Historic note
 Title Page
 Table of Contents

Group Title: Circular - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; 344-A
Title: Rose culture
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00047768/00001
 Material Information
Title: Rose culture
Series Title: Circular - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; 344-A
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: McFadden, S. E.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00047768
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

Circular 344-A








Selection and Use of Roses ...........................-..........- 3
Selecting Rose Cultivars 3.. -- ... .... ----........................- 3
Placement and Spacing .------.... ..........-.......-..-.. --. 4
Buying Plants ....- .-..-.......... ... .....-- 5
Site Selection and Soil Preparation -...-----.. ---.. .................- 6
Soil Amendments ... .. .......................... ...........- 7
Fertilization ............ ...-------------- .....------.. -. 8
Planting and Early Care -.... ---....................... ------- 8
Dormant Plants -..- .. ----------................. ..-- --- 8
Container Plants .........--- .....-----------------........... 8
Protect from W ind Damage --.....---.--.......------ ....... ...... 8
M maintenance ..............- ------------------ ---- -------- 10
Irrigation ..............-...... -- ----~........-------------...- 10
Fertilization ... .... ..--- ..... ..-- ....-- -----------10
M ulching ---. -.. ...---------------.... ............. --------------- 12
Pruning and Grooming ..................--.......----.. 12
Cutting Flowers ..--.........~-- .----............ ..-.- 14
In Summary ........ ...........-- .........---- .-. 14

Written by:
Dr. S. E. McFadden, Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist,
Agricultural Experiment Stations, IFAS, and Charles A. Con-
over, Director, Research Center, Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tions, Apopka.


The rose continues to be one of
the world's most popular flowers.
For centuries, roses have been
cultivated for garden landscaping
and as plants supplying cut-flowers
for the home. Improved cultivars
available today have increased this
long standing appreciation of roses
as flowering shrubs.
In Florida's year-round garden-
ing climate, the rose is an ever-
green shrub that will continue to
increase its flower production for
at least five years. Roses grow and
bloom all year in southern and cen-
tral Florida. They bloom at least
nine months of the year in north-
ern Florida, keeping some foliage
through the winter months.
A rose bush can supply more
blooms suitable for cutting than
any other flowering shrub. Each
year plants produce from five to
seven cycles or "flushes" of bloom
- of one to two weeks' duration -
and a few flowers between cycles.
In Florida roses are high main-
tenance plants. Plentiful supplies
of high quality roses can be ob-
tained only when the plants are
cared for properly and allowed to
reach mature size. Plants require
grooming over a long blooming
period and they require weekly ap-

plications of fungicide to control
the leaf disease blackspot. But, for
those who like to spend time in the
garden each week, growing roses
can be a rewarding hobby.
Leaves manufacture food for
growth. Preventing early loss of
foliage means controlling mites as
well as fungus causing blackspot.
Producing high quality flowers
means seasonal control practices
are needed for thrips and for the
fungus causing powdery mildew.
While most features of Florida
rose culture are the same as in
other regions, there are some dif-
ferences. Plants grow larger here
and should be given more space
than in colder climates. Winter
protection practices such as deep
planting or covering the tops are
not necessary, but the practice of
anchoring taller varieties to reduce
wind injury is necessary. Here, as
elsewhere, success depends upon
the selection of varieties and root-
stock which are suited to local con-
ditions. Everblooming varieties
grafted on Rosa fortuniana root-
stock are recommended, but ever-
blooming varieties with other
kinds of root systems can be grown

Selection and Use of Roses

Selecting Rose Cultivars

Indoor display in cut flower
arrangements, and outdoor display
in garden landscape plantings, are

two distinct uses of roses. Some
rose cultivars (cvs) are equally
suitable for either use, but most
rose cvs serve in one of these uses
better than the other. Consider

