Florida and the cattle tick

Group Title: Florida review (Tallahassee, FL)
Title: Florida review
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00049005/00010
 Material Information
Title: Florida review
Physical Description: 5 v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Bureau of Immigration
Publisher: Bureau of Immigration, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1926-1930
Frequency: semimonthly
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Industries -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (June 7, 1926)-v. 5, no. 9 (Oct. 20, 1930).
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00049005
Volume ID: VID00010
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001744570
oclc - 01279992
notis - AJF7332
lccn - sn 00229569

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    Florida and the cattle tick
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Full Text

Jrlortba Re


Vol. 1 October 18, 1926 No. 1

Florida and the Cattle Tick


This is the verdict reached by men who know Florida.
Careful thinkers who have studied conditions assert that
this verdict is too light on the tick; that the little blood-
sucker costs us much more than that.
Roughly speaking, Florida has a million cattle; at least
three-fourths of this number are in tick-infested area. In
size and weight, these cattle are low. Compared with the
rest of the states, Florida's cattle are the lowest in weight
of all that go upon the market. Market statistics given out
by Swift & Company show that:
Florida's range cattle average at three and four years of
age, only 340 pounds; other Southern cattle, same age, av-
erage 425 pounds.
Every other state in the nation outranks Florida in this
respect. Wyoming tops the list, her three and four-year-
old steers averaging 980 pounds, almost three times the
weight of ours.
Not only are these range cattle from our ticky territory
light in weight, but they are also inferior in quality and
are penalized by the buyers, who pay two to three cents
per pound less for them than for cattle having no ticks.
Ticky cattle make inferior beef. It will not stand up
under refrigeration. It does not "marble"; it becomes
flabby and wilted and does not tempt the appetite. So
well was this known that during the world war the govern-
ment refused to buy this quality of beef for the use of our
Not only do ticks lower the weight, quality and value of
beef, but they also render the hides of cattle less valuable.
"Ticky" hides never bring the price of good hides. When
tanned, leather from them shows lumpy, defective spots
where the blood-sucker had sunk his bill to tap the blood
of his victim. These splotches condemn the hide to take
grade as a No. 2 or No. 3 instead of No. 1 where it might
otherwise have gone.
If we turn to the dairy side of the cattle industry, we
find even more obvious reasons for fighting the tick. No
cow can develop to the limit of her production when har-
assed by ticks. Her milk flow is decreased; her lactation
period is shortened; she "goes dry" quicker; her ability to
change feed into milk is lessened, and her general health
and vigor affected. The average milk cow in Florida gives
less than a gallon per day. If she were tick free, this daily
average could easily be raised more than 50 per cent; not
only would she produce more milk per day but she would
produce more milk on more days per year than she now
There is another phase of this question which we must
consider. We refer to the loss yearly from Texas fever,
caused by the tick. It is safe to say that the cattle indus-
try suffers an annual loss, direct and indirect, of many
thousands of dollars from this dreadful disease. It is bad
enough to have cattle depleted by the vampires which in-
fest them: It is a double curse to have these same blood-

suckers act as forerunner for a disease, which is so fatal
to normal adult cattle, that 85 per cent of those die from it
when they are brought in from non-tick territory. Even
calves, brought into tick territory, cannot be expected to
properly develop. We might even say that a pure-bred
calf having the finest possible pedigree, would, if brought
here from non-infected territory and turned loose to be the
prey of ticks, degenerate in a few years to the level of a
Florida had as well face the facts. In the quality of our
cattle we are held in the very rear of every state in the
union, largely because we do not clean up the tick. We
cannot longer shut our eyes to true conditions; these condi-
tions should no longer be allowed to bar the state's prog-
ress. Those who have opposed tick eradication by the state
have little argument left. Year by year other states have
fought themselves clean of this infestation. Without ex-
ception, from Texas to Virginia, stockmen are of one ac-
cord in testifying to the tremendous improvement wrought
by the change. And so it is in our own state, where dip-
ping has been done thoroughly; the good results are plainly
apparent in more and better cattle and in increased re-
turns from the sales; and no county in our state which has
been freed from ticks would think now, for a minute, of
going back to them again; for in every instance the change
has been followed by marked improvement and prosperity
for the cattle industry.
Federal quarantine regulations are so stringent as to
virtually prohibit selling our cattle in outside markets;
thus another heavy handicap is placed upon the industry
and we are penalized because of ticks.
Not only do the ticks of Florida cause strict quarantine
regulations as to our cattle but they are also responsible
for stringent quarantines affecting the shipment of water-
melons, bulk oranges and other Florida products. Our
neighbor state of Georgia has regulations designed to pro-
tect her against reinfestation which require shippers
of melons or other products requiring packing to use ex-
celsior or other material known to be free of ticks. Florida
shippers cannot use their cheap hay, pine needles or other
packing once used. They must buy excelsior or other ma-
terial. Not even a carload of hogs can be bedded with
Florida sawdust as of yore and shipped across the state
line. All this costs the shippers of the state the neat sum
of $40,000 per year. This is another tribute paid by inno-
cent people to our pestiferous citizen, the cattle tick.
Again, we suffer because we cannot safely import better
blood to improve our native stock. Until we clean up the
tick we must risk the loss of eighty-five of every hundred
new animals imported; for just that percentage of adult
cattle die when brought into our tick territory. Until we
clean up the tick we must continue to buy from outside
states $14.000.000 worth of beef per year, which we could
produce at home. Until we clean up the tick, we must con-


2 Florida Review

tinue to pay an annual bill of $24,000,000 for the dairy
products which we now buy from other states, but which
we could and should produce in Florida. Until we clean up
the tick we must continue to defeat improvement of beef
and dairy cattle, by jeopardizing the lives of those we im-
port and by frightening away hundreds and hundreds of
new settlers, who would bring their herds and their capital
here to Florida, were the ticks removed.
Florida's geographical location is such as to favor perma-
nent tick eradication. Our surroundings make reinfesta-
tion practically impossible; once clean we would always be
clean. To our north we are neighbors with Georgia and
Alabama, with their tick-free frontiers. Along our several
thousand miles of coast line we are washed by the briny
waters of the Atlantic ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, con-
stituting Nature's vast dipping vat across which no cattle
tick can ever swim to our shores.
Can we longer delay the good work of tick eradication?
If we value the live-stock industry in its real and vital re-
lation to our state's welfare, can we hesitate or quibble
over the methods to adopt, or the cost of the job?
This issue of the Review is devoted to the subject of
tick eradication. The need for it and the blessings that
follow it are set forth in statements of facts which cannot
be refuted. We call particular attention to the letters con-
tributed on the subject by authorities in other states; their
testimony should be convincing to those in Florida, who,
up to now, have had doubts on this question.
We close with the assertion with which we began: "Cat-
tle ticks cost Florida at least $10,000,000.00 per year."
As time goes on and ticks ply their trade unopposed,
the cost will go higher. It is not a curse that exists for
a day and passes. Hurricanes sweep their deadly course
in a few hours and pass on; cattle ticks, left alone, multi-
ply and perpetuate themselves and their baneful effects
through all the years.
Florida owes it to herself, to her neighbor states, to the
promptings of an enlightened civic conscience, to forever
extirpate this curse.
I favor, and shall advocate, provision being made by the
next legislature for a state-wide tick-eradication campaign,
with financial support, sufficient to make Florida tick free
within five years. It can be and I believe it will be done.
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner.


Florida occupies a unique and distinct position with ref-
erence to the development of the cattle industry in the
United States, being the first territory in North America
into which cattle were introduced by the early settlers of
this country. These cattle, imported from Spain and Portu-
gal during the latter part of the Sixteenth Century, com-
prise the ancestral blood of the present Florida cow; the
beginning of the cattle industry in the United States, and
likewise but most unfortunately the introduction of the
first cattle fever tick.
The elimination of the cattle fever tick from the South
constitutes the most stupendous live-stock sanitary control
measure of modern times, having a much greater economic
significance and being many times more difficult to eradi-
cate or stamp out than the dreaded foot and mouth disease.
For many years the cattle fever tick presented an un-
solved problem as to methods of control. Years were nec-
essary to devise practical ways and means to economically
eradicate this pest. Though limited territory on the north-
ern. border of the tick-infested belt was freed of ticks by
means of pasture rotation and disinfection with emulsions
of crude oil, yet, as a matter of fact, real tick eradication
can only be dated back to the time when dipping vats and
arsenical solutions were made available. Even then prob-
lems presented themselves under open range conditions

