

spp., 420
aculeatissimum, 421
americanum, 422
carolinense, 423
elaeagnifolium, 424
rac 425
intrusum, 426
melonena, 427
nigrum, 428
pseudo-capsicum, 429
seaforthianum, 430
tuberosum, 431
wendlandii, 432
Sorgho, 435
Sorghum, 435
almm, 434
bicolor, 435
halepense, 436
verticilliflorum, 437
vulgare, 435
Sorgo, 435
Sorrel, 393
Sorrel, Wood, 329
Sour-clover, 301
Sour Orange, 124
Sour-sop, 36b
Sour Sweet-clover, 301
Southern Crab-apple, 291
Southern Red Cedar, 258
Southern Swamp Crinum, 142
Southern Swamp-lily, 142
Spearwort, 382
Spicebush, 87
Spider-lily, 231, 232
ant e mia, 438
gentianoides, 439
marylandica, 440
Spinach, 441
Spinach, New Zealand, 449
Spinach, Wild, 116
Spinacia oleracea, 441
Spoon-wood, 261
Spotted-cowbane, 120, 121
Spurge, 114, 115, 188
Spurge Family = Euphorbiaceae
spurge, Ipecac-, 453
Spurge, Mottled, 190
Spurge-nettle, 129
Spurge, Red, 189
Spurge-tree, African, 193
Staff-tree Family =
= Celastraceae
Stagger-bush, 287, 288
Stagger-grass, 495, 496, 497
Staggerweed, 165, 166
apetala, 442
foetida, 443
sebifera, 403
sylvatica, 444
Stinging Nettle, 470, 471
Stinging-nettle, 129, 268
Stinkweed, 117
deeringianum, 313
pruritum, 314
Stramonium spp., 158
Strangle-weed, 107, 155
Strawberry-bush, 185
Strawberry-shrub, 87
String-lily, 141
Stringybark, 183
Styptic-weed, 105
Suaeda linearis, 445
Sudan Grass, 435
Sugar-apple, 35, 38
Sugar Sorghum, 435
Sultana, 237
sumac, Coral-, 302
Sumac, Poison, 456
Sumac, Swamp, 456
Summer Skies, 246

Sunflower Family = Compositae
Supple-jack, 68
Swamp-lily, 141
Swamp Sumac, 456
Swamp-wood, 172
Swartzia guttata, 417
Swedish Clover, 459
Sweet Bark, 102
Sweet-clover, Sour, 301
Sweet-clover, White, 300
Sweet Potato, 244
Sweet-shrub, 87
Sweet-sop, 38
Sweet Sorghum, 435
Swiss Chard, 70
Sycamore, False, 299

coronaria, 179
divaricata, 179
Tallow Tree, 365
Tallow-tree, 403
Tallowwood-plum. 488
Tamarind, Manilla, 348
Tamarind, Wild, 272
Tangelo, 123
Tangerine, 123
Tanier, 486, 487
Tansy Mustard, 167
Tan-tan Tree, 272
Tapioca-plant, 295
Taro, 134, 135
spp., 446
floridana, 447
Tecoma radicans, 88
Tiemle Flower, 355, 356
Tephrosia, 448
Tephrosia virginiana, 448
Tetragonia expansa, 449
Tetrapanax papyriferus, 450
Texas Umbrella Tree, 299
Theophrastus Family
= Theophrastaceae
neriifolia, 451
peruviana, 451
Thimbleweed, 31
Thistle-root, 48
thistle, Yellow-, 48
Thorn-apple, 162
Thorn-apple, Hairy, 161
Thorn, Everlasting, 378
Thorn, Fiery, 378
Thoroughwort, 186, 187
Three-seeded Mercury, 2
Thuja occidentalis, 452
Thunerwood, 45
Tiaridium spp., 220
Tiger-apple, 451
Tiger's Claw, 182
Tithymalopsis ipecacuanhae, 453
Tobacco, 324
Tobacco Tree, 323
Toddy Fishtail Palm, 95
Tomato, 286
Toothache-bush, 44
Toothache-tree, 44
Top Primrose, 369
Touch-me-not, 237
Touch-me-not Family
= Balsaminaceae
quercifolium, 454
radicans, 455
toxicodendron, 454
vernix, 456
Toxyln pomiferum, 290
Trachyanthus angustifolia, 498
Tradescantia discolor, 388
Trailing Indigo, 239
Traucaulon spp., 361
Tread-softly, 129
Tree-of-Heaven, 12


