Citation
Cat family

Material Information

Title:
Cat family
Series Title:
Prang's natural history series for children
Creator:
Calkins, Norman A ( Norman Allison ), 1822-1895
Diaz, Abby Morton, 1821-1904
L. Prang & Company ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
Boston
Publisher:
L. Prang and Company
Manufacturer:
Welch, Bigelow, & Co.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
18 p., [4] leaves of plates : ill. ; 25 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Cats -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Felidae -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1878 ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1878 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1878
Genre:
Juvenile literature ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements ( rbgenr )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Paper covers.
General Note:
Publisher's advertisement on back cover.
Funding:
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
Statement of Responsibility:
classification by Norman A. Calkins and text by Mrs. A.M. Diaz.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
022972678 ( ALEPH )
22975019 ( OCLC )
AHJ7436 ( NOTIS )

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Full Text






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PRANG’S

NATURAL HISTORY SERIES

FOR CHILDREN.

CAT -FAMILY.

CLASSIFICATION

BOSTON:
L, PRANG AND COMPANY.
1878.





Corrnron.
By L. PRANG & CO.
1877.









PRANG’S
NATURAL HISTORY SERIES FOR CHILDREN.

THE CAT

THE OAT.

‘As Cousin Kate and Tiptoes and
Nannie and Fred sat looking at the
“ pussy-cat picture,” as Tiptoes called
it, Uncle Willie came in, bringing
Nannie’s gray kitty. Unele Willie
wore his flowered dressing-wown, his
tasselled cap, and a long red scarf
around his waist.

“Tadies and gentlemen,” said he,
“Tama brave and valiant showman,
and I have come to show you one of
the most remarkable and interesting
animals in the world. Its English
name is Cat, but in China it is called
the ‘Miao.’ To begin with, the cat!
is a beautiful animal. Look, gentle-
men and ladies, at her richly shaded
and silky fur; her slender limbs ; her
tail, tapering smoothly to a point!
How easily she bends her body! How
lightly she springs! And how lightly
she falls!” added Uncle Willie, as
kitty sprang down to chase 4 rolling
cotton-spool. “ If Tiptoes were lying
on the floor, playing with a spool, he:
could not move his neck and legs and.
arms in that graceful way.

“Tn the next place, the cat is a
wonderful animal. Kitty jumped from
a place five times her own height. If
‘Tiptoes were to jump from a place five
times his own height, —the chamber



FAMILY.

window, for instance, —he would
probably break his bones. But the
cat is light for her size,and the cat is
flexible, that is, her body bends easily.
Tt bends easily because the skin is
placed loosely upon it, and because the
joints of the backbone are so formed
that this backbone can be curved in
any direction. Another reason why
the cat falls lightly is that her feet
are clastic. Tndin-rubber is clastic,
you know. An india-rubber ball does
not fall with a thump, it touches and
bounds back. If the bottoms of our
foot were provided with thick cushions
made of india-rubber and yelvet, and
if we were sure of coming down upon
our toes, we might dare to jump from
a high window, especially if we had
four such feet. The ent, having elas-
tie cushions on her feet, and four
such feet, and the faculty of alighting
upon her toes, and a loose skin, and
a light, flexible body, is wonderfully
contrived for jumping from high
places.

© L see that one of my hearers, Fred
by name, is looking at certain red
seratches upon his hand. He is the
same one who yesterday morning was
inquiring how eats— which, as he truly
said, are always trotting about— can
keep their claws so sharp, ‘That is





THE CAT

another of the wonders of this won-
derful animal. Its claws are retra
tile. Retract means, ‘to draw back.
Pussy’s claws are called retractile be-
cause they ean be drawn back. Come
here, pussy, and show your paws.""

Unele Willie stroked pussy’s fur,
then took her in his arms and held
up her paw, and showed how the claw
could be drawn back into its shtath,
or pushed out from it.

We ean sce this very plainly in
the picture,” said Cousin Kate. “In
the lower left-hand corner the claw is
seen, thrust out, Tn the right-hand
corner it is drawn in.”

If the claws could not be drawn
in,” said Uncle Willie, * their points
would soon become dulled by striking
upon the ground and floor, for cats

usually step on the front part of the

foot. Why need the claws of a cat
be sharp? , she needs them sharp
to fight with, in case she is attacked.
She needs them sharp for clutching!
mice, also for holding on when she
climbs a tree for birds. A eat ought
not to catch birds, you think; but
she thinks they were made for “her!
to eat. We have looked, you
at the Birds of Prey. The eat is born
a Benst of Prey; born to prey upon
other animals. She creeps upon them
slyly, she springs upon them, she
devonrs them,

“Think how well fitted is the eat
for all this.
in she can step very softly on those
cushioned feet, and move without be-
ing heard. Her pointed cars, set!
0 as to open forward, cateh every
sound the creature makes. She has

OW,

FAMILY.

teoth are long and sharp for tearing

1 pieces, and she has strong jaws
for crushing the bones. Did yon
never notice the size of a cat's
month 2”

“Tt reaches all the way round her
face," said Fred.

“Look at the large drawing,
left-hand corner,” said Cousi
+ and you will see its shape more p
ly, and see how the upper and lower
jaws are joined together. ‘The front
teoth are sharp and pointed, for tear-
ing meatfrom bones. You know what
little fine teeth kitty has in front.
‘Phe back teeth are curiously shaped.
Ours, you know, are thick and solid,
for grinding food. A cat's back teeth
are thin and sharp. ‘The upper and
under ones, in coming together, work
like scissors-blades, and so cut even
the hardest meat into fine pieces.”

‘A cat could not grind her food
with her teeth as we do, even if she had
grinders,” said Uncle Willie. Our
lower jaw moves sideways, but hers
can move only up and down,”

“Does she smell with her smell-
ers?” asked Nannie,

« She smells with her smeller,” said
Uncle Willio, “ but her smeller is her
nose. ‘These stiff hairs standing out
on each side of her face are ferlers.
‘These make another wonder of my
wonderful animal. “You cannot imay-
ine how delicate are these hairs. Each

With her claws drawn one has at its root fonr or five nerves

Which go to the brain and let the eat
know when she is near an object, and
what kind of an object it is. She
can judge by these if a hole or ereviee
is wide enough for her body to pass



powerful muscles for springing. Her

through.





THE Cat

I see,” said Fred. “ The body is
so much wider than the head and
neck, that without those feelers the
cat might creep part way into a hole
and find herself wedged in and have
to pull back.”

“And when she is stealing upon
her prey,” said Unele Willie, “ they
help her to find a way through whieh
she ean pass without brushing against
anything thet would make a noise.”

* And in a very dark night,” said
Cousin Kate, * these delicate feelers
inust help her to feel her way around a
room without running against things.

“But I thought eats could see in
the dark,” said Pred.

“They could not see in a totally
dark place,” said Unele Willie, but
they are not often in such places.
Our darkest nights haye some rays!
of light; and here I come to another
of the wonders of my wonderful ani-|
mal. Please look me straight in the
eye. That little dark spot
tre is the seeing part. If that were
taken ont, T could not see at all, In
pussy's eye—where is she? Jumped
out of the window? Never mind;
just see above the eat in your pic-
ture the two drawings of a cat's
eye. The right-hand one of those
drawings shows the eye as it appears

the daytime, when light is plenty.
The spot in the centre, the seeing
spot, is narrow, hardly more than a
straight mark, up and down, At

ht, when rays of light: are searee,
this spot becomes very large, that it
may take in as many as possible of
these rays. ‘The left-hand draw
shows you the spot grown large and
round.”



FAMILY,

“ What is that fanny thing in the
corner?” asked Nannie,

“That is the magnified pieture of a
cat’s tongue,” said Uncle Willie. “It
shows yon the little horny points
which make it rough; you see they
point backwards.
hand pussy draws her tongue in, and
so draws these points, point first,
across your skin. By having a rough
tongue, the eat ean lap up milk fast,
and can setape hones clean of their
meat. It is not only a lapper and
a scraper, but a comber, When she
licks herself, this rough tongue, with
its horny points, acts as a sort of
curry-comb, and combs her fur straight
and smooth, Let me see; what else
shall Ttell you of my wonderful ani-
mal”

* Please tell why she sleeps so much
in the daytime,” said Nannie.

* Because she is awake so much in
the night,” said Unele Willie. “This
isa part of the wild whieh is left in
her. Wild beasts of prey always
prowl about at night to eateh their
prey, and no matter how much a cat
is petted, she is always fond of night-
prowling.”

“T should like to know,” said Fred,
“how long it is since eats began to
live in people's houses,”

“Nobody knows,” said Uncle Wi

But we know that the ancient Egyp-
tians thought so highly of the eat
that they made her one of their sacred
animals. For this reason, if an army
coming to fight with them placed eats
along its front, they dared not attack
those front ranks, lest the eats should
be injured.”

“In those very ancient times,” said





a. THE CA’
Consin Kate, # rats and mice and other
vermin were more plenty than they are
in our times, and any animal which
would destroy them was looked upon
as a sort of protector of the people.
‘There is the story of Whittington, you
know, which tells how he sent away
his cat in a vessel, and how the vessel
went toa country where rats and mice
were so abundant that they overran
the king’s dinner-table, and how the
king paid a great deal of money for
Whittington’s Cat.

“At one time, in England, the
price of a kitten was fixed by law:
0 much before it could see; so much
after it could see and before it had
caught © mouse; and so much after

had caught a mouse, I have read
that in Holland the people make a
business of raising cats in order to
sell their skins, and they keep the
cats on fish, because a fish diet im-
proves the fur.”

“Tf all the cats knew this they all
would want to go to Holland,” said
Cousin Kate. “They are fond of fish,
but, being afraid of the water, cannot
go a fishing.”

“Mr. Showman, have you told us
all you know abont cats?” asked
Fred.

“T know this much,” said Unclo
Willio, # that you seldom see a cat
run. She cither walks or ereeps or
oes by springs.””

“I know that they like the softest
cushions to Tie upon, and a snug warm
corner,” said Consin Kate, “and 1
know they have power to charm birds,
for I have seen a cat do this. She
looked steadily at the bird until he
dropped. Very likely he was over

FAMILY.

jcome by fright, Cats like some kinds
of strong-smelling herbs, — catnip, for
instance, and valerian, Put a cat
into a bed of valerian, and she will
roll over and over in it and almost
tear it up by the roots.

“There are cats which like music.
T have heard of a eat which was so
| delighted with a certain piece of musie
that she acted like a crazy creature
jevery time it was played in her hear-
ing. But one of the most wonderful
things about this wonderful animal is
|the faculty of finding its way home.
[I read the other day that in a cer-
tain European city it is proposed to
| train cats to work as carrier-pigeons.
‘Thirty-seven cats were put in bags
and carried twenty miles from that
city in the night, and before the same
time next night every one was back
at its own home. The question is,
How was this done?”

* A question no person can answer,”
said Uncle Willie,

“Cats have a great deal of curios-
ity,” said Cousin Kate. “Take a cat
into @ strange house, and she m
rests until she has been into every
room. If a new piece of furniture is
brought home, she examines it all
around.”

“T wonder,” said Uncle Willie, # if
‘Nannie knows why her black and gray
cat is a tabby eat? No? It is |
cause she has stripes. ‘Tabby means
striped or brindled. Cats are said to
care more for houses than for people.
Cousin Kate shales her head.”

Please, Mr. Showman,” said Cousin
| Kate, “let me speak a good word for
the cat, She has more feeling than
lis generally supposed. She shows a











THE CAT

great deal of love for her kittens, and
she grieves for the loss of them, Cats
often become attached to other ani-
‘mals, even to dogs.”

“Q yes!” cried Nannie. “ Aunt
Hattie’s kitties sleep on old Nep's|
back, right in his thick hair, and he
lets them stay!”

« Thelieve,” said Cousin Kate, « that
the reason why cats and dogs seem
natural enemies, is beeause dogs have
been taught to torment cats, sef on,
as we say. I have heard of a cat

which used to let the dog in after he
was put out at night. ‘The dog would
rap, and the cat would spring up and
strike the latch and open the door.
‘The dog would walk in and lie down
by the cat, and in the morning every-
body

would wonder how the dog gob

. At Inst the trick was found out.

Thave heard of another eat which
formed a friendship with a horse, and
used to sit upon his back. When he
died she sat upon the body until it
was buried, then crept mournfully
away and was not seen again until
her own dead body was fond in a
haydoft’ oe

“ And. nly. kitty.
Nannie.

