Florida's agriculture's great...

Group Title: Florida review (Tallahassee, FL)
Title: Florida review
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049005/00089
 Material Information
Title: Florida review
Physical Description: 5 v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Bureau of Immigration
Publisher: Bureau of Immigration, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1926-1930
Frequency: semimonthly
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Industries -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (June 7, 1926)-v. 5, no. 9 (Oct. 20, 1930).
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00049005
Volume ID: VID00089
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001744570
oclc - 01279992
notis - AJF7332
lccn - sn 00229569

Table of Contents
    Florida's agriculture's great opportunity
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
Full Text
UJ.S.Dept. c Atgr ta
Washington, D.C.

Jlortba bitee

Vol. 4 FEBRUARY 3, 1930 No. 17

Florida Agriculture's Great Opportunity

An Address by Nathan Mayo, Commissioner of Agriculture, on Growers' Day, January 24, 1930,
at the Florida Orange Festival, Winter Haven, Florida

Ladies and Gentlemen:
W(T IS ALWAYS a pleasure to meet with
the agriculturally minded citizens of our
State on such occasions as these and to
discuss with them the privileges and bene-
fits, as well as the problems and difficulties,
which are our common heritage, but the present
occasion is particularly enjoyable because of
the gratification which we all feel at the splen-
did showing that has been made in this festival.
The exhibits shown here are highly creditable
in every way, and their quality, arrangement
and variety demonstrate unmistakably the fact
that the Florida citrus industry is too well estab-
lished to be destroyed or even seriously crippled
by any temporary conflict with adverse circum-
The past year has been one of changes, of
decisions, of reorganization in agricultural
work, both in Florida and in the nation at large.
One of the most important single steps toward
the simplification and establishment of farm
financing and marketing methods is the organ-
ization of the Federal Farm Board. This Board
of eight members has been set up to administer
the agricultural marketing act and has been
given a revolving fund of $500,000,000 to aid in
the marketing of farm products. Because it is
a physical impossibility for this Board to take
up marketing problems with individual farmers,
it requires that farmers be organized in groups
of considerable number and that they have a
volume of business of some magnitude before
any assistance can be offered. In a recent letter
to our office Mr. James C. Stone, vice-chairman
of the Federal Farm Board, sets forth very
clearly the requirements with which farmers
must comply in order to receive aid from the
Board. He emphasizes the fact that under the
terms of the Agricultural Marketing Act the

Board may, with certain unimportant excep-
tions, make loans only to cooperative associa-
tions which are qualified under the Capper-
Volstead Act of 1922. He says in this letter:
"To qualify under the Capper-Volstead Act,
the cooperative must be composed of persons
engaged in the production of agricultural
products, as farmers, planters, ranchmen, dairy-
men, nut or fruit growers, acting together in
associations, corporate or otherwise, with or
without capital stock, in collectively processing,
preparing for market, handling and marketing
in interstate and foreign commerce, such prod-
ucts of persons so engaged. Such associations
may have marketing agencies in common; such
associations and their members may make the
necessary contracts and agreements effecting
such purposes.
"Under the provisions of the Act, however,
such associations shall be operated for the
mutual benefit of their members and conform to
one or both of the following requirements:
'(1) That no member of the association is
allowed more than one vote because of the
amount of stock or membership capital he may
own therein; or
'(2) That the association does not pay divi-
dends on stock or membership capital in excess
of eight per cent per annum.'
"Another requirement of the Act is 'that the
association shall not deal in the products of
nonmembers to an amount greater in value than
such as are handled by it for members.' "
"In order effectively to carry out the pro-
visions of the Act, the Board has already as-
sisted in the formation of several national
cooperatives representing particular commodi-
ties. Others will be formed in the future. If
and when such national cooperatives are
formed, it is the policy of the Board to require


that all local, state or regional cooperatives
shall affiliate with the national and receive the
benefits of the Agricultural Marketing Act
through this national affiliation.
"It is the desire of the Board that proper re-
serves be set up by the cooperatives to meet
their own peculiar conditions. In such cases,
provisions should be made for the ultimate dis-
tribution of such reserves and for the distribu-
tion of all other earnings, except the limited
requirements of capital stock cooperatives, upon
a patronage basis.
"Any such associations as above described
will be eligible to do business with the Federal
Farm Board without the necessity of coming
through or joining with any other ograniza-
Another important marketing development is
the improvement in our Florida Market Bureau
service under the terms of the law passed by
the last legislature. According to a report re-
cently made by the State Marketing Commis-
sioner, Mr. L. M. Rhodes, he and his fruit and
vegetables marketing specialists have made
during the past few months a survey of the
cooperative marketing associations handling
vegetables and fruits, other than citrus, in
Florida, and have found that out of 50,918 car-
loads of vegetables and fruits, other than citrus,
with a value of $30,000,000, 8,562 carloads
were shipped by twenty-five cooperative asso-
ciations, doing an annual volume of business
amounting to $6,685,000. They are now work-
ing with the Federal Farm Board on a plan to
organize or federate these twenty-five associa-
tions so that the vegetable industry of the State
can unify its efforts in grading, processing, dis-
tribution, financing and marketing its products.
With the assistance of the United States De-
partment of Agriculture the Florida State Mar-
keting Bureau has arranged perhaps a more
complete and comprehensive market news ser-
vice in Florida than that of any state in the
Union. The expense of the field reporting
stations is shared equally by the Federal and
State departments, and under this arrangement
no contribution of funds is required of growers,
but the service is given them without any cost
whatsoever except special telegraphic reports
to individuals which are sent collect. Special
telegraphic reports to associations or agencies
representing groups of producers are sent pre-
Under the new extension program of the Mar-
keting Bureau a report on live poultry and egg
prices is being sent to poultry and egg shippers
of Florida, in which market quotations from
New York, Chicago, Philadelphia and other
large market centers are given, as well as those
from Jacksonville, Tampa and Miami. A
special semi-weekly livestock report which is
issued on Tuesdays and Fridays covers all the
important southern markets, as well as some
northern and eastern markets. Between August
1st, 1929, and January 1st, 1930, the Market-
ing Bureau held or assisted in sales with the
following results: 195 cars of hogs, valued at
$195,114; 2 cars of peanuts, valued at $2,100;

8 cars of sweet potatoes, valued at $3,000; 13
cars of corn, valued at $4,225; 24 cars of cattle,
valued at $21,600. Poultry and turkey sales
have been held in 35 different localities and
114,622 pounds of poultry, valued at $27,147,
have been disposed of for the 771 farmers par-
ticipating. These sales were conducted in
cooperation with county agents, home demon-
stration agents, vocational agriculture teachers,
newspaper editors, railway agents and secre-
taries of chambers of commerce.
Since the federal court has unanimously
sustained the constitutionality of our state dairy
law we feel greatly encouraged. The good
effects of this law have already become appar-
ent in the fact that there is at the present time
no milk being imported into Florida; in fact,
there is a small surplus at Jacksonville and at
Miami, the principal reason being that the herds
around these cities have been greatly enlarged.
At Miami the dairymen have organized the
Home Producers Association and have the mar-
keting situation well in hand. They have found
it necessary to discard several hundred gallons
of skimmed milk per day, but have ordered
equipment with which to condense their sur-
plus in the future. As the tourist season pro-
gresses some milk may be imported into the
state. During the last fourteen months three
new creameries have been established with an
output of 100,000 pounds of butter per month.
Despite the hardships which the citrus in-
dustry has encountered this past year, it is
the general consensus of opinion that real
prosperity is ahead if we meet our problems in-
telligently and courageously. Even though
quarantine regulations have greatly limited the
distribution of this season's crop, marketing con-
ditions this year are exceptionally favorable.
California, like Florida, has an unusually small
crop, and the general expectation is that even
under quarantine regulations our growers will
receive $1.00 per box more for their fruit this
year than they got last year, and that dollar
margin means the difference between success
and failure for many a grove.
We must recognize the paramount impor-
tance of a unified marketing program. It is the
great need of the citrus-producing interests of
Florida, just as a higher development of coop-
erative community spirit is the great need of
our state as a whole. There has never been a
time in the history of Florida when concerted
marketing action was as imperative as it is now.
Unity of action in sales systems and in other
operations affecting the welfare of the citrus in-
dustry must inevitably react favorably on the
individual endeavors of citrus operators.
The grower's basic interest must lie in quality
production, and not in mere quantity. The lack
of this in the past can be proven by the fact
that gross returns in small crop years almost
equal the gross returns of large crop years,
which of course means smaller returns to the
grower. The markets must be supplied with
only the amount and quality of fruit which will
be absorbed at a profit to the grower, and if this
is not the entire crop the remainder, which


c llarihi effiefu
Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
Tallahassee, Florida