Tree Tobacco, 323
Triadica sebifera, 403
monogyna, 457
portulacastrum, 457
Tribulus terrestris, 458
TrioTiate Orange, 364
hvbridum, 459
incarnatum, 460
pratense, 461
reens, 462
Tr igochin striata, 463
Trillium spp., 64
Trumpet-creeper, 88
Trumpet Flower, 416, 417, 418,
Trumpet-flower, 451
Trumpet Honeysuckle, 283
Tufted Fishtail Palm, 94
Tulip, 465
Tulipa spp., 465
T.ibleweed, 22
Tung-oil Tree, 14
Tung Tree, 14
Turbina corymbosa 466
turnip, Indian-, 50

Ulmus spp., 467
Umbrella-leaf, 357
Umbrella Tree, 299
Umbrella Tree, Queensland, 72
Upland Cotton, 209
lutea 468
lutea var. lutes, 468
.lutea var. sericea, 469
pnetorum, 469
suberecta, 468
chaaedryoides, 470
dioica, 470, 471
urens, 471
Urtic-strum divaricatum, 268

Vanilla, 472
Vanilla planifolia 472
Varebell, 474
Vegetable Hummingbird, 410
Vegetable Tallow, 403
Velvet-bean, 313
in-ermedium, 474
virginicum, 473
woodii, 474
Verbena iFamily Verbenaceae
Vetch, 475
Vetchling, 269, 270
spp., 475
faba, 476
Umaor, 477
minor, 478
rose, 109
Vioet Allamanda, 19
Virginia Creeper, 333
Virgin's-bower, 125
Vitex, 479
trifoliata, 479
trifoliata var.
var. variegata, 479
hEderacea, 333
quinquefolia, 333

Wait-a-bit-vine, 76, 77
Wakerobin, 464
Wallia nigra, 255
Walnut, Black, 255
Walnut Family = Juglandaceae
Wandering-Jew Family
= Commelinaceae
Water-ash, 3
Water-hemlock, 120, 121
Water-lettuce, 346
Wax-flower Plant, 179
Wax Plant, 224
Weatherglass, Poor-man's-, 28
Weatherglass, Shepherd's-, 28
Weather-vine, 1
Wedding Bells, 246
Weed, 89
West Indian Pink-root, 438
White Cedar, 299
White Cedar, False, 299, 452
White Clover, 462
White Horse-nettle, 424
White Melilot, 300
White.Poppy, 332
White Potato, 431
White Sapote, 96
White Sapote, Woolly-leaved, 97
White Snakeroot, 187
White Sweet-clover, 300
Whorled Milkweed, 55
Wicky, 260
Wicopy, 172
Wild Allamanda, 468, 469
Wild Balsam-pear, 309
Wild Black Cherry, 374
Wild-coffee, 105
Wild Cotton, 86, 209
Wild Dilly, 296
Wild Down, 86
Wild Indigo, 238, 241
Wild-indigo, 65
Wild Ipecac, 453
Wild Radish, 383
Wild Sage, 266, 267
Wild Sapodilla, 296
Wild Senna, 103
Wild Sieva Bean, 337
Wild Spinach, 116
Wild Tamarind, 272
Wild Taro, 134, 135
Wild-tomato, 423
Wild Winter Pea, 269
willow, False-, 62
Willow Family = Salicaceae
Willow-leaved Jessamine, 113
Wind-flower, 31
Windsor Bean, 476
Wine Palm, 95
Wisteria, 480, 481, 482, 483
spp., 480
chinensis, 484
i6rlE-u-i-a, 481
frutescens, 482
var. macrostachya, 483
macrostacha, 483
sinensis, 484
Woe-vine, 107, 155
Wolfbane, 5
Wonderberry, 426
Woodbine, 281, 282, 283, 333
Wood-nettle, 268
Wood-oil Tree, Japan, 13
Wood Sorrel, 329
Wood Sorrel Family
Woolly Croton, 150
Woolly-leaved White Sapote, 97
Worm-grass, 440
Wormseed, 117

