U.S.Dept. of Agriculture' 4
J1ortiba Rebt tie
PUBLISHED SEMI-MONTHLY BY
BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION, DEPARTMENT A4GRICjTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLORI TA R
Vol. 5 OCTOBER 20, 1930 No. 9
PRESENT-DAY CIVILIZATION IS YOUNG
By T. J. BROOKS, Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture
E who flit through this world in a few
short years, and take things for granted
which are commonplace, every-day af-
fairs of life, do not stop to think how
modern is the world in which we life.
It has been only four hundred and thirty-
eight years since the discovery of America by
Europeans. The life people lived before that
time was so different from that of our day and of
our country as to present a contrast so remark-
able that it is hard to realize.
Four centuries is but a day in the aeons
of time that have elapsed since man inhabited
this earth; yet greater changes have taken place
in that day than in all the previous years of
In this short statement we can only catalog a
few of the more obvious of present-day features
and elements of civilization which did not be-
long to any previous period of history.
Our civilization rests largely on the wheels of
invention. Take away the following named in-
ventions, or any considerable percentage of.
them, and the whole economic structure of
society would tumble:
Movable Type .................................
C ircu lar S a w ..........................................
Steam Engine .................................. .
Cast Iron Plow ...... ...... ......... ...........
Pow er Loom ......... .. ........ ...... .............
Steam Boat .............. .......... ............
G rain Thrasher ........ ............... ................
C otton G in ................................ .... ......
Oil Blast Furnace... .. .. ...............
Sewing M machine .................. .. ..............
Electric Dynamo ........................ .....
G a s E n g in e ......................................... ...
Microphone ......... .............
Kinetoscope. ....... ........................
Wireless Telegraphy ................................
Portland Cem ent .......................................
Artificial Fertilizers ............... ........
Practical Use of the Discovery of Isola-
tion of Disease -Germs..........................
No attempt at Representative Government
had ever given equal rights to newly acquired
territory with those of the original national
boundaries, until the United States instituted
Placing every one on an equal footing as to
military service, with no privilege of hiring sub-
stitute, is an innovation of the United States in
the World War.
Man has always made history, but only since
the beginning of the nineteenth century have
there been written histories of the world.
One of the great agencies of man's achieve-
ments is the science of mathematics. It had its
origin in the remote past, but some of the most
potent powers of this, the only exact science,
have-been discovered in recent years.
Logarithms was invented by John Napier in
the latter part of the sixteenth century. Trig-
onometry and algebra were developed, analyti-
cal geometry introduced, differential calculus
perfected in the seventeenth century by Newton
The Arabic system of notation was introduced
into Europe about 1200 A. D. No one knows
where or by whom it was invented. No other
system has the capacity and simplicity which it
has. The decimal point was not used till after
1500 A. D. The plus and minus signs were not
used. till the fifteenth century. The multiplica-
2 FLORIDA REVIEW
tion and division signs came into general use in
the eighteenth century.
The radio and the movie compete; the talkie
and the legitimate drama; oil, gas and coal;
electric, gas and ice refrigeration; chain and
corner groceries; the bus and railroad coach;
tariff and retaliation by foreign countries.
How to increase production and find a market
for the surplus, in spite of retaliatory tariffs
by foreign countries; how to mechanize indus-
try to increase efficiency and yet find employ-
ment for those thrown out of employment by in-
creased efficiency-all of these demand the best
thought of statesmanship and our young civili-
KNOWS HOW TO RAISE SWEET POTATOES
P. K. Neece, Dirt Farmer, Shows Other Fellow
What Can Be Done with a Little Appli-
cation, Coupled with Rich Lands
(Ft. Meade Leader, September 18, 1930)
Our good friend, Asa Lewis, presented us with two
sweet potatoes Saturday, each one of the tubers weigh-
ing six pounds-12 pounds for the two. He said they
were of this season's crop off the farm of P. K. Neece,
who farms about four miles from the city. The tubers
were solid and delicious for frying and potato pies.
Mr. Lewis said Mr. Neece has 35 acres in sweet pota-
toes and that he is now digging his produce and selling
for from four to five cents per pound, and he also stated
that there were quite a lot of the potatoes similar in size
to the pair he gave us, but that the majority were of
commercial size and in great demand. This only goes
to show that if the rich lands in this vicinity are given
half a chance they will produce food for man and beast
instead of noxious weeds, bushes and whatnot. Mr.
Neece has pointed the way for what he has done, others
can do likewise.
(Lake Worth Leader, September 4, 1930)
Much has been said about Florida's citrus industry,
which, it is predicted, will bring $60,000,000 the coming
season. However, citrus is not Florida's only great in-
Attention recently has been directed by the State
Marketing Bureau to the poultry industry of Florida.
During 1929, the bureau reports, Florida poultrymen re-
ceived $14,000,000 for their poultry and eggs. About
$9,000,000 of this money came from eggs and $5,000,000
of this money came from poultry.
From 1920 to 1928 the number of chickens in the
state increased 66 per cent. Cooperative marketing has
made rapid progress and the producers are bettering their
condition by orderly marketing.
A large number of poultry farms are located in this
section and they are bringing hundreds of thousands
of dollars annually to the producers, adding wealth to
FLORIDA BOYS ARE HONORED BY FUTURE
One Presides, Other Competes in Southern
Regional Speaking Contest
(By J. F. Williams, Jr., State Supervisor of Agricultural
Gray Miley, of Plant City, who is vice-president of
the national organization of Future Farmers of America,
has been selected to preside over the Southern Regional
Future Farmer Public Speaking Contest, which will be
held in Athens, Georgia, October 25th, 1930.
Mallory Roberts of Crescent City will represent Flor-
ida in this contest. Mallory won this honor by winning
in the State Future Farmer Public Speaking Contest
held in Gainesville at the time of the State Convention
of Future Farmers on June 9th. In addition to the
honor of representing Florida in the Southern Regional
Future Farmer Public Speaking Contest, Mallory received
a State Award Plaque properly engraved, and the trip
to Athens, with all expenses paid.
Eight states will be represented in this contest. The
states sending speakers to Athens are: Florida, Okla-
homa, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Vir-
ginia, Arkansas and Georgia.
The boys speaking in this contest are "Future Farm-
ers" who won the state contest in their respective states.
The winner in the contest held in Athens will represent
the south in the national contest in Kansas City in No-
vember. All his expenses will be paid to Kansas City and
he will win at least $100 additional in the Kansas City
contest where the South will compete with the North,
West and East. The first prize winner will get $500.
The judges in the contest will be: C. A. Cobb, Atlanta,
editor Southern Ruralist; W. C. Lassetter, Birmingham,
editor Progressive Farmer, and James Speed, Louisville,
editor Southern Agriculturist.
At 1:30, eastern standard time, the winning speaker
will go on the air over WSB from the studio at the
Georgia State College of Agriculture.-Farm and Grove
Section, Monticello News, October 10.
FLORIDA CREAM IMPORTS TOTAL 150,000
(Miami Herald, October 7, 1930)
Tallahassee, Fla., Oct. 6.--(A. P.)--Approximately
150,000 gallons of cream were imported into Florida dur-
ing the past 12 months, according to the milk inspection
division of the State Department of Agriculture.
50,000 TUNG OIL TREES PURCHASED
(Gainesville Sun, August 28, 1930)
Nearly 50,000 tung oil trees growing in the nursery
of Dr. A. G. Pless on the Newberry road have been pur-
chased by the Peninsular Tung Oil Corporation, it was
announced yesterday. The trees will be transplanted on
the corporation's land near Gainesville, it was learned.
The Peninsular Tung Oil Corporation has offices on
East Union street and owns considerable acreage in
different sections of the county. R. R. Shweitzer is
president, H. S. Bradley is vice-president, and G. T.
Bobbitt is general manager and secretary-treasurer. Mr.
Bobbitt is well known here, having been engaged in the
real estate business.
FLORIDA REVIEW 3
Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
T. J. BROOKS......
Commissioner of Agriculture
...Asst. Commissioner of Agriculture
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Florida, under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.
OCTOBER 20, 1930
JUST A WORD
We wish to thank the hundreds of people who have
written letters of commendation of FLORIDA REVIEW.
They give us to know that the publication has been
appreciated and considered worthwhile. However, cir-
cumstances make it necessary to suspend its publication
for the present. Meanwhile remember us as always
ready to serve you in any way possible.
FLORIDA LOCATION FOR HOME FOR AGED
SOUGHT BY ROUMANIAN SOCIETY
Chicago, Ill., September 29, 1930.
State Department of Agricluture,
Bureau of Immigration,
Gentlemen.-The U. S. Department of Agriculture, in
reply to an inquiry as to the most favorable place for
the establishing of a farm home for the aged members of
Union & League of the Roumanian Societies of Amer-
ica, suggested my contact with your department.
I therefore beg leave to acquaint you somewhat with
our plans and necessities with sincere anticipations and
hope that you will help us, as far as it is possible, in the
ultimate solution of our much desired end.
The Roumanians, traditionally farmers for many cen-
turies, began to immigrate to America about 25 or 30
years ago. This, to free their little plots of land from
the mortgage back home; buy a little more land and
The factories and mines, we must concede, offered the
best opportunities to quicker accomplish these ends.
So, instead of many thousands of good farmers, cir-
cumstances made out of these people thousands of poor
factory hands and poor miners. The war came; bounda-
ries changed; loved ones were lost, and now, after a
quarter of century these people are still here, only in-
stead of healthy, robust, full of vigor, they are old,
jobless, homeless. Luckily, though, a large number re-
mained members of this large fraternity; their only hope
for aid in cases of total disability or death.
At our last annual convention, sensitive of this de-
plorable condition, the delegates authorized me to seek
ways and means of establishing some sort of a home for
these unfortunate ones where they could be at least in
part sheltered from the merciless hardship of old age.
Of course the realization came, though late, that, if
farm instead of factories or mines, would have been
their choice 20 or 25 years ago, things would have been
different. This brought about the discussion of the
advisability that young members should turn their atten-
tion to agriculture also.
So we estimated that about 5,000 or 6,000 acres of
good productive land, located where climate favors even
old age with an active life, would give us a good begin-
ning for our purpose. Of course our scheme of tackling
this proposition involves some cash as well as the par-
ticipation of young members also. Only then could we
expect to make it a success. The details will be gladly
given after we find the land and the man that is willing
to deal with us.
In conclusion, therefore, gentlemen, I hope that your
good office will undertake this burden to make this
proposition known to whomever may be interested.
The Union & League of R. S. A.
John L. Spornick, President.
The Union & League of Roumanian Societies of
America, Inc., 1212 Lill Avenue.
CANNING FACTORY LOCATION WANTED
Edinburg, Virginia, September 3, 1930.
Department of Agriculture,
Gentlemen.-Will you give me information relative to
tomato canning in Florida as regards locality, labor, price
of raw stock, shipping rates, etc. I am interested in
locating a small factory this winter in one of the southern
states, and any information will be appreciated.
FLORIDA IS NOT TO BE PITIED
(Athens (Ga.) Banner-Herald, September 17, 1930)
The general impression gained throughout the country,
on account of the visitations of hurricanes, the fruit fly
and many other calamities, to say nothing of the passing
of an inflated boom that attracted the attention of the
nation a few years ago, the people of Florida resent the
pity that has been bestowed upon them from numerous
regions of the country.
The Jacksonville Times-Union, in a leading editorial,
says that "Florida is not asking for pity." The people
of Florida have shown a remarkable spirit of independ-
ence. They have not lost their morale nor have they
sought sympathy from outside people, but they have
gone along, without a murmur, and builded from the
ruins that appeared to be little short of destruction. Such
a spirit is deserving of commendation from the people
of the nation. In commenting on the sympathy ex-
pressed by many of the newspapers of the country, the
"Strangely enough some newspapers in the country
are disposed to pity Florida and refer to the situation
in this State as quite sad. The pity isn't either deserved
or appreciated. Florida is not worried over the present
or the future, and in fact is very well satisfied with the
record made in the past and pleased over the estimates
of the years to come."
Under all the circumstances of adversities with which
Florida has met during the past few years, the people
of that state have shown a plucky and determined spirit
to rebuild irrespective of their losses. These people de-
serve the admiration of the people of other states, and
regardless of their dislike for extended sympathy and
pity, it is nothing more than what is due them, whether
desired or not.
4 FLORIDA REVIEW
RAISING HEALTHY CHICKS IN HIGHLANDS
(By County Agent Louis H. Alsmeyer, in Highlands
County Pilot, September 17, 1930)
Highlands county poultrymen have realized that to
make the most profit they must stop the leaks. One of
our biggest leaks has been the high mortality of chicks
and then the small number of pullets they raise from
each hundred chicks they start with. This condition is
not dissimilar with other poultry producing sections.
Another big factor encouraging work for healthier chicks
is that when a poultryman has a high mortality of his
chicks, the remaining birds are often very low in vitality
and the production per pullet is much lower than ordi-
nary. This affects the profits very much.
The price of eggs is much the highest in the fall and
we want our pullets to lay the most number of eggs
possible at that time. To obtain this we must have our
chicks hatched early, but have found that if they are
hatched too early that they are more apt to moult in the
early fall and be out of production for a few weeks, but
still eating much feed. Selling cockerels satisfactorily,
especially Leghorns, has been one of our biggest prob-
lems, but when they are hatched early we are able to
get several cents more per pound and that is a valuable
consideration. But the most important factor is that
early hatched chicks grow off well and are not subject to
as many diseases and troubles as are May and June
chicks. February, March and April are the best months
to have chicks hatched and it should be remembered that
it takes heavy breed chicks a month longer to come into
production than it does most of the light breeds.
Securing good chicks which have been hatched from
clean eggs has proven important. The first cost of
chicks is often the smallest cost, when one considers the
inherent qualities, for heavy egg production is what the
poultryman is buying and wants. Our growers have
found that in a few cases they have been able to buy
chicks and have them shipped in from some other state a
cent or two cheaper than they could in Florida. They
may brag about their purchase at that time, but the
mortality rate is generally high and in the fall they do
not have as many pullets as they wanted and they can-
not brag about their production. In fact, it is generally
the other way. It has been found to be good business to
get the chicks close enough to home so that the pur-
chaser can visit and see the flock and hatchery that his
chicks come from and see that they are properly pro-
A few days before the chicks are due to arrive the
brooder houses and equipment are thoroughly cleaned.
After the walls, ceiling and floor have been scraped,
brushed and swept clean the latter and also the walls up
a couple of feet above the floor are scrubbed with lye
water. The proper strength for this is one pound of lye
in 40 gallons of water. This solution removes any cling-
ing debris and should be followed up with a good disin-
fectant. However, the disinfectant should be sprayed
over the entire equipment and brooder house and a five
per cent solution of creolin has been found to be of the
very best, as it is one of the few disinfectants which will
affect cociddia. The brooder equipment is checked over
and growers have found that a test run of about 18 hours
is a good investment. Best results are secured when the
brooders are used at 50% of their rated capacity. Bat-
tery brooders have been used with varying degrees of
success and should be more popular when we learn to
handle them and have worked out the problems affecting
The use of hardware cloth or fine screen on the floor
on frames at least six inches above the floor has been
very satisfactory. Less disease and parasite trouble has
been experienced by this method, but growers who can-
not have this equipment have found that the use of old
newspapers on the floor is economical. A thick layer of
several newspapers is placed on the floor, and then one
or two layers of papers taken up each day. These can
be burned and cocidiosis cysts destroyed. Good clean
alfalfa meal makes a good litter for the floor. Moss peat
is also often used.
Food is now placed before the chicks soon after they
are placed in the brooder house regardless of age. The
commercial feed which is used as a starting feed has
given better results than the home mixed starter in most
cases. After feeding the starting feed for a few weeks
a gradual change is made onto the growing mash and
scratch, and care is taken to see that these are also bal-
anced rations, and can be either home mixed or commer-
cial feed, depending upon the grower. Grit, shell, char-
coal, water, and especially green feed, should be provided.
Many of our poultrymen feed milk in addition to the
above as a possible aid in the control of cocidiosis.
Those who use ranges which have not been used for
chickens for at least a year have less trouble with dis-
eases and internal parasites than those who disregard
this factor. Internal parasites or worms have been
proven to be one of our biggest liabilities even on high,
dry Norfolk sand. The fact that the eggs of the worms
pass out in the droppings, and also that the tapeworms
are carried by the fly as an intermediate host, makes our
poultrymen want land that has not had an application of
poultry manure or been used as a chicken range or is
near a flock of old chickens and houseflies. Fly traps
are coming into more general use, but they should be
used very much more if we would control the tapeworm.
Every one wants to raise healthy pullets and it is impos-
sible to do this with any degree of success if we do not
have clean land or ranges or control the intermediate
hosts of the tapeworms.
Many poultrymen want to raise the largest number of
chickens in the least space possible. Most Highlands
county poultrymen just about break even raising cock-
erels except during the winter season, but records show
that they make good money from their pullets. The
pullet is the item that we are most interested in, as it
is the machine that makes our profits. Consequently we
separate the pullets and cockerels as soon as they are
distinguishable and give the pullets all the room they
need even though we have to crowd the cockerels. This
separation also allows us to feed the cockerels a much
more fattening ration, and thus we can put them on the
market at the earliest possible time and in much better
SATSUMAS DO WELL IN LIBERTY COUNTY
(Bristol Free Press, October 2, 1930)
Liberty county will produce many more things than
some people think. Mr. R. W. Weaver, who resides near
town and owns several acres of land, has about fifty
satsuma trees that he set out about five years ago and
he is now harvesting the fruit which is yielding more
than three hundred to some of the trees. Several par-
ties seeing the trees state that they are finer than any
they have seen in west Florida.
FLORIDA REVIEW 5
MARION PRODUCES MILK CHEAPER THAN
DAIRY FARMERS IN PENNSYLVANIA
Southland Executive Believes Florida Will
Eventually Ship Milk to Boston
(Ocala Star, September 12, 1930)
Marion county is attracting state-wide and national
attention for its advanced position in the dairy industry,
dairy farmers in this county having produced milk
cheaper than in Pennsylvania, according to George M.
Brink, executive supervisor of the Southland Dairy
Products Company, Inc., which has recently taken over
the Southland Creamery in Ocala. In an address yes-
terday before the Jacksonville Real Estate Board, Mr.
Brink stated that Marion and Duval counties will pro-
duce enough milk for the company's use for the next
The Southland, which has recently opened a large
creamery plant in Jacksonville, has extensive plans for
enlarging its operations in the state, and Marion county
occupies a large place in the company's program. Some
idea of the company's extensive operations can be gained
from the following report of the address made by Mr.
Brink before the real estate board appearing in Satur-
day's Times-Union, which says:
George M. Brink, executive supervisor of the South-
land Dairy Products Company, Inc., in an address yester-
day before the Jacksonville Real Estate Board, declared
he could see no reason why Florida cannot export milk
as far as Boston and compete with producers of other
His statement was backed by twenty years' experience
in the business, and speaking for his companies, which
include the United States Dairy Products Company of
Philadelphia, he declared: "We know there is an era of
prosperity ahead for Florida. We have confidence in the
With reference to reasons why his parent organization
decided to locate in Jacksonville, Mr. Brink said he was
sent out about a year ago to look over dairying possibili-
ties in several states. "I went through Kentucky, Ten-
nessee, Alabama and Georgia, and finally wound up in
Florida," he said. "Florida is geographically better
situated to serve the thickly populated areas of the east
than the other states investigated. She has the soils
suitable for dairy farming on a profitable basis.
"My investigation of conditions in this state led to the
discovery that Florida was short on man power to carry
on the business. It was determined otherwise that this
state would be the source of supply for the populated
"Then we got our directors together and decided to
finance the company here. And I may say that the
Southland Dairy Products Company, Inc., is 80 per cent
"We found another unusual thing in Jacksonville for
southern cities. That is in your health department. Dr.
Horatio Parker and others of the health department
here have done a very fine job. Rarely do you find such
fine milk as Jacksonville has had for the last four or five
Mr. Brink said the company has as one of its chief
aims now to educate youth as to the value of milk, which
he described as one of nature's best foods. He referred
to health conditions in England, Japan, China, South
American countries and in Arabia, due to lack of suffi-
cient milk. Results of the lack are shown in the condi-
tion of the people's teeth, which begin to give trouble
early in life.
The Southland Dairy Products Company, Mr. Brink
told the realtors, has in mind trying to use all of the
milk produced by all the cows that can be put on farms
of Duval and adjoining counties. A similar aim is set
for the company's plant at Ocala, where farming possi-
bilities are similar to those in Duval.
Mr. Brink expressed the belief, based on his long ex-
perience, that milk can be produced in these counties at
a cost lower than prevails in Pennsylvania and some of
the other states well known for their dairy farming suc-
cesses. Average cost in Duval was placed by him at 31
cents a gallon, but he could see no reason why this figure
should not be reduced.
One of the first steps toward reduction was suggested
as the use of improved herds. Importations of pure-bred
cows already has started, he said, both in Marion and
Duval counties. About 70 cows will be brought into
Duval next week, he said, and about the same number
will be unloaded in Marion.
Marion county, he added, already is producing milk at
a cost lower than in Pennsylvania by raising its own
foodstuffs. He was certain that clover can be raised
here, with two crops a year coming from the same land,
each crop producing an average of six tons to the acre.
Eleven tons an acre is being produced at Gainesville, he
Duval and Marion counties will produce enough milk
for the company's use for the next three years, according
to Mr. Brink.
COVER CROPS WILL HELP FARMERS HERE
(Taylor County News, September 18, 1930)
Cover crops will be a big help to Taylor county farmers
the coming season.
County Agent R. S. Dennis has received 3,000 pounds
of hairy vetch and winter peas and will distribute this
among the farmers Friday and Saturday.
Farmers who have engaged this seed will find Mr.
Dennis at the chamber of commerce office during these
two days and can get their seed.
It was thoroughly demonstrated during the season just
closing that cover crops pay. One man raised ten times
as much corn to an acre this year as last with no fer-
tilizer except the crop of hairy vetch that he planted and
POTATOES GROW FAST HERE
(Florida Advocate, September 26, 1930)
On the desk of President Troy E. Shultz, of the
Wauchula State Bank, this week was a Porto Rico sweet
potato weighing one and one-quarter pounds. This large
potato was grown by J. R. Jones in just sixty-five days,
or a little over two months.
Last year Mr. Jones brought in a potato of the same
variety that weighed two and one-quarter pounds. It
was grown in seventy-five days.
Incidentally, a man can set out and produce a crop of
sweet potatoes in this county before a ninety-day note
comes due, which is going some, considering how time
flies when a fellow has a note coming due.
6 FLORIDA REVIEW
BULB INDUSTRY AT WALDO WILL BRING
OVER $50,000 TO COUNTY
One Firm Will Ship Over Ten Cars to Northern
Markets with a Value Ranging from
$3,500 to $5,000 Per Car
(Evening News (Gainesville), September 25, 1930)
Narcissus growing whitely in earthenware bowls in
the dawn of a cold northern spring, gladioli warmly
cheerful in the doubtful sunlight of Mother's Day-what
a debt the flower loving people of the north and east
owe to Waldo, Florida.
For Waldo might be called the bulb-growing center of
the country. More than a quarter of a century ago,
T. K. Godbey began experimenting with bulbs and grad-
ually during the years which have passed since his
pioneering days, other growers have followed in his foot-
steps until today the industry is one of the chief sources
of profit of the locality.
During the past ten days, three carloads of Chinese
Sacred Lily bulbs, a variety of narcissus, have been
shipped by one grower, the Kannaway Park Bulb Farms,
which expects to ship during the season at least ten car-
loads of bulbs. The items which have been contracted
for the season's business include cannas and amaryllis.
These bulbs will be shipped to some of the leading dis-
tributors, including Atlee Burpee & Company, and others.
The soil and climate about Waldo is ideally fitted for
the growing of bulbs. The temperature In winter is not
too cold, yet is cool enough to make firm bulbs. The
moisture supply is consistent and well distributed by a
clay subsoil. In no other part of Florida are conditions
so entirely suitable as around Waldo, growers have found.
Practically every variety of bulb may be grown. One
grower specializes at present in Easter lilies. Other
farms devote their attention to amaryllis, gladioli and
cannas. Most of the growers plan to have flowers for
the market as well as bulbs.
Among other well known bulb growers at Waldo, be-
sides T. K. Godby and the Kannaway Park Bulb Farms,
are Charles Smith, J. E. Weimer, Mr. Wasdin and Trow-
bridge and Detken.
Bulbs are worth $25 to $50 per 1,000, depending on
variety. Each car is worth $3,500 to $7,000.
FRUIT GROWERS ARE WELL PLEASED
(Haines City Herald, September 18, 1930)
With one thing and another appearing on the horizon
the Florida fruit growers would seem to have much en-
couragement. There has been understood to be a fine
crop of citrus fruit growing satisfactorily, with every
prospect of excellent maturity; a large crop of splendid
fruit in view. Then there are other things coming to
attention that make for good times, including, quite im-
portantly, the modification of quarantine restrictions.
With the finest crop ever raised and great restriction
upon marketing there would yet be serious doubts about
a successful season ahead. But the fly scare is appar-
ently over, and there may be full and free movement of
fruit at least to a great extent, and particularly in the
state the fact will be appreciated. Florida has suffered
more than anywhere else on account of the restrictions
of the past year, which have prevented the home folks
from enjoying their favorite-it might almost be called
staple food. Of course they got some fruit, but not all
that was wanted.
From Tampa now comes the information that pre-
season indications are for uniformly good prices for citrus
fruits and the entrance into the state of several large
canning concerns intent upon packing all the fruit that
does not grade up for shipment. In the past there has
always been a very large amount of fruit wasted. When
citrus fruit is not regarded as likely to catch the eye of
the retail customer in Maine or Indiana it is not packed
for shipment. But the unpromising looking grapefruit
is usually as fine, inside, as any, and now the canner is
after all the fruit not found passing the packers. A basic
price has been announced, and the canners want all they
Writing from Tampa, a correspondent says that utili-
zation of practically all culls and rejects, at a rate around
ninety cents a box in the grove or the packing house,
means that the growers this season will realize close to
a million dollars, actual cash, for fruit that has hereto-
fore been a dead loss and that would be wasted this
season were it not for the entrance of a score or more
big canners into the Florida citrus picture.
While the canners only take grapefruit, there is al-
ways a good market for orange juice, and this is now
being taken from fresh fruit slightly processed, handled
in porcelain containers, in refrigeration, and sent to
eastern dispensers, who serve it to satisfied customers,
actually as palatable, healthful and delicious as when
squeezed from the fruit. This orange juice can also be
secured from fruit that is not of size or shape most de-
sirable for packing. The buying public, especially far
away from the orange groves, does not realize the likeli-
hood of a russet being just as full of juice and as delight-
fully flavored as its neighbor on the same tree which is
clearly colored. The off-color-for packing-means a
large amount of oranges wasted or sold at a very low
price, except if taken by extractors of orange juice. The
processes now in use insure keeping and retention of
flavor and all good attributes.
All the state will be glad to have Florida's best-known
industry functioning at one hundred per cent again.-
CONSTRUCTION OF PLANT FOR MAKING
PAPER STARTS SOON
Company Will Make Paper from Flax and
Grass Which Grow in Florida
(Times-Herald (Palatka), September 12, 1930)
A. W. Houston, president of the recently organized
Southeastern Development & Holding Company, an-
nounces that ground will be broken within the next thirty
days for the first unit of the paper-making plant to be
located in Putnam county.
An organization meeting was held in Jacksonville
Tuesday, when officers of the company were elected as
follows: A. W. Houston, president; W. C. Ross, first
vice-president; L. Knabb, second vice-president; O. O.
Officers of the corporation were authorized to let the
contract for the plant and the installation of the neces-
sary machinery. The company intends not only to make
paper from flax, but also from grasses, of which there is
an abundant supply to be found in almost every section
FLORIDA REVIEW 7
BRANFORD PLANT IS ASSET FOR PEANUT
C. F. Mizell Tells Kiwanis Club That County
Company Needs More Support
(Suwannee Democrat, September 18, 1930)
Following several solos by Live Oak's stellar singer,
George Kalil, the Kiwanis program of last Friday, in
charge of Sam Gibbs, was turned over to C. F. Mizell of
the Branford Peanut Company, who gave a fine por-
trayal of the history of this new business and asset to
Mr. Mizell said that in 1927 there was no market for
peanuts around Branford. In 1928, a Valdosta company
bought two carloads and Mr. Mizell decided it might be
advisable for him to buy. He found that the price paid
at regular shelling plants was $20 a ton above the price
paid at Branford.
The business men of his community were called to-
gether and machinery manufacturing men were at the
meeting, but it was quite some time before $4,000 of
stock in small quantities was sold. To date, $12,750 has
been sold and anywhere from $3,500 to $8,000 more
should be marketed in order to have the company situated
The speaker showed the plant is not a Branford but a
district proposition as the value of three-fourths of the
peanuts raised between Ocala and Valdosta has been
raised because of this company, bringing, in a year,
$20,000 more money into the territory. The price paid
at Branford last year was $2.50 more per ton than at
any plant in the southeast. The Branford plant is merely
a forerunner to others in this natural peanut section-
there are 60 such plants in just double the area of
Georgia and Alabama. Mr. Mizell believes there will be
at least eight plants in this section, including one at
Live Oak. He asked whatever possible aid members of
Kiwanis could render.
This company is nearly a year old and already can
stand up by holding on to somebody's finger. It has
done very well in the "creeping stage," paying out
$6,000 for labor and about $25,000 for peanuts. It
raised the price of peanuts in a radius of thirty miles
$10 per ton. It now promises a future market for pea-
nuts and thereby encourages the planting of the vine
as a regular big crop. It has never paid a price for
peanuts less than their market value. If it were to fail
to function at the present time, it would mean a finan-
cial loss to the farmers on the 1930 crop of about
$15,000, but there is not much chance that it will fail
for it is supported by people who are loyal to the com-
It may well be said that the Branford Peanut Com-
pany was born of necessity, cradled in adversity and
hopes for prosperity.
FLORIDA FARM INCOME
(Miami Herald, September 25, 1930)
While there is great moaning over the sad lot of the
farmer and excessive political maneuverings to bring him
relief, up steps W. W. Catledge of Madison county, Flor-
ida, just south of the Georgia line. He is not calling for
artificial aid. He is not complaining. In fact he finds
agriculture a profitable trade.
He estimates that his farm of some 15 acres will net
him $2,000 this year, which will keep the wolf away from
the door. We hear a great deal about the low price of
cotton, but Catledge planted three and a half acres of
this commodity. Two bales have already been picked and
sold for $110. That is no starvation income. It is worth
Watermelons were plentiful and cheap this year. Cat-
ledge had four acres devoted to melons and sold them
for $510, or more than $125 an acre. Four acres in
tobacco brought $513.25. Two acres of sweet potatoes
and one acre of sugar cane have not yet been harvested.
In addition he has a number of hogs to sell.
This showing from a one-mule farm rather upholds the
suspicion that some of our hard times are due to a lack
of perspiration and wisdom. Catledge showed the value
of diversification and of centering efforts upon a few
acres instead of trying to spread out too far. Farmers
with a heavy acreage may seed them to one crop. Along
comes a drought or a blight and his single crop is a
failure. Or it is a great success along with thousands of
others, and the prices drop because of the surplus.
Curtailment of production, diversification of products,
concentration of efforts toward making the crops yield
bountifully, and the returns may prove satisfactory.
Less energy, time, money are invested, and yet the in-
come is greater.
By following such a plan many farmers could provide
their own relief. This plan, plus Florida soil, will per-
form the trick.
FLORIDA'S AREA CAN BEAT WORLD IN
Porto Rico's Annual Crops Two to State's Ten,
R. A. Carlton Says
(Miami News, September 21, 1930)
In 1928 William D. Griffin set out 14,000 plants near
Stuart. He used about 9,000 slips to the acre. Even
then some difficulty was experienced in getting slips.
John DuPuis, Jr., recently paid at the rate of 23 cents a
slip for acreages planted by him in the Miami vicinity.
He estimated profits from pines at the present stage
somewhat reminiscent of stories dealing with the "Black
Tulip" craze of Holland years ago. Estimates were
based on plants which near the DuPuis residence in the
northwest section recently bore pines bringing 65 cents
on the Miami market, with five additional slips worth, at
the lowest estimate, 20 cents each, or $1.00. With 9,000
slips or plants to the acre, bringing a return of $1.65
each under a protective tariff for the grower, profit figur-
ing must seem a pleasant operation.
Disease was one contributing factor in the elimination
of pineapple growing here. In the early days growers
were almost entirely dependent upon individual experi-
ence in coping with pests of any sort. Today radio,
mails-and visits to easily accessible county agents-are
sources for valuable information gleaned from world-
One tremendously important item in a revival of this
industry is the fact that pineapple acreage will do noth-
ing toward restricting other acreage. Incomes derived
from such a source will be over and above the returns
from other products like vegetables, or even fruit. Pine-
apples delight in sandy land, often of a nature more or
less unsuited to other crops.
8 FLORIDA REVIEW
FIFTY-FIVE-ACRE CABBAGE PATCH THE
W. A. Dougherty and C. C. Clements Have
Formed Partnership to Farm Varnell on
Extensive Scale-Work Already Begun
(Ft. Meade Leader, October 2, 1930)
K. O. Varn, formerly of this city but now of St.
Augustine, was in the city on business Tuesday. Before
returning to his home he leased his fine farm in the
northeastern part of town, known as Varnell, to William
A. Dougherty and Claude C. Clements of this city, who
will cultivate it for the fall, winter and spring crops,
and possibly for a longer time than that.
The farm is one of the largest in this section of the
state, all cleared and a good portion of it under overhead
irrigation, and the soil is as fine as can be found any-
where. Mr. Varn formerly made wonderful crops on
this farm, but having and taking on other interests he
had to eventually give up its cultivation. For several
seasons past this farm has remained idle for lack of a
tenant and Messrs. Dougherty and Clements are to be
congratulated on their worthy undertaking, back to the
soil. For their first crop they will put in fifty-five acres
in cabbage, and the chances are they will become cabbage
kings next spring when this succulent vegetable is in
great demand and at fair prices.
REAL CAUSE FOR JUBILATION
(Jacksonville Journal, October 2, 1930)
All Floridians may well join in thanksgiving with the
citrus growers over the final lifting of the fruit fly quar-
antine and the restrictions requiring processing of this
year's crop. It is the biggest and best news that has
come to Florida in several years.
Effective October 15th, it will be possible to ship all
Florida citrus fruits to the southern states as well as
those farther north and west, with the exception of
California, Texas and Arizona, without restriction.
This means so much to the state that it would be diffi-
cult to attempt here to give a picture of its probable far-
Not only the passing of the fruit fly nuisance have we
to be thankful for this year. The growth of the canning
industry alone would have been sufficient to make this
year's citrus crop the most lucrative probably in history
without this last modification of the restrictions by the
Department of Agriculture. But now we have every
reason possible to feel exuberant in spirits as to the
1930 citrus crop.
The crop is reported to be a huge one and the prices
this year will be unusually high. It is estimated there
are now 50 canneries in the state, and these will take
several million boxes of grapefruit and oranges. So
rapidly have these canneries sprung up during the past
year that nobody seems to be able to say now how many
It has already been pointed out in these columns over
and over again that the prices of the first-class fruits
will be enhanced by reason of the fact that the canneries
will take off the market all the blemished or culled fruit.
It has been stated recently that the canneries will have
to go into the first grades of fruit to obtain the amount
they will need. The canned fruit will not be dumped on
the market in huge quantities, but will flow regularly
into the channels of trade over an entire year, thus
stabilizing the whole citrus industry.
It is no wonder that the prices of citrus groves has
passed from the status of almost a liability to a real
And how much this fact means to Florida anyone can
estimate to his own satisfaction.
AGRICULTURAL EXHIBITS FOR THE BIG
(Floridan (Marianna) September 12, 1930)
The executive committee of the Armistice Day celebra-
tion has heartily approved of the plan to have community
agricultural exhibits in the various store windows, also
exhibits of the 4-H club girls. In addition to this there
will be exhibits from the agricultural vocational schools
and the high and grammar schools.
At a conference held in the editorial rooms of the
Floridan last Tuesday afternoon, Senator Milton told of
the importance of such exhibits and Mr. Sam Rountree,
county agent, and Miss Eleanor Clark, home demonstra-
tion agent, were in hearty accord with these features
and will energetically direct this valuable and important
It was agreed to give a handsome silver loving cup for
the best agricultural high school exhibit and also for the
high school or grammar school exhibit.
Community agricultural exhibit prizes were agreed
upon as follows: First, $15; second, $10; third, $7.50,
and fourth, $5.
Various prizes will be given for the exhibits of home
Miss McDavid, state director of home demonstration,
was present and proved a valuable conferee.
FERN SALES ARE OVER $425,000
(Evening-Reporter-Star (Orlando), September 18, 1930)
After two years of operation, the Orange County Fern
Growers Association, with headquarters in Apopka, has
developed sales in excess of $425,000.
At the second annual growers' meeting held early in
September the following directors were elected: H. J.
Ustler, G. S. Vincent, E. W. Fly, D. McWhinney, Robert
Williams. The officers for the ensuing year are H. J.
Ustler, president; G. S. Vincent, vice-president; C. M.
Bell, secretary and treasurer.
The association operates two packing houses, one at
Apopka and one at Zellwood. Sales and advertising have
been carried on by John Masek, manager.
A combination of adverse general economic conditions
and over-production of ferns has made the initial efforts
of the association difficult. Officials are confident, how-
ever, that the cooperative idea is a step in the right direc-
tion and that because of its basic value the association
will be able eventually to materially aid the fern industry.
Samples of locally grown peanuts have been delivered
to the chamber of commerce. They are of excellent
quality. The average bushels per acre is 35 in most
sections. We grow as high as 60 and 70 bushels per
acre. Should have at least 4,000 acres.-Gadsden County
Times, September 18, 1930.
FLORIDA REVIEW 9
POULTRY RAISING IMPORTANT IN
(Panama City Pilot, October 3, 1930)
Agriculture may lay claim to being the chief source
from which the county as well as the nation is to effect
a revolution. Poultry raising will occupy just as im-
portant a part in the upward trend of affairs from all
indications and reports and is going to descend on the
nation, not like a real estate boom, but surely and
steadily until conditions are adjusted to normalcy once
Poultry raising and agriculture development go hand
in hand, for without one there is a stipulated waste;
without the other, the effect can hardly be reckoned.
Poultry and products occupy an important and in-
dividual place in the commercial world. Every project
devoted to agriculture should have at least a few chickens
for their own use and to take up all waste that accom-
panies such an industry.
Chickens in this immediate section hatch earlier and
are ready for market much earlier than in sister com-
munities even nearby. The season is farther advanced
at hatching time and promotes a sturdy growth from the
time the chick emerges from the shell until maturity,
if properly cared for. Clean drinking vessels, table
scraps and plenty of green food with grain will practi-
cally insure good returns and a splendid investment.
From time to time instances have been brought to light
of the almost negligible sum expended on upkeep of a
flock of chickens and the return in eggs that can easily
be converted into cash. When a hen reaches the age
where she is no longer good for laying, she can be
penned and fattened and then bring a good price on the
The writer of this article was prompted to set down
the following facts from observation and actual circum-
Last spring a certain lady wanted a frying size chicken,
one that had not been carted to the city and allowed to
remain shut up in a coop with a dozen or more others.
A trip was made to several places where chickens were
raised, but found these were not raised in any quantity
to sell more than one or two, even though the owners
stated that almost every day throughout every spring and
summer people worried them to death to sell frying size
chickens. Right here looked like a wonderful oppor-
tunity to cash in on another season, instead of letting it
slide along as many of its predecessors.
Another place visited had a wonderful pen of blooded
stock and would not think of selling any for eating pur-
poses, and the price asked for them was too steep to
purchase for table use.
Then there was a place visited where there was a small
flock of chickens and the question was asked why, with
the large range and a field of corn, that more had not
been raised. The astounding reply to this was that feed
was too high during the winter to carry them over. This
may to some sound like wise philosophy, yet it is purely
lack of judgment; for any chickens that are well fed
will take care of themselves, even though their laying is
not quite up to spring laying.
Bay county needs a large chicken farm, producing
fryers and hens for market purposes the year round.
There is not any need for the merchants to have to re-
sort to storage eggs, when they can be produced here
just as well as not and in large quantities.
Poultry development in this section is eventually going
to be one of Bay county's greatest industries. It is some-
thing that has almost an open field and presents to some-
one a wonderful opportunity.
POULTRY INDUSTRY IN COUNTY SHOWS
PROFITABLE RETURNS ON
Wholesale Houses in Jacksonville Find Ready
Market-Prices Show Increase
(Lake City Reporter, September 18, 1930)
The splendid showing made by local farmers who
feature the production of poultry has given the industry
a new life in this section. Despite the unfavorable mar-
ket and the general slump in live chickens and eggs
during the month of August, local chicken men say they
have done well.
This season has been especially favorable to young
chicks. They have grown rapidly and been marketed
some weeks earlier than usual, and so brisk has the de-
mand been, notwithstanding the depressed prices, that
the poultry producers in this locality are about sold down
to their foundation stock.
"What helps us here in disposing of our chickens," said
a fancier the other afternoon, "is the constant visits of
the pick-up trucks from Jacksonville and Tampa. Our
splendid highways give these men prompt access to this
locality and we can nearly always get two or three cents
over the average market price merely because it is handy
to reach us and that we generally have plenty of young
Local Merchants Big Buyers
In addition to this, various wholesale poultry houses
in Jacksonville are represented in this city by the several
local grocers. The grocer buys a few chickens from one
farmer and another lot from some other farmer, and
these purchases combined make up as high as one hun-
dred to two hundred crates every week. Saturday is the
big poultry day, and this stock brought in from the farms
nice' and plump on Saturday are ready to offer in the
wholesale markets of Jacksonville on Monday morning.
Because the haul is short, the poultry suffer no ill
effects from the trip to market, and the chicken raisers
of the Carolinas and Georgia, although willing to sell at
a lower rate, find home competition a considerable factor
at this time.
Other Avenues of Profit
Other avenues of profit are in the course of develop-
ment. Some of the chicken raisers mean to specialize in
hatching eggs next season. The local hatchery has
doubled its capacity and will pay a fancy figure for
select eggs, which means the baby chick business will
attract wide attention to this section.
A new phase of the business has been developed in
several sections of Georgia and Alabama, which consists
of poultry specialists who feature eight, ten and twelve-
week-old pullets. This stock is largely purchased by be-
ginners in the chicken business, or by poultrymen desir-
ing to change from one breed to another. It is a profit-
able industry in some localities.
The State Marketing Bureau is lending every encour-
agement to poultry people, and with an increased output
in this locality it would not be impossible to have regular
market days when farmers could bring in their surplus
stock and turn same into cash immediately.
10 FLORIDA REVIEW
30,000-ACRE TUNG OIL PROJECT
First Unit of 1,000 Acres To Be Planted in
Citrus County This Winter-Agriculturists
(American Eagle, September 19, 1930)
Norman G. Lenington, of Chicago, president of the
Florida West Coast Development Company at Homosassa
Springs, and head of various other large American insti-
tutions, together with a party of friends, left Wednesday
night for Chicago and New York after inspecting various
projects in Citrus county, chief among which was thirty
thousand acres of land, located north of Lecanto, which
Mr. Lenington owns. The purpose of the inspection was
to determine whether or not to plant this large piece of
acreage to tung nut trees. Before leaving, Mr. Lening-
ton stated to the Chronicle that he had definitely decided
to plant the first unit of one thousand acres of this tract
to tung nut trees early this winter, and will be back here
in a few weeks to make further arrangements. The acre-
age will be planted in units of 1,000 acres and each unit
will be planted as soon as the preceding unit has gotten
well under way.
Mr. Lenington's guests on this occasion were famous
engineers, agricultural experts and others, all of whom
made various inspections and tests of soil on the land
on which the proposed project will take place. The party
spent several days at the Homosassa Springs hotel and
made a number of trips to Gainesville and other places
in Florida where the tung oil tree has been planted. In
Mr. Lenington's party were Wythe Denby, brother of
former Secretary of War Denby, engineer; G. Somers
White, of New York; Prof. Lee Wolgemuth, of Chicago,
famous agricultural expert; Herbert Graf, of Chicago,
and George Brennon, also of Chicago. The party was
very much impressed with Florida and all were pleased
to find weather here much cooler than it was at their
The consensus of opinion of these engineers and agri-
cultural experts, most of whom are well versed in mat-
ters pertaining to the growth and cultivation of tung
nut trees, is that citrus county soil is particularly adapted
to the successful production of tung nuts, and examina-
tions were made of several large pieces of acreage al-
ready planted and which seem to be doing rather well.
The tung oil industry is rapidly becoming one of the
major industries in America, and the tree can be success-
fully grown in only one or two states in the Union, and
Florida thus far is proving the best of all in this respect.
Others who have planted tung nut trees in Citrus
county during the last year are C. D. Shultz and J. K.
Kelley, and these men are well pleased with the growth
the trees have shown thus far.
Formerly the tung oil industry was confined to China,
where the natives have produced the oil for centuries.
However, crude methods of a thousand years ago are
still used to extract the oil in this country, and this fact,
together with the fact that internal wars kept interfering
with the Chinese market, caused industrial heads in
America to look around and determine where the tree
could be successfully grown, and Florida proved to be
the foremost state for this purpose, and the first trees
were planted some years ago at Gainesville. Planted
from seeds, the trees yield 400 pounds of oil the third
year and up to 1,600 pounds during the seventh year,
increasing about 400 pounds each year from the first
This country annually imports 115,000,000 pounds of
oil from China, and it is used in the following products:
Varnishes, paint liquids, lacquers, enamels, flat wall
paint, floor paint, paint dryers, cloth, paper, wood, oil-
cloth, masonry, linoleum, brake linings and collapsible
This will be one of the greatest projects ever started
in the country and will mean much to every citizen, as
work will be provided for hundreds of artisans and labor-
ers in all lines, and much money will be spent here in
various ways. Citrus county is fortunate in having such
men as Mr. Lenington interested in its affairs, and the
Chronicle is confident that the proposition will be carried
through to a successful conclusion. Next week the
Chronicle will print a short history of the tung nut tree,
its cultivation, methods of extraction, and other interest-
ing sidelights on this important industry.-Citrus County
FIGURES SHOW TAMPA GREAT BANANA
City for Size Biggest Consumer in United States
(Tampa Tribune, October 6, 1930)
Tampa for its size consumes more bananas than any
other city in the United States and this port is fast
becoming one of the largest banana import centers in
the country. This is shown in figures compiled by local
fruit and import companies.
For the nine months from January 1, through Septem-
ber 30, Tampa's banana imports were approximately
620,000 bunches, with about 520,000 bunches coming by
boat, largely from Baracoa, Cuba, and about 100,000
bunches from the Caribbean countries by railway from
New Orleans, Mobile and Charleston.
Of the total imports Tampa keeps for home distribu-
tion and in its trade area about 10,000 bunches of
bananas every 10 days, or around 30,000 bunches every
month. The remainder is distributed in Georgia, Ala-
bama, the Carolinas and Tennessee.
Sources Near Tampa
The growth in importance of the banana as an econom-
ical and tasty food product and Tampa's nearness to the
banana producing centers of Cuba and the Caribbean
countries has centered the attention of importers on this
port. At present, the N. Geraci Company, operating two
company vessels, the Louis Geraci and the Amelia in the
trade, is the largest Tampa banana importer. The ship-
ments coming here by rail in the main are handled by the
United Fruit Company.
"Little is known about the early history of the banana,
but far older than history is the use of the banana as a
food for man," says a story of the fruit published by the
United Fruit Company. The banana's earliest home, ac-
cording to the article, "is presumed to have been in the
humid tropical regions of southern Asia.
"Through the conquests of the early armies of Alex-
ander the Great, the Arabs, the Portugese, the Spaniards
and others, bananas eventually reached the island of
Santo Domingo, Cuba, and the Caribbean countries. The
first bananas brought to the United States came from
Cuba to New York early in the nineteenth century.
FLORIDA REVIEW 11
BIG FARM HAS VARIED CROPS
Chipola Plantation Has Been Developed in
(Lakeland Ledger, October 6, 1930)
Marianna, Oct. 5.-(A. P.)-In Florida big scale farm-
ing and extensive crop diversification have come hand in
And the 25,000-acre Chipola farm development here,
with its dozen or more major crops, has been hewn from
typical Florida woodland in little more than three years.
Its wide variety of products ranges from beef cattle
to ranges, from hay to roses.
There are purebred hogs, 1,000 head of beef cattle, a
dairy establishment with 125 purebred Jerseys, a satsuma
grove of 26,000 trees, a nursery containing 150 varieties
of fruits and ornamental plants, and fields of many kinds
of hay and feed crops.
Business principles have been applied by Charles O.
Reiff, the farm's manager, to the commercial produc-
tion of a long list of farm commodities.
The farm was started in February, 1927, primarily to
grow satsumas, or "kid glove" oranges. More than 3,300
trees were planted the first season, when a complete
nursery was established.
Two cover crops a year now are grown in the satsuma
groves. The summer crop includes peas and crotalaria,
while the winter cover crop is a combination of Austrian
and winter peas.
The satsuma is more hardy than other citrus crops,
when propagated on citrus Trifoliata rootstock, which
makes it cold resistant. Heaters will be installed in the
groves this winter for protection against extreme cold.
The nursery contains many varieties of citrus, peach,
plum, grape, pear, persimmon, apricot and quince stock,
as well as ornamentals.