your intended use of roses when
choosing plant material. Some of
the currently popular roses ap-
proved by Florida home gardeners,
are shown in Tables 1-4. Those in
Table 1 are grouped in three use
classes: cultivars in the leftside
column supply excellent flowers for
cutting: cvs in the right side col-
umn form more attractive bushes
that bloom freely; cvs in the center
column combine qualities of roses
in the left and right columns and
are suited in both uses.
Preference for roses with a
special trait may guide your selec-
tion. Some gardeners will prefer
roses with a particular flower color,
form or scent. A descriptive code
indicates some special traits of
each rose listed in Tables 1-4.
Those interested in history of
gardening may want to include
older cvs in their planting, such
as those listed in Table 2.
Even on small properties, or
within a small, sunny patio, there
may be enough space to grow mini-
ature roses, such as those listed
in Table 3.
Only a few climbing-roses pro-
duce enough flowers here to justify
weekly care, but these few are
appreciated. In locations where
support can be provided by a trel-
lis, fence, the trunk of a palm or
the trunk of a tall pine, you may
choose to plant and train a climb-
ing rose specimen. Those consid-
ered suitable in all parts of the
state are listed in Table 4.
Many of the roses that flower
only in the Spring months need
colder winters to bloom satisfac-
torily; even in northern Florida

these flower profusely only after
an unusually cold winter. Choose
recurrent or everblooming cvs in
place of seasonal flowering cvs, as
a general rule. There are a few
exceptional ones that do bloom
reliably each year.
Newer roses, those with 17-year
plant patents still in effect, are
propagated by nurseries with large
volume production. Plants of these
cvs are more readily available from
nursery distributors than those of
cvs introduced at an earlier date.
They are often more expensive
than the non-patented cvs that
continue to be propagated for sale.
Cultivars producing cut flowers
that open slowly and keep a pointed
high center of firm petals are
valued by flower show exhibitors.
These qualities make best sellers
of certain cultivars among rose

Placement and Spacing
Except when featured as speci-
men plants, rose bushes are usually
grouped in the same area rather
than in scattered plantings. Group-
ing roses in beds makes a more
attractive display of flowers, and
simplifies soil preparation and
maintenance. These beds can be
rectangular in outline or curved to
conform to landscape contours. The
gardener may curb or flag edges
to maintain well-defined bed areas.
Beds four to six feet wide are
recommended for single and two-
row plantings with the plants
spaced alternately, so that both
sides can be reached easily.
Cultivated areas wider than six
feet can be prepared for a rose

planting, but it is best to group
rosebushes in one-row or two-row
units within the clean cultivated
area. Beds or units with three or
more closely spaced rows are dif-
ficult to maintain after the first
year. Leave at least a three foot
aisle between beds or units.
Roses grow much larger in Flor-
ida than in states where the aver-
age temperature, light intensity
and humidity are lower. Therefore,
recommended spacing intervals are
wider than in other states.
The bed space required by each
rosebush can be related to its
growth habit. The surface space
allowed for different plant growth
habits ranges from a circle of one
foot diameter for the smallest, to
a circle eight feet in diameter for
the largest shrubs. The growth
habit and related space require-
ment for each bush cv are shown
in Table 1.
The height attained by each
bush cv needs to be considered in
choosing its planting location.
Placement of taller cvs on the
northside of lower cvs prevents
shading of the smaller plant. In
garden displays, taller cvs should
be used as background for lower
cvs, so the small plants can be
All in-line plantings of rose-
bushes to form borders or hedges
should be in open locations that
provide access on both sides of the
row for ease of maintenance.

Buying Plants
An important consideration in
buying rose plants is the kind of
root system present. Florida Co-

operative Experiment Stations
tests have determined that roses
grafted on Rosa fortuniana root-
stock grow larger, more vigor-
ously, produce more flowers and
live several years longer than
plants grown on any other root-
Grafted plants are composed of
two different roses; one forms the
root system (rootstock) and the
other the top (scion). Most rose
plants sold have been grafted on
one of three different rootstocks.
Of the three standard rootstocks,
Fortuniana, (Rosa fortuniana,
Double White Cherokee or Ever-
green Cherokee) gives the best
results. Dr. Huey (Shafter) is
second best and Multiflora (Rosa
multiflora) the least satisfactory
rootstock because it is shortest-
lived under Florida conditions.
Plants referred to as "tree roses"
are grafted on one to three-foot
stem lengths of the rootstock
variety rather than on the six-inch
lengths used to produce bush form
Plants on their own roots tops
and roots from the same cutting-
are on the market and are satis-
factory for the older shrub varie-
ties. Dwarf cultivars are fre-
quently sold on their own root, but
perform better when grafted. With
the exception of the older shrub
cultivars, plants grafted on any
of the standard rootstocks live
longer and produce more flowers
than when grown on their own
Rose bushes sold in Florida come
from two main sources: locally
propagated plants grafted on Rosa

