Vol. XXVII, No. 38. Jacksonville and DeLand, Fla., Wednesday, Sept. 19, 1900. Whole No. 1390
Editor Florida Agriculturist.
The crudest ideas exist respecting the
growth of plants and particularly re-
garding the variations constantly oc-
curing such as potatoes mixing in the
hill. The production of new sorts from
seeds are considered as matter just
happening without cause or are as-
signed to the influence of the moon.
Most people are mentally indolent and
much prefer attributing strange things
ts ti WRsf g t as e Mase 8e ta etO Ml
city or some equally mysterious force
than to set themselves to look for rea-
sons and causes.
It is true that up to the time that
men became imbued with the theories
of the evolution of all forms of life, ac-
counting for such things was mostly
guess work. Hosts of facts were col-
lected, but their relations were so ob-
scure that rules could not be worked
out. As soon as a rational view of
IarT's WWork Wr4rgsvied: 1f ictanse
possible to seek out laws governing
vegetative changes, so we are begin-
ning to understand.why any plant may
differ from other individuals of its
race, and from its own parents.
Take up the question of why and
how Dotatoes mix in the hill, as it is
expressed. It cannot be a case of mix-
ing because it sometimes occurs when
there is but one sort grown in the field.
It may be set down as a law that
plants vary, and they may do so in
two ways: through the sexual organs
which is the most common way, or by
The potato case comes under this
class, it is a variation, is often called
a sport. It is difficult and sometimes
impossible to discover a cause for it.
A very remarkable instance of bud va-
riation is seen in the Moss rose, des-
cended from the hundred leaved rose_
Lif q g _asz a. aaa, sAea ma 1f -
propagated by seeds. Indeed roses of-
ten sport, sometimes a single branch
appears with wholly different leaves
and flowers. A branch of the Peen-to
peach produced round peaches. This
was probably a case of atavism, a re-
turn to the original type. Such sports
are not unknown with other fruits,
one branch of a white grape produces
black clusters, plum trees have borne
two distinct sorts of plums, a cherry
Street is recorded to have borne three
kinds of cherries. There are hundreds
of such cases and they are usually cap-
able of propagation by grafting or
budding. Most plants are increased
by means of seeds, and here there is
no limit to variations.
They occur daily ubder our very
eyes. A plant may vary from its an-
cestors in one generation and in the
next return to the old form, or it may
perpetuate the variations to succes-
airc cnetrationar A RIlEt whiln n a
wild state is not so apt to run into
varieties as after it has been some-
time cultivated, because its environ-
ments do not change, except as its
seeds are carried by various agencies
to other and oftimes very different re-
glons. And here is the secret of causes but are rather the beneficent
change, soils differ even in the same workings of laws that we arp begin-
field. The plant is situated differently ning to understand and apply. We may
as regards other plants, seasons and intensify any desirable characteristic
climates differ. As there are differ- or quality of any plant and so during a
ences in the surroundings of plants in- plant of small value to a place of the
finite in variety, so there must follow greatest commercial importance. In-
differences in the plant itself. It is stance, the sugar beet, in Napolean's
said no two faces in all the world are time when the beet sugar industry was
alike, so it may be said no two plants new, the yield of sugar was but 5 to
are alike. There is therefore no luck 7 per cent. Now it is much more than
of chance about the matter, if all condi- double that. No plant has had more
tlona remFained the same, all pIRaIns R9Ugg gi1a gKlU safeafa in Ifts lmI-
would be the same from one genera- provement. Every factory has
tion to another, its chemist and in the field its cul-
But, on the other hand, surround a ture has reached such perfection that
plant with new conditions of soil, food, the roots are uniform in size and qual-
culture, presence of neighbors, seasons, ity or richness, and as much as thirty
climate, etc., and some one or more tons per acre are raised. About as
characteristics will be modified. In wonderful results have followed in the
the case of plants brought under man's case of the potato. A German, named
control, by selection of the best, a Cimbals, from the Magnum Bonum, a
fruit, a grain, a root may be evolved famous potato, made a crop of four
from a wild form and it is in nreiasly and one half tons, yielding 15 per cemn
Iaui way wsP tfnaFM anda HsaR oRE si sr an: "H UnAirnst a -e Iw sm-i
eminently useful to man have sprung which gave 12 tons and had 20 per
from inferior forms. Primitive man cent starch.
lived by the chase and by gathering Few plants have reached the limit
wild fruits, nuts and grains when he of perfection, and with some, and they
attached himself to any locality he are of the most important, as for in-
naturally protected and cultivated the stance, corn, only a beginning has been
best he found and to the extent he made and the field is most inviting, for
gave it better treatment than it had man has done little but carry the seed
naturally, it responded in size or qual- from one country to another, nature
ity and in time wheat, barley, corn and has done all the rest. In all this are
fruits were evolved, two forces heredity and evolution.
We do not need to go so far back in Heredity, the conservative, restrain-
the misty past as to draw on our im- ing power, evolution, the wonder
agination for facts in some lines, working force of all the ages, in obed-
Take the common apple, in the time iepce to which the delicious fruit has
of Pliny it was in so undeveloped a come from the austere crab, the plump
condition as to be barely edible, for he nutritious grain and starchy tuber
says some are sour enough to take the from insignificant or woody forms. We
edge off a knife. Our present race of are apt to think of a race of plants as
apples descended from the crab apple a great number of like individuals, but
of southern Europe for the most part. in reality they are not alike, no two of
The inhabitants of Ru-aia and noith, them.
,yn5 < is& ircg& wKS ifi-E aain Tcy jiivT Wtrh flcn oiner, ymoi
and from that produced a race of as they do from their progenitors. In
apples adapted to a more vigorous cli- the case of bud varieties, it is often
mate, and from which our north difficult to fix on causes, but in the
western orchardists are now develop- case of plants increased by seeds, the
Ing a family of apples, capable of en- causes of differences are usually eas-
during the blizrards of the Dakotas. ier to find. In the first place each
There are now described some 2,000 individual is the descendant of two
varieties of apples in this country, and others, not one, so as the two differ
the introduction of new sorts goes on the progeny will differ.
from year to year, so that new or- No two plants enjoy precisely iden-
chards mean to a great extent new tical conditions, some have more con-
sorts, The potato has a life history genial soil, some more room; the world
of only a few hundred years. As a is so full of plants that one has no
wild tuber it was knobby, small and room until another dies, so each plant
watery, now it is one of the greatest has to struggle for the right to live.
food plants. So the infinite variations in surround-
The parsnip had long been used for ings cause here a little difference, there
food, but a French naturalist, to test a little and as the strongest wins best
the matter, took seed of the wild par- traits are perpetuated, vigor and
snip, which is an annual, and by plant- strength together subdue the weak;
ing, late, cultivating well and giving which at last is crowded out of sight.
plenty of food, produced the variety Change then is necessarily the dom-
called Student, sold by all seedmen inating law. We bring new conditions
alnnn id of thr old Hollow Crown- to tlpir Uilion au reinrI ulantOli or
Carrots have been evolved from the seeds to more or less remote localities.
wild form and so have radishes. It has long been a tenet among farm-
The object of this paper is to show era that change of seed was beneficial.
that all this matter is brought about and no doubt the belief is well found-
by causes and not by moon influences ed, since the environments being new
or other occult or undiscoverable there would be new niches to fill and
new food to gather. The fact that in
the case of plants increased by seeds
there must be two individuals as par-
ents becomes doubly useful when those
individuals are from distant sources,
since they must have had different sur-
roundings and therefore were them-
selves different, so have we wholly
new combinations and the results of
mifh a union are often wonderful in-
deed. Burbank succeeded in crossing
the English walnut with the California
blast waRisat a R s a g iiql
distinct sort with a vigor and strength
of growth twice excee 'pg both its
parents; its leaves are two to three
feet long, it makes an annual layer of
wood an inch thick and has beside an
unusual beauty of wood.
Another of Mr. Burbanks' seedings
is a cross of California walnut and the
common black and the nut is of ex-
cessive size. These are results of a
very considerable diversity between
The Le Conte and Keifer pears are
examples of tle union of quite diverse
varieties of the pear family, and are
obedient to the law that unlike parents
give an offspring of 'superior vigor.
Darwin long since proved this and it is
one of the best established rules for
the guidance of the plant breeder. In
the case of the pears spoken of, the
gain was not at all in gaining a few
new sorts of pears, but in gaining a
sort capable through its sand pear
mother of carrying pear culture some
hundreds of miles south of the old
pear limit. In the opposite direction
there are hopes that the work now it
progress by Messrs. Swingle and Web-
ber of the department of vegetable
physiology in breeding hybrids of the
hardy trifoliata citrus with sweet or-
ange may give the world a race of fruit
adapted to much higher latitudes, oar-
1*J131 nsraAff arw fez
apple country, just as the Le Conte
pear has invaded the domain of the or-
The increase vigor of crossed in-
dividuals, is a matter of so much im-
portance that I will mention one more
set of experiments made by the Illin-
ois experiment station with corn.
Many trials with corn gave increased
vigor and improved yield over self fer-
tilized seed by from 2 per cent to 86
Plants then are continually changing
or being changed. In nature the effect
of these laws of change is progress
because, owing to the struggle for life,
the strongest and best only can sur-
vive, while the weaker are crowded
out. Man's efforts, however, are so
directed as to improve desirable
qualities. Nature's effort is to perpe-
trate a race. Uncultivated uinces
have an excessively austere fruit full
or wonain, tulae qaIWBi ;f iui'r. cfforis
has almost no seeds but an abundant
pulp. Though the seeds and fruit be-
long to each other the very fli est pears
have all the seeds bred out and ex-
pend all forces to the perfect on of the
pulp. And now we hear that expen
W2 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
mentors at Orlando are breeding the
seeds out of peaches.
D. R. Pillsbry.
Griffng Bros. give the following di-
rections in the Florida Farmer and
There is probably no other vegetable
In the whole list more largely grown,
either for home use or in a large scAle
for commercial shipments, than the
cabbage, and yet we believe that there
is not a vegetable whose habits and
nature are so little understood by taos.
cultivating it. A brief statement of
the habits and nature of the cabbage
with a few simple rules generally ob-
served, may prevent the failure and
loss of the crop in the future. In Flor-
, ida and the Gulf States we are, as
"might be said" growing cabbage oat
or season and against nature.
In its native element the cabbage is
a biennial plant. Here in the south.
where all our seasons are so much
alike care must be taken not to check
growth of the plant more than once, as
it is a well-known fact that the check-
ing of the growth the second time will
change it from a biennial to an annual,
and when the growth is again resumed
there will be an effort to go to seed.
and not to head. Some plants will
fully develop bloom; others will sinate
a tall, branching growth of leaves like
collards or kale, while in other cases
the buds will be merely forced up-
ward, making round or cone-shaped
cabbages. The field will have the ap-
pearance of being a mixed lot of plants
and consequently the seedsman gets
the blame of the failure. The oune nc-
essary check in the growth of the cab-
bage is given when the plant is re-
moved from the seed bed to the field.
after which the plants should be kept
constantly growing, and the cultivation
must be thorough and regular. There
are, however, occasionally unavoidable
chleks in the gowth. ranrtd from
freezes and drouths. Many times when
the freeze is not severe enough to kill
the plant or even wilt the leaves, yet
it absolutely stops the growth for a
time, and many planters have been de-
ceived into thinking their crou was not
injured, oniy to and iater on that li
was practically ruined. A long-contin-
ued drouth in light sandy soil will have
the same result.
For fall and winter crops sow seeds
in beds any time between August and
November; for spring and summer
crops, from November to March 1. Sow
the seed in well pulverized beds, moist
but not too rich; cover about 1-2 inch
deep and never allow the bed to be-
come dry, Do not seed too thickly, or
force the growth of the young plants
too rapidly, or the plants will grow too
tall, slim and tender, and will not
stand transplanting well. Set the
plants down to the first leaf, it matters
not how long the root stem may be.
Supply the plants with plenty of ma-
nure and moisture, and keep them well
cultivated and constantly growing.
Your results will be satisfactory.
For both market and home use, we
advise planting at Intervals of from
ten days to two weeks apart during the
planting season, instead of planting the
entire crop at one time.
Beans.-In the lower south beans
can be planted for fall and winter crop
from August 15 to November 1, accord-
i t4 mitlnta, IlgBtsa in W fAu tramuln
2 to 3 feet apart, dropping beans 3 or 4
inches in the drill. Cover seed about
two inches, or a little deeper than for
spring planting. Stir the soil frequent-
ly and hill up just before blooming.
Any good, well-drained and pulverized
land produces beans. For best re-
sults fertilize liberally.
Lettuce.-Sow in seedbed in August
September and October. Keep seed-
bed moist, when plants are large
enough, transplant into rows 18 to 24
inches apart, and from 6 to 8 inches in
tdi row. The sol iUJimilI Fll 'WL M I !!i!
the growth pushed in order to produce
crisp, tender heads. If sown or allow-
ed to grow too thick it will grow up
spindling, become tough, go to seed
early and die out entirely.
Onions.-In Florida and the lower
south, the seed should be sown in beds
from September 1 until December 1:
farther north in early spring. Sow
moderately thick, in rows 6 or 8 inches
apart, cover seed with 1-2 inch of
earth; which must be well firmed
down and kept damp until they are
well up. If weather is hot and dry.
seedbed should have partial shade.
When plants are from 5 to 6 inches
high and the size of a goose quill,
transplant them into well manured
rows, about 24 inches apart, and about
5 or 6 inches apart in the rows. Culti-
vate shallow, but thoroughly and of-
ten. Onions thrive best in rich loamy
soil that has been heavily manured.
In selecting the seedbed, get a rich,
moist, mellow place. Do not manure
or fertilize immediately before plant-
ing; it has a tendency to destroy the
seeds, and few if any, will come up.
The above directions are for a small
garden tor one's own table, where ohli
can give close personal attention. For
field culture on a large scale it is bet-
ter to sow the seed where the onions
are to grow.
Bermuda onion sets, if planted in
August or September, will produce a
fine crop of onions maturing in the fall
and early winter. In south Florida
they can safely be planted as late as
the middle of October.
'lant sets in rows about two feet
apart and about five inches apart in
the row. Cultivate shallow, but thor-
oughly and often.
Peas.-For early peas a moderately
rich, dry loam is best; for later sorts
heavier soil is preferable. Sow in
drills about two inches deep. Planted
deeply in this way it takes them longer
to germinate, but the vines live longer
and produce more abundantly. Plant
in double rows ten inches apart and
the rows three or four feet apart. Use
only well-rotted manure at the time of
planting, as fresh stable manure causes
them to run to vines and produce few
if any, peas.
A Pear Tree that was Left Alone.
The Rural New Yorker has a letter
from the owner of a pear tree forty-
five years old that has never had the
:"f le8dfP ifP nl quwutlon stanfi nIar.
the kitchen door. When hands are
washed it is handy to give the water a
throw out toward the tree. In winter
to save carrying coal ashes farther
away in the yard, we dump them near
the tree. and by spring there is quite a
pile, and its left until it thaws suffici-
ently to be removed. Now, my theory
is, that the tree gets water enough, and
as I understand it, you are fixed to
pipe water to an orchard of ten acres.
That is point No. 1. No 2 refers to a
good protection for the roots in win-
ter; this might be done with swamp
grass or straw, not to be taken away
until moderately warm weather, some
time in April. The soil is quite stiff
clay, and the tree never has been
sprayed, nor has there been one bit of
manure put near it in all these years.
It has never blighted nor had any care
whatever so that I can't see anything
to lay this longevity to except plenty
of water and protection to roots in
Now, if we could make an orchard
of one thousand trees do as it has done,
it would be about as good a bank as
anyone could desire. I have simply let
fillm alone. no trlininllr. no cnrc. I br-
lieve that plowing near the tree dis-
turbs roots and breaks many of the
life-giving roots, and retards healthy
growth. I believe that the orchard
should be cultivated very thinly about
the trees of all kinds. Ap orchard
should be under drained, and before
setting trees the land plowed deep-
subsoiled. The main thing is water at
regular intervals and protection of
roots in winter.
Further along the editor says:
In another part of the farm some
m'ipP Mill mfSllglP ID KWil I!VEP Myp!
an enormous crop as the results of ap-
plying nitrate of soda and muriate of
potash 6n top of the grass. What
treatment does the pear tree ask for?
That is what we want to find out. Did
the old tree really receive ideal treat-
A Pear Tree that Was Let Alone.
In a recent exchange W. T. Cox, of
Ohio. gives some figures that show
very plainly and conclusively how well
it nays to thin the fruit on the trees.'
It is a lesson most farmers are slow to
learn, but it is a most useful one when
put into practice. He says very turly:
Choice fruit is always in demand;
common stock is usually slow in sell-
ing unless the price is very low. When
trees are very full a good part of the
fruit should be thinned out so as to
give the remainder a chance to grow
and make nice fruit. In thinning peach-
es we have the knotty wormy and de-
fected ones removed first, then pull
off enough more so as to leave them
about four inches apart, or farther,
than closer. The trees will make more
money for the owner if properly thin-
ned and there will be no broken limbs
ani the vitality or the trees will not
be impaired like trees unthinned. There
will not be so much danger of losing
a good part of the crop by rotting on
the trees, as they do when they touch
each other; they will ripen better and
there need not be more than two or
three pickings to gather the crop. If
the trees are not thinned there will be
one or two pickings more than where
thinned. Why not make one picking
when the fruit is half grown and save
time in gathering the crop when ripe?
One or two pickings will be saved
when ripening, and the fruit being
large, it can be picked in about half
the time and sorted in less than half
the time that it take to sort small spec-
imens, and about all prices. There
will be nearly as many of it salable at
satisractory Dusneis per tree, probably
more bushels of good fruit, and the
price will be two .or three times as
much per bushel, depending on the
fullness of the trees. The trees not
being allowed to over bear, they will be
thrifty and likely to bear nearly every
year, and less subject to disease and
will Ir-e longer. suppnis it vsser 10
cents a bushel to gather peaches and
get them ready for market where the
trees are too full. It w,.l cost $10 for
a hundred bushels and only ninety
bushels of them will be salable at an
average of 75 cents, or $75.00 for the
lot. suppose It would cost $2 to thin
those trees and there would be eighty
bushels of fine peaches to pick when
ripe and they could be gotten ready
for the market for 5 cents per bushel.
the total cost being $6 and they would
sell readily at $1.25 per bushel or $100
for the lot. The net proceeds of the
first lot would be $57.50, the latter $94.
Do you think it would pay to thin the
trees? I don't think this case is any ex-
aggeration; on the contrary in many
cases where large cities are the mar-
kets, and the fine peaches will sell
quick where the medium go slow, there
will be time saved and much satisfac-
tion to the grower of the fine fruit.
The Good.Beef Steer.
There is no one breed of beef cattle
better than all others under the cir-
cumstances and conditions. The trou-
ble with cattle from the butcher'd
standpoint is too big shoulders, giving
the fore quarters too large a proportion
to the rest of the carcass, says the In-
diana Farmer. The muscles, that are
exercised the most are the toughest;
for this reason the inside two-thirds of
the round is good, while the outside
tiaru is not Ro good. A thiek, mellow
hide--not a hard, harsh hide-denotes
more clean meat than a thin hide. A
straight back, well sprung rib and
width of loin indicates a large amount
of the high-priced meats in a carcass.
The comparison of animals in the show
ring is often so close that the award-
ing of the prize turns on a very small
point, as a tie or a dimple in the back.
which cuts no figure in the usefulness
or profit of the animal. A typical beef
animal should have a thicker neck than
the dairy breeds, the flesh should begin
!i "slP MILP ituo P nliIUI lilonuh!!! !JMinT
the greatest possible thickness of flesh
along the back between the shoul-
der, and the hip and the width of the
hip should be carried forward to the
shoulders. The Angus are the thick-
estfileshed beef cattle their greatest
flault is too much spread of
the shoulder blades at the top; they
do not mature quite as ouilk as the
Herefords. It would be hard to tell
which of the beef breeds at thirty
months old on the same care and feed
would make the greatest gain, Young
animals develop muscles along with
the fat, and when fattened young con-
tain a larger proportion of lean meat
to the fat and hence are more profitable
to the butcher. The first 1,000 pounds
put on a steer is the cheapest as the
animal is growing as well as fattening
and the cost of increase of weight in-
creases with the age.-Rural World.
Was Well leased.
Largo, Fla., Nov. 20, '99.
E. 0. Painter & Co., Jacksonville, Fla.
Ontloeen:-T -I us a ton of your
fertilizer on my old seedling trees, and
was well pleased with it.
A. M. O'Quinn.
"Gall of the Earth."
The faculty of the Chattanooga Med-
ical College is now making experi-
ments with the weed known as "Gall
of the Earth," with which a moun-
taineer recently cured himself of a
mad dog bite, and by which he cured
others suffering from snake bites. It
is WImFEtfm& X11 Wf 8 s P81 "f irtil
snake's master." The weed is now be-
ing transplanted for cultivation and
experiment. It is now in bloom and
bears a small white flower. The hor-
ticultural department of Clemson Col-
lege, Charleston, 8. C., is also experi-
menting with it.
A Voice from the Pulpit
IN PRAISE OF DR. WILLIAMS' PINK
PILLS FOR PALE PEOPLE.
Rev. Eoebh u1, of Gradu Junme es,
lowa L.oe tI His Prse. of thas
wo=ddiVWl BtJ4r iWtkl
me Has U with meh
Se- Resiults. I
Aom" Use Boa Read1gt Grand Juseion,. IL.
No higher praise can be offered nor better
references given concerning the virtues of
Dr. Williams' Pink Pills fr Pale People
than the many voluntary testimonials from
minister of the gopel which have come
from all part of the country and which
have more than supported all the claims
made for this excellent medicine.
The mot recent indornment is that com-
ing from Bev. Enoch Hill, pator of the M.
E. church of Grand Junction, Iowa who
"I amafirm believer in the eficacy e
Dr. William' Pink Pills for Pale People,
the remedy having been used in my Auhily
with highly gratifying results. For thr
or four year I was a sufferer from general
4l0i1ly. I #smma t6 hM le ing iullt,
wa tired out nmot of the time and sleep
gave me no rest or refreshment. I wa
troubled with headache mueh ofthe tim
and although I wa not conned to my bed,
my illne incapacitated me for energetle
work in my p storate.
"A ister-n-law living in Nebraska, who
has suffered very much and who has uad
Dr. Williams' Pink Pill with good re-
25 rasaemasadr thAm it mes I s
ided to try them. I had taken but two w
three doses of the pills when I found tha
they were helping me and farther ure of the
remedy brought such relief that I am glad
to offer this public recommendation of-Dr.
Williams' Pink Pills for Pale People in the
interest of suffering humanity.
NT rift ras trmilrkl msh I N ir 2-
though her e was aggavatod by insom-
nia. The pills also proved of the greatest
benefit in her eame.
I have recommended the pills to many
whom I have met in my work and m al-
ways pleased to endorse them."
Signed RBv. EmOC Hui.
At all driuggist or direct from Dr. Wil-
liams' Medicine Oompany, Scheeetady,
N. Y., on receipt of prie,50 ent per box;
4 boxes, S.f0.
THE FLORIDA AGRICTILTURTST.
There is not a crop grown on th
farm which does not require constau
care and attention, from the day o
planting to the final date of consume
tion. If the farmer does his full dul,
during planting, cultivation and hai
vesting period nature has pron oE
all possible aid by favorable climate
conditions, there are still thousands o
little enemies which are to be guar l?
against after the abundant yields hav
been placed in storage. Every varlet;
of grain crop has its particular inset
enemy, and if left unmolested, great
destruction is likely to result in a short
period of time. The life of a success
ful farmer is sent in one eternal fgh
The world with which he trades, au
which he feeds and clothes, is constant
ly seeking to take every advantage o:
his weak points when he appears :i
the markets of his country either aH
a purchaser or seller. At home the in
sect world is busy feeding upon laI
stored grain, and between the two, a
home and abroad, the man who sue
ceeds is entitled to high praise dnrini
this closing year of the century. 'Tht
unponted critic, who writes of lb
beauties and independence of country
life knows but little of the obstacles
cares and struggles with which ever)
farmer must daily contend, even after
he has reached the goal of success. Th
successful farmer is independent in
certain sense, and there is freedom and
pleasure In his life and surroundings
but prosperity there can only be main
trained by as active work as is dis
played by successful men in city life.
The greatest difficulty in meeting
daily obstacles which seriously con
front us on the farm is the absence ol
experience or want of proper informa-
tion. Instead of gradually overcoming
for instance, the annual _erfitti9 Ol
stored grain wrought by injurious In-
sects, it appears that this evil is in
creasing. I am constantly in receipt of
letters asking advice on this question
showing that while the writers may
not know how to get tid of the trouble,
they are anxious to investigate and ap-
ply remedies which may be suggested.
The greatest obstacle in the Nway i
checking the inroads of insects on
gradu Is thi Improper of hasty moeuiou
usually employed in storing the grain
in an unfit condition.
If threshed wheat is sunned until
thoroughly dry before housing for fu-
ture use it is never likely to be at-
tacked by weevils, even though the
aarn is open with cracks sufficiently
large to admit the moth which lays the
weevil egg. My experience has been.
however, tmat the neat plan to pursue
with wheat is to sun dry thoroughly,
pack in barrels or boxes, cover closely
and store in dark room. Where large
crops have been harvested, the wheat
may be stored in hogsheads, or special
buildings may be erected, nicely celled
on the inside and the grain, after Iry-
Ing, stored in bulk. It is not an easy
matter to sun wheat, which must be
thinly spread out on sheets or plat-
forms, about 8 o'clock in the morning
and taken in while hot at 3 o'-"io' :n
In storing corn is shuck, if a bucket
9t salt ywat9r I aFprlhild oTr r -ail
load as it is hauled in ary, the neat
which follows, as the corn goes
through a sweat, will kill out all insects
present at the time, and will keep the
pile free of weevils in the future. If
corn is stored too wet, however, it is
likely to rot or seriously injure the
grain, doing more damage than the in-
sects. The important item to be im-
pressed upon every farmer, is to pre-
vent future trouble by storing his grain
properly and never resting until he
feels assured that everything is in ship-
shape. We do an immense amount of
hard work in our efforts to grow a crop,
and it is but a part of good wisdom to
exercise sufficient care and judgment
in properly preserving that which we
have tried so hard to raise.
The buildings in which wheat or corn
are to be stored, should be thoroughly
cleansed, swept, dusted and aired,
particularly if the old crop stored in
such buildings was infested with in-
Wheat should always be harvested
as soon as ripe, immediately threshed,
sunned and stored. If this is done
thousands of insects will be destroyed,
which. It these matters asr postponed
e are likely to cause future trouble in th,
It grainary. The same is true of corn
f which should not be allowed to re
,- main long in the field after the grail
y is mature, as each ear soon become:
-an abiding place for the moth whicl
I laRys her Sggai as a little lattprF B thi
c weevil is hatched and ready for an at
f tack upon the grain. These little fel
'1 lows multiply rapidly and soon thi
e barn is swarming with them. It is ad
y visable wherever convenient, to appli
t a coating of coal tar to the inside wal
t of the grainaries and the windows fit
t ted with frames of closely woven win
- gauze to prevent the entrance of in
t soeta when airing the grain: It th
itt S t(fgfifiy, akiil tiie griyn is prop
1 erly stored, there is little likelihood ol
- injury from weevils.
f Dozens of remedies have been sug
n gested from time to time in the treat.
s ment of destructive insects in stores
- grain. There are but few remedies
s which have proven efficacious on trial
t giving satisfactory results. There ir
- but one absolutely safe remedy whict
g can be used successfully in the build.
* ings usually erected by southern farm.
r era for storing their grain. This reil.
y edy is what is now known as the bil
sulphidee of carbon treatment. No in-
y sect can live after having breathed the
r poisonous fumes of this remedy.
e Bisulphide of carbon is a colorless
i liquid with a strong, disagreeable od.
1 or, which, however, soon passes away.
SIt vaporizes rapidly at ordinary tern
-peratures, is a highly inflamable sub-
- stance and very poisonous. It is nec-
essary that every man know these
Facts in order to prevent damage to
Parties handling the liquid, or the
r buildings in which it is placed. The
Liquid may be applied directly to the
Infested grain by sparying without in
f any way injuring the grain for eating
Sor reeaing purposes. The liquid evap-
Sorates rapidly, and, being heavier than
air, quickly sinks, penetrating all parts
of the grain and killing quickly the
insects. The building should be closed
up as tightly as possible for at least
twenty-four hours after application.
The best and safest method of apply-
in bisulphide of carbon to grain stored
in bulk, is to pour about one pound of
MtfiS Ih1i141 in 6h1i06 w ii!Uka ansd Oc
them about over the grain. If the
room can be tightly closed, one pound
of the liquid is usually sufficient to de-
stroy all the insects in one hundred
bushels of grain. If the crib or barn
is open it will require two or three
times that amount. The liquid being
highly inflamable, it is exceedingly
dangerous to strike matches, or smoke
About the building in whlch thL fum-
igation is being used. The building
will be entirely clear of the fumes in
thirty-six hours after application.
There is absolutely no doubt as to the
effect of this remedy on insects which
are attacking stored grain of any
kind. The liquid can be purchased
at any drug store and usually retails
at from 20 to 30 cents per pound. In
50 pound cans, it can be bought at 10
cents per pound. While this remedy
is instant death to every class of in-
sects injurous to grain, every farmer
should exercise all possible care in
guarding against the attack of innocte,
cifeitiig thi necessity for thfe use of
any remedy to save his products from
loss by such enemies.-Harvie Jordan
in Atlanta Journal.
OUR GREATEST SPECIALIST.
For 20 years Dr. J. Newton Hath-
away has so successfully treated
chronic diseases that he is acknowledg-
ed to-day to stand at the head of his
profession in this line. His exclusive
method of treatment for Varicocele
and stricture without the aid of knife
or cautery, cures in 90 per cent. of all
cases. In the treatment of loss of
Vital forces, Nevous Disorders, Kid-
ny and Urinary Complaints, Paraly:
sis, Blood Poisoning, Rheumatism, Ca-
tarrh and Diseases peculiar to women,
he is equally successful. Dr. Hath-
away's practice is more than double
that of any other specialist Cases
pronounced hopeless by other physi-
cians, rapidly yield to his treatment.
Write him to-day fully about your case.
He makes no charge for consultation
or advice, either at his office or by
maiL 3. Newton Hathaway, M. D. 25
Bryan Street, Savannah, Ga
Corn, Hay, Oats,
And all kinds of Feed Stuff at Pock Bottom Prices.
Oats, 125 pound White Clipped $1.51
Oats, 125 pound Mixed, 1.45
Corn, IIO pound Mixed, .22
Bran, pure, in hundred pound sacks .95
Hay, Num er I, 88
All F. O. B. Cars Jacksonville.
Realizing that many people are so located that they have
not access to first class feed stores that keep a fresh stock of
feed stuff on hand we have arranged to fill small orders at but
a small advance over large lots,-large lots at bottom prices.
No orders filled except where accompanied by the cash. Pri-
ces good for 15 days. If prices go lower you get the benefit.
Florida Grain & Feed Co.,
Lock Box 464, Jacksonville, Fla.
This firm will fill all orders as advertised E.O. Painter & Co.
FOR SUMMER AND FALL
-^ |||PLANTING. _
SE THE ORIFFING BROTHER'S CO.,
THE LARGEST SEED AND NURSERY HOUSE IN. THE SOUTH.
S~o rditfs 1stLk f all Isadina sorts for Ionthcrn olantinE. Orninic lcrmuda Onion a00Ba
and sets, Matchless Tomato, Valentine and Refugee Bean, etc., etc.
ONLY HIGH GRADE CAREFULLY TESTED SEED OFFERED.
Complete stock of fruit trees and
plants, fancy poultry, etc. Orange
and grape fruit trees a specialty ....
Summer and fall catalogue free upon
.THE ORIFFINO BROTHER'S CO.,
MALLORY. STEAMSHIP LINE.
From Brnswick direct to
To make close connec-
tions with steamers leave
Jacksonville (Union de-
pot) Thursdays 8:6 a. m.
LF. C. & P. By.) or Fernan-
dna 1:30 m., via Cum-
berland steamer; meals
en route, or "all rail" via
Plant System at 7:45 p. m.,
ar, nrincls ll1[11_ a inl
P.uI tB On arrival go-
lng directly aboard steam
PRKOPl D SAILINO8 for Aug.. 1906.
NORTH BOUND-BRUNSWIC, G., DIRECT TO NEW YORK. LEAVING EVERY
FRIDAY 48 FOLLOWS:
S. S. RIO GRANDE... .................. ...... ............Aug. 3
S. S. COLORADO .. .................... ...... ... .. .. .. Aug. 10
S. S. SAN MARCOS ...... .. ....................... ..........Aug. 17
For lowest rates, reservations and full information apply to
220 W. Bay Street, Jacksonville, Fla.
H. H. Raymond, Agent, Fernandina, Fla.
C. L. Mallory & Co., General Agents, Pier 3 E. ,.. New York.
$4.00 for $2.001!
Seed you must have to make a garden, and the AORICULTruur yon should have to be a
nscemsfl gardner. You can get them both at the price ot one. Send us one new subscriber
and $2 and we will send you the following list of choice Garden Seed from the catalogue of
Beans, Extra Early Red Valen-
tine.. ........ .... .... .1
New Stringless Green
Pod. ... .............. .1
Dwarf German Black
Wax........ ........ .1
Burpees Large Bush Li-
ma. ... ............ .. .1
Beets, Extra Early Eclipse .......
Imperial Blood Red Tur-
nip ..... ... . .........
Cabbage, Select Early Jersey
Griffing's Succession ....
Cauliflower, Extra Early Paris .. 1
Celery, Golden Self Blanching... .1
Cucumbers, Improved White Spine.
Long Green Turkish....
Egg Plant, Griffing's Improved
.0 Thornless.. ..........
Lettuce, Big Boston.........
0 Onions, Red Bermuda.........
Griffing's White Wax....
0 Peas, Alaska.. ...... ......
Champion of England....
0 Peppers, Long Cayenne.........
5 Ruby King..........
Radishes, Wonderful ........ ..
5 Griffing's Early Scar-
let.. ....... .. .... ..
5 Earley Scarlet Erfurt.. ..
5 Tomatoes, Beauty...........
5 Money Maker..........
0 Turnips, Griffing's Golden Ball....
0 Pomeranian White Globe
5 .Rut Bagas, Bloomsdale Swede....
5 Ruta Bagas, Bloomsdale Swede....
Address FLORIDA AGRICULTUklST, Jacksonville, Fla.
564 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
Growing Bye for Forage.
On the experiment farm of the
Farmer and Fruit Grower it was de-
cided last fall to sow about an acre of
rye to furnish green feed for the fam-
ily cow. The sowing was delayed
from week to week on account of the
severe drouth, but finally we came to
the conclusion that it would not do to
ain _T i a 12lz 12p 2 i ?nfl a Pn lt
plowed early in September, but not
harrowed. The seed was sown broad-
cast and most of it fell between the
furrow slices, which served as drills,
causing it to come up in rows. The
harrowing was thoroughly done,
though the surface was nothing but a
layer of dust. A drag was made of
two heavy planks spiked together side
by side, and dragged lengthwise with
the driver standing on them. This
plastered the ground down very
smooth, filling up every air hole and
hollow; and the first morning after the
work was done we had the pleasure
of seeing that the moisture had risen
from below ;and showed nearly all
along where the surface had been
smoothed down hard. This insured
the germination of the rye. The mois
ture would be dried out during the day
hbu at -Bnht It would -rie again an1l
show in the morning.
Several sowings were made, the last
one about January 15, and the later
ones all had the benefit of rains to ger-
minate on, but they made no better
stand than the first. They did not,
however, require such thorough work
in harrowing and dragging.
The fall was cold and dry, and there
were several sharp frosts in December,
but by Christmas the rye was from five
to six inches high. The cow was
staked on it in the afternoon, but it
was so rank that at first she would not
graze on it more than twenty minutes.
It seemed to sicken her, though the
next day she would begin on it as
greedily as ever. She finally became
accustomed to it, so that she would
graze on it for three quarters of an
hour. In -that time she would eat
about all she could comfortably hold.
Her chain is seven feet long, giving
her a circle of fourteen feet diameter.
Three of these circles would afford her
a day's ration, together with a little
corn fodder and cottonseed meal, and
sometimes she would not graze the
third pne all down-
We expected such a rank growth of
rye to affect the flavor of milk unfavor-
ably, but it did not in the least. It
imparted to it a foamy quality, nearly
doubled its quantity and made the re-
sultant butter as yellow and rich as
we ever made in the north on red clo-
ver and blue-grass. Of course, the cot-
tonseed meal contributed something to
this result. She received about two
quarts twice a day and a small armful
of fodder-the enttk stalks, husks and
all.-Farmer and Fruit Grower.
The Up-ide Down Home at the Paris
"The strangest thing in the Paris Ex-
position Midway is the 'upside-down
house,' said a guest at one of the ho-
tels, who has Just returned after a vis-
it to the other side of the pond. "No-
body but a Frenchman would ever
have thought of such a thing. It is a
big, old-fashioned three-story manor
house, apparently resting on its gables,
with the foundation eighty feet ii the
air. One goes in through a dormer win-
dow in the attic, and finds everything
upside down. Underfoot are what ap-
pear to be the ceilings, spouting chan-
dekers like giant toadstools, and over
head are chairs and tables and all the
other ordinary furniture of a house
miraculously clinging to the reversed
floors. There are even books and small
articles scattered about on the carpets,
and sticking to them as if by magic
and on some of the tables lamps are
burning, top down.
"Everything about the place contri-
butes to ohe of the most bewildering
illusions Imaginable but the really
amazing feature of the house is the
view through the windows. They com-
mand a considerable expanse of the
exposition grounds, and, incredible as
it may seem, everything is upside
down. One sees all the fapilliar build-
ings standing on their heads, throngs
of reversed people walking to and fro,
and the sky yawning where the earth
ought to be. The effect is indescrib-
ably startling. I puzzled over those
windows for a long time but I finally
discovered their secret. The illusion
is produced by means of two mirrors,
unl anI a aIssle In thl rcualnfao sral
one rejecting the oiner. Ry &hal
means the out side scene is turned
about topsy-turvy and cast back
into the room with all the realism of
an open-air view. Visitors are not al-
for fear, as the attendants say, that
lowed to go very close to the windows
they will 'fall down into the sky.' A
man should be perfectly sober before
he inspects the 'upside-down house.' "
-New Orleans Times-Democrat.
Experiments to Preserve Timber.
Years ago experiments were made at
Geisenheim, by Professor Giseylus, of
Koenigsberg, with 6 feet long poles
from pines, to be used for vines, and it
was found that several fluids were
better than burning d vpre heb g pp
better for preserving than merely burn-
ing the ends. Oil of tar and carbolin-
eum were found useless, inasmuch as
thtc& PeSaSfe I elm gavoe mart tate
to plants growing near, and other fluids
were too expensive. But a solution of
2 pound or 3 pound bluestone was
found to be cheap, easy to use, and well
preserving. Later experiments were
made in the Agricultural School at
Dahme, and at the hop garden at Sus-
senthal with pine and fir poles, 24 feet
long, and in fencing posts. The solu-
tion impregnates, and rises within
three or four days to the top, if you re-
mivje the barlp from fresnly out stems
and place the lower end into it. In
trees cut some days before they are
peeled and put into the solution, it rose
only from 3 feet to 6 feet high. If It
freezes this method cannot be used;
the warmer It is better. The casks
must be very strong, and have to be
filled twice a day. For 90 hop poles,
about 24 feet lohg, it required 6 pounds
of biuestone.-Queensland Agricultural
Fooling the Plant Lice.
One ingenious way of ridding plants
of lice is to cover the infested olant
or bush with cheap white cloth, draw-
ing the cloth around the head of the
plant and tying it around the stem. If
the covering be left on the plant a day
or so, the lice, some sorts of them, at
least, will gather on the cloth. The
gardener can then remove the cloth
and either burn it or dip it into some
liuid that will kill the lice.
Burning will be effective, of course.
but if it be desirable to use the cloth
repeatedly, it may be dipped in boil-
ing water, or in a mixture of water
and kerosene, or in one of a dozen li-
qtulds that will kill the lice. Before
using the cloth a second time, it will
be necessary to make it free from any
odor, as the lice will not collect upon
it otherwise.-Farmers' Voice.
Longevity of Fish.
There are some goldfish in Washing-
ton which have belonged to the same
family for the last 50 years, but they
seem no bigger and no less vivacious
today than they did when they first
came into the owner's possession. A
few of the fish in the Imperial aquar-
Itlu at at I'r lormburg are known to br
150 years old, and the age of the sac-
red fish in some of the ponds attached
to the Buddist temples in China is to
be counted by centuries if we are to
believe the priests.-Mercantile Times.
Seffner, Fla., Oct. 16 '99.
E. 0. Painter & Co.. Jacksonrille, Fla.
Gentlemen:-Our trees are doing
well. I find Mr. W. 9. O'Brien, of Sef-
fuer is very much in love with Simon
Pure. Yours truly,
H. H. Harvey.
TO THE DRAP.
A rich lady, cured of her deafness and
noises in the head by Dr. Nicholson's
Artificial Ear Drums, gave o0e.m to tSis
Institute, so that deaf people unable to
procure the Bar Drous may have them
free. Address 133c. The Nicholon In-
stitute. 780 BErhth Aveue. New York.
m INCH ESTE~j
W "NEW RIVAL "
FACTORY LOADED SHOTGUN SHELLS
NK blMack k shei se te market ewith the "1NEW RIVAL" Is usl-
UiEMTB EWATM II GO. - HIw, Cm
Florida East Coast Ry.
BOUTH BOUND (RIad Dowan) In Effect Sept. 6, 19. (Read Up) NORTH BOUND.
t No.11 No. No.a0 N.o.a No.0 o.112
DU ly Di aily No. 28. STATIONS. No. 2. Daily DelyDal y
0 ex du 4n8N
....... 41p I Luo .L ....... Jackonville ........ Ar 7a-p 1l8a ...... -
..... W6l11 ulAr .......t. Augutine .......Lv 820p 90Bt ......
.... 5 it l ....... St....A
20 5 llliLT....... t.An e ....... Ar Il1p 90 a ...... ,--,
S ...... Ar Il 1 Lr .. ....... East P tka ........ .. 5 812a ..... P Is
.. 4Ar EasPalatha 5ip 512a
.... 1-- M-- Ar ........... Pal .a........... L, 5 Wp 7 S ...... r Do,
N .. 58 1pl4 Lv ........... Palat .... .... Ar 56p 88s,. g' Mm
T p R .. .... anI Mato........L .......... .
... L. aLn t Lv......... a sto ........ Ar 7 .....
VO @ -'5 7M wo LVdlt= ---u--a.......Ir axu a1ion. --- P PO
S ...... 7 ". ......... mond ............Lv 4 P ...... o
SI sP le .........ort Orange.......... 86p e21a ...2... 1 -
.4 8oa a O1 ........ 2New Sm yru ........ 93Op 6800% 2p O _
I ... ...... ........... Oa t. ........... (I ...... .. 2 t
S..... ...... 8 .......... T t ul ....... p
m &* *9 ....ty Point...- l: p '
S ..... ..... 4 ..........e rn .......... p ...... ......
S ..... ... p ..........Bc k .......... p ...... ......
S ..... .: .......... rl..........." .1 p ..... ...... M
S11 ........... 4 . .........elo.. b ..rn ......... l ia ..... .... .
... ... .......... elan ... ...... 12 ..... ......
..tAO... ...... .......... eb ti .. p ...... .....
...... ...... p ............. B sen ........... ... ......
S...... ...... Mp ........... Je nm, ............ 106, ...... ......
S...... p ....... ..... ...... ] 4Sa ..... ...... '
...... ......... ou d........... 19 s ...........
.......... .......W t Jupiter........ ...... .....
S .... ...... 8 Beach ...... 9e 80G ............ 0
............ I* p B.............o ,ry .......... 98a ............
S a ............ .........o.. De ry .. ...... .e ............ 8
...... ...... $1111" ..... 11ot liadwsle ....... BO(f ..........
00 ...... ".0 ...l...... Le onCity ......... 7 ........... a
Si: A.......rAr ..... Miami....... m l....... L 7 1al ............
Buflett Parlor Car on Trains &r and 78.
Betweel Jaeksoanvlle. Pablo B uotk aud MaY ort.
To.27 X0o.26 o.17 No Nif No2161NoWNo.fo
Suan STATIONS. Dy Sun
only only eInz exS Hex only
G8p iS0p S8p 8 ILv............. Jacksonville............. 7 a p p
slip 208p 5t5p 82aaAr. ........S.. Jacksonville,.........Lv 737ra 452p 5 2 .p .
S p .............. blo each. ........... p p
GDp S3GO Slp ta9 .......... a...ayport. .............. .. 4 Cop ..p..
Betwee NXw r mU mmda Orane Betweea Titusavle oad Sanford.
city Juetla. No.11 STAT.O-.id. Xo I
No.i. STATION& lNao. T _Lv.......... Titusille ..........ArT
8~Lv.........Nwyrna...A.Ift .. "..........i..nIs ........L.. lp
85 L!........ New. SM .,h -. ......... ............ ............. ,.,
S.........La.........Lake Helen... Lv ....... teen.1........... I11a
r .. Orange Ct 1 emP A........ iterpi .... 1
..A.:6rangeCit2t 55 9Ar ........... Sanford ..........  On.
All trains between New Smyrma and Orange All trains between Ttuaville and Siford
City Junortkc daily except Sunday daily except Sunday.
These Time Tables show toe times at which trains may be expected toarrive and depart
from the several stations, but their arrival or departure at the times stated is not guarun-
teed, nor does the Oompay bold itself reaponsmble for any delay or any oonsequences arit-
Peninsular and Occidental S. 5. Co.
OMNNZOTTIONS AT MIAMI.
a HAVANA LINE. -
Leave Miami 'Tuesdas........... ..Op. Arrive Key West Wednesday......00 i.
Leave Key West Wednesday........ 8 m. A ve T a Thnursdays. .......... .00 a.m.
Leave Havan ThursdayT .......... a. m. Arrive Key Wes Thursdays........ 9 Op. m.
Leave Key Wet Thursdays....... 80 p. Arrive Miami ridays .............. 80 a. m.
KEY WEST LINE. -
Leave Mia rida ................ Arrie Key We Saturdays........11.00 m.
Leave Key West Sundays .....:.... . Arrive Miami Monday ........... a. m.
Passengers for Navaa pai leave Miami Pridays l.a1 p. n., arrivng Key Wes, Saturdays
A a. in. and remain Key Wet antil p. m. unay following, ad at that time leave
an the Steamshtp "'Oldlette," arriving Hava Monday morin, .
par coor of local time card addre any Agent.
If your fowls are troubled with lice
or Jiggers, send 1.25 and get 1'0
pounds of tobacco dust and srtinkle
it in your coops. The tobacco is guar-
anteed to be unleashed. Fdud 2 cent
tamp for sample.-E. 0. Painter & Co.,
BI-SULPHIDE OF CARBON.
Por use in rrainarie to kill wvevil, to de-
stroy rats and gophers and to keep In-
sects from the seed. etc.
2o CENTS PER POUND,
put up In ten and fifteen pound cans.
Fifteen cents extra for the cans.
E 0. PAINTER & COn.. Jakannvllb .
every year and never sofer
dlbappolntment. Cheap sulati-
tuZml brlng loa, noi t iryi ersa
It pys to pay little mor for
a ryit's s la Filveentsperpaper
Seerywhrr, and alway wrtb it,
tla tirnl t.hlOw. eed Anonoare
waI.th92P@T I M..ed Annualfr.
1 wa & in., KTIUT, 1111.
Plant your fall ad in the Agricultur- N it is J.S dy Huadi
ist. You will be pleased with the re- ie as, Fil. SBoo" k
sults. 1 "R. MOOJin, M. 0., Atlant,. On.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. 5t5
An-fL axala DMIPALLTMX T. which is not thicker than newspaper, them, more or less wood is used which Manatee, Fla., Nov. 24, 1809
Allcommiualeatkiomres quiries frthisde The writer has had orange trees bear reduces the amount of actual potash. E. 0. Painter d Co., Jacksonrille, Fla.
partment should beaddre-ssd to Gentlemen:--I was extremely sorry
FLORIDA AGRICLTURIST, fruit with thick skins, coarse pulp, a These ashes, however, will soon be a tolearn through the papers of the d
Fertilizer Dept. Jacksonville, Fla. la California, but the next season thing of the past, as the hulls are now aster to your fertilizer house, and I felt
change the fruit to a thin skin, tender being sold for feed, instead of being that if you did not get into business
Not So Sadly tatcflted. rag and juicy, by a change of fertil- used for fuel. pretty quick elsewhere, it would be
Under the head "California's Afflic- izer. We can raise just as thick E r equally disastrous to us orange growers.
ton" the Florida griculturist prints skinned oranges as California ever want to ask a few questions that you would be able o ill orders
thiedoral ow being afflicteddared to and our atmosphere is ot through your valuable columns. "What so soon, and shall hope y3u will send
"Cawith ferir agents and factorie dry. In the same atmosphere we can is the best fertilizer for sweet potatoes, the first shipment of our nine tons, as
with fertilizer agents and factories.
New factories are going up in different raise an orange with a thin skin, full how much to apply per acre, and how soon as possible.
parts of the state, and the country is of juice. tender pulp and a flavor that ito Plow under. Also when to plant We will have 2000 boxes off 1b the
being flooded with their literature. We makes them world renowned. gg t of December, and whe don seem
have just received a pamphlet from a In our own experience, we have re- crop. We may have one third off, i
fertilizer works at Los Angeles and ceived the best returns from the use don't seem as though we had more
are somewhat surprised at the analy- Editor Fertilizer Department. of Kentucky tobacco stems as a fer- than that. It is one of the prettiest
sis of their "special" orange and lemon My grove is troubled with die-back, tilizer for sweet potatoes. The potato crops in the country.
brands. It reminds us of fifteen years which I am told has been caused by The trees are in fine condition and if
ago, when this state was flooded with using sulphate of ammonia. I think rows were opened by throwing out two the winter and spring are favorable,
so-called orange tree "specials," man- plenty of hardwood ashes, would. in a furrows, and the stems spread in the I think that we may look for the larg-
ufactured by people who had never measure help the die-back. If not furrow. The dirt was then turned est crop the plantation ever had.
seen an orange growing. Anything that troubling you too much. I would be back on the stems, and the row Again allow me to express my sym-
would not sell elsewhere was sent here pleased to have any information you str d wt pathy in your serious financial loss
as a "special" and our people all could give on this subject or whether straightened up with hoe. The vines aty you e come n ton top
bought. The following is the analysis ashes would be any benefit or not. were planted in June. The amount ap- with such goods as you are putting up.
of their "standard" orange brand: H. W. G. plied to the acre was one ton. While Yours very truly,
Ammonia...... 5 to 7 per cent St. Petersburg. we obtained the most potatoes from Arthur H. Brown.
Phosphoric acid, 10 to 14 per cent Sulphate of ammonia is the least the stems, the best potatoes were ,- -,
IfPotash... te kind of p 2 per liable to give your trees die-back of grown with blood and bone and low 1
If this is the kind of plant food the
California people apply to their or- any of the ammoniates used for fertil- grade potash, at the rate of 1400 0 g oa -
ange trees, we do not wonder at the zer. It is a perfect germicide and there pounds of blood and bone to 600
oranges having thick skins, little juice fore would prevent rather than start pounds of low grade potash. Four- a p
and plenty ora. The composition of any germs that would be injurious to teen dollars worth of this fertilizer o v I
proze is most admirably arranged the trees. was applied to the acre. We realized -
to produce these same results. If Cal- e R
ifornia wonld resp the benes t of Flor- You can produce die-back, by feed- at the rate of 146 bushels to the acre. *"
ida's experience her growers wou)d de- lng an excess of ammonia of any kind. The seed for egg-plant for fall plant- 3 W o
mand a fertilizer for bearing trees with If this is the case, an application of ing should be in at once, if you have 8 C
about 10 per cent more potash and less ashes would only. aggravate the case. not already got them started. As it is, "R -
ammonla.--Florida Agriculturist."- 0 0is
ammonr a-Florida Agriculturist." for if there was any ammonia left in you will have to protect them, as they > a 0
Our good Florida brother need not the soil, the action of the ashes would will not stand any cold. .
Waste any of his sympathy because of 0 "
our being swindled on (ertilaier com- free it at once, thus giving the trees Egg-plants are cultivated the same g I :7r a
position. We have competent chemists an additional amount of ammonia, and as cabbage and other vegetables, but 0 m "
in our laboratories and we have edu- at the same time only adding a small you will have to spray with Bordeaux c M o .
coated, scientific people, who are prac- percentage of potash, which is really mixture to keep off the blight. They 0 -
tical orange groivers. Potash exists ", 0
in our orange growing districts in what your trees need. By using sul- are gross feeders and like and must "" > 0 -
quanfltes the Florida man would not phate of potash, you do not free the have plenty of fertilizer. 3 o' 3
believe possible. Our continuous irri- ammonia, as potash in the form of *. o
gatlon from rapid running mountain a sulphate is not caustic. We would Poorest to the BDet. w., _S C3
streams brings both potash and nitro- r
gen salts that Florida wells cannot recommend that you give your trees Dunedin, Fla., Oct. 6, '90. ,- W to
furnish while potash is needn, not near- a liberal fertilizing with a fertilizer E. O. Painter & Co., Jacksonville, Fla. 'o '
ly as much is necessary as in Florida. containing 50 per cent of dissolved Gentlemen:-Mr. Bouton's grove- -
And our orange overcoats are not bone-black and 50 per cent of low has used your fertilizer exclusively- a 0'0 o "
laced there because of a deficiency of has grown from one of the poorest "- - ,-
potash, but because of the dry atmose grade potash. Do not cultivate your groves to be one of the finest in the 0 oE 3-
potash, but because of the dry atmos- U 0
phere. Dame Nature does nothing trees in afy way, but let the grass country around here. It stood the cold Ce 00M
without reason, and never makes mis- and weeds grow, and whep the latter well, and is one of the few groves N s o
takes.-California Citrograph. get too large mow them down and let with a good crop. Yours truly, R A
It was ever thus. The average mor- them mulch the ground. This method L. B. Skinner.
tal' would much rather leard from the will cure your trees of die-back, unless
hard school of experience than proft they are situated on land that is not" *
by the experience of others. Our bro- suited to the orange. g
their Craig is no exception. Florida --I-- -. O S '
had competent chemists in her labor- editor Fertilier Department. U I' (W 0
stories and educated and scientific I notice cotton seed hull'ashes quoted I A "
growers to grow the orange, yet it took as containing 11 to 13 per cent of pot- o |.... .a
ait ThIZ umust ha law gg-saa -
tnsem yes to learn wnat was tis bg "A al .n ft ust e1
tem yrsz o lern wii Wa thE Bt large amount of wood must have been 0 o*
plant food for the orange. When the used while burning the hulls. $16.50 OF COD-LIVER OIL WITTH W TVU AVnoIT 9
question of lack of potash was brought per ton, is very high for the amount of COD-L R OL W STEVE FAVORITE
out by the Agriculturist, the wise men potash they contain. Can I not do a HYPOPHOSPHITES IFLE
gave it the same laugh that Bro. great deal better by buying high grade
gave It-the same laugh that Bro. sulphate of potash at $50 per ton? should always e kept In
Craig does now. At that time not an T. J. T.ept In It Takes Down.
orange tree fertilizer offered for sale Orlando. the house for the fol-
had over 4 or 5 per cent potash and The value of the ashes is not alone lowing reasons:
some 2 to 3 per cent, but today you in the potash that they contain, mmb
capnot and a frrtlaer offnmra r omar uiar in tnoir nUIrty to naitnnallau 1ay 0-fV- Reaaure. If any m hmbar
l-oked up sothattheroot'et canot whe ctonof tho family has a hard hold. It
Ing trees containing less than 10 to 12 acid in the soil. Canada hardwood will cure t. a2r-inch barrel, weight 4 pounds.
per cent potash. California soil may ashes contain 4 to 5 per cent of pot- c Carefully bored ad tested. For
contain lots of potash but it may be ash, and are retailed at $15 per ton, SEOOND- Because, if the chl-. 2 ,. and .32 rim-fire cartridges.
lqeked up so that the rootlets cannot while cotton seed hull ashes contain- dren are delicate and sickly, it wOlp No. I 7.
absorb it. A bank may be full of gold ing from 11 to 13 percent potash at make them strong and well. Pan Open Sghts, $600
and silver coin but what good does it $16.50 are much cheaper than Canada THIm --Because, if the father or No. 18.
do the hungry mortal who is on hardwood ashes. If you are figuring mother is losing flesh and becom- Target Sights, $8.50
the outside. He has not the on potash alone, you can get your sup- ing thin and emaciated, it will build Ask your dealer for the "FAVO-
o hem up and give them flesh and RITE." If he doesn't keep it we
key to unlock the vaults. True D)ame ply in high grade potash on a basis of shem u and theend, prepaid, on receipt of
nature does nothing without season $1.00 per unit, or in low grade at g price.
and nea,'r brakes a uastake. It is our about $1.07 per unit. In Canada hard- FOURTH Because it is the end stamp for complete cata-
logue showing our full line, with val-
California brother that has made the wood ashes, you pay about $3.00 per standard remedy in all throat and uable information regarding rifles
mistake. If Dame Nature had made unit of potash, and in cotton seed hulls lung affections, and ammunition in general.
the orange rind to stand a dry atmos- ashes, $1.50 per unit. No household should be without it. J ,PVY IS A ID TOOL CO
here she would have put on a non-por- Cotton seed hull ashes, in their pure It can be taken in summer as well A
ous rind instead of a porous one the state, contain from 25 to 30 per cent as in winter. P.O.Bow-
same as she did with prickly pear, of soluable potash, but in burning S oc. O nd t.oEall^ rugisi Iw ork FALL MiAS
& -SCOTT & SOWNE, C New YT k -
568 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
FLORA IO IST
Entered at the postoffce at DeLand, Flor-
ida, as second class matter.
E. O. PAINTER & CO.,
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the development of Florida and the best in-
terests of her people.
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ess of their paper changed MUST give the
old as well as the new address.
WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 19 1900
Bural School H6uses.
Just now the teachers all over the
state, who have been assigned posi-
tions, are busy getting ready to depart
to their fields of labor to instruct the
rising generation in the various
branches as taught in our public
school. wnat nave the teachers to
look forward to in the way of good
school buildings, pleasant surroundings
and conveniences to aid in imparting
the knowledge that is to benefit the
youths of our land? And what have
the scholars in store for them? Do they
dread the old benches or have they an
opportunity to sit in well made desks
not only well made as to strength and
durability, but made with a view to the
comfort for the pupil who is not only
to grow in intellect while attending
school but also to grow in statute.
Scattered over the state are many
well built and well arranged school
houses, where the comforts of teacher
and pupils have been carefully looked
after. These are generally in or near
some large town, but the rural school
house is the one that we are interested
in. Here is where the farmers' child-
ren come to absorb knowledge. Here
Ig Wtrs sme sat the btightest minds
our country ever knew first received
instruction from a school master. Here
is where many a young soul looks for
instruction that is to be its guide
through life, and, as first impressions
are always most lasting, it is of the
greatest Importance that our rural
school teachers and school houses
should be equally fi UirMfUeay sM-
lected and built as those in more
densely populated places.
The bulk of Florida rural school
houses are built only with a view of
making room and giving shelter. There
is no attention paid to architectural
beauty of the building and none to
beautifying the surroundings. It is fre-
quently the case that the building is
In the center of a small clearing and
not a shade tree near it save the pine prompt germination. We get tlh beet
on adjoining property. This can and results by drilling in rows thirty inches
apart and three to four Inches apart in
should be changed. building that is the rows. The beans grow upright,
worth putting up is worth painting,and never falling down except on very rich
a building that is worth putting up land, so they do not require more space.
and painting is worth being sur- Planted at this distance they shade the
ground, which is desirable to prevent
rounded by shade trees and shrub- evaporation and also to keep weeds
ery that will make the place attractive down. Thirty pounds (one-half bush-
to the little ones that have to pass so el) of seed are required per acre to
m odone plant at this distance. The best satis-
many hours there. Arbor day has done faction comes from planting in the
something in improving the surround- spring, after the soil is well warmed.
wings of some school houses but it is The last week of May or the first of
frequently the case that what has been Jue is not too late, depending on the
season. It takes from 80 to 100 days
done on Arbor day has been undone for the beans to mature, and they do
by neglect later. If the county school best if this is during most favorable
boards will give these matters a little part of the season. They continue to
grow and will mature seed regardless
attention and inaugurate the work of of how dry the weather may be, al-
improving and beautifying the rural though the yield may be much reduced.
school houses they will find willing Seed that is over two years old is risky.
and should not be trusted if new seed
seconds in the parents and children, is to be had. Seed should not be kept
and in a few years Florida will have in close woven sacks nor in deep bins
the mount attractive rural school build- in quantity. It may heat enough to de-
ings of the state, and the children will stroy germinating powers and not be
previously noticed. If a dashing rain
grow up. not only to absorb the knowl- comes uy after planting a nd forms ai
edge that it gives them, but to have crust the beans may 'break their necks'
an eye for the beautiful and will al- trying to push through. If a crust has
y hold t old school ho formed, run a light harrow crosswise
way o ie 'old school house" of the rows. A few lanIte will be
as a bright spot in their memory. The broken off, but not so many as if har-
teacher will find it easier to instill in- rowed lengthwise, and it will be much
terest in the lessons because the school better than leaving the crust intact.
One of the great objections to soy-
house has been made a pleasant place beans has been the lack of easy means
to labor in. They will be able to teach of harvesting. The bean pods grow so
tidiness and attention to small things close to the ground that no sort of
because the environment in a lesson In grain-harvester can be employed in
harvesting thsmu WItOoUt 10o1ng some
itself. These improvements will be beans. If hogs or sheep can be put on
lasting and far reaching and the gener- to glean ithe field a self rake may lbe
nations to come will receive the benefit used very satisfactorily. A mower will
shatter the beans and crush them Into
of the work that is done now in this the earth, and does not give satisfac-
direction. tion. The stems being hard, any knife
cutter should run slightly below the
Boy-Bean Culture. surface of the ground to cut them sat-
As yet the soy-bean Is comparatively isfactorily. When more than ten or fif-
new in America, but judging from ten teen acres are to be handled, it will
years' experience at the Kansas ex- pay to use a bean harvester. After the
periment station, where as much as beans are cut they can be raked with a
seventy-five acres have been raised in hay rake, and be put in small shocks
one season, and fed to fattening hogs. till dry, when they can be threshed or
cantic, milk cown and young touck, ita statcKeU. Threshing Is done with an oi-
value is clearly demonstrated and it dinary separator, using all blank con-
promises to rank high in the agricul- caves and running as slowly as the ma-
ture of the future. At the special re- chine will permit and not clog in the
quest of Secretary F. D. Coburn, of the shaker. Those who have grown
state board of agriculture, the most ap- them for hay are loud in their praises,
proved methods of culture and use are and some think this is the most satis-
related by Prof. Haney as follows:, factory way of getting the benefit of
"The soy-bean responds readily to the crop, especially where alfalfa or
good soil and plenty of moisture, but clover are difficult to grow. For hay
will thrive and produce on land too the seed should be drilled or sown
poor, or in a season too dry for ordi- broadcast, and Will require one and
nary crops. It is not molested by one-half bushels per acre. They should
chinch-bugs and there are no insect en- be cut when the beans are well formed
emies or blights which materially af- but soft; the leaves will all be on at
feet It, The root Rystom of the soy- this ntdge, and large quantltole of sup-
bean is very extensive, striking deeply erior feed will be secured. The cut-
into hard subsoil and spreading widely ting may be done with an ordinary
near the surface. Not only are they mower, and the hay cured as any other
supported by their extensive root sys- crop. As a soiling crop for cows, there
teni, bt, balag a legume, tno noaulo_ i nothing better t1 iw0ueo a nigi
forming micro-organism on the roots yield of milk. Shoats averaging about
enables the crop to get part of its ni- sixty pounds per head turned into a
trogen food directly from the air and patch of soy-beans just as the beans
leaves the soil a store of nitrogen that were forming made a superior growth,
benefits succeeding crops. Nitrogen is without any grain to Apeak of. They
the most expensive and easily depleted ate beans, leaves, stalk, and all, leav-
element of fertility in our soil and one ing only short stubs where the beans
of the strong points in favor of soy- had been two feet high. The soy-bean
__nsy if, that they fit perfectly in the are richer than linseed or gluten meal.
short rotations where clover and airal- The early varieties efnoua De insisteii
fa are not practical, giving a rational on .and some seed houses have sent out
rotation and at the same time a pay- the late sorts when an early variety
ing crop. The land for soy-beans should was expected, with the result that
be prepared the same as for corn. List- those who grew them were much disat-
ing is not advisable, as the pods grow isfied. We advise that the beans be
close to the surface of the ground and tried in fields of not less than two or
would be covered in cultivating, three acres, as smaller plantings sel-
However, good results have been ob- dom give satisfaction."
trained by listing the ground and then .
nearly filling the ditches before plant- Ins et Stratety
ng. Thirvia ~i5W lt t I5E p laa 1 r. E. A. uvergrop, of Phiiadel.
until time to plant, and the planting
done immediately after plowing. Late phia, tells a very interesting story of
plowing and immediate planting give the strategy of ants as observed by
the beans opportunity to keep ahead of himself.
the weeds, which always bother such ed a wasp and left
a crop. Bean planting comes properly had just killed a wasp ad left
after corn and Kafir corn planting. By the carcass on the ground, waiting for
this time the soil is well warmed my friends the ants to remove it.
which insures prompt germination and Along came one fellow, walked all
rapid growth. After plowing it Is essen- around the wasp's body, making notes
,tial that the soil be compacted so to evidently of size, quality of flesh, etc.,
hold the moisture, as the beans require and off he went and brought up a small
a relatively large quantity to insure army of his brothers. Of these some
AIT8WEB TO o00REB PONDZRNf.
Tbis ileprttSm Is gTd tr !?","
acribers, which may be of gen rt inorma
tion. Enquiries of personal character that
require answer by mal should always bavr
Editor Florida Agriculturist.
I saw in your paper some five or
six weeks ago, that some of your sub-
scribers had planted the paper shell
pevan. One party had Just put out
some hickory and walnut trees. Your
paper stated that they would be bud-
ed with these paper shelL nuts. Win
fell to and devoured the soft portions
of the body which would not keep,
while the others began to dissect ready
for storing the harder portions
which would keep for winter con-
sumption. The day was gusty, and
my attention was attracted in partic-
ular to one little chap who was try-
ing to get to his ant-hill with a wing
he had severed from the body. He
would struggle along two or three
inches, when a sudden gust of wind
would blow him and the wing back
further than he had advanced. He put
up with this till he found it homeless.
then carefully laying the wing down
and pilling the largest grains of sand
he could lift on it so that the wind
would not blow it away, returned to
the body of the wasp and got three of
the ants who had been feeding while
he worked and brought them back to
where the wing was, at the same time
evidently explaining to them the diffi-
culty of carrying such a bulky piece
on a windy day.
"They all got on the side of the wing
where the heavy strengthening rib Is
and began to roll the wing up just as
one would roll a flag around its staff.
When this roll was finished, three cuts
were made through it by three pairs of
ant mandibles, and the four short.
easily hauled rolls of wasp wing were
successfully carried to the ant-hill by
four industrious ants.
"A curious instance of the ability of
an insect to successfully measure dis-
tance was evidenced,once while I was
traveling through northern Argentina.
"I first made the acquaintance of
my friend on thb baig Y9randa of a
little village tavern. I was lying In
a hammock. About two feet from me
was a 3x3 inch hand rail of wood, sup-
ported by wooden balusters. As I lay
there I noticed a fly alight on the top
of the wood. While I watched him the*
fy apparently turned into a spider. I
could not believe my eyes, but on closer
inspection I saw that a spider had
jumped from somewhere and aighted
on top of my fly. I though this 'worth
watching and found that this was his
.method of procedure. A fly would
alight on top of the railing, the spider
would taki i th astaaISc at a glamee
and would disappear down the side of
the rail, walk along toward the fly.
but out of sight, until he reached the
place on the side of the rail at right
angles to the position occupied by the
fly when he saw it last. Then he would
walk nearly to the top of the rail and
fasten his web, then walk down, pay-
ing out his web as he went,
till he was as far from the lace
where he had fastened his web as
was the fly, then one vigorous leap, the
web swinging him round in the arc
of a circle, and he would alight on top
of the fly.
"I have never seen one miss this
seemingly difficult leap, except when
the fly left his position before the
solder had flniahed hsl Driliinari i."
With Grand Success.
Geneva, Fla., Oct. 14, '90.
E. O. Painter d Co., Jacksonrille, Fla.
Gentlemen:-Please send me one
sack of your Simon Pure Garden fer-
tilizer. I used your fertilizer last
spring with grand success. Inclosed
find phoio of toiiiiito Tilii, fi; ~8il8
of fruit-six tomatoes on a little stem
about the size of a lead pencil. The six
weighed seven pounds and the largest
was twenty inches in circumference.
J. R. Trumbrower.
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. r7
.ou kindly tell me through your c(
umna, If these trees are still cultiva
ed? What kind of land are they o0
would they do well on low land? Ho
often are they to be cultivated eai
year? Are the parties who have tri
them satisfied with their growth?
Anything that you can tell n
along this line, will be of great ben
fit to me. I W. H. M.
If this DaDer reaches the eyes of at
one who can answer the qiiestoi
asked above, we will be pleased
have them communicate such inform;
tion to us for publication. We a
having prepared an article on peca
culture which will appear in a fe
weeks, which we trust, will answ,
most of the questions asked above.
Editor Florida Agriculturist.
(1) Will you please tell me the be
kind of fence to erect as a line feni
between properies; and hoW much,
will cost per rod? (2) When does tl
rainy season begin with you? (3) 1
you think it will be wise to follow tl
suggestion of "H" and let my groin
run to weeds and grass, and if s
when would it be wise to plow undei
!.y a ssyring It! jfri Sa2th?
you will confer a great favor. 8.
The cheapest fence is made of bar
ed wire, but its cost will depend c
how many strans you put up, wheth4
TB wast tW MOks it bWE BreS9 2F PA
tie proof. Galvanized wire can I
bought for $3.75 per 100 pounds, at
your posts will coet all the way fro
2 to 10 cents apiece, according to tl
kind and where you are located. (
The rainy season begins in June, som
times earlier, sometimes later. (3)
your trees having bearing capaci;
more growth but on fruit, you can I
the grove go to grass and weeds, u
ing a mowing machine whenever th(
get too high. We would not advii
plowing, except where there is dangi
of fire. If you keep the grove mow(
several times during the year, you wi
not be troubled with a very larl
growth of grass and weeds in the fa
Editor Flor-d. Armlturlat:
I want to experiment on a smt
scale with growing mushrooms and a
desirous of obtaining some information
about the matter. If you have an
thing in your possession that will gi'
me some light on the subject, will y(
kindly favor me with the information
In reading your paper, I think that
have seen something about mushroom
From what I can learn, there has ne
er been any grown as far south
this, but I believe it can be made
success. I will be under great obkg
tions to you for any or all data yl
will be able to render. J. G.
West Palm Beach, Fla.
Mushrooms have been raised only
a small way in the state, as far as i
know. We have tried them but did n
make a success, only got a few butter
but we attributed It more to our laI
of a suitable place than to anythli
else. They do best in a cellar, but c
lars in Florida are nearly as scarce
mushroomsn It any one scco thln i
quiry who has had experience wl
mushroom culture, we wodld be plea
ed to have them send intheir exue
BE YOUR OWN BOSS-'-s a
Severe week. ra or shine. manufac-
turing and seling FIUGAlINE-smabe it in
your own home. Fity percent cheaper than
msuar. One drop swotens cap teat o coffee.
Sel in every household. W will mall you
this formula 4d other valuable Information
on receipt of lc silver. Buy no more 8ugar,
bat write today, go to work and mak good
wages at o o tax Ad-
drw j oUwS C f., Box EBB, De-
o-' CHEAP COLUMN
I? RATES-Twenty words, mam sad address
w one week, X cents; three weeks M c ts.
A. B. C. about Belgian Hares. ook by mail
10 cents. All should have it. JAS. M.
OSBORN, Daytona, Pla. 87x4
eFOR SALB-Nursery-Ml Grape-fruit Stock,
e- Mostly budded to Grape-fruit and Tanger-
ena. Box 271 Orl anuso, Fla. 84t
y SALT SICK. Cured for one dollar or
Ia lur. tEIf"i. W. t. MLU M-
i1 VW% Fla. 10xl8-U
to AN experienced working house keeper may
- find employment and good home with Mrs.
Shimer, corner of Minnesota & Clara Aves.
re DeLand, Fla. 86x88
in PINEAPPLB PLINTS-For sale-Smooth
SCayenne, Abakka and Enville City. AS.
MOTT, Fort Myer, Fla. 31tf
THE SID B. SLIGH CO., Wholesalers of
Fruit and Produce; Commission Merchants.
s1 East Bay Street, Jacksoville, Fla.
SJAMAICA 8ORRBL plants by mal
?- postpaid for Sec per dozen. Good sied
e Plants ready now. W. PRESITON.
ie VILLA LAKE NURSBRIEB, Fretand
o Park, Lake county, Fa., offer for July
e" plan Ing uI vaeiet of and S year
rus budl For ood tock and low
e prices, address C. POX, Prop. 1tt.
? ORANGE, POMELO AND LEMON TREES--
on sour 3r tritollata stocks, for summer
tS3e wraie tor+ i -. oLb.-t...,a IXY.
NURSBRIES, O. Taber, Proprietor, Glen
St. Mary Pla, 81tf
b- ORANGE and grapefruit trees for sale of all
on varieties at prices ranging from t enty to
filty dollar per 100 great, and buds, on
er fine, large stock; ready for delivery after
October 1l; engage trees now for fall and
1;- winer ulaning 0 W, SIBRItISS Relao-
e waha, Fla. 89x42
id FOR SALE--10o cas. Ebtat acre at
high pine land near DeLAnd Junctlon;
m 5 ace ee tree acre of ich are
ie in grove, the balance of the tract is in
te timber. Snan house and a wel on the
2) place. Address T. M. H., care Agricul-
turist, DeLnd, FI. Sty
If WE HAVE complete l American man-
ufacturers. Can buy for you st lowest
ty prices and hip you diet from each.
Ma hiner. tmahtnes of all kands en-
M jltass: hclrs: "Mmf-CiA Ni!g E,!5
anything wanted. OorrepOfideno so-
et cited. AMERICAN TRADES AGENCY
s- Jacksonville, Fla. tt
ON EASY TERMS.
BcTrral finch bearing orange and
grape fruit groves, trees loaded with
fruit now. Will guarantee them to pay
fifteen to twenty-five per cent on in-
vestment this year.
Lyle & Co., ...B tow, Fa.
a Do you want a good wire fence? If
a- you do build it yourself with our ma-
ou line. You can DuuII it for one nail
the cost of any ready made fence on
the market. The machine is made of
in steel, and so simple a boy can use it.
we To introduce it in Florida, we will sell
a few at the low price of $3.50, regu-
t -lar price $4.75, charges prepaid.
Is, Good agents wanted.
ck SUPERIOR FENCE MACHINE CO.
S 187 Grand River Ave.
-e Budded and Grafted
is- Mulgoba Mangoes.
Imported from India; absolutely free
from fiber. Pot grown $2.50 each.
Largest assortment of Crotons in the
Also Citrus stock. Address,
JOHN B. BEACH,
West Palmi Beach, Fla.
Sharple's Cream Ieparators-Profit-
Manufactured especially to suit all the requirements of the
GROVE. GARDEN & FIELD.
If you are raising Tomstos Egg-plants, Celery, Strawberries, Lettuce or
Cabbage, we can supply you a fertilizer made especially for thm, that has
been thorou y tested
Our Simon Pure No. I has the best fruit producing record of any frtil-
ier sold in the State. We have had 22 years practical experience and
have spent more time and money in crop experimenting than all the manu-
acture in the Sate.
Besides Special Brands for Special Cops we carry in stock al kinds of
Fertilizing Materials and Chemicals.
We were the first dealers to put the different fertilizing materials within the
iri" of iawaii fac tsh" ld baw inii s when dhtitsg, We uft
HIGH GRADE BLOOD AND BONE,
BLOOD AND BONE,
BRIGHT COTTON SEED MEAL,
DARK COTTON SEED MEAL,
HIGH GRADE POTASH,
LOW GRADE POTASH,
CANADA HARDWOOD ASHES,
COTTON SEED HULL ASHES.
DISSOLVED BONE BLACK,
WRITE FOR PRICES
E. 0. Painter &'Co., -
WHALE OIL SOAP,
OYSTER SHELLS FOR POULTRY,
PARIS GREEN and insecticides gen-
CUT TOBACCO STEMS,
NO. 1 GROUND TOBACCO.
FINE GROUND TOBACCO.
BALED TOBACCO BsTMB,
COURSE GROUND TOBACCO.
All guaranteed unleashed and to con-
tain all their fertilizing and insecticide
AND DISCOUNTS TO
We have a full supply of
all the best varieties of Or-
Oll e -5anges, Pomelos, Kumquats,
Orange Trees ,, 9,, amt shall Bt glan to
show them to prospective
planters. Can show both
trees and fruit; have twenty-one varieties fruiting in the nursery rows.
Also a full line of other fruit trees, roses and ornamentals.
CATALOGUE FREE. Correspondence Solicited.
GLEN ST. MARY NURSERIES,
O. L. TABER, Proprietor,
Olen St. Mary,
FRUIT TREES FREE- TH
__ T. -WHATWEMEAN
If you will send us one new subscriber to the FLORIDA AG-
RICULTURIST at $2 per year you can send for
the catalogue of
GLEN ST. MARY NURSFRTFS,
And select $1.50 worth of fruit trees, shrubbery or ornamental plants at list price,
and they will be packed and put f. o. b cars at Glen St. Mary with
Mr. Tabor's guarantee. Address
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST, Jackwoavl Florid
508 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
POUl/Y AND RAM DEPART- will depend for the most of your trade, spoonful of the solution to each quart HENSC TEETH OUND w0*
MJrM. We believe there is a good business of drinking water is sufficient as a ton- IIE I TEH SHELLS.
A communications or enquiries for this opening along this line for some one ic. A few drops of tincture of iron in To properly digest its food the fowl
A eom ietons or Q for this opening along this line for some on the drinking water of chicks will be must have grit. What teeth are to the
department ~ ld h addred to who wants to make a beginning in a found excellent, and a tablespoonful of human being grit is fo the fowl. We
FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST, small way and increases his stock as lime water in each quart of drinking can now furnish ground oyster shells,
Poultry Dept. Jacksonville, Fla. he becomes acquainted with the pecul- water has often been serviceable from freshly opened oysters, from
When the growing chicks are debil- which all the dust and dirt ha been
iar requirements of the trade, and the stated a teaspoonful of a mixture ofwhch thedut dirt ha been
S c t. T chloride of iron and phosphate of o screened, to supply this grit which is
Reien r. conditions of our soil and climate. The chloride of ron and phosphate of soda lacking n nearly all parts of Florida.
The question has been raised, to demand for poultry and eggs at a good makes an excellent invigorator, and if
extent, as to whether the Belgian given in the drinking water they will Goods very inferior to ours and full
some extent, as to whether the Belan price, is during the months of Decem- use too much.-P. H. Jacobs in of dust has been selling for $1.00 to
hare will be a profitabe crop in Flor- ber, January, February and March. American Gardening. $1.25 per sack of 100 pounds. We now
ida or not. Our experience is quite The balance of the year the trade is offer It at
limited with this new introduction, but likely to be light. is Preference. 1Hep you fowls by giving them
we have had them sufficiently long to You can get land for $5 or more per Sutherland, Fla., Nov. 25, '99. plenty of clean grit.
know that there is nothing raised, so acre. E. O. Painter & Co., Jacksorvlle, Fla. E. O. PAINTER & Co., Jacksonville,
far, that requires so little outlay for * Gentlemen:-I don't wish to flatter Fla.
food supplies as does the hare. They Canned Eggs. any one, but must say that you are Manufacturers of High Grade Fer-
are very fond of oats and other grain The Grange Bulletin says: Although my preference among the many fertili- tilisers and dealers in all kinds of Fr-
and will eat them as readily and the fact is not generally known, eggs zeer firms with whom I have dealt in tilizing Materials.
are put to many other uses than as an your town and I hope to give you my EA
greedily as any thing else that can be article of food. They are used exten- business, Yours Truly. EXPERIENC
raised. They will also appreciate sively in the finishing and glazing of J. C. Craver. "PEorINOM
northern hay, but the point that inter- manufactured goods, such as leather
goods and calico, the manufacture of Western Poultry Farm,
eats the Florida grower is that they glue, the brightening of coffee after it MARSHALL, MO.
will eat anything in the shape of green is roasted, and by bakers and confec- MARS ,
stuff that is given them. We have tioners in the manufacture of cakes 4 months on trial 10c. One yr. 25c.
tried them on sand spur grass, weeds and anes. There muc ste It tells how to ke tr ra
the use of eggs for these purposes, be-D erniablms It is up to e p s
to day. We soi be" lquid nee -'Kill- Copym
of all kinds and refuse that nothing cause those manufacturers who use the r for 75 cts per gallon. Auminum leg Corsm leA.
else will eat. whites of eggs have no use for the bands for poultry, 1 do.. .0 ae; 35 for S Ana se sig a sketch a m l
With a good flock of Belgian hares yolks. Dealers who have in mind the ets: 5o for 50 cts; s for II. iois a O tnia f IY
best interests of the trade have been toms M
there is no excuse for anything being experimenting lately in separating the 0 L eB I ui. S iM r t .
wasted from the garden or farm. yolks from the whites and selling each Parties intending visiting Cuba will sKSsSos t Riu
Weeds that are hoed up can be thrown separately. Last spring the Armour do well to correspond with me aboutK ll
into the rabbit run and thus converted Packing company canned about 2,000 lands, etc. Use 5c. postage. A hm.U. n arN M
cancer of cram. There UKD arr ind B u n -r t,4 R, Icainni
into meat. The same can be said o one, two and three-gallon cans. Quibr Hca Ca rii
waste vegetables such as cabbage An advantage of canned eggs as a Quiebra acha, Cuba. N l II. IO TOI
leaves, turnip tops or the culling manufactured product is the facility P. delRio Province. o s t ws-
for handling them when shipped a
that would otherwise be thrown away. great distance. Another process for
Heretofore it has been thought that handling eggs, which the Armour com-
ing everything that was given it, but about a year, is condensing. All the
nutrition is preserved, and a case con-
we believe the Belgian hare has out- training thirty dozen eggs may be pack- The Qreat Throgn Car Line From Florid
classed it, and as far as meat goes we qd in a very small space. The eggs are
enjoy a hare fry equal to that of the dried by being broken and placed on
Ug maf w ny julcnaf Nsd !i 1, n r "'9T 1
S^ temperaturee. wfiero ffie Hiiid iiriilQPTI
Every farmer should have a good every particle of moisture has been
flock of hares in which the children evaporated. The residue consists of a
are interested financially, so that they powderlike composition, resembling in THE ATLANTIC COAST LINE, via Charleston
color the yolk of a hard-boiled egg. It
will have an interest in seeing that is packed in air-tight cans and will To The Richmond and Washington.
they are well cared for and at the keep in either a hot or a cold climate. SOUTHERN RAILWAY, via savannah, Co
same time inculcate into the children OUTHERN RAILWAY, via Savannh, o-
Chickens i is lumbiaand Washington.
the spirit of making something for Chickens in Politics.
The Fanciers' Review tells an amus- via AnI a
themselves. ing incident: A poultry fancier was
* prone to let his fighting cocks wander The Southern R'y via Jesup, Atlanta and Chattat 'p
Editor Pour Department. abroad and they often foragod in the The Louisville & Nashville via Montgomery.
Iamseriousy thikigoging neighbors' gardens. Oue uoon one of To The
I am seriously thinking of going to the finest game cocks came home to The Southern R'y via Savannah, Columbia, Ashevill
Florida in October, to see what I can partake of his regular meal of mush The Mobile & Ohio R. R via Montgomery.
do there in poultry raising and a few and milk, and to his owner's asionish-
other things. Do you know whether ment a tag hung from his mouth. It
or not poultry can be raised to good vainly tried-to dislodge it, and scratch- Via Savannah and Ocean Steamship Co. for New
advantage in Florida? A friend of ed and clawed fiercely. It was with
mine wihea to go to Dade county for diffiulty that M- -.got close ork, Philadelphia and Boaton.
tobacco culture for wrapper tobacco, enough to grab the chicken and make a ToThe
and wishes me to go there also. Do closer examination. A card had been Via Savannah and Merchanta & Miners Transporta.
you know whether it is as good, or Is attached with a piece of string to a
it better for poultry raising than other kernel of corn. The chicken had swal- tion Company for Baltimore.
sections? I do not feel like risking too lowed the corn, but could not swallow st
much before I fnd out what are the the card. It hung out of its mouth. An To KEY WEST Via PENINSULAR & OCCIDENTAL
great drawbacks to successful poultry inscription on it read: "I am a straight
raising in Florida. What can one get out and out democrat and dislike AND
in the way of good land with water, to scratching." HAfVNA STEA/ISHIP CO.
enable him to successfully carry on the A few minutes later other chickens HAVANA
business. Are there any inducements returned home. Half of them carried NOVA SCOTIA,
offered to go into the business in Flor- tags in their mouths, bearing inscrip- Via Boston and CNADA, ATLANTIC and PLANT
ida? tions such as, "There will be a hot .CAPE BRETON& STEAMSHIP LINE for Halifax, Hawkeebury
Hoping that I am not asking too time in the old town to night," "Why PRINCE EDWARDS d h tt
much of a favor from you, but hoping don' you keep us penned and we wont ISLAND ad o....
that you can enlghten me on this get into trouble." "I'm a poor fora-
matter, I am, H. P. S. ger," "I'm a fighter, not a broiler."
New York City. It took Mr. B--no little while to Summer Excursion Tickets
For poultry raising, we would rec- dislodge the corn from the chickens'
ommend some of the northern coun- roas and he exrh soilase resulte l to all Summmer Resoirts will be placed on sale until September 30th.
of his finest under the soil as a result.
ties, as near to a large city as you can There was blood in his eye yesterday Tile pLANT SYSTEM Is the onl Le rm f s with Through Sleapltagar
get without paying too much for your afternoon when he was seen by a re- S service to the S mmer Rserts e#
land, or locate on a railroad to give publican reporter, and said that if he WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA and
good shipping facilities. In the north- could only get a line on the identy of VI IN
the persons who fed his 'chickens tag- THE MOUNTAINS OF VIRGINIA.
ern part of the state, you can raise ged corn he would get even with them.
more food for your fowls than in the * For information as to rates, sleeping-c ar services, reservations, etc., write to
southern counties. A location in St. Tonics and Disinfectants.
John's county, on the East Coast rail. The Douglan mixture, composed of a M. LLY Division Passenger Agent.
road would put you in communication pound of copperas, two gallons of wa- 138 West Bay Street, Aster Block, Jacksonville, Florida.
with Jacksonville, or with most of the ter d a gill of sulphuric acid, is one W. B. DENHAM, B. W. WRENN,
of the best disinfectants, but If pre- Gen. Supt. Pa. Traffic Mng'r.
large hotels in the state, on whom you ferred the acid may be omitted. A tea- G. t. P raf M '
THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
BY W. C. 8TIISLE
This plant is occasionally found in
cultivation, not so often as it should.
It is known as "Sensitive plant" on ac-
count of the fact that the leaflet of the
compound leaves told together and the
whole leaf droops at the touch as
though possessed of animal life and
shrinking from contact with others.
We have in Florida a native plant
that possesses considerable of the same
power and is known by the same name.
This plant, Schrakla Angustata, is a
sprawling vine, covered with small but
very sharp thorns. The foliage Is very
similar to that of the Mimosa pudica
but is not so sensitive to a touch. It is
found on dry sandy'ridges where the
roots penetrate to great depth often
three or more feet, this renders it very
difficult to transplant. In the spring
it is covered with clusters of small,
rose colored blossoms. The individual
flowers are quite small but as they
grow in little round balls about three
fourths to one inch In diameter, they
make considerable show. ,
To return to our subject Mimosa
pudica as seen in cultivation is not us-
ually a very attractive plant, being
grown more as a curiosity than on ac-
count of any beauty though the olil-
Sage is very delicate. We grew a few
plants last year In pots. But they did
not do very well. We wintered two of
them over in a pit with other plants
and in the spring set them out in the
open ground in rich dry soil. Those
who have only seen the Sensitive plant
In house culture have very little idea
of its possibilities. These plants each
have from ten to twelve stems from
two to four feet long. Most of those
sprawling over the ground but occas-
ionally one will grow upright from one
to two feet high.
The flowers of Mimosa pudica grow
in little round rosy balls and look al-
most exactly like those of Schrankia,
when the plant was in full bloom and
literally covered with those delicate
balls of pink blossoms it was a beauti-
ful sight. We allowed them to grow en-
tirely at will and the result was a
sprawly bush. If they had been pinch-
ed back Judiciously and made to
branch more, they might have been
trained into a more compact form.
Both Schrankla and Mimosa belong
to the Leguminosae, the family of pod
bearing plants, which includes all the
varieties of peas, beans and clover,
also the plant known in Florida as
"Beggar weed", the Acacias Locusts
and a host of other useful and orna-
mental plants. At first sight, the clus-
ters of seeds would not be taken for
pods, as each pod is pointed like those
of the Beggar weed and each point con-
tains but one seed.
The Schrankla is an herbaceous per-
ennial, the tops die down each fall and
new ones start in the spring. Mimosa
pudica is listed as an annual and is one
in ordinary cultivation. Our plants did
not bloom the first year were kept grow i
ing through the winter and did not
bloom until well along in the second
summer. Although the plants have
ripened considerable seed they seem
still vigorous and show no signs of dy-
ing. They may be like Mignonette (
which is usually an annual but may be
made a perennial by being very care- l
ful not to allow a plant to bloom at all
gtil the spoond summer and using a
little care in training it may be convert-
ed into a small tree which if net al-
lowed to go to seed will last several
A Two-story Summer eOse.
In Success with Flowers we find the
following interesting account of a two-
story summer house. The plan is well
described and presents so many advan-
tages that we need add no argument to
recommend it for a general trial. We
would suggest for screens for such a
house the perennial Ipomoeas though
nothing is more beautiful than Cy-
press vine after it becomes established.
If a permanent shelter is wanted,
winter as well as summer, use some of
the Honey suckles, Akebla quinata.
English Ivy, or Rhynchos permlem jas-
"Not long ago in a garden in a little
village in Alabama I saw a novelty to
me, in the shape of a two-story sum-
mer house which was so attractive to
look at and so comfortable to sit in
that I thought the Idea worth copying.
"The business which called me to this
village did not require any great
amount of time for its transaction and
as there was no train by which I could
leave town for several hours I went for
a walk about the village to see what
I could find of interest.
"On a back street was one of the
quaint and attractive old houses which
one finds in those southern towns: low
spread out over a good deal of ground,
as if a room had been added here and
there as the family increased, and with
several big red chimneys built onto the
outside of the walls. I mention these
chimneys particularly, because one of
them had been nearly covered with
Ampelopsis. while the other was al-
most a solid mass of English Ivy.
"The summer house stood in the gar-
den of this house. The lower story
of the summer house was built of close
lattice work. This story was purely
one of utility, built to enclose and hide
the curb about the well which one is
almost certain to find in the yard of
every southern village home, and
which supplies the house and garden
with water. A door in the lattice on
one side gave access to the well.
"Above this the second story had
been built, covered with a simple four-
sided roof. The sides of this story
were not enclosed, except by th-vines
which had been trained up to them. A
plainly built flight of stairs led up to
the summer house, and as these were
built across one side of the structure
they did not need to start far out from
the bottom to get the necessary slant.
Like almost all of the garden architec-
ture of the southern country homes the
wood work was whitewashed, making
a white background against which the
green vines showed off to good advan-
tage. A luxuriant Cypress vine had
been trained up the side of the flight of 1
stairs and the deep green of its feath-
ery foliage, in which its red blossoms
glowed like Jewels, made a beautiful
"The advantage of having such a
summer house is that it is raised so far
above the ground as to be free from H
dampness which makes so many such ,
buildings unhealthy and unpleasant. I
The floor is dry and free from toads,
nails and all such intruders. Its height
above the ground gives a wider view ,
and secures a comfortable sense of pri- i
"In norther gardens where there is
io well-curb to be protected by the I
ower story this room could be utilied
as a place in which to store the wheel-
barrow, lawn-mower, garden hose,
ipade rake and all such implements."
A Seautiful lawn.
Almost every one who has any taste s
'or outdoor ornamentation, admires a i
good lawn. But a good lawn is not I
easily made in Florida. Kentucky Blue
sras will not do at all and so far as 1
we know those who have tried the Tex- o
ts Blue grass have had very little sue- (
Bermuda grass makes a fairly good
awn not equal to Blue grass at the
lorth but quite a good substitute. It
rowa well in the shade of laree trees.
This aason we have seen some St. I
Lucle grass which seems to be what w
are all looking for.
The following account from the May
flower of the making of a lawn in the
shade would need to be modified some
what to adapt it to Florida.
Sheep manure is seldom avallabl
but that from cattle will answer quite
as well if applied a Uttle thic er on the
ground. Remember that if you wisi
a good gram plot It it Vety di4cult, 1i
not Impossible to make the soil to<
After enriching the land set out youi
plants and as soon as they are estab
listed, mow frequently to hell
keep down the weeds and cause ti
grass to thicken up at the roots. If yot
have no lawn mower use a shari
There is nothing which adds more tc
the beauty of a home, either in the
country or in town, than handsome
grounds, and I will give to the readers
of this article the benefit of my ex-
perience in making a beautiful lawn,
in doing which I have been successful
"My lawn is covered wth large trees,
principally white and red- oas some
of which measure eleven or twelve feet
around, real monarchs of the forest,
but I was not content with these splen-
did trees alone and longed for a green
velvet carpet beneath their widespread
ing branches. I consulted experienced
persons as to how I could secure a nice
stand of grass, but I was repeatedly
told that it would be folly to attempt
to grow pretty grass under the shade of
such oak trees. I was also told that
If I prepared the ground suciently
for sowing grass seed,.the rooted of the
trees would be so seriously Injured that
my trees would very likely die, and be-
sides my friends would say "Whoever
saw gram grow under auch huge oak
trees?' The subject perplexed me for
several years until, finally, I determin-
ed, in spite of all opinions to the con-
trary, that I would see what I could do.
"I felt afraid to dig up the earth very
deeply, so I had it harrowed and sowed
Kentucky blue-gram and then had the
ground on top thoroughly compact by
rolling. This attempt was a complete
failure and I concluded that I must
grow my grass n some other way. 1
owned a flock of sheep and it eccured
to me to save the manure from them
and top dress my lawn,. and I did thin
carefully. The first year It looked
green but there was no set of grass and
the growth looked more like clover.
But I felt encouraged as the ground
had a covering which looked green,
whereas, before it had been bare except
where it was covered with a yellowish
moss. I applied the sheep manure the
second year and bad It as thickly
spread upon the ground as I eould;
that is,. the ground was well covered.
rhis ime I put the manure on in De-
.ember, Just as soon asthe leaves could
be gathered up and the ground made
perfectly clean. By spring the rains
Uissolved the manure and carried it In-
o the earth. The second year my lawn
appeared like a good clover plot and
when I had it mowed I saw that the
green sward was appearing with the
:lover. The third year about a month
before Christmas I had the leaves well
cleaned off and again spread sheep ma-
iure thickly upon the lawn and the
following summer, I have a nice stand
of beautiful gras which appeared as
he red clover disappeared.
"I now supplied myself with a good
elf-sharpening lawn mower and I be-
pn to clip my gras regularly. I par-
icularly recommend a mower that
harpens itself, that quality being of
importance; such a mower never gets
lull, or out of order and always does
ts work well. My lawn now improved
ach year; I never allow the fallen
eaves to lie upon the Wgrass as rai
n them forms tannic adcd which kills
he grass, and beside this, a heavy
mcating of leaves excludes the .r from
:he grass and retards its gowth, Now
after all this work, I have a Ane vel-
rety, even sward, of a rich dak green
,olor, but it is so beautiful and being
well shaped stays so agree, that I feel
'niu rleald far al the labor I hbre
put on It. My iawn has been much im-
The Tagent Fruit Brushers.
Patented Mh. 8, 1888 & Apr. 11 1890.
These machines for brushing and
polishing frult will greatly improve the
appearance of any paek of oranges or
lemons at a very light cost, and with-
out damage to the fruit.
They are pat the experimental stage,
having brushed more than 10,000 cars
of these fruits in California.
Circular on application.
S WRIGHT BROTHERS,
'proved, too by the use of the lawn
mower, which crushes and kills the
weeds, and compacts the earth around
the roots of the gras, giving it a strong
and healthier growth.
"After securing a satisfactory stand
;of grass, I found that the best fertil-
iser to use is unleashed wood ashes,
or even leached ashes are good. The
wood ashes are rich in potash and
bring no foreign seeds upon the lawn
as does stable manure; the potash
makes the grass a dark, rich green
which is almost bluish. And besides,
the wood ashes destroy every vestige
of moss, which continually appears on
every lawn. I use only wood ashes to
fertillze my lawn, which excites ad-
miration and surprise in all who see it
and" often causes them to exclaim
"How did you get this beautiful lawn
to grow under such trees?"
likes it Very Much.
Publishers Florida Agriculturist:
Gentlemen:I have received the Flor-
ida Agriculturist and like it very much.
D. W. Starkey.
Ankona, Fla., Nov. 18, '99.
E. O. Painter d Co., Jaeksosrille, Fla.
Gentlemen:-All goods received from
you have been satisfactory.
B. B. Ankeney,
Splendid stock of Citrus trees on
rough lemon roots, and also on sour or-
ange and tlifollata.
and stock of other
t trees, Economie
a n t s, Bamboos
Palms Ferns Conl-
fers and Miscellane-
ous ornamentals. 17
year. Most extensive
colleen of plants and trees in the
Lower South. Send for large elegant'
57O THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
MaesL the food mor delidous and wholesome
OAL 1 1m1e MoVIES co., NEW voM
HOUSUBOLD DWPA1TXEI T. bone or briar-stitch down with silk.
au communications of enquiries for this de- The shirts can be bought of any of the
partmentshould be addressed to northern firms, who issue catalogues
FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST, at 35 cents each and while the price
Household Dept. Jacksonville. seems extravagant, they are really
cheaper and wear longer than the home
Neatness in Appearance, made canton flannel ones, as they have
It is every woman's duty to be as long sleeves, come wall ilown over the
neat and attractive in appearance at abdomen, fit and are comfortt iP in-
neat an attatie in appea et ning blankets open all the way down.
all times in the home, as possible. It each edge hemmed, briar stitched and
is not necessary that she should be ex- the band is made of washed unbleach-
pensllely dreaded: ofta the phpy it ed cloth, which is easier to pin than
materials make up the most attractive- camlbrc. These are especially hand.
to slip off if wet or soiled without dis-
ly and patterns and books are so easily turbing baby with a skirt next to the
procured that she can have no excuse napkin If the baby has to be taken up
for not having her clothing made and undressed. The skirts have
Tasteful. A g t m y w n waists on them, buttoning in the back,
up tastefully. A great many women and shoulder straps to button over tile
make the mistake of thinking anything front, or they may be made by the
will do for the home. It is just as nec- same pattern the slips are cut by,
essary that we should be attractive to either way is good.
r loved ones as to others, for our The caps, cloaks and bootees are a
our loved ones as to others, for our matter of one's own choice and may be
personal appearance, as well as a made any time. For summer babies, I
cheerful face do a great deal toward should leave off the flannelette
making home attractive. Who does not underskirt, but never the pinning blan-
have some pleasant memory of a home ket, which may also have the end
have some pleasant memory of a home turned up over baby's feet, and pin-
where not only was the house in spot- ned, thus protecting the feet of a kick-
less order, but the mistress as well. .ing baby from being uncovered. By
and habitually so. all means, train your baby from the
It is just as easy to become negligent first to use a little chair or box over
the vessel, instead of the napkin. I
In dress as it is to fall into any other know of babies elgth months old who
bad habit and it is a habit that is al- tell everytime, but at first don't wait
most as hard to correct. Like all habitat for them to tell, put them on the chair
it will grow and a careless girl will be- often, always at a certain hour every
day and night, and use the same word
come the slovenly old woman, unless everytime, which they will soon learn
she corrects the habit before it becomes to say.
a fixed part of her character. It is by My little girl always said, Chabo,"
resisting temptations that our charac- meaning "chair more" the accent was
on the "bo", which made it really
ters become strong, every victory Frenchy. Constant Experience.
gained help s td gain another, and -
one of the most subtle temptations that Canning Corn.
we have to overcome is this tendency I am Datriotic and make as much use
of corn as I can in my cooking. I don't
to become negligent of our personal ap- think I am very lazy, but I notice that
pearanee in the homo. There are some It Is possible to cook a rreat many
people with whom neatness is a part of dishes that are made of corn with very
their natures, but with the most of us little trouble, and I am going to tell
how some of them are made sometime.
it is easy to fall into careless habits, 'Just now I want to tell how I can corn
and we need to watch carefully that and have it as good as the best that
this carelessness does not become is ever put up in a factory.
habitual. I use any late sweet corn and select
auears that have the grain just full size,
ning o a Nw I. but not b ginnn to harden. The corn
ins cut from the cob with a sharp knife
Editor Housci~ d Department. and the cans are filled as full as they
The coming of a new baby is, of can be pressed with the grains of corn.
course, an anxiety to many young :You cannot. press the corn to solidly
mothers, and it is distressing to see and it is necessary that this be careful-
them sew for weeks on handsome ly done, so as to have a perfectly solid
dresses for the little one and not have mass of grains in the can and make
the necessary warm and comfortable it "heaped up, pressed down and run.
underclothes that baby needs when it ning over" full. Then pack the cans
comes. Pinning blankets or barrow in a wash boiler, having first put on the.
coats are a necessity. When I made tops and screwed them down lightly.
my first baby clothes I scarcely knew A light board should be put in the bot-
more than a child about what to make tom of the boiler to keep the cans off
and how it should be done. So, sup- the bottom and prevent them from
posing there are others just as ignorant breaking with heat. Now fill the boiler
I will give a list of really necessary ar- with cola water up to the necks of the
tiles and hope it will be a help to cans and slowly heat to the boiling
some one. In making them I always point, and keep it there for three or
begin on the bands first and make, more hours, replenishing the water as
them leaving the dresses till last. it boils away so as to keep it up to the
Four flannel bands. necks of the cans. When thoroughly
Three knit under shirts, size 1. .cooked take the cans out and screw
Four flannel pinning blankets. down the tops very tightly and the
Four cream flannelette underskirts. work is done. Corn in glass cans
Two cambric overskirts, trimmed, should be wrapped in thick paper and
Six cambric slips. kept in a dark place.-Elzabeth A.
Three night slips (buttoned in front). Abbott in Farm and Home.
Light outing flannel for winter, cam- *
brie for summer. ickles.
Two dozen Birdseye cotton napkins, Pealllllll!-One poek of green toma-
one dozen, 27 inch. one dozen 17 inch. toes, one large cabbage, one dozen on-
Two nice dresses, to be trimmed as ions, three green peppers. Chop fine or
much as desired. grind in the sausage grinder, sprinkle
The bands I make good and long (I with one pint of salt and let stand six
had to niece my first ones) and eight hours or over night drain and scald in
inches wide, turn edge half an Inoli weaO vinegar. Drain again and add a
wide, over once for hem and herring- pint of horse radish and one tablespoon
ful each of allspice and pepper, a tea-
c ua o neo lmoizl or mu srsra anid Iunrs
Pack closely in jars and cover with
good boiling vinegar. This s often
made without cooking and will keep,
providing pure cider vinegar is used.
Spanish Pickles:-One large head of
cabbage, one dozen green cucumbers,
two onions, one red pepper. Pare cu-
cumbers, chop all fine or grind in the
sausage grinder. Drain well. Add
three ounces of celery seed-or a few
stalks of celery in absence of celery
seed-three ounces of white mustard,
three cups of sugar, cover with vine-
gar and cook one-half hour, put away
Grape Catsup:--Six pints of ripe
grapes, cooked and pressed through a
fruit strainer or seive. Add two and a
half pounds of sugar, one quart of vine-
gar, one tablespoon each of allspice,
cloves and cinnamon, one teaspoonful
of cayenne pepper. Boil slowly until as
thick as tomato catsup. Gooseberry,
currant, peach, and other fruit catsups
can be made by this recipe, using a
half pound of sugar and a half pint of
IltiegttF to UOhn pint or fpuit pulp, and
spices to taste.
Mango Pickles:--Take green musk-
melon, about two inches or less in di-
ameter, or large, smooth green toma-
toes, or either green or ripe sweet pep-
pers. Cut out a slice just large enough
to take out the seeds, then put them in
salt water over night, drain till dry, fill
with finely chopped cabbage, tomatoes
and green cucumbers, seasoned with
ground cloves, cinnamon, and grated
horse radish to suit the taste. Se-
cure the slices of each mango with
thread, place them in a deep stone jar,
cover with good vinegar. In a few
days they will be ready for use.-Prair-
Leaving no Sting.
Our manner of doing a thing often
counts more than the thing itself.
Some people have the gift of doing a
gracious thing ungraciously. They
seem to think It of small moment how
they act, if they do the right thing.
Their gifts are felt like a blow. Others
refuse with kindness that falls like a
balm. The Italian, who is asked for
alms, unable to help, replies, "Pardon
me, I also am a poor devil." That
leaves no hurt, while the open hand of
.ome others inflict a sting. "God care-
moro ror advorbs than for verbs." says
an old writer. Do the right thing, but
do it rightly, courtesly, systematical-
One quart tart apple sauce rubbed
through a sieve, whites of two eggs
beaten to a froth; flavor with lemon or
not, to suit taste. Beat well together
and freeze. Or serve icy cold without
freezing, and with whipped cream if
desired. To make a more fancy dish
color one-half the mixture with fruit
MOlr an' arrango altoruat e ayers of
the plain and the colored in a glass
dish and heap whipped cream on top.
Apple tapioca, apple tapioca sherbet
and apple custard, recipes for which
can be found in most cook books, are
Apple butter, boiled sweet cider and
canned apples are good saving means
for the fruit so dear to us all and that
is too often allowed to go to waste.-
State of Ohio, City of Toledo, Lucas
Frank J. Chency makhl ii&t tIBt hb
is senior partner of the firm of F. J.
Cheney & Co., doing business in the
city of Toledo, County and State afore-
said, and that said firm will pay the
sum of ONE HUNDRED DOLLARS
for each and every case of catarrh
that cannot be cured by the use of
Hall's Catarrh Cure.
FRANK J. CHENEY.
Sworn to before me and subscribed
in my presence, this 6th day of Decem-
ber, A. D., 1886. A. W. Gleason,
Seal. Notary Public.
Hall's Catarrh Cure is taken Inter-
nally and acts directly on the blood and
mucous surfaces of the system. Send
for testimonials free.