NATHAN MAYO ...... .Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. BROOKS....... ...Asst. Commissioner of Agriculture
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Florida, under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.
Vol. 4 FEBRUARY 3, 1930 No. 17

would be sold at a loss and which would affect
unfavorably the better grades and types of fruit
that would otherwise sell profitably, should be
utilized as by-products and not shipped at all.
This cannot be done by consent, but a system
or marketing plan will have to be devised which
will take the incentive away from handling
more fruit than the markets can absorb at a
profit to the grower. If profit is somewhat re-
stricted on large tonnage and poor quality fruit
and increased on quality fruit of smaller ton-
nage, and if all persons or agencies are made
to feel the effect when the limit of consumption
is reached, just as the grower does now, then
there will be more vigorous efforts to increase
the consumption and create and find new out-
lets. If profits all along the line, namely, among
the transportation companies, packers, brokers
and commission merchants, were to decrease as
the markets are over-supplied or as quality
drops in the same proportion as they do now
for the grower the incentive for the marketing
of this surplus would be removed. The grower
certainly has no object or desire to ship a class
or quality of fruit on which he does not make
a profit. This does not necessarily mean that
we have over-production, but no industry can
ship all its fruit at a profit. There are certain
grades and sizes that are nearly always un-
profitable, and they are sure to be present in big
crop years. The limit of our outlets has not
been reached, but until we open these outlets it
is certainly folly to try to make the present ones
take more fruit than they will absorb at a profit
to the grower. Control of shipments can best
be accomplished by making it unprofitable to
everybody to oversupply the markets. It is
highly important that the canning industry be
encouraged to expand so that it can take care
of grades and sizes which cannot be marketed
at a profit. The need for additional canneries
becomes more and more apparent as we attempt
to solve the many problems of our growing
citrus industry.
The present situation with regard to the work
of eradicating the fruit fly is more or less dis-
turbing. The appropriation made by Congress
for this purpose has been expended. The
million dollar appropriation recently made will
only care for the quarantine work. Unless the
eradication program is continued it is entirely
possible that the states in which favorable con-

editions for propagation of the fly exist will un-
dertake to place an embargo against Florida
citrus fruits. I would like to call your atten-
tion to this fact because, if there had been no
eradication program last year, very little fruit
could have been shipped from Florida from this
season's crop, and notwithstanding the losses
sustained and the inconvenience to which people
have been put, the fact that you could ship
fruit at all must be credited to the eradication
work that was carried on. Those who insist
upon dropping the whole program fail to realize
that this would mean the destruction of the in-
dustry commercially. We cannot control the
quarantine regulations of other states. We
cannot ignore their prerogatives in this matter.
Our only recourse is to have the Federal Gov-
ernment assume this duty, and it will not as-
sume it without the ultimate renewal of the
eradication program as a basis for quarantine.
I wish to say in this connection that the State
Department of Agriculture has no jurisdiction
over the matter of quarantine regulations, but
as Commissioner of Agriculture of the State I
feel it my duty to do all I can to aid such
agencies as are placed in operation to protect
the farmers of the state from the baneful re-
sults of infestation of any crop. I went to
Memphis last September to place the matter
before the Southern Commissioners of Agricul-
ture, who were assembled in convention there,
and in October I went to Washington and pre-
sented the situation as best I could to the
National Association of Commissioners, Secre-
taries and Departments of Agriculture. At these
meetings I advocated remuneration for the
losses sustained in the work of eradication and
urged that fruit and vegetables from uninfested
areas in Florida be admitted to the markets of
all other states. At the Washington convention
a resolution was passed recommending compen-
sation of our growers for losses sustained. I
feel that our entire state should be a unit on the
subject of absolute completion of the eradica-
tion program, as last year's work demonstrated
the possibility of thoroughly eradicating this fly
which is such a great menace to our citrus crop.
At the meeting of the Southern Plant Board
and the Southern Commissioners of Agriculture
at Montgomery, Alabama, on January 21st,
resolutions were unanimously passed commend-
ing the work of the Federal and State authori-
ties in the work of eradication, and asking Con-
gress to appropriate the necessary funds to
continue the work. These two organizations
cited the progress so far made as evidence of
the possibility of the complete eradication of
the pest and deplored any suggestion that the
work be discontinued.
In the matter of reimbursement, I realize the
difficulty of ascertaining just what the damage
has been, both to the crop and to the growers,
but all such damages have to be approximated
and it can be done in this case as well as in
others. When the foot and mouth disease at-
tacked the livestock of California the govern-
ment and state went 50-50 in the expense of
eradication, and also in the matter of reimburse-


ment. The finances of the State of Florida are
such as to render an arrangement of this kind
impossible; however, I believe the Federal Gov-
ernment will take cognizance of the situation
and ultimately this matter can be satisfactorily
worked out. Federal Government aid is essen-
tial to restore Florida industries to the condition
in which they were when the quarantine au-
thorities assumed control, even if it takes more
than the fifteen million dollars which is under
It is perhaps not generally known that the
grapefruit containing the first Mediterranean
fruit fly infestation was picked from trees grow-
ing in the experimental plot of the United States
Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Ento-
mology, located in Orlando. The federal au-
thorities took over the handling of the eradica-
tion work, and in experimenting with the new
situation and with the characteristics and habits
of an insect concerning which their previous
knowledge was largely theoretical, enormous
losses were brought upon the growers, the citrus
industry and the state as a whole. The growers
have cooperated and up to the present have
taken their losses in a very generous spirit, but
we feel that we are justly entitled to ample
federal aid for the purpose of reimbursement.
Truthful publicity correcting exaggerated
and damaging misstatements made concerning
medfly injury in fields to Florida vegetables
should be given wide circulation at once. No
infestations of vegetable crops have ever been
found here in fields and these products should
be permitted free access to the customary mar-
kets of the country. It is highly important that
we emphasize in every way possible that so far
the vegetable industry of this state has been
practically untouched by the Mediterranean
fruit fly.
It has been broadcast from the housetops that
we have millions of flies, that whole crops of
grapefruit around Orlando have been destroyed
by this pest, and photographs of the Hamlin
grove have been distributed widely as typical
of the ravages done to Florida orange grove
properties. As a matter of fact, the Hamlin
grove is old, has been neglected, suffered from
lack of proper cultural methods, and it is be-
lieved that most of the droppage of fruit was
due to the extreme dry weather that prevailed
in Florida last spring. No cause was ever in-
jured by telling the truth, and we feel that we
should now make every effort to put forth the
true picture.
The use of arsenical sprays was forbidden be-
fore the Mediterranean fruit fly was discovered
because it damages both fruit and tree, but this
ban had to be lifted under the emergency and
the law to that effect was passed at the special
session of the last legislature. The reports
which we have from our inspection force show
unmistakably that the fruit loses its acidity
prematurely from the use of arsenical spray
and when the application of this chemical is
made successively for a number of years the
trees are seriously damaged, both as to condi-
tion of the tree and quality of fruit produced.

For purposes of comparison we averaged the
ratio of oranges inspected by our field force this
season in a district where arsenical sprays were
used in eradication work and in one where no
eradication work was carried on, and it was
found that the average ratio of oranges in the
unsprayed territory was 11.65 as against an
average ratio of 27.03 from the groves where
spraying was carried on. This undoubtedly ac-
counts for some of the unsatisfactory shipments
of fruit which went on the market.
The only phase of the citrus fruit work which
the State Department of Agriculture directs is
that of administering the green fruit law.
Great improvement has been brought about in
this service. In 1928 there was a deficit of
$32,108 in the administration of this law, and in
1929 a profit of $5,500. In both instances the
charges were the same-two and one-half cents
per box. I wish at this time to thank the pack-
ing house managers throughout the state for the
whole-hearted cooperation which they gave the
department in administering this law.
In conclusion, I think you will find a cheering
thought in the results of our state advertising
campaign this fall and winter. That people are
still interested in Florida and that they are still
coming to the state, either as residents or
visitors, is obvious from the flood of inquiries
which we receive by mail and in person at the
fair exhibits which we have sent over the
country. The Bureau of Immigration, a division
of the State Department of Agriculture, has
received over 10,000 letters of inquiry during
the last four months. This office is a sort of
clearing house for information on all subjects
pertaining to the resources and development of
our state. In addition to handling this large
volume of correspondence it prepares statistics,
compiles, edits and issues bulletins, periodical
publications, and maps. Several tons of litera-
ture have been mailed by this office during the
past two years, most of it going to those in other
states or countries who write in answer to our
advertising campaign in northern magazines
and newspapers. A new feature of our pub-
licity program which has been inaugurated this
winter is the advertising of Florida products in
twelve of the largest metropolitan newspapers
of the country at the time that these fruits and
vegetables go on the markets of those cities.
Under this plan housewives read advertisements
and recipes for Florida cabbage, for example,
at the same time that retail merchants in their
cities are offering Florida cabbage for sale, and
a direct sales stimulus is thus given our products
on the principal markets of the country. We
prepared a very comprehensive exhibit of Flor-
ida products and resources last summer and
shipped it in a specially constructed truck to
nine of the largest fairs of the United States,
concluding with the International Livestock Ex-
position at Chicago in December. Over 45,000
inquirers called at our booth at these fairs, re-
ceived literature and information, and signed
cards giving their names, addresses and main
lines of interest in Florida. This exhibit was
taken to Jacksonville at the conclusion of the


fair season and set up in the Union Station
there. Hundreds of tourists call there daily,
view the exhibit and are given literature de-
scribing the state as a whole.- In one week re-
cently visitors from twenty-five states and two
foreign countries registered at this booth.
Again let me assure you that it has been a
privilege to join you in this celebration of
Growers' Day. The excellent exhibits which
we have all seen here in spite of the handicaps
under which we have labored should be the
greatest encouragement that we could have to
continue to exert every possible effort and in-
fluence for the genuine growth and improve-
ment of the fruit and vegetable industries of our
state. The greatest element of success-a
dauntless spirit guided by sane optimism-is
one of your outstanding characteristics as a
people, and when cooperation in the fullest
sense of the word is added to this our ultimate
triumph over difficult and discouraging condi-
tions is assured.


