U.S.Dept. of Agriculture,
PUBLISHED SEMI-MONTHLY BY
BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
JANUARY 6, 1930
RURAL VERSUS URBAN CIVICS
By T. J. BROOKS, Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture
OCIAL SCIENCE is in a formative stage.
No subject has undergone so radical a
change in the hands of textbook authors
during recent years as has that of
civics. When it was first introduced into the
changing curricula of high schools, little else
was treated than the Federal Constitution. The
subject has been expanded to take in all social
activities and the political duties of the citizen.
Subdividing this treatise into rural and urban,
we have the activities and duties of farm life
and those of city life. The environment and
duties of each are different-producing a dif-
ferent psychology. Moving from city to coun-
try, or from country to city usually produces a
change in the viewpoint and attitude of the in-
dividual. Attempts to bridge over this chasm
between city and country have been made with-
out number-with little results.
It was thought that good roads, automobiles,
telephones, radios, consolidated schools, a com-
mon literature, etc., would wipe out the differ-
ences created by the two environments, the
theory having been held that density of popula-
tion on the one hand and isolation on the other
were the main factors in creating different
worlds in which the farmer and the merchant,
manufacturer and banker lived.
It is not isolation vs. density of population
that makes the difference. Then what is it?
The kinds of business growing out of degrees
If the human race were not selfish the
,pent-up energies of mankind would never be
Released. The great driving power to strenuous
action is selfishness. The ugly side of selfish-
ness has brought it into disrepute. All deplore
it and all possess it.
The selfishness called forth on the farm pro-
duces a viewpoint on economic and social life of
a distinct type. It looks askance upon all the
rest of the world. The farmer feels that he is
discredited in the eyes of the rest of the world
and he resents it. He feels embarrassed in the
presence of the professional class and this
aggravates his feeling. He thinks he is the most
essential member of society and is looked upon
as of the least consequence. He feels that
everybody is trying to take advantage of him
and he resents that. He develops a protest com-
plex. He is the most suspicious in his attitude
toward the business world of any member of
society. The redder his blood the more deter-
mined he is to quit the farm and get out from
under the ban attached to his calling. This
attitude is vastly accentuated by the attitude
of women. They carry this feeling toward
farming to a more acute stage than do men.
How many girls in our colleges prefer to marry
Neither is it all a question of economic condi-
tion. A wealthy farmer may belong to a class
all his own, but there is still the name of
"farm" clinging to him-unless it is purely a
side-line and his main "business" is industrial,
commercial, financial or professional.
The activities of the farm require certain
habits in labor and in business differing from
any other vocation. It also has its privileges
and liberties that no other business offers.
These are all together conducive of a mental
reaction resulting in a farm complex. Socially
the life of the farmer is different from that of
the city dweller. His contacts are on a differ-
ent basis. As he grows most of his living he
does not estimate the cost of living in terms of
wages. For this reason he is far more generous
than his town brother. He sees abundance of
wealth in town that he does not see in the coun-
try and he draws the conclusion that the cities
are robbing the country. No city friend shows
the same hospitality to visitors that he shows.
2 FLORIDA REVIEW
Unconsciously he develops a feeling of aloofness
for people of all other vocations. Social func-
tions in the country are less formal and more
free and easy than those of cities.
There is no community government to look
after, as in a city. This does away with the in-
fluence of the "ward heeler." There is no
personal contact with the municipal authorities;
no running against ordinances; no aristocracy
to flout itself in the face of dire poverty.
There is independence of action; no punching
of the time clock; no awe of a boss; no catering
to the whims of unreasonable customers; no
subserviency to political influences.
Take the subject matter in our school text-
books on civics and mark the pages devoted to
rural life as compared to those devoted to the
citizenship requirements of city life and note
The discrimination is not brought out in the
texts-for obvious reasons: texts are for rural
and urban students and the subject has not been
divided into distinct studies, and comparisons
might not be appreciated.
City life is rife with problems of wages, em-
ployment, corporation activities, strikes, lock-
outs, union shops, and open shops, fraternities,
civic clubs, woman's clubs, church functions,
etc. None of these plays an important part in
rural life. Of course the reaction from labor
troubles may seriously affect the material wel-
fare of the farmer, but he does not come in
direct contact with either of the warring ele-
ments of a struggle between capital and labor.
All of which means a different psychology on
the farm to that in the mine, the factory, the
store, the bank, the school, the office or corpora-
tion and in the gatherings at the more preten-
tious social functions.
The attempts to amalgamate the rural and
urban populations in a common cause and feel-
ing have failed, and must necessarily fail.
When people of two distinct psychologies fight
side by side in the trenches it is thought by some
to do away with prejudices and distinctions.
Not so: as soon as peace returns and the com-
rades-in-arms go back to their citizen habits, the
old feeling of difference and distinction asserts
itself and the war does no leveling. When the
city-bred man becomes a real farmer-cuts
loose from all other connections-he soon be-
comes farm-minded. When the country man
becomes a real business man he soon becomes
Two hundred acres of land near Bradenton has been
secured by the Loyal Order of Lions for a recreation
camp to care for members from all sections of the
FLORIDA SEA WATER SHIPPED TO
(Florida State Chamber of Commerce)
Key West, Dec. 24.-The first consignment of a
million gallons of sea water left this city recently in
ten tank cars for the John G. Shedd Aquarium in Chicago
via the Florida East Coast Railway and the Seminole
route of the Illinois Central system. This shipment, says
the Florida State Chamber of Commerce, is one of the
most unique freight movements on record, as well as
being one of the most difficult to handle.
"Twenty tank cars will be used in transporting the
water from the Florida Keys to the reservoirs of the
aquarium," according to the State Chamber of Com-
merce, "where it is to be used in connection with the
establishment of exhibits of fish taken from tropical
and sub-tropical waters of the Atlantic and Pacific
oceans. Sea water from Key West is being used as it
has been found to be the best, providing the organic
matter necessary for the natural habitat of the tropical
fish to permit them to live in health.
"One hundred and fifty carloads of the water will be
necessary and it will take approximately three months to
complete the shipment. The cars being used have been
given a special paraffin treatment and insulated in the
same manner as a thermos bottle to prevent change in
temperature and any change in the physical or chemical
structure of the water en route.
"The Shedd Aquarium, a gift to the City of Chicago
by the late John G. Shedd," according to Walter H.
Chute, director, "will be the first of its kind to collect
and exhibit a large quantity of representative fishes
from both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans as well as the
lakes and streams of all parts of this continent and of
South America. The fishes will be collected by a trained
crew of men and will be transported to the aquarium in
a Pullman car especially designed for the purpose. This
traveling aquarium is equipped with tanks and recep-
tacles for the living fish and with handling appartus.
"The beginning of the work of assembling the gigantic
displays will begin early in January and will be carried
on continuously until the task has been completed.
Special attention will be given to the collection of
highly colored and odd-shaped fishes of tropical waters,
such as parrot fish, butterfly and angel fish."
REYNOLDS COMPANY TO BUY SWEET
SPUDS IN GADSDEN COUNTY
(Gadsden County Herald, December 6, 1929)
J. I. Reynolds of the J. I. Reynolds Co., believes that
he has found a market for sweet potatoes and it will
be up to the farmers to make a success of it by properly
preparing the potatoes for shipment. Nothing but well
graded stock can be handled; in other words, it will be
necessary for the farmer to throw' out the culls, which
means potatoes that are too large and potatoes that are
too small. Mr. Reynolds wants the farmer to come in
and he will be glad to explain to him just what is wanted
and the probable price that will be paid. He would like
to know about how many sweet potatoes there are in the
county so that he can figure with the northern buyers.
His advertisement appears in another part of the paper
and he will no doubt be able to dispose of quite a lot of
potatoes if the farmer will furnish him with the proper
information as quickly as possible.
FLORIDA REVIEW 3
Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO.................. Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. BROOKS............Asst. Commissioner of Agriculture
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1920, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Florida, under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.
JANUARY 6, 1930
MAYO AND NORTHERN UNABLE ATTEND
(Farm and Grove Section, December 9, 1929)
Lake Wales, Dec. 9.-(Special)-Those in charge of
the meeting here today, tomorrow and Wednesday of
the Florida Association of Real Estate Boards, were
advised today that neither Commissioner of Agriculture
Nathan Mayo nor Dr. Charles Northen of Ocala, an-
other prominent visitor expected, would be able to at-
tend the session and appear on the program.
Pressure of state affairs is holding the farm com-
missioner in Tallahassee and other engagements are re-
sponsible for Dr. Northen's inability to attend.
FARM BOARD FAIR TO FLORIDA
(Florida Grower for December, 1929)
After somewhat tedious and seemingly not altogether
germaine examinations of the appointees of President
Hoover to membership on the Federal Farm Board, be-
fore a United States senate committee, all eight were
confirmed. Opposition developed to only three of the
group-A. H. Legge, chairman; S. R. McKelvie, wheat
representative, and Carl Williams, representing cotton.
Members of the committee in charge of the inquisition
were most complimentary in their references to C. C.
Teague, fruit and vegetable representative, and W. J.
Schilling, dairy representative. "These men," the chair-
man stated, "appear to know their business from begin-
ning to end," and other committeemen expressed similar
So far, Florida has been most fairly treated in the
functioning of the Farm Board. The first credit ad-
vance made by it came to the Florida Citrus Exchange
and the sum of loans to that body subsequently approved
is the second largest yet granted to a cooperative in the
so-called minor agricultural industries.
In view of Mr. Teague's prominent position in the
citrus industry of California it is of no small significance
that the orange and grapefruit growers of that state will
ask no federal aid of the newly created agency.
Of the $150,000,000 in the initial fund at the disposal
of the Farm Board, it is understood that $4,500,000 was
allotted to the citrus interests, and of this sum Florida is
to get $3,000,000.
That of the remaining $1,500,000, a substantial por-
tion may likewise come to this state is the opinion held
by well-informed observers.
Florida doubtless also will share, both through her
citrus and other industries, in the $350,000,000 later to
be utilized by the Board.
INSPECTION CITRUS FRUIT WINS PRAISE
Mayo Says Entire Freedom from Complaint Has
(Florida Times-Union, December 9, 1929)
Tallahassee, Dec. 8.-(A. P.)-Florida's citrus pro-
duction for the current season has been shipped to con-
sumers of the north without a complaint up to this time,
Commissioner of Agriculture Nathan Mayo announced in
a brief review of citrus activities this year.
The commissioner said he had been advised that not
only did early shipments of fruit arrive in satisfactory
condition in the north but that orders for the fruit had
been immediately repeated.
"This mature fruit going to the consumers immediately
created a demand for more and at no time or in any
market have they been supplied with immature fruit
which would retard consumption," Mr. Mayo said. "Con-
stant receipts each day in the market of mature fruit has
undoubtedly added considerable confidence among the
All operators became convinced early in the season
that they would be treated in a "fair and impartial"
manner, the commissioner added, and a feeling of
cooperation and "team work" developed between the in-
spection forces and growers and shippers.
"I would like to take this opportunity to thank both
growers and shippers for their excellent spirit of coopera-
tion in this work," he said.
The tax of 2% cents a box has maintained the inspec-
tion work this season, and the state will not be required
to stand for a deficit, as has been the case in the past,
Mr. Mayo said.
"During the inspection period, and particularly dur-
ing the latter part of it, I have personally visited many
packing houses, talked with many growers and shippers,
and have heard no complaints on the manner or methods
in which the inspection work was conducted this season,"
the commissioner said. "It is the policy of my depart-
ment and the inspection forces to cooperate with the
growers and shippers in every way possible, and with this
policy and the spirit with which the growers and ship-
pers have responded this year, the inspection has in
reality been more of a service to the industry than a
policing, and I feel that we are all to be congratulated
alike on the success of the work this year.
Replying to some criticism that out-of-state men were
being employed in inspection work, instead of Florida
residents, Mr. Mayo said that twenty-eight licensed
federal inspectors were used, and that of that number
thirteen were residents of Florida and only fifteen were
non-residents, and that the remainder of the list, or
something over one hundred men, were all residents of
"I would consider that this has been the most efficient
and economical inspection season in the state's history,"
Mr. Mayo said. "Not only has the fruit been supervised
to the extent that no immature crops have found their
way to the markets, but indications are that this year
the inspection fund will more than break even, whereas
there has been a deficit running into the thousands dur-
ing previous inspection seasons."
The commissioner paid a high tribute to O. G. Strauss,
federal inspector in charge, who has supervised the in-
spection work in south Florida. There has been only the
highest of praise for his work, Mr. Mayo stated.
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View of Exhibit Shown at International Stock Show at Chicago, Ill. Miss Florence Smock, Florida's Healthiest Girl, is seen to the left.
FLORIDA REVIEW 5
CELERY CUTTING TO START SOON
Expect Shipping to Begin Early Part of Coming
Week from Farms
(Sarasota Herald, December 10, 1929)
The vast green fields of celery all along the Fruitville
road, in the Palmer drainage district, never looked more
attractive than now. This area is a magnet for hundreds
of autoists daily. The crop is in perfect condition.
Cutting of the first of this crop will begin the latter part
of this week and by next week shipping will start in
carload lots from the East Sarasota station of the
Palmer tracts, on the Atlantic Coast Line railroad.
The washing and pre-cooling plant will be in opera-
tion and its activities will provide employment for many
workers. Possibly a hundred and fifty other workers will
find employment picking and sorting. When the celery
is inspected, graded, washed and pre-cooled it will be
packed in crates and sent out of here in carload lots.
Some of these shipments will be in time for the Christ-
mas trade and as the earliest .winter celery on the mar-
ket should command top prices.
Fortunes will be made in celery from farm lands in
this county and when the cutting and shipping is on full
blast, thirty or forty cars a day, it is expected, will be
routed out of this terminal to various parts of the country
where daily reports on market conditions indicate the
best possible returns.
Agriculture is the foundation of this county's pros-
perity, and the constant growth in this activity indi-
cates that within another year or so agriculture will con-
stitute a million dollar crop for this particular region.
HELPFUL HINTS FOR FLORIDA FARM
(Florida Grower for December, 1929)
Five or six drops of lemon juice added to a piece of
tough meat, when it begins to boil, will make it tender
and adds a delicious taste.
To prevent bleeding or loss of color in beets, leave the
roots and about an inch of stem on them. Wash and
parboil until the skins can be slipped off easily when cool.
Glass water bottles or pitchers oft-times become dis-
colored by lime accumulations in "hard" water and just
plain washing will not remove these water marks. Fill
the bottle or pitcher with potato peelings and cover with
water, allowing same to remain over night or longer,
then wash in usual manner. The result will be a clear,
sparkling receptacle free from stains.
White flannel is likely to turn yellow after repeated
washings. This will not happen, however, if quite a good
deal more bluing is used in the rinse water than for
white cotton goods. A little borax added to the wash-
water, and a little also added to the rinsing water will
prevent white flannel from becoming hard and matted-
looking, and also tend to whiten it.
Do you have, right near your kitchen stove, a small
tack or nail on which to hang the ever needed pot-
holders? If not, you ought to have one, and it will save
needless burned fingers, endless searching for the dish
towel or some other handy cloth. These little holders
can be made from most any odds-and-ends of material,
should be padded with cotton or heavy material and have
a small loop or ring in one corner.
If your door knobs have become tarnished they can be
lacquered or painted and will look very much better than
discolored tarnished ones. For white or cream colored
doors, or stained doors, I would recommend black for
the knobs; brown may be used to good advantage on
some doors, depending of course upon the color of the
doors, walls and floors. Bright gaudy colors should be
WAUCHULA SHIPS 1,500 PINTS BERRIES
(Tampa Times, December 11, 1929)
Wauchula, Dec. 11.-Strawberry shipments from Wau-
chula totaled 1,500 pints last week, according to a check
of express records made here today.
Ten reefers were sent out during the week, growers
being paid from 3b to 50 cents a pint f. o. b. for their
More berries have already been shipped from Wau-
chula this season than were shipped up to Christmas last
year, with indications that before Christmas shipments
will more than treble those of the same period a year
Estimate of the berry acreage in this county runs as
high as 1,200 and with favorable prices the crop should
return a record sum. Last year Hardee county growers
marketed 2,602,700 quarts of berries for more than
$600,000. The acreage this year is considerably larger
than that of last season.
SHIPMENTS OF BEANS OVER WEEK-END
Rush Week Seen as Crops Start Maturing for
(Miami Herald, December 11, 1929)
Fort Lauderdale, Fla., Dec. 10.-(U. S.)-More than
1,500 hampers of beans were shipped from the Pompano,
Deerfield and Fort Lauderdale district over the week-
end, it was learned today. Black Valentines and wax
beans were foremost in demand among the buyers.
The initial carload-express shipment from Deerfield
was scheduled to leave late today, inaugurating what is
expected to be a rush week. Movements to date have
all been largely package express shipments, composed
of three-peck and bushel hampers. It was reported by
packers that the peak of the season would find all grow-
ers using the bushel hampers.
The Pompano loading docks were crowded today with
growers and buyers, it being the opinion that at least
six carloads of beans would be moved within the next 48
hours. The average price today was around $2, extra
fine quality beans bringing as high as $2.75. A few lugs
of tomaotes were being moved, although the heavy to-
mato shipments will not be under way for another two
weeks. Growers were divided on their opinions as to
tomato packing, both lug and basket packing being con-
templated in order to satisfy the demand.
Nathan A. Mayo's pretty tribute to North and West
Florida shows the Commissioner to "know his onions"
when it comes to soil resources and golden opportunities.
-Marianna Floridan, Dec. 6, 1929.
6 FLORIDA REVIEW
FARM MINDED MEN BADLY NEEDED IN
FLORIDA, SAYS STATE MARKETING
L. M. Rhodes Is Principal Speaker at Flamingo
The following news report of the annual barbecue at
Flamingo Groves, the first week in December, appeared
in the Fort Lauderdale News, December 5. It was the
third annual affair of the kind and was largely attended.
Mr. L. M. Rhodes, State Marketing Commissioner, was
the principal speaker, and referring to Florida's needs
declared: "Florida is beginning to have what she has so
much needed-and that is, men in the saddle, from con-
stable to governor, who are farm-minded, to put Florida
in its proper place in agricultural production."
With this as his text, says the News, the commissioner
cited an array of figures to show that with all its oppor-
tunities Florida did not feed itself, and all the area in the
state devoted to fruit and truck crops was less than the
area in Broward county. "One of our vital needs is the
production of better fruit," said the speaker, "along with
better marketing machinery." More than 60,000 car-
loads of fruit were shipped from Florida the past season,
he said, but the net returns to the growers were only
20 cents a box. The growers' profits would have been
better if the quality of the fruit had been better, the
commissioner said. "There is no place on earth where
fruits and vegetables can be grown cheaper and better
than right here on the soil that stretches out before us
on every side, but Florida needs to produce other things.
You can grow a hundred bushels of corn to the acre and
a hundred tons of sugar cane to the acre. I expect to see
the next ten years bring the greatest agricultural develop-
ment that Florida has ever seen," Mr. Rhodes declared
in closing. He congratulated the Flamingo Groves Co.
and its officials for "making an honest effort to show
.what can be done here."
Speakers and prominent visitors were introduced by
C. P. Hammerstein, among those present, besides Mr.
Rhodes, being S. W. Hiatt, T. Burgess and F. W. Risher,
of the Florida State Marketing Bureau; John M. Bryan;
J. H. Bright, of the Curtiss Bright Company; C. C.
Freeman of the Broward County Port Authority; Sam
Drake, Art Ryan; R. R. Bailey, of Bailey Farms; J. C.
Langy; Floyd L. Wray, president of the Flamingo Groves,
Inc.; Chas. Matthews, Broward county farm agent; G. B.
Scott, assistant chief drainage engineer, and his associate
Watts; Jim Myers; County Commissioner Neville; L.
Shaw, of Broward drainage district, and associate Parker;
Frank Bryan; Mr. Kenshaw of Hollywood Farms; Frank
Sterling, superintendent of Flamingo Groves; "Pop"
Michel, and J. G. Rust, who prepared the barbecue;
Frank Dickey, county commissioner; Raymond Skinner,
Thomas Fleming; J. S. Rainey, Dade county farm agent;
Clinton Bolick, organizer of the Florida Citrus Exchange.
Mr. Hammerstein read a telegram from Nathan Mayo,
Commissioner of Agriculture, regretting his inability on
account of official duties, to be present.
Port Everglades would be completed to its specified
depth of 35 feet by Saturday or Monday, Mr. Freeman
of the port authority stated, and a representation of the
port authority would go to Washington next week to
speed, if possible, the decision of the Interstate Com-
merce Commission on the application before that body
for permission to construct a belt line railroad, which
was the next step in the development of the port.
"We expect the decision to be in our favor in spite of
the efforts of the Florida East Coast Railroad to defeat
the application," said Mr. Freeman. "We are determined
to have the belt line railroad and the warehouse," Mr.
Freeman declared. The development of the port and
that of Flamingo Groves and other properties that would
afford tonnage for the port went hand in hand, said Mr.
Once a Jungle
"The spot where you are now sitting was a jungle
three years ago," Frank Sterling told' the audience. The
enterprise had made steady progress, although four
calamities had passed over it since the grove was planned.
He mentioned the freeze, the hurricane of 1928, the
Mediterranean fly invasion and the flood this year.
Losses had been negligible, Mr. Sterling said, in spite of
these unfavorable visitations, and the program of
progress had never faltered. There are now 470 acres
planted to two varieties of late oranges, and the pro-
gram called for the planting of 3,200 acres before it will
have been completed. Mr. Sterling declared that the soil
of this region is the richest in the world, and defied any
one to contradict the truth of this assertion.
"Florida is just finding itself," said Sam Drake, in
picturing some recent phases of Florida's past and its
present development. "The lure of the muck has been
upon many of us for a long while," said Mr. Drake, re-
counting the time when he had passed the spot, where
the company was assembled, poling a canoe from Fort
Lauderdale to Brown's store on the west coast. As the
slogan of the ancient Romans was, "All roads lead to
Rome," the slogan of this section should be to make all
roads lead to Port Everglades, Mr. Drake said. The de-
velopment of the port would lead to the building of a
highway to Lake Okeechobee, the deepening of North
New River canal and the establishment of great traffic
from the upper Everglades to the port. It would open
the markets of Europe to the products of this region, in
which Florida would have a practical monopoly, he said,
because of its nearer proximity to those markets.
Florida's need for better marketing facilities was
stressed by Clinton Bolick, of the Florida Citrus Ex-
change. The bugaboo of overproduction had been mak-
ing Florida growers timid about expansion for many
years, he said, but asserted that a citrus crop of 50,-
000,000 boxes could be profitably marketed if growers
would cooperate. A quarter of that crop would be ab-
sorbed by the foreign market and another quarter by
the canning factories, said Mr. Bolick, leaving only
25,000,000 boxes to be distributed in this country, which
he said would be easy if the proper marketing organ-
ization were caused to function.
Canals to Port
The nearness of Port Everglades, and the canals lead-
ing to the port from the Everglades, made marketing by
water shipment feasible from Flamingo Groves, in the
opinion of Floyd Wray, who closed the speaking program.
This would be a great advantage as it would accomplish
a saving of from 47 to 57 cents a crate. Flamingo
Groves products would not be in competition with other
fruits because they would come on in May, June, July
and August, after the other varieties had been marketed,
Mr. Wray said. He thanked the visitors for their attend-
FLORIDA REVIEW 7
ance, and invited them to inspect the property at close
Mrs. Floyd Wray, Mrs. C. P. Hammerstein, Mrs. Frank
Sterling, Mrs. C. L. Walsh, Mrs. J. G. Rust, Miss Alene
Griffin and Miss Mildred Holmes assisted in serving the
MUCH GREATER USE OF AGRICULTURAL
WASTE PRODUCTS IS COMING
(Milton Gazette, December 10, 1929)
"Waste not, want not," is an adage that has had some
following for years and years. Yet it is only in recent
years that the principle of reducing large-scale wastes
has been applied to American farming and agricultural
products. The industries have made by-products out of
what were formerly wastes. In a few cases, agricultural
by-products have been made and used. However, the
chemists are giving more thought to the utilization of
farm wastes now than ever before.
Paper and fiber board are now being made from corn-
stalks. Formerly no one ever thought of using anything
but the grain.
Chemists of the Bureau of Chemistry, United States
Department of Agriculture, tell us that lignin is one
of the three great components of agricultural wastes,
occurring in the dry material of most vegetation and
that it goes to waste at the rate of 40,000,000 tons a
year. Now two products of value in the drug field, and
possibly in the industrial field, are being made from
lignin on a small scale. These are eugenol and guiacol.
Cull sweet potatoes have been wasted since time im-
memorial. Now they are being utilized, to a small ex-
tent, in the manufacture of sweet potato starch. A
sweet potato starch factory has been established in the
United States. Chemists have found that sweet potato
starch compares favorably with Irish potato starch.
Cane cream is a new product developed by the Bureau
of Chemistry. It is made from cane syrup from low-
purity cane juices, and is now being produced commer-
cially. Better clarification of cane juices is resulting in
better grades of molasses and syrup with enlarged mar-
kets for the products.
One of the greatest problems facing the Florida citrus
industry is the utilization of cull fruits and the manu-
facture of by-products. This is being attacked, and some
success is being attained.
With the big lumber companies making pulp of their
slabs and sawdust, the big packers using everything but
the squeal of the pig, it is time for the development of
agricultural by-products on a large scale.
(The Florida Farmer, December, 1929)
A young man who has lived all his life on a farm
wishes to embark upon a mercantile venture. He is a
good farmer. He knows all about growing crops and
raising live stock. Yet he wishes to leave his vocation,
put behind him the only practical knowledge he possesses
and enter a business totally opposite to his training.
Don't do it, young man. There is only one chance
in ten thousand that you would succeed. Do you know
that less than ten per cent of those who enter the
grocery business make any money at it? Do you know
that a large percentage of even those who have trained
for the business go into bankruptcy by the end of the
first year or two? If those who are familiar with the
difficulties of the business fail, what chance have you
who have yet to sell your first sugar over the counter?
We may paraphrase that famous injunction of Horace
Greeley, "Go west, young man," and earnestly petition,
"Stay on the farm, young man." There are discourage-
ments. There is hard work. Success comes slowly. But
every profession requires work and sacrifices commen-
surate with the profits which it yields. Poorly paid as
the farming profession is, it seldom happens that enough
is not earned to keep the body fed and clothed and a
bit laid by for a rainy day. There are more brilliant
successes in the city than on the farm, but there are also
vastly more failures which sweep away overnight one's
COUNTY AGENT URGES GROWING OF
Wilson Cites Johnson's Crop in Eastern Part of
(Bradenton Herald, December 3, 1929)
Growing rice in the eastern part of Manatee county
has become a proven cash grain crop. P. M. Johnson,
one of the progressive farmers of the Myakka City dis-
trict, grew four acres of rice this year. Mr. Johnson
has grown rice for a number of years, as have a number
of other farmers in the eastern part of the county,
County Agent Leo Wilson said today.
The four acres harvested this fall by Mr. Johnson pro-
duced thirty-five bushels per acre. The rice is known as
Upland rice, and seems well adapted to the fertile soils
of Manatee county. Three bushels of seed at a cost of
$2.50 a bushel was planted in three foot drills. Practi-
cally no cultivation was given the rice after it was
planted. A few hours time was spent in chopping weeds
from the field. The rice was harvested with an old-
fashioned reap hook. The four acres, totaling 140
bushels, was harvested at a cost of $25. Seven dollars
and fifty cents for seed, $3.00 labor for chopping weeds,
and $25 for harvesting, gives a total of $35.50 total cost
of producing the crop. No fertilizer was used, since the
rice crop was planted as a catch crop following spring
tomatoes. Mr. Johnson says he values the crop at $3
per bushel, giving a valuation of $420, less $35.50 cost
for producing the crop.
Another good reason for growing rice in this section
of Manatee county is, that J. A. McLeod is equipped for
cleaning the rice. Mr. McLeod charges one-fifth of the
rough rice for cleaning. The clean rice brings 8c per
Mrs. Johnson is feeding the rough rice to her hens,
and reports that she is getting more eggs than her
neighbors, who are feeding other grain. She praises
rough rice for poultry.
The growing of rice could become a commercial grain
crop in Manatee county. The crop is a summer crop
and can be grown as a catch crop on truck farms every
summer. Planting the crop, following vegetables, such
as tomatoes, celery, cucumbers, squash, eggplant, and
other vegetables would require no extra fertilization for
the rice, since all of these vegetables are highly fer-
tilized, and any remaining fertilizer would be readily
used by the rice crop. There is no need of Manatee
county importing rice. We have sufficient acreage avail-
able of rice land to supply the entire west coast, Mr.
8 FLORIDA REVIEW
FLORENCE SMOCK, EUSTIS, FLORIDA
Radio Talk by Florence Smock, National Health Champion,
Four-H Club Girls
WINNER IN NATIONAL CONTEST TELLS WHY SHE WON
You want to know about my club work?
I have been a club girl two and one-half years. My
first work was in clothing and I have completed first and
second year programs. Next I improved my own bed-
room-the walls and floors I repainted or stained and I
refinished the furniture. My kitchen I did over in blue
and white, both the furniture and the furnishings. I do
all the meal planning and cooking (except the noon meal)
for our family. This year I have grown a garden of
vegetables for our family table, and for flowers. I am
helping my county home demonstration agent with the
leadership of my own club this year.
I am a senior life-saver and have taken part in swim-
ming feats in twenty-five of the fourteen hundred lakes
in my county. I have done life-saving in five of these
Lake county lakes. This year I taught swimming in the
Four-H County Camp.
Why did I win the National Health Contest?
Because we, as 4-H Club girls in Florida, had good
training in nutrition before we were allowed to enter the
Health Contest. We hold our contests in each com-
munity and county before going to the state contest. In
the state contest in June, 1929, two girls were selected
as best and we had to wait until Thanksgiving Day
FLORIDA REVIEW 9
when we were tested again. That kept us up to the best.
I made only a little higher score on November 29th than
Mildred Hilliard, Hernando county, Florida. Then I had
to leave the warm, sunny climate of Florida and come
into snow and ice. It seemed almost impossible to keep
from taking cold. I had the best of care as to my diet
and clothes and reached the contest in good shape.
I find that all the people who live in the land of ice
and snow have very warm hearts. They have been so
nice to me and I think that helped a great deal. You ask
me why I am healthy? Well, its Florida sunshine, Flor-
ida fruit, Florida vegetables the year round, Florida milk
every day, and Florida lakes in which I swim the greater
part of the year. But let me say again, my improvement
in many ways is due to my work in Four-H Club where
my major subject has been Food Nutrition and Health.
O yes, before I forget, I want to thank Miss Mary A.
Stennis, Extension Nutritionist of Florida, for all that
she has done in getting me ready for this contest. And
I do want to thank the Florida Legislature, and Mr. Mayo
of the State Department of Agriculture, for sending me
to Chicago, and Dr. Brink and Dr. Fort of the State
Board of Health for their services in the state contest.
And finally I want to say that, in winning this con-
test, I am not so glad for myself but for my parents and
for Florida and Florida friends who have helped-Flor-
ida, the land of sunshine, citrus fruit, lakes, palm trees;
best of all, good friends.
GIRL RETURNS, MODEST OVER HEALTH
Miss Florence Smock Gets Many Honors Fol-
lowing Contest in Chicago
(Times-Union, December 9, 1929)
Unaffected by the honors that have been heaped upon
her, but proud of achievement, Miss Florence Smock,
Lake county high school girl, who, last week, was crowned
national health champion at the Boys' and Girls' Club
Congress in Chicago, returned Sunday from the scene of
"The honors extended Miss Smock have been numer-
ous, but they have not spoiled her," declared Miss Mary
A. Stennis, state nutrition expert, who placed the winner
in the contest.
"She kept her head and met the public well," Miss
Stennis added. "The talkies, the movies, the reporters
and the photographers made difficult situations, but
Florence stood the strain with her usual modesty and
control." Feted Extensively
Miss Smock was extensively feted upon being crowned
champion. She was the guest of honor at the National
Club banquet, where she spoke over the radio, and at
the railroad men's banquet, where she received her medal.
She was also the guest of Cyrus W. McCormick, Jr., and
Alexander Legge of the federal farm board at the In-
ternational Harvester's luncheon for the club congress.
On this occasion she presented those at the speakers'
table with Florida oranges, exhibited by the State De-
partment of Agriculture at the International Livestock
The Florida winner also spoke over station WBBM
and the National Broadcasting chain from the livestock
show and was the guest of the Florida Department of
Agriculture for a full day's entertainment, which in-
cluded luncheon, dinner and a theatre engagement.
The contest, in which Miss Smock emerged winner, was
supervised by Dr. Caroline Hedger, representing the
Elizabeth McCormick Memorial Fund. It was unusual in
that a second call for competitors was unnecessary. Miss
Smock was the last to be examined and was immediately
placed first on the list. Speaking before a large au-
dience, Dr. Hedger proclaimed the Florida girl a "perfect
example of good health."
Coat of Tan Praised
Using the winner for a demonstration, Dr. Hedger
pointed to the "fine, healthy coat of tan, which showed
the beneficial effects of Florida sunshine, the excellent
muscle tone showing good results of swimming in the
lakes of her home country, splendid back and good
posture, and the fine color in cheeks and lips."
FLORIDA WINS AGAIN
(Ft. Lauderdale News, December 6, 1929)
Only a few weeks ago the fact that Florida had won
several first prizes in the national poultry show was
noted in these columns. This was something to crow
about, though it is not intended to descend to the
punster's art in attempting to make this duly impressive.
At that time mention was made of a Florida exhibit
having won the prize at a national cattle show a few
years ago. Now it is to be observed with pride that a
Florida girl has won the prize over competitors from 28
states as the healthiest specimen of vibrant beauty in the
United States. This was not a beauty show according to
any of the generally accepted rules. On the contrary,
the competition was conducted under auspices of the
"Four-H" organization. The "Four-H" movement stands
for the development of heart, head, hand and health.
The health competition which awarded the national
prize to a Florida girl will give fresh recognition to the
health imparting elements of Florida climate and Flor-
ida products. The "healthiest girl," whose name is
Florence Smock, said that Florida sunshine and Florida
oranges were largely responsible for her good health,.
but she added that nine o'clock was bedtime and seven
o'clock getting up time, no matter what else happened
to be on the cards. It is worth while noting also that
Florence doesn't use rouge or lipstick, and she has rosy
cheeks. We extend our heartiest congratulations to
Florence and to Eustis, her home town. She has won
national fame for herself and her state by being sane and
sensible, and doing well her chosen work.
HOMELAND LAD TAKES IN $146.50 ON
(Lakeland Ledger, November 10, 1929)
Bartow, Nov. 9.-(Special)--That Florida soil, cucum-
ber seed and energy may prove to be a profitable com-
bination has been satisfactorily proven lately by Kelly
Sloan, a mere lad of the Homeland section, who during
the past week has realized $146.50 from the sale of
cucumbers from a half-acre tract of land which he has
Homeland has long had the reputation of being an ex-
ceedingly rich trucking section, situated as it is in the
Peace river valley, and young Sloan expects to realize
something like $200 from the sale of cucumbers produced
on this half-acre this season. Kelly Sloan is the 15-year-
old son of Mr. and Mrs. J. B. Sloan of Homeland.
10 FLORIDA REVIEW
THE COW, THE HOG, THE HEN IS BY FAR
THE BEST BET FOR NORTHWEST
(Milton Gazette, December 10, 1929)
The following timely article written by H. A. Stroud,
of Crestview, and published in last week's issue of The
Okaloosa County News-Journal, is so timely, and fits
Santa Rosa county just as well as Okaloosa that we are
passing it on to our readers, hoping that some may
profit by it. Mr. Stroud speaks from a wide experience
and his views are always well founded. He says:
The dairy business of Okaloosa county is becoming
an important item in our farm life. Dairying, hogs and
hens will make the Okaloosa county farmers independent.
For instance, we have some 600 farmers north of the
L. & N. railroad tracks in Okaloosa county, and if each
of these farmers owned five good milch cows, this would
mean 3,000 milch cows. A good grade cow will turn
in cream alone, usually $10.00 per month, which would
mean $30,000 a month, say nothing of the hog produc-
tion, which is very important, and one of our best money
crops. Of course, we should have pure blood hogs,
either Duroc Reds or Poland China, so that with our
skim milk and our feeds that can be so easily produced
in this county, that we can market our hogs every six
months, which should weigh on an average of 200
The poultry business is another important item.
Every farmer in this county should have from 300 to
500 hens. When the farmers are equipped in this man-
ner, and produce their own feeds, which are so easily
grown in this county, this will be the richest county in
Florida. We all know we can grow successfully corn,
velvet beans, peas, root crops of all kinds, and the first
thing to produce is feed. You will have no trouble to
get the cows and stock if you have an abundance of feed
for them, and there is no excuse for not growing feed.
Any of our land will produce it, and the man that grows
the feed will not find much difficulty in securing stock
-to feed it to.
The cow, the hog and the hen are the salvation of
our county and our farmers. When you stop to think,
five good milch cows properly fed will produce all the
skim milk which is essential for the hens and hogs.
There is nothing that will make the money equal this
program in farming. Besides that, it will bring con-
tentment and happiness to the families that proceed along
these lines. Of course it means work, care and applica-
tion of each individual to make this line of farming a
complete success. Cows should be milked regularly-a
certain hour in the mornings and evenings. In stormy
weather and cold rains there should be a cow stable to
protect them, and if the cows and stock are properly
cared for they will surely take care of us. We have some
130 farmers at this time delivering cream and selling
same to the Producer's Association, Inc. Let's all try
and make it 300 farmers by the coming fall, then we will
build a creamery which will mean much in our favor.
CATTLE AND HOGS
(Daytona Beach Times, December 6, 1929)
Even to a casual observer it is apparent that Florida
is in a transition period agriculturally. To the farmer
this fact is more than apparent. He faces the transition
as his major problem. To the multitude of old time cat-
tle and hog raisers the transition is not a welcome one.
These men look back to the old Florida when herds
of cattle wandered over the fields unmolested, and with
full legal protection wherever they chose to go. They
multiplied rapidly, fed themselves and were easily mar-
keted. Picturesque Florida cowboys with wide hats and
long whips patroled the herds and gave romance to the
enterprise. Cattle could be seen anywhere. Florida is a
large state with plenty of grazing land and it was only
a few years ago that the state stood at the top as a cat-
tle state. There were no facilities for accurately num-
bering the cattle but some of the largest herds in the
country were here. One cattleman is said to have owned
more than 25,000 less than ten years ago. The same
was true of hogs. What is known as the "razor back" or
the "piney woods rooter" ran wild in large numbers.
Palmetto berries and acorns fed them. The raising of
hogs was a profitable business, followed at little cost.
Now the old cattle and hog days are passing. Cattle-
men are either closing out or breeding up. Hog raisers
are more and more introducing thoroughbred stock
adapted to more domestic methods.
The state department of agriculture with the state
live stock sanitary board are leading in the movement to
place these lines of business on a new footing in conform-
ity with state legislation restricting free range. The
fight against the cattle tick and the hog cholera is being
pushed with vigor. Some of the old time rangers resent
the change and at times step in to interfere with the
program of the state. Others try to make the shift as
painlessly as possible. There is no question that the
number of thoroughbred animals in the state is increas-
ing. It remains, however, for time to tell whether new
methods and new stock will give the state a better and
more permanent livestock business. State authorities
promise great things for the future. It will take great
gains to match the loss of the romance of the old days.
SIX JUMBO SHRIMP WEIGH 15 OUNCES
Largest Shrimp Ever Caught Brought in at
Fishing Port Tuesday
(Cocoa Tribune, December 5, 1929)
Records for large shrimp are being smashed at Cana-
veral, where fishermen are bringing in good cargoes of
Canaveral Jumbo Shrimp, known the nation over since
the industry was started at Canaveral several years ago.
Tuesday an excellent catch was made and Manager
Daniel of the company gave six of the largest, picked at
random, to Mr. H. W. Ewing, one of the owners of the
company, to bring to Cocoa for exhibition purposes. The
shrimp weighed 15 ounces and made an excellent picture.
The shrimp were given to the Cocoa Chamber of Com-
merce and are now pickled in alcohol for exhibition to
those who would like to see them.
The largest of the shrimp brought here by Mr. Ewing
weighed two and three-quarter ounces and measured
nine inches, lacking a fraction of an inch.
Last year nine Jumbo shrimp were brought to Cocoa
from Canaveral which weighed one pound, which was at
the time thought to have been a record for size of this
kind of sea food. The article printed in The Tribune at
that time attracted widespread attention from fishermen,
but now with the larger shrimp caught the attention
should be greater.
Jumbo shrimp is not a particular type of shrimp, but
the name given shrimp caught off Canaveral by fishermen
working for the Canaveral Pier & Fish Company.
FLORIDA REVIEW 11
SHEP CN B RASEDAT ROFT I
SHEEP CAN BE RAISED AT PROFIT IN
State Well Fitted for Industry, Says Knapp
(Wakulla County News, December 6, 1929)
"Florida has an opportunity to develop a profitable
sheep industry, especially in the counties where land is
rolling and in the dry sand-hill sections, says Dr. J. V.
Knapp, state veterinarian. North Florida has open
ranges with water, a good climate, and is free from sheep
scab, which is a great problem in most sheep grazing
Because of its texture and quality, Florida wool has
been known to sell at a premium over wool produced in
other sections of the country generally considered more
adaptable to sheep raising. Approximately 90,000 sheep
are in north Florida, averaging between 7,000 and 12,000
sheep per county west of Madison county. Wool and
lambs from a flock of 300 bring more than $100 profit
each month to one Tallahassee sheep owner.
That Florida is free from sheep scab is due probably
to the fact that Florida is not an importer of sheep but
maintains its own supply. The original stock is from
the old Dorset sheep, which were among the first brought
to the United States and which are well adapted to this
Most of the several thousand goats raised in each of
the western counties are shipped to eastern markets be-
tween Christmas and Easter, as kid meat is highly prized
by many foreigners. Solid car shipments are sent from
"The veterinarians employed by the State Live Stock
Sanitary Board, which are stationed in various counties
are glad to assist any sheep owner in the administration
of medicine for the internal parasites which are respon-
sible for the greatest loss among sheep and goats," Dr.
112 BUSHELS OF CORN GROWN ON ONE
Hillsborough County Boy Figures His Profit at
(Highlands County News, December 6, 1929)
Vernon Simmons, of the Springhead community, in
the eastern part of Hillsborough county, proved himself
the champion corn grower of Florida's club boys this
year by producing 112 bushels on one acre. His record
entitled him to a free trip to the Boys' and Girls' Club
Congress and the International Live Stock Show, and he
has been in Chicago this week. The trip was given by
the Synthetic Nitrogen Products Corporation.
Although the corn is being used on his father's farm,
Vernon figured that he made a profit of $88.28 on his
acre this year. He valued the corn at $1 a bushel, mak-
ing his total income $112.50. He allowed $5.00 for the
rent on the acre, $2.50 for preparation, 42 cents for
planting, 95 cents for cultivation, $4.00 for harvesting,
85 cents for seed, and $10.70 for fertilizer, giving him
a total expense of $24.22 on the acre.
Vernon used good seed of Kilgore's Red Cob variety,
paying at the rate of $5.00 a bushel for his seed. He
used about one-sixth bushel of seed to plant the acre.
He planted on March 18, and then fertilized with 100
pounds nitro-phoska. Later he side-dressed twice with
100 pounds calcium nitrate each time. The corn was
planted on a sandy loam soil which had been grown to
cabbage the preceding year.
In proof of the fact that he is a modern farmer and
uses modern methods, Vernon used machinery and im-
plements almost entirely in doing the work connected
with growing his corn. The land was disked with a
tractor, the rows were laid off, and the corn was planted
with a planter. The first cultivation was done with a
harrow, and four other cultivations working every other
middle each time.
Vernon's work was directed by County Agent C. P.
Wright. Four corn club members in the county obtained
yields exceeding 100 bushels to the acre. They are Paul
Simmons, Edward Kirkland, Thomas Hughes and Harvey
PROGRESS SEEN AGAINST TICKS
Only Three Infested Cows Found During No-
(Florida Times-Union, December 9, 1929)
Cattle fever tick eradication work proceeded at a fast
clip in North Florida during last month, according to a
statistical report made public yesterday from the offices
here of Dr. T. W. Cole, inspector in charge of the eradi-
cation work in Florida for the United States Department
of Agriculture. The federal operatives cooperate with
the State Live Stock Sanitary Board in the work.
During November only three cows were found to be
infested in the territory, while two horses were found in-
fested in Levy county. All the infestations were found
on animals which had wandered across the quarantine line
into Levy and Bradford counties from Marion and
Alachua counties, respectively. Both Marion and Alachua
are inactive territory.
Duval county reported no ticks for the period as did
Clay, Gilchrist and Nassau counties. That portion of
Duval county in which the dipping is now under way is
to the west and north of the St. Johns river. Dipping
must continue on the regular basis throughout the
winter, Dr. Cole explained, despite the fact that no ticks
have been discovered, for fear that an infestation might
occur from dormant tick eggs concealed in moss or
A total of 216 vats are ready for use in the area in
which dipping will get under way next spring. Those
counties are: Alachua, that portion of Duval to the south
and west of the river, Flagler, Marion, Putnam, St. Johns
According to L. M. Rhodes, State Marketing Commis-
sioner, Florida is first in chances for millions of men to
make a living and often fortunes off of millions of idle
land. Land without people is a wilderness, and men
without land have been likened to a mob. The useful
land in the west has all been taken. All that is left is
scenery-rugged and rocky mountain tops and sides and
deserts and semi-deserts for which there is little or no
water either from the clouds or from the sky and avail-
able only in ditches. Florida has more water surface
lakes and rivers and in underground than any other
state. By industry and right cultural methods Florida
can be made the premier agricultural state of America.-
Apopka Chief, Dec. 6, 1929.
View of Exhibit Shown at International Stock Show at Chicago, Ill.
.1. -q "~~
FLORIDA REVIEW 13
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL FAIR EXHIBIT
Featured in Six States at Eight Fairs and Seen
and Praised by Millions of People
The Agricultural Fair Exhibit which has been shown
in six states and at eight great fairs closed the out-of-
state campaign the first week in December and Mr. J. A.
Mackintosh, who was in charge of the exhibit, has re-
turned with the truck and the various articles and is
showing the same exhibit in the Union Station at Jack-
sonville, where it will be seen and enjoyed by thousands
of tourists as they come and go.
Great throngs at Carthage and Sedalia, Mo.; St. Paul,
Minnesota; Hutchinson, Kansas; Muskogee, Oklahoma;
Houston and Dallas, Texas, and Chicago, looked on in
amazement at the almost unthinkable number of articles
of farm and dairy products that came from the state
where many of them believed that only grass and rattle-
snakes thrived and where storms made life miserable for
those who lived in Florida. As they looked and were
told about Florida there was an awakening in sentiment
that was as rerharkable as the wonderful products from
the farm in the land of sunshine, and vastly more.
Crowds thronged the booth, which was about forty feet
long and filled with about two hundred varieties of
Florida farm products-a greater variety than could
have been exhibited by any other state in the Union.
They asked questions from morning until the close of the
day and indicated an intense interest in everything con-
nected with the state activities. In every group there
were always those who had been in Florida and were
ready to join in the praise of the state and what could
be produced here. Not one unfriendly expression was
heard during the five months campaign, but thousands
openly and enthusiastically declared that they were mak-
ing their plans to locate permanently here.
It was a great educational and good-will campaign and
a triumphant march into the hearts of the people in the
six states in which the exhibit was shown and numerous
other states through which the decorated truck passed.
In this issue of the Review there are presented two
views of the exhibit as it appeared in Chicago at the In-
ternational Stock Show, and witnessed by multitudes of
the most prosperous people of the nation, who were un-
stinted in their praise and thousands of whom will be in
Florida this winter.
In one of the views is presented America's healthiest
girl, Miss Flossie Smock, as she happened to be in
Chicago at the time, and adds much to the value of the
photograph. Miss Smock's picture also appears in an-
other part of the Review.
"RURAL CULTURE" IN FLORIDA
(St. Petersburg Independent, December 18, 1929)
Florida's Department of Agriculture under the ani-
mated and aggressive direction of Commissioner Mayo
has evolved something new, diverting and instructive in
the way of quarterly bulletins from his department.
Bearing the title "Rural Culture," he has published a
200-page volume designed to arouse in the intellects of
the youngsters of Florida a desire for learning and
knowledge, and also to help adults improve their minds
and stimulate their interest in reading good literature.
The bulletin consists of three parts-public speaking,
literary societies other than for public speaking, and
poetry. The part devoted to public speaking is very
thorough and should be useful to young men and women
who aspire to the state legislature, the gubernatorial
chair, and further up the map. The next part of the
bulletin gives easy instructions in essay writing, on the
formation and conduct of essay and book clubs, and selec-
tions from short essays and subjects for composition.
Part three is devoted to poetry, telling how to write it,
but, unfortunately, omitting to tell how to sell it.
To many Florida adults perusing the quotations both
in prose and poetry will be like going back to the little
country school house. There are the well-known fourth-
reader and fifth-reader quotations from John Quincy
Adams, Sam Houston, Edward Everett, Thomas H.
Benton, Charles Sumner, Theodore Parker, John B.
Gough, Edmund Burke, William Ellery Channing, Henry
George, Phillips Brooks, Carlyle, Irving, Lord Macauley,
Charles Dickens, T. DeWitt Talmage and even one from
Robert G. Ingersoll. And as to poetry, all the old
favorites are quoted and a few of the new ones. The
illustrations include a picture of Commissioner Mayo,
Assistant Commissioner T. J. Brooks, a debating society
scene that would fire the hearts of modern young
Websters, Clays and Calhouns, and a view of an "author's
study" that would make any farm hand prefer writing to
plowing corn and digging 'taters-even to picking
In a foreword of lofty sentiment, Commissioner Mayo
says: "This volume is intended to give a stimulus to the
cultural side of farm life. Food, shelter and raiment
are not ends in themselves but a means to an end if
civilization is to exist. Each generation treads
closely on the heels of the preceding, and the present
generation is the creator of the one that is coming.
Humanity has powers and aptitudes which are suscep-
tible of moulding and guiding by deliberation. He who
is interested has a rich field in which to work."
PUREBRED CATTLE NEED ATTENTION OF
(Bristol Free-Press, December 5, 1929)
As a result of years of effort in the form of careful
breeding and selection we have been given animals that
are head and shoulders above their fellow creatures, from
the standpoint of value to man. To these animals the
term "purebred" has been aptly applied.
We, as farmers and cattlemen, cannot afford to lose
the value of this great amount of work by failing to do
our part towards our purebred stock. Since hereditary
material and environment go hand in hand in the pro-
duction of a superior creature, we must do our part in
order to cash in on this increased value.
The inborn qualities are present in our purebred
bulls-we must provide proper environment. In our case
feed is the chief factor we have to concern ourselves
about, as it is the "hub" around which environment re-
volves. There is another important fact to be consid-
ered. That fact is that our bulls represent one-half of
the value of our next year's calf crop; therefore, he
rightly deserves winter feeding and the best of attention.
Many Liberty county farmers already have their best
cattle on feed. This is a good practice and these men
are to be commended upon their progressiveness and
forethought in having prepared a bean field for this
14 FLORIDA REVIEW
REVISED CITRUS ESTIMATE
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Division of Crop and
Live Stock Estimates, Orlando, Florida.
Dec. 19, 1929.
Revised figures for the citrus crop of the present sea-
son indicate a total commercial production of 14,000,000
boxes of which 8,500,000 are oranges and 5,500,000
grapefruit. This is for fruit to move by rail and boat
and includes express. Tangerines are included with
oranges in this estimate.
This revision is based on information gathered from
growers and shippers including reports on individual
groves. Groves already harvested have on the average
been picking out less fruit than was originally estimated
and a large proportion of growers have lowered their
estimates for the fruit still to be picked. Damage from
the storm of September 28-29 ran heavier than was
first estimated and heavy dropping of fruit in some sec-
tions has also affected the present estimates of produc-
The shipments for last season totalled 23,200,000
boxes, exceeding the previous record crop of 1923-24 by
nearly 3,000,000 boxes. The present estimate is for a
production slightly over that of 1927-28, but below that
of any other crop since that of 1921-22.
1919-1920 ..... .
1921-1922 ... .......
H. A. MARKS,
CANNED GRAPEFRUIT FROM FACTORY
HERE MAKES A BIG HIT
(Tarpon Springs Leader, December 17, 1929)
Tarpon Springs canned grapefruit, although on the
market but a few weeks, is already making a name for
itself, and the Venice of the south is fortunate in at-
tracting here the Tugwell & Wiseman Company, in more
ways than one. Of course the payroll is a wonderful
thing as there are some 140 persons drawing down
weekly pay checks, and the number would be doubled
if fruit were more plentiful, but the advertising that it is
doing the sun-sealed fruit of the gulf coast is also worth
a great deal to us.
Recently a carload was shipped to New York for re-
shipping to England, where Florida grapefruit, both the
fresh fruit and the canned article, is becoming more
popular each year.
A short time ago Fred W. Schwamb expressed a car-
ton of the canned grapefruit right into the much-adver-
tised citrus belt of California, the recipients being his
sister, Mrs. B. C. Sammons, and her son, Frederick, both
well known to Tarponites. They both enjoyed the Blue
Bar brand, that being the name of the Tarpon Springs
product, immensely; in fact, Frederick Sammons wrote
that it was so good that he ate a whole can at the first
meal. A case of the canned fruit sent to a Chicago
friend brought back word to Mr. Schwamb that it was the
best his friend had ever tasted.
LEVY'S HOG CROP GOOD ONE-TURKEYS
TOO, HELP FARMERS
One or More Cars of Hogs a Week Have Moved
from Chiefland for Months
(Levy County Journal, December 19, 1929)
To the discerning reader, one little item in this week's
correspondence from Chiefland tells more of the "why"
of Levy's prosperity than all the rest of the news in this
week's paper. That little item says:
"Four cars of hogs were shipped from Chiefland this
Probably few have kept up with it, but not a week has
passed in several months when we have not had a similar
item in the Chiefland correspondence, the item telling of
the shipment of from one to four cars of hogs from that
Nor is this all.
During the past several weeks many truck loads and
several carloads of live turkeys have gone out of the
same community to appease the appetites of the rest of
While turkey prices have been decidedly disappointing
this year, the crop was good and has brought much real
money into the county.
Turkey and chicken sales at Trenton and other points
under the direction of the State Marketing Bureau have
helped to swell the total received by our farmers for
these crops and but add to the grand total that this kind
of produce has brought into Levy during the past few
Perhaps there is farming country as good as that in
this county elsewhere, but if there is, we will have to
admit that it is mighty fine and if it produces as Levy
county farms produce, it is tilled by the right kind of
farmers, as is the soil of this section.
COTTON PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA NEAR
DOUBLE NOVEMBER, 1928, RECORD
(Winter Haven Chief, December 6, 1929)
Tallahassee, Dec. 6.-(A. P.)-Nearly twice as much
cotton was ginned in Florida up to November 14 of this
year than for the same period last year, the United
States Department of Commerce announced in figures
just made public.
The figures were for the crops of 1928 and 1929. To
that date this year the total ginned was 29,474 running
bales, linters not included. That of the same period last
year was 18,675.
The innings for Florida follow:
Columbia county, 1,925 running bales in 1929 and
1,384 in 1928; Jackson, 9,897 and 3,678; Leon, 1,289
and 1,294; Madison, 3,054 and 1,741; Okaloosa, 1,155
and 1,127; Santa Rosa, 4,152 in 1929, with 1928 innings
included in "all other counties" classification.
The innings for all other counties of the state totaled
8,002 for 1929 compared with 7,451 running bales for
FROM MINNESOTA TO FLORIDA
(St. Petersburg Times, December 19, 1929)
All the country knows that down around Clewiston,
on the southern shores of Lake Okeechobee, is being
built up a very huge industry backed by vast capital
and business brain power-the Dahlberg interests-but
it may be questioned if many people in Florida know
really much about it, just what it is, how it came about,
and what it portends for their state. The whole story
is told in a recent issue of the United States Daily, and
its highlights are most interesting and informative, in-
The Dahlberg investments in Florida were not pri-
marily for the production of sugar, but the manufacture
of the new building material, Celotex-and how many
people know the history of Celotex, which covers only
the short period of eight years. It is not the purpose
here to advertise this product, but to note how a great
industry was born and came to make its home in Florida.
According to the story a few years ago a young man
in the lumber business in Minnesota did a little con-
structive thinking. Said he, "Lumber is largely cellu-
lose. How could we manufacture a synthetic board out
of cellulose taken from a plant that can be cut and re-
grown each year as a crop?"
He experimented with straw, with corn-stalks, milk-
weed, and even with cactus. At length the ideal mate-
rial was found in bagasse, the shredded stalks of sugar
cane remaining after the sugar has been extracted.
These small fibres were cellulose in its toughest, strong-
est form, and could readily be pressed into a board
that was not only stiff and strong, but had an amazing
resistance to the passage of heat and cold. The young
man, Bror G. Dahlberg, and his associates, had produced
a new and tremendously important structural insulating
material which they named Celotex. Its commercial
manufacture began in 1921 when news dispatches told
of the "biggest board in the world," 12 feet wide and
900 feet long, turned out by the Celotex mills. From a
production of only 18 million feet in its first year Celotex
has grown to its present capacity of 480 million feet
There were difficulties. The domestic supply of
bagasse was threatened by declining yields of cane in
Louisiana. Many people said the cane sugar industry
in America was dying. But Dahlberg and his group be-
lieved this condition chiefly due to the persistence of out-
They started at once to push the planting, in Louisiana,
of the famous P. O. J. canes, developed in Java, that
have since put the industry again on its feet. Dahlberg
saw at once that this new cane stock would help revive
the American sugar industry, and began looking around
for the most favorable field for its developments. He
asked the experts, "Where in the United States, besides
Louisiana, can sugar cane be successfully grown?" And
the answer was given promptly:
"Florida. Control the water in the Everglades district
and you will have there the best sugar land on earth!"
