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Vol. XXVII, No. 41.
Jackdoville and DeLand, Fa.. Wednesday, Oct. 10, 190.
Whole No. 1393
P'mMtlao of Orange TrM .
[Paper read before the Florida State
Horticultural Society by Prof. J. Y. Mc,
Kinney, of Candler.]
Can there be mentioned a single in-
stance where a thoroughly established
profitable industry, an industry in the
sphere of either horticulture or agricul-
ture, has been abandoned in any coun-
try .because of adverse natural condi-
True, in a few instances we may find
that because of artificial conditions such
as too great a supply for the demand,
some industry has gradually given place
to other more profitable investment, but
with .a supply constantly less than an
ever. increasing demand, no natural dif-
ficulty has ever yet barred the progress
of human achievement.
Can it be, then, that the culture of the
citrus fruits in Central and Northern
Florida is to stand out as an isolated ex-
ception, a marked contradiction to an
established law of events?
That orange culture iinFlorida is to-
day and has been for some time face to
face with the adverse condition of low
temperatures, all will admit. That it has
already passed from the plane of an es-
tablished high prosperity and is today
on the low plane of absolute necessity,
none will deny. That during the past
winter the most earnest and intelligent
efforts have been made in various parts
of the State; that the crisis with low
temperature has been met successfully
and that therefore we are now entering
a period of renaissance destined to raise
the industry to a higher plane of more
expensive, more intensive and more
profitable culture, are statements that
we believe can be truthfully asserted be-
fore this body tonight.
To combat successfully low tempera-
tures so many plans havesuggested
themselves and so many expedients
have been tried that to deal with the
subject in any way approaching a sci-
entific procedure, it becomes necessary
The whole subject naturally arranges
itself under the following classifications:
I. Protection Without Artificial Heat.
I. By controlling the condition of
a by cultivation.
b by coating trunk and branches.
c by budding or grafting on to
d by hybridization.
c by withholding heat, moisture
2. By banking with sand.
a to save the bud.
b to save the entire tree.
3. By airtight covers.
4. By water spraying.
5. By water add forest protection.
6. By latitude.
II. Protection with Artificial Heat.
I. Open fires.
2. Tents artificially heated.
4. Wind breaks with open fires.
4. Sheds artificially heated.
The subject is too broad for compre-
hensive discussion in one paper; we
shall consider in detail therefore only
those methods of protection that have
thus far proved successful, giving but
ssing notice to many expedients here
As to the value of the various meth-
ods here presented this thought shall be
the criterion upon which judgment is
made, viz: "Orange Culture on a
Sound Business Basis." Any method
which in our judgment fails to bring the
industry up to that standard we must
discard as insufficient.
Can the orange tree then be protected
in present climatic conditions without
artificial heat by controlling the condi-
tion of the tree? That with well ma-
tured wood the various species of the
citrus family will withstand great ex-
tremes of temperature, there can be no
question-there is no question.
Compelling Dormancy.-But to com-
pel the tree to remain dormant during
the danger periods is the vital'question.
It has been suggested that this may
be done by methods of cultivation; that
if we fertilize early in the year, permit
no late cultivation in the fall and grow
winter crops of grain among the trees
to withdraw the nitrogenous matter
from the sod, the trees in consequence
will remain dormant natil late in the
As to the extent of merit in these
suggestions we will not take space here
to enquire. That any or all of them are
attempt to render them dormant by this
Budding on Hardy Stocks.-Can we
control the condition of trees by bud-
ding or grafting our choice fruits on
more hardy and deciduous stocks?
When this method was first suggested
much hope was entertained that it
might solve the problem. The hardy
and deciduous trifoliata seemed espe-
cially adapted to this end.
Just what effect the root stock has on
the hardiness of the bud or graft can-
not be stated with precision. From the
evidence at hand we are inclined to be-
lieve that the ability of a bud or graft
to withstand cold depends on two con-
ditions; first, the inherent nature of the
bud itself. For instance, a seedling Sat-
suma is one of our hadiest trees, while
the Tangerine is less hardy. If buds or
grafts from both of these are placed on
common third stock equally suited to
both the Satsuma bud or graft will be
proportionately more hardy than the
angerine bud or graft, just as the or-
iginal Satsuma seedling was more hardy
than the original seedling Tangerine.
The second condition is not quite so
fully established; the evidence, how-
See page 603.
entirely insufficient has been thoroughly ever, justifies the opinion that in addi-
demonstrated. We erase therefore this tion to the inherent nature of the bud
expedient from the list of successful the ability to withstand cold depends
methods, also on the vigor of the root stock to
Coating With Lime.-Coating the being a good feeder rather than upon
trunk and branches with preparations of its inherent ability to withstand cold.
lime and with other patented material Hence a bud or graft on a rough lemon
has been strongly urged in more north- stock, if the bud union be protected,
ern latitudes for keeping trees dormant. may withstand more cold than when
This treatment may be somewhat effect- placed on the hardy trifoliata stock, the
ive on the plum, peach and pear tree former being a strong vigorous feeder,
whose deciduous habit causes them while the latter is a much less vigorous
when defoliated to depend on the len- feeder.
ticels or breathing spots on trunk and On this point we have personally ob-
branches for the necessary supply of served that several hundred Satsuma
oxygen. To close these with such prep- buds on rough lemon stock in a nursery
arations might sufficiently devitalize remained uninjured, while the unbud-
trees of deciduous habits to require con- ded rough lemon stocks in the same
siderable renewal of spring-time energy, nursery were all killed.
to awaken them to a growing condition. We have noted also another similar in-
With members of the citrus family. stance with the same results where the
however, the millions of stomata or trees were set in grove form. In these
mouths on the underside of their count- instances the hardiness of the Satsuma
less evergreen leaves render futile any bud did not seem to be affected by the
tender nature of the root. In other in-
stances where Satsuma buds were placed
on trifoliata stocks they were killed to
the ground in common with the other
oranges of the neighborhood.
But granting that some little differ-
ence in the hardiness of the bud may be
secured from grafting or budding judi-
ciously it is at most so slight that it
cannot be relied upon as sufficient under
Hybridization.-Much confidence is
expressed by some experimenters that
the solution of the problem may lie in
obtaining a new and distinct species by
hybridization. To do this, as it appears
to us, two intricate processes must first
be successfully accomplished, both of
which, especially if marked change in
the nature of the tree is desired, require
long periods of years and even then the
chances of success and failure seem to
be about equally balanced.
The first process is to obtain a dis-
tinct species, sufficiently hardy and one
that will propagate true to its kind. The
second process would then be to evolve
or develop a good quality of fruit from
the deteriorated hybrid.
When we consider the wide difference
between our choice high-bred Florida
oranges and the inedible trifoliata, we
should consider- the process rapid and
successful indeed if an orange approach-
ing in quality our common orange
should be thus developed from the pro-
posed hybrid within the next three-
quarters of a century. Whatever the
future of this theory may be, for the
present generation at least we shall be
on the safe side by erasing this expedi-
ent from the list also.
As to the effect of shade on the con-
dition of the tree there are some in-
teresting data, but as this of itself is in-
sufficient it will be more to the point to
speak of it under another form of pro-
The three conditions of plant growth
are heat, light and moisture; since these
conditions are present in their full sig-
nificance during many days in January
and February, the orange tree is certain
to respond with new growth and bloom,
hence the problem of forcing the tree to
remain dormant is of very doubtful so-
Protection With Sand.-The efficiency
of sand banking as a means of protect-
ing the bud is too well known to admit
of discussion; but since we cannot hope
to raise a good crop of oranges under
the ground, unless perchance the or-
ange may be hybridized into some
member of the peanut family (?), we
must draw a line around this form of
protection as too limited.
Sand banking to save the entire tree
will perhaps admit of some discussion.
To test this form of protection we had
about thirty young trees covered en-
tirely over with sand. Ten of these
were covered on December 15 and
opened up March 21. These died back
to within three inches of the bud union.
The other twenty were opened at d;f-
ferent times with the following results:
Those covered four weeks were but lit-
tle damaged. Those covered six weeks
lost all their leaves and were otherwise
devitalized so that they were slow in
recovering. Some of my neighbors,
however, banked as high as six and
002 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
seven feet and left the banks for from in South Carolina. The north boundary
five to seven weeks. Aside from losing of Florida has produced large crops. A
their leaves the trees are but little dam- quarter of a century ago the extremes
aged. Iof cold in the central portion of the
From other sources on this point I'State very closely resembled the ex-
get varying results, so that in forming tremes much further south today.
judgment on this form of protection it Whatever the causes that have led to
must be said there is great risk attend- this southward, dipping of the cold
ing it, so much so indeed that if we waves, the question arses, may not
place any financial value on our young these causes continue to be operative?
trees we must exclude this eon d;.n There being no mountain barriers to
irsm a plan of ofaje sultukr i-4 i6 if thie souihwarnf proares of thlss
sound business basis. waves a slight increase in the cause may
The next device, an original one, we drve them southward hundreds of
shall term the ventilated sand case. We miles.
had 15o fine young buds from four to Should we go to the southern limit of
six feet high placed under this treat, the State and plant new groves, may
ment. The trees were first tied up into not the cold waves, like a bad consci-
as small a space as practical by means ence, follow us? May there not be dan-
of No. 18 galvanized wire; a case was ger that the sad experience that has be-
then placed close around the tree. Most fallen the industry in the central belt
of these inner cases were of' thin will be repeated in the southern portion
boards; some few even of paper. A of the peninsula?
second case was then made about three We dismiss this part of the subject
inches from the first; this outer case with the assertion that we believe there
was made of small boards placed later, is no permanent practical security that
ally between trough-like corner pieces, will place the industry on a sound busi-
The space between the two cases was ness basis without preparation for arti-
packed with sand. At the bottom a ficial heat.
ventilating box extended from the out- Artificial Heat Required.-During the
side into the tree. This vent and the past winter we have witnessed some
top were closed and covered with sand very effective work done by means of
during the cold wave period only. The open fires. From our own experiments,
labor of putting up this device and at- as well as trials by others, we believe
tending it during the winter and clear- that this form of protection can be
ing it away in the spring cost us 20 trusted in still freezes when not more
santa per tree The lumItbe UIK wso thn eight degrees of (feeWin v e rmpa-
odds and ends from our mill and did not ture are to be combated. In windy
figure in the expense. freezes the limit is from two to four de-
The trees were placed in these cases grees Fahrenheit.
during the week of December 15 and so In the past winter during the cold
remained until the week of March 21. wave in January the temperature fell to
with the following result: A number seventeen degrees Fahrenheit. The
came out without loss of leaves and in night was clear and without wind. The
excellent condition. Others were de- trees were in a dormant condition. They
foliated on the lower branches, the top could have withstood twenty-four and
branches retaining their leaves. Some
were entirely defoliated, but the wood B
was in good condition and quickly put b b b
on leaves when the cases were removed. -J
On the whole this plan may be regard-
ed as a safe one, and if the vents are
large enough there will be no serious
risk attending it from either suffocation
or the cold. Its practical use, however,
is limited to small trees.
Air Tight Covers, Spraying, Etc.-As
to the next point on the outline we can
assert with confidence that no form of
cover, whether air-tight cloth, paper,
wood, pine straw or other collected veg-
etable materials placed around a tree
will save it without artificial heat. The
resident heat from the ground positive-
ly cannot be relied upon.
As to water spraying as an effective
means of saving from the freeze, we
have observed one failure and are
strongly of the opinion that any effort
to save on an extended scale by this
mnMs will meet with disappointment ifperhaps twenty-two without much dm-
not disaster. Theoretically the plan t w m
s merit. When water freezes a great age to leaves, and perhaps eighteen de-
has merit When water freezes a tat agrees without serious injury to wood. In
quantity of latent heat is given out that this instance grove protected by open
must rais the temperature of the sur- instance grov protected by open
Must raise thc temperaturee of thesur fires lost but few leaves. This would in-
rounding air; also when masses of ice dictate that a temperature of at least five
are frozen around any vegetable organ- degrees above the outside temperature
ism the consequent slow thawing will was maintained.
greatly lessen and sometimes entirely
prevent damage. Doubtless if means During the moderately windy freeze
could be devised so that water could be in February when the sap was rising in
kept constantly freezing in the atmos- the trees the temperature fell to twenty
phere immediately surrounding the tree degrees Fahrenheit Open fires in this
effective work might be done. But a instance were only prtially succcsfuli
attempt to do this in the blizzard of '9 much new growth and bloom were
proved to our satisfaction that to ac. killed and even wood.
complish this successfully the tree must In a blizzard such as we had in Feb-
first be sheltered from the high wind, ruary, '99, to save a grove by open fires
and if that expedient had to be resorted would be next to impossible. Te wind
to other means of heating would be accompanied by sleet and rain was so in-
more satisfactory. Water spraying is tense that we witnessed sticks of wood
therefore erased from the list. hurled from the fres as if they were
Wall odectcd locations with respect to bunches of straw. Fires at one end of
large bodies of water and forests will be the row would be blown down and ex-
of service as a means of protection, but tinguished before the one in attendance
that these alone are entirely insuffcient, could replace those at the other end.
dead stumps in many such localities to- Trees not more than six feet through
day are in full evidence, were scorched on one side while the
With reference to latitude in thf State thermometer registered fourteen de-
of Florida we will simply make this agrees Fahrenheit on the opposite side.
statement, that during the past two win. In such conditions, and even in condi-
ters the official record is that no portion tions much less severe we must conquer
of the mainland of the State was entire- the wind before we can hope to combat
ly without freezing conditions. An ex- the cold successfully; therefore we con.
amination of the records, as far as there clude that open fires will not place the
are authentic data, reveals no tendency orange industry on a sound business
towards general climatic change, nor basis as long as such conditions are
are the cold waves more frequent or of among the probabilities.
longer duration than formerly; but the Protection by Tents.--Can we protect
facts do warrant the fear at least that trees successfully by tents or other in-
these cold waves are gradually dipping dividual enclosures heated by lamps or
further and further southward, thus in- stoves? To test this proposition we
tensifying the extremes. It is a matter had tents placed over 50o trees. The
of known fact that within the memory tent used was a small paper tent, a
of men now living oranges were raised model of which is here produced in or-
der that the data given may be better
The tent was 3x3, 6 feet high. The
trees were tied in the same manner as
those placed in sand cases. By raising
the tent on legs and banking beneath
we were enabled to protect trees eight
feet high and seven feet through, before
By a number of tests as to proper ven-
tilation we found the beat results wre
Feaszia whea tEr mas W5 Fi5sa wu miig
ten inches from the bottom and at least
one-half the top opened.
When thus opened it was found that
the temperature inside during warm
weather would be several degrees cool-
er than the outside temperature.
One experimental tree tied up and
enclosed November to, 189, and opened
up March 21, 1900, showed no bad ef-
fects either from being tied up or from
tent enclosure. Of the 15o trees under
tent enclosure we had three damaged
from failure of lamp to operate. The
others came out in excellent condition;
many had bloom and some few had or-
anges set when the tents were removed.
The lamp used was simply a Mason fruit
jar, in the lid of which a hole was cut by
an ordinary washer cutter of such a size
that a No. 3 burner would snugly screw
into the opening.
During the past winter this tent was
tried by heavy rains, high winds and one
hail storm. On storing away we found
that not more than ten pr meant. will
need repairs before being again used.
For small trees it forms a very prac-
tical and thoroughly efficient device.
With it properly handled trees can be
protected in any conditions that have
visited the orange belt.
While this tent can be enlarged to
only a moderate size, yet the general
principle of tent protection observed in
this tent will hold good in tents of larg-
er design and equally well adapted for
the needs of the case. Hence we be-
lieve the plan of tenting trees with
properly designed tents can be relied
upon as a safe and satisfactory plan.
Having saved the tree the question of
tent protection is only partially an-
swered. We must enquire whether it
can be done at sufficiently low cost to
justify the investment. It will give an
idea of the probable cost-of operating
tvnt pr9tintion if we present bricfly the
cost of protecting 150 trees during the
The lamps were lit seven nights.
Three barrels oil at $9 per barrel.$27 oo
Lighting lamps seven nights, at
$1.50 per night ............. to 50
Filling and trimming seven times,
at $.50o..... ...* ... .. ..... o0 50
rutting up tents, aling sama
down and storing in barn ...... 15 oo
Total .. ...................$63 oo
Cost per tree, 42 cents.
As the trees grow larger more fuel
will be required, so that for bearing
tree siSty eiilt per trcc will probably
cover the expense of protection, ex-
clusive of the first cost of tent, during
the average winter.
Hence if I box per tree is produced
protection costs .............. 6oc
2 boxes per tree is produced protec-
3 boxes per tree is produced protec--
tion costs ..... ............... 20c
4 boxes per tree is produced protec-
tion costs .... ....... ......... 5c
5 boxes per tree is produced protec-
tion costs .................... 12C
6 boxes per tree is produced protec-
tion costs .. ................. oc
The first cost of tents or of protec-
tion in any permanent form is to be re-
garded as part of the investment and
not as part of the running expense.
While ail forms of protection are more
or less perishable and therefore each
year are becoming less valuable, on the
other hand the trees are increasing in
producing capacity, which much more
than compensates for the slight yearly
deterioration in the protecting device.
Asid,. rfOm -"-g !hl sL thJ Me-
4Sntyy a t h fiii iiiiddsf thorough pro-
tection enables the grower to select his
market. From the record of fruit sales
in the past this one item would many.
times pay for all cost of protection.
In this form of protection there ar
cautions that must be observed if suc-
cess is to crown our efforts. Great care
must be taken to adjust the blaze of the
lamp properly. If turned too high the
lamp will smoke, suffocate and go out.
If left too low, sufficient heat will not
be generated and damage will result.
Another difficulty to be met when ordi-
nary wicks are used is the thick in-
crustation that forms on the wicks after
several hours burning. The lamp then
ceases to give out its normal heat. By
a number of tests with self-registering
thermometers I found when first lit that
a lamp in a tent of this design would
make a difference of from twenty to
thirty-one degrees increase in tempera-
ture. But invariably the difference
would fall off before morning to from
;in to cight dcgrccs.
During the past winter this did not
endanger the trees, but should we have
a repetition of the '99 blizzard this
would prove disastrous. The remedy
to be suggested is, either to have a sec-
ond lamp ready to light or retrim the
one already lit when the outside tem-
perature falls below eighteen degrees
In taking the temperature in all these
experiments the thermometer was
placed one foot from the ground and re-
mote from the lamp.
The most serious objection to the tent
plan of protection is the need of chang-
ing the size of the tent to suit the rap-
idly growing tree.
Considered in all its phases, however,
the plan of tent protection with well-de-
signed tents and under proper manage-
ment will, in our judgment, place the
growing of oranges in Florida on a gbod
Windbreaks With Open Fires.-The
next point in the outline is protection
by means of windbreaks with open fires.
Since it has been repeatedly demon-
strated that low temperatures can be
successfully overcome in still freeezs, it
naturally follows that if we control the
wind the problem is solved. Ip pursu-
ance of this idea one year ago we con-.
strustsd about j.oo running feet of wall
in what we deemed the proper locations
in our grove. This wall was of solid
plank twenty feet high. When these
titanic barrigadss were up they looked
as if they ought to have kept out even
his Satanic Majesty. But when the
blizzard of '99 appeared on the scene
we had the encouraging experience of
seeing the trees killed to the banks in
spite of fires and protecting barricades,
excepting those in the rows next the
north and south walls. In these rows
with fires at intervals of fifty feet water
was kept from freezing during the cold-
est part of that memorable blizzard.
Trees in these rows were unquestion-
ably saved until after daylight. The
supply of wood then failing there was
no alternative but to order the trees
banked and give up the fight. After re-
moving the banks all the trees in the
first rsw from the north and south
walls were alive to the top of the banks,
as were also a few in the second row.
The others in this division were killed
to the ground.
Out of this expensive wreck we recov-
ered as salvage one idea, namely, that a
windbrtel with firca i3 good protection
in the immediate vicinity of the wall
During the past winter we had parts
of the walls again constructed, forming
enclosures approximately 5So feet each
way. During the still freezes in January
to control the temperature with these
enclosures was comparatively easy. In
the windy freeze in February all the
trees next the west wall were saved per-
fectly and easily, new growth, bloom
and all. Two or three rows from the
walls, however, the trees were saved
only by heavy firing, and then even we
lost considerable new growth.
The fact that trees were saved easily
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
near the walls pointed toward smaller belt; and I am of the opinion that even
individual windbreaks as a more effec- much lower temperatures can be suc-
tual device. Several devices were con- cessfully overcome with them.
structed with a view of studying care- Owing to the fact that the triangle
fully the behavior of wind currents in was introduced hurriedly just bhefr tvh
presence of windbreaks. February blizzard and the wood gath-
The most important device from a sci- ered from other parts of the grove, we
entific standpoint was a large semi-cir- cannot give exact figures as to the cost
cular wall sixteen feet in diameter by of firing. The fuel burned we believe
fourteen feet high, presumably large need not exceed one-third the amount
enough to encircle a full-bearing tree. necessary for ordinary open fires.