“Certainly she does,” said Cousin
Kate. “When you are away she
walks from room to. room, trying to
find you.”

And when I come back,” said
Nannie, “she jumps up in my lap,
and purrs loud, and lieks my hands,
and rnbs her head on my shonlder.””

“I know a cat story,” said Uncle
Willie. “There was a lady who suf-
fered from severe fits of coughing.
‘As soon as she began to cough her

i me!” said

FAMILY.

cat would become uneasy. Tt would
jump upon the bed, utter sorrowful
sounds, and lay its paw on the lady's
lips.”

1 feel sure that by kind treatment
we can gain the love of cats,” said
Cousin Kate, “and that by taking
pains to watch them we should find
that they are very Anowing, as eoun-
try folks say. But people treatthem
roughly, drive them, * scat? them, hnrt
| thom, take little pains to understand
them, and then complain that the cat
shows no love and is not an interest
| ing animal.”

MANX OAT,

“0 Cousty Kare!” cried Tiptoes.
“Here's a poor little kitty with her tail
cnt off 1”

“No, dear,” said Cousin Kate,“ that
[kitty never had any tail, She is a
Manz Cut. Her home is on an island
near England. The island is called
the Isle of Man, and the cat takes its
name from the island, Manx Cats
are about the size of our cats, and
I never heard that they are different
from our cats, except in this matter
of tail,”

© The difference of a tail must be a
great difference to a eat,” said Uncle
Willie. A cat without a tail looks
stiff and awkward. How can a cat
without a tail to wag show what her
feelings are?

TET were a cat without a af,

1 would stand on the roof and weep and wail.

Should ship pass by,

Td vehemently ery,
0 goatly ship, spre all your axils
And speed away to tho Land of Tails

Return with a load as fast as you can,
For the destitute cats of the Isle of Man







THE CAT

“Does the poor kitty know she}
hasn't any tail?” asked Nannie, half}
Inughing and half erying.

“We may find that out when we
Tearn to understand the language of
animals,” said Cousin Kate, “ but not
fat present.”

“1 wonder,” said Fred, “if, the
cats that have tails make fun of this
kind?”

‘They do if they are like some
children,” said Cousin Kate. “1
have known children mean enough
and cruel enough to make fun of a
poor child who had some defect in its
feot or its eyes or its figure. Let u
hope that cats are not so mean and
eruel.”

“The Manx Cat is a tabby cat,”
said Fred ; she is striped.”

“That next one is tabhy—a Tit-
tle,” said Nannie; “but it does n't
look just like a eat.”

ANGORA OATS.

“Tuan is the Angora Cat,” said
Uncle Willie ; “she comes froma place
in the southern part of Asia called
Angora, The dogs and rabbits and
cats of that region are famous for

their long silky hair, T have seen
numbers of this kind of cat in France.
They are larger than the common kind,
and have higher foreheads and sweeter
tempers. They are good for pets, but
not good mouse-catchers.”

“No,” said Fred, “a cat with all
that fur on, and that heavy tail to
carry, can’t be very spry to jump.
Miss Angora might give Manxy part
of her tail and still have plenty left.”

* She probably came from the‘ Land

FAMILY.

of Tails’ spoken of in Uncle Willie's
fine poetry !” said Cousin Kate,

| “1 think she is a beauty,” said
|Naunie. “1 wish I had a dear tittle
Angora kitty!"

“You would need to lay in a large
stock of provisions,” said Uncle Wil-
lie, “These Angora Cats have a re-
fined and stately manner of eating,
and like delicate food, but their appe-
tites are astounding. ‘They have also
a stately manner of walking. You
should see one of these cats in mo-
tion. With its high head, and long,
white, silky hair and magnificent tail,
it sweeps along as grand as a pea-
cock.”

“But she can scratch,” said Fred,
pointing to her claws.

“Yes,” said Cousin Kate, All
tho animals in this set of pictures
have the claws of a cat, the feet of
cat, the jaws of a cat, the teeth of a
cat, the tongue of a cat, the sly ways
of a cat, the soft tread of a eat, and
the cat's sudden spring.”

WILDOATS,

“Sue! Look!” eried Tiptoes. “Bad
cat!” He was pointing to the Wild-
cat.

“You're right, Tiptoes,” said Un-
cle Willie, “A bad cat to meet in
the woods.”

«Do we have cats like that in our
woods?" asked Nannie.

“Not in any woods near us,” said
Uncle Willie, “but they are found in
the forests of the West, and among
the mountains of the United States,
and in Canada, in places where the
country is not thickly settled.”







THE CAT

“Does the poor kitty know she}
hasn't any tail?” asked Nannie, half}
Inughing and half erying.

“We may find that out when we
Tearn to understand the language of
animals,” said Cousin Kate, “ but not
fat present.”

“1 wonder,” said Fred, “if, the
cats that have tails make fun of this
kind?”

‘They do if they are like some
children,” said Cousin Kate. “1
have known children mean enough
and cruel enough to make fun of a
poor child who had some defect in its
feot or its eyes or its figure. Let u
hope that cats are not so mean and
eruel.”

“The Manx Cat is a tabby cat,”
said Fred ; she is striped.”

“That next one is tabhy—a Tit-
tle,” said Nannie; “but it does n't
look just like a eat.”

ANGORA OATS.

“Tuan is the Angora Cat,” said
Uncle Willie ; “she comes froma place
in the southern part of Asia called
Angora, The dogs and rabbits and
cats of that region are famous for

their long silky hair, T have seen
numbers of this kind of cat in France.
They are larger than the common kind,
and have higher foreheads and sweeter
tempers. They are good for pets, but
not good mouse-catchers.”

“No,” said Fred, “a cat with all
that fur on, and that heavy tail to
carry, can’t be very spry to jump.
Miss Angora might give Manxy part
of her tail and still have plenty left.”

* She probably came from the‘ Land

FAMILY.

of Tails’ spoken of in Uncle Willie's
fine poetry !” said Cousin Kate,

| “1 think she is a beauty,” said
|Naunie. “1 wish I had a dear tittle
Angora kitty!"

“You would need to lay in a large
stock of provisions,” said Uncle Wil-
lie, “These Angora Cats have a re-
fined and stately manner of eating,
and like delicate food, but their appe-
tites are astounding. ‘They have also
a stately manner of walking. You
should see one of these cats in mo-
tion. With its high head, and long,
white, silky hair and magnificent tail,
it sweeps along as grand as a pea-
cock.”

“But she can scratch,” said Fred,
pointing to her claws.

“Yes,” said Cousin Kate, All
tho animals in this set of pictures
have the claws of a cat, the feet of
cat, the jaws of a cat, the teeth of a
cat, the tongue of a cat, the sly ways
of a cat, the soft tread of a eat, and
the cat's sudden spring.”

WILDOATS,

“Sue! Look!” eried Tiptoes. “Bad
cat!” He was pointing to the Wild-
cat.

“You're right, Tiptoes,” said Un-
cle Willie, “A bad cat to meet in
the woods.”

«Do we have cats like that in our
woods?" asked Nannie.

“Not in any woods near us,” said
Uncle Willie, “but they are found in
the forests of the West, and among
the mountains of the United States,
and in Canada, in places where the
country is not thickly settled.”







THE CAT

“Tt looks some like a house cat,"
said Fred, only larger and stronger.”

“And coarser and fiercer,” said
Cousin Kate. “Two and one half
feet long. I wonder if these figures
include the tail? Let's see what the
note-book says. It says— it says —|
that in the measurements of these]
animals the tail is not included. So
the Wildeat measures two and one:
half feot from the point of its nose!
to the end of its body. I suppose the!
largest of our eats would hardly meas-
ure two feet.”

“Did our eats come from wild
cats?” asked Fred.

“Those who know best,” said Uncle
Willie, “say that our eats came not

from wild cats, but from the ancient
Egyptian cats.

To be sure the Egyp-
tian cats must have been wild once,
though so long ago that even the big’
books do not tell us in what country
they lived, or what kind of wild eats
they were. ‘There is one plain differ
ence between our eat and the Wild-
cat. Our cats’ tails taper to a point.
The Wildeat’s tail is all the way
alike. ‘The hair upon it is s0 short
and thick that it cannot taper to a
point.”

“J wonder,” said Nannie, “if the
Wildcat mews.”

“Yes, indeed,” said Uncle Willie,
“Tt purrs and it mews. Its mews
sound like the sereams of a child. I
once heard these mews myself in the
woods of Kentueky, and was just set-
ting out to find the poor lost child,
Imt some hunters told me I should
only find a Wildeat.”

“Would a Wildeat hurt you ?”|
asked Nannie.



FAMILY.

“Not unless I tried to hurt her.
A Wildeat as a general thing will
run at the sight of a man, but if
attacked, it is a furious fighter. It
springs in your face, and claws and
seratehes and bites; and the person
who is fighting it will wish he were
playing another kind of play.”

“Dao people go hunting Wildeats 2”

asked Fred.

“Yes, they are often obliged to
hunt them. In some thinly settled
places, near forests and mountains,
Wildcats come prowling around at
night and carry off poultry. When
the farmers can bear it no longer
they muster large parties and go forth
a Wildeat hunting, with dogs and
gins. If you kill one Wildeat and
leave it on the ground, and set traps
around it, you will be sure to catch
a number, for the living ones, fa
and near, come to look at the dead
body.”

“Tf we could get a very, very wee
little just-born kitten of a Wildcat,
and let it stay with our kitties, would
n't it grow up a tame one?” asked
Nanni

“1 should hardly like to try it,”
said Cousin Kate, I read an account
of ono which some person tried to
tame, It used to spit and snap and
growl, and sot up its back, and make
itself disagreeable in many ways. It
is true that this porson might not
have known the best ways of taming
it, or might not have tried long enough,
or have had patience enough.”

LYNX,
“Here is a wild-woods animal
which has sometimes been called a





THE CAT

Wildeat,” said Uncle Willie, “and
his name is Lynx.”

When they were talking about, the
Manx Cat, Tiptoes amused the eom-
pany by looking for its tail on the
back side of the card. He began to
do the same with the Lyi

“It’s no use, Tiptoes.” said Cousin
Kate, That bit of tail is all he hi

“Three feet long; just one yard,”
said Unele Willie. He is a slimmer
animal than the Wildeat, and stands
higher on his legs. Do you notice the
firmness and stoutness of those legs?
‘They are nearly half as thiek through
as his body,”

“We may know by his looks that
he cannot move gracefully, like a cat,”
said Cousin Kate,

“ He presents a curious appearance
when runing,” said Uncle Willie.
“I once happened to see one run,
He arches his back and goes hy long
jumps, bringing all his feet to the
grdund at about the same time. With
those stout: legs and stout fect —
cushioned feet, remember, for he is a
kind of eat —he can leap down from
tall trees and not feel the shock. He
has eyes so bright and pieréing that
it uscd to be said of him that he
could see through rocks.”

To be sure!” said Cousin Kate.
“Sharp-eyed people are often called
lynx-eyed.””

* He does n’t look as eross as the
Wildcat,” said Nannie,

+ Th is said to be almost impossible
to tame a Lynx,” said Uncle Willie ;
“yet he is more timid and shy than
the Wildcat, and shows less fierce-
ness. When attacked, he spits and
splatters and makes a great fuss, but



FAMILY.

easily Killed by a blow with a s
across his back. Still, a Lynx would
not be a companion I should choose
when going on awalk. He is not at
all the companion a Western or Ca-
nadian farmer would choose for his
young lambs and pigs! ‘The Lynx
preys upon squirrels, partridges, rab-
bits, wild-geese, and other game.
Sometimes he springs upon them
like a eat, sometimes follows them
ike a dog. A stream will not stop
him, for he ean swim. If he cannot
make out a supper in the woods, he
visits the sheepfolds and poultry-yards
and pigpens of scattered farm-houses,
But Lynxes are easily taken in traps.
If they were not, there would be less
Lynx fur in the market.

1 was reading to Nannie this

ening,” said Cousin Kate, “how

es sometimes find ways of ereep-
ing under and so coming up into a
sheepfold which is supposed to be
safely fenced in, ‘The hook said that
one time— Nannie, you may tell the
story.”

“Tf I can,” said Nannie. “ Once
there was a Lynx and he wanted a
lamb for his supper, but the lambs
were ina very good place, and there
was a thick fence all around them; a
high fence which the Lynx could not
jump over, or if he could, he could
not jump back with a lamb in his
mouth; so he crept under in some
way and meant to pop his head right
up among the sheep, and so he did
pop up his head there, but an old goat:
saw him coming out and butted at
him with its horns and killed him.”

“There is one mark upon the Lynx
which neither of us has spoken of,”





THE CAT
said Uncle Willie, “Tt is a small
mark, but one whieh I believe is found
upon all kinds of Lynxes. ‘Two small
. Lmight say, —two small marks
just alike, as plain to be seen as
‘weathereocks upon steeples.”
Do you mean those tufts on his
2 asked Fred.
“Yes,” said Uncle Willie. “ All
the Lynxes have pointed ears with
tufts at the points.”

ea

OoELor.
g I would like to
have,” said Cousin Kate, “I would|
like the skin of a beautiful Ocelot,
like that in the picture, for a mat to
lay before my fire.”
We should all want to put our
feot onit,” said Uncle Willie. “There

“T sep somethin,

are big spots for my big boots and
suall spots for your satin slippers,
and spots still smaller for children.

‘There'd be many a spot and many a dot

On a snatthat cane from an Ocelot.”

“The little bits of dots on his head
would do for Tiptoes to stand tiptoes.
on,” said Nanni

“ How much handsomer the Ocelot
is than the Lynx!” said Fred.

“The Lynx,” said Cousin Kate,
“Jooks stiff and stern and rough; he
has to face the blasts of the ragged
North, The Ocelot is soft and beau-
tiful, like the soft and beautiful climate
of his home at the South. He seems
to have the grace and the easy move-
ment of our common cat, though he
is larger and of course a great: deal
stronger.”

“A very great deal stronger,” said
Uncle Willie. “An animal running



FAMILY.

wild in the woods and having to look
out for itself would naturally be a very
great deal stronger than a pot animal
which has its food provided and often
cut up into mouthfuls, even if the
animals wore of the same size; and
the Ocelot, as you see, stands half a
yard high; that is, half a yard from
the ground to the top of his shoulder.”

We will take kitty’s measure, and
see what the difference is,” said Fred.

“T think his face looks almost just
like a eat’s face,” said Nannie.

“Ts he very fierce?” asked Fred.

“Tn his native wood he is fierce
enough,” said Uncle Willie, espe-
cially if wounded or frightened. But
he is quite easily tamed.”

“T should like to see a tame one,”
said Nannie,

“Tt would hardly be safe to have
one about the house,” said Unele
Willie. “When I said easily tamed,
I meant that when kept in cages these
creatures become docile and show fond-
ness for their keepers. They like to
be noticed, and in order to get them-
selves noticed they will purr and rub
themselves against the bars.””

“T know an Ocelot story,” said
Cousin Kate. “There were once some
Ocelots kept in a cage,and Mr. Wood,
a gentleman who loves animals, went
to see them, At first they growled
and snapped at him, but he made
friends with them in this way. He
fed them with things they liked to
eat, and every time he did this he
gave a low whistle. ‘The Ocelots held
back at first, but after a while they
came quick at the sound of the whistle,
and allowed Mr. Wood to rub their
noses and chins. ‘They seemed de-





10 THE CAT FAMILY,

lighted to get handfuls of grass. It|a table!’ said Uncle Willie. “Think
is curious, but most of the earhivorous what blows those paws ean give!”
animals like a little grass now and) “A eat?” eried Nannie,
thon, and sometimes they will even| “Yes,” said Uncle Willie; “there
snap up insects. Perhaps Nannie | are theclaws p gs out, — pretty big
does not know what that big word) ones they must be when sprend,—
means. Carnivorous animals are|and if the mouth were open, you
those which feed upon creatures that would see the sharp, eatlike teeth.
live and move. Herbivorous animals It watehes for its prey like a cat, it
feed upon herbage. Herbage is the|creeps like a cat, it goes by bounds
various grasses and leaves which like a cat, and it springs like a cat,
spring up from the ground.” It stretches itself along the bongh of
“The Ocelot is very carnivorous,” | tree and springs upon smaller ani-
said Uncle Willie, “Tt eats rats,|mals as they pass by: or it hides
mice, moles, birds, and even fish, It|itself in thickets hy the margins of
is wonderfully quick and powerful in| rivers, ready to spring upon animals
its movements. Itlikes to stand upon| which come there to drink; or it
a log and snatch fish from the water| strays away to a sheepfold and kills
with its claws. The one in the picture sheep at the rate sometimes of fifty a
seems to be doing this.” | night! Its eolor is so like the color of
“Its tail is not as tapering as the) the bark, that when it stretches itself
common cat's,” said Fred, “nor as! along the bough of a tree you would
thick and stubbod as the Wildeat’s; hardly notice there was an unin
but it is pretty long.” there.” .
“Would a Cougar hurt a man?”
asked Nannie.
AMERIOAN PANTHER, OR OOUGAR, | «Travellers tell “us,” said Uncle
“Tuat Cougar in the next picture) Willie, “ that if a man will keep his
has a longer one,” said Cousin Kate, |eye fixed-on a Congar and wateh all
“and instead of tapering at the end |its movements, it will not attack him
it grows thie | unless it has been shot at or wounded;
“Tho Cougar’s face docs n't look|then it is furious. ‘There might be
40 much like a eat’s face as the Oce-|some danger if it were ravenously
lot’s does.” said Nannie, hungry.- On the whole, I would rather
“Tt has a very small head and face| meet Mary's little lamb, whose fleece
for so long an animal,” said Cousin| was white as snow, in the woods than
Kate. “Five feet: long, two and ala Cougar.”
half feet high, measuring from the| “But it is said that a Cougar can
ground to the top of his shoulder.’ be tamed if taken when young,” said
‘That is just about the height of a flour- | Consin Kate.
barrel, or of a common dining-table.” | “I was reading lately an aceount
“Think what-a spring can be made] of one which was owned by the great
by a cat five fect long and as high as|actor, Edmund Kean. It followed





HE CAT
him about lke a dog, frolicked like a|
Kitten, and was so gentle that it was
Drought into the room to see visitors,

© Mr. Wilson tells of a tame Cou
gar which liked to jump in and out
of a tub of water. It was brought to
England from South America, Cou-
gars are American, you know. ‘They
were onee very numerous and destrue-
tive in the United States, and in the
wilder parts of the country you find)
them still. On the voyage this Cougar|
made friends with the monkeys and|
dogs; butif sheep or fowl came within |
the reach of its paw, it was bad for
them, very bad.”

“Why does this animal have two
names, Unele Willie?” asked Fred.

“Congar,” said Unele Willie, is
short for Gouazouara, a name given
it by the South American Indians.
It is called the American Panther,
because its habits are like the habits)
ita Baier oneal wish ved|
in Asia and Afri It has been called
the American Lion, because it is tawny
brown, like a lion.”

JAGUAR, |

| the dead bod

AMILY

* And all covered with rosettes
said Cousin Kate. “1 think I will
give up the Ocelotskin, and get a
dJaguarskin instead.”

“Yon could not get a larger one
among the Beasts of Prey this side of
the world,” said Unele Willi; * the
Jaguar is the largest of them all.
To find him, however, you will have
to go as far south as Mexico.”

“What a powerful antmal he must
be!” said Cousin Kate.

“Yes,” said Unele Willie; “his
paws and limbs are tremendous. 1
have heard a great deal about the

|Jaguar, from people who have seen

the animal and had their eattle stolen
by him, He ean knock a horse down
dead with a blow of his pav, drag off
and, if need be, swim
across the river with it. He jumps
over high fences and carries off cat-
tle. He attacks wild horses, buffa-
|loes, sheep, monkeys, birds, fish, t
|tles, almost anything that has life.
He kills a fish by striking it with his
paw, and a bird in the same way.
Sometimes when a flock of birds rise
from the ground he leaps up and
‘ikes some of them down.

wnnie could not help Jaugh-
ing at Tiptoes, who was touching the are large turtles which come ashore

| In some places at the South there
and lay their eggs in the sand. The
its teoth and drawing buck his fingor| Jaguar watches from behind some
quick, as if afraid of being bitten. [bushes, springs upon the tule, tuens
0, would n’t the skin of that one] it over upon its back, uncovers the
make n pretty mat?” cried Nannie. eggs, eats them, and finishes his din-
fect long!” said Cousin Kate, | uer upon the turtle, Like all the eat
mat of that length might be called |fumily, he gets his prey by watel

a rug.” and springing and pouncing, He
“Tt would bemore than long enough has a quick way of killing an animal
for me to lie down on,” said Uncle) and putting it out of its misery. He
Willie. < |springs upon its back, puts one paw

spots on the Jaguar, and also touching’





12 THE
upon its nose and another upon the
back of its head, and by a sudden
twist breaks its neck.
fond of monkeys. Sometimes in the
‘yest Southern forests the ery of the
Jaguar Will be heard from the top of
a high tree, for they are wonderful
climbers. This will be followed by
the screams of frightened monkeys who
xo scampering through the woods,
leaping from bough to bough.”

“1 should think travellers would
be afraid to travel where Jaguars
are,” said Nannie,

“Tf a number travel together there
is scarcely any danger,” said Unele

“A Jaguar will not attack:
a man unless it is very hungry, and
even then it can usually be frightened

tory,” said Fred,
“Once there was a man who met a
Jaguar in the path. ‘The man looked
at the Jaguar and the Jaguar looked
fat the man. Suddenly the man took
off his wide-brimmed hat and made
a low bow, and said, ‘I wish yon al
yery good morning!’ ‘The Jaguar
knew not what to make of this, so
Tig turned round and walked away.”
“He saw something unusual and
sens disturbed by it,” said Uncle Wil-
fie. “We find this same thing in
other animals ; the horse, for instanee,
is frightened at a goat-cart, or a ve-
locipede, or even at a large piece of
paper?

Tt is said that young Jaguars!
frolic and play together like kittens,”
remarked Cousin Kate.

“T read of one which played with
dogs,” said Fred. “The dogs were
set upon it, but it had just been eat-

Ay

He is very|

FAMILY.

ng and was not hungry, s0 instead
lof flying at them, it began to play
with them, And T read of another
| Jaguar which ran out of the woods
and began playing with two children,
When some older people came in sight,
it rau buek to the woods.”

“A Jaguar which I read about,”
said Cousin Kate, “was taken to
England in a ship and was a great
pet among passengers and crew, It
could perform many tricks, and was
so tame that the captain used to lie
down by its side and use its body for
a pillow.”

‘LEOPARD,

“Tue Jaguar, the Cougar, the Oce-
let, the Lynx, and the Wildeat,” said
Unele Willie, “ are all found on this
side of the world. ‘To find that ani-
mal in the next picture, the Leopard,
you would have to cross the broad
ocean and visit Asia or Africa.”

“ He is not as large as the Jaguar.”
said Cousin Kate. “ According to the
figures, he is nearer the size of the
Congar, and his shape is like the Cou-
gar’s. All three have long tails, but
the Leopard’s is not thick at the end.”

“The Leopard and Jaguar are alike
in one thing,” said Fred ; “ they both
are spotted.”

“Do you see no difference in the
spots?” asked Cousin Kate.

“Why—yes,” said Fred; #I see
that the Jaguar’s spots have a dark
dot in the centre, and are larger than
the Leopard's.”

“And more clearly marked out,”
said Cousin Kate, “Some of the
| Leopard's spots are broken around the
ledges. ‘The Leopard's skin is lighter











THE CAT

FAMILY. 18

colored than the Jaguar’s, and his
limbs ave slenderer.”

“But the Leopard is a eat, Tike all
the others,” said Unele Willie, and
fa sly, spry old cat, too. His move-
ments are quick and lively as a squir-
re’s. His body is so wonderfully flex-
ible that he can bend it to the shape
of a branch, as he lies hid in a tree,
or he can wriggle along close to the
ground, like a snake. He lies down
in the tall grass of a plain where ante-
lopes are feeding, and makes strange
motions. He knows they have a great|
deal of curiosity, and that they will
come to find out the meaning of these
strange motions, and thus save him.
the trouble of going after them.

“He has a way of cheating mon-
keys. He drops upou the ground and
pretends to be dead. ‘The monkeys
are 60 glad to see their enemy dead,
that they come down from the trees
to view the body, chattering and
screaming with delight. ‘This feeling
of delight changes to a feeling of|
another kind when the old deceiver!
springs to his feet. If he cannot get
a monkey supper, he hides in the
woods and thiekets near the rude vil-
Jages of the natives and at night comes
prowling around, helping himself to
pigs, sheep, and hens. ‘The huts of|
the natives are small and slightly
Wilt; sometimes when goats’ meat:
has been left hanging insi
Leopard will spring upon the thatched
roof, tear a hole in it big enough to
let himself through, and make a meal
of the meat.””

“Would he if the folks were in
sight?” asked Fred.

© Probably not, unless very hungry.

As a rule, he runs at the sight of &
man ; but if the man attacks him, then
he is furious and very dangerous.”

“Our teacher told us about a

Leopard in a menagerie,” said Fred.
“This Leopard used to frolie with a
lion that was in the same cage and
play with the end of the lion’s tail.
Another Leopard used to pub ont its
paw and snatch muffs and hats and
umbrellas and parasols,”
“And smash them quick as a wink!””
cried Nannie, “And another Leop-
ard was so tame that it lived with a
family. It let the children pull its
tail, and when they had their naps it
used to lie down close by them.”

“his was the Leopard that liked
lavender-water,” said Fred. “If an
essenve-bottle were opened near him it,
almost set him erazy.””

“I know a story of a funny Leop-
ard,” said Cousin Kate, “Tt was
tame, and was taken care of by a hoy.
One day, finding the boy asleep at his
post, it gave him a pat on the head
with its paw, which knocked the boy
flat, and then stood wagging its tail
as if it enjoyed the fun.”

THE HUNTING LEOPARD, OR
CHEETAH.

“Paar Hunting Leopard you see
in the next picture,” said Uncle Wil-
lie, “is so easily tamed and so docile
when tamed, that in some families of
the countries where it lives it runs
about just like a dog,”

“Why, I thought it was a dog!”
said Nannie.

“Tt is a eurious animal,” said Uncle



Willie, “Tt is spotted like a Leopard,





THE CAT
its head and body are shaped like aj
dog’s, its nose is black at the end
like a dog's, it stands high like a
dog, and stands stiff’ and firm like
adog. Its tongue and teeth and feet

and mouth and tail are like a cat's,

FAMILY.

old Kings and emperors liked to gather
wild beasts about them. ‘They thought
in this way to make themselyes seem
grand and rich and powerful, On
reat days—sueh as our Fourth of
July, perhaps — these beasts, Lions,

and it hunts like a eat, but its claws | Tigers, and Leopards, with their keop-
ave not wholly retractile. You will’ ers, were brought out with much pomp
notice that its hair is not rich and and parade, One of these kings ad
soft like the Leopard's; it is coarse-| five hundred Leopards."”

looking hair.”

Why is he called a Hunting Leop-
ard?” asked Fred.

“I suppose you remember about
the Falcons that were trained to hunt] at,” said Unele Willie, “is so large
birds,” said Unele Willie. “This |and so powerful as the black-marked,
Hunting Leopard— sometimes called full-whiskered animal, which stands
Cheetah —is trained to hunt animals,| there next to the Cheetah. Eight
and a good hunter he makes. He is|feet long and three and a half feet

ROYAL TIGER.
“No animal that we have yet looked

hooded and then taken to the hunt-|high, the figures say. In Southern

ing-ground in a buffalo-cart, or per-| Asia, along the margins of rivers and
haps on an elephant. When a herd|hays, in vast jungles which uo man
of antelopes comes in sight, the hood can inhabit, lurks and crouches and
is taken off, The Cheetah spies the|creeps the magnificent Tiger. He
antelopes, slips softly off the cart or|is remarkable for grace and beauty
the elephant, ereeps along close to the| and strength and weight. His hones
ground, under cover of the bushes or/are large and immensely heavy. A
the tall grass, and when near enough’ stroke of his paw will fell an ox; yet
to the herd he springs suddenly upon| with all this he is as graceful and
oue of the antelopes and brings it to| flexible as a cat. He likes the jungle
the ground. ‘The men then rush up|for two reasons: first, because it is a
and give the Cheetah some food such| good place for watching the auimals
as he is very fond of, — heads of fowls, | which come downto drink; and second,
for instance, —and while he eats this | because that after eating he must him-
food they take away the antelope. self have water to quench his raging
‘The Cheetah then allows his hood to| thirst, ‘Those black marks running:

be put on, and goes quietly back to his
cart or his elephant.”

ic emperors kept

animals,” said

Cousin Kate. “I have read of one

which used to zo out hunting with a

thousand Hunting Leopards! Those

up and down bis body help hima in bid-
ing. For, running up and down, they
look so much like the course jungle-
grass, that a Tiger might lie among
it in plain sight and still not be seen.”

“A ereature of that size and
strength, springing like a cat, would





THE
make tremendous bounds!” said Cous-
in Kate, *Trayellers must stand in
fear of him.”

“He would hardly dare attack a
company of travellers,” said Uncle
Willie, “though he might attack a
single person; but people usually take
precautions when travelling among the
haunts of Tigers. At daytime they
keep up a din of drums and trumpets,
and at night they build fires. All wild
beasts are frightened away by fires
and loud noises.”

“The noises of the travellers fright-
en beasts, and the roar of the beasts
frightens travellers,” said Cousin Kate.
“Tan imagine that there might be
sweeter music than the roar of a
‘Tiger. I have scen it described as
being like the grunt of a pig, made
twenty times louder.”

“Tt is not very sweet music to the
owners of cattle,” said Unele Willie.
“At night, if pressed hy hunger, the
‘Viger comes forth from his jungle and
creeps with stealthy step to villages
and cattle-enclosures, searching for

prey. The villagers hear his roar,
and know that in the morning some-
body's ox or cow or horse or sheep
will be missing. But it would be use-
less to go in pursuit of him. He is
not ouly strong and fierce and sly,
hut swift, ‘The word Tiger comes
from a Persian word meaning, ‘swift
us an arrow.’ And even if the pur-
suers came up with him they would
perhaps see nothing more of him than
his eyes. In a dark night his eyes
would glow like balls of fire.

“ Mr. Blake, an English poet, begins
some verses about the Tiger in this:
way —

FAMILY.

“Tiger tiger, burning bright,
In the darkness of the night,
| What inumortal lund and eye

Could fain thy fearful symmetry 1°
By symmetry is meant the whole struc~
ture of his body.””

* But Tigers are often hunted and
destroyed hy men,” said Cousin Kate.

0 yes,” said Uncle Willie, “ they
are speared, taken in traps, and shot
at from tree-tops.

“Don't they climb trees ?’” asked
Fred,

No, they are not climbers, but
they are good swimmers and good
fishermen, And they can be tamed.
If taken young, a Tiger may be talight
various tricks, and he often shows
affection for his keeper.”

“The native priests of India know
best how to tame Tigers,” said Cousin
Kate, “Some of these priests allow
their tame Tigers to come and go as
if they were no more to be feared
than dogs. They will even lead them
by a cord about the streets.”

T know a very small Tiger story,”
said Fred. Once there was a party
of men and women riding through
some woods in India, when all at
once they saw a tiger standing in the
bushes at one side of them. They
were terribly frightened. But a wo-
man leaned forward quick, and opened
her parasol at him, and he turned
about and took himself out of sight in
a hurry.”

“Tt was the strangeness of the
thing which alarmed him,” said Uncle
Willie.

“1 should like to see that earnest,
whiskered face looking out from
among the bushes,” said Cousin Kate,
“if Thad my parasol with me!”

|







16 E CAT

FAMILY,

roars all the more. In the daytime

“T think his face looks like a cat's
face, just a little bit,” said Nannie,
“He is a kind of cat, y
said Cousin Kate,—* a kind of tabby
cat.

. ‘THE LION,

‘We have found that the cat family
inclades many animals, The Tiger
is among the largest and most power
ful; but the Lion, as you see by the
figures in the picture, is even larger
than the Tiger. The Lion is ealled
the King of Beasts. Just look at his:
mane. None other of these animals
have manes.”

“ And none other have that e
tuft at the end of the tail,” said Uncle
Willie. In that tnft there is a stiff,
horny pricker. When the Lion is hun-
gry he lashes himself with this pricker
in the most furious manner. At such
times he is very dangerous. The
Lion las wonderful strength. For’
him to knock down a cow or a horse
does not require a strong blow. A
gentle wave of his paw will do the
deed. His bones are heayy and hard.
‘The bone of his foreleg is so hard
thaf if a bit of that and a bit of steel
‘age ‘struck sinartly together they will

ike out sparks of fire. He prowls
aft at night, hunting his prey, the

sate as other cats, If many hours

pass and he finds no prey, he places
lig mouth to the ground and roars.
‘TH smaller animals are so frightened
at/the sound of his roar that they
stat out from their hiding-places,
rui¥ this way and that, helter-skelter,
andsome of them are sure to run!

directly in the path of the Lion. In
dark, stormy nights he roams and



he lies asleop in the dry yellowish
grass, Tt is hard to find him then,
for this grass is tall, and is just about
the color of his tawny, yellowish fur.”

“Tet me read you a description of
the Lion’s roar as described by Mr,
Gordon Cumming,” said Cousin Kate.
“He says: It consists, at times, of a
low deep moaning, repeated five or
six times, ending in faintly andible
sighs; ab other times he startles the
forest with loud, deep-toned, solemn
roars, repeated five or six times in
quick succession, each increasing in
Toudness to the third or fourth, when
his voice dies away in low, mufiled
sounds, very much resabibling distant
thunder. At times,’ he says,* a troop
of them may be heard roaring in con-
cert, first one roaring, then another,
then another, and so on, like persons
singing a cateh.’”

“The books say that the Lion is
more noble and generous than other
animals,” said Prod. “T read a story
in one book which told all about a
noble; generous Lid that canght a
man and let him go."*

As far'as I have found ont by
reading and by hearing the talk of
native Afrieans,” said Uncle Willic,
* the Lion’s nobleness and generosity
are the most shown when he is the
least hungry. If he is not hungry,
he will not take the trouble to kill
any creature. If he is half starved,
he will kill the first ereature he sees,
man or beast. If he is attacked, he
will spring upon the person who attacks
him. If his Lioness has a nice little
brood of kittens,— or evbs, as they
are called,—he will fly at any person









THE CAT

who goes near them. And so will she.
‘The Lioness, at such times, is even
fiereer than the Lion.

‘THE LIONESS.

“Sue is smaller, as you see, and
has no mane. Neither the Lion nor
Lioness can climb trees, and it is
lucky for the Lion-hunter sometimes
that they eannot.””

“T wonder if the kittens mew,”
said Nannie,

“Yes, indeed!” said Uncle Wi
lie; the same as other kittens, on
louder, but at the age of eight mont
they begin to roar. ‘They are about
as large as a very big eat, and im-
mensely heavy for their size, You

will be delighted to know that they
are born with their eyes open.”

“Can you tame them?” asked
Nannie.

“We must ask Cousin Kate,” said
Unele Willie; “she likes to look up’
that part of the subject.”

“Tf Lions are taken young,” said
Cousin Kate, “and properly trained,
they will become gentle and even play-
ful. They will jump through hoops
and over ropes; they show fondness
for their keepers, and also for other
animals. I read a story of a Lion
which lived happily with a doz; when
the dog died the Lion showed deep
sorrow.

“Tf a Lion becomes so affectionate
that he wishes to lick the hand of his
keeper, the keeper is obliged to wear
thick mittens, for one lick of the
Lion's tongue would tear the flesh.
Just tan back to the large picture,
and look at that drawing of the tongue

| running.

