U.S.Dept. of Agriculture,
Washin ton, D.Co
PUBLISHED SEMI-MONTHLY BY
BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Vol. 4 MARCH 17, 1930 No. 20
(An address by L. MAMRHODES, Commissioner, Florida State Marketing Bureau, before the Sumter County Growers
Association, February 20, 1930)
ARKETING is one or more systems of
exchanging commodities, possessed by
the seller, to the buyer, at prices fixed
by conditions, regulated in a large
measure by supply and demand.
Cooperative marketing, as it applies to Amer-
ican agriculture, is a system of selling farm
products through grower-owned and grower-
controlled organizations or associations made
up of producers of commodities.
The personnel of agriculture is 27,500,000
people living on approximately 6 1/3 million
These 6 1/3 million farms or productive units
are managed as a rule by different individuals,
who produce raw products with a total value of
$12,000,000,000 in round numbers, adding $1,-
000,000,000 per month to the nation's wealth.
These 6 1/3 million productive units compete
in the marketing of this gigantic volume of farm
produce, not only with some 70 foreign nations,
but with themselves.
This creates a tremendous, complicated, com-
plex, economic problem, or a number of eco-
But these farm problems are not solely eco-
nomic; they are as moral as human justice, as
national as the future of our country, and if
they remain unsolved they will last as long as
patriotism and ideals of equal opportunity in-
spire the hearts of American citizens.
The Nation's highest interests being involved
in the solutions of the economic problems of the
farm, various remedies have been offered,
among them-cooperative marketing.
Since 1810 cooperative marketing, in one
form or another, has been going through the
experimental stage. But not until 1915, when a
survey by the U. S. Department of Agriculture
revealed the fact that nearly 5,500 associations
in the United States were transacting business
amounting to $636,000,000, did cooperative
marketing play an important part in our agri-
Recent surveys show that the number of
cooperative associations are now more than
12,000-with more than 2,000,000 producer
members, with a total volume of business
amounting to more than $2,500,000,000.
This means that practically 80 per cent of our
farm commodities are now controlled and sold
by cooperative associations.
And as a tribute to the gigantic failure of the
marketing system controlling 80 per cent of our
agricultural business, we only have to use the
During the six years from 1921 to 1927, agri-
culture lost, by decrease in its property value,
$15,000,000,000. During the same period the
property value of organized corporations in-
During 1929, 200 large scale associations did
331/ % of all the cooperative business.
Approximately 4,000 grain cooperatives with
450,000 stockholders, owning more than $50,-
000,000 worth of stock, and an equipment in-
vestment amounting to $65,000,000, marketed
grain valued at $680,000,000.
During 1929, 2,480 dairy associations-with
a membership of 600,000-marketed more than
$640,000,000 worth of dairy products, which
was an increase of more than 500% over the
amount marketed by cooperative associations
There were, in -1929, 4,500 cooperative live-
stock shipping associations in the United States,
handling from a few cars to more than 1,000
carloads each, turning out $400,000,000 worth
2 FLORIDA REVIEW
of business, and, according to report of U. S.
Department of Agriculture, net savings were
made amounting to from 20 cents to 75 cents,
or an average of 471/2 cents per hundred pounds,
which would have amounted, on the 20,600,-
000,000 pounds of livestock sold last year, if
it had all been handled by cooperative associa-
tions, to a net profit of $97,850,000. Is it any
wonder that the Federal Farm Board recom-
mends cooperative marketing to the farmers of
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE COOPERATIVES.
There are a total of 1,270 associations, with
200,000 members, handling almost every kind
of fruit and vegetables, turning out sales
amounting to $300,000,000. The first one of
these associations which has a definite record
was organized in 1867. The largest one is the
California Fruit Growers Exchange, handling
44,500 carloads of citrus fruits with f. o. b. re-
turns amounting to $96,500,000.
In 1929 cooperative marketing associations
sold 1,114,354 bales of cotton and turned out
$97,000,000 worth of business. The total mem-
bership of cotton cooperatives was not much
short of 300,000.
POULTRY AND EGGS
During 1929, 139 cooperative poultry mar-
keting associations sold $50,000,000 worth of
poultry and eggs. This volume has increased
from $10,000,000 worth of poultry products in
1920 or a 500 per cent increase in nine years.
Eighty per cent of this is sold by seven associa-
tions, the largest handling produce valued at
TOBACCO AND WOOL COOPERATIVES
Cooperative associations handled tobacco
valued at $22,000,000 and wool valued at
$7,000,000 in 1929.
Cooperative associations market miscellane-
ous crops valued at $150,000,000 and buy farm
and marketing supplies valued at $300,000,000.
The grand total of the business transacted by
cooperatives in 1929 was $2,646,000,000, which
shows that cooperatives have been very active
and have rapidly increased.
But there is also a rapid trend toward coop-
eration among cooperatives. Today 46 of the
largest cooperatives handling dairy products
are linked together in the National Cooperative
Milk Producers Federation. Twelve of the live-
stock cooperative terminal sales agencies are
working together in the National Livestock Pro-
A number of the leading wool cooperatives
have formed the National Wool Marketing
Thirteen state-wide cotton cooperative asso-
ciations are working together through the
American Cotton Growers Exchange.
The tendency of the age is toward centralized
effort, and that is as it should be.
In this the farmers are last to adopt action.
Agriculture has been for decades, and is now,
doing business at the counter and desk of or-
This is an age of organized business and or-
Even the retail merchandising of the every-
day necessities of life is being done through
gigantic mergers. There are at present 5,000
chains of stores with 120,000 stores, one for
each 100 people, doing a total volume of busi-
ness amounting to $10,000,000,000, or $93 per
capital for our entire population.
The big question now with all business, in-
cluding agriculture, is to find two satisfied cus-
tomers where only one existed before.
Therefore cooperation among farmers is no
longer sentiment, it is an economic necessity.
The remarkable advance of commerce and
industry in the United States in the last half
century has been due in a great measure to their
discovery of efficient methods of large scale
production and marketing.
These gigantic operations are the outstanding
characteristics of modern business, and they
stand in as marked contrast as mountains and
mole-hills, to the small scale methods of 50
For example, I mention again the chain stores
handling 40 % of the retail grocery business-a
very typical change. Another striking example
is seen in the manufacturing of farm machinery,
which was done by the blacksmith or small
foundry only a few decades ago.
The shoe cobbler has been replaced by im-
mense factories. The mining company has
taken the place of the individual. All opera-
tions of commerce and industry have changed
from individual failure to collective success.
Agriculture remains as the only important in-
dustry characterized by small scale operations,
with over 6,000,000 small producing units.
Agriculture, in this unorganized condition, is
placed at a great disadvantage. It can not
adjust acreage or regulate its produce to trade
demands; it can not efficiently assemble, grade
or pack its products, or do anything else, with
the maximum efficiency.
Farming, therefore, must take its lesson from
FLORIDA REVIEW 8
Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO............ ..... Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. BROOKS ...........Asst. Commissioner of Agriculture
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Florida, under the Act of June 6,. 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.
MARCH 17, 1930
business, and develop methods of large scale
Either these principles must be applied to
production or marketing, perhaps both.
If agriculture's lesson from business history
is large scale operation, applied to marketing,
how can it be brought about except through
cooperative marketing organizations?
If cooperative effort or group action is the so-
lution, who has any right to object to farmers
organizing to market products which they pro-
duce, own and control?
And why do we see cooperation fought so
bitterly, criticized so severely, and unfavorable
rumors going around calling the managers and
directors of cooperatives everything from "igno-
rant visionaries" to "unscrupulous scoundrels,"
and sarcastic remarks from the lips of the criti-
cal, saying, "Farmers never will pull together,"
this or that movement "will die a natural
The answer is this: If farmers unite for mar-
keting purposes, and especially if they organize
into regional or state-wide groups, their activi-
ties may take some business away from some old
Who will even doubt that if industry had a
multitude of producing plants, with a produc-
tion too large for market demands, and annual
surplus so great that prices were depressed, that
they would solve these problems by merger
combinations, consolidations or organizations?
There is nothing economically sound in pro-
ducing crops that must sell at a price below the
cost of producing them. Profit, not production,
must determine the farm standard of living, and
agriculture alone bares its breast to the deadly
darts of individual competition.
The only way farmers can reduce this com-
petition in their own industry and keep pace
with the social, economic and industrial changes
that are going on all around them, is by strong
organizations federated for friendly and mutual
Products could then be standardized, con-
trolled and distributed properly; waste, dupli-
cation and inefficiency decreased; production
could be brought closer to the limits of demand,
financial assistance secured, necessary market
Farmers would then be in the same position
as industry. They would control their industry,
make their calling more independent and take
their place in the economic equality of the
nation's business affairs.
The challenge to solve these gigantic, com-
plex and difficult economic farm problems
rings clear to us. They are not only agricul-
tural, they are national. To fail to solve them
takes the soul out of farm life, and to eliminate
the soul from farm life seriously weakens the
nation's moral and spiritual stamina.
Lest we forget! Agriculture has furnished its
percentage of world leaders, since Abraham
managed a ranch, Moses kept a flock, and Ruth,
a progenitor of Christ, gleaned in the fields for
her daily bread.
Nine-tenths of our presidents and governors,
one-half of our railroad presidents and two-
thirds of our bank presidents, congressmen and
senators, were sons of the soil.
During the twenty-five years that I plowed,
sowed, planted, cultivated, gathered, reaped
and marketed, from the age of eight to thirty-
three, the desire to render service to agricul-
ture and help to find solutions to its problems
grew stronger and stronger. In early manhood
I decided that no human activity furnished so
wide an opportunity for usefulness and unsel-
fish leadership as does agriculture, and now
that I am in sight of the borderland of old age,
I have not changed my mind. Many and varied
have been my opportunities to plead the cause
of agriculture. I have constantly pleaded for
justice equitably extended. I have never asked
for more, and I will never be content with less.
I thank you.
HOLLANDER STUDIES FLORIDA FARM
(Haines City Herald, January 23, 1930)
Gainesville, Fla.-Andrew R. Zwann, president and
general manager of the Zwann & van der Molen Plant
Breeding and Seed Growing Company, Inc., of Voorburg,
the Hague, Holland, was recently here studying vege-
tables grown in Florida.
He has been in the United States three months, and
has gone into every state except three. He also made
visits to Cuba and Canada.
"You have some country," he commented; "Florida is
about four times as large as our country." He told of
the intensity of production in Holland, and especially
was in favor of Dutch system of cooperative marketing.
4 F LO'RIDA REVIEW W
DADE CITY INCREASING TRUCK CROP
Earliest Cucumber Crop in Central Florida Near
Dade City-Bean Acreage Will
(Dade City Banner, February 21, 1930)
A cucumber crop with thrifty green plants, now falling
over and beginning to run; with bright yellow flowers and
small cukess" showing up, is a convincing refutation of
this shop-worn argument that "it can't be done." That
is the way the cucumber crop now appears on the George
Weems farm just south of Dade City.
Mr. Weems planted four acres of cucumbers on De-
cember 26-the day after Christmas-and his crop is
now from ten days to two weeks ahead of any other
cucumbers in Central Florida. With favorable weather
conditions it will be only a matter of days now until time
for the first picking and from the appearance of the
vines the prospect for a heavy crop is most promising.
Mr. Weems is planting about 20 acres in beans this
week and has several acres, also, in crystal wax onions.
He expects to plant okra, squash and other truck crops
in the near future. He has had dairy cattle running on
his farm for several years, bringing the soil up to a high
state of fertility.
He has a splendid overhead sprinkler system for his
cucumber and onion patches, with wooden troughs on the
cucumber land, for frost protection.
Many Beans Planted
A check of the bean crops for the Dade City section
shows that over 350 acres have been planted, or are now
being planted to this vegetable. Most of the farmers are
planting Giant Stringless green pod seed.
Approximately 150 acres of land near Dade City will
be planted to squash. The giant summer crook-neck is
the leading variety for this territory. The squash crop
is not always as profitable as some of the other vege-
tables planted in this county. It, however, is considered
a reasonably sure crop, bringing a fair price every season,
while some of the other vegetables are of a more specu-
lative nature and sometimes bring big money one season
and pay very little the next.
A considerable acreage will also be planted to okra,
melons and other truck crops, while an increase in the
strawberry and eggplant acreage for the fall season is
anticipated. An estimate made by several local farmers
indicates an increase in the truck crop acreage of more
than 30 per cent above the past several years.
MIAMI FIRM TO ENTER TUNG OIL
(Tropical Sun, February 21, 1930)
With thousands of acres planted to tung oil trees in
Florida and prospects bright for the crop to become one
of Florida's most important industries, the J. S. Blain
Corporation, 215 N. E. First avenue, Miami, bids fair to
assume an important part in the development of this new
The corporation announces a new plan for the exten-
sion of tung oil tree cultivation in Florida counties where
the land is adaptable to the growing of this tree. The
corporation is said to control 10,000 acres of such land
in west Florida, which is accessible to highway and rail-
road transportation. Climate and soil conditions here
combine to make a year-round growing season for grow-
ing fruits and vegetables, the raising of turkeys and
growing of tung oil, it is pointed out.
More than 400,000 tung oil trees are reported to be
in cultivation in Florida at the present time, and the oil
produced from the nuts finds a ready market for use in
the making of paints and lacquers and for other pur-
poses. The oil from tung nuts is said to be an important
ingredient in the manufacture of automobile brake
According to United States government statistics,
Florida is one of the very few states in the Union that
can grow the tung oil tree successfully. The tung nut
produces the oil three years after setting out the seed-
lings. We are importing now approximately $13,419,029
worth of this Chinese oil annually, which is used exclu-
sively in the manufacture of high class paints and
varnishes for the waterproofing of silk and fabroids, and
in the manufacture of essential facial creams.
Under the cooperative plan of the Blain Sales Cor-
poration, tung trees are to be planted and cared for and
turkeys are to be raised in connection, Mr. Blain ex-
plained, the products to be marketed by the company.
The seed of the tung tree was first introduced for
propagation in the United States in 1905, United States
government reports show. Some 20 years ago, according
to an article in Popular Mechanics Magazine, the govern-
ment, scenting the international importance of tung oil
and the many drawbacks in Oriental control of the mar-
ket, secured experimental seed and started cultural ex-
periments in several states. Eventually it was discovered
that north central Florida, which lies in the same latitude
as the leading Chinese tung oil groves, was suited to
these trees. The federal department of agriculture and
the Florida state station, after years of experimentation,
ultimately announced that the success of tung oil tree
growing was assured. The American Paint & Varnish
Manufacturers' Association cooperated in the experi-
TUNG OIL IN FLORIDA
Tavares, Feb. 26.-Tung oil production will bring
largely increased income to Florida as the result of
attention being given the industry, according to W. T.
Watson, authority on the subject, who addressed the
board of directors of Lake county chamber of com-
merce in session here for the February meeting. Review-
ing the history of the tung tree and the part it has
played in furnishing an oil used by 124 major industries,
he described progress being made in the Clermont section
where in excess of 5,000 acres of land have been ac-
quired for tree plantings, the first unit to comprise 200
acres, of which 50 acres have been cleared and planted,
some of the trees being five years old. Northern Florida
nurseries, he said, had been contracted with to furnish
20,000 trees for the project near Clermont, where a mill
is to be constructed to press oil from the tung nuts.
Two nurseries capable of producing 350,000 trees by
next fall constitute a unit of the development which
was started after months of study and scientific investi-
gation, said Mr. Watson, and he stated that 300,000
acres of tung oil trees in Florida will be required to
meet the world demand for this oil, which has been im-
ported from China, where factors of soil, climate and
rainfall are less favorable for success than Florida
The 5,000-acre tract of land under development for
the production of tung oil is known as the Trimby
FLORIDA REVIEW 5
Properties. S. H. Bowman, for more than fifteen years
a resident of Clermont, is manager of the enterprise. His
assistant is F. C. Grable, a citizen of Clermont for more
than 20 years. They visited every nursery and tung
oil development in the state to obtain facts, information
and data before launching the new enterprise, which is
backed by ample capital and whose plans call for rapid
and big scale expansion. Unlike many projects started,
Mr. Watson said, a thorough investigation of the market
possibilities of tung oil was made months ago, emphasiz-
ing that production is the main thing to consider, with a
rapidly increasing demand all out of proportion to the
available supply of oil.
Lake county has not become enthused over the pro-
posal that farmers try cotton raising to augment their
income. In recent weeks there has been a noticeable
tendency on the part of many persons to become tung-
oil minded, not alone for the reason that production
factors are said to be ideal in this hill region where the
lands have a clay sub-soil, but because of the highly
favorable market outlook for the oil.
SANFORD'S PLACE IN CELERY FIELD IS
SHOWN IN REPORT
Local District Raised Almost One-third of Total
Grown in United States
(Sanford Herald, February 13, 1930)
The Sanford district produced almost one-third of the
total celery grown in the United States in 1929, accord-
ing to a summary of the 1929 celery season, which was
prepared recently by H. E. Rutland, who was the San-
ford representative last year of the United States De-
partment of Agriculture and the Florida State Marketing
In the summary it was pointed out that the Sanford
section also grew twice as much celery last year as the
entire state of California, five-sixths of the production of
Seminole county, and over three-fourths of that produced
Figures presented in Mr. Rutland's summary revealed
that in 1929, through November, this section produced
and shipped 5,416 cars of celery. Seminole county
shipped 6,515, while Florida shipped a total of 8,831 cars.
California shipped only 2,854, and the entire United
States produced 17,758 cars.
The Sarasota section was Sanford's nearest rival for
state honors. This particular section, the report revealed,
shipped last season 1,329 cars of celery. Oviedo ranked
next to Sanford for the high production mark of this
county, having a total of 918 cars to its credit. Florida,
in 1929, grew 8,831 cars of celery, a total of over one-
half of the entire production of the United States.
While Seminole county is regarded as one of the
smallest counties in the state, the report shows that this
county has 4,300 acres of land under celery cultivation
at present, while the entire state has only 6,500 acres of
cultivated celery land. Sarasota has 1,100 acres under
cultivation, Manatee 1,000 and the remaining celery pro-
ducing areas have only 100 acres under cultivation today.
In 1926 this county had 3,000 acres of celery under
cultivation as compared with the 4,300 of today. Florida,
in 1920, filled 2,652 cars with celery for market, and
last season shipped a total of 8,831 cars, the largest num-
ber ever shipped in one season from this state in the
history of celery production.
THE TOBACCO GROWERS ASSOCIATION
OF THE UNITED STATES ADVISES
TYING OF TOBACCO
(By J. M. Purdom, in Jasper News, February 7, 1930)
The Tobacco Growers' Association of the United States
has passed the following resolution, which will be of in-
terest to the tobacco growers of Florida:
"The question of tying up the Georgia and Florida
crop has been up for some years, and no definite position
has been taken either by the producing or buying in-
"It does, however, under the experience of all other
tobacco sections seem that this section should not be the
exception. All other sections, whether dark, bright or
burley, have tied up tobacco since time immemorial, with
the exception of a short time some years ago in South
Carolina, where tobacco was to some extent sold in leaves.
"In the interest of everyone concerned, it does appear
that the Georgia and Florida crops should be gathered
and tied in bundles. The leaves in this section are now
packed in sheets for shipment, the bulk of which goes to
northern plants to be handled. This method gets the
leaves very badly tangled, making it impractical to tie
up the tobacco before redrying it, and as it would very
much reduce the value of the tobacco to redry it without
tying it up, the only alternative is to stem it by hand and
put it up in strips before redrying it. The demand for
strips is perceptibly decreasing every year, and, in addi-
tion, many foreign countries are putting a special duty
on strips, which makes it almost prohibitive to ship them
to these countries. Therefore, there are a large number
of buyers who could buy Georgia and Florida tobacco if
it were tied up, but cannot buy it as long as it is sold
in loose leaves.
The fact that all other tobacco is tied up absolutely
indicates that there must be merit in it, and it certainly
seems that tobacco uniformly graded and tied up would
be more marketable and acceptable to a large number
"Therefore, the Board of Directors of the Tobacco Asso-
ciation of the United States, having thoroughly canvassed
the situation, and ascertaining that an overwhelming
majority of the buyers, including leaf dealers and manu-
facturers, are in favor of having Georgia and Florida
tobacco tied up, do hereby urge that the farmers in those
states begin this season to offer their tobacco in bundles."
Resolutions addressed to the farmers of South Carolina
were also passed, urging them not to discontinue tying
their tobacco before offering it for sale, stating that it
was the opinion of the Board of Directors of the Tobacco
Association of the United States that it would be to their
interest to continue tying it.
I was invited to attend this meeting of the board and
after listening to the discussions, it is my opinion that if
this year's crop of tobacco is going to be profitable to the
growers it will be necessary, first, not to increase the size
of the crop; second, to produce a crop of good quality
tobacco, and, third, to grade and tie it before offering it
While resolutions on the subject of not increasing the
production of tobacco were not passed, the board feeling
that any advice they might give on this subject would
not be heeded, it was nevertheless the opinion of the
board that an over-production of tobacco was imminent
and if such turned out to be the case through increased
production this year, it would very likely result in the
crop selling for unprofitable prices.
6 FLORIDA REVIEW
LAKE COUNTY WINS AT ORLANDO FAIR
CAPTURING SIX FIRST GRAND PRIZES
Wonderful Display of Citrus Fruits and Vege-
tables--Won the 4-H Club Contest
(Lake County Citizen, February 21, 1930)
Again, Lake county has demonstrated the wonderful
productivity of its soil by winning the big stakes at the
Central Florida Exposition in Orlando, which began on
Tuesday and closes Saturday night. The thousands of
people passing through the buildings have admired, com-
plimented and waxed enthusiastic over the marvelous
display of field, grove and garden products on display.
First prize was awarded Lake county as follows:
Citrus fruits, vegetables, chemically preserved prod-
ucts, sugar cane and syrups, dairy products, commercial
by-products, and individual entries of six varieties of
grapefruit, capturing five blue ribbons and one red rib-
Mrs. Mary S. Allen's home demonstration products,
included in the awards mentioned, clearly surpassed that
of other displays of the same class and elicited the most
generous compliments from high state officials and ex-
perts who viewed them with interest.
In the 4-H club contest between Lake, Orange and
Osceola counties, thd judges gave Lake county first place,
the public exercises taking place in front of the grand-
stand Thursday afternoon, with the Eustis boys' band
giving a concert in connection with the program. Mrs.
Allen was presented as the leader of the club girls.
Miss Florence Smock, of Lake county, was presented
as the Nation's 4-H club champion health girl and acted
as director of the band in the grand finale of the after-
County Agent Hiatt, Morley Martin, and Mrs. Allen, in
charge of the booth, are receiving the praise of home
people for their excellent work.
At the fair yesterday, while the exercises were in
progress, Karl Lehmann introduced Paul T. Harber,
representing the Lake county chamber of commerce,
which organization sponsored the exhibit. In recognition
of Lake county's great contribution to the exposition the
officials presented Mr. Harber with a badge of honor
bearing the title of honorary vice-president. At the
county chamber of commerce board meeting this after-
noon the prized badge was turned over to President
Brown as a memoir of the 1930 exposition in which Lake
county made the highest record in the fair's history.
CALLING ATTENTION TO FLORIDA AS A
(Gainesville Sun, February 18, 1930)
Not for the purpose of indulging in vain boasting, but
purely as a matter of education for ourselves as residents
of Florida and for the information of our friends in other
states, attention is called to Florida resources in develop-
ment of the livestock industry in the south.
Forgetting for the moment the output of our forests,
fisheries, citrus groves, phosphate mines, truck and vege-
table farms, sponge fisheries and the famous tourist
"crop," it is worth mentioning that a current report of
the United States Department of Agriculture reveals a
healthy expansion of Florida livestock as a staple in-
According to this report, Florida livestock was valued
on the first day of the new year at $24,868,000, com-
pared with $23,026,000 on the same day in 1928, which
was an increase of $1,800,000 over last year and
nearly $4,000,000 over the estimate for 1928.
Following were other statistics in the report, showing
the total number of head of each class of stock in the
State for 1929 and 1930 and the total valuation for each:
"Horses and colts, 25,000 head in 1929, valued at
$2,164,000, and 24,000 head in 1930, value $2,100,000.
"Mules and mule colts, 42,000 head in 1929, valued at
$5,250,000, and 41,000 head in 1930, valued at $5,-
"All cattle and calves, 480,000 head in 1929, valued at
$11,245,000, and 480,000 head in 1930, valued at $13,-
"Milk cows and heifers, two years old and over, 74,000
head in 1929, valued at $3,404,000, and 78,000 head in
1930, valued at $4,290,000.
"Heifers, 1 to 2 years for milk, 17,000 head in 1929
and 18,000 head in 1930, with no valuation shown for
"Sheep and lambs, 59,000 head each for 1929 and 1930,
with the valuation for 1929 at $254,000 and $236,000 for
"Swine, including pigs, 516,000 head for 1929, valued
at $4,136,000, and 490,000 head for 1930, valued at
"All livestock, valued for 1929, was $23,026,000, and
$24,868,000 for 1930."
THE MARKET NEWS SERVICE OF FLORIDA
(By L. M. Rhodes, State Marketing Commissioner)
All market news work in Florida has in past seasons
been conducted under a cooperative agreement by the
United States Department of Agriculture and the Florida
State Marketing Bureau cooperating. This season a
special contract was entered into by the United States
Department of Agriculture and the Florida State Mar-
keting Bureau, wherein it was provided that all market
news service in the State of Florida would be conducted
jointly and cooperatively on a strictly 50-50 basis, all
expenses to be shared equally and alike by both depart-
ments. This season the Florida State Marketing Bureau
is absorbing one-half the expense of not only incidental
items, but also the salary and per diem of both the
federal representative and the clerical help.
The United States Department of Agriculture has no
way of financing market news except through some state
agency. Congress appropriates money too slow for them
to try to handle the finances, so all the financial ma-
chinery is handled by this department.
There is only one exception to the above and that is
the new station which was opened at Bradenton in De-
cember, 1929, and in this project this department pays
all the expenses, including clerical help, telegraphic and
telephone expense, and in fact all expenses except the
salary of the federal representative. This is the only
exception, however, and this department is carrying at
least two-thirds of the expenses in connection with this
Market news service is attracting more attention, given
more favorable comments, really rendering more bene-
ficial service perhaps now than it ever has or than any
other different service in our department.
FLORIDA REVIEW 7
THE DAIRY SITUATION IN FLORIDA
(Radio Address by J. M. Burgess, Marketing Specialist,
Dairy Products, March 3, 1930)
According to the best statistics at hand, there is one
dairy cow for every seven people in the United States.
In Florida the ratio is one to seventeen. While in some
of the best dairy states there are 24 dairy cows per square
mile, Florida has 1 % dairy cows per square mile.
By the last agricultural census (1927) there are 79,818
cows kept for milk only in Florida. A recent count of
all dairy cows that are kept for commercial milk produc-
tion in Florida shows that there are 22,500 used for this
purpose. This does not include the farmer's home cow
or the cows in herds of less than five. In other words,
30% of the milk cows of the state are used for commer-
cial milk production. This count also shows that very
few of these 22,500 cows are kept very far from our
cities, there being very little milk shipped except at cer-
Contrary to the common belief, there is very little milk
shipped into Florida, except while the tourist season is
at its height. At some seasons there is a surplus of milk
at some of the larger tourist cities. With these facts in
mind it can be seen that Florida does not need more
cows to produce milk for commercial drinking purposes,
for that market is being taken care of by the dairymen
But while this is true in regard to whole milk, it is
also true that Florida does import large quantities of
sweet cream, butter, cheese, condensed milk and milk
Florida produces about 2,000,000 pounds of butter per
year, while 24,750,000 is needed to supply the state's
demand if the average of 16% pounds per capital for the
United States is used. If each family in Florida would
consume one pound of butter per week, 13,000,000
pounds would be needed.
No cheese, condensed milk or milk powder is produced
in Florida, but a large quantity of each of these is con-
sumed. It is estimated by the Florida State Marketing
Bureau that 139,000 more cows than are now in the state
would be required to furnish milk enough to supply the
dairy products used in the state other than whole milk.
The problem, then, is to take care of the surplus whole
milk in the summer season and to supply as much of the
other products as is possible. The milk men around
Miami plan to put in a small condensory this spring, and
this may be the solution for other sections where there
will be a considerable surplus. Much of this surplus can
be used in the making of ice cream if the producers will
sell at a price that the ice cream manufacturer can afford
By proper breeding much of the surplus can be done
away with, for the cows should be at their lowest pro-
duction at the time when the milk is not needed. If
proper pastures are provided the cows should be turned
on pasture and the high cost of grain feeding be done
away with during the low price season.
The cream could be separated and sold to the creamery
and the skimmed milk fed to calves, pigs and poultry.
This seems to be the best solution of the surplus problem
that comes from April to September around those cities
that require a large winter production.
To supply the butter and other products needed in the
state a very different type of dairying is recommended
by the Florida State Marketing Bureau. These products
must be produced on a butter fat basis and no one can do
this better than the small farmer who does his own work,
and who will produce upon his farm the larger part of
the feed fed to the cows. Large herds are not needed,
for then special help and buildings will be needed, but
let the farmer keep from five to ten cows and sell through
those cows the surplus feed that he can produce. No
expensive barn or equipment will be needed to begin to
ship cream. Just take up the cows that are now on the
farm and feed and take care of them.
Cow feed, such as corn, velvet beans, soy beans; for
grain, sorghum, Japanese cane, corn, Napier grass; for
silage and green forage, cow peas, kudzu, soy beans,
peanut vine for hay, offer an abundance of feed for the
Florida farmer to choose from. Carpet, Dallas, Bermuda,
Bahire and Lespedeza offer a pasture combination that
is as good as any one would want. To use the dairy cow
as a market for the feeds just named is the answer to
the cry for farm relief.
In several sections of the state such a program is be.
ing used and the farmers are pleased with the results.
In the Ocala section so much progress has been made
that thirty new barns and milk houses were built last
year. These farmers have progressed to where they now
have equipment to meet any city inspection and can ship
whole milk when the markets warrant.
There are now creameries located at Ocala, Madison,
Monticello and Pensacola, with cream stations at Mari-
anna, Bonifay, DeFuniak Springs, Crestview, Laurel Hill,
Baker and Milton. These stations and creameries are
paying Chicago standards for butter fat. It is the hope
that the farmers who are selling cream to these stations
will be able to build barns as the farmers around Ocala
At the State Experiment Station at Gainesville the
animal husbandry division, to test out the value of
Florida pasture, has developed some good permanent
pasture. Steers on this pasture last year returned a
profit of $10.00 per acre. Dairy cows would return a
greater profit and there are thousands of acres in Florida
that could be made into better pasture than at Gainesville.
Tick eradication has progressed to the point that nearly
one-half of the state is tick-free, and in only a few more
years the entire state will be free. Pure-bred bulls of
both dairy and beef types are being brought into the
tick-free area. Bankers are making loans with which
to purchase pure-bred bulls. The farmers are being en-
couraged by all of the agricultural forces working in the
state to use pure-bred sires, grow more feed and thus
be able to feed better, and keep records so that the extra
heifers not needed in the herd may be sold to good ad-
vantage. Good cows sell for good prices in Florida and
the farmer who has a good herd and plenty of good
permanent pasture and other home-grown feed can
always depend upon such a combination to make a good
return for the money and time invested.
DAIRY LANDS FOR DAIRY INDUSTRY
(Chipley Banner, February 27, 1930)
Dairy cattle and hogs are the most worthwhile products
of the farms of west Florida and ought to be increased,
according to the official report of Hamlin L. Brown,
extension department of the University of Florida, at
8 FLORIDA REVIEW
THOUSANDS OF VISITORS NOW FILLING
Peak of Tourist Season Nears as Notables Have
Playdays-Hoovers Are Included-Sports,
Political and Film Celebrities Scatter
(By Rex Saffer, Associated Press Staff Writer, in Pensa-
cola News, February 10, 1930)
Miami, Fla., Feb. 9.-(A. P.)-The 1930 conquest of
Florida, led by virtually the same luminaries that put last
year's winter season down on the cards as the greatest in
history, will swell into full force as the state reaches the
peak of its winter program in the next three weeks.
Floridians hope to count the invading forces at more
than 600,000, sufficient to jam hotels, apartments and
residential accommodations through the state.
One division of the invaders, seeking sunshine and the
quiet pleasures afforded by the state's natural beauties
and her 1,400 miles of coast line, is informally headed by
President and Mrs. Hoover, who came to Florida tonight
en route to Long Key for a week's fishing trip.
Army of Notables
Another army of winter residents, led by figures of
national prominence in the world of sports, society and
business, has been gathering in the resort colonies of the
state for two months.
With President and Mrs. Hoover at Long Key, Central
Florida boasts the presence of former President Calvin
Coolidge and Mrs. Coolidge, who are spending some time
at Mt. Dora, on the west coast; Thomas Edison, Henry
Ford and Harvey Firestone have gathered for their an-
nual celebration of the aged inventor's birthday on Tues-
On the east coast is John D. Rockefeller, Sr., at his
winter home at Ormond, while Alfrea E. Smith, former
Democratic nominee for president; John J. Raskob, chair-
man of the Democratic national committee, and their
parties are mingling with members of the exclusive social
colony at Palm Beach.
Meanwhile, in the Miami district alone, railroads have
been disgorging climate-seekers at the stated rate of
more than 1,000 a day, with the rest of the state gaining
a proportionate number.
Yachts, steamships, airplanes and automobiles bring
hundreds to the state daily, all intent in their search for
semi-tropic climate, or bent upon participating in various
features of Florida's winter program of sports and en-
The sports world is represented by hundreds of winter
residents. Babe Ruth, making his headquarters at St.
Petersburg, is at the head of early arrivals, who later
will set up baseball's winter training camps in the state.
Jimmy Foxx, at Fort Myers; Connie Mack, temporarily
at Mt. Plymouth; Bob Shawkey, Yankee manager, Bucky
Harris, from Detroit, are other athletes of the baseball
firmament who are in the state as advance guard mem-
With exception of Jack Dempsey, who last year was
the prominent figure here of the squared circle, the
majority of boxing's current highlights are centered in
the metropolitan Miami area. Gene Tunney, retired
heavyweight champion of the world, and Mrs. Tunney
are vacationing at Useppa Island, near Fort Myers, before
going to Miami Beach later in the winter.
Jack Sharkey, Boston sailor, and Phil Scott, of Eng-
land, are in the Miami area preparing for their heavy-
weight elimination contest as the feature of Madison
Square Garden's second battle of the palms here Feb-
ruary 27. Lesser luminaries of the ring either have been
nominated for the Madison Square Garden card or have
come to Florida for vacations.
THE VOLUSIA COUNTY FAIR OF 1930
The seventh annual Volusia County Fair, held in
DeLand February 11th through 15th, revealed to over
60,000 visitors from all parts of the United States the
surprising versatility and quality of the products of
Florida. In the face of difficulties presented by the sev-
eral misfortunes which have befallen Volusia county
during the past year, the 1930 fair surpassed its pre-
decessors in attendance and in the size and caliber of
exhibits and amusements, and enhanced its reputation
as the greatest county fair in southern United States.
Exhibits of swine, livestock, rabbits, poultry, pet
stock, kennel show, fine arts, domestic science, public
health, domestic art, public education, relics and heir-
looms, manufactured and varied industries, floriculture,
agriculture, horticulture, natural history exhibits, negro
exhibits, state and government exhibits, were housed in
seventeen specially designed buildings. In addition,
fifteen progressive and productive communities in
Volusia county vied with one another to present the
best display. Seville won the first prize; Barberville,
second, and Lake Helen, third. These community
exhibits well illustrated the contention that the Florida
farmer can raise 90 per cent of what goes on his table to
feed himself and his family, and that he can produce
something for the market twelve months in the year.
(Thirty-four judges were required to decide the awards
on these various exhibits.)
The amusement program of the fair included twenty-
five hippodrome, vaudeville and circus acts, horse racing,
under National Trotting Association rules, and auto-
mobile racing on the last day. An unusual pyrotech-
nical display, depicting in fireworks such historical
events as the "Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius" and "The
Battle of the Monitor and the Merrimac" drew large
crowds every evening.
The Johnny J. Jones Exposition Shows furnished a
half mile midway of shows and rides, which were the
delight of the children. In addition to the hair-raisihg
tum-tum of the drums of the wild tribal sideshows and
the whirling calliope, four bands supplied the major por-
tion of the music throughout the fair.
Of particular interest to northern visitors were the
grounds in full bloom with tropical and sub-tropical
flowers in February, a time when their own native heaths
are buried under several feet of snow. During the rest
of the year these sixty-three acres of landscaped park
are maintained as a botanical garden.
Special days of the fair were designated as follows:
Tuesday-Children's Day, when all school children of the
county were admitted free; Garden Club Day; Lake
County Day. Wednesday-Owen Day, in honor of Con-
gresswoman Ruth Bryan Owen; Farmers and Fruit
Growers' Day; Seminole County Day; Elks Day. Thurs-
day-Governor's Day, Hon. Doyle E. Carlton, Governor
of Florida, guest of honor; Indian River County Day.
Friday-Fletcher Day, in honor of Senator Duncan U.
Fletcher; Halifax County Day; Rotary Day; Flagler
County Day. Saturday-Tourist Day; North Volusia
Day; Putnam County Day; American Legion Day.
A CORNER OF THE VOLUSIA COUNTY FAIR GROUNDS, DELAND, FLORIDA
I Il~t d TJ
~. I I 4-
10 FLORIDA REVIEW
REVIEWING THE PURPOSES OF
THE FEDERAL FARM BOARD
Types of Loans Explained-Effect of Loans on
Commodity Prices and Elimination of
Waste and Control of Surpluses
Among Major Problems
Legal Department, Mutual Orange Distributors
(Citrus Leaves, February, 1930)
There has been some doubt in the minds of some re-
garding the policies and powers of the Federal Farm
Board. This situation is but natural inasmuch as the
Board has had but little time in which to get into action.
Time should clarify the various questions.
Purposes of Board
The Agricultural Marketing Act, generally speaking,
made the Federal Farm Board the agent of the govern-
ment for the purpose of:
(1) Minimizing speculation in agricultural commodi-
(2) Eliminating wasteful methods in distribution.
(3) Preventing surpluses in order to give advantage
to domestic markets.
(4) Fostering and encouraging farmers' cooperative
Here, then, are the basic purposes which should actuate
the Board in all of its operations.
The curtailment of speculation and the elimination of
waste naturally would react favorably to, agriculture.
These purposes are very broad and so far the Board ap-
parently has not made any definite steps in that direc-
tion. The prevention of surpluses calls into discussion
the formation and operation of the stabilization corpora-
tions and the matter of crop and acreage control. There
has been no general activity in this direction as yet.
To Encourage Crops
This leaves the fourth purpose-to foster and en-
courage the organization of farmers' cooperative selling
groups. The Board has two methods by which it may
carry out this end:
(a) By giving advice and encouragement as to poli-
cies, management, etc.
(b) By lending government money at the rates per-
mitted by the creating act, which rates are below the
usual commercial rates.
The "Cheap" Money Dispute
Two points of dispute are possible. Those private
marketing agencies which are displaced by cooperatives
will naturally raise a protest. They must either be
shoved aside or function in some manner with the coop-
eratives. That is one matter. On the other hand, now
that the government has decided to reorganize the
national system for marketing agricultural commodities
and has the power to advance loans at lower interest
rates there will probably be a storm of opposition against
the acts of the Board in that respect.
Types of Loans
The Board can extend four types of loans:
(a) To clearing house associations handling fruits and
(b) To finance membership campaigns of cooperative
(c) To finance the purchase or acquiring of ware-
houses, packing plants, etc.
(d) To advance money in addition to other money
borrowed by the cooperatives from private banking
houses or the intermediate credit banks to enable the
cooperatives to finance their members by making ad-
vances of a greater portion of the expected sales returns
than could normally be done.
In connection with type (d) one should remember that,
for example, the intermediate credit banks will loan up
to around 60 or 65 per cent of the current market value
of the commodity at a rate of around 5% per cent. In
addition to this the Farm Board can lend more money to
the cooperative at not to exceed 4 per cent and at present
at a rate of about 3% per cent.
Theory Behind Supplemental Loan
The supplemental loan may accomplish this: some
growers have preferred to sell outright to a private buyer
because they got the money at the time of sale, whereas
their cooperative could advance only about 65 per cent
of the expected return. With this added borrowing power
the cooperative can offset the advantage offered by the
private dealer and thus build up their membership.
Effect of These Loans
The effect of loans made under this plan is:
Through its ability so to borrow the cooperative ad-
vances to its members, let us say (with the aid of money
obtained by other banks or intermediate credit banks)
enough money from the Federal Farm Board to bring the
total per bushel of wheat to $1.25. What does this do?
It works to keep the price of wheat at that level, for the
growers naturally are not going to sell for less. So when
the Board agrees to lend money up to a definite figure
per pound or per bushel it aids in establishing a price
around that figure.
Criticisms By Private Dealers
Out of this situation come the allegations raised by
private dealers in wheat. It has been claimed that:
(a) The private interests are as much entitled to cheap
money as are the co-ops.
In this connection it should be recalled that the policy
of the Board is to make its loans to a central or national
cooperative group which in turn will re-lend to its mem-
ber co-ops at a higher rate of interest, thus tending to
equalize the difference to be paid by private dealers.
(b) If-the price of wheat, for example, actually falls
below $1.25, then the government and not the grower to
whom the advance has been made of $1.25 will have to
shoulder the loss.
This is true under the Act. Losses cannot be passed
on to the growers.
Will such a policy stimulate production and merely re-
sult in the vicious circle of over-production?
That depends on whether the policy of the Board is
merely a temporary and emergency one or whether it is
maintained over a longer period of time.
The same claim of "pegging" prices has been directed
at the Board in its handling of the cotton deal, it being
alleged that when supplemental loans are made up to a
definite level the result is that the Board actually "pegs"
the price at that level.
Whether or not this claim of "pegging" is sound or
not should have little or no effect on the actions of the
Board. It is within the province of the Board to "advise"
the farmer and if it chooses to tell him that wheat is
worth $1.25 per bushel or that his cotton is worth 16
FLORIDA REVIEW 11
cents a pound there is none dare do other than criticize
its judgment. Its power is unquestioned.
What of the Future?
What effect is the Farm Board's attitude going to have
on established avenues of distribution?
Probably some private dealers in wheat, cotton, etc.,
will have to go out of business, others may sell or lease
or merge in some manner with the cooperatives. The
terms on which they have to lease or sell should be fair
and equitable. In the fruit and vegetable business there
may be many commission merchants doing a local busi-
ness who will pass out of the distribution picture. In
other words, if the proposed national distribution scheme
goes into operation some one is going to feel the effects
of it, and the only logical place to expect the shoe to
pinch is where the new distribution plan shall perform
a service now being rendered by private parties.
GROWERS LEARN OF PROPER METHOD OF
(Haines City Herald, February 20, 1930)
One of the biggest and most enthusiastic meetings
since its organization was held by the Ridge Vegetable
Growers Association, Tuesday evening, February 18, in
the Estes Arcade, Haines City, with William S. Allen,
Davenport, acting chairman in the absence of H. O. Estes;
J. D. Walters, Haines City, attending to the duties of
secretary, and a demonstration in setting out plants a
feature of the gathering which created keen interest
among the more than fifty growers present. This was
conducted by Major W. C. O'Dell, Haines City, and
Frank S. Spadaro, Philadelphia.
With thousands of tomato plants now ready for
setting out in the fields, the meeting concerned itself
with taking a list of all those needing plants. The total
required, according to an estimate made of the list, is
nearly 200,000 plants.
On information furnished to the Davenport Times by
Mr. Spadaro, an authority on tomato plants, the growers
should set 5,000 plants to the acre on the sand hills,
spacing them two feet apart in the drills and allowing
three feet between the rows. Previous information in-
dicated that only 3,500 plants should be set to the acre,
but on account of the sand hills producing a somewhat
smaller mature plant than low land soil, sufficient room
was allowed for a larger number of plants to the acre
and the corresponding larger crop.
The association discussed at length the practical ap-
plication of spray material. After the what, when and
how phase of the spray situation had been given con-
siderable attention, Mr. Spadaro agreed to bring an ex-
pert on tomato cultivation and spraying from the east
coast and pay him a salary and deduct one cent per crate
from the pack for this service. This matter was put be-
fore the association for its approval and the membership
voted to adopt the plan.
As explained by Mr. Spadaro, this tomato expert will
visit each of the fields under cultivation and advise with
the grower on the best methods of spraying and culti-
vation and render such help as may be necessary from
time to time. However, it was pointed out that no
grower need use this service if he found it unnecessary,
but the general approval of the members present indi-
cated that such a man would be a big help to each grower.
Major O'Dell advised that the plants are now ready at
the Holly Hill Nursery, Davenport, and that he would
have men in attendance there to fill orders as the
growers called for the plants. These men will be on duty
from 7:00 a. m. to 5:30 p. m. every day.
One of the main points emphasized was the urgency of
the having all plants set out by the first of March, which
is Saturday of next week. This will allow picking the
crop right after the first of May, as it should require
about 60 days for the plants to bear fruit.
The next meeting of the association will be held Tues-
day, February 25, in the Estes Arcade, Haines City, at
7:30 p. m., when samples of spraying outfits will be dis-
played and growers can place their orders for this equip-
ment. It is urged that every tomato grower attend this
POULTRY IN FLORIDA
(Winter Haven Chief, February 15, 1930)
F. W. Risher, poultry specialist of the State Market-
ing Bureau, says next to the dairy cow the hen pro-
duces the most perfect food for human consumption.
We find that as a county develops domesticated fowls it
becomes more and more important as a source of food.
At the present time poultry of some kind is found on
84 out of every 100 farms in the state. Today poultry
keeping is either of general or special interest to every
person in Florida, viewed from two angles-that of pro-
ducing or consuming. At the present time we import
twenty or more million pounds of poultry and over
twenty million dozen eggs annually at a cost of many
millions of dollars. Conditions in Florida favor the pro-
duction of poultry and eggs and to make it important
as it should be is only a question of doing it.-Florida
FARMERS BUSY NEAR KATHLEEN
Beans Lead in Spring Planting with Melons
(Lakeland Ledger, February 23, 1930)
Kathleen, Feb. 22.-Farmers throughout this section
are busy with their spring vegetable crops. This season's
planting covers a greater variety than for several seasons;
string beans head the list, and tomatoes, bell peppers,
eggplant and yellow squash with a larger acreage of
sweet corn than for several years, are included in the
vegetable list. Watermelon planting is apparently on
the decline, as only a few, just for home use, were re-
ported. The vegetable acreage is said to be the largest
in history, one grower reporting 35 acres of beans.
The fourth carload of broccoli, from here, was for-
warded yesterday, which is believed to be the beginning
of the largest carlot movement of vegetables ever shipped
from this section.
Strawberry shipments are expected to increase next
week, provided the clear warm weather continues. The
quality of the berries is greatly improved by a few days
of warm dry weather.
Citrus trees are in full bloom, containing a much
heavier bloom than last season, which indicates a larger
crop for next season.
Honey bees are busy gathering and storing the nectar
from the citrus bloom, which will soon be served as one
of Florida's favorite brands of honey, for which there is
quite a demand.
12 FLORIDA REVIEW
MAYO JOINS CARLTON IN OBJECTIONS TO
BILL IN TEXAS LEGISLATURE
Has Passed Senate-Action Would Ban Ship-
ping Nursery Products There
(St. Augustine Record, February 17, 1930)
Tallahassee, Fla., Feb. 17.-(A. P.)-Protests against
a bill in the Texas legislature proposing a permanent
embargo on Florida nursery stock were telegraphed today
by Gov. Doyle E. Carlton and Commissioner of Agri-
culture Nathan Mayo.
The governor telegraphed his protest to Gov. Dan
Moody and the speaker of the Texas House, where the
bill is now pending, and Mr. Mayo sent his to the speaker
of the House and to other officials. The Florida officials
were advised that the bill had already passed the senate.
Governor Carlton said he believed that the present
quarantine regulations were sufficient to handle the
problem throughout the United States, and Mr. Mayo
asserted that passage of the bill would "create an unnec-
essary antagonistic feeling which might lead to retalia-
tory measures being passed by other states."
The governor and commissioner were warned in a
message received from W. J. Lyles, Summerfield nur-
seryman, that if the bill became a law Florida nursery
stock would be forever banned from Texas.
(This bill was later killed by the Texas legislature,
which indicates a fine, friendly spirit among the people
of the splendid state of Texas.-Editor.)
LIVING AT HOME
(Palm Beach Times, February 21, 1930)
Annually we are reminded by the State Marketing
Bureau and other agencies that much of the value of that
which Florida produces goes out of the state to pur-
chase foodstuffs that Floridians use yet which they do
This is a reminder that cannot be repeated too often.
It constantly should be held before the eyes of the state.
It should haunt every citizen, taunt him, keep him awake
to the thing that is exacting a greater monetary toll
from citizens than all of their so-called high taxes, hurri-
canes, flies, slumps, and all other evils combined.
For this is the sapping evil, the one which, if reme-
died, would permit the payment of taxes, the raising of
bonded indebtedness, and produce at the same time that
measure of confidence and stability that more or less
will be lacking until a fundamental wealth is produced
It is not the few dollars that find their way to mail
order houses that works the terrific damage, but it is the
hard cash that is paid out day after day and week after
week over our store counters mostly in the edible field.
No finer thing could happen to this state than for the
people to find out that they can live at home, that they
can live on the products they can grow right here, that
they can make here. Surely Florida wealth should be
kept at home, put to work at home, produce benefits for
home folk, and therefore enable all of us to get along
better, which we need to do.
This is what will have to be done if we ever expect to
convert this commonwealth into an empire of richness
and happiness. It can be done and it ought to be done,
and we should not dilly-dally with the matter and expect
the other fellow to do it. Market Commissioner L. M.
Rhodes calls our attention every year or oftener to the
many millions of dollars we send out of the state need-
lessly. Blessed with a large visitation of tourists, we are
too prone to take what is saved from the annual influx
of persons escaping the cold, our winter accumulations,
and then in the summer time send this money back north,
neglect to be thrifty, which is just another way of point-
ing to a certain shiftlessness, and deny ourselves the
right of food independence and the right to put thou-
sands to work in maintaining that independence.
The most absurd thing in the world is to buy else-
where what can be produced here. It is foolish, very
foolish. The truth of the matter is that we can grow in
Florida and here we can make most of the daily neces-
sities. We do not do it. We load our tables down with
products that are sent in from other states, the shelves
of our stores are crammed with this and that which are
grown and canned in other states; we do not grow enough
food for the small number of livestock found in Florida;
we buy hay and we buy corn, and we buy a thousand
and one things that will grow here abundantly. What we
need to do is to grow them. It would take no little
agricultural development before production catches up
with demand at home, and by the time that came about
the people of Florida would be on a business basis that
would enable them to send out of the state and meet in
competition the products of other states.
Just as long as we go on doing this we are a foolish
and a ridiculous people. To that point, and possibly be-
yond, where production caught up with our own demand,
it would do more to solve what we call our tax problem
than any other one thing in the world. For when it is
all said and done, it makes little difference against what
taxes are levied if you have the money to pay the tax;
and if we brought up from our own soil this 100 million
dollars we now send out of the state, and kept it here, we
could grow our tax money and enliven every channel of
commerce in Florida.
ARCH BROWN PLANTING 240 ACRES OF
WATERMELONS NEAR CHIEFLAND
Is Planting Cukes and Other Spring Truck
Crops This Year
(Levy County Journal, February 20, 1930)
According to County Demonstration Agent N. J.
Albritton, Arch Brown of Trenton, who is connected with
the firm of Shackleford & Brown, will plant the largest
acreage of watermelons in Levy county this season.
The plantings of Mr. Brown will comprise two hun-
dred and forty acres of watermelons on the Butler lands
located on State Road 19, five miles east of Chiefland,
and fourteen acres of cucumbers on the Wade Highsmith
lands on State Road 19 seven miles east of Chiefland.
It is understood that Mr. Brown is planting his water-
melons this week. If he is fortunate in having favorable
season, shipments should begin during the last of May.
With a good yield, one hundred and twenty cars of water-
melons will be shipped from his farm.
In passing this great big watermelon field on the road,
one is impressed by the way the ground has been pre-
pared and is led to believe that Mr. Brown sure knows
how to grow watermelons. Practically all of this land is
newly cleared, having been put in shape last summer and
fall, and looks as though it would make the melons and
make them right.
FLORIDA REVIEW 18
84,459 GALLONS OF MILK SOLD
Thirty-five Local Dairies Do Good Business in
(St. Petersburg Times, February 14, 1930)
St. Petersburg people consumed 84,459 gallons of raw
and pesteurized milk during January, according to re-
ports received Thursday from Dr. J. N. Hornbaker, chief
of sanitation. Of this total 49,223 gallons were raw
milk and the remainder pasteurized. In addition to the
ordinary milk the people used 6,302 gallons of butter-
milk; 1,645 gallons chocolate milk; 4,358 gallons of pure
cream; 10,457 gallons ice cream and 272 gallons of sher-
Thirty-five local dairies produced 79,348 gallons of
milk and 18,709 gallons were shipped in from other
JAY NOW HAS CREAM STATION
New Brewton Creamery Buying Santa Rosa
(By Prof. S. C. Kierce, in Milton Gazette, February 18,
Jay has a cream station which is located in the store
of Jay Supply Company. The Brewton Creamery Com-
pany, Inc., of Brewton, Ala., which has just begun busi-
ness, buys the cream.
This is the first step toward progress that this section
of the county has been able to take in a long while. But
since the cream station is actually in operation, we know
it is doing business. The cream is collected each Tuesday
and Friday and the checks are sent once a week for the
cream. The first day any cream was collected there were
ten gallons brought to the station. This was more than
any one expected, and such a large quantity pleased all
interested in the cream station.
Highest market prices are paid for the butterfat. When
one takes the cream to the station each pail of it is tested
for butterfat as this is necessary because some cows give
richer cream than others.
Some have asked how should the cream be taken to
the cream station. After the cream rises on the pan in
which it was placed after being milked, it is then skimmed
off and placed in a pail. Any amount is bought when
taken to Jay Supply Company.
Selling cream is perhaps the best way a person can get
money out of his crops, other than cotton. The feed is
grown and fed to the cows, the cream is sold and the
milk left is fed to the hogs or chickens. In this way all
the products from the cow are used. In the winter there
is not as much cream sold as in the summer because
there is no green feed for the cows. But in the summer
the cream is harder to keep on account of the warm
The Brewton Creamery wants to see every person that
has any surplus cream bring the cream to Jay Supply
Company. The Jay Supply Company was very nice to
take the responsibility of collecting the cream and the
Brewton Creamery wishes that those who can, will
patronize this company for what they are doing.
It will not be long before every farmer will be getting
his pay check for his products just as a clerk in a store
gets a check. When a farmer gets a check every month
the whole year, he has a better chance of making money
than when he sells his small amount of cotton in the fall.
Now is the time for each person interested in dairying
to decide on the crops which he would like to plant so as
to grow feed for his dairy cows. This should consist of
such forage crops as he needs for the following winter.
Peanut hay, pea vine hay, soy bean hay, velvet beans
and others of unlimited number can be grown in this
locality with ease. Even though the number of cows is
small we should prepare to increase the herd. We know
this section is ideal for dairying and one of the best in
Florida. We hope that it will not be long before we get
organized and have a dairy association. This would mean
more and better cows and more people interested in
Getting this cream station is another project which the
Vocational Agriculture Department at Jay started. It
seemed that every one wanted the station and when all
work together a project seldom fails.
FARMERS FROM PENNSYLVANIA TAKE
SILVER SPRINGS TRIP
(Ocala Star, February 20, 1930)
A party of 131 farmers from Pennsylvania, Delaware
and New Jersey arrived in Ocala last night in a special
train on the Seaboard Air Line Railway and this morn-
ing visited the city and Silver Springs. The train, con-
sisting of five Pullmans, was in charge of George Z.
Phillips, city passenger agent of the Seaboard, Washing-
ton, D. C. The visitors were accompanied herd by
Nathan Mayo, commissioner of agriculture, and L. M.
Rhodes, marketing commissioner, who met the party in
Jacksonville yesterday and were with the group on a
visit to the Penney Farms at Green Cove Springs yester-
day. Also, J. M. McBride, of Savannah, general agri-
cultural agent of the Seaboard, and E. M. Nix, of Jack-
sonville, agricultural agent of the railroad for Florida, are
accompanying the party on a tour of Florida and Cuba.
The visitors were taken to Silver Springs this morn-
ing at 9 o'clock in 35 automobiles generously furnished
by public-spirited Ocalans. The cars had been arranged
for by the tourist committee of the chamber of commerce
and were in charge of Frank Greene, vice-chairman of
the committee. Assisting Mr. Greene in arranging for
the cars were Wisdom O'Neal, Clyde Long, Dick Stroud,
L. T. Izlar, Mrs. C. C. Simpson, Stephen McCready and
Howard Davis. The springs were seen through the glass
bottom boats. It was regretted that the visitors did not
have time to see the county and its agricultural activi-
ties. The special train left here at 11:10 for Plant City.
The tour is being made under the auspices of The
Pennsylvania Farmer, an eastern farm publication. C. L.
White, editor, of Pittsburgh, is with the party.
VEGETABLE SHIPMENTS BY EXPRESS
(Miami Herald, February 26, 1930)
Fort Lauderdale, Fla., Feb. 25.-Vegetable express
shipments totaling 15,754 packages were made from Fort
Lauderdale during the past four months. The shipment
is smaller than during the same period a year ago, but
the shipments during January exceeded the shipments
during January last year. The monthly record to date
is: November, 333; December, 5,467; January, 7,140;
14 FLORIDA REVIEW
TUNG OIL NUTS ARE CRACKED AS LOCALS
First Time in History That Machinery Was
(Palatka News, February 21, 1930)
A delegation of citizens of Putnam county interested
in the development of a tung oil industry here visited the
pressing plant of the Alachua Tung Oil Company near
Gainesville for the purpose of observing the machinery
there while it was under operation in extracting tung oil
from the nuts. The plant is located in the middle of a
2,000-acre planting of tung oil trees, about six miles out
on the Newberry road from Gainesville, and is operated
by a subsidiary of the B. P. Moore Paint Company, one
of the largest paint manufacturers in the United States.
Members of the delegation stated that the plant was in
full operation while they were there and that nuts being
brought in from other plantations in the Gainesville sec-
tion were being converted into oil. The nuts were picked
up by a belt conveyor from the floor and carried up to a
hopper and then dropped into a decorticating machine
which removed the pellicle, or outside hull, from the five
seeds contained therein. The outer hull was carried out
by a separate conveyor into the yard and will later be
used for adding humus to the grove. The nuts were then
picked up by the machinery and carried on through a
winnowing machine. After all dust and dirt had been
cleaned from the nuts they were again carried on by the
machinery to a mill which ground them into meal. The
meal went into an extracting machine, similar to those
used in extracting oil from peanuts and cotton seed meal,
where the oil is extracted from the meal cake under
tremendous pressure. The tung oil was then pumped up
from the reservoir into a large receiving tank. The oil
content of the nuts varies from 48 per cent to 60 per
The arrangement of the plant was such that very
little manual attention was needed for the operation,
although the decorticating machine was sufficient to take
care of two or three presses and the manager of the
plant told the delegation that it was expected in
another year to put in an extra press so that operations
could be continuous. At the present time the press is
running day and night, although the decorticating
machine is operated only during the daylight hours.
This plant represents the first attempt to extract tung
oil from the nuts by machinery in history. It was
operated for a short time a year ago and has sufficient
volume to take care of all of the nuts grown in Florida
by running for a period of about two weeks. Another
year it is expected that the crop will keep the machinery
in operation for a period of several months.
Heretofore, all of the world's tung oil supply has been
gotten out by very crude methods, consisting of hand
crushing of the nuts and the extracting of the oil from
the meal cake in a hollow log through the operations of
wooden wedges driven home against circular blocks of
wood. All attempts to get the Chinese to adopt modern
conditions in the tung oil industry have been in vain and
the paint and varnish manufacturers have recognized that
if sufficient tung oil is to be procured to take care of
the increased demand for this commodity that it is essen-
tial that large plantings be made in the favorable dis-
tricts in northern Florida and that modern machinery
for extraction should be devised.
The delegation visiting the plant at Gainesville con-
sisted of Alston Haile, J. H. Francisco, J. D. Points, C.
W. Loveland, F. V. Owen, George Dykes and Mr. Hamil-
100 BUSHELS MORE POTATOES HERE TO
ACRE THAN VIRGINIA PRODUCES
(Homestead Leader, February 13, 1930)
With potato farming tried for the first time on an
extensive scale, south Dade county is producing 100
more bushels of spuds to the acre than the famous potato
fields of Virginia, according to the Florida Produce
Packers, farming and marketing firm, which has already
dug and shipped 40 acres of a 275-acre planting. They
are getting 250 to 275 bushels to the acre.
The Florida Produce Packers has offices on the ground
floor of the Flowers building, corner of Krome avenue
and N. E. Second street. George W. McMath is the
local manager, with F. T. Ames as salesman and Ned
Tankard and Bill Killmon as field supervisors.
Local conditions, which enable the potatoes to be
planted near the surface instead of deep under as in
Virginia, make for speedy work in harvesting, because
the potatoes can be dug with big potato digging machines,
each capable of digging 10 acres a day, providing teams
are changed. A tractor can not be used to haul the
machines because they would crush the potatoes. The
digging machine digs the potato, sifts the dirt away from
it and then lays it on the ground alongside the rows that
are being dug. Farm hands come behind and pick up
the potatoes. The Florida Produce Packers have two of
these digging machines.
Potato prices declined somewhat this week when quo-
tations went to $2.30 per bushel, but Mr. McMath is con-
fident that the market will react next week and send the
price back to the $3 or $3.50 mark. His firm has re-
ceived $3.50 f. o. b. for the 10 cars it has shipped so
far. There are 530 to 600 bushels to the car, he said.
The Florida Produce Packers protato fields are in
South Allapattah Gardens. Their packing is done at the
Murray packing plant in Princeton, but they also have
leased the old Rutledge plant here for use as the crop
There are about 110 acres of potatoes planted near
here in addition to the Florida Produce Packers' 275
acres, Mr. McMath estimated. His firm had intended to
plant tomatoes extensively, but is so pleased with the
results of the potato crop that it will not go into the
actual business of planting tomatoes at all, he said. The
company maintains an office and warehouse in New York.
LEVY COUNTY FARMERS PICK UP ALMOST
FOUR THOUSAND IN CASH
(Gainesville Sun, February 22, 1930)
Almost like walking out into the middle of the street
and picking up a bag of gold.
Levy county farmers last week sold three carloads of
hogs that brought them in actual cash $3,928. A
double deck car was loaded at Chiefiand and two light
cars at Williston, according to The Williston Sun.
That is Florida's answer to Old Man Hard Times. We
should quit our grumbling and go to work raising hogs,
cattle, vegetables, fruits, nuts, pine trees, farm crops
and a dozen other things capable of easy production in
this state of opportunities.
FLORIDA REVIEW 15
TUNG OIL COMING INDUSTRY OF COUNTY
(Marianna Times-Courier, February 6, 1930)
Jackson county is destined to become one of the great
tung oil producers of the world. In various parts of the
county experiments are being carried on and thus far
the experiments have achieved gratifying success. Mrs.
C. D. Parks already has a thriving orchard of tung oil
trees on her plantation near Greenwood, and according
to Mr. Sam Rountree, county agent, many more countians
are trying their hand at this new industry which bids
fair to revolutionize the financial status of this won-
derful old county.
Mr. W. H. Milton has recently purchased one hundred
pounds of tung oil seeds and will plant them on one of
his plantations, located on the Campbellton road. He
believes in the future of these magic trees and is con-
vinced that if the oil trees can be grown successfully in
Florida, the wonderfully fertile soil of Jackson county
will be the best place to begin a nursery.
Tung oil experts inspected this territory some time ago
and pronounced the soil and climatic conditions ideal,
and expressed the opinion that foresighted planters of
the oil tree would certainly reap a rich harvest.
CUBA COMES TO DADE TO STUDY
AVOCADO PROBLEMS OF GROWERS
(Miami News, February 23, 1930)
Cuba's government came to Miami last week in the
person of Fernando Agete y Pinero, I. A. A. The last
letters stand for Engineer Agronomist of Agriculture.
Just what significance to attach to this interest of Cubans
in connection with recent higher tariff agitation in the
United States, especially pertaining to avocados, the
reader must judge for himself. Senor Agete was in-
terested primarily in avocados, secondarily in horticul-
ture as practiced in Florida, and third, in vegetable grow-
In the company of Richard L. Rinc, agricultural editor
of the Miami Daily News, Senor Agete spent two days in
a careful inspection of Dade county agriculture. Dur-
ing the entire period the visitor made every moment
count. Copious notes were made by him, with especial
attention given to avocados at all times.
During the visits to innumerable farms and groves,
these including the Klondike farm of John DuPuis, Jr.,
the White Belt Dairy, the "show place of horticultural
fame," Bonita Groves at Redlands, the H. E. Schaff grove,
it developed that problems in Cuba are more or less iden-
tical with those of south Florida. In a two-day trip it
was impossible to give the visitor more than a bird's-eye
view of this section, however.
"You blast holes to enable your avocados and other
trees to secure a foothold and gain access to more soil.
Our soil is deeper. But there have been many plantings
by Americans on similar soil, or soil of a sandy nature,
near Havana," he indicated.
Two outstanding phases were revealed in casual re-
marks by him, often overlooked by the average grower.
Cuba is somewhat nearer the storm source area, receiving
a slightly higher percentage of high winds in consequence.
Disease control is possibly more lax in the island, on an
average, due to more limited information dissemination
facilities and less "machinery" of up-to-the-minute type.
Growers there are often from 300 to 500 miles from the
port of Havana, corresponding there to Miami's harbor
here, right at the grower's door. With the just an-
nounced amendments to the tariff bill, increasing the rate
on avocados and mangoes from 35 per cent ad valorem
to 15 cents a pound, the prospects for growers in this
area should look extremely bright.
Senor Agete made careful notations of avocado varie-
ties favored by American growers in this section, because
of some advantageous growing feature, appearance or
flavor, harvesting period, or demand by consumers in
New York and other markets.
It developed that the Taylor is too upright in its grow-
ing methods, growers like H. E. Schaff giving decided
preference to low, stocky types on account of storms.
On this trip C. H. Steffani conducted the party to groves
in the Homestead and Redland district vicinity, his 15
years of experience in this work proving of incalculable
benefit to everybody.
FLORIDA FRUITS TABOO DISEASE, BIG
Grapes Grown in State Have Unusual Curative
Values, Riley Asserts
(St. Petersburg Times, February 22, 1930)
A crowd of 3,000 or more heard some new things at
the Open Forum Friday afternoon when Dr. Joe Shelby
Riley told about the curative properties of Florida fruits
and vegetables in treating important categories of dis-
eases, and in preventing the appearance of disease.
The Florida grape, said Dr. Riley, is of such marvelous
therapeutic value that once its virtues become more
widely known the state will become one of the greatest
grape producing regions in the world. Due to peculiar
qualities of soil in the grape growing area of the state,
the grapes contain elements not found so abundantly in
any other grapes. Dr. Riley even went so far as to
assert that an exclusive diet of these grapes will drive
cancer from the human body, and would have a similar
effect in cases of alveolar pyorrhea and bright's disease.
Florida grapefruit to prevent and cure chills and fever
or malaria, came in for strong commendation from Dr.
Riley, who said grapefruit is about the only fruit safe to
The orange, better in Florida than anywhere else, has
a food value ratio of one to twelve, one part of orange
juice being equal to twelve parts of milk. Where mothers
cannot or do not nurse their babies, but use cow's milk
instead, the addition of orange juice to the milk is highly
beneficial, especially so where the milk has been pasteur-
ized, said the speaker. Orange juice is the best sedative
for infants and adults, a glass or two being the quickest
and most harmless inducer of sleep to the sleepless.
Fish caught from Florida waters is richer in mineral
content than most other fish, said Dr. Riley, because of
the character of the waters and the constituents of the
foods the fishes eat, and old people wintering in Florida
should be especially benefited by eating liberally of
Florida fresh caught fish.
The speaker also praised the virtues of Florida grown
watermelons, celery and pumpkin-claiming that the
pumpkin is a very quick acting agent in curing yellow
Dr. Riley's winter residence is at 353 Eighth avenue
north, with clinical offices adjoining at 359.
16 FLORIDA REVIEW
73 CARLOADS OF PERISHABLES WEEK'S
Season's Total for the County Approximately
587 Cars-Citrus Crops About Half Moved
(Ft. Pierce News-Tribune, February 15, 1930)
Carload movement of perishables from St. Lucie
county during the past week again pushed up the season's
record for weekly output, totaling 73 cars, an increase of
seven cars over the preceding week. The output from
Fort Pierce was 67 cars and from White City six. The
season's total carload movement of perishables from the
county now stands at 487 cars. The estimated less than
carlot movement by express brings the total up to
around another 100 cars.
The week's output from Fort Pierce comprised 41 cars
of citrus fruit, 12 cars of potatoes, seven of mixed vege-
tables and seven of shrimp. Six cars of citrus fruit were
shipped from White City, bringing the week's citrus out-
put to 47 cars.
Shipments were made by:
Citrus fruit-Fort Pierce Growers' Association, 19
cars; American Fruit Growers, Inc., 11; Mrs. D. T. Mc-
Carty, 6; International Fruit Corporation, 2; Roy M.
Price, to cannery, 3. The White City shipments were
made by the Acme Fruit Co.
Potatoes-Bugbee Distributing Co., 8 cars; American
Fruit Growers, Inc., 3; J. I. Camerson, 1.
Mixed vegetables-A. P. Hoeffner, six cars, compris-
ing mostly potatoes, cabbage and beans; Goodbody-
Newell, Inc., one car of eggplants and peppers.
The seven cars of shrimp were distributed among sev-
eral shippers. Two additional cars are being loaded
The Fort Pierce output for the season totals thus far
38 cars, comprising 98 cars of grapefruit, 94 mixed fruit,
20 tangerines, 60 oranges, 19 cannery grade, a total of
291 cars of citrus fruit; 24 cars of shrimp, 13 of fish, 37
potatoes, 17 vegetables and 6 tomatoes, a total of 97
cars for these classifications other than citrus fruit. These
figures are from the official records of the Florida East
Except as pertains to citrus fruit, these are also the
totals for the county, the citrus output totaling 390 cars.
January business of the local express office showed an
appreciable increase over that of the same month last
year, according to A. R. Ellinor, agent.
Approximately 100 barrels of fish and shrimp were
handled during the past week, and 350 to 500 packages
of fruit and vegetables daily.
Heavy less than carlot shipments of fruit and vege-
tables are being forwarded by the Select Fruit Co., the
East Coast Growers Co., and individual growers and
50 to 60 Per Cent Fruit Marketed
Estimates of local shippers of the portion of the
county's citrus crop marketed to date vary from 50 to 60
The movement is now at its height and will continue
strong on up to the close of the season. The citrus deal
thus far has been very satisfactory, with very good prices
having been obtained.
Citrus trees are said to be in good shape for a heavy
crop next season, and some have already begun to bloom.
Approximately half the potato crop has been harvested,
according to estimate of growers. The yield was mate-
rially decreased by the ravages of blight.
Shipment of miscellaneous vegetables should continue
heavy for some time, while a heavy tomato output will
soon get under way.
CROP CHAMPIONS OF U. S. PAY VISIT
HERE ON TOUR OF FLORIDA
(Sanford Herald, February 12, 1930)
Over fifty representatives of various points in the
southeastern states, who were recently adjudged winners
in a crop championship contest sponsored by the Chilean
Nitrate Educational Bureau of Chile, South America,
came through Sanford yesterday morning from Orlando
on their way to Daytona Beach.
The group of "Crop Champions" are on a tour of the
southeastern states with expenses paid by the sponsors
of the contest. They arrived in Orlando Monday evening
at 6 o'clock, and after remaining in that city over night,
left at 7 o'clock yesterday morning for Daytona Beach,
via Sanford and DeLand. From Daytona Beach the
party went to St. Augustine, and from there to Jackson-
ville. After arriving in the north Florida city early last
evening the party had supper in a local hotel, and after-
wards left for their respective homes by night trains, thus
ending the two-day tour of Florida.
Among those accompanying the party was Elmer
Strickland, Gainesville youth, who was Florida's lone con-
test winner. Mr. Strickland grew 401% crates of bell
peppers per acre in one year's yield, to gain the award.
The other winners in the Chilean crop championship
contest, who passed through this city yesterday morn-
Alabama-Floyd Gibbs, Boaz; Newbern Barringer,
Coker; Liston Hall, Phil Campbell. Arkansas-W. T.
Beall, Wilson; R. E. Brown, Little Rock; Blanch Beall,
Wilson, and Charles Beall, Wilson. Georgia-R. P.
Burson, Monroe, and A. P. Johns, Toccoa. Louisiana-J.
0. Parker, St. Joseph, and C. J. Dekeyser, Boyce. Missis-
sippi-W. Y. Thrash, Walnut Grove. North Carolina-J.
Wilson Alexander, Huntersville; J. Pressley Alexander,
Huntersville, and John Alton Brown, Weeksville. South
Carolina-B. R. Smith, -Johnston, and J. Ryan White,
Sumter. Tennessee-W. S. Latta, Somerville; Cody
Foster, Trezevant, and Teddie Martin, Finger. Texas-
Oliver Person, Marshall. Virginia-Carroll Campbell,
UNION COUNTY SUCCESS AS PRODUCER
OF IRISH POTATOES
(Union County Times, February 28, 1930)
That Union county can grow the Irish potato profit,
ably is being demonstrated by Mr. J. S. Howard of
Dukes, one of the bond trustees for this county. Last
year Mr. Howard successfully raised over 100 acres of
potatoes. This year he has over 200 acres planted to
the same crop, and expects to produce about 60 barrels,
or about 210 bushels, to the acre.
MILLS GOING ON FULL TIME
(Perry Herald, February 6, 1930)
A visit this week to the various lumber manufacturing
plants in and around the city, shows a most healthy con-
dition, and every mill in this territory running full pro-
duction with a complete force of men in all departments.