Alligator times
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00048939/00004
 Material Information
Title: Alligator times
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 45-29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Seminole Tribe of Florida
Publisher: Seminole Tribe of Florida
Place of Publication: Hollywood Fla
Creation Date: June 1, 1983
Frequency: monthly[ -1983]
monthly[ former 1972-]
bimonthly[ former <1974-1977>]
Subjects / Keywords: Seminole Indians -- Newspapers   ( lcsh )
Indians of North America -- Newspapers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Hollywood (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Broward County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Broward -- Hollywood
Coordinates: 26.021389 x -80.175 ( Place of Publication )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with Apr. 1972 issue?; ceased in 1983.
Numbering Peculiarities: Numbering is irregular; issues for 1974 also called vol. 1.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. 5, no. 6 (Mar. 1980) incorrectly designated vol. 5, no. 5 (Feb. 1980).
Issuing Body: Issued by: Seminole Tribe of Florida.
General Note: Editor: Moses Jumper, Jr., <1974>.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 1, no. 2 (May 1972).
Funding: Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Library Services and Technology Assistance granting program of Florida, the State Library and Archives of Florida, and other institutions and individuals.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002033560
oclc - 36178493
notis - AKM1264
lccn - sn 97027661
System ID: UF00048939:00004
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Seminole tribune

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Chairman James E. Billie Addresses Tribal Members

Monday. June 6th, marked a day of new beginning and
new hope for the future of the Seminole Tribe. A crowd of
approximately 200 watched as the Oath of Office was ad
ministered to the newly-elected leaders.
Comments from the representatives ranged from a
promise to represent the people 'honorably to high level
thinking the form of elephant jokes. All leaders expressed
their gratitude and appreciation for the opportunity to work
for their respective reservations and Tribe.
Newly representatives on the Board of Directors are:
President Cecil John: Hollywood Billy Cypress (return-
ing for second term): Big Cypress Mitchell Cypress
(returning): and Timmy Johns Brighton.
The Tribal Council saw one new face which was Mender
Johns of Brighton. Returning are: Chairman James Billie:
Big Cypress Jacob Osceola: and Hollywood Marcell-is
New beginning, new hope. a future, all these and more
tell of the work the representatives have ahead of then.
The confidence displayed by the others can only encour-
age the leaders to further establish the Seminole Tribe's
place in the future.

President Cecil Johns with Board Representatives

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dJame5 Billie
Added toB.I.A.
Binao Task Force

Washington Four Indian tribal
leaders have been added to the task
force established by the Bureau of In-
dian Affairs to study bingo and other
forms of gambling on Indian reserva-
The new members are Governor
Dana Norris, Gila River Community
Council, Arizona; James Billie, chair-
man of the Seminole Tribe of Florida:
David Anderson, chief executive of-
ficer. Lac Courte Oreille Tribe, Wiscon-
sin; and Stanley Jones, chairman of the
Tulalip Tribal Council, Washington.
Other members all with Interior in
Washington, D.C. are Hazel Elbert,
chairman, deputy director of the Office
of Indian Services: George Thomas,
research officer, Office of Trust Respon-
sibilities: Anita Vogt, Office of the
Solicitor: and Fran Ayer, special assis-
tant, Office of the Assistant Secretary
for Indian Affairs.
The purpose of the task force is to
gather information on bingo and gambl-
ing on Indian reservations and to
develop options and recommendations
for consideration of the Assistant
Secretary for Indian Affairs.



Second in a series of three.
Idealistically. tribal court is the judicial forum of a tribe
where all matters, civil and criminal, are resolved in ac-
cordance to tribal law and tradition. A tribal court is em-
powered by the Tribe with the authority and capacity to
exercise jurisdiction over all tribal territory, tribal members,
and interpret tribal law. A tribal court is the judicial branch
of a tribal government.
There are quite a few tribes in the United States which
operate their own tribal court system. The basic structure
of a tribal court system includes a judge, and appellate
judge, and a prosecutor. Some tribal court systems include
a public defender, a court clerk, and a bailiff.
These tribal courts operate under a tribal code which is
promulgated by the Tribe. An interesting note is that there
are some tribes which operate a court, but utilize title 25 of
the Code of Federal Regulations(CFR), as their code of of-
fenses and their courts are knowns as CFR courts. A tribal
code generally establishes the Courts, court rules, and of-
fenses. The benefit of a tribal code is that it may include
traditional customs in domestic matters (i.e., marriage and
divorce, adoptions.), and could include ordinances which
would be in the best interest of a Tribe.
In contrast, a tribal court and a state court differ in many
ways. One favorable difference is the atmosphere. A tribal
court is less formal than a state court, although it is not
informal, and generally has an Indian judge interpreting In-
dian law before Indian people. An Indian judge is more
sensitive to the cultural and traditional heritage of Indian
people, and is intuitive when passing judgment.
At present, the Seminole Tribe of Florida does not have
a tribal court. All matters, civil and criminal, are brought
before the state courts and decided by non-Indian judges
according to state law. Other matters, mainly administra-
tive, are brought before the tribal council to be resolved
and the decision of the tribal council is the final authority.
The first step of the Seminole Tribe in establishing a
tribal court system was to decide if the Tribal m.mbr rs 1p-
sire the creation of a tribal court. (A referendum was held
on April 22, 1983, a majority vote decided the creation of
the tribal court system.) With the vote decided, the next
step is or will be the retrocession of jurisdiction. Jurisdic-
tion is the power a government, such as the Tribe, exer-
cises over its people and territory. The authority and capa-
city of a government to govern their own people and terri-
tory is inherent and is derived from the government's sov-
ereignty. The Tribe exercises jurisdiction over its members
and territory, but this exercise of jurisdiction is limited.
As stated in the first article, the Seminole Tribe is under
the civil and criminal jurisdiction of the State of Florida
pursuant to Public Law 280. Public Law 280 provided for
a mechanism wherein the state of Florida could and did
assume civil and criminal jurisdiction over all Indian terri-
tory and Indian people within the State of Florida. What
PL 280 failed to provide was a mechanism where in the

Tribe could initiate and force retrocession of jurisdiction.
Although the mechanics of retrocessin is unclear, there is
an executive order issued by President Johnson in 1968
which authorized the Secretary of the Interior to accept, on
behalf of the United States, retrocession of jurisdiction by

Basically, this executive order allowed willing states to
retrocede jurisdiction over Indian territories back to the
Tribes through the Secretary of the Interior, the designated
agent of the United States. If the State of Florida is willing
to retrocede jurisdiction over Indian territories in the State
of Florida, then the Seminole Tribe will be able to proceed
in the establishment of a tribal court system.
When the Tribe regains civil and criminal jurisdiction.
the next step is to create and assemble a tribal code. As
previously mentioned, a tribal code generally establishes
the Court, court rules, and the offenses. More specifically,
the tribal code establishes the jurisdiction of the Court, the
li,,tns ,f the Court, and the roles and duties of the officers
of the Court. The officers of the Court being the Judges,
Prosecutors, Court Clerks. etc.
The Tribal Code also establishes the Court rules such as
civil and criminal procedure. rules of evidence, pre-trial and
trial procedure, and appeals procedure. The Tribal Code
will provide for a code of offenses, that is laws or ordin-
ances adopted by the Tribe and enforced by the Tribal Po-
lice. The code of offenses will not include fourteen (14)
specific crimes as listed in the Major Crimes Act. The jur-
isdiction over these fourteen specific crimes is vested in the
United States. A schematic jurisdictional flow chart and ex-
planation will be discussed in the next article concerning
law enforcement on the reservation.
There is another area in which the Tribal Code will pro-
vide for and that area concerns juveniles. Along with the
reassumption of civil and criminal jurisdiction, juvenile
matters will be subject to the jurisdiction of the Tribal
Once the Tribal Code is assembled, it will be presented
to the Tribal Members for acceptance. If accepted, the
Tribal Code will be sent to the Secretary of the Interior
for his approval. If rejected, the Tribal Code will be modi-
fied and amended to reflect the recommendations of the
Tribal Members and/or the Secretary of the Interior.
When the Tribal Court begins to function as the judicial
branch of the Tribe, there are two Acts of Congress which
are important to know. These two acts are the Indian Civil
Rights Act and the Indian Child Welfare Act.


All citizens of the United States are guaranteed certain
civil rights and liberties by the Constitution of the United
States. Because Indian Tribes pre-existed the Constitution
of the United States and are considered as sovereign na-
tions, the federal courts have reasoned that the Constitu-
tion is not applicable to Indian Tribes. What this basically
means is that Indian people residing within Indian territory
have been denied certain civil rights and liberties when
dealing with Indian Tribes and tribal officials.
In 1968, the Indian Civil Rights Act or the Indian Bill
of Rights was passed by Congress. The Indian Civil Rights
Act contains fundamentally the same civil rights as guaran-
teed by the United States Constitution's Bill of Rights, but
specifically addresses Indian Tribes exercising powers of
self-government. Now Indian people residing in Indian ter-
ritory under the jurisdiction of Indian Tribes are guaranteed

certain civil rights and liberties. The Act places the respon- '"
sibilify on all tribal officials including the Tribal Chairman,
Tribal Council members, Tribal Judges andTribal Police to
insure that no Tribal Member is denied and civil right he
is otherwise entitled.


With the passage of this Act there were mixed reactions.
Some Indians welcomed these guaranteed rights as long
overdue; while other Indians viewed this act of Congress
as an intrusion upon Tribal sovereignty. Whatever the
opinion of the majority is, this act of Congress will play an
interesting role with regards to the Tribal Court and raises
quite a few questions. One such question is with the crea-
tion of a Tribal Court, will individual Tribal Members be
able to take their grievances a step further in the exhaus-
tion of administrative remedies or will the actions of the
Tribal Council be allowed to be reviewed by a Tribal
(For a copy of the Indian Civil Rights Act contact the Al-
ligator Times office.)


In 1978, the Indian Child Welfare Act was passed by
Congress and deals specifically with the Indian children,
the Tribes, and state agencies.
Congress realized that a high percentage of Indian
homes and families were broken up by the removal of In-
dian children by state and non-Tribal agencies. Once re-
moved from the home, Indian children were placed in
non-Indian homes or state institutions, and through the
state administrative or judicial bodies, these Indian children
were permanently taken away from rter cultural heritage.
Congress recognized that in order for\an Indian Tribe to
continue to exist, the Tribe needed its Indian children.
Congress declared as a national policy to protect the best
interests of Indian children and assist Tribes to fulfill this
The Indian Child Welfare Act helps accomplish the goals
of this national policy and primarily allows an Indian Tribe
exclusive jurisdiction over all child custody proceedings oc-
curing on the reservation. The Act also provides for a
mechanism wherein a Tribe can intervene in any court
proceeding in behalf of an Indian child who is a member
or eligible to be a member of that Indian Tribe but does
not reside on the reservation.
The Tribal Court will play a big role in child custody pro-
ceedings because the Tribal Court will have exclusive jur-
isdiction. The Seminole Tribe will be able to intervene or
stop any state court proceeding involving Seminole Indian
children and request a transfer of jurisdiction. Child custo-
dy proceedings will then be resolved according to Sem-
inole law and tradition.

The above two Acts of Congress were only briefly dis-
cussed. At a future date, a detailed article examining the

acts and how they pertain to Tribal Members will be print-
ed. Your comments are welcome.

Percy Harrell

CERT Holds American

Spirit Award Dinner

The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) held its
1983 American Spirit Award Dinner in downtown Denver
on May 25 to honor Atlantic Richfield Chariman Robert O.
Anderson and to raise funds for its Comprehensive Indian
Education Program.
Anderson and Dinner Chairman James E. Lee, Chair-
man of Gulf Oil Corporation, called for a "spirit of cooper-
ation of tribes and companies working hand-in-hand
toward the attainment of shared goals.'
Proceeds from the $250-a-plate dinner will be used to
provide American Indians with advanced education in
engineering, the applied sciences, and business manage-
ment to help tribes manage their energy resources in
accordance with tribal values and priorities.
Lee stated that "Indians have to have the technical
knowledge and the management skills that will allow them
to make sound business decisions." Business relationships
between the energy industry and the tribes "must involve
the tribes as fully participating partners," he said. "Com-
pinies must recognize the sovereignty of Indian tribes .
(and,) at the same time, Indian leaders must recognize
the complexities of the marketplace that govern all of us in
-our business activities."
Anderson noted that Atlantic Richfield Company and
Gulf Oil Corporation were the first in the energy field to
create the position of Director of Indian Affairs. "We did
so because we recognize the growing importance of the
Indian tribes to our companies," the Atlantic Richfield
chairman said.
"To further this process of mutual help and understand-
ing, we've initiated a seminar series at the Aspen Institute
on the impact of tradition and change on Indian society,"
Anderson said. He also noted that 30 Atlantic Richfield
executives yesterday took part in a CERT-organized
seminar here "to learn more about the entire range of
issues affecting tribal energy-resource management."
CERT Chairman Wilfred Scott, Vice Chairman of the
Nez Perce Tribe, expressed appreciation for the joint
industry-tribal effort on behalf of Indian education and
announced that the dinner raised more than $150
thousand for the CERT Education Program.
CERT is a national organization of 37 tribes, whose
lands contain significant reserves of oil, natural gas, coal
and uranium. Co-chairmen of the black-tie and traditional
tribal-attire dinner were Bruch M. Rockwell, Chairman of
Colorado National Bank; Ralph F. Cox, Executive Vice
President of Atlantic Richfield Company: Stephen H. Hart,
partner in Holland and Hart; Harris D. Sherman, partner
in Arnold and Porter, all of Denver: and B. R. Brown,
Chairman of Consolidation Coal Company of Pittsburgh;
I. D. Bufkin, Chairman of Texas Eastern Transmission of
Houston; and Robert H. Quenon. Chairman of Peabody
Holding Company, Inc.. of St. Louis.
The dinner was held at the Denver Marriott City Center
and was partially underwritten by the Marriott Corporation.

CPSC Issues Strong Appeal

WASHINGTON, DC -- With the reported three recent
tragic deaths of children, two involving mesh-sided play-
pens for which an alert had been recently issued, and the
other a crib which has been under recall since 1977. the
U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission issued an
urgent appeal for consumers to heed product safety recalls
and warnings.
On May 4. the Commission learned of the death of a 6
month old baby boy in the Southwest United States in a
mesh sided playpen. On May 10, CPSC learned of a simi-
lar accident. The infants apparently rolled into the mesh
pocket formed when one side of the playpen was not in a
fully raised position. In March. 1983, the Commission had
issued a nationwide alert to consumers that drop side
mesh playpens and portable mesh cribs, used with a side
left down. can pose a severe safety hazard to infants. The
Commission is now aware of 4 deaths involving mesh-
sided playpens and 6 deaths and 2 non-fatal accidents
involving mesh-sided cribs since 1973. Seven of the inci-
dents involved children 6 weeks old or less who were left
in the playpen or crib with one of the two drop sides in the
down position. After falling off the end of the mattress
pad. the infant's head or chest was compressed between
the floor board and the mesh side so the child was unable
to continue breathing.
The Commission has urged the manufacturers of mesh-
sided playpens and portable mesh cribs to conduct a
nationwide campaign to warn parents of the hazard in
order to avoid additional tragedies from occurring.
In several related incidents, despite extensive efforts by
Bassett Furniture Industries, Inc., to recall its Candlelite
and Mandalay style cribs, a Kansas City, Missouri, area
infant was strangled in January, 1983, when he allegedly
became entrapped in the decorative headboard of a
Candlelite model crib.
The ongoing crib recall was initiated by Bassett Furniture
Industries. Inc.. of Bassett, Virginia in 1977. To date, the
cost of the recall is estimated to be one million dollars.
Although only about 7.400 cribs were sold, the occurrence
of seven infant deaths moved the company to under :ke a
notification program that included direct mailings to new
parents, warning posters in doctors' waiting rooms paid
magazine ads. and a finder's fee for located uncorrected
cribs. More than 4.500 of the affected cribs have been
modified. Owners of the Candelite style (Pine Finish,
Model #5127. Maple Finish. Model #5208) and Mandalay
style (Yellow Finish. Model #5126 or 5621, White Finish,
Model #5225) who have not yet modified their crib are
urged to contact Bassett at 703 629-7511, extension
340, for a free modification kit. Affected model numbers
can be found on the white manufacturer's sticker placed
on the inside of the headboard, below mattress level.
Urging consumers to respond to product recalls and
warnings has become of major concern to the Commission
because of several other tragic incidents which have oc-
curred after- notification was made to the public.
(continued on page 21

Reagan Strikes Again

for Secrecy and Surveillance

Vast New Government Censorship System
The Reagan Administration is pursuing all possible routes to
a more secretive government. Last year. Congress stood firm
against Administration efforts to gut the Freedom of Infor-
mation Act. But secrecy by executive order is more difficult to
fight. On March 11. with the simple stroke of a pen, President
Reagan established a vast government censorship system by
issuing an Executive Order on Protecting National Security
Information which will require all government officials with
access to "sensitive" information to sign lifetime secrecy agree-
ments as a condition of employment. Officials will be obligated
to submit any writing for pre-publication clearance so that the
government can excise any information it believes is classified.
Secrecy agreements have previously applied only to CIA
and other intelligence agency employees. Now they will also be
required of top White House. State, Defense and other officials.
Speeches, articles, books, memos and other writing will have to
be submitted not only while the officials are in the government.
but afte they have left as well. If this system had been in place
last yec Henry Kissinger would have had to get clearance
from th. Reagan Administration before publishing his memoirs
and various critiques of current or past policies. The net effect
of the di activee is a vast system of prior restraint on publication.
As a further step to stem "leaks," the order also requires
anyone with access to classified information to submit to lie
detector tests, whether or not they are reasonably suspected of
disclosing classified information. Refusing to take the test, even
though it is highly unreliable, may be considered evidence
against the employee.

New FBI Domestic Security Guidelines
On March 7, the Justice Department and FBI issued new
FBI Domestic Security Guidelines to replace the "Levi
Guidelines" promulgated by the Ford Administration in 1976.
The Justice Department claims there will be no significant
change in FBI authority or practice in domestic security cases.
However, the Guidelines on their face don't bear this out. First
Amendment rights of speech and association would be targeted
in a variety of ways, including the following:
* The FBI would be authorized to open a full scale investigation
on a person or group based solely on whether they "advocate
criminal activity." With such broad language, the FBI could
slide back into the business of monitoring those who merely
engage in lieated debate u a)aL ti- unpopular idals.
* The FBI could use informants to infiltrate groups in "in-
quiries" based only on unsubstantiated allegations or infor-
mation that does not amount to a "reasonable suspicion" of a
* The FBI could collect "publicly available information" on
those who are not the subject of an authorized criminal
investigation. This amounts to FBI monitoring of law-abiding
citizens for intelligence p)urposes--a Iros!)ect that would chill
free speech and association.

HillilA,C*1 CAKTOON'


Senate Indian Affairs

Chairman Asks that

Committee Be Made


Senator Mark Andrews, chairman of the Senate Select
Indian Affairs Committee, has introduced a resolution to
make that committee a perminant part of the Senate struc-
ture. Established in 1977 as a temporary committee, which
has twice received extentions, the committee's current
authority runs until January 2, 1984. Reasons for making
the committee permanent, according to Andrews, include
"the breadth and complexity of the field of Indian affairs,
the role of Indian tribes within the governmental structure
of the United States, the specific and unique responsibili-
ties of Congress to Indian affairs and the long-
standing problems." Andrews said the most important ac-
complishment of the committee in the 97th Congress "was
its examination of the entire Federal budget pertaining to
Indian affairs. Until 1981 no complete report on the Fed-
eral Indian budget had ever been prepared by a committee
of Congress." Speaking of the need for a permanent com-
mittee, Andrews said, "First, it bears special emphasis that
a Federal role in Indian affairs is here to stay Indian
tribes are a permanent part of our Federal fabric." He
spoke later of "an ever-increasing role for Congress in the
coming years as the United States and Indian tribes to-
gether develop a policy that will meet the tribes' need for
control over their futures." Also in support of the resolu-
tion was Senator John Melcher, ranking minority member
of the committee. He said, "The legislative record clearly
shows that a committee devoted exclusively to Indian af-
fairs is in the best interest of not only Indian people but
also of all Americans .

" '

Photo courtesy Inv. Dean Cossells, Hendry County Sheriff's Department
A DRUG plane loaded with more than $100 area Tuesday night, May 3. Two men are
million worth of cocaine veered off Snake being held in Hendry County Jail in connec-
Road (see sheriff s cars) and into a wooded tion with the incident.

Seminole Police nabs 3

in Cocaine seizure valued

over 100 million

Cocaine found aboard a disabled twin-engine
Cessna airplane Tuesday night, May 3, at Big
Cypress Indian Reservation has an estimated
street value of $111.2 million.
As of Tuesday, May 10, the body of a man
found shot to death aboard the airplane had not
been identified and two men remained behind
bars at Hendry County Jail. A fourth suspect
eluded officers at the crash site and remained at
large Tuesday.
The two men captured at the crash site,
Ernesto Jose Godoy, 26, and Juan Villalonga, 22,
both of Miami, have been charged with traffick-
ing in narcotics, conspiracy to traffic in narcotics,
and murder during the commission of a felony.
Under Florida law, second degree murder may
be charged when a person dies as the result of a
felony offense.
Just six days prior to last Tuesday's seizure,
federal lawmen seized mother cocaine-laden air-
craft at Ladeca Acres, 11 miles east of LaBelle.
The value of cocaine aboard the two aircraft seiz-
ed in Hendry County is in excess of $300 million.
The downed drug plane, disabled by gunshots
from reservation police officers last Tuesday, was
sling loaded by helicopter to the Hollywood reser-
vation for safekeeping Wednesday, May 4.
DEA officials took custody of the cocaine.
Tuesday, May 10, Sheriff Bob Durkis said
jurisdictional questions had been resolved.
The federal Drug Enforcement Agency has
taken the lead in the investigation, followed in
order by the state attorney's office and the Hen-
dry County Sheriff's Department.
Last Tuesday's incident began when Seminole
police became suspicious of a pick up truck,
driven by Gadoy, on Snake Road.
Sgt. Dwight Marshall checked the back of the

truck and found reflectors on a stand.
While checking the truck and the driver, Mar-
shall and Cpl. Jo Thomas spotted a twin engine
airplane making a low sweep over the area.
Cpl. Thomas flashed her flashlight at the
airplane. The pilot put down his landing gear and
the plane landed on the paved road.
Three men, one holding a firearm, exited the
plane, but ran back inside when the officers iden-
tified themselves.
SThe plane roared away at full throttle, while the
officers peppered it with gunshots.
Disabled, the plane crashed into a wooded area.
Officers saw two men flee from the aircraft.
Inside of the aircraft, they found the body of
the dead man, apparently killed by a single gun
shot to the head, sprawled near the cocaine, neat-
ly divided into 278 individual packets.
Members of the Hendry County Sheriff's
Department responded to a request for assist :-nce
from the reservation about 10:30 p.m.
Supervisors for the Hendry County Sheriff's
Department were completing a stress reaction
course at Airglades Airport when the call for help
was received.
"We were rolling quick," Sheriff Durkis said.
Durkis, a number of deputies, and a K-9 unit
spent the remainder of the night and most of the
'next day at the reservation, assisting the in-
Representatives of the state attorney's office
and the medical examiner's office soon arrived on
the scene as well.
Deputies later found a pistol carried by one of
the suspects near the wingtip of the airplane.
Villalonga was arrested about four miles from
the crash site. He was carrying a semi-automatic
weapon, officials said.

Manufacturers and Designers of Indian Clothing and Accessories
F t uh
0 Traditional anid Contemiporary Clothing with Original Indian Design Vork

* Jewelry
* Handbags

* Hatbands
* Woodcarvings

* Souvenirs and Gifts
* Dolls



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Dr. Gerald J. Botko


The Dental Program at Seminole has progressed rapidly
since September 1982, when Gerald J. Botko, DMD, MS,
was hired at the tribe.
Dr. Botko graduated with honors from Tufts University
School of Dental Medicine and received advanced degree
training from Harvard School of Dental Medicine. He serv-
ed as a Major in the United States Air Force where he did
a general practice residency at Malcom Grow Medical
Center at Andrews Air Force Base. Dr. Botko has a Mast-
ers Degree in Dental Public Health and Prosthetics and has
worked as Chief of Dental Services for I.H.S. in New
Mexico and Director of the General Practice Residency
Program for the Veterans Administration of Miami where
he instructed new Dentists just out of school in all phases
of Dentistry.
The five reservations are serviced by three clinics which
are almost fully operational. These clinics boast the latest
in dental technology. The clinics have the capability of
handling all the dental needs of the Seminole people in-
cluding limited full orthodontics. The dental assistants are
certified and take continuing education courses on Satur-
days to keep abreast of all the new techniques.
The Dental Program will soon have a laboratory on the
line that will process dentures, partial and crowns. This
lab will create a training center for the Seminole people in-
terested in a dental lab career and will also be a neu
source of income for the Tribe as a commercial venture.



Seminole Medical Centers New Health employee,
Marjorie Zigo, has been hired as Nurse Practitioner and
Health Educator. As Health Educator, she will develop an
education program which will include all aspects of the
Health Program. She recenlty met with the University of
Miami Drama Department to assist in the making of films.
These films will feature the Seminole's as the actors and
will be made in the Indian languages, i.e, Creek, Mic-
cosukee and will include English as well. They will use
story-telling techniques. These films will be placed in each
Clinic for the patients viewing.
Human Services The Indian Health Service conduct-
ed a program Evaluation here during the week of April
18-22, 1983. The program successfully passed with a
score of 89 or B level. This was a big improvement from
last year's evaluation score of 55 or D level. A re-evalua-
tion will be conducted on June 20 through 22 which will
determine our program funding level. The Program has
hired a new employee, Kenneth Foster, M.D., who spe-
cializes in Psychiatry. He will provide consultative services
to the program in areas of mental health, alocholism, sub-
stance/person abuse, community mental health.
Environmental Health Water and Sewer Construc-
tion Project 59-6 is being completed and will service 50
new HUD homes, this project is being made possible by
a grant under joint agreement by IHS and HUD. Other
projects underway include IHS Project 59-7 which is a
grant for engineering work for water service for 50 homes
and IHS Project NO. 59-8 which is a grant for 50 addi-
tional homes for the same type service. Have installed glue
boards in 20 homes throughout the reservations in effort to
catch rats. See Robert McColgan, OEH Director, if anyone
needs glue boards made for their home. They conducted
ten (10) home inspections in Big Cypress for broken fix-
tures, unsanitary conditions and home safety, installed two
(2) 5-KW Generators at the Big Cypress and Brighton
Clinics for standby emergency power in case of power fail-
ures, and have been involved in head lice cases reported
by the Clinics.




To Peter Toth. 28, Hungarian born sculptor, who came
to the United States during the years immediately following
the Hungarian revolt for freedom in the 1950's as a child,
freedom means everything. He is following a dream a
dream to honor the American Indian by creating Indian
statues for each of the 50 states. He then plans to go to
Canada and Mexico in an attempt to unify the whole
North American continent to honor and increase aware-
ness of the American Indian.
Peter's statues are not just table sized statues which can
beautify a bookcase, table or fireplace mantle; they are
giants that tower 30 and 40 feet in height. They stretch
across America on a path entitled appropriately "The Trail
of the Whispering Giants." This trail started for Peter in
January of 1971 in an old camper which he called "The
Ghost Ship." Peter would live on monies from selling
smaller carvings to help pay for food and gas on his quest
to carve the giant sculptures. He took no money for his
mammoth works they are gifts the wood for the
sculptures being donated from huge, ancient trees. Today
his "Whispering Giants" line the trail from Florida to
California and up to Alaska.
His latest gift is a 30-foot monument dedicated to the
Indians of Florida: being a composite of the Native Ameri-
can tribes of Florida such as the Caloosa and the Semi-
noles. In an impressive ceremony on Friday, April 22.
1983, the giant sculpture was dedicated in Alexander Park,
on A1A. overlooking Ft. Lauderdale Beach. Present were
TJoe Dan Osceola. Fred Smith, and about 30 Seminoles
and some members of other tribes. City Commissioner.
Virginia Young, who helped Peter secure a spot for his
statue. was also present. Joe Dan and FreSmith presented
Peter with a beautiful Seminole jacket at the occasion.
Peter Toth states, "As people come to see this sculpture,
I'm sure that they'll realize that the history of Ft. Lauder-
dale has been intertwined with American Indians."

Peter and Kathy are presently in Plymouth, Massachu-
setts where Peter is presently working on another sculpture
on the "Trail of the Whispering Giants." We would like to
say. "Thank you. Peter. Thank you for remembering the
American Indian. Thank you for sharing."

City Commissioner Virginia Young, Joe Dan Osceola
and Peter Toth

Fred Smith presents Peter Toth with Seminole jacket

z hdc Chik c c's
A A'T- m f I' R 00 F F 0 TS-~n

"t 1143r Ok & w iC

1 8 : 41tLi

Peter Toth adds finishing touch to his work of art

Possible $57 Million Shortfall Threatens

IHS Clinical Operations for FY '83

WASHINGTON, D.C. Indian hospitals and health
clinics may be forced to drastically curtail services -
and possibly shut down their operations entirely in
the next six months unless administrative action is taken
to avert an estimated $57 million shortfall in the Indian
Health Service budget for the current fiscal year.
Under one of several "solutions" proposed in a
recent IHS memorandum addressing the agency's
budget shortfall, IHS clinical operations would continue
at their present levels until FY 1983 funds are exhausted,
which is estimated to be late August. Other, less drastic
alternatives cited in the memorandum include request-
ing a supplemental appropriations to cover all or part of
the anticipated shortfall; requesting authority to fur-
lough certain IHS employees; seeking authority to "rep-
rogram" existing funds from other IHS budget activities
into hospital and clinic operations; and limiting the du-
ration of IHS contracts with tribes and Indian
According to IHS officials, the FY 1983 budget diffi-
culties are a result of the agency having to "absorb" the
high inflationary costs associated with medical care as
well as other "mandatory cost increases" over the last
three years. In a recent budget analysis utilizing the
Consumer Price Index to account for inflation it was
determined that an additional $137 million would be
required in 1983 to deliver the same level of health ser-
vices provided in FY 1981.
Through reductions in such areas as travel, training,
hiring of new personnel, purchasing of new equipment,
and cutting back other program operations, the pro-
jected shortfall for FY 1983 has been cut to approxi-
mately $57 million, according to IHS officials. However,
they contend that "additional savings can only be real-
ized through immediate reduction in current employ-
ment levels and, thusly, a reduction in services that can
be provided. The situation clearly indicates the need for
immediate action."
Authority to reduce IHS employment levels -
through furloughs or federal personnel actions known
as a Reduction in Force (RIF) or Reduction in Strength
(RIS) must be approved by higher officials within the
Department of Health and Human Services, while
authority to reprogram funds from one budget activity
to another must be granted by Congress.
One area of the IHS budget that has been hit particu-
larly hard by inflation is contract health care, where
costs have risen 12-15 percent annually over.the past
three years. Even though the expenditure of contract
health funds is presently limited to emergencies and
life-threatening situations, several IHS areas, including
Arizona and Oklahoma, will likely exhaust their alloca-
tions by the end of July, according to IHS officials.
The problem with contract care funds has been
compounded by a month-long IHS hiring freeze that
has prevented the agency from filling vacancies for
health personnel and support staff, necessitating
greater reliance on contract health services. The hiring
freeze was mandated by the Justice Department in

response to a federal court decision in the case of
Preston v. Schweiker, which held that IHS hiring proce-
dures were in violation of Indian preference require-
ments. Although the hiring freeze was lifted April 19
pending an appeal of the court's decision, IHS officials
say that the extra burden already placed on contract
care resources will further limit the use of such funds
for the duration of the fiscal year.
Of the $57 million needed to maintain existing ser-
vice and employment levels, approximately $10 million
is required for contract care services; $29.3 million for
hospital and clinic operations; and $14.2 million is
needed to cover pay increases provided by the 1983 Pay
Although it appears the President's Office of Man-
agement and Budget will support a supplemental appro-
priations for the Pay Act, it is unlikely that the
Administration will approve a request for the entire $57
million estimated shortfall.
In the absence of a full supplemental appropriations,
IHS would likely have to employ other administrative
actions in order to maintain direct health care services
for the rest of the fiscal year.

As stated in the IHS memorandum on the problems
with the 1983 appropriations, the proposed solutions for
addressing the expected funding shortfall are:
provide full funding of the FY 1983 Pay Act and
support a transfer from some other appropriation within
HRSA, PHS, and/or DHHS or propose and support an
additional supplemental for the balance of the shortfall
Provide full funding of the FY 1983 Pay Act, furlough
all personnel except Commissioned Officers for approx-
imately two weeks and provide overall reprogramming
authority to make use of the savings
Provide full funding of the FY 1983 Pay Act and
support furlough authority for all personnel except
Commissioned Officers in the affected activities This
would amount to approximately 8 weeks in Hospitals
and Clinics and approximately 7 weeks in Sanitation
-The Indian Health Service will maintain its reduced
level of operations until funds are exhausted and then
would shut down completely those operations. (Under
this alternative it is estimated that IHS hospitals and
clinics would shut down August 28)
-Provide full funding of the FY 1983 Pay Act, fund all
contracts through September 30, 1983 only, and provide
overall reprogramming authority to make use of the
savings. U

1 srIIRL '

AAA Warns Parents

Don't Wait Until July 1

To Purchase Restraints

On July 1 of this year, parents or legal guardians of all
children through age 5 should be ready to properly re-
strain their children if they are transporting them in a car,
van or truck registered in the State.
According to Bill Dodd, AAA East Florida's Manager of
Traffic and Safety, "failure to comply can result in the ins-
suance of a citation, a fine or $15 or the presentation by
the accused of proof that a child restraint has been acquir-
According to AAA, children through 3 years of age
must be restrained in a separate crash-tested federally ap-
proved device. Youngsters four and five years of age can
be either restrained by one of these devices or by a seat
AAA is advising all parents or prospective parents to ob-
tain these devices prior to the effective date of the new
law. Dodd states that there is no way of knowing what the
availability of these devices is going to be on July 1. "It's
certainly better to be safe now than sorry later."
The purpose of the new law, according to AAA, is not
punitive in nature. "The law is only asking parents or legal
guardians to act responsibly. State legislatures shouldn't
even have to dictate such a law, but some people need to
be told." Dodd said.

*0* U"rn a w as m s. **.* **

Developing A Conscience

We don't want to teach our children to break the law.
but if a parent boasts about having "gotten away with" any
of several forms of cheating, the child learns to think of
cheating as something "acceptable"! When this becomes
common and widespread, we are in REAL TROUBLE.
The child who grows up in a family where parking meter
tickets go unpaid, where limits on the highway are consis-
tently exceeded, or where income tax cheating is a yearly
occurrence, may be inclined to cheat in his or her own
way. Sometimes children start a dishonest tendency during
the preschool years. They may take toys or candy from
other children or when in a store. If this behavior is notic-
ed, the parent should take immediate action to correct it.
The parent should teach the child to "give back what was
When teachers or parents notice a child cheating in
school or in regard to schoolwork, or trying to "take un-
lawful shortcuts," they should take the time to correct the
behavior. It is important for parents and teachers to keep

in mind that one of the stages of normal growth is the de-
velopment of a conscience.
The value system operating in the home, the neighbor-
hood, and the school has a tremendous influence on what
the child chooses for him or herself.


TALLAHASSEE, FL In the wake of the federal quaran-
tine of Texas cattle, Florida agricultural officials are con-
tinuing to keep an eye on whatever economic impact it
might have on Florida cattlemen.
"We are concerned about our major export cattle mar-
ket remaining healthy," said Florida Agriculture Commis-
sioner Doyle Conner. "It certainly will not enhance our
market and it could very well limit it.
"But, at this time we canonly speculate about the eco-
nomic impact it might have on Florida cattlemen," he add-
Fifty-four percent (328,782 head, valued at more than
$98 million) of Florida's exported feeder cattle were sold
and shipped to Texas last year for grazing the grain fields
before being shipped to feedlots for fattening.
The federal government moved on to quarantine Texas
cattle, effective June 1, because the state lacks the legal
authority to test all herds suspected of being infected with
brucellosis. The quarantine also will mean a cut-off of most
federal funds about $8 million in 1982 to fight bru-
cellosis in the state, including indemnity payments for
ranchers whose cattle are found infected.
Brucellosis is a highly contagious disease of the repro-
ductive tract that causes cows to either abort or give birth
to weak calves, and has worked an economic hardship on
ranchers for years with reduced calf crops.
Under the quarantine, breeding cattle may be shipped
out of Texas only from "qualified herds" those that
have passed two negative herd tests for brucellosis 120
days apart. Also, the individual animals being shipped for
breeding must be tested and found negative within 30 days
of shipment.
Animals from herds that do not meet these requirements
must be branded with an "S" and can only be shipped for
slaughter. Animals from qualified herds can be shipped if
tested negative within 30 days and accompanied by a cer-
tificate showing test results.
The quarantine does not apply to cattle being shipped
into Texas.


lit Nk,

OMB Proposes Billing Indians

For Cost of IHS Services

WASHINGTON, D.C. In a major policy shift proposed
by President Reagan's Office of Management and
Budget, individual Indians could be required to pay for
the health care services they receive from the Indian
Health Service beginning October 1. The recommenda-
tion is part of the Administration's austere 1984 budget
request for IHS that counts upon an unprecedented $70
million in reimbursements and also calls for the elimina-
tion of funds for the Community Health Representative
program, urban Indian health projects, and construction
of Indian health facilities.
As proposed by OMB Director David Stockman, fees
charged to Indian patients for their health services would
be one of several resources used to augment the IHS
budget in 1984. In a February 23 letter accompanying the
1984 budget recommendations for the Department of
Health and Human Services, Stockman stated: "As has
been agreed to during the development of the 1984
Budget, Indian Health Service funding is to be supple-
mented with charges to individuals and third-party reim-
bursements (e.g., Medicaid/Medicare, Federal
employee, liability, and other private health insurance)
S. .given the agreement to implement the policy by
October 1, 1984, HHS needs to expedite its examina-
tion of issues involved."
Stockman's recommendation also presupposes the

institution of a "financial means test" for Indian patients
to determine their ability to pay for health services.
According to the OMB director, "the Indian Health Ser-
vice would operate in the manner of a county hospital -
with public funds being the source of health care
financing for those without resources."
The OMB proposal represents a marked departure
from the existing policy of providing Indians with health
care at no charge as part of the federal government's
"There is little indication that those urging such a course of
action fully appreciate that it is the unique Federal-Indian
relationship with which they are dealing and that such a
significant change in the IHS program would be widely
viewed as an abrogation of treaty, legal, and moral obliga-
tions to the Indian people..."
legal and historical obligation to Indian tribes. This pol-
icy is generally viewed by the Indian community as a
prepaid benefit provided in return for the cession of
Indian lands.
Given the gravity of such a change in policy, which in
effect would make the Indian Health Service a welfare
agency, the Stockman proposal is likely to generate a
furor throughout Indian Country, particularly since
tribes were not consulted on the recommendation.
Continued On Page 18

Indian Health Service Budget
Comparison FY 1982 FY 1984
(in thousands)

Clinical Services
Hospitals and Clinics
Mental Health
Maintenance and Repair
Contract Care
Preventive Care
Public Health Nursing
Health Education
Urban Health
Indian Health Manpower
Tribal Management
Direct Operations
Total, Direct Appropriations
Total, Reimbursements

FY 1982
Appropriation Reimbursement







FY 1983
Appropriation Reimbursement



S *Assumes supplemental appropriation of $14.2 million for 1983 Pay Act, which Congress has not yet provided.




FY 1984
Administration Estimated
Request Reimbursement









BIA Allocates Funds for

Reservation Jobs Projects

More than 6400 man-years of employment will be creat-
ed on Indian reservations in 27 states by projects to be
funded through the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) with
funds received under the 1983 Emergency Jobs Act, In-
terior Assistant Secretary Ken Smith announced today.
Smith said that tentative allocations of $114.5 million to
reservation projects had been completed and that the
funds would be transmitted to Bureau area offices in the
field in the next few days.
The act provided $20 million for natural resource devel-
opment on reservations; $30 million for the Bureau's
Housing Improvement Program; $24.5 million for the con-
struction of a high school on the Hopi Indian Reservation;
$30 million for the rehabilitation of Indian irrigation sys-
tems; and $10 million for the repair and renovation of BIA
jails on reservations.
Assistant Secretary Smith, the Administration's Indian
official, said that unemployment on many of the reserva-
tions exceeded 50 percent.
"These funds are helping to meet critical needs on the
reservations", Smith said. "They are providing badly need-
ed jobs now and strengthening the reservation infrastruc-
tures for future developments."
Smith noted that the Indian reservation would be receiv-
ing additional assistance under the jobs act through the In-
dian Health Service, HUD, and other Federal agencies.
The $20 million for natural resource projects includes
$12.5 million for agriculture amd range development.
These funds will be used for erosion control, fencing,
brush and weed control, cattle guard construction, live-
stock water systems and related tasks.
Another $5 million will be used for forestry projects, in-
cluding the maintenance of forest roads. The balance of
$2.5 million is for tribal fisheries and stream clearance pro-
The $30 million for housing improvements will benefit
87 tribes and six Alaska villages. The funds will be used for
bringing existing housing up to minimum standards and
used for new construction.
Rehabilitation work on 36 Indian irrigation systems will
be carried out with the $30 million allotted for that pur-
pose. This will include dam repairs, ditch linings and other
needed work.
The $10 million for repairing jails will be used to bring
15 BIA jails on reservations up to health and safety stand-
ards and in compliance with the provisions of the juvenile
delinquency control act.
The BIA area officers provide specific information about
projects within their regions.
A listing of the allocation totals by state follows:
Alaska, $5,183 (all figures are in thousands of dollars);
Arizona, 49,347; California, 6,430; Colorado, 469; Flori-
da, 290; Idaho, 880; Iowa, 192; Kansas, 315; Louisiana,
216; Maine, 572; Michigan, 568; Minnesota, 2,019; Mis-
sissippi, 330; Montana, 7,861: Nebraska, 143; Nevada,
6142; New Mexico, 9027; New York, 193; North Caro-

lina, 77; North Dakota, 2,993; Oklahoma, 3,111; Ore-
gon, 1,202; South Dakota, 4,517; Utah, 932; Washing-
ton, 6,682; Wisconsin, 1,457; and Wyoming, 1,585.

Yakima Tribe Threatens to

Stop Liquor Sales on


Officials of the Yakima Tribe of Washington are
threatening to revoke liquor licenses on the reservation
unless there is a decline in alcohol-related problems, the
Seattle Post-Intelligencer has reported. In a warning letter
to liquor dealers, tribal officials wrote: "If the deaths and
associated problems from abuse of alcohol do not decrease
drastically and soon, we shall take action to have all
purveyor licenses revoked.'. The tribal council issued the
ultimatum to encourage liquor dealers to take more
responsibility for what they sell, said council chairman
Johnson Meninick. Tribal officials noted that there had
been at least seven alcohol-related deaths in the past year.
Though the tribal officials believe they have the authority
to stop liquor sales on the reservation under the provisions
of an 1855 treaty, some state and county officials are
dubious. The Yakima County Prosecutor called the tribe's
use of the treaty as a legal basis to remove liquor licesnes
a "unique approach to the problem." An attorney with the
State Liquor Control Board said he interprets the letter to
mean the tribe is warning it may take action it doesn't
have authority to exercise. "As far as we are concerned,
the Liquor Board is the one that licenses and the one
with the process to remove the licenses," he said. Tribal
officials assert, however, that a similar action, taken by the
Rosebud Sioux Tribe of South Dakota, has been upheld
in court.

By Moses Jumper Jr.
When I was born you were never home
As a young child I was always alone
I entered school without your care
Knowing you were out getting drunk somewhere
I played awake on many sleepless nights.
Listening .to you and mother in all those fights.
As a young boy my hate for you grew strong.
Wishing and hoping someday you would soon be gone.
I watched other boys with fathers who were cotceined.
Aching for the knowledge these boys would learn.
IAll's not lost I would hope and pray.
Maybe he'll change someday?
But, your yearning for the bottle was always too strong.
For soon to the bar you would hurry along.
Now that I have grown I have come to see.
That you are really escaping reality.
I no longer feel a hate, but a sadness deep inside.
Knowing that from life you have only tried to hide.
You have degraded yourself upon this land.
Hurting love one's and befrij~ding your fellow man.
Now that I have grown I have come to see.
That you are really escaping reality.

If this is so then I have you to be grateful to.
Knowing that to your grandson, I must never be like you.


Deborah Conseen Osceola, a
4th year trapshooter competed
in the Florida State Tourna-
ment held in Tampa, Fla.
Deborah captured the Ladies
Singles Championship for the
second consecutive year. Win-
ning this Championship en-
titles her to compete in the Na-
tional tournament as the
Florida representative in
Deborah also received the ti-
tle of Captain of the Florida
Women's Team for the third
consecutive year. This award
is presented by the Florida
Trapshooting Association to

the Florida woman shooter
with the highest yearly
During the Annie Oakley
Shoot in Pinehurst, North
Carolina, Deborah became the
first known to win two straight
Annie Oakley titles by captur-
ing the women's all-around
Deborah was also named to
the 1981-82 All-American
Women's team last year.
Debbie is the wife of
Hollywood Council Rep-
resentative, Marcellus

Local Girl Top



Native American Indians
interested in submitting
or artwork
to be published in the
6333 Forrest Street
Hollywood, Florida 33024

American Indian Heritage
Festival Joins National
July 4th Activities
on the Mall
Thousands of Indians are expected to participate in an
American Indian Heritage Festival on the Mall in Washing-
ton, D.C. on July 3rd and 4th.
The Festival is being sponsored by The American Indian
Heritage Foundation in Falls Church, Virginia, whose
Founder and Executive Director is Princess Pale Moon
Rose, Cherokee and Ojibwa.
The two-day event will feature a National Pow Wow and
Dance Competition, arts and crafts demonstrations, cul-
tural exhibits, guest speakers and native foods.
The location of the Festival will be at Constitution
Avenue between 14th and 15th Streets and Madison

Manufacturers and Designers of Indian Clothing and Accessories
:",.,:, .1' and Contemoorary Clothing wit Original indian Design Work
Jewelry Hatbands 0 Souvenirs and Gifts
]!,, Woodcarvings Dolls

Ed Nagel proudly displays one of his awards
given to him by Chairman Billie

Several times a day throughout the Seminole Tribe of-
fices som--ene gives the directive "Call Ed Nagle"
"get Ed Nagle over here." Many times that directive is
given late at night or even on weekends. But you can bet
L. will be there as soon as humanly possible.
This has been the story for Ed for the last 141/2 years.
He's always there when we need him. After his long years
of loyal dedication and service to the Tribe, Ed is still here
everyday to do his job.
Ed will be 75 years young on December 9, 1983 and
will be with the Tribe for 15 years this coming February.
He has weathered all the tribal administrations for the past
years "watching many people come and go."
Ed came to Florida in 1965. His first job was as a crane
operator/engineer. In 1970 he began his employment
with the Seminole Tribe as an electrician.
Ed is proud of the part he got to play in the Village
Pageant Tribal Fair in 1972 as the Old Man in the Village
He takes pride in his long-time affiliation with the Semi-
noles and has made a lot of friends here. Ed has received
many awards and commendations in his time here. he
said, "When someone needs me I am there I just
never learned to say no. I'm on call 24 hours per day."
In 1980 Ed was promoted to Chief Inspector, a title he
is very proud of.
Late in 1980, however, Ed had an accident on the way
home from Brighton which almost cost him his life. He
spent almost a month in the hospital and was even given
last rights by Rev. Gerias Crenshaw, a Baptist Missionary
of the reservation, and by Father Edward Adamitus of St.
Bernadette Catholic Church. He said he wants to thank
the Seminole Tribe and Ministers for their prayers for a
speedy recovery.
Miraculously Ed recovered from his ordeal and was
soon back on his post. He said he wants to thank the
Seminole Tribe and Ministers for their prayers for a speedy
When asked if he thought he would retire soon, Ed
says he doesn't know if he'll ever really retire maybe
slow down a bit. He loves his job and the Seminole
After all who else could fill the jobs, such as Chief
Truck Pusher, Lion Tamer, Alligator Wrestler and
many more he's been tagged with through his many years
with the Tribe?
by Barbara Doctor

5Wi, v immi, Floida 33 w 24 359 8:3::""

OSCEOLA SALES CO. 0 6571 W. Sheridan St. 0 Hollywood, Florida 33024 (305) 962-8303
Open Mon. Thru Fri. 8-4



On the path of life I have
journeyed with you many times.
Yet on this path you must journey
alone. You have been a good
friend, a good son, a good cousin
and a good brother. Though I
weep in silence it is only you who
now know. I have cared ....
I pray that the eagles' flight
will be swift and with the great
breath-maker you will sit.
Together at last, he will teach you
songs you have yearned to know.
And the beat of your drumsticks
will flow in harmony....
At times I may weep for you,
;yet it is only I who suffers the
loss ... For in your songs will be
happiness, and within your soul
there will be peace.... Fare-


Dr. Roger Nichols Visits

Seminole Tribe

On Ma, 13. Dr. Roger Nichols. assistant to the Corn
missioner on Education Ralph Turlington. visited the Semi-
nole Tribe to discuss plans for additional support for the
Ahfachkee Day School.
Dr. Nichols' visit was initiated by former Senator Van
Poole. Dr. Nichols was extremely interested in the day
school in areas of additional financial support, transporta-
tion and ways to improve and upgrade the school.
Dr. Nichols was impressed by the Ahfachkee Day School
and said he will work closely with Commissioner Turlington
and legislators to help open doors for the Seminole Tribe
in the area of education.

Van Poole, Larry Frank, Winnifred Tiger and Dr.Roger Nichols

Congratulations to Graduates

of the Steno & Typing Class

Con.tigratlationsc are extended to the graduates of the
IMTS Steno & Typing Class The Hollywood graduates
are Sailk Billie. Verna Billie. Mildred BowF ers, Carol

Mildred Bowers takes dictation from Selma Alverez, instructor


\VI '\l IIian-iOp

C pL)ress. Juldl,' Jinles and Virginia Tiger
iWe know that the graduates worked very hard to comr
plete this cMorse and had to give up manv e' '-nings to
attend the cases Hocwever, we are sure the cki: s they
le arn ed ,,.\1 i'tn,' them much in their present and
career goals

Sally Billie, Verna Billie and Carol Cypress




3200 N. 64th AL.





N. 1

Labor Census Report


The Adult Vocational Training Program has now com-
pleted the 1983 Labor Census Report. As a part of their
contract with BIA, the AVT Office conducts this census
each year in order to obtain a better labor force picture.
Then the AVT Program as well as other Tribal Depart-
ments are better able to serve Tribal employment needs.
The AVT Office was aided in gathering the information
for this report by the Representatives and Educational
Counselors on each reservation. From their data, the Re-
port was presented to the Tribal Council and then forward-
ed to the Dept. of Interior.
As a result of this report, initiatives have been put forth
by the Tribal Administration and various departments to
aid the resident Indian population obtain gainful employ-
ment on and off the reservations. To assist Tribal members
toward these career goals, there is counseling available in
the following areas:
1) job interest inventory
2) sources in the job market on & off the reservation
3) application and resume' preparation
4) the interview process
5) successful work habits
Businesses on and off the reservations are invited to an-
nounce job vacancies thru the Tribal Personnel Office, the
TERO Office or the Adult Vocational Training Office. Trib-
al members are also encouraged to contact any of the
above for counseling in seeking employment.

Small Business Management

Courses Are Now Meeting

The Adult Vocational Training Program is now con-
ducting a Small Business Management Class on Tuesday
evenings, from 7-9:30 p.m. in the Dorothy S. Osceola
Building, Hollywood.
This class is designed to aid Tribal members in operating
their own businesses. Topics include time management,
supply and demand, product mix, cash flow techniques,
employing personnel, tax reporting and bookkeeping pro-
This class ends on June 14. However, plans are now


TALLAHASSEE, FL California stockmen are pressur-
ing state officials there to place an embargo on Florida cat-
tle following the finding of the foreign animal disease blue-
tongue in South Florida.
Florida officials were alerted of the California develop-
ment today by U.S. Department of Agriculture veteri-
narian Dr. H.A. McDaniel, who said "California sheepmen
are very concerned and are talking about an embargo."
"An embargo by California of our cattle would knock a
real hole in our cattle industry," Florida Agriculture Com-
missioner Doyle Conner warned.
Florida cattlemen sold 35,735 head of feeder cattle,
with a market value of more than $10 million dollars, to
California buyers last year. That represented about six per-
cent of the Florida cattle export business in 1982.
"Florida cattlemen would be severely strapped to lose
six percent of their export market at this time," Conner
The USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Ser-
vices (APHIS) announced last week that a new serotype
of bluetongue virus had been found in a herd of cattle
owned by the University of Florida at the Ona research
Bluetongue is an infectious disease of cattle, sheep and
goats that is spread by a biting midge (sand flea) of the
Culicoides family. When signs of illness exist in an infected
herd or flock, the symptoms may vary from temperature
rises and depression to severe losses.
"This finding in Florida is a serotype of bluetongue not
previously known to exist in this country," said USDA
spokesman John Atwell, deputy administrator of APHIS.
"This exotic virus was found in a sentines herd that is test-
ed regularly in an animal disease surveillance program.
Researchers have not observed any signs of illness in this
The surveillance studies are being conducted by the Uni-
versity of Florida as part of a cooperative effort of the uni-
versity; the Florida Department of Agriculture and USDA.
Preliminary evidence of the new virus serotype was de-
tected in blood samples sent to the Animal Virus Research
Institute, Pirbright, England.
The virus was isolated from blood samples submitted
from Florid? to the Anthronodborne Animal Disease Lab-

underway to offer a basic business bookkeeping class fol-
lowing this small business management course.
For further information on either of these classes, con-
tact the Adult Vocational Training Office at (305) 583-7112
extension 349.


OMB Proposes...
Continued from Pg. 12
Opposition to the proposed change has already
Been expressed to Congress and top government offi-
cials by a number of tribes and Indian organizations. In
a recent letter to DHHS Secretary Margaret Heckler,
NIHB Director Jake Whitecrow condemned the Stock-
man proposal, asserting that "health care provided by
the Indian Health Service is part of a legal obligation to
Indian people that has evolved directly from the treaty
and trust relationship that exists between the United
States and Indian tribes. The (OMB proposal) clearly
represents a fundamental lack of understanding about
this relationship .. and we deplore such a callous and
ill-conceived attempt to alter this relationship and turn
the Indian Health Service into a welfare program."
Further, it appears that even IHS attempts to dissuade
such a proposal were ignored by OMB. In a strongly-
worded memorandum last year to Assistant Secretary
for Health Edward Brandt, IHS Director Dr. Everett
Rhoades stated that "any proposal to require an individ-
ual Indian, whether economically secure or destitute, to
pay for a service already considered to have been paid
for, especially a service viewed as stemming from the
trust relationship, can be expected to be bitterly resented
and vigorously opposed" by Indian people.
Rhoades continued that "there is little indication that
those urging such a course of action fully appreciate that
it is the unique Federal-Indian relationship with which
they are dealing and that such a significant change in the
IHS program would be widely viewed as an abrogation
of treaty, legal, and moral obligations tothe Indianpeople
assumed by the United States at its insistence."
In response to the OMB proposal, Rhoades recently
recommended that the current fiscal year be used to

"Aw, Let 'Em Stay... What Possible Harm
Can They Do?"

"fully develop a viable approach to obtaining resources
from non-Federal sources." As noted in a March 14 mem-
orandum to his departmental superiors, Rhoades stated
that the OMB proposal raises "critical constitutional, pol-
itical, and administrative issues" that have not been
addressed, and that "time is not available to provide a
discussion of the proposal on its merits either within the
Department, the Congress, or with the Indian
The memorandum also recommends that a cost
benefit analysis of the OMB proposal be undertaken to
determine what, if any, economic advantages exist in
charging Indians for health services. Questioning the
fiscal validity of the 1984 budget recommendation, the
memorandum states that, "The Indian populations
served by IHS have among the highest unemployment
rates in the country. Their economic deprivation and
high unemployment mitigate against the probability of
substantial collections from third parties."
Such a cost benefit study should also be completed
before attempting to initiate a financial means test for
Indian patients, according to IHS. "A means test, for
example, would require hiring additional service unit
personnel to apply the screening criteria for each IHS
patient, yet the general poverty level of the Indian popu-
lation might result in most of the IHS service population
satisfying any reasonable means test; in that situation,
additional IHS salary expenses might exceed patient
In order to allow for such an analysis and to more fully
explore the issue of alternative funding, the IHS memo-
randum recommends that FY 1983 be used to "make the
decision on how to best augment the IHS budget with
funds from other sources that are not being tapped pres-
ently, with the objective of implementing the new proce-
dures by the beginning of Fiscal Year 1985." The
recommendation is one of seven options presently under
consideration by DHHS as a response to the OMB prop-
osal. The other options are:
- bill all Indians for services rendered
- bill only Indians that meet a certain means test
- enact federal legislation that would negate the appli-
cation of the exclusionary clause by third payers for
beneficiaries covered by the Indian Health Service
- attempt to work through the States to have them
change their statutes in order to negate the exclusionary
clause presently contained in their party payer policies
- do not attempt to collect third party payments from
additional sources
- prepare and issue a Notice of Intent as soon as possi-
ble indicating that the Department intends to make a
change in this area that would involve either billing all or
some Indians for services rendered, or that we would
seek legislative change at either the State or Federal level
that would enable us to collect third party payments for
eligible Indian beneficiaries.
A decision on which of these options, if any, is to be
initiated by DHHS in response to the OMB proposal will
be forthcoming within the next few weeks. Meanwhile,
the recommendation to bill Indians for their health care is

still subject to congressional review and is likely to
receive 'considerable attention in the months ahead
when Congress takes up the reauthorization of the
Indian Health Care Improvement Act and the IHS appro-
priations for FY 1984. N


"Why should Indian parents

become involved in education?"

Does Indian parent involvement in school make a dif-
ference? This question is uppermost in the minds of
many Indian educators as Title IV, the Indian Education
Act, comes up for reauthorization by Congress in 1984.
To answer this question, it is helpful to go back before
the late 1960's when Indian parents started to become
involved in school and examine the differences between
then and now.

Historically, education was seen as the primary method
of assimilating Indians into the mainstream American
society. The assimilation period lasted from around the
1880's to the 1960's. The main message delivered to
Indian parents through these efforts was that Indian lan-
guage, culture, values, and ways of life were substandard,
primitive and even savage. Indian parents characteristically
reacted by silent resistance, suspicion and hostility
towards schools. Indian student achievements was corres-
pondingly very low.

During the late 1969's this started to change. Parental
involvement was encouraged through federal supplemental
education programs. In 1972 the Indian Education Act
was passed. A major premise of that legislation was that
Indian parents have a right and a responsibility to be
involved with their children's education. Prior to this
time, Indian parents had been made dependent upon an
educational system which did not respond to the needs
of their children. Now, by law, they had a method of
becoming involved in the educational decision making
which affected their children. Most educators who
serve Indian people would agree that the result, in terms
of Indian student achievement, has been dramatic. More
Indians are graduating from high school; more students
are entering college; and more students are entering
highly academic professions such as law and medicine.

Still the question is asked, "Are these achievements due
to Indian parental involvement?" Unfortunately, the
question has not been thoroughly researched, although
the common sense inference seems clear. There has
been research, however, among the mainstream popula-
tion which seems to support the idea that parents in
school do make a great deal of difference in the levels
of achievement for their children. The National Com-
mittee for Citizens in Education (NCCE) recently
compiled results of two dozen studies which found that
parental Involvement in schools, in almost any form,
improved student achievement.

The studies on parental involvement in school have
shown that certain types of involvement are more effec-
tive than other types. Some characteristics of parental
involvement which seem particularly applicable to Indian
education folow:

-Parental involvement In "Early Intervention" programs,
such as Headstart Where pre-school children's cognitive
development is stimulated, programs are especially effec-
tive when their parents are actively involved.

-Programs where parental involvement in school forms
attitudes towards education which are carried back to the
family setting and which helps parents spend time with
their children to improve the child's attitude and conse-
quently their performance in schools.
-Programs of parental involvement which are well plan-
ned, long term and comprehensive have a much more
dramatic effect on student achievement than do one-shot,
public relations, one visit to the school a year programs.

-The type of parent involvement does not appear to
make as much difference as the extent of parent involve-
ment However, parents that have maximum communica-
tion and interfacing with their child's teachers are almost
certain to make a difference. It is important that Indian
parents are visible in the school setting.

As mentioned above, parental involvement seems particu-
larly important where Indian students are a minority of
the student population and there are few, or perhaps no,
Indian people working for the school. Title IV and John-
son O'Malley parent committees have shown a consistent,
long term way that parents can become involved in
school. It should start with the relationship with admin-
istrator and school boards.

In summary, Indian parents have a right and responsi-
bility to be involved In the education of their children
and their involvement will help their children to accept
the mainstream American values and goals while still
maintaining their own sense of uniqueness and identity.
Parental involvement is a concept that cannot be reduced
by budget cutbacks and will remain a fundamental part
of education for the foreseeable future.


Judy's business has already expanded from Hollywood
to the other reservations and even into California. It just
keeps getting bigger and better.
Judy would like to see more of her people "venture out
and work to the best of their ability." She says, "We as
Indians have the opportunity to get into many different
fields of business. It's a matter of stepping out and doing
something to helo take care of ourselves in future years."
Judy invites anyone interested in a future in security to
contact her at 981-1925.
"Let's work together and make a go of it on the reserva-

by Barra Doctor
by Barbara Doctor

Judy Billie Baker, Owner and President

Warriors Security Service

on the Rise

July Billie Baker, of the Hollywood Reservation, is one
of Inany tribal members who have gone into business for
themselves on the reservation.
Judy & her husband, Pete, started the Warriors Security
Agency about 4 months ago. As president of her business,
she is finding out that it's a lot of hard work and long hours
just getting started. She says, "It takes time to lay the foun-
dation for your business." In her case it was insurance,
licenses and schooling for the guards. She wants her em-
ployees to receive the best and most in-depth training
available because "they also need to be made aware of the
dangers and all ground work of the security business."
Since beginning her new operation Judy says she is
proud to say that four Indians have completed their train-
ing at the academy. They are Brian Osceola, Mingo Jones,
David Jumper and Benny Harjo.

Photographs by
Scarlett Young

0 *

0 *
0 *
0 ,

Graduates Diane Gowan, Kevin Cress, David Jumper,
Joe Sawyer, Brian Osceola and Benny Harjo





2528N. State Rd. 7
Hollywood, Florida 33024


Refinishing Dyeing-


Dry Cleaning
Shirt Laundry
Hand Ironing


Aft em- mo mmosmom? LC~~~~%~~~ ;;11 %~~J ~I11~ --~~~. -1_-I ~

PC.. : ... .6

A FATHER is a thing that is forced to en-
dure childbirth without an anesthetic. A
FATHER is a thing that growls when he
feels good and laughs very loud when
he's scared half to death.
A FATHER never feels entirely worthy
of the worship in a child's eyes. He's never
quite the hero his daughter thinks .
never quite the man his son believes him to
be ... and this worries him, sometimes. So
he works too hard to try to smooth the
rough places in the road for those of his
own who will follow him.
A FATHER is a thing that gets very
angry when the first grades in school
aren't as good as he thinks they should be.
He scolds his son, though he knows it's the
teacher's fault.
FATHERS grow old faster than people.
Because they, in other wars, have to stand
at the train station and wave goodby to the
uniformed son that climbs aboard. And
while mothers can cry where it shows,
fathers have to stand there and beam out-
side... and die inside.
FATHERS have very stout hearts; so
they have to be broken sometimes or no
one would know what's inside. FATHERS
are what give daughters away to other
men who aren't nearly good enough ... so
they can have grandchildren that are
smarter than anybody's.
FATHERS fight dragons almost daily.
They hurry away from the breakfast table
.off to the arena which is sometimes
called an office or a workshop. There, with
calloused, practiced hand, they tackle the
dragon with three heads: weariness, work,
and monotony. They never quite win the
fight, but they never give up. Knights in
shining armor FATHERS in shiny trou-
sers; there's little difference, as they
march away to each workday.
And when a FATHER dies, I've an idea
that after a good rest he won't be happy
unless there's work to do. He won't just sit
on a cloud and wait for the girl he's loved
and the children she bore. He'll be busy
there, too repairing the stairs .. oiling
the gates, improving the streets
smoothing the way.

CPSC Issues Strong Appeal

Continued from Pg. 4

Even after an extensive and comprehensive recall
campaign to warn parents of the hazards of an indoor gym
house, a 31/2 year old child became entrapped in the
space between the upper rung and platform of an un-
modified ladder of an indoor gym house. I*his incident,
which did not result in an injury to the child, occurred
just two months after the implementation of extensive cor-
rective action measures. These measures had been volun-
tarily implemented by the product's manufacturer as a
result of three infant deaths attributed to entrapment in the
product's ladder.
In another recall involving a stringed stuffed animal
mobile, two babies were caught and strangled in the toy -
one death prompted the recall; one occurred after the
recall was announced.
These examples illustrate why consumers should not
ignore recalls and warnings. When the CPSC announces
a product recall, it means the uncorrected product is a
potential safety hazard, often serious to you and your
The Commission is concerned that children's products
which are under recall, such as cribs and other durable
products, may not be immediately corrected or returned
to the manufacturer by the consumer, since the product
may no longer be in use. However it is imperative that the
products under recall not be used until corrected. Con-
sumers are urged to take action when they first hear or
read about the hazard. This will assure a safe product in
the event it is either given to family or friends or sold for
later use by others.
Through the issuance of product safety recalls, warnings,
and other safety information, the Commission alerts pro-
duct users to unexpected and often unforeseen hazards
involving children and other consumers. Consumers are
urged to call the commission on its toll-free Hotline to
inquire about product recalls and warnings and to report
unsafe consumer products. Consumers may call the
Commission on tie toll-free Hotline at 800-638-CPSC or
write the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission,
Washington, D.C. 20207. A teletypewriter number for the
hearing impaired is 800-638-8270.

Manufacturers and Designers of Indian Clothing and Accessories
Traditional and Contemporary Clothing with Original Indian Design Work
Jewelry Hatbands 0 Souvenirs and Gifts
Handbags Woodcarvings 0 Dolls

OSCEOLA SALES CO. 6571 W. Sheridan St. Hollywood, Florida 33024 (305) 962-8303
Open Mon. thru Fri. 8-4


Hollywood 966-4050
Coral Springs 753-0720

6389 Sheridan Street, Hollywood, FL 33024
7950 W Sample Road, Coral Springs, FL 33065

Clams Casino HalfDozen ...... 3.50
Clams Raw Dozen ............ 3.75
Oysters HallDozen ............ 2.50
Steamers Dozen .............. 3.95
Oysters Casino Hall Dozen ..... 3.50

5Ad Light ..... 95 Bud ................... 110
Michelob .......... 95 Heineken ........... 1 50
Pitcher .............. 3.75 M iller Lite ......... 1.10

Steamed Shrimp
(Old Bay Spiced or Garlic)
Small Bucket ..... ... 3.50
Large Bucket ... ... ........ 6.50
Chicken Wings
(Mild, Medium, Hot or Barbeque)
Small Bucket Ten ................ 2.50
Large Bucket- Twenty .............. 4.50
French Fries ..................... .75
Cole Slaw ........................ .45

Wings and

Raw Bar

Manhattan or New England
Clam Chowder
.95 Cup 1.50 Bowl

Fried Clams ..................... 3.25
Fried Oysters .................... 3.50
Fried Shrimp .......... ....... 4.25
Fried Scallops .............. 3.95
Seafood Sampler ............. 6.95
From our fryer comes with cole slow and french fries.

Large 75
Coke Root Beer Iced Tea
Sprite Tab






Extra Sauce .25


Tribal Appreciation

Dinner Hel

at JTo ma.

ii. 'C



Dr. Botko, Cecil Johns and Aaro
for their service to the Trib~-

Clothing Pair;tings

Moccasins Jewelry

Leather Goods
Museum Of adran Cuture




Poisonous Snakes-

--- ~

"~ ~c.
b +.
1$~" ,
P' "';

Ed MacDonald accepts Certificate of Appreciatio' from
Billy Cypress,. Hllywcood :rd Representatie

10:00a.m 5:00p.r

5I S t.e .. 12:00am. 5:00p.m.
3=51 PaeC3oao
i Holivywood F
A4 mie Sou thc S ti;irn o S
Z u$ Group Rates with Reservations
961-451For Guided Tours

Friendship Singers provided gospel music

giltih gglibib.A 'AlbP
-qqpp r, qqqpp" WP'~~,~B ~ -~~~p

-~-- --




accept award +,rom 'Joe-,: ~an


6333 Forrest Street
Hollywood, Florida 33024

Per Copy ....................................................... $ .25
By Mail per year ............................................. 6.00

Published Monthly
The Tribal Council of The Seminole Tribe of Florida
Third Class Postage Paid
Hollywood. Florida 33024

GLORIA WILSON ................................. ... Editor-In-Chief
TWILA PERKINS .......................... . Production Coordinator
BARBARA DOCTOR. .................... ..... .. Editorial Assistant
BETTY MAE JUMPER ...................... Public Relations Representative
MARLIN BILLIE ................... ............ .. Production Assistant

The Alligator Times welcomes letters to the editor It is. however. inec(essairy for v:riters of letter- to (!
serve certain rules of the newspaper.
Only letters which have a signed name and address can be considered fo publication Typed names 1
not be considered nor will letters which hint of libel be published.
It should also be noted that letters to the editor express the views )of the writers and not necessarily the
views of this paper.

Seminole Communications u.S. POSTAGE
6333 Forrest Street PAID
Hollywood, FL
Hollywood, FL 33024 PERMIT #612

TO: Ft. Lauderdale Historical
P.O. Box 14043
Ft. Lauderdale, Fl. 33302