FAMILY. 17
of the cat family. Do you see those
horny points? If a cat's tongue is
rough, what must be the great tongue
ofa Lion! We were saying just now
that spoken words have great power
over wild beasts. Mr, Cumming, when
hunting in Africa, came near being
uttacked by a fieree Lioness. He
kept her from springing upon him
by fixing his eyes upon her and say-
ing in a commanding voieo, + Hulloa,
old girl! What’s the hurry? Take
it easy! Hulloa! Hulloa!””
“ Words were stranger to her than
sereams would have heen,” said Uncle
“Lions are like the other
wild animals we have been speaking
of, they are afraid of what is strange.
A Lion will not attack a looge ox whieh
has a halter swinging from its neck.”
© If we look back and consider what
we have been saying of these ani-
mals,” said Cousin Kate, “we shall
find that they are alike in very many
things. The rongh tongue, for ove
thing. Then they nearly all have the
sharp teeth, the wide mouth, the power
ful jaws, the pointed ears, the fiery
eyes. the loose skin, the soft fur, the
retractile claws, the cushioned feet, the
flexible body, the easy motion, the light
tread, the sudden spring. Tn almost
every one we find grace and beauty
and strength. ‘They go by creeping
and walking and bounding, not by
‘They skulk under cover
to watch for their prey. They hunt
ut night, gorge themselves with food,
and sleep days. They are fond of
their young, and will fight to defend
them. ‘They are all marked in some
striking way. I think that even Tip-



toes, after studying these pictures,





18 THE CAT FAMILY

would know the skin of any one of|at the door with hyena-steaks and
the animals here shown.” hind-quarters of monkeys! Yet he
“Some of the animals like per-|must eat. So he wanders forth, hop-
fumery,” said Nannie, ing to meet his supper in the shape
“And they almost all of them| of some roving creature of the woods,
avoid human beings, and can be sub-|just as the eat hopes to meet some
dued by human beings,” said Cousin| roving mouse of the pantry. To be
Kate. “I have heard that even |sure, I should rather be out of the way
wild beast in a cage will turn its head | when he is looking for his supper, and
away to avoid the steady gaze of the) it is a comfort to know that these
human eye. But to me, the most in-| magnificent but terrible animals are
teresting thing of all is, that these) growing less and less in number. As
animals, fiere as they are, have a|luman beings take possession of the
Kindly side; that when tamed they earth and build towns and cities, wild
become docile, and show affection for| beasts slink away to the deep forests,
those who have the care of them.” —_| or to such regions as are unfit for the
“And what we call their fierce-|dwelling-places of man.”
ness,” said Unele Willie, « is usually
either their way of defending them-| After the talk was over Fred ex-
selves or their way of getting some-| claimed, “Just think, Nannie, your

thing toeat. A wild beast cannot sit|kitty has Lions and Tigers for her
in his den and have market-carts stop| near relations!”















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PRANG’S

NATURAL HISTORY SERIES

FOR CHILDREN.

CAT -FAMILY.

CLASSIFICATION

BOSTON:
L, PRANG AND COMPANY.
1878.


Corrnron.
By L. PRANG & CO.
1877.



PRANG’S
NATURAL HISTORY SERIES FOR CHILDREN.

THE CAT

THE OAT.

‘As Cousin Kate and Tiptoes and
Nannie and Fred sat looking at the
“ pussy-cat picture,” as Tiptoes called
it, Uncle Willie came in, bringing
Nannie’s gray kitty. Unele Willie
wore his flowered dressing-wown, his
tasselled cap, and a long red scarf
around his waist.

“Tadies and gentlemen,” said he,
“Tama brave and valiant showman,
and I have come to show you one of
the most remarkable and interesting
animals in the world. Its English
name is Cat, but in China it is called
the ‘Miao.’ To begin with, the cat!
is a beautiful animal. Look, gentle-
men and ladies, at her richly shaded
and silky fur; her slender limbs ; her
tail, tapering smoothly to a point!
How easily she bends her body! How
lightly she springs! And how lightly
she falls!” added Uncle Willie, as
kitty sprang down to chase 4 rolling
cotton-spool. “ If Tiptoes were lying
on the floor, playing with a spool, he:
could not move his neck and legs and.
arms in that graceful way.

“Tn the next place, the cat is a
wonderful animal. Kitty jumped from
a place five times her own height. If
‘Tiptoes were to jump from a place five
times his own height, —the chamber



FAMILY.

window, for instance, —he would
probably break his bones. But the
cat is light for her size,and the cat is
flexible, that is, her body bends easily.
Tt bends easily because the skin is
placed loosely upon it, and because the
joints of the backbone are so formed
that this backbone can be curved in
any direction. Another reason why
the cat falls lightly is that her feet
are clastic. Tndin-rubber is clastic,
you know. An india-rubber ball does
not fall with a thump, it touches and
bounds back. If the bottoms of our
foot were provided with thick cushions
made of india-rubber and yelvet, and
if we were sure of coming down upon
our toes, we might dare to jump from
a high window, especially if we had
four such feet. The ent, having elas-
tie cushions on her feet, and four
such feet, and the faculty of alighting
upon her toes, and a loose skin, and
a light, flexible body, is wonderfully
contrived for jumping from high
places.

© L see that one of my hearers, Fred
by name, is looking at certain red
seratches upon his hand. He is the
same one who yesterday morning was
inquiring how eats— which, as he truly
said, are always trotting about— can
keep their claws so sharp, ‘That is


THE CAT

another of the wonders of this won-
derful animal. Its claws are retra
tile. Retract means, ‘to draw back.
Pussy’s claws are called retractile be-
cause they ean be drawn back. Come
here, pussy, and show your paws.""

Unele Willie stroked pussy’s fur,
then took her in his arms and held
up her paw, and showed how the claw
could be drawn back into its shtath,
or pushed out from it.

We ean sce this very plainly in
the picture,” said Cousin Kate. “In
the lower left-hand corner the claw is
seen, thrust out, Tn the right-hand
corner it is drawn in.”

If the claws could not be drawn
in,” said Uncle Willie, * their points
would soon become dulled by striking
upon the ground and floor, for cats

usually step on the front part of the

foot. Why need the claws of a cat
be sharp? , she needs them sharp
to fight with, in case she is attacked.
She needs them sharp for clutching!
mice, also for holding on when she
climbs a tree for birds. A eat ought
not to catch birds, you think; but
she thinks they were made for “her!
to eat. We have looked, you
at the Birds of Prey. The eat is born
a Benst of Prey; born to prey upon
other animals. She creeps upon them
slyly, she springs upon them, she
devonrs them,

“Think how well fitted is the eat
for all this.
in she can step very softly on those
cushioned feet, and move without be-
ing heard. Her pointed cars, set!
0 as to open forward, cateh every
sound the creature makes. She has

OW,

FAMILY.

teoth are long and sharp for tearing

1 pieces, and she has strong jaws
for crushing the bones. Did yon
never notice the size of a cat's
month 2”

“Tt reaches all the way round her
face," said Fred.

“Look at the large drawing,
left-hand corner,” said Cousi
+ and you will see its shape more p
ly, and see how the upper and lower
jaws are joined together. ‘The front
teoth are sharp and pointed, for tear-
ing meatfrom bones. You know what
little fine teeth kitty has in front.
‘Phe back teeth are curiously shaped.
Ours, you know, are thick and solid,
for grinding food. A cat's back teeth
are thin and sharp. ‘The upper and
under ones, in coming together, work
like scissors-blades, and so cut even
the hardest meat into fine pieces.”

‘A cat could not grind her food
with her teeth as we do, even if she had
grinders,” said Uncle Willie. Our
lower jaw moves sideways, but hers
can move only up and down,”

“Does she smell with her smell-
ers?” asked Nannie,

« She smells with her smeller,” said
Uncle Willio, “ but her smeller is her
nose. ‘These stiff hairs standing out
on each side of her face are ferlers.
‘These make another wonder of my
wonderful animal. “You cannot imay-
ine how delicate are these hairs. Each

With her claws drawn one has at its root fonr or five nerves

Which go to the brain and let the eat
know when she is near an object, and
what kind of an object it is. She
can judge by these if a hole or ereviee
is wide enough for her body to pass



powerful muscles for springing. Her

through.


THE Cat

I see,” said Fred. “ The body is
so much wider than the head and
neck, that without those feelers the
cat might creep part way into a hole
and find herself wedged in and have
to pull back.”

“And when she is stealing upon
her prey,” said Unele Willie, “ they
help her to find a way through whieh
she ean pass without brushing against
anything thet would make a noise.”

* And in a very dark night,” said
Cousin Kate, * these delicate feelers
inust help her to feel her way around a
room without running against things.

“But I thought eats could see in
the dark,” said Pred.

“They could not see in a totally
dark place,” said Unele Willie, but
they are not often in such places.
Our darkest nights haye some rays!
of light; and here I come to another
of the wonders of my wonderful ani-|
mal. Please look me straight in the
eye. That little dark spot
tre is the seeing part. If that were
taken ont, T could not see at all, In
pussy's eye—where is she? Jumped
out of the window? Never mind;
just see above the eat in your pic-
ture the two drawings of a cat's
eye. The right-hand one of those
drawings shows the eye as it appears

the daytime, when light is plenty.
The spot in the centre, the seeing
spot, is narrow, hardly more than a
straight mark, up and down, At

ht, when rays of light: are searee,
this spot becomes very large, that it
may take in as many as possible of
these rays. ‘The left-hand draw
shows you the spot grown large and
round.”



FAMILY,

“ What is that fanny thing in the
corner?” asked Nannie,

“That is the magnified pieture of a
cat’s tongue,” said Uncle Willie. “It
shows yon the little horny points
which make it rough; you see they
point backwards.
hand pussy draws her tongue in, and
so draws these points, point first,
across your skin. By having a rough
tongue, the eat ean lap up milk fast,
and can setape hones clean of their
meat. It is not only a lapper and
a scraper, but a comber, When she
licks herself, this rough tongue, with
its horny points, acts as a sort of
curry-comb, and combs her fur straight
and smooth, Let me see; what else
shall Ttell you of my wonderful ani-
mal”

* Please tell why she sleeps so much
in the daytime,” said Nannie.

* Because she is awake so much in
the night,” said Unele Willie. “This
isa part of the wild whieh is left in
her. Wild beasts of prey always
prowl about at night to eateh their
prey, and no matter how much a cat
is petted, she is always fond of night-
prowling.”

“T should like to know,” said Fred,
“how long it is since eats began to
live in people's houses,”

“Nobody knows,” said Uncle Wi

But we know that the ancient Egyp-
tians thought so highly of the eat
that they made her one of their sacred
animals. For this reason, if an army
coming to fight with them placed eats
along its front, they dared not attack
those front ranks, lest the eats should
be injured.”

“In those very ancient times,” said


a. THE CA’
Consin Kate, # rats and mice and other
vermin were more plenty than they are
in our times, and any animal which
would destroy them was looked upon
as a sort of protector of the people.
‘There is the story of Whittington, you
know, which tells how he sent away
his cat in a vessel, and how the vessel
went toa country where rats and mice
were so abundant that they overran
the king’s dinner-table, and how the
king paid a great deal of money for
Whittington’s Cat.

“At one time, in England, the
price of a kitten was fixed by law:
0 much before it could see; so much
after it could see and before it had
caught © mouse; and so much after

had caught a mouse, I have read
that in Holland the people make a
business of raising cats in order to
sell their skins, and they keep the
cats on fish, because a fish diet im-
proves the fur.”

“Tf all the cats knew this they all
would want to go to Holland,” said
Cousin Kate. “They are fond of fish,
but, being afraid of the water, cannot
go a fishing.”

“Mr. Showman, have you told us
all you know abont cats?” asked
Fred.

“T know this much,” said Unclo
Willio, # that you seldom see a cat
run. She cither walks or ereeps or
oes by springs.””

“I know that they like the softest
cushions to Tie upon, and a snug warm
corner,” said Consin Kate, “and 1
know they have power to charm birds,
for I have seen a cat do this. She
looked steadily at the bird until he
dropped. Very likely he was over

FAMILY.

jcome by fright, Cats like some kinds
of strong-smelling herbs, — catnip, for
instance, and valerian, Put a cat
into a bed of valerian, and she will
roll over and over in it and almost
tear it up by the roots.

“There are cats which like music.
T have heard of a eat which was so
| delighted with a certain piece of musie
that she acted like a crazy creature
jevery time it was played in her hear-
ing. But one of the most wonderful
things about this wonderful animal is
|the faculty of finding its way home.
[I read the other day that in a cer-
tain European city it is proposed to
| train cats to work as carrier-pigeons.
‘Thirty-seven cats were put in bags
and carried twenty miles from that
city in the night, and before the same
time next night every one was back
at its own home. The question is,
How was this done?”

* A question no person can answer,”
said Uncle Willie,

“Cats have a great deal of curios-
ity,” said Cousin Kate. “Take a cat
into @ strange house, and she m
rests until she has been into every
room. If a new piece of furniture is
brought home, she examines it all
around.”

“T wonder,” said Uncle Willie, # if
‘Nannie knows why her black and gray
cat is a tabby eat? No? It is |
cause she has stripes. ‘Tabby means
striped or brindled. Cats are said to
care more for houses than for people.
Cousin Kate shales her head.”

Please, Mr. Showman,” said Cousin
| Kate, “let me speak a good word for
the cat, She has more feeling than
lis generally supposed. She shows a





THE CAT

great deal of love for her kittens, and
she grieves for the loss of them, Cats
often become attached to other ani-
‘mals, even to dogs.”

“Q yes!” cried Nannie. “ Aunt
Hattie’s kitties sleep on old Nep's|
back, right in his thick hair, and he
lets them stay!”

« Thelieve,” said Cousin Kate, « that
the reason why cats and dogs seem
natural enemies, is beeause dogs have
been taught to torment cats, sef on,
as we say. I have heard of a cat

which used to let the dog in after he
was put out at night. ‘The dog would
rap, and the cat would spring up and
strike the latch and open the door.
‘The dog would walk in and lie down
by the cat, and in the morning every-
body

would wonder how the dog gob

. At Inst the trick was found out.

Thave heard of another eat which
formed a friendship with a horse, and
used to sit upon his back. When he
died she sat upon the body until it
was buried, then crept mournfully
away and was not seen again until
her own dead body was fond in a
haydoft’ oe

“ And. nly. kitty.
Nannie.

“Certainly she does,” said Cousin
Kate. “When you are away she
walks from room to. room, trying to
find you.”

And when I come back,” said
Nannie, “she jumps up in my lap,
and purrs loud, and lieks my hands,
and rnbs her head on my shonlder.””

“I know a cat story,” said Uncle
Willie. “There was a lady who suf-
fered from severe fits of coughing.
‘As soon as she began to cough her

i me!” said

FAMILY.

cat would become uneasy. Tt would
jump upon the bed, utter sorrowful
sounds, and lay its paw on the lady's
lips.”

1 feel sure that by kind treatment
we can gain the love of cats,” said
Cousin Kate, “and that by taking
pains to watch them we should find
that they are very Anowing, as eoun-
try folks say. But people treatthem
roughly, drive them, * scat? them, hnrt
| thom, take little pains to understand
them, and then complain that the cat
shows no love and is not an interest
| ing animal.”

MANX OAT,

“0 Cousty Kare!” cried Tiptoes.
“Here's a poor little kitty with her tail
cnt off 1”

“No, dear,” said Cousin Kate,“ that
[kitty never had any tail, She is a
Manz Cut. Her home is on an island
near England. The island is called
the Isle of Man, and the cat takes its
name from the island, Manx Cats
are about the size of our cats, and
I never heard that they are different
from our cats, except in this matter
of tail,”

© The difference of a tail must be a
great difference to a eat,” said Uncle
Willie. A cat without a tail looks
stiff and awkward. How can a cat
without a tail to wag show what her
feelings are?

TET were a cat without a af,

1 would stand on the roof and weep and wail.

Should ship pass by,

Td vehemently ery,
0 goatly ship, spre all your axils
And speed away to tho Land of Tails

Return with a load as fast as you can,
For the destitute cats of the Isle of Man




THE CAT

“Does the poor kitty know she}
hasn't any tail?” asked Nannie, half}
Inughing and half erying.

“We may find that out when we
Tearn to understand the language of
animals,” said Cousin Kate, “ but not
fat present.”

“1 wonder,” said Fred, “if, the
cats that have tails make fun of this
kind?”

‘They do if they are like some
children,” said Cousin Kate. “1
have known children mean enough
and cruel enough to make fun of a
poor child who had some defect in its
feot or its eyes or its figure. Let u
hope that cats are not so mean and
eruel.”

“The Manx Cat is a tabby cat,”
said Fred ; she is striped.”

“That next one is tabhy—a Tit-
tle,” said Nannie; “but it does n't
look just like a eat.”

ANGORA OATS.

“Tuan is the Angora Cat,” said
Uncle Willie ; “she comes froma place
in the southern part of Asia called
Angora, The dogs and rabbits and
cats of that region are famous for

their long silky hair, T have seen
numbers of this kind of cat in France.
They are larger than the common kind,
and have higher foreheads and sweeter
tempers. They are good for pets, but
not good mouse-catchers.”

“No,” said Fred, “a cat with all
that fur on, and that heavy tail to
carry, can’t be very spry to jump.
Miss Angora might give Manxy part
of her tail and still have plenty left.”

* She probably came from the‘ Land

FAMILY.

of Tails’ spoken of in Uncle Willie's
fine poetry !” said Cousin Kate,

| “1 think she is a beauty,” said
|Naunie. “1 wish I had a dear tittle
Angora kitty!"

“You would need to lay in a large
stock of provisions,” said Uncle Wil-
lie, “These Angora Cats have a re-
fined and stately manner of eating,
and like delicate food, but their appe-
tites are astounding. ‘They have also
a stately manner of walking. You
should see one of these cats in mo-
tion. With its high head, and long,
white, silky hair and magnificent tail,
it sweeps along as grand as a pea-
cock.”

“But she can scratch,” said Fred,
pointing to her claws.

“Yes,” said Cousin Kate, All
tho animals in this set of pictures
have the claws of a cat, the feet of
cat, the jaws of a cat, the teeth of a
cat, the tongue of a cat, the sly ways
of a cat, the soft tread of a eat, and
the cat's sudden spring.”

WILDOATS,

“Sue! Look!” eried Tiptoes. “Bad
cat!” He was pointing to the Wild-
cat.

“You're right, Tiptoes,” said Un-
cle Willie, “A bad cat to meet in
the woods.”

«Do we have cats like that in our
woods?" asked Nannie.

“Not in any woods near us,” said
Uncle Willie, “but they are found in
the forests of the West, and among
the mountains of the United States,
and in Canada, in places where the
country is not thickly settled.”




THE CAT

“Tt looks some like a house cat,"
said Fred, only larger and stronger.”

“And coarser and fiercer,” said
Cousin Kate. “Two and one half
feet long. I wonder if these figures
include the tail? Let's see what the
note-book says. It says— it says —|
that in the measurements of these]
animals the tail is not included. So
the Wildeat measures two and one:
half feot from the point of its nose!
to the end of its body. I suppose the!
largest of our eats would hardly meas-
ure two feet.”

“Did our eats come from wild
cats?” asked Fred.

“Those who know best,” said Uncle
Willie, “say that our eats came not

from wild cats, but from the ancient
Egyptian cats.

To be sure the Egyp-
tian cats must have been wild once,
though so long ago that even the big’
books do not tell us in what country
they lived, or what kind of wild eats
they were. ‘There is one plain differ
ence between our eat and the Wild-
cat. Our cats’ tails taper to a point.
The Wildeat’s tail is all the way
alike. ‘The hair upon it is s0 short
and thick that it cannot taper to a
point.”

“J wonder,” said Nannie, “if the
Wildcat mews.”

“Yes, indeed,” said Uncle Willie,
“Tt purrs and it mews. Its mews
sound like the sereams of a child. I
once heard these mews myself in the
woods of Kentueky, and was just set-
ting out to find the poor lost child,
Imt some hunters told me I should
only find a Wildeat.”

“Would a Wildeat hurt you ?”|
asked Nannie.



FAMILY.

“Not unless I tried to hurt her.
A Wildeat as a general thing will
run at the sight of a man, but if
attacked, it is a furious fighter. It
springs in your face, and claws and
seratehes and bites; and the person
who is fighting it will wish he were
playing another kind of play.”

“Dao people go hunting Wildeats 2”

asked Fred.

“Yes, they are often obliged to
hunt them. In some thinly settled
places, near forests and mountains,
Wildcats come prowling around at
night and carry off poultry. When
the farmers can bear it no longer
they muster large parties and go forth
a Wildeat hunting, with dogs and
gins. If you kill one Wildeat and
leave it on the ground, and set traps
around it, you will be sure to catch
a number, for the living ones, fa
and near, come to look at the dead
body.”

“Tf we could get a very, very wee
little just-born kitten of a Wildcat,
and let it stay with our kitties, would
n't it grow up a tame one?” asked
Nanni

“1 should hardly like to try it,”
said Cousin Kate, I read an account
of ono which some person tried to
tame, It used to spit and snap and
growl, and sot up its back, and make
itself disagreeable in many ways. It
is true that this porson might not
have known the best ways of taming
it, or might not have tried long enough,
or have had patience enough.”

LYNX,
“Here is a wild-woods animal
which has sometimes been called a


THE CAT

Wildeat,” said Uncle Willie, “and
his name is Lynx.”

When they were talking about, the
Manx Cat, Tiptoes amused the eom-
pany by looking for its tail on the
back side of the card. He began to
do the same with the Lyi

“It’s no use, Tiptoes.” said Cousin
Kate, That bit of tail is all he hi

“Three feet long; just one yard,”
said Unele Willie. He is a slimmer
animal than the Wildeat, and stands
higher on his legs. Do you notice the
firmness and stoutness of those legs?
‘They are nearly half as thiek through
as his body,”

“We may know by his looks that
he cannot move gracefully, like a cat,”
said Cousin Kate,

“ He presents a curious appearance
when runing,” said Uncle Willie.
“I once happened to see one run,
He arches his back and goes hy long
jumps, bringing all his feet to the
grdund at about the same time. With
those stout: legs and stout fect —
cushioned feet, remember, for he is a
kind of eat —he can leap down from
tall trees and not feel the shock. He
has eyes so bright and pieréing that
it uscd to be said of him that he
could see through rocks.”

To be sure!” said Cousin Kate.
“Sharp-eyed people are often called
lynx-eyed.””

* He does n’t look as eross as the
Wildcat,” said Nannie,

+ Th is said to be almost impossible
to tame a Lynx,” said Uncle Willie ;
“yet he is more timid and shy than
the Wildcat, and shows less fierce-
ness. When attacked, he spits and
splatters and makes a great fuss, but



FAMILY.

easily Killed by a blow with a s
across his back. Still, a Lynx would
not be a companion I should choose
when going on awalk. He is not at
all the companion a Western or Ca-
nadian farmer would choose for his
young lambs and pigs! ‘The Lynx
preys upon squirrels, partridges, rab-
bits, wild-geese, and other game.
Sometimes he springs upon them
like a eat, sometimes follows them
ike a dog. A stream will not stop
him, for he ean swim. If he cannot
make out a supper in the woods, he
visits the sheepfolds and poultry-yards
and pigpens of scattered farm-houses,
But Lynxes are easily taken in traps.
If they were not, there would be less
Lynx fur in the market.

1 was reading to Nannie this

ening,” said Cousin Kate, “how

es sometimes find ways of ereep-
ing under and so coming up into a
sheepfold which is supposed to be
safely fenced in, ‘The hook said that
one time— Nannie, you may tell the
story.”

“Tf I can,” said Nannie. “ Once
there was a Lynx and he wanted a
lamb for his supper, but the lambs
were ina very good place, and there
was a thick fence all around them; a
high fence which the Lynx could not
jump over, or if he could, he could
not jump back with a lamb in his
mouth; so he crept under in some
way and meant to pop his head right
up among the sheep, and so he did
pop up his head there, but an old goat:
saw him coming out and butted at
him with its horns and killed him.”

“There is one mark upon the Lynx
which neither of us has spoken of,”


THE CAT
said Uncle Willie, “Tt is a small
mark, but one whieh I believe is found
upon all kinds of Lynxes. ‘Two small
. Lmight say, —two small marks
just alike, as plain to be seen as
‘weathereocks upon steeples.”
Do you mean those tufts on his
2 asked Fred.
“Yes,” said Uncle Willie. “ All
the Lynxes have pointed ears with
tufts at the points.”

ea

OoELor.
g I would like to
have,” said Cousin Kate, “I would|
like the skin of a beautiful Ocelot,
like that in the picture, for a mat to
lay before my fire.”
We should all want to put our
feot onit,” said Uncle Willie. “There

“T sep somethin,

are big spots for my big boots and
suall spots for your satin slippers,
and spots still smaller for children.

‘There'd be many a spot and many a dot

On a snatthat cane from an Ocelot.”

“The little bits of dots on his head
would do for Tiptoes to stand tiptoes.
on,” said Nanni

“ How much handsomer the Ocelot
is than the Lynx!” said Fred.

“The Lynx,” said Cousin Kate,
“Jooks stiff and stern and rough; he
has to face the blasts of the ragged
North, The Ocelot is soft and beau-
tiful, like the soft and beautiful climate
of his home at the South. He seems
to have the grace and the easy move-
ment of our common cat, though he
is larger and of course a great: deal
stronger.”

“A very great deal stronger,” said
Uncle Willie. “An animal running



FAMILY.

wild in the woods and having to look
out for itself would naturally be a very
great deal stronger than a pot animal
which has its food provided and often
cut up into mouthfuls, even if the
animals wore of the same size; and
the Ocelot, as you see, stands half a
yard high; that is, half a yard from
the ground to the top of his shoulder.”