fortuniana rootstock, and field
grown plants shipped in from
other states, which are grafted on
one of the less desirable rootstocks.
Locally propagated plants in con-
tainers are now available from
some Florida nurseries. These
plants are marketed in bloom seven
to nine months after propagation,
and are usually smaller than older
field-grown plants. The customer
benefits by receiving a young plant
which forms most of its main root
branches after it is transplanted.
Field-grown plants, one to two
years old are available from out-
of-state sources between October
and March. They are marketed by
mail-order and local sources, either
as dormant, bare root plants or as
container-grown plants by local
nursery and sales yards. Nursery-
men transplant dormant plants
into containers, maintain them for
about three months, then market
them in bloom. Much of the risk
involved in early handling of dor-
mant field-grown plants is ab-
sorbed by these nurserymen.
Rose plants marketed from one

source are not all equally well
formed. Grading serves to distin-
guish the better plants from poorly
developed ones. The superior grade
plants give better results than in-
ferior grades. There are two dif-
ferent grading systems for roses
in Florida, one for dormant bare
root plants and one for container-
grown plants. Dormant rose plants
are graded number 1, number 11/2
and number 2, based on size and
number of canes. Grade number
1 is best.
Container-grown rose plants are
graded by standards that have
been defined by the Division of
Plant Industry (Gainesville) for
each of three grades "Florida
Fancy," "Florida No. 1" and "Flor-
ida No. 2." Plants which do not
conform to standards for one of
these grades are not eligible for
any Florida grade label. Under
these standards, the kind of root
system must be stated on the label.
The best quality rose plant obtain-
able is a "Florida Fancy" con-
tainer-grown plant with Rosa for-
tuniana rootstock.

Site Selection and Soil Preparation

Plant roses where they will get
direct sunlight for at least six
hours during the day. Where some
shading cannot be avoided, loca-
tions which supply morning sun-
light are preferred. Morning sun
will dry dew on the leaves and
thus the chances for blackspot in-
fection are lessened. .Roots of
nearby plants will compete with
those of roses for available nutri-
ents and moisture and open loca-

tions are preferred for this reason.
The best soil for growing roses
is one that has good drainage,
which allows air and water move-
ment to and from roots, and will
hold an adequate supply of mois-
ture and nutrients. Nutrients are
most readily available to the roots
in a moderately acid to slightly
acid soil (pH 5.5 to 6.5). Most
Florida soils do not have all the
desirable properties so they must

be provided artificially.
Roses are relatively tolerant of
salt spray and can be grown satis-
factorily near salt water with ade-
quate soil preparation and main-
Roses should not be planted in
poorly drained bog or marsh areas.
Minor drainage problems of low
areas can be improved by ditching
or raising the bed level several
inches. Some soils have a "clay
pan" or "hard pan" layer near the
soil surface which should either be
dug out or broken and mixed with
the other soil.
Most native sandy soils have low
water and nutrient holding capaci-
ties and nutrients are easily
leached beyond the roots by heavy
rains. As a result, plants may
suffer from drought only a few
days after rain or irrigation, and
from nutrient deficiency only a few
weeks after fertilization. Such
soils can be improved with soil

Soil Amendments
Materials can be added to soil
before planting that will increase
the water holding capacity, im-
prove the nutrient balance and
change the soil reaction (pH).
Preplanting soil amendments not
only improve plant growth and
beauty but reduce the effort needed
to keep plants growing well. Soil
amendments can be included either
in the entire bed area or in the
planting hole for each plant.
Organic amendments used to in-
crease aeration, water holding
capacity and mineral nutrient re-
tention include compost, leafmold,

peat, muck, sawdust, wood shav-
ings and manures. As much as a 4-
inch layer of any of these mate-
rials or any combination of two
or more will improve most soils.
Mix amendments thoroughly and
evenly to a depth of 12 inches.
These materials are especially
beneficial when added to light,
sandy soils and to soils which com-
pact easily.
Each of these amendments has
some disadvantage. Compost takes
time to prepare. Peat, muck and
manure often have large numbers
of weed seeds and should be fumi-
gated to kill weed seed. Some
native peats are very acid in re-
action and require the addition of
lime to raise the pH. Muck may
be very alkaline in reaction and
require sulfur to lower the pH.
Some imported peats contain toxic
levels of salts and may require
leaching before use.
Undecomposed materials such as
sawdust may produce temporary
nitrogen deficiency unless extra
nitrogen is added during the first
year after soil is amended. In ad-
dition to the maintenance fertilizer
schedule, three or four applica-
tions of ammonium sulphate at the
rate of / pound per 100 square
feet should be made during spring
and summer months.
The soil reaction should be
tested after adding the above
amendments. Further amendment
with dolomitic limestone will be
needed if the pH is less than 5.5,
or with sulfur of the pH is greater
than 6.5. On acid sandy soils each
100 square feet will require the
addition of 6 pounds of dolomitic

limestone to raise the pH one unit,
or 2 pounds of sulfur to lower the
pH one unit. On very alkaline or
very acid soils additional applica-
tions of these materials may be
needed after planting to maintain
a suitable soil reaction. Your
county Extension Directors can
have soil tested for pH and fertili-
zer amendments needed.


Where need is indicated by a
soil analysis, phosphorus should be
mixed with the soil before planting
because it moves downward slowly

from surface application in all
except strongly acid sandy soils.
Use superphosphate at the rate of
4 pounds per 100 square feet of
Slow release and natural organic
fertilizers (such as Agrinite, cot-
tonseed meal, castor pomace, Mil-
organite, Ureaform) and a micro-
element mixture (such as Perk,
Es-min-el, Fritted Trace Ele-
ments) may be added at planting
time if desired. Regular applica-
tions of additional fertilizer as
described under "Maintenance"
should be started as soon as new
shoots develop.

Planting and Early Care

Dormant Plants
Dormant bare-root plants which
are available from October to
March will be in bloom about 10
weeks after planting. Planting is
best delayed in northern Florida
until December or January because
in this area repeated freeze injury
to new shoots exhausts stored food
and can kill plants which do not
have well established root systems.
Most failures of healthy dor-
mant plants result from insuffi-
cient water. Since rainfall is light
during winter months, plants
should be watered daily until
growth starts, and weekly after
growth starts. A temporary soil
mound will help keep lower parts
of canes moist. Dormant canes that
have failed to produce shoots with-
in two weeks after planting should
be covered with burlap, Spanish
moss or transparent plastic and

kept moist. Covers should be re-
moved when new shoots start to
Occasionally dormant plants fail
to grow because of cold injury in
storage or in transit.

Container Plants

Leafy container-grown plants
can be transplanted whenever
available without disturbing the
roots. If wilting occurs after
planting despite daily watering,
either prune the plants, pick off
some of the leaves, shade, or spray
with a film-forming emulsion.
These practices reduce water loss
from the plant and aid root growth.

Protect from Wind Damage
Plants should be tied to a well
anchored stake or trellis support
to protect them from wind damage.






.' ", ROSE



'^ ^~S ^.^
^-i ^^ ^

Metal stakes made from pipe sec-
tions, electrical conduit or rein-
forcing rods are quite satisfactory.

Ties of some durable, soft material
such as plastic clothesline should
be used.


Florida's high light intensity,
warm temperatures and mild win-
ters cause roses to make some
growth all year and more growth
during warm months than in
northern states. Therefore, main-
tenance is required during the en-
tire year. Since winter injury to
mature wood of established rose
bushes rarely occurs, even in
northern Florida, severe pruning
and coverings used in colder re-
gions to prevent freeze injury are
not needed. More flowers are pro-
duced during summer than during
cooler seasons, but during the
cooler season the flower color is
more intense and there are more
In Florida, average yearly rain-
fall is about 50 inches. Rainfall is
heaviest during the warm summer
months. Occasional heavy rains
which cause soil flooding for two
or more days leach fertilizer from
the soil and interfere with soil
aeration, causing plants to drop
older leaves. Healthy plants, how-
ever, recover quickly.

Applications of water especially
are needed during the dry winter
months and during drought peri-
ods which can occur any time of
year. Accumulation of water sol-
uble salts in root area and the
resulting injury to roots is pre-
vented by thorough irrigation.

In most locations, roses should
be irrigated with one inch of water
once each week unless a similar
amount of rain falls. Two applica-
tions per week may be necessary on
unamended sandy soils. Watering
should be scheduled the day before
the weekly pesticide spray is ap-
plied as plants well supplied with
moisture are less susceptible to
injury from pesticides. Water is
best applied to the soil surface to
avoid washing the protective coat-
ing of pesticides from the leaves.
When overhead sprinkling must be
used, water early enough for leaves
to dry before sundown.
Plants should be washed with
water immediately after broad-
casting commercial fertilizers as
the chemicals will burn leaf and
stem parts if left on the plant.

For detailed information on
fertilizers see Agricultural Exten-
sion Service Bulletin 177, Know
Your Fertilizers.
The three primary plant food
elements (also called major or
macro-elements), nitrogen, phos-
phorus and potassium are con-
tained in most commercial fertili-
zers. The analysis numbers on a
fertilizer label indicate percentages
of these primary elements in the
above order. For example, a
12-4-8 fertilizer contains 12% ni-
trogen (N), 4 % phosphorus

(P205) and 8% potassium (K20) ;
this approximates a 3-1-2 analysis
Regular applications of commer-
cial fertilizers are needed to re-
place supplies of primary plant
foods as they are used by the plant
and leached from the root area.
Phosphorus is likely to accumulate
to toxic levels when applied as
frequently as nitrogen and potas-
sium (potash). Alternating appli-
cations of two commercial fertili-
zer mixtures, one containing no
phosphorus, or use of a fertilizer
with a low level of phosphorus is
recommended. A fertilizer such as
10-0-10 or one with a similar 1-0-1
analysis ratio should be used for
the first two applications on soil
amended with superphosphate be-
fore planting. In routine fertiliz-
ing, each application of the 1-0-1
ratio fertilizer should be followed
after 10 weeks with an application
of a fertilizer such as 8-8-8 or one
with a similar 1-1-1 analysis ratio.
Newer fertilizer formulations with
a 3-1-2 analysis ratio can be sub-
stituted for alternate use of a 1-1-1
and a 1-0-1 analysis ratio.
A commercial fertilizer should
be applied to rose plantings 5 to 7
times a year, (each time plants
produce a flush of bloom). This
program will provide plants grown
in south Florida about 7 fertiliza-
tions a year and those in north
Florida about 5. The amount of
fertilizer applied each time to 100
square feet of surface is deter-
mined by the percentage of nitro-
gen (the first analysis number):
two pounds for 6% to 10% nitro-
gen; one pound for 10% to 15%

This fertilizing schedule may be
varied depending on season, loca-
tion, or the size of plants. Roses
may be fertilized as often as once
a month, but the amount of fertili-
zer for each application should be
reduced proportionally. More fre-
quent applications are needed dur-
ing summer months when fertili-
zer may be leached from the soil
by heavy rains. The stated amount
of fertilizer should be reduced for
small plants. In northern Florida,
fertilizer should be applied lightly
between November 1 and February
1 since tender new growth-stim-
ulated by fertilization and warm
weather is susceptible to freeze
damage in this area.
Natural organic fertilizers -
such as manure, castor pomace,
Milorganite, Floraganite and Ag-
rinite contain nitrogen which is
slowly available and lasts longer
than soluble commercial fertilizer.
These materials are often added
to commercial fertilizers to supply
a percentage of the total nitrogen
from organic sources. Natural or-
ganic fertilizers also supply some
secondary plant foods (also known
as minor or micro-elements).
The required secondary plant
foods are usually replaced by the
use of organic mulches and fertiliz-
ers after planting. Their avail-
ability to the plant is insured by
maintaining a moderate to slightly
acid soil reaction.
In some locations a shortage of
one or more primary or secondary
elements will occur despite at-
tempted soil improvements, a de-
ficiency of any one element may

result in poor growth of plants.
Persistent deficiency symptoms
should be corrected as soon as
noted. Iron deficiency symptoms
often appear during the summer
months on plants with Multiflora
root systems, then disappear in the
cool fall months.
*Iron is the only element known
to be deficient frequently in garden
roses in Florida, other than the
three primary plant food elements.
Based on observations of other
plants, magnesium, copper, and
boron may also become deficient
in certain soils. Symptoms of
manganese or zinc deficiencies
might appear if pesticides contain-
ing these elements are not used
Be cautious in applying chemical
preparations to correct deficiency
of an element, since excessive
amounts are also harmful to the
The choice of preparations (or
materials) to correct mineral defi-
ciencies, the method of application
- spraying the foliage or applying
directly to the soil and the rates
to be used are based on the nature
of the soil and condition of the
plants. Consult your county agent
in correcting persistent nutrient

Maintaining an organic mulch
(soil covering) will reduce loss of
soil moisture, reduce weed growth
and provide some nutrients to the
plants. After planting, apply a
two-inch layer of compost, hay,
sawdust, pine needles, pecan shells,
sugarcane bagasse or other avail-

able natural materials to the sur-
face of the bed. Replenish it as it
Baled hay which is spoiled for
animal feeding is suitable for plant
mulching. Peanut shells should not
be used unless fumigated since
they may contain parasitic nema-
todes. This layers of leaves or
grass clippings can be used as a
soil covering, but are best decom-
posed first; thick layers tend to
form a thatch which will shed
water. Compost (mixtures of
partly decomposed vegetable mat-
ter) can be prepared either in open
bins or in closed garbage cans.
Remove weeds in rose beds by
pulling or cutting with a hoe.
Spading may damage roots which
develop immediately under the

Pruning and Grooming
Grooming is a regular feature of
rose culture. It consists of selec-
tively trimming at monthly inter-
vals to keep plants healthy, attrac-
tive and productive. Removing
faded flowers after each flush of
bloom improves plant appearance
and prevents fruit development.
This conserves food material for
additional growth.
To produce exhibition flowers,
remove the lateral flower buds as
they form, allowing one bud to
mature on each stem. To regulate
the time of bloom for a particular
variety pinch out all flower buds
as they form until 28 to 34 days
before flowering is desired.
Flower buds should be removed
for the first two months after
planting to encourage growth and


help to establish a new plant. The
first flowers allowed to develop
should be cut with short stems to
leave as much foliage as possible
on the plant. Plants should be well
established before flowers are cut
with longer stems, and then only
cut the length of stem needed.
Remove suckers (leafy shoots)
that develop from the rootstock
below the graft union by breaking
them off rather than by cutting
in order to remove all basal buds.
Rootstock suckers can be recog-
nized by their location and their
different leaf appearance.
Remove dead wood and canes
showing stem disease symptoms
when they are first noticed. Cut
the affected part back to healthy
wood and remove the affected part
from the garden area.

Pruning should be done once
each year during December or
January in central and northern
Florida. In southern Florida prun-
ing may be needed twice each year
to keep plants to a manageable
size. These two prunings can be
scheduled during March and late
August to avoid interrupting win-
ter flowering. Major yearly prun-
ing consists of removing some
healthy top growth as well as
twigs and branches that are dead,
diseased, injured, unsightly or thin
and spindly. Shortening main
canes and lateral, branches re-
moving small twigs and some of
the oldest canes improves the
plant's form. It also regulates
height and produces better light
conditions within the plant. Leave
at least half the length of each


x /
Axillary bud
Sat base of



main cane that is one to three
years old. The first flowers can be
expected eight to nine weeks after
To avoid dieback and encourage
rapid healing, pruning cuts should
be made just above a dormant bud
(eye) and wound surfaces larger
than thumb size should be pro-
tected with a pruning paint. When
an entire branch is removed, make
a smooth cut at the point of junc-

Cutting Flowers
When cutting flowers consider
the arrangement in which they are
to be used. Larger, more open
flowers to be used low in the con-
tainer need less stem length than
tighter buds to be used for height.
Cut buds after the green sepals
fold back toward the stem and the
outside petals loosen and start to
unfurl. Blooms cut in tighter bud
will fail to open.
Use a sharp knife or pruning
shears for cutting flowers and
make a clean cut just above a well
developed five-leaflet leaf. Dieback
may result from leaving a ragged
cut or a long stub above the dor-
mant bud.

In Summary
A schedule of rose maintenance
includes: spraying and irrigation
each week, grooming and fertiliz-
ing after each flush of bloom,
pruning and mulching during each
winter season. This caring for the
health of the rose plant, can pro-
vide an abundance of bloom that
extends through the growing sea-
scn of many years.

KEY TO CULTIVAR (cv) DESCRIPTION CODE relative classes aisign4 for traits of each rose, as used on pages 1618.

Flower color class (ARS):
ab apricot blend
dr dark red
dy deep yellow
Ip light pink
Ir light red & deep pink
m mauve
mp medium pink
mr medium red
my medium yellow
ob orange & orange blend
or orange red
pb pink blend
r russet
rb red blend
w white and nearly white
yb yellow blend
bic bicolor: different
color on reverse of

Flower form terms:
sgl single, 5-petal flower
dbl double, many petals
semidbl about 10 petals

Individual flower size class:
a' very large
a large flower
b medium-large
c medium size
d medium-small
e small flower
e' very small

Flower scent class:
f fragrant
f' very fragrant

Inflorescence class; typical
grouping of flowers on a single
stem, a stem separated by one
true leaf or more:
v" one flower per stem, always
v' one flower per stem, usually
v one earlier, plus 1 or 2
later opening side buds.
x Loose group of 3 or 4 fls.
y compact group of 3 or 4 fls.
z group of 5 to 9 flowers
z' group of 10 to 19 flowers.
z" group of 20 or more flowers.

Plant growth habit and space requirement class:

Tables 1 and 2
Bush or shrub height and width
t"s extra tall, spreading
t"u extra tall, upright
t's very tall, spreading
t'u very tall, upright
ts tall, spreading
tu tall, upright
ms medium, spreading
mu medium, upright
Is low, spreading
lu low, upright
l's very low, spreading
l'u very low, upright

of space
9 feet
8 feet
7 feet
6 feet
5 feet
4 feet
3 feet
3 feet
2 feet
2 feet
1 feet
1 foot

Table 3
Miniature rose cvs: determined by
mature plant height 2/3rdsht.
Table 4
Climbing, prostrate or trailing cvs: 2/3rds
determined by mature length of MLC
canes (MLC).


Valued for cutting
Newest tested cultivars:
American Home dr a
Bewitched mp a:
Burnaby w a
Carla Ip a
Champagne yb a
*Christian Dior mr a
Elizabeth of Glamis pb c
Fragrant Cloud or a:
Gail Borden pb a
*Garden Party w a
Garden State mp a
Golden Garnette dy ci
Golden Masterpiece my a
Invitation ab a
Lady-X m a
Lavender Charm m ai
Lemon Spice my al
Lotte Gunthart mr a
Memorium Ip a
Mexicana rb bicolor a
*Mister Lincoln mr a
*Montezuma or b

Roses that bloom in all seasons, with separate tables for different kinds
Best sellers in 1960's marked with asterisk*

Table 1. NEWER BUSH OR SHRUB CULTIVARS, grouped by main use
and by time of introduction, descriptive code explained on p. 16.
Equal in both cut & garden display use
Newest tested cultivars:

f v

E v
f y
f v

Allgold my c y
Angel face m cf y
Bellina pb c y
Bettina ob a v
Blithe Spirit Ip a v
*Confidence pb a v
*Chicago Peace pb a v
*Circus yb c z
Ebb Tide ab a v
El Capitan mr b x
Europeana dr c z
First Prize pb bicolor a v
Fusilier or c y
Gene Boerner mp c z
*Granada rb bf x
Grand Slam mr a v
High Esteem pb bicolor af v
Indiana mr a v
Iceberg w c y
IceWhite w c y
Little Darling yb d z
Miss All-Amer Beauty mp a v

Valued for garden display
Newest tested cultivars:

Americana mr
Belle Blonde my
Carrousel dr
Camelot mp
Duet mp
Ginger or
Golden Girl my
Jamaica mr bicolor
Pink-A-Boo mp
Pink Parfait pb
Polka mp
Sarabande or semi-dbl.
Soraya or
*Spartan or
Strawberry Blonde or
Sumatra or
Sunspot my
Tom Tom Ir
White Bouquet w
Zambra ob


New Love rb
Oklahoma dr
Red Chief mr
San Francisco or
*South Seas mp
The Alamo mr
Thanksgiving ob
*Tropicana or

*Chrysler Imperial dr
Columbia mp
Dainty Bess Ip single
Diamond Jubilee yb
*Eclipse my
Ellen Wilmott pb single
First Love Ip
Garnette dr
Pink Garnette mp
President Macia Ip
Suzon Lotthe pb

a' v
af v
af v
a' v
a' x
a v
a v
a v

af v
a v
a x
a v
a v"
a x
a v
c z
c z
a' v
a v

Ole' or
Pink Fragrance mp
Roundelay dr
*Royal Highness Ip
Saratoga w
Scarlet Knight mr
Starfire mr
*Swarthmore pb
*Tiffany pb
*Queen Elizabeth mp

Recent, non-patented
Chic pb
Michele Meilland pb
Orange Triumph or
*Peace yb
Permanent Wave mr
Pink Rosette Ip
*Rosenelfe mp
Rubaiyat Ir
Show Girl mp
Tawny Gold dy

c y mu
a v ms
d z" ms
a v tu
c y ts
c z Is
c z ts
af v tu
a v mu
af v Is

Recent, non-patented cultivars:
Darling Ip a v
Faust yb c y
Gabrielle Privat mp e z"
*Margo Koster ob d z'
Ma Perkins pb c y
Mission Bells pb a v
Mothersday dr d z'
Mrs. Arthur Waddell ab a v
Nastarana w c z
Pedralbes w a x
Picture lp a v
Pigmy Gold dy d z
Pink Summer Snow Ip c z
Pinocchio pb c z
Radiance lp a v
*Red Pinocchio dr c z
Red Radiance Ir a v
Snowbird w a v
*Summer Snow w c z
The Fairy lp e z'
Topas my d z
Vogue pb c y

Recent, non-patented cultivars:
*Charlotte Armstrong Ir a v


Blush Noisette Ip
Cromoisi Superieur mr
Eugene E. Marlitt mr
Lady Hillingdon ab.
Louis Philippe mr
Maman Cochet mp
Mrs. Dudley Cross yb
Old Blush Ip
Pink Pet mp
Rosette Delizy yb
Rosa chinensis varieties:
mutabilis (Tipo
Ideale) rb
sempreflorens mr
viridiflora (Green
Rosa roxburghii
(Chestnut R.) Ip
Sanguinea mr
Souv. de Gilbert
Nabonnand yb
The Bride w

c z
c y

c z ms

Table 3. MINIATURE (min.) ROSES, dwarf
plants with small flowers, grouped by time

Newest tested cultivars:
Chipper or
Cricri mp
Dwarfking mr
Jackie w
June Time Ip
Little Buckaroo mr
Pink Cameo mp cig. min.
*Scarlet Gem or
Starina lr
Toy Clown rb
Yellow Doll my

Recent, non-patented cultivars:
Bo Peep mp
*Cinderella w

Plt. ht.

y 24"
y 30"
y 24"
y 18"
y 30"
y 30"
z 60"
y 24"
y 18"
y 18"
y 18"

e' y 20"
e z 18"

Table 4. CLIMBING (clg.) ROSES, grouped by
time of introduction.

Newest tested cultivars:
Blossomtime mp
Clair Matin mp
*Don Juan dr
Royal Gold my
Sea Foam w trailing

Recent, non-patented cultivars:
*Climbing Pinkie mp
Climbing Snowbird w
New Dawn lp

Older climbing cvs:
Clb. Mamman Cochet mp
Reve d'Or my

y 7'
z 8'
v 9'
v 12'
z 6'

z 9'
v 12'
y 15'

y 20'
y '20'

b y ms
b y tu

Additional information is available from 10 local societies affiliated with the American Rose Society (ARS). Inquiry about rose societies in
your area and other literature on selection and culture of roses can be sent to ARS, 4048 Roselea Place, Columbus, Ohio 43214.

This public document was promulgated at a total cost of
$1,015.74, or .051 cents per copy for the purpose of informing
the public on growing roses.


(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida
and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
Joe N. Busby, Dean




Professional training in scientific FLORI-
CULTURE can be obtained at the University
of Florida College of Agriculture. You can
prepare for a rewarding future as grower,
researcher, teacher, consultant, greenhouse
manager or other positions in a challenging
high income specialized field concerned with
the most scientific physiological and bio-
chemical aspects of plant growth.

There's a career
in agriculture for you
For further information, write
Dean C. B. Browning, College of Agriculture
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs