Citation
The Military and Militia in colonial Spanish America

Material Information

Title:
The Military and Militia in colonial Spanish America a national conference to be held at St. Augustine, Florida 18, 19, 20, 21 June 1987
Creator:
Florida -- National Guard
Conference:
Military and Militia in Colonial Spanish America, (1987
Place of Publication:
[St. Augustine, Fla.]
Publisher:
Department of Military Affairs, Florida National Guard
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
[57] p. : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
History, Military -- Florida ( lcsh )
History -- Florida -- Spanish colony, 1565-1763 ( lcsh )
History -- Florida -- Spanish colony, 1784-1821 ( lcsh )
History -- Saint Augustine (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: p. [26]-[31]
General Note:
Cover title.
Funding:
The Florida National Guard's Special Archives Publications was digitized, in part by volunteers, in honor of Floridians serving both Floridians in disaster response and recovery here at home and the nation oversees.

Record Information

Source Institution:
Florida National Guard
Holding Location:
Florida National Guard, St. Augustine Barracks
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the Florida National Guard. Digitized with permission.
Resource Identifier:
000955420 ( ALEPH )
17359157 ( OCLC )
AER8044 ( NOTIS )

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FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS

FLORIDA NATIONAL GUARD





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Items collected here were originally published by the
Florida National Guard, many as part of its SPECIAL
ARCHIVES PUBLICATION series. Contact the Florida
National Guard for additional information.

The Florida National Guard reserves all rights to
content originating with the Guard.



DIGITIZATION

Titles from the SPECIAL ARCHIVES PUBLICATION series
were digitized by the University of Florida in
recognition of those serving in Florida's National
Guard, many of whom have given their lives in
defense of the State and the Nation.









Department of Military Affairs
Florida National Guard







4 + 4 00 0 TRA



Special Archives Publication
Number
41
The Military and Militia in Colonial Spanish America
St. Augustine, Florida
18, 19, 20, 21 June 1987










STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS
OFFICE OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL




POST OFFICE BOX 1008
STATE ARSENAL, ST. AUGUSTINE
32085-1008










This conference is funded, in part, and/or co-sponsored by the
following organizations and institutions;








FLORIDA ENDOWMENT FOR THE CITY OF ST. AUGUSTINE
HUMANITIES
FLORIDA NATIONAL GUARD
NATIONAL TOURIST OFFICE OF HISTORICAL FOUNDATION
SPAIN
COMMITTEE FOR THE NIGHTWATCH
MINISTER OF CULTURAL AFFAIRS,
EMBASSY OF SPAIN HISTORIC ST. AUGUSTINE
PRESERVATION BOARD
OFFICE OF MILITARY ATTACHE,
EMBASSY OF SPAIN ST. GEORGE STREET PLAYERS

ST. AUGUSTINE HISTORICAL ST. AUGUSTINE AND ST. JOHNS
SOCIETY COUNTY CHAMBER OF COMMERCE

ST. AUGUSTINE GARRISON PUBLIC FOOD STORES

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, JAX LIQUORS
CASTILLO DE SAN MARCOS
BROUDY'S LIQUORS
CROSS AND SWORD
PETERSEN'S BAKERY
























DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS; FLORIDA NATIONAL GUARD

State Arsenal
82 Marine Street
St. Augustine, Florida 32084
904-824-8461


The State of Florida Department of Military Affairs, is a
State Agency, created according to Florida Statutes and is
composed of a mi I itary force provided for in state law. The
Florida National Guard is provided for in the Constitution of the
United States and the laws of the State of Florida.

The Governor is the Commander in Chief of the Florida
National Guard. The Adjutant General is Chief of the Department
of Military Affairs and Commanding General of the Florida Army
and Air National Guard. There is an Assistant Adjutant General,
an Assistant Adjutant General for Air, and a Directorate staff
organization in the Headquarters.

As provided for under the provisions of the National Defense
Act, units of the Florida National Guard, both Army and Air, have
a dual mission.

(1) A state mission; to provide military organizations
trained and equipped to function when necessary in the protection
of life and property, and in the preservation of peace, order and
the public safety as directed by competent State Authority; and

(2) A Federal mission, as Reserve Components of the Army and
Air Force of the United States, to provide trained and qualified
individuals available for Federal Service in time of war or
national emergency, or at such other times as the national
security may require augmentation of the United States Armed Forces.

The State Adjutant General and his Headquarters has an
additional Federal mission to direct and coordinate the
pre-attack planning and post-attack operations of all military
forces (Army, Navy, Air Force) made available within the State,
to support civil authorities engaged in providing for survival of
people and continuity of government in a nuclear environment.





















SPONSOR
















































Major General Robert F. Enssl in, Jr.
Adjutant General
State of Florida







CONFERENCE SYMBOL; ARMS OF CHARLES III


The coat of arms which adorns our program and many other
documents related to this conference was a product of the
research and artistry of Frank Suddeth and Mark Johnson of St.
Augustine. The professionally drafted design and color
separation master was done by Jim Sagner Printing as were the
black and white brochures. The Southern Printing Company did the
color posters/program covers.

Charles III became King of Spain in 1759, just prior to the
end of the First Spanish Period in Florida and on the eve of the
great expansion of Spanish settlements in California, Texas and
Louisiana and thus seems of maximum relevance to colonial Spanish
history in North America.

MEANING OF INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS IN COAT OF ARMS


The pillars on the left and right of the crest represent the
Pillars of Hercules, (the ancient world's name for the Straits of
Gibralter) the symbol of Spain's overseas empire.

The crest is surrounded by the collar device of the Order of the
Golden Fleece and is surrmounted by a regal crown.

The various interior components of the crest reflect the
diversity and geographical extent of Spain's European empire at
its peak a few generations prior to the ascension of Charles III.


1. Castile 8. Tuscany
2. Leon 9. Old Burgundy
3. Aragon 10. Flanders
4. Sicily 11. Tyrol
5. Austria 12. Brabant
6. New Burgundy 13. New Anjou
7. Parma








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18, 19, 20, 21 June 1987
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The Military and Militia in Colonial Spanish America













THURSDAY 18 June 1987

12:00 Noon to 7:00 P.M.
Registration for Conference; information packets and guide to
local attractions....... Conference Room, City of St.
Augustine Offices, (City Hall, Lightner Building) (See Map)

7:00 to 8:00 P.M.
Informal conference reception and social, Commission Room
and Courtyard, City Hall (As above)

8:00 P.M.
Conferees to be transported to the amphitheater for a
performance of the Official Florida State Play, "Cross and
Sword" as guests of management.










FRIDAY 19 June 1987

8:00 to 8:30 A.M.
Coffee, juice and rolls; Commission Room, City Hall

8:30 to 10:00 A.M.
Presentation, Discussion Period, and Break
"French Influence on Spanish Military Institutions"
(Rene Chartrand)

10:00 to 11:30 A.M.
Presentation, Discussion Period, and Break
"16th Century Spanish Colonial Military; Sources and
Soldiers"
(Eugene Lyon)

11:30 to 12:30P.M.
Spanish "Haversack Lunch" (Provided)

1:00 to 2:30 P.M.
Presentation, Discussion Period, Break
Spanish Military and the Presidio La Bahia 1721-1821"
(John Col ins)

2:45 to 4:15 P.M.
Presentation, Discussion Period, Break
"The Pattern of Spanish Militia in Colonial America"
Colonel Fernando Redondo Diaz

4:15 to 4:30
Transport to St. Francis Barracks, Florida State Arsenal

4:45 P.M.
Military Retreat; to include salute by St. Augustine
Garrison, (18th century Spanish Military Re-enactment group).

5:00 to 6:00 P.M.
Reception and Tours; St. Francis Barracks and the Oldest
House complex of the St. Augustine Historical Society.

8:00 P.M.
Spanish Banquet. The Guest of Honor will be Sr. Carlos
Fernandez-Shaw, Consul General of Spain to the United
States. He will offer some remarks and exchange formal
presentations with the Mayor of St. Augustine, Kenneth
Beeson. There will be a formal flag ceremony and
entertainment in the form of 18th century Spanish theater
provided by the St. George Street Players of St. Augustine.
(Mark Lance Armory, 190 San Marco Ave. The cost of the
banquet is $20 per person. However, persons who attend in
clothing appropriate to the colonial period are charged only
$15 per person.)






SATURDAY 20 June 1987

8:00 to 8:30 A.M.
Coffee, Juice, Rolls. Commission Room, City Hall

8:30 to 10:00 A.M.
Presentation, Discussion Period, Break
"The Honor of Spanish Arms; Florida 1784-1821"
(Luis Arana)

10:00 to 10:30
Transport to Castillo de San Marcos

10:30 to 11:45
Guided Tour of Castillo and demonstration of 18th Century
Spanish Military Drill and Cannon firing.
(Mark Johnson)

12:00 to 1:00 P.M.
Lunch; on your own

1:00 to 5:00 P.M.
Conferees have several choices in this time period and are
invited to attend one or more of the activities as their
personal interests indicate.

1:00 to 4:00 P.M.
18th Century Tea. (Llambias House, St. Francis Street)
Sponsored by the distaff side of the St. Augustine
Garrison.
1:00 to 2:00 P.M.
18th Century Spanish Battle Re-enactment (Fountain of Youth)

1:00 to 3:00 P.M.
Informal presentations and discussions; (Conference Room,
City Hall)
"The 1740 War in Florida" (Robert Hawk)
"The Spanish Militia in 18th Century Louisiana" (Robert
England)

1:00 to 5:00 P.M.
Guided Tours; Spanish Quarter and 18th Century Spanish
Military Encampment (Restoration Area, St. George Street)

Dinner (On your own)

7:30 P.M.
Spanish Night Watch; Illuminations and Parade; everyone
invited

9:00 P.M.
Informal Festivities; Spanish Encampment; Conferees invited

SUNDAY 21 June 1987

9:00 A.M. Formal end of conference; City Hall. Tentative
schedule includes Spanish Military Church Parade and Mass.
For the remainder of Sunday, conferees are invited to
explore and visit the many attractions and historically
interesting sites of this, America's oldest city.









1. .Lightner Building
City Hall 5...Castillo de San Marcos
2...St. Francis Barracks National Park Service
State Arsenal, Florida 6...Mark Lance Armory
National Guard (190 San Marco Avenue)
3...Oldest House; St. Augustine 7...Spanish Quarter; Restoration
Historical Society Area; Historic St. Augustine
4...Government House; Historic Preservation Board
St. Augustine Preservation
Board


St. Augustine, Florida










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MENU: SPANISH BANQUET


ACEITUNAS...PANS...SAL...VINAGRE...ACEITE DE OLIVA
(Marinated olives, Bread, Salt, Vinegar, Olive Oil)

GARBANZOS ALINADOS
(Marinated Chick-peas or Garbanzo beans)

GAZPACHO ANDALUZ
(Cold Soup)

TRES FRIJOLES A LA CIUDAD ANTIGUA SAN AGUSTIN
(Three Beans with Meat, Onions, Peppers)

PAELLA A LA VALENCIANA
(Chicken-Seafood-Rice)

LOMBARDA NAVIDENA
(Baked Red Cabbage and Apples)

TERNERA ASADA AL AJILLO
(Beef in Garlic Sauce)

FRUTAS FRESCAS
(Fresh Fruit)

REFRESCAS DE BEBIDA
(Mineral Water, Red Wine, Coffee)






OFFICIAL NIGHTWATCH SCHEDULE
COMMITTEE FOR THE NIGHTWATCH

FRIDAY ------------ ----------- -----
900 Registration & Set up Camp De Mesa Area Campsite
430 La Retreta Retreat Ceremony Fla National Guard
500 Reception/Tours Oldest House/St Francis Barracks
808 Military Conference Banquet Armory Period Dress Welcome
SATURDAY -------------- ---- -- -- ----
730 La Diana Reveille De Mesa Area Campsite
808 El Desayuno Breakfast De Mesa Area Campsite
988 Camp Open to Public De Mesa Area Campsite
930 La Orden Commanders Call De Mesa Area Campsite
Unit Commanders Orientation
1030 Conference Dignitaries Tour Castillo de San Marcos
il38ish Ejercicio de los Artilleros Castillo de San Marcos
Cannon firing demonstration
1200 EL Almuerzo Lunch De Mesa Area Campsite
Skirmish Participants take haversack lunch to battlesite
1230 La Asamblea La Puerta de Tierra-City Gates
Troops assemble for transport
188 Battle Skirmish El Mil Quinientos also known as
vl Military Safety Inspection 'Fountain of Youth'
100 Musicians Performances Carpinteria
188-400 Garrison Distaff Tea Llambias House
200 Fifes and Drums La Puerta de Tierra-City Gates
238 Musicians Performances Hispanic Gardens
330 Ejercicio de Artilleros Castillo de San Marcos
Cannon firing demonstration
400 Fifes and Drums Puerta de Tierra-City Gates
400 Ejericiios de la Tropa -Drill North Green of Castillo
500 Musicians Performances De Mesa Area Campsite
538 La Oracion days work done camp closed to visitors
530 La Cena Supper De Mesa Area Campsite
068 La Retreta Piper Retreat Castillo de San Marcos
800 La Asamblea Assembly/March Calle Real St George Street
828 El Bando-Soiemn Proclaimation Government House
Performances Pifanos y Tambores
830 La Bandera-New Flag Blessed Plaza
Illumination March Begins
845 La Llamada fort secured Castillo de San Marcos
night cannon firing
930 La Fagina duty completed. troops club arms
1088 Las Fiestas de San Juan De Hesa Area Campsite
Traditional St John's Day Bonfire I Jollification
SUNDAY ------------------- ---- ----
730 La Diana-Reveille De Mesa Area Campsite
800 EL Desayuno Breakfast De Mesa Area Campsite
11600 La Misa Call to Mass Troops assembly'for Mass
1115 Solemn Crucifer Procession Calle Real St George Street
1125 La Tropa troops stack arms Cathedral
1245 Mass ends/ Troop back to camp
100 El Almuerzo Lunch De Mesa Area Campsite
230 La Generala Strike Camp De Mesa Area Campsite
38 Ejercicio de Artilleros Castillo de San Marcos
Cannon firing demonstration
La Fagina Camp Cleanup De Mesa Area Campsite






















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CONFERENCE SPEAKERS
















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LUIS RAFAEL ARANA


Luis Arana is the official historian of the-Castillo de San
Marcos and Fort Matanzas National Monuments. Originally a native
of Puerto Rico, he pursued his education there and in Florida,
receiving an MA in history from the University of Florida. Luis
served in the U.S. Army during World War II and remained in the
Reserves after the war, eventually retiring as a Lieutenant
Colonel. He has lived in St. Augustine since 1955.

Mr. Arana was awarded the Silver Medal of the Spanish
Association of Friends of Castles in 1979 "in recognition of his
untiring research work on the Spanish fortifications in North
America as an official historian of the National Park Service."
In 1980, he received the Superior Service Award from the U.S.
Department of the Interior for exceptional service in the field
of historical research and writing.

Luis has written a vast number of articles for scholarly
publications, most notably, El Escribano, the Journal of the St.
Augustine Historical Society. A very great many of those articles
concerned the military history of Spanish Florida. He is also
the author, with Albert Manucy, of the widely popular "The
Building of Castillo de San Marcos (Published in Cooperation
with the National Park Service.)






RENE CHARTRAND



Rene Chartrand is the Chief Curator, Military History and
the Fur Trade with Parks, Canada, headquartered in Ottawa,
Ontario. A native of Quebec, he was educated in Montreal, Boston,
Massachusetts and Nassau, Bahamas. He pursued a career in
private industry before becoming professional military museology
consultant, his true avocation and area of interest. He joined
Parks Canada in 1971.

Mr. Chartrand resides in Hull, Quebec and is interested in
family life, good wines and the history of horseracing in Canada,
a special hobby.

Rene has published numerous articles for the scholarly press
and several booklets and historical handbooks for various private
and governmental agencies including "Military Uniforms in Canada"
(Canadian War Museum, 1981) and "The French Soldier in Colonial
America" (Museum Restoration Service, 1984.) He has specialized
in the material history of French, British and Canadian forces
and the comparative history with Spanish military institutions
prior to 1815, especially of their uniforms and infantry and
artillery drills, a study which led to the topic of his
presentation for this conference.








JOHN COLLINS


John Col ins is the Chief Curator and Director of the
Presidio La Bahia in Goliad, Texas. He received his education
primarily in his home state of Texas including a BA from
Incarnate Word College and graduate work at St. Mary's
University, both in San Antonio. Later, he studied Museum
Science and Maqnagement at Arizona State University.

John's professional career began with the U.S. Department of
the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs. This is not unusual as
John's family on the maternal side are Native Americans, members
of the Comanche Indian Nation, of which John is also an enrolled
member. In a recent interview, he described himself as a citizen
of two countries, the Comanche Indian Nation and the United
States of America;" a reality that has had a strong influence
on his personal and professional life.

Mr. Collins is a member of several historical associations
and commissions and an Associate Member of the Smithsonian
Institution. He is also the Director, Office of Museums, History
and Archives, Diocese of Victoria, Texas. It has been his
association with the military history of the gulf coast region of
Spanish Texas during the 18th century that has resulted in the
preparation of the paper to be presented at this conference.







REDONDO DIAZ


Colonel Redondo Diaz is the Chief of the Spanish Historical
Military Service in Madrid. He was born and raised in Havana,
Cuba and entered the Spanish General Military Academy in 1951.
Following attendance at that school and the Infantry Academy in
Toledo, Colonel Diaz pursued a military career including service
with a diverse selection of units, including a period of
secondment to the Royal Moroccan Army.

Since 1981, Colonel Diaz has been with the Military History
Service. He received the Don Julian Sanchez EL CHARRO Research
Prize for his work, "Ciudad Rodrigo in the War for Independence."
(We would call it the Peninsular War of the Napoleonic Era)

Colonel Diaz has written several books including Volumne II
of the series, "The History of the Spanish Army" and a very great
many articles, booklets and special reports on military history
topics and has served on several historical commissions including
a cooperative effort with Great Britian's National Army Museum
commemorating the Peninsualar War.









ROBERT DENNIS ENGLAND



Robert England is a teacher and Coordinator of Living
History at The Paideia School of Atlanta, Georgia. He received
his BS from Samford University, MA from Montevallo University and
PhD from the University of Alabama, all in the Birmingham,
Alabama area. His working career has included employment in the
public parks and recreation field and in education, having held
positions with several colleges and schools including Arkansas
State University and the Bibb County Public Schools in Alabama.

Mr. England has published a number of articles and special
studies, many of which have been related to American Colonial
History including several for American History Illustrated, a
popular national history magazine. He belongs to several
professional societies including the Southern Historical
Association and the 18th Century Society.









ROBERT ALLAN HAWK



Robert Hawk is the civilian Director of the Historical
Services Division of the Department of Military Affairs (Florida
National Guard.) Although a native of California, he was raised
in a military family and lived in many states, graduating from
high school in Florida. Following service in the U.S. Navy as a
hospital corpsman, he settled permanently in Florida, receiving
both his BA and MA in history from the University of Florida.

Mr. Hawk has had a diverse career including 18 years as a
college history and humanities teacher in this country and in
England, as an