Can cooperative marketing do it...

Group Title: Florida review (Tallahassee, FL)
Title: Florida review
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049005/00058
 Material Information
Title: Florida review
Physical Description: 5 v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Bureau of Immigration
Publisher: Bureau of Immigration, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1926-1930
Frequency: semimonthly
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Industries -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (June 7, 1926)-v. 5, no. 9 (Oct. 20, 1930).
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00049005
Volume ID: VID00058
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001744570
oclc - 01279992
notis - AJF7332
lccn - sn 00229569

Table of Contents
    Can cooperative marketing do it all?
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Full Text

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Vol. 3 OCTOBER 15, 1928 No. 10

Page Page
Can Cooperative Marketing Do It All? .......................................... 1 More Than 1,500,000 Eggs Handled by Association of Poultry-
Skin of "Biggest Bear Ever Killed in State" ......................... 2 men in First Year ........................................................................ 10
Says Florida Free of Storms During Winter ........................ 3 To Plant Eight Acres Narcissus Bulbs......................................... 10
Pepper ................................. .................................. 3 Ring Around the Rosy ....................................................................... 11
p T here's R elieu in C ow s................. ...................................................... 11
List of Agricultural Teachers and Objectives for 1928-29............ 3 Caladium Bulbs Give Profit to Solana Grower ........... ................ 11
M money in Peanuts................... ...................... ................................. 4 Bartow To Be Pectin Center.............................................................. 12
Wauchula Land Tract Yields Owner Big Profits............................ 4 Big Cattle Deal Closed When McCrory Buys Kempfer Herd........ 12
Local Man Has 2,500 Bulbs Out ..................................... 4 Florida Spends Huge Sums on Highways................................ 12
Made-in-Tampa Products To Be Put on Display............................ 5 Brown-Shelled Eggs Bring Top Prices for Pool.............................. 12
Graham-Paige to Operate Plant at Taylor County Seat............... 5 Lee Reeves Winner in Corn Growing Races.............................. 13
A New Florida Industry........ ........................................ 13
Oyster Crop Heavy and of Good Quality........................................ 5 Redland Avocados Sent to Palestine.................................. 13
Clam Digging Plant Near Collier City Resumes Operations.......... 5 Black Paint in Palmetto ........................................... ............... .. 14
Black Cat Farm Latest Venture of Florida Man............................ 5 Bulb Labeling Rules Outlined by U. S. Bureau............................. 14
Says Farmer Can Not Shift His Tax Burden... ..................... 6 Will Ship 250 Cars This Month-9,000 by December 1.................. 14
Coad Elected President of New Match Company............................ 7 18 to 25 Cases Guavas Shipped From Here Daily.......................... 14
Bok's Carillon Bells Reach Jax........................................................ 7 435 Herds of Cattle Now Free From Tuberculosis.......................... 14
L league O offers Fish P am phlet............................................................ 7 M ore F ruit to G o to E urope................................................................ 15
Florida Orange Festival............................ ................................. 8 Quails and Turkeys Released for Restocking State........................ 15
Packer Seeking Preserving Plant for Strawberries................. 8 Ft. Myers Celebrates Two Years of Sunshine................................ 15
Local Buyer Handles Cattle for Shipment...................................... 8 Could Florida Maintain a Leather Industry ................................ 16
Governor Patterson's Tribute to the Dairy Cow............................ 9 Cody Expanding Barrel Making for Next Season............................ 16
Cream Shipments Give Good Income to DeSoto Farmers.............. 9 Manufacturing Pine Products ..................................... ............... 16
A n O overlooked Industry........................................... ................... 9 T o Im port C ow s ....................... .......................................................... 16
Founding of Dairy Colony Discussed........................................ 9 500 Acres Tomatoes Being Planted in County This Year.............. 16


By NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner of Agriculture

AN the American farmer obtain through
cooperative marketing his much-needed
/ "relief"?
How far will orderly selling by produc-
ing groups go in stabilizing markets?
Can Florida producers hope to hold up profit-
able prices permanently by clearing houses and
similar organizations?
These questions may well be considered in
the light of recent developments in cooperative
marketing circles outside of Florida.
In California, where cooperatives have had
some years of success, it now appears that trou-
ble is at hand. Growers of peaches, raisins,
prunes and some other crops are loaded down
by surplus production and are said to be facing
ruinous prices. After several seasons of pros-
perity resulting from collective action in the
sale of their products, these California folks are
now said to be feeling the weight of their own
heavy crops which cannot be sold except at loss.
They are reported to be considering heroic
measures, such as allowing a large part of the
present year's crop to go to waste in order to

reduce this surplus to the level of a profitable
instead of unprofitable supply.
Up in Canada where they grow vast quanti-
ties of wheat, the growers formed a pool and
operated it successfully for a number of years.
For a while it worked well. Undoubtedly it
steadied the price of wheat and did much to
prevent sags and gluts in the market. Like the
California organizations, it brought cheer and
confidence to the producers. Farmers every-
where were looking at these cooperatives with
pride and hopefulness. But now we have the
report that the wheat pool is in trouble. More
than seventy-five million bushels of wheat, on
hands as a "carry-over" from last year, was
added to this year's large crop, and the two
combined proved too much for the market to
stand. Low prices, asserted to be lower than
the cost of production, resulted, and Canadian
and American wheat growers are now figuring
their losses.
This experience of our friends in California
and Canada is not a new one for cooperatives.
The rice growers and tobacco growers of the


South have had similar troubles. Both flour-
ished a while until over-production piled up its
excess baggage too heavy for them to carry.
In the case of Florida, it may be pointed out
that we do not produce crops that can be kept
from one season to the next, as with wheat or
tobacco or raisins or cotton. It is true that
Florida's chief products are citrus fruits and
vegetables, which are perishables and cannot
well be carried over. But this fact by no means
removes the peril of the surplus. In reality, it
only emphasizes this peril since it practically
compels the marketing of these perishables as
soon as they are harvested. A Florida coopera-
tive with an excess of oranges or of vegetables,
unlike a cooperative handling cotton or wheat,
would be forced to dispose of this surplus at
the same time it was selling the normal amount
demanded by the trade. We would not have
the chance that a wheat pool might have, viz.,
to unload the "carry over" at a profit should the
year into which it was carried prove a year of
low yields. Again, with the Florida citrus
grower there would be the added difficulty of
controlling annual production, since the citrus
crop is not planned or planted for each separate
year, but for all the years the groves live and
What lesson can we get from these troubles?
We must consider the fact that one invariable
result of successful collective selling by farmers
has always been a marked increase in produc-
tion. Cooperatives that direct the marketing of
seventy-five per cent or more of any crop can
and have always, under normal conditions, sold
that crop at a price satisfactory to themselves.
This far they can serve most helpfully the cause
of agriculture. But no cooperative yet brought
forth has mastered the vexing problem of EX-
CESS or SURPLUS. It is one of the tragedies
of agricultural life that the very agency which
has profitably sold a crop of normal size has
been the agency which, without intent to do it,
has stimulated the production of succeeding
crops which were of abnormal size and had to
be sold at low prices. There we have the sad
spectacle of farm organizations defeating their
own ends and thwarting the very purpose for
which they were founded.
What can be done about it? The thing that
MUST be done, if cooperative marketing shall

function, is to CONTROL NOT ONLY MAR-
Whether this can readily be done is the BIG
RATIVES. It will have to be solved or all of
our efforts to help ourselves through organiza-
tions will in the end fail. This will apply here
in Florida just as it did in California. We had
as well face facts. The cooperatives we are to
have in our State will give us some IMME-
DIATE RELIEF and will prove a blessing. But
unless our growers by common consent can con-
trol production they will not long be able to
control prices.

Tampa with an increase in postoffice receipts of 14.75
per cent over August a year ago, led all southern cities
classed as industrial last month, according to figures
issued by the postoffice department at Washington.
Tampa's increase is due mostly to the activity of the
mail order cigar industry.


(St. Petersburg Independent, Sept. 8, 1928)
Clearwater, Sept. 8.-The skin of an immense black
bear was spread on the court house lawn yesterday by
George G. Booth of Safety Harbor. This skin measured
something more than six feet over all and was at least
four feet beam. As it was being measured, Mr. Booth
explained that the bear was really nine feet long, but
that the hide had shrunk about a yard in length and had
also decreased greatly in width since its removal from
The bear was killed in Dixie county on a recent hunt-
ing trip when Mr. Booth came upon it in a hammock as
it was making a light lunch on a hog. The animal
weighed 1,000 pounds when killed, the Safety Harbor
sportsman declared, and was the biggest bear ever shot in
the state, so far as history has been written.
Deputy Oliver Howell, who presides over the jail office,
made the assertion that 400 pounds of bear meat had
been brought to the jail by Mr. Booth and that all the in-
mates had an opportunity to dine upon this rare game.
Moreover, he asserted, the present high water in northern
Florida, especially along the Suwannee river, had driven
the bears to high ground and they were making nuisances
of themselves to hog raisers and others. At any rate,
Pinellas county nimrods got the prize bear, and have the
skin to prove it. George Booth, the sheriff's brother,
now has a fine rug for his home near Espiritu Santo

Complete coverage of the broadcasting area east of
the Mississippi river is assured for WRUF, the Univer-
sity of Florida's new superpower radio station. A series
of impromptu test programs being broadcast this week
from midnight to 1:00 a. m. have met with good re-


oiriha 3cbicfti

Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
Tallahassee, Florida

NATHAN MAYO... ..............Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. BROOKS ........ ...... Director Bureau of Immigration
PHIL S. TAYLOR.......... ...................Advertising Editor
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1920, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Florida, under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.