Here were thousands of virgin acres waiting for the
man of imagination to drain and till them-a task for a
Dahlberg to conceive and execute. Action quickly fol-
lowed investigation. Dahlberg and his associates have
acquired over 150,000 acres of the richest Everglades
lands, on the southern shores of Lake Okeechobee; have
put 60,000 acres under water control; provided two
large grinding mills; completely motorized all their
operations; planted newly developed strains of cane on
17,000 acres, and are pushing this work night and day
to include the entire tract; have over 10,000 acres in
rich milling cane ready for grinding this December; have
secured extensions of two railroads to its properties, and
have built up a complete small city and installed and
operated its public utilities.
Further than establishing this mammoth industry here,
Mr. Dahlberg also has put his personality and business
abilities directly into the general welfare of Florida
through the state chamber of commerce and other public
and semi-public activities. So it has turned out that
when that young man in the lumber business away up in
Minnesota first thought about the possibility of a "syn-
thetic" lumber, it was a great day for Florida.
CARLOAD OF FISH AND SHRIMP SHIPPED
Fishing Industry at Canaveral Begins in Earnest
(Cocoa Tribune, December 19, 1929)
While the fishing season has not opened up to highest
peak, nearly a carload of fish and shrimp are being
shipped out of Cocoa daily through the Canaveral Pier
& Fish Company by express.
Many of the boats of the company have recently been
put on repair docks and are now being put back into the
water, while additions are being made to the large land-
ing pier and warehouse at Canaveral to take care of the
business this winter. When all boats are operating and
the additions to the pier are finished, it is expected that
the business will take a spurt, because of the added
facilities for more boats that wish to dock at Canaveral.
Two or three carloads of fish and shrimp will be shipped
daily when the season gets under way in full force, with
employment for a large number of fishermen and other
people about the warehouse during the season.
Last year when the season was at its height hundreds
of people visited Canaveral to view operations of a large
industry. Much activity will be noted there within the
next few weeks.
WEST FLORIDA FARMERS PLANT 105,000
POUNDS COVER CROP SEED IN 1929
(Sebring American, December 17, 1929)
Gainesville.-Over 105,000 pounds of vetch and
Austrian winter pea seed were planted in 12 counties of
northwest Florida during the 1929 season, reports from
the county agents show.
Four years ago 600 pounds were reported, and last
year about 50,000 pounds. This increase was secured
in spite of the fact that seed are about 60 per cent
higher than they were last year.
The yield of corn following the cover crop was in-
creased by at least 100 per cent, stated J. Lee Smith,
district agent for the Florida Agricultural Extension
Service in charge of that section.
Nathan Mayo has sent us a splendid photo of the
Florida State Exhibit at the International Livestock
Show at Chicago, which closed December 10th. It was
an exhibit of which all Floridians may justly be proud,
and one which should have made those in attendance
from other sections of the United States sit up and take
notice.-Orlando Sentinel, December 17, 1929.
16 FLORIDA REVIEW
CELERY IS EARLY OUT OF FLORIDA
Vegetables Going North in Quantities from
(Leesburg Commercial, December 18, 1929)
Tampa, Fla., Dec. 18.-(A. P.)-Vegetables in a rising
tide were being moved out of the truck farms of Florida
toward northern markets today for the holiday trade,
according to agricultural agents.
Sanford yesterday reported the shipment of the first
carload of celery. George L. Hay, commission merchant,
said in his twenty-three years experience this was the
earliest shipment. Usually the movement does not begin
until after Christmas. With the reported failure of the
crop in California demand was expected to be heavy, he
said. The harvest usually continues through January and
Bartow reported the first carload movement of cab-
bage for this season yesterday. Although a heavy crop
was grown in the north last summer, S. P. James, pack-
ing house operator, expected a profitable season as the
Florida acreage is smaller while Texas was said to have a
small crop because of bad weather.
Beans in large amounts have been going out of the
Lake Okeechobee region for some time and strawberries
have reached daily carlot proportions in central Florida.
BARONESS SEEKING DATA ON TUNG OIL
Europeans Interested in Growing Industry and
May Buy Land, Letter States
(Tallahassee Daily Democrat, December 8, 1929)
A letter inquiring into the possibilities of Tung oil
industries in this section has been received by Thomas P.
Turner, secretary of the chamber of commerce here
from Baroness W. V. Oertgen of Tampico, Mexico.
Baroness Oertgen stated in her letter that she had
friends in various sections of Europe that were interested
in the growing of Tung oil trees and would be willing
to buy acreage in some place that was suited for the
cultivation of these trees.
Mr. Turner has forwarded a pamphlet issued by the
State Agriculture Department telling of the possibilities
for growing Tung oil trees in Florida.
According to this pamphlet the first Tung oil trees
in Florida were planted in and around Tallahassee, the
first being planted in 1906 by W. H. Raines, who was
quickly followed by George B. Perkins and the late Dr.
Tenant Ronalds, as well as Florida Experiment Station
TWO CARLOADS OF CATTLE WILL BE DIS-
TRIBUTED TO FARMERS OF WEST
(Perry Herald, December 5, 1929)
Two carloads of purebred cattle to be used in the
breeding of high-grade beef herds will arrive from Ten-
nessee the first of the week for distribution among the
farmers of West Florida.
The live stock board has been assisting the farmers in
the importing of good animals and the grading up of
range cattle. The fifty-three bulls and heifers in this
shipment have been purchased for farmers in Levy, Su-
wannee, Columbia and the more western counties of the
state, where tick eradication work has been or is nearly
completed. Following the eradication of the ticks, the
Live Stock Sanitary Board has endeavored to assist the
farmers in importing 415 head of purebred cattle during
the last three years.
The board plans to assist in obtaining one or two more
carloads this fall.
The Angus bulls, which will compose the larger part
of the present shipment, average from $125 to $150
29,717 BALES OF COTTON ARE GINNED IN
(Florida State News, December 17, 1929)
Cotton ginned in Florida prior to December 1 totalled
29,717 running bales, compared with 19,608 at the same
period last year, the United States Department of Com-
merce announced. Linters were not included in the
In another report, the United States Department of
Agriculture's Florida Bureau of Agricultural Economics,
said a revision of the acreages for harvest on December
1 showed Florida with less acres, but with a larger yield
per acre than was indicated in early estimates. Little
cotton was harvested since November 1, and the 29,000
bale estimate of 500-pound gross weight, was represented
mostly by cotton already harvested.
Fifty thousand dollars is being spent on the Pine Crest
Lakes Winter Club at Avon Park and $20,000 in remodel-
ing the Pennsylvania Hotel at Sebring.
SIX 12-MONTH OLD PIGS DRESSED 2,000
(Gadsden County Herald, December 6, 1929)
E. J. Smith, farmer living four miles west of Quincy,
states that he butchered six 12-months-old pigs last week
that weighed 2,000 pounds. "The wonderful corn and
peanut crops produced in Gadsden county this year has
assisted the farmers in raising some splendid porkers, but
the low price of the hog market is a disappointment and
profits from this source have been discouraging." Many
hogs from this county have been transported by trucks
to Moultrie and other packing points owing to railway
freight rates. It is claimed that a big saving to the
farmer is made through the use of trucks in hauls not
exceeding 200 miles.
The Bronson Journal says one of the busiest places
around that section these days is at the mill of the
Bronson Manufacturing Company and the ice plant owned
by the same company. The big mill is busily engaged
turning out thousands of crates, baskets and containers
for Florida's fall and winter vegetable crop. The Journal
says: "It is quite interesting to watch the mill hands at
work in the manufacture of these containers, and it is
also surprising what a lot of operations are almost en-
tirely done by automatic machinery. The thing that has
been keeping the ice plant busy is the storage depart-
ment. Load after load of fine pork has already been
placed in cold storage to be cured and made into the best
eating in the world. Levy county is noted for its fine
hogs, and the Bronson cold storage this season is handling
a great part of the pork produced in the county."-Flor-