(Haines City Herald, January 9, 1930)
Following close on the heels of meeting held last week,
another enthusiastic group of vegetable growers gathered
at the Rotary room in the Estes Arcade, Tuesday evening,
to further plans already made for the growing of a large
acreage of tomatoes.
Growers were present from Davenport, Haines City,
Lake Hamilton, Dundee, Lake Alfred, Loughman, Camp-
bell Station and other nearby towns, with a number of
new faces evident, indicating that the movement is grow-
ing with increased interest. Several new members joined
the association and additional acreage was signed up,
making the total now well over 700 acres for these com-
bined communities.
Already, and it is none too soon, growers have broken
ground and getting the soil in condition for the big
tomato crop. Major W. C. O'Dell of Haines City an-
nounced that he had prepared and planted four huge
seed beds in the half-shade house at the Holly Hill Nur-
sery in Davenport, sowing eight pounds of the Marigold
variety tomato seed. This planting will be followed with
another two beds this week and two more next week,
with the prospects that all eight beds will furnish enough
tomato plants for setting out 400 acres. Other growers
are planting smaller beds of plants for their own use,
while some of them will plant the seed in the open field.
The meeting settled down to a practical discussion of
the problems and methods of tomato growing, with
growers asking and giving their viewpoints. It was the
general opinion that the sand hills and flat woods lands
would produce a better market tomato than the muck,
at this time of year, with less danger of frost, only it is
necessary to work the ground more frequently and use
liberal applications of fertilizer, ranging from 500 to 800
pounds to the acre, each application, and applying three
times during the growing stage, and after the last applica-
tion the ground should not be touched.
The opinions of growers were somewhat divided as to
whether plants or seeds were best. Both sides claimed
practical results from either method, but the general
trend of discussion seemed to favor setting out plants
with less risk from unseasonable weather where the

young plants were propagated under protection, which is
the case of the seed beds in the Holly Hill Nursery.
Additional offers of land continue to come to the atten-
tion of the association. From reports made at the meet-
ing any person who desires to grow tomatoes and does
not have sufficient land or any at all, can obtain whatever
he needs by application to either J. D. Walters, secretary
of the Haines City Chamber of Commerce, or to William
S. Allen, secretary of the Davenport Chamber of Com-
merce, both of whom have land listed which can be used
without the payment of any rental.
The tomato plants can be obtained from Major O'Dell
at a cost of $1.50 per thousand, or any member can
obtain seed from either chamber of commerce at $8.00
per pound. This seed must not be confused with other
seed which is offered at lower prices, but which does
not carry the certification of quality or the elements or
nail head rust immunity or high disease resistance con-
tained in the Marigold variety now offered to the growers.
A special tomato mixture of 5-5-15 fertilizer, com-
prising nitrate, potash and sulphate with a mixture of
Humite is available to all growers, with financing if de-
sired, through Wynn W. Scott, of the Humite Company of
Haines City. This combination is looked upon favorably
by the growers for producing a high quality, abundant
The Ridge Vegetable Growers Association, of which
H. O. Estes, is chairman, is squarely and solidly behind
the growers in this movement, and with the cooperation
of Frank C. Spadaro, who is contracting for the tomato
crop, and other prominent men of this section, it looks
like the beginning of a new era of prosperity for the
truck growers of these surrounding towns, with highly
encouraging prospects and the means of bringing many
additional residents and new money to the communities
represented in the association.


(Palatka News, January 14, 1930)
Poultrymen of Duval and Nassau counties, with the
approval of the Florida State Marketing Bureau, have
taken the lead in organizing a large regional cooperative
marketing association, which it is planned shall include
the eleven counties within a radius of seventy-five miles
of Jacksonville.
Duval and Nassau county poultrymen have already
held several meetings and unanimously decided to go
ahead with the organization plans, and Julian Langner,
organizer of Central Florida Poultry Producers' Coopera-
tive Association, has been retained by the poultrymen as
organizer of the new association.
The charter for the new association, which is to be
known as the North Florida Poultry Producers' Coop-
erative, is being forwarded to Governor Carlton this
Literature is being prepared by the organization com-
mittee in Duval and Nassau counties which will be for-
warded to every poultryman in North Florida, and in-
vitations are being extended to leading poultrymen in
all districts to join with Duval and Nassau men in form-
ing local committees to cooperate with the poultrymen
from other counties.
Meetings of poultrymen to hear Langner outline the
plans of the new association will be held at all points
during February. Organization offices have been estab-
lished in Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce building.



(Vero Beach Journal, January 10, 1930)
For several years the dasheen has received favorable
mention as a Florida product of the soil possessed of
great food value and easy of production. It is again
being urged as a profitable crop in south Florida. It is
said to possess all the food value of the potato and has
an advantage over the potato in that it can be grown
any month of the year in Florida. The roots have a
white meat that tastes very much like the chestnut and
is fine for salads, or can be fried as potato chips.
Dasheen stalks can be cooked as asparagus stems are
cooked and are said to be fully as delectable. The root,
it is claimed, can be used for pies in very much the same
manner that pumpkins are used. So the dasheen has a
variety of uses and may turn out to be another of Flor-
ida's popular and paying crops.


(Florida Times-Union, January 14, 1930)
Lively times are noted in St. Johns county as the
planters of early potatoes get their great acreage ready
and put in the seed for a big crop of "spuds." The St.
Augustine Record says that "planting of the great Irish
potato crop, which means millions in the pockets of St.
Johns county farmers, and in the banks of this com-
munity, has been launched, and will continue until around
the first of February." The Record mentions the fact
that it takes about ninety days to bring the potatoes to
marketable size from planting time, and thus it is ex-
pected that April will see digging operations in full
swing, and adds: "The extensive Hastings-Elkton potato
belt, comprising many thousands of acres of the finest
potato-growing land in the state, is nationally known.
Potatoes leave here by the carload, thousands of them,
for the leading markets of the country. The early crop
from Florida is the first to reach the markets and thence
the tables of the millions who await fresh produce, direct
from the fields and gardens of the southland."
There is always a sporting chance in planting early
potatoes, and the farmers of St. Johns county take it,
regularly, sometimes losing money through an unexpected
setback of cool weather after the "spuds" begin to grow.
But usually there is little trouble encountered, and this
fine crop goes out to a waiting people; always demanding
potatoes, and hungry for the new ones before the winter
is over. Florida produces but. a comparatively small
portion of the potatoes used on American tables; but gets
a lot of money for the early ones, and then turns the
land to other purposes for later crops.
The Record remarks that once upon a time St. Johns
county was known as a one-crop section, with all labor
and money being put into early potatoes, but now diversi-
fication has become popular, and has been, at times, the
salvation of the farmers, "since no matter how good any
one crop may be, or how great its money-making possi-
bilities, the concentration of time and money on a single
product have proven to be the greatest gamble known in
the agricultural or business world. Truck gardens and
flower farms and the raising of poultry and dairy stock
now seen as phases of the necessary diversification, and
this year, with an opportunity to sell fresh produce to a
new cannery now in process of construction, the raising
of beans and tomatoes on an extended scale will be

With some of the richest land in the state, St. Johns
farms will interest any visitor engaged in or contem-
plating the industry of agriculture. New roads, recently
completed as a result of bond issues reaching above two
million dollars, have opened up districts that are espe-
cially adapted to modern farming. This provision of
ways to reach the fertile fields and inspect what is being
done is already proving of great value to county and
state. Not only are the farmers already busy there, given
greater facilities for making and handling their crops,
but the land values, after inspection by interested people
from the east and west and north, have increased.
It is often a surprise for visitors to find that Florida
lands will grow practically anything that can be raised
anywhere. The early spring crop of Irish potatoes brings
to growers in an average year a greater return on fewer
acres than is obtained by growers in sections farther
north. The actual receipts are said to be greater than
in some states that plant double the acreage a little later
in the year. A big acreage, comparatively, will be
devoted to early potatoes this season.


(Plant City Courier, January 10, 1930)
East Hillsborough poultry flocks are this week being
accredited by Dr. D. C. Gillis of the state department.
Dr. Gillis is a real poultry expert and flocks accredited
by him are just what that implies. Plant City and East
Hillsborough poultry owners are constantly improving
their flocks. That is good for the poultrymen and good
for this section. In a land of high feed costs profits
come only from good flocks. The flocks of this section
are becoming good, in fact, better and better. Several
important records have been made by local poultrymen.
Others will be forthcoming as time goes on. This spring
it is expected that the chicken population of this section
will be greatly increased, assuring that next fall there
will be a considerable number more birds in the lay-
ing houses. That will mean a greater income for each
and everyone who has a flock of good birds and handles
them properly. Chickens produce income right along when
given the proper treatment and feed. The income frbm
chickens, while usually not so great to the individual,
can be made a big factor in this section collectively. More
farm flocks will mean more farmers enjoying a nice
little side-line income.


(Tampa Tribune, January 14, 1930 )
A profitable sheep industry is entirely possible for
Florida, according to State Veterinarian J. V. Knapp,
who points out that the rolling and sand hill sections of
the state are admirably suited for sheep raising. One
great advantage, according to Dr. Knapp, is that sheep in
Florida have always been free of "sheep scab." The
comparatively small output of Florida wool has brought
better prices than that produced elsewhere. An estimate
reveals that there are approximately 90,000 sheep in
north Florida. One flock of 300 has brought a monthly
profit of $100.
Accidental discovery, made in California, that sheep
which consume the "drops" in citrus groves thrive on
them and produce much better wool is of importance in
south Florida, where the possibilities of sheep raising
have never been seriously considered.



Will Act Independently of Department of Agri-
culture or Plant Board, Says Blanding

(Polk County Record, January 11, 1930)
Tampa, Jan. 11--(A. P.)-General. A. H. Blanding,
member of the State Plant Board, said today that the
appointment of a new federal board to pass on questions
relating to the Mediterranean fruit fly fight was taken in
recognition of the importance to horticulture and agricul-
ture of immediate and complete eradication of the pest.
Announcement of the appointment was made Thurs-
day in Kansas City by Secretary Hyde.
In addition, he said, the new board will have full con-
trol over fly fighting activities. It will determine policies
and direction and direct work through an executive yet
to be named, he explained. Expenditures of federal funds
will be under control of board members, relieving all
other divisions of the federal agricultural department in
this matter. It will be empowered to make recommen-
dations to federal plant and quarantine officials regard-
ing embargoes and shipping restrictions on the move-
ment of Florida fruit, he continued.
General Blanding expressed the belief that Florida
would profit greatly by the activities of the new or-
ganization through its revised procedure.
Its members are not government employes, he pointed
out, and said this should end criticism, unjust as it has
been, that the fly menace had been magnified as a polit-
ical move.
The standing and reputation of the appointees, he be-
lieved, would increase confidence in the intention of the
government to eliminate the fly completely. Further
modification of the limited embargoes on movement of
host fruit and vegetables from this state may be ex-
pected, the board member believed.
"Everything depends on congressional action with re-
gard to the pending appropriation of $15,000,000, recom-
mended by President Hoover and Secretary Hyde," he
continued. "If there are no funds for work a complete
embargo can be expected. Should congress take away
this power from the agricultural department we may
expect a multitude of state embargoes," the general con-


(Jacksonville Journal, January 9, 1930)
Poultry raising is going to be one of Duval county's
most successful industries in 1930, if present indications
mean anything.
That is the prediction of C. H. Magoon, poultry
specialist for the county agricultural department.
Outside capital is becoming interested in poultry rais-
ing in this county, and the influx of growers from other
states will be quite noticeable during the year, Magoon
Formation of a cooperative marketing association to
handle all eggs produced in the counties of Northeast
Florida would add materially to the success in 1930,
according to Magoon.
Such an association will be organized. Poultrymen of
Duval and several surrounding counties, meeting here

last week, endorsed the plan, and Julian Langner, of Or-
lando, already has been selected to handle the organiza-
tion work. The association probably will be functioning
by the latter part of February.
Peak production of eggs will be reached in March and
April, and will continue through the summer. The
cooperative association would take over all eggs in this
district, grade and pack them, and offer them for sale in
selected markets over the state and country.
Better Prices
This marketing method, Magoon believes, would assure
farmers a much better price than they can obtain in the
open market. Florida cities annually import eggs and
chickens worth millions of dollars, and formation of
cooperative groups over the state to handle the output
of various farms is looked upon as the means of bringing
this state to the front as one of the leading poultry states
of the country.
Eggs produced in Florida can be shipped to eastern
markets several days quicker than California eggs, ac-
cording to Magoon, and these Florida eggs top all others
in price.
Try Out Plan
This was demonstrated last year when the Central
Florida Cooperative Association at Orlando sent a sample
shipment of 50 cases to New York. The price paid was
more than that offered for eggs produced in New York
One Jacksonville bank, according to Magoon, has of-
fered a very satisfactory line of credit to reliable poultry
raisers. This is looked upon as another indication that
northeast Florida will become a major production area
in poultry products.
"Organization and increasing interest in poultry rais-
ing is leading Florida to the time, not far distant, when
this state will be selling and not buying poultry
products," Magoon said. Florida markets then, of course,
will be well supplied with Florida eggs, and the surplus
will be shipped to selected markets of the east and west."
The Central Florida cooperative at Orlando, according
to Magoon, is finding its biggest problem in supplying the
demand for eggs, and not in finding a market for the
supply. The Orlando district is principally a shipping
district and Miami is the market. Magic City produce
houses are getting a proportionate share of the eggs
that can be secured for them, and the demand is always
increasing, Magoon said.
Gives Example
"To the farmer who already has a selected and well
developed market for his eggs, the proposed cooperative
here will hold out the offer to handle his surplus eggs.
It will not attempt to trespass upon his already contracted
"For instance, near Orlando is a poultry raiser who
for several years has supplied eggs to the Orange County
Hospital. He is a member of the Central Florida Ex-
change, and the exchange handles his surplus eggs. He
continues to supply the hospital, and he gets his own
fancy price. The association assesses him only for the
eggs it handles for him.
Same Plan
"That same plan will be followed in the association to
be organized here."
Poultry raising in this county already is an industry
worth several hundred thousand dollars to the city,
Magoon said, and this will be increased greatly during
the next few years.




r .'




I .L

Caponizing Demonstration, July 5, 1929, Sanford, Fla., on School Farm-Mr. Johnson, Master Teacher of Vocational Agriculture in Florida, who is
supervising the demonstration, is standing to the right with sleeves rolled up.



(By H. E. Wood, Assistant State Supervisor Agricultural
Alex R. Johnson, Master Teacher of Vocational Agri-
culture in Florida, has prepared a report on his work
done in the Sanford community from July 1, 1928, to
June 30, 1929. (For winning this honor in Florida,
Johnson was awarded a radio valued at $125.00.)
This report is being sent to Washington, D. C., to
compete with similar reports of Master Teachers from
twelve southern states. The winner in this contest will
be awarded an extended educational tour by the Chilean
Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau.
Mr. Johnson has done a wonderful piece of work at
Sanford and is teaching his boys a balanced system of
agriculture based on farm surveys showing the need of
such a system. One hundred per cent of the students
had projects, these totaling over thirty acres of crops and
over five hundred chickens. No high school credits are
allowed until project requirements are met.
Each student's work includes instruction in Farm Me-
chanics, which teaches tool sharpening, repair work,
bench woodwork, painting and wood finishing, concrete
work, general wood construction, planning farm build-
ings, care and repair of farm machinery, soldering and
sheet metal work, harness and leather repair, rope work,
drainage and irrigation, farm lighting, farm water supply
and sewage disposal, gas engines and repairs.
Mr. Johnson also organized a Vocational Guidance
lecture course for Seminole High School with talks on
Engineering, Farming, Business and Law.
The school farm is being used to teach practical farm
jobs and progressive methods. It is being built up to a
paying basis and is demonstrating how to diversify and
"live at home" to the boys and their parents who have
heretofore been depending almost entirely upon celery.
On five acres Mr. Johnson has several different kinds of
vegetables, besides some live stock and feed crops. He
has a pen of twenty white leghorn hens and a pedigreed
cockerel bred for over two hundred egg production.
From these he has over one hundred young stock grow-
ing and has sold two hundred and twenty-one hatching
eggs to build up local flocks. The poultry department
was used ten times for class instruction and the house
and equipment four times for demonstrations.
Johnson's students took an active part in fair woik and
State contests last year, putting on demonstration at the
Tampa fair and winning first as a judging team in
poultry, and third individual in judging White Leghorns
at Jacksonville. At Tampa, the team won second place
sweepstakes, second place in judging farm animals and
third individual in judging'oranges.
A local chapter of the Future Farmers of Florida or-
ganization for vocational agriculture boys, was organized
and chartered and regular monthly meetings held.
One adult evening poultry course of ten lessons was
organized with twenty-one registered for the work. Semi-
nole Poultry Club was organized with about twenty
members. This club meets once each month for educa-
tional programs.
Two group meetings have been conducted other than
the above ten lessons. Twenty-three individual services
have been given.
Free agricultural service was provided for groups or
individuals throughout the county. One hundred and

ALEX R. JOHNSON, Sanford-Florida's Master
Teacher for 1929

twenty-two individual services and seventeen group ser-
vices were given.
Cooperating with F. W. Bender, forty-two fertilizer
plots, with bulbs to run for three years time, have been
Four thousand five hundred and forty-four miles were
traveled in the work of his department this past year.
He cooperated in two farmers' mass meetings, Central
Florida Poultry Producers' Association, Seminole Agri-
cultural Club, and Seminole Poultry Club.
One adult evening course in "Soils and Fertilizers"
was organized-102 individuals attended with 55 regis-
tered for the work. This resulted in the organization of
the Seminole Agricultural Club, with a present member-
ship of over 150. Regular meetings are held with edu-
cational programs. The celery advertising campaign now
going on was started and is fostered by this club.
A county-wide "Advisory Board" was organized. The
work of this board is to aid his department in drawing
up its program and policies, that the county as a whole
might be better and more intelligently served. This
board is composed of representative farmers selected to
bring together the varied agricultural interests of the
county and community.
Twenty-eight articles regarding the work of his depart-
ment have been printed in state papers or magazines, the
Sanford Herald predominating.
The instructor has personally met the parent or guar-
dian of each boy taking work in his department of the


Sanford High School. A total of one hundred and
eighty-four project visits were made to the homes of
the boys.
Mr. Johnson kept his principal, county superintendent,
State supervisor, and board members fully informed of
his program and progress by means of reports and trips
of inspection.
Mr. Johnson has displayed excellent ability in leader-
ship and organization. He certainly has established team
work and cooperation among the people at Sanford with
the ultimate objective of permanent agricultural pros-
perity to the community. This means that when every-
one makes a little money times are prosperous; not so
when only a few make a whole lot.
The above report covers briefly Mr. Johnson's first
year at Sanford and much progress not eligible in this
report has been accomplished since then.


(Tampa Tribune, January 15, 1930)
Tarpon Springs, Jan. 14.-(Special)--Sponge sales
today brought a total of $43,000. The Rock Island
sponge, which is the highest grade, was the only sponge
offered. This brings the total for the five sales of the
mid-winter catch up to $150,910. A special sale will be
held tomorrow to hurry the sale of sponges so the boats
can return to the sponge banks. All boats will leave
this month and will be out until Easter.


Commissioner Rhodes Reviews the Work Since
August First at Meeting in Tallahassee

(Levy County Times, January 16, 1930)
Reviewing the work of the State Marketing Bureau
between August 1, 1929, and January 1, 1930, the period
in which the activities of the organization have been in-
creased under authorization of the 1929 session of the
State Legislature, Commissioner of Markets L. M. Rhodes
made a report to the State Marketing Commission in
session yesterday at Tallahassee.
Declaring that the "demand for assistance in all ac-
tivities is constantly increasing" Commissioner Rhodes
declared that "the marketing service is proving profitable
and popular among the farmers." He went into some
detail concerning the market news service from the
bureau, pointing out salient facts, and announced that
during the period the livestock and field crop specialist
had assisted in holding or participated in the following
sales: 186 cars of hogs, value, $195,114; two cars of
peanuts, $2,100; eight cars of sweet potatoes, $3,000;
13 cars of corn, $4,225, and 24 cars of cattle, $21,600.
He also pointed out that during the period the poultry
market specialist had held thirty-five turkey or poultry
sales participated in by 771 farmers who sold 114,622
pounds of poultry valued at $27,047.91.
"The prospects for dairying in Florida loom very
bright," the report declares in the section devoted to that
phase of marketing situation.
"Increased interest is being shown in cooperative mar-
keting and improvement in grades and shipping point
inspection," the report said. "Records and accomplish-
ments speak for themselves and the bureau feels justly

proud of the history it has made, particularly in the last
half of 1929."
At the outset of the report, it was pointed out that
during the six months, Commissioner Rhodes had traveled
13,840 miles, attended forty-six conferences, made forty-
four addresses, and written numerous articles and reports
for the press.


Ten Carloads Were Shipped Out of Hardee the
Past Week

(Florida Advocate, January 10, 1930)
The total shipment of strawberries from Hardee county
approached the half million pint mark yesterday with a
car being loaded at Bowling Green and one at Wau-
chula, besides a number of reefers to go out.
Figures compiled by the Advocate yesterday revealed
a total shipment to date of 472,794 pints, with the ship-
ments for the past six days amounting to 186,800 pints,
or about two-thirds as many as had been shipped pre-
vious to January 1st.
Bowling Green sent out six carloads, a total of 119,550
Shipments from Wauchula included four carloads and
29 refrigerators, or 67,250 pints. Cars went out of Wau-
chula on January 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th,.all of which
were handled by the Hardee County Growers, Inc. They
were sold through the Miller auction system at Lakeland.
The price was quoted at from ten to fourteen cents a
pint on the open market. Wednesday's average was
around fourteen cents at Bowling Green. There were
4,350 pints sold on the open market at Wauchula while
62,900 went through the Hardee County Growers, Inc.
Zolfo Springs cooperatives also contributed to the ship-
ments from Wauchula and Bowling Green, and their
shipments are included in the figures given above.
Four cars of berries were sold through the Miller auc-
tion system Wednesday night, one each from Plant City,
Galloway, Bowling Green and Wauchula. The one from
Plant City brought 13% cents, that from Galldway 13%
and those from Bowling Green and Wauchula 13 cents a
Twenty cars have been sold through the Miller auction
system since January 2nd, being loaded at Plant City,
Galloway, Bowling Green and Wauchula. The price
ranged from twelve to fourteen cents a pint, the average
being about 13 cents.
Shipments of vegetables from Wauchula have been
light for the past week, with nothing moving except a
few pepper, peas and strawberries. Express shipments
for the week of January 1st to 8th include the following:
Pepper, 302 crates; berries, 29; oranges, 28; peas, 21;
beans, 13; eggplant, 2 crates. Pepper was quoted at
$3.00 a crate f. o. b. this week.
Planting operations are in full swing now and a large
acreage of cucumbers, corn, potatoes and other vege-
tables is being put in for spring shipment.

The State Department of Agriculture is receiving
felicitations of many sections of the nation on its 1930
calendar recently distributed by the Immigration Bureau.
The calendar was done in colors by a St. Augustine
artist. J. C. Mohler, secretary of the Kansas State Board
of Agriculture, and Harry D. Wilson, Louisiana Commis-
sioner of Agriculture, were among those writing the
department.-Pensacola Journal, January 15, 1930.



Shipments, Exclusive of Citrus, Bring Florida
Farmers Average of Five Millions a Year,
Report of Marketing Specialist Declares

(Palm Beach Post, January 12, 1930)
Jacksonville, Jan. 11.-(A. P.)-Florida has shipped
221,485 carloads of fruits and vegetables, other than
citrus fruit, during the last five years, which produced
an annual revenue of about $25,000,000, S. W. Hiatt,
marketing specialist in fruits and vegetables, of the State
Marketing Bureau, has announced.
Shipments of that class of produce for that period
averaged only a little more than 10 per cent less than
the citrus industry, Mr. Hiatt stated.
The state furnished practically a 12 months' marketing
season on fruits and vegetables, although the heaviest
shipments are from December to June, the specialist
"From the standpoint of value, equipment and labor
involved, this is one of the most important industries of
the state," he said.
Declaring that because of the perishable nature of the
produce, and the rapidly increasing competition from
other winter vegetable producing areas, marketing prob-
lems unequaled by any other products are presented. Mr.
Hiatt urged the standardization of grades, improvement
in ,packing and wider distribution as a possible solution.
"Only through the grower's realization of the import-
ance of these factors as related to the profit he will se-
cure, can we hope for improvement in the general mar-
keting conditions and increased profits to the producer,"
he said.
Standardization of grades can best be accomplished
through community or cooperative effort by collecting
the products at a central point with sufficient volume to
grade and load in carlots, he explained. The appearance
of a product when it reaches the market is the determin-
ing factor in the price received, making necessary careful
grading, uniform packages and proper loading, he stated.


(Ft. Lauderdale Herald, January 10, 1930)
While a part of the population of South Florida is
wailing and cursing its luck, mooning over lost fortunes
that were won in a year's time and lost as quickly; won-
dering, without working, when high values will return,
men from the outside with vision and money are coming
here, investing and preparing for the substantial, pros-
perous Florida that they know has arrived.
As evidence of the fact take a look at the investment
the Southern Sugar Company is making within seventy
miles of Fort Lauderdale. Already this company has
invested some twenty or thirty millions of dollars in
sugar cane plantations and mills. Before the plant is
fully established and working to capacity, $47,000,000
will have been invested. Getting nearer home, less than
fourteen miles from Fort Landerdale, the Geist interests
of New York are investing somewhere between $15,-
000,000 and $17,000,000 in a club house, hotel and
casino at Boca Raton, and a plant excelling anything of
its kind in the south is being completed.
The Roosevelt aviation company will spend $1,500,000
on an air transportation plant at West Palm Beach and

at Miami many millions have been spent annually for the
past several years for construction, building and develop-
ment of varying kinds. The interests mentioned above
are diversified and show that outsiders with money are
looking upon South Florida as a substantial prospect
from an agricultural and commercial standpoint as well
as viewing it as the nation's playground. And the
different industries are not manned by people who are
wailing over lost fortunes, but who have their faces up-
lifted toward the sun and are doing things because they
have confidence in Florida. The moral to this story is
that the wailers and gnashers of teeth could do well to
turn their faces to the sun, open their mouths and drink
in a little of the confidence and optimism that is inspiring
the newcomers among us.