that made the friends of tick eradication doubt that a final
conclusion of the work was possible. Not until a system
of marking cattle at each dipping and then riding the
ranges so as to determine and make possible the dipping
of all undipped cattle did permanent tick eradication under
open-range conditions become an established success.
Two years before there was any specific state law on the
question, three counties, Dade, Broward and Monroe, with
the assistance of the United States Bureau of Animal in.
dustry and the State Board of Health, conducted a cam-
paign of tick eradication and were released from quaran-
tine in the fall of 1915. Palm Beach county followed the
example of her neighbors and was released from quaran-
tine two years later. These four Southeast Florida coun-
ties composed the only tick!free area in the state until 1925.
In 1917 the legislature passed what was commonly known
as the Local Option Tick. Eradication Bill. This law pro-
vided that counties voting favorably on the question could
inaugurate the work of tick eradication. Ten counties, act-
ing according to the provisions of this law, attempted to
eradicate ticks. In each instance the work was a failure
for the following reasons: 1. Lack of public support. 2.
Inability of counties to supply sufficient funds to complete
the work. 3. No means to protect an area, which had be-
c:me free, from becoming reinfested by the movement of
tick-infested animals from adjoining ticky counties.
The legislature of 1923, realizing that tick eradication
could not be successfully accomplished under the county
plan, passed a state-wide tick-eradication law, providing
for the creation of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board;
the partial compensation to owners for the dipping of their
tattle; a one-half mill levy to carry out the provisions of
the act, and the division of the State into zones or unit
areas of work, each zone comprising one or more counties.
Further, the work was to begin in two widely-separated
portions of the state and gradually converge.
Accordingly. in the spring of 1924 the State Live Stock
Sanitary Board inaugurated the work of systematic tick
eradication in Gadsden county and Zone No. 13, which
comprises Jackson, Washington, Bay, Calhoun and Gulf
counties, also that part of Holmes, Walton and Okaloosa
counties lying east of the Choctawahatchee river and that
part of Franklin county west of the Apalachicola river.
The work was completed in the fall of 1925 and this area
released from state and federal quarantine December 10
of that year. In the spring of 1925 the work was started
in Liberty and Franklin counties, which were released from
quarantine this year.
The tick-free area of Florida now consists of thirteen
whole counties and parts of Holmes, Walton and Okaloosa
counties, comprising a total acreage of 7,951,928, or prac-
tically 25 per cent of the total area of Florida.
Upon the completion of the work in Zone No. 13 the
State Live Stock Sanitary Board started systematic tick
eradication work in'Zones Nos. 14 and 16, comprising Wal-
ton, Okaloosa and Holmes counties west of the Choctaw-
hatchee river, also Santa Rosa and Escambia counties. The
board expects to complete the work in these zones early
in the spring of 1927.
The State Live Stock Sanitary Board is conducting pre-
liminary work of tick eradication in Zones Nos. 11, 12 and
15, which comprise all the territory of the state between
the Ocklocknee and the Suwannee rivers, the work of sys-
tematic tick eradication to begin in this area next spring
and be finished in December of the same year, giving the
state at the close of the year 1927 a tick-free area across
the state from the Perdido river on the Alabama line to
the Suwannee river, together with Monroe, Dade, Broward,
Palm Beach and Martin counties in the southern part of
the state.
H. H. SIMMONS, Ohairman.

Florida Review 3

floriba &ebiet

Published Semi-Monthly by
Bureau of Immigration, Department of Agriculture
Tallahassee, Florida

Nathan Mayo...........................Commissioner of Agriculture
T. J. Brooks..................Director Bureau of Immigration
Phil S. Taylor...............................................Advertising Editor
Entered as second-class matter, June 25, 1926, at the Post Office
at Tallahassee, Fla., under the Act of June 6, 1920.
Will be mailed free to anyone upon request.
VoL. 1 OCTOBER 18, 1926 No. 10

Office of the President
September 28, 1926.
Mr. Nathan Mayo, Commissioner,
Department of Agriculture,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Dear Mr. Mayo:
I have your letter of September 23 and in reply would
say that it is almost inconceivable that at this day and
age anyone would be hesitant about tick eradication. The
cattle industry can never be on a profitable basis as long
as we have an infestation of cattle ticks. Our state is
practically free, and the work of improving our breeds, of
introducing dairying, etc., is well under way.
We ship freely from this state, except a small area in
the southeastern part, through to any cattle market. This
is particularly advantageous where we are sending in young
animals to be sold as feeders, and our finished stuff going
to the markets for consumption. In the dairy industry we
believe that a cow cannot produce milk and feed ticks also.
Our dairymen and the vast majority of our cattlemen are
e.atirely committed to tick eradication. As a matter of
actrq. fact, we are past it, and it is no longer an issue
except in a small portion of this state.
Very truly yours,
Dairy Department
September 27, 1926.
Mr. Nathan Mayo,
Commissioner of Agriculture,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Dear Mr. Mayo:
Your letter of September 23, asking for some comment
by us on the value of tick eradication, received. In reply
will state that, as you know, a number of counties in this
part of the State have been free of ticks for several years.
The eradication of the tick is of such importance that we
do not believe a successful dairy or beef industry can be
developed until this eradication takes place. We have been
dairying in this section for over a quarter of a century
and while the cattle were infested with ticks each year,
not only were the yields of milk unsatisfactory, but the
loss of even our native young stock was exceptionally large
due to the fact that these calves had to become immune
to tick fever. Some died, others were stunted and in our
judgment, many were left in a weakened condition. Of
course it was practically impossible to bring animals in
from tick-free territories-the lfdss being too great.

With the eradication of ticks in this county the develop-
ment of dairying has been rapid and at the present time
dairying is one of the most important industries of this
section. Our people are just beginning to realize the possi-
bilities and it was through a realization of this, together
with the natural advantages possessed by the territory,
that we were able to get the first Borden plant south of
the Ohio river, located in the county.
'We repeat that if any section ever expects to make any
real headway along dairy lines the tick must be eradicated.
Yours very truly,
Professor of Dairy Husbandry.

Nashville, Tennessee
September 29, 1926.
Hon. Nathan Mayo,
Commissioner of Agriculture,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Dear Mr. Mayo:
Yours of September 23 to Mr. Rankin has been handed
I have been watching the progress of tick eradication
for fifteen years. In that time, the greater part of the
South has been freed from this pest. The practicality of
the work has been too thoroughly demonstrated for any-
one longer to raise any question about it.
The benefits of the work have been made equally ap-
parent. While some communities have protested bitterly
against the work as it went on, I have never heard of a
community that, after five years of freedom from ticks
was willing to be re-infested, or of one which after that
length of time had any doubt as to the profit of the work.
Certainly, Florida can no longer afford to put up with
the cattle tick. Only a small portion of the territory oncp
infested remains to be cleared up, and your State will
profit by the cleaning up as other States have done.
Permit me to congratulate you and the progressive
stockmen of Florida on your efforts to do away with this
menace to the raising of good cattle.
Very truly yours.

Bureau of Live Stock Industry
Atlanta, Sept. 29, 1926.
Hon. Nathan Mayo,
Commissioner of Agriculture,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Dear Mr. Mayo:
Your inquiry under date of September 14th in reference
to tick eradication work in the State of Georgia has been
We will first answer the questions asked in paragraphs
two, three and four of your communication and then give
you a general statement as to the present situation with
regard to tick eradication in Georgia.
Answering question No. 4: "What relationship is there
between tick eradication and what is known as 'no fence
law'?" beg to advise that tick eradication can be conducted
as economically and successfully in the open range areas
as it can in the "no fence" area. Where the modern method
of paint-marking the cattle and riding the ranges for the
purpose of bringing undipped cattle to the vats is pursued,
it is just as easy to complete tick eradication in an open
range county as it is in a "no fence" county. Sometimes

4 Florida Review

we even think the "no fence" sections more difficult, because
it is easier for cattle owners to hide individual cattle in
barns and small pastures than it would be under open
range conditions.
However, we believe that when the cattle industry of the
South finally comes into its own, the open range must be
abolished. The open range stands for everything that has
a tendency to perpetuate and produce scrub cattle. The
open range is invariably overstocked and as a result range
cattle, according to seasonable conditions, sway between
feast and famine. Cattle or other livestock in order to
grow and mature profitably must not know the pangs of
hunger. Stunted cattle make no one a profit.
The open range also precludes the probability of improv-
ing the grade of cattle through constructive breeding. Very
few, if any, men would invest their good money in a well-
bred sire and then turn him on the open range; neither
would they invest in a,pure-bred sire and then go to the
trouble of rounding-up the choicest specimens of their
range cattle for the purpose of breeding them.
And after all, the development of the livestock industry
centers.largely on breeding and feeding.
Answering your question under paragraph No. 3: "Have
you any data as to change in the price of cattle since tick
eradication?" beg to advise that there is unquestionably
a better price paid for cattle in the free area than there
is for cattle in the tick-infested and quarantined area, and
yet unless cattle from the tick-free area are put in first-
class, marketable condition it would be unreasonable to
expect a material advance in the market value of such
We believe that the leaders in tick eradication are all
fully aware of the fact that tick eradication within itself
will not solve the problem of a profitable cattle industry.
We also know that every leader in tick eradication
recognizes the work as one of the fundamental necessities
that must be accomplished before the South can establish
a profitable and successful cattle industry, either in dairy-
ing or beef cattle production.
Answering question No. 2: "The mental attitude of the
people in counties that have been freed of tick infestation"
depends on many factors. In counties where the work has
been completed without unnecessary delay, the favorable
reaction for tick eradication is very pronounced almost
In counties where for any reason (though primarily due
to adverse political activities) a county is kept at work
for a number of years, there is usually an accumulation
of bitter feeling and much disappointment. Under such
conditions time alone will change public attitude and public
opinion on this subject. We are sure your long experience
in public office has impressed you with the fact that the
public, as a whole, will nurse a prejudiced opinion with
far greater persistency than they will remember a helpful
service. However, given time enough to adjust these
mental perplexities, the overwhelming majority of the
people will give credit where credit is due.
This brings us down to answering that part of your
letter requesting a resume of the present situation with
regard to tick eradication in Georgia and the attitude of
the people in the tick free area.
Probably no answer of ours would be as forceful as the
expression of the Georgia General Assembly when they
appropriated $100,000 to build a fence between the tick-
free area of Georgia and the tick-infested area of Florida.
We are sure you will agree with us that unless they had
believed tick eradication profitable and had considered that
the work could be made permanent, they would not have
appropriated this sum of money.

Of course, we still have in various sections of the State
people who are hostile to tick eradication. Some of them
will probably die convinced of the fact that tick eradication
was a waste of the people's money and a general public
nuisance enacted solely to harass and worry them. The
percentage of these people, however, is very small. What
they lack in numbers they make up for in noise. The con-
firmed anti-tick eradicator always reminds us of the story
of the bullfrog; they certainly are a noisy lot.
Another indication of the attitude of the cattle owners
in the area in which tick eradication has been completed
is quite forcibly brought to mind by the fact that prac-
tically everyone of the minor reinfestations that have oc-
curred in the State of Georgia since the work was com-
pleted, is brought to our attention by the cattle owners
Georgia has had its share of violent opposition to the
work of tick eradication. During the early years of tick
eradication north Georgians were bitterly opposed to the
work of tick eradication, but as the work in the northern
part of the State was completed and the quarantine line
gradually proceeded towards the southern boundary of the
State, north Georgians became unflinching supporters of
tick eradication. In the same manner the sentiment has
changed and is changing rapidly in the southern section
of the State since the work has been completed.
Very truly,
Bureau of Live Stock Industry,
Georgia Dept. of Agriculture.


Prices Jump Hundred Per Cent as Result of Dipping.
Milton Tribune.
An increase of one hundred per cent in the price of cattle
shipped from West Florida has been reported since the
dipping of cattle began in the section in March.
According to a report of the State Live Stock Sanitary
Board to date 143 cars of cattle have been shipped from
Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa and Walton counties since
the eradication work began. The cars carried 8,277 head
at an average price of $12. Some of the cattle are reported
to have brought as much as $25.
This increased movement of cattle from West Florida is
due to the opening of eastern markets to cattle of the sec-
tion that has been freed from ticks. While the section is
not tick-free all cattle shipped have been free of ticks.


One Hundred and Sixty Head Bringing Average Price of
Fifteen Dollars.
Perry Herald.
Martin and Bill Towles of Athena have sold to date this
year 160 head of beef steers from which they have re-
ceived an average price of $15 per head. Most of these
have been sold to buyers in Greenville and Payne's Prairie,
the latter point being a place below Greenville.
The Towles Brothers have one of the largest herds of
cattle in the county and know the cow ranges like a book.
For generations the Towles have been great cattlemen, hav-
ing been among the pioneers in cattle raising in Taylor.
Southern Taylor county, where the Towles cattle mainly
range, contains some of the best feeding grounds to be
found in the woods of Taylor county and many very fine
beef steers come from these ranges.

Florida Review


Madison county, Florida, has not made any request, so far
as is known, that farm owners and operators elsewhere in
the state "take notice" that Madison county is on the way
to establishing the greatest dairying industry in the state.
While no formal notice to this effect has been sent out,
something very much better is being done by Madison
county. It is in proceeding to lay the foundations, good
and strong, for substantial and profitable dairying in that
county. Farmers themselves are working; boys' calf clubs
are working; bankers are helping. And, hardest worker
of all, in this particular enterprise, is the county agent of
Madison, Mr. Lawton. It is understood generally that
through his efforts the value of purebred cattle has been
impressed on Madison county farmers to such an extent
that a number of such animals have been brought into

to make a success of dairying in Madison county, it is not
to be doubted that in a very brief period of time Madison
county dairying will begin to show positive and gratifying
Madison county farmers already have learned that mar-
kets for milk and other dairy products are available in
Florida. They are finding ready sale in the larger cities
for all the milk they can produce at present. They are
just as likely to find these and other markets when they
are ready to supply larger quantities, as they are striving
to do. The demand for milk and butter in Florida is
constantly increasing. Madison county farmers evidently
believe that it is worth while to supply these growing
home markets. Consumers of milk and other dairy prod-
ucts will give them liberal patronage to the extent that
their products are first-class and the supply dependable.
This means the establishment of a dairying industry that
can be, and likely will be, immensely profitable there.
More than the direct profit from dairying in Madison

This herd of Dr. J. C. DuPuis was dipped sixteen times, and during this period the breed's record for
milk production was broken by one of the herd.

Madison county recently and placed on the farms; also, that
calf club members have provided themselves with pure-bred
calves that in a very short time will be in dairy herds that
are being established in the county.
In addition to what has just been noted, Madison county
is building dipping vats "like fury," and the information
has gone out that soon every section of that county will
have vats sufficient for convenient and expeditious dipping
of cattle for tick extermination, all of which indicates that
Madison county farm owners who have become interested
in dairying, and those co-operating with them, are deter-
mined to "build from the ground up," leaving nothing that
will stand in the way of success. With the cattle ticks
eliminated, with pure-bred cattle in the dairy herds and
with determined and practical efforts of men and women,
of club boys and club girls, and by those not on the farm,

county, as in other counties, will be the accompanying
enterprises that will spring up and develop, as of poultry
and swine growing, truck raising and the like. Further-
more, much of the fertilizer required will be provided by
the herds of cattle. and swine that can be seen coming to
Madison county, bringing added sources of financial in-
come. That county has the soil and the climate, both
favorable to successful dairying. In addition, it has enter-
prising farm owners and operators, and others who see the
very great need for an extended dairying industry in that
county, and if determined, practical work as at present
indicated, is continued, there need be no doubt that Madi-
son county soon will be pushing other Florida counties for
first place as a dairying county, its people practically
"coining money" through dairying and allied agricultural

6 Florida Review


(By Professor J. M. Scott, Florida Experiment Station.)
1. The individual cow is the foundation of dairying.
2. The dairy is a factory, and like all factories, the
larger the production of each machine (the individual
cow) the lower is the cost of production.
3. Only by keeping records of production can the
value of individual cows be known.
4. The feeding of scrub cows and the "scrub" feeding
of good cows are two of the commonest mistakes in dairy-
5. Save all heifer calves from the best producing cows
in the herd to replace the unprofitable cows.
6. Use a good sire. Without a good sire improvement
in the herd is impossible.
7. Get rid of the unprofitable cows in the dairy. The
milk scales and Babcock test will point them out.

is the man
conspires with nature
unto him
defies her precepts
keeps a long
sway backed, tick infested
to save a few
will wrangle long horns for
instead of feeding real


Production in State Is Limited Because of Cattle Tick Pest
-High Grade Animals, Brought from North, Subject to
Fever Infection.
Tampa Tribune.
Florida must continue to import milk, it was agreed at
the state milk conference in Jacksonville, from which Dr.
E. C. Levy, city health officer, returned yesterday. Better
control of the state's milk supply is likely, however, as a
result of the conference.
It was brought out at the conference that the cattle-tick
pest is one of the principal reasons why more milk is not
produced in Florida. High-grade dairy cattle brought in
from other states commonly succumb to the so-called Texas
fever, due to tick infection. There are not so many fatali-
ties among young animals brought into the state, but, even
if such animals reach maturity, their production of milk is
not more than half what it would be if they were not an-
noyed by ticks.
The question of shipped milk was the most important dis-
cussed at the conference, Dr. Levy said. Although no for-
mal decision was announced, it was the unanimous opinion
of those attending that milk importations, for the present,
are necessary.
The demand for milk varies greatly with the season in
every part of the country, but in Florida, owing to the
large influx of winter visitors, the fluctuation is extreme.
By increasing both the number and the size of Florida
dairy herds, the demand could be met locally. This, how-
ever, would result, in summer, in an enormous surplus of
milk produced at so high a cost that its conversion into

butter, cheese or other milk products would be economically
impracticable. Importations, therefore, are the only
alternative in the season of maximum demand.
How to control the sanitary quality of imported milk oc-
cupied much of the conference's time. It was agreed gen-
erally that some kind of supervision must be exercised, but
that, even then, shipped milk could not be of as high a
grade as that produced under local control.
The general sentiment seemed to be in favor of grading
the milk supply and having the source of all Imported milk
indicated plainly. This method of dealing with shipped-in
milk is along the lines Dr. Levy for some time has had in
mind for this city.
The conference was called by Dr. B. L. Arms, state
health officer, who presided. It was attended by milk pro-
ducers, representatives of large milk distributing concerns,
health officers of virtually all cities and many smaller cen-
ters in Florida, and representatives of the state board of
health and the state live stock sanitary board. Those at-
tending from Tampa, besides Dr. Levy, were Dr. C. L.
Woolard, chief dairy inspector for the city, and H. D. Os-
burn, district sanitary inspector for the state board of
The presence of Leslie C. Frank, sanitary engineer,
United States public health service, added greatly to the
value of the conference, Dr. Levy said. Mr. Frank has
done important work in standardizing milk ordinances
and in improvement of the milk supply in several states.


That Milton, Santa Rosa county, is coming to be quite a
cattle shipping point, is evidenced by the fact that no less
than eight cars of cattle have already been shipped from
that place to outside markets last week, with several other
cars to follow in a few days. The Milton Gazette says
those shipping last week were: Whitmire and Broxsons,
of the Yellow River district, who have shipped out five cars
so far; Dr. Rufus Thomas, who shipped one car last week,
and Driver & Hardige, of the Jay neighborhood, who have
shipped three cars so far. Several others are to be ship-
ped in a few days, including three cars by the Jernigan
Brothers, one car by Cleve Jones, of Munson, and another
car by Dr. Rufusl Thomas. Santa Rosa county cattle are all
in the best of condition before they are loaded on the cars
and bring a good price on the market, the Gazette adds.


Lake Worth Leader.
Tallahassee, Sept. 13.-(I. N. S.)-A Wisconsin farmer
wants to bring a herd of Guernsey cows into Florida and
engage in poultry raising and dairying.
He is Jacob Gobeli of Glenwood City, Wis., and has writ-
ten to the immigration bureau, State Department of Agri-
culture, for information regarding dairying and poultry
raising possibilities in this state. Gobeli says he has six-
teen Guernsey animals in his herd.
Phil S. Taylor, advertising editor of the immigration
bureau, is sending Gobeli maps showing the tick-free area
of the state, with other information about dairying and
poultry raising here. Only a dozen of the sixty-seven
counties of the state are now free of ticks, the official
pointed out.
"This instance emphasizes the need for the tick. eradica-
tion work of the state sanitary live-stock board," Taylor
said, "and also demonstrates why Nathan Mayo, commis-
sioner of agriculture, is throwing the strength of his de-
partment solidly behind the authorities working for tick

Florida Review 7


St. Andrews Bay News
What this work has done for this section of West Florida
is shown by the following:
Beef cattle in the tick-free area of West Florida and
from those counties in the western part of the state in
which tick eradication work is in progress are bringing
the highest prices for such cattle that have been obtained
since World War days. Illinois and New Orleans are
taking the cattle at the rate of about 20 carloads a week.
A significant instance was the shipment by L. A. Brown,
Chipley, of cattle for feeding in Illinois for which he re-
ceived $25 a head. Prior to tick eradication work in West
Florida, no cattle were shipped from that section to the
Illinois feeding range.
Not only is ridding the area from the tick opening new
markets for range cattle but better prices are being ob-
tained for the stock than were possible under tick-infested
conditions. Just before the work was begun in Walton
county, March 29th of this year, a herd was sold at $5.50
a head. Range cattle of the same which are being dipped
regularly now are selling in New Orleans market for
slaughter at $10 to $15 a head, and the market is receiving
all sizes of stock.
Wesley Miller, of Point Washington, recently sold a se-
lected carload of steers at $25 a head. Prior to beginning
the tick war the highest price obtainable for such cattle
was $15 a head.
According to advices from Walton county, 5,000 head
have been shipped from that county since the movement of
cattle began. It is said that cattle owners plan to have
better breeds of stock on the pasture lands of that section,
which it is believed will be tick free before another season
rolls around.
Cattlemen of Jackson county are buying Walton county
stock, figuring on a profit in feeding the animals on Jackson
county tick-free pastures and securing the higher prices
that cattle from tick-free areas bring-which means that
a fair return is possible even with paying the increased
prices now ruling in Walton county.
"The State Sanitary Live Stock Board is encouraging
importation of high grade sires for the herds of beef cattle,
as it has been found that breeding of Florida cattle can be
done profitably by this method. The board is fostering a
movement under way to place Aberdeen Angus sires in
Liberty and Franklin counties to improve the range herds
That greater interest and profits in dairying will follow
eradication of the tick is indicated by the bringing of two
carloads of Holsteins in Jackson county. The animals
were sold as home dairy cows, many of the buyers purchas-
ing one or two animals, with the idea of supplying their
own and their neighbors' needs. Senator Singletary of
Jackson county was among the purchasers of the Holsteins,
buying four.


Tallahassee, Fla., Aug. 26 (INS).-Many requests have
been received by the State Sanitary Live Stock Board, since
preparations were begun for tick eradication in the West
Florida zone.
Among those who have requested that vats be constructed
for early dipping of their cattle are J. C. Braswell, owner
of a large plantation west of Monticello; Hirsch Walker,
one of the largest cattle owners of Jefferson county; John
W. Dutton, cattleman of the Waukena section; J. B. Stouta-
mier, Leon county; Senator Henry Walker, Wakulla

county; Sheriff Morrison and his brother of Fayette Hall;
the Ashmore, Wilder, Ward, Langston and Brown families,
all of Wakulla; the Henley brothers and Johnston family
in Madison county and McQueen Chaires in Dixie county.
Chaires advised the board that he wishes to clean up his
cattle for feeding on a western range.
Fourteen new vats have been completed in the new zone
of activity, in Wakulla, Jefferson, Leon, Madison, Taylor,
Lafayette and Dixie counties. The early dipping for the
convenience of cattle owners, will be voluntary, and not
systematic dipping by the state board, which is scheduled
to be begun early in 1927.
Old vats that can be re-charged and used in the new
dipping number as follows in the various counties: Wa-
kulla, 3; Jefferson, 12; Madison, 32; Lafayette, 12; and
Taylor 8 or 10.
A number of cattle owners of West Florida are planning
to introduce pure bred strains in their dairy herds when
the tick is eradicated which, given 40 per cent co-operation
by cattlemen, will be accomplished in the new zone within
twelve months, state officials predict.
One of the achievements in tick eradication that has con-
vinced many Florida cattle owners of the effectiveness and
value of the work, it was stated, was cleaning up of the
Okefenokee Swamp in South Georgia, where the tick was
eradicated under serious difficulties.


Pensacola News
Beef cattle in the tick-free area of West Florida and
from those counties in the western part of the State in
which tick eradication work is in progress are bringing
the highest prices for cattle that have been obtained since
the days of the World War, says the Jacksonville Journal.
This is the direct result of the campaign to free the
state of ticks and to make Florida a greater cattle state,
Ioth for beef and dairy products. It proves the contention
all along that Florida would be a greater state once it was
freed of this pest. Better breeds will be kept in the state
and the returns will mount. Florida has millions of acres
of land that are suitable for the cattle industry. And
Florida is importing more beef and dairy products than
she produces.
Florida is sending thousands of dollars out of the state
in a continuous stream for beef and dairy products that
she ought to produce at home. One of the essentials is
to free the state of ticks and then Florida will produce more
of the necessary foodstuffs. The opposition to dipping vats
is shortsighted and the only proof that is needed is the
higher price that the tick-free areas are bringing.


Tampa.-Cattle ticks and the open range law are costing
Florida $10,000,000 a year, by increasing the expense of
milk and butter production, Capt. A. B. Dickman. Ruskin
pioneer, told the executive committee of the Board of
Trade agricultural bureau at a luncheon meeting recently
in the Temple Terrace hotel.
"I know that statement may strike you as incredible,"
Capt. Dickman said, "but it can be supported with the best
of evidence."
R. T. Kelly, county agent, told the committee good prog-
ress was being made in the war on ticks, and that Florida
eventually would be rid of the pests. He said one tier of
counties in the northern part of the state and a section of
the gulf coast already were free from ticks.

8 Florida Review


Mayo Free Press.
Construction of additional dipping vats is now in prog-
ress throughout the county. There are now fourteen old
vats throughout the county and they will, with the added
new ones, be spaced five and six miles apart, depending
on location of the principal communities, and the various
cattle ranges. It is estimated that a total of twenty-five
or thirty vats will be sufficient to serve the county, mak-
ing it convenient for all cattle owners.
Cattlemen wishing to place their cattle this fall on an
open market can do so by dipping and cleaning their cattle
under state and government supervision. After the cattle
are clean of ticks, they will be given a final dipping at the
loading place; loaded into clean and disinfected railway
cars, and then official permits will be given for shipments
to any officially recognized slaughtering center. Cattle
need no longer be sold at restricted quarantined markets.
This privilege has never before been accorded any other
non-working tick-infected section, and is being granted
cattle owners at this time so as to help them market their
surplus cattle, and also their wild, unruly cattle in prepa-
ration to systematic dipping next spring.
Systematic tick eradication can be accomplished success-
fully in one year, depending, however, on one hundred per
cent dipping from the start to the finish, and on the thor-
ough co-operation of cattle owners, county officials, civic
organizations and newspapers.


Greenville Progress.
Fifty-seven graded and registered Jersey calves arrived
in Greenville last Sunday in charge of County Demonstra-
tor Lawton and placed in a fine pasture, where they could
be properly cared for until disposed of to farmers and
others who will buy. The calves were in excellent condi-
tion on arrival here from the long and hot trip they had
to endure. Those who bought are pleased with their pur-
chase, knowing that they have something that will event-
ually displace the scrub stock that this section is infested
with. Most of the calves will make prize winners if prop-
erly cared for, as great care was taken by Mr. Lawton in
making the selections.
It is a recognized fact, and admitted by all who are ac-
quainted with the lands and conditions in this section, that
stock raising and dairying will eventually displace the cot-
ton fields and that fine pastures for cattle and hogs will
be the order of things hereabouts. To make a success of
cattle raising the best stock must be had, as it costs as
much to feed a sorry cow or hog as it does a good one.
This is a grain and grass producing country, the kind of
land that all of Florida is not blessed with, and forage for
feeding during the winter months can be harvested here as
successfully as in Tennessee or Kentucky, where stock
raising has always been a success with farmers.
The farmers of Madison county realize that a change
from the old and worn-out method of farming must take
place, else they must change their location. There is a
money market for every gallon of milk taken from the cow
and a good price paid for beef cattle at all seasons of the
year. The market has never become glutted with dairy
products, and neither has it reached that point where hogs
brought prices that did not return the man who raised
them a good profit. Do not stop buying calves, but buy as
many as you can conveniently care for, as they will prove
your salvation in this country.

Monticello News
Hirsch Walker, one of the large cattle owners of Jeffer-
son county was in Tallahassee a few days ago to confer
with members of the state live stock sanitary commission,
and revealed that he was one of the strongest boosters in
his section for the tick eradication program just getting
under way.
Mr. Walker stated that he wished to clean up his herds
at the earliest possible moment and sought out Dr. Vara
to request the construction of necessary vats at once in his
community. He said that pure bred sires would be im-
ported by him as soon as the cattle fever tick was ex-
terminated so that it would be safe to bring these fine
animals into his pastures.

Lake City Reporter.
L. A. Smartt, a well-known realtor of Lakeland, says
Florida can never become a great dairying state as long
as the tick exists. He says, among other things:
1. The development of agricultural resources is the basis
of real prosperity in any state and the greatness of its
prosperity is in proportion to the development and profit-
ableness of its agriculture.
2. No state has ever achieved her greatest possibilities
from an agricultural standpoint without live stock. When
our so-called "back country" cultivates the cow, the hen
and the sow, Florida will then be really great.
3. Florida can never become a successful and commercial
stock raising and dairying state until it eradicates the
tick-infected cow. As someone so well said:
"If there is aught to make Florida sick
It is the tick-the tick-the tick."
The present tick eradication act was passed by the 1923
session of the legislature. It created the State Live Stock
Sanitary Board, composed of seven members. It was given
wide powers and this was the first decisive step in the
state toward real tick eradication. This board was given
the right to effect quarantine, enter upon premises to dip,
take into custody, disinfect and otherwise treat tick-infested
animals. Considering the handicaps under which it started
and carried on the work the board has accomplished won-
ders. II. H. Simmons of Jacksonville, a real tick "fan," is
chairman of the board.
Ten counties are now entirely tick free and four are
practically or partially free. The free territory is com-
posed of about ten million acres and the way the work is
moving now we may expect sixteen million acres to be
freed by the first of next January. Monroe, Dade, Bre-
vard, Palm Beach, Gadsden, Jackson, Calhoun, Gulf, Wash-
ington and Bay are the counties wholly free. The work
in the first four was accomplished under the old option
plan before the present law became effective. The four
counties that are now part free are Martin, Holms, Liberty
and Franklin-the last two being now practically free.
Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton and the remain-
der of Holmes should be free by January first.
It will take many years to make Florida tick free at the
above rate, namely, four million acres a year. Mr. Sim-
mons says: "We are gaining on the tick. We are winning
out. But just sit down and figure how long it is going to
take at the present rate, and bear in mind that there can
be no sound agricultural development in a tick-infested
country. The cow is the backbone of agriculture.
"If the state of Florida could eradicate the tick 100 per
cent, at an expenditure of one hundred million dollars, it
would be the best investment she could make."

Florida Review 9


To carry out methods of eradication successfully it is
necessary to know the life history of the tick and the in-
fluence of temperature, moisture, and other climatic condi-
tions on the various stages of its existence. In following
the discussion of these matters, the reader is asked to bear
in mind that whenever the term "tick" or "cattle tick" or
"fever tick" is used it refers to the one species or kind,
Margaropus annulatus.* The fever tick is sometimes con-
fused with a number of other ticks occasionally found on
cattle, which, so far as concerns the transmission of Texas
fever, are entirely harmless to them. Some of these ticks
are illustrated in figures 2 and 3, which will help the
reader to distinguish between the various kinds.
Cattle are the usual hosts for the fever tick. Frequently,
horses, mules, deer, and sometimes even buffaloes and sheep
serve as hosts. But none of the latter animals, with the

once, especially if the weather is warm, begins to search
for a hiding place on moist earth beneath leaves or any
other litter which may serve as a protection from the sun
and numerous enemies or shield her from unfavorable
conditions. The female tick may be devoured by birds,
or destroyed by ants. or may perish as the result of low
temperature, absence or excess of moisture, and many other
unfavorable conditions; so that many which fall to the
ground die before they lay eggs.
During the spring, summer, and fall months egg laying
begins in from 2 to 20 days, and during the winter months
in from 13 to 98 days, after the female tick has fallen to
the ground. The eggs are small, elliptical-shaped, at first
of a light-amber color, later changing to a dark brown,
and are about one-fiftieth of an inch in length. As the eggs
are laid they are coated with a stick secretion, which
causes them to adhere in clusters and no doubt keeps them
from drying out. During egg laying the body of the mother

Herd of H. F. Bostwick, Quincy, Florida. Gadsden County is now free of ticks and such herds as this
cannot be kept along with ticks.

possible exception of deer and buffaloes, are susceptible to
tick fever; consequently they suffer from the tick as a
simple parasite and not as a transmitter of disease. So
far as deer and animals other than cattle, horses, and
mules are concerned no consideration need be given them
in practical tick eradication. In the case of horses and
mules, however, it is often necessary to treat them the
same as cattle.
The tick spends only a part of its life on the body of the
animal; the rest of the development occurs on the pasture.
Development on the Ground
In tracing the life history of the cattle tick it is con-
venient to begin with the large, plump, olive-green engorged
female tick, about half an inch in length, attached to the
skin of a cow. During the few preceding days she has
increased enormously in size, as a consequence of drawing
a large supply of blood.
When fully engorged she drops to the ground and at

tick gradually shrinks, and finally is reduced to about one-
third or one-fourth its original size. Egg laying is greatly
influenced by temperature, being retarded or even arrested
by cold weather. In the summer time egg laying may be
completed as soon as 4 days after it has begun, or by the
end of about a week after the tick has dropped to the
ground. It has been observed that if the ticks drop in
the fall of the year the egg-laying process may continue
for as long as 151 days. A tick may deposit from a few
hundred to more than 5,000 eggs, and when egg laying is
completed the mother tick, having fulfilled her purpose,
dies in a few days.
After the eggs have been laid they must undergo a
period of incubation before they are ready to hatch. The
period may be as short as 19 days in the summer, or as
long as 200 days if the fall and winter seasons are involved.
When incubation has been completed there issues from
each egg a small, oval, six-legged larva or seed tick, at
first amber-colored, later changing to a rich brown. After

-- ---

10 Florida Review

crawling slowly over and about the shell from which it
has emerged, it usually remains more or less quiet for
several days, after which it shows great activity, especially
if the weather is warm, and ascends the nearest vegetation,
such as grass, herbs, and even shrubs.
Since each female lays an enormous mass of eggs at
one spot, thousands of larvae may appear in the course
of time at the same place. The young ticks will ascend the
near-by vegetation and collect on the leaves and other
parts of plants. This instinct of the seed ticks to climb
upward is a very important adaptation to increase their
chances of reaching a host. If the vegetation on which
they rest is disturbed they become very active and extend
their long front legs upward in a divergent position, wav-
ing them violently in an attempt to seize hold of a host.
During its life on the pasture the seed tick takes no food
and consequently does not increase in size, and unless it
reaches a host on which to live as a parasite, it dies of
starvation. The endurance of seed ticks is very great,
however, as they have been found to live more than eight
months during the colder part of the year. For example,
it is known that in the case of female ticks that dropped
to the ground August 14 and deposited eggs that began to
hatch September 9, all the seed ticks from the eggs were
not dead until the following May 13, 246 days after hatching
began, or 274 days after the females dropped from the
cattle. Fortunately, however, seed ticks are not able to
live nearly so long during warm weather and die within
a few months in the summer.
Development on Cattle
The parasitic part of a tick's life begins when the larva
or seed tick reaches a favorable host, such as a cow. he
tick crawls up over the hair and commonly attaches
itself to the skin of the escutcheon, the inside of the thighs
and flanks, or to the dewlap. It begins at once to draw
blood and soon increases in size. In a few days the young
tick changes from a brown color to white, and in from
5 to 12 days molts or sheds its skin. The new form has
8 legs instead of 6 and is known as a nymph.
In from 5 to 11 days after the first molt the tick again
sheds its skin and becomes sexually mature. At this stage
for the first time, males and females can be distinguished
with certainty. The male emerges from his skin as a
brown, oval tick, about one-tenth of an inch long. He has
reached his growth and goes through no further develop-
ment, but later he shows great activity, moving about over
the skin of the host. The female at the time of molting
is slightly larger than the male. She never shows much
activity, seldom moving far from her original point of at-
tachment. She still has to undergo most of her growth.
After mating, the female increases very rapidly in size
and has been known to become fully engorged as early as
48 hours after the second molt, but usually at least 4 days
are required for her engorgement. Commonly this period
lasts from about a week to as long as 25 days. In excep-
tional cases, the time that elapses between the attachment
of the tick as a seed tick and its dropping from the animal
as a fully engorged female may be less than 20 days, but
generally it is three weeks or a little more. The greatest
length of time that a tick has been observed to stay on an
animal is 66 days.
Summary of Life History
To sum up, on the pasture there are three stages of the
tick-the engorged female, the egg, and the larva or seed
tick; and on the host animal are also three stages-the
larva or seed tick, the nymph, the sexually mature adult
of both sexes, and in addition the engorged condition of
the female.

Methods of Eradication
In undertaking measures for eradicating the tick, it is
evident that the pest may be attacked in two locations,
namely, the pasture and the cattle. Animals may be freed
of ticks in two ways. They may be treated with a dis-
infectant that will destroy all the ticks present, or they
may be pastured at proper intervals on tick-free fields
until all the ticks have dropped. The method of freeing
cattle from ticks by applying a solution that kills the ticks
is the method generally used. The pasture-rotation method
is not only more complicated but the necessary tick-free
fields are seldom available.
In freeing pastures the method followed may be either
direct or indirect. The direct method consists in excluding
all cattle, horses, and mules from pastures until all the
ticks have died from starvation. This plan is seldom fol-
lowed because the owner is usually not willing to give up
the use of his pasture even temporarily. The indirect plan
consists in permitting the cattle and other animals to con-
tinue on the infested pasture and treating them at regular
intervals with agents destructive to ticks, thus preventing
engorged females from dropping and reinfesting the pas-
ture. All the seed ticks on the pasture, or those which
hatch from eggs laid by females already there, will die
eventually. Those that get on the cattle from time to time
will be destroyed by the treatment, while those which fail
to find a host will starve to death in the pasture.

J. R. Matthis Has Contract for Additional Vats Work on
Which Is Started.
Perry Herald..
J. R. Matthis has the contract for the construction of
the additional dipping vats needed for cattle dipping in
Taylor county, which begins in the spring of 1927. Mr.-
Matthis began work on the first vat Wednesday morning
and will build not less than twenty-five before he finishes
his contract.
The first vat will be built near the home of G. B. Moses
in the Sand Hill community. This vat will be near the
center of the cattle ranges of the southern part of the
county. The other vats will be well scattered over the
various ranges of the county, as the Live Stock Sanitary
Board desires to do what it can for the convenience of
cattle owners in order to facilitate dipping.
There are already more than a dozen vats in the county,
which were built in 1919 under the direction of the board
of county commissioners. When the new ones are com-
pleted, which it is thought will happen before January 1,
1927, there will be about forty vats in all.
J. R. Matthis, who is building the vats now under con-
struction, was also one of the contractors for those built
in 1919, and is therefore well acquainted with the work he
is doing. He is also an experienced contractor and builder
and his selection means that the vats will be well con-
Construction of vats is also going on in Dixie county,
R. J. Triay and J. C. Jeta being the contractors for the
construction of the vats there. It will probably require as
many or even more vats in that county as in this, as Dixie
county is one of the principal cattle ranges of Florida, hav-
ing a number of large herds.

It is not a question of how many cows you can support,
but how many cows it will take to support you.
Profit by the experience of others. Have the courage
to change faulty methods for better ones.
The dairy industry of Florida needs more good cows.
Fifty per cent of our so-called dairy cows should be sent
to the block.

Florida Review 11


Now Building Vat Near Lake Miccosukie and Others to Be
Started-Survey Now Under Way in Madison, Taylor,
Lafayette and Dixie.
Madison Enterprise-Recorder
In response to a letter from the Enterprise-Recorder
relative to the contemplated tick eradication work in this
section, the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, has sub-
mitted the following report:
Following a preliminary survey of Jefferson, Leon, and
Wakulla counties by the State Live Stock Sanitary Board,
the first dipping vat to be built in this new territory
into which the Board will soon start the work of tick
eradication is now under construction. It is being built
in Jefferson county near Lake Miccosukee. Others will
be started at an early date. A survey is now under way
in Madison, Taylor, Lafayette and Dixie counties for the
purpose of determining the locations for vats that will be
built in these counties.
The location of the largest herds of cattle throughout
the area in which vats will be built will determine the
location of the first vats to be constructed. This is for
the purpose of permitting the owners of the greatest num-
ber of cattle to prepare them for the fall and winter mar-
kets, if they wish to do so while the cattle are fat from
the summer pasturage. The numerous requests that came
to the Board from cattle owners for such service in the
western part of the state when tick eradication was first
started in those counties led the Board to adopt this policy.
Cattle so prepared may be moved, both inter- and intra-
state markets. It is expected that all vats in the entire
new area will be completed January 1, after which dipping
throughout the area will be carried on.
Beef cattle from the West Florida counties that are now
tick free and from those western counties in which tick
eradication is now in progress are bringing the best prices
that have been obtained since the World War. They are
being shipped to Illinois for feeding purposes and to New
Orleans for immediate slaughter, the shipments averaging
twenty carloads per week at the present time. The cattle
shipped to Illinois are bringing $25 per head; those that
are going to the New Orleans market from $10 to $25 per
head but the market is taking everything, big and little,
young and old.
Just before tick eradication was legun in Walton county,
March 29 of the present year, cattle such as are now being
placed in the New Orleans market sold for $5.50 per head.
According to recent advices from Walton county, 5,000
head of cattle have been shipped from that area at the
better prices that are being obtained since the work of
tick eradication opened the market to the range cattle men.
The State Live Stock Board is encouraging the cattle
men in tick free areas to get better sires for their herds
of beef cattle, as it has been shown that the breeding up
of the range cattle can be profitably done under these
conditions. The Board is encouraging a movement to bring
Aberdeen Angus bulls into Franklin and Liberty counties
for cross-breeding purposes in that territory.
The beef cattle industry is not the only one to profit by
tick eradication. Two carloads of Holsteins have recently
been brought into Jackson county and sold as home dairy
cows to purchasers who bought one or two animals with
the idea ofl supplying their own needs and that of their
When dipping is under way in zones eleven and twelve
it will mean that the area between the Suwannee and Per-
dido rivers, where such crops as velvet beaus, beggar weed,
soy beans, peanuts, corn, oats, rye, sweet clover, alsike and

other feed and forage crops may be raised in abundance
and throughout the year, and where natural pasturage
abounds is being prepared for the great cattle raising and
dairying industries. This section could easily become the
Iowa of the South. The work now under way should hasten
the day when this possibility becomes a reality.


Daytona Beach News.
1. A regulation by the Florida State Board of Health re-
quiring all milk from other states to be graded so that five-
day-old milk cannot compete with fresh Florida milk.
2. A great renewal of the tick-eradication war through
the state legislature tripling its tick eradication appropria-
tions for several years.
3. Encouragement of Florida milk producers and dis-
tributors to better the quality and safeguard the purity of
their product.
These three needs were stressed as all-important at a
meeting in Jacksonville Thursday under the auspices of the
State Board of Health in connection with its movement to
purify Florida's milk supply, according to Dr. W. A. Brun-
son, city sanitary officer, who returned here Friday.
Elliott B. Smoak, president of the Halifax Creamery
here, also attended the conference.

It was brought out at the meeting that milk from other
states is being brought to Florida five days old and sold in
unfair competition with the state's milk. Some of the
foreign milk is also produced under sanitary conditions
which would not be tolerated in this state, dairymen
charged. Graded milk was suggested as the remedy for
this practice, Dr. Brunson said.
"Florida spends $31,000,000 annually for milk and dairy
products and of this amount $24,000,000 goes out of the
state, Dr. N. A. Upchurch, Jacksonville health inspector,
told us," Dr. Brunson said. "That means it will cost us
$240,000,000 in ten years because we do not have enough
cows to produce the needed amount of milk. If the legisla-
ture triples its tick eradication appropriation, thus allow-
ing us to have more cows, in ten years the tick will have
disappeared and the state will have $240,000,000 for itself
in the ten following years."


Florida News Bulletin.
Ocala.-Marion County Pure Bred Bull Club Association
was perfected at the organization meeting held in the
court house, with the following temporary officers: John
Pfeil, Lowell, president; John Reiff, Lowell, vice-presi-
dent; Harry Kroll, Lowell, secretary-treasurer.
The purpose of the new association is to build up the
quality of dairy herds in Marion county through sires of
pedigreed blood line.
Prof. J. M. Scott, animal industrialist of the extension
department at Gainesville, was present and aided in the
work. Mr. Scott pointed out what he had done at the ex-
periment station with good bulls. "I produced one cow
with a record of 13,260 pounds of milk in a year," said Mr.
Mr. J. L. Edwards, president of the Ocala National Bank,
pointed out the attitude of the business men of Ocala to-
ward the dairy industry. Just recently several hundred
dollars were subscribed by the local business interests to
be matched by an equal amount from the farmers, which
sum would go toward stocking the county with pure-bred

12 Florida Review


Thomasville Times
Florida buys a large tonnage of milk, when there are
very few sections where the possibilities of profitable dairy-
ing are as good. The pasturage in Florida is superb. Thou-
sands of cattle could range along the St. Johns river and
eat the hyacinth that dots its banks and clogs its waters,
and there is no better grass than that which grows in some
of the marshes near the coast.
The tonnage of milk shipped into Florida is an indica-
tion, first, that Florida isn't supplying its own demands
where it could be easily done, and second, that it could make
a much larger share of profit than the milk owners much
farther away can do by reason of the freight on the product.
But Florida is unfortunate in the cattle business and in
the opinion of experienced cattlemen it will n. .'er be able
to get into the dairy business with any degree of success
until it has completely eradicated the fever -tick. That
pest will not permit full-blooded cattle, such as produce
the best and the greatest quantity of milk, to live in that
state. Minus the fever tick, there would be no reason why
the industry would not become one of the most profitable
that the state could use.
The eradication of the tick is being attempted and it is
stated that in a short time, comparatively, it will have been
accomplished. There is still a long way to go before it
can be done, judging by our experience here. If the North
Florida section is freed, it will then be possible for Georgia
to do away with practically all of the dipping, except in
isolated cases, where ticks have become prevalent again
through Florida infestation.


Suwannee Citizen
Florida should be right proud of itself. At the cost of
an immense amount of money, its neighbor, Georgia, is
completing a fence two hundred and forty miles long to
keep Florida's tick-infested cattle from coming across the
state line.
Georgia has spent millions of dollars and has fought and
won many a hard fight against ignorance to get rid of most
of its own cattle ticks, and quite rightly has no idea of
allowing Florida's scrawny, flea-burdened brutes to come
into the territory still to. be cleaned.
Because there have always been enough hirelings of the
range-cattle men in the state legislature to protect Florida's
cattle ticks, this state has to sit back and see that strong
fence built by a neighboring state. It has to see its good
neighbors in Georgia taxed for the construction of a barrier
against Florida's diseased cattle. Fine work, isn't it?
Thanks to the enactment of a local option law some years
ago, a number of Florida counties are tick free. The tick-
free area is constantly growing due to the educational
work of intelligent cattle men. But in those counties where
there is much ignorance and unscrupulous owners of big
herds of cattle, living on the "free range," the tick reigns
supreme. And because the state of Florida as a whole
has not learned how to cure its pest spots, it is given the
humiliation of seeing a two-hundred- and-forty-mile fence
built by a good neighbor as a protection against damage
from Florida citizens.
A bit of justice would be done if Florida's cattle tick
counties were compelled to pay to Georgia the cost of that
fence!-Sanford Herald.


Tallahassee State
The State Sanitary Livestock Board has announced the
completion of a dipping vat in Jefferson county and the
beginning of construction of two each in Madison and
Wakulla counties and a second vat in Jefferson.
The work of tick eradication, construction of vats and
charging them is under the general supervision of Dr.
J. J. Vara, with J. C. Peter in charge of Wakulla county;
J. W. Carlton, Jefferson county, and R. B. Thompson, Madi-
son and Hamilton counties.
Probably 300 vats will be required in the new territory
just invaded stretching from the Ocklocknee to the Su-
wannee river. It was stated that if 100 per cent co-opera-
tion could be had from cattle owners, the area now be-
ginning to be cleaned up could be cleared and tick free
easily by the end of 1927, or approximately in 12 months
after the real campaign begins.
Dipping of cattle will be started in a small way immedi-
ately in order to co-operate with some cattle owners who
wish it, but the real campaign is not expected to get under
way in the new zone until the early part of next year.


American Eagle
Florida must continue to import milk, thousands of dol-
lars' worth, from Georgia and from other states, even from
Wisconsin, up near Canada. That is the fact admitted
at the State milk conference just held in Jacksonville,
which Dr. E. C. Levy, Tampa's health officer, attended.
Yes, Florida will have to keep on spending money out-
side, that way, although the quality of such imported milk
is not as good as that produced in this State.
Florida authorities will exercise some supervision over
the milk imports. Presumably such milk is of fair quality
and free from typhoid germs. We have not heard of any
deaths or epidemics yet caused by the great quantity of
milk shipped here across the United States.
But the facts remain: Inspection is difficult; such milk
cannot be kept to as high grade as that produced here,
and it takes a lot of money away from Florida.
And the reason is simply that the Florida Legislature
has not yet provided for eliminating the cattle tick from
the whole State. We suggest that the next Legislature do
so by unanimous vote. Any opposed to tick eradication
perhaps would be glad to chip in and pay out of their own
pockets the amount that ticks cost Florida. If a messenger
loses a $5 bill he ought to have to make it good. If a
majority of the Legislature rallies to defend the tick, they
should pay the tick's expenses.-Tampa Tribune.


DeFuniak Springs, Fla., Aug. 7 (INS).-From 25 to 30
carloads of cattle are being shipped daily to New Orleans
from West Florida. These cattle are rangers, which are
sent to market after being dipped a few times. An aver-
age of 53 are loaded in one car, the cattle being small.
The cattle come mostly from Bay, Holmes, Okaloosa
Walton and Washington counties. Fifteen thousand are
contracted to leave Walton county by November 1.

Florida Review 13


Ship Again Under Inspection Thames and Martin
Milton Tribune.
Two carloads of Santa Rosa county cattle were shipped
Wednesday by Dr. Rufus Thames and W. W. Martin.
There were approximately one hundred head of fine range
cattle in the two cars, and they were shipped to New
Thames and Martin have shipped numerous cars of cattle
from this county during the past two months. The cattle
are shipped only after inspection by federal agents, as the
tick eradication has not been completed in Santa Rosa
county. It is hoped, however, that the tick eradication
work will be completed early in 1927 and the quarantine
lifted, after which regular shipments will be made without
the necessity of inspection by government agents.
Plans also are being made to assist the cattlemen and
farmers of this county in introducing a better type of
range cattle. State officials have recommended the Black
Angus as being the type best suited to conditions in West
Florida and preparations have been made to bring into
Santa Rosa county a number of pure-bred Angus bulls.


Ocala Star
Several days ago the Star reproduced an editorial from
the Sheboygan Press, Wisconsin. The editorial commented
on reciprocal relations between the two States in shipping
their respective products to each other and mentioned the
shipment of 3,000 gallons of milk daily from Wisconsin to
Miami. In reproducing the Wisconsin paper's article the
Star approved the spirit of friendship and reciprocal rela-
tions manifested but did not touch on the economic value
of dairying in this State at the time.
It is refreshing to know that there is a reciprocal feeling
for this State in Wisconsin, and the press of Florida should
not neglect to encourage that highly desirable condition,
but our friends in the North having called attention to the
fact that great quantities of dairy products are in demand
here, we should not overlook the opportunity thus presented
to bring to light that this State is admirably adapted to the
production of milk, butter and all the other products of the
dairy farm as other sections of the country where that ih-
dustry has reached a point of intensive development.
There was a time when it was a generally accepted fact
that Florida could not grow vegetables and most food stuff
of that character was shipped into this state in cans. How
times do change! Now Florida ships thousands of carloads
of the finest garden truck to northern states and at a time
of year when people living in the colder climes would of
necessity be eating the canned article but for the fact that
sunny Florida, fanned by the warm breezes of the Gulf and
Atlantic, has become the winter garden spot of the United
States. Florida celery, Florida lettuce, Florida tomatoes,
Florida strawberries, Florida potatoes, Florida garden prod-
uce of all kinds, together with Florida's incomparable
citrus fruits, are to be found on the tables of residents of
eastern and northern states when snow and ice cover the
ground during the long winter months and no living green
thing can exist out of doors.
Tick eradication will do the same thing for dairying that
modern scientific truck farming has accomplished for the
tiller of the soil. The tick proposition has been a hard one
to solve. Tick eradication is slow but gains ground steadily.
The tick proposition has been a hard one to solve, but the

prejudice on the part of cattle men of olden days must give
way to modern, scientific methods, by reason of necessity.
As the state fills up with people and the no-fence law is
generally adopted, the tick will be outlawed. When that
time comes and adequate means of tick eradication takes
the place of the haphazard methods now followed, Florida
will become a milk producing state.
Marion county has several successful dairy farms and
others are being established. This county and the entire
state has a peculiar advantage over more northern states
in the dairy field in that a mild climate the year round
makes it unnecessary for the dairy farmer to have ex-
pensive buildings for the protection of dairy cows and the
long growing season enables the dairyman to pasture his
cows for a longer period, thus reducing the feed bill.
For some reason, or no reason, the South has been slow
to grasp the fact that it is potentially the greatest dairy
area of, probably, the entire world. What the South needs
is the weaving into the farming system of something that
will in itself be profitable and also furnish ready cash
throughout the year. Dairying meets these requirements.
In the South no great barns are required to protect cattle
from the rigors of a bitter winter or to store great stocks of
feed for their keep through the winter months. A good
shed will suffice in most sections and the cattle can graze
in the open. The grazing season and the excellent grasses
which grow luxuriantly make it possible to produce milk,
butter and cream at a low cost for a large part of the year.
The southeast is the dairyman's paradise, the truck
famer's Mecca and in the next 25 years, with the elimina-
tion of the cattle tick, Florida is sure to be one of the
most active sections of the country in the production of
milk and butter.


Pensacola Journal.
Tick eradication work in Northwest Florida has resulted
in a freer movement of cattle and higher prices for the
According to reports, 143 carloads, carrying 8,277 heads
of cattle, with some selling as high as $25 per head, have
gone forward from this section since eradication of the
tick has been effected. Average prices of from $11 to
$12.50 per head have also been reported, or approximately
100 per cent over the prices paid before dipping negan in
The freer movement of Northwest Florida cattle is the
result of a wider opening of out-of-state markets to cattle
freed from ticks. Live stock of Escambia, Santa Rosa,
Okaloosa and Walton counties, where eradication has been
in progress, is affected by the better market and prices, it
was stated. The area is not tick-free as yet, but that cattle
shipped out has undergone the eradication process.
The State Live Stock Sanitary Board is also turning its
attention to the new eradication area, now being estab-
lished between the Oklocknee river and Suwannee river.
where systematic dipping is expected to begin during the
first of next 'year. Vats are already being erected there
for those desiring dipping now, it was stated, many re-
quests of that nature being received now from cattle own-
ers wishing to get their production in readiness for the
fall and winter markets.
The new area includes Leon, Wakulla, Jefferson, Madi-
son, Hamilton, Taylor, Dixie and Lafayette counties.

14 Florida Review


The commissioners of Liberty county, one of the counties
looked upon as at least "slow" in the matter of progress
by many other sections of the state, are setting an example
that might well be emulated by the rest of the state. Hav-
ing gotten rid of the cattle tick, the county commissioners
of Liberty county are preparing to buy from fifty to one
hundred pure-bred black Polled Angus bulls to distribute
throughout that county in order to build up the cattle of
that county. This is a wise movement, and will, if carried
out, be worth thousands of dollars to the people of Liberty.
However, it will be necessary for the farmers of the county
to co-operate with the commissioners in this matter if it
is to succeed, for it is a well-known fact that one long-
horned range bull will whip a dozen pure-bred polled bulls
if turned out on the range together, hence if the farmers
are to get the benefits of the pure-bred bulls being on the
ranges, it will be necessary to eliminate, as far as possible,
the scrub bulls from the range. Unless this is done, there
is little use of getting better stock. Incidentally the work
that Liberty county is doing in this line may well be fol-
lowed by Santa Rosa and other counties of West Florida.
as soon as this territory is declared to be tick free, and
that won't be a great ways off in point of time.
In connection with the movement that is now gaining
ground throughout West Florida, of eliminating the scrub
bulls and importing pure-bred ones in their place, the ques-
tion is being asked by many, "Will it pay?" In this con-
nection we want to make the statement based on a num-
ber of years' experience handling cattle, in which the scrub
males had been eliminated, and only pure-bred ones were
kept, that it will pay and pay big. Our experience in this
line was in Louisiana, under conditions in many ways simi-
lar to conditions that prevail here. At that time range
cattle were selling at a low level, the pick of the herd of
cows bringing from ten to twelve dollars per head. Scrub
bulls were discarded and pure-bred ones substituted, with
the result that half-breed calves from range mothers were
at weaning time often nearly twice as heavy as their
mothers, and readily commanded two or three times the
price that their mothers did at the same time. It was no
unusual thing for half-breed calves to bring as high as
forty dollars each, on the market, as "baby beeves," which
made cattle growing a real industry in a section of the
state where it had hitherto been but a side line. In this
same connection, quarter-breed calves have been sold from
Santa Rosa county recently that brought as high as twenty
dollars per head on the market, while calves of the same
age and raised under similar conditions are bringing from
three to eight dollars. While half-breed sires are making
this difference in the value of their offspring, pure-bred
sires would approximately double that. In addition it
would be but a short time before there would be a number
of half-breed mothers, whose progeny, when mated with a
pure-bred sire, would be three-quarters breed, thus a herd
of approximately pure-bred stock would be built up that
would bring the breeders real money for each individual
animal. In fact a single beef of this class will bring half
as much as a carload of scrubs. It is sincerely to be hoped
that the people of Santa Rosa county will profit by the
eradication of the tick, by introducing pure-bred sires and
building up the character of the herds throughout this sec-
tion. The Polled Angus is not, as some papers are indi-
cating, dairy stock, but are the world's winners as beef

Santa Rosa Tribune
In Chicago, as indicated by the market reports, beef
cattle bring better than ten cents per pound on foot. Does
the average Santa Rosa cattle producer who is glad to get
seven cents for his cattle after being dressed, know what
this difference means to him in dollars and cents?
It's a simple matter of plain arithmetic.
For instance, a cow weighing 400 pounds on foot, would
dress, according to butcher's estimates, about one half. That
is to say the 400-pound cow, which in St. Louis or Chicago
brings him $40, here in Santa Rosa county, when dressed
to 200 pounds and sold to the butcher yields only $14.
Is not this difference between the two prices worth se-
curing-a difference of $26?
And what makes the difference? The beef cow bought
by the Chicago packer is not unlike its kind in Florida-
both have four legs, horns probably, and all eat and are
fattened or can be fattened on the same sort of feed.
Four simple letters spell the word that makes the differ-
ence of $26 in the Santa Rosa county cattle raiser's pocket
Chicago does not want the tick-ridden cattle at any
price. They are not saleable even at "bolona" prices-that
is, as refuse cows-scallawag cows, the dregs of all cowdom.
Tick-infested meat is not meat in the estimation of the
nation's large beef packers.
And yet there are cattle growers who oppose the eradica-
tion of the tick, and who probably would be glad to thrash
The Tribune because of this little editorial on the subject.

Pasco County Special
Association Plans to Make This Section Dairy Center of
The East Pasco Dairy Association was formed Saturday
at a meeting held in the office of County Agent W. T. Net-
tles, at which 15 milk producers were present, represent-
ing the Lake Jovita, Zephyrhills and Dade City sections.
One dairyman from Busnell in Sumter county and one
from near Sulphur Springs in Hillsborough county were
also present and joined. George Weems was elected presi-
dent of the organization, M. M. Musselman, vice president,
and W. H. Allen, secretary. The purpose of the associa-
tion will be to assist the members in the economical pro-
duction and marketing of milk and milk products and to
build up the industry in this section until Pasco county be-
comes the leading dairy center of Florida.
Quite a number of the members of the association have
built up a fine reputation for turning out milk of the high-
est quality and lowest bacteria content and emphasis will
be laid on the improving of the quality of milk marketed
from this section and the establishment of a reputation
that will give Pasco milk a commanding position in all
markets. Co-operative buying of feeds and equipment is
also one of the plans of the organization.
At the next meeting, which will be held the second Tues-
day in August, Vice President Mussellman, who is produc-
ing milk with as low a bacteria count as 1,000, will explain
the methods he has followed. The Florida standard for
good milk is 50,000 bacteria count. Round table discus-
sions of problems connected with the business, proper
feeding methods, mixing of dairy rations, production of
home grown feeds, selection of dairy cattle and other ques-
tions willbe held, both at this and following meetings.
All dairymen producing or selling milk in Pasco county
are eligible for membership in the organization and are
urged to join the association and help build up this indus-
try in this part of the state.

Florida Review 15

(U. 8. Dept. of Agriculture)

is this a tick?
It is a tick.
But it won't be a tick long.
Soon it will be a thousand ticks.
What does it eat?
Where does it get blood?
From your cows, steers, calves.
What do the thousand ticks eat?
Blood-and from the same source.
Where does the blood come from?
From the grass, silage, corn, cottonseed meal, and other
feed your cattle eat.
Oh-then the tick eats my feed?
Yes; but he first makes your cattle do all fte work of
turning feed into blood.
But what is cattle blood worth?
So much a pound when it goes into bepf-so much a
quart when it goes to make milk.
How much blood do ticks eat?
Where they are thick they: eat 200 pounds of blood a
year from a 1,000-pound steer.
How much milk do they take out in blood?
A few on a cow reduce the milk yield 11/2 quarts a day
-lots of them will cut the milk down over 3 quarts.
Then the ticks are drawing on my bank account?
They are certainly keeping your balance in the veal
And my neighbors?
The tick is sucking $50,000,000-a year from the South.
What is the answer?
" Ydu and the farmers, business men, bankers, and people
of the county must get together and bihild dipping vats and
dip all cattle in an arsenical bath, which kills the ticks.
Cost of dipping?
The entire cost of eradicating the tick from a county
will amount to less than 50 cents a head of cattle. Many
counties complete the work for 45 cents an animal.
Profit from dipping?
$5 to $10 a head on beef cattle-$20 to $50 a year on a
dairy cow. :
Worth doing? ...
Write today to the U. S. Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D. C., for practical information on getting
rid of that tick and curing the abscess it is making in
YOUR bank account.

News Bulletin
Jacksonville-Milk producers from every section in the
state attended a conference here September 16. It was
unanimously decided that milk importation would have to
continue for the present.
It brought out in the conference that the cattle tick is
the principal reason that more milk was not produced in
Florida. High-grade dairy cattle brought in from other
states succumbed from the Texas fever due to tick infec-
tion. Young animals seen to survive best but even when
they reach maturity their production of milk is curtailed
because of their continued annoyance by ticks.
It also developed that the demand for milk varies greatly
with the season owing to the large influx of winter visitors.
It was agreed that some kind of supervision must be exer-
cised to insure that milk shipped in should be fresh and
high-grade. General sentiment seems to be in favor of
grading milk, and having all sources of milk indicated


Clearwater Herald
Tallahassee, Fla., Aug. (AP).-There is a total of 7,056
heds of cattle in the state under supervision of the state
sanitary livestock board, according to the June summary
of the tuberculosis work in the state.
SThese herds contain 93,245 cattle. Of this number, 6,227
herds, containing 54,539 cattle, have been tested and are
now in the group of "once-tested free' herds. There are
3,500 cattle that are on the waiting list which inspectors
have not yet been able to reach.
Florida has four counties, Dade, Broward, Monroe and
Pinellas, that have been declared "modified accredfted
counties." There are but twenty-three states in the Union
in which counties have won this distinction To get upon
the "accredited list," a herd must have been "twice-tested
free," and the owner agrees to notify the state board im-
mediately when new cattle are added to the herd and to
keep.them separate from the herd until they can be tested
by an inspector. Florida has 395 accredited herds, contain-
ing 15,997 cattle.


Pensacola News
Wewahitchka, Fla., Aug. 25.-While Florida's fame as a
fruit producing state and land of eternal sunshine has been
spread to the four corners of the earth, little has been said
of the possibilities as a cattle-raising country, and outside
the bounds of the state there are few who realize the poten-
tialities in that line, according to W. C. Vickery, of Apa-
lachicola, one of the largest cattle men in this section of
the country. Mr. Vickery has been spending the past few
days in Wewahitchka. looking over the possibilities of
ranching in this section.
"With upwards of 20,000,000 acres of idle land in the
state," Mr. Vickery said, "and with much of this adaptable
to cattle raising and other forms of live stock production,
the industry that made the West is just in its infancy in
this state. In many sections of the state the industry
already has passed the experimental stage and much prog-
ress has been made."
In Gulf and Franklin counties, on the West Coast of the
state, there are more than 500,000 acres of land ideally
suited for cattle raising and used for little else. With the
free range Pystem in effect, the opportunity for cattle
raising on a large scale is apparent. A country covered
with timber liberally interspersed with broad savannah,
or open prairies, and with luxuriant grasses and shrubbery
available the fear round for forage, makes this the ideal
section for cattle raising.
So far cattle raising has been attempted on a small scale
in this section. The free range stretches from the gulf
sixty-five niles northward through a virgin land of timber
and pasturage. What few herds now roam this territory
are the property of inhabitants of the region.


Vero Beach Press
Tallahassee, Fla., Sept. 23. (AP).-Several hundred Flor-
ida cattle are wanted by John Jackman, of Millroy, Ind.,
for grazing in Indiana fields, according to a letter received
here by the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. Mr. Jackman
stated that he saw a shipment of Florida cattle at Louis-
ville, Ky., and was much impressed with the stock.

16 Florida Review


White Area: Released from State and Federal Quarantine.

Black Shaded Area: Systematic tick eradication work in prog-
ress under official supervision.

Red Shaded. Area: Area in which the preliminary work of tick
eradication is in progress.

Red Area: Quarantined area in which no tick eradication work
is in progress.

Florida imports annually over $13,000,000.00 worth of beef and over $25,000,000.00
worth of dairy products. All of these products can be produced in Florida by the de-
velopment of our cattle industry. Tick eradication is the foundation of a profitable
cattle industry, the success of which depends upon the co-operation of every citizen of
the State.

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