F. J. CHENEY & CO., Toledo, O.
Bold by all drunaists1 T7 centeS
Hall's Family Pills are the best
'We can't choose happiness either for
ourselves or for another; we can't tell
wirere bial will 19: Ws ri; sil
choose whether we will Indulge our-
selves In the present moment or wheth-
er we will renounce that, for the sake
of obeying the divine voice within us-
for the sake of being true to all the
motives that sanctify our lives.-
Resu for His arvelous Seeso--
His New, Free Book.
,Dr. Hathaway's method
mea It is the result of
twenty years of exper-
ece in the most exten-
sirve practice of my
specialist in his line in
the world. Hewasgrad.
S osted frami ame ftb
best medical colleges In
the country and perfect-
ed his medical d surg-
cal education by exte
sive hospital practse.
Early in his professional career he made dseo-
eries which placed him at the head of his prose-
slon as a specialist in treating what are generally
knownas private dsl s of meo asn weim~
This system of treatment he has more and mor
perfected each year until today his cures are s
Invariable as to be the marvel of te medical
Enjoying the largest practice of any specialist
in the world he still maintains a system of nomi-
nal tees which makes it possible for all to obtain
Dr Hathaway treats andcure LossofVitality,
Varlcocele. Structure, Blood Poisoning in ts dif-
ferent stages. Rheumatism, Weak Back, Nerv-
ousness. all manner of Urinary Complaints,
Ulcers. Sores and Skin Diseases Bright Disease
and all forms of Kidney Troubles. His treatment
for undertoned men restores lost vitaty and
makes the patents strong, well, vigorous mn.
Dr. Hathaway's success in the treatment of
Varicocele and Stricture without the aid of knife
or cautery is pbnomenal The patentstreated
by this method at his own home without in or
loss of time from business. Thisis positively the
only treatment which cures withoutan operation.
Dr. Hathaway calls the particular attention cr
sufferers from Varicocele and Stricture to page1
27, 28.29, 80 and 81 of his new book, entitled.
"Manliness. Vigor. Health," a copy of which wil
be sent free on application.
Write today for free book and symptom blank,
mentioning your complaint.
A NB WTQN IA THAi WAY, M. .
Dr. Hathaway a c
5 Bryan Street, Saiunab, GA
MENTION THIS PIAPB wHIN WBIREIN
Under 88000 Cash Depoet.
e11reed ars Padat
Open all year to Both e es. Very Cheap Bear.
g0wI- AI>.--- RaIntae Coss ase,
If Fifteen Trs' Experiene
is worth anhinjhe rs at t id P v P-m ".
PAGE WOVKu WIlR PYICK .. AbRAl, WICS.
CANCER CURED WITHOUT PAIN.
NO KNIFE UBSED.
$1.000 for a case of Pile we cant cure.
Write for free books. Address
THE U. & LIVE STOCK REMEDY has
proved mot efficient in reventing and
curing Bog and chicken Cholera and
kindred diseases It ts also a fine con-
dition powder. Sales are Increasing. If
your dealer don't keep it we will mall
It to you on receipt of price per %
1'. LAberal diasount to dealers. ISAAC
MORGAN. Asent. Kisimmes, r. F itu
STHE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST. 5m
played in order not to injure or break
the grain. Farmers Attention I
Look in The superiority of Carolina rice is
o ok irn due principally to the extreme care 8PECIAL
your mirrTOr taken by the American growers to
today. Take turn out clean samples. After it is PRINO
a last look at husked, the grain passes through a GOODS
your gray whitening machine, which removes the
air. Itaure- inner cuticle or red skin. This done, the Avery Garden Plows, Acme Harrows
y be rice is fit for sale. Like the potato,
Smy be rrice is largely employed to prepare GEORGIA 8TOCKS.
last If starch; it is treated with a solution of BPRAYING OUTFITS,
rOu want caustic soda, which dissolves out the
09;O 9 U9Vi siIg-l .a..; mull St?rli 3a 5- tao eerythin iwnro n and Fam !impmenu aa a uppl; I
needn't eep its, and is weighed and dried. The ana-
your gray lysis of Chemist Payen and that which Poultry Netting sf Columbia Bicycles
hair a week longer ha is generally accepted, gives the corn- CHATER OAK STOVES,
hi a er ha position as follows: Nitrogenous mat- CARRARA PAINT, EON PIPE. ROILEnR AND PIUMP
you wish. There's no ter 7.55; starch, 88.65; dextrine, etc., WRITE FPO PRICE&.
guesswork about this; 100; fatty matters, 0.80; cellulose
it's sure every time. 1.10; and mineral matters, 0.90. Rice (EO. H. FERNALD, Sanford, Florida.
To re- then resembles nearly the composition
St o r e of the potato, which contains, as will
Sbe remembered, so much starch and so
color to little nitrogen. fat and mineral sub-
W 1hfr s-tanc(e. eapTatins also wiay iee i
Use- r not a complete food, and why it is nec-
iH essary to supplement it with meat, veg- r e
&2 i^ r tables or fish. But rice possesses the
After r great advantage of being easily diges-
using it 1 || ted, and does not fatigue or inconven-
for two ience the stomach. Hence, its efficacy
or three w s noticehov W as a remedial agent in capes of diseases 0 2 W ATCHES
much younger youap- of that organ, and of tie intestinal
much younger you ap- channels. It exercises no laxative ac-
pear, ten years younger tion as other cereals are reported to
at'least. do, which explains the efficacy of rice
.Ayer's Hair Vigor also in cases of dysentary and diarrhoea.
cures dandruff, prevents China is able to procure two crops of
falling of the hair, makes rice every year the Chinese sow it in
hair grow, and i spe- mintrrh annt July: rIli Inhinsiltunts or men
dhair gro nd Is Flowery Land pride themselves on
did hair dressing completely understanding its cultiva- sndin u a Scr a
It cannot help but do tion, the whole secret of which s to Premium Offer No 1. A",,,,
t 0$2. will receme an open-fact, stan-wind
these thlnpfor It's a give the plant a great deal of water, and stem-set watch, guaranteed by the mnm-d-tuers, for one year. Those who chow
hair-food. When the hair It may not be generally knoWn that
is well fed, it cannot help the Americans were indebted for this the watch are not entitled to an opportunity to scur a Ton of Fertlitxer4r $2. Send in
but grow. grain to a Mr. Dubois, who was treas- your subscriptions at once, o THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST, Jacksonvll, Fla.
It mres the scal urer of the East India Company and
It makes the scalp who gave a small bag of said grain to
healthy and this cures a merchant In Carolina. This is how rem um 0 r No. 2--
the disease that causes Europeans came to be chiefly supplied For one new subscribr at $2.00 the mender
dandruff. from Africa with Carolina rice, and can selec $.0woth of seed from the seed
1.0abt ANi which is everywhere accepted as being Catalogue of Grifi Bros Jacksonvlle
$l.NlO 1 i much the finest of its kind, the grains Fl1, which will be sent FREE. Those selecting e m not entitled to a To of Frt-
l- Xy hair wau uis ss outnbadl
TnotxA"iiFssi& t R a= uB M 1- bl5 thT sLas at that whichb if for I&O SEnd ntme to THYB FLOMBA AaRIICUVITTUKRT Jctksmmll, ini
~ anluMn asm ar m r T7 come from the East Indles, and
t ick and muc duar tnbIs h or t known as Patna rice. Rice is said to was not known to the ancients, and IO T I.
Ithink thr e Isothin glk. ike foe t~ac ft i.
the mair." OA jLIU be best cooked by thorough steaming; there is no mention of it in the Bible.- P= &l .s 'c.0a.
Aprilks,l Tarrow,LT. while in case of sickness, rice water London Correspondent in Grocers' Cri- Sais --s .t
S can be prepared, sweetened and flavor- terion. JESSE MARDEI
S ed In the same way as is barley water zof 0 .
Fotz ayM Af& m-M go I Tie rice wien turned out tor market Always try to do' right and you will
w s the doctor about it is sifted and classified into five cate- never have any regrets that will leave Subscribe for the Agriculturist and
DRJ. 0. AYE iLo gories; one, known as broken rice, a sting on your memory. keep posted.
which is not to be disdained, if well
cleaned it will form an excellent muc-
ilage, or when ground into flour, it caA N A MIP
Bice as a Food OStaple, be mixed along with some wheaten OCEAN STEAMSHIP CO.
mIal and thus che a en, as woll
Rice is Deoamlng more ant more n as whiten loaves of bread. Jap-
important article of alimentation, as is anese rice is said to be rich in nitro-
evidenced by its increased importation. genous substances, no matter whether
It remains a favorite dish among it be upland, mountains or lowland
sweets, is largely egnsumed in soups, varieties. In some districts 'of India,
and in madeup dishes, while being ex- rice is not allowed to be .consumed
tensively utilized along with wheaten until after a lapse of six months from- _
flour to secure greater whiteness of the time it is gathered; many even
the bread. It is also largely used to perscribe a longer period. A good
make starch. The rice emanating hour is allowed for the digestion of
from South Carolina and from Biitish rice. If the rice be any way old it is
usMni are tiL tw!s Mati"s 0ast La 8C Mwfa issfsllff fi MOOif. i2
request. Japanese rice of late meets very strong spirit is obtained from w
with fair demand. Indeed, when it is rice called arrack, which is partly
borne in mind that rice feeds one-third made from it, being also mixed -
of the human race, and that it is con- with toddy, which is the Juice of the" *' -
siderably cultivated in Asia-no less cocoanut tree. Sake is another' na- "SAVANNAH LINE"
than 100 different varieties alone are tional beverage prepared in Japan
peculiar to British India and Ceylon, from fermented rice. In many coun-
and Northern and Central America- tries rice is mixed with bean or pea
importance of the plant and its product meal; that combination Is recom- B 1 A N***
will be better appreciated. Its growth mended to the parched rice travelers
has been attempted in Northern France that have to secure that kind FAST FREIGHT AND LUXURIOUS PASSENGER ROUTE.
and the experiment was tried with par- when on long voyages in unknown
trial success of raising it south of the lands. South Carolna claims to have
Thames, outside London. Rice exacts obtained the first seed rice from the FROM
a warm climate, but above all, a humid Island of Madagascar, between. 1700 L I A TO NE
soil: henoe. why the growing cron has nd 17_2. The impo-+tatio of AV 1? FLORID TO NEW YORK,
t~ B I'rMniitial wif iii iml tfare, Bi- the Uniied Kingdom is nearly 80,666.-
fore being harvested, etc., the soil is 000 of cwts., annually and estimated at BOSTON AND EAST.
freed from water, the crop duly cut 3,500,000 of pounds sterling. Strange
with the sickle, and it is next threshed though nevertheless a fact, that rice
by means of the flail or by machinery; SHORT RAIL RIDE TO SAVANNAH, OEOROIA.
in some cases the grain is simply tram Thence via Palatial Express Steamships, sailings from Savannah, Four Ships each week
pled out by cattle. The rice which has to New York .nd making close connection with New York-Boston ships or Sound Lines.
been obtained in the latter way, in the All ticket agents and hotels are supplied with monthly aillng schedules. Write
husk, is called "paddy;" the grain ad- for general information, ailing qShedules stateroom reservation, or call on
heres firmly to the husk, so much so, a E H. H INTON. Trale lgr., WALTBER AWKIN1, se.-Ajj
that nsfclal machin-ry han to te~ m- _m a"..a;A,. sp w n :fe.,s ,Jaral,., Is
572 THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURIST.
OW TO GET A TON OF FERTILIZED
S. FOR $2.00 .
1o,ooo Subscribers Wanted for the FLORIDA AQRICULTURIST within the next six months.
Every Thirtieth permas remittlUg $2.o or a year's subacription will be given an order for a
TON of Simon Pure Fertllaer of w ver brand dered . . .
TON of Simon Pure Ferilizer of ha~ver brand de d........
HOW TO DO IT.
Cut out the coupon and send with $2.00 to E. O. Painter & Co., Publishers, DeLand, Fla., and
you will receive the Florida Agriculturist, the oldest, only agricultural paper in the state, for one
year. The coupons will be numbered as received,
COUPON. and a receipt for the money bearing the same num-
b... er will be returned. If your number is 30, or any
............................... multiple of 30, as 60, 90, 300, etc., you can order a
fessrs.. B PAINTER & fC., ton of fertilizer at once or any time within a year.
pa b. Florida AgVbw.'t, Please bear in mind you get the Florida Agricultur-
SDeLam, RP. ist at the regular price of $2 per year and have one
critin tthe Flor!dasst to b at one ret'4 stb chance in 30 of getting a ton of high grade fertilizer
is understood that should the number of my recept be 8 beside. This may be YOUR opportunity.
m ...ltilekl of that numer I ca. n ordr top of sn v
brand of Simon Pure Fertilizer which will be delivered f.
o. b. cars at Jacksonville, Fla., without further expense
P. C. Addres............................................
M1ote'-1ftbeLtatio to whc the ft.lKrt 1 tobe abea
"pmrT." am owntof frvat tmut bt ftOrwlatd .M 4 wt rirth DE LAND,
E. 0. PAINTER & CO.,
Received of B 0. Painter & Co., one
ton Simon Pure Fertilizer, No. 1, with
a total tost to me of $2.00 and freight.
W. H. Bigelow
Tarpon Springs, Fla., April 9, 1900.
B. O. Painter & Co., Jacksotrille, Fla.:
Gentlemen:-I thank you very much
for the ton of fertilser you have sent
me. I know what it is, as I have used
it and consider it at least the eqaul of
any in the market, if not the best.
This is the firt prise I ever drew in my
life and I assure you It is appreciated.
Very truly yours,
W. L B elow.
B. 0. Painter it o., Jaecko.wis, Flgo.
Gentlemen:-I'have received a ton of
your Simon Pure Fertilizer, which cost
me only 2.00 ag' freight, Wbides get-
ting the Agricuttl~ast for one year.
I know from experience that the fer-
tilizer is the best offered for sale in
Florida and the Agriculturist the grow-
ers true friend. J. 0. Mathews.
Plant City, Fla.,
August 9, 1900.
B. O. Painter & Co., JaesonvilWe, Fla.
Gentlemen:-I hereby acknowledge
the receipt of one ton of your Si-
mon Pure Fertilizer for the sum of
'2.00, having been one of the lucky
numbers who received fertilizer on
your liberal offer to the subscribers to
your most valuable paper, the best ag-
riculturist paper in the state. I prize
this fertilizer very highly as I have
long ago been convinced by actual
test upon my farm that Simon Pure
fertilizer put up by E. 0. Painter &
Co., of Jacksonville, are as good as
can be had. I have used it along side
of and and prefer it to
either. Thanking you for past favors
I remain, Yours Respectfully,
Jno. A. Barns.
A Hig -Grade Fertilizer
"TJH. IDEAL" BRANDS
Mt HAVE THESE. iWWI*
Then why pay $35.00 and $49.09 per ton when you can get a strictly high grade, reliable fertilizer at the following pr ices
IDRAL FRUIT AND VINE................ aoo per ton IDEAL FERTILIZER (for all crops)......... $27.00 per ton
IDBAL BLOOD, DON1E AND FOTA3H ....._ IO= oo pr to
IDEAL POTATO MANURE ..................ooper too SPECIAL MIXTURE No. I................. $28.oo per ton
IDEAL VEGETABLE MANURE........... $3.co per ton CORN FERTILIZER.....................$2o.oo per ton
All fertilizer material at the lowest market prices. Ask for our book "Why we make the IDEAL FERTILIZERS
WILSON & TOOMER FERTT .TIZ.R COMPANY,
Pig's oot Brand Blood s BOeS, 1&00 per te. Damavansd Gusas The Ideal Tobses lerili. 144.00 per t
I saar4 1Irr l'Irr I l~11N