(Gainesville Sun, January 12, 1930)
Florida has started the annual process of tipping her
sugar bowl.
All the sweetness from twelve thousand acres of sugar
cane in the Clewiston region along the south shore of
Lake Okeechobee will soon be en route to the big re-
fineries for final preparation for consumption. The great
Clewiston mill, having a capacity of four thousand tons
of sugar cane daily, is now in operation. Grinding of
the cane began a few days ago. Very soon the mill at
Canal Point will be running and within the next three
months, when the season ends, several million tons of
raw sugar will have been produced from the Florida
Everglades, while other millions of tons of cane fibre
will have been used in the manufacture of a Dahlberg
product known as Celotex, a building or wall material
now widely used by the building trades throughout the
So the Florida Everglades are making a splendid con-
tribution to the State's prosperity through these channels
of manufacture of a native product, while of course the
pay rolls incident to these huge operations assume enor-
mous proportions.
For those who may be uninformed, the fifty-mile area
between Moore Haven, Clewiston and Canal Point is
practically one vast field of sugar cane, declared by chem-
ical experts to be as good as the best grown anywhere
in the world.

Tallahassee, Jan. 10.-(A. P.)-A high tribute to
Attorney General Fred H. Davis for the part "he played
in getting the constitutionality of the state-wide milk and
cream law upheld recently in federal court was paid here
by Commissioner of Agriculture Nathan Mayo. In a
brief statement, Mr. Mayo said the dairymen and resi-
dents of the state generally owed the attorney general a
debt of gratitude for the masterful manner in which Mr.
Davis presented the side of the state in proceedings
brought by a Georgia dairyman to test the validity of
the milk and cream law. The litigation was dismissed by
a special three-judge court. While the case was in
progress the state continued to enforce the act, which
was passed by the 1929 legislature, and which is desig-
nated to regulate the importation and sale of milk and
cream in Florida, and there will be no let-up in the super-
vision work, Mr. Mayo said. John M. Scott, former
vice-director of the agricultural experiment station at
Gainesville, and Louis Smith are in charge of the super-
vision work.



Proposal Is Declared to Involve No Abridgement
of Civil or Religious Rights

(The United States Daily, January 15, 1930)
The proposed fixed calendar, which would divide the
year into 13 months of 28 days each, "would not abridge
the rights of any citizen, either civil, constitutional or
religious," said Dr. Charles F. Marvin, chief of the United
States Weather Bureau and vice-chairman of the
National Committee on Calendar Simplification, in a de-
bate January 14 in Washington, D. C., at the Jewish
Community Center.
The opposite view was upheld by Rabbi J. Schwefel, of
Washington, whose invitation to present the case in
favor of a fixed and uniform calendar had been accepted
by Dr. Marvin.
Dr. Schwefel spoke for the Jewish doctrinal opposition
to the proposed 13-month fixed calendar, which once each
year and twice in leap years would cause the Sabbath
to fall on an eighth day, contrary, according to the Jewish
doctrine, to Divine command.
"Exaggeration, distortion of facts, ridicule or mis-
representations with reference to one or another feature
of reform, such as appear from time to time in press dis-
cussions, are alike wholly out of place before this distin-
guished audience, whose deep religious feelings command
my entire respect and deference, even though I cannot
agree that your views are justified," said Dr. Marvin.
An authorized summary of his address follows in full
Declaring the calendar a man-made instrument, Dr.
Marvin pointed to its history showing that it had been
repeatedly changed and improved.
"So far as history shows," he said, "practically every
important change was attained by more or less violent,
sometimes riotous opposition by those who imagined the
change wrought them some deep individual injury.
Nevertheless all humanity now recognizes that every
essential change throughout all history simply started a
new and better calendar in place of an old and imperfect
one. Who today wants to go back to the old Julian
calendar? No one; and the judgment of those who
opposed the introduction of the present calendar is now
clearly seen to have been erroneous.
"Any change in the calendar that is made in this
twentieth'century will be a change brought about by the
progressive thought and voice of all the people. Ultra-
conservatism and dogmatic opposition by a small minority
is of course to be expected, but cannot prevail to deprive
the world at large from benefits which the great majority
seek and are entitled to."
Dr. Marvin told how the League of Nations committee,
which investigated calendar reform, had considered as
not sufficiently practical those plans which did not pro-
vide for fixity in the calendar.
"There is only one way of establishing fixity in the
calendar," he said, "and that is by giving one day each
year a non-week-day name such as 'year day' and by
giving the additional day in leap years a non-week-day
name such as 'leap day.' "
"It was unfortunate," he added, "that these two days
had been referred to as 'blank days,' because it has been
seriously misrepresented that these so-called blank days
are left out of the calendar completely. That, of course,

is not at all the case. Each such day has its definite
number in the week and month of which it is a part.
Most Christians Declared Not to Oppose Change
"Many church actions and opinions clearly show," Dr.
Marvin continued, "that the great authorities among
Christians as a class are of the opinion that -none of the
proposed changes in the calendar raises any difficulties of
dogma or canon law. The opposition thus far expressed
comes alone from Jews and Sabbatarians."
Reciting the defects of the present calendar, Dr.
Marvin referred to it as a "yardstick of time" in which
the halves and quarters were of different length.
"The months," he explained, "contain 28, sometimes
29 and 30 and 31 days, severally. The quarters and half
years are unequal. How would you like to buy and sell
dry goods with a yardstick in which the halves and
quarters were of different lengths? The buyer wants the
long half yard, while the seller wants to measure by the
short end. Of course, such a yardstick would be ruled
out of business at once.
"Our 'time stick' is even worse, because another defect
is that the months do not contain a whole number of
weeks. There is no exact analogy for this defect in the
'yard stick,' but the defect in the calendar is a most
serious one."
Dr. Marvin emphasized as a most serious defect the
lack of fixity in the calendar, showing that the shifting
of January 1 to a different.week day each year is "the
cause of a long train of additional defects."
"Fully 1,000 years elapsed after the first progressive
minds pointed out the defects of Caesar's leap year rule
before Pope Gregory had the knowledge and power to
correct it," continued the speaker.
"We live much faster today. It is now just about 100
years since Mastrofini, the Italian priest of the Catholic
church, first proposed to make the calendar fixed. The
posterity of those who stopped the fluctuations and in-
cessant migrations of the date of the equinox are now
aroused to the necessity of stopping the incessant fluc-
tuations and migrations of week day names and numbers.
"In concluding, I beseech you to join this movement,
remembering that Jews and Christians alike were told
that the Sabbath was made for man and not man for the
Religious Freedom Said to Be Preserved
In specifically answering the Jewish arguments, that
the 13-month fixed calendar would infringe their civil,
religious and constitutional rights, Dr. Marvin said:
"It is denied that the adoption of a fixed calendar by
the use of so-called blank days abridges the rights of any
citizen, either civil, constitutional or religious. 'Free
exercise of religion' means no more than freedom of re-
ligious tenet and creed. That freedom remains, regard-
less of any change of the calendar. Economic hardship
which the practice of a particular creed imposes upon a
believer is another matter. The Constitution does not
guarantee freedom from economic hardship.
"The United States is a Christian Nation, and such
Sunday laws and observance thereof as exist in this and
other Christian nations simply bespeak of the religious
interests and beliefs of the great majority. It is
obviously impossible to legislate to suit the religious
convictions of all sects, otherwise the atheist or others
might require that the seven-day week and the observance
of all Sabbaths be abolished.
"Accordingly, under a fixed calendar, no laws would
prohibit a Sabbatarian or a Jew from voting, should elec-


tion day happen to coincide with the day he chooses to
call his Sabbath. The alleged economic hardships and
civil disabilities are not civil abridgements of his rights,
but are altogether inconveniences he must experience
simply because of his particular religious creed and con-
"The Jews and Sabbatarians already suffer economic
hardship through the exercise of religious convictions
which require them to refrain from business pursuits on
Saturday. They are free to exercise their religion in
this way, but neither the Constitution nor the laws pro-
tect them from the economic consequences."


(Ocala Evening Star, January 7, 1930)
Of particular interest in Marion county is the decision
handed down by a special federal court composed of
three judges in Jacksonville Saturday, under which the
constitutionality of the state milk and cream act of 1929
was upheld.
B. A. Noble, a Hawkinsville, Ga., dairyman, attacked
the constitutionality of the law on several grounds, claim-
ing that the law was discriminatory against dairy
products shippers of other states and that it created
obstructions to the transportation and sale of dairy
products of other states in Florida.
In its opinion the court held that Noble's argument
that the law requiring him to label milk to show it was
produced in Georgia made it impossible to compete with
Florida products, was not sound since the measure re-
quires Florida milk to be labeled as well as products from
other states. To the plea that an excessive penalty was
imposed, the opinion countered that it had been shown
that fines were left to the discretion of the courts and
might be as little as $1.
"It will be conceded," said the court, "that the State
of Florida, in the exercise of its police power, has the
right to protect the public health and safety by legisla-
tive enactment, provided the same be reasonable and
does not infringe any right granted or secured by the
constitution of the United States." In another place the
court points out that a state which has the right to re-
quire a label on sacks of fertilizer, certainly has the same
right in respect to labeling bottles of milk intended for
human consumption.
The federal court decision marks the end of a long
controversy over legislation designed to protect the
health of consumers of dairy products in this state. The
law, or a similar one, was passed by the 1927 legislature
and the withholding of executive approval for the
measure caused it to be an issue in the 1928 political
campaign in this and other dairying counties. If we
remember correctly the reasons advanced by the then
governor for his veto of the milk bill passed in 1927
were substantially those the defendant Noble included
in his petition for an interlocutory injunction. The court
in its decision seems to have dissipated them into thin
air and the dairy industry in Florida, which has made
remarkable development in the past four years, will con-
tinue to expand and grow under the beneficial provisions
contained in the milk law.
The milk law, which was designed after similar legisla-
tion which has been in effect for several years in such
great dairying states as Indiana, Wisconsin and Mich-
igan, provides certain standards and specifications that
all milk must come up to that sold in Florida and
such standards and regulations are just as binding on

the domestic milk producer as those outside the state.
It doesn't discriminate one against the other, as the court
has pointed out, but places them all on the same foot-
ing, which is a distinction out-of-state producers have
objected to because it forces them to send a quality
product into Florida in place of the inferior milk that
has been dumped into this state by the tank car load
prior to enactment of the law.
To see that a clean wholesome milk supply is furnished
the consuming public is the purpose of all laws govern-
ing the production of milk and its products. Never do
these laws work a hardship on the dairy industry when
that industry is honestly conducted. The consuming
public has great respect for and confidence in their
municipal or state laws governing milk supplies. The
instant the public realizes their milk is being produced
under the supervision of rigid laws, resulting in a safe,
pure supply of milk, that instant does the consumption
of milk increase. While Florida does not produce any-
thing like the amount of milk its citizens consume, this
milk law will have a tendency to increase interest in the
dairy industry in that it will protect the Florida dairy-
man from unfair competition, assure the public a higher
quality of milk and probably result in larger investments
in the dairy industry here.
The federal court decision is a victory for the State
Department of Agriculture and those who cooperated
with it in enacting the law and is a distinct step forward
for dairying in Florida.


(Daytona Beach Times, January 10, 1930)
The progress being made in north and west Florida in
improving the native cattle points out in a most vivid
manner what tick eradication will mean to Volusia
county, which is preparing now to start this work March
1, 1930. By reviewing what has been done in the areas
which have completed the work, cattle owners will be
able to look forward to starting tick eradication with
enthusiasm and with their minds made up to give the
State Live Stock Sanitary Board and the Federal Gov-
ernment, conducting the work, their whole-hearted
cooperation, and plan to take steps, as soon as the area
is freed of ticks, to improve the native cattle, both beef
and dairy types, by the use of purebred bulls.
North and west Florida cattlemen, with the assistance
of the State Veterinarian's office, have just purchased
two carloads of purebred beef type cattle. There were
fifty-two head in the lot, mostly purebred bulls, the rest
being purebred heifers and cows. The bulls are to be
used in improving the native cattle and the cows and
heifers to start purebred herds. This shipment brings
the number of purebred cattle introduced into the tick-
free section of north and west Florida to above 480,
according to Dr. J. V. Knapp, State Veterinarian. A
large number of half-breeds are now on the ranges of
west Florida and they are doing exceptionally well; in
fact, much better than expected by the cattlemen when
they purchased their bulls. In placing these half-breeds
on the market along with the native cattle, the cattle-
men of west Florida are receiving from two to three cents
per pound more than for scrubs of the same age and con-



(Furnished by Chief Milk Inspector B. M. Scott)

Brief Notes on Care of Milk
To keep milk sweet for a reasonable length of time
it must be cooled to a temperature of 50 degrees Fahren-
heit, or lower, immediately after milking, and kept at
that temperature until ready for use.

Do not mix night's milk or cream with morning's milk
or cream, or vice versa. Both will sour more quickly
when mixed than when left unmixed, even at the same

Milk with clean, dry hands. Many dollars' worth of
milk has soured en route because of dirty milkers.

Employ steam and hot water in the care of all utensils
around a dairy. Milk cannot be any cleaner than the
can, pail, or bottle in which it is contained.

Always draw the first two or three streams of milk
from each teat on the floor before milking any from the
teat into the pail. The end of the teat canal is always
filled with bacteria gathered by the cow's lying in con-
tact with the ground. By washing the bacteria out with
the first two or three streams of milk, a cleaner milk or
cream is produced.
The production of a clean milk supply for sale to the
inhabitants of a municipality is the greatest responsi-
bility the dairyman has to meet. The science of pre-
ventative medicine is the greatest advance, most prob-
ably, of the modern age. To keep people from getting
sick is possibly as important, or more so, than to effect
a cure. This is what the modern dairyman is supposed
to do. Not only is it necessary for him to furnish great
and copious quantities of highly nutritious food, but it is
necessary for the dairyman to furnish it safe to the con-
sumer. His barn must be equipped with proper floors,
proper drainage, and water supply. His milk house must
be equipped so as to enable the furnishing of sterile
utensils, insure freedom from flies, and dust, and provide
an efficient system of refrigeration.
The dairy herd must be free from contagious diseases
that may be transmitted from cow to man. All milkers
and employees must be free from infectious and con-
tagious diseases that may be transmitted to consumers
through the medium of milk.
To see that these things are done and that the public
is protected in the milk supply it consumes is the pur-
pose of all laws governing the production of milk and its
products. Never do these laws work hardships on the
dairy industry.
The consuming public has great respect for and con-
fidence in their municipal or state laws governing milk
supplies. The instant the public realizes that their milk
supply is being produced under the supervision of rigid
laws, resulting in a safe, pure supply of milk, that in-
stant does the consumption of milk increase.
Proper Dairy Equipment
The most profitable manner of disposing of milk is in
its sale for use in the milk supplies of cities. In no other
manner can the greatest profit for the production of milk
be obtained. Yet, because of the danger to the public
health of consuming milk improperly produced, much

milk is prevented from meeting the clamoring demands
of a desirous public for milk.
A number of factors enter into the production of a safe
and clean raw milk that are equally important one with
another. These factors are absolutely necessary and
cannot be omitted, since to omit one breaks the chain or
leaves a weak link that destroys the purity of the milk
The dairy barn and milk house should be located on
a knoll, from which the land or ground slopes in every
direction. If no such ground-rise can be found, one
should be made; that is, the barn and milk house should
be built with foundations high enough to permit of the
filling in of earth so as to produce a sloping surface
from the buildings.
No barn or milk house should be built closer than 300
feet to any other building, either a dwelling, horse barn,
hay barn, or any type of building that would in any
manner interfere with the successful operation of a dairy
for the production of clean raw milk. Neither should
the dairy premises be built closer than 300 feet to a
main traveled road. The danger of transmission of dis-
ease by flies and by dust from roads very readily estab-
lishes the necessity of locating barns and milk houses at
a distance safely beyond the dangers of infection.
The barn should be not less than thirty-two feet wide,
interior measurement, and not less than nine and one-half
feet high to plates just below eaves. This will give six
hundred cubic feet of air space for each cow when
placed in a stanchion three and six-tenths feet wide;
that is to say, a barn one hundred feet long will contain
forty-eight stanchions, or room for that many cows,
with an open space on each end, and one on the center
of each row of stanchions. Each barn should have a
floor constructed of good sound concrete, durably made
and smoothly finished.
The milk house should be situated twenty feet from
the barn and equidistant from each end. The milk house
should be thirty feet square, divided as shown by the
following plan:



No dairy is properly equipped unless the milk house is
provided with a sterilizing room 8x8x7, situated in the
milk house as shown by the diagram. This room must be
equipped with rack upon which the cans, pails and bottles
may be placed upside down for purpose of sterilizing.
On the floor beneath the racks should be placed a steam
pipe connected with the boiler to provide steam for
purpose of sterilization. These pipes must be perforated
with holes one-eighth of an inch in diameter, four inches
apart. These specifications should not be changed in
any detail since these measurements are the best.
The boiler should not be less in size than 6 h. p., and
preferably not less than 8 h. p. Steam pressure on the
boiler should never fall below eighty pounds when being
used for putting steam into the sterilizing room, and the
steam should continue to enter for a period of not less


than thirty minutes. The safety valve should be set
to exhaust at one hundred twenty-five pounds.
The reason the steam should never fall below eighty
pounds is that at this pressure and above there exists a
sufficient quantity of dry steam to insure enough heat
to give proper sterilization. Anything less than this pres-
sure allows globules of water to pass over with the steam,
which reduces its temperature and therefore its value for
sterilization purposes.

In a letter received by the Department of Agriculture,
Paul L. Koenig, agricultural statistician for the division
of crop and livestock estimates, U. S. Department of
Agriculture, complimented Florida officials on the com-
pilation of a volume of graphic information, which he
referred to as "one of the best graphic compilations of
commodity prices and shipment data coming to my atten-
tion."-Pensacola Journal, January 15, 1930.