We will take kitty’s measure, and
see what the difference is,” said Fred.

“T think his face looks almost just
like a eat’s face,” said Nannie.

“Ts he very fierce?” asked Fred.

“Tn his native wood he is fierce
enough,” said Uncle Willie, espe-
cially if wounded or frightened. But
he is quite easily tamed.”

“T should like to see a tame one,”
said Nannie,

“Tt would hardly be safe to have
one about the house,” said Unele
Willie. “When I said easily tamed,
I meant that when kept in cages these
creatures become docile and show fond-
ness for their keepers. They like to
be noticed, and in order to get them-
selves noticed they will purr and rub
themselves against the bars.””

“T know an Ocelot story,” said
Cousin Kate. “There were once some
Ocelots kept in a cage,and Mr. Wood,
a gentleman who loves animals, went
to see them, At first they growled
and snapped at him, but he made
friends with them in this way. He
fed them with things they liked to
eat, and every time he did this he
gave a low whistle. ‘The Ocelots held
back at first, but after a while they
came quick at the sound of the whistle,
and allowed Mr. Wood to rub their
noses and chins. ‘They seemed de-


10 THE CAT FAMILY,

lighted to get handfuls of grass. It|a table!’ said Uncle Willie. “Think
is curious, but most of the earhivorous what blows those paws ean give!”
animals like a little grass now and) “A eat?” eried Nannie,
thon, and sometimes they will even| “Yes,” said Uncle Willie; “there
snap up insects. Perhaps Nannie | are theclaws p gs out, — pretty big
does not know what that big word) ones they must be when sprend,—
means. Carnivorous animals are|and if the mouth were open, you
those which feed upon creatures that would see the sharp, eatlike teeth.
live and move. Herbivorous animals It watehes for its prey like a cat, it
feed upon herbage. Herbage is the|creeps like a cat, it goes by bounds
various grasses and leaves which like a cat, and it springs like a cat,
spring up from the ground.” It stretches itself along the bongh of
“The Ocelot is very carnivorous,” | tree and springs upon smaller ani-
said Uncle Willie, “Tt eats rats,|mals as they pass by: or it hides
mice, moles, birds, and even fish, It|itself in thickets hy the margins of
is wonderfully quick and powerful in| rivers, ready to spring upon animals
its movements. Itlikes to stand upon| which come there to drink; or it
a log and snatch fish from the water| strays away to a sheepfold and kills
with its claws. The one in the picture sheep at the rate sometimes of fifty a
seems to be doing this.” | night! Its eolor is so like the color of
“Its tail is not as tapering as the) the bark, that when it stretches itself
common cat's,” said Fred, “nor as! along the bough of a tree you would
thick and stubbod as the Wildeat’s; hardly notice there was an unin
but it is pretty long.” there.” .
“Would a Cougar hurt a man?”
asked Nannie.
AMERIOAN PANTHER, OR OOUGAR, | «Travellers tell “us,” said Uncle
“Tuat Cougar in the next picture) Willie, “ that if a man will keep his
has a longer one,” said Cousin Kate, |eye fixed-on a Congar and wateh all
“and instead of tapering at the end |its movements, it will not attack him
it grows thie | unless it has been shot at or wounded;
“Tho Cougar’s face docs n't look|then it is furious. ‘There might be
40 much like a eat’s face as the Oce-|some danger if it were ravenously
lot’s does.” said Nannie, hungry.- On the whole, I would rather
“Tt has a very small head and face| meet Mary's little lamb, whose fleece
for so long an animal,” said Cousin| was white as snow, in the woods than
Kate. “Five feet: long, two and ala Cougar.”
half feet high, measuring from the| “But it is said that a Cougar can
ground to the top of his shoulder.’ be tamed if taken when young,” said
‘That is just about the height of a flour- | Consin Kate.
barrel, or of a common dining-table.” | “I was reading lately an aceount
“Think what-a spring can be made] of one which was owned by the great
by a cat five fect long and as high as|actor, Edmund Kean. It followed


HE CAT
him about lke a dog, frolicked like a|
Kitten, and was so gentle that it was
Drought into the room to see visitors,

© Mr. Wilson tells of a tame Cou
gar which liked to jump in and out
of a tub of water. It was brought to
England from South America, Cou-
gars are American, you know. ‘They
were onee very numerous and destrue-
tive in the United States, and in the
wilder parts of the country you find)
them still. On the voyage this Cougar|
made friends with the monkeys and|
dogs; butif sheep or fowl came within |
the reach of its paw, it was bad for
them, very bad.”

“Why does this animal have two
names, Unele Willie?” asked Fred.

“Congar,” said Unele Willie, is
short for Gouazouara, a name given
it by the South American Indians.
It is called the American Panther,
because its habits are like the habits)
ita Baier oneal wish ved|
in Asia and Afri It has been called
the American Lion, because it is tawny
brown, like a lion.”

JAGUAR, |

| the dead bod

AMILY

* And all covered with rosettes
said Cousin Kate. “1 think I will
give up the Ocelotskin, and get a
dJaguarskin instead.”

“Yon could not get a larger one
among the Beasts of Prey this side of
the world,” said Unele Willi; * the
Jaguar is the largest of them all.
To find him, however, you will have
to go as far south as Mexico.”

“What a powerful antmal he must
be!” said Cousin Kate.

“Yes,” said Unele Willie; “his
paws and limbs are tremendous. 1
have heard a great deal about the

|Jaguar, from people who have seen

the animal and had their eattle stolen
by him, He ean knock a horse down
dead with a blow of his pav, drag off
and, if need be, swim
across the river with it. He jumps
over high fences and carries off cat-
tle. He attacks wild horses, buffa-
|loes, sheep, monkeys, birds, fish, t
|tles, almost anything that has life.
He kills a fish by striking it with his
paw, and a bird in the same way.
Sometimes when a flock of birds rise
from the ground he leaps up and
‘ikes some of them down.

wnnie could not help Jaugh-
ing at Tiptoes, who was touching the are large turtles which come ashore

| In some places at the South there
and lay their eggs in the sand. The
its teoth and drawing buck his fingor| Jaguar watches from behind some
quick, as if afraid of being bitten. [bushes, springs upon the tule, tuens
0, would n’t the skin of that one] it over upon its back, uncovers the
make n pretty mat?” cried Nannie. eggs, eats them, and finishes his din-
fect long!” said Cousin Kate, | uer upon the turtle, Like all the eat
mat of that length might be called |fumily, he gets his prey by watel

a rug.” and springing and pouncing, He
“Tt would bemore than long enough has a quick way of killing an animal
for me to lie down on,” said Uncle) and putting it out of its misery. He
Willie. < |springs upon its back, puts one paw

spots on the Jaguar, and also touching’


12 THE
upon its nose and another upon the
back of its head, and by a sudden
twist breaks its neck.
fond of monkeys. Sometimes in the
‘yest Southern forests the ery of the
Jaguar Will be heard from the top of
a high tree, for they are wonderful
climbers. This will be followed by
the screams of frightened monkeys who
xo scampering through the woods,
leaping from bough to bough.”

“1 should think travellers would
be afraid to travel where Jaguars
are,” said Nannie,

“Tf a number travel together there
is scarcely any danger,” said Unele

“A Jaguar will not attack:
a man unless it is very hungry, and
even then it can usually be frightened

tory,” said Fred,
“Once there was a man who met a
Jaguar in the path. ‘The man looked
at the Jaguar and the Jaguar looked
fat the man. Suddenly the man took
off his wide-brimmed hat and made
a low bow, and said, ‘I wish yon al
yery good morning!’ ‘The Jaguar
knew not what to make of this, so
Tig turned round and walked away.”
“He saw something unusual and
sens disturbed by it,” said Uncle Wil-
fie. “We find this same thing in
other animals ; the horse, for instanee,
is frightened at a goat-cart, or a ve-
locipede, or even at a large piece of
paper?

Tt is said that young Jaguars!
frolic and play together like kittens,”
remarked Cousin Kate.

“T read of one which played with
dogs,” said Fred. “The dogs were
set upon it, but it had just been eat-

Ay

He is very|

FAMILY.

ng and was not hungry, s0 instead
lof flying at them, it began to play
with them, And T read of another
| Jaguar which ran out of the woods
and began playing with two children,
When some older people came in sight,
it rau buek to the woods.”

“A Jaguar which I read about,”
said Cousin Kate, “was taken to
England in a ship and was a great
pet among passengers and crew, It
could perform many tricks, and was
so tame that the captain used to lie
down by its side and use its body for
a pillow.”

‘LEOPARD,

“Tue Jaguar, the Cougar, the Oce-
let, the Lynx, and the Wildeat,” said
Unele Willie, “ are all found on this
side of the world. ‘To find that ani-
mal in the next picture, the Leopard,
you would have to cross the broad
ocean and visit Asia or Africa.”

“ He is not as large as the Jaguar.”
said Cousin Kate. “ According to the
figures, he is nearer the size of the
Congar, and his shape is like the Cou-
gar’s. All three have long tails, but
the Leopard’s is not thick at the end.”

“The Leopard and Jaguar are alike
in one thing,” said Fred ; “ they both
are spotted.”

“Do you see no difference in the
spots?” asked Cousin Kate.

“Why—yes,” said Fred; #I see
that the Jaguar’s spots have a dark
dot in the centre, and are larger than
the Leopard's.”

“And more clearly marked out,”
said Cousin Kate, “Some of the
| Leopard's spots are broken around the
ledges. ‘The Leopard's skin is lighter





THE CAT

FAMILY. 18

colored than the Jaguar’s, and his
limbs ave slenderer.”

“But the Leopard is a eat, Tike all
the others,” said Unele Willie, and
fa sly, spry old cat, too. His move-
ments are quick and lively as a squir-
re’s. His body is so wonderfully flex-
ible that he can bend it to the shape
of a branch, as he lies hid in a tree,
or he can wriggle along close to the
ground, like a snake. He lies down
in the tall grass of a plain where ante-
lopes are feeding, and makes strange
motions. He knows they have a great|
deal of curiosity, and that they will
come to find out the meaning of these
strange motions, and thus save him.
the trouble of going after them.

“He has a way of cheating mon-
keys. He drops upou the ground and
pretends to be dead. ‘The monkeys
are 60 glad to see their enemy dead,
that they come down from the trees
to view the body, chattering and
screaming with delight. ‘This feeling
of delight changes to a feeling of|
another kind when the old deceiver!
springs to his feet. If he cannot get
a monkey supper, he hides in the
woods and thiekets near the rude vil-
Jages of the natives and at night comes
prowling around, helping himself to
pigs, sheep, and hens. ‘The huts of|
the natives are small and slightly
Wilt; sometimes when goats’ meat:
has been left hanging insi
Leopard will spring upon the thatched
roof, tear a hole in it big enough to
let himself through, and make a meal
of the meat.””

“Would he if the folks were in
sight?” asked Fred.

© Probably not, unless very hungry.

As a rule, he runs at the sight of &
man ; but if the man attacks him, then
he is furious and very dangerous.”

“Our teacher told us about a

Leopard in a menagerie,” said Fred.
“This Leopard used to frolie with a
lion that was in the same cage and
play with the end of the lion’s tail.
Another Leopard used to pub ont its
paw and snatch muffs and hats and
umbrellas and parasols,”
“And smash them quick as a wink!””
cried Nannie, “And another Leop-
ard was so tame that it lived with a
family. It let the children pull its
tail, and when they had their naps it
used to lie down close by them.”

“his was the Leopard that liked
lavender-water,” said Fred. “If an
essenve-bottle were opened near him it,
almost set him erazy.””

“I know a story of a funny Leop-
ard,” said Cousin Kate, “Tt was
tame, and was taken care of by a hoy.
One day, finding the boy asleep at his
post, it gave him a pat on the head
with its paw, which knocked the boy
flat, and then stood wagging its tail
as if it enjoyed the fun.”

THE HUNTING LEOPARD, OR
CHEETAH.

“Paar Hunting Leopard you see
in the next picture,” said Uncle Wil-
lie, “is so easily tamed and so docile
when tamed, that in some families of
the countries where it lives it runs
about just like a dog,”

“Why, I thought it was a dog!”
said Nannie.

“Tt is a eurious animal,” said Uncle



Willie, “Tt is spotted like a Leopard,


THE CAT
its head and body are shaped like aj
dog’s, its nose is black at the end
like a dog's, it stands high like a
dog, and stands stiff’ and firm like
adog. Its tongue and teeth and feet

and mouth and tail are like a cat's,

FAMILY.

old Kings and emperors liked to gather
wild beasts about them. ‘They thought
in this way to make themselyes seem
grand and rich and powerful, On
reat days—sueh as our Fourth of
July, perhaps — these beasts, Lions,

and it hunts like a eat, but its claws | Tigers, and Leopards, with their keop-
ave not wholly retractile. You will’ ers, were brought out with much pomp
notice that its hair is not rich and and parade, One of these kings ad
soft like the Leopard's; it is coarse-| five hundred Leopards."”

looking hair.”

Why is he called a Hunting Leop-
ard?” asked Fred.

“I suppose you remember about
the Falcons that were trained to hunt] at,” said Unele Willie, “is so large
birds,” said Unele Willie. “This |and so powerful as the black-marked,
Hunting Leopard— sometimes called full-whiskered animal, which stands
Cheetah —is trained to hunt animals,| there next to the Cheetah. Eight
and a good hunter he makes. He is|feet long and three and a half feet

ROYAL TIGER.
“No animal that we have yet looked

hooded and then taken to the hunt-|high, the figures say. In Southern

ing-ground in a buffalo-cart, or per-| Asia, along the margins of rivers and
haps on an elephant. When a herd|hays, in vast jungles which uo man
of antelopes comes in sight, the hood can inhabit, lurks and crouches and
is taken off, The Cheetah spies the|creeps the magnificent Tiger. He
antelopes, slips softly off the cart or|is remarkable for grace and beauty
the elephant, ereeps along close to the| and strength and weight. His hones
ground, under cover of the bushes or/are large and immensely heavy. A
the tall grass, and when near enough’ stroke of his paw will fell an ox; yet
to the herd he springs suddenly upon| with all this he is as graceful and
oue of the antelopes and brings it to| flexible as a cat. He likes the jungle
the ground. ‘The men then rush up|for two reasons: first, because it is a
and give the Cheetah some food such| good place for watching the auimals
as he is very fond of, — heads of fowls, | which come downto drink; and second,
for instance, —and while he eats this | because that after eating he must him-
food they take away the antelope. self have water to quench his raging
‘The Cheetah then allows his hood to| thirst, ‘Those black marks running:

be put on, and goes quietly back to his
cart or his elephant.”

ic emperors kept

animals,” said

Cousin Kate. “I have read of one

which used to zo out hunting with a

thousand Hunting Leopards! Those

up and down bis body help hima in bid-
ing. For, running up and down, they
look so much like the course jungle-
grass, that a Tiger might lie among
it in plain sight and still not be seen.”

“A ereature of that size and
strength, springing like a cat, would


THE
make tremendous bounds!” said Cous-
in Kate, *Trayellers must stand in
fear of him.”

“He would hardly dare attack a
company of travellers,” said Uncle
Willie, “though he might attack a
single person; but people usually take
precautions when travelling among the
haunts of Tigers. At daytime they
keep up a din of drums and trumpets,
and at night they build fires. All wild
beasts are frightened away by fires
and loud noises.”

“The noises of the travellers fright-
en beasts, and the roar of the beasts
frightens travellers,” said Cousin Kate.
“Tan imagine that there might be
sweeter music than the roar of a
‘Tiger. I have scen it described as
being like the grunt of a pig, made
twenty times louder.”

“Tt is not very sweet music to the
owners of cattle,” said Unele Willie.
“At night, if pressed hy hunger, the
‘Viger comes forth from his jungle and
creeps with stealthy step to villages
and cattle-enclosures, searching for

prey. The villagers hear his roar,
and know that in the morning some-
body's ox or cow or horse or sheep
will be missing. But it would be use-
less to go in pursuit of him. He is
not ouly strong and fierce and sly,
hut swift, ‘The word Tiger comes
from a Persian word meaning, ‘swift
us an arrow.’ And even if the pur-
suers came up with him they would
perhaps see nothing more of him than
his eyes. In a dark night his eyes
would glow like balls of fire.

“ Mr. Blake, an English poet, begins
some verses about the Tiger in this:
way —

FAMILY.

“Tiger tiger, burning bright,
In the darkness of the night,
| What inumortal lund and eye

Could fain thy fearful symmetry 1°
By symmetry is meant the whole struc~
ture of his body.””

* But Tigers are often hunted and
destroyed hy men,” said Cousin Kate.

0 yes,” said Uncle Willie, “ they
are speared, taken in traps, and shot
at from tree-tops.

“Don't they climb trees ?’” asked
Fred,

No, they are not climbers, but
they are good swimmers and good
fishermen, And they can be tamed.
If taken young, a Tiger may be talight
various tricks, and he often shows
affection for his keeper.”

“The native priests of India know
best how to tame Tigers,” said Cousin
Kate, “Some of these priests allow
their tame Tigers to come and go as
if they were no more to be feared
than dogs. They will even lead them
by a cord about the streets.”

T know a very small Tiger story,”
said Fred. Once there was a party
of men and women riding through
some woods in India, when all at
once they saw a tiger standing in the
bushes at one side of them. They
were terribly frightened. But a wo-
man leaned forward quick, and opened
her parasol at him, and he turned
about and took himself out of sight in
a hurry.”

“Tt was the strangeness of the
thing which alarmed him,” said Uncle
Willie.

“1 should like to see that earnest,
whiskered face looking out from
among the bushes,” said Cousin Kate,
“if Thad my parasol with me!”

|




16 E CAT

FAMILY,

roars all the more. In the daytime

“T think his face looks like a cat's
face, just a little bit,” said Nannie,
“He is a kind of cat, y
said Cousin Kate,—* a kind of tabby
cat.

. ‘THE LION,

‘We have found that the cat family
inclades many animals, The Tiger
is among the largest and most power
ful; but the Lion, as you see by the
figures in the picture, is even larger
than the Tiger. The Lion is ealled
the King of Beasts. Just look at his:
mane. None other of these animals
have manes.”

“ And none other have that e
tuft at the end of the tail,” said Uncle
Willie. In that tnft there is a stiff,
horny pricker. When the Lion is hun-
gry he lashes himself with this pricker
in the most furious manner. At such
times he is very dangerous. The
Lion las wonderful strength. For’
him to knock down a cow or a horse
does not require a strong blow. A
gentle wave of his paw will do the
deed. His bones are heayy and hard.
‘The bone of his foreleg is so hard
thaf if a bit of that and a bit of steel
‘age ‘struck sinartly together they will

ike out sparks of fire. He prowls
aft at night, hunting his prey, the

sate as other cats, If many hours

pass and he finds no prey, he places
lig mouth to the ground and roars.
‘TH smaller animals are so frightened
at/the sound of his roar that they
stat out from their hiding-places,
rui¥ this way and that, helter-skelter,
andsome of them are sure to run!

directly in the path of the Lion. In
dark, stormy nights he roams and



he lies asleop in the dry yellowish
grass, Tt is hard to find him then,
for this grass is tall, and is just about
the color of his tawny, yellowish fur.”

“Tet me read you a description of
the Lion’s roar as described by Mr,
Gordon Cumming,” said Cousin Kate.
“He says: It consists, at times, of a
low deep moaning, repeated five or
six times, ending in faintly andible
sighs; ab other times he startles the
forest with loud, deep-toned, solemn
roars, repeated five or six times in
quick succession, each increasing in
Toudness to the third or fourth, when
his voice dies away in low, mufiled
sounds, very much resabibling distant
thunder. At times,’ he says,* a troop
of them may be heard roaring in con-
cert, first one roaring, then another,
then another, and so on, like persons
singing a cateh.’”

“The books say that the Lion is
more noble and generous than other
animals,” said Prod. “T read a story
in one book which told all about a
noble; generous Lid that canght a
man and let him go."*

As far'as I have found ont by
reading and by hearing the talk of
native Afrieans,” said Uncle Willic,
* the Lion’s nobleness and generosity
are the most shown when he is the
least hungry. If he is not hungry,
he will not take the trouble to kill
any creature. If he is half starved,
he will kill the first ereature he sees,
man or beast. If he is attacked, he
will spring upon the person who attacks
him. If his Lioness has a nice little
brood of kittens,— or evbs, as they
are called,—he will fly at any person



THE CAT

who goes near them. And so will she.
‘The Lioness, at such times, is even
fiereer than the Lion.

‘THE LIONESS.

“Sue is smaller, as you see, and
has no mane. Neither the Lion nor
Lioness can climb trees, and it is
lucky for the Lion-hunter sometimes
that they eannot.””

“T wonder if the kittens mew,”
said Nannie,

“Yes, indeed!” said Uncle Wi
lie; the same as other kittens, on
louder, but at the age of eight mont
they begin to roar. ‘They are about
as large as a very big eat, and im-
mensely heavy for their size, You

will be delighted to know that they
are born with their eyes open.”

“Can you tame them?” asked
Nannie.

“We must ask Cousin Kate,” said
Unele Willie; “she likes to look up’
that part of the subject.”

“Tf Lions are taken young,” said
Cousin Kate, “and properly trained,
they will become gentle and even play-
ful. They will jump through hoops
and over ropes; they show fondness
for their keepers, and also for other
animals. I read a story of a Lion
which lived happily with a doz; when
the dog died the Lion showed deep
sorrow.

“Tf a Lion becomes so affectionate
that he wishes to lick the hand of his
keeper, the keeper is obliged to wear
thick mittens, for one lick of the
Lion's tongue would tear the flesh.
Just tan back to the large picture,
and look at that drawing of the tongue

| running.

FAMILY. 17
of the cat family. Do you see those
horny points? If a cat's tongue is
rough, what must be the great tongue
ofa Lion! We were saying just now
that spoken words have great power
over wild beasts. Mr, Cumming, when
hunting in Africa, came near being
uttacked by a fieree Lioness. He
kept her from springing upon him
by fixing his eyes upon her and say-
ing in a commanding voieo, + Hulloa,
old girl! What’s the hurry? Take
it easy! Hulloa! Hulloa!””
“ Words were stranger to her than
sereams would have heen,” said Uncle
“Lions are like the other
wild animals we have been speaking
of, they are afraid of what is strange.
A Lion will not attack a looge ox whieh
has a halter swinging from its neck.”
© If we look back and consider what
we have been saying of these ani-
mals,” said Cousin Kate, “we shall
find that they are alike in very many
things. The rongh tongue, for ove
thing. Then they nearly all have the
sharp teeth, the wide mouth, the power
ful jaws, the pointed ears, the fiery
eyes. the loose skin, the soft fur, the
retractile claws, the cushioned feet, the
flexible body, the easy motion, the light
tread, the sudden spring. Tn almost
every one we find grace and beauty
and strength. ‘They go by creeping
and walking and bounding, not by
‘They skulk under cover
to watch for their prey. They hunt
ut night, gorge themselves with food,
and sleep days. They are fond of
their young, and will fight to defend
them. ‘They are all marked in some
striking way. I think that even Tip-



toes, after studying these pictures,


18 THE CAT FAMILY

would know the skin of any one of|at the door with hyena-steaks and
the animals here shown.” hind-quarters of monkeys! Yet he
“Some of the animals like per-|must eat. So he wanders forth, hop-
fumery,” said Nannie, ing to meet his supper in the shape
“And they almost all of them| of some roving creature of the woods,
avoid human beings, and can be sub-|just as the eat hopes to meet some
dued by human beings,” said Cousin| roving mouse of the pantry. To be
Kate. “I have heard that even |sure, I should rather be out of the way
wild beast in a cage will turn its head | when he is looking for his supper, and
away to avoid the steady gaze of the) it is a comfort to know that these
human eye. But to me, the most in-| magnificent but terrible animals are
teresting thing of all is, that these) growing less and less in number. As
animals, fiere as they are, have a|luman beings take possession of the
Kindly side; that when tamed they earth and build towns and cities, wild
become docile, and show affection for| beasts slink away to the deep forests,
those who have the care of them.” —_| or to such regions as are unfit for the
“And what we call their fierce-|dwelling-places of man.”
ness,” said Unele Willie, « is usually
either their way of defending them-| After the talk was over Fred ex-
selves or their way of getting some-| claimed, “Just think, Nannie, your

thing toeat. A wild beast cannot sit|kitty has Lions and Tigers for her
in his den and have market-carts stop| near relations!”