From 200 to 300 roses are cut daily for the market
and thousands of rosebushes are sold annually. Flowers
cut in season for the market include paper narcissus,
Chinese sacred lilies, daffodils, calla lilies and gladioli.
Cattle range over vast tracts of lespedeza, carpet and
Bermuda grasses, which cover the permanent pastures.
Emergency pastures of rye and oats are to be provided
next year in case of drought.
60,000 TUNG TREES
(Haines City Herald, September 11, 1930)
That over 60,000 tung trees will be planted by the
Peninsular Tung Oil Corporation near Rochelle, is the
announcement of Gus A. Bobbitt, general manager. Six
hundred acres of land has been secured and the plant-
ing will begin at once, it is said. The following figures
issued by the United States Department of Commerce,
shows the demand for tung oil in this country.
"United States tung oil imports for July totaled
16,269,617. pounds, valued at $1,514,940, as against
14,282,385 pounds, valued at $1,784,890 during the same
month of 1929. These figures bring the total for the
first seven months of 1929 and 1930 up to the respective
quantities and values of 58,254,852 pounds, valued at
$7,297,559, and 80,981,097 pounds, valued at $8,684,-
332."-Plant City Courier.
(Tampa Times, October 2, 1930)
The production of tung oil is attracting serious atten-
tion throughout the south. Witness this Asheville (N. C.)
Citizen editorial upon the subject:
"The Southern Railroad reports that a great oppor-
tunity lies before the people of the south in undertaking
to supply the national demand for tung oil, which is
great and constantly growing. Here may be a chance to
solve the problem of agricultural depression in this es-
sentially rural section of America.
"The current issue of the Southern Field states that
manufacturers in the United States now use 115,000,000
pounds of.tung oil yearly. The consumption is constantly
growing. Nevertheless, practically all of this oil now
used in America is imported from China. Yet the tung
tree can be grown with success in the south, according
to this magazine, as experiments have already demon-
strated. With a fair amount of care they grow vigor-
ously on good soils. In the third year they begin to
bear, and the yield increases from about 400 pounds of
oil at the start to about 1,600 pounds in the seventh
year. The Southern Railroad's publication declares: 'At
current prices for oil, growing the nuts for profit is highly
profitable and should continue to be so with the constant
expansion of the market.' Also the railroad's horticul-
turist has made a careful study of the subject and will be
glad to furnish information to any persons who are in-
"Tung oil is used in varnishes, paints and other pro-
tective applications. If, as is asserted, it can be pro-
duced successfully in the south, the people of this section
should seek to supplant the Chinese in filling this great
It has already been demonstrated that the tung tree
prospers in Florida. It is said that it does even better
here than in China. There are extensive plantings of it
in this state, with the acreage given thereto being con-
stantly and largely increased. It has been developed,
however, that the tung tree only does well in certain
portions of Florida-as is the case with many other
things. There are other portions where it makes no
progress at all. This would indicate that general culti-
vation of the tung throughout the south is something
that can never be developed. It is certain, though, that
tung nuts can be produced in some other sections of the
south than Florida. How extended this territory is there
is no way of telling.
So the danger that the tung tree industry, as large as
the demand for tung oil is, may be overdone, exists. This
is something that should be borne in mind by all con-
cerned. It is well known that what was fifteen years
ago known as "the peach belt" of Georgia had better
than a gold mine in its peach orchards. In the years
since peach trees have been planted in large numbers in
other portions of Georgia and throughout the south.
The result has been too many peaches and that the
Georgia peach crops of the past few years have not
netted the growers much money-if, indeed, losses have
not been sustained. Millions of Georgia peach trees
have been cut down within the period referred to.
The best of things can be overdone. Producing tung
oil, or the nuts for its making, is a good thing. Let's
hope that the industry will be developed up to its profit-
able capabilities and not beyond. It may be that nature
will take care of this. Still it is the part of wisdom not
to leave it all to nature.
12 FLORIDA REVIEW
CROTALARIA SPECTABILIS IS FINE COVER
(By Richard H. Simpson, in Farm and Grove Section,
Miami Herald, October 5, 1930)
Crotalaria spectabilis, formerly called Crotalaria seri-
cea, is one of the most promising of cover crops today.
It is no longer a matter of speculation as to whether or
not humus is needed in our soils for better production of
orchard and field crops. Our agricultural authorities
agree that green material should be added to the soil to
take the place of humus that is constantly being removed
by the elements, by frequent cultivation, and by the
A cover crop can be found that will fit in-with any
planting schedule. It is up to the individual farmer or
fruit grower to select the cover crop best suited to his
purpose and locality. Crotalaria spectabilis has suc-
ceeded in north and west Florida, and as far south as
Babson Park. Favorable reports have also been received
from trial plantings as far west as Texas.
A Brief History
Crotalaria spectabilis was brought in from Africa by
the U. S. Department of Agriculture some ten years ago.
Seed was sent to the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station for trial. At first the results were not so out-
standing, and it was thought that Crotalaria striata was
a better plant. The two were sown together, and it
was very surprising to find that the spectabilis eliminated
the striata from the planting in a few years. The spec-
tabilis is a much faster grower, makes more volume per
acre, and does not seem to attract the pumpkin bug as
the striata does. The spectabilis species is now used for
a summer cover crop to the exclusion of everything else
at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Farm.
This is the biggest boost a summer cover crop could
About five years ago G. H. Blackmon, pecan specialist
connected with the Agricultural Station at Gainesville,
persuaded the Simpson Nursery Company, of Monticello,
Florida, to plant five pounds of seed in their pecan
This marked the beginning of the commercial history
of the crop. After three years of careful watching, the
Simpson Nursery Company was convinced as to the merits
of the new crop. Last year they planted it in their
hundred-acre pecan orchard, with excellent results. This
year they planted the pecan orchard again, and also
planted a few fields which will be saved for seed. They
sold a small quantity of seed last year, and will have
more for sale this year. So far the Porto Rican growers
have been unable to supply this seed.
Hints on Seeding
The seed should be planted in soil well prepared, as for
cow peas and velvet beans. Excellent results have been
obtained when the seed was sown broadcast. But in some
dry localities, better results might be obtained if it were
drilled in rows, and cultivated once or twice. The time
for seeding is as early in the spring as cow peas and
velvet beans can be planted. The seed is broadcast on
top of the ground, and is covered with a disc harrow.
The rate of seeding is seven to fifteen pounds per acre,
depending on the stand desired.
In a favorable year seven pounds of seed per acre
will produce a dense cover of branched plants. When
the seed is planted closer the plants do not have room
to branch and the stalk is not as heavy. To be safe on
the first planting, ten pounds per acre is recommended.
It will pay to delay sowing, if the soil is dry, until after
a rain. No inoculation is necessary on soil that will
raise cow peas.
Uses of the Crop
So far stock does not show any willingness to eat the
green crop or hay. One party reports that he has starved
cattle into eating the green striata. But such instances
are very rare, and cannot be accepted for general prac-
tice, without more experiment. The fact that stock do
not like the crotalarias is a big advantage for the cover
crop grower, as he may be sure he will not find his
neighbors' stock in the crop, and he will not be tempted
to cut it for hay. So Crotalaria spectabilis is in every
way an ideal cover crop for soil building.
It has also been planted in cotton and corn rows at
the time of the last cultivation. This has given excellent
results, and probably will become common practice.
The plant has an abundance of yellow flowers, which
are in full bloom in September. They are very much in
demand by the ladies, as September is an off month for
flowers. The plant itself is very ornamental and was seen
in flower gardens before it was used for a cover crop.
Crotalaria spectabilis is also being tried on the larger
hunting reserves, as a food for quail. It not only fur-
nishes abundant feed, but also affords protection from
attacks by hawks.
Crotalaria spectabilis has been known to produce
40,000 pounds of green material per acre. This year the
best yield on the Simpson Nursery Company property is
fifteen tons per acre, in an eight acre field. The crop is
still growing, and will increase in weight. The plants in
this field average almost seven feet in height.
G. H. Blackmon figures that a yield of fifteen tons per
acre also produces nitrogen equal to eight hundred
pounds of nitrate of soda per acre.
The average planter should expect to get a yield of
ten tons per acre, and nitrogen equivalent to six hundred
pounds of nitrate of soda.
Methods of Turning Under and Reseeding
Crotalaria spectabilis is much easier to turn into the
soil than Crotalaria striata, as it is a more brittle plant.
It can be put under by double discing or by plowing with
a turn plow. The double discing will put the ground in
such shape that a crop can be planted with a seed drill.
It will reseed itself the next year, if allowed to stay on
the ground until seed is matured. If this is impractical,
a strip for seed may be left down each middle. When the
seed pods become dry, they burst and scatter so as to
reseed the whole middle.
(Evening Reporter-Star (Orlando) October 2, 1930)
Pineapples have been talked. Agricultural experts
have shown where certain south Florida soils were ideal
for their cultivation. Pineapples have been written
about. And now, pineapples are to be started on a major
scale. C. H. Pfuntner, of the Southland Grove Com-
pany, has recently consummated the purchase of 250,000
plants to be set out on 2,000 acres northeast of Fort
Lauderdale. The plants were purchased in the West
The Florida East Coast was once one of the leading
pineapple producing areas of the United States. We
hope to see its early return to that position.
FLORIDA REVIEW 13
REPORT ON FLORIDA TRUCK CROPS
Increase in Acreage Is Noted-Condition of
(Winter Haven Chief, October 8, 1930)
Orlando, Oct. 7.-(A. P.)-The local bureau of agri-
cultural economics, United States Department of Agri-
culture, today issued the following report on Florida
"Beans-Of the 11,500 acres for fall planting this
year, approximately 7,500 acres have been planted. In
Sumter county practically all of the 3,250 acres have
been planted, sowing beginning the first week of Sep-
tember and continuing throughout the month, being
heaviest in the last two weeks of September. In Palm
Beach county, on the lake, about 2,200 acres have been
planted to date and sowing is going on at the rate of less
than 100 acres a week. From 3,500 to 4,000 acres is
expected in all this county. In other smaller sections,
plantings are as follows:
Winter Garden, 425 acres; Sanford, 300 acres; Plant
City, 200 acres; Wauchula, 200; Manatee, 250; Her-
nando, 200. A few beans have been picked to date in
the Glades, but carlots are not expected until the latter
part of this week, when the movement will be light.
"Cabbage The cabbage acreage this year will be
around 4,200 acres in comparison with 3,500 acres last
year if growers carry out their present plans. The in-
crease in acres comes mainly in South Florida and at
Winter Garden. About 500 acres have been set, mostly
in South Florida. Setting in the middle part of the state
will begin in the next ten days.
"Celery-Sanford has about 200 acres of celery set to
date. This county expects to have the same acreage as
last year. Sarasota will have 450 acres of early planting.
"Eggplant-About 700 acres of eggplant have been
set out to date, most of which are in Hernando county
and Hardee county. There will be approximately 1,500
acres this fall as against 1,150 last year. The crop in
Hernando is reported in good condition.
"Pepper-About 2,000 acres of fall pepper are already
set. Manatee leads with 600 acres, Hardee next with
500, Orange with 465 and Dade and Palm Beach with
100 each. There were about 1,200 acres in the state
"Lettuce, Escarole and Romaine-Lettuce setting is
going on at Sanford with about 200 acres already set.
There has been no planting yet in Manatee, but they ex-
pect to set 300 acres of lettuce, 400 of escarole and 100
of romaine. Sanford also expects to increase its lettuce
and escarole plantings.
"Fall Tomatoes-There will be about 1,000 acres of
fall tomatoes south of Miami this fall, about 650 acres
in Collier county, 1,000 in Lee county and 500 each in
Palm Beach and Martin counties. Smaller plantings will
bring the acreage to about 3,200 acres. Setting of plants
is now going on in Dade and Collier counties and 300
acres have been set in Palm Beach county."
(DeLand Sun, October 7, 1930)
The Plant City Courier is strawberry-minded. It has
a right to be that way. In the Courier's section of the
state the best strawberries in the world are raised. Read
"A great deal is happening out through this straw-
berry production area these days with growers putting
out the greatest acreage of berries in the history of the
big crop here. It is to be hoped that a good crop will
be forthcoming therefrom and that agreeable markets
may be found for the product. A premier product, East
Hillsborough strawberries should find many a happy home
in the markets of the northland during the winter
If strawberries can be successfully produced-big, fine,
luscious berries-the market is not hard to find. Every-
body loves a strawberry.
CENTRAL HONEY MARKET PLANNED
Production of Three Counties Will Be Dis-
tributed by Tampa Agency
(Clearwater Sun and Herald, October 5, 1930)
Arrangements for disposing of honey produced in
Pinellas, Hillsborough and Manatee counties, through a
central marketing agency located in Tampa, were an-
nounced at a meeting of the Pinellas County Beekeepers
Association held Friday night at the court house here.
Under present plans, contracts will be signed by all
members of the west coast association, comprising the
beekeepers organizations of Pinellas, Hillsborough and
Manatee counties, agreeing to market their production
through the central bureau. The Tampa agency will re-
ceive honey from all three counties, strain, pack and
grade it, and distribute it to retail and wholesale houses.
It will be packed under the brand of the west coast
A certain percentage of the sale price will be de-
ducted by the agency for packing and marketing the
product of each apiary owner.
Handling of the honey by one bureau will insure the
producer a better price and the consumer a better grade,
according to William Gomme, county agent, who was one
of the leaders in the organization of the three-county
association. It will also increase the efficiency of distri-
bution and place on the market the surplus that is ordi-
narily kept on hand by each individual beekeeper, Mr.
FERTILIZER FACTORY AT CLEARWATER
IS TO BE ESTABLISHED
(Tarpon Springs Leader, September 26, 1930)
Clearwater, Sept. 24.-A company for commercial
manufacture of fertilizer is being organized by LeRoy
R. Frank with a factory to be located near Clearwater, it
was revealed today by persons interested in the project.
The factory will be established with Clearwater capital
and approximately $100,000 has already been raised to
finance the beginning of operations, it was stated.
The exact location of the factory has not yet been
determined, but it will be near enough the city to be
within easy reach of shipping facilities and outside of the
city limits, to be well away from residential sections, Mr.
Frank stated. With his knowledge of fertilizer require-
ments, gained from study and experience as a horticul-
turist, Mr. Frank has made a close study of the kind of
fertilizer that will be best suited to soil here, and states
that only the best quality product will be manufactured
by the factory.
14 FLORIDA REVIEW
HALF FRUIT VOLUME ALREADY PLEDGED
TO MAKE ORANGE JUICE
Exchange Associations Vote Favorably for Plan
to Create Subsidiary Firm; Curry Calls It
Solution of Industry's Vital Problem
(Winter Haven Chief, September 25, 1930)
Tampa, Sept. 25.-(Special)-With approximately half
of the fruit volume already pledged by associations of
the Florida Citrus Exchange to guarantee the operation
this year of the newly organized Exchange Juice Com-
pany, special meetings of other association directorates
will be held throughout the state this week to provide
the exchange subsidiary with sufficient juice grade
oranges to supply the demands of northern wholesale
The frozen juice subsidiary plan was unanimously ap-
proved Tuesday at a mass meeting of association directors
and managers at Winter Haven, and the following asso-
ciations have already voted to set aside juice grade fruit
for the exchange subsidiary: Florence Villa, Kissimmee,
Plymouth, Tavares, Haines City, Arcadia, Dade City,
Winter Garden, Mims, Okahumpka, Dundee and Cocoa.
Total of 2,500,000 Boxes
The total volume handled through these associations
aggregates 2,500,000 boxes of all varieties of oranges
While the exchange association directorates were call-
ing special meetings to guarantee the juice grade orange
volume for the new subsidiary, leaders of the citrus in-
dustry were praising the project as a revolutionary de-
velopment in the producing and marketing of Florida
J. Reed Curry, organization manager of the exchange,
spoke last night from station WDAE, delivering the
address planned by C. C. Commander, general manager,
who left Tuesday night to attend an important confer-
ence with the federal farm board in Washington.
"Beyond the prosaic facts of its business details, the
launching of this new division of Florida's cooperative
organization offers the solution of the most vital problem
confronting Florida's citrus growers," Mr. Curry said.
RICHES IN RATS
(Clearwater Sun and Herald, October 7, 1930)
Fur is a $300,000,000 business annually in the United
States, and the banckbone of this industry is the lowly
muskrat, seventeen million of which are killed every year.
Which brings us logically to the query: When is Flor-
ida to take place among the states benefited by this grow-
ing and prosperous industry? We have the climate. We
have the waters. We have the waste marsh land in which
the muskrat thrives. We have everything but the rats.
Private interests some years ago made an experiment
with muskrats in a lake on M. E. Sumner's property, but
not much was learned, probably because the natural
enemies of the rats could not be kept away from them.
The state, too, has promised experiments from time to
time, and at least one is said to be now in progress.
Assuredly here is an industry worthy of state atten-
tion. It would mean much to Florida, just as it now
means much to Louisiana. Some idea of the importance
of muskrat raising may be had from the fact that a
million men are employed as trappers in the United
States, the greater part of them in the muskrat marshes.
The muskrat thrives in conditions that have decimated
his fellow fur-bearers. There are three things in his
favor. He makes his home in swamps that have not been,
and for generations will not be, converted to man's use.
The destruction he suffers at the hands of the trappers
is equalled only by the protection he enjoys from those
same hands, for they remove from his world his natural
enemies. And, most important of all, he's a Rooseveltian
in the matter of vital statistics.
A pair of muskrats produce from three to five litters a
year, with from five to eight young in each litter. The
young learn the facts of life quickly; the generations
succeed with astonishing speed.
The muskrat came into his own in the early days of
the world war. In 1914, Leipzig, Paris and London
dominated the fur business of the world. They had a
virtual monopoly on the valuable secrets of dyeing and
finishing, as well as on the supply of skilled labor. Pelts
were shipped abroad from the United States to be re-
turned ready for the consumer, and they were sold back
to this country for twenty times their original value.
When the war interrupted this commerce, European
experts were imported. With them they brought their
secrets, and now the United States turns out annually fur
products worth $300,000,000.
It's big business. Let's get into it.
TICK ERADICATION IS COMPLETED IN 37
(St. Augustine Record, October 5, 1930)
Gainesville, Fla., Oct. 4.-Tick eradication has been
completed in 36 of Florida's 67 counties, and seven more
counties will possibly be added to the free list soon, Dr.
J. V. Knapp, of the State Livestock Sanitary Board,
stated here during Farmers' Week. He explained the
progress of tick eradication, and how that the Act of
1923 created the State Livestock Sanitary Board, and
planned for statewide regional eradication.
The cattle tick is not hard to kill, he said. It has two
stages in its life; one on the ground, and one on the cow.
It is controlled while on the cow by dipping them at 14
day intervals from March 1 until July 1; thus either de-
stroying or starving every tick in the territory.
Dr. Knapp stated that when tick eradication is com-
pleted in Florida there will be a vast change in the live-
stock industry in the state. He is very hopeful for a
reasonably early complete eradication and a much more
profitable livestock industry. He explained that three
southeast Florida counties that are tick-free have 10,000
head of good dairy cattle, whereas in 1915 they were
infested and had only 800 head.
CALIFORNIA CONGRATULATES FLORIDA
ON FREE SHIPMENT
(Tampa Tribune, October 6, 1930)
Winter Haven, Oct. 5.-(Special)-California citrus
growers, in a telegram to the Florida Citrus Growers'
Clearing House Association, have expressed the gratifi-
cation that the regulations governing Florida shipments
into southern states have been removed.
A resolution of appreciation was adopted by the board
of directors of the clearing house and sent to the Cali-
fornia Fruit Growers Exchange.
JACKSON COUNTY CORN CROP IS BEING
(River Junction Tribune, October 3, 1930)
If any one is doubtful that the farm land in Jackson
county is not productive, he should see the corn crop
which is now being gathered by W. H. Leonard, of near
Grand Ridge. Mr. Leonard has sold nearly 3,000 bushels
of corn already and has several large fields yet to gather.
He is delivering 2,000 bushels to the State Hospital
here and it is interesting to see the large truck and
trailer loads passing this way. There are more than 100
bushels in one of these loads, and often range as high
as 130 bushels to the load.
The corn crop from that section of Jackson county,
however, is small as compared with the cotton produc-
tion this year. Every one seems to have made plenty of
cotton and even if the price was low the big production
has left the farmer with some money.
The land in Jackson county is similar to that of Gads-
den and the nearby territory in Decatur county, Georgia.
DEMAND FOR BOOTHS AT ORANGE FETE
Third Winter Haven Festival to Open January
(Tampa Tribune, October 5, 1930)
Winter Haven, October 4.-(Special)-Requests for
booth reservations thus far received by officials of the
1931 Florida Orange Festival, which will be held here
from January 27 to 31, inclusive, indicate the third an-
nual opening of the state's only citrus exposition will
break all records in number and quality of exhibits.
With attendance at the 1930 festival totaling 61,190,
officials believe figures at the close of the coming exposi-
tion will run well over 75,000, basing the prediction on
the increased interest in an attraction that began as a
street fair and has grown to second largest in the state.
The 1931 carinval will open January 27th with school
day instead of the official dedication by Governor Carl-
ton, who will inspect the exhibits on January 28th, accom-
panied by such national notables as then may be in
Florida. The third day will be dedicated to the tourists;
Florida growers will predominate on the fourth day, and
the exposition will close January 31st with final judging
and award of prizes.
Groups for Prizes
Cash prizes, cups and ribbon will be awarded in the
following groups: three divisions of packing house ex-
hibits, shipping organizations and sub-exchanges where
fruit is used from more than one packing house; com-
munity citrus exhibits, individual growers exhibits, com-
mercial displays of marketable canned or bottled citrus
by-products, cover crop exhibits by county agents, ex-
hibits by boys of selected fruits, demonstrations of citrus
diseases, insects and pruning demonstrations, commercial
exhibits other than citrus and the best decorated exhibits
of the entire show.
Keen competition is expected to develop among the
various marketing organizations. The grand prize at the
two preceding expositions has been won by the Florence
association of the Florida Citrus Exchange, which will
be back again with another elaborate display.
"Officers and directors of our organization," J. E.
Guthrie, general manager, explained, "plan eventually to
make the festival rank with California's annual show.
Considering the modest beginning, we have every hope
of attaining the goal. The festival already ranks second
in attendance to the South Florida fair at Tampa. It is
the only exposition in the state that is exclusively de-
voted to displays of citrus."
The festival directorate, which includes many of the
leaders of the state's citrus industry, comprises the fol-
lowing: H. W. Ambrose, George Andrews, G. B. Aycrigg,
K. E. Bragdon, N. D. Cass, J. C. Chase, C. C. Commander,
James W. Foley, J. H. Fuller, W. D. Gray, Russell N.
Haas, W. M. Hampton, Earl L. Haskins, Charles F.
Lathers, C. W. Lyons, W. M. Mabson, John F. May, O. C.
Owen, W. L. Smith, L. C. Sinclair, Jay Stull, C. S. Taylor,
James Thompson, Allen E. Walker and R. B. Woolfolk.
Mr. May is president and Judge Walker is vice-president.
HEALTHY CONDITION GADSDEN SWINE
Veterinarian Says Never Found Hogs in Better
Shape and So Free of Disease
(Gadsden County Times, September 11, 1930)
Dr. H. V. Porter, manager of the Swine Growers Asso-
ciation of Gadsden county, states that during his entire
time devoted to the industry of hog growing in this
county as a veterinary surgeon, he has not found the
hogs in a healthier or more thrifty condition. Very
little disease has been reported in any section of the
county recently and the hogs show up well so far as
weight is concerned.
At the present time the market for No. 1 porkers is
better than it has been during the past six months. Dr.
Porter, in speaking of the situation, said: "I suggest that
all hog growers, especially in Gadsden county, who expect
to market their hogs through the Swine Growers Associa-
tion, advise me about the time their hogs will be ready
for market and the approximate number they will have
for sale, as this information will greatly assist in arrang-
ing sale dates for the Quincy and Greensboro markets."
There were thirty carloads of hogs shipped out of
Gadsden county last year, averaging about eighty-five
head to the car, netting the growers approximately
$43,000. It is expected, states Dr. Porter, that this
amount will be exceeded this year by several thousand
dollars, as the hogs, prices and general conditions are
far better than a year ago.
FLORIDA LEADS IN THE PRODUCTION OF
(Auburndale Journal, October 3, 1930)
Florida exceeded all other states in production of
phosphate last year. It produced from its mines 82 per
cent of all the phosphate rock sold or used by producers
in the United States in 1929, according to figures from
the department of commerce.
These figures were sent to Walter N. Pearce, man-
ager of the local department of commerce office, from
According to the statement, Florida produced 72,733
tons of hard phosphate rock, valued at $267,218, and
3,015,874 tons of pebble rock, valued at $9,633,856.
Idaho, Montana, Tennessee and Wyoming followed in
the order given in their production of phosphate during
16 FLORIDA REVIEW
FLRD' ETDPOISSE SFE
FLORIDA'S PEAT DEPOSITS SEEN AS FUEL
Experiments Made for Commercial Use
(Tampa Tribune, October 6, 1930)
Big business is investigating the possibilities of trans-
forming Florida's huge peat deposits, estimated by gov-
ernment experts at approximately 200 billion tons, into
vast reservoirs of fuel and fertilizer.
Acting at the request of northern interests, the in-
dustrial bureau of the chamber of commerce is collecting
data as to deposits within Tampa's trade territory. Con-
siderable experimental work has been carried on and the
coming winter, according to George T. Bergen, bureau
secretary, may witness marked progress in the develop-
ment of one of the state's neglected natural resources.
Science Solves Problem
The big obstacle in the profitable processing of peat
into a substitute for coal has been production costs. But
modern science, according to Bergen, has apparently
solved the problem through the use of chemicals, based
on formulas worked out by Mrs. Alice M. Hart, who is
known as the "Madame Curie of the industrial world."
Blanketing the heated peat with a chemical vapor, Bergen
explains, has produced the familiar briquette, which is
used as locomotive fuel throughout Europe, at such low
cost as to warrant the operation of commercial plants.
By-products of the peat kilns can also be used as fer-
"Tests have shown peat to be superior to coal," Bergen
said, "because it burns with only two per cent ash and
has a higher heat unit rate than the mined fuel."
Preliminary surveys have revealed a large peat deposit
between 10 and 12 feet in thickness near Apopka.
(DeLand Sun, September 19, 1930)
Florida swine from a farm near Jacksonville won high
awards recently at the California State Fair, according
to reports from Sacramento.
Not many years ago this Florida product was known
by no name other than "razor-back," and most probably
the name was justified.
But conditions have rapidly changed. Today Florida is
producing some of the best class of hogs to be found
anywhere. The old "razor-back" hog, like the scrub
cattle, is rapidly disappearing. In their places are pure-
bred stock, and they are increasing annually.
Floridians are learning that stock feed can be pro-
duced in Florida. In fact they are learning that many
commodities which they once believed could not be grown
are big income producers.
SOME GOOD NEWS COMES FROM FLORIDA
(Suwannee Echo, September 18, 1930)
Removal of the embargo upon Florida fruit over a
large portion of the state will be welcome news to the
millions of Americans who have missed the sweet and
luscious fruits of the Sunshine State during the past year,
quite aside from the gratification that will be experienced
over the knowledge that Florida is emerging from a
The Florida fruit embargo was followed by a real
scarcity of oranges and grapefruit, and such as became
available was not in the same class as that which is grown
in Florida. The condition served to awaken a new
appreciation of the excellence of the purely southern
product and millions of breakfast tables will be scenes of
rejoicing with the return of the really superlative
Lifting of the quarantine means tens of millions of
dollars for Florida fruit growers, and the development
should do much toward restoring normal conditions in
this oft-stricken state.-Tuscaloosa (Ala.) News.
WORK BEGINS IN HASTINGS FOR POTATO
Checks for $40,000 Distributed Among Growers
(St. Augustine Record, October 5, 1930)
Hastings, Oct. 4.-The first step towards the 1930-31
potato crop in the famous Hastings potato belt was made
this week when local distributors issued checks to growers
amounting to about $40,000. The growers this year are
allowed $15 per acre to be drawn in small amounts once
each month over a period of six months to be used in
preparing land, cutting seed potatoes and other incidental
farm expenses until the new crop is made.
A great many of the farmers in this section have be-
gun cutting and turning their land; however, actual
planting will not start in this immediate section until
about the middle of January. Federal Point is considered
the earliest section in the belt and it is probable that
planting will start there about the middle of December.
Federal Point, as a general rule, is about thirty days
earlier than the Hastings section proper.
While it is a little early to give an accurate estimate
of the total acreage to be planted to potatoes in the
Hastings belt, The Hastings Herald places the figure at
17,000. This figure will show about a third reduction
as compared with last year's 23,000 acres.. The Herald's
estimate on this year's plantings takes in four counties,
St. Johns, Putnam, Flagler and Clay. In addition to this,
it is believed that about 3,000 acres will be planted in
Reports have been circulated to the effect that in every
potato producing state, yields have been cut short by
drought and this is the year for Hastings to increase
acreage, etc. Such reports, however, will not have any
influence over the local situation, so far as increased
acreage is concerned. Every distributor and every
grower has set forth a conservative program which will
be followed to the letter and there will be no grand rush
for increased acreage hrre as has been the case in former
years and to the sorrow of many.
MOSS BUYERS TAKE UP DADE CITY MOSS
(Dade City Banner, October 3, 1930)
The Vego Hair Manufacturing Company, with head-
quarters in Gainesville, will have a representative in Dade
City twice each month to buy cured moss, according to
Otto Wenzel, general manager.
This company maintains a branch in Bushnell and Mr.
Wenzel stated that they were paying out around $400
to $500 per week, during the busy season,, for moss.
Their representative will be in Dade City on October
14, at the old concrete block office on the Seaboard
tracks. They expect to begin buying green moss as soon
as a reasonable steady supply can be assured.