New Potatoes as Well as Locally Grown Straw-
berries Coming Into Market

(Miami Herald, January 5, 1930)
The number of persons engaged in diversified vegetable
and strawberry growing on from 1 to 10 acres throughout
Dade county this year, and particularly in the southern
part of the county, appears to be larger than in past
seasons. Though most of these gardeners were more or
less delayed by the heavy rainfall in late September and
early October and quite a number who had planted be-
fore that time lost their first plantings, nearly all of them
later replanted and are now getting back into production
and are selling their produce on the growers' municipal
market or to Miami grocers.
Among these is H. B. Harvey, 34 N. W. Seventeenth
place, Miami, who has two acres of Missionary straw-
berries on the east side of Red road and about 1,000
feet north of the Snapper Creek canal bridge just begin-
ning to ripen. He planted the same area to strawberries
early in September, but the plants were destroyed by a
storm and had to be replanted. For the picking of ber-
ries the past week he received 50 cents per quart, whole-
Mr. Harvey also began digging an acre of Irish pota-
toes last week, planted 10 weeks ago. For these he said
he was receiving $4.50 per hamper for -No. Is. While
these had not attained their full size most of those dug
graded No. 1, were smooth and of excellent quality. An
acre of tomatoes made an excellent growth and are now
in bloom. An acre of peppers in the same tract are also
making satisfactory growth.
At his home place Mr. Harvey planted 300 papayas
about a year ago. Most of these survived the September
storm and for the last month or more have been yielding
some good fruit, all of which a store takes at 7 cents per
Not to be outdone by her husband, Mrs. Harvey has a
flock of 100 chickens in the back yard, about 50 of which
are pullets ready to lay. She also sold quite a number of
broilers for market and is expecting to expand her
poultry enterprise the coming year.
South of Mr. Harvey's operations and nearer the
Snapper Creek canal bridge in Red road, C. U. Penny is
gardening on about eight acres of marl soil. A mixed

vegetable crop covering five acres or more of his tract
previously planted was destroyed. However, he replanted
most of it immediately following the storm and has
already marketed some turnips, beets and greens, and
soon will harvest some peppers, eggplants and other
He has growing four acres of carrots, three-quarters
of an acre of eggplant, an acre of tomatoes and smaller
areas of beets and other vegetables. He sells most of
his products at the Miami Municipal Market, but is ex-
pecting to ship some peppers and carrots.
Mr. Penny formerly gardened in the Plant City area
where he specialized in strawberries.


(Perry Herald, December 5, 1929)
A carload of purebred Angus breeding cattle for
Washington, Holmes, Walton and Okaloosa county cattle-
men was purchased last month in Tennessee by Dr. R. L.
Brinkman and Mr. Dan Hughes. Purchase of another car
of similar purebred stock at an early date is anticipated,
to meet the demand for better cattle.


Another Record Set for Local Stock Market

(Ocala Banner, January 10, 1930)
Twenty-nine thousand, three hundred and five pounds
of central Florida hogs moved from the Martin and
Taylor stockyard Tuesday after the weekly market in
which another record for the quantity of hogs taken in
was made. The double-decked carload, which went to
Swift & Company in Moultrie, Ga., included hogs from
many points in Marion county as well as Morrison, Ox-
ford and Bushnell.
Expect 40% Increase
Sam Martin, manager of the market, predicted that 40
per cent more hogs would be produced in Marion county
in 1930 than in 1929. He urged farmers to point for
the most profitable months of sale-February and March
and late July and August, and furthermore advised that
oats, rye, rape or a similar crop be planted in addition to
peanuts for the hogs.
Mr. Martin said that the high quality of the hogs be-
ing received by the local market was amazing, and that
a large percentage of those brought in are tops. This in-
dicates, he said, that Marion county farmers are working
hard to improve their stock and make the most of what
they have.
One Weighs 510 Pounds
The heaviest hog brought in Tuesday came from R. B.
Meffert and weighed 510 pounds. The largest contribu-
tion from an individual farmer came from H. W. Tucker,
who brought 33 weighing 5,180 pounds.
Other contributors included: O. E. Dias, Summerfield;
Tom Blair, Oxford; T. P. Caruthers, Oxford; O. D.
Wiggins, Romeo; W. A. Perkins, Morriston; J. F. Weaver,
Morriston; W. B. Keen, Anthony; Mrs. E. H. Camp,
Zuber; W. D. Proctor, Pedro; A. H. Nelson, Bushnell;
W. H. Proctor, Pedro; J. A. Jones, Fairfield; F. E. Smoak,
Reddick; G. H. Smoak, Reddick; H. E. Snowden, Fellow-
ship; John Luffman, Oak; J. L. Kendrick, Martin; Will
McLeod, Martin; R. B. Meffert, Ocala, and H. W. Tucker,



Little Milk Being Shipped to State, Inspector
States in Letter

(Tallahassee Daily Democrat, January 14, 1930)
Although some sweet and sour cream is now being
shipped into the state, very little milk from other states
is being used in Florida at the present, John M. Scott,
chief milk inspector, in the Department of Agriculture,
states in a letter to J. P. Love, local dairyman, and
president of the State Dairy Association.
Mr. Scott declares that his office is at present con-
ducting a survey of all the dairies in the State and has
found, in the eighty-five per cent of those in the state
that have been examined, many startling facts.
There is a surplus of milk in two of the largest cities
in Florida and one dairy alone is manufacturing 11,000
pounds of butter in a month.
Mr. Scott declares that he is receiving cooperation from
various state and local health organizations as well as the
majority of the dairymen, in carrying on his work.
Dairymen of the state are taking kindly to the new milk
law, he says.
When the survey that the department is now working
on is completed they will be in a position to tell dairy
farmers whether or not they should increase the number
of cows they are milking and what other plans they
should make as the survey is finding the number now be-
ing milked, the number which will be milked, what market
for milk and butter there is, and other things important
to dairymen.


(Tampa Times, January 7, 1930)
Business conditions in Tampa, the state's largest west
coast city and port, have been fine during 1929, with in-
dustry making new records and everything pointing to
continued advance and greater prosperity during 1930.
Cigarmaking, which leads in manufacturing, passed all
previous records, with reports showing more than half a
billion cigars made. The cigarmakers have been busy
during the past year, for the product of the factories
amounted to an average of a million and a third cigars a
day. This output has found ready sale, and with excel-
lent wages paid, new markets established and satisfaction
everywhere indicated, the new year opens with the
brightest prospects. Tampa, known in some sections as
the Cigar City, and having some of the largest and best
factories in the country, is getting national recognition
in the cigar trade. A single item in the story of activity
along this line suggests the importance of the cigar in-
dustry. The United States internal revenue department
collected $2,640,438, largely from this industry in
Tampa, and it is remarked that the amount was $30,000
ahead of the figure for the previous year.
Phosphate shipments amounted to more than a
million tons during 1929, and eighty-seven million feet of
lumber were shipped out of the port. In each of these
industries the increase for last year was considerable.
The phosphate industry, which was practically closed
down during the World War and has rather slowly been
resumed, is now apparently coming nearer to a high point
in exports and means the employment of many workers
and the bringing of much money to the state. Phosphate
rock, used as a basis for commercial fertilizers, is found

in but few places, and Florida phosphate rock is the
standard and the most important in volume for the world.
Lumber shipments, showing increase of many million feet
over 1928, meant renewed activity in that direction. The
projected construction program for .the new year indi-
cates increasing demands.
Suggesting the general growth of Tampa, it was told
in the annual review of activities that the Tampa Gas
Company, the Tampa Electric Company and the Penin-
sular Telephone Company, have trebled their business in
the past decade. Making a comparison it was said that
the telephone company had 22,000 stations in Tampa last
year and had only 7,700 in 1919. The City of Tampa
has expended several hundred thousand dollars during
the past twelve months for various improvements that
will add to the comfort and convenience, health and
pleasure of citizens and residents.
The city is steadily increasing its facilities and man-
ages to accumulate money to pay off bonds coming due.
The year 1930 starts in for Tampa with the brightest
prospects, and all the people ready to bend their energies
to breaking old records and making new high marks in
trade and industry.-Times-Union.


(Palm Beach Times, January 11, 1930)
A special federal court of three judges has held con.
stitutional Florida's milk and cream act of 1929. It
denied an injunction sought by a Georgia dairyman, who
claimed the measure was discriminatory against dairy
product shippers of other states, and that it created ob-
structions to the transportation and sales of dairy
products of other states in Florida.
The law is one that the people of Florida enacted to
guarantee the quality of milk offered to its citizens, to-
gether with milk products. As the court held, the act is
"to secure to the people of Florida the assurance that
milk and cream offered for sale is produced under sani-
tary conditions fixed by the State of Florida and that it
be offered under a label that discloses its grade, quality,
and place of production." The measure also prohibits
the re-pasteurization of any milk, or the mixing of milk
produced in one state with milk produced in another
state, and providing stiff penalties for infringement on
the stipulations of the law.
The law exempts Floridians having five cows or fewer,
a point of attack which the court held as not unreason-
able. The attack on labeling was met by the court with
the fact that the same law requires Floridians to so
label; and to the excessive penalty provided, the court
pointed to the discretion of the trial judge who could
fine as low as one dollar. It said the plaintiff had no
right to complain of interference with interstate com-
merce since the law covered only processors or dealers
handling out-of-state milk after delivery in that relation.
Floridians can feel good over the decision. The gen-
eral health and welfare of the whole people of a state
are first considerations in matters of this character. The
public is entitled to all the protection it *can get when
good food is involved.

Marianna Floridan of December 6th remarked, accord-
ing to the Florida Review, that Nathan A. Mayo's pretty
tribute to North and West Florida shows the Commis-
sioner "knows his onions." Correct. Nathan A. has one
for every part of Florida.-Orlando Sentinel, January 14,

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs