Efficiency vs. practicability

Group Title: Florida review (Tallahassee, FL)
Title: Florida review
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049005/00073
 Material Information
Title: Florida review
Physical Description: 5 v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Bureau of Immigration
Publisher: Bureau of Immigration, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1926-1930
Frequency: semimonthly
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Industries -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (June 7, 1926)-v. 5, no. 9 (Oct. 20, 1930).
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00049005
Volume ID: VID00073
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001744570
oclc - 01279992
notis - AJF7332
lccn - sn 00229569

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    Efficiency vs. practicability
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Full Text

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JUNE 3, 1929

No. 1


Efficiency vs. Practicability .... ... .... 1
Many Jersey Cows Have Been Added to Chipola Dairy 2
First Celery from Here Is Shipped ....... ...... ... 2
Tomatoes Leaving Istaclhatta by the Carload Ever Day ........
Alabama Sets Pace for Diversification and Marketing.... 3
Miami Rhubarb Pays for Trip to Old Country.......... ........... 6
Melons and Corn Moving from Fort Meade Market ............
Nocatee Growers Ship Two Cars of Sweet Corn .. ... .. 6
Annual Roundup of Wild Horses at Fellsmere .................... 7
Hastings Sees End of Spuds .. .... .............. .. ..................... 7
Florida News Drive Planned ........ .. .... .... .. 7
Sixty Crates of Mangoes Shipped ....... .... ................ 7
Papaya on the Road to Fame After 400 Years .. ...... 8
Leon County Man Buys Angus Bulls ..... .... ........ 10

Produce New Varieties of Cane at Breeding Plant ... ...
Mlovenient of Truck in Gadsden Co. Is on the Increasi .......
I'luinosus Crowd Attend Pierson Meeting Monday ...
'anning the L ow ly P otato .. .. ... .................................
Egg Production Given a Boost ...... ......... ... .
First Grapes Are Picked for Sale ... .........
Mediterranean Fruit Fly Must Be Watched ................. ..
Egg Producers Get Big Order from Swift & Co... ......
Rabbit Industry Pays for Expansion ...... ................
W washing Plant for Celery Installed...................... .............
. V vegetable A association ......... ....... .................
W atermelon Bureau Now Is Open ................. .......
Twenty-six Excursions Into State Are Announced .......


By T. J. BROOKS, Chief Clerk, Department of Agriculture

T IS a mistake to think that efficiency
and practicability always follow the same
lines. There are many things that are
lawful but inexpedient. The most effi-
cient method of conducting a business may be
very impractical because of its effect on the
worker. Man does not live by efficiency alone.
A business may be a success from the stand-
point of making money, but it may be a failure
from the standpoint of serving the worker.
Social ethics has a place in modern life of
equal importance to the purely practical social
agencies. No longer is humanity to be treated
with the same consideration as a piece of
machinery-so much drudgery for so much out-
lay of money.
If a certain policy of economic efficiency
proves to be degrading to the workers who put
it into practice, the policy and not the worker
goes to the junkheap. It might have been more
economic to operate employees on railway
trains on excessive overtime, but the State steps
in and says "No! You are destroying the
worker and endangering lives." It may be that
more money is made on the investment in a
factory that is not built for the comfort of em-
ployees, but the State says, "No! You are grind-
ing lives into coin. Stop!" Mines are inspected
to force the owners to invest in precautions for

the security of the workers, regardless of the
cost involved.
In agriculture the subject of efficiency and
profits versus social welfare presents a far dif-
ferent angle. Suppose it is demonstrated that
it is more efficient and economical to have all
farming done by big corporations using hired
labor. This would mean the complete revolu-
tion in rural life. The independent home-own-
ing farmer would be a thing of the past. Farm-
ers would be hirelings working under a man-
ager, a sort of task-master. The most scientific
methods would be followed, the best of labor-
saving machinery would be used, human in-
terest would be subordinated for efficiency in
production-for profits. The effect on the units
of society would be of no concern.
Would this be for the best? Is efficiency an
end or a means to and end? This should be of
more consequence than mere meat and drink.
The great end of all efforts should be for the
improvement of the individual. If man is of no
more consequence than a mere machine nothing
is of consequence.
Therefore if bonanza farming is not condu-
cive to the production of the finest type of rural
citizenship it should be discouraged. If indi-
vidual ownership and operation is conducive to
the development of the highest type of rural

Vol. 4

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Vol. 4


citizenship then it should be encouraged, re-
gardless of the inefficiency of small farming on
the average. There is an important field for in-
vestigation by trained social economists.
Economics has been called "a science of
wealth, not of welfare." Political economy, the
older name for all economics, recognized that
it had to do with people as well as goods and
chattels, and that if commercialized industries
ruined the health of the workers or endangered
life or limb that it is the duty of the state to
regulate such private or public business as to
eliminate the danger to health or of bodily
There is a still higher conception under polit-
ical sociology. The effect of a given condition
of labor in mine, factory or farm or on sea, is a
question of concern to the state and not the
least of considerations is that of the effect of
the condition on the intellectual development
and chance for happiness of the workers.
If a feeling of injustice rankles in the bosom
of the workers of a factory there is forever and
anon a potential magazine of labor troubles
hidden in the plant. If the work reduces the
workers to a condition of physical and mental
slavery, then, no matter how efficient the plant
may be economically as a mere business, it must
needs be readjusted to the higher standard of
humanity. If women are being made unfit for
motherhood by the occupations they pursue, it
is right that government should intervene. That
is the new social economy, which has to a great
degree already supplanted the old, and must
eventually be the only economy taught and
practiced by progressive and enlightened peo-


(Marianna Floridan, May 10, 1929)
Expansion of the Chipola Dairy Farm will make it one
of the largest in West Florida and one of the most modern
in the South.
With purchases last week of forty-seven head of pure-
bred Jersey cows and heifers, the milking capacity at the
dairy will be increased to sixty cows.
"Our plans," said Chas. Reiff, the general manager,
"are to continue expansions. We have already begun to
ship cream and milk to the creameries. We will imme-
diately increase the capacity, having purchased cows suf-
ficient to make the number 60, besides many heifers,
also Jerseys, which will come into service later. Our
dairy is always open to visitors. We are glad when
people inspect the dairy, farm and groves. We are con-
stantly at work on improvements and hope to make the
plant one of the outstanding ones in the South.
"The supplying of the local trade ceased Wednesday
and henceforth our supplies will go to the creameries and
to Hotel Chipola," said Mr. Reiff.


First Two Cars Leave Titusville Station Wed-
nesday-Aim to Ship Nine Cars Today-
200 to 300 People To Be Employed

(Titusville Star-Advocate, May 3, 1929)
The first carloads of Titusville celery left the local
station Wednesday. With promise of even a better crop,
both from the standpoint of quality and quantity, the
Indian River Celery & Produce Company of Titusville
hoped to dispose of their entire amount within a short
time. Experienced celery workmen from the Sanford
section were engaged to do the picking, loading and pack-
ing; but a few local laborers were used.
The celery is being marketed through a Philadelphia
produce concern. But the first two cars were diverted
and did not reach the home city of the company, one of
them going to Asbury Park, N. J., and the other to an-
other eastern city. A representative of the purchasing
company is on the grounds and has inspected the crop.
He said that it was one of the best crops he had seen this
season and was of the right uniformity and size to com-
mand the best prices on the eastern markets. Following
the first day's work, three and a half cars were loaded
yesterday, and it was the hope of the company here to
ship out nine cars today. They are anxious to get the
crop to the markets as soon as possible.
Yield Is Surprise
When the cutting began, it was easy to see that the
field would yield more than was estimated by several San-
ford celery experts. Cars were filling up faster than they
expected and than was estimated by the Sanford men.
The cars are all iced here and go north by fast freight.
It was necessary to employ experienced men in the
field and for loading and packing, Messrs. Stewart and
Gorgas said, in order to get the crop moving as fast as
possible. Seventy-five men and women were engaged in
the work here yesterday, and the company expects to
have 200 or 300 engaged before the week is over.


Will Begin Shipping Melons in Two Weeks-
Good Prices Expected

(Citrus County Chronicle, May 10, 1929)
J. E. Johnstone, local merchant, who owns a large farm
near Istachatta, has been shipping tomatoes from his
place for the past several weeks. Most of his shipments
have been less than car lots, but he has informed the
Chronicle that L. B. Rutland, who has planted a large
number of acres to tomatoes, has been making carlot
shipments from the packing house at Istachatta. The
tomatoes in this section are as fine as could be grown
anywhere in the country and are bringing a very good
price. Ship Melons Soon
J. K. Kelley and J. E. Johnstone both expect to begin
shipping watermelons in the next two weeks. Mr. Kelley
says that some of his melons have already reached the
weight of twenty pounds each, and it is expected they
will bring a very good price in the market. Both the
tomato and melon crops have done exceedingly well and
it is expected that a lot of new money will come into
this section as the result of the large number of acres
planted to these two commodities.


Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
Tallahassee, Florida

NATHAN MAYO ........... Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. BROOKS ............ Director Bureau of Immigration
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Florida, under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.
Vol. 4 JUNE 3, 1929 No. 1


(By Carroll E. Williams, in Manufacturers Record,
May 2, 1929)
Southern farmers are willing and ready to diversify
crops when marketing facilities are assured. This state-
ment is abundantly verified in Alabama, where for three
years there has been in successful operation a plan pro-
viding for the purchase of Alabama-grown products by
Alabama industries. In 1927, Birmingham alone pur-
chased Alabama agricultural products with a total value
of over $3,369,000.
It is well enough to preach diversification to farmers
who have for generations grown nothing but cotton, but
it is another thing to keep farmers interested in grow-
ing diversified crops if no method of marketing these
products is devised. What happens, briefly, is this: The
farmer produces, we will say, sweet potatoes, beets, beans
and other vegetables, and when he harvests these crops
and finds no ready market he must sell at a loss. With
cotton he is always assured of a ready sale, or he can
place his cotton in the warehouse and borrow on it, or
certain interests will have loaned him money on the crop
when it is planted. Therefore, not securing fair prices
for diversified products, the farmer immediately reverts
to cotton growing. And he will continue to revert to
form unless the primary need is recognized; that is, ade-
quate marketing methods must first be devised.
How Plan Was Inaugurated
Thirty years ago the present head of one of Alabama's
leading industries, while a college student, became keenly
interested in a plan to bring about more general pros-
perity among the working classes by balancing industry
and agriculture. His mind long dwelt on this idea of
developing agriculture along with industry, but it was
not until four or five years ago that any comprehensive
plan for fostering such a development was inaugurated.
The initiation of this movement resulted from a tele-
phone conversation with Jack Thorington, head of the
Pinckard Investment Co., Inc., of Montgomery, a con-
cern specializing in mortgage loans on improved lands in
Alabama and Mississippi. In effect, Mr. Thorington said
to this executive: "Unless you can do something to en-
courage the purchase of Alabama-grown farm products,
farmers in great numbers in this state are going to be
forced into bankruptcy. Already many farms are being
turned back on our hands because the farmers to whom
we have granted loans are unable to pay either the in-
terest or the principal. The situation is alarming. You
must do something."

"I don't just understand what you want," replied the
industrialist. "How are we to help out this farm situa-
tion? Where does our responsibility come in?"
"Why, in this way," said Mr. Thorington, "I want you
to find out from your purchasing agents to what extent
they are buying Alabama-grown products, and if they are
not giving preference to Alabama products, won't you
see that they do so? If you set an example for the rest
of the industries in the state by purchasing home-grown
crops, you can do much to stimulate agricultural diver-
sification by increasing the demand for such articles and
this in turn will marvelously influence agricultural ac-
tivity, and will divert the attention of our farmers from
cotton to cows, hens, feedstuffs and foodstuffs."
"I'll look into it immediately," was the executive's
reply, under the certainty that his purchasing agents were
buying Alabama products. He was somewhat astonished,
therefore, when informed that only a negligible quantity
of home-grown farm products were purchased for re-sale
in the company's commissaries. The wheels were at once
put in motion to encourage purchases in volume of home-
grown products. The purchasing agent was eager to buy
Alabama-grown products, but on many previous occasions
he had done this and had too often found the products
poorly graded, improperly packed for shipment, not com-
parable in quality to products from distant states, and
on the whole unsatisfactory.
Promotion Organization Now Perfected
So for three years the movement to encourage diversi-
fied agriculture in the section and to properly market
these products has been under way, and so successful
has it been that it is safe to say no other southern state
has so widely and consistently diversified its agricultural
activities, or made such progress in this direction as Ala-
bama. An organization now exists for the promotion
of this plan, for educating the farming classes, for devis-
ing methods of marketing and grading, and for arrang-
ing the cooperative schemes employed to take care of
the sale of the products. It is an excellent example to
other states that would balance industry and agriculture
for their general upbuilding and prosperity.
The promoters of the movement believe agricultural
success and diversification of crops is dependent on co-
operative action, and that if the farmer is to prosper,
his purchasing power must be increased, and that a prime
factor is to provide a cash market for farm products
near the farm. Consumers want reliable and prompt
delivery of graded products from nearby farms. Too
much is expected from the farmer, himself. Very little
criticism has been directed towards those who should
assume the function of purchasing and selling diversified
farm products, and who are slow to act, and in that way
greatly impede progress in diversifying farm products.
Alabama recently, through legislative enactment, pro-
vided means for grading and standardizing many of its
products, and is fast assuming the lead among southern
states in furnishing a certificate of grade on many
products produced in the state, among them potatoes,
strawberries and hay. At the beginning of the cam-
paign it was seen that if the Alabama farmer was to
diversify farm products, facilities for handling every
crop which it is desirable to produce should be put upon
the same basis as cotton and the plan should function as
efficiently as is now the case with cotton. Service ren-
dered by intermediaries between producer and user of
cotton can be used as a model. For every village and
small town there are facilities for lending money on cot-
ton placed in storage, and also for a working capital with


which to produce the next year's crop. Agencies which
can best supply the needs are those which now have
facilities for handling the cotton crop, with such exten-
sions of their services as are required to enable them to
handle diversified products on an efficient and sound
business basis.
Surmount Many Perplexing Problems
Not that the Alabama method is free from defects, nor
that it is not subject to further development, but because
it is actually getting remarkable results and is being
steadily made more effective is the reason for its dis-
cussion here. All has not been rosy and smooth-going in
the past three years. The way has been hard and there
have been many trying problems to vex the protagonists
of the great idea. When the plan to purchase Alabama
farm products was first announced, several of the large
companies were deluged with postcards from farmers in
all parts of the state, advising that they would gladly
send by parcel post, each week, a dozen or two dozen
eggs. Naturally this plan of purchasing direct from the
farmers was not feasible, but it took a long time to show
the individual farmer why it was not practicable to buy
in such small quantities. So representatives of the in-
dustries visited the rural sections and showed the farmers
how to assemble the eggs at strategic points on rail lines
in carload lots and then to sell them to the jobbers in
the larger cities. The jobbers jumped at the opportunity
of purchasing Alabama eggs once they were properly
graded as to size and color; they did not want just eggs,
for even the trade at the iron and steel and coal mine
commissaries would not buy ungraded eggs. All went
along splendidly until an effort was made to store some
of these eggs. The cold storage people threw up their
hands and declared: "These Alabama eggs won't store.
They all spoil." So a Department of Agriculture special-
ist was called in to make a study of the situation, and
it was only a matter of days before he announced that
the reason the eggs had spoiled was because the hens
had been fed greens, whereas they should have been fed
largely on grains. By correcting the diet of the hens,
eggs were produced in Alabama that store as well as the
eggs from any other section of the country.
Now that there is a ready market for Alabama eggs
and the storekeepers in the larger towns and cities and
the purchasing agents of the large industrial enterprises
in the state want to buy them, little difficulty is expe-
rienced in getting them from the farmers. For instance,
a large land owner recently encouraged his negro tenant
farmers to raise hens and told them he would purchase
at 25 cents a dozen all the eggs they were able to get.
Each week the negroes would bring the eggs to the
owner's store and he would pay cash for the eggs, grade,
assort and pack them for sale in Birmingham. But in-
stead of selling immediately he placed them in cold stor-
age and when the price went up to 34 cents a dozen, he
ordered the eggs sold and promptly made an additional
payment of 9 cents a dozen for every dozen supplied by
his tenant farmers, because he wanted the tenants to
continue egg-raising this year.
The growing of beef cattle presented some unusual
problems. Western stock was brought in and it flour-
ished, for whereas the grazing season in Wisconsin is
only two and a half months, the grazing season in Ala-
bama and Mississippi is much longer, and in fact cattle
may graze out in most of the southern states throughout
the year. So the beef produced was, from all appear-
ances, as good as that produced anywhere else in the
country. A number of animals were slaughtered and sold

after having been kept in cold storage for about 48 hours.
The meat appeared to have practically the same texture
as the Western grown beef and apparently was going to
be just as edible. But the reports that came from the
commissaries were extremely disconcerting. The pur-
chasers said the meat was tough, did not have a proper
flavor, and could not be compared, in any sense, with the
Western beef they had been buying. Hence, the com-
missaries demanded that the purchasing agents again
buy Western beef. But again the proponents of the plan
were not satisfied. Pictures of Western cattle were ob-
tained and compared with pictures of the herd that had
been slaughtered for local consumption, and if anything
the Alabama-grown cattle looked better than those grown
in the west. So again recourse was made to the services
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and its specialist,
after getting the facts, demanded to see the freezing
charts from the cold storage plant where the beef had
been stored. He was not long rendering his decision:
"There is nothing wrong with your Alabama-grown cattle.
It is fine stock. You have fallen down in not curing it
properly. Western beef remains in cold storage perhaps
48 hours after it is slaughtered and is then placed in
refrigerator cars and shipped east, often remaining in
transit 10 to 14 days. By the time it reaches you it is
properly chilled and cured. If you will simply keep this
beef in cold storage 10 days to two weeks, it will equal
in quality any Western beef produced." That the
specialist's statements were true was demonstrated
clearly by the success that attended the handling of the
second herd of Alabama cattle. And since that time the
commissaries of many Alabama industrial concerns have
specialized wholly on beef grown on nearby farms.
Overcame Prejudice Against Home Grown Beef
For a time such prejudice existed against the use of
home-grown beef, that one shrewd herd-owner found it
advantageous to ship his cattle into another state, keep
them there for a while and sell them there, much of the
meat being later sold in Alabama as Western meat. The
additional price he received over what he would at first
have received in Alabama, was more than sufficient to
pay for the transportation charges and the additional
work involved. Now that Alabama cattle are accepted
everywhere in the state as prime products, he does not
have to resort to such methods.
Growing of beef cattle is increasing at a rapid rate,
because of the domestic demand and also because large
nationally known packing houses are now purchasing
Alabama cattle, whereas only a few years ago they would
not consider purchasing such beef.
There are now about 20 creameries in Alabama, and a
number of the established plants are being enlarged and
plans are being discussed for establishing several new
plants. Demand for cream is so great there is not
enough to go around, and as a result herds are being en-
larged steadily. When the movement to promote agri-
cultural diversification got under way the first thought
was to encourage the use of Alabama-made butter, but
the various commissaries and stores reported that the
demand for well-known brands of butter produced in
Wisconsin, Minnesota and elsewhere was so great, it
would be hard to introduce Alabama products unless they
were of an equal or superior quality. Conditions in
seven or eight creameries were carefully investigated.
Sanitary conditions were very bad and manufacturing
methods were not all that was necessary to insure quality
output. Some of these creameries were operating with-
out a health department permit. So the Birmingham


Health Department was asked to cooperate by permitting
the sale of butter from Alabama creameries in the city
for a period of three or four months without a health
department license. The Health Department agreed to
this and in addition it assigned a competent inspector to
visit the various creameries, make careful inspection and
recommend changes in equipment and layout to meet the
most rigid inspection requirements. Then an ultimatum
was delivered to the creamery operators to this effect:
"If you do not install the devices for proper control of
temperatures, etc., within a reasonable period, we shall
stop purchasing your products. If you want to ship into
the Birmingham section you must comply fully with the
Health Department regulations." Within less than six
months all the creameries in the state had met the
strictest inspections, and their products were being sold
by scores of jobbers throughout the state.
State's Dairy Industry Expanding Rapidly
The farmers in Alabama have always produced cotton
because the market has long been established for this
product. But it has been demonstrated clearly that they
will diversify and grow any crop they can secure a
market for. Too long have the buyers and consumers of
Birmingham and other large consuming centers of Ala-
bama looked to distant states for their food products,
to the neglect and impoverishment of the farmers in
their own state. The most promising agricultural in-
dustry in Alabama, with the exception of cotton, is dairy-
ing, and more interest is being manifested in this in-
dustry in Alabama than ever before. The creameries
are producing butter equal in grade to that produced in
any other state. The farmers supplying these creameries
are being taught to grade their cream before shipping,
and every merchant who has the welfare of the Alabama
farmer at heart sees to it that some of the butter from
these creameries is sold in his store.
The Alabama farmer is being encouraged to keep from
five to ten cows and to sell the sour cream to the nearest
creamery. The farmer is thus able to obtain cash from
week to week, to feed the skim milk to pigs and to use
the barn fertilizer to increase the fertility, of the soil.
The dairy industry is thus not only benefiting the farmer,
but by providing him with ready cash it helps all busi-
ness interests and in particular the merchants and the
bankers in the nearby towns. It is said that with proper
instructions milk can be produced cheaper in Alabama
and in nearby southern states, than in the distant states
where unfavorable climatic conditions exist. In addi-
tion to the long grazing season that prevails in the south,
the investment in barns is not so heavy as elsewhere.
Alabama has always been a great turkey-raising state,
but the preference and the demand has nevertheless per-
sisted for turkeys from Texas. The Cooperative Turkey
Service was subsequently organized to promote the
marketing of Alabama turkeys, and last year, through
this agency, 30 carloads of turkeys were sold at from 28
to 31 cents a pound, which was paid to the farmer in
cash at the car door as he delivered his birds. An idea
of the development of the poultry and egg industry in
the state is indicated by the value of such products last
year, which was second only to the value of the cotton
crop. Not only is Alabama buying large quantities of
home-grown poultry and eggs, but at least one car a
week is being shipped out of the state to other markets.
There has been such a demand created for home-grown
products, that Birmingham is now buying Alabama
poultry practically exclusively.
The growing of white and sweet potatoes is under-

taken in volume. More than 50 sweet potato storage
plants have been established, built and owned by in-
dividuals. Some are quite small, but others are suffi-
ciently large to hold two to three carloads each. The
cold storage plants throughout the state are cooperating
in every possible way in stimulating agricultural diver-
sification. They are keeping pace with the demand for
storage space. That many problems in this connection
must be solved is indicated by the results of the recent
storage of 106 cars of white potatoes at the plant of the
Birmingham Ice & Cold Storage Co. When the potatoes
were removed and the first lot was marketed, complaints
came back quickly that the potatoes were "sweet." The
Department of Agriculture specialist was called in and
after making a study of the situation reported that the
potatoes should be allowed to sit for a week or ten days
after being removed from storage and after being mar-
keted, for the freezing process had turned the starch in
the potatoes into sugar and as the potatoes regained
their former natural condition the sweet taste would dis-
appear. Now Alabama white potatoes are handled quite
The W. & W. Pickle Co., which established a plant in
1928 at Montgomery, recently shipped a complete train-
load of pickles. The company has ten salting plants for
cucumbers at various points in the vicinity of Mont-
gomery. Those who are promoting the program for agri-
cultural diversification say that the greatest need of the
state now is for canning plants to turn out such articles
as pumpkins, beans, tomatoes, okra, beets, pimentos and
other vegetables.
Kiwanis Clubs Foster Diversification
Cooperation is solely responsible for the success that
has attended the efforts to encourage farm diversification
in Alabama. The 35 Kiwanis Clubs in the state have
taken a leading part in promoting an educational cam-
paign to encourage farmers to grow something other than
cotton, and also to educate Alabama citizens to purchase
Alabama-grown products. These clubs in 1928 held from
one to 14 rural meetings each. Early in the campaign
the clubs found that it was impracticable to get a repre-
sentative attendance at a luncheon, so the rural meetings
were, for the most part, held in the evenings in county
and town schoolhouses. The farmers' wives were paid to
prepare suppers. The guests were entertained by moving
pictures and some vaudeville and the remainder of the
evening was devoted to discussing farm problems.
Purchasing agents of the big industries at Birming-
ham have organized as the Birmingham Purchasing
Agents' Association, headed by C. T. Doerr, president,
and M. W. Hutchins, secretary. When any farm
products are available for which there is no ready market,
members of this association are called upon to help dis-
pose of the products, and invariably an immediate sale
results. The 69 county agents have also cooperated
wholeheartedly in the campaign, and have given the
farmers invaluable assistance in the way of technical
An instance of how the home demonstration agents
also help the farmers obtain additional funds is indi-
cated in the activities of Mrs. J. E. Rudd in Clay county.
In 1926 she encouraged the farmers' wives to produce
500 pine needle baskets, which were sold in Birmingham
for approximately $980. Two salesmen have since been
employed and $25,000 worth of these baskets have been
sold and the demand is increasing.
Satisfied that the movement in Alabama is on a sure
footing and that the speed with which agricultural diver-


sification has developed will insure the necessary mo-
mentum to steadily advance it, the promoters are now
looking forward to putting the scheme into operation on
a sectional basis to provide the same kind of educational
and promotional campaign and marketing system for
the entire southeast. It is believed that the Kiwanis
Clubs in other states will take a prominent part in the
work, and the workers in Alabama stand ready, if called
upon, to do their part in upbuilding the prosperity of the
southeastern states by bringing about a proper balance
between agriculture and industry.


"Pie-Plant" Crops Enable Russian to Pay In-
come Tax and Travel

(Miami News, May 12, 1929)
Bill Gerolki, Russian farmer, made $25 per week from
a small patch of rhubarb west of Hialeah in the spring
and early summer of 1928. Many said it just couldn't
be done in a warm climate since rhubarb is a cold weather
plant, more or less indigenous to the Russian steppes.
This was later amended by the "can't do it here" people,
who said it would have to be planted every year. The
logical inference was that it would not pay under these
conditions. That it would possibly become acclimated to
this climate, as has occurred in the history of almost
every growing thing when in a new climate or environ-
ment, apparently occurred to few.
Mr. Gerolki was seen by the writer. He appeared to
be a Russian aristocrat rather than of the peasant class,
and extremely intelligent. But he was also reserved, ap-
parently knowing little about rhubarb, although his opera-
tions with it were fairly well known to Mrs. Fleda V.
Hughes, president of a chain of Miami seed stores. A
certain commission firm in Miami, however, had shown
actual figures taken from its books.
Mr. Gerolki finally admitted to certain profitable rhu-
barb sales, and apparently in an incautious moment
stated that a Russian neighbor had done even better.
More he would not say. As the season waned he became
more friendly and communicative to a greater degree.
Later the following season he hailed the writer while
both were watching for the light to turn on one of the
busiest intersections of Flagler street. "I have planted
eight acres of rhubarb," he called.
Apparently Mr. Gerolki made an agricultural killing,
for he has since been sufficiently prosperous to take a
trip to Europe this summer, something many a prosperous
farmer in Illinois has longed for in vain. He plans to
return to Miami in time for another season's crop, he
If there is a moral in this agricultural story its dis-
covery is left to the Dade county grower or prospective
settler from Illinois, Ohio, Michigan or the bleak hills of
New England. Apparently rhubarb, general farming,
pays-in south Florida, if a man knows how, or will
Mr. Gerolki's operations during the past season at
times took in about 40 to 60 acres, just north of the
second canal on Seventh avenue, on the west side of the
Besides raising rhubarb of the desired flavor and red
tint, he planted squash, peppers, various kinds of beans,
melons, okra, carrots, eggplants, beets, some sugar corn
and a few tomatoes.

The first plat of rhubarb, bringing $25 per week, was
barely 16 by 28 feet. The last planting was big enough
to easily bring in returns estimated at between $500 and
$700 per week, for possibly 12 or more weeks. The fact
is that Mr. Gerolki made enough to go to Europe, where
he will try to induce his friends and relatives to come to
Miami, city of magic and opportunities. That is the way
it looks to him, although some people from adjacent
states have spoken of busted booms and windstorms
rather than opportunities here, with considerable talk
devoted to products that just won't grow so far south.
Just before leaving for Europe, and after marketing
practically everything except five acres of late limas, Mr.
Gerolki sold the "leavings" to three Miamians named John
Beavers, Benjamin Serkin and M. Steinberg. They really
paid only for the beans, expecting little from the other
crops, they said. The rhubarb was supposed to be
"gone." But since buying him out they have seldom
failed to market 20 packages per day, five pounds weight,
bringing six cents per pound on the Miami curb market,
or 30 cents per bunch.
Mr. Gerolki paid income tax. Mr. Beavers said he was
there when the papers were being made out, and that
"he admitted to an income of from $10,000 to $12,000."
From the "leavings" the three partner purchasers have
marketed as follows: Rhubarb, 5 acres; beans, 5 acres;
peas, 2 acres; peppers, 2 acres; squash, 2 acres; beets, 3
acres; eggplants, 2 acres. There were some potatoes,
also some okra. It will be noted by the former paragraph
that the rhubarb paid well. Peppers paid best, Mr. Beav-
ers said, bringing $2.00 a crate, then $1.00. "And a
man can make good money at that price," he remarked.
Most were sold in Miami, some going to New York and
SSquash did not turn out well, he said, due to inex-
perience in handling. The beets brought about $1.00 per
crate, which he said is "good money."


(Jampa Tribune, May 11, 1929)
Fort Meade, May 10.-(Special)-Watermelon and
corn shipments from this station have been heavy in the
last week, an average of six to eight cars of melons and
two cars of corn going out daily. The melons are of good
size and are exceptionally early for this section. Ap-
proximately 400 acres of melons are being grown about
here and the season is expected to last three more weeks.
Corn shipments are steady from about 1,000 acres and
buyers are paying $1.00 a crate for all offered.


(Times-Union, May 2, 1929)
Arcadia, May 1.-Nocatee Vegetable Growers Associa-
tion has shipped two carloads of sweet corn to northern
markets. The second carload was shipped Tuesday. It
is expected that several more cars will be shipped this
week and next by this association.
The watermelon growers of this section, who organized
for marketing last week, are expected to ship their first
car of watermelons this week. There are approximately
200 acres in this section planted to watermelons, which
are rapidly maturing. A large number of locally grown
melons are now on the local market.



Herd Gathered from Range for Branding and

(Vero Beach Journal, May 10, 1929)
The annual roundup of wild horses that range on the
flats at the headwaters of the St. Johns river in Osceola
and Indian River counties will be held this week at the
ranch of Capt. Calvin Platt west of Fellsmere. The
gathering up and corraling of the herd of range horses
is an interesting and exciting event. The untamed ani-
mals are exceedingly shy of fences and it is a difficult
task on the part of the cowboys to pen the ponies.
The purpose for rounding up the horses is to brand
the young colts and to select from the herd such ponies
as may be needed for mounts or that may be desired for
sale. Breaking the wild horses to bridle and saddle is
one of the most exciting incidents of ranch life.
When an exceptionally fiery horse is caught and broke
to saddle he invariably becomes an entrant at the annual
horse races held at Fellsmere July fourth. The herd is
driven into a well built corral and the animals desired for
branding or taming are caught with lariats by the cow-
boys and trussed up until it is branded or a rope can be
placed for control.
The roundup attracts cattlemen from all over the
range in the St. John's flats and the Kissimmee River
valley. The occasion is made a gala day for cowboys
and visitors annually about this season of the year.


Cucumbers Move Out, Sweet Corn Is Next on

(St. Augustine Record, May 12, 1929)
Hastings, May 11.-The end of this week will see the
close of the potato season in the Hastings section and
attention has been turned to the Lacrosse-Santa Fe sec-
tion in Alachua county, where digging operations started
about April 22.
It is estimated that there were approximately 1,000
acres in Alachua county planted to potatoes this year,
and even though the dry weather during the growing sea-
son and late blight has had much to do with cutting the
yield,- it is said that the growers are averaging about 45
barrels to the acre.
Early in the season, The Hastings Herald, published
here, predicted that there would be approximately 4,000
cars of potatoes shipped from the Hastings potato belt,
which is generally understood to embrace St. Johns, Put-
nam, Flagler, Alachua and Clay counties, and this figure
will not be far from right when the final check is made.
Most farmers of this section have made some clear
money on their potatoes this year, which will enable them
to pay off some of their hangover debts left from last
season, which was a losing one, and still leave them
some cash money to live on through the summer. Local
merchants have enjoyed good business during the season
and are in much better shape to go through the summer
months than they were last year.
Cucumbers are moving from this section at a moderate
rate and up to Thursday afternoon approximately 25
Scars had rolled from the Hastings section since the open-
ing of the cuke season three weeks ago. Excessive rains

which have fallen in the last few days, followed by un-
usually hot weather, has to some extent put a crimp on
the cuke deal, but shipments will continue until the best
of the crop is moved. The yield is considered good and
growers who sold on contract are realizing a fair profit
on the deal.
The next crops to follow the cucumber will be peppers,
sweet corn and squash. It is thought that the first solid
car of sweet corn will roll from here about the middle of
next week, and at present prices will net good returns
to the growers. Taking everything into consideration,
this section is in good condition financially, and otherwise,
as compared with some other sections of the country, and
its people should not anticipate any hard times during
the so-called dull summer months.


Railroads Co-operate with Commerce Chamber
in New Campaign

(St. Petersburg Times, May 11, 1929)
Through the Chamber of Commerce and Library and
City Advertising Board plans are being made for a news-
paper campaign in interior Florida, lower Georgia and
Alabama to induce visitors to the city and its beaches
during the summer months.
With the cooperation of the railroads, which have an-
nounced excursions from these sections, it is hoped to
bring many visitors into this section during the next four
The radio station will assist in making frequent an-
nouncements about the beaches, explain their location,
also draw attention to the fishing and boating facilities
The full support of this campaign by all organized
activities in the city is being enlisted by the men in
charge of the work. With the exception of some of the
larger hotels practically the same plant is available for
summer business that may be had in the winter, and all
that is lacking is publicity.
The members of the advertising committee of the
Chamber of Commerce and the Library Board said that
while this initial attempt had to be rather limited in its
scope it was hoped that the results would prove the
advisability of going after summer business with the
same intensive effort that has been used during the
winter season.


Fruit Moved Under Special Permit from County
Agent Hayman

(Ft. Myers Press, May 11, 1929)
Sixty crates of budded mangoes were shipped to Tampa
yesterday by Sam Perrone, who is buying tropical fruits
in this district. The mangoes were moved under a special
permit issued by W. P. Hayman, fruit inspector, and
were the best grade of fruit. They were grown at Bonita
Springs, on the Franklin Miles Association farms.
Perrone expects to ship several hundred crates of Hay-
den, Johnson, Mulgova and Cecil mangoes during the
season. There are approximately 100 acres of budded
mangoes in Lee county, which leads the state in shipment
of this fruit. The biggest per cent of the acreage is on
Pine Island, which is famous for its tropical fruits.



Value of Papain Recognized and South Florida
Gets Started on New and Promising

(Homestead Enterprise, March 8, 1929)
Many years ago an old doctor who was in those days
rated as a "quack," operated a health resort near Palm
Beach, where he grew and fed to his patients a fruit
called paw-paw, which was oftentimes confused with the
paw-paw grown in other states. He had not sufficiently
grasped the healing powers of this fruit, nor had the fruit
itself reached the proper state of development, and as a
result the papaya remained in obscurity in America
despite the fact that it originated in South America and
has been planted in the Orient for over 300 years.
About two years ago T. J. Letchworth and Dr. W. S.
Burkhart, of Goulds, following in the footsteps of pion-
eers such as Stambaugh and H. W. Johnston, set out
commercial plantings of the papaya. Their success has
been phenomenal and each has profited greatly from the
venture. While it would be remiss, and far from the
policy of the Enterprise, to say that any one can plant
the papaya and make a fortune, it would appear that its
eating and medicinal properties are such that a demand
will be created greater than the possible peak of produc-
tion. It requires only seven to nine months to bring a
papaya to bearing.
The chief value of the papaya, outside its excellent
eating qualities, is as a medicine. The papaya is the
source of papain or vegetable pepsin. This type of pep-
sin is effective in an acid stomach, and the list of cures
effected by the papaya reads like a fairy story or a real
estate prospectus. There is no secret to the success of
the papaya as a medicine. It furnishes the "patient"
with his tonic in an enjoyable form, can be eaten at all
times and in a hundred different ways, and has no bad
Recently papaya ice-cream was introduced in Miami
by a manufactory there. Its popularity was instant, be-
cause it struck the public imagination in the right way.
"Good for you, and good to eat," was the thought im-
pressed on the visitors to the stands at the Redland Dis-
trict Fruit Festival and at the Dade County Fair in
A strictly tropical fruit, the papaya can be grown only
in restricted districts where frost never comes, or very
rarely. It has been found that papayas will not thrive
in California because of the cold nights that prevail there
during the growing season. In southern Florida (below
Palm Beach) the papaya has found its natural home.
The climate seems ideally adapted to its growth, and as
a result it is safe to say that papaya culture will be one
of the best-paying industries in this section within the
next few years.
The papaya requires a light hammock muck of porous
rock soil in which to do its best. It is a habitat of the
jungle and needs a large quantity of organic matter such
as is furnished by humus. The root system is very large
in proportion to the rest of the plant, and it must be
given plenty of food. The papaya cannot stand wet
feet, and unless the land on which it is grown is well
drained and thoroughly aerated it will not thrive.
For best results it is recommended that the plant be
fertilized about four times per year. The ammonia

should be high in the early applications, and for the last
feedings a commercial mixture of about 5-8-12 has been
found by some growers to be effective. This cannot be
stated as a definite rule, however, as the soil conditions
will have a tendency to alter this formula somewhat.
In the Redlands, the high pine lands have been found
best suited for the papaya. While plantings on the glade
lands (marl prairies) have been profitable, it appears
that the main drawback to this type of soil is its heaviness
and the excess of moisture at times. It is quite probable
this can be overcome by experimentation, however.
One of the most notably successful growers of the
papaya has been T. J. Letchworth. Purchasing a grove
on Kings Highway several years ago, he began to look
around for some new industry which would exceed the
citrus and avocado crops for profitable investment. He
began experimental plantings of papayas, and last year
went into it in a commercial way. His success was phe-
nomenal from the start.
Getting the best plants he could buy, he doubled the
amount of fertilizer usually applied and gave the stalks
every care possible. As a result, he is harvesting a crop
which it is estimated will bring him around $10,000 per
acre. It is not reasonable to expect that it will be pos-
sible to duplicate this record every year, but the profit-
making possibilities of the fruit, under proper growing
conditions, were clearly demonstrated. Mr. Letchworth
sold his crop at from five to ten cents per pound-most
of it at the latter figure-and at no time has been able
to fill the demand.
The papaya fruit has a thin skin. The flesh, which is
white before maturity, later turning to a deep orange
in color, is from one to three inches in thickness. Inside
of this is a cavity which, attached to the wall, contains
numerous grayish-black wrinkled seeds the size of a
small pea.
The papaya plant characteristically consists of a single
trunk, bearing dark green, deeply lobed leaves, sometimes
two feet across and supported by hollow petioles several
feet long. The leaves are so arranged that they appear
like an umbrella shading the fruit, which is closely clus-
tered near the top. The leaves, as they grow older, turn
yellow and drop to the ground, leaving conspicuous scars
on the trunk. If developed undisturbed, the trunk-usu-
ally has no lateral branches. When a plant has grown
so tall that it becomes inconvenient to gather the fruit,
the trunk may be cut off a few feet from the ground
and a number of sprouts will later bear fruit like the
mother plant.
The following article, printed by the Journal of the
Department of Agriculture of South Africa, tells the
story of papain, its uses and methods of extraction:
"It is well known that the juice of the papayas will
render tough meat more tender. This is due to a fer-
ment (papain) which possesses the power of digesting
protein materials such as meat, egg white, the curd of
milk, etc. Its action is similar to the two well-known
body ferments-pepsin and trypsin. On account of its
efficiency being greater than that of pepsin, it is largely
replacing that substance as a drug.
"Papain appears on the market in the form of a white
or creamy powder, easily pulverized between the fingers.
It has a characteristic pungent smell. It should not be
discolored, nor should it possess any malodor. The
presence of any darkening generally indicates improper
manufacture, while a bad odor shows that a certain
amount of decomposition has taken place. If placed on



the market in such a condition it would command a very
low price, if, in fact, there were any demand for it at all.
"Papain is often adulterated with starch and similar
substances. Such adulteration detracts greatly from the
value of the article, but is more easily detected. Further,
papain is generally bought according to assay, its power
of digesting casein being the criterion of value. Not
only does this assay determine the digestive power of the
sample, but it also provides a means of detecting adul-
teration with other protein-splitting ferments.
"Papain is very easily obtained in its commercial form
by simply drying the latex or milk that exudes from the
rind of a green papaya fruit. As long as certain simple
precautions are observed, it is within the power of any
grower of papayas to produce papain of a higher mer-
chantable value.
"The latex containing the papain is best obtained from
full-grown or nearly full-grown, well-developed green
papayas by scratching or making shallow cuts in the rind
with an ivory, bone or wooden knife. Very young fruit
give a latex that is rather weak in digestive power, while
the ripe fruit gives very little, if any, milky juice.
"The juice that exudes is collected in a glass or china
vessel, which must be scrupulously clean. After a short
while the milk coagulates in the cut and the flow ceases.
The curd is carefully removed from the cut and added to
the milk in a vessel. The fruit may be tapped several
times at an interval of a few days until it begins to show
signs of ripening.
"On no account should a steel knife be used in cutting
fruit, nor should the latex be collected in a tin. Either
of these will cause the resulting papain to be blackened
or darkened, and thus decrease its market value. Some-
times a dark-colored latex is obtained from the fruit
even though no iron utensil has been used. Such latex
should be discharged.
"Shortly after collection, the whole mass of the latex
coagulates, forming a pure white curd. This must be
rapidly dried lest decomposition should set in, spoiling
the material. On a small scale, the drying may be car-
ried out by spreading the curd thinly on sheets of glass
and drying in the sun. If the drying be commenced not
later than about midday, the curd should, by nightfall,
be sufficiently dry to insure that no decomposition will
take place during the night. The next day the curd can
be completely dried.
"As the material dries it shrinks greatly, so that event-
ually the partially dried contents of several trays may
be placed in one tray and the drying completed. The
drying is continued until the material shows no stickiness
and is crisp throughout. While still warm, it is ground
finely in a mill (a coffee mill is very suitable) and the
powder packed in clean air-tight tins or perfectly clean
bottles." Uses
Papayas may be used in numerous ways. If served
for breakfast or after dinner, they are cut lengthwise
and eaten with a spoon after the seeds and the thin gela-
tinous aril have been removed. Salt, pepper, or lemon
juice may be added according to taste. The fruit is
ripe when it gives way to the pressure of the thumb.
The best way to prepare papaya is as follows: Ice the
fruit thoroughly, cut the papaya into halves, remove the
seeds and the outer peeling, then cut into cubes, mix
with orange cubes and sprinkle a little sugar on. An
additional orange may be squeezed on top of the cubes
and served in a cocktail glass.
Sliced and served with whipped cream, papayas make
a delicious dessert; and in combination with lettuce and

sliced cucumbers, a wholesome and nourishing salad. If
eaten raw, papayas somewhat resemble the northern can-
Papaya marmalade and jelly are greatly relished, espe.
cially if prepared with lime or lemon juice. Then there
are numerous other ways to utilize the ripe papaya-for
pies, shortcakes, sherbets, and pickles. Unripe papayas
can be boiled or stewed and served as a vegetable like

squash or kohlrabi. The green fruit also makes a de-
licious sauce resembling that made from apples. Crys-
talized papaya cubes, if prepared carefully, make some
of the best candies that can be made from tropical fruits.
The papaya plant in its different organs-trunk, leaves,
blossoms and fruit-contains a milky juice, the active
principle of which is called papain, a chemical closely
related in its action to animal pepsin, and used success-
fully as a remedy for a number of ailments, such as
dyspepsia. Since the digestive properties of papain be-
came better understood, it has attracted an ever increas-
ing demand. Before the outbreak of the World War,
most of the papain used for medical purposes was im-
ported from India, and when the price went up to 25
cents per pound, complaints became numerous that it
was adulterated. The digestive properties of the papain
are well recognized by the natives of India, who wrap
papaya leaves around a piece of meat in order to make
it tender.
The unripe fruit especially contains an abundance of
papain juice, which flows freely and is collected at the
surface when the skin of the fruit is lightly scored with
a knife. The scoring may be done several times before
the fruit is picked and does not seem to interfere with
the eating qualities of the fruit, although the scores
appearing on the surface as a result of the bleeding make
the fruit unsightly and therefore harder to sell.
The total sugar content of the ripe papaya differs
according to variety and season. Sometimes it exceeds
10 per cent and it is principally found in the form of
invert sugar.
The papaya is a very common fruit in Hawaii and is
served in many different ways on the island. The fol-
lowing quotation, taken from Bulletin No. 32 of the
Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, "The Papaya
in Hawaii," will give the reader an idea of the food value
of papaya, and some of the methods of preparing the
fruit for table use in Hawaii should be of interest to
people in Florida.
The Papaya as a Fruit
Perhaps the most frequent use of the papaya is as
food, although almost all parts of the plant are utilized
in some way.
The general composition of the papaya fruit is shown
by the following analysis: Water 90.75 per cent, protein
.80 per cent, fat .10 per cent, fiber 1.09 per cent, nitro-
gen-free extract 6.32 per cent, ash .94 per cent.
Reference has been made above to the nearly universal
use of the ripe papaya in the tropics as a breakfast fruit.
For this purpose it is cut lengthwise into portions and
the seeds removed. The placenta with the seeds at-
tached may often be removed without scraping the flesh,
which is thus left in the most attractive form of serving.
Many prefer the choicest fruits without other flavoring
of any kind, but a little juice of the lemon or the lime
is a favorite accompaniment, while a few prefer salt and
pepper or even sugar. The green fruit when full grown
may be cooked as summer squash, for which it affords
a very good substitute. The ripe fruit is used in making
papaya glace.



W. D. Stoutamire Plans to Build Up Herd with
Purebred Sires

(Tallahassee Democrat, May 11, 1929)
W. D. Stoutamire, pioneer citizen and cattle breeder
of this county, recently purchased and had delivered
today two outstanding registered Aberdeen Angus bulls
to head his herd of 175 beef cattle which he is pasturing
on his plantation about twenty miles southwest of Talla-
Mr. Stoutamire, with the assistance of County Agent
Hodge, purchased these bulls from one of the outstand-
ing Angus herds of the south and several of the sires in
this herd cost from $500 to $1,500 each and quite a
number of the dams in this herd will weigh from 1,500 to
1,800 pounds each.
Mr. Stoutamire is proud of his purchase and stated
this morning in the course of two or three years he would
have one of the outstanding grade beef herds to be seen
in this part of Florida.


(Everglades News, May 3, 1929)
Few persons living in the Everglades, and more par-
ticularly those who reside near the United States cane
testing station at Canal Point, comprehend the work that
is being done at that place. Little of the spectacular is
in evidence to attract the attention and for this reason
wonder as to the work and usefulness of the plant is
sometimes, expressed.
The station is one of several located in different parts
of the United States devoted to investigation and pro-
motion of canes and sugar producing plants. Mr. A. B.
Bourne, the plant pathologist and cane breeder, in charge
of the station in the upper Everglades, remarks that
although the station is known to residents as a cane test-
ing station, it is in reality a breeding plant where thou-
sands of new seedling canes are produced, grown and de-
veloped for observation and tests at this and other sta-
tions. Many years are sometimes required to breed or
develop a variety of cane to fulfill a particular need, and
more years required to put the cane on a commercial
The sugar industry in Louisiana, almost paralyzed by
reason of -the mosaic disease, is fast regaining its im-
portance as a sugar producing section by the introduc-
tion of P. O. J. varieties of cane, which are resistant to
disease. Varieties resistant or immune to diseases and
unfavorable soil and climatic conditions are needed in
other sections and it is the work of the sugar plant
division of the U. S. Department of Agriculture to try
to meet the requirements of these sections. It is well
within the range of possibility that the P. O. J. canes
might eventually be replaced by others actually produced
at this station for our special conditions and giving
greater yields of sugar per unit acre.
The station at Canal Point is well equipped to carry on
the work and machinery and apparatus on the govern-
ment grounds enables the plant to operate independent
of outside agencies. Light and power are furnished by
two generating plants with auxiliary batteries of stand-
ard voltage, ice is manufactured in an electrically
operated refrigerator, water is pumped from the lake by
special pumps, gas for heating and laboratory purposes

is obtained from a plant that transforms gasoline into a
vapor, and a disposal plant is provided for sewage. The
station buildings consist of the laboratory and dwelling
house of tile and stucco construction, glass hot house,
slat house and buildings and sheds to house machinery
and tools.
Instruments for recording atmospheric pressure, tem-
perature, rainfall, sunshine, wind velocity and other con-
ditions are available for necessary records.
A new slat house for propagation of seedling canes has
been built and already several hundred new canes pro-
duced this season have been transplanted from the house
to the field plots. Each seedling represents a different
variety and owing to the great variations occurring among
a large number of individuals, the chances for finding a
favorable type having most of the desirable qualities are
particularly good.
Dr. E. W. Brandes, head of the office of sugar-plants,
United States Department of Agriculture, Washington,
recently returned from an airplane exploration trip to
New Guinea, where many varieties and a new species of
wild sugar cane were secured. Doubtless some of the
specimens will eventually be used here for breeding pur-
poses in an effort to build up even more disease resistant
and high yielding types for commercial use.


Bunch Beans and Squashes Moving to Market
Daily-Larger Acreage Is Planted Here

(Gadsden County Times, May 9, 1929)
Two crates of the new crop of Kentucky Wonder shade-
grown beans had been received by J. I. Reynolds & Co.,
local produce handlers, Wednesday, presaging a heavy
movement from this county, which is expected to begin
next week. A number of crates are expected by Satur-
day, and the middle of the week will perhaps see the
movement of the first carlot of the season.
About 100 hampers of bunch beans are being shipped
daily and about 75 crates of squashes. Cabbages are
also being dispatched in quantity. Prices on these pro-
ducts are regarded as fair, says Mr. Reynolds in dis-
cussing the market, considering the fact that the local
products are entering into competition with truck from
Georgia and other points. What is generally regarded
as a low price here is usually the average in Georgia,
Gadsden having the edge in that the beans are quite often
of superior quality and usually get to the market first.
Prices for Kentucky Wonder beans are about a cent a
pound higher than bunch beans, this bean being espe-
cially prized for its flavor and tenderness. Most of them
are grown locally under tobacco shade, almost an ex-
clusive Gadsden county process. They have achieved a
reputation as being as fine as can be grown and are in
The acreage devoted to the culture of this bean is
greater this year than last, says Mr. Reynolds, adding
that he is usually glad to see this. Paradoxical as it may
sound, he says that little difficulty is experienced in sell-
ing carlots, most of the difficulty coming with small ship-
ments. This is usually true when the beans are dis-
patched to distant points, where they are refrigerated
and sent to a central point and then distributed.
Beans are looking well in the fields and the picking
movement will soon begin in earnest. The chief setback
to the crop so far is a slight attack of rust.





A. L. Lewis and Julian Langner Give Addresses

(DeLand News, May 8, 1929)
The first meeting in the drive for membership in the
new Plumosus Association was held Monday night at
Pierson, when some fifty producers were present to hear
plans of the new organization explained by Julian Lang-
ner, expert on cooperative marketing organization.
A. L. Lewis was chairman of the meeting, which was
addressed by T. A. Brown, county agent, who gave a
short history of the efforts made to find an acceptable
plan of organization during the past six years. "We have
now found such a plan," he told the growers, and urged
every producer in Volusia county to make application.
Julian Langner outlined the plan he prepared for the
state-wide committee. "It is fundamentally sound," he
said, "in its business principles, and it will materially
help to stabilize the fern market of this country if you
give it the proper support," he added.
The new association plans to maintain packing houses
at all shipping points to market surplus plumosus fern,
but it will not attempt to market the fern of producers
who have established outlets for their product. "Pro-
ducers who have established markets will become mem-
bers of the association," said Mr. Langner, "but will ship
their fern direct to their customers."
The association itself is going to establish standard
grades and pack, but the grower who is shipping direct
will continue to deliver the grade he has established with
his own customer. Under the plan of organization, said
Mr. Langner in DeLand yesterday, the association will
stabilize the market for all fern growers, and the big
grower, by supporting the association, will not have the
competition of hundreds of small growers now shipping
to his own private markets and selling at unheard-of low
After the meeting the organization committee an-
nounced that about seventy-five acres were now signed
in the organization and that within the next ten weeks
upwards of five hundred acres are expected to be repre-
sented in the association.
At the meeting last night in Seville approximately one-
half of the fern growers in that section were taken into
the association. Julian Langner was the main speaker
of the evening, giving statistics and information on the
cooperative marketing advantages.
Among the other speakers for the evening were A. L.
Lewis, Dave R. Fisher and E. Meyer. Mr. Meyer acted
as chairman of the meeting. It is said that Mr. Meyer
is one of the largest fern growers in the state.


(Ft. Pierce News-Tribune, May 8, 1929)
Sweet potatoes several years ago came into Florida in
cans and were promptly laughed at by the Crackers, who
for years had looked upon sweet potatoes as a medium
of barter in the grocery and something akin to the flowers
that grew in the fence corners.
But in time the canned sweets had made a hit and the
housewife getting up a quick meal came to look upon
the canned sweets as something that could be easily and
quickly made into something good without all the at-

tendant cutting and peeling and cooking of former years.
Although the canned sweet potato has come to stay,
nobody ever gave the Irish potato any place in the canned
menu. But listen to this from the Bunnell Tribune:
"The Southern Potato Products Company has com-
pleted all installation work and the canning of No. 3
Irish potatoes is now in effect on a fairly large scale.
Approximately 5,000 No. 2 cans are being put up daily
at the present time and, according to the management,
this number will probably be increased as soon as more
adequate storage room can be obtained. According to
D. W. Tungate, who originated the idea of canning new
potatoes and the process by which they are preserved in
tin cans, the product is being met with favorable com-
ment wherever it has been demonstrated. It was pointed
out by Mr. Tungate that the season in every potato sec-
tion was only a period of a few weeks before the harvest
was completed, and to do anything like supply the de-
mand for canned new potatoes, other plants would have
to be established by the company in other potato sections
of the country."


Home Laying Contest in March Shows Big Gain

(Wakulla County News, May 10, 1929)
The March monthly report covering the record made
by 11,689 birds entered in the Florida home egg-laying
contest has just been received from A. P. Spencer, vice-
director of cooperative extension work in Florida, Gaines-
ville. The report carries the following interesting com-
The average egg production in Florida for the month
of March in the fourth home egg-laying contest was 19.93
eggs per bird. This is an increase of four eggs above
the record the previous month.
The three highest producing flocks in the backyard,
farm and commercial groups averaged 25.80, 24.58 and
26.25 eggs per bird, respectively.
Practically all of the reports show an increase in pro-
In the summary report we find that the average egg
production for the first five months to be 65.05 eggs per
The high back-yard flock to date is owned by Cobb &
Belcher, Lake Worth, whose flock of white leghorns has
produced 91.00 eggs each for the five months.
In the commercial group we find another Lake Worth
poultry producer. Fancher's white leghorns have pro-
duced an average of 90.35 eggs per bird.


"Pearl of Csaba," Early Variety, Are First to
Mature Here

(Leesburg Commercial, May 1, 1929)
First commercial picking of grapes at the MacKenzie-
Stover vineyards, Lady Lake, occurred today. Previously
some picking had been done in late April. The first sales
occurred in Leesburg. The grapes picked today are the
"Pearl of Csaba" variety-"the earliest grape in Amer-
ica, in fact," said Mr. Stover today, "the only grapes ripe
in America at this time."
The grapes are green sweets, of good size.



Description of Pest and Facts Concerning Its
Habits Presented in Order That Every
Grower May Be Familiar with This
Fly and Able Immediately to
Identify It.

Safety of the Industry Depends on Maintaining
Strict Observation and Preventing
Menace from Entering This State

(Citrus Leaves, May, 1929)
Editor's Note : Florida has discovered the Mediterranean fruit
fly within its borders. The presence of this menace inl that citrus
section should awaken every grower in California to the necessity
of immediate action to curb the possible spreading of the pest.
California as a whole is dependent in great degree on the citrus
industry. What affects the citrus grower directly affects the gen-
eral prosperity of the State of California. Hence it becomes the
duty of every citizen of this state to cooperate with Federal, state
and county authorities in keeping the Mediterranean fruit fly out
of California. Knowledge concerning the habits of' the fly. its
description and characteristics, should be possessed by every citrus
grower and every other producer of farml commodities which are
susceptible to the fruit fly. For that reason, it is urged that every
reader of Citrus Leaves carefully read the following article ob-
tained frm II. S. Departnmet of Agricultural findings furnished by
tile Citrus Experimhnt Stationu. Riverside. California.

The Mediterranean fruit fly is one of the worst ene-
mies of fruit grown in tropical and semi-tropical countries
and is particularly destructive because difficult to con-
trol and because it attacks numerous fruits, nuts and
vegetables. For example, in the Hawaiian Islands it has
been known to infest over 70 kinds of fruits, including
oranges, grapefruit, lemons, limes, kumquats, persim-
mons, guavas, quinces, pears, plums, grapes, as well as
such vegetables as eggplants and tomatoes.
The Fly Described
The Mediterranean fruit fly is an insect that in the
adult stage resembles in size and general shape the or-
dinary house fly, but differs greatly in the color pattern
of the body and wings and in its habits. The glistening
black spots upon the insect's back, the two white bands
on the yellowish abdomen, and the yellow and black mark-
ings of the wings at once distinguish this fruit fly from
all other insects. The colors, brown, yellow, black and
white, predominate and form a pattern that can be
recognized easily.
The Eggs
The female fly is able to drill, with the sharp end of
her body, small pinhole-like breaks or punctures in the
skin of fruits, and through these punctures she lays her
eggs. Naturally, these egg punctures are so small that
they are not seen by the average person. Ordinarily the
fly lays from one to six eggs through these holes into a
small cavity made for them just beneath the pulp or
rind. In some instances several hundred of the small
white eggs, which are only about one-twenty-seventh of
an inch long, may accumulate in a single egg cavity as
the result of repeated egg laying by many females
through the same opening in the skin.
The Larvae
The eggs hatch into whitish larvae, or maggots, that
burrow or tunnel in all directions through the pulp, feed-
ing as they go and causing decays to start. When first
hatched they are very difficult to detect, but when full-
grown they are very white and, although from four-
sixteenths to five-sixteenths of an inch long, are easily
seen. Full-grown maggots have the peculiar habit, if

taken out of the fruit and placed upon a smooth surface,
of curling up and jumping from one to six inches.
The Pupae
After leaving fruit upon which they have fed, the
larvae either burrow into the soil to depths varying up
to two inches or seek shelter under any object upon the
ground and there transform to the pupa or chrysalis
stage. During this state the insect is not able to move
and resembles some seedlike object. Although outwardly
appearing quite dead, inwardly the wonderful changes are

taking place by means of which nature transforms the
ugly maggot into the beautiful fly; and in the course of
a few days the adult fly breaks forth from the pupa,
pushes her way up through the soil and, as the mother
of a second generation, flies back to the tree and searches
for fruits in which to lay her eggs.
Interesting Facts About the Adult Fly
Incapable of inflicting bodily injury to man, the adult
fly is, nevertheless, the fruit growers' most persistent
enemy in Hawaii, for she is continuously searching for
fruits in which to lay her eggs. Adults die within three
or four days if they have no food; but if they can secure
the juices of fruits or the honeydew of insects, which
form the bulk of their food, they may live long periods.
Two flies lived to 230 and 315 days, respectively. But
as a rule life is much shorter, although many live to be
four to six months old. Many die when they are very
young, even if they have had food. In Honolulu females
begin to lay eggs when four to ten days old, and, like
hens, only much more faithfully, continue to develop and
lay eggs in fruits almost daily so long as they live. A
female may lay on an average from four to six eggs a
day, 22 eggs being the largest number known to have
been laid by a fly during any one day. On ten consecu-
tive days one fly laid 8, 11, 9, 6, 8, 3, 3, 3, 3, and 9 eggs;
another laid 0, 5, 14, 8, 13, 10, 6, 4, 4, and 0 eggs. The
largest number of eggs laid during life by a single female
kept in the laboratory was 622. This fly lived only 153
days. It is probable that 800 eggs, or even more, may
be laid by single hardy females under favorable con-
It is also important, from the standpoint of control, to
know. that females deprived of a chance to lay eggs in
fruits for a period of four to six months when certain
crops are not in season, have the power to begin deposit-
ing eggs as actively as younger flies when fruits suffi-
ciently ripe become available for oviposition. Thus one
female kept in the laboratory for the first five months
of her life without fruits in which to lay eggs laid 11,
4, 9 and 9 eggs during the first four days of the sixth
month of her life when fruits were placed in the cage
with her.
Citrus Fruits
While all citrus fruits are favorite hosts of the Medi-
terranean fruit fly, certain of them are found to contain
larvae more often than others. No citrus fruits are too
acid for fruit-fly development. Larvae have been reared
from the sourest lemons. Adult flies are fond of laying
eggs in large numbers in all citrus fruits. Thus 13
punctures in one grapefruit contained 76, 153, 32, 25,
18, 8, 46, 113 and 9 eggs, respectively. Thirty-nine
oranges, either yellow or orange in color, contained an
average of 32 egg punctures, with a maximum of 108 and
a minimum of 7 punctures. In 50 ripe lemons 1,422 eggs
were laid in 185 punctures. Yet no adult flies developed
from this grapefruit or from the oranges and lemons. On
the other hand, well ripened Chinese oranges, thin-skinned



limes, kumquats, and tangerines are so generally in-
fested with larvae in the pulp before they become well
ripened that they are always regarded with suspicion.
Although many eggs are laid in lemons, it is rare that
lemons are found with maggots in the pulp even when
the fruits are so ripe that they fall to the ground.
A great mortality occurs among the eggs and newly
hatched larvae in citrus fruits having a thick peeling or
rind. In thin-skinned fruits the fruit fly can lay her
eggs through it into the pulp itself or between the pulp
and the rind, so that the larvae on hatching can begin
to feed at once on the pulp. As a result the pulp of
Chinese oranges are almost always infested with larvae.
The case is different with lemons, grapefruit and ordinary
seedling oranges. In these fruits the peel is so thick
that the fly must deposit her eggs in the outer part of
the white rag. In making the puncture she often rup-
tures an oil cell in the rind, and the oil thus liberated
kills the eggs. But if the eggs are laid between oil cells,
the young larvae have difficulty in making their way
through the rag to the pulp, and a very high percentage
of them die in the attempt.
Then, too, a gall-like hardening develops quite rapidly
about the egg cavity in oranges, grapefruit and lemons.
This hardening often makes of the cavity a prison from
which the young larvae cannot escape and in which they
are literally starved to death.
It thus happens that the larvae that succeed in enter-
ing the rag of the peel from the egg cavity are able to
reach the pulp of grapefruit and oranges in astonishingly
small numbers because of the imperviousness of the rag.
It is the persistent attack of successive families of larvae
hatching from different batches of eggs laid in the same
punctures that finally breaks down the barrier between
the young larvae and the pulp. A fuller discussion of the
infestation of all citrus fruits may be had on application
to the Bureau of Entomology, United States Department
of Agriculture.
Decay Results
Regardless of what has just been stated concerning the
great mortality that occurs among the eggs and young
larvae in the rind of grapefruit, oranges and lemons,
adult flies have been reared from them all. Lemons,
however, have never been known to be infested in the
pulp unless the rind has first become broken by thorn
pricks, decays, or in some other mechanical manner.
And in spite of the fact that oranges and grapefruit may
become very wormy, they are usually uninfested in the
pulp and are fit for table use if they are gathered as
soon as they ripen. But if citrus fruits were grown com-
mercially in Hawaii in large orchards as they are in
Florida and California, and were severely attacked as
they are in Hawaii today, they could not be shipped
profitably. Although they might not contain larvae
within the pulp, the many breaks in the rinds made by
the flies while laying eggs would make possible the entry
of various molds that would cause unprecedented decays
while the shipments were en route to market.
Common Names
The common name "Mediterranean fruit fly" was first
used by Frogatt in 1899 to distinguish Ceratitis capitata
from other fruit flies found in Australia. At the present
time this name is the most widely used and most satis-
factory of the common names by which this pest has been
known and will be used by the writers. Other common
names found in literature are "the fruit fly," "the
maggot," "peach fly," "peach maggot," "fruit grub,"

"apricot worm," "trypeta fly," "West Australian fruit
fly," "orange fly" and "orange fly trypeta."
Although Wiedemann first described Ceratitis capitata
from specimens collected by Daldorf, supposedly in the
East Indies, the failure of subsequent entomological ex-
ploration into the Indo-Malayan region to locate this
species, except where it is known beyond question to
have been introduced, has led entomologists to seek its

original home elsewhere. Known facts concerning the
artificial spread of this pest narrow its probable origin
to the African continental area.
According to Bezzi, the genus Ceratitis is of African
origin. Information gained by various writers indicates
that southern Europe is not its native home, although
it has been recorded from this region for many years.
Leonardi states that the Mediterranean fruit fly was not
recorded as a pest in southern Italy until 1863, nor in
Sicily until 1878. Had it been a native of Italy its
ravages, as were those of the olive fruit fly (Dacus oleae
Rossi), would have attracted the attention of writers
prior to this time. While De Breme first records speci-
mens reared in southern Spain in 1842, it is easier, in the
light of more recent investigation, to believe Spain to be
an adopted rather than the original home. Compere
states that in 1903 there was living at Carcagente,
Valencia county, Spain, an aged priest who could well
remember the time in his childhood that peaches in that
part of Spain were free from fruit-fly attack.
Compere is also authority for the statement that com-
mission merchants at Seville found that the pest was
spreading farther inland to the north every season, even
as late as 1903. The work of Graham (1910) and Sil-
vestri (1912) has proved that C. capitata is present in
the little-developed West African countries of Migeria,
Dahomey and the Kongo, and Gowdy found the species
already established in Uganda as early in the develop-
ment of that country as 1909. These records, coupled
with the information by the South Africa entomologists
.regarding its spread into the southern part of the African
continent, lend color to the statement of Silvestri that
the natural habitat of Ceratitis capitata is "certainly
tropical Africa south of 8 degrees N. latitude." Silvestri,
however, is of the opinion that one cannot state whether
the whole of this region should be considered as the
natural habitat, or only the western portion, until care-
ful studies have been made in French Equatorial Africa
and British East Africa. Further exploration of the west
coast of Africa north of 8 degrees north latitude is very
likely to establish new records of distribution and extend
somewhat these limits of origin to include more semi-
tropical territory.
The Mediterranean fruit fly until recently was estab-
lished on every continent except that of North America.
Now it has reached there. It has been recorded from the
following regions:
Europe-Spain, France, southern Italy, Sicily, Greece
and Malta.
Asia-Asiatic Turkey (Beirut, Jerusalem, Jaffa).
Africa-Egypt (Cairo and Kafir el Zayet), Tunis,
Algeria, the Azores, Madeira Islands, Canary Islands,
Cape Verde Islands, Dahomey, southern Nigeria, the
Kongo, Cape Colony, Natal, Delagoa Bay, southern Rho-
desia, British East Africa, Uganda Protectorate, Mau-
ritius and Madagascar.
Australia-Western Australia, New South Wales, Vic.


toria and Queensland, northern New Zealand and Tas-
South America-Brazil and Argentina (Buenos Aires).
North America-Bermuda Islands.
Hawaiian Islands.
Nature of Injury
The injury caused by the Mediterranean fruit fly is
confined to the fruits of the hosts attacked. The foliage,
stems and roots are not attacked so far as investigators
have been able to determine. The larvae hatching from
the eggs deposited just beneath the epidermis burrow
their way throughout the pulp and, as they develop,
cause by their feeding, and through the development of
fungi and bacteria, decayed areas which vary in extent
according to the age and number of the larvae and the
ripeness of the host.
Since the larvae most frequently burrow at once to
the pit or core of the fruit, they are able to feed for
some time before their work is evident from the sur-
face; thus peaches and oranges may be quite thoroughly
devoured within and yet maintain a fairly normal ap-
pearance externally. In rapidly growing fruits, or those
oviposited in while they are still too green to support
larval growth, slight deformities are developed which
injured the appearance of the fruit. In lemons, oranges
and grapefruit, which have been provided so well by
nature to withstand fruit-fly attack, the rind may become
badly infested with eggs and young larvae, while the
pulp remains edible. The breaks in the skin made by
the female fly in depositing eggs, however, affect the
shipping qualities of such citrus fruits.
External Evidences of Injury
There are always external evidences of infestation,
but these are often so inconspicuous that they are over-
looked by the average person. The eggs are deposited
by the adult through a break, no larger than a pin prick,
made in the skin. While these punctures are readily dis-
cernible under the hand lense as soon as made, there is
nothing about them to attract attention. Soon after
oviposition, however, the tissues about the egg cavity
begin to wither and there develops about the puncture
a discolored or sunken area in the skin. In certain hosts
the immediate area about the puncture may remain green
long after the remainder of the fruit has turned yellow,
as in the loquat (Eriobotrya japonica), or red, as in the
strawberry guava (Psidium cattleyanum). In green
oranges the fruit may turn yellow about the puncture
while the rest of the fruit remains green. Often filaments
of clear gummy excretions exude from punctures made
in peaches, lemons and grapefruit. Punctures made in
green star apples (Chrysophyllum cainito) are usually
marked by exuding white latex which dries about and
over the puncture. The evidences of early infestation
such as have just been mentioned are too numerous to
warrant description. No one host responds to infestation
exactly the same each time; much depends on the degree
of ripeness at the time of attack. There may be no
gummy exudations from peaches or citrus fruits, and
there may be no development of discolored areas in any
of the host fruits. Avocados seldom give evidence of the
infestation by any external mark except the puncture in
the skin. Fruits already ripened when infested show
none of the usual signs of attack unless the larvae have
begun to work. It is due to this failure of fruits to record
their infestation by some external sign, other than the
inconspicuous puncture, that so much fruit is purchased

as sound in the markets, or shipped from orchards, or
taken on board ships.
As the larvae hatch and begin their work of destruction
within the host, the signs of infestation increase rapidly.
The sunken areas about the punctures of tender-fleshed
fruits may increase until the entire fruit has a collapsed
In all fruits well infested within there is a "give" to
the area beneath the puncture, indicating destroyed tis-
sues beneath. In hard-fleshed fruits such as some varieties
of apples, pears and quinces there may be no external evi-
dence of larval work except a ring of dark decay about
the puncture, and yet the outer portion of the pulp alone
may be unaffected. Peaches are often thoroughly infested
within and still maintain their normal shape, and give
evidence of infestation only by a dull and slightly dark-
ened color of the skin. A hole in the rind, no larger
than the lead of a pencil, from which juice exudes when
the fruit is compressed, may be the only indication of
infestation in oranges and grapefruit, although rings of
decay usually develop in infested citrus fruits containing
numerous larvae. Fruits of the elengi tree (Mimusops
elengi), which have an orange shell-like exterior, may
appear normal, but on being broken open are found to
be literally packed with well grown larvae. It is never
possible for the average man to examine casually any
host fruit and state conclusively that it is not infested.
Life History
The female fly lays the eggs in the fruit after piercing
the skin with her ovipositor, and the eggs hatch into
maggots in from two to five days, according to climatic
conditions. These maggots grow very rapidly and vary
in color from white to pinkish, according to the color of
the pulp of the fruit. They soon cause the fruit to show
decay and very often it drops from the tree. Some fruits,
however, do not drop, although filled with maggots, and
here is one of the most important phases of control, as
it will readily be seen that if such fruit is not collected
when ripe, or partly ripe, thousands of maggots will
emerge and drop to the ground. The maggot remains
in the fruit from ten to fifteen days, according to climatic
conditions. They enter the ground after attaining their
growth and turn into the pupa or dormant stage, forming
a small, egg-shaped, yellowish-brown puparium. Accord-
ing to heat, moisture in the soil and other conditions it
takes from twelve to sixteen days for the fly to emerge
from the pupa.
The life of the adult fly varies according to climatic
conditions and the amount of food they can secure. If
abundance of fruit exists out of doors, as well as favor-
able weather conditions prevail, the life of the fly takes
its natural course-that is, the female deposits her eggs
after emerging from the pupa and soon dies after per-
forming this function. Roughly speaking then, we can
have a brood of flies every thirty-five days, so that unless
we can rob the fly of its food by picking and gathering
all fruit, we shall have a continuous supply present, caus-
ing considerable damage to fruit culture. The absolute
necessity, then, of gathering all ripe or partly ripe fruit
whether on the tree or on the ground is very apparent.

According to figures gathered by State Marketing Com-
missioner L. M. Rhodes, the highest wholesale price of
eggs in any month during the last eight years was in
January, 1921, when the average was 74.3 cents a dozen.
The wholesale average of that year was 38.1 cents a
dozen. The average of 1928 was 40.4 cents.





Central Florida Poultrymen to Deliver Three
Thousand Dozen Weekly

(Winter Garden Journal, May 21, 1929)
J. W. Oliver, manager of the Orlando branch of Swift
& Co., has made a contract with the Central Florida
Poultry Producers Cooperative Association to handle 100
cases of grade A eggs weekly for the local market. Swift
& Co. are one of the largest factors in supplying eggs to
the local retail trade, and their contract made with Man-
ager Roscoe Ryan of the association is one of the most
advantageous and satisfactory sales that could be made
by the poultry association. The Central Florida Poultry
Producers Cooperative Association began delivery on this
order Monday morning.
The contract with the poultry association provides for
Swift & Co. to handle, deliver and bill these eggs on the
regular billing to the retailer at a cost of one cent a
dozen to the local association. This means that Swift
& Co. will sell these eggs at the same price as the asso-
ciation, for it would cost the association one cent a dozen
to maintain their own delivery and bookkeeping accounts
with the local stores. This arrangement provides imme-
diate cash for the eggs from Swift & Co. and relieves
the poultry association of the cost of carrying these ac-
counts with local retailers. Another very satisfactory
element in this arrangement is that the retailer who
prefers to buy his eggs direct from the association rather
than through Swift & Co. has the privilege of doing so.
In other words, the retailer may buy his eggs either
direct from the association or through Swift & Co.
This is a distinct advantage to the local consumers and
retailers, for it insures a strictly fresh, high grade, care-
fully graded and packed egg, the best egg and pack that
has ever been offered the local retailer.
The Central Florida Poultry Producers Cooperative
Association has the most satisfactory marketing arrange-
ment prevailing with any cooperative growers association
in the southeast.


Pigeon and Duck Increase Made Possible by
Bunny and Pelt Sales

(Miami News, May 5, 1929)
Canada came to Miami four years ago in the person
of George S. Brintnell, who 12 months ago began the
Reliance Poultry, Rabbit and Squab farm at 1220 N. W.
79th street, on 10 acres of leased land containing five
acres of grove. Contrary to the opinion of many, Mr.
Brintnell began with extremely limited capital, he said.
He now has 125 New Zealand and Flemish White rab-
bits, about 300 White King pigeons for squabs and
breeders, some White Pekin ducks, and some hens. He
plans to increase the rabbits until he has about 500
does, and will ultimately have 3,000 pairs of pigeons, he
said. About 400 is the mark set for the ducks.
His main source of revenue since the start has been
rabbit fryers, sold to retail trade on the premises. These
are usually dressed, and bring an average of 55 cents a
pound. They weigh from two and a half to three and a
half pounds. He occasionally buys some rabbits.
That he has a definite, although small, source of
revenue from skins will interest many, but even greater

interest will be shown by the rabbit men in this territory
when learning that he sells to the firm of Sears, Roebuck
& Co., which takes his entire output. This is done for all
breeders as an accommodation, the skins being put up
at auction and the proceeds remitted by check imme-
diately. There may be some disillusionment in the prices
received by him, but it must be remembered that pelts
from rabbits prime for eating purposes are seldom prime
for fur. The two periods do not always coincide. Prices
vary from one cent a skin to 25, 50, 60, 65 cents and $1.
He has tried a number of firms, mostly in Chicago, but is
apparently satisfied best with the Roebuck prices and
treatment. He sells from 20 to 25 skins a week.
His greatest revenue is from rabbits. This may be due
to his desire to conserve the pigeon supply for future
breeding purposes. He plans to participate in the erec-
tion and operation of the refrigerating plant planned by
the Dade County Rabbit and Cavy Breeders' Association,
which will solve his main problem, practically that of
most squab men-to put away during the summer all the
squab output, to be drawn on during the tourist season,
when prices are best.
He makes plain the fact that he is neither in the busi-
ness for his health or because he has "retired to play at
farming." He is doing it to make money, he said. And
in view of the fact that every operation is done by him
with this definite purpose in mind, it seems safe to pre-
dict that he, in common with others in this territory, will
ultimately create an industry of gigantic proportions.


Association Members Given Advantage; Will
Wash 10 Carloads Daily

(Bradenton Herald, May 5, 1929)
In line with the progressive policy it has always pur-
sued, the Manatee County Growers Association has in-
stalled a washing plant for its celery growing members.
This plant is located near Saunders crossing on the Sea-
board railroad about two miles south of Oneco.
It is the latest type of this class of machinery. Two
lines of conveyors carry the crated celery between three
rows of water pipes located in a galvanized iron com-
partment about 12 feet long. These pipes are per-
forated so that the water is sprayed on both sides of each
crate with considerable force, as it passes along. An-
other pipe above the crates sprays the tops. It takes
about three-quarters of a minute for a crate to pass
through the sprayer. It is then carried by the conveyor
into an ice water bath, where a temperature of around
40 degrees is maintained by the use of from 4 to 6 tons
of ice daily. Two minutes and a half is consumed in
passing through this bath, where the crates are com-
pletely submerged so that the icy water reaches every
part of the celery. Emerging from this cooling bath,
the crates are conveyed directly into a refrigerator car,
which has been cooled by a ton of ice in each end, placed
there the evening before.
The capacity of this washing machine is ten carloads
per day. It is meeting with favor among the celery
growers, as the market price of this product is enhanced
much more than the small fee charged for washing.
"The practice of washing celery before shipment is
becoming more general every year," said Secretary
Bennett of the association, "and I believe the time is not
far distant when the trade will not accept celery in any
other condition."




DeSoto County Men Form New Organization-
Will Promote Interest in Agriculture

(The Arcadian, May 10, 1929)
DeSoto county is one of the best agricultural sections
in Florida. Its soil lends itself especially to general
farming-real farming-where the family lives on the
premises, keeps a cow or two, some hogs, a flock of chick-
ens, and diversified crops. Such procedure is more certain
of success than gambling on one or two crops a year.
These are the facts that were brought out in a meeting
of about forty or fifty business and professional men and
farmers, who met Tuesday evening in the Chamber of
Commerce rooms with a view of stimulating agricultural
activities in the county. To further the agricultural in-
terests of the county, a DeSoto County Vegetable Grow-
ers' Association was organized and the following tem-
porary officers were elected: J. L. Dishong, chairman,
and L. E. Eigle secretary. W. E. Dunwody, L. B. Mer-
shon and J. H. McEachern were appointed a committee
to draft constitution and by-laws.
Besides urging the need of greater agricultural efforts,
the association will work towards securing an agricul-
tural agent for the county, the erection of a vegetable
packing house, forming a credit company to assist will-
ing, worthy and dependable men without sufficient funds
to develop their land, and inducing buyers to establish
headquarters in Arcadia.
It was brought out very forcibly in the meeting that
never was the time more opportune nor more pressing
than at present for greater efforts to develop the agri-
cultural resources of the county. With some of the best
types of soil, with adequate drainage facilities, there is
no reason why DeSoto county should not be one of the
leading sections in agricultural products. Other counties
have successfully developed their resources and are now
reaping the rich rewards of their foresight. With the
same efforts and the same encouragement by the business
men, DeSoto county, too, will come into its own agricul-
turally, these men believe. They also realize that it
takes teamwork to accomplish anything worth while. It
needs the most intelligent and hearty cooperation between
the farmers and the business men to bring DeSoto county
to the forefront agriculturally. The proper development
of the farming possibilities of the county is therefore
just as much a matter of vital interest to the business
man as it is to the farmer. A rural community where
the business man holds himself aloof from the farming
interests has little chance for prosperity. Every rural
community that is succeeding is prosperous because there
is a close tie-up in the interests of the farmer and the
business men.


(Tampa Times, May 10, 1929)
Leesburg, May 10.-Watermelon reporting service has
been inaugurated at Leesburg by the State Marketing
Bureau, in conjunction with the United States Depart-
ment, and J. W. Coleman has arrived from Chadbourn,
N. C., where he has been in charge of reporting of straw-
berry shipments, to supervise the work.
First intentions were to open the bureau at Leesburg
on May 15, but on account of rapidly increasing number
of shipments of melons from this district, the date was


Seaboard to Operate Special Trains from South-
ern Points Through Summer

(St. Petersburg Independent, May 9, 1929)
Twenty-six excursions will be operated into Florida by
railroads this summer to give persons in the south an
opportunity to visit the state at reduced rates, it was an-
nounced today by S. G. Linderbeck, assistant general
passenger agent of the Seaboard with headquarters in
Jacksonville, who arrived in St. Petersburg this morning
to spend the week end.
The 26 excursions are in addition to one already
operated by the rail carriers April 6. A list of the
special rate dates has been made public by Mr. Linder-
beck upon information received from the Southern
Passenger Association.
The list, with the participating roads:
From Atlanta, Ga., May 11, June 8 and 29, July 20
and August 31; Central of Georgia and Southern; to all
points in Florida; time limit range, 5 to 19 days.
From Augusta, Ga., July and September 1, C. & W. C.,
and June 19, July 27 and August 24, G. & F., all points;
time limit range, 4 to 18 days.
From Savannah, Ga., to Jacksonville only, May 13,
May 25 and 26, July 3 and 4, July 27, August 17 and 18
and September 1 and 2, Atlantic Coast Line and Seaboard
Air Line; two-day limit.
From Macon, Ga., June 1 and July 20, Southern and
G. S. & F., and June 29 and August 24, Central of
Georgia; all Florida points; time limit, 5 to 19 days.
From Columbus, Ga., June 22 and August 24, Central
of Georgia; all Florida points; time limit, 5 to 19 days.
From Birmingham, Ala., July 20, Central of Georgia,
L. & N., S. A. L. and Southern; all Florida; 10 to 20
From Montgomery, Ala., May 12 and 25, July 21,
June 15, July 27, and August 17; L. & N. Pensacola only;
one day; June 15 and September 13, A. C. L., all Florida;
4 to 18 days.
From Selma, Ala., August 4, L. & N., Pensacola only,
one day.
From New Orleans, La., and Mobile, Ala., June 3 and
July 15, L. & N., all Florida; 8 to 16 days.
From Chattanooga, Tenn., July 20 and September 14,
Southern and N. C. & St. L., all Florida; 10 to 20 days.
From Bristol, Johnson City and Knoxville, Tenn., July
20, Southern and L. & N., all Florida; 15 to 20 days.
From Nashville, Tenn., June 15, L. & N. and N. C. &
St. L., all Florida; 10 to 20 days.
From Columbia, S. C., May 25, July 20, August 24 and
September 14, A. C. L., Southern and S. A. L., all Flor-
ida; 8 to 19 days.
From Greenville, Greenwood, Anderson, Spartanburg
and Laurens, S. C., May 25, July 20, August 24 and
September 14, Southern, and July 3 and 20 and August
31, C. & W. C., all Florida; 8 to 19 days.
From Charlotte, N. C., May 25, July 20, August 24
and September 14, Southern and S. A. L., all Florida; 8
to 19 days.
From Winston-Salem, N. C., May 25, July 20, August
24 and September 14, Southern and W. S. S. B., all
Florida; 8 to 19 days.
From Raleigh, N. C., May 25, July 20, August 24, and
September 14, S. A. L., all Florida; 8 to 19 days.

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