This semi-circular wall, constructed of We dismiss this part of the subject by
light material, was supported to a cen- saying that we have great confidence in
trial 9imt and alia.St by a swinging the triangle as a means of thorough pro-
stove located diametrically opposite the section, and predict for it a lisefrtim
center of curvature. The whole device place in the future of the orange cul-
thus freely movable was operated auto- ture.
matically by a weather vane; by this Perhaps the cheapest form of protec-
means the stove was always opposite the tionif a new grove is to be planted
wind and the semi-circular shield be- would be to plant dwarf trees in rows
tween the wind and the tree. running northeast by southwest, plant-
With this device I 'could obtain a con- ing them as close as practicable, say
wnt effect even in the frequently shift- eight feet apart. The rows should be
M winds. fifty feet, better seventy-five feet apart,
By filling the device with smoke and construct a portable fence that can be
by other means, such as small paper placed close up against the trees on the
weather vanes, during the presence of a northwest side and fire on the southeast.
heavy wind the various currents could In this arrangement a tree ten feet high
b trs4 with murprioing precision, could be protected with atwelve foot
The accompanyiifi diigri&l will shaw neas, or nm.ntsi S~jIAI fU s 91 f! I3n
clearly the movements of the air within for each tree.
the device when a heavy wind is blow- Protection With Sheds.-The last de-
ifig. vice on the list is the orange shed.
A main reflex current is generated Under this form of protection we had
whose center passes backward over the in all 500 trees; 167 were from stumps
main axis B C. On reaching the,wall of .old bearing trees; 333 were newly
this main current diverts, part forming set intermediate trees.
an ascending current and part turning The space covered is 400oo feet long by
to the sides. These lateral currents 230 feet wide. The shed was designed
meet the inward end currents, forming with reference to three essential points:
vortices of whirling, ascending currents first, permanency; second, sufficient
at A and Ai. It will readily be seen light, and third, quick operation.
that by placing a fire at B the greater As to the first point, the very best
part of the interior of the device will be heart pine lumber was selected for all
filled with heated air and smoke. The the permanent parts. The posts are
two vortices at A and AI form effectual placed on tarred blocks that can easily
Barriers against the cold end current& be r~mOVISd jf Egn of decay apDcar.
The high temperature that can be The whole frame work is self-support-
maintained within this windbreak is evi- ing in all its parts and rigidly nailed
dently due to three causes. First, and into one complete structure. The walls
most important is .the reflex current are portable, being put up without nails,
just mentioned; second, the reflection of the design being to take them down
heat from the walls, and third, the ab- each season and store in a suitable
sorption of heat by the walls and con- building.
sequent radiation. The roof consists of two parts, a per-
A strictly scientific device that would manent part laid in two feet widths and
produce the maximum effect from all a portable part made of hinged doors.
these causes perhaps would be a shield The doors are made of light sap lumber
in the form of a parabolic curve with the and are to be removed and stored dur-
fire and the wall so relatively situated ing the summer.
that all rays of reflected heat would pass The
bal in parallel lines, thus distributing Theshed is fifteen fee in the clear
thi heat eqtualy to all parts of the ifr a and rins r the 49pro operate entirelu-
Since curves and circles are difficult and aboyc the stringers the trees may Oeun-
expensive in construction the nearest py the entire space beneath without in-
form that will produce almost equal re- terfering with the working parts.
orm thatwi prodceal osqul r The amount of light and method of
salts and at the same time is thoroughly The amount of light and method of
practical in construction, is the triangle. operation can be seen from the accom-
As a more practical test a triangle paying cross-sectional view. This cut
was constructed of boards. The tree represents one bent in the frame work.,
selected was five feet high. The two all the rest are exact duplicates.
sides of the triangle were made six feet When the doors are raised in to the
high, of boards eight feet long laid on positions shown by a a a a and b b i
edge. The open side of the triangle in drawing they are held in that posi-
faced the southeast, our cold winds in- tion by draw wires B B, one such wire
variably comingfrom the northwest i passing along one end of every one of
During the January freeze a ther- the doors. All the doors inclined in the
mometer laced just outside the wing same direction in two rows are fastened
iofn terilagie showed a icmpsidtiaie V tg one of the draw wires, that extends
eighteen degrees Fahrenheit. Another entirely acR6s~ e st 11real. To drop the
thermometer placed on the innermost doors the wire is unfastened at B and
limb of the tree and hence farthest from pulled in the direction of Bi. It is
the fire showed forty-two degrees Fah- only necessary to pull the doors a short
renheit, a difference of twenty-four de- distance and gravity quickly does the
agrees. The fire was not a large one, rest. When the doors are up a two-
simply three small sticks of wood blaz- thirds light is admitted.
ina foot and a half high. The operation of closing the entire
m satisinaetry were the results that shed is quickly and easily performed.
w sa std at ~r ii t g -, mn passes down each side of
the high wall be torn down and con ihe roof of ie 5.iU s fwe =tszrs the
structed into triangles. Thirty of the wire to be pulled by the other, each
largest grapefruit and some other vari- united pull of the two men doses .2
eties of orange trees were selected. doors.
At the time of the February blizzard In larger sheds this could be greatly
these trees in the triangles were in the increased and still be within practical
tesderest condition; they had made the limits. About twenty minutes is re-
targest new growth of all the trees in quired for two men to close this shed
the grove. They were simpl-- bristling over 500 trees, occupying an area of a
all over with new growth from five to little over two acres. This places this
ten inches long with some bloom, form of protection entirely out of dan-
The triangles were placed in charge of ger from being caught by surprise.
regular hand as part of his regular Results Obtained.-The results oh-
work for the night. tained under the shed thus far place this
The result was completely satisfactory; far in advance of any other protective
a. oikw gygwth and blUem were as device used.
bright, the next morning and continue Duiias tie rst aight La the Jfandr
to grow as if no blizzard had occurred. freeze of the past winter the tempera-
These trees matured the leaves and ture outside fell to twenty degrees Fah-
wood of the first growth fully two weeks renheit. Twenty-eight degrees Fahren-
earlier than those protected by any oth- heit was the lowest recorded under the
r device. shed, and hence no artificial heat was
All our experiments with this form of needed; no fires were lit.
protection would indicate that, if prop- On the second night of the freeze at
erly handled, it can be relied upon as about three thirty o'clock a. m. the
absolute protection against any temper- temperature inside approached the dan-
aLr that has ever reached the orange ger point-twenty-six degrees Fahren-
heit. In fifteen minutes, with the as-
sistance of one hand, we had sixty
small open fires lit and the temperature
raised to thirty-six degrees Fahrenheit.
During the third night of the freeze
we had the fires kindled 6nly two
hours, merely lighting the fires and let-
ting them take their course.
In the February blizzard we found the
results equally satisfactory, having to
fire but four hours during the duration
of the wave.
The total number of hours firing in
the shed during the entire winter was
ten. as aaimint:a tYS!St or more it all
the other forms of protection.
The total amount of wood consumed
in the shed during the entire winter was
a little less than four cords. Fifty cords
were consumed in saving one-third the
number of trees in an equal area within
the high wall enclosure.
The total cost of operating the shed
is as follows:
Fuel, four cords wood at $1.o.. .$ 4 4 40
Labor in firing ten hours at 25c
per hour... ... .. .. ...... .. 50
Arranging kindling .. .. .. .... I o
Manipulating doors and other la-
bar stantstd with protection.. 2 5
Total .... .................$xo 40
Five hundred trees, or a trifle over 2
cents per tree.
The cost of taking down doors and
walls, storing them in lumber shed and
putting same in place again when need-
ed is estimated at $40.00 per year, mak-
ing the total cost of shed protection of
this design $50.40, or a little over ten
cents per tree.
Who will challenge the assertion that
under intensive culture, with thorough
protection, trees planted twelve and
one-half feet apart will produce two
boxes per tree or 500 boxes per acret
While we confidently hope in time to
do hiUCIh better than that, yet with think
yield protection would cost only five
cents per box.
Auxiliary Benefits.-Shed protection
not only affords the most thorough
control with the least care in its opera-
tion and in the end we are confident it
will be found the cheapest and most
satisfactory protection that has been de-
vised. Not only this, but the effect on
the condition of the tree will of itself
place the shed paramount. If the re-
sults in the future shall continue as
they were during the past winter, and
we see no reason to doubt it-under a
wtll qSsigned shed the condition of the
trce is largely under thm control of the
owner. It can be kept dormant during
the warm weather in January or Feb-
ruary, or be pushed forward into
growth at will.
During the past winter portions of the
shed that were given one-third light
only remained dormant until well along
in March, while trees given two-thirds
light started to grow almost as soon as
those in the open. At the time some
fear was entertained that we had not
given the trees in the shed sufficient
light, and consequently they were re-
maining dormant too long. On taking
down the walls and opening up the roof
to admit two-tiiris light, uowarda tMis
last of March, the results were simply
marvelous. I can compare it to noth-
ing but the sudden outburst of spring-
time verdure in the more rigid latitude
of my native State; and even that does
not do it justice. In less than six weeks
the trees, far surpassing in growth all
those protected by other devices, had
more than doubled their entire volume,
4o ;ft fifq s grewrk fsicarinaf Bajf
thirty-six inches, hardy, sound and per-
fect in color.
Men of long experience in the orange
industry inform me that they have never
witnessed such a spring growth and sel-
dom one equal to it in mid-summer.
It has been urged against shed pro-
tection that it deprives the tree of dew
and otherwise places it in unnatural
conditions. Our observation thus far
has been very much to the contrary. As
we walk among these trees in the early
morning the dew drops sparkle from
every leaf, and vanish only at the in-
stance of the early rays of the morning
A closer study of the nature ot the
orange in its natural wild state shows
that it invariably seeks the shelter of the
palmetto, the live oak or the stately
magnolia. Have not the brightest
fancy fruits in the past been gathered
from the densely shaded hammock
groves? The shed reproduces these
With a motive single to the expres-
sion of natural truths as we have wit-
nessed them in our various experiments,
we are of the firm conviction that after
duly considering all the facts pertain-
ing to protection yet in evidence, the
shed so far surpai33c all other protect-
ing devices that we have reached the
conclusion that thorough shedding, it
not the only business method, is the
most business-like method of dealing
with the problem.
In conclusion we will say that we be-
lieve the orange industry is here to
stay. Under methods of thorough pro-
tection with complete control of sun-
light and shadow, of hf;a and moist
ture, the culture of the orange can be
carried to the high plane commensu-
rate with the fondest dream of the
most passionate horticulturist, the sat-
isfaction of the ambitious investor and
the world-wide fame of our adopted
and beloved State.
"Well, it is the most thrilling and Im-
pressive moment you can conceive."
"Oh, I don't know. Have you ever
seen a golf club champion get ready to
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s2-inch barrel, weight 4 pounds.
Carefully bored and tested. For
.25 and .32 rim-fire cartridges.
Plain Open Sights, $6.00
TargetSights, $ 50
Ask our dealer for the 1" FAVO-
RITE If he doesn't keep it we
will send,prepaid, on receipt of
SSend mamp for UisiTsi t i-
logue showing our fall line, with val-
nable information regarding rifes
and ammunition in general.
J. STIV I AlI AD TOOL CO.
CHICOPIe PAUAS. MASS.
STHE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST,
Fig. 9.-Golden Queen. Plant 8 in. across.
Clasficaation and Description of the
Varieties of Garden Lettuce.
(Continued from last week.)
24. Black-Seeded Tennis Ball.-
Young plants a lighter shade of green
than the white-seeded Tennis Ball.
Leaves smooth at first, becoming very
much crumpled and plaited after the
heads begin to form. The heads are
larger and looser than those of the
white-seeded variety, and they ma-
ture about two weeks later. The
leaves of this variety are rarely if
ever shaded with red. The black-seed-
ed Tennis Ball has been a favorite va-
riety for many years. It is still exten-
sively grown for markets, and is also
one of -the best kinds for private
The black-seeded All-the-Year-Round,
and Frankfort Head, as now sold by
the seedsmen, too closely resemble the
above to be considered distinct varie-
eties, and the same is also true of
Ninety and Nine, Market Gardener's
Private Stock, and Learned's black-
seeded Tennis Ball.
25. Black-Seeded Butter.-L e a v e s
green, considerably crumpled, and
darker green than those of the preced-
ing variety. The inner leaves of the
heads are yellowish, or butter color,
which might have suggested the name.
A variable variety as now sold by
seedsmen, and generally regarded as
inferior to the black-seeded Tennis
Ball. A large form of this variety has
been named the Mammoth black-seed-
26. White Seeded All the Year Round
(Blonde d' Ete of the Fr.).-Leaves
light green, a little crumpled and fold-
ed between the nerves, and the ends of
the leaves twisted to one side. Heads
roundish, firm, weighing four to eight
ounces, formed by the leaves folding
in together, but the outer one not usu-
ally over-lapping at the ends. Plant
closely resembling the large White
Summer, but with the points at the
end of the leaves where the veins ter-
mmate 1a E! i msre aurmuiuui- a w
lerb from good authorities that this
is a popular variety in both France
and England. It is also grown in this
country, but it is not considered as re-
liable a market variety here as the
black-seeded Tennis Ball.
27. Silver Ball.-Leaves glossy green,
edges with minute points near the
apex. Plants about 10 inches across,
heads compact, of medium size and
light colored. A reliable variety. Oeed,
28. Chavigny White (Blonde de Cha-
vigne of the Fr.).-Leaves green, long
and spreading flat upon the ground
when the plants are young; edges with
distinct points where the veins termi-
nate; surface rather smooth with a
few large folds and bunches; heads,
nearly round,not very firm, seed, white.
Obtained from England and France.
Plants of slow growth, slightly re-
sembling the Deacon, but intermediate
in appearance between this variety
and the Large White Summer.
Fig. & --. & Criapcd Plnt e in. acro
S29. Deacon (Impereale of the Fr.)-- because it is thought to be less
L .E iint gloasy either above or e- subject to dickie fl ti tie
low, leathery in texture, light yellowish Boston Market, but it is doubt-
green at first bu' soon turning to a ful if, on the whole. it Is
whiter shade, particularly the under equal to that variety for fore-
surfaces. which are conspicuous when ing.
Sthe plants begin to head. Edges of the i 35. Black-Seeded Crisped
leaves with distinct points where the (Crepe a Graine Noire of the
veins terminate near the end, and with Fr.).-Leaves green, very
well-defined points towards the base. short and broad at the ends.
Plants of slow growth, spreading flat When the plants are young
upon the ground when young, later the leaves lie flat on the
forming large, loose heads, which re ground, but the heads of this
main in an edible condition for three variety begin to form earlier
or four weeks, even in hot weather, out than any kind that we have '--- -
the leaves are never very tender, and seen, so that the plants soon -
often they are noticeably bitter. An become ball-shaped, with few Fig. 12.-Hanson. Plant 12 in. across
old variety, mainly grown in small small base leaves. The heads
gardens, mature quickly, but they are very glossy when young, serrate, margins
30.Hammersmithor Hardy Greensmall. This is the "Petite Noire' full, with the points bending up and
Winter (Morine of the FHard Green of the Paris market gardeners, by down and the edges Inclined to curl in-
green, usually light green rather long whom it is grown, because it thrives in ward towards the midrib. Head point-
n na y twardsteebse edges a much closer atmosphere than the ed, weighing about 6 ounces, plants o
with minute points where the veies Tennis Ball can endure. The Golden slow growth, seed, white. This va
terminate at the end, and dentate on Queen is a freer growing variety, but ety differs from the Early Curled 8le-
the sides, surface moderately crum- evidently it is nearly related to the slan in having leaves that are less
pled after the heads begin to form. Petite Noire. wrinkled and more curly at edges, and
Plants of slow growth, requiring four 36. Tom Thumb (Gotte Lente a Mon- also in forming firm heads, but on ac-
months or more after the seed is plant- ter of the Fr.).-A dwarf variety, more count of its slower growth and lack of
ed to mature heads. In appearance the leafy than the Petite Noire, and the crispness it is considered lees desirable
plants resemble large White Summer, leaves a little longer in proportion to for garden culture than that variety.
and, like it, this is an old kind, its cul- their width than those of that variety. The Early Ohio of English seedamen
tivation in New England dating back Seed, black, a variable kind, as now seems to be identical with the Denver
certainly more than fifty years. Now said by seeedsmen, and of little merit. Market.
it is rarely planted. 37. White Star.-Leaves yellowish 43. Early Curled Silesian or Simpson.
green, pale, or with faint luster, not -Leaves yellowish green, rather long
31. Fat Green Lettuce (Hative Verte serrate near apex, margins slightly and narrow, the lower half more or
Grosse of the Fr.).-Leaves dark, wavy, surface wrinkled and plaited less ascending but the ends bending
glossy green, and very thick edges along the midrib and toward the base; downwards and often twisted to one
with light colored points where veins heads firm, slightly conical, weighing side, surface very much wrinkled, the
terminate at the ends, and smallteeth about 8 ounces; seed, white. An lamina generally raised above the
on the sides which increase in size to- i American variety of recent introduc- nerves, edges finely denate but not
ward the base; lamina raised irregl- 'tion, and apparently having consider- very curly, the curly appearance of the
larly, forming rounded ridges and able merit. plants being mainly due to the wrink-
bunches. Plants thick set, heading 38. Hanson.-Leaves yellowish green, led surface of the leaves, seeds, white.
early; seed, black. A distinct variety, glossy, when young, serrate, margins A very old variety but still one of the
slightly resembling the thick-leaved frilled and slightly puckered, general best for private gardens. It is easily
spinach in appearance, although the surface broad, with coarse elevations grown, medium in quality, and it re-
leaves are less pointed and they soon and depressions of the lamina along mains in condition for cutting several
begin to fold inward and form a head. the midrib and toward the base. weeks before the blossom stalks ap-
Seed obtained from France. The inner leaves strongly incurved, pear. It does not bear transportation as
32. Turkish or Butter.-Leaves light often overlapping at the top of the well as the heading varieties and con-
green, often silvery underneath, large heads one-quarter of their length, or sequently it is not usually grown in
and spreading, dentate on the sides and more; heads large, weighing 8 to 12 market gardens.
44. Black-Seeded Simpson.-Leaves
a peculiar whitish shade of green,
spreading when the plants are young.
but later rather tall and usually fold.
ing in toward the center, but not form-
ing a true head; edges with rounded
points and shallow furrows between
them often appearing nearly smooth.
Surface but little crumpled, less so
than the Early Curled Silesian. The
plants are also taller than those of that
variety, the margins are .not as finely
dentate. So far as mildness of flavor
and crispness of texture are concerned
m_ -i aw !2 smiiJs r fifa
lence, but the leaves wilt too quickly,
c ---and they are too bulky and brittle to
make it a desirable kind for market.
-- A well known variety, that is cata-
Fig. 11.-White Star. Plant 12 in. across logued by all leading seedsmen.
with prominent points at the ends. ounces; seed, white. A standard vari- 45. Grand Rapids.-Leaves green,
Surface of leaves wrinkled, veins con- ety for garden culture, and it is some- curled at the edges, and the sides twist-
spicuous, lamina thick, head not very times grown on a larger scale for mar- ing upwards and towards each other,
firm, seed, black. An old variety, now ket, but the smooth leaved kinds are in the widest part, in such a way that
seldom planted. preferred for that purpose. The Blonde they appear more or less funnel-form.
33. Yellow-Seeded Butter.-Leaves Beauty and Blonde Blockhead are The surface of the leaves is but little
yellowlel grei, spreading, requiring hardly distinct from it or from each crumpled, but the curly edges are
four months after the seed is planted other as the seed is now sold by seeds- prominent all over the plant. In this
to mature heads. In appearance the men. respect it resembles the Boston Curled,
plants resemble Large White Summer, 39. New York.-Leaves dark green but n habit of growth it is intermedi-
differ Yroskllr;eavthdarkfgreenrate between that variety and the
but they are smaller; also they differ particularly when the plants are young, black-seeded Simpson. Plant 8 to 12
from the variety in having distinct otherwise very much like the Hanson, inches across, not a heading varty.
hard points where the veins terminate seed white. A popular variety for out- Seed, black. The Grand Rapids is ex-
at the ends of the leaves, also in hav- door culture but not equal to the black- tensively grown under glass for mar-
ing yellowish instead of white seed. seeded Tennis Ball, which has flatter kets that do not require headed lettuce,
This variety is catalogued by seeds- leaves with smaller midribs. A let- btat is rarely seen in the forcing
men, but not generally planted, tuce apparently identical with the houses either about Providence or Bos
34. Golden Queen.-Leaves short above was obtained from France under ton.
and broad, yellowish green, often shad- the name Chou de Naples, and another
ing to light yellow at the margins, from England named Neapolitan. (Continued next week.)
edges smooth or with teeth only near 40. Ice Drumead of Mal-
the base, veins prominent, the lamina 40. Ice Drmhead of Mal-
generally being deDreseod ton, ta.-Leaves light veen. tall.
&My f aifs 7f miiih c n il t p aris t ty or curled so as to ap-on
vonng. Base of midrib >, o .nnl, tate or curled sO as to ap-
shortened and thick, heads rounded,
hard, weight 4 to 8 ounces, texture
crisp, free from excessive bitterness,
base leaves few and small, seed, white.
A variety of unusual merit, either for
field culture or forcing. The plants
grow rapidly, and, when well cared for,
they seldom fail to head. The heads
average about the size, or a little small-
er than. the white-seeded Tennis Ball,
and, like that variety, the plants go to
seed rather quickly when grown in the
open ground. The Golden Queen is
recommended for growing under glass.
pear dentate, surface nearly
smooth, nerves prominent.
Heads obvate, flattened at
the top, loose. An old vari-
ety frequently mentioned by
writers a century ago, but
rarely catalogued by seeds-
men. Seeds, white.
41. Italian Ice.-Leaves tall
and nearly smooth, heads
loose. Hardly distinct from -fi
42. Denver Market.-
Leaves light yellowish green,
Fig. 18-Denver Market. Plant 12 in. aeou.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. eo0
The Desplsed Saw Palmetto.
The saw palmetto, or "sabel serrula-
ta," as the scientists call it, is indi-
genous to the soil of South Carolina,
Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and
Louisiana, in the tide water sections
and just beyond. It is extremely
hardy and vigorous growth. Once its
roots are set in a soil they can be re-
moved only by the most industrious
and thorough grubbing. In very many
places the palmetto scrub covers whole
"flats" of many acres with an almost
impassable barrier of tangled under-
Until within the very recent past the
saw palmetto has been looked upon as
an unmitigated nuisance. The cost of
clearing an acre of land of the growth
was often much greater than the price
of a dozen acres in the rough. Lately,
however, the plant has been receiving
more consideration. It has been dis-
overed that the saw palmetto is both
source of health and of wealth, and
the probabilities are that at a day not
far in the future it will be adding to
the prosperity of those sections which
formerly cut it down and cast it into
the fire. The medicinal properties of
It have been found very valuable In the
treatment of kidney and other troubles,
and various proprietary medicines
manufactured from the saw palmetto
are now finding their way into the
The roots are rich in tannic acid.
Several factories for extracting the
acid are already in operation in Florida
and others are projected. Leather
tanned with acid from the palmetto is
said to be equal, If not superior, to the
best oak or hemlock tanned stock. As
the palmetto costs hardly more than
the gathering, acid from it can be pro-
duced at less cost than from any other
source. The market for it, therefore,
is safe. For manufacturing such arti-
cles as mats, hats, etc., it would seem
that there ought to be a great field for
the palmetto. It was extensively made
use of during the war of secession by
the women of the south in making
such articles, and it is safe to say that
thousands of the articles made then
are in serviceable condition today, so
durable is the material.
One of the most important uses for
which the saw palmetto is available,
however, is the making of paper. In
various parts of 'Asia, it is said, paper
has been made from this stock for
many years, and so cheaply that not
even our wood pulp paper has been
able to compete with it. Lately a fac-
tory for making paper from the saw
palmetto has been established at Pen-
sacola, and Its product is said to be
very good in quality and strong in tex-
ture. There is a great and increasing
demand for a satisfactory substitute
for wood pulp in paper making. The
forests are being rapidly denuded,
without adequate steps for their repro-
duction being taken. Besides, the wood
pulp business is now controlled by a
gigantic trust, which is in a position to
squeeze the consumers at will. The pal-
metto flats would furnish an Inexhaus-
tible supply of paper stock, since so
long as the roots are in the ground the
tops will be abundantly reproduced.
The tops may be cut off every year
with positive assurance that another
full crop will be forthcoming the next
Season. Harvesting palmetto for paper
manufacture does not destroy the re-
producing stock. Mr. John H. Steph-
ens, of Jacksonville, is authority for
the statement that the saw Palmetto
will make the "finest and best paper
in the world." That being true, we
ought to have paper mills in many
parts of South Georgia and Florida
within a few years.-Savannah News.
This week's receipts of Jamaica or-
anges were 2,800 barrels and 700 boxes,
against 2,000 barrels and 160 boxes
last week. Arrivals previous to this
time were scattering and hardly worth
taking into consideration. But the sea-
son now is considered fully opened.
The crop is somewhat early, and
though it is hard to cover the entire
island, advices from the principal pro-
ducing points indicate that it is a large
crop, considerably larger than last
year's indications before the storm.
The quality of th, fruit coming, so far,
has been very good, and It Ie believed
that tle high quality will be main-
The question of price is somewhat
uncertain, owing to the size of this and
other orange crops. But merchants
here are rather confident of a profitable
The Journal of the Jamaica Horti-
cultural Society for September gives
reports of the crop from various par-
ishes of the Island. Summaries of
these reports are as follows:
St. Ann.-Where there were mid-
year crops the present crop is rather
poor; elsewhere it is medium and will
be finer than last year on account of
good rains. Grape fruit, large crop and
Manchester.-Crop generally good,
rather larger than last year, and be-
cause of good rains, fruit is large and
fine Many districts report a shortage;
some very poor crops, others just up
to the average. Main crop will be in
St. Catherine.-Some growers report
one-fourth crop, others very good and
large fruit. Grape fruit average crop,
fruit large and fine.
Clarendon.-Medium crop, rather
backward, and will not be fit for ship-
ping before November. Fruit be large
and of good quality.
Hanover.-Oranges rather early and
very good fruit. Some shipping by end
of August, but bulk end of September.
The Journal adds that fully 20 per
cent of early green fruit gathered was
rejected by purchasers, and that there
is great improvement in care taken by
shippers over previous years.-Fruit
TO THE DEA".
A rich tldy, cured of her deafness and
noises in the head by Dr. Nicholson's
Artificial Ear Drums, gave (10, to his
Institute. so that deaf people unable to
procure the Ear Drums may have them
free. Address l1lc. The Nicholson In-
stitute, 780 Eighth Avenue. Now York
Made Fine Fruit.
E. O. Painter & Co., Jacsonille, Fla.
Gentlemen:-I beg to state that the
pineapple fertilizer bought of you gave
entire satisfaction and made fine fruit
and plants. Do not see how it could
be Improved. (Miss) Vettie Wright.
Orlando. Fla.. Sept. 21. 1900.
Gave Entire Satisfaction.
E. 0. Painter & Co., Jacksonville, Fla.
Gentlemen:-The fertilizer that I re-
ceived from your house gave entire
satisfaction. Yours respectfully,
F. G. Liles.
San Antonio, Fla., Sept. 25, 1900.
If you have neuralgia, Scott's
Emulsion of Cod Liver Oil
will feed the nerve that is cry-
ing for food-it is hungry-
and set your whole body going
again, in a way to satisfy nerve
and brain from your usual food.
That is cure.
If you are nervous and irri-
table, you may only need more
fat to cushion your nerves-
you are probably thin-and
Scott's Emulsion of Cod Liver
Oil will give you the fat, to be-
Cure, so far as it goes.
Full cure is getting the fat,
you need from usual food, and
Scott's Emulsion will help you
If you have not tried it, send for free sample
its agreeable taste will surprise you.
SCOTT & BOWNE, Chemists,
409-415 Pearl Street, New York
50o. and $1.00; all druggists.
Farmers' Attention I
Avery Garden Plows, Acme Harrows
GUBBIA BMT 8.
and everythg ing in O sr a lt Igsl t enm ad Suppies
Poultry Netting t0f~ltr? Cg.iCbia Bicycles
CaRUANR PAINT, Il VVIR, BMILBRS AJWD PUIKPS
GEO. H. FERNALD, Sanfrd, Florida.
Corn, Hay, Oats,
And all kinds of Feed Stuff at Pock Bottom Prices.
Oats, 125 pound White Clipped -
Oats, 125 pound Mixed, -
Corn, IIO pound Mixed, -
Bran, pure, in hundred pound sacks
Hay, Number I, -
All P. O. B. Cars Jacksonville.
Realizing that many people are so located that they have
not access to first class feed stores that keep a fresh stock of
feed stuff on hand we have arranged to fill small orders at but
a small advance over large lots.-large lots at bottom prices.
No orders filled except where accompanied by the cash. Pri-
ces good for 15 days. If prices go lower you get the benefit.
Florida Grain & Feed Co.,
Lock Box .464, Jacksonville, Fla.
This firm will fill all orders as advertised E.O. Painter & Co.
FOR SUMMER AND FALL
THE ORIFFINO BROTHER'S CO.,
SEED Jacvlle, Fla.
THE LARGEST SEED AND NURSERY HOUSE IN THE SOUTH.
Complete stock of all leading sorts for southern planting. Genuine Bermuda Onion Seeds
ana sets, Matchless Tomato, Valentine and Refugee Beans, etc., etc.
ONLY HIGH GRADE CAREFULLY TESTED SEED OFFERED.
Complete stock of fruit trees and Summer and fall catalogue free upon
plants, fancy poultry, etc. Orange THE ORIFFINO BROTHER'S CO.,
and grape fruit trees a specialty.... Jacksoville, Pla.
$4.00 tor $2.00!!
Seed you must have to make a garden, and the AGRICULTUUIWr you should have to be a
sucessful gardner. You can get them both at the price o1 one. Send us one new subscriber
and $2 and we will send yon the following list of choice Garden Seed from the catalogue of
Beans, Extra Early Bed Yalen- Egg Plant, Griffing's Improved
tine.. .......... .. ..... 10 Thornless.. .......... .10
New Stringless Green Lettuce, Big Boston.......... .5
Pod .................. 10 Onions, Red Bermuda.......... .10
Dwarf German Black Grifflng's White Wax.... .10
Wax.......... .... .10 Peas, Alaska.. ................10
Burpees Large Bush Li- Champion of England.... .10
ma................ .10 Peppers, Long Cayenne........ .5
Beets, Extra Early Eclipse ....... .5 Ruby King..........5
Imperial Blood Bed Tur- Radishes, Wonderful ......... .5
nip...... ...... ...... .5 Grifing's Early Scar-
Cabbage, Select Early Jersey let.. .............. .. .5
Wakefield ............ .5 Earley Scarlet Erfurt ... 5
Early Summer.. .........5 Tomatoes, Beauty.. .......... .5
Grifling's Succession .....5 Money Maker.. ....... ..5
Cauliflower, Extr Early Paris .. 10 Turnips, riffing's Golden Ball.... .5
Celery, Golden Self Blanching.. ..10 Pomeranian White Globe
Cucumbers, Improved White Spine. .5 .................... .5
Long Green Turkish.. .. .5 Ruta Bagas, Bloomsdale Swede.... .5
Address FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST, Jacksonville, Fla.
OeN THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
5TILIlE DEPAB31M BNT.
All commaications or enquiries forthis de
apartment should be addressed to
Pertiller Dept. Jacksonville, Fla.
Perhaps no principle in agriculture
is better established than that an ex-
cess of any salt in the usual acceptance
of the term is a cause of barrenness.
Yet it is quite as well established that
the quantity of different salts admits of
some latitude, and that some salts do
fifmidimi lIMPF FMltf fMIMhll 5fMum
Referring to the acid constituent of
these salts, it will be found that some
acids are organic. They consist of hy-
drogen, carbon, oxygen, all of which
under the influence Of the living plant
may be dissociated. Other acids con-
sist of oxygen and nitrogen, essential
constituents of plants; others consist
of chlorine; others of sulphur and ox-
ygen, and others of carbon and oxygen.
In other words, the acids are com-
posed of elements which form food for
plants, or of elements which enter In
small proportions only into the compo-
sition of plants.
In the first case, the salts admit of
a larger quantity being applied than in
the second. By the first, plants are
fed-by the second they are poisoned;
for the base of all salts acts ever the
same in agriculture. Peculiarity of ac-
tion depends on the acid of the salt;
the acid is eliminated,-if this is set
tree in large quantities and its ele-
ments can ib taken iu and converted
by the plant, well, good effects follow;
if, on the other hand, the elements of
the acid are such as the plant does not
demand, they act like poison on the an-
Let salts be divided on this principle
of the peculiarity of action depending
upon the acid of the salts, into two
classes: the first nourishing, the second
poisoning plants. The first class con-
tains (a) carbonates, (b) nitrates, (c)
phosphates. The second class, that is,
those whose acid forms but a small
portion of the elements of plants, we
find there two classes: first, sulphates,
as plaster, copperas, glauber salts, all
of which, in small quantities, are bene-
ficial; second, muriates or chlorides,
as they are strictly called, as common
salt (muriate of soda), muriate of lime.
muriate of potash.
In all this action of salts, it is seen
that the presence of life seems almost
essential. Whatever the vital principle
may be, it may be best represented as
analogous to electricity and galvanism.
In this point of view, the salts pre-
sent themselves in the new relation in
which, alone, they may be said to be
stimulants or excitants. Plants and
soll act, It may De supposed ror illus-
tration, by forming galvanic batteries,
or piles with each other. The most ac-
tive element in the pile is the growing
plant, It is an acknowledged fact that
chemical action if not the source, is
ever attended by electrical effects. An
acid in contact with an alkali or metal
always produces chemical action, but
the silicates of the soil are already
combinations of acid and metals-
hence as such they have no tendency
to act on each other. If there be add-
ed to thele a nilt or ai acid, cheieical
action, decomposition, begins. The
electricity is, we may say, excited by
salts; they are in this sense, and in no
other, excitants or stimulants. The
very first act of vegetation, the germin-
ation of seeds, induces this electrical
action, this decomposition of the ele-
ments of soil. Germination produces
Ftpbonlo aold by dooompoasig water.
The very first act of life in a seed is
to evolve carbonic acid by its carbon
combining with oxygen of air, and its
second act is to decompose water. Its
oxygen combines with the carbon of
the seed; a single bean produces
many times its bulk of carbonic acid
gas, and in the soil would surround it-
self with carbonic acid. This evolved,
begins its action upon the silicate.
This living seed begins its electric ac-
tion and the plants exert and keep up
this influence. Salts act in a similar
way but above all, over all, influencing
all, is the living plant. This electric
action induced, extends to undeter-
mined distances; hence, there is a
transfer as is usual in all cases of gal-
vanic decomposition, of substances re-
*mote from the plant to its root, when
they are taken up. It is not potash
soda and lime, etc., immediately i:
contact with the root which alone suD
plies the plant, but under the galvanic
influence, an undertermined portion o:
soil is 'decomposed. By numerous ex
periments, it is known that plants con
stantly discharge, while growing, cart
bonic acid from their roots. This acki
decomposed the silicates in a soil
which had resisted the action of nitro
muriatic acid. It eliminated element!
from supposed pure quartz, whose ex
istence there had been proved in n(
Om? Wlolg.-MAngi'w wavf, i N
Crops and Fertilizers.
Though a substance may add one or
more plant-growing elements to the
the soil, it by no means follows thai
growing crops can in all cases avail
themselves of the nutriment added tc
the land. On this point ofl availability
for immediate use by plants, natural
and artificial manures widely vary,
most of the valuable constituents of
the former being temporarily locked ul
in the form of vegetation of one kind
or another, which must be broken
down or decomposed before it can be
used to nourish the crop. On the other
hand, most artificial manures are eas-
ily soluble, and so go to immediately
concentrate or strengthen the soil so-
lution which is taken up by the roots.
Hence the great value of artificial fer-
tilizers for application to growing
plants in need of one or more elements
of plant growth. AM a matter of fart.
solubility of a manure is not an un-
qualified advantage, though it does
admit of nourishment being promptly
suppliedd to crops actually needing it,
since very considerable waste may re-
sult from fertilizers which remain sol-
uble in the soil draining or leaching
away beyond the reach of the roots or
into drains. The greatest loss is in-
curred in nitrogen, which is unfortun-
ately the most costly of the manurial
elements. For this reason, when nitro-
gen is applied in immediately available
form, it should be given only as a top-
dressing for growing plants, and in
small quantities. It is much wiser to
make several light top-dressings rather
than one heavy application, the greater
proportion of which would probably
be lost, as the plants cannot store up
more than enough for their immediate
The danger is not nearly so great
with soluble phosphates as with ni-
trates, for the reason that soluble phos-
phates not immediately assimilated by
plants tend to revert to their original
forms and to become insoluble. The
great advantage of artificial manures
lies in the fact that they enable the
gmewor to supply ApaUitely any 41e-
ment or elements required by particu-
lar crops without adding elements al-
ready present in ample quantity.-Rur-
al World, London.
Management of Poultry Manure.
Poultry manure rapidly decomposes
and gives the poultry house a very un-
pleasant odor. This cannot be avoided,
even when the house is daily cleaned,
but it can be so treated as not only to
be of great value, but also to lessen
the alsagrM1a64& dori to a certain ex-
tent. The roosts should, of course, be
so arranged that the droppings will
fall on a platform. Keep the plat-
form covered half an inch thick with
well sifted, fine, dry dirt. To do this
is first to scatter the dirt, then over the
dirt sprinkle a handful of kainit,
which will arrest the escape of ammon-
Is when decompolstlon begin. -Two
or three times a week (daily is better)
sweep the platform with a broom.
After it is clean sprinkle the platform
and room with a solution of a table-
spoonful of carbolic acid in a gallon
of water, and then scatter the dry dirt
on the platform. Douglass mixture,
composed of one pound of copperas,
two gallons of water, and an ounce of
sulphuric acid, is also an excellent dis-
infectant and a very cheap compound
that can be used freely. If the drop-
pings are thrown on the manure heap
they will be kept with less difficulty.
All the materials of a manure heap
should be fine. When the fowls are at
work on the manure heap they not only
find quite an amount of waste mater-
ial, but perform excellent service in
e rendering the manure fine. An ex
, cellent plan is to throw all the manure
n in a heap, allow the hens to work or
- it, and then remove the manure to a
c larger heap, which permits of its be
f ing more intimately mixed with an]
- kind of absorbent material. A flock o0
- a dozen hens will save a portion ol
Their food if allowed to scratch over
I the manure, as there is always more or
, less food that passes through animal
which has not been appropriated or di
s gested.-Mirror and Farmer.
S BalelssMis s8f m e oms
All breeders have to keep an eye or
the general characteristics and feat-
ures of the flock, but in the selection
of ram lambs it is impossible to give
any fixed rules to be the universal pro.
cedure, as it Is not only in different
I breeds that the requirements differ, bul
Seven in the same breed individual ram
I breeders look for different points to a
I considerable extent, according to theic
,own ideas and the customers they are
catering to. A ram breeder that is
Breeding for the show yard has to be
Sfar more fastidious in the selection of
Shis ram lambs, both on account of hav-
ing to exhibit himself and also because
he naturally expects to meet with his
- best customers among other ram breed-
ers who are breeding for exhibition.
Such a ram breeder is bound to pay
great attention to true type and char-
acter of the breed, and the same at-
tention must be paid to the form,
symmetry and general style and car-
rings. and If the legs am not put on g
they should be there is sure to be dis-
appointment at the finish, and al-
though the requirements of wool vary
very much in different breeds it is
most necessary yet difficult to get In
the fleece all that is required, says S.
B. Hollings. In speaking of the head,
it is often taken as the first consider-
ation, and there can be no doubt that
a ram breeder cannot succeed In any
show yard who uses sires that have a
common or mean head. All these
points and many others which I have
not named, but which have to be kept
constantly in view, make it difficult
for such breeders to give as much con-
sideration to the flesh, fleeece, size and
constitutional vigor as he would wish,
because the type and fashion of the
breed is entirely in the hands of such
breeders. The ram breeders, how-
ever, who do not show, or at any rate,
do not exhibit at the most important
meetings, have a much easier task in
selecting their ram lambs because they
are free from the responsibility of
maintaining and improving the type
and character of the breed leading the
fashion. These breeders can turn their
attention so much more to the useful
poihto required by tenant farmers or
small squatters, because it is the ac-
quisition of these useful points in their
rams that makes them sell. In speak.
Ing in a general way of the selection of
ram lambs I think It is desirable to
confine ourselves to the useful points
and leave the type, character and fash-
ion out of consideration. To briefly
sum up, the useful points are a good
constitution, good mutton and good
wool, and in selecting ram lambs to use
as sires one has to study the many
pointy tl t aeaate thas uallHtle. and
to consider the importance attached to
each. There are many small things
that denote a good constitution, but the
chief point to look at is a capacious
chest, especially to have it deep and
prominent, and this depth of chest and
shoulder should be continued to the
hind flank, thigh and leg of mutton,
making the under line as it should VV,
Plenty of bone is a great indication of
a vigorous constitution, and other Im-
portant points that denote robustness
are a strong neck, wide loins and good
back ribs. To have good mutton is the
chief aim of sheen breeders in this
country, and the educafted hand can
soon distinguish the different qualities
of flesn. Bur there are several points
that one must bear in mind which go
together with good flesh. The chief
points to look to are big bone, a strong
and not too short neck,a large dock and
that most essential point-a good leg
of mutton-which is sure to denote
good muttton, but besides this is the
most valuable point. In regard to wool,
there is no doubt that this is still an
important consideration, but in speak-
THE GATLING GUN JACK-
PipU4_ tirfi r-tB Oil,
The Combined Wrench, Jack and Oeer,
tools In 1. Bemoves the brr, takes of a
holds wheel, oils the spindle. Work dne in
one minute without handling burr or wbhL
Each tool as complete as though made ez.
presly for itself. endorsed by leading
.mfg s Vmtkaim8 a' o. 5sam F
A2 amps tor 1ple and t t
Addrew P"-LUM--=MY- Go.,C
ing of wool,except about one particular
breed, it is impossible to say what ei
best, because what is good in one bmeed
would be entirely discarded in another.
Of course, a breeder who looks only to
the useful points in selecting his ram
lambs must also consider the general
boldness and good looks of his lambs.
-Wool, Markets and Sheep.
Aeration as a Preventive of Souring.
We are very much interested in all
improvements in methods of handling
milk and its products, and in this con-
nection we would like to say a few
WMiS iBiltf Aid li fiior of thie aEa-
tion of milk. We believe that an milk
should be aerated, whether it be in-
tended for home use or for condemning
factories, creameries or cheese factor-
ies; and as theory and practice do net
always agree, especially in regard to
milk, we have conducted a large num.
ber of experiments that we might a
rive at the best practical method
aeration. As one result of these ex
iments, we have demonstrated to oar
entire satisfaction that milk cannot be
properly aerated and cooled at the
One often hears the milk dealer say,
"stir the warm milk to get the animal
heat out of it." Now, the animal heat
is no different from ordinary heat;
what the dealer really means, or
should mean, is to have the milk stirred
to rid it of the animal ethers. All mlk
when first drawn from the cow,
contains quite a large amount of cer-
tain animal ethers. These ethers are
fvp VlatutlU, an8 If tia iillli b piop-
erly aerated, they will nearly all be
driven off, but from this same fact
of being volatile they will condese
very readily when cooled and remain
in the milk if is it not aerated
before being cooled. As these
ethers are almost the sole cause of
putrefactive ferment, and to a large ex-
tent the cause of active ferment. It
will be seen that by driving them of
by aeration the keeping qualities of the
milk will be greatly increased.
The aeration should be done in smeh
manner that the milk will take up con-
siderable oxygen, as it is a well-known
fact that a slight excess of oxygen is
very destructive to all the lower organ-
isms of life.
With these objects in view, vis; to
get rid of the animal ethers and to add
a small amount of oxygen to the milk.
the system which has produced by ar
the best results for us is as follows;
We have a series of about three pap
arranged one above the other, about
eight inches apart, the bottoms of these
pans being perforated with holes 1-25
of an inch in diameter. There is a
draught tube in the center of each pan
to assist in carrying off the ethers.
Under the lower pan is a strainer, ana
the whole series is set in a frame over
the can or other receptacle for the
The milk from each cow, as oon
milked, is poured into the top pan and
passes through the perforations, form-
ing drops which rain down into the
pan below. The two lower pans usually
have about one inch of milk in them
when in operation, and the milk drop.
ping from above,carries a small amount
of oxygen from the air down into the
rfiK With it. he expoeurc of the mf
to the air is very great anol practlca
all the ethers leave the milk by this
After being aerated the milk
can be cooled if desired.
The result is surprising. Milk thus
treated will keep in prime condition
more than twice as long as if handled
In the usual mannos, and will IlV9 A
fine flavor and odor not possessed by
milk not thus handled.-E. W. Amaden,
in Times-Union and Citizen.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. o00
and at the same time the men can
work without being in any way discom-
moded by smoke, gas or soot. It also
leaves the pinery clean. The cost of
coke in f. rm 7,QQ to $1O900 per ton. ac-
cordlnqg to locality. That of wood or
charcoal is about the same as you men-
tion and the quantity of either wood,
charcoal or coke consumed varies ac-
cording to the weather and the man
you have in charge. Some will make
a useless waste of material and others
would save the cost of their labor in
In the course of a day or two Gaines-
vllle will be the possessor of a new
manufacturing enterprise in the shape
of a fiber factory. The machinery Is all
here, and has been placed in position.
A trial of the fiber extracting machines
proved them to be in excellent work-
ing order. There are two machines to
be used in manufacturing the fiber,
which will prove of sufficient capacity
to do the work just at present, as it
will take some time to work the people
"P ? B1St f Brinfing p thle lmuta
Wo i0 make,t for they lave been of the
opinion that this product was of little
value. But, should It become necessary
to add more machinery the managers
will certainly do so. They can at pres-
ent turn out several tons of fiber per
day with the machinery they now have.
Ex-Governor and Mrs. Drew died re-
cently at their home in Jacksonville.
Mrs. Drew died of a stroke of paral-
ysis and her husiupin died of a lerokrun
ulln o Oranges.
E. 0 Patt ir Uin., jUi !"Cli"n jl,
Centlemen-I have used Simon Pure
No. 1. fertilizer on my bearing grove
for the past six years. My trees are so
full of oranges this year that I have
been obliged to put from three to six
props under a good many of the trees.
I don't know of any fertilizer that will
equal Simon Pure No. 1 as a fruit pro-
dpcer. W. J. Lewis.
Limona, Fla., Sept. 27th, 1900.
ITm5-TUWs eWi4, SmAN aL eatn"
on l week. a cts; three seeks cents.
FOR SALEB-Naurery-A Grape-fruit Stock,
tl budded to Grape-fruit and Tanger-
SBox 27L Orllado, Pla. 84t
AILT SICK. Cured for one dor or
momey reltuded. W. MMinn, Man-
wile ns. Vai-a
PINBAPPLB PLANTS-For sae--Smooth
Cayeoane Abakka and EnTnle1City. TAB
MOTT. rFort Myers, Fla. sit
THE SID B. SGCH CO.. Whole r oat
FnV. OW ?r iei h oad uuiiu on kercantai.
us East Bay SIet, Jacksonville. Fla.
SMOOTH a0YENNE Pineapple plants fo-
sale DOPP & WLLIAMb Bt. Petersburg,
VILLA LAK& NURSBEIEB, Pruitland
Park, LAe county. ha., offer for July
Phoita 45 Tt= of % and 3 year
etru bud good stock and low
Sprceso, addre C. W. M Prp. Stf.
M MJAMAICA 5 Dlanta. by mai
plaafrebady awr W. IL UBM02C
Auburnids now. W. -t
WANTED Oustomers--or a Million fruit
trees and plants for Florida Planting. Or-
anges, Grape Fruit, Peaches, tersmmons,
Plums Pers, rafted ad Budded Pecans,
Camphor trees RBoses, Ornamentals, etc.
atalogue free.Address The Griffng Bro-
thers Company, Jackhonvlle, Pla. 41tf
WITS-to J. D. BELL, St. Petersburg. Fla.
for piue-apple plants. 41x1
ORANGE TREBS: we have now ready for
de very large one and two years' buds on
rough lemon. WINTER HAVEN NUR-
GENUINB Pine Apple Orange Buds from the
old Bishop Hoyt& Company Grove also few
Tangerine and Grape Fruit Buds. GEORGE
L. CA RLTON, Pine, Fla. 40x43
FOR SALE- $75. Cash. Eight acres of high
pine la d nqar DeLand Junction. 5 acres
lie red, the balance of the tract is in tim-
ber. address P. M. H. care Agriculturist
ORANGE, POMELO AND LEMON TREE---
SeBRUS i9s f einla.. .t.... IS IS
and fall shipment. I.arge assortment fine
trees Write for prices. GLEN ST. MARY
NURSERIES, 0. L. Taber, Proprietor, Glen
St. Mary Fla. 81tf
SITUATION WANTiD-By an experienced
Gardener. Trucker and Stockman not
afraid of work, highest recommendations.
Single age 37 write for particulars. FORE-
MAN. 12 North Texas Ave., Atlantic City.
New Jersey. 41M4
BU KEYE NURSERIES-TampaFla. Wish
to clean up twr Nurseries of summer buds
in Marion County before Jack Frost gets in
his work. A 1 Standard Varieties Buds
one to three feet on six year old sour roots
wil sell very chean Diorto Doea aso- it
BUCKEYE NURSERBIS-M. E. Gillett Piop
Tampa. Florida. 40.000 Orange. Lemon, and
Grape Fruit treea.Large Porportion Pine-
apple, Tngerine, a d Grape Fruit on six to
nine year old sour stock. Trees ealtby
and vigorous. No white fly. Correspon-
dence Solicited. 42tf
WANTEDCAgSAVA-The Planters' Mann-
facturing Co. Lake Mary. Fla. will be lad
to correspond with all persons wishing to
sell CASb AVA th s fall, either for cash or
in exchange for CASSAVA FEED. Early
arrangements will be of value to growers
and WE PAY THE FREIGHT. F, G.
PERKINS, President. 40x45
ORANGE and grapefruit trees for sale of all
varieties at prices ranging trom tv entry to
flity dollars per 100 grafts, and buds, on
tsilam IIa i shi isaj far fdriltrrri atr
s6cr..rr. S r&- ow v fori tall and
winter panting O W. CONNBR, Ockla
waha, PFl 39x42
FOR SALE-Grape Fruit and Orange
Trees. Largest and most complete stock
in the s8 ate. Trees budded on either Citrus
Trifoliata, Rough Lemon. Sour or Sweet
orange stocks, best Quality. Low Pr ces.
Address The Griffing Brothers Company,
Jacksonville. Fla. 4lf
PINEAPPLE PLANTSiFOR SALE-
ennen- Smooth .,-
ndeSb A^ FREE FROM IN"
baka Plants FREE FROM 19.
SECTS AND DISEASE. "LAK-
PINERIES". 0. B. Thornton. Orlando.Fla.
WE HAVE complete Iat American man-
ufacturers. Can buy for you at lowest
prices and ship you direct from ach
Machinery, machine of an Dids, en-
gines, boilers, incubators, wtnda ; or
anything wanted. Correspondence so-
lcited. AMEICAN TRADE AGENCY
Jacksonville, Fla. e
FOR SALE-Two and one-half acres land,
one and one-half acres bearing pines, eight
room house, barn, packing house, tools, etc.
All In first class condition. Property out
good street in city limits. For particulars
address. WRIGHT & STAkH.L or.lado
BELGIAN HARBS-Young from the follow-
ing strains. Champion Fashoda. Prince
Pashoda. Blooming Heather, Lord Britian,
Sir St Ite Any from above for from $3.00
to $7.00. Also Prince Pashoda,-aire,
Champion Pashoda winner of more prizes
than any Buck ever imported to America
A. B. CRAWPORD, 270 N. Fremont Ave.,
Los Angeles, Cal. 89z41
Orange and Kum Quat
Pecan Treess and Nuts forseed and
table. Also a general line of Fruit
Trees, Roses, Shrnbs, etc. Prices
low. Freight paid.
D. L. Pierson, Prop.,
ORANGE TREE PROTECTION.
If you are protecting your orange trees or pineapples
write us for prices on our - - - - - -
'nr sl e PROTECTING VENEERtiornER.
CHEAPER THAN CLOTH OR LUMBER.
WOLFINDER & COMPANY,
Sampon ty, Floida.
CONSIGN ORANGES TO
PORTER BROS. CO.,
WHOLESALE COMMISSION MERCHANTS.
FLORIDA, CALIFORNIA AND TROPICAL FRUITS.
CAPITAL STOCK PAID UP $25o,ooo.oo.
NEW YORK. BOSTON. MINNEAPOLIS. ST. PAUL.
PORTER BROS CO. OFFIC In Jacksonville is for re-
RTER BROS. OFFICE ceiving consignments of or-
anges from Florida shippers, and distributing them to the northern houses of
PORTER BROS. CO., with which it is in daily telegraphic communication.
This enables the management to select the most desirable markets.
NO LOCAL BUSINESS DONE IN JACKSONVILLE.
. a &AxpBSWEE" a4 w4 Ai a~iwswo RV1 AWSEMSi .a "VEYAaLiE aoWW t
dirt to PORTER BROTHERS CO.. CHICAGO sad NEW YORK. Steacdr, Makut Quota.
ton, and OGcnral Instruetmti for sppgag Flod products supplied orem the Jlacsonvl office
Myers' Knapsack Pump, 5
gal. copper tank.............$12 00
Myers' Knapsack Iump, 5
gal. galvanized iron tank.. 7 00
S9 Brass Bucket Spray Pump.. 3 50
Barrel Spray Pump, com-
plete with hose, etc.......... 16 00
Climax No. 3, complete
with hose, etc................... 18 00
91irna N!o I .: onom lct
with hose, etc...................20.
Myers' California Favorite,
Insecticides: Lime, Sulphate of Cop-
per (Bluestone), Sulphur, etc.
Pla sadt lanl O 0ral e oxes,
Shaved Birek h oeps Fres rera
Szxed oops, E sad colored
Orange WrlapsCeenet Coated Box
Nalls. Pisple Dean, CantaloupB
anerl, aLethuee baskets, f e.
%nI Iriilowssad OPlt. ur. ofate.
Oase and ru ala ae mglad -
all the best varieties of Or-
CATALOG. es, Pomelos, Kumquats,
Setc., and shall be glad to
show them to prospective
planters. Can show both
trees and fruit; have twenty-one varieties fruiting in the nursery rows.
Also a full line of other fruit trees, roses and ornamentals.
CATALOGUE FREE. Correspondence Solicited.
(LEN ST.MARY NURSERIES,
0. L TABER, Proprietor,
Glen St. Mary,
FRUIT TREES FREE-HAT WE MAN
If you will 5end us one new subscriber o t hg Fl f QDA AG=
RICULTURIST at $2 per year you can send for
the catalogue of
GLEN ST. MARY NURS'RT.S,
And select $1 50 worth of fruit trees, shrubbery or ornamental plants at list price,
and they will be packed and put f. o. b cars at Glen St. Mary with
bMr. Tabor's guarantee. Address
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST, Jacksonvlk, Film.
TREES AND PLANTS THAT WILL GROW I
IN FLORIDA AND TWHETRO&PIc
ORANGES and other CITRUS FRUITS rafted on CITRUS TRI-
Camphor, Vanilla, Palms, Fruit, Nut and Shade Trees.
Grapes, Small Fruits, Roses, Evergreen Shrubs, Crotoas, Bedding
Plants, Etc. ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE FREE. Address,
,Stab 2 N ma P. J. BERCKMANSCO, A.uta.. Ga.
tt E NUMd186
i1o THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
^AA e-^ oMmre
Makes the food more delicious and wholesome
_oY_*y Xm 00., YOW._L
oDUErgHOLD DIPARBTIU T. trons to do anything to make the sur-
An communications or enquires forthis de- roundings attractive. That is left to
partmenathould be addremed to nature. The children usually have no
FLORIDA GRICULTURIST, play grounds save those unsheltered
Household Dept. Jacksonville. from the sun, or such shade as the few
scattering pines can give. All child-
So the H.ads. ren have a love of the beautiful, and a
Is of the d skillful.tactful teacher can do much to-
There is no part of the body that re. ward developing this latent sense and
quires such unremitting care as do the teaching them to take pride in the ap-
hands, it one would have them nice, pearance of their,school grounds, and
white and soft. In the first place in taking care of the trees and plants
gloves should always be worn when that are put out on Arbor day. The
they are exposed to the sun or wind, aw requires the lobervan e of this
day. and generally an attempt. at
to prevent tanning. The ordinary kid least, is made to have a few good trees
glove is not thick enough to prevent the put out each year, but as a general
action of the sun's rays on the skin. thing the patrons take very little or no
A dog skin driving glove is one of the interest in its observance beyond see-
best for this purpose, and is by all Ing that the children attend. They
best for this se ands by generally send their big boys on that
means the best for wheeling. Gloves day, if they have stopped them before.
made of scraps of soft leather, or some to help the teacher. If the teacher is a
heavy woolen material, being made to woman. This enables her to put out
slip over the hands, with the ends open, some very good sized trees, and put
are very good for use about the house them out in such a manner that they
will live. The children take a very
and in the yard. They are easily pulled live intent sen that thy do
off or on and are a perfect protection. live and can tell you just what teach-
IA good way to whiten the hands if er put out each tree and how often it
they have become sun-burned, is to ap- had to be re-set before one could be
ply, just before retiring at night, lemon gotten to grow on that particular spot.
juice to the skin. Glycerine cold cream If the patrons took more interest and
e to the skin. Glycerine would come in a body and put out good
or white vaseline are (also good, and large trees and then see that they are
should be well rubbed into the skin, taken care of afterward, the school
then draw on a pair of old gloves, grounds could soon be made very at-
By adhering strictly to this treatment, tractive indeed.
all tan will be removed and the skin The children, also. take a ereat in-
terest in anything that tends to beauti-
softened and whitened, but care must fv the inside of the room. Pictures on
be taken to protect them from the sun, the walls are a continual pleasure to
or they will burn more readily than the little ones, and plants in the win-
before. dow do much toward arousing their in-
Glycerine does not have the same ef- terest in beautiful things. One winter
Glycerine does not have the same e I gathered ferns from the hammock
feet upon all skins, sometimes t will near by for my windows. Before this.
cause it to assume a darker hue. In the children did not know the species
such cases, vaseline or cold cream can from other plants.They took deep inter-
be used instead. If the hands are est in them and aided me to find many
stained, dip them Into vinegar, lemon different varieties, often bringing me
stained, dip them into vinegar, magnificent specimens. We enjoyed
or tonartn JIlot, whioh will nunllir 211 winner, itFe unhiasen evnsa
remove it, unless the stain is caused by more than I.
ink. Ink stains are harder to remove. It would be impossible to plant flow-
The nails should have especial atten- ers and vines around the house, owing
tion. The flesh should be kept pushed to the fact that so few of the houses
Share fenced in and the cattle and hogs
down until the "half moons" at the would soon destroy them. Fences are
base are plainly visible. This is to sometimes built, but for lack of care
prevent hang nails as well as to in- and repairs, soon become unsightly ob-
sure beauty. Trim them into an oval iects. so really the house looks better
shape. Use some soft instrument, without them.
them What the rural school moat needs in
nuch o orange sti ks, to kep them the way of beautifying the grounds. is
clean. Metal hardens and bruises the plenty of good shade trees, and clean.
nail, which makes it harder to keep well kept grounds. It will then be-
them in a perfect condition, come a source of pleasure to the child-
With these little details strictly ad- ren, a place where they will love to
hered to, there is no reason why every- stay, and a pleasing memory in after
one should not have beautiful hands. life. Mrs. Caroline.
Bural Schools. andwiehes.
Instead of the heavy, solid meat
Editor Household Department. sandwiches so much used a few years
I have just been reading an editorial ago. dainty fruit and vegetable ones are
on this subject in the issue of the 19th now in demand. For picnics or teas
ana canD a5rK with tlr rtflOr In frin in fIn awarm wHeaniap fWnr SMr Mar
views he expresses. i have taught in suitable, and if meat sandwiches are
the rural schools long enough to ap- used they must be particularly dainty
predate their needs. In some counties and nice, made of finely minced meat
the buildings are owned by the school mixed with celery, lettuce or some
boards, and are generally very neat. other salad leaves.
well kept structures, usually furnished ITettuce sandwiches are especially
with patent desks and other modern dainty when nicely prepared. For that
fittings. A very commendable advance ns well as all other kinds of sandwiches
has been made in this respect in the the bread should be buttered before the
last ten years. In these counties, the slice is cut from the loaf, as in that
school house often the most attra way very thin slice is buttered nicely
tire house in the community. In AMar- without danger of tear'ng the bread A
tie house in the community. In Marlettuce leaf may be laid upon one slice
ion county the log house has almost, if and seasoned nicely with a salad dress-
not entirely, disappeared. But while ing, then covered with another slice, or
the house is very good, there is often the filling may be prepared bv tearing
no disposition on the part of the pa- the leaves in small bits, adding a few
nustard'leaves and mixing all together
with a mayonnaise dressing.
caMu Is aoftn med in thlre ame war:
especially water-cess. Ths latter is
more difficult to obtain, though it can
be grown in a garden If planted where
water will run on the ground often.
The cress needs no dressing except a
sprinkle of salt and a few drops of vin-
Peanut sandwiches are a nice change,
and will be highly appreciated by the
children, especially If they have raised
the peanuts in their own garden. To
make them the peanut meats must be
chopped or pounded in mortar until
they are fine and smooth. Season
with a little salt or butter and spread
on the bread.
IFruit sandwiches are dainty and nice
and are used not only in place of the
regular sandwich, but are in great de-
mand to eat with ice cream and ices in
place of cake. The bread for this pur-
pose is cut as fine as a water, buttered
very lightly and spread thinly with a
paste made of any fresh fruit mashed
to a pulp and sweetened to the taste.
Figs make an extra nice sandwich,
though any fruit will do.
When all are made they may be cut
in dainty shapes with sandwich cutters
made for the purpose; they can be pro-
cured a hardware stores, or any tin-
smith will make the designs Iwished
for-clover leaf, pansy blossom and
daisy forms 'are general favorites.
'Any sandwiches to be nice, when
served, should be folded in' a damp
cloth for an hour or two before serv-
ing; this moistens them a trifle which
makes them seem very new and fresh,
and also causes the slices to adhere
well.-Bernce Baker in the Mayflower.
It may be interesting to know how
the French cook fowls. They select
with great care. To get good weight
and a delicate color, only meal from
grain one year old is used when fat-
tening for market, and the water used
in mixing the food should have added
to It in the proportion of three-eighths
of an ounce avoirdupois of crude tallow
to a quart of meal; also, a small quan-
tity of coarse gravel should be added to
the paste just made, io as to assist the
bird's digestive functions. Special care
is taken not to give them any food for
at least twelve hours before they are to
be killed, so that the intestines may be
empty at the time of death, and that
the acid fermentation of their contents.
which otherwise ensues, and which fa-
cilitates decomposition, may be avoid-
ed. No hurry is made in plucking
them: if feathers are pulled out while
the blood Is still fluid the vesicle at the
root of each one of them becomes
__ 0 sa ta Igl on" papttf-l A
fowl killed while digestion is going on
will hardly keep a week. By attention
to the above directions they claim that
fowls may be kept for a fortnight, in
mild weather, and for three weeks and
more when the weather Is cold and dry.
A few pieces of charcoal nut inside will
assist in preservation. To boil a pullet
thus prepared It should be put into
cold gravy soup. made ready before-
hand, and cooked by a slow fire. DI-
rectly it Is taken from the not it is
Dowdered all over with salt in coarse
rains, and if eaten while hot it is a
dish highly relished.-Mirror and
iRaisin and Nut Cookles.-One cun
butter, two cups sugar. three eggs.
three tablespoonfuls milk. one rcu
of raisins or nuts (chopped). one teas-
noonful of soda. one teasnoonfnl of cin-
nAmon. one nntmee. grated. five cuns
of fliwr. Mix in order even and rol
out thin. Bake In anick oven until a
Snow Fritters--Whip one ee o utti
litht. add one cupful of rich milk and
half a teasnoonfnl of salt Mir
lightlv: then best in one and a bhlf
opnfril of siftedf flnr and the stiffly
hoton whites of two oea'. lHvo
repanv deen Iettle of hoilin', f-t.
Dron the mixture by desertsnoonfuls
in the boiling fat and frv until a rich
brown. Drain on brown paper and
An Irish carpenter fell from the roof
to the ground, and when picked up re-
"I was coming down after nails, any
W. J. DALTON
"I had been troubled with rhemalm
al my life, even when bo Ittt Ma
me in the legs, armn s and shower. The
in the latter wa particlarlr aever. ,
eourse,took medicine for it, but did not e
tain permanent relief. One day about es
years ago while readinoa e Iw I w
a advertisement of .
Pills for Pale People sad determined to ive
them a trial. I had takes but three beam
of the pills when the trouble, wi.l had
been y aflictio from childhood, eatdr
k" Ausyear later, I had another almek
of rhematism which was brought -
working in a damp place. I rememih
well what Dr. Wlliams' Pink Pills for PalI
People had done for me, so I eiaht
purchased some. StnMrely aeogh, Jut
three boxesiin am me, and I ave
been entirely fee from rheumatim e
since. Ihavetold number of people abo
Dr. Williams' Pink Pills for Pl Plo
and they have take them with t m
S (Siened) W. J. DAuoW,
.At all druagsts or direct from Dr. W
lumn Medicine Compan, aehemtsti,
N. Y., on receipt of price, 60 oeat per bE
ON EASY TERMS.
Several fine bearing orange and
grape fruit groves, trees loaded with
frut now. WIll guarantee them to pay
fifteen to. twenty-fve per cent on in-
vestment this year.
Lyle & Co., ...rtew, Fi.
THE U. LIVE STOCK REMDT bY
proved most effielt to preveatha al
during Hag and Obleken Choler% ad
kndred dis ses. It is alao a a1m *o0
dition powder. Sale are naeroeslag.
your dealer don't keep tt we Wl mal
It to yao an ras-ot of IDara m Vs aU
M. LbWW 4!seoat f6 4AS&W&. BIL&O
MORGAN. Agent. Ktladmmma. 'Va.
Budded and Grafted
Imported from India; absolutely free
from fiber. Pot grown $2.50 each.
Largest assortment of Crotons in the
Also Citrus stock. Address,
JOHN B. BEACH,
West Palm Byschl.!
AUIcr Iwen1y Icars.
WONDERFUL CURE In A STUISORR
CASE OF RHEUMATISM.
whoe rvsemse aa 3uraseoed by te Use.
rotay of the Imes. or tra&d
Wealirst, New Tork, ed
COamut be Douibte.
nom Ihe Iwegralm, Jamirs, J. 7.
The popular secretary of the Wellsburg
.Y. Board of Trade in Mr. W. J. Dalts,
asd hib statement to a reporter regadli
one of the most important events of'his HI
carries with it the greatet weight. It s
unusual for a perno to be alnited rs
childhood with rheumatLm but it Is even
wonderful that there is a remedy easbt
suited to the treatment of this stabber d
ease that one hundred dosee were sate
to eradicate it in a eoa of twenty yee
standing. The proof that such a remedy i
within the reach of arheumatic suners is
fud in Mr. Dalton'sown words. Heu s:
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. W7
BY W. 0. fSTBLE,
Elsewhere one of readers asks for
an article on Pansy culture. We have
had one or two articles on this sub-
ject within the last year. However,
a little repetition may be of Interest
to our new subscribers.
Pansy culture in the summer in
Florida can hardly be called a suc-
cess. They can be kept alive, yet
seldom bloom after hot weather be-
gins. Still we remember over a dozen
years ago, while connected with the
lorFIOR Dispatch. speaking one nnum-
mer about the impossibility of getting
Pansies to bloom in summer in Flor-
da. A few days later Mr. Painter
brought into the Dispatch office in
Jacksonville, some very good Pansy
blossoms as a convincing proof that
that Pansies would bloom in June in
Florida. We were obliged to acknowl-
edge that he haa succeeded. But it is
still true that for every one who can
succeed there are a dozen who fall.
Now is the best time to sow Pansy
seeds. They should be planted in
boxes and kept in the shade in as cool
a place as possible and protected from
beating rains. As soon as the plants
begin to appear give them plenty of
light and air but protect from direct
rays of the sun, except for a short
time early in the morning.
As soon as the plants have one or
two rough leaves, transplant to an-
other box of very rich soil, setting
the plants about one inch apart each
way. Here the seedlings may remain
until large enough to be set in the
open ground. If convenient to make
the bed on the north side of a build-
ing, so much the better. But where.
ever it is, be sure it is made rich with
well rotted stable manure,which should
be very fine and black. If that is not
available, leaf mould from the woods is
a very good substitute, but a large
quantity is needed. If you cannot
make the bed north of a building or
high, close board fence, have a lat-
tice work of laths or fence pickets
on the south side of the bed and a
screen or awning of cloth to shade it
In the middle of the day when the
sun is very hot.
The bed must be provided with
good drainage, either naturally or ar-
tiflcailly. Yet the plants must be
watered often enough to keep the soil
The plants should be set about five
or six Inches apart each way. A good
mulch of pine straw or wiregrass will
be an advantage towards spring as the
weather becomes hot.
Hardy Nhrubs and Herbaceous
Plants in Florida.
Editor Floral Departsent.
In reply to the queries in the Floral
Department, Florida Agriculturist of
September 12,, will say that the Deut-
slas are very satisfactory, both in
growth and bloom, in the "Orange
Belt." With us it stood at the head of
the list of hardy shrubs, for the far
Lilacs made a strong growth but
bore no flowers. Have never seen a
specimen of Weigella there, but believe
it would be at home. Do not know of
anyone who has tried the Berberry,
Daphne, or Forsythia-feel sure that
the latter would do well. The Spireas,
as far as tried, were a success, espec-
illy the one known as"Bridal Wreath."
Of the-Herbaceous perennials the
Aqniegll a grew we in a pot in a
shaded location. If the seed were
sown in the early fall the plants
would bloom early enough to escape
the heats that are so fatal to the flow-
ers of northern latitudes.
The Aquilegia, or Columbine, blooms
very early in the latitude of Washing-
ton. Have had no experience with
the Lily of the Valley, or Canterbury
Bells, but shade and moisture would
doubtless work wonders in causing
them to bloom.
The Dicentra, or "Bleeding heart,"
grew thriftily for several years, but
never produced a single flower. Holly-
hocks and Peonies were a failure.
Extreme heat is a deadly foe to the
latter. (Mrs.) Jennie S. Perkins.
FAiter FIrt Department,
I am a reader of the Agriculturist,
and usually turn to the Floral page
first. Will not some lovers of flowers
give their methods of raising the very
small seeded annuals such as Petun-
las, etc., from seed? I have tried sev-
eral times, but without success. The
seeds seldom come up, and when they
do are liable to "damp off," which is
I would like to see some articles on
palms and ferns, also pansy culture. I
have a Zamla (furfuracea) which has
two distinct bulbs. Can I take up one
with safety? It is a very curious
plant and hardy with us, situated as
we are, about sixty miles south of
The Pleroma, and "Rice paper
plant"(Aralia papyrifera) grow like
weeds here, the former a beautiful
sight when covered with its blossoms
of royal purple.
The Tabernaemontana is a pretty
shrub with oleander-like blossoms of
the purest white, double and very fra-
Can you tell me if it is necessary in
starting palms from seed, to allow the
seed to dry for a time, or can it be
planted as soon as the fruit matures?
I have a large quantity of seed of Co-
cos campestriss, I think) which I wish
to plant. Miss St. John.
The above questions we refer to our
readers, hoping to receive a large
number of answers. Will not Mr.
Theo. L. Mead and Mr. E. N. Reason-
er please give us some information
about palms, ferns and their culture?
As to growing plants from seed, es-
pecially small ones like Petunias, etc.,
etc., a frequent cause of failure is too
high temperature. This cannot be
easily remedied in Florida. The great
trouble is people usually wait too
long,too late in the season. Most va-
rieties will do better started early, be-
fore the temperature is so uniform-
ly hot. If planted in shallow boxes
and kept in the house or an en-
closed room, where the temperature
can be controlled, a much larger per-
centage will germinate. Plant only
one variety in a box, or, if you know
that two varieties will sprout in the
same number of days, you can put
such in one box. Cover with glass
and in that way prevent drying out
too rapidly and also help to control
the temperature. As soon as they be-
gin to come through the soil give
plenty of air but not cold air. As to the
"damping off" we must confess our
inability to control it. Sometimes in
spite of all precautions, we lose 100 per
cent. Peter Henderson, in Practical
Floriculture, says of this trouble with
seedlings that it is doubtless caused by
a minute fungus. The only remedy he
suggests is transplanting as soon as the
seedlings can be handled.
This we have tested and in some
cases it works satisfactorily. But in
others, especially with succulents and
very soft stemed plants we have seen
them go day by day, in spite of all we
could do, until the last one was gone.-
Flowers as eofal Healers.
The article on this subject from
Vick's Magazine is both interesting and
instructive. There is an old saying
that, "An ounce of prevention is worth
a pound of cure." There may be some
among our readers who are nervous, Ir-
ritable and on the point of breaking
down with nervous prostration. In
such a case the care of a few flowers
might do much to help bring about a
better condition of body and mind. A
little bed of plants, in the open ground,
cultivated and cared for early in the
morning or towards evening would be
the best plan. But if there is not
strength enough for that, a few house
plants in a window or preferably on an
open porch will *4 f6un fhe1lpfUl.
"The statement, credited to the head
of the House of Correction in Chicago,
that he Is convinced that women mis-
demeanants may be reformed by be-
ing taught to cultivate roses, is based
upon sound psychological principles,
and is likely to lead to something prac-
tical and valuable.
"One who has observed the effect on
his own mind of the cultivation of
plants and flowers cannot have tailed
to perceive its quieting, healing, re-
storative nature. Excitement, agita-
tion, anxiety, diminish when attention
is drawn away from one's self to any
beautiful object, especially if it be a
living, growing beauty. Count de
Charney's plant 'Plcciola,' in Saintine's
beautiful tale, growing up between the
stones of the prison yard, kept from In-
sanity and despair a mind that would
otherwise have been wrecked and lost.
The story is not without its suggestion
of what close contact with life in its
lower and simpler forms may do for a
soul that is shattered and unstrung
through contact with the rough world
of sin and care and sorrow.
It is far from unreasonable to sup-
pose that if patients of a certain class
in hospitals for the insane, were gent-
ly, wisely, patiently taught to observe
and cultivate flowers, out-of-doors in
the summer and in the window or con-
servatory in winter, the effect would
help much toward the restoration of
sanity and happiness. At all events it
would certainly be a quieting, restor-
ative influence to a great many victims
of nervous disorders to water and
watch a bulb or plant as it slowly and
silently develops in grace and beauty
and strength, continually reminding
the invalid of the wonderful potency
of the forces of Nature upon which all
restoration as well as growth depends.
"Plants have a most kindly and gen-
erous way of taking one into partner-
ship with them in their achievements.
in return for a little water and a little
care, so that when the blossoms appear
one feels as if he had a share in the
triumph of life and beauty. A new
sense of strength is felt, a new confi-
dence in life, In himself, in the uni-
verse, as if he had been taken into a
firm whose stock was rising in the
"If plants can grow and bloom, why
may not he get well and work? If
life is so much stronger than death,
why may it not have its way with him,
mind and body? I do not say that the
nervous prostrate, watching a plant in
his wind'r, or.better still in his gar-
den, will go through this process of
reasoning, but If he has that affinity
for nature which sensitive tempera-
ments are most apt to possess, he will
feel a certain indefinable sense of
courage, healing, joy, stealing over him
as he observes the old. but new, mira-
cle of life and growth in nature.
"Yes; set the misdemeanants culti-
vating roses; give the insane a taste of
the joy and sanity of contact with Na-
ture; put a plant in the window of the
sick-room; let all who are broken down
in body, mind or soul feel the touch of
the healing, restorative forces that
clothe the world with health and
John Wright Buckham.
am - tIu-
There are hun-
dreds of cough medi-
cines which relieve
coughs, all coughs,
except bad ones!
The medicine which
has been curing the
worst of bad coughs
for 6o years is Ayer's
Hee is evidence:
"My wife was troubled with a
d-ee-mtd cogh ae r lw r
three years. One day I thought
of how Ayer's Cherry Pectoal
saved the life of my sister after
the doctors had all given herupto
die. So I purchased two bottles,
and it cured my wife completely.
It took only one bottle to care my
sister So you seeth three bot.
ties (one dollar each) saved two
lives. We all send you our heart-
felt thanks for what you have done
for us."-J. H. BvaGu, MacomCoL
Jan. 13, 1899.
Now, for the Mt tim ya
am get a trtl bottle of Chn
Pectoni for 5 cents A
Grew So Heavy.
E. O. Painter & Co., JaEckwsote, Fla.
Gentlemen:-I used the lawn fertili-
zer bought of you about the first of
June. We had some good showers
about that time and the grass grew
so heavy it was almost impossible to
keep up with it with mowing machine.
I used the 100 pounds ou lawn shout
30 feet by 120 at one application. I
shall want some more a little later for
same lawn, as I think they need some-
thing of this kind in spring and fall.
My lawn Is St. Lucle grass and has cer-
tainly done well with your fertilizer,
best of any lawn in our town. Some
others here speak of trying it this fall
after seeing what it has done.
A. B. Torrey.
Crescent City, Fla., Sept. 22, 1900.
Just look at the different premiums
we offer for new subscribers.
Splendid stock of Citrus tree on
rough lemon roots, and also on sour or-
anSe and trifollata.
~ enormous collection
and stock of other
t trees, Economle
S a n t Bamboos
Palms Ferns Coal-
fers and Miscellane-
ous ornamentals. IT
S year. Most extensive
collection of plants and trees In the
Lower South. Send for large elegan'
s08 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
FLOR IDHA AGMIL ST.
Entered at the poatoes at DeLand, Flor-
id as second class matter.
E. O. PAINTER & CO.,
Published sa Proprietar
Published every Wednesday, and devoted to
the development of Florida and the best in-
terests of her people.
THE FLORIDA PRESS ASSOCIATION.
Afflited with the
NATIONAL EDITORIAL ASSOCIATION.
One year, single subscription........ .... .
Six months. single subcription........ l0
Single copy ............. ...........
Rates for advertising furnished a applica-
tion by letter or in peron.
Articles relating to any topic within the
*coe of this piner are solicited.
We cannot praise to return rejected mnun- o a
script unless tamp are enclosed. Soil for Pecans.
All communications for intended publication editor Florida Agroultrist.
must be accompanied with real atme,s a
Maarantee of food faith. No anonymous con- Answering W. H. M., in the Agricul-
tribution will be regarded tourist of September 19th, will re-
Mosey shodud be aet by Drdft, Po4toi e mark that the pecan tree is a hickory,
Mona Order DeLd, or Reistered Let- and he will note where the hick-
ter, otherwise the publisher wil ot be re- ory trees grow, he will find them in
sponible in cae of le Whe personal rich hammock lands. Some years ago
cheks we used lcange must be added.
Only I sa I une mmd wasam e Cumd I asg e ta h late RMdlST W, Adams Rome
cannot be had. pecan grafts that I cut from a bearing
To insure isertion al advertisements tree in Orlando. I afterwards found
o nday morn.s lt esc wek. that he had grafted some quite large
Subcribe en writing to have the ad- hickory trees that grew in his ham-
dtess of their paper changed MUST give the mock, and when the grafts were two
old as well as the new address. years old, they had fine tops and were
--full of nuts. Afterwards he took
WIDNESDAY, OCTOBER 10, 1900. grafts from those and grafted some
smaller trees on thne same land. I
used to be acquainted with that noted
Florida IWsheries. wild pecan orchard on the American
There is no state in the Union that bottoms, across from St. Louis. The
has as many miles of seacoast as Flor- land was very rich and the trees were
: large. Afterwards, I became acquain-
ida, and without doubt there is none, ted with the wild pecans in Arkansas.
that catches and ships as much fish They were always on rich bottom
as leaves our state. Notwithstanding lands.
an- Here at Ft. Myers, are several large
this tremendous business, which an-trees near the river fnt, on what I
nually brings to our borders thousands guess, was once called hammock. They
and thousands of dollars, there' has grow fine and some of them fruit
been but little done toward protecting pretty well, while there are others that,
SI think, are barren. Some seedling
this industry and perpetuating it.. A pecans do not fruit.
number of years ago, a fish law was Some two years since, I hunted up
passed defining the time during which some seedling pecan groves near Mo-
selning could be done, and while this bile, and of the many trees in fruit,
So b I found only one that could be classed
has done a great deal of good in pre- as fine; one can never expect good
venting fish from being taken during pecans from seedlings.
actual amrwning time, it In not an t- The proper way is to plant the seed
;ana when one year out, graft under
fective as it should be, but there has the ground, with scions that we know
been no provision made for perpetuat- produce fine nuts. I infer from Mr. W.
Ing the supply of fish. H. M's. question that he supposes a
It is well known that a number of pecan tree needs to be cultivated.
The same as nearly everybody wants
years ago, cat-fish could be caught al- to be eternally plowing and tearing up
most any where in the St. Johns river, the roots of orange treees. The tree
by simply baiting a hook and throwing is not only injured by having the roots
In a line. It is not so now, and they are broken, but the roots are compelled to
form in the lower soil, which, as is
becoming more scarce every year. We often the case in sections of Florida,
do not mention this because it is one contains some of the lower salts of
of the principal food finhean but be iron, and is unfit for the higher order
or plants. Nineteen twentleths or the
cause it is one of the least desirable, die-back that has come under my
and yet to such an extent have they notice, is from that cause. I have
been seined and shipped that the never found it to come from the use
lakes and rivers are fast being deplet- of commercial fertilizers, and I have
known a whole grove to be fertilized
ed. If this is the case with the cat- by spreading one hundred pounds of
fish, It is even more so with other and cotton seed meal to the tree, at one
Better B nase. application. If Mr. W. L, O. will go
We are glad to note that there is a down under his diseased tree, he will
find that the lateral roots that have
movement on foot now that has for fed those lateral branches are dead,
its object the protection of our fish- too, and the remedy is as Mr. Painter
series, and the re-establishment in our suggests; "Do not cultivate the trees
II any way," but let the roots come up
waters or new stock. Through the nearer the surface, away from the
efforts of Mr. J. Y. Detwiler, the de- salts of iron, which is poisonous to the
apartment of fisheries at Washington roots of the higher order of plants.
has already sent down a carload of Jas. Mott,
shad fry, which were distributed at the ,t. Myers, Fla.
head waters of different streams Terra Ceia Island.
throughout the state. Mr. Detwiler is The Journal-News man had the
now endeavoring to secure another car- pleasure of accomniinying Mr A. G.
load of fish fry for the interior fresh Liles on a trip of inspecting his Peter-
son hammock, Frog Creek and Terra
water lakes, and is in a fair way to Ceia orange and grape fruit groves,
succeed. The railroads have freely last Friday. These properties have all
offered this transportation and as
soon as the preliminaries are settled,
another carload of fish fry will be
asked for and distributed as the
commissioner may deem best for the
state's interest. It is a movement that
means a great deal for Florida. The
Florida legislature should, at the ear-
liest possible moment, pass such laws
as will protect this industry and estab-
lish a Florida fish commission and
RUSHfM9I T-1 9!900MSiNs At WHOS-
ington has shown its willingness to
help us, the railroads have offered
transportation to the fish car and at-
tendants, and we want private citi-
zens who have given their time and at-
tention to work up this matter, and we
belive it the duty of every citizen
to demand that a law should be passed
that would effectually and adequately
protect this great and valuable in-
ANbWEsA TO oORaiPOM'DEtM18.
This department is dev ted to answering
such questions as may be asked by our sub
ribc-m. whih my be or ge. atfrima
tion. uaquinea o0 ersona enaracter that
require answer by mail should always bavT
Editor Florida Agricultoisat.
Can you tell me the most satisfac-
tory and at the same time most eco-
nomical mode of heating pineapple
sheds? What is generally adopted at
Orlando? I used wood in a unmber of
small fires last winter but without
cover. Came through tolerably well.
Will use cloth next winter and wish to
ascertain what is best to keep the tem-
had frequent mention in the papers,
but no one has yet been able to do
them full justice, nor do we propose
to undertake to do so in his brief men-
tion of the trip. We will say, however,
that during a residence of 25 years in
Florida, and numerous visits to the
banner orange growing sections of
the state, before and since the '95
freeze, that nothing has ever been seen
that excelled these properties in luxur-
iant growth and magnitude and qual-
ity of the friut crop now to be seen on
Tli tiiifiiiam i iwiiga dir ro will run
close to 10,000 boxes, with hardly a
russet to be seen among them all, and
of popular sizes for the market, run-
ning from 150 to 176 to the box.
Of grape fruit, there will be no less
than 2,000 boxes, 1,500 of which will
come from the celebrated young bud-
ded grove on Terra Cela Island. This
property is Mr. Liles' pet, and shows
him to be a master in the art of pro-
ducing trees that will yield fruit.
Many of them, though only five-year-
old buds, are now carrying fully 12
boxes, which at a fair estimate will sell
for $5 per box or $60 per tree.
Terra Cela Island seems to be the
home of the grape fruit, and Mr.
Liles the man who knows how to grow
and get results from them, for,notwith-
standing theheavy crop the trees are
now carrying, they have also made a
fine growth, and will be in condition
to yield an other big crop next year.
We saw many other fine properties
oi the trip, on the mainland and island
which are loaded also with fruit, but
had not time to inspect them. We hope
to make another and more extended
round in the near future.
Everybody was busy saving hay.
great stacks of which were to be seen
on every han, as well as innumerable
and extensive seed beds which Indi-
cated extensive vegetable crops for the
coming season.-Braidentown Journal-
Seventeen Years' Experienee.
0 O. Painter & Co., Jacksonville, Fla.
Gentlemen:-I used your Tomato
Special fertilizer on egg plant the past
spring, and will say that in my seven-
teen years of experience with fertili-
zers in Florida I have never used a
brand that gave better results.
A. G. Liles,
Terra Ceia, Fla., Sept. 24, 1900.
Profit in Orange Growing.
Sometimes we are asked questions
that are too hard for us to answer.
Hundreds of correspondents ask us:
"How much can I make from an acre
of oranges?" Conditions, age and care
-axy no much It ls hard to make esti-
mates. Mr. Edwin Nelson, of Miami,
has a young grove containing eighty-
five trees at Georgiana. Last year he
received $350 above expenses. By ex-
penses we mean the cost of fertilizing,
hoeing, picking, packing, in fact every
expense connected with the grove. In
conversation with Mr. Nelson, he said:
"My trees are loaded with fruit this
season. If I receive as good prices as
I did last year, I shall clear at least
$900 from the eighty-five trees." "Do
you want to sell?" we innocently
Aokced. "Bell It! I should think not! I
only wish I had more like it." Mr. Nel-
son believes in feeding his trees and
feeding them well. "What kind of
fertilizer did you use last year?" we
asked. "Painter's Simon Pure, and I
used the same this year. I think it the
best fertilizer made."-Florida Home-
perature at an even point. I noticed
that In the Agriculturist of the 29th,
you mention lamps. I suppose these
are for tents, but why could they not
be used for large sheds? It would
take quite a number and might prove
satisfactory if the cost is not too high.
Can you put me in communication
with the makers of them? I have
heard that some used wood heaters or
stoves. Would like to know the size,
and kind and number to the acre.
Charcoal has been used in coal buck-
ets. furnaces and also in small piles uD.
on tL ground wiih momo or loes sus-
cess. Coke, I notice, has its advocates.
This I believe is used in baskets, or
furnaces of some kind, though I do not
know the cost of coke, or of the fur-
nace or the quantity of coke consumed
Wood, here, costs me $2.00 per cord,
and charcoal 25 cents per barrel. To
fire one-half acre last winter cost me
$5.00 per night, say ten hours, no cov-
er, charcoal about the same. Can get
the charcoal for 20 cents this fall.
Small wood stoves cost here, $2.50 to
$4.00. Sheet iron about the same.
Coal furnaces for charcoal cost accord-
ing to size, from 35 cents to 70 cents
each. You will confer a great favor
by letting me have the approximate
cost of materials and fixtures as used
in the pineapple sections. I hear that
some use the refuse matter from the
turpentine stills. This must be very
disagreeable and almost anything else
must be preferable. C. W.
For economy you should, in the first
place, cover your shed with cloth. This
is the method being adopted by the
pineapple growers around Orlando and
elsewhere, although there are patent
arrangements with slats like window -
blinds that are being used. It is gen-
erally conceded, however, that it re-
quires less fuel to keep a pinery warm
that is covered with cloth, than any
Lanps would answer the purpose of
heating if you had sufficient number,
but you would require one to every
sixteen square feet of ground, that is,
for a lamp burning an inch and a half
wick. These lamps are made by
Watts & Miller, DeLand Fla.
The cost of coke salamanders vary
from $1.50 for eleven and one-half
inches in diameter,to $2.30 for oon ain*.
teen inches in diameter, f. o. b. Orlan-
do. The stove is a plain sheet Iron cyl-
inder made of sixteen inch case metal,
resting on a circular grate which in
turn rests on brick. The brick can be
so placed in the edge of the grate, as to
regulate the draft. It is claimed by
those who have used them, that one
coke salamander fifteen inches in di-
ameter placed about fifty feet from an-
other, will protect a tight pinerr if the
outside temperature does not go be-
low 27 or 28 degrees. In some cases
as low as eight to ten of these salam-
anders protected a grove through last
The methods of heating, however,
are as varied as the pineapple grow-
ers are numerous. Some use open fires
made by lightwood, and, others use
rosin dross, but the latter is very ob-
Jectlonabll? vwinn to larsi amount of
soot produced, which settles over
everything and makes it very difficult
for the men to work or see what they
The coke stoves also have their ob-
Jectionable features in the way of gas.
One of the best methods that we
have seen is used by Messrs. Reasoner
Bros., Oneco, Fla. They use sheet iron
stoves which have pipes to carry off
the smoke. The pipes from tour stoves
are led to the center and then out
throughh wooden chimneys. The stoves
are so far away from the chimney that
he smoke looses its heat before pas-
sing out. This method warms the shed
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. l11
POUvTAY AMwD RAZ 3 PMBT-
Alln comaiuilaHous or inquiries for this
department should he addressed to
Poultry Dept. Jackuonvllc, Fla.
We have just received a letter from a
party which reads as follows:
"I wrote you for prices on an adver-
tisement of Belgian Hares, but after
looking over your paper of Sept 29th.,
and reading the article "Bubble Burst-
ed", I do not think that I care to ad-
srti Bs min 7sr 1 sfRi, I Rhaeid tkIbe
that out of policy you would have kept
such articles out, even if you had
had any doubts yourself about the prof-
its of raising hares. I, myself, believe
that it would pay to raise them for
meat in Florida."
It Is the policy of the Agriculturist
to give both sides of any question that
affects Its readers, regardless oZ
whether It affects the advertisements
We rleeiS of ROt. W5 Beiffie IIi tfic
writer of the above, that it will pay to
raise the hares for meat, but we desire
our readers to know what other people
in other sections are thinking about
these matters, and if after hakwing all
they take up the business and make a
failure they cannot blame us for having
published only one side of the question.
If they make a success of it they cannot
accuse us of being anything but fair.
It Is a good deal better to know the
drawbacks In any business than it is to
knaw onl the ilownlns ald Ir~aa dia:
Editor Poutry Departmest.
In a recent Issue of your paper
courteously enough appears an article
copied from the New York Sun, by a
correspondent In California, entitled
"The Bubble Bursted", and referring to
the Belgian Hare, and In which there
Is, so to speak, a calamitous howl that
the Belgian Hare business Is there woe-
f- 10F TT!!?B V dTiM W218U 12EwTsri
ia puhUlliif thit article. It actor forth
two things prominently. First, that
the Belgian Hare business is overdone
Second, that the Belgian Hare is won-
derfully prolific. Now in what respect
is the Belgian Hare overdone? Ninety-
nine per cent of those that claim that
the Belgian Hare business is overdone
are of those persons who expected to
rear for the so-called fancy-but the
profits that come from the so-called
fancy are limited to a very few anl-
male. It consists in premiums, etc.
The same wSB at ahawa and the lirh
Perhaps it Is safe to say that in all the
Belgian Hares shown in California.
there are not over one hundred valu-
able prices; limited perhaps to not over
one hundred animals. Now then If
there are 100.000 Belgian Hares in
California, as t is claimed, and It is
probably true--there are 99,900 ani-
mals that are failures.
The truth of the matter is that we
ard simply aping England when
we place the rearing of the fancy in
j!!e Bg@ an Muag aliy I!o ReariSag
t6, Its meat iMnlltle&
iAnother truth is that when once the
American people begin to raise the Bel-
gian Hare for its meat, and base the
standard on its meat qualities-the
standard of qualification will be re-
modeled. The question of the largest
growth per month will be one qualifl-
.cation, and the question of per cent of
dressed meat will be another one, and
the question of the largest per cent of
dressed meat in their most desirable
parts will be another one, and the
question of quality of meat will be
another one, and the question of coat
y*Pna -e -*- tk navsf--wUI
b ianti ee m.
Net only is the California system of
playing the Belgian on the fancy wrong
-not only is she wrong In copying after
,England In producing bares so largely
for the fancy, rather than for the meat,
but she Is also wrong in trying to mrise
them in little stare boxes, in tiers one
above another. In this system note 0 -
normoua a st the drny care. tae an-_
ling of the feed and water, and cutting
it and preparing it, on this basis.
If any farmer in America would at-
tempt to raise cattle, or hogs or sheep,
by keeping them in stalls and caring
for them and buying all their feed in
the open market, he would shortly ana
it a losing venture. This article Is
going beyond double Its length, will
send you the rest next week.
E. W. Shaniberger.
ake Egg Attractive.
Though there are many uses to
which low grade eggs may now be ap-
plied, it is time for those who make any
thing like a business of producing eggs
for sale ta ranlise that full afoees will
come only whon strict attention is
paid to the high class eggs for family
consumption; for that is where the best
profits are. Failure in egg farms is al-
most as apt to come from poor presen-
tation of;the article put upon the mar-
ket as from poor eggs.
It is worth any egg producer's while
to take the time to make his goods at-
tractive. A case of eggs uneven in size
and mixed in colors will not attract a
high clano trade. Thoae who contend
for the best, in any direction, are al-
ways those who expect to pay the high-
est prices; and they are the ones the
wise breeder wants to cater to. Big
eggs and little eggs, soiled eggs and
clean eggs. white eggs and other color.
ed eggs, all jumbled up, present a bad
appearance and reduce the average
The liability to have any soiled eggs
should be minimized by having clean
nesting places; but if soiled eggs are
found they should be cleaned, as soon
as they are gathered, to keep them from
absorbing a bad flavor as well as to
prevent the shell from holding any ugly
'The rules thus obtaining as good In
poultry matters are susceptible of a
large application In farming. The frnit-
grower who puts into his basket fruit
of all shades of ripeness, an sizes, all
degrees of knottiness. will find its aver-
age prices so low as to cause him to be
in the rear or lowest rank. And vet I,
Is his own fault entirely.-Home and
Cowpeas for Hens.
During the past week a subscrlber
called oat ua- and In riF course oi Caon
versatlon said;: I had a wonderful eag
yield from my hens last winter, and I
want you to tell the farmers how I se-
cured it. I had an acre or two of cow-
peas sowed near the buildings. In con'
sequence of scarceness of labor, I was
unable to get all the peas gathered-in
fact a large part of them remained. I
decided to let the vines and peas d'e
down on the land, and lie there all
winter. The hens soon found the peas,
and they literally lived on the patch
until spring. and gave us eggs in nnan.
utv an me time."T This report as to Tme
value of cowDeas as a winter feed is
confirmed by a report from a gentleman
in Maryland. who followed the same
niai. His hens harvested the neas from
a ilot of land last winter, with the re-
sult that he had eggs when none of hiq
neighbors had any. We have before ad-
vised the feeding of cowneas to hens,
as their richness in protein indicates
that they should make eegs. If von
have no cowneas. and even if von have
the TXuao. mu ur.m1 nd< in thu fPcA--.
wheat and corn mixed for one feed
ner dav. with a hot mash in the mnon-
ine during the cold weather 'The eow-
neas mayv Inirelv take the pnlae of cut
hone If von have them. Cut hone and
meat scrans should. however. he fed
twice a week. With enoh fledine good,
dry warm houses n s a younn. hoplth-
flokr. evgg should heo nleptift l qil
through the winter-that is. as nming
that vo" arm keeping a vodA lqvin"
variety. snobh a Terbghvns PlTr-m*+h
nerks or Wvandoh' ~We havo often
o'ind that crossbred hens-the nroG
Aneo for instanno. of a nun hraM T,ep
rue ibtter iverws than the Prme bred.
Formula Used by Dealers for Preser-
Numeronu methods of n rwervinTegees
are in use. The idea of all of them is
to keen air out of the eggs. as hby ncii
iftiRiei iajig~o decay can be arrroied
for a considerable length of time, es-
pecially if the eggs are perfectly fresh
at the start and are kept in a cool
dark place. The standard method most
used by speculators and dealers is to
nut cige in lime water, The nromcaa
Is as follows, this recipe having been
widely sold at $5 under pledge of secre-
cy: Take two gallons of water, twelve
pounds of uslaked lime and four
pounds of salt or in that pro-
portion according to the quantity of
eggs to be preserved. Stir several times
daily and then let stand until the li-
quid has settled and is perfectly clear.
Draw or carefully dip off the clear li-
quid, leaving the sediment at the bot-
tC5, TU; Wr tv&? 6c aiiiAu l Vf liquid
five ounces each of baking soda, cream
of tartar, saltpeter and borax and an
ounce of alum. Pulverize and mix
these and dissolve in one gallon of boil-
ing water and add to the mixture about
Ing water and add to the mixture
about twenty gallons of pure lime wa-
ter. This will about fill a cider barrel.
Put the eggs in carefully so as not to
crack any of the shells, letting the
water always stand an inch atbov the
eggs. which can be done by packing
a barrel head a little smaller unon
them and weighting it. This amount
of liquid will preserve 150 dozen of
eggs. It is not necessary to wait to get
a full barrel or smaller package of eggs
but they can be put in at any time that
they can be obtained fresh. The same
liquid should be used only once.-Mich-
BEWARE OF OINTMENTS FOR CA-
TARRH THAT CONTAIN MER-
as mercury will surely destroy sense
"i smell amd eu vleIielJ dehSange ta
whole system when entering it through
the mucous surfaces. Such articles
the mucous surfaces. such articles
should never be used except on pre-
scriptions from reputable physicians,
as the damage they will do is ten fold
to the good you can possibly derive
from them. Hall's Catarrh Cure, man-
ufactured by F. J. Cheney & Co., Tole-
do, 0., contains no mercury, and Is
taken internally, acting directly upon
the blood and mucous surfaces of the
system. In buying Hall's Catarrh
Cum to ua nM P9a- gm fs i5is, It
is taken internally and Is made in To-
ledo, Ohio, by F. Cheney & Co. Tes-
Sold by Druggists, price 75c. per
Halls' Family Pills are the best.
Gave Entire iatisfaotion.
E. O. Painter & Co., JacksonviUe, Fla.
Gentlemen:-I take pleasure in say-
ing that the fertilizer furnished by
you for the orange groves in my
rhartg hao given entire atifaction
and you may confidently look for a
continuance of my patronage.
Yours very truly,
M. F. Robinson.
Sanford, Fla., Oct. 5th, 1900.
Western Poultry Farm,
4 months on trial 10e. One yr. S2e.
It tells how to min poultry ralinslg
of fer r 6M W ONR Almlnum lea
bands for poultry, 1 do, W o s; for
cts: Sr for 0 ct: 10 for IL
HENS' TEETH ....LL
To properly digest its food the fowl
must have grit. What teeth are to the
human being grit la to the fowL We
can now furnish ground oyster shells,
from freshly opened oysters, from
which al the dust and dirt has been
screened, to supply this grit which Is
lacking in nearly all parts of Florida.
Goods very inferior to ours and full
of dulet havoe 1beo .Iumft for 1,99 ts
51,6 perf dri 6f -io pounds. we now
offer it at
100 Ib bag, 75e. f. o. b. Jacksonville.
Help your fowls by giving them
plenty of clean grit.
E. O. PAINTER & Co., Jacksonville.
Manufacturers of High Grade Fer-
tilisers and dealer In all kinds of Fer.
l!Ui5 U estWi,
M.., that makes your
a Wtir a 4sls adse
SThe Riveter can be
used In any position.
Mends anything where
a well-clinche rivet
serves the purpose. POr
heavy farm work. Can
be carried in the ocket. Agents make $3 to
Sis a day. Send c for sample loaded with
0 rivets and Trm to Ast. Address
PALMBITO SUPPLY CO., DeLa a, PieMs.
If your fowls are troubled with lice
Si jmm ams tll aM. nd s Pt 12I
pounds of tobacco dust and sprinl e
it in your coops. The tobacco lb guar-
anteed to be unleashed.~ S.nd 2 cent
tamp for sample.-E. O. Painter & Co.,
Parties Intending visiting Cuba will
do well to correspond with me about
lands, etc. Use 5c. postage.
THOSE. R. TOWNS,
Quiebra Hacha, Cuba.
P ddilBlo Per aiom
Did You Ever Hear
a anzayrewu s orry he bought Pae Pa I
L. R.ane . UseeIver.
PAe WOVeK wInK VK4aCK.. ADRIAN, IICl.
I.LM. D., Agtlanta,Ga.
Pa.rTcl. Har. aol. CsU
L JESSE MARDE91
"Certifcate Am. Int Fair."
s<1 iiirawliiia it
W ?W e" and weao ua
disappeotRXt. C anp maUl
states bring loss, not t~ayng emu
It pays to y a little more for
FaTs uzBr. e FiTe enter perpap
Severyr ere, and always worth I.
SAlwa U the r. lsoeesdman ueslr
S. I. r *A I.,u KT1T, IM
612 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
amn.frmarwlG ]IN TIABlEDA.
Oonditios Necessary to Its Success
and Some Causes at its Tailur.
By Francisco Browne.
In a recent editorial in the "Weekly
Record" of St. Augustine, the editor
makes mention of the fact that there
were 100,000 persons engaged in keep-
ing bees, In the United States, that the
estimated annual product amounted to
twenty million dollars and goes on to
say that there are 110 apiarian soci-
eites, eight journals devoted to the in-
dustry, and fifteen large steam power
factories, manufacturing improved bee-
hives and all apiarian supplies, then he.
tells us that Florida, and especially St.
Johns county, should be an ideal spot
for honey production and tells us, also,
that bees can be kept without expense,
as much as to say that "they work for
nothing and board themselves."
Taken as a whole, this is certainly a
very commendable editorial. Its pur-
poses and intentions are good, it was
written to enlighten the farmers, fruit-
growes and others, as to the possibil-
ities of bee keeping in Florida.
As a honey producer of more than
ten years experience In Florida I will
write as to the actual results that may
be expected from the industry here.
First, I wish it distinctly understood
by everyone that the business, to be
carried on intelligently and in a way
to derive an Income from it, requires
considerable expense-cash outlay in
the start and very close attention at all
Bees do not gather a surplus of
honey the year around in any
part of Florida. The larger part of it is
gathered in a space not to exceed four
months, frequently in less than six
weeks time. During the other months,
they gather very little or none at all.
They gather pollen, commonly called
"bee bread" every month in the year,
and when breeding-raising young
bees very fast, they need large quanti-
ties of water to dilute or thin down
the honey already stored in the hive.
this is to feed the young upon. They
fy freely all through the spring months
and in the summer in quest
of these two articles when there is not
an ounce of honey to be had, thus the
popular idea, "because of their flying
freely, they must be gathering honey."
rrho bulk of the sunrlus honey, that
in $"'fioncy osFe fi aS r^ mft Wpmi B
need for their own consumption, on the
whole of the east coast of Florida
comes from not more than five sources,
generally speaking, not more than two
in any one year, or in any one locality.
These in the order they bloom are,
wild pennyroyal (saturcia rigida), De-
cember to February, south Florida.
Silver leaf, or soft maple (acer rubrunm)
December 10th to February 15th. Sur-
plus In South Florida. Gallberry or
ink berry (ile~ glabar), April and May.
Saw palmetto, (sabalserrulota) May and
June, cabbage palmetto, (abal palmetto)
July and August.
Mapel and wild pennyroyal do not
yield much surplus honey except in
the southern portion of the state. In
the northern coast belt, from Titusville
northward, the palmetto and gallberry
furnish the honey. The saw palmetto
is surest and best of all in the north-
ern belt. Before the big freeze of '94
and '95, black mangrove (avicennia to.
mentoso) gave large crops in the vicin-
if N. !rw siaJn?.R ehIO& ;K IM In az
dian River Narrows and Jupiter Nar-
rows. This species of mangroves does
not occur again in any quantity until
one reaches the Florida Keys and the
coast belt northwest of Cape Sable
(west coast). I am not acquainted
with any one who knows positively of
any great honey crop being secured
from any belt of mangrove south of
The gallberry bloom does not last
over two weeks at its best, it varies in
in date of blooming according to year
and locality. Saw palmetto is in bloom
for from three to four weeks and
varies also, the farther south one goes,
the earlier the bloom. Cabbage pal-
metto, possibly three weeks, a very un-
certain crop for honey, seldom two
years running and probably only one
good crop out of three years.
Colonies must be strong in bees of
correct age to work at gathering honey
to secure good crops. This age is
about two weeks old, after the bee
hatches out. They are good for about
three weeks active work in the honey
flow, after which they play out and die
new ones daily taking their place. The
next consideration in securing a honey
crop after you have the bloom open,
and the bees of the correct age to
gather it is fair, warm sunny weather.
Rain very quickly blasts all hopes of
a honey crop from our palmetto or gall-
berry. Further south, the cold misty
drizzly and rainy days of winter often
destroy or greatly curtail the crop from
pennyroyal and soft maple.