Vol. 3

OCTOBER 15, 1928

No. 10


Meteorologist Points to Records of Years

(St. Augustine Record, Sept. 25, 1928)
Jacksonville, Sept. 25.-Florida is free from the
menace of storms from November until June, A. J.
Mitchell, meteorologist in charge of the state for the
past thirty-four years, asserted yesterday in discussing
the peculiarities of the tropical storms which originate
near the equator.
"A storm in Florida in the winter months is as much
unheard of, relatively, as a snow storm in the central
west in the summer time," he said.
Mr. Mitchell, who was connected with the weather
bureau here for six years before becoming meteorologist
in charge of the state, asserted that no storm had ever
been known in the state from November to June, and
pored over the records at the weather bureau to verify
a remarkable memory.
Only once during the past forty years has there been
a tropical disturbance of any nature in Florida in No-
vember, and that was one of an extremely minor nature
a number of years ago and it occurred early in the month,
Mr. Mitchell said. The storm to which he had reference
did no material damage and was not classed as a hurri-
"Any person who refrains from visiting Florida from
November to June, basing his action on fear of tropical
storms, is the loser," Mr. Mitchell said, adding that Flor-
ida's climate during that period is ideal and makes this
state the winter playground of the nation.
"Talk of a storm in the winter and spring months in
this state is preposterous," he declared.
Very few storms sweep out of the West Indies in June
and July, he said, and of those originating in the West
Indian ocean in August and September, the principal
storm months, few pass over Florida. Statistics at the
bureau show a falling off in the number of storms occur-
ring in October, with those recorded listed during the
early days of that month.


(Times-Union, Sept. 4, 1928)
So far this season 34,000 pounds of pimento peppers
have been shipped from Gadsden county to Shaver
Brothers in this city, where they are being canned. The
Quincy Times estimates that Gadsden will ship at least
200,000 pounds during the season. Quite an industry we
have right here in Jacksonville.

(Vocational News)
County- Sch ool-- Teach er-- I ddrss--
Alachua ... ... .................... H W ood............ Alachua
Alachua*........ ...... A. L. Mebane......... Alachua
Hawthorne............ Edwards .......Hawthorne
Broward............Ft. Lauderdale........Glenn C. Smith ......Ft. Lauderdale
Brevard .............Melbourne..............It. C. Dancy............Melbourne
Calhoun ...........Altha....................... T. Pendarvis .....Altha
Clay..... .............Penney Farms........Guy Cox .................Penney Farms
Columbia .........Ft. W hite...............T. IU. Greene ..........Ft. W white
Mason ...................... G. Driggers ......Lake City
Dade............ Homestead. ............. M. Garris ..........Homestead
Lemon City ........... .. Butts ........... Lemon City
Lemon City .... ...... N. MeArthur..... Lemon City
Lemon City .......... S. C. Means............Lemon City
Dade County
Training School*. J. U. H. Simms...... Coconut Grove
Escambia ...........Gonzalez ............T. I. Barrineau. ...Gonzalez
Gadsden........... Greensboro ..............I. M oses ...........Greensboro
Quincy, 20 Wash-
ington Street*. ....H. S. Jackson.........Quincy
Gilchrist...... .....Trenton ...... ..........Shelton Clyatt........Trenton
Glades............... Moore Haven ........T. P. Winter.......... Moore Haven
Highlands......... Sebring ..... ......... ..C. W Long ........... Sebring
Hillsborough .....Plant City ...........G. N. Wakefield .....Plant City
Plant City............ Larson ......Plant City
Plant City.............J. G. Smith............ Plant City
Indian River ....Vero Beach ... I. I. Chance .... ....Vero Beach
Jackson...... ......M alone ................ I.F. Toole ............M alone
Sneads .... ... ... It. C. Carlisle.........Sneads
Graceville .............. L. Price .. ..... Graceville
Marianna* .............. lohn L. Hall ...... .Marianna
Jefferson ..... .. ucilla .... ........... T. A. Treadwell .... ucilla
Lake............. ..... Eustis .................. W D riggers .......Eustis
Leesburg*................ W Johnson .........Leesburg
Montverde .............. K. Wheeler ....... Montverde
Lee ........... va...... Alva ...... .......I,. I). Stewart ... ....... lva
Leon .. ....... Fla. A. & M.*........... L. Reynolds. .. Tallahassee
Madison .......... Madison ................. It. L. Cunningham Madison
Marion.............. Summertield .... .....G. W. Dansby ...... Summertield
Okaloosa .. ....... Baker ..................... A. Baker .........Baker
Laurel Hill. ..........G. W Pryor.......... Laurel Hill
Orange ..............Apopka .............. C. B. Ross ............. Apopka
Osceola............ St. Cloud ............. J. Geiger...........St. Cloud
Palm Beach .......Delray* .................S. D. Spady............Delray
Canal Point............H. L. Speer ........... Canal Point
Polk .................Winter Haven ....... E. L. Mathews ....... Winter Haven
Putnam............. Crescent City.........F. K. Knight ..........Crescent City
St. Lucie ......... Ft. Pierce........ ........ L. Cozine .. t..... Pierce
Santa Rosa........ \llentown.............. E. M. Creel ............ Milton
Seminole .......... Sanford ....... A. Johnson......... Sanford
Volusia ........ ..Barberville .. .1. C. Brown .. ...... Barberville
Wakulla...... .... Sopchoppy .... Herman Langford Sopchoppy
Walton.. ........ Liberty ...... ........... \. Mendonsa ...... DeFuniak Spgs.
*Negro schools. R. F. D.

1. Each teacher to teach at least one all-day, one unit
day or part-time, and one evening class during the en-
suing year.
2. Each teacher to have total enrollment, including all
types of work, of 35 pupils.
3. Each teacher to write at least 12 articles for pub-
lication during the year and send copy of same to the
state office.
4. Each teacher set as a minimum project return from
each pupil, $150.00.
5. Each teacher to take part in fair work.
6. Each teacher to make at least 50 farm surveys and
have them on file by September 1.
7. Each teacher to get his reports in on time.
8. Each teacher to promote interest by project visita-
tion tours.
9. Each teacher to plan some definite community work
which he intends to stress.
10. Make at least 150 community service calls during
the year.
11. Visit each boy at least once a month regardless of
whether project is in operation or not.
12. Every department organize F. F. F.



(Ocala Star, Sept. 11, 1928)
The announcement some days ago that there is a pos-
sibility of a peanut shelling plant being established in
Ocala has created considerable interest, not only among
the farmers, but business men see great possibilities in
this new industry for Ocala and Marion county. Those
who have given the matter serious study point out that
in 1927 there were 12,000 acres of peanuts cultivated in
this county. Most of this acreage was planted to the
Florida Runner variety. The Florida Runner is not used
in a commercial sense as largely as the Spanish peanut,
which makes a larger, more uniform nut better adapted
for roasting and candy purposes. The variety, however,
is a mere incident. Marion county soil will grow just as
fine Spanish peanuts as any section of the country where
they are raised; better, in fact, as it is well known that
a lime soil is necessary for the production of full-podded
peanuts, and Marion county is the heart of the lime in-
dustry of the South, therefore the lime lands of Marion
county are superior to any for the growing of peanuts.
Volume is the essential factor necessary to induce the
erection of a peanut shelling plant in Ocala. Such a
plant would require a minimum of from three to five
thousand tons to make the investment profitable. Peanut
production is about half a ton to the acre, so it will be
seen that the acreage already planted each year in this
county is sufficiently large to justify the erection of a
plant to handle the nuts on a commercial scale, but the
variety must be changed. It also must be remembered
that there are thousands of acres planted to peanuts each
year in adjoining counties. Take Levy county, for in-
stance, with 11,000 acres of peanuts in 1927, almost as
large an acreage as Marion cultivated. With a peanut
shelling plant in Ocala this city would be the logical
market for the whole central section of the state. As a
trade stimulator its possibilities would be unlimited.
Peanuts are one of the most profitable farm crops.
The market price is invariably steady, averaging $75 per
ton. The crop can be used in connection with a well-
balanced farm program. The grower has the hay as a
by-product to carry his live stock and dairy cows through
the winter; the crop is planted between corn or after
truck crops, and being a legume the soil is enriched by
being restocked with nitrogen. Taken as a whole, the
peanut is one of the most profitable farm crops, even
under present methods of utilizing the crop in its green
state to fatten hogs and cattle, but with a shelling plant
paying not less than $75 a ton for the nuts in the shell,
the farmer retaining the vines for hay and turning his
hogs in on the fields after the crop has been harvested
to gather the loose nuts and the hay saved for his dairy
cows, all branches of agriculture would benefit.
Graceville, in Jackson county near the Georgia line,
also wants a peanut shelling plant, and in an editorial
advocating its erection the News of that city advances
some convincing reasons why business men of the com-
munity should get behind the project. Says the News:
"Ten solid trains of shelled peanuts, of forty cars to
each train, is the order which one of the big candy manu-
facturers in the North is said to have placed for shelled
peanuts a short time ago. Six thousand tons of shelled
peanuts to just one company, and this immense tonnage
is only about a 90-day supply for them.
"The peanut has come to stay as a commercial cash
crop of growing importance and value each year. The
demand for peanuts is increasing at a wonderful rate,

and a satisfactory market is assured, not only for the
present but as a permanent proposition. The consump-
tion of this popular nut is growing by leaps and bounds,
and candy manufacturers and confectioners and other
users of peanuts are constantly increasing their pur-
"The merchants, the banks and other business interests
of Graceville and the farmers of our territory are losing
money because our town has no peanut shelling plant.
A peanut shelling plant is just as necessary as is a cotton
gin, and the absence of such a plant is an abnormal con-
dition. Cotton gins are provided as a matter of course
to handle the cotton grown in our surrounding territory,
and we should provide for the shelling of peanuts in the
same way.
"Peanuts grown in this territory are not shelled in
Graceville, as would be the case if we had a shelling
plant, but are carried to other towns which have been
progressive enough to install such plants. This naturally
carries trade away from Graceville and will be an increas-
ingly serious matter, as the peanut acreage is bound to
increase under present conditions. The sensible and
logical thing to do is to install a peanut shelling plant so
as to give our farmers the service they require and de-
serve. This will also keep at home the trade that is
legitimately ours."
To obtain this desired industry for Ocala an educa-
tional campaign should be waged. The farmer should be
encouraged to grow peanuts of the Spanish variety, and
our business men should get behind the movement and
aid him in marketing his product until such time as the
volume is of a size to warrant the erection of a peanut
shelling plant in our midst. The banks of our city could
give impetus to this educational campaign by using their
advertising space each week to present facts and figures
on the possibilities of peanuts as a money crop for Marion
county, thus keeping the question before our farmers
until they are aroused to the opportunity that is within
their grasp.


(Highlands County News, Aug. 3, 1928)
A. D. Whitman, who came to Hardee county from
northern Indiana 15 years ago, reports the gross sale of
$6,695.92 worth of strawberries and vegetables from his
10-acre tract of land near Wauchula last winter.
During the 1926-27 season, Mr. Witman sold more
than $2,000 worth of strawberries from one acre, and
last year set out four acres. Gross sales last season
amounted to $4,270.42, with an additional $519 worth
of strawberry plants sold to his neighbors. The four
acres produced 16,000 quarts of berries, the yield being
considerably cut by cold weather and droughts.
Vegetables sold from the farm brought in nearly
$2,000, Mr. Whitman reported.


(Lakeland Star-Telegram, Sept. 24, 1928)
With 2,500 Easter lily bulbs planted, Sidney C. Brown,
head of the agricultural bureau of the Chamber of Com-
merce, will demonstrate to his own satisfaction whether
there is money to be made in the cultivation of these
bulbs for commercial purposes. The industry is just
getting a start here, and Mr. Brown was among the first
to take it up.



Civic Heads to Discuss Plan Next Friday

(Tampa Tribune, Sept. 22, 1928)
The made-in-Tampa committee of the industrial bureau
of the Board of Trade and the Manufacturers Association
met yesterday and laid plans for a big meeting of heads
of all civic organizations in the city, to be held at the
Hillsboro hotel next Friday. A display of every type of
article made in the city will be prepared for exhibition.
This meeting is to start a general campaign to acquaint
the public here with goods made at home, and intended
to get home folk started in the habit of buying them.
The campaign will culminate in the made-in-Tampa expo-
sition the first week in November, to be followed, how-
ever, with an intensive house-to-house sales campaign.
It is the most comprehensive movement of this kind
planned in the city.
Presidents of all civic clubs, women's clubs, garden
clubs, parent-teachers associations, leading cigar manu-
facturers, and other groups will be invited to attend next
week's meeting, at which the plan of campaign will be
outlined in the hope that each representative will take
the plan back to his, or her, club and obtain full coopera-
tion in the movement. Each organization will be asked
to have at least one made-in-Tampa meeting before the
opening of the exposition. A corps of speakers will be
provided by the central committee. C. A. McKeand,
Board of Trade manager, and C. T. Melvin, president of
the Manufacturers Association, will be the principal
speakers at Friday's meeting.
Window displays and a general advertising campaign
are being planned for exposition week. In addition, a
club speakers campaign, a demonstration campaign from
house to house, and a sales campaign from house to house
are being worked out, all to tie up with the exposition
and with local stores selling Tampa-made goods.


(Times-Union, Aug. 28, 1928)
Perry, Aug. 27.-Ground has been broken and work
started on the erection of a $150,000 dimension mill at
Perry, which is to be a subsidiary holding of the Graham-
Paige Motor Company of Detroit. The plant will be
located just outside the city limits, adjacent to the new
Wilson Hardwood Lumber Mill of Florida, and will utilize
the entire output of the mill.
Construction plans provide for 50,000 feet of floor
space, with nine dry kilns measuring 150 by 20 feet. The
finest of machinery and equipment will be used and the
office buildings will be modern in all equipment and fur-
nishings. The mill will employ approximately 100 men.
Charles Hastings, of Detroit, Mich., is manager for the
new enterprise, and he states that this is the first unit of
a possible great industry here, as the Graham-Paige Com-
pany is rapidly expanding and the extra quality of the
Florida hardwood has attracted favorable attention.
W. C. O'Brien, engineer, of Memphis, Tenn., who had
charge of the erection of the Wilson Lumber Company
plant, will superintend the erection of the dimension


Shell Fish Commissioner Hodges Inspects State
Reefs Near Apalachicola

(Times-Union, Sept. 26, 1928)
Apalachicola, Sept. 25.-In order to determine the
quantity and quality of oysters growing in the waters of
Franklin county previous to the opening of the season,
October 1, Shell Fish Commissioner Hodges paid a visit
to the bars on board the state oyster dredge Franklin,
Friday, accompanied by several of the oystermen and
The principal oyster reefs in the bay were visited and
samples of oysters taken, and the results were very
gratifying inasmuch as the stock was found to be very
plentiful and of a good size and quality.
Over 500,000 barrels of seed oysters and shell have
been planted on the bars during the last five years by
the Shell Fish Department, and the great benefit from
this rehabilitation work is now being realized.
Apalachicola enjoyed the best oyster season last year
of any during the history of the industry and indications
are that the season this year will exceed that of last year.
Senator-elect S. C. Council, who will represent Frank-
lin, Wakulla and Liberty counties in the upper branch of
the next legislature, accompanied Captain Hodges and
the oystermen on this trip of inspection and was very
favorably impressed by the great quantity of marketable
oysters on the bars, and expressed himself as being in
favor of continuing the rehabilitation work on a larger
scale in future.


(Ft. Myers Tropical News, Sept. 22, 1928)
Resumption of clam digging and canning operations
by the E. S. Burnham Company plant at the south end
of Collier City was announced yesterday by A. H. Trimpi,
of New York, president of the company. Mr. Trimpi and
his brother, W. W. Trimpi, of Newark, N. J., also an
official of the company, came to Fort Myers yesterday
from Leesburg to arrange for repairs on dredging ma-
chinery at the plant.
The Burnham factory has been shut down for several
months because of a break-down on the dredge. When
this factory is placed in operation again there will be
two large clam packing plants operating at Collier City.
The J. H. Doxsee Company, on the northern end of Marco
Island, has been operating steadily throughout the sum-


(Ft. Myers Press, Sept. 10, 1928)
Bagdad, Fla., Sept. 10.-(A. P.)-A "cat farm" for
the production of furs from black cats is the present
project of Maxwell Ates, Bagdad merchant. Mr. Ates
and Vic Howe propose to establish their "black cat farm"
on a 40-acre tract, owned jointly by the two, near here.
St. Louis dealers advise that black cat hides during
December, January, February and March, will bring a
return equal to those of raccoons, Ates said.



This Circumstance, Asserts Englund, Should Be
Considered in Explaining Price

(The Official Record, Aug. 22, 1928)
The seriousness of direct taxes on farm property is
evident, but these taxes are by no means all of the
farmer's tax problem, said Eric Englund, special assistant
to the secretary, addressing the round-table on agricul-
ture of the Institute of Public Affairs, University of Vir-
ginia, Charlottesville, on August 10. He emphasized the
importance of indirect relations of public expenditures
and taxation in general to agriculture, pointing out that
the farmer, while unable to shift his taxes to others, is
probably obliged to pay a part of the taxes of others in
the form of higher prices of things he buys, and that this
should be taken into account in the effort to explain the
discrepancy in recent years between prices of farm
products and prices of things bought by farmers.
Reviewing briefly the trend of farm taxes, Mr. Englund
said: "The average tax per farm on all farm property in
1927 was more than two and a half times as great as in
1914, the increase over the pre-war year being 153 per
cent. In Kansas, a fairly typical agricultural state, the
ratio of taxes to selling value of farm real estate doubled
from 1910 to 1923. A study of 1018 cash-rented farms
in Michigan showed that real estate taxes averaged 54.2
per cent of the net rent (before deducting taxes) in
1925. Over a period of seven years an average of 52
per cent of the net rent on Michigan farms included in
the study was paid in taxes. On many farms the rent
was not sufficient to pay the taxes. Studies in other
states reveal a similar status, taxes absorbing an average
of from a fifth to more than a half of the net rent on
groups of farms and the whole rent on a number of indi-
vidual farms.
"Farm taxes are still, rising, slowly to be sure, when
compared with the rapid advance from 1919 to 1923, but
advancing nevertheless when considered for the country
as a whole. According to an estimate by the Bureau
of Agricultural Economics, taxes on farm real estate
throughout the United States advanced 1.5 per cent from
1924 to 1926, the increase taking place in all geographic
divisions, except in the West Central States, where a
decrease of less than 1 per cent was noted."
Averages show general tendencies but fall far short
of giving an adequate picture of the status of farm tax-
ation, he said, pointing out that greater emphasis is
being placed on special aspects of the problem, as for
instance in a recent study made by the Wisconsin Ex-
periment Station, the report of which says: "Tax certi-
ficates on 2,593,163 acres, or nearly a quarter of the
entire land area of 17 northern counties, were offered
for sale at the 1927 tax sales, but certificates on only 18
per cent of this area were purchased by private parties-
the remainder was left in county hands."
The increase in taxes in general he ascribed to public
demand which has brought changes in the functions of
government, resulting in more improvements, better
schools, and more services, and to the increase in the
price of goods and services.
"The system of levying taxes to meet the growing ex-
penditures affects differently the various groups, depend-
ing on their position in the tax structure," he said. "The

faults of the general property tax, which is the principal
means of raising revenue, long have been recognized, but
have become serious with rapidly mounting tax rates and
with changes from the simple economic life of earlier
times to the complex community of today. With these
changes there has been evolved a class of property-
intangibles-most of which escape the general property
tax, and a group of persons whose principal income is
based not on property but on personal services. The
general property tax falls most heavily on those classes
of property that can not be hidden from the assessor,
causing greater levies on farm property, which because
of its inability to evade or to escape taxes must bear the
lion's share of the increased expenditures.
"Of all classes of producers the farmers are probably
least able to shift their taxes to others. Land is the
principal part of the assessed valuation of farmers' tan-
gible assets. Since taxes are shifted through prices of
products and services, the tax levied on farm land could
not be shifted unless it affected the quantity and conse-
quently the price of farm products. It is highly probable
that the prevailing system of levying taxes on the capital
value of land serves to increase rather than diminish the
quantity of farm products offered in the market. Taxes
are a fixed charge which the land must bear as best it
can. As taxes approach the point of absorbing the net
income from land, rising taxes compel the owner to put
his land to higher use, and when he believes that taxes
have reached or exceeded the limit of profitable utiliza-
tion of the land he abandons the land, as was the case
with a fifth of the land in northern Wisconsin in 1927.
Before this stage of the process of confiscation is reached
high taxes depress land values. This no doubt has been
a powerful factor in reducing the value of farm real
estate since 1920."
Illustrating the relation of taxation in general to agri-
culture, Mr. Englund pointed out that direct taxes on
city real estate and on personal income, and business
taxes of various kinds, also are higher than before the
war, and that, unlike farm taxes, a considerable part of
these levies are probably shifted to the public at large,
including farmers, through enhanced prices of goods and
"A large share of city real estate consist of improve-
ments. There can be no doubt that taxes levied
on buildings and other urban improvements are to a
large degree shifted, especially in growing cities, and
most of our cities are growing. Taxes levied on buildings
tend to discourage construction until demand for hous-
ing, for office and store space, etc., has become so great
that the rent offered is sufficient to induce their con-
struction despite the high tax, which is thus shifted to
those who rent the houses or patronize the business es-
tablishments. This is merely a statement of a general
tendency, without any effort to enter into refinements.
While it would be unreasonable to suppose that all prop-
erty taxes, other than the tax on farm real estate, are
passed on to others, a substantial portion of them is un-
doubtedly shifted.
"The question of the relation of income taxes to prices
of goods and services is intricate and debatable, involving
the possible influence of income taxes on the costs of
production of various operating units in industry and on
the supply of goods and services. In the appeal to the
country to support reduction of Federal taxes in recent
years it has been emphasized that high surtaxes are paid
in part by the general public, including the farmer. To
the extent that this is true, farmers have paid and are


paying indirectly a part of the Federal income taxes; but
it should be noted that personal exemptions have been so
increased in recent years that comparatively few farmers
pay direct taxes to the National Government.
"Taxes on railroad properties and on gasoline, automo-
biles, tobacco, etc., are also paid in part by the rural
population and by the general public. *
"Since few farmers pay direct taxes to the National
Government, the problem of property taxes borne by
them is mainly state and local, except in so far as pro-
posals to collect a part of the necessary local revenue
from other sources would involve the question of over-
lapping jurisdiction in state and federal taxation-and
that is more important than commonly realized.
"Efforts to improve the status of farmers in our tax
structure should, of course, include a determined effort
to secure greater economy in state and local expendi-
tures. Suitable systems of budgeting and of accounts
should be installed to make public scrutiny more effective
and to give the public a better understanding of the uses
of their funds. Reorganization of some of our local gov-
ernmental units also might result in economies.
"It is uncertain, however, to what extent farm taxes
could be lowered by reducing waste, since there may be
less preventable waste than is often supposed. Reduction
in the direct taxes on farm property by curtailing the
service functions of state and local government would be
sure to mean, among other things, less adequate schools
in rural communities, and poorer roads, a reversal of
rural progress which few would propose."
He suggested the possibility of changing the prevailing
system of taxation so that a part of the local tax burden
now borne by farm property will be levied on other
sources of income in the community and on larger taxing
units. A basis for such adjustment may be sought not
only in data showing that farmers are over-taxed in com-
parison to other groups, but also in the belief that many
public improvements and services-roads, schools, etc.-
are less local in character than generally thought, he
said. Illustrating this point, he said that the number of
persons of school age is relatively greater in rural than
in urban communities, and that consequently the rural
communities bear the cost of educating a proportionately
greater number of the rising generation, and as a result
of migration to the cities many country school children
become citizens of urban communities.
He concluded by saying: "Any discussion of the rela-
tion of taxation to agriculture would be altogether one-
sided if no mention were made of benefits that flow from
public expenditures. Taxes are often spoken of as
though they were money dropped into the well, and it is
as a rule more popular to talk about burdens than bene-
fits, which too often we seem to take for granted.
"More public money is being spent than ever before
for schools, roads, research, education outside of schools,
and for numerous other improvements and services which
add to the community standard of living, and enhance
the opportunity of the individual to develop his capacity
for advancement. Who can say that these are not worth
the price? It would be well to consider carefully the
thesis of Montesquieu that a free people will submit to
heavier taxation than a despotic ruler can impose upon
his subjects. Beneath chronic complaint over high taxes
lies the implied conviction that the people who submit to,
or rather impose upon themselves, heavy taxes believe
that the purposes for which the taxes are levied yield
returns that warrant the cost."


Plant To Be Located in Neighboring City

(Sarasota Times, Sept. 16, 1928)
J. E. Coad, who recently presented his resignation as
secretary of the Sarasota Chamber of Commerce, has
been elected president of the Southern Safety Match
Company, now in process of organization. The company
plans to establish headquarters in St. Petersburg and
build a factory there. The plant will probably be in
operation in November, according to the present plans,
and production will begin about December 1.
The proposed match factory will be the only manufac-
turing plant of its kind in the south. The machine which
will be used is, according to Mr. Coad, the only machine
of its type in the world which can use Florida wood for
matches, and the only machine which can make matches
from any wood native to the United States.
Other officers of the company are St. Petersburg men
with the exception of Dr. Frank McGuire, of Sarasota,
vice-president and treasurer, and Samuel M. Friede, presi-
dent of the United Match Machinery Company, who will
serve in the new company in the capacity of director of
production and sales. Mr. Friede has been engaged in
the match manufacturing business for twenty-five years,
and was for a number of years vice-president and assist-
ant general manager of the Diamond Match Company and
president of the East Jersey Match Company. He also
organized the Standard and International Match com-
panies. Mr. Friede is the inventor and developer of the
modern non-poisonous match. It was he also who per-
fected the prevention of afterglow in the present-day
type of match.


(Gainesville Sun, Sept. 9, 1928)
Jacksonville, Sept. 8.-(A. P.)-Edward Bok's gift to
America-the largest casting of carillon bells ever made,
which will be placed in the Mountain Lake singing tower,
at Mountain Lake, Fla., arrived here today from England
on the steamship Wildwood.
The bells, said to be the finest ever cast, were being
unloaded tonight, and because of their delicacy, special
fittings had to be installed on the ship to lower them to
a train which will convey them to Mountain Park.
Packed, the cargo weighed approximately 125,000
pounds, one of the huge bells alone weighing 11 tons,
while the smallest'of the 61 weighs only about 16 pounds.
They cost more than $100,000 to make and ship to


(Clearwater Herald, Sept. 17, 1928)
Tallahassee, Fla., Sept. 17.-(A. P.)-The booklet,
"How to Grow Fish," is ready to be distributed in Flor-
ida, and may be had by sportsmen interested upon appli-
cation to the conservation department, Izaak Walton
League, 549 N. Randolph street, Chicago, according to
information reaching local officials of the league.
The book is for the purpose of stimulating interest in
bass growing, and is distributed free.
A number of Florida sportsmen already have signified
their interest in establishing rearing ponds in the state
for the purpose of perpetuating the supply of game fish.



The Florida Orange Festival will be held at Winter
Haven on January 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 1929, and plans
have been laid to make it the largest and best citrus ex-
hibition ever held in Florida. We are anticipating ex-
hibits by packing houses from every one of the thirty-two
citrus-producing counties in Florida. Worth-while prizes
will be offered, and competition for these awards assures
us of a number of splendid exhibits.
Prizes will also be offered for individual exhibits by
growers, and it is our hope that a number of growers
will enter into competition. We feel that an active in-
terest in the growers' exhibits will be an encouraging
factor in the production of quality fruit by all growers.
Attention is particularly directed to the fact that we
will have prizes for displays of citrus by-products. This
is rapidly becoming an important industry. We will
appreciate your assistance in encouraging these exhibits.
We want a great number of entries in the packing
contests, so that in another year we can offer to send
our champion packers to compete in California against
their best packers. We urge all packing houses to enter
their best packers this year.
A list of prize awards in the citrus division is attached.
Score sheets will be supplied to all exhibitors at least 60
days prior to the opening of the orange festival, to assist
them in the preparation of exhibits.
While we will also have commercial and industrial ex-
hibits and some carnival features, it is our aim to make
this essentially a citrus exhibition devoted to advertising,
improving and furthering the principal business of our
great state. We anticipate an attendance of 50,000 peo-
ple. Let's give them a real orange show. It can be
done if all interests will fully cooperate.
A plan, reduced in size, showing the lay-out, is on the
reverse side of this sheet. You will note that the single
entrance assures all visitors passing all exhibits both on
entering and leaving the grounds. All exhibits will be
under roof as a guarantee against interference by the
elements. Exhibition Building No. 1 and No. 3 have been
set aside exclusively for citrus displays. With the excep-
tion of corner locations, there is no choice as to space,
but selection of space may be made in the order of receipt
of applications.
The prices of booths, size 10x10 feet, for citrus ex-
hibits has been fixed at $30, with corner booths of the
same size at $50. We are requiring that the users of
the corner booths take the adjoining 10-foot booth, so as
to make a larger display.
Every exhibitor, large and small, has an equal chance
to win the prize awards, display his brand and advertise
his product. We want to count on your support and we
hope to receive your space application at your earliest
Very truly yours,
J. B. GUTHRIE, Manager.

County Prizes-First, silver cup; second, silver cup;
third, silver cup. Awards of first, second and third prizes
will be made for the best packing house exhibits or ship-
per exhibits from each citrus-producing county in Florida.
Each exhibitor will be limited to use of fruit grown in
county where exhibitor is located. Point-scoring system
will be used in judging winners. Exhibitors will be sup-
plied with score sheets to aid them in preparing exhibits.


Grand Prizes-First, $500; second, $250; third, $100.
First prize winners in county divisions will be entered
for grand prizes, and awards of first, second and third
prizes will be made.
Growers' Prizes-First, $200 and cup; second, $100
and cup; third, $50 and cup. Awards of first, second and
third prizes will be made for best grower exhibits from
any grove in Florida. Each exhibitor will be limited to
use of fruit grown in his own grove. Point-scoring sys-
tem will be used in judging winners. Exhibitors will be
supplied with score sheets to aid in preparing exhibits.
Citrus By-Products-First, $50; second, $30; third,
$20. First, second and third prizes will be awarded for
best commercial or industrial exhibit of canned goods,
bottled goods, preserves, candies or other marketable
products made from Florida-grown fruit.
Fruit-Packing Contest.-Men-First, $25 and cup to
packing house; second $15; third, $10. Women-First,
$25 and cup to packing house; second, $15; third, $10.
Prizes will also be awarded for best decorated booths
and best booths from an educational standpoint. Pre-
pare to get your share of the prizes. Ribbons-First
prizes, blue; second prizes, red; third prizes, white-will
be given to winners in all divisions.


(Winter Garden Journal, Sept. 13, 1928)
Seeking a method of utilizing the culls and over-ripe
strawberries from the season's crop, M. C. Britt, packer
and shipper of strawberries, has been making a study of
the possibilities of locating a small canning and preserv-
ing plant in Winter Garden.
"All through the packing season we have an abundance
of beautiful berries that are too ripe to ship," said Mr.
Britt, "and after the close of our active shipping season,
when our crop is supplanted in the northern markets, the
berries are still producing. If we can provide a way to
use all these berries we will add materially to our income
from the crop and also find a way to utilize our labor for
a longer period of time."
Mr. Britt stated that he had nothing definite to an-
nounce in this regard, but was expecting a visit from a
representative of a firm specializing in the manufacture
of preserving plant machinery, and that the interview
would help to determine what could be done locally.


(Holmes County Advertiser, Sept. 14, 1928)
J. C. McGee has on hand two cars of cattle for ship-
ment the first of next week. Mr. McGee finds that there
are still many cattle on the range, though there is a ten-
dency toward scarcity. This, with current prices, should
encourage our growers to look out for increasing their
There should be special attention paid to the quality
of the stock offered. Mr. McGee says that he has in this
lot 65 good fat steers of prime quality, making it as a
whole, the best lot he has yet handled here. As the
percentage of prime stock increases it will be easier to
get the full worth of first class stuff. The Holmes county
cattle business will be put on a pure bred basis. Those
first in this game will get the cream. Mr. McGee will
continue to buy for the market and will pay top prices
for top cattle.



(Progressive Farmer, Sept. 15, 1928)
"Blind Homer sang of Trojan wars and heroes, Virgil
of men and arms, Horace of love and Falerian wine,
Dante of the infernal regions, Milton of Paradise, but if
I had the genius of all these old masters combined, a
harp with a thousand strings, and the world for an audi-
ence, I would sing with all my heart and soul of the
cow-proclaim her virtues and perpetuate her name to
the remotest generations.
"If I were a sculptor and had the power to chisel my
thoughts in marble, I would search the quarries of the
earth for the purest, whitest stone, and somewhere in an
enchanted land, where the skies are bluest, the waters
purest, and the birds sing sweetest far into the soft and
mellow moonlight nights, I would begin a work of love
and duty.
"I would bid the cold marble speak for me, as I pulled
the chisel to its sides until the rough, hard surface took
the shape I wished, and at last a cow stood revealed, wide
and kind-eyed in a posture of patient waiting to give the
rich contents of her swelling udder, and bless the re-
ceivers with joy and health and strength.
"I would make a base upon which this spirit of my
dreams would stand, and around its rim I would carve
the figures of dear little babies, their hands and their ex-
pectant faces raised toward their best friend in all the
animal world-the friend that never fails them, the one
that puts the firm, pink flesh upon their tender frames,
the one that brings dimples and smiles like the touch of
angel wings, when the sweet, life-giving milk trickles
down their tiny throats, until the bottle falls away and
sleep comes to caress and hold them still in its protecting
"The cow is an uncrowned queen without a scepter,
and her kingdom is all the land between the seas."


(Tampa Tribune, Sept. 12, 1928)
Arcadia, Sept. 11.-(Special)-During the non-grow-
ing season on DeSoto county farms, growers are making
good on their sour cream shipments and each week finds
some addition to the list of farmers who are shipping
cream to the creamery at Ocala and receiving a steady
income therefrom.
Starting three months ago with one farmer shipper,
there are today 20 cream shippers here. H. O. Johnson,
manager of the Arcadia Dairy Farm Products Company,
is in charge of the shipments, and last week there were
200 gallons of cream shipped. The price now is at the
lowest ebb of the year on account of the heavy produc-
tion of cream in the north at this season, but 43 cents a
pound received steadily through the summer months when
the grass is plentiful enough to make the feed bill small,
is a great help to the small farmer.
L. W. Carpenter, near Limestone, is the largest single
shipper of cream. He ships cream from 10 cows. But
the most profitable part of his farming is in raising poul-
try and hogs, using the skimmed milk as feed.
Farmers are enthusiastic over the steadiness of the in-
come from their cream shipments and at the cheapness
of handling the product, as the cream does not have to

be kept cold and so can be held over several days, fresh
cream being added daily.
J. R. Payne, who has done much to create interest in
the cream shipments, says there probably will be a motor-
cade to the creamery at Ocala soon to see the way the
milk is handled and butter made. Increased interest in
the creamery and dairy business in Florida is sure to
result in the establishment of more creameries and the
raising of more fine milk cows, Mr. Payne says. The
surplus of cream from milk above the demands of their
customers is being shipped by the local dairies.


(Palatka News, Sept. 7, 1928)
Those who are inclined to accept the view that Florida
is almost altogether a consuming state should brush up
on their facts and figures.
While most everyone knows that the commonwealth
produces considerable citrus fruit and vegetables, that it
exports naval stores and that it saws large quantities
of timber and mines much phosphate rock, it is doubtful
if one person in 1,000 realizes that even trapping is listed
among the profitable minor industries.
The State Department of Game and Fresh Water Fish
is authority for the following statement:
"Reports from 2,567 trappers, approximately one-third
of the number licensed during the season of 1927-28,
showed the following number of pelts taken: 62,000
raccoon; 35,136 opossum; 13,802 skunks; 787 mink;
1,661 little spotted skunks, known to the trade as 'civet
cat;' 1,771 gray fox; 51 red fox; 10 panthers; 13 black
bear. The value of these furs has greatly increased, due
both to increased demand and to the fact that under the
law of 1927 they may not be taken except during the
open season, November 20 to February 15."
The dollars and cents brought into Florida coffers by
the trappers and hunters of fur-bearing animals is not
given in the statement, but it is safe to assume that it
runs into many thousands. This is but one of the num-
ber of sources of small revenue that help to make Florida
something more than a play-ground for the nation's rich.


Migration From Holland of Skilled Dairymen
Arouses Considerable Interest

By Elise Infantino
(Tampa Citizen, Sept. 14, 1928)
Tampa, Fla., Sept. 14.-The founding of a Hollandese
dairy colony in Hillsborough and Manatee counties and
the migration of skilled dairymen and their families from
Holland is arousing considerable interest throughout the
Arrangements have already been made for the estab-
lishment of 25 dairies, each comprising 40 acres, and for
their equipment with the most modern equipment. The
funds to be used to finance the enterprise were fur-
nished by Dutch and Chicago banks and are now on
deposit in Tampa.
J. R. van J. Blinck, Dutch vice-consul, and Paul Rogge-
brand, a retired dairyman, are beginning negotiations,
through Coungressman Herbert J. Drane, with the United
States government to obtain for the Dutch dairymen and
their families permission to enter the United States
under the laws covering the immigration of skilled agri-





Success Has Marked Efforts of Organization of
Cooperative Growers, Which Makes
Cash Settlements Each Week

(Bradenton Herald, Sept. 14, 1928)
Starting a little more than a year ago in a small way,
the West Coast Poultry Association produced an output
the past year of 1,635,939 eggs. The concern has more
than 15,000 dozen eggs in cold storage.
The cooperative organization was formed by a group
of the leading poultrymen of the county, following a con-
ference on ways and means of disposing of their output.
At that time indications were already pointing to an over-
supply of eggs in the local market, and to those who had
invested their money in the poultry business it was neces-
sary that something be done to save them from the then
haphazard method of distribution.
Inventory Taken
An inventory of the flocks over the county was made,
which was surprising to everyone to learn of the number
in the county with thousands of pullets coming on. After
discussing their situation from every standpoint, it was
believed by all present that the best method to adopt
would be to plan an organized system and all adhere to
An organization was formed, and named the Florida
West Coast Egg Association. Miss Connie DeVane, one
of the most successful women poultry raisers in the
south, was elected president. Throughout the summer
months meetings were held by the organization, and
plans were outlined to begin in September of 1927, with
a centrally located depot for all members to bring their
eggs, which would be marketed through one channel.
This cooperative method began to function the second
week in September, and 700 dozen eggs were brought to
the office. A great many poultrymen throughout the
county were watching the newly formed organization
very closely, signed up, were wondering how they were
to market the vast number of eggs when all their pullets
started to lay.
40 Sign Charter
Forty members signed the charter and the first two
weeks showed an increase in the number of eggs handled,
and each week business has shown a gain. The associa-
tion today is made up of almost every large poultry pro-
ducer in the county.
Rules and by-laws governing the association were
drawn up and from the very beginning all members have
abided by them. Among the features which were used is
the strict guarantee of fresh eggs supplied by the con-
tributing members. Weighing and grading the eggs and
candling every egg are important features also.
In the office of the association, which is in charge of
W. B. Stinson, supplies are kept in order to put the eggs
up in very attractive packs. The eggs are graded in
three sizes ranging from the pullet eggs to the fancies.
Every egg which comes in the last grade is indelibly
stamped Westcoast, which is the trade mark of the asso-
ciation. Very attractive containers for the retailer are
supplied in order that he may sell in dozen lots put up
in packages. Every package is graded and sized, and a
large seal is placed on the package for the protection of

the consumer. This prevents the fresh eggs from being
removed and storage eggs sold through fraud.
Settlement Weekly
The contributing members hold a meeting every Tues-
day morning in the office of the association. At this
meeting methods of interest pertaining to the industry
are discussed and ideas exchanged. It was found that
by pooling all eggs and making a settlement once a week
with the members was the best plan. This method be-
ing adopted has proven very satisfactory and up until
this time there has not been a complaint coming from
the members. A retain of four cents per dozen was de-
cided upon. This goes to carry on the expenses of the
office. The surplus of this fund is used for advertising.
The association has gained prominence throughout
South Florida by handling the high grade products and
are receiving orders from wholesale dealers and large
retail stores in many of the large cities. Thus they have
solved the problem which was confronting them early
last fall, when they could dispose of so many eggs. Other
poultry raisers in this section who have been accustomed
to peddling their eggs from store to store, and accepting
whatever groceries the groceryman would see fit to give
them, have been made to realize that the cooperative egg
marketing association in Manatee county is the sane
method for them to use.
Exceed Supply
The association is well prepared to care for any number
of eggs that might be added to the present capacity, as
their demands are now exceeding the supply. This is
caused of course, according to Mr. Stinson, by the strict
adherence to grading and shipping only quality as repre-
The association has the good will of all the service
clubs and civic organization in the county, and it is fast
taking its place along side the well established coopera-
tive associations functioning in this county.
The annual meeting of the Florida West Coast Poultry
Association was held in their office, January 10th, and
officers elected for the year are as follows: J. P. Corri-
gan, president; S. K. Thompson, vice-president; M. V.
Walters, secretary. The directors to serve are J. P. Cor-
rigan of the Crescent Poultry Farm, Bradenton; S. K.
Thompson, of Parrish; M. V. Walters, of Oneco; Miss
Connie DeVane, of Manatee; Corbet Johns, of Parrish;
Pierce Crockett, of Bradenton; S. K. Jennings, of Bra-
denton; L. L. Harvey, of Bradenton, and N. Jensen, of
Palmetto. W. B. Stinson being retained as manager.


(Times Herald, Sept. 14, 1928)
Ground is now being prepared on the old Conway place,
just south of Bostwick, for the planting of eight acres
of narcissus bulbs. The development is being done by
E. J. Cameron, of Sanford, who is contemplating putting
in approximately 800,000 bulbs this year, with a view to
increasing the planting in the future.
According to the Chamber of Commerce, there is a
steady increase being shown in bulb plantings over the
county with a general tendency on the part of those who
have experimented with them to increase their holdings,
with the Cameron planting being the largest so far
Gladiola bulbs are being successfully produced in the
county as well as the narcissus. Specimens of Putnam
county bulbs have been pronounced to be of as high
quality as those produced elsewhere.



(Mississippi Market Bulletin, Sept. 15, 1928)
The situation at present is not pleasing to the cotton
The past season has been one of the most trying in
recent years. In our office a few days ago a visitor told
us of the dry weather that had reduced his yield so
greatly. A little later another visitor from another sec-
tion of the state told us that this season had been the
wettest he had ever seen. Reports from other sections
are to the effect that cotton is much lighter this year,
requiring 150 pounds more than usual of seed cotton to
produce a bale.
The government forecast for the month shows a con-
dition in Mississippi of sixty per cent and an indicated
yield of 1,250,000 bales, and and indicated yield for the
entire cotton belt of 14,439,000 bales. Last year
Mississippi produced 1,355,000 bales, while the total pro-
duction was 12,955,000 bales.
On the face of this report, cotton dropped five dollars
a bale.
All of this is greatly to be regretted. In view of the
short crop, seventeen-cent cotton is going to hurt lots
of farmers this year, and it is to be hoped that the price
will improve. Rest assured that powerful agencies are
at work to better the price of cotton, and that every-
thing possible will be done.
Again we see the wisdom of those communities who
have sponsored the dairy industry. Prices of milk are
still at the high point, and thousands of Mississippi farm-
ers are going to find profit in their cows while they find
loss in their cotton. Five to ten cows on every Missis-
siippi farm would soon make our state the richest and
most progressive in the American Union. More power
to the dairy industry.
Commissioner of Agriculture.


(Tobacco, Sept. 13, 1928)
Tobacco planters have many complaints. Not the least
of these is the "oppression" of the buyers-the big manu-
facturers. Planters tell of their work and their worries.
They emphasize the really hard labor in growing tobacco,
and they say all they have to show for a season's work is
a handful of small change.
Recently a business man in the North Coralina tobacco
territory went out among the planters. And he said: "I
talked with a farmer in the valley who had a small farm,
and he seemed mighty pleased to have some one to talk
to. He began telling me some of the hardships a farmer
has to endure.
"In the end I got wondering why he stayed there, and
how he made a living at all, so I asked him, 'How in the
world do you make the thing go?'
"Pointing to the only man he employed, the owner said,
'See that fellow there? Well, he works for me, but I
can't pay him. In a couple o' years he gets the farm,
and then I work for him 'til I get it back.' "
You see how it is-the ring around the rosy. It is an
old story. Perhaps it is true. But the basis of the thing
is the unprogressiveness of the planter himself. Through
lack of vision, education or simple enterprise, the average

tobacco farmer is satisfied to play this youthful game,
year in and year out.
It is either the hired man, the banker, or the buyer
who individually and collectively undo the tobacco
planter. It is ever the resistance to progress, the ignor-
ance or ignoring of market demands, the failure of effort
to produce what the buyer wants and is willing to pay
Weather, of course, is seldom the farmer's friend.
Crops may vary, even with the best of care. Intelligence
of farming is infrequently able to contend against a com-
bination of nature's own circumstances.
But there is ground for the statement that the planter
should evince as much interest in his market as does an
average merchant. Few farmers would patronize a town
merchant who attempted to sell goods they did not want.
And it is just so with tobacco buyers, no matter how the
farmer feels to the contrary.
Good goods bring good prices. Even in seasons of
overcrop, the buyer is perpetually looking for grades he
requires to meet the consistent demand for quality. Ring
around the rosy, then, is simply cooperation of planter
and buyer with manufacturer and consumer.
Planters must never forget that the consumer, thou-
sands of miles away, is the real buyer, and, without him,
the ring around the rosy is broken, incomplete.


J. C. Anderson Tells How He Multiplied a $100
Order-To Ship 1500 Bulbs Before

(Punta Gorda Herald, Sept. 14, 1928)
With 18,000 highly colored caladiums growing under
his bulb sheds in Solana, J. C. Anderson, bulb specialist,
is being credited with having produced enough proof
here in Punta Gorda to bear out the much-heralded state-
ment that bulb culture is one of Florida's great oppor-
tunities. He will ship from 12,000 to 15,000 mature, dry
bulbs to nurserymen in the north early in December.
Mr. Anderson turned to bulbs two or three years ago
after having met several reverses in truck growing. He
made his start from a small package of bulbs from New
Orleans. The express agent thought he was crazy to pay
$100 for such a small lot of garden bulbs, but at the end
of the same season the same express agent paid him
$1,500 for four barrels of bulbs which he had produced
largely from the contents of the $100 package. Northern
florists pay from $80 a thousand upwards for dry bulbs
about an inch in diameter. They put the bulbs in pots
and force them into beautiful plants, which sell ten weeks
later for 50 cents to a dollar each, four or five times the
cost of the bulb and the pot.
In explaining the method of propagation Mr. Anderson
compared the bulbs to an Irish potato. A sprout comes
forth from each eye. A single bulb when planted early
in March will have seven or eight shoots sending up a
healthy little leaf by the last part of April. He then digs
up the bulb and cuts out each shoot, leaving a portion of
the meaty part of the bulb with each of the seven or
eight new plants. These are set out about ten inches
apart, where they grow until November, when they will
have developed many large, highly colored leaves and an
individual bulb an inch or more in thickness. The leaves
die down in the late fall and the bulb is dug up and dried
ready for market.





Important Industry To Be Concentrated by Cit-
rus Men at One Plant

(Bartow News, Sept. 14, 1928)
Bartow is to be the center of pectin production in the
citrus industry of Florida during the coming winter, ac-
cording to announcement made by George H. Clements,
secretary of the Bartow Chamber of Commerce, in a re-
cent address at Auburndale. The statement was amplified
Saturday night in another Auburndale address by T. T.
Hatton, of Bartow.
"It has been found," said Mr. Hatton, "that grape-
fruit peel is richer in pectin than apples, from which a
major portion of pectin has been recovered during recent
"A carload of pectin is worth $30,000, so you can see
how much money we have been throwing away all these
The production of pectin from grapefruit peel, by the
dehydration process, was begun in a small plant adjacent
to the Hills Brothers canning plant in Bartow last season.
So successful was the project that it has been decided
this year to concentrate the production of pectin in the
Bartow plant, peel from all the canning plants in Florida
being sent to Bartow for this purpose.
Pectin is used in large quantities by jelly manufactur-
ers throughout the country. Many fruits will not turn to
jelly without the addition of pectin, as most every house-
wife knows. A few years ago, companies were formed
to produce pectin in commercial form, that housewives
might add it to such fruits.
Large manufacturers of jellies are compelled to buy
their pectin similarly. The demand is said to be growing
rapidly, and the production of pectin in large quantities
should prove of decided importance to Bartow.


Largest Deal in Cattle Closed That Has Been
Reported in Several Months-Will Move
to His Ranch in Osceola County

(St. Cloud Tribune, Sept. 6, 1928)
H. A. Stephens, manager of the McCrory ranch, just
northeast of St. Cloud, announces this week that a deal
has just been closed whereby the McCrory Land and
Cattle Co. purchased the entire herds of the Kempfer
estate. There is estimated to be some two thousand
head of cattle in the herds now grazing in the extreme
eastern part of Osceola and in Brevard county between
the county line and the St. Johns river.
The price paid is not yet given out, but judging from
prices that small carlot shipments of cattle have brought,
the figures will probably be in the neighborhood of sixty
thousand dollars.
The McCrory ranch is one of the largest, if not the
largest, in Osceola county, and runs several miles into
Orange county on the north. A good stock of cattle has
been kept on the ranch ever since it was established
some years ago, but heavy demands for beef cattle in
car-lots during the past year has made a demand for
restocking the ranch early next year. The Kempfer
herds are to be delivered next spring. At that time the
number will be considerably larger than now, as the calf

crop this year and last year have been the largest for
many years.
The cattle industry in Florida has enjoyed a big in-
crease during the past two years, as weather conditions
have been ideal to keep the pastures in fine shape, re-
sulting in larger and healthier cattle and the largest calf
crop for many years.
McCrory's ranch is fenced into several pastures, thus
enabling the owners to combat the pesky tick, which also
adds to the value of cattle raised on that ranch. Sys-
tematic care of the cattle has shown "open range" advo-
cates the advantage of fencing in to small pastures and
dipping the cattle at regular intervals.
Mr. Stephens has made a success of the ranch from
the day that he took charge several years ago, and is
also one of the most popular cattle men in this section
of the state.
The McCrory's who own this ranch are also owners of a
chain of stores throughout the nation bearing that name.


(Holmes County Advertiser, Sept. 14, 1928)
Tallahassee, Sept. 13.-Florida spent nearly four and
a half million dollars on road and bridge construction
work during the first eight months of 1928, figures an-
nounced here by the State Road Department show.
Forty-two contracts, representing an expenditure of
$4,432,464.75, were awarded from January 1 to August
18, inclusive. The projects were scattered over 20 coun-
ties as follows:
Alachua, Levy, Hillsborough, Suwannee, Polk, Holmes,
Gadsden, Escambia, Palm Beach, Lake, Collier, Osceola,
Glades, Clay, Okaloosa, Jefferson, Bay, Lee, Leon and
Gulf, with several of those listed getting more than one.
The work undertaken ranged from the construction of
timber bridges and clearing, grubbing and grading roads
preparatory to paving, to concrete bridges and hard-sur-
facing highways.
In many instances, the counties themselves took promi-
nent parts in the work by posting all, or a part, of the
funds necessary to carry out the projects. In all cases,
however, the state department assumed control of the
jobs and either built or is building the roads and bridges
in accordance with state specifications, and will also
maintain them accordingly.


(The Cotton Grower, Sept. 10, 1928)
Forty-three per cent of the eggs marketed by the Ohio
Poultry Producers' Cooperative Association, Wauseon,
during the first half of July sold at an average price of
30 cents a dozen; 36 per cent sold for 27 cents; 10 per
cent for 34 cents; 7 per cent for 23 cents, and 3 per cent
for 22 cents or less. Brown-shelled eggs brought the
highest price. During the period a total of 45,975 dozen
of eggs were handled.
The association is furnishing trucking service for the
collection of eggs for an entire county and part of an-
other county. A new truck route is being planned for a
third county.
Handling costs reached their lowest point in the history
of the organization in April of this year, when the ex-
pense amounted to 2.3 cents a dozen. This cost included
trucking, candling, grading and all overhead expense.



Produces 88 3/5 Bushels Per Acre on Five-Acre

(Tallahassee Daily Democrat, Sept. 15, 1928)
Judging of the winners in the five-acre corn growing
contest sponsored by the county agent, G. C. Hodge, and
which was supported by the county board of commis-
sioners with a prize of $100 in cash to the Leon county
farmer who produced the most corn this year on five acres
of land, has been finished.
Lee Reeves, of the Miccosukee neighborhood, won the
prize with a yield of 88 3-5 bushels per acre on his five-
acre tract.
Mr. Hodge stated that Mr. Reeves' previous high yield,
without the intensive cultivation and fertilization recom-
mended for contestants, was about 40 bushels. The in-
crease represents over 100 per cent and at a cost of ap-
proximately 18 cents per bushel.
Mr. Hodge also said that with the same degree of in-
creased production per acre all over the county as that
shown by the contestants, the corn crop of Leon county
on the same acreage could be increased one-fourth,
bringing additional revenue of at least $100,000.
This is the third year's corn-growing contest. Fred
Bennett, of near Woodville, won in 1926 with 102 bush-
els per acre. J. P. Billingsley, of Wadesboro, won last
year with 57 3-5 bushels per acre.
The season of 1926 was an ideal one as compared with
the past two years; 1927 was extremely dry, and this
year extremely wet, with much of the corn rotting before
it could be gathered. The yield of both Mr. Reeves and.
Mr. Billingsley was considerably reduced on this account.


(DeLand News, Sept. 21, 1928)
Now and then the manufacture of furniture has been
urged as a more desirable industry for Florida, and at-
tention has been called to the fact that the state has
considerable lumber resources suitable for the making of
all sorts of furniture, but for some reason the industry
does not seem to interest enterprise and capital. A new
angle to the proposition was given recently by W. J.
Campbell, an east coast lumberman and industrialist, be-
fore the Rotary Club of Homestead. Mr. Campbell has
just returned from a trip through the West Indies, where
he inspected timber supplies suitable for the manufac-
ture of high-grade furniture. He showed the Rotarians
specimens of mahogany from Jamaica and of other fine
wood from other islands and declared that Florida "holds
the logical position geographically for the growth of a
high-grade furniture industry."
There can be no question that Mr. Campbell has taken
a valuable lead in behalf of a prospective furniture
manufacturing industry for Florida. With its own supply
of raw materials and with that easily obtainable from
the West Indies and South America it would seem that
a number of large furniture factories could be profitably
operated. Florida is in a position to select its industries
and those particularly suited and desirable should be
selected. Few could be more desirable for Florida than
the furniture industry; for a number of reasons it is
peculiarly suitable. It is a clean, healthful work, every
branch of it, and as the plants would be electrically
operated, presumably, there would be no smoke or soot

nuisance, no dirt and no refuse squalor. Any number of
choice sites for factories are available, and there is plenty
of labor, freedom from labor troubles, and a good work-
ing climate the year around.
The home market would absorb a large quantity of the
furniture manufactured. Residents of the state would
be glad to have an opportunity to purchase furniture
without having to bear the added cost necessary to bring
it here. If only high-grade furniture were manufactured
here and sold at a fair price there would be still fur-
ther cause for appreciation on the part of customers be-
cause immense stocks of low-grade furniture have been
shipped here from certain furniture manufacturing
centers where factories are operated on a quantity in-
stead of a quality basis.
To repeat, Mr. Campbell's idea is a good one, and it
should encourage anyone on the lookout for an indus-
trial opportunity to give the furniture factory proposi-
tion thorough consideration. There is room right now for
several well-equipped furniture plants of average
capacity.-St. Petersburg Independent.


Other Trees From Dade County Fruit Sections
Shipped to South America

(Miami Herald, Sept. 20, 1928)
Homestead, Fla., Sept. 19.-South Dade county will
soon be known all over the world as a source of rare
tropical plants and fruits is predicted by H. W. John-
ston, owner of Palm Grove, and leading horticulturist of
the Redland district.
Last week, Mr. Johnston said, on one day three ship-
ments of importance were made from Homestead. W. K.
Walton, Redland nurseryman, sent a collection of avocado
trees, chiefly the Winslowson and Collinson varieties, to
a French winter resident in Morocco. This will consti-
tute the first experiment in growing avocados at that
Dr. J. A. Smith shipped a dozen large royal palms the
same day to Key West from his slat houses in Krome
avenue. Tony Fasulo, a nurseryman in N. E. Second
avenue, shipped three extra large royal palms.
A few weeks ago Mr. Johnston shipped 20 avocado
trees to Palestine. Recently he shipped 21 assorted
tropical trees to Cartagena, Colombia, South America.
Shipments of rare fruits are being constantly made to
points throughout Europe and recently in acknowledge-
ment of a shipment of mangoes Mr. Johnston received
word that never had such mangoes been seen anywhere
on the continent.
Mr. Johnston has been called to supply many rare
plants to horticultural gardens throughout the North,
where an artificial tropical atmosphere is produced under
Mr. Johnston's daughter, Mrs. Albert Caves, conducts
a home kitchen for the manufacture of jellies and mar-
malades from rare fruits.
Recently The Christian Science Monitor carried an
article describing her venture. She says she is now
making products from 30 varieties of fruit and that her
market is limited only by the scarcity of the supply of
fruits. She ships as far west as Portland, Ore., and San



Negro Scientist Gets Interesting Results From
Green Persimmons Also

(Bartow News, Sept. 14, 1928)
Thanks to a series of experiments carried on recently
by the negro scientist, Dr. George Carver, of Tuskeegee
Institute, Polk county may yet be able to furnish a prac-
tically unlimited supply of raw materials for a new line
of black paints.
"I am getting some very strange results from my ex-
perimentations with palmetto roots," Dr. Carver says. "I
believe they have distinct commercial value.
"I have made three grades of insulating board from
the palmetto, and one of the most beautiful black paints
I have ever seen. I also have several wood stains of great
beauty, and sodium and potassium in substantial amounts,
as well as a number of alkaloidal properties which will
have to be worked out."
Dr. Carver also has been experimenting with green
persimmons, which, he says, are the richest in dyes of
anything that he has found. They are particularly rich
in the colors from jet black to midnight and English blue,
he says.
This noted negro has attained national distinction
through his experiments with the peanut, pecan and sweet
potato. More than a hundred uses, commercializing, have
been found by him for the sweet potato, and almost un-
limited possibilities from the peanut.


Shipping Regulations for Narcissus Are Cited
With New Season

(Times-Union, Sept. 17, 1928)
The labeling requirements of the revision of the nar-
cissus bulb quarantine regulations, which became effective
May 15, 1928, is called to the attention of business houses
which deal in bulbs, by the United States Department of
Agriculture. The fall season for narcissus bulbs is now
beginning and is expected to last through September and
Under the revised regulations, every crate, box or other
container of narcissus bulbs offered for interstate move-
ment by the grower shall have securely attached to it an
official federal shipping certificate, the issuance of which
is based on inspection or disinfection, it was announced.
In the case of a carload shipment, such certificate also
shall accompany the way-bill. Such certification shall
remain and continue as a condition of any re-shipment of
such certified bulb for interstate movement in original
Dealers who buy and sell such bulbs, as well as other
shippers who do not grow their own bulbs, are required
to conform to the following regulation:
"Certified narcissus bulbs taken from crates or other
original containers for re-shipment interstate in smaller
lots shall have securely attached to each container a tax
or label signed by the shipper thereof reading as follows:
'The undersigned certifies that the narcissus bulbs con-
tained herein were taken from a shipment of narcissus
bulbs certified by the plant quarantine and control ad-
ministration under notice of quarantine No. 62.' "
The tags or labels described in the last paragraph are
to bear the exact wording shown and to be signed by the

shipper. This form of tag covering re-shipments will not
be supplied by the department, but is to be secured by
the shipper and may be prepared by any local printer.
No special form or size is required and shippers may in-
clude the wording given as a part of the address label if
Carriers are not permitted to accept for shipment con-
tainers of narcissus bulbs without the required labels.
Any shipment sent without either the re-shipment label
described or the official shipping certificate issued to the
grower will constitute a violation of the plant quarantine
act, render both the shipper and the carrier liable to
prosecution, and may be intercepted in transit or at des-
tination and returned to the point of origin.
The object of the restrictions is to prevent the inter-
state movement of bulbs infested with the bulb flies and
eelworms, and thereby protect uninfested localities from
the introduction of these pests.


(Scenic Highlands Sun, Sept. 22, 1928)
Shipment of 250 cars of citrus this month, with 2,500
cars during October and 6,500 cars during November, is
anticipated by traffic experts. This exceeds the similar
movement of last season by nearly 2,500 cars.
The figures were made public by J. Curtis Robinson,
secretary-manager of the Growers' and Shippers' League,
in a report to railroads for their use in providing equip-
ment for transportation. Mr. Robinson is secretary of
the Florida Committee of Shippers, created to assist the
railroads in maintaining adequate transportation facilities
for the movement of Florida products.


(Times Journal, Sept. 27, 1928)
Although guavas have had approximately a three-day
set back by the recent storm, Mr. Ashley continues to
ship out from 18 to 25 crates of the fragrant jelly
favorite each day. He expects to continue to ship for
two or three more weeks, when the season closes.
All shipments from this part of the county go to the
East Coast Preserving Company at Jacksonville, where
they are made into jelly, paste, butter, and marmalade.
The immediate process, according to Mr. Ashley, is to
boil the juice out of the guava and can it. Then as the
winter orders come in for jelly, it is made from the
canned juice.
"The Jacksonville plant can handle 700 cases of guavas
a day and they usually get this amount at the height of
the season. They have the biggest factory in the world
for canning and preserving," said Mr. Ashley.
"We are getting the bulk of our guavas from Mel-
bourne, with some coming in from Micco, Grant, Palm
Bay and Eau Gallie."


(Highlands County Pilot, Sept. 19, 1928)
Florida has 435 accredited herds of cattle, representing
18,971 head, which were free from any traces of tuber-
culosis, according to a statement from the United States
Department of Agriculture for June.




DiChristina Returns-Says More Citrus Will Be

(Jacksonville Journal, Sept. 16, 1928)
Returned from Europe after completing arrangements
for the reception of Florida fruit in England, France
and Germany this winter as well as laying tentative plans
for bringing shipments of Italian lemons directly into this
port and using Jacksonville as a distributing center,
Harry E. DiCristina, local shipper, said today that Europe
will import approximately 236,000 boxes of Florida citrus
this year, all of which will be exported directly from
Investigating conditions in Europe with reference to
finding a further outlet for Florida fruit, Mr. DiChristina
found that England, which last year used 150,000 boxes
of Florida grapefruit and oranges, 40,000 crates were
sent to Liverpool directly from Jacksonville via Leyland
Line freighters, would consume 200,000 boxes of fruit
this winter if present plans are consummated.
Practically all this fruit will be sent directly from the
port of Jacksonville on Leyland and American Palmetto
Line steamers, which afford far superior transportation
facilities than that in use last year.
"Florida can send fruit to England almost as cheaply
as to New York," Mr. DiCristina said. "The differential
in shipping cost is very small."
"The two giant cold storage plants now in operation
near the municipal docks should prove an invaluable asset
as the fast growing business of fruit export begins its
phenomenal growth."
Arrangements are now being completed with a promi-
nent steamship company, Mr. DiCristina said, to carry
lemons directly from Italy to this port. Florida grows
few lemons, he added, and as regulations here prohibit
the importation of the California variety, almost all those
now used come from Italy via New York. The introduc-
tion of this new steamship line, which cannot now be
named, into Jacksonville's harbor, will make Jacksonville
the lemon distributing center of the country.
It is understood that the Leyland line boats have
doubled the size of their refrigerated holds in order to
care for the growing volume of business. The vessels of
the Daytonian type will be able to carry 14,000 cases of
fruit directly to England this winter. The American
Palmetto line steamers which will be used in the Florida-
Europe direct service will carry approximately 7,500
Last year there were five shipments of fruit directly
from Jacksonville to England, but this winter the num-
ber of sailings will be more than doubled, from present
"England imports 500,000 cases of fruit yearly," Mr.
DiCristina said. "There is a great difference between the
quality of the fruit grown in Florida and that grown in
Arizona, South Africa, and the Island of Pines. When
the British public is educated to the higher quality of the
Florida brand, this state may send far greater shipments
abroad. An advertising commission is vitally needed to
'sell' Florida fruit to the European public."
"Germany will use about 6,000 cases of Florida grape-
fruit monthly, and as the prosperity of the Germans in-
creases they will use more. The British desire the small
size fruit at present, while the Germans prefer large
sizes. In France the consumption is smaller, but the

great numbers of American tourists who visit that coun-
try yearly make France a good market."
Last year, Mr. DiCristina said, England consumed
practically all the grapefruit sent from Jacksonville, but
France and Germany will each get a large share this
Fruit sent from this state should be stamped "Florida,"
Mr. DiCristina advised.
Speaking of the Italian export service, the Jacksonville
shipper said that one or two craft would enter this port
monthly when the shipments start.
The export of Florida fruit to England will begin early
in December or late in November, it is understood.
Not only will lemons come to this city on the Italian
vessels, but a number of other products will be imported,
including tomato paste and olive oil.
"If care is taken of late bloom oranges, they should
command a good price on the European market during
the summer months. The orange prices in Europe should
be good between November 15 and December 25 and be-
tween May 1 and July 1 should be excellent."


(Bristol Free Press, Sept. 6, 1928)
Tallahassee, Fla., Aug. 23.-The State Game and Fresh
Water Fish Department released for restocking purposes
during 1927 and 1928 a total of 4,103 quail and 141 wild
turkeys, according to an announcement made from that
The restocking quail were mostly of the Mexican type,
and a study by the department shows that a cross between
the Mexican and northern gives a quail so similar to the
northern species that only an expert can tell the differ-
A special study of quail, its habits and propagation, is
being made near by Herbert L. Stoddard, of the United
States Biological Survey.
Already Mr. Stoddard has learned that progeny of
quail fare better under the care of their own kind. This
was determined after exhaustive research and experi-
ment. For instance, it was sought to hatch quail and
give them to bantam hens to raise, and while this method
is successful to a certain degree, Mr. Stoddard learned
that it is better to give the little birds to the male quail
for bringing up, while the mother bird is kept for laying
purposes. In some experiments the female quail has
been known to lay as many as 125 eggs in a season.
These are hatched and the little birds given to the male
quail for raising.


(Tampa Times, Sept. 20, 1928)
Fort Myers, Sept. 20.-Fort Myers, winter home of
Thomas A. Edison and many other notables, held union
devotional services yesterday at the municipal auditorium
to give thanks for two full years in which the sun has
shown every day. Ministers of all the churches of the
city joined in the exercises.
The last time the sun failed to shine during a whole
day was on Sept. 19, 1926, the day of the hurricane that
year which devastated Miami, and wrought similar havoc
to the lower peninsula to the storm this year.



(Orlando Sentinel, Sept. 20, 1928)
There are approximately 586,000 cattle on Florida
farms. Annually Florida produces 130,000 hides that
are suitable for shoe uppers, medium grade shoes, bag
and harness leather, based on a conservative 22.50 per
cent cattle death annually.
What happens? Many of the hides go to no market,
others are shipped north. There they are made up into
leather goods. Meanwhile Florida is importing the
finished product. She is feeding the cow in Florida and
milking it up North and making the cow find its own
pasture, so to speak.
There is no doubt Florida, according to experts, has
an annual local supply of hides "ample to maintain an
integrated industry."
Not only so, but in the saw palmetto there is, on the
average, from 5.61 per cent to 8.50 per cent tanning, the
necessity in tanning leather; and there is a large supply
of saw palmettoes, not to speak of possibility of culti-
vating the Black Wattle as a source of supply. Although
much tanning is now done by mineral process, instead of
vegetable materials, Florida has the vegetable material
present, and also water routes for bulk shipments of
mineral materials.
When one realizes that Florida is also nearer than
any other point in the United States to the great South
American cattle countries with harbors of entry already
open, it appears on the surface that an important leather
industry might be built up.
While the idea appears to have possibilities, yet it is
not one to be undertaken without great capital; and that
means demonstrating feasibility.
It may be worth notice that the saw palmetto has by-
products that would be sources of revenue, reducing the
final cost of the tanning.
Does it not make one feel that here is room for in-
vestigation by men with capital?


Company Now Has Three Plants With $2,000
Monthly Payroll

(Flagler Tribune, Sept. 13, 1928)
One of the going industries in Flagler county, which
many people fail to take much notice of because its
operators have not been shouting their own praises, is the
manufacturing of various kinds of barrels by the Cody
Manufacturing Company.
The manufacturing company have just announced that
they will, within a few days, open their cooperage shops
for potato barrels for the coming season. The company
has just established a shop at Haw Creek on the Brockett
place with a storage capacity of 8,000 barrels, and an-
other at the company's stave mill plant in the Bimini
section. This shop has a storage capacity of 4,000
In these shops potato barrels are not made exclusively,
but fish and other barrels are manufactured and shipped
to points within and without the state. However, the
company is making attractive bids for all of their home
territory's business and are beginning an advertising
campaign to acquaint the general public with their wares.
Cody Manufacturing Company established their first

plant at Espanola in 1922, continuing there until the
spring of 1926. The company has employed from 40 to
60 men regularly since the business was started. Dur-
ing this period they have established a going business in
the rosin and spirit barrel end of the game, which helps
to keep the shops going during the summer.
Last season the company sold its output of staves to
the Farmers Manufacturing Company of East Palatka,
and did not put up any barrels, but this season they are
not selling any staves, but will manufacture the output
of their mill into barrels.


(Wakulla County News, Sept. 13, 1928)
Turpentine as it comes from the forest is now being
manufactured and put on the market by Boynton
Brothers of Tallahassee, Havana and Arran. These
products are made through a steam distillery process.
Put up in half pint, pints, quarts and five gallon cans,
the gum spirits are now being put on the market through-
out this section. Instead of paying ten cents for a small
bottle of turpentine, one can now get a larger can at a
much lower rate per pound.
W. J. Boynton, of Havana, one of the four brothers,
was in Crawfordville last week arranging with the mer-
chants to handle the product. L. R. Raker, merchant
here, took the first order to be shipped to Crawfordville.
The Boynton Brothers have four turpentine produc-
ing plants in operation. One of these is at Artan, this
county; two in Leon and two in Gadsden county. The
products from each of these plants is carried to Talla-
hassee, where the gum turpentine is manufactured.
The four brothers connected with the manufacture of
"a product of the living pine," are W. J. Boynton,
Havana; G. G. Boynton, Arran; C. J. Boynton and J. O.
Boynton, both in Leon county.
When in need of turpentine make inquiry for this
home product and you will be glad to learn more of it
through its use in the home.


(Ft. Myers Press, Sept. 25, 1928)
Milton, Sept. 25.-(A. P.)-Santa Rosa county may
shortly enter the ranks of other counties of Florida in
establishing a higher quality of dairy cows. At a weekly
meeting of farmers at Allenton, tentative plans were laid
for bringing into the county one or more carloads of high
bred animals, to breed with native stock. A definite pro-
gram will be formed at another meeting to be held


(South Florida Developer, Sept. 14, 1928)
Thirty to 35 acres of tomatoes have been set out in
the Stuart area this week, according to a statement made
by C. P. Heuck, county agricultural agent, this morning,
and additional acreage is being planted daily.
"From all prospects there will be from four to five
hundred acres of tomatoes grown in the county," said
Mr. Heuck. "Tomato seed beds as a whole are coming on
in good shape. The water has receded considerably, and
is still receding. This gives the growers an opportunity
to plant at this time. The planting of tomatoes in the
Cane Slough area is exceptionally heavy this year."

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