Citation
The Military and militia in colonial Spanish America, St. Augustine, Florida

Material Information

Title:
The Military and militia in colonial Spanish America, St. Augustine, Florida
Creator:
Arana, Luis R
Johnson, Mark
Florida -- National Guard
Place of Publication:
St. Augustine, Fla.
Publisher:
Department of Military Affairs, Florida National Guard
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
3 v. : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
History, Military -- Florida ( lcsh )
History -- Florida -- Spanish colony, 1565-1763 ( lcsh )
History -- Florida -- Spanish colony, 1784-1821 ( lcsh )
History -- Saint Augustine (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Reprint of works and articles by Luis Arana, Mark Johnson, and others about military history of Spanish Florida published during the past twenty years.
Funding:
The Florida National Guard's Special Archives Publications was digitized, in part by volunteers, in honor of Floridians serving both Floridians in disaster response and recovery here at home and the nation oversees.

Record Information

Source Institution:
Florida National Guard
Holding Location:
Florida National Guard, St. Augustine Barracks
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the Florida National Guard. Digitized with permission.
Resource Identifier:
000936817 ( ALEPH )
16414203 ( OCLC )
AEP7960 ( NOTIS )

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FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS

FLORIDA NATIONAL GUARD





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Items collected here were originally published by the
Florida National Guard, many as part of its SPECIAL
ARCHIVES PUBLICATION series. Contact the Florida
National Guard for additional information.

The Florida National Guard reserves all rights to
content originating with the Guard.



DIGITIZATION

Titles from the SPECIAL ARCHIVES PUBLICATION series
were digitized by the University of Florida in
recognition of those serving in Florida's National
Guard, many of whom have given their lives in
defense of the State and the Nation.








Department of Military Affairs

Florida National Guard







00 \yL







LIVING HISTORY CONTEXTUAL MATERIALS
SPANISH FLORIDA MILITIA AND GARRISON SOLDIERS
1740














The enclosed reference materials are for use as background for
the 1740 Staff Ride. Included are:

...Orders of Dress; Spanish Florida 1740

...Daily life for a Spanish Florida Soldier 1740

...1728 Spanish Infantry Drill; Appropriate to 1740

...Spanish Artillery Drill; Appropriate to 1740

...Spanish Fife and Drum Calls; 1740



















SPANISH ORDER OF DRESS 1740








ORDERS OF DRESS




Being the Proper Usages
of Arms, Clothing, & Accoutrements



in the Castillo de San Marcos

and in the streets of


San Agustin de la Florida




File: B:ORDERS


EL VESTUARIO DE LOS SOLDADOS DEL PRESIDIO DE SAN AGUSTIN EN 1740

THE ORDERS OF DRESS

In reveiwing what information could be found, the Research and
Resource Committee found time and time again that the experts consider
the 1730's-1740's to be a "transition period" in which patterns and
usages were in a transition from the early 18th century seen in the
1700-1720 Marlborough Wars" or the War of Spanish Succesion ( Queen
Anne's War in some of our literature) and those styles that were in
use in the middle of the 18th century such as the Seven Years War (
called in North America the French and Indian War). Considering the
role and status of San Agustin in the period, the Research and
Resource Committee recommends that whenever there is a possibility
that an article or weapon might be of one (earlier) pattern or another
(later) one, it is more logical to assume that the earlier pattern was
to be found in this presidio. San Agustin was not the kind of place
that received the newest equipment or the latest fashions.

Most of the surviving artwork of Spanish troops in the 18th century
was made of men in their formal, garrison duty dress; the best, the
Teatro Militar de EurMpa by the Marquis Alfonso Taccoli, Duke of Parma
(1760), was a collection of watercolors done of the various troops of
the three Bourbon monarchies of 18th century Europe: Spain, France,
and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies. It was supposed to show the king the
troops at their best. In recent correspondence with Ulrich Koch of
Germany who did the original research into "reconstructing" the
uniform of the presidial troops of Florida in 1969, Mr. Koch
recommended to Garrison members to give greater reliance on
information from artwork than on the limited documentary sources
relating to San Agustin before the Reglamento de 1753. He
particularly recommended the Teatro Militar de Euroga for guidance, as
well as a painting of troops in the "Plaza Mayor de la Ciudad de
Mexico", a painting done in our period here in the New World. An
effort is underway to obtain a slide of this painting, now hanging in
the Museo Nacional de la Historia in Mexico City.

For the purposes of Living History in San Agustin, the formal,
garrison duty order of dress should be followed by troops on duty in
Castillo de San Marcos, or at the City Gate, or on guard at the
Governor's House. In these places, the soldado was under the eye of
his superior officers and undergoing periodic inspections. He was on
duty in a formal sense and his dress and posture should reflect that.




File: BORDERS



THE ORDER OF DRESS FOR GARRISON SERVICE:

Military Tricorn with Red Cockade
Cravat
Shirt
Breeches
Greatcoat
Waistcoat $* In consideration of our hot summers and recognizing
the fact that most members are not accustomed to wear this
dress 7 days week it will continue to be acceptable for
members to NOT wear waistcoats under the greatcoat in
extreme conditions.

However, if at all possible, if there is a choice between
wearing a greatcoat and wearing just a waistcoat, a more
correct impression is given by the greatcoat in Garrison
service.

Deep Red Stockings
18th century shoes with buckles

Waistbelt, plain natural brown leather well-oiled
Side arms: A man does not look "complete" without sidearms.
Bayonet W* ALWAYS, often even "off-duty" **
Sword, of the infantry hangar type, if owned
Note: It is perfectly acceptable for a soldier to turn out
for duty with just his bayonet

** Machetes are NOT appropriate for formal duty

Musket, iron and brass well-cleaned and oiled

Cartridge box, either the later over-the-shoulder model
or
the earlier bellybox model is acceptable.

"Polvorin" Priming Flask, carried on a flat 1/2 inch plain
natural leather, well-oiled over the right
shoulder. For guidance, see Brinckerhoff's book
on Spanish arms in colonial America 1700-1821.

Ordinary powder horns of the Anglo-American
pattern are not encouraged.

Note: A separate powder flask will be necessary to
do the proper musket drill of 1728. The present
drill is of 1755 vintage.


Sargents should carry their Halberds. No art shows Spanish
sargents wearing sashes in this period or wearing ammunition
boxes.





File: BORDERS


Officers should carry their Spontoons and wear their Gorgets. No
sashes are seen on art work of Spanish officers, either.

Sargents and Officers may carry a cane. If drilling the troops
is the activity involved, the polearms are laid aside and the
cane is used exclusively.

The practice in this presidio of not wearing swords during cannon
drill is confirmed as appropriate.


NO ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT IS RECOMMENDED FOR FORMAL, GARRISON SERVICE.



Although the primary duties of the three independent companies of the
Presidio de San Agustin de la Florida involved the defense of the
Castillo and this city, it is obvious that from time to time these men
had to go into the field to patrol the coasts and "el monte" or "the
bush" of this wild province. Hard evidence on field service items is
scarce. Line regiments in Europe are represented in some artwork with
some field gear, but these were regiments which were expected to go
into the field on campaign. They were not companiess fijos" or fixed
companies like the various garrisons defending the Caribbean in the
18th century.



ORDERS OF DRESS, FIELD SERVICE:

All of the Garrison Service Articles and Arms as well as:

Gaiters (Note: These were extremely popular in Spain for many
years; there are many examples found in civilian 18th
century art such as hunting scenes, kite-flying larks,
and other outdoor activities.)

Machetes Historian Luis Arana has stated that machetes were not
acceptable as formal weapons until the Second Spanish
period; they are found by the hundreds on inventories
of the Castillo de San Marcos, but their status is that
of .a tool.

Belt Axes A few are found on Castillo inventories, but again it
would seem that they are tools. Every man should not
have a tomahawk in his kit. A few might be seen on a
patrol. The European handax, sometimes called a toma-
hawk, was found in Spanish American colonies, but not
as popular as the ever-present machete.

Belt Knives No hard information found here. Knives of the
style sold by Avalon Forge are common in Hispanic
America, but they are not dress uniform items, and
most probably should be carried inside the




File: BORDERS


haversack, rather than the practice that has
developed of wearing them on garrison duty.

Haversack NO HAVERSACKS ARE SEEN IN ART OF SPANISH TROOPS ON
FORMAL DUTY. This is an article of marching
dress, and would not be needed on formal duty in
the fort.

Haversacks were used in the 18th century to carry
the eating utensils and issued rations, such as
three days worth.of bread. If a Garrison member is
having clothing made, make sure there are
functional pockets to hold car keys, lighters, and
cigarettes, etc. It is recommended that these
Anachronisms not be carried in haversacks where
the public might see them and the impression of
the 18th century soldado be compromised.

It is perfectly fine to wear a haversack from the
old auto up to the Castillo, but it is not logical
to wear it on guard duty throughout the day.

Knapsacks Again, not much hard information. The few art
examples show a square sack with a wide leather
strap worn over the shoulder like the haversack,
and leather closures with brass buckles.

Knapsacks are for spare clothing, blanket,etc.
Again, this is not something that a soldier on
duty just down the street from his home would
be wearing at the Castillo.

Canteens More research is needed before a recommendation
can be made.

The Research and Resource Committee did'agree that
wooden canteen seen in the Revolutionary War in
the American army was not appropriate.

Small keg-style water containers and leather cover

glass flasks are acceptable in the meantime.
Another excellent possibility is the traditional
Spanish "bota" or leather wineskin, (without
modern plastic, of course.) Inquiries have been
sent to Spain to find out the history of "botas".


Cups Some examples of tin cups have been found in 18th
century sites, but not every soldado would have
tinware. Wooden cups and pottery cups are'known
to have been in use, but the breakability of
pottery limits its use in a haversack.

The Committee could find no evidence that drinking






File: BORDERS


cups were worn on any part of the visible uniform.
Cups should henceforth be only in the haversack.

The Committee recommends horn cups as more
accurate in the early 18th century.

Utensils Forks are not recommended. Forks were not found
even in high status families in New England until
1720; although there is evidence that the use of
forks was earlier and more widespread in the Medi-
terranean cultures of Italy and Spain than
Northern Europe, in San Agustin we think it is
more accurate to not use for.ks. If it is
necessary to spear a chunk of food and lift it to
the mouth, the way to do it is with the point of
your knife which was considered a perfectly
acceptable personal eating utensil.

The availability of pewter for spoons in San
Agustin is unknown. Wooden or horn spoons are
another option. Realistically, for your health it
is easier to kill germs on a pewter spoon.

In the place of tin plates or plates in general
a better choice is the wooden trencher.

Keep in mind that the "modern style" of menu planning
where a meal should have three components such as meat,
potatoes, and vegetable separate on the plate was not
yet in fashion in the early 18th century. The majority
of meals were one-pot affairs more reminscient of a
medieval peasant's dinner; all you need is a spoon and
a trencher, your knife, and a crust of daily bread.
For more information, read: In Small Things Forgotten.








Just as soldados had to march in this province, clearly there were
times of duty in which wood had to be chopped, food prepared, tentage
put up, etc., in which all of the above equipage would be a massive
hindrance.



ORDERS OF DRESS, FATIGUE SERVICE:

Tricorn
Waistcoat, sleeved
Shirt Note: It is important for new members to "un-learn" our





File: BORDERS


20th century attitude toward shirts. In the 18th
century the shirt was not polite dress; it was under-
wear, often the only underwear. You do not go about in
public in 1985 in your briefs, and 18th century men did
not go about in shirtsleeves.
Cravat
Breeches
Stockings
Shoes

What might have served as informal headwear is still under
investigation; until more information comes to light, the tricorn
is more acceptable than any other form of informal hat.

Arms are not appropriate to Fatigue duty, except for the Cook
wielding his knife in the Service of the Company.




ORDERS OF DRESS, FOUL-WEATHER GEAR

"FRAZADAS" are specifically mentioned in the shipping lists
separately from blankets for domestic bedding, but
at present we do not know what form they had.

It is surmised that this garment was on the order
of a South American "ruana" or "poncho".

If a Garrison member desires something heavier
than his greatcoat, there are patterns of civilian
cloaks in the early 18th century available, and
artwork of the traditional black long cape used
in Spain since the Middle Ages.

More information may be coming in the next few
months which would alter the acceptability of
these garments.

There were no separate rain hats.







ORDERS OF DRESS, PERSONAL APPEARANCE

On this front, there is literally no information of a local origin.

Illustrations of troops in Europe uniformly show them to be clean
shaven, many with mustaches. There was only one picture of an 18th
century Spanish soldier with a beard, and that is a member of an






File: BORDERS


Invalid company off active duty. About troops in the New World, we
have no artwork, yet.

In recognition of the fact that all of us have to live in the 20th
century at least 5 days a week, and that there may be some incredibly
ugly faces hidden out there under those beards, the Research and
Resource Committee recommends that if a Garrison member has no beard,.
he should not grow one solely for the reason of "historical accuracy".

For the highest level of historical accuracy on the matter of hair, a
soldado should wear his natural hair long enough so that with a cueing
ribbon ( la coletilla, of which hundreds of varas (yards) are found on
the shipping lists), a pigtail of a length to the middle of his back
could be worn. Powdered hair or white wigs seem to be later than
1740. If a member wants to wear a wig, it should be his natural hair
color,.and cued with black grosgrain ribbon.

The wearing of your 20th century style hair is still, at the present
time acceptable.



JEWELRY

One of the greatest sources of visible anachronisms is personal
jewelry. The Committee recommends that soldados wear only such
jewelry as can be matched to archeological finds in this city. See:
SBanish St. AuQgstine. The Archeology of a colonial Creole community.
1983. Kathleen Deagan. Plain gold wedding bands are fine. Any other
items should be thoroughly checked out first.

GLASSES

The Committee was unanimous in its opinion that modern glasses look
bad, even to the most ignorant bystander. The recommendation is to
NOT wear glasses if you can possibly avoid it, even 18th century
glasses. Soldados in San Agustin would have not been literate to
start with, and in Living History programs, you should have a minimum
of reading to do while in full kit. The common soldier was not taking
aim, a-la-Dan'l Boone, in 18th century infantry tactics. If not
wearing your glasses makes you a health hazard to yourself ard others,
then wear 18th century types.

PERSONAL HABITS

Tobacco was a widely enjoyed vice in the 18th century. Although the
Spanish invented the cigarette, its present form is 19th century and
later. Good evidence exists for cigars in the Spanish Caribbean from
the time of Colombus on. It was much less common for Spanish Criollos
to make use of pipes than the other Europeans, although broken pipe
fragments are archeologically found in this city. There have been
several companies to manufacture and market small, crudely rolled
cigarilloss" in foil packets; these are closer to the ideal than
Tiparillos or White Owls.





File: BORDERS



The Committee does not feel that soldados would have smoked while on
formal duties.

If you have this habit, it would be admirable if you could master the
fine art of striking fire with flint and steel, since whipping out a
match while in 18th century dress destroys your entire credibility.

READING

Most of our members enjoy reading. 18th century troops did not
have the ability to read, so even while relaxing in camp or the
guardroom, books are not appropriate entertainment, except to officers
and non-coms.













Musica Militar Espaiol



del Siglo XVIII





LA JORNADA MILITARY
A TYPICAL 18TH CENTURY SPANISH MILITARY DAY
WITH THE DUTIES & THE DRUM CALLS
AS APPROPRIATE FOR A WEEKEND LIVING HISTORY EVENT

SATURDAY-------------------------------------------------------
La Diana Reveille

El Desayuno Breakfast No drumcall known for meals

La Orden Commanders / Officers' Call

Ejercicio de los Artilleros Cannon firing

EL Almuerzo Lunch No drumcall known for meals

La Asamblea
Troops assemble for marching drill or assigned tasks

Ejercicio de Artilleros Cannon firing

EJercicios de la Tropa -Drill

La Oracion days work done Played after the evening bell

La Cena Supper No drumcall known for meals

La Retreta Retreat

La Asamblea Assembly/March

El Bando-Solemn Proclaimation

La Bandera-New Flag Blessed

La Llamada fort secured

La Fagina duty completed

SUNDAY----------------------------------------------------------
La Diana-Reveille

EL Desayuno Breakfast No drumcall known for meals

La Misa Call to Mass
Solemn Procession
La Tropa troops stack arms

El Almuerzo Lunch No drumcall known for meals

La Fagina Camp Cleanup

La General Strike Camp




1





















DAILY LIFE FOR A FLORIDA SOLDIER- 1740





. .*
OUTLINE FOR GALLEGOS HOUSE


PART I

I. Interpretive objective.
A. In Gallegos House we will inform the visitor about the life style of a
common soldier's family of the late First Spanish Period with an emphasis
on typical culinary practices of the same period.

B. Explanation of culinary practices will be supplemented whenever possible by
cooking demonstrations on the masonry stove or over the outdoor fire-pit.

II. The Building

A. Is a reconstruction, built in early 1963.

B. Occupies the site of a tabby house belonging in 1763 to Juan Garcia and
Martin Martinez Gallegos.

C. Was reconstructed of a modern simulation of tabby, a form of concrete using
oyster shell as .aggregate, using 18th century techniques. After forms were
constructed, the .,tabby was poured into them and allowed to set; then the
forms were raised and another layer of tabby poured, and so on until the
walls reached the desired height.

D. Is built according to the common two-cell plan, with a porch along the
south side.

E. Is plastered inside and out, according to the usual practice.

F. Possesses many of the same architectural features as the Ribera House.
(For more details, see the interpretive outline for Ribera)

G. Has a built-in masonry stove of a type widely used in Spain, Latin America,
and colonial St. Augustine.

H. Features a reconstructed barrel well in the yard. This type of well was
very common in St.. Augustine. Many have been discovered by archeo gists.

III. -History of the Site ,.J

A. .On the Puente map of 1764 a tabby house was shown on the site. The owner
was listed as Juan Garcia Martinez Gallegos. Research has shown that the
name must refer to two people, a Juan Garcia and a Martinez Gallegos.

1. Martin Martinez Gallegos
a. Was from the town of Totana, near Murcia in southeastern Spain.
b. Came.to St. Augustine sometime prior to 1743.
c. Was an artilleryman in the garrison.
d. Had at least two wives in St. Augustine
1.) Victoria Escalona '
a.) Was a native of St. Augustine
b.) Married Martinez Gallegos in July 1743.
c.) Died in 1750.

^ \.t-







Outline for Gallegos House (continued)



2.) Isabel Serrano
a) Was identified in the parish registers as a
native of Germany. (How she got to St. Augustine
or acquired a Spanish surname is unknown.)
b) Married Martinez Gallegos between 1756 and 17??
(Marriage records for whites are missing from
1756 to 1763.)

e. Had at least 5 cKildren by Victoria Escalona (two of which died
in infancy) and 1 by Isabel Serrano.

f. Went to Cuba with his family during the evacuation of St. Augustine
in 1763-64.

2. Juan Garcia

S a. Is a more obscure figure than Martinez Gallegos, and there is some
doubt as to his identification.

b. Was an infantryman but by 1752 was no longer on active service,
he being 69 years old and gouty.

c. Was listed as a native of San Martin de Havana

d. Had been married to Antonia Espinosa, probably a mestiza, who
died in 1747. (No information on children is presently available.)

B.- The most likely explanation for the apparent dual ownership of the house
is that Juan Garcia, a widower, granted Martinez Gallegos part ownership
in return for the privilege of living in his household. That way he
could be cared for by Gallegos's family.

C. The original Gallegos House was destroyed sometime during the British
Period. In 1784, at the beginning of the second Spanish administration,
the lot was in the possession of a Minorcan named Juan Frias, who had
planted it in fruit trees. When Lucia Escalona, sister of Gallegos's first
wife arrived in that same year with power of attorney from the Gallegos
children, she evicted Frias and build a wooden house on the lot. This
house appears on the Rocque pap of 1788.

V. Life Style of a SoldierAs Family.
5-'
A. In St, Augustine during the late First Spanish Period, c. 1750, most families
lived in surroundings similar to Gallegos House. The simplicity of the
house and its-furnishipgs reflects the.poverty of the isolated garrison
community.

B. Common soldiers were not well paid.
1. Salaries
a. Infantrymen earned only 11 pesos a month, of 132 per year.
b. Artillerymen like Martinez GalTegos received 14 pesos per month
or 168 per year.







Outline of Gallegos House (continued)

:..: c. Cavalrymen received 22 pesos per month or 264 per year, but from
that amount they had to purchase and maintain their own horses.

2. 'Living Expenses

a. Annual deductions from salary
1. 22 pesos, 6h resales for uniform
2. 1 peso for hospital care
3. 3 pesos for medical care and weapons repair
4. 6 reales formedicine
5. 2 reales to support the Chapel.of Nuestro Senora de la Leche
6. Total -- 27 pesos, 6 reales. -(There were 8 reales'to a peso)
b. Cost of living
1. Each'.solider received a daily ration allowance of
2 reales to pay for regular monthly issues of flour,
corn, beef, pork, and salt. The ration.allowance, amounting'
to 91 pesos 2 reales annually, was subtracted from the soldier's
pay. Total yearly deductions thus came to 119 pesos, 1/2 real.
The difference between the base pay and :hile deductions
was supposed to be paid to the soldiers *in cash.

2. In practice, however, the soldier often received no cash.
Prices of food and clothing from Mexico and Havana were
so high that the soldier usually had to exceed his ration
allowance to feed his family, with the result that deductions
were greater than pay. Most of the soldiers were, therefore,
constantly in debt to the crown or to local merchants.

C. c. Common soldier's duties

1. The soldier customarily spent his days pulling guard
duty at one of the.various posts in and round the city.
In 1759 they were:-
a. Castil.lo 33 officers and men.
b. Santo Domingo redoubt (Cubo line)-7 men
c. Cubo redoubt 7 men
d. Rosario redoubt (Rosario Line) 5 men
S e. Santo Christo redoubt (Rosario Line) 5 men
S, f, San Francisco redoubt (Rosario Line) 8 men
g. Guardhouse (plaza) 21 men (including Governor's guard)
h. City Gate 5 men
i, Palica (between Maria Sanchez Creek and San Sebastian
River) 13 men
j, La Leche 5 men
k. Fort Mose p en relieve td monthly
1, Anastasia Island r 7 men, relieved monthly
4, Fort W#WtanzAs M 7 mea, relieved monthly
n, PicolatA (on St. Johns River) 8 men, relieved every 2 weeks
So, San Marcos de Apalachee (south of present-day Tallahassee)-
48 men, relieved annually.
(During military emergencies, of course, guards would be
strengthened and units sent out into the field.)




-4-


rtlineof Gallegos House (continued)

2. While on duty, the soldiers
a. Kept watch over the defense works, approaches to the town,
and the inhabitants.
b. Maintained the defense works and equipment.
c. Underwent training exercises. For example, they performed
the manual of arms twice a week, went through firing drills
with unloaded weapons twice a month, and fired their muskets'
with ball once a month.

S3. While off duty, the soldiers

a. Helped sustain their families by fishing or farming.
(The fishing equipment and garden tools in Gallegos call
attention to these important activities.)

b. Helped with household tasks -such as repairing the house,
outbuildings, and fences, and chopping wood.

c. Spent a great -deal of time with other men drinking,
gambling,-and telling ribald stories.' This they did
away from home. Taverns were popular gathering places.

d. Some soldiers helped support their families with
second occupations. They were craftsmen, merchants,
tavernkeepers, and so forth.

D. Women's Activities: Over half the soldiers in St. Augustine were married.
Gallegos House represents one of these domestic situations.

1. Cooking
a. Occupied a major portion of a housewife's day (a family
of Gallegos's status probably would not have .owned a
slave to do the cooking.)

b. Is treated below as a separate subject.

2. Care of clothing
a. Washing
'b. Repairing
S c. Manufacture (many families cut and sewed their own
clothes. Some women also may have sewed for money
or payment in kind, but there is no direct evidence
of this.)

3. Housecleaning and whitewashing walls.
4. Tending the garden and caring for the stock (chiefly poultry).
5. Caring for children. (Older children would have helped with
all the above activities.)
6. Gossiping with neighbors.




b



,ine for Gallegos House (continued)

PART II Food and Drink in Colonial St. Augustine
I. Introductory remark: this outline will discuss only the First Spanish
Period, since our interpretation of foodstuffs and culinary practices deal
solely with that era.
11. Foodstuffs
A. Imported foods
1, A major source was the situado, the official subsidy.
a. Cereal grains
S1) Wheat flour
a. Was by far the most abundant single item. This reflected
the Spaniard's fondness for wheat bread.
b. Was probably for the most part white flour. Whole wheat
'flour would not keep as well during lengthy voyages or
under prolonged storage.
2. Corn (maize)
a) Was' the second.most common grain import, by weight
(based'on 1742-51 figures).
b) Is not known whether it was shipped on'the cob or shelled.

3. Rice
a) Was third most important cereal (based on 1742-51 figures).
b) Was usually imported as polished rice.

(In the period 1742-51, the relative quantities of cereals deposited in the govern-
ment .storehouse were wheat flours, 251,000 arrobas; corn, 87,000 arrobas; rice,
54,000 arrobas. The arrobas was equivalent to 25 pounds.
b. Meats (salted)
1) If 1742-51 figures are indicative of the general pattern,
beef was the most common meat,.followed by pork. Some ham
was imported.

2) Over'that period, relative quantities were
a) Beef 46,000 arrobas 5. Tons
b) Pork 55,000 arrobas 312
.. .. c) am ~,P00L0 rrobas 25 "
S .. c., Other important imported foodstuffs
1) Dried beans
2) Hardtack (fpr mitiary rations)
3). Salt
4) Lard
5) Olive Oil
2. As can be seen from the foregoing information, foods imported through
the situado were basic staples.

3,. Another source of imports the private trade
a. Owing to the inadequacy of the records, this trade cannot be
quantified.
i n,- ....- -A --; rl.e ,n .+ -.6lhla thmitn h titulada.






outlinee for Gallegos House (continued)
B. Locally available foodstuffs--grown, hunted, or caught in the area.
1. Grains
a. An attempt to grow wheat in central Florida during the 1650's was
unsuccessful.
b. Corn (maize), a traditional crop of the Indians, was the principal
grain produced.

2. Vegetables
a. A wide variety are mentioned in the documents.
b. There is no evidence of the quantities produced, although yields
were almost certainly small.
c. Many were grown in kitchen gardens near the houses; others in
fields on the periphery of town.
d. Examples: squash, pumpkins, peas, beans, cabbage,,sweet potatoes,
lettuce, 'onions, red peppers, radishes, garlic, tomatoes
(possibly 1765)

3. Fruits
a. Existed in considerable variety
b. Were usually cultivated in town in yards or in vacant lots.
c. Examples:
1) Oranges, both sweet and sour varieties
2) Lemons
3) Pome-citrons
4) Quinces
5) Medlars
6) Melons, including watermelon
7) Figs
8) Shaddocks
9) Pomegranates
10) Limes
11) Guavas
12) Plantains
13) Grapes (grown on arbors in the yards)
14) Peaches
15) Pears

d. There is no way to determine the relative abundance of these
fruits, but the citrus species, particularly the oranges, are
the.most c6wmonly mentioned in the documents.
4. Meat
a. Some fresh beef was produced on nearby cattle ranches.
S 1) Before 1702 there were a number of ranches in the interior of
Florida. These were destroyed by English and Indian attacks.
2) During the 1740's and '50's there were a few small ranches
in the vicinity of St. Augustine.
3) There was a slaughterhouse operating in St. Augustine in
1759.
b. Some hogs were also raised--were a semi-wild stock.
c. Chickens were present as a food resource.
d. There was limited hunting of wild game and feral domestic
species but it accounted for only a minor portion of the meat
consumed.






Outline for Gallegos House (continued)

5. Seafood
a. Was locally abundant.
b. Was a major item in the diet.
c. Consisted of
1) Shellfish great quantities of oysters and clams were eaten.
2) Fish mullet, redfish, drum, flounder, and shark appear to
have been the most common species consumed (evidence based
on limited archeological recovery of food wastes).


.III. Drinks

A. Non.-alcoholic
1. Water
a) Came from shallow wells (every house had a well).
b) Was sulphurous but evidently healthy
2. Casina (also spelled cassina, caseena, etc.)
a) Was an Indian drink adopted by the Spaniards
b) Was.an infusion made from the leaves of the yaupon (Ilex
vomitori.a). Eaten raw, the leaves have an emetic effect, but
lose it when parched and used as a tea.

B. Alcoholic (there were numerous taverns in St. Augustine)
1.- Wine
a) Was imported
b) Some may have been made from local grapes, but there is no
documentary confirmation of this.

2. Rum
a) Was apparently imported in some quantity through private trade
channels.
b) Was a popular drink

3. Beer
a) Was uncommon
b) Some was brought in by English traders

IV. The Daily Eating Cycle

A. Breakfast (desayuno)
1. Was light and taken early.
2., Consisted usually of bread and chocolate. Bread might have been
,soaked in olive oil
B. Dinner the mid-day meal (almuerzo)
1. Was eaten in the early afternoon.
2. Was the largest meal of the day....
C. Supper (cena)
.. Was the evening meal
2. Was a light meal, often consisting of leaftovers from dinner and,
possibly, some fruit.
V. Food Preparation

A. Bread






Outline for Gallegos House (continued)

1. Wheat bread
a. Most wheat flour was baked as bread.
b. The type of loaves baked cannot be stated with certainty.
1) Much baking was probably done right on the hearth
2) Some of the better kitchens may have had ovens.
2. Corn Bread
a. Corn was typically used in the form of meal, ground with a
mano and metate, a pestle and concave grinding stone.

b. Most corn bread was probably eaten in the form of tortillas,
cooked orna griddle.
3. Rice was occasionally prepared as bread, also on a griddle or on the
hearth.

B. Meals
1. Were generally one-pot meals, such as soups and stews.
2. Would contain what was available or in season.
3. Usually contained a bit of salt meat or seafood, vegetables, squash,
onions, and garlic.
4. Were usually quite spicy--lots of red pepper.
C. Cooking vessels
1. Ceramic cookware was the most common type. More often than not, it
was a local Indian pottery called San Marcos ware.
2. Some iron and copper vessels were also used, but much less frequently.
D. Kitchens
S1. The most common type of kitchen was probably a simple hearth on the
.ground covered by a crude shelter and located behind the house.
2. Some families had kitchen buildings with masonry stoves like those
exhibited i.n the Gallegos and Ribera Houses. These kitchens were
described by the English observer John Bartram to be "as smoky as
an Indian cabin."
3. There is also evidence of outdoor fire-pit cooking.
VI. Quality of Diet

A. According to the typical reports one finds in the official correspondence,
St. Augustine was always short of food.
1. There were obviously periods of want, even acute shortage, when
subsidies were late, when local crops were bad, or when war inter-
fered with the normal course of events. People were never secure
in their food supply.
2. But there is no evidence of starvation. On the contrary, St.
Augustinians had a reputation for being healthy and long-lived.
B. The diet was heavy on cereals, but this was not unusual for the period.
C. Fruits and vegetables were enjoyed seasonally. It is possible, although
not certain, that the Spaniards preserved fruits and vegetables by
drying and pickling.
D. Fresh meat was a rare luxury. Fresh fish and oysters seem to have been
the most common sources of animal protein,followed by salt beef and
pork.
E. If a sufficient quantity of food was available, the diet was probably
adequate nutritionally.
F.* The typical St. Augustine family spent most of its income on food.






Outline for Gallegos House' (continued)

Food practices in Spanish St. Augustine were a blend of Hispanic and Indian
editions. Typical Indian foods such as corn, beans, pumpkins, squash, and
w.sina tea, were important elements in the local diet, as were locally available
species of marine life that had nourished the Indians for centuries. To these
elements the Spaniards added their own traditional foodstuff-wheat,'wine, olive
oil, beef, pork, onions, and garlic. The eating'habits of the colonial population
are thus an outstanding example of cultural adaptation to a new environment.

PART II FOOD AND DRINK IN COLONIAL ST. AUGUSTINE

VII. Foods Permissible in Cooking Demonstrations

A. Grains
1. Wheat flour (usually white)
2. Corn
3. Rice

B. Meats, Poultry, and Fish
1. Beef 6. Clams
2. Pork 7. Mullet
3. -Ham (In limited amounts) 8. Sea bass (redfish)
4. Chicken 9. Flounder
5. Oysters 10. Drum

C. Vegetables
.1. Pumpkin 6. Onions
2. Peas (black- eyed, chick) 7. Lettuce (romaine)
3. Beans (kidney, lima, black) 8. Red Pepper
4. Cabbage 9. Garlic
5. Sweet.potatoes 10. Radishes
11. Pot herbs
a. Anise h. Majoram
b. Basil i. Oregano (wild marjoram)
c. Borage -j. Parsley, palin and curled
d. Coriander k. Rosemary
e. Dill 1. Sage
'f." Sweet Fennel m. Savory
g. Garlic n. Thyme
D. Frui.ts.(any listed in section II, B, 3, c. (add Prickly pear.-)):
E. Dairy Products
1. Cheese
S2." Butter not common
F. Condiments
1. Olive oil 3. Vinegar
2. Lard 4. Sugar (not common)
G. Beverages
1. Water 4. Cassina tea
-. Rum 5. Chocolate
3. Wine






outline for Gallegos House (continued)

' III. DAILY LIFE SUGGESTED BY CONTENTS OF HOUSE

A. Lattice and reja in window: To give protection and privacy, especially to
women.
1. Young women were closely guarded within the family and rarely
allowed to walk the streets unsupervised. The reja allowed
them to remain concealed while observing what-took place outside.

2. Married women enjoyed more freedom of movement, but still remained
closely tied to the home.

B. The pallets on the floor

1. 'John Bartram observed that the Spaniards "lay chiefly on Mattresses."
Evidently beds were uncommon and were probably owned mainly by people
of higher status.

2. The mattresses shown here are made of coarse linen and filled with straw.
They could be rolled up during the day to create more floor space.

C. The sleeping cycle: was determined by the natural cycle of light and darkness.

1. People got up about daybreak and went to bed not long after dark.
(Men may have stayed out in taverns, but. it would have been unusual
for people to stay up very late.)

"2. There is no direct evidence of the siesta, but people probably napped
briefly after their mid-day meal.

D. Fishing Equipment: identified a common means of supplementing the diet.
E. Religious Image

1. The Roman Catholic faith shaped the world view of 18th Century Spaniards.
2. Most homes contained religious images, which served both a devotional
and a decorative purpose. The images were of favorite saints.
3. The image here. is of Santiago, (Saint James) patron saint of Spain.
4. People also commonly wore religious medallions. Many have been found
by archaeology.
F. .Chest and.stools-- were the most typical items of furniture. Chests could
be used for both storage and seating.

G. Hanging shelf to keep vermin out of the food.

H. The Stove
1. Is a typical Mediterranean design, still widely used in that part of the
world.
2. Is based on a description in John Bartram's Journal: "ye fireplace is
raised with stone 2 foot high to 3 broad & ye length of ye breadth of ye
room & above the floor is open to ye roof: There is 1 or 2 openings
A hands breadth wide & 2 foot long in the back to let out some smoak .
-- upon ye hearth ,-,: they had several pots fixed with holes under eachto-
boil thair different soupes. I dislike this method above .any belonging
to thair houses as they are all as smoaky as an Indian cabin ."






Outline for Gallegos House {continued)

I. Eating Utensils iron or steel knives and pewter or wooden spoons were
the most common flatware. Plates and bowls were both ceramic and wooden
(treenware).

J. Cookware cooking was done in both ceramic.and metal vessels.
1. Ceramic pots most common were of San Marcos pottery (see below).
This was the typical cookware.
2. Iron pots were also.used, but not as frequently as ceramic cookware.

K. Ceramics: are a combination of Spanish, Indian, and British types.
1. Spanish wares imported from Mexico and Cuba via the private trade.
2. Indian pottery consisted chiefly of San Marcos ware, a Guale (?)
Indian pottery produced by Christian Indian communities on the
.fringes of town.
3. Englis-wares reached St. Augustine through trade, much of it illicit,
with the English North American colonies.

L. Mortar and pestle for grinding corn into meal. Corn meal was most likely
eaten in the form of tortillas, or flat cakes cooked on a griddle.

M. Barrel Well the Spaniards drank well water. Although it had a strong
sulphur taste, it,was safe to drink. ( We would not recommend that anyone
drink water from the Gallegos well, however.)

N. Canoe

1. Is a dugout made in the Everglades by Seminole Indians.
'2. Similar (although larger and deeper) canoes were used by both
..Spaniards and Indians in the estuarine waters around St. Augustine.

.0. Waste disposal

1. Human Waste
a. People usually relieved themselves in metal or ceramic urinals
and jars. Outhouses existed but were not the rule.
b. Wastes were either-buried, used to fertilize the kitchen garden,
or collected for use on the fields.

2. Kitchen garbage was either
a. Buried in trash pits (usually dug about 3 feet deep) or
.b. Scattered randomly about the yard and garden.
(There is archaeological evidence for both practices.)
-3. Oyster shells, an abundant form of waste, were probably piled at the
back of the yard and periodically disposed of. (It is quite likely that
'the oyster shell used in the construction of tabby houses was accumulated
in this manner.)
(From the above information one may imagine the.,mingling of odors in a typical house
and yard. People of the time were accustomed to a more pungent environment than
today's people are used to.)






P. Personal Hygiene,
1. Bathing
N, a. Was done infrequently, probably no more than once a month, if that.
often.

b. Meant a lot of hard work, drawing water and heating it.

c. Was considered to be potentially hazardous to health.
People were afraid of chills, believing they caused disease.

2. Oral hygiene: was poor

a. Excavated skeletal remains almost uniformly'exhibit numerous cavities,
missing teeth, bone damage from abcesses, etc.

.b. By the age of forty the average person would have lost most of his
teeth.

-* -c. Shaving: men of the 18th century went. clean shaven although ..,..
they did not necessarily shave every day. The typical shaving
instrument was the straight razor.















O.G. Ganong
July 1977
Revised by
M.C.Scardavi le
May 1978







GALLEGOS HOUSE ACTIVITIES



Activity Equipment Supplies

half-barrel tub
washing clothes. wooden trough home made soap
wooden paddle cold well water
fence dirty clothes
palmetto mat
4-
mending scissors needles.
thread (not on spool)

cooking- iron cookware lentils
wooden spoons sea salt, not fine
knives vinegar
earthenware jars olive oil
whetstone hambone
palmetto mat, small onions
wooden trays black-eye peas (dry)
leather wineskin garbanzos (dry)
ladle kidney beans (dry)
twine rice

firebuilding flint firewood, small diameter
ax charcoal
hatchet
palmetto fan

keeping house oil lamp fish oil
broom
,blanket
clothing to hang up
S '-palmetto mats

marketing twine bag
S'" back basket

gardening, hoe
-. '' digging stick




Amy Bushnell
S 3-19-32




MIIy1 ou l31111 Ii
April 14, 1982

GALLEGOS HOUSE PROVISIONS


Salad Garden Cultivated Fruits Environment, Flora Trade, Import
onions sweet oranges' cassina cassava
carrots sour oranges koonti chocolate
radishes Key limes heart of palm wheat flour
cabbage lemons palm fruit rice
leaf lettuce grapefruit persimmons wine vinegar
asparagus plantains cactus fruit wine
small artichokes figs blackberries olive oil
green peas pomegranates wild grapes hard soap
collard greens grapes wild onions rock salt
garlic 'guavas acorns rum
hard cheese
Herbs Field Produce Environment, Fauna salt beef
cayenne pepper turnips oysters salt porkwn
chili pepper sweet corn clams black beans
chives field corn turtles kid beans
dill pumpkins mullet garbanzos
borage winter squash redfish a beanos
parsley canteloupe drum naval beans
winter savory watermelon shark navy beans
fennel sweet potatoes sea salt pinto beans
marjoram lima beans honey Trade, Local
S spearmint black-eyed peas
basil white acre peas Expedients fresh beef
rosemary field peas hominy grits dried beef
lavender gourds yellow cornmeal la con
coriander city water salt bacon
city water dried turkey
dried hominy bear fat (imit.)
tobacco twists
venison
Availability: Not all of these would have been available
year round. There should be attention to the seasons, with fresh
garden produce and fruits appearing only when they naturally would.
Otherwise, they must be used dried. Imported items should appear sporadically
and in limited quantities. Vinegar, olive oil, wheat and wine were the only
ones a Spaniard considered indispensable. The wheat flour would probably be
baked into pound loaves or hardtack elsewhere. Wine would be consumed by the
soldier-husband, probably in a tavern.

Storage: Dried herbs and vegetables may hang inside the house. No large amount
of impott-trade food should be in evidence. The Indian-type wild roots were
used mainly during a famine, so they should not coincide with other foods.
Containers must be authentic. The alacena should not be used to store modern
containers. There should be no unauthentic supplies on the property.

Cooking: Use a small fire and a clay pot sitting on the coals. The dishes that
may be prepared are these:
(1) a cocido based on dried corn, peas and squashes, with other vegetables
added for flavoring. The cocido may contain fish or shellfish, or
a small amount of salted or dried meat.
(2) a salad of fresh or cooked vegetables, eaten with vinegar and oil.
(3) sweet corn in the inner husk, or sweet potatoes, baked in the ashes.
4corncakes, wrapped in cornhusks and baked in the ashes.





















1728 SPANISH INFANTRY DRILL
APPROPRIATE TO 1740







1728 Spanish Infantry Drills


Section 1. Basic Commands:
The Soldier Under Arms


Section 2. Bayonet Commands


Section 3. Commands to Load
and Fire the Fusil
3:A Commands to Fire an
Already Loaded Fusil

3:B Commands to Load
3:C Sequence of commands
needed to load then fire

Section 4.. Complete Manual of Ar--.
in the original order





2-1




1728 SPANISH INFANTRY DRILLS

Developed from Ordenanzas Militares de 12 de julio de 1728, courtesy
of the Biblioteca del Congreso de Mexico, D.F. and the French 1703
drill, courtesy of Fortress Louisbourg, Parks Canada, and in
concurrence with NPS-6, Guidelines for Blackpowder Safety.

SECTION I. THE BASIC COMMANDS: THE SOLDIER UNDER ARMS

When a soldado falls in for drill or other military duties under arms,
he should assume the Position of the Soldier with his Fusil at
either:
ARMAS AL HOMBRO = Shoulder Arms
or
DESCANSEN SOBRE LAS ARMAS = Rest over your Weapons.

The first movements a recruit needs to master are those necessary to
go back and forth between these two basic positions.

As in the Marching Commands, a Standard Count of "Uno..Dos" or roughly
one second should separate the component movements of these drills.
Remember not to get in a hurry; this is the 18th century, not the
20th; drills should be stately and somewhat dignified, not a matter cf
rip, snort and tear! Try counting under your breath until the timing
becomes natural to you.



1. ARMAS AL HOMBRO Shoulder Arms

The Shoulder Arms position is reached from several other positions,
but primarily from the DESCANSEN SOBRE LAS ARMAS.....Rest over your
Weapons (modern term: Order Arms).


VETERAN TROOPS PLEASE TAKE NOTE:


Although parade practice after 1750
was to carry the Fusil on the
shoulder in a near vertical
position, as late as 1737 in art
and drill manuals the Fusil's
position is on the shoulder with
the trigger guard against the
shoulder, the Fusil rotated
slightly in toward the head and the
left hand holding the Fusil-by the
comb at a distance of about four
fingers' widths from the end of the
stock.






2-2




To move from the DESCANSEN SOBRE LAS.ARMAS to the ARMAS AL HOMBRO:



1.1 With the right hand gripping
the Fusil near the muzzle, extend
the right arm upwards, carrying the
Fusil vertically beside the body.
At the same time, carry the left
arm across the body and with the
left hand seize the Fusil just t
above the lock.



1.2 Holding the Fusil steady in the
left hand, drop the right hand and
grasp the Fusil below the lock on
the small of the butt. Ensure that / \
the Fusil remains in a vertical
position.
V

1.3 Dropping the left hand to the
side of the body, with the right
hand only carry the Fusil across
the body from the right to the left
in a vertical position, turning the
left side of the Fusil in toward
the face and lifting it high enough
so that the right hand passes at
about the throat level. Continue
on and place the Fusil on the
shoulder, a a slope, trigger guard
facing down, bring the left hand up
to hold the Fusil by the end of the
stock. As the Fusil is placed on o
the shoulder and the left hand
comes up, raise both the left and
right elbows to the height of the
shoulders.



1.4 Drop the right hand to its
normal position by the right side
and lower the left elbow to a
natural position.






2-3



2. DESCANSEN SOBRE LAS ARMAS Rest over your Weapons


DESCANSEN SOBRE LAS ARMAS is a basic and relaxed starting point for
many arms movements.


To move from Armas Al Hombro to DESCANSEN SORE LAS ARMAS:


2.1 With the left hand, rotate the
Fusil lying on the shoulder so the-
the lockplate faces up and the
Hammer is toward the chin. Bring
the right hand across and grip the
Fusil firmly by the wrist of the
stock. Raise the elbows up and out
at the level of the shoulders.

2.2 With a firm grip on the Fusil,
lift it off the shoulder and hold -
it directly in front of the face in
a vertical position, some four
inches away so that the eyes are -
about level with the lockplate
retaining screw, but with the lock
still facing away from the face,
the elbows still at the height of
the shoulders.


2.3 Taking the weight of.the Fusil
on the right hand, carry the Fusil
to a vertical position by the right
side shifting the left hand to a
grip on the fore stock, the elbow
relaxed into a normal position and
the arm held horizontal across the
body.

2.4 Holding the Fusil firmly by the
right side with the left hand,
extend the right arm up the Fusil
and seize it with the right hand by- 6
the last six iches of the barrel. -

2.5 With the right hand lower the
Fusil to the ground in the Rest
over your Weapons position, cutting
away the left hand to its normal
position. As the fusil is lowered,
ensure that the weapon lands on the
heel of the butt.






2-4



3. ARMAS A TIERRA Ground your Weapons

The ARMAS A TIERRA or Ground Arms was employed to get 18th century
troops to lay down their arms; it is useful in the modern drill
exercise as a way to give the training squad a rest by having the
troops Ground Arms and march forward until clear of the Fusiles. On
resumption of training, the soldados realign themselves with their
fusiles, which have marked the squad's position.


To effect ARMAS A TIERRA from DESCANSEN SOBRE LAS ARMAS:

3.1 Without lifting the right heel,
swing your instep so that it is
behind the Buttplate of the Fusil,
turning the Fusil so that the lock
will be toward your knee.

3.2 With the left foot, take a
natural pace forward, using your
-igh-t--hand. to- put the gun on the
ground with the lock facing UP.

3.3 Raise yourself up; move your "t
left foot back. Stand with your
arms hanging comfortably to your
sides, the right foot firm in the
same place.

3.4 Swing the balls of your feet
back to the Position of a Soldier,
with the right-foot over the Butt
of your musket, without picking up
the heel of the right foot.




2-b



Reverse the four movements of ARMAS A TIERRA to get the Fusiles back
in the hands of the drill squad.

4. LEVANTEN ARMAS Pick up your Weapons

4.1 Move the instep of the right
foot behind the Buttplate, turning
on your heel, with the body and
arms also turning.
4.2 Move the left foot a natural \
pace to the front; lower the body
with the right arm extended and
take hold of the gun at the place

the ground.
4.3 Pick up the gun with your right
hand, while retiring your left foot
to its former position.
4.4 Turn your right instep back to
where it was before this Command,
sliding your right hand up the
barrel until it is about four
fingers' widths from the end of the
muzzle.







LA" I






2-6



SECTION II. COMMANDS INVOLVING THE BAYONET

The Bayonet was such an important feature of 18th century soldiering
that the commands to mount and dismount this arm should be mastered by
the troops very early in their training.


To Fix Bayonets from a Position of ARMAS AL HOMBRO:


5. PASEN LAS ARMAS AL LADO IZQUIERDO Weapons to the Left Side

5.1 Grasp the Fusil with the right
hand at the wrist of the stock,
while leaving the left hand still
gripping the Fusil by the comb.

As this is done, raise the left and -
right elbows to the level of the
shoulders.

5.2 With the right hand pull the
fusil forward into a vertical
position, still held tight against
the shoulder and body. Bend the
elbow and press the entire left
forearm, from elbow to wrist
against the vertical musket, the
left hand taking a grip on the
upper stock.

5.3 With the left hand, lower the
fusil to a diagonal position in
front of the body, the muzzle
angled toward the left shoulder,
the trigger guard facing left.

Grasp of the barrel with the right
hand at-about chest level.








0 -






2-7



6. SAQUEN LA BAYONETA !! .Draw Bayonet !

6.1 Holding the Fusil steady in
position with the left hand in
front of the body, reach across
with the right hand inside the
Fusil and under the left elbow,
taking a firm grasp on the socket
of the bayonet.








7. ALTA LA BAYONETA !! Raise Up Bayonet !

7.1 Draw the bayonet from the
scabbard in a smooth-motion -and
hold the bayonet in front of the
right shoulder, blade up, with the
socket being in this position about
a hand's width away from the muzzle
of the Fusil.








8. METAN LA BAYONETA EN EL CANON !! Put Bayonet on Barrel

8.1 Slip the socket over the barrel
of the musket so that the mounting
stud on the barrel engages the
locking slot on the barrel; turn
and lock the bayonet home.

8.2 After the Standard Interval
Count (Uno..Dos), release the right
hand from the bayonet socket and
grasp the musket about six inches
down from the muzzle.






2-8


9. PRESENTED LA BAYONETA !! Present Bayonets

9.1 Stand at Attention and move the
gun in front of yourself with both
hands without moving the left hand
from where you had it.

9.2 Take your right hand below the ..
Lock, without separating the gun
from your body more than necessary
to comfortably hold it.

9.3 Turn to the right with your
left foot until it is even with the
right, pulling the gun in front .of
you with your arms arched.

9.4 Move your right foot back 18
inches from your left foot, at a
right angle. (90 degrees)

Support the Fusil over the right
thigh, the left knee just a bit
bent.

10. CALEN LA BAYONETA !! Lower the Bayonet

10.1 Put your right foot forward.
Clasp the gun with the right hand
under the Buttplate.

10.2 Move your right foot back 18
inches from the left foot. Allow
the gun to fall into the open palm
of the hand and over the crook of
the left arm, the barrel held close
to the body, the lock being to the
top, and the right foot pointed at
the front sight of the gun, the
knees somewhat bent and the right
side held as if you were exerting
force.

NOTE: At this point the drill calls
for several right and left facings
with the bayonet kept lowered, so
that the soldier is accustomed to 7.
the feel of the weapon held in this
attitude.



ARMAS AL HOMBRO will be useful to go onto any other movements from
CALEN LA BAYONETA.










11. PASEN LAS ARMAS AL LADO IZQUIERDO Weapons to the Left Side



11.1 Put the right foot back to its
primary location, and lift the gun
to the level of the face, vertical.




11.2 Give a quarter-turn to the
left, lowering the gun; the right
hand should grasp the barrel about
four fingers' widths from the
muzzle, and the gun should be about /
the level of the chest, the right
hand about the height of the
shoulder and the left hand about
the height of the hip.






12. SAQUEN LA BAYONETA DEL CANON !! Withdraw Bayonet from Barrel


12.1 Grasp the socket of the
Bayonet with the right hand and
turn it to release the locking I
band. \Iz



12.2 After the Standard Count -
(Uno..Dos) lift the bayonet socket : t
off the musket and hold the bayonet
in front of the shoulder, blade
pointing up, with the socket being
about 4 inches from the muzzle.




13. ENVAINEN LA BAYONETA !! Sheath Bayonet

13.1 Carry the bayonet to its scabbard with the right hand, passing
between the body and the musket and under the left elbow, and
sheathing it home in the scabbard.

13.2 After the Standard Count (Uno..Dos) return to grasping the Fusil
about six inches from the muzzle.





2-10




SECTION III. COMMAND SEQUENCE FOR LOADING AND FIRING THE FUSIL

The early 18th century Private Soldier under arms carried his Fusil,
and wore a waistbelt upon which was slung a bayonet and "belly-box"
style cartridge box generally carrying nine (9) rounds, often worn
just to the right of the belt buckle. A priming flask was slung on a
narrow flat leather strap worn hanging from the left shoulder to the
right side of the body, the flask falling down below the level of the
belt. Additionally, each man under arms should carry a spare, clean,
sharp flint, and a pick and whisk set. Sometimes an infantryman's
sword, or "hangar" was also worn, but it was not as important as the
fusil and bayonet. Slings on the guns were limited to grenadiers and
other special units.

The cartridge had come into general use in European armies by the
1740's, although there are examples of actions where troops were still
using the slower process of loose ball and powder loading. These
cartridges were glued paper sleeves into which the massive ball of the
period (often 16 gauge size or .69 caliber = 1 ounce weight each)
joined a massive powder charge (7/16ths of an ounce was standard in
the Spanish Army for many years) and occasionally some wadding as
well. A very popular military round of the 18th century was "buc! and
ball" where the cartridge held the massive ball mentioned above and a
cluster of .32 caliber buckshot. One end of these paper tubes was
glued shut, while the other was carefully folded to allow the Soldier
to open it by tearing the tag off with.his teeth.

Any flintlock gun must be prepared for firing by two distinct steps:
the priming of the flashpan, and the loading of the charge down the
bore. VETERAN TROOPS PLEASE TAKE NOTE: The practice of using the
cartridge for both the priming pan and the bore charge was only
established in the Spanish and French armies after the 1750's '

Loading and firing drills usually start assuming that the Soldier is
at the position of ARMAS AL HOMBRO, with his Fusil on Half-cock, the
pan shut, and the hammerstall (if owned) on.



SECTION III:A COMMANDS TO FIRE AN ALREADY LOADED FUSIL


14. LA MANO DERECHA AL ARMA Right Hand to Weapon

14.1 Raising both the left and
right elbows to the height of the
shoulders, the Soldier carries his
right hand across and seizes the
Fusil by the small of the stock, at
the same time revolving the Fusil
inwardly on the shoulder with the
left hand so that the hammer points
toward his chin. The Fusil does
not yet leave the shoulder.





2-11




15". ALTAS LAS ARMAS Raise Up Weapons

15.1 Lift the Fusil off the
shoulder to a vertical position in
front of the face, maintaining the
grips of both hands, the
triggerguard being at the level of
the chin or cravat. Both elbows are
held as high as the shoulders.

At this time the soldier places his
right foot back in the first
movement of the Right Face;
counting UNO..DOS ", HE THEN
SWINGS ON HIS HEELS TO THE RIGHT.

NOTE: At the completion of this
command ALL the soldiers are facing
90 degrees from the target or
enemy.

16. PRESENTED LAS ARMAS Present Weapons

16.1 With the right hand a
maintaining a firm grip, drop the I
Fusil from the vertical position to
an angle to the left across the
body, into the open palm of the
left hand which is held just above
waist level. The left elbow is so
bend so that the muzzle is held
about the height of the shoulder.
The left hand holds the musket at
its center of gravity.

As the Fusil hits the left hand,
the head should be snapped to the
left to face the enemy or target.


17. PREPARE LAS ARMAS Ready your Weapons

17.1 Bring Your Fusil vertical in
front of the center of your chest.

17.2 Cock the hammer to the
Full-cock position using the thumb
of the right hand. Have a care not
to let your hand slip; it is easy
to cut yourself on the flint.






2-12




18. APUNTEN Take Aim

18.1 Extend the arms away from the
body, turning the musket up almost
vertical; simultaneously turn the
left toe toward the target.

18.2 Bring the musket to the right
shoulder and sight along the
barrel. Raise the elbows to the
height of the shoulders. Bend the
left knee slightly while keeping-
the right leg straight. Lean
toward the target.

19. DISPAREN

19.1 Pull the trigger. Don't jerk
or flinch; continue to hold the
muzzle downrange in the APUNTEN
Position.

The original instruction in Spanish is:

"Procura que no sea la Turbacion que dispare, sino el valor y
conocimiento, tirando el gatillo quando se le mandare, con la mayor
compostura."

Which is to say: Strive mightily in order that it may not be
Confusion that fires, but rather valor and wisdom, pulling the trigger
when it shall be ordered (and not before!), with the greatest'
composure." The fear and confusion of battle is something we often
forget in Living History; for our own safety, we would do well to
remember it when handling these still lethal firearms.


SECTION III:B COMMANDS TO LOAD THE FUSIL


20. RETIRAN LAS ARMAS Retire Arms or "Recover"



The source document is clips the page.
Information cut off is not available.





2-13




21. PONGAN LA LLABE EN EL FIADOR Half-Cock

21.1 Holding the gun with both hands, use the right thumb and the web
of the right hand to pull the Hammer back to the first notch or click;
for the new recruit, this position in English is called the Half-cock.
Make sure you do not pull the hammer so hard as to put it into the
second notch or click which is the Full cock position ( ready to
fire).

22. LIMPIEN LA PIEDRA Clean the Flint

22.1 Apply the thumb and forefinger-of the right hand to the flint,
and wipe off the crud from the last shot. Have a care the way you
move your fingers along the sharp edge of the stone, since it will cut
you like a surgical instrument.

If you had not yet fired the Fusil, open the Frizzen at this time,
using your thumb and forefinger.

23. SOPLEN LA CAZOLETA Blow out the Pan



23.1 Hold the gun with both hands -
in order to bring it up close to
the mouth, as if it were in a
Present Arms position, with the
left hand serving as a fork.


23.2 WITHOUT INCLINING THE HEAD,
blow out the flashpan; then
immediately lower the gun until it
is supported on the right thigh.



24. TOMEN EL POLVORIN Handle Priming Flasks

24.1 Lower the gun with both hands a bit, finding a comfortable
position of balance with the gun to the front, and take up the priming
flask in your right hand.

25. CEBEN Prime

25.1 The 18th century drills show the fusil horizontal for this
command; for our purposes, keep the barrel angled up so that it is not
pointing at anyone. Put the necessary quantity of powder into the Pan
making sure it is close to the touchhole. Retire the Priming Flask.

SAFETY NOTE: DO NOT LEAN OVER THE PAN DURING THE PROCESS AND AVOID
OVERLOADING THE PAN WITH PRIMING! It is not necessary to have enough
powder in there to burn off your eyebrows. A quarter of a teaspoon
should be the greatest of plenty.






2-14



NOTE:If your Priming Flask has a stopper, make sure that it is sealed.

25.2 Cup your hand around the lock area of your Fusil to shield it
from the wind. Put the last two fingers of your right hand behind the
Frizzen in preparation for closing the pans.

26. CIERREN LA CAZOLETA Close the Pans

26.1 Lower the RASTRILLO\ Frizzen to close the pan. The PRESENTEN
ARMAS Position is how you should end up. See Movement 16.

27. PASEN LAS ARMAS AL LADO IZQUIERDO Weapons to the Left Side


27.1 Advance the Right Foot to the
first position necessary to Left
Face\ A La Izquierda. Holding the
Fusil firmly in the Left Hand,
reach out the right arm to full
extension along the top of the
Fusil barrel. Grasp the Fusil with
your thumb lying alongside the top
of the barrel.

27.2 Count: UNO..DOS Give a
quarter-turn to the left so as to
be once more facing the target
front. Swing the gun to a diagonal
position across the body. The left
hand is at about the height of the
hip.



28. SAQUEN EL CARTUCHO Withdraw Cartridge




28.1 Bring the gun a bit closer to
yourself.

28.2 Take your right hand to the
cartridge box and extract a
cartridge.

28.3 Take the cartridge toward the _
muzzle, leaving it about 4 inches -
away from the opening of the bore.
The tail or tab of the cartucho
should be between your thumb and
forefinger. -





2-15




29. ABRAN EL CARTUCHO Open the Cartridge



29.1 Take the cartucho to your
mouth and tear off the top of it
with your teeth.

29.2 Return the opened cartucho to
the muzzle area (position 28.3),
shielding it with your hand, and
pinching the open edges of the-
paper securely closed with your
thumb and forefinger.




30. METAN EL CARTUCHO EN EL CANON Put Cartridge in Barrel

30.1 Turn the cartucho upside down
and dump the powder (and charge if
a live round is being loaded) into
the bore. Make sure the paper tube
is well into the bore to facilitate
the ramming.

SAFETY NOTE: MAKE SURE YOU USE ONLY
THE THUMB AND FOREFINGER SO THAT IF
THERE IS AN ACCIDENTAL FLASH, THE
BURNS WILL BE MINIMIZED.

30.2 Take the first two fingers of
your right hand to the tip of the
ramrod.

31. SAQUEN LA BAQUETA Withdraw Rammers

31.1 With a smooth upward motion,
withdraw the rammer about halfway
out by extending your arm to its
maximum comfortable length.
Immediately drop your hand back
down along the length of the rammer
to the first brass barrel band.

31.2 Complete the movement of X
withdrawing the rammer and in a
circular motion UP and OVER TO THE
RIGHT, let it fall into the open
palm of the right hand, the
rammer's shaft between the index
finger and the middle finger. The arm is straight, the rammer level
along the arm with the small end next to the shoulder.






2-16



32. ALTA LA BAQUETA Raise up Rammer





32.1 Grasp the rammer firmly, I
lowering the rammer tip It
should stay perpendicular with the
arm straight with the shoulder.
That is to say, the arm is
horizontal, and the rammer
vertical.





33. ACORTEN LA BAQUETA .Shorten Rammers




33.1 Support the rammer tip against
the right side of the ribcage.



33.2 Run your hand along the
rammer's shaft until it is about 4
inches from the rammer tip.





34. METAN LA BAQUETA EN EL CANON Put Rammer in Barrel

34.1 Using thumb and forefinger
only, put the rammer into the bore.

AT ALL TIMES KEEP THE MUZZLE
VERTICAL AND SLIGHTLY INCLINED AWAY
FROM YOUR FACE. DON'T LET IT POINT \ '
AT ANOTHER SOLDIER OR VISITOR
EITHER!

34.2 Move your hand to the midpoint
of the rammer shaft.






2-17



35. ATAQUEN Ram

35.1 Ram the charge home with enthusiasm. The hand lets go of the
ramrod, and swings out of the way just in case of a premature
ignition. With enough "enthusiasm", it should seat the charge home.

35.2 *tX The original drill calls for the repeating of the ramming two
more times. The traditional 18th century pattern seems to have been:
TAP TAP TAP (Count: UNO.DOS) TAP TAP TAP (Count: UNO.DOS) TAP TAP TAP

Considering modern safety principles, this is unsafe in demonstrations
as it exposes the soldier to an increased chance of accidental
ignition and a lift-off of the rammer as a lethal projectile. It was
necessary in the 18th century battlefield, as any veteran who has
fired live (bullet or buckshot) loads can testify. After a few
rounds, the fouling o- the barrel makes a strenous effort necessary to
force the next load downward.

However, in blank firing, with relatively clean bores, it makes no
logical sense to ram on the charge with nine full strokes as these
early 18th century drills call for.

36. RETIREN LA BAQUETA Retire Rammer



36.1 Withdraw the rammer with a
flip of the wrist, catching it at
the midpoint of its shaft.


36.2 Finish taking it out of the
barrel, balancing it in the palm of
your right hand, parallel to the
ground, with the large ramming tip
toward your shoulder. Refer to
Movement 31.2.




37. ALTA LA BAQUETA Raise up Rammers







37.1 Grasp the rammer firmly,
lowering the small end. It should
stay perpendicular with the arm
straight with the shoulder. This
is the opposite of movement 32.1. I






2-18



38.ACORTEN LA BAQUETA Shorten Rammers

38.1 Support the rammer's small end
against the right side of the
ribcage.

38.2 Run your hand along the '9
rammer's shaft until it is about 4 .
inches from the rammer tip, in the
same manner as movement 33.

39. METAN LA BAQUETA EN SU LUGAR Return Rammers

39.1 With your right hand, carry
the rammer so that the small end is
at the entry point of the rammer
channel next to the first brass
barrel band.

39.2 Insert the rammer into the
channel up to its midpoint.

39.3 Move your hand to the rammer
tip and complete the movement of
replacing it into its place. Then
take your right hand to the end of
the muzzle, with the elbow a bit
elevated.

40. ARMAS AL HOMBRO Shoulder Arms

40.1 With the right hand gripping
the Fusil near the muzzle, extend
the right arm upwards, carrying the
Fusil vertically beside the body,
as high as comfortably possible.
The left hand is still on the Fusil
just above the lock.

40.2 Holding the Fusil steady in
the left hand, drop the right hand
and grasp the Fusil below the lock
on the wrist of the stock. Ensure
that the Fusil remains vertical.

40.3 Drop the left hand to the
butt. Place the Fusil on the
shoulder, at a slope, trigger guard
facing down. As the Fusil is
placed on the shoulder, raise both
the left and right elbows to the
height of the shoulders.





2-19



40.4 Drop the right hand to its normal position by the right side,
slapping your casaca pleats, and lower the left elbow to a natural
position.


REVEIW OF COMMANDS OF THE 1728 DRILL AS THEY APPEAR IN THIS TEXT

1. ARMAS AL HOMBRO Shoulder Arms
2. DESCANSEN SOBRE LAS ARMAS Rest over your Weapons
3. ARMAS A TIERRA Ground Your Weapons
4. LEVANTEN ARMAS Take Up Your Weapons
tX ARMAS AL HOMBRO Shoulder Arms

5. PASEN LAS ARMAS AL LADO IZQUIERDO Weapons to the Left Side
6. SAQUEN LA BAYONETA Draw Bayonet
7. ALTA LA BAYONETA Up Bayonet
8. METAN LA BAYONETA EN EL CANON Put Bayonet on Barrel
9. PRESENTED LA BAYONETA Present Bayonet
10. CALEN LA BAYONETA Charge/ Lower the Bayonet
11. PASEN LAS ARMAS AL LADO IZOUIERDO Weapons to the Le+t Side
12. SAQUEN LA BAYONETA DEL CANON Withdraw Bayonet from Barrel
13. ENVAINEN LA BAYONETA Sheath your Bayonet
tX ARMAS AL HOMBRO Shoulder Arms

14. LA MANO DERECHA AL ARMA Right Hand to Weapon
15. ALTAS LAS ARMAS Raise Up Weapons
16. PRESENTED LAS ARMAS Present Weapons
17. PREPARE LAS ARMAS Ready your Weapons
18. APUNTEN Take Aim
19. DISPAREN Shoot

20. RETIREN LAS ARMAS Retire Arms or "Recover"
21. PONGAN LA LLABE EN EL FIADOR Half-Cock
22. LIMPIEN LA PIEDRA Clean the Flint
23. SOPLEN LA CAZOLETA Blow out the Pan
24. TOMEN EL POLVORIN Handle your Priming Flasks
25. CEBEN Prime
26. CIERREN LA CAZOLETA Close the Pans
27. PASEN LAS ARMAS AL LADO IZQUIERDO Weapons to the Left Side
28. SAQUEN EL CARTUCHO Withdraw Cartridge
29. ABRAN EL CARTUCHO Open the Cartridge
30. METAN EL CARTUCHO EN EL CANON Put Cartridge in the Barrel
31. SAQUEN LA BAQUETA Withdraw Rammer
32. ALTA LA BAQUETA Raise up Rammer
33. ACORTEN LA BAQUETA Shorten Rammer
34. METAN LA BAQUETA EN EL CANON Put Rammer in the Barrel
35. ATAQUEN Ram
36. RETIREN LA BAQUETA Retire Rammer
37. ALTA LA BAQUETA Raise up Rammer
38. ACORTEN LA BAQUETA Shorten Rammer
39. METAN LA BAQUETA EN SU LUGAR Return Rammer
40. ARMAS AL HOMBRO Shoulder Arms







|||:0 SEQUENCE OF COMMANDS TO LOAD AND FIRE 2 20


from Armas al Hombro



20. RETIREN LAS ARMAS Retire Arms or "Recover"

21. PONGAN LA LLABE EN EL FIADOR Half-Cock

22. LIMPIEN LA PIEDRA Clean the Flint

23. SOPLEN LA CAZOLETA Blow out the Pan

24. TOMEN EL POLVORIN Handle your Priming Flasks

25. CEBEN Prime

26. CIERREN LA CAZOLETA Close the Pans

27. PASEN LAS ARMAS AL LADO IZQUIERDO Weapons to the Left Side

28. SAQUEN EL CARTUCHO Withdraw Cartridge

29. ABRAN EL CARTUCHO Open the Cartridge

30. METAN EL CARTUCHO EN EL CANON Put Cartridge in the Barrel

31. SAQUEN LA BAQUETA Withdraw Rammer

32. ALTA LA BAQUETA Raise up Rammer

33. ACORTEN LA BAQUETA Shorten Rammer

34. METAN LA BAQUETA EN EL CANON Put Rammer in the Barrel

35. ATAQUEN Ram

36. RETIRE LA BAQUETA Retire Rammer

37. ALTA LA BAQUETA Raise up Rammer

38. ACORTEN LA BAQUETA Shorten Rammer

39. METAN LA BAQUETA EN SU LUGAR Return Rammer

40. ARMAS AL HOMBRO Shoulder Arms

14. LA MANO DERECHA AL ARMA Right Hand to Weapon

15. ALTAS LAS ARMAS Raise Up Weapons

16. PRESENTED LAS ARMAS Present Weapons

17. PREPARE LAS ARMAS Ready your Weapons

18. APUNTEN Take Aim

19. DISPAREN Shoot






SECTION IV 2-21

ORDENANZAS MILITARES
con sus Innovaciones y Aditamientos que
Comprenden la de Infanteria, Caballeria
y Dragones, desde el Ano 1728 hasta 1755.
De Orden y a Expensas de Su Majestad, En Madrid, Impreso
en el Ano de 1764.


Ordenanza de 12 de julio de 1728


MANEJO DEL ARMA DE INFANTERIA



1. LA MANO DERECHA AL ARMA Right Hand to Weapon

2. ALTAS LAS ARMAS Raise Up Weapons

3. PRESENTED LAS ARMAS Present Weapons

4. PREPARE LAS ARMAS Ready your Weapons

5. APUNTEN Take Aim

6. DISPAREN Shoot

7. RETIREN LAS ARMAS Retire Arms or "Recover"

8. PONGAN LA LLABE EN EL FIADOR Hal--Cock

9. LIMPIEN LA PIEDRA Clean the Flint

10. SOPLEN LA CAZOLETA Blow out the Pan

11. TOMEN EL POLVORIN Handle your Priming Flasks

12. CEBEN Prime

13. CIERREN LA CAZOLETA Close the Pans

14. PASEN LAS ARMAS AL LADO IZQUIERDO Weapons to the Left Side

15. SAQUEN EL CARTUCHO Withdraw Cartridge

16. ABRAN EL CARTUCHO Open the Cartridge

17. METAN EL CARTUCHO EN EL CANON Put Cartridge in the Barrel

18. SAQUEN LA BAQUETA Withdraw Rammer

19. ALTA LA BAQUETA Raise up Rammer

20. ACORTEN LA BAQUETA Shorten Rammer






2-22



21. METAN LA BAQUETA EN EL CANON PutRammer in the Barrel

22. ATAQUEN Ram

23. RETIRAN LA BAQUETA Retire the Rammer

24. ALTA LA BAQUETA Raise up Rammer

25. ACORTEN LA BAQUETA Shorten Rammer

26. METAN LA BAQUETA EN SU LUGAR Return Rammer

27. SAQUEN LA BAYONETA Draw Bayonet

28. ALTA LA BAYONETA Up Bayonet

29. METAN LA BAYONETA EN EL CANON Put Bayonet on Barrel

30. PRESENTED LA BAYONETA Present Bayonets

31. A LA DERECHA Right Face

32. A LA DERECHA Right Face

33. A LA DERECHA Right Face

34. A LA DERECHA Right Face

35. A LA IZQUIERDA Left Face

36. A LA IZQUIERDA Left Face

37. A LA IZQUIERDA Left Face

38. A LA IZQUIERDA Left Face

39. MEDIA VUELTA A LA DERECHA Right About Face

40. REHAGANSE As You Were

41. MEDIA VUELTA A LA IZQUIERDA Left About Face

42. REHAGANSE As You Were

43. CALEN LA BAYONETA Charge/Lower the Bayonet

44. A LA DERECHA Right Face

45. A LA DERECHA Right Face

46. A LA DERECHA Right Face

47. A LA DERECHA Right Face





2-23



48. A LA IZQUIERDA Left Face

49. A LA IZQUIERDA Left Face

50. A LA IZQUIERDA Left Face

51. A LA IZQUIERDA Left Face

52. MEDIA VUELTA A LA DERECHA Right About Face;

53. REHAGANSE As You Were

54. MEDIA VUELTA A LA IZQUIERDA Left About Face

55. REHAGANSE As You Were

56. PASEN LAS ARMAS AL LADO IZQUIERDO Weapons to the Left Side

57. SAQUEN LA BAYONETA DEL CANON Withdraw Bayonet from Barrel

58. EMVAINEN LA BAYONETA Sheath Bayonet

59. LA MANO DERECHA DEBAJO DE LA LLABE Right Hand under Lock

60. ALTAS LAS ARMAS Raise up Weapons

61. ARMAS AL HOMBRO Shoulder Arms

62. PRESENTED LAS ARMAS Present Weapons

63. ARMAS AL HOMBRO CON Club Arms; Shoulder Arms with
LA CULATA ATRAS Butt to the Rear

64. PRESENTED LAS ARMAS Present Weapons

65. DESCANSEN SOBRE LAS ARMAS Rest over your Weapons

66. ARMAS A TIERRA Ground your Weapons

67. LEVANTEN LAS ARMAS Pick up your Weapons

68. PRESENTED LAS ARMAS Present Weapons

69. ALTAS LAS ARMAS Raise up Weapons

70. ARMAS AL HOMBRO Shoulder Arms











To move from the DESCANSEN SOBRE LAS-ARMAS to the ARMAS AL HOMBRO:



1.1 With the right hand gripping
the Fusil near the muzzle, extend
the right arm upwards, carrying the
Fusil vertically beside the body.
At the same time, carry the left
arm across the body and with the
left hand seize the Fusil just
above the lock.



1.2 Holding the Fusil steady in the
left hand, drop the right hand and
grasp the Fusil below the lock on
the small of. the butt. Ensure that
the Fusil remains in a vertical
position.



1.3 Dropping the left hand to the
side of the body, with the right
hand only carry the Fusil across
the body from the right to the left
in a vertical position, turning the
left side of the Fusil in toward
the face and lifting it high enough
so that the right hand passes at
about the throat level. Continue
on and place the Fusil on the
shoulder, at a slope, trigger guard
facing down, bring the left hand up
to hold the Fusil by the end of the
stock. As the Fusil is placed on
the shoulder and the left hand
comes up, raise both the left -and
right elbows to the height of the
shoulders.



1.4 Drop the right hand to its
normal position by the right side
and lower the left elbow to a
natural position.





"BLESSED BE THOSE HAPPY AGES THAT WERE
STRANGERS TO THE DREADFUL FURY OF THESE
DEVILISH INSTRUMENTS OF ARTILLERY, WHOSE
INVENTOR, I AM SATISFIED, IS NOW IN HELL
RECEIVING THE REWARD OF HIS ACCURSED
INVENTION...FOR THE REASON THAT NOW ANY
VILE AND COWARDLY ARM MAY SNUFF OUT THE
LIFE OF A VALOROUS KNIGHT, AND WITHOUT
THE GENTLEMAN KNOWING I-HO OR FROM WHERE
IN THE MIDST OF THE COURAGE AND SPIRIT
WHICH BURNS IN AND ENLIVENS THE VALIENT
BREAST, THERE ARRIVES A STRAY BALL SHOT
BY HE WHO WISHED TO FLEE AND WAS DAZZLED
BY THE BRILLIANCE WHEN HE MADE FIRE TO
DISCHARGE HIS DAMNED MACHINE..AND SO HE
CUT OFF AND ENDED IN AN INSTANT THE
THOUGHTS AND LIFE OF HE WHO MERITED THE
ENJOYMENT OF LONG CENTURIES." DN QUIJOTE






OUTLINE: CANNON-FIRING DEMONSTRATION INTERPRETIVE TALKS
CASTILLO DE SAN MARCOS NATIONAL MONUMENT

THE KEY IDEAS TO INCLUDE

WHO ARE THE CREW? ,
-represent Spanish garrison troops of San Aquytin, around 1740
-All soldiers in this presidio had to be familiar with cannon drill.
-Cannon drills were a familiar part of daily life, critical to fort and
community alike; Spanish army regulations mandated three drills/week.
-Optional: identify crew as park volunteers; like historic crews, they
also live in town and come..to'fort for special purposes

AMMUNITION TYPES USED: FUNCTION:
solid iron ball batter ships/buildings; dismount enemy cannon
cannister shot anti-personnel; like a modern machine gun
bar / chain shot anti-ship rigging; cripple rather than sink
hot shot start fires on ships or buildings
mortar bombs only available explosive round
high angle fire to reach over walls or hills
powerful psychological effect during seiges
**STRESS: no available exploding munitions for long barrel cannons yet

IDENTIFY RANGES WITH VISIBLE LANDMARKS:
cannon: lighthouse on Anastasia Island / Vilano Bridge AIA
mortar: steel cross at Mission Nombre de Dios

EXPLAIN WHY RATE OF FIRE WAS SLOW AND DELIBERATE: normal= 4/hour
preserve discipline and morale among the troops
conserve limited ammo supplies for the duration of a long seige
prevent over-heating cannon, damaging an expensive, irreplaceable resource
NO need for a panic situation; fort has massive advantages over attackers
there is more than one gun covering any potential target area
burden of what-to-do lies on the attacker; defense just waits to win

CASTILLO CANNON IN SERVICE, THEN AND NOW:
Number: THEN min = 40 max = 77 average: 65 / NOW less than 2 dozen
Type: mostly cannons cast-iron & bronze (33%), 6 mortars, no howitzers
Deployment: all sides, bastions, and outer defenses; more on East wall
How many can be used today? just the replica bronze 6 pder (made 1977)

CASTILLO DESIGN FEATURES ALLOWING BEST USE OF CANNON FIRE-POWER:
bastions.........provide interlocking fields of fire no blind spots
glacis............slope angle same as widening spread of cannister shot
fort site........inside harbor's shifting sand bars, forcing ships to
come in slow and easy into known target areas,
........ athwart the only land passageway from town to mainland
land surrounding fort was denuded for 1500 yards (1 mi.)
maximum visibility both seaward and landward approaches

SAFETY MESSAGE......MANDATORY BEFORE EVERY DEMO........................
visitors must be behind the white line
no one sits or stands on walls or other cannon danger of a fall
loud noise warning: parents with small children, hearing aids, cover ears








SPANISH 18TH CENTURY CANNON COMMANDS
for the Exercise of 24 and 16 pounder cannon

Source: Spanish Royal Ordinance: i8 June 1752
Typescript, Biblioteca del Congreso, Mexico, D.F.

Literal 18th century Sganqsh command AeCq.iimate English equivalent

ATENCION: PREVANGANSE PARA EL EJERCICIO Attention !
Ready yourselves for drill
TOMEN LOS ESPEQUES........................ Take up the Handspikes
DISPONGANSE A SACAR DE BACTERIA EL CANON Prepare to Withdraw Gun
out of Battery
CANON FUERA DE BATERIA................Gun out of Battery
DISPONGANSE PARA PUNTERIA...............Prepare to Aim
BAJEN LA CULATA DEL CANON..................Lower the Breech
ESPEQUES A SU LUGAR....................Handspikes to their places
QUITEN EL TACO Y PLOMADA................Remove Tompion & Ventcover
ENTREN LA CUCHARA EN EL CANON............Insert Ladle into Bore
RECONOZCAN SI ESTA CARGADO............... Inspect if it is loaded
RETIREN LA CUCHARA ..........................Lay aside the Ladle
ENTREN LA LANADA Y TAPEN EL FOGON........Insert the Sponge and
Thumb the Vent
PASEN LA LANADA AL CANON ...............Pass the Sponge through
the Bore
RETIREN LA A SU LUGAR....................Lay aside Ethe Sponge)
to its place
APRONTEN CUCHARA Y POLVORA.............. Quickly deliver the Ladle
and Powder
LLENEN LA CUCHARA........................ Fill the Ladle
ENTRENLA EN EL CANON.................... Insert it in the Bore
VACIENLA EN EL CANON....................Empty it into the Bore
RETIREN LA POLVORA.......................Lay aside the Powder
LA CUCHARA A SU LUGAR ................... Ladle to its place
PRESENTEN EL ATACADOR.................... Present Rammer
EL ATACADOR EN EL CANON............ .....Rammer into the Bore
UNEN LA POLVORA..........................Tamp down Powder gently
RETIREN EL ATACADO... ..................Lay aside the Rammer
PONGAN EL TACO EN EL CANON.............. Put the Wad into the Bore
ENTREN EL ATACADOR......................Insert the Rammer
ATAQUEN.................................Ram Down Cwith force]
RETIREN EL ATACADOR..................... Lay aside the Rammer
BALA Y TACO EN EL CANON..................Ball and Wad into the Bore
ATAQUEN ........................... ........Ram Down with force
EL ATACADOR A SU LUGAR.................. Rammer to its place
TOMEN LOS ESPEQUES.....................Take up the Handspikes
DISPONGANSE A PONER'EN BACTERIA EL CANON Prepare to place Gun
into Battery
CANON EN BATERIA........................Gun into Battery
DISPONGANSE PARA EL PUNTERIA............Prepare to Aim
APUNTEN ................................... Aim
ESPEQUES A SU LUGAR.....................Handspikes to their places
CEBEN Y CUBRAN EL FOGON.................Prime and Cover the Vent
TOMEN LOS BOTAFUEGOS....................Take up your Linstocks
BOTAFUEGO AL CANON.....................Advance the Linstock









ALTO Y SOPLEN LA MECHA ................. Halt & Blow on Matchcord
QUITEN LA PLOMADA AL FOGON.............. Remove Ventcover
FUEGO .............. ............ ......... Fire
BOTAFUEGO A SU LUGAR....................Linstock to its place
TOMEN LOS ESPEQUES....................... Take up the Handspikes
DISPONGANSE A SACAR EL CANON DE LA BATERIA...Prepare to Withdraw
Gun from Battery
CURENA FUERA DE BATERIA................. Gun carriage back from
Battery Position
ESPEQUES A SU LUGAR......................Handspikes to their places
TODOS A SUS PUESTOS....................Soldiers to your Posts
ENTREN LA LANADA Y TAPEN EL FOGON....... Insert the Sponge and Thumb
the Vent
PASEN LA LANADA AL CANON ............... Pass the Sponge through
the Bore
RETIRENLA A SU LUGAR.................... Lay aside the Sponge
PONGAN EL TACO EN EL CANON...............Place Tompion into Bore
TOMEN LOS ESPEQUES ..................... Take up the Handspikes
DISPONGANSE A ENTRAR EN BACTERIA EL CANON .....Prepare to Place
Gun into Battery
CANON EN BATERIA......................... Gun into Battery
DISPONGANSE PARA EL PUNTERIA............ Prepare to Aim
BAXEN LA BOCA DEL CANON ................ Lower the Muzzle
ESPEQUES'A SU LUGAR.... ................. .Handspikes to their places
PONGAN LA PLOMADA AL FOGON ..............Ventcover over the Touch-hole
MEDIA BUELTA A LA DERECHA............... By-the-Right, About Face
FRENTE AL MERLON, FORMEN ................Facing the Wall, Form ranks
MEDIA BUELTA A LA DERECHA..............By-the-Right, About Face
MARCHEN................................ March





















SPANISH ARTILLERY DRILL;
APPROPRIATE TO 1740






BASIC SPANISH VOCABULARY FOR

CANNON CREW AT CASTILLO DE SAN MARCOS NM





la CUCHARA el BOTAFUEGO



,el ESPEQUE .f










Slai CUa A

l \

















el ATACADOR -



*la LANADA




el SACATAPOS









Front-Left Cannoneer:
responsible for linstock'I& atchcord Front:Right Cannoneer:
checks vent with pick checks barrel with ladie if loaded
guards powder barrel aias cannon with hand motions
loads the cartridge prices vent
brings up the linstock covers vent with hat until firing
fires froa utwind observes shot's fall
moves gun out of battery with handspike coves gun out of battery with handspike
extracts charge in misfire drill




Rear-Left Cannoneer:
sponges
rams cartridge
moves gun into battery with handspike
pulls gun out of battery with bricole
drowns vent and muzzle if *-igt' gCnnt agggC:
a aisfire occurs thumbs the vent hole
moves gun into battery with handspike
--- _- hauls gun out of battery with bricole
Sif extra man available to thumb, he
-. .... --. '] will help Rear-Left sponge & raa

,t------- -----







Back-Right Cannoner:
optional man if available
may thumb vent instead of Rear-Right






aster Gunner:
calls commands
supervises crew
checks the aia of cannon
picks the rammed cartridge
& calls for more ramming
takes control in misfire


NPS SAFETY OFFICER: MONITORS AND CONTROLS THE CROWDS
This person nay be either in NPS uniform or in 18th century
period dress; he/she may or may not give the interpretive talk.

A SAFETY OFFICER MUST BE IN ADDITION TO THE FIVE MINIMUM ON THE CREW
If there are not enough people, the demonstration .st be cancelled.








TASKS OF THE MASTER GUNNER IN THE SPANISH GARRISON CANNON DRILL

Commands:

ATENCION: PREVENGANSE PARA EL EJERCICIO calls crew to drill
---BENDIGANOS, SANTA BARBARA--- cross self
ENTREN LA CUCHARA EN EL CANON
RECONOZCAN SI ESTA CARGADO
RETIREN LA CUCHARA
ENTREN LA LANADA Y TAPEN EL FOGON
PASEN LA LANADA AL CANON
RETIREN LA A SU LUGAR
APRONTEN ATACADOR Y POLVORA
ENTRENLA EN EL CANON
ATAQUEN checks packing with stiletto-
EL ATACADOR A SU LUGAR
TOMEN LOS ESPEQUES
DISPONGANSE A PONER EN BACTERIA EL CANON
CANON EN BACTERIA
DISPONGANSE PARA EL PUNTERIA
APUNTEN approve the aim: "Siga.."
ESPEQUES A SU LUGAR
CEBEN Y CUBRAN EL FOGON remove the stiletto/or pick
TOMEN LOS BOTAFUEGOS
BOTAFUEGO AL CANON take look at walls/visitors
ALTO Y SOPLEN LA MECHA draw sword
FUEGO signal by dropping sword
BOTAFUEGO A SU LUGAR
TOMEN LOS ESPEQUES MasterGunner may let Front
DISPONGANSE A SACAR EL CANON DE LA BACTERIA Right Cannoneer give rest
CURENA FUERA DE BACTERIA of these commands
ESPEQUES A SU LUGAR
ENTREN LA LANADA Y TAPEN EL FOGON
PASEN LA LANADA AL CANON
RETIRENLA A SU LUGAR
----X---X----X----X----X----X----X----X- Answer visitor questions
---------------------------- make sure all is secured
FRENTE AL MERLON, FORMEN Form up squad facing to sea
MEDIA BUELTA A LA DERECHA Right-About-Face
MARCHEN March to exit--correct post
is in front 'or back of crew








\ i







THE SPANISH GARRISON CANNON DRILL PRONUNCIATION OF COMMANDS


Ah-TEN-see-on : pray-VEN-gahn-say PAH-rah el eh-hair-SEA-sea-oh
ben-DEE-gah-nose SAN-tah BAHR-bah-rah
EHN-train lah coo-CHAR-rah ehn el cahn-NYON
ray-coh-NOSE-khan sea ehs-TAH car-GAH-thoh
ray-TEE-rain lah coo-CHAR-rah
EHN-train lah lah-NAH-thah eee TAH-pain el foh-GOHN
PAH-sane la lah-NAH-thah ahl cahn-NYON
ray-TEE-rain lah ah soo lew-GAHR
ah-PRONE-tain ah-tah-kah-DOOR ee POLL-vor-rah
EHN-trainlah ehn el cahn-NYON
ah-TAH-cain
el ah-tah-kah-DOOR ah soo lew-GAHR
TOE-main lahs ehs-SPAY-case
dees-PON-gahn-say ah pon-NAIR ehn bah-tear-REE-ah el cahn-NYON
cahn-NYON en bah-tear-REE-ah
dees-PON-gahn-say pah-rah el poon-tear-REE-ah
ah-POON-tain
ehs-SPAY-case ah soo lew-GAHR
SAY-bain eee COO-brahn el foh-GOHN
TOE-main lohs boat-tah-FOO-AY-gos
boat-tah-FOO-AY-go ahl cahn-NYON
AHL-toe eee SOAP-plain lah MAY-chah
FOOY-AY-go
boat-tah-FOO-AY-go ah soo lew-GAHR
TOE-main lohs ehs-SPAY-case
dees-PON-gahn-say ah sah-CAR el cahn-NYON day lah bah-tear-REE-ah
coo-RAIN-nyah FOO-air-rah day bah-tear-REE-ah
ehs-SPAY-case ah soo lew-GAHR
EHN-train lah lah-NAH-thah eee TAH-pain el foh-GOHN
PAH-sane la lah-NAH-thah ahl cahn-NYON
ray-TEE-rain lah ah soo lew-GAHR


FRAIN-tay ahl mer-LOHN, FOUR-main
MAY-the-ah BWELL-tah ah la dare-RAY-chah
MAHR-chain









SPANISH 18TH CENTURY CANNON COMMANDS AND WHAT THEY MEAN

[extra commands in the original drill not needed for Castillo cannot.'
demonstration deleted from this list]

Literal 18th century Spanish command Approximate English equivalent
ATENCION: PREVANGANSE PARA EL EJERCICIO.Ready yourselves for drill
QUITEN EL TACO Y PLOMADA................Remove Tompion & Ventcover
ENTREN LA CUCHARA EN EL CANON............Insert Ladle into Bore
RECONOZCAN SI ESTA CARGADO..............Inspect if it is loaded
RETIREN LA CUCHARA......................Lay aside the Ladle
ENTREN LA LANADA Y TAPEN EL FOGON........Insert the Sponge and
Thumb the Vent
PASEN LA LANADA AL CANON................Pass the Sponge through
the Bore
RETIREN LA A SU LUGAR................... Lay aside [the Sponge]
to its place
APRONTEN CUCHARA Y POLVORA..............Quickly deliver the Ladle
and Powder
PRESENTEN EL ATACADOR...................Present Rammer
EL ATACADOR EN EL CANON.................Rammer into the Bore
ATAQUEN. ................................. Ram Down [with force]
EL ATACADOR A SU LUGAR..................Rammer to its place
TOMEN LOS ESPEQUES......................Take up the Handspikes
DISPONGANSE A PONER EN BACTERIA EL CANON Prepare to .place Gun
into Battery
CANON EN BATERIA........................Gun into Battery
DISPONGANSE PARA EL PUNTERIA.............Prepare to Aim
APUNTEN .................................Aim
ESPEQUES A SU LUGAR.....................Handspikes to their places
CEBEN Y CUBRAN EL FOGON.................Prime and Cover the Vent
TOKEN LOS BOTAFUEGOS.......................Take up your Linstocks
BOTAFUEGO AL CANON......................Advance the Linstock
ALTO Y SOPLEN LA MECHA..................Halt & Blow on Matchcord
QUITEN LA PLOMADA AL FOGON...............Remove Ventcover
FUEGO ...................................Fire
BOTAFUEGO A SU LUGAR....................Linstock to its place
TOMEN LOS ESPEQUES......................Take up the Handspikes
DISPONGANSE A SACAR EL CANON DE LA BATERIA...Prepare to Withdraw
Gun from Battery
CURENA FUERA DE' BATERIA .................Gun carriage back from
Battery Position
ESPEQUES A SU LUGAR.....................Handspikes to their places
TODOS A SUS PUESTOS.....................Soldiers to your Posts
ENTREN LA LANADA Y TAPEN EL FOGON........ Insert the Sponge and Thumb
the Vent
PASEN LA LANADA AL CANON......... ........Pass the Sponge through
the Bore
RETIRENLA A SU LUGAR....................Lay aside the Sponge
PONGAN EL TACO EN EL CANON..............Place Tompion into Bore
MEDIA BUELTA A LA DERECHA ...............By-the-Right, About Face
FRENTE AL MERLON, FORMEN................ Facing the Wall, Form ranks
MEDIA BUELTA A LA DERECHA ...............By-the-Right, About Face
MARCHEN.... .............................March








ALTO Y SOPLEN LA MECHA.................. Halt .& Blow on Matchcord
DUITEN LA PLOMADA AL FOGON.............. Remove Ventcover
FUEGO...................................Fire
BOTAFUEGO A SU LUGAR....................Linstock to its place
TOMEN LOS ESPEQUES.......................Take up the Handspikes
DISFONGANSE A SACAR EL CANON DE LA BACTERIA. ..Prepare to Withdraw
Gun from Battery

CURENA FUERA DE BATERIA................. Gun carriage back from
Battery Position
ESPEQUES A SU LUGAR................. .....Handspikes to their places
TODOS A SUS PUESTOS......................Soldiers to your Posts
ENTREN LA LANADA Y TAPEN EL FOGON ....... Insert the Sponge and Thumb
the Vent
PASEN LA LANADA AL CANON ................Pass the Sponge through
the Bore
RETIRENLA A SU LUGAR ....................Lay aside the Sponge
PONGAN EL TACO EN EL CANON.............. Place Tompion into Bore
TOMEN LOS ESPEQUES......................Take up the Handspikes
DISPONGANSE A ENTRAR EN BACTERIA EL CANON......Prepare to Place
Gun into Battery
CANON EN BATERIA......................... Gun into Battery
DISPONGANSE PARA EL PUNTERIA ............Prepare to Aim
BAXEN LA BOCA DEL CANON.................Lower the Muzzle
ESF'EQUES'A SU LUGAR.....................Handspikes to their places
PONGAN LA PLOMADA AL FOGON..............Ventcover over the Touch-hole
MEDIA BUELTA A LA DERECHA...............By-the-Right, About Face
FRENTE AL MERLON, FORMEN................ Facing the Wall, Form ranks
MEDIA BUELTA A LA DERECHA...............By-the-Right, About Face
MARCHEN ........ ......................... March






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SPANISH FIFE AND DRUM CALLS 1740








1STH CENTURY SPANISH DRUM ANiD FIFE CALLS

sources: oiUs Y SyGugCra. 1769 compiled by F. Otanc, S.J. .193
HnQol!oia :e MLsicL a t illtar de _EI'anga,
Ricardo Fernandez de Latorre 1972

LA GENERAL

-call -or troops to take up arms for the march, reveiw, drill or
other such function whether in camp, garrison, or barracks
-general alarm call, similar to modern Navy "GENERAL QUARTERS"

LA ASAMBLEA

-call to take up arms and form rarns --or certain dgesicnat.
t2roos, generally the "duty" troop to accomplish some sarvic,;
task, such as stri ke tents, harness the livestock, i =d up th0
pack mules, etc.
iQOTElIt would seem that many units had their iown -unit asse:nbly
call, not common to all troops

LA VANDERA or LA TROPA

-call played after the ASAMBLEA, -or the companies to fcrmn t..e
batallon regardless of whether in the -ield encampmsnt, in
garrison or barracks, or on duty post
-when breaking formation, signal to stack arms
-also played while the drummers with a detachment of reniacia's
accompany the flags to the head of the Batallon or retire th.,

LA IMARCHA DE FUSILEROS The March oW the Fusili.ers (I.nantryvei- ,/,

LA MARCH DE GRANADEROS The March of the Grenadiers
Notei Now the National Antpmemn of Spa.in
EL ALTO

-cease fire
-While on the march, to halt the column

LA RETRETA

-while on the march, immediately Right-About-Face and retreat
-in the field, to retire
-signals the gathering of the troops into their barracks

EL VANDO

-call for troops to pay attention to the publication of ;orders
or other matters "with a certain solemnity"







LA LLAMADA

-call used to concentrate troops into .clse order or an indicated
fcrmation
-also used to advise of the acising for the night of the gates o-
a fortress or barracks

LA MISA

-call to assembly for Holy Mass

LA GRACION

-call signalling the end of the working day, .ta-n scundad after
the evening bells of the nearest church to the camp or barracks
-in garrison, it should be first played in the principal :nilit:.r
post, and then echoed by outlyi ng position

LA ORDEN

-call used to bring together certain persons fwhichi it may b!e
necessary to distribute or detail to vari'-s: tasks or c-caticns

LA FARINA

-clayed while the ,troop is gcinq out t- -atig~u duties. su: n .-:
cutting firewood or foraging
-played when a troop is headed back to zha barracks after tn:-
complati-n of some task. Nts: these trcps should cary i-.
mnuskts with the butts reavrsad ( up in Wte air ), Engi:3sn rm
CLUBBED ARMS, Spanish term: ARAS AL HOM.RO CON, LAS CULATA AT,:-A

LA DIANA .or before French i-nflu-ncc: TGUE DE A RADA

-like modern "REVEILLE", call to commence the duties of thday,
played at dawn.; first scund. d in ths principal military p
then repeated by secondary p!siticns
* jlNOQ said by some authors tc have been played icn Mexio jus['
before a3xeacutions wera carried cuti; t; *a an'tigui'y of this




-the Assault, or charge with bayonets
-the charge began at a normal march pace, with the drummers
gradually accelerating the tiempa; ar. close range tc the ene.y,
the drummers played this call which signalled tho rusi into s;acI:
acti n








LA VAQUETA

-a pun:ishmsent call:, played on the per-formance of the infamouu
"carrera de vaCtqtas"; tne condsmnsd ran with no shirt or coat
ran between two ranks of his fallow soldiers who whipped at him
with the ramrods of their muskets until he dropped ( -rom the
8Ith century Spanish term: BAGUETA OR vAAOUETA = ramrod)


USLE, CALLS USED IN 1STH CEN-TURY SPANISH CAVALRY


A DESULELLO

-call for cavalry attack! cr char-ge
-the same term is -used Cor "attack without quarter", meaning n
prisonerss to be taken: "Entrar a DeguLel o" derived from
dgclla-r, to-slit the threat; said to ,ave bsen played at the
3SsauL.t ao the alamn in the Texas RevolutiCton of 1836.



-call Use. to concentrate troops into close order or an indicated
i.orm'ation

LA DIAN A

-like modern "REVEILLE:', call to commence the duties of the day.
played at dawn; first sounded in the principal military p-st,
then repeated by secondary positions

LA SOTASILLA or LA tSENERALA

-"Bocts and Sadd.les", call for. cavalry troopers to saddle up,to
Stai.e up arms for the march.-, -rveaiw, br drill
-general alarm- call, s imilar-.mcdorn Navy "SENERAL QUARTERS"

LA ASAMBSLEA

-:a.;. ;to orm ranks

A CBHorse", signal to moLL

-"To Horse". signal to mount










FRENCH 18TH CENTURY DRUMCALLS
source: French and Indian War magazine, 1984

LA GENERAL
-to call out the entire garrison for march or exercise
-in the event of alarm, the call for all to take arms

L'ASSEMBL'EE
-soldiers leave the barracks or tents and move to drillground
-while on the march, infantry columns would re-form

AUX CHAMPS
-the general purpose march rhythm
-the "Get Ready" for troops in barracks
-march beat for detachment going to mount guard
-on the march, call for a regiment to close ranks or form line of
battle

LE DRAPEAU or AU DRAPEAU
-form into line
-stack arms in guardhouse
-follows the blessing of new flags
-while on the march, "Form Line of Battle"

LA RETRAITE
-withdraw or cease combat
-retire into barracks or camp
-end of the day: all soldiers retire into tents

LE BAN
-announces arrival of officer above rank of major
-announces proclamation or edict

L'APPEL
-reassembly troops after encounter/charge of enemy
-demand the surrender of a place held under seige
-when troops are assembled, close ranks
-when sounded by Brigade DrumMajor, signal to all regiments to
sound "Retreat"
-when on the march, a signal that a unit was not able to keep up
with the column or was halted.

L'ORDRE
-to announce the reading of daily orders

LA FASSINE or LA BRELOGUE
-advise work details it was time to start work, stop to eat, or
quit for the day
-break ranks
-Mess Call
-sometimes, to announce mass

LA DIANE
-sounded at daybreak to awaken soldiers
-alert call to troops











LA DIANE (continued) -
-a salute to an officer played on the day of his birth or his
saint's day

LA CHARGE
-to advance with bayonets fixed and leveled
-signal for soldiers to come quickly
-a signal for soldiers to close ranks into one mass
-sometimes, "LOAD WEAPONS"

LA PRIERE or LA MESSE
-call to prayers or mass

LE RIGODON D' HONNEUR
-renders honors to members of the Royal Family
-renders honors to certain high military officers: field
marechals, governors
-certain religious occasions
-processions in honour of the Blessed Sacrament




Full Text

PAGE 1

Digitized with the permission of the FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS FLORIDA NATIONAL GUARD SOURCE DOCUMENT ADVISORY Digital images were created from printed source documents that , in many cases , were photocopies of original materials held elsewhere . The quality of these copies was often poor . Digital images reflect the poor quality of the source documents. Where possible images have been manipulated to make them as readable as possible . In many cases such manipulation was not possible . Where available, the originals photocopied for publication have been digitized and have been added, separately , to this collection. Searchable text generated from the digital images, subsequently, is also poor . The researcher is advised not to rely solely upon text-search in this collection. RIGHTS & RESTRICTIONS Items collected here were originally published by the Florida National Guard, many as part of its SPECIAL ARCHIVES PUBLICATION series. Contact the Florida National Guard for additional information . The Florida National Guard reserves all rights to content originating with the Guard. DIGITIZATION Titles from the SPECIAL ARCHIVES PUBLICATION series were digitized by the University of Florida in recognition of those serving in Florida's National Guard, many of whom have given their lives in defense of the State and the Nation.

PAGE 2

Department of Military Affairs Florida National Guard LIVING HISTORY CONTEXTUAL MATERIALS SPANISH FLORIDA MILITIA AND GARRISON SOLDIERS 171:l-O

PAGE 3

The enc:l,)sed reference materials cire for use as background for the 1740 Staff Ride. Included are: ... Orders of Dress; Spanish Florida 17 E.rO ... Daily life for a Spanish Florida Soldier 17~0 ... 1728 Spanish Infantry Drill; Appropriate to 1740 ... Spanish Artillery Drill; Appropriate to 17~0 ... Spanish Fife and Drum Calls; 17~0

PAGE 4

SPANISH ORDER OF DRESS 174-0

PAGE 5

. . . . . . . . ORDERS OF DRESS . . -... . . . -. . Bei~g the Proper Usages _ : . . . .. .:~ . . . . . . . of Arms, . Cf6thirl9, a AccOutremehts . in , the Castillo de San Marcos . and ih the . streets of . . . . . . S an Ag u st i n d e I a F I o r i d a . .. . .

PAGE 6

EL VESTUARIO DE LOS SOLDADOS DEL PRESIDIO DE SAN AGUSTIN EN 1740 THE ORDERS OF DRESS In reveiwing what information could be found, the Research and Resource Committee found time and time again that the experts consider the 1730's-1740's to be a "transition period" in which patterns and usages were in a transition from the early 18th century seen in the 1700-1720 "Marlborough Wars'' or the War of Spanish Succesion ( Queen Anne's War in some of our literature) and those styles that were in use in the middle of the 18th century such as the Seven Years War ( called in North America the French and Indian War). Considering the role and status of San Agustin in the period, the Research and Resource Committee recommends that whenever there is a possibility that an article or weapon might be af one (earlier> pattern or another (later> one, it is more logical to assume that the earlier pattern was to be found in this presidia. San Agustin was not the kind of place that received the newest equiptment or the latest fashions. Most of the surviving artwork of Spanish troops in the 18th century was made of men in their formal, garrison duty dress; the best, the Ig~tCQ ~ilii~C gyCQQ~ by the Marquis Alfons6 Taccoli, Duke of Parma (1760>. was a collection of watercolors done of the various troops of the th~ee Bourbon monarchies of 18th century Europe: Spain, France, and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies. It was supposed to show the king the troops at their best. In recent correspondence with Ulrich Koch of Germany who did the original ~ research into 11 reconstrLlcting 11 the uniform of the presidia! troops of Florida in 1969, Mr. Koch recommended to Garrison members to give greater reliance on information from artwork than on the limited documentary sources relating to San Agustin before the Reglamento de 1753. He particularly recommended the Teatro Militar de Euro~a for guidance, as well as a painting of troops in the 11 F'laza Mayor de la Ciudad de Me~d co 11 , a painting done in our period here in the New World. An effort is underway to obtain a slide of this painting, now hanging in the Museo Nacional de la Historia in Mexico City. For the purposes of Living History in San Agustin, the formal, garrison duty order of dress should be followed by troops on duty in Castillo de San Marcos, or at the City Gate, or on guard at the Governor's House. In these places, the soldado was under the eye of his superior officers and undergoing periodic inspections. He was gQ ~yt~ io'a formal sense and his dress and posture should reflect that.

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THE ORDER OF DRESS FOR GARRISON SERVICE: Military Tri corn i.,i th Red Cockade Cravat Shirt Breeches Greatcoat Waistcoat** In consideration of our hot summers and recognizing the fact that most members are not accustomed to i.,ear this dress 7 days week it will continue to be acceptable for members to NOT wear waistcoats under the greatcoat in extreme conditions. However, wearing correct gc~.d-~g. if at all pos~ible, if there is a choice between a greatcoat and wearing Just a waistcoat, a more impression is given by the greatcoat in Garrison Deep Red Stockings . 18th century shoes with buckles Waistbelt, plain natural brown leather well-oiled Side arms: A man does not look "complete" withoLtt sidearms. Bayonet ** ALWAYS, often even "off-duty"** Sword, of the infantry hangar type, if owned Note: It is perfectly acceptable for a soldier to turn out for duty with Just his bayonet ** Machetes are NOT appropriate for formal duty Musket, iron and brass well-cleaned and oiled Cartridge box, either the later over-the-shoulder model or the earlier bellybox model is acceptable. "Polvorin" Priming Flask, carried on a flat 1/2 inch plain natural leather, well-oiled over the right shoulder. For guidance, see Brinckerhoff's book on Spanish arms in colonial America 1700-1821 . Ordinary powder horns of the Anglo-American pattern are not encouraged. Note: A separate powder flask will be necessary to do the proper musket drill of 1728. The present drill is of 1755 vintage. Sargents should carry their sargents wearing sashes in bo: :es. Halberds. No art shows Spanish this period or wearing ammunition

PAGE 8

Officers should carry their Spontoons and wear their Gorgets. No sashes are seen on art work of Spanish officers, either. Sargents and Officers may carry a cane. is the activity involved, the polearms are cane is used excltisively. If drilling the troops laid aside and the The practice in this presidio of not wearing swords during cannon drill is confirmed as approriate. NO ADDITIONAL EQUIPTMENT IS RECOMMENDED FOR FORMAL, GARRISON SERVICE. * * * * * * Although the primary duties of the three independent companies of the Presidio de San Agustin de la Florida involved the defense of the Castillo and this city, it is obvious that from time to time these men had to go into the field to patrol the coasts and "el monte" or "the bush" of this wild province. Hard evidence on field service items is scarce. Line regiments in Europe are represented in some artwork with some field gear, but these were regiments which were expected to go into the field on campaign. They were not "companias fijos" or fi>:ed companies like the various garrisons defending the Caribbean in the 18th century. ORDERS OF DRESS, FIELD SERVICE: All of the Garrison Service Articles and Arms as well as: Gaiters (Note: These were extremely popular in Spain for many years; there are many examples found in civilian 18th century art such as hunting scenes, kite-flying larks, and other outdoor activities.) Machetes Historian Luis Arana has stated that machetes were not acceptable as formal weapons until the Second Spanish period; they are found by the hundreds on inventories of the Castillo de San Marcos. but their status is that . of .a t_gg!_. Belt Axes A few are found on Castillo inventories, but again it would seem that they are :!;.QQ!.a• Every man shoLtld QQ:!;. have a tomahawk in his kit. A few might be seen on a patrol. The European handax, sometimes called a tomi hawk, was found in Spanish American colonies, but not as popular as the ever-present machete. Belt ~::'.ni ves No hard information found here. Knives of the style sold by Avalon Forge are common in Hispanic America, but they are not dress uniform items, and most probably should be carried inside the

PAGE 9

Haversack l
PAGE 10

Utensils cups were worn on any part of the visible uniform. Cups should henceforth be only in the haversack. The Committee recommends horn cups as more a~curate in the early 18th century. Forks are not recommended. Forks were not found even in high status families in New England until 1720; although there is evidence that the use of forks was earlier and more widespread in the Medi terranean cultures of Italy and Spain than Northern Europe, in San Agustin we think it is more accLtrate to QQ:!;. !:ig fgr,t, 2 . If it is necessary to spe.ar a chLtnk of food and lift it to the mouth, the way to do it is with the point of your knife which was co~sidered a perfectly acceptable personal eating utensil. The availability of pewter for spoons in San Agustin is unknown. Wooden or horn spoons are another option. Realistically, for your health it is easier to kill germs on a pewter spoon. In the place cf tin plates or plates in general a better choice is the wooden trencher. Keep in mind that the "modern style" of menu planning where a meal should have three components such as meat. potatoes, and vegetable separate an the plate was not yet in fashion in the early 19th century. The majority of meals were one-pot affairs . more reminscient of a medieval peasant,s dinner; all you need is a spoon and a trencher, your knife, and a crust of daily bread. For more information. read: In Small Things Forgotten. * * * * Just as soldados had to march in this province. clearly there were times of duty in which wood had to be chopped. food prepared. tentage put up, etc., in which all of the above equipage would be a massive hindrance ~ ORDERS OF DRESS. FATIGUE SERVICE: Tricorn Waistcoat, sleeved Shirt Nate: It is important for new members to "Lin-learn" our

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Cravat Breeches Stockings Shoes 20th century attitude toward shirts. In the 18th century the shirt was not polite dress; it was under wear, often the only underwear. You do not go about in public in 1985 in your briefs, and 18th century men did not go about in shirtsleeves. What might have ser~ed as informal headwear is still under investigation; until more information comes to light, the tricorn is more acceptable than any other form of informal hat. Arms are not appropriate to Fatigue duty, except for the Cook wielding his knife in the Service of the Company. * ORDERS OF DRESS, FOUL-WEATHER GEAR "FRAZADAS" OF:DERS OF DF:ESS, are specifically mentioned in the shipping lists separately from blankets for domestic bedding, but at present we do not know what form they had. It is s~rmised that this garment was on the order of a South American "ruana" or "poncho". If a Garrison member desires something heavier than his greatcoat, there are patterns of civilian cloaks in the early 18th century available, and artwork of the traditional black long cape used in Spain since the Middle Ages. More inform~tion may be coming in the next few months which would alter the acceptability of these garments. There were no separate rain hats * * * * * PERSONAL APPEARANCE On this front, there is literally no information of a local origin. Illustrations of troops in Europe uniformly show them to be clean shaven, many with mustaches. There was only one picture of an 18th century Spanish soldier with a beard, and that is a member of an

PAGE 12

Invalid company off active duty. have no artwork, yet. About troops in the New World, we In recognition of the fact that all of us have to live in the 20th century at least 5 days a week, and that there may be some incre~ibly ugly faces hidden out there under those beards, the Research and Resource Committee recommends that if a Garrison member has QQ Qg~cQ~. he shoLtld not grow one solel~ for the reason of "historical ~\:!C~J!..'.:• For the highest level of historical accuracy on the matter of hair, a soldado should wear his natural hair long enough so that with a cueing ribbon < la coletilla, of which hundreds of varas (yards) are found on . the shipping lists>, a pigtail of a length to the middle of his back coLtl d be worn. Powdered hair or white i,,i gs seem to be 1 ater than 1740. If a member wants to wear a wig, it should be his natural hair color, . and cued with black grosgrain ribbon. The wearing of your 20th century style hair is still, at the present time acceptable. One of the greatest sources of visible anachronisms is personal jewelry. The committee recommends that soldados wear only sLtch jewelry as can be matched to archeological finds in this city. See: Seanish St.Augustine. The Archeolog~ of a colonial Creole communitJ!,. 1983. Kathleen Deagan. Plain gold wedding bands are fine. Any other items should be thoroughly checked out first. The Committee was unanimous in its opinion that modern glasses look bad, even to the most ignorant bystander. The recommendation is to NOT wear glasses if you can possibly avoid it, even 18th century glasses. Soldados in San Agustin would have not been literate to start with, and in Living History programs, you should have a minimum of reading to do while in full kit. The common soldier was not taking aim, a-la-Dan~l Boone, in 18th century infantry tactics. If not wearing _your glasses makes you a health hazard to yourself arid others, then wear 18th century types. PERSONAL HABITS Tobacco was a widely enjoyed vice in the 18th century. Although the Spanish invented the cigarette, its present form is 19th century and later. Good evidence exists for cigars in the Spanish Caribbean from the time of Colombus on. It was much less common for Spanish Criollos to make use of pipes than the other Europeans, although broken pipe fragments are archeologically found in this city. There have been several companies to manufacture and market small, crudely rolled "cigarillos" in foil packets; these are closer to the ideal than Tiparillos or White Owls.

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-. The Committee does not feel that soldados would have smoked while on formal duties. If you have this habit, it would be admirable if you could master the fine art o~ striking fire with flint and steel, since whipping out a match while in 18th century dress destroys your entire credibility. Most of our members enjoy reading. 18th century troops did not have the ability to read, so even while relaxing in camp or the guardroom, books are not appropriate entertainment, except to officers and non-coms.

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Musica -Militar Espanol del Siglo XVIII

PAGE 15

LA JORNADA MILITAR A TYPICAL 18TH CENTURY SPANISH MILITARY DAY WITH THE DUTIES & THE DRUM CALLS AS APPROPRIATE FOR A WEEKEND LIVING HISTORY EVENT SATURDAY---------------------------------------------~---------La Diana Reveille El Desayuno Breakfast No drumcall known for meals La Orden Commanders/ Officers' Call Ejercicio de los Artilleros Cannon firing EL Almuerzo Lunch No drumcall known for meals La Asamblea Troops assemble for marching drill or assigned tasks Ejercicio de Artilleros Ejercicios de la Tropa -Drill La Oracion days work done La Cena Supper La Retreta Retreat La Asamblea Assembly/March El Banda-Solemn Proclaimation La Bandera-New Flag Blessed La Llamada fort secured La Fagina duty completed Cannon firing Played after the evening bell No drumcall known far meals SUNDAY---------------------------------------------------------La Diana-Reveille EL Desayuno Breakfast La Misa Call to Mass Solemn Procession La Tropa troops stack arms El Almuerzo Lunch La Fagina Camp Cleanup La Generala Strike Camp No drumcall known far meals No drumcall known for meals 1

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DAILY LIFE FOR A FLORIDA SOLDIER 1740

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.,. . OUTLINE FOR GALLEGOS HOUSE ,. PART I I. Interpretive objective. A. In Gallegos House we will infonn the visitor about the life style of a corrmon soldier's family ofthe late First Spanish Period with an emphasis on typical culinary pra . ctices of the same period. B. Explanation of culinary practices will be supplemented whenever possible by cooking demonstrations on the masonry stove or over the outdoor fire-pit ... II. The Building A. Is a. reconstruction, built in early 1963. B. Occupies the site of a tabby house belonging in 1763 to Juan Garcia and Martin Martinez Gallegos. ,. _ .... . C. Was reconstructed of a modern simulation of tabby, a form of concrete using oyster shell ~s ~ggregate, using 18th century techniques. After forms were constructed, the .,tabby was poured into them and allowed to set; then tlie fonns were raised and another layer of tabby poured~ and soon until the walls reached the desired height. D. Is built according to the common two-cell plan, with a porch along the south side. E. Is plastered inside and out, according to the usual practice. . F. Possesses many of the same architectural features as the Ribera House. (For more details, see the interpretive outline for Ribera} G. Has a built-in masonry stove of a type widely used in Spain, Lat"in America , and colonial St. Aug'tlStin~. . H. "\ •. ,I' Features a reconstructed oarrel well in the yard. This type of welt was very common in St . . . A1..1gustine. Many have been discovered by ar:~~e~lf.~ists III. History of th~ Site .. . . . ;,-.,. -•,;_4• ~ .. .. , . ....>' A .On the Puente map of 1764 a tabby house was shown on the site. The owner was listed as Juan Garcia Martinez Gallegos. Research has shown that the name must refer to two people, a Juan Garcia and a Martinez Gallegos. l. Martin Martinez Gallegos a. Was from the town of Totana, near Murcia in southeastern Spain. b. Came.to St. Augustine sometj~~ prior to 1743. c. Was an artilleryman in the garrison. d. Had at least two wives in St. Augustine 1.) Victoria Escalona , \. a.} Was a native of St. Augustine b.) Married Martinez Gallegos in July 1743. , c.) Died in 1750..

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. i:: Outline for Gallegos House (continued) 2.) Isabel Serrano a) Was identified in the parish registers as a native of Germany. (How she got to St. Augustine or acquired a Spanish surname is unknown.) b) Married Martinez Gallegos between 1756 and 17?? (Marriage records for whites are missing from 1756 to 1763.) e. Had at least 5 cllildren by Victoria Escalona (two of which died in infancy} and. 1 PY Isabel Serrano.! f. Went to Cuba with his family during the evacuation of St. Augustine in 1763-94. 2. Jua _ n Garcia 1 . a. Is a more obscure figure than Martinez Gallegos, and there is some doubt as to h~s identification. b. Was an infantryman but by 1752 was no longer on active service, he being 69 years old and gouty. c. Was listed as a native of San Martin de Havana d. Had been married to Antonia Espinosa, probably a mestiza, who died in 1747. (No information on children is presently available.) B. The most likely explanation for the apparent dual ownership of the house is that Juan Garcia, a widower, granted Martinez Gallegas part ownership in return for the privilege of living in his household. That way he could be cared far by Ga 11 egos I s family. . , C. The original Gallegos House wa~ destroyed sometime during the British Period. In 1784. at the beginning of the second Spanish administration, the lot was in the possession of a Minorcan named Juan Frias, who had plinted it in fruit trees. When Luciil Escalona, sister of Gallegos's first wi.fe trriyed in that same yep.r with p~er of attorney from the Ga 11 egos chi14ren~ she evicted Frias ~nd puilp wooden house on the lot. This hou?9 ~ppe,u~ OI\ the Julcqe JDa.Jl pf l 788. ., A. ln St, AugL!stine duri~g the lAte First Spanish Period, c. 1750, most families lived in surroundings simil~r to Gallegos House. The simplicity of the house and its -furnishi,igs rf=flects the. poverty of the isolated garrison community. B. COIIIOOn soldiers were not ~11 paid. 1. Salaries a. Infantrymen earned only 11 peso 1 a month, of 132 per year. b. Artillerymen like Martinez Gal egos received 14 pesos per month or 168 per year.

PAGE 19

j outline of Gallegos House (continued) . . . . .. . . c. Cavalrymen received 22 pesos per month or 264 per year, but from that amount they had to purchase and maintain their own horses. 2. -~iving Expenses a. AMual deductions from salary 1. 22 pesos, 6 reales for uniform 2. 1 for hospital care 3. 3 pes 1 s for medical care and weapons repair 4. 6 rea es fore-medicine 5. 2 reales to support the Chapel . of Nuestro Senora de la Leche 6, Total -Z'J pesos, 6 reales. -(There were 8 reales~to a peso) b. Cost of liYing 1. Each .~ol ider receiyed a d.a.ily ration allowance of 2 reales ta pay for regular Jll()nthly issues of flour, corn, beef, pork, ~nd salt. The ration . allowance, amounting to 91 pesos 2 reales innually, was subtracted from the soldier's pay. Total yearly deductions thus came to 119 pesos, 1/2 real. The difference between the base pay and ~ : he deductions was supposed to be paid to the sol die rs in cash. 2. In practice, however, the soldier often received no cash. Prices of food and clothing from Mexico and Havana were so high that the soldier usually had to exceed his ration allowance to feed his family, with the result that deductions were greater than pay. Most of the soldiers were,therefore. constantly in debt to the crown or to local merchants. C. c. Common soldier's duties ' . 1. The soldier customarily spent his days pulling guard duty at one of the. various posts in and round the city. In 1759 they were: a. Castillo 33 officers and men. b. Santo Domingo redoubt (Cuba line)-7 men c. Cuba redoubt 7 men d. Rosario redoubt (Rosario line) 5 men e. Santo Christo redoubt (Rosario Line) f, San Francisca redoubt (Rosario Line} g. Guardhouse (plaza) ll men (including 5 men 8 men Governor's guard) ,. . h. City Gate 5 men i. Pa1ica (between Mari.~ S~nchez Creek and San Sebastian Riller) ... 13 JDeR j La l..eche l'" 5 JgeR k. fQrt MQse . "' a Jl!Cn~ r~lieved IDOntnly l. All4sta~iA lsl4ncl I"' 7 11Jen. rel ieveci monthly ., fort; ~iijllZ~& "'7 JIMm,. r~lie-ved wonthly n. PiCQlat~ (Ill\ St. Jphns. '1iver) .. 8 111en. relieved every Z w.eeks 0. San Marc.as de Apalachee (south of present-day Tallahassee)4a men. relieved aMually. . (During military emergencies, of course, guards would be : strengthen.eel and wiits sent ~ut into the field.)

PAGE 20

, . ..• 4 1t_l:i ne, of Ga 11 egos House (continued} ,, .. 2. While on duty. the soldiers a. Kept watch over the defense works. approaches to the town, and the inhabitants. . b. Maintained the defense works and equipment. c. Underwent training exercises. For example, they perfonned the manual of arms twice a week. went through firing drills with unloaded weapons twice a month. and fired their muskets with ball once a month. 3. While off duty. the soldiers ,t" a. Helped sustain their families by fishing or fanning. (The fishing equipment and garden tools in Gallegos call attention to these important ac~ivities.) b. Helped with household tasks -such as repairing tne house, outbuildings, and fences. and chopping wood. c. Spent a greatdeal of time with other men drinking, gambling,and telling ribald-stories. This they did away from home. Taverns were-popular gathering places . d. Some soldiers helped support their families with second occupations. They were craftsmen, merchants, tavemkeepers. and so forth. D. Women's Activities: Over half the soldiers in St. Augustine were married. Gallegos House represents one of these domestic situations. 1. Cooking a. Occupied a major portion of a housewife's day (a family of Gallegos's stat~s probably would not have .owned a slave to do the ~ooking.) . b. Is treated.below as a separate subject .. 2. Care oftlothing a. Washing b. Repairing c. Manufacture (many families cut and sewed their own clothes. Some women al so may have sewed for money or payment in kind, but there is no directevidence of this.) 3. Housecleaning and whitewashing walls. . 4. Tending the garden and caring for the stock (chiefly poultry). 5. Caring for children. (Older children would have helped with all the above activities.) 6. Gossiping with neighbors.

PAGE 21

::_, ._: .. ) ne for Ci.all egos House ( continued) PART II Food and Drink in Colonial St. Augustine . . 1. Introductory remark: this outline will discuss -only the First Spanish Period, since our interpretation of foodstuffs and culinary practices deal solely with that era. 11. Foodstuffs A. Impo rteci foods . 1. A major source was the situado •. the officictl subsidy. a. Cereal gra.ins l) Wheat flour .. i. Was by far the IAOS1: ibund~nt single item. This reflected the Spq.niird. 1 f P~$S for wheit bread. ~Was probably. fpr the most p~rt white flour. Whole wheat ., flour wo1,,11d JWt k~~P is .well during lengthy voyages or under' prolonged storige. 2. Corn "(maize) a.} Was the second.most common grain import, by we_ight (based'on 1742-51 figures). b) Is not known whether it was shipped onthe cob or shelled. 3. Rice . 4} Was third most important cereal (based on 1742-51 figures). b) Was usually imported as p . olished rice. (In the period 1742-51, the relative-quantities of cereals deposited in the govern ment .storehouse were wheat fl ours, 251,000 arrobas; corn, 87,000 arrobas; rice, 54,000 arrobas. The arrobas was equivalent to 25 pounds. •. . ' .; .. . b. Meats (salted) l) If 1742-51 ,figure; fll"e indicative of the general pattern, beef was the most comnon meat,.followed by pork. Some ham was . imported. Z) Overthgt peri.pd, r~l~tive quantities were . . . a} Beef !"" 46"'000 irro~s . i.25. b) PPrk I" gs,.ooo, il,rrobas . . . . 3 12 c) Ji.am ... ~,.000. ~rrPt>a.s . . ' 2s Tons II " ' c. •. Other iaDpQrtP.nt lmporieci foodstuffs 1) Dried ~~ns . . . . 2) ti,qrdtack. ( fpr iuj l l t~ry rat ions} 3) ~1t .. . . 4f' l-~r-1 ... ; 5) OH ve. Oil 2. A~ c.a.n be se~n frg;u the foregoing infonnation, foods imported through the s i tuad,o we re bas i c s tap l es 3. Another SQurce of imports the private trade a.. Owing to the inadequacy of the records, . this trade cannot be quantified. L n--, .:.l-.J -4: __ .J,. ~-.J .J ... .;.,.1,,. ""~ .::i,-,:d1::ah1a -t-hrn11nh ~ituada,

PAGE 22

)utline for Gallegos House (continued) 6. Locally available foodstuffs--grown, hunted, or caught in the area. 1. Grains a. An attempt to grow wheat in central Florida during the l650's was unsuct:essful. b. Corn (maize), a traditional crop of the Indians, was the principal grain produced. 2. Vegetables . a. A wide variety _are mentioned in the documents. b. There is no evidence of the qu~ntities produced; although yields were almost certainly small. c. Many were grolAln in kitchen gardens near the houses; others in fields on the periphery of town. d. Examples: squash, pumpkins, peas, beans, cabbage;.,,sweet potatoes, lettuce, "onions, red peppers, -radishes, garlic, tomatoes (possibly 1765) 3. Fruits a. Existed in considerable variety b. Were usually cultivated in town in yards or in vacant lots. c •. Ex~pl es: 1} Oranges, both sweet and sour varieties 2) Lemons 3) . . Pomeci trans 4) Quinces 5) Medlars 6) Melons, including watermelon 7) Fi gs 8) Shaddocks 9) Pomegranates 10) Limes 11) Guavas 12) Plantains 13) Grapes (grown on arbors in the yards) 14) Peach.es 15) Pears Q. There is no way to determine the relative abundance of these fr~its, bM~ 1;he citrus species, particularly the oranges, are the : most commonly mentioned in the documents. 4. Heat a. Some fresh beef was produced. on nearby" cattle randies. l) Before 1702 there w~re a number of ranches in the interior of Florida. These were destroyed by English and Indian attacks. , . , 2.) During the 1740 1 s and 1 50 1 s there were a few small ranches in the vicinity of St. Augustine. 3) There was a slaughterhouse operating in St. Augustine in 1759. . b. Some.hogs were also raised-~were a semi-wild stock. c. Chickens were present as a food resource. d. There was limited hunting of wild game and feral domestic species but it accounted for only a minor portion of the meat consumed.

PAGE 23

' outline for Gallegos House (continued) 5. Seafood a. Was locally abundant. b. Was a major item in the diet. c. Consisted of 1) Shellfish great quantities of oysters and clams were eaten. 2) Fish mullet, redfish, drum, flounder, and shark appear to have been the most coDJDOn species consumed (evidence based on limited archeological recovery of food wastes). .III. Drinks ,. A. Non.-a 1 coho 1 i c 1. Water a) Came from shallow wells (every house had a well). b} Was sulphurous but evidently healthy 2. Casina (also spelled cassina, caseena, etc.} a} Was an Indian drink adopted by the Spaniards b) Was.an infusion made from the leaves of the yaupon (!lex vomitori.a). Eaten raw, the leaves have an emetic effect, but lose it when parched and used as a tea. B. Alcoholic (there were numerous taverns .in St. Augustine) l; Wine a) Was imported b) Some may have been made from local grapes, but there is no documentary confirmation of this. 2. Rum a) Was apparently imported in some quantity through private trade chaMels. b) Was a papu1ar drink 3. Beer a) Was uncOlllnOn b} Some was brought i~ by English traders IV. ~he Daily ~ating Cycle A. Breakfast (desayuno) . 1 .. Was light and taken early. 2., Consisted usually of bread and chocolate. Bread might have been ,soaked in olive oil . B. Dinner the mid-day meal (almuerzo) 1. Was eaten in the early afternoon. 2. Was the largest meal of the day.-.,. C. Supper (cena) J . Was the evening mea 1 2. Was a light meal, often consisting of leaftovers from dinner and. possibly, some fruit. V. Food Preparation A.. Sread

PAGE 24

0 Outline for Gallegos House (continued) 1. Wheat bread a. Most wheat flour was baked as bread. b. The type of loaves baked cannot be stated with certainty. 1) Much baking was probably done right on the hearth 2) Some of the better kitchens may have had ovens. 2. Corn Bread a. Corn was typically used in the fonn of meal, ground with a mano and metate, a pestle and concave grinding stone. . . b. Most com bread was probably eaten in the fonn of tortillas, cooked OJ\a griddle. 3. Rice was o~casionally prepared as bread, also on a griddle or on the hearth. B. Meals 1. Were generally one-pot meals, such as soups and stews. 2. Would contain what was available or in season. 3. Usually contained a bit of salt meat or seafood, vegetables, squash, onion~, and garlic. 4. Were usual1y quite spicy--lots of red pepper. C. Cooking vessels 1. Ceramic cookware was the most corrmon type. More often than not, it was a local Indian pottery called San Marcos ware. . 2. Some iron and copper vessels were also used, but much less frequently. D. Kitchens 1. The most common type of kitchen was probably a simple hearth on the ground coveredby a crude shelter and located behind the house. 2. Some families had kitchen buildings with masonry stoves like those exhibited i . n the Gallegos and Ribera Houses. These kitchens were described by the English observer John Bartram to be "as smoky as an Indian cabin." 3. There is al5o evidence of outdoor fire-pit cooking. VI. Quality of Di et A. According to the.typical reports one finds in the official correspondence, St. Augustine was always short of food. 1. There were obviously periods of want, even acute shortage, when subsidies were late, when local crops were bad, or when war inter fered with the normal course of events. People were never secure . in their food supply. 2: But . there is no evidence of starvation. On the contrary, St. Augustinians had a reputation for being healthy and long-lived. B. The diet was heavy on cereals, but this was not unusual for the period. C. Fruits and vegetables were enjoyed seasonally. It is possible, although not certain, that the Spaniards pre~erved fruits and vegetables by drying and p•ickl ing. . D. Fresh meat was a rare luxury. Fresh fish and oysters seem to have been the most common sources of animal protein,followed by salt beef and pork. E. If a sufficient quantity of food was available, the diet was probably adequate nutritionally. F; The typical St. Augustine family spent most of its income on food.

PAGE 25

Outline for Ga 11 egos House~ ( continued) . Food practices in Spanish St. Augustine were a blend of Hispanic and Indian . aditions. Typical Indian foods such as corn, beans~ pumpkins, squash, and ... asina tea, were important elements in the local diet, as were locally available sp . ecies of marine life that had nourished the Indians for centuries . To these elements the Spaniards added their own traditional foodstuff-wheat, wine, olive oil, beef, pork, onions, and garlic. The eatinghabits of the colonial population are thus an outstanding example of-cultural adaptation to a new environment. PART II FOOD AND DRINK IN COLONIAL ST. AUGUSTINE VII. Foods Pennissible in Cooking Demonstrations A. Grains 1. Wheat flour (usually white) 2. Corn 3. Rice B. Meats, Poultry2 and Fish 1. Beef 2. Pork 3. -Ham {In limited amounts) 4. Chicken . 5. Oysters C. Vegeta.bles . l. Pwnpkin 2. Peas (black~ eyed~ chick} 3. Beans (kidney. liwa>black) 4. Cabbage 5. Sweet_potatnes 11. P0t herbs a. Anise b. Basil c. Bov:age d. Cor~ander e. Di 11 Sweet Fen~el g. Garlic 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Clams Mullet Sea bass Flounder Drum Onions ( redfish) Lettuce (romaine) Red Pepper Garl i C Radishes h. Majoram i. Oregano (wild marjoram) j. Parsley, pa1in and curled k. Rosemary 1. Sage m. Savory n. Thyme D. Frui.ts . (any listed in sectfon II, B> 3 2 c. (add Prickly pear.,} , E. _Dairy Products l. Cheese 2. Butter not common F. Condiments 1. 01 i ve o i l . 2. Lard G. Beverages l. Water i. Rum 3. Wine 3. Vinegar 4. Sugar (not common) ..... . .. 4. Cass ina tea 5. Chocolate

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1utline for Gallegos House (continued) ,T III.. DAILY LIFE SUGGESTED BY CONTENTS OF HOUSE {-. A. Lattice and reja in window: To give protection and privacy, especially to women. 1. Young women were closely guarded within the family and rarely allowed to walk the streets unsupervised. The reja allowed them to remain concealed while observing whattook place outside. 2. Married women enjoyed more freedom of movement, but still remained closely tied to the home .. B. The pallets on the floor l. John Bartram observed that the Span, ards 11 1 ay chiefly on Mattresses. 11 E.vidently beds were uncormion and were probably owned mainly by people of higher status. 2. The mattresses shown here are made of coarse linen and filled with straw. They could be rolled up during the day to create more floor space. . . C. The sleeping cycle: was detennined by the natural cycle of light and darkness. . ., l. People got up about daybreak and went to bed not long after dark. (Men may have stayed out in taverns, but. it would have been unusual for people to stay up very late.) . There is no direct evidence of the siesta, but people probably napped briefly after their mid-day meal. D. Fishing Equipment: identified a conman means of supplementing the diet. E. Religious Image l. The Roman Catholic faith shaped the world view of 18th Century Spaniards. 2. Most homes contained r:e1igiotis images, which served both a devoti.onal and a decorative purpose. The images were of favorite saints. 3. The image here. is of Santiago, (Saint James) patron saint of Spain. 4. People ~lso coninonly wore religious medallions. Many have been found by archaeology .. F: .Chest and.stoolswere the most typical items of furniture. Chests. could be used for both storage and seating . G. Ha~aing shelf to keep vennin out of the food. H. The Stave 1. Is a typical Mediterranean design, still widely used in that part cf the world. 2. Is based on a description in John Bartram's Journa 1: "ye fi repl a.ce is raised with stone 2 foot high to 3 broad & ye ength of ye breadth of ye room & above the floor is open to ye roof: There is 1 or 2 openings A hands breadth wide & 2 foot long in the back to let out some smoak : upon ye hearth , had several pots fixed with -holes undereacn--to: boil thair different soupes. I dislike this method above _any belonging to thair houses as they are all as smoaky as an Indian cabin "

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. . outline for Gallegos House {continued} / .. I. Eating Utensils iron or steel knives and pewter or wooden spoons were the mast cooman flatware. Plates and bowls were both ceramic and wooden (treenware). I I i J. K. L. N. Cookware cooking was done in Doth ceramic . and metal vessels. 1. Ceramic pots~ nnst common were of San Marcos pottery (see below}. This was the typical cookware. 2. Iron pots were also.used, but not as frequently as ceramic cookware. Ceramics: are a combination of Spanish, Indian, and British types. 1. Spanish wares imported from Mexico and Cuba via the private trade. 2. Indian pottery ~nsisted chiefly of San Marcos ware, a Guale (?) Indian pottery produced by ChristiarJ Indian cormtunities--on the .fringes of town. 3. Englis-wares reached St. Augustine through trade, much of it illicit, with the English North American colonies. Mortar and pestle for grinding corn into meal. Corn meal was most likely eaten in the farm of tortillas, or flat cakes cooked on a griddle. . Barrel Well th~ Spaniards drank well water. Although it had a strong sulphur taste, it.was safe to drink. ( We would not recommend that anyone drink water from the Gallegos well, however.) Canoe 1. Is a dugout miade in the Everglades by Seminole Indians. . Similar (although larger and deeper) canoes were used by both Spaniards and Indians in the estuarine waters around St. Augustine. _ 0. Waste disposal 1. Human Waste a. People usually relieved themselves in metal or ceramic urinals and jars. Outhouses existed but were not the rule. b. Wastes were either buried, used to fertilize the kitchen garden, or collected for use on the fields. 2. Kitchen garbage . was either a. Buried in trash pits (usually dug about 3 feet deep) or .b. Scattered randomly about the yard and garden. (There is archaeological evidence for both practices.) 3 •. Oyster shells, an abundant fonn of waste, were probably piled at the back of the yard and periodically disposed of. (It is quite likely that ,the oyster shell used in the construction of tabby houses was accumulated in this manner.) (From the above information one may imagine the .. mingling of odors in a typical house and yard. People of the time were accustomed to a more pungent environment than today's pEt
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;,, ' f P. Personal.Hygiene~ 1. B.a th i n : g a. Was done infrequently, probably no more than once a month, if that. often. b. Meant a lot of hard work, drawing water and heating it. c. Was considered to be potentially hazardous to health. People were afraid of chills, believing they caused disease. 2. Oral hygiene: was p.oor . ... . .. ";I'• _. ..... _. ___ _ O.G. Ganong July 1977 Revised by a. Excavated skeletal remains almost unifonnly~exhibit numerous cavities, missing teeth. bone damage from abcesses, etc. . . b. By the age of forty the average person would have lost most of his teeth. Shaving: wen o.f the 18th century went clean shaven aJ:tnough .. , . . . . ... . . they. clid not necessarily shave every day. The typical shaving instru.ment was the straight razor. M. C. Scardavi 11 e May 1978 .

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.. .. Activity wushing clothes mending cooking fi_rebui J ding keeoing house mar~eti-ng -~ . gardenyng, :;i.. I, ,, / .. , ..... 1i , GALLEGOS HOUSE ACTIVITIES t Equipment half-barrel tub wooden trough wooden paddle fence pa l~1etto mat scissors iron cookware wooden spoons knives earthenware jars whetstone palmetto mat, small wooden trays leather wineskin ladle twine flint ax hatchet pc11metto fan I oil lamp broom .blanket f clothing to hang up ~palmetto mats ,:-1 twine bag back basket hoe digging stick Supplies home made soap cold well water dirty clothes needles., thread (not on spool) lentils sea salt, not fine vinegar olive oil hambone onions black-eye peas (dry) garbanzos (dry) kidney beans (dry) rice firewood, small diameter charcoa 1 fish oil Amy Bushnell 3-19-32

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..... ...... -.; . . ......... . -:-: .~ , <""? f:~(/~ :: . Salad Garden onions carrots radishes cabbage leaf lettuce asparagus small artichokes green peas collard greens garlic Herbs cayenne pepper chi _ 1 i pepper chives dil 1 borage parsley GALLEGOS HOUSE PROVISIONS Cultivated Fruits Environment, sweet oranges cassina sour oranges koonti Key limes heart of palm 1 emons palm fruit grapefruit persimmons plantains cactus fruit figs blackb~rries Pq~egranates wild grapes grapes wild onions •guavas acorns Field Produce Environment, turnips oysters sweet corn clams field corn turtles pumpkins mullet winter squash redfish .canteloupe drum Flora Fauna l"\111y ou:::.11111::: 1 1 Aprj 1 14, 1982 Trade, Import cassava chocolate wheat flour rice wine vinegar wine olive oil hard soap rock salt rum hard cheese salt beef salt pork hard brown sugar black beans ~-" winter savory watermelon shark kidney beans garbanzos fava beans navy beans pinto beans fenne~ sweet potatoes sea salt marjoram l ima beans honey spearmint black-eyed peas basil white acre peas Exeedients rosemary field peas hominy grits lavendar gourds coriander ye 11 ow cornmeal city water dried hominy Availability: Not all of these would have been available year round. There should be attention to the seasons, with fresh garden produce and fruits appearing only when they naturally would. Trade, Local fresh beef dried beef lard salt bacon dried turkey bear fat (imit.) tobacco tw_ists venison Otherwise, they must be used dried. Imported items should appear sporadically and in limited quantities. Vinegar, olive oil, wheat and wine were the only ones a Spaniare considered indispensable. The wheat flour would probably be baked into pound loaves or hardtack elsewhere. Wine would be consumed by the so1d1er-husband, probably in a tavern. Storage: Dried herbs and vegetables may hang inside the ho~se. No large amount of impott-trade food should be in evidence. The Indian-type wild roots were used mainly during a famine, so they should not coincide with other foods. Containers must be authentic. The alacena should not be used to store modern containers. There should be no unauthentic supplies on the property. , Coo-king: Use a small fire and a clay pot sitting on the coals. The dishes that may be prepared are these: (l) a cocido . based on dried corn, peas and squashes, with other vegetables added for flavoring. The cocido may contain fish or shellfish, or a small amount of salted or dried meat. (2) a salad of fresh or cooked vegetables, eaten ~ith vinegar and oil. ( 4 3) sweet corn in the inner husk, or sweet potatoes, baked in the ashes. ( ) corncakes, wrapp . ed in cornhusks and baked in the ashes.

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1728 SPANISH INFANTRY DRILL . APPROPRIATE TO 17~0

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.. -... ... .... : .. . \ . . . ~-: 1728 Spanish Infantry Drills Section 1. Basic Commands: . The Soldier Under Arms . Section 2. Bayonet Commands S~ction 3. Commands to Load-. . . and Fire the Fusil . . ' .. . . . . .. . --3:A Commands to Fire an . . . . . . . .. . . Already Loaded Fusil : . ... . . . . ---~. . . 3:8 . Commands to Lo ad. . . 3:C Sequence of commands ... . . rieeded to loa d th.en fire . . Section 4 .. . Complete _ Manual . of Ar = ~nin the original order.

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2-1 1728 SPANISH INFANTRY DRILLS Developed from Ordenanzas Militares de 12 de Julio de 1728, courtesy of the Biblioteca del Congreso de Mexico, D.F. and the French 1703 drill, courtesy of Fortress Louisbourg, Parks Canada, and in concurrence with NPS-6, Guidelines for Blackpowder Safety. SECTION I. THE BASIC COMMANDS: THE SOLDIER UNDER ARMS When a soldadofalls in for drill or other military duties under arms, he should assume the Position of the Soldier with his Fusil at either: ARMAS AL HOMBRO = Shoulder Arms or DESCANSEN SOBRE LAS ARMAS = Rest over your Weapons. The first movements a recruit needs to master are those necessary tci go back and forth between these two basic positions. As in the Marching Commands, a Standard Count of "Uno Dos" or roughly one second should separate the component movements cf these drills. Remember not to get in a hurry; this is the 18th century, not the 20th; drills should be stately and somewhat digni+ied, not a matter c+ rip, snort and tear! Try counting under your breath until the timing becomes natural to you. 1. ARMAS AL HOMBRO Shoulder Arms The Shoulder Arms position is reached from several other positions, but primarily from the DESCANSEN SOBRE LAS ARMAS Rest over yc,~r Weapons {modern term: Order Arms>. VETERAN TROOPS PLEASE TAKE NOTE: Although parade practice after 1750 was to carry the Fusil on the shoulder in a near vertical position, as late as 1737 in art and drill manuals the Fusil's position is on the shoulder with the trigger guard against the shoulder, the Fusil rotated slightly in toward the head and the left hand holding the Fusilby the comb at a distance of about four fingers' widths from the end of the stock.

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To move from the DESCANSEN SOBRE LAS . ARMAS to the ARMAS AL HOMBRO: 1.1 With the right hand gripping the Fusil near the muzzle, extend the right arm upwards, carrying the Fusil vertically beside the body. At the same time, carry the left arm across the body and with the left hand seize the Fusi! just above the lock. 1.2 Holding the Fusil steady in the left hand~ drop the right hand and grasp the Fusil below the lock on the small of the butt. Ensure that the Fusil remains in a vertical position. 1.3 Dropping the left hand to the side o~ the body, with the right hand only carry the Fusil across the body from the right to the left in a vertical position, turning the left side of the Fusil in toward the face and lifting it high enough so that the right hand passes at about the throat level. Continue on and place the Fusil on the shoulder, a a slope, trigger guard facing down, bring the left hand up to hold the Fusil by the end of the stock. As the Fusil is placed on the shoulder and the left hand comes up, raise both the left and right elbows to the height of the shoulders. 1.4 Drop the right normal position by the and lower the left natural position. hand to its right side elbow to a

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2-3 ~-2. DESCANSEN SOBRE LAS ARMAS Rest over your Weapons OESCANSEN SOBRE LAS ARMAS is a basic and relaxed starting point for many arms movements. To move from Armas Al Hombre to DESCANSEN SOBRE LAS ARMAS: 2.1 With the left hand, rotate the Fusil lying on the shoulder so the the lockplate faces up and the Hammeris toward the chin. Bring the right hand across and grip the Fusil firmly by the wrist of the stock. Raise the elbows up and out at the level of the shoulders. 2.2 With a firm grip on the Fusil, lift it off the shoulder and hold it directly in front of the face in a vertical position, some four inches away so that the eyes are about level with the lockplate retaining screw, but with the lock still facing away from the face, the elbows still at the height of the shoulders. 2.3 Taking the weight of.the Fusil on the right hand, carry the Fusi! to a vertical position by the right side , shifting the left hand to a grip on the fore stock, the elbow relaxed into a normal position and the arm held horizontal across the body. 2.4 Holding the Fusil firmly by the right side with the left hand, extend the right arm up the Fusil and seize it with the right hand by the last six iches of the barrel. 2.5 With the right hand lower the Fusi! to the ground in the Rest over your Weapons position, cutting away the left hand to its normal position. As the fusil is lowered, -~ensure that the weapon lands on the heel of the butt.

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2-4 3. ARMAS A TIERRA Ground your Weapons The ARMAS A TIERRA or Ground Arms was employed to get 18th century troops to lay down their arms; it is useful in the modern drill exercise as a way to give the training squad a rest by having the troops Ground Arms and march forward until clear of the Fusiles. Un resumption of training, the soldados realign themselves with their fusiles, which have marked the squad's position. To effect ARMAS A TIERRA from DESCANSEN SOBRE LAS ARMAS: 3.1 Without lifting the right heel, swing your instep so that it is behind the Buttplate of the Fusil, turning the Fusil so that the lock will be toward your knee. With the left foot, take a forward, using your toput the gun on the the lock facing UP. natural pace ti gh.t --hand. ground with 3.3 Raise yourself up; move your left foot back. Stand with your arms hanging comfortably to your sides, the right foot firm in the same place. 3.4 Swing the balls of your feet back to the Position of a Soldier, with the right.foot over the Butt o-f your musket, without picking up the heel cf the right foot .. ~--~.: ~ ., ,,,.

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Reverse the four movements of ARMAS A TIERRA to get the Fusiles back in the hands of the drill squad. 4. LEVANTEN ARMAS 4.1 Move the instep of the right foot behind the Buttplate, turning on your heel, with the body and arms also turning. 4.2 Move the left foot a natural pace t~ the front; lower the body with the right arm extended and take hold of the gun at the place your hand was when you put it tin the ground. 4.3 Pick up the gun with your right hand, while retiring your left foot to its former position. 4.4 Turn your right instep back to where it was before this Command, sliding your right hand up the barrel until it is about four fingers~ widths from the end of the muzzle. I I t / I ,,:. { t J -...,J Pick up your Weapons

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2-6 SECTION II. COMMANDS INVOLVING THE BAYONET The Bayonet was such an important feature of 18th century soldiering that the commands to mount and dismount this arm should be mastered by the troops very early in their training. To Fix Bayonets from a Position of ARMAS AL HOMBRO: s. PASEN LAS ARMAS AL LADO IZQUIERDO 5.1 Grasp the Fusil with the right hand at the wrist of the stock, while leaving the left hand still gripping the Fusil by the comb. As this is done, raise the left and right elbows to the level of the shoulders. 5.2 With the right hand pull the fusil forward into a vertical position, still held tight against the shoulder and body. Bend the elbow and press the entire left forearm, from elbow to wrist against the vertical musket, the left hand taking a grip on the upper ' stock. 5.3 With the left hand, lower the fusil to a diagonal position in front of the body, the muzzle angled toward the left shoulder, the trigger guard facing left. Grasp of the barrel with the right hand at about chest level. Weapons to the Left Side

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, ~. : I• 6. SAQUEN LA BAYONETA !! 6.1 Holding the Fusil steady in position with the left hand in front of the body~ reach across with the right hand inside the Fusil and under the left elbow, taking a firm grasp on the socket of the bayonet. 7. AL TA LA BAYONETA I I 7.1 Draw the bayonet from the scabbard in a . smooth -~ motion. and hold the bayonet in front of the right shoulder, blade up, with the socket being in this position about a hand:io s width away from the mu . zzle of the Fusil. 8. METAN LA BAYONETA EN EL CANON 8.1 Slip the socket over the barrel of the musket so that the mounting stud on the barrel engages the locking slot on the barrel; turn and lock the bayonet home. 8.2 After the Standard Interval Count (Uno Dos>, release the right hand from the bayonet socket and grasp the musket about six inches down from the muzzle. 2-7 Draw Bayonet Raise Up Bayonet I I Put Bayonet on Barrel

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9. PRESENTEN LA BAY.ONETA I I 9.1 Stand at Attention and move the gun in front of yourself with both hands without moving the left hand from where you had it. 9.2 Take your right hand Lock, without separating from your body more than to comfortably hold it. below the the gun necessary 9.3 Turn to the left foot until it right, pulling the you with your arms right with your is even with the gun in front . of arched. 9.4 Move your right foot back 18 inches from your left foot, at a right angle. (90 degrees) Support the Fusil over the right thigh, the left knee jUSt a bit bent. 10. CALEN LA BAYONETA 11 10.1 Put your right foot forward. Clasp the gun with the right hand under the Buttplate. 10.2 Move your right foot back 18 inches from the left foot. Allow the gun to fall into the open palm of the hand and over the crook of the left arm, the b . arrel held close to the body, the lock being to the top, and the right foot pointed at the front sight of the gun, the knees somewhat bent and the right side held as if you were exerting force. NOTE: At this point the drill calls for several right and left facings with the bayonet kept lowered, so that the soldier is accustomed to the feel of the weapon held in this attitude. 2-8 Present Lower the Bayonet ARMAS AL HOMBRO will be useful to go onto any other movements from CALEN LA BAYONETA.

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, ;:---. :.• ,; 11. PASEN LAS ARMAS AL LADO IZQUIEROO 11.1 Put the right foot back to its primary location, and lift the gun to the level of the face, vertical. 11.2 Give a quarter-turn to the left, lowering the gun; the right= hand should grasp the barrel about four fingers~ widths from the muzzle, and the gun should be about the level of the chest, the right hand about the height of the shoulder and the left hand about the height of the hip. 12. SAQUEN LA BAYONETA DEL CANON 11 12.1 Grasp Bayonet with turn it to band . . the socket of the the right hand and release the locking 12.2 After the Standard Count (Uno Dos> lift the bayonet socket off the musket and hold the bayonet in front of the shoulder, blade pointing up, with the socket being about 4 inches from the muzzle. 13. ENVAINEN LA BAYONETA 11 Weapons to the Left Side Withdraw Bayonet ~rom Barrel Sheath Bayonet 13.1 Carry the bayonet to its scabbard with the right hand, passing between the body and the musket and under the left elbow, and sheathing it home in the scabbard. 13.2 After the Standard Count CUno Dos> return to grasping the Fusil about six inches from the muzzle.

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2-1.0 SECTION ;III. COMMAND SEQUENCE FOR LOADING AND FIRING THE FUSIL The early 18th centu~y Private Soldier under arms carried his Fusil, and wor-e a wai stbel t upon which was slung a bayonet and "bell y-ba>:" style cartridge box generally carrying nine (9) rounds, often worn just to the r-ight of the belt buckle. A pri~ing flask was slung on a narrow flat leather strap worn hanging from the left shoulder to the right side of the body, the -flask falling down below the level of the belt. Additionally, each man under arms should carry a spare, clean, sharp flint, and a pick and whisk set. Sometimes an infantryman's sword, or "hangar" was also worn,. but it was not as important as the fusil and bayonet. Slings on the guns were limited to grenadiers and other special units. The cartridge had come into general use in European armies by the 1740~s, although there are examples of actions where troops were still using the slower process of loose ball and powder loading. These cartridges were glued paper sleeves into which the massive ball of the period
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~ ; ~ . . ... .. . :! i : 1 15~ ALTAS LAS ARMAS 15.1 Lift the Fusi! off the shoulder to a vertical position in front of the face, maintaining the grips of both hands, the triggerguard being at the level of the chin or cravat. Both elbows are held as high as the shoulders. At this time the soldier places his right foot back in the first movement of the Right Face; counting " UNO DOS ", HE THEN SWINGS ON HIS HEELS TO THE RIGHT. NOTE: At the completion of this command ALL the soldiers are facing 90 degrees from the target or enemy. 16. PRESENTEN LAS ARMAS 16.1 With the right hand mairitaining a firm grip, drop the Fusil from the vertical position to an angle to the left across the body, into the open palm of the left hand which is held Just above waist level. The left elbow is so bend so that the muzzle is held about the height of the shoulder. The left hand holds the musket at its center of gravity. As the Fusil hits the left hand, the head should be snapped to the left to face the enemy or target. 17. PREPAREN LAS ARMAS 17.1 Bring Your Fusil vertical in front of the center of your chest. 17.2 Cock the Full-cock position of the right hand. to let your hand to cut yourself on hammer to the using the thumb Have a care not slip; it is easy the flint. 2-11 Raise Up Weapons Present Weapons ~.... ' Ready your Weapons

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18 .. APUNTEN 18. 1 E:, with the greatest' The fear and confusion of battle is something we often Living History; for our own safety, we would do well to when handling these still lethal firearms. composure." forget in remember it SECTION III:B COMMANDS TO LOAD THE FUSIL 20c RETIRAN LAS ARMAS Retire Arms or "Recover" The source document is clips the page. Information cut off is not available.

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... .. .~~ -~ _. . . . . . : .. : ... . ' 2-13 21. PONGAN LA LLABE EN EL FIADOR Hall-cock 21.1 Holding the gun with both hands, use the right thumb and the web of the right hand to pull the Hammer back to the first notch or click; for the new recruit, this position in English is called the Half-cock. Make sure you do not pull the hammer so hard as to put it into the second notch or click which is the Full cock position < ready to fire). 22. LIMPIEN LA PIEDRA Clean the Flint 22.1 Apply the thumb and forefinger-of the right hand to the flint, and wipe off the crud from the last shot. Have a care the way you move your fingers along the sharp edge of the stone, since it will cut you like a surgical instrument. If you had not yet fired the Fusil, open the Frizzen at this time, using your thumb and forefinger. 23. SOPLEN LA CAZOLETA 23.1 Hold the gun with both hands in order to bring it up close to the mouth, as if it were in a Present Arms position, with the left hand serving as a fork. 23.2 WITHOUT INCLINING THE HEAD, blow out the flashpan; then immmediately lower the gun until it is supported on the right thigh. 24. TOHEN EL POLVORIN Blow out the Pan Handle Priming Flasks 24.1 Lower the gun with both hands a bit, finding a comfortable position of balance with the gun to the front, and take up the priming flask in your right hand. 25. CEBEN Prime 25.1 The 18th century drills show the fusil horizontal for this command; for our purposes, keep the barrel angled up so that it is not pointing at anyone. Put the necessary quantity of powder into the Pan making sure it is close to the touchhole. Retire the Priming Flask. SAFETY NOTE: DO NOT LEAN OVER THE PAN DURING THE PROCESS AND AVOID ... OVERLOADING THE PAN WITH PRIMING! It is not necessary to have enougn powder in there to burn off your eyebrows. A quarter of a teaspoon should be the greatest of plenty.

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2-14 ~. NOTE:If your Priming Flask has a stopper, make sure that it is sealed .. 25.2 Cup your hand around the lock area of your Fusi! to shield it from the wind. Put the last two fingers of your right hand behind the Frizzen in preparation for closing the pans. 26. CIERREN LA CAZOLETA Close the Pans 26.1 Lower the Frizzen to close the pan. The PRESENTEN ARMAS Position is how you should end up. See Movement 16 .. 27. PASEN LAS ARMAS AL LADO IZQUIERDO 27.1 Advance the Right Foot to the first position necessary to Left Face, A La Izquierda. Holding the Fusil firmly in the Left Hand, reach out the right arm to full extension along the top of the Fusil barrel. Grasp the Fusil with your thumb lying alongside the top of the barrel. 27 ... 2 Count: " UNO DOS " Give a quarter-turn to the left so as to be once more facing the target front. Swing the gun to a diagonal position across the body. The left hand is at about the height of the hip. 28. SAQUEN EL CARTUCHO 28.1 Bring the gun a bit closer to yourself. 28.2 Take your cartridge box cartridge. right hand to the and extract a 28.3 Take the cartridge toward the muzzle, leaving it about 4 inches away from the opening of the bore. The tail or tab of the cartucho should be between your thumb and -forefinger. Weapons to the Left Side Withdraw Cartridge

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29. ABRAN EL CARTUCHO 29.1 Take the cartucho to your mouth and tear off the top of it with your teeth. 29.2 Return the opened cartucho to the muzzle area (position 28.3>, shielding it with your hand, and pinching the open edges of the paper securely closed with your thumb and forefinger. 30. METAN EL CARTUCHO EN EL CANON 30.1 Turn the cartucho upside down and dump the powder Cand charge if a live round is being loaded> into the bore. Make sure the paper tube is well into the bore to facilitate the ramming. SAFETY NOTE: MAKE SURE YOU USE ONLY THE THUMB AND FOREFINGER SO THAT IF THERE IS AN ACCIDENTAL FLASH, THE BURNS WILL BE MINIMIZED. 30.2 Take the first two fingers of your right hand to the tip of the ramrod. 31. SAQUEN LA BAQUETA 31.1 With a smooth upward motion, withdraw the rammer about halfway out by extending your arm to its ma:
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32. ALTA LA BAQUETA 32cl Grasp the rammer firmly, lowering the rammer tip It should stay perpendicular with the arm straight with the shoulder. That is to say, the arm is horizontal, and the rammer vertical. 33. ACORTEN LA BAQUETA 33.1 Support the rammer tip against the right side of the ribcage. 33.2 Run your hand along the rammer~s shaft until it is about 4 inches from the rammer tip. 34. METAN LA BAQUETA EN EL CANON 34.1 Using thumb and forefinger only, put the rammer into the bore. AT ALb TIMES~ KEEP THE MUZZLE VERTICAL AND SLIGHTLY INCLINED AWAY FRO~ YQ~B EB~s~ DON~T bs! !I POINT AT ANOTHER SOLDIER OR VISITOR EITHER! 34.2 Move your hand to the midpoint of th~ rammer shaft. 2-16 Raise up Rammer Shorten Rammers Rammer in Barrel

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... .... 2-17 {<;. 35. ATAQUEN Ram 35.1 Ram the charge home with enthusiasm. The hand lets go of the ramrod, and swings out of the way just in case of a premature ignition. With enough "enthusiasm", it should seat the charge home. 35.2 *** The original drill calls fer the repeating of the ramming two more times. The traditional 18th century pattern seems to have been: TAP TAP TAP loads can testify. After a few rounds, the fouling of the barrel makes a strenous effort necessary to force the next load downward. However, in blank firing, with relatively clean bores, it makes no logical sense to ram on the charge with nine full strokes as these early 18th century drills call for. 36. RETIREN LA BAQUETA 36.1 Withdraw the rammer with a flip of the wrist, catching it at the midpoint of its shaft. 36.2 Finish taking it out of the barrel, balancing it in the palm of your right hand, parallel to the ground, with the large ramming tip toward your shoulder. Refer to Movement 31. 2. 37. ALTA LA BAQUETA 37.1 Grasp the rammer firmly, lowering the small end. It should stay perpendicular with the arm straight with the shoulder. This is the opposite of movement 32.1. Retire Rammer Raise up Rammers

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38.ACORTEN LA BAQUETA 38.1 Support the rammer~s small end against the right side of the ribcage. 38.2 Run your hand rammer~s sha-ft until it inches from the rammer same manner as movement along the is about 4 tip, in the 33. 39. METAN LA BAQUETA EN SU LUGAR 39.1 With your right hand, carry the rammer so that the small end is at the entrY. point o-f the rammer channel next to the -first brass barrel band. 39.2 Insert the rammer into the channel up to its midpoint. 39.3 Move your hand to the rammer tip and complete the movement o-f replacing it into its place. Then take your right hand to the end o-f the muzzle, with the elbow a bit elevated. 40. ARMAS AL HOMBRO 40.1 With the right hand gripping the Fusil near the muzzle, extend the right arm upwards, carrying the Fusil vertically beside the body, as high as comfortably possible. The left hand is still on the Fusil just above the lock. 40.2 Holding the Fusil steady in the le-ft hand, drop the right hand and grasp the Fusil below the lock on the wrist of the stock. Ensure that the Fusil remains vertical. 40.3 Drop the left hand to the butt. Place the Fusil on the shoulder, at a slope, trigger guard -facing down. As the Fusil is placed on the shoulder, raise both the left and right elbows to the height of the shoulders. Return Rammers i I I Shaul der Arms / i I I 2-18

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2-19 40.4 Drop the right h~nd to its normal position by the right side, slapping your casaca pleats, and lower the lef-t elbow to a natural position. 1. 2. 3. 4. *.i 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. ** 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 34. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. REVEIW OF COMMANDS OF THE 1728 DRILL AS THEY APPEAR IN THIS TEXT ARMAS AL HOMBRO DESCANSEN SOBRE LAS ARMAS ARMAS A TIERRA LEVANTEN ARMAS ARMAS AL HOMBRO PASEN LAS ARMAS AL LADO IZQUIERDO SAQUEN LA BAYONETA ALTA LA BAYONETA METAN LA BAYONETA EN EL CANON PRESENTEN LA BAYONETA CALEN LA BAYONETA PASEN LAS ARMAS AL LADO IZQUIERDO SAQUEN LA BAYONETA DEL CANON ENVAINEN LA BAYONETA ARMAS AL HOMBRO LA MANO DERECHA AL ARMA ALTAS LAS ARMAS PRESENTEN LAS ARMAS PREPAREN LAS ARMAS APUNTEN DISPAREN RETIREN LAS ARMAS PONGAN LA LLABE EN EL FIADOR LIMPIEN LA PIEDRA SOPLEN LA CAZOLETA TOMEN EL POLVORIN CEBEN CIERREN LA CAZOLETA PASEN LAS ARMAS AL LADO IZQUIERDO SAQUEN EL CARTUCHO ABRAN EL CARTUCHO METAN EL CARTUCHO EN EL CANON SAQUEN LA BAQUETA ALTA LA BAQUETA ACORTEN LA BAQUETA METAN LA BAQUETA EN EL CANON ATAQUEN RETIREN LA BAQUETA ALTA LA BAQUETA ACORTEN LA BAQUETA METAN LA BAQUETA EN SU LUGAR ARMAS AL HOMBRO Shoulder Arms Rest over your Weapons Ground Your Weapons Take Up Your Weapons Shoulder Arms Weapons to the Left Side Draw Bayonet Up Bayonet Put Bayonet on Barrel Present Bayonet Charge/ Lower the Bayonet Weapons to the Le+t Side Withdraw Bayonet f-rom Barrel Sheath your Bayonet Shoulder Arms Right Hand to Weapon Raise Up Weapons Present Weapons Ready your Weapons Take Aim Shoot Retire Arms or "Recover" Half--Cock Clean the Flint Blow out the Pan Handle your Priming Flasks Prime Close the Pans Weapons to the Lef-t Side Withdraw Cartridge Open the Cartridge Put Cartridge in the Barrel Withdraw Rammer Raise up Rammer Shorten Rammer Put Rammer in the Barrel Ram Retire Rammer Raise up Rammer Shorten Rammer Return Rammer Shoulder Arms

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111: C SEQUENCE OF COMMANDS TO LOAD AND FIRE 2-20 from Armas al Hombro 20. RETIREN LAS ARMAS Retire Arms or "F:ecover" 21. PONGAN LA LLABE EN EL FIADOR 22. LIMPIEN LA PIEDRA 23. SOPLEN LA CAZOLETA 24. TOMEN EL POLVORIN Half-Cock Clean the Flint Blow out the Pan Handle your Priming Flasks 25. CEBEN Prime 26. CIERREN LA CAZOLETA Close the Pans 27. PASEN LAS ARMAS AL LADO IZQUIERDO Weapons to the Left Side 28. SAQUEN EL CARTUCHO Withdraw Cartridge 29. ABRAN EL CARTUCHO Open the Cartridge 30. METAN EL CARTUCHO EN EL CANON Put Cartridge in the Barrel 31. SAQUEN LA BAQUETA Withdraw Rammer 32. ALTA LA BAQUETA Raise up Rammer 33. ACORTEN LA BAQUETA Shorten Rammer 34. METAN LA BAQUETA EN EL CANON Put Rammer in the Barrel 35. ATAQUEN Ram 36. RETIREN LA BAQUETA Retire Rammer 37. ALTA LA BAQUETA Raise up Rammer 38. ACORTEN LA BAQUETA Shorten Rammer 39. METAN LA BAQUETA EN SU LUGAR Return ~ammer 40. ARMAS . ~L HOMBRO Shoulder Arms 14. LA MANO DERECHA AL ARMA Right Hand to Weapon 15. ALTAS LAS ARMAS Raise Up Weapons 16. PRESENTEN LAS ARMAS Present Weapons 17. PREPAREN LAS ARMAS Ready your Weapons 18. APUNTEN Take Aim 19. DISPAREN Shoot

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1. .., ... 4. 6. 7. SECTION IV ORDENANZAS MILITARES con sus Innovaciones y Aditamientos que Comprenden la de Infanteria, Caballer1a y Dragones, desde el Ano 1728 hasta 1755. De Orden ya Expensas de Su Majestad~ En Madrid~ Impreso en el Ano de 1?64. Ordenanza de 12 de julio de 1728 MANEJO Qsb BB~a Qs INFANTERIA LA MANO DERECHA AL ARMA ALTAS LAS ARMAS PRESENTEN LAS ARMAS PREPAREN LAS ARMAS APUNTEN DISPAREN RETIREN LAS ARMAS Right Hand to Weapon Raise Up Weapons Present Weapons Ready your Weapons Take Aim Shoot Retire Arms or "Recover" 8. PONGAN LA LLABE EN EL FIADOR Half-Cock 9. LIMPIEN LA PIEDRA 10. SOPLEN LA CAZOLETA 11. TOMEN EL POLVORIN Clean the Flint Blow out the Pan Handle your Priming Flasks 12. CEBEN Prime 13. CIERREN LA CAZOLETA Close the Pans 14. PASEN LAS ARMAS AL LADO IZQUIERDO Weapons to the Left Side 15. SAQUEN EL CARTUCHO Withdraw Cartridge 16. ABRAN EL CARTUCHO Open the Cartridge 17. METAN EL CARTUCHO EN EL CANON Put Cartridge in the Barrel 18. SAQUEN LA BAQUETA Withdraw Rammer 19. ALTA LA BAQUETA Raise up Rammer 20. ACORTEN LA BAQUETA Shorten Rammer

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21. 22. 24. 25. 26. 28. 30. 31. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. METAN LA BAQUETA EN EL CANON ATAQUEN RETIRAN LA BAQUETA ALTA LA BAQUETA ACORTEN LA BAQUETA METAN LA BAQUETA EN SU LUGAR SAQUEN LA BAYONETA ALTA LA BAYONETA METAN LA BAYONETA EN EL CANON PRESENTEN LA BAYONETA A LA DERECHA A LA DERECHA A LA DERECHA A LA DERECHA A LA IZQUIERDA A LA IZQUIERDA A LA IZQUIERDA A 'LA IZQUIERDA MEDIA VUELTA A LA DERECHA REHAGANSE MEDIA VUELTA A LA IZQUIERDA REHAGANSE CALEN LA BAYONETA A LA DERECHA A LA DERECHA A LA DERECHA A LA DERECHA 2-22 Put~Rammer in the Barrel Ram Retire the Rammer Raise up F~ammer Shorten Rammer Return Rammer Draw Bayonet Up Bayonet Put Bayonet on Barrel Present Bayonets Right Face Right Face Right Face Right Face Left Face Left Face Left Face Left Face Right About Face As You Were Le-ft About Face As You Were Charge/Lower the Bayonet Right Face F;ight Face Right Face Right Face

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48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 54. c-c ..J,.J. A LA iZQUIERDA A LA IZQUIERDA A LA IZQUIERDA A LA IZGIUIERDA MEDIA VUELTA A LA DERECHA REHAGANSE MEDIA VUELTA A LA IZQUIERDA REHAGANSE 2-23 Left Face Left Face Left Face Left Face Right About Face As You Were Left About Face As You Were 56. PASEN LAS ARMAS AL LADO IZQUIERDO Weapons to the Left Side 57. SAQUEN LA BAYON~TA DEL CANON Withdraw Bayonet from Barrel 58. EMVAINEN LA BAYONETA Sheath Bayonet 59. LA MANO DERECHA DEBAJO DE LA LLABE Right Hand under Lock 60. ALTAS LAS ARMAS 61. ARMAS AL HOMBRO 62. PRESENTEN LAS ARMAS 63. ARMAS AL HOMBRO CON LA CULATA ATRAS 64. PRESENTEN LAS ARMAS 65. DESCANSEN SOBRE LAS ARMAS 66. ARMAS A TIERRA 67. LEVANTEN LAS ARMAS 68. PRESENTEN LAS ARMAS 69. ALTAS LAS ARMAS 70. ARMAS AL HOMBRO Raise up Weapons Shoulder Arms Present Weapons Club Arms; Shoulder Arms with Butt to the Rear Present Weapons Rest over your Weapons Ground your Weapons Pick up your:Weapons Present Weapons Raise up Weapons Shoulder Arms

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To move from the DESCANSEN SOBRE LAS-ARMAS to the ARMAS AL HOMBRO: 1.1 With the right hand gripping the Fusil near the muzzle, extend the right arm upwards, carrying the Fusil vertically beside the body. At the same time, carry the left arm across the body and with the left hand sei=e the Fusil just above the lock. 1.2 Holding the Fusil steady in the left hand, drop the right hand and grasp the Fusil below the lock en the small of. the butt. Ensure that . the Fusil remains in a vertical position. 1.3 Dropping the left hand to the side of the body, with the right hand only carry the Fusil across the body from the right to the left in a vertical position, turning the left side of the Fusil in toward the face and lifting it high enough so that the right hand passes at about the throat level. Continue on and place the Fusil on the shoulder, at a slope, trigger guard facing down, bring the left hand up to hold the Fusil by the end of the stock. As the Fusil is placed on the shoulder and the left hand comes up, raise both the left .and right elbows to the height of the shoulders. 1.4 Drop the right hand to its normal position by the right side and lower the left elbow to a natural position.

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"BLESSED BE THOSE HAPPY AGES THAT WERE STRANGERS TO THE DREADFUL FURY OF THESE DEVILISH-INSTRUMENTS OF ARTILLERY, WHOSE INVENTOR, I AM SATISFIED, IS NOW IN HELL RECEIVING THE REWARD OF HIS ACCURSED !NVENTION FOR THE REASON THAT NOW ANY VILE AND COWARDLY ARM MAY SNUFF OUT THE LIFE OF A VALOROUS KNIGHT, AND WITHOUT THE GENTLEMAN KNOWING HOW OR FROM WHERE IN Tl-IE MI DST OF THE COURAGE A , ND Sp IR IT WHICH BURNS IN AND ENLIVENS THE VALIENT BREAST, THERE ARRIVES A STRAY BALL SHOT BY HE WHO WISHED TO FLEE AND WAS DAZZLED BY THE BRILLIANCE WHEN HE MADE FIRE TO DISCHARGE HIS DAMNED MACHINE AND SO HE CUT OFF AND ENDED IN AN INSTANT THE THOUGHTS AND LIFE OF HE WHO MERITED THE ENJOYMENT OF LONG CENTURIES." DN QuIJOTE

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OUTLINE: CANNON-FIRING DEMONSTRATION INTERPRETIVE TALKS CASTILLO DE SAN MARCOS NATIONAL MONUMENT THE KEY IDEAS TO INCLUDE WHO ARE THE CREW? -represent Q~O!b g~cCiQD ~CQQQ gf San A~u~tin, around 1740 -All soldiers in this presidia had to be iamiliar with cannon drill. -Cannon drills were a familiar part of dail~ life, critical to fort and community alike; Spani$h army regulations mandated three drills/week. -Optional: identify cre.w as park volunteers; like historic crews, they also live in town and come.tofort for special purposes "l AMMUNITION TYPES USED: solid !.CQ.O ball cannister shot FUNCTION: batter ships/buildings; dismount enemy cannon anti-personnel; like a modern machine gun anti-ship ~igging; cripple rather than sink start fires on ships or buildings bar / cha . in shot hot shot filQC.:!;.~c. b ombs only available explosive round **STRESS: no available high angle fire to reach over walls or hills powerful psychological effect during seiges exploding munitions for long barrel cannons yet IDENTIFY RANGES WITH VISIBLE LANDMARKS: cannon: mortar: lighthouse on Anastasia Island/ Vilano Bridge A1A steel cross at Mission Nombre de Dias EXPLAIN WHY RATE OF FIRE WAS SLOW AND DELIBERATE: normal= 4/hour preserve discipline and morale among the troops conserve limited ammo supplies for the duration of a long seige prevent over-heating cannon, damaging an expensive, irreplacable resource NO need for a panic situation; fort has massive advantages over attackers there is more than one gun covering any potential target area burden of what-to-do lies on the attacker; defense just waits to win CASTILLO CANNON IN SERVICE, THEN AND NOW: Number: THEN min~ 40 max= 77 average: 65 / NOW less than 2 dozen Type: mostly cannons cast-iron & bronze (33%}, 6 mortars, QQ howitzers Deployment: all sides, bastions, and outer defenses; more on East wall How many can be used today? just the replica bronze 6 pder (made 1977) CASTILLO DESIGN FEATURES ALLOWING BEST USE OF CANNON FIRE-POWER: bastions provide interlocking fields of fire no blind spots glacis slope angle same as widening spre~d of cannister shot fort site inside harbor's shifting sand bars, forcing ships to come in slow and easy into knbwn target areas . athwart the only land passageway from town to mainland land surrounding fort was denuded for 1500 yards (1 mi.) maximum visibility both seaward and landward approaches SAFETY MESSAGE MANDATORY BEFORE EVERY DEMO ...••.........•.•••. , visitors must be behind the white line no one sits or stands on walls or other cannon danger of a fall loud noise warning: parents with small children, h~aring aids, cover ears

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1 . :'.?' :. SPANISH 18TH CENTURY CANNbN COMMANDS for the Exercise of 24 and 16 pounder cannon ts:. Source: Spanish Royal Ordinance: 18 June 1752 Typescript, Biblioteca del Congreso, Mexico, 0.F. bit~C~l 18th centur~ SQanish command AQQroximate ~Qgli~ eguivalent ATENCI0N: PREVANGANSE PARA EL EJERCICI0 Attention ! Ready yourselves for dr~ll T0MEN LOS ESPEQUES.~ : Take up the Hand-pikes DISPONGANSE A SACAR DE BATERIA EL CANON Prepare to Withdraw Gun out of Battery CANON FUERA DE BATERIA Gun out of Battery DISP0NGANSE PARA PUNTERIA : Prepare to Aim BAJEN.LA CULATA DEL CAN0N Lower the Breech ESPEQUES A SU LUGAR Hand,pikes to their places QUITEN EL TACO Y PL0MADA Remove Tompion & Ventcover ENTREN LA CUCHARA EN EL CAN0N Insert Ladle into Bore RECONOZCAN SI ESTA CARGAD0 Inspect if it is loaded RETIREN LA CUCHARA Lay aside the Ladle ENTREN LA LANADA Y TAPEN EL F0G0N Insert the Sponge and Thumb the Vent PA . SEN LA LANADA AL CANON Pass the Sponge throL1gh . the Bore RETIREN LA A SU LUGAR Lay aside Cthe SpongeJ to its place APRONTEN CUCHARA Y POLV0RA Quickly deliver the Ladle and Powder LLENEN LA CUCHARA Fill the Ladle ENTRENLA EN EL CANON Insert it in the Bore VACIENLA EN EL CANON •...••.....•..••.•.. Empty it into the Bore RETIREN LA P0LV0RA Lay aside the Powder LA CUCHARA A SU LUGAR . Ladle to its place PRESENTEN EL ATACAD0R Present Rammer EL ATACA0OR EN EL CAN0N Rammer into the Bore LINEN LA P0LV0RA Tamp down Powder gently RETIREN EL ATACAD0 Lay aside the Rammer PONGAN EL TACO EN EL CAN0N •.....••.....• Put the Wad into the Bore ENTREN EL ATACAD0R Insert the Rammer ATAQUEN Ram Down Cwith force] . . RETIREN EL ATACAD0R Lay aside the Rammer BALA Y TACO EN EL CANON Ball and Wad into t.,he ATAQUEN Ram Down Cwith forceJ EL ATACAD0R A SU LUGAR Rammer to its place TOMEN LOS ESPEQUES Take up the Handspikes DISPONGANSE A P0NER EN BATERIA EL CANON Prepare to place Gun into Battery CANON EN BATERIA Gun into Battery DISP0NGANSE PARA EL PUNTERIA Prepare to Aim APUNTEN Aim Bore ESPEQUES A SU LUGAR Haridspikes to their places CEBEN Y CUBRAN EL F0G0N Prime and Cover the Vent T0MEN LOS B0TAFUEG0S Take up your Linstocks B0TAFUEGO AL CAN0N Advance the Linstock

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ALTO Y SOPLEN LA MECHA Halt Blow on Matchcord QUITEN LA PLOMADA AL FOGON Remove Ventcover FUEGO Fire BOTAFUEGO A SU LUGAR Linstock to its place TOMEN LOS ESPEQUES Take up the Handspikes DISPONGANSE A SACAR EL CANON DE LA BATERIA Prepare to Withdraw Gun from Battery CURENA FUERA DE BATERIA Gun carriage back from Battery Position ESPEQUES A SW LUGAR Handspikes to their places TODDS A SUS PUESTOS Soldiers to your Posts ENTREN LA LANADA Y TAPEN EL FOGON Insert the Sponge and Thumb the Vent PASEN LA LANADA AL CANON Pass the Sponge through the Bore RETIRENLA A SU LUGAR Lay aside the Sponge PONGAN EL TACO EN EL CANON Place Tompion into Bore TOHEN LOS ESPEQUES Take u~ the Handspikes DISPONGANSE A ENTRAR EN BATERIA EL CANON ..•.. Prepare to Place Gun into Battery CANON EN BATERIA ~.Gun into Battery DISPONGANSE PARA EL PUNTERIA Prepare to Aim BAXEN LA BOCA DEL CANON Lower the Muzzle .ESPEQUES .. A SU LUGAR : Handspikes to their places PONGAN LA PLOMADA AL FOGON . Ventcover over the Touch-hole MEDIA BUELTA A LA DERECHA By-the-Right, About Face FRENTE AL MERLON, FORMEN Facing the Wall, Form ranks MEDIA BUELTA A LA DERECHA By-the-Right, About Face MARCHEN March

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SPANISH ARTILLERY DRILL; APPROPRIATE TO 17~0

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. . BAS.IC SPANISH VOCABULARY FOR CP. .NNON CRE'W Nr CASTILLO DE SAN MARCOS NM la CUCHARA el BOI'AFUEGO , el ESPEQUE n I el ATACAOOR "' .: ,i , r ~ . i ! . ., l , ~.,.(, I .• i t !~f \ r.~ i . : ~ ,: ~ . ~ ;, I !{ _ ,, . :.7 l {' ?-: ) :11 ~ ; l , ~ I CANON la CURENA la LANADA ~= ===========::;~~<--====::;;:::::, elSACATRAPOS I i

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Er2n!:bgfi Cannoneer: responsible for linstock'! catchcord checks vent with pick guards powder ~arrel loads the cartridge brings up the linstock fires frQ~ Y[~tn~ eaves gun out of battery with handspike Rear-Left Cannoneer: sponges rarJs cartridg~ gun into battery Mith handspike pulls gun cut of battery with bricole drowns vent and ~uzzle if a aisfire occurs C !laster 6unner: calls co11ands supervises crew checks the aia of cannon picks the ra11ed cartridge & calls for ra11ing takes control in 1isfire ECQQt:BigQt Cannoneer: checks barrel with ladie if loaded aias cannon with hand motions vent covers vent with hat until firing observes shot's fall coves gun out of battery with ~andspike extracts charge in aisfire drill Rear-Right Cannoneer: thumbs the vent hole eaves gun into battery Mith handspike hauls gun out of battery with bricole if extra aan available to thumb he . ' will help Rear-Left sponge~ ra1 Back-Right Cannoneer: optional aan if available 1ay vent instead of Rear-Right \ \ NOHITORS AND CONTROLS THE CROWDS NPS SAFETY OFFICER: This person 11ay be either in NPS unifor• or in 18th century period dress; he/she may or aay not give the interpretive talk. A SAFETY OFFICER KUST BE IN ADDITION TO THE FIVE KININUK ON THE CREW If there are not enough people, the !~~t be cancelled.

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TASKS OF THE MASTER GUNNER IN THE SPANISH GARRISON CANNON DRILL Commands: ATENCION: PREVENGANSE PARA EL EJERCICIO ---BENDIGANOS, SANTA BARBARA--ENTREN LA CUCHARA EN EL CANON RECONOZCAN SI ESTA CARGADO RETIREN LA CUCHARA ENTREN LA LANADA Y TAPEN EL FOGON PASEN LA LANADA AL CANON RETIREN LA A SU LUGAR APRONTEN ATACADOR Y POLVORA ENTRENLA EN EL CANON ATAQUEN EL ATACADOR A SU LUGAR TOMEN Los ESPEQUES DISPONGANSE A PONER EN BATERIA EL CANON CANON EN BATERIA DISPONGANSE PARA EL PUNTERIA APUNTEN ESPEQUES A SU LUGAR CEBEN Y CUBRAN EL FOGON TOMEN LOS BOTAFUEGOS BOTAFUEGO AL CANON ALTO Y SOPLEN LA MECHA FUEGO BOTAFUEGO A SU LUGAR TOMEN LOS ESPEQUES DISPONGANSE A SACAR EL CANON DE LA BATERIA CURENA FUERA DE BATERIA ESPEQUES A SU LUGAR ENTREN LA LANADA Y TAPEN EL FOGON PASEN LA LANADA AL CANON RETIRENLA A SU LUGAR -----x----x----x----x----x----x----x----xFRENTE AL MERLON, FORMEN MEDIA BUELTA A LA riERECHA MARCHEN calls crew to drill cross self checks packing with stilett~ approve the aim: "Siga .. " remove the stiletto/or pick take look at walls/visitors draw sword signal by dropping sword MasterGunner may let Front Right Cannoneer give rest of these commands Answer visitor questions make sure all is secured Form up squad facing to sea . Right-About-Face March to exit--correct post is in front or back cf crew \

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\ THE SPANISH GARRISON CANNON DRILL PRONUNCIATION OF COMMANDS Ah-TEN-see-on: pray-VEN-gahn-say fAH~rah el eh-hair-SEA-sea-oh ben-DEE-g~h-nose SAN-tah BAHR-bah-rah EHN-train lah coo-CHAR-rah ehn el cahn-NYON ray-coh-NOSE-khan sea ehs-TAH car-GAH-thoh ray-TEE-rain lah coo-CHAR-rah EHN-train lah lah-NAH-thah eee TAH-pain el foh-GOHN PAH-sane la lah-NAH-thah ahl cahn-NYON ray-TEE-rain lah ah soc lew-GAHR ah-PRONE-tain ah-tah-kah-DOOR ee POLL-vcr-rah EHN-trainlah ehn el cahn-NYON ah-TAH-cain el ah-tah-kah-DOOR ah sco lew-GAHR TOE-main lohs ehs-SPAY-case dees-PON-gahn-say ah pan-NAIR ehn bah-tear-REE-ah el cahn-NYON cahn-NYON en bah-tear-REE-ah dees-PON-gahn-say pah-rah el poon-tear-REE-ah ah-POON-tain .. ehs-SPAY-case ah soo lew-GAHR SAY-bain eee COO-brahn el foh-GOHN TOE-main lohs boat-tah-FOO-AY-gos boat-tah-FOO-AY-go ahl cahn-NYON AHL-toe eee SOAP-plain lah MAY-chah FOOY~AY-go boat-tah-FOO-AY-go ah soo lew-GAHR TOE-main lohs ehs-SPAY-case dees-PON-gahn-say ah sah-CAR el cahn-NYON day lah bah-tear-REE-ah cao-RAIN-nyah FOO-air-rah day bah-tear-REE-ah ehs-SPAY-case ah soo lew-GAHR EHN-train lah lah-NAH-thah eee TAH-pain el foh-GOHN PAH-sane la lah-NAH-thah ahl cahn-NYON ray-TEE-rain lah ah soc lew-GAHR FRAIN-tay ahl mer-LOHN, FOUR-main MAY-the-ah BWELL-tah ah la dare-RAY-chah MAHR-chain

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SPANISH 18TH CENTURY CANNON COMMANDS AND WHAT THEY MEAN ,.," [ extra commands in the original drill not needed for Castillo canno1 ... demonstration deleted from this list] Literal 18th century Spanish~~~~ Approximate English equivalent ATENCION: PREVANGANSE PARA EL EJERCICIO.Ready yourselves for drill QUITEN EL TACO Y PLOMADA ................ Remove Tompion & Ventcover ENTREN LA CUCHARA EN EL CANON ........... Insert Ladle into Bore RECONOZCAN SI ESTA CARGADO .............. Inspect if it is loaded RETIREN LA CUCHARA ...................... Lay aside the Ladle ENTREN LA LANADA Y TAPEN EL FOGON ....... Insert the Sponge and Thumb the Vent PASEN LA LANADA AL CANON ........ : ....... Pass the Sponge through the Bore RETiREN LA A SU LUGAR ................... Lay aside [the SpcingeJ to its place APRONTEN CUCHARA Y POLVORA .............. Quickly deliver the Ladle and Powder PRESENTEN EL ATACADOR ................... Present Rammer EL ATACADOR EN EL CANON ................. Rammer into the Bore ATAQUEN ................................. Ram Down [ with force] EL ATACADOR A SU LUGAR .................. Rammer to its place TOMEN LOS ESPEQUES ...................... Take up the Handspikes DISPONGANSE A PONER EN BATERIA EL CANON Prepare to .place Gun into Battery CANON EN BATERIA ........................ Gun into Battery DISPONGANSE PARA EL PUNTERIA ............ Prepare to Aim APUNTEN ................................. Aim ESPEQUES A SU LUGAR ..................... Handspikes to their places CEBEN Y CUBRAN EL FOGON ................. Prime and Cover the Vent TOMEN LOS BOTAFUEGOS .................... Take up your Linstocks BOTAFUEGO AL CANON ...................... Advance the Linst'ock ALTO Y SOPLEN LA MECHA .................. Halt & Blow on Matchcord QUITEN LA PLOMADA AL FOGON .............. Remove Ventcover FUEGO . .................................. Fire BOTAFUEGO A SU LUGAR .................... Linstock to its place TOMEN LOS ESPEQUES ...................... Take up the Handspikes DISPONGANSE A SACAR EL CANON DE LA BATERIA ... Prepare to Withdraw Gun from Battery CURENA FUERA DE. BATERIA ................. Gun carriage back from Battery Position ESPEQUES A SU LUGAR ..................... Handspikes to their places TODDS A SUS PUESTOS ..................... Soldiers to your Posts ENTREN LA LANADA Y TAPEN EL FOGON: ...... Insert the Sponge and Thumb the Vent PASEN LA LANADA AL CANON ........ : ....... Pass the Sponge through the Bore RETIRENLA A SU LUGAR .................... Lay aside the Sponge PONGAN EL TACO EN EL CANON .............. Place Tompion into Bore MEDIA BUELTA A LA DERECHA ............... By-the-Right, About Face FRENTE AL MERLON, FORMEN ................ Facing the Wall, Form ranks MEDIA BUELTA A LA DERECHA ............... By-the-Right, About Face MARCHEN .... ............................ March

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ALTO Y SOPLEN LA MECHA .................. Halt & Blow on Matchcord QUI TEN LA PLOMADA AL FOGON ............ .. Remove Vent cover FUEGO ..........•.................... . ... Fi re ,. BOTAFUEGO A SU LUGAR •.•............. : ... Linstock t~ its place TOMEN LOS ESPEQUES ........•.....•.....•. Take up the Handspikes DISPONGANSE A SACAR EL CANON DE LA BATERIA ... Prepare to Withdraw Gun from Battery CURENA FUERA DE BATERIA ••....•.•....••.. Gun carriage back from Battery Position ESPEQUES A SU LUGAR ....••........•...... Handspikes to their places TODDS A SUS PUESTOS ....••.••.•......•.•. Soldiers to your Posts ENTREN LA LANADA Y TAPEN EL FOGON Insert the Sponge and Thumb the Vent PASEN LA LANADA AL CANON ...•. the Sponge through the Bore RETIRE~LA A SU LUGAR Lay aside the Sponge_ 'PONGAN EL TACO EN EL CANON Place Tompion into Bore TOMEN LOS ESPEQUES Take u~ the Handspikes DISPONGANSE A ENTRAR EN BATERIA EL CANON ••... Prepare to Place Gun into Battery CANON EN BATERIA Gun into Battery DISPONGANSE PARA EL PUNTERIA .•..•..•...• Prepare to Aim BAXEN LA BOCA DEL CANON Lawer the Muzzle 0 ESPEQUES " A SU LUGAR Handspikes to their pl uces PONGAN LA PLOMADA AL FOGON ....•.....•••• Ventcover over the Touch-hole MEDIA BUELTA A LA DERECHA .••.........••. By-the-Right, About Face FRENTE AL MERLON, FORMEN .•.....•....••.• Facing the Wall, Form ranks MEDIA BUELTA A LA DERECHA •..........•... By-the-Right, About Face MARCHEN ..•......•...•..••........•...... Mar-ch

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SPANISH FIFE AND DRUM CALLS 17~0

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scurces: ~ggy ~g YCC~l 1769 compiled by F. Antal agi a de Musi c.:1 l " l:i. J. i ta!'" ce Esg~.n,:1., Ricardo F~rnandez de ~atorre 1972 i...A GENERhLA -call for troops tc take up arms for the march, reveiw, dri:l or ofher such function whether in camp~ garrison, or barracks -~1eneral al arm cal 1, si mi 1 ar to mcdern i'Javy II GENEFt!:\L QUPlRTE!= ; S " u:; . ASAl'"!BLEA -call ta take up arms and form ranks~or ~g~i~in desicnated t.~QQQ., gene . r;ally tire troop to i\CComplisJ-1 sotne =~rvi=~~ task, such es strike tents, h~rnsss the livastccl,, load up the pack mules, etc. ~QIrit would s~em that call, not common to all ma:7't' LLni ts troop~ LA TF:OF't4 cwn unit a5se~bly -call played after the ASAMBLEA, ~er the ccmpanies tc form t~e batallon regardless cf whether in the ~ield encampmsnt, ln ga~rison or barracks~ er on duty post -when breaking formation, signal tc stack arms -also play~d while the ~rummers with a deta~hment cf grenac:s~s accompany the flags to the heat of the Batallc~ er re~!r8 the~ LA MARCHA DE GRANADEROS The March EL f-',L TO -c:9;..1se fire -~hile on the march, tc halt the column LPi F:ETRET ,~ I -while en the march, immmediately Right-About-Faca and retreat -in the field, to retire -signals the gathering of the troops into their barra~ks E~ -call for t~ocps to pay attention to the puclicaticn cf crderz er other matters 11 ~iith a certcdn sol2mnit;1"

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-call Ltsed to concentrate troops into _(:l,::::Si':! order C!r a:, : Li7::::. cat , 2:i fcrmaticn -also used to advise of a fortress or barracks LA MISA the c:lc.sir:g -call to assembly fer Holy Mass Le:. GRACI ON the night of -t: .: all si , :;Jnalling t.hs end of t!~f.; !, \ Jot-!-::i_:. g d~1 y1!, c-:=-t: ~ ~:; sct..~nd:::c! ,.:t ~:{":?f'. tr;~ evt~r~ing bells cf th~ ~ea~~ E t =ht.u-c:r. t:::: c-.: ~ :nf.J c: -bE\~1-.. ~\::!:::: . -in g~rriscn, it shculd be first played::.~ ths post, and then outlying pcsittons to brin tcgether . -..-..-""' 1 _ _ ,.;;. , --~'\ .i. I I it. necessary to distribute er detail tc various tasks er !~c~tic~s -pla~,.,~d w!7ils tt~e t:,--ocp is gci:1q CLit .: ~ : : :J +a :igL : ~~ dLtti~~~ : -.; :; .: _~:-: : -..: . .; . c~tt~ng iirewccd er fcragi~g -p 1 ( -a \l ~d wh sn ~, t ,.-cop i s he :t ::1 f~C: !J ,;..,~ !:: i: ~J t !-, ;:: .. 3.i,. :' a ck= c-\ -: .. i: i:.:: 1 i 1: n : -:: , completion of scme task. with the butts r e versed . ........ : .-',;.."': : j; :i LA DI A NA o~ before Fre~cM in~luence : TGQUE DE ALBORADA -1 i f.::9 n1cd2rn :ii:;~Ei . )EIL!_E:: 1 , c2~I l tc c:cmmer:ce i:i~ e dct~:i. (:s of t. ~ 72 -:: ,::"'\/ piayed at dawn; first sounded in t~s pri ~ cip a l m ~ litary ~est ~ then repeated by secondary pcsitions ** ~QI~: s&id by scme authors to ~ave begn played in Mex i =o just axecut i ons wera car~ise c u t ; ths an~ i ;ui~y cf t~is ~ractice is unknown EL CALACbERDA er later than mid-cantu~y E~ ATAQUE -the Assault, er charge with -the charge began at a ncrma gradually accelerating the t the drummers played this cal biayr.mets march pace, with the drummers empc; at close ~ar~e tc tha enemy , i,~,i1 i ch -: ;;i gr ! i:;111 (~~1 !:i,e :-~t s11 in !:o ;~ . ;-: f:}!: k

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-a punishment call, played on the performance of the inf~mcus 1 ' ce.rre1r, :\ de \/aqL\St i1.S ' 1 ; thZ? rrian i ,Ji th r.o shirt o: cc : ~~ 1. t ran between two ranks of his fallow soldiers who whipp~d at him with the ramrods of their m~sksts until h~ dropped. ( from the 18th cencury Spanish term: BACUETA OR VAQUETA = ramrod) BUGLE CALLS USED IN 18TH CENTURY SPA~ISH CAVALRY 1 ; DEGUELL.O \ -:~31 l For C:Ct\l-=tl r-~./ atta=!~ er c:hc:.":\i"";~ -the ~t::.mc:: te!'""t~ is •_tst.::d fer 11 attc:: . ck t~ithcu-!.:. q~tartet11 , mear.i:i r; ; nc. d~g=lla~, tc. slit the threat; said tc ~avs b gcn played at the 3ssault of the Alamo in the Texas Revcluticn cf 1836. -dall ~sec to ccnc9ntrate troops into clcse order er an Tormatia;: -l i k~ ,nodern :!RE~iE!LLEa!' call ta co1~mence the dLti:ies c f th~ C ! 2 ." /~ played at dawn; first saund~d :n the princi~al military pest~ then repeat2d by sec=ndary positions _ : 'Bqct.s .a~nd Sad::!J.1:sl! ! call for. tci k e up arms fer the -=6~! to ~crm ra~ks ' ?'i I C,~B.C. : L .... 0 -''To H::::r$e:", Eigr.al to mount tr-=ope:r-s C:,..i 11

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FRENCH 18TH CENTURY DRUMCALLS source: French and Indian War magazine, 1984 LA GENERALE -to call out the entire garrison for march or exercise -in the event of alarm, the call for all to take arms L'ASSEMBL'EE -soldiers leave the barracks or tents and move to drillground -while on the march, infantry columns would re-form AUX CHAMPS -the ge~eral purpose march rhythm -the "Get Ready" for troops in barracks -march beat for detachment going to mount guard -on the march, call for a regiment to close ranks or form line of battle LE DRAPEAU or AU DRAPEAU -form into line -stack arms in guardhouse -follows the blessing of new flags -while on the march, "Form Line of Battle" LA RETRAITE -withdraw or cease combat -retire into barracks or camp -end of the day: all soldiers retire into tents LE BAN -announces arrival of officer above rank of major -announces proclamation or edict L'APPEL -reassembly troops after encounter/charge of enemy -demand the surrender of a place held under seige -when troops are assembled, close ranks -when sounded by Brigade DrumMajor, signal to all regiments to sound "Retreat" -when on the march, a signal that a unit was not able to keep up with the column or was halted. L'ORDRE -to announce the reading of daily orders LA FASSINE or LA BRELOGUE -advise work details it was time to start work, stop to eat, or quit for the day -break ranks -Mess Call -sometimes, to announce mass LA DIANE -sounded at daybreak to awaken soldiers -alert call to troops

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LA DIANE