Xanthium spp., 485
spp., 486, 487
sagittifolium, 486
violaceum, 487
Xanthoxalis, 329
Ximenia americana, 488
feruginea, 287
fruticosa, 287

Yam-bean, 330
Yam Family = Dioscoreaceae
Yautia, 486, 487
Yaw Root, 444
Yellow Allamanda, 18
Yellow Cedar, 452
Yellow Dock, 393
Yellow Jessamine, 201, 202
Yellow Nicker, 76
Yellow Nightshade, 468
Yellow Oleander, 451
Yellow Sage, 267
Yellow-thistle, 48
Yellow-wood, 386
Yew, 446, 447
Yew Family = Taxaceae
Yuca, 295

spp., 489
angustifolia, 490
interifolia, 490
silvicola, 490
umbrosa, 490
spp., 491
aethiopica, 492
albo-maculata, 492
elliottiana, 492
rehmannii, 492
Zea mays, 493
spp., 494
atamasco, 495
simpsonii, 496
treatiae, 497
Zephyr-lily, 494, 495, 496,
densus, 498
gaberrimus, 499
muscaetoxicus, 500
Zygadenus glaberrimus, 499



(December 1980)


ACER RuBRum L. ACERACEAE Leaves. (NC LP ) This is a common tree of low woods
Red Maple MAPLE FAMILY throughout Florida. Two cases of livestock loss
(cattle and horses) resulting from ingestion of
(C39, K15, fide the leaves are reported from West Virginia. In
Dr. F. Neal, Dept. Florida, a horse tied to Acer rubrum ate its
of Preventive Med- leaves and died. Tests I1Tcatlthat ingestion
icine, Univ. of Fla.) of the fresh or dried leaves by horses will cause
marked intravascular hemolysis (destruction of
red blood cells). Toxicity may be seasonal or
livestock may avoid this plant except under un-
usual circumstances since there are few poison-
ings reported.

ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM L, COMPOSITAE All parts. (NC LP D) All parts contain glycosides and
Milfoil, Yarrow COMPOSITE FAMILY alkaloids apparently of relatively low toxicity.
SThe dried or fresh leaves cause dermatitis and
(H15, H46, K15, irritation of the mucous membranes in sensitized
Kates (1980), individuals. A tea of the flowers is taken for
Mitchell (1979)) colds, fevers, stomach trouble and as a diuretic.
Yet, this tea also has caused dermatitis to some
persons. Ingestion by livestock may cause irri-
tation of the mucous membranes, diarrhea, and
gastrointestinal disturbance, as well as taint
the milk and meat of these animals. It is un-
certain whether this plant caused the death of a
calf in Australia.

Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts,
Cabbage, Charlock, Kale,
Kohlrabi, Mustards, Rape,
Rutabaga, Turnips

(Cote (1944),
Everist (1974), H16,
K15, Kates (1980),
Keeler (1978), M60)

All parts, esp. the seeds, (NC LP ) Although the members of this genus are
contain glycosides, which highly prized for food and flavoring, they may on
by enzymatic reaction form rare occasion cause significant problems. Exces-
isothiocyanates (irritant sive and continuous consumption by humans without
mustard oils) and goitro- a supplementary iodine intake has caused goiter.
genic compounds (incl. L-5- Goitrogenic compounds present in high amounts in
vinyl-2-thiooxazolidone and some of these plants prevent the accumulation of
thiocyanates). inorganic iodine and the production of the thy-
roid hormone.
Poisoning and death of livestock has resul-
ted from the intake of large quantities, either
by purposeful feeding, contamination in hay or
excessive grazing. Brassica napus L., Rape, has
been the primary species to cause poisoning, but
is of little concern in Florida since it is very
rare here. Care should be taken, if any of these
plants are used in feed.
Symptoms vary as to the relative abundance
of the compounds present in the plant. Livestock,
esp. cattle, sheep, swine and horses, are suscep-
tible to goitrogenic chemicals. If iodine defi-
ciency is not corrected, deformed or dead off-
spring and eventually death of the animal may
result. In addition to goitrogenic toxicity,
four forms of rape poisoning have been identified
(see Cote (1944) and K15 for detailed informa-
tion). In the Digestive Syndrome there is marked
gastrointestinal irritation, usually with consti-
pation, although there are rare instances when
diarrhea occurs. The symptoms for this form are
often present in each of the other syndromes also.
Respiratory distress is evident in the Respira-
tory Syndrome. It is believed that this syndrome
may be partially due to a bacterial infection on
the vegetation. In the Nervous Syndrome (or Rape
Blindness) blindness and aimless wandering or
aggression occur. Dark foaming urine, hemolytic
anemia with kidney and liver disturbance are in-
dicative of the Urinary Syndrome.
Rape as forage has been suspected of causing
photosensitization of pigs and other white-
skinned animals.
These cases of poisoning have been of only
sporadic occurrence where the plants have been
used as feed or forage. It is believed that as
long as no more than 10% of the feed or forage is
composed of rapeseed meal or other cruciferous
plants, then toxic effects may be avoided.



BOUISS.EIIA, PAPYRIERL A MORACEAE Pollen. (NC D) The bark of this tree is used in paper
RO ONTIA YRandRA MORACEAE P en. ( cloth making in China and Japan. The tree
(L,) VENT. FIG FAMILY is grown as an ornamental in Florida, but due to
MULBERRY FAMILY its habit of sending up suckers in proliferous
(Mitchell (1979), numbers,it becomes quite weedy. Its pollen,
Wodehouse (1945)) produced from April to July, is suspected to be
a cause of hayfever.

CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS (L,) DC. LEGUMINOSAE Mature seeds with cyanogenic ( C P ) The mature seeds of C. e. and C. a.
Jack Bean Wnder BeaE FMILY forming compounds. All parts contain cyanogenic forming compounds.
Jack Bean; Wonder Bean; PEA FAMILY with growth regulating All parts of these two species con-
Sword Bean (Affleck (1961), proteins, tain various growth regulating pro-

AAVALIA GLA AA Everist (1974), 15,( C LP ) Concanavalin A (Con A) seems to be the
Sword Bean Nat'l. Acad. (1979), chief toxin, causing gastrointestinal
Shone (1961)) disturbance. The young leaves and
CANAVALIA MRITI. A (AuBL,) (N S ) immature pods are used as food in
some areas of the tropics, but only
(AUBL,) THOUARS after detoxification by cooking. The green plant
Beach Bean and pods of C. e. have been used as livestock
feed, but tests in Rhodesia have shown the seeds
to be fatal in amounts greater than 4% of the
animals weight. Symptoms reported are: diarrhea
(resulting from severe gastrointestinal irrita-
tion and inflammation), weakness, inability to
eat or drink, stiffness, dehydration, kidney
irritation and respiratory disturbance. The
edibility of C. m. is unknown. Caution should be
observed with thTs genus!

CHAMAECYPARIS THYfIDES CUPRESSACEAE Foliage with volatile oils. (NC S ) Caution. The toxicity of this species
may be similar to that of Thuja occidentalis (see
(L.) B.S.P, CEDAR FAMILY #452 and this addendum).
Atlantic White-cedar; CYPRESS FAMILY
White Cedar; White Cypress

CORONOPUS nrInvDM (L,) SMITH CRUCIFERAE Whole plant. (N ) This weed is beginning to spread into
Florida. Dairy products are tainted as a result
(Carara didyma Britt.) MUSTARD FAMILY of animals grazing this plant.
(Senebiera didyma (L.) Pers.) (Morton (1978a),
Senebiera pinnatifida DC.) Muenscher (1955))
Swine Cress; Bitter Cress; Carpet
Cress; Wart Cress

CUPRESSUS SPP. CUPRESSACEAE Foliage with volatile oils. ( c ) Caution. The toxicity of this species
may be similar to that of Thuja occidentalis (see
Cypress, incl. Italian Cypress CEDAR FAMILY #452 and this addendum).
and Mexican Cypress (not Bald- CYPRESS FAMILY
cypress, Taxodium)

HflY CARNIQA R. BROWN ASCLEPIADACEAE All parts. ( C PS ) Cuttings thrown into a Florida pasture
are believed to have caused the poisoning and
Wax Plant MILKWEED FAMILY paralysis of cattle. (fide, Dr. G. Edds, Dept. of
Preventive Medicine, University of Florida)

JUNIPERUS SILICICOLA CUPRESSACEAE Foliage with volatile oils. (NC ) Caution. The toxicity of this species
may be similar to that of Thuja occidentalis (see
(SMALL) BAILEY CEDAR FAMILY #452 and this addendum).
(Sabina silicicola Small)
Southern Red-cedar; Juniper

PAEDERIA FOETIDA L. RUBIACEAE Whole plant with a volatile (NC ) This rampant woody vine is known from
"Garlic Vine"; MADDER FAMILY oil composed of at least two India, China, the Philippines and Malaya and is
"Stink Vine" M R F Y alkaloids and an indole. cultivated (as an ornamental!) and spreading in
Stink ine (B55) Florida. The damaged leaves and stem (even the
undamaged plant to some extent) emit a powerful
foetid odor (the indole). The name "chicken's
excrement creeper" is applied to the vine in China.
Nevertheless, the plant is used medicinally for
intestinal complaints, as flavoring for food and
the leaves are used as a vegetable. It is said
that most of the unpleasant odor is driven off by




PERILLA FRUTESCENS BRITT. LABIATAE All parts with an essential (N LP ) This mint is cultivated in some parts
Perilla Mint; Purple Mint Plant MINT FAMILY oil containing perilla of the world for its oils, seeds and as a coloring
ketone. agent, and is spreading into the panhandle of
(Kates (1980), Florida. Grazing of this mint by livestock, esp.
Wilson (1977)) cattle and horses, when it is maturing in late
summer and fall may cause fatal respiratory dis-
turbance resulting from swelling and irritation of
the lungs and the accumulation of fluids. Animals
will exhibit obvious difficulty in breathing and
possibly a nasal discharge and raised temperature.
Very little may be done once symptoms are pro-
nounced, but care should be taken not to excite
the animal and antihistamines, steroids and anti-
biotics may occasionally be helpful.

PLATYCLADUS ORIENTALIS CUPRESSACEAE Foliage with volatile oils. ( C ) Caution. The toxicity of this species
(L,) FRANCO CEDAR FAMILY may be similar to that of Thuja occidentalis (see
(Biota orientalis (L.) Endl.) CYPRESS FAMILY #452 and this addendum).
(Thuja orientalis L.)
Oriental Arborvitae

PODOCARPUS MACROPHYLLUS PODOCARPACEAE Fruit with unknowns. ( C P ) This is one of the more common culti-
(THUNB,) D, DON, PODOCARPUS FAMILY vated trees or shrubs throughout Florida. Its
fruit appears to be two purple berries pressed
Southern Yew; Japanese Yew; (Ellis (1975)) against each other, but actually is a fleshy cone
Buddhist Pine; Podocarpus composed of an aril and a seed. The fruit may be
plentiful for a time in the summer and has no to a
slightly pleasant taste. Children may eat rather
large quantities. Ellis (1975) reports that this
berry-like fruit is responsible for causing gastro-
intestinal irritation dften with nausea, vomiting
and diarrhea, which may be severe. No further
symptoms have been observed. The foliage is also
suspected to have a similar effect (?). Do not
confuse this plant with Taxus spp., The Yew
(#446), a much more dangerous group of plants.

SOPHQRA SECUNDIFLORA LEGUMINOSAE All parts, esp. the seeds, ( CHLP ) This species, native of northern
(ORT.) LAG. EX DC, PEA FAMILY contain quinolizidine alka- Mexico to Texas and New Mexico, is sometimes
loids, at least seven have cultivated as an ornamental tree in Florida. Its
Mescal Bean; Frijolito; (Ellis (1975), H16, been identified with cyti- bright red seeds may also be encountered on neck-
Texas Mountain Laurel Hatfield (1977), sine (sophorine) in greatest laces or dolls. The indians of its native region
K15, Lewis (1977), concentration. Toxicity may used minute amounts of the powdered seeds as a
S21, S55) be due to other constituents medicine and intoxicant with the effects produced
also. being: excitement, delerium, nausea and deep
sleep for 2-3 days. The alkaloids contained in
this plant are extremely toxic. The seeds and/or
foliage have caused the death of humans and live-
stock. Although a whole seed may pass through
the system without harm, even one seed, thoroughly
chewed, is reputed to be sufficient to kill a
child. Symptoms of poisoning proceed from nausea
to vomiting and diarrhea, convulsions, coma and
death due to respiratory failure.
SQPH.RA TOMENTOSA L. LEGUMINOSAE All parts, esp. the seeds, (NE S ) This shrub occurs along the coast of
Silverbush; Yellow Sophora PEA FAMILY contain the quinolizidine Florida from Brevard and Pasco counties southward
alkaloid cytisine (2% in the and in other coastal areas of the tropics and
(S55, W7, Q1) seed), methylcytisine, subtropics. It is used medicinally in some areas,
marine and other alkaloids, but is reputed to be poisonous. Two seeds are
drastically purgative. Since the shrub contains
many of the same compounds present in S. secun-
diflora, its toxicity is likely, and tFe plant
should most definitely be avoided.

SYNADENIUM GRANTII HOOK, F, EUPHORBIACEAE Milky sap in all parts. ( C P D) The milky sap of this plant is a severe
African Milk-bush SPURGE FAMILY irritant to the eyes, mouth and other tender areas
and is an internal poison. Effects are similar to
(Everist (1974), those reported for Euphorbia (see #188-193). It
Morton (1977), is also suspected that a ew particles of the
Morton (1978b)) irritant may vaporize and irritate the eye causing
one to touch their face and eyes with contaminated
hands, spreading the sap. The sap does not readily
wash off with soap and water, washing with alcohol
is necessary.





LOGANIACEAE All parts, esp. the seeds
and flowers, with alkaloids
LOGANIA FAMILY including either or both of
(Bisset (1974a, strychnine and brucine. The
1974b, 1976), fruit pulp contains only
Dastur (1962, 1964), minute amounts of these
Keys (1976), alkaloids.
King (1855), L4,
Morton (1977))

(Bisset (1970,
1971), Dalziel
(1937), U2, W7)

All parts, esp. the seeds
and flowers, contain low
concentrations of
strychnine-like alkaloids.

( CHLPS ) There may be a few of these trees in
cultivation in Florida. Although the fully ripe
fruit pulp is regarded as edible in small amounts,
it should be avoided. The seeds are used medici-
nally in very minute quantities (known as "nux-
vomica"), but they are extremely toxic. Even one
to two of the seeds, powdered, have caused the
death of humans. A whole seed may pass through
the system with no toxic effects. Animals have
also died from the ingestion of the powdered seeds.
The toxic dose for larger animals such as horses
has been from 10-20 powdered seeds and even less
than half of a powdered seed for dogs. Symptoms
of poisoning from the seed progress rapidly, being,
increased perceptions and alertness, muscular
stiffness and twitching, difficulty swallowing,
headache and sometimes dizziness, perspiration,
increased heartbeat and in lethal cases the muscu-
lar spasms increase in intensity into violent con-
vulsions and death by asphyxiation. Other portions
of the plant are expected to have similar effects
when taken in sufficient quantity.
( C S ) This species is encountered occa-
sionally being grown as an ornamental shrub in
Florida. It is native to Africa. The ripe fruit
pulp is generally considered to be edible in small
amounts, but one is well-advised to avoid it, since
there is considerable variation among varieties and
some are reported to be unwholesome. The fruit,
when dried, develops a hard outer shell and may be
used like a calabash gourd. The seeds are reputed
to be toxic, but they are not as toxic as those of
Strchnos nux-vomica. Several seeds may be capable
f causing nausea and vomiting. The seeds, leaves,
root, and stem are used medicinally. The use of
this plant (if at all) should be restricted to that
of an ornamental.

ItJIA OCCIDENTALIS L, CUPRESSACEAE Foliage with volatile oils ( CH ) (See #452) In large doses the volatile
American Arborvitae; CEDAR FAMILY including thujone. oils will usually cause vomiting and generally rid
American Arborvitae; CEDAR FAMILY the system of the toxins. Smaller doses do not
White Cedar CYPRESS FAMILY produce this reaction and taken over a period of
(Brauch (1932), time the toxins will accumulate and may cause
H15, L4, M60, 08, severe poisoning or even death. The death of a
Wll) 24 year old woman who was three months pregnant is
attributed to the ingestion of a tea (and
douching?) from this plant over a period of two to
three weeks in order to bring about abortion.

Strychnine Tree; Nux-Vomica

Natal-orange; Kaffir-orange


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(December 1980)