To these facts just remember that
to secure a good working swarm of
bees, say ten pounds of live bees, re-
quires a consumption of about forty
pounds of honey. Then the bees re-
quire about the same amount, or even
more, to live through the year upon,
and you will see that they certain-
ly have to stir lively during the
few months of honey flow to make
their own way and give a surplus to
I have said nothing about the amount
of surplus honey that could be ex-
pected from any one of the surplus
sources. It will vary according to the
year and the experience and ability of
the keeper, in having his colonies in
shape and ready, anywhere from noth-
ing up to a possibility of 100 pounds of
surplus honey; taken for a series of
years by a man of practical experience
I should place fifty pounds of surplus
comb honey (spring count number of
colonies) per colony an average crop
and yet there are many who will not
get one half this amount for a series
of years, others who will overrun it
To equip an apiary in proper shape
to handle its product to the best advan-
tage, will cost, per one hundred colon-
ies, any where from $500 to $700.
When once established and expected to
run for honey, there will be no increase
in the colonies unless it is at the ex-
pense of the honey crop. There will be
some swarms, but in the long run, no
more than enough to keep good the or-
iginal number of colonies. From my
own experience, I would advise not
more than, say fifty colonies, in one
riaJI l as MU SaAisan irsalss 2Bn.ta
the range wiii support more. There
are places that will support more than
two hundred in one yard, but take my
advice from years of experience and
put only fifty or sixty in a place. If
the range ahid locality will support
more, put fifty more a mile away.
Generally speaking bees forage within
a circle of three miles in every direc-
tion from the hives, and generally
our pasturage for them ies in
itrit16 oan forth to one mile wide,
or in some cases, up to the full
three miles wide, for it must be remem-
bered that there is a vast amount of
land unproductive of honey plants, and
large tracts of land of absolutely no
value whatever for honey. There are
tens of thousands of acres of saw pal-
metto in Florida that never did and
never will, give one ounce of honey, it
is only the rank growth of saw pal-
metto along the coast belt that gives
much honey, palmetto that gives a full
crop of fruit (berries). With us, gen-
.ereally, if there is fruit, there is no
heIMr aF 1OF aWSF &Yaw- a bma;s :jN
fruit to follow, unless the honey failure
was due to heavy and continuous
rains that prevented the bees from
working on the bloom.
It is almost incredible as to the
amount of honey a good strong colony
of bees will gather in a day
from any one good source when
everything is favorable. In every well
equipped apiary, at least one colony
should be kept upon scales the year
round, so that the attendant can know
when the honey flow starts, and also
at other times, know what the daily
loss is. I have had good colonies to
bring in ten pounds of raw thin honey
per day, and to make an average of
five to six pounds per day for possibly
two weeks running. The daily gain
often varies greatly, owing to condition
of weather, heat, moisture in the air,
amount of electricity, etc. A great
many things play a part in the honey
flow, and to be successful, one must
study his localty, not only in its
honey producing flora, but its pecul-
iarities and whims as it appears in lo-
cal weather. For the coast belt, we
need an abundance of rain in fall and
winter, then let it come dry in the
spring. During blooming season, let
there be lots of electricity and moisture
in the air, ,but no rain, and the less
wind the better for honey.
Gallberry blasts quickly and is ruined
for honey if very hot and dry during
its blooming period. It needs moisture
eighty-five to ninety per cent, and lots
of electricity in the air, then it gives
honey, cabbage palmetto, the same,
whereas the saw palmetto has given
good crops when it was very dry and
the air fairly parched with heat.
When everything favorable as out-
lined above, it is certainly an interest-
ing industry, this one of raising honey.
But the honey producer has much to
contend with, many chances to take,
and few indeed, there are who ever ac-
cumulate money thereby.
In the editorial referred to, it is said
that there are 100,000 beekeepers in the
United States, and I would like to add
the fact, that probably not over one
tenth of them are honey producers of
any great amount, and I doubt very
much if one half of this tenth, derive
a living from bees and nothing else. It
is doubtful Indeed If there are twenty
men in the state of Florida that depend
wholly upon the production of honey
for a living, too much risk. It is all
right as a side issue combined with
something else, providing one has the
adaptability to follow it, and the prop-
er location for pasturage, and will give
time and attention to it that needs
and requires. And yet it is my con-
viction that the larger share, the bulk
of the marketable honey in the near
future will be produced by expert
specialists in the business, who with
capital back of them are able to go
through one or even two unfavorable
years without much loss. The way It
is and has been, a man gets nicely
started, maybe puts $500 into the bus-
iness, then he meets with a reverse, a
year or two of poor crops or none at
all, diseases sweep through the coun-
try. he losses his bees. his investment
uaH Rix awtfele8n. -TawEs ame coant-
gious diseases among bees that are
as destructive as the worst forms of
cholera and yellow fever among the
human race. Then in a great many in-
stances, in poor years, the bees con-
sume all the honey in.the hives and die
Moths soon destroy the combs, leav-
ing nothing but the empty hives. These
cases can only be averted by liberal
feeding of the bees, yet when it means
the buying of from one to two dollars
worth of sugar for each colony to feed
on until the next year's crop, why
most people will let their bees perish
The cold and freezes we have had
the past few winters, have played sad
havoc with the bee keeper's interests.
Frosts cut off the early bloom buds,
thereby cutting off the early sources
of pollen and fresh new honey so es-
sential to induce the bees to breed up
early and get strong for the harvest
later on. Frequently the cold is so se-
4*r im Vtf1D}N D s1mW a jRal OmiR Ul
the young brood of bees coming on in
To properly understand and grasp
the importance of all this, it must be
understood by all, that the queen bee
is the mother of all the others in the
hive, that for a few weeks during the
winter no eggs, or a very few, are laid,
that the bees at this time generally
dwindle down to about two quarts,
possibly only about one quart in many
instances; that one needs eight to ten
quarts in each colony before the har-
vest opens. From the day the
egg is laid until it hatches out
a young bee, takes twenty-one days,
add to this ten to fifteen days more be-
fore the bee is of much value to the
colgpy for work. Then Just remember
that it takes bees to raise bees: that the
queen starts in laying hardly more than
a hundred or two eggs per day and
gradually increases as the bees in-
crease to care for the brood-until the
height of the season, just before the
harvest-there is a thousand or fifteen
hundred eggs per day being laid, pos-
sibly in very strong colonies, two
thousand eggs. Now. go back, we will
say, to along in February or the first
of March when there is a thousand
eggs being laid a day, and may be fif-
teen or twenty thousand cells of brood
in all stages from the freshly laid egg
to the hatching bee, then comes a cold
snap and a freeze, the bees desert the
larger part of the brood, contracting
themselves into a small bunch to pre-
serve their own lives by the animal
heat and the consequence is that the
brood perishes from cold. That colony
is practically ruined for the present, as
far as any early honey is concerned.
They will probably build up again and
get strong, ready for the palmetto
flow, providing there comes no more
freezes. But let the freezes keep com-
ing and the honey in the hive gives out,
and it is goodbye.
Freezes certainly are as disastrous to
the honey producer in Florida as to the
vegetable grower. If our bees could be
made to stay dormant and not to breed
until late in the spring, (I speak for
the upper coast belt) as they do in the
north, we would be far better off, but
the first warm days of January brings
a few early pollen bearing blossoms,
the maples if no other, these are soon
followed by the yellow Jessamine, and
bees think that they too, must make a
It is all fine in warm winters and
springs, but all wrong for such weath-
er as we have had for the last few
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THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. 13
A DETECTIVE'S ADVEN-
"I am in rather an awkward pea-
tion," said the visitor, slowly, "and I
want you to extricate me. I am very
confident of your ability to do so, be-
cause of the successful way in which
you solved the Workingham mystery."
"If you will state your case I will
'give it my attention," replied Des-
mond, ignoring the compliment,
FThen you'll come with me to my
home?" went on the other, who had
given the name of Phillips. "All my
d9CumenBat are there for, not counting
upon a refusal, I did not bring them."
"What is the distance to your house?"
"Three miles or so. I have a cab out-
IThe Jehu evidently knew where to
drive, for no instructions were given
him before the two entered the ver
while. Phillips relapsed into silence
nor did he speak again until the cab
drew up to the door of a large brick
house, situated in a street that Des-
mond did not remember having seen
"Here we are," he said, ascending
the steps and throwing open the door.
"Follow me." And Phillips led the way
along a dimly-lit passage and entered
a osy room at the other end.
"'Now that you have brought me this
long distance you will kindly give me
the facts of your case at once," said
Desmond, sharply. "I may say frank-
ly that I do not like this secrecy."
"rYou are safe in our hands," said the
other. "There is no need to be afraid."
Desmond noticed the plural. "You
are not alone then?" he said, with a
quick glance around the room.
"'By no means. I have a few friends
here." He touched a bell as he spoke
and four men entered the room. The
detective was startled, but he did not
Phillips burst into a laugh. "Draw
your chair up to the table and take a
cigar," said he.
The others all proceeded to make
themselves comfortable, so the detect
tive proceeded to do likewise; so far ar
he could see there was no cause for
"'Now, sir," began Phillips, "I must
tell you, first of all,that you are not re
quired to solve any real case of mine.
I and Mr. Smithson have made a bet
regarding you. We were talking the
other day about the Workingham affair,
and as I said, you had found the truth
very cleverly, he remarked that cir-
cumstances were greatly in your favo
We began to argue with this result.
We have imagined a case and wish you
to solve it. We shall tell you a story
and act part of it If you succeed in
proving to our satisfaction who the
murderer is-for the case is one of
murder-you will receive the sum of
100. If you fail, you will receive 10
for your trouble. W that hve you it
"I do not like being made the subject
of a bet," said Desmond.
"You must go in for it," put in 1er-
non. The almost pleading tone caused
the detective to look more closely at
his pale, thin features.
"Very well, then. I agree," said he,
and his eyes still upon the other's face
he thought an expression of relief
"Thank yon," said Phillips. "We will
start right away. It has been decided
that I tell the first part of the story.
Last night I and Lovely there entered
this house at ten o'clock. I called
Smithson up from his chemical labor-
atory in the basement, and Waltem
from his portion of the house, and we
awaited the appearance of Vernon and
SJackson. But as these two failed to
come after ten minutes had passed we
all went up stairs to Jackson's room.
There a dreadful sight met our gaze.
He was lying dead upon the floor, and
close by was Vernon, just recovering
"It wais plain that Jackson had been
murdered and all thn ings pointed to
Vernon, as the one who had done the
dastardly deed. He had been stabbed
by the latter's knife. We formed the
idea that he himself had been knocked
sensele by a blow upon the heAd,
dealt by the dying man in a supreme
nal effort. We charged Vernon with
the crime but he denied It, but you
shall hear his explanation from his
own lips. Mr. Desmond."
"At nine o'clock," began Vernon try-
ing to oeep his own voice steady, "I
entered the house at the front and pro-
ceeded straight upstairs to Jackson's
room, having to see him upon a purely
private matter. There was no one
about that I could see; Indeed, every-
thing was so quiet when I opened the
door that I thought Jackson himself
must be out. But as I went inside a
quick footsteps sounded behind me. I
was about to turn when I received a
crushing blow upon the back of the
head. I staggered forward. caught a
glimpse of Jackson lying on the floor
in a pool of blood, and then fell down
senseless, to awake some time later and
find myself accused by you gentlemen
as his murderer. But I am innocent, I
He made this declaration so earnesit-
ly as to call forth sarcastic comments
"Have you anything more to say?"
questioned Phillps. "Can you account
for the fact that your knife caused
"I cannot. Until it was shown to me
as the one used, I had not seen it for a
week," replied Vernon with emphasis.
"That will do. Now, Mr. Desmond,
you have heard the main facts. Circum-
stantial evidence of the strongest kind
is brought against Vernon. His story
is a simple one. Can you prove his
guilt more conclusively, or establish his
innocence? You may ask any questions
"Had Vernon any motive? Had Jack-
son ever quarreled with him, Smithson,
or Walters?" said Desmond, after a mo-
"He had quarreled with both me and
the accused," put in Smithson, rather
"DJd you see Jackson last night?"
asked the ette detectiveturning and look-
ing at him.
"Me? Yes, but I left him well and
hearty at about ten minutes to nine,
and proceeded downstairs to my labor-
atory. Jackson looked at his watch and
gave me the time."
"'Walters can ie left out of it,"
thought Desmond. "It rests between
Smithson and Vernon."
f'Have you any more questions to ask
here? If not you shall see the position
in which we found the two men," said
"I have no more questions at pres-
ent," was the reply.
"Allright. Vernon, you and Lovely
go upstairs and get ready for the parts
you are to play. You understand what
to do. Knock when ready."
,The men addressed arose and left the
room, Vernon giving a backward glance
that puzzled the detective.
"'I think they will be ready for us
shortly," said Phillips. "This sort of
thing is rather nerve-shaking. Smith-
son looks really 111."
"Do you mean to accusee me of-"
"'Of poor nerves?" put in Phillips.
with a warning glance at the other.
"Oh, no. You look white and troubled,
"He wants some of his own drugs,"
said Walters, with a forced laugh.
"Come, come, don't get to words. Lis-
ten. Vernon is knocking. He is await-
Phillips put down his cigar and led
the way upstairs, the others following.
"This is the room,"he sid to Desmond.
"Lovely is in the position we supposed-
ly found Jackson. Enter, please."
The detective did so. He could not
suppress a start of surprise. There,
lying upon the carpet, was Lovely, at-
tired in a brown check suit. His arms
were outstretched; his face fixed as if
in death. A small, blood-stained knife
and a heavy knobbed stick were by his
side. The affair seemed too grim to
be mere play.
"Vernon will show us how he enter-
ed the room," said Philips. "This may
seem unnecessary, but it Is his own
wish. Perhaps he wants to do a bit
of realistic acting. Ready, Vernon?"
"I am." The man, having first turn-
ed the gas low, proceeded to the door
and closed it behind him. After a mo-
ment's wait, he opened it again and.
stepping Inside, spoke as If to himself;
"Evidently Jackson's out. I'll go down
stairs and await his return. The busi-
He stopped suddenly and made as if
to turn. To the watchers it was as if story I believe to be true. Perhaps in
some unseen person had struck him an a law court my evidence would be in-
unseen blow. He uttered an exclama- sufficient to convict, but I unhesitating-
tion, half of terror, as he staggered ly declare Mr. Smithson to be the mur-
toward the center of the room. "My derer."
God," he muttered, as he came to the. For a moment there was a strained
body of the pseudo-Jackson; then he silence in the room, to be broken by a
fell down in a dead faint He had gone loud oath from Smithson, whose face
too far with his acting. This latter had suddenly become livid. "Your
was reality, proofs," he shouted, hoarsely.
"He'a overdone it," cried Phillips. "Yes, your proofs," echoed the others,
"Fetch water. lHere, Lovely, get up eagerly.
and help." "'First, this shred of cloth that I
In a very short time Vernon opened found in that dark corner of the pas-
his eyes and glanced quickly around. sage upstairs belongs, if I mistake not,
The others had their atteotign elae- to the egat l r, Smithgea has n,
where for a moment. "Bend down, That proves that he stood there
quick," he whispered, just loud enough against the wall, does it not? Secondly,
for the detective to hear. "Save me, let me ask a question. Has any one of
for God's sake. Save me. It Is-" you been in Jackson's company of late
"Here you are," shouted Lovely, between the hours of eight-thirty and
running up with the brandy. "Pour it nine o'clock? But, of course, as he only
down his throat Now help him on the exists in the imagination, the question
/The whispered words of the pros- "No, no, I have been in his company
trate Vernon had brought the detec- about that time," put in Phillips, quick-
tive to the conclusion that there was ly. "You see, the real Jackson is
something behind all this; what at pres- Lovely," Ire added, in explanation.
ent he could not imagine. He saw that "Have you seen him, then, do any-
the best thing to do would be to pro- thing with his watch?"
ceed as if he suspected nothing. So, "I have seen him take it out and open
with a jesting remark, he proceeded: the front, but what he did I cannot
"Where was the supposed Jackson say."
stabbed?" "Your watch, please, Mr. Lovely.
Lovely pointed out the place. Thank you. Now observe the hands.
"But a stab there would not be fa- Do you see anything peculiar? But, of
tal," said Desmond. course, you know about it, don't you?,'
NPhillips frowned sharply at him. "No. Why, the hands have caught in
"He bled to death." he said. "You will one another. The watch has stopped
understand that a large quantity of at about seventeen minutes to nine.
blood would flow from such a wound." And Smithson declared that Jackson
"Certainly, certainly. I suppose I can told him the time from the watch
examine his clothes?" later than that. The statement was
"There is absolutely nothing in any untrue. You, Smithson, must have
of the pockets. No cue Is to be found been In the room when Vernon entered
there." the house. You heard him ascending the
"Nothing whatever? This is the stairs, and took Jackson's stick and hid
watch Mr. Smithson referred to, I sup- in the passage with the rest, as Vernon
Dose?" has stated. . You are correct
"Yes, Jackson looked at that when Mr Desmond. Allow me to congra-"
he told me the time," replied Smith- Bmithson sprang up with a cry of
"Very good." Desmond drew it out of "Curse you,"he shouted. "Curse you"
Lovely's pocket and opened the case to And before the unfortunate detective
glance at the dial. His heart gave a could do anything to defend himself,
sudden jump; only with difficulty did the man lifted the chair high in the air
he restrain'a feeling of triumph. But and brought it down with a dull thud
his face was as unmoved as before as upon his skull, knocking him senseless
he went on with his inquiries, to the floor.
"There is a dark corner here," he said a a*
entering the passage. "Anybody hiding Desmond knew no more ntil he
in it would be unseen by a man as- found himself In bed In his own home,
sending the stairs. You could have with a nurse sitting besidehim.
waited here, Mr. Smithson." 'How long have I been here?" he
"What the- of coarse, but I went asked, weakly.
straight downstairs after leaving Jack- t 'You were brought in a cab early
son. It must be plain that I could not this morning. I and the doctor were
be the one Vernon alleges-alleges, sent on by a stranger. Do you feel
bear in mind-struck him." better now?"
"Quite plain, eh?Yet such a thing is "I'm getting stronger every minute.
as probable as the supposition that a What was the stranger like? Can you
dying man struck him with such force describe him?"
as to render him unconscious for near- "Neither the doctor nor I saw 'him,
ly an hour. But I have seen all that I but here is a letter he left for you, with
require. Shall we go below again?" instructions that you had to read it as
iPhillips agreed and the five men went soon as you were better. Will you sit
downstairs, Vernon having by this up?"
time quite recovered. They seated When the nurse had arranged the pil-
themselves around the table again, and lows he tore the envelope open. His
after a moment or two, the question head was aching badly, but in his an-
was put to Desmond whether he had xiety to hear the truth about his ad-
formed his conclusions, venture he forgot that. The first thing
"Yes, to my own satisfaction, if not he pulled out was a 100 bank-note;
to yours," was the reply. "In the first | then followed the following letter:
place, Vernon is quite innocent. His "My dear friend:-I call you this be-
I te olwdtetnwnlte:
Premium Offer No 1. An"% ow"Iwan"
$2=00 wtglwcv'han ope-face, stm-wlend
and stmm-a t waguarmted by the mantsf.ws for one yer. Smd your scrip-
mo at ooce to THIE fLOIDA AGRICULTURIST, Jactaavl, FUa.
cause you have saved my life. As you
no doubt will guess, last night's affair
had more reason for it than a mere bet;
it was a matter of life and death. We
are a peculiar society of American or.
Iwin, urS I cannot ma for abrioius
reasons. The story we told and acted
for you had actually occurred, only the
real Jackson was not killed outright.
He was lying unconscious in the house
the whole of the time. It was abso-
lutely necessary that we should know
who had attacked him, so your aid was
invoked. You proved that I, who was
accused, with great reason, I admit,
am innocent, and found Smithson
guilty, for after his assault upon you
he confessed all. According to our
rules he will not live long. I must
warn you not to attempt to trace us. By
the time you read this we shall have
vanished. Again do I. thank you. Be-
lieve me to be, always your debtor.
LAnd this was al. Though Desmond
has since devoted days to the search of
the street and the brick house, or to
some of the men whom he saw there,
he has not succeeded. They have dis-
appeared as utterly as if the earth had
swallowed them up. Did the real Jack-
son vmover from hin wound? Did
Smithson meet with the penalty hint-
ed at in the letter? These are questions
he may never have answered. But he
will never forget that night's strange
adventure, when he solved a mystery
by'the two hands of a watch catching
In each other.-Tlt-Bites
WITH TEa jO X .
"When does romance die?"
"When the couple, who a year ago
loved to sit in the gloaming, come into
the house and rush for the matchsafe
the first thing."
Railway Agent-Our railway, mad-
am, is stricfty up to date in every re-
Madam-Nonsense! Look at this wo.
man on your excursion folder. Her
sleeves have been out of style for three
"What's this!" said Abdul Hamid !n
a great rage. "Pay money to the Unit-
ed States? Me pay money?"
"You promised, you know."
"I know I promised, but I never
would have promised you may rest as-
sured, if I thought you would exMect
me to pay after promising."-Pitts-
Salesman-"These collars are all the
go. They are worn by everybody."
Customer-"In that case, I don't
think I care to buy any of them."
Salesman-"When I say everybody,
of course, I mean everybody of correct
taste. And persons of correct taste are
so few, you know."
Customer-"I think I'll take a doz-
,Mr. Naggs---"Whatever is, my dear,
Mrs. N.-"Fudge! What about the
mate to your right shoe?"
"Why is it," asked his intimate
friend, "that you smoke cheap cigars
incessantly when you are writing those
little love-stories for the magazines?"
"I have to de gomothing to ooupy
my mind," replied the author.-Chica-
Medigger-Isn't it tiresome to hear
DeoDle talk about the weather?
Thlngumboo--Tiresome? Its positive-
ly dangerous. The minute you make a
remark about the weather it gives the
other fellow a chance to say "Yes, but
it'll be a cold day for one or the other
next November." Then, first thing you
know, you're mixed up in a ferce polit-
Sleal discussion.-Philadelphia Press.
Teacher-James, what makes you
James-I was pursuing knowledge.
Teacher Pursuing knowledge?
What do you mean?
James?-Why, my dog ran off with
my spelling book, and I ran after him.
-Ex. *. --4-
"The Beglers have a new coachmaf."
"What did t1ey do with the old one?"
"They had to let him go. He looked
so superior to the rest of the family."
--Cleveland Plain Dealer.
"That's a bride and groom over at
the other table."
"How do you know?"
"I heard him say that he would order
Kansas corn, so they could both eat
off thms sl ;i"-D etroit reoo Progea
iMildred-Have you ever been wooed
by a man in a shirt waist?
Alice-No; but once when I was vis-
iting one of the museums the bearded
woman tried to flirt with me.-Chicago
Friend-What was your graduation
Mabel-"What the Astronomers
Know About Mars."
"Dear me! Why did you choose that
"Because I didn't have time to write
much."--New York Weekly.
"My wife has an unpleasant way of
recalling unpleasant things."
"Yes. What of it?"
"Why, the other night I got up and
drank a collar button which had fallen
into the glass of water."
"And now every time I lose my col-
lap Button my white says. 'Well. where'n
that one you swallowed?' "-Cleveland
"Lastly," said the man with the
bulbous nose, who was giving his
friend a few pointers as to the. concoc-
tion of a favorite drink, "you sprinkle
some mint on the top of it and"--
"And then it goes with a rush I
reckon," broke in the friend.
"No, sir," replied the other, slightly
irritated at the interruption. "It goes
with a straw."-Chictago Tribune.
"Have you been to see him in refer-
ence to our campaign fund?" asked the
"I have." answered Senator Sor-
ghum. He is what I call a political
deaf mute. When money is supposed
to talk. he becomes incapable of any
Mr. Brown.-Well, I guess I'll turn
off that electric fan down stairs.
Mrs. Brown.-Oh, David, don't. If
some poor burglar got in, he would
simply stifle.-Indianapolls Journal.
"We must all die some time," said
the sympathizing frJend.
'True," replied the invalid, "quite
true, but I have noticed that there are
some things in which none of us is
seeking precedence."-Chicago Post.
"Yes." said "the old man." "Molly's
home from the seashore, with a trunk-
ful of shells, five petrified starfish, and
a bale of seaweed. She didn't bring
her board bill with her. That's coming
by freight."-Atlanta Constitution.
E. 0. Painter & Co., Jacksonile, Fla.
Gentlemen:-In reply to yours of the
18th will say that the fertilizers re-
ceived from E. 0. Painter & Co., have
been perfectly satisfactory in every re-
T. H. Chambers,
Georgiana, Fla., Sept. 24, 1900.
SUGAR LAND FOR SALE.
A desirable tract of land, admirably
adapted to cane or orange culture, 6
arpents front by 44 depth, a portion
of the old Nairn sugar plantation, sit-
uated on the west bank of the Missis-
sippi river about 00 miles below New
The place is well drained, it being
cleared 16 arpents deep, and having on
it about 2000 small orange trees and 8
arpents plant cane. A comfortable
dwelling house, a large barn and a
number of head of live stock completes
the equipment of the place.
Should one desire to raise cane, a
ready market can be had for same, as
a railway connects it with two large
Vnitral lsgar factories. For terms ap-
MRS. J. Y. GILMORE,
520 Poydras street, New Orleans.
THE ATLANTIC COAST LINE, via Charlesioti,
To Richmond and Washington.
lumbia and Washington.
Tkt Al Mal
T The Southern R'y via Jesup, Atlanta and Chattan'ga
The Louisville & Nashville via Montgomery.
To The The Southern R'y via Savannah, Columbia, Ashevi.l
The Mobile & Ohio R. R via Montgomery.
Via Savannah and Ocean Steamship Co for Ner
To Th York, Philadelphia and Boston.
Via Bavannah and Mcrchanto & Mira6iH Tan ptaru
tion Company for Baltimore.
To KEY WEST Via PENINSULAR & OCCIDENTAL
HAVANA STEAflSHIP CO.
NOVA SCOTIA, Via Boston and CANADA, ATLANTIC and PLAN
DCAPE BRrBON& STEAMSHIP LINE for Halifax, Hawkesbu,3
PWIE EDWARDS and Charlottestown.
Summer Excursion Tickets
to all Summmer Resoirts will be placed on sale until September 30th.
The pLANT SYSTEM 'a t..ely Lsea rm ide wb Throuh I &rag.s-c
SrvWle to tLo Summr Resorts of
WESTERN NORTH CAROLNA and
THE MOUNTAINS OF VIROINIA
For information as to rates, sleeping-car services, reservations etc, write to
P. M. JOLLY, Div islon Passenger Agent.
183 Went Ray Ptreet. Aster Block. Jacksonvillle Florida.
W. B. DENHAM, B. W. WRENN.
Gen. Supt. Pass. Traic Mng'r.
OCEAN STEAMSHIP CO.
BY LAND AND SEA...
FASTaFREIOHT AND LUXURIOUS PASSENGER ROUTE.
FLORIDA TO NEW YORK,
BOSTON AND EAST.
SHORT*RAIL RIDE TO SAVANNAH, OEOROIA.
Thence via Palatial Bxpresc Steamships, mailings from Savannah, Pour Ships each week
to New York nd making close connection with New York-Boston ships or iound Lines.
All ticket agents and hotels are supplied with monthly sailing schedules. Write
for general lnfolmation: mailinE ihrdutl~ statrvm nitsrratiLasm, ir sa l E?
B B. H. ITON. Tra1 e llar., WALTgM BAWKIRfa, Bla. Age,
Barva na,.Ga. 224W.Bay St., Jacksonvlle, I iM
The Great Througn Car Line From Florida.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. 6o
TQULTIITA N U
The. dreaded white fly has made its
appearance in the groves around Ur-
lando and is doing much damage. itue
greAMet care should be exercised iy
our people to keep it out of the Kim-
slmnuee valley citrus district.-Klsasm
m80 V8Uiy UGStie.
Quite a number of fish have been
caught from tne Indian River hotel
dtoc., during the week. 'ritusvlie Is one
of the lneat nahing resorts on me east
coast, amd anyone who is a follower of
the ramona kSr Isaac Walton should not
tail to spend part of his vacation
here.-kast Coast Advocate.
It is said L. E. Wilson's grove in the
hammock is literally loaded down with
oranges. Numerous props have been
placed under the trees, but many of the
Smb- have been canafd to grgol
yi i6 Wilififa the fiuii. iuite a num-
ber of the groves In this section are
very full of truit.-New Smyrna Breeze
One of the most interesting places
about Melbourne Just now, at any rate
to the novice, la the alligator hatchery
of Mr. Collins. During the past month
several hundred of the saurian rep-
tiles have crawled out of their shellH
and seem, under the motherly care of
Mr. Collins, to be very well contented
In their new life.-Florida Star.
The Clay county Stockmen's Associa-
tion organized permanently a few days
ago. Its object is stated to be the "pro-
toctlun or all vwe stell u nnfiig yil
large and belonging to citizens of this
county, and to improve the breeding
thereof, and to obtain a fair and rea-
sonable price for all live stock destroy-
ed or injured."-Orlando Sentinel Re-
A. C. Sacked, of the Planters' Manu-
facturing Co., proprietors of the starch
factory at Lake Mary,has recently been
making a tour of the cassava fields in
Orange, Lake and Marion counties. He
reports the growth as very satisfac-
tory. The company is making prepar-
aanls ro tno BRflaUlig ft oSf UiP. 1A
large boarding house for the men has
been built. About ten miles of hog
proof fence is being constructed on the
On Wednesday, EH F. Sperry re-
ceived a box containing several hu*
dred Easter ily bulbs, which the Ag-
ricultural department of the govern-
ment sends here'for experimental pur,-
poses. Mr. Sperry planted the bulbp
on his lot adjoining the Sentinel-Repor-
ter police. The experiment of growing
the lily here will be watched by our
people with muth intere8st.Lt-OrlA
The. orange crop never was so good
in this section as it is this year, and
the growers are going to consign their
fruit this winter as not a single box has
been sold yet. It seems that the local
orange buyers have combined, and are
trying to force the growers to sell at
a low price, but the growers being well
posted on the market know what they
ema gt f- o. b.-Pine LvAl o-orravpon-
4sa=t 0 m, V, i Vd
A flash of lightning, during an elec-
tric storm recently, went into the tower
of the city all, at Key West. The flag
alyards and the block were cut away,
though the pole was not in the least
Injured; all the electric lights In the
clock room were smashed; the strik-
ing apparatus of the clock was'dam-
aged, but the bolt went out of a win-
dow before it had done very much
The groves around here have made a
vigorous growth. The Colket grove
555m5 to tB 4~t~ing W>d waven. Thooe
uaoer n.ed aire a degigbi to iic cyr_
Mr. W. Griffng, of Jacksonville. has
been taking some views of the "851-
phens shed" erected at the Clifford
grove. He was much Impressed with
the handsome oaks and tropical beauty
of Citra, and believes there is a future
for the town yet.--tra correspondent
at the T. U. aad 9,
The vegetable growers are busy pre-
pUring their land for fall gardens.
There will be an Increase in acreage
seeded over last season's planting. The
orange groves here have made very
.3tlefatory growth.- All of the lake
shore groves have ome fruit this year.
The Drake grove takes the lead Inp fruit
yield, having more than two hundred
boxe for this year's rop. The trees
are beautiful and are all a flutter
in their vigorous new growth.-Yalaba
correspondent of the Times-Union and
kSamps Woodward, colored, who, he
said, was born early in the year 1799,
died Sunday at his home near the
Southern deDot. He Is said to have
been i61 years, s monurn an1 3 ays Old
Uncle Samps was on the streets a few
days ago and was talking about his age
He said he felt like he might live twen-
ty-five years more. He was still active
and his step was as elastic as though
he was not over fifty. His hair was
as white as cotton and his eyes had but
little color, but he could see very well
with glasses.-Gainesville Eagle.
THE S10K ARE
A"m the Weak M restored to naU VlWor
adl benth at the Hands ofthe grmt-
Iet dealer of Modem- Th's.
arn D ouT blood iMrltattoaaUila
Alebe DOM A oaaroatiU# any
a map Off An
The media o me t
.-** ase. or r-- ---
thatod other .' ni.m
brt. hNdoudiM e haTv0 e. Iemve
tB-adin ad nda aO CAxbON
the medical profeslon andithe peo- e gael. I
tamebuaswr I-ad Into every to- nl eweeilt
thb a rdsinland che Mae aakeep
ment.wre. T ofbunmanitr h
Catarrh Oemai j ota
nallrro rims or O mfwa wOrL Choi
Vrreneeis sad an t e
wi hou PnATR e Cor me"oof meio
hm tareormas '"te byti
-i noTHiNd wBEI w=Ad.
stroy rats and era and to keep n
Dr.HB a ciass
sets from the seed. etc.
ao CENTS PER POUND.
V5 liD lMlei Awn sit-- F S=a,,
MAiXt.b conto vatr for the cans.
E. 0. PAINTER & CO., Jacksomville.
_The Tangent Fruit Brushers.
Patented Mch. 8, 1808 & Apr. 11 1890
These machines for brushing and
polishing fruit will greatly improve the
appearance of any pack of oranges or
lemons at a very slight cost, and with-
out damage to the ftfBi
They are past the experimental stage,
having brushed more than 10,000 cars
of these fruits in California.
Circulars on application.
Sharple's Cream Separators-Profit-
rhua opon having them, tt Mo othe and you willget the eatahel tl moneycan buy.
ALL DEALERS KEEP THEM.
Sv-- v w -v-- w-- -W v w- -w w ww- w -
Florida EaF.t Coast Ry.
EtVTH nrnMn i -a nD I I
.. S *
a 1moasf 1: i|L|
aly No. I. STATIONS. Iao.
Si .Lv:.....Jaoksa le ........Ar
IJa Ar ....... at. Augatln .......L
I1a Lv. ......S. alt.Auu .......Lr
Li .......... asta .......
SpAr....... Blt Pratks........ .
;a Ar ...........P t ...........Lv
... Ar......... .. Snsr.a......... L
S5k LV......... San Mateo .........Ar
p Lv....... Est Pakta ......... Ar
I ...........Ormond......... Lv
p ......... Daytona ..........
Tp ........Port Orange..........
S ........... Oak ill ...........
S......... an P e......... "
.. e......Mibourae......... "
ibb.......... a. Lue.......... "
S........ erce......... "
........... en.s ...........
...............ua ............ "
Sn........... Jlpa ........... "
..... S nd........."
.......W r Jupiter......
...... W t Palm Beach ....."
S.......... oynkton ..........
'......'.' i Lauderdaleo.... .
.........Lanon Cilty......... "
11 F I IrsI I ,II I AROM, :. fay
IaEpai jmdw~rlab on Tralu- 3i and ;s.
IN.J W51 j i#.gIm Nlt,'N I
No.78 AoJ. so.l
S op M.-
6 ~0 ......
84 e7 2......
2. a.. ...
p. ... ......
51p ..... ......
8 41p 6 2a .....
8-.n t0r 2 8p
112 .. 1p
I| .... ......
1 ..... .....
O1 p ...........
l l ............
11 a ..... ......
L15 a ..........
lj 4, ...........
IJ ...... ......
I"U'. a ............
90 1 ...... ......
7$ ...... ......
between JaekseVW. F Pable Bo eh ma Ymay.- P"t.
sl ,aiO.O. 9 y.17 o a Diyi .- n no, ^o.on
S DBil STATIONS. u iD
: gA eogaLa.v ......... .; ..... a k ,mle. . . . ... ....A 7,-a-I j p ," ...-- .
a i ............. airport. ...... 4 ......
O... ... ..... .. t45m 4 p
emween I N owSmyr naa &Orange
I~i~v. New..~ smrra....... .Arl
4 UI j........Lakeo Keisa...... L'53
IL1h u!LafL ft
etweem TituaiLUie a&"5afoed.
I~4 myr. ad Crms.All--
AmR t twe New emy -A oro An trato ekr Tiotoiure and almord
tya Junpotion dsl smosot jfiday. dally eoape Snday.
Tb-s Tm rable alow fl4 tias at whioh troiu mmybe e nopoed toIarlrve ad dpart
rm the several tationa, but their rival or departure at th iOr tlose ated Is set goram.
bereoiore the Ooo hLd iet ,a~ fr may da-ay or nymseeuteeaertie
Peninsular and Occidental S. S. Co.
CONaOTIOMN AT MIAMI.
S HAVANA LINB. -
~t. ...... ... . --
KEY WBSTLINE. -
Lzu Nal Ridap.............1..00 Up.. ATnm f 9tv 4 Seeurdal.....i..s.m.
E eyv e a wet LundayU............. o. ArrivL ri i ..............
for espy of aerl time er taddrm e awyAgat. _
MALLORY- STEAMSHIP LINE.
F r OOSE 6arsegrer servrlee
orida To make close onnec-
ll lOridaulS iimapsmlleave
NeW York J-koUl-- (Union do-
From Brunswick direct to
NOT BOUN PROUN
pot) Thursdays 8:15 a. m.
CF. C. & P. By.) or Fernan-
dina 1:30 p. m., via Cum-
berland steamer; meals
en route, or "all rail" via
Plant System at 2:00 p. m..
J ar. BrUnswick 6:00 P. m
pasmsngers on arrival go
ng directly aboard stean
BI SAILINIe for Aug.. 1900.
D IR ECT TO NEW YORI LEAVING EVERY
4Y FS ALLOWS:
8. 8. COLORADO. .... ... 12
8. 8. RIO GLORANDO ...... ................................... Oct. 12
S. S. RIO GRANDE .... .. .... .............................. Oct. 19
S. 8. COLORADO .. ........................................ Oct. 26
8. B. RIO GRANDE. ........ .... ..................... Nov. 2
For lowest rt reservations and fll information apply to
a W. Bay Street Jacksonvflle, Pe.
H. H. Raymond. Anent, Fernandla. Fla.
C. H. MpIllory & Co., General Agents, Pier 21, E. R., New York.
f* ......... t.. nsunuw
I IIII l ..... ... .
.. . . .. I i -- v -
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
Time-Tried and Crop-Tested!
Manufactured especially to suit all the requirements of the
GROVE, GARDEN AND FIELD.
If you are raising Tomatoes, Egg-plants, Celery, Strawberries, Lettuce or Cabbage, we can supply you a fertilizer
made especially for them, that has been thoroughly tested. Our Simon Pure No. 1 has the best fruit producing record of
any fertilizer sold in the state. We have had 22 years practical experience and have spent more time and money in crop
experimenting than all the manufacturers in the state. Besides special brands for special crops we carry in stock all
kinds of FERTILIZING MATERIALS AND CHEMICALS. We were the first dealers to put the different fertilizing materials
within the reach of growers, a fact they should bear in mind when ordering. We offer
HIGH GRADE BLOOD AND BONE,
BLOOD AND BONE.
BRIGHT COTTON SEED MEAL,
DARK COTTON SEED MEAL,
HIGH GRADE POTASH,
LOW GRADE POTASH,
CANADA HARDWOOD ASHES,
COTTON SEED HULL ASHES,
DISSOLVED BONE BLACK,
WHALE OIL SOAP,
OYSTER SHELLS FOR POULTRY,
PARIS GREEN and inseetlede gea-
CUT TOBACCO BTEMS,
NO. 1 GROUND TOBACCO.
FINE GROUND TOBACCO.
BALED TOBACCO STEMS,
COARSE GROUND TOBACCO.
All guaranteed unleashed and to coo
tain all their fertllising and ineectidde
WRITE FOR PRICES AND DISCOUNTS TO
E. O. PAINTER & CO., = - Jacksonville, Fla.
Beyond Xy Expectabion.
_. O. Paiater~ C o. Jacksonuille. nla.
uw istail r tas a euman u
fertilier on the L. P. T. Pinery, the re-
sult was beyond my expectation. Be-
fore using the fertilizer the plants did
not grow much; after using the Simon
Pure fertilizer they grew and many of
them have fruit. Will order more fer-
tilizer as soon as needed.
A. M. Temple.
Osteen, Fla., Sept. 27, 1900.
The Best ,'Beults.
E. O. Painter d Co., Jacksonille, Fla.
Gentlemen:-We have been well
pleased with all fertilizers purchased
from you and can recommend your
brands to any one wishing the best re-
J. S. Latimer & Son.
Little River, Fla., Sept. 24, 1900.
Used Three Hundred Tons a Year.
E. O. Painter & Co., Jacksonville, Fla.
Gentlemen:- I have used your ferti-
lizer ever since you began making it
and have used from 200 to 300 tons of
it a year before the freeze of 1894 and
1895. Since then have used it right
along O9 orange trSs and there ar n9
better trees in the country than I have
to show. I also used your goods on
canteloupes and tomatoes and I am so
well pleased with results that I shall
plant from 20 to 40 acres of tomatoes satisfactory results. Yours very truly,
and 10 to 20 acres of canteloupes next. Clifford Orange Co.
Igin -TatI anows. yNu o nsia I t lu nk tron FiYl. Dun ah. 10,.
of your goods. Yours truly, ,
DeLand, Fla., Sept. 28, 1900.
Reports Satisfactory Results.
E. O. Painter c Co., Jacksonville, Fla.
Gentlemen:-During the past three
or four years we have been using your
fertilizers exclusively for vegetables,
pil apples an4 d r9ngy a nd we are
very much pleased with the results.
Have had the opportunity to recom-
mend your fertilizers several times to
other growers, and they also report
One Copy 'Worth a Year's absrip-
B. O. Painter & Co., Jacksonville, ~Pt.
Gentlemen:-I have considered your
state my future home and may get
there yet. The Agriculturist has given
me more pointers than any paper I
have read, eveii for this and more
northern latitudes. Many an item has
been worth the year' s ubswrption.
W. H. Chaddoek,
Rogers, Ark., Sept. 17, 1900.
A High-Grade Fertilizer
"'T' E IDEAL" BRANDS
^Wh"- HAVE THESE. W""
Then why pay $35.00 and $40.00 per ton when you can get a strictly high grade, reliable fertilizer at the following piic
IDEAL FRUIT AND VINE ...............$30.oo per ton IDEAL FERTILIZER (for all crops).........$27.oo per ton
IDEAL FLOOD, BONE AND POTASH.....$28.00 per ton
IDEAL POTATO MANURE.................$30.00 per ton SPECIAL MIXTURE No. I................. $a8.oo per ton
IDEAL VEGETABLE MANURE...........$300oo per ton CORN FERTILIZER... ...............$ao.oo per ton
All fertilizer material at the lowest market prices. Ask for our book "Why we make the IDEAL FERTILIZERS"
WILSON & TOOMER FERTTT J.TR COMPANY,
Pr's fot Beua D eodl aMd Bon, $18.00 pwe te. Damavalaad OGuaa The Ideal Tobse.o PrtlUaer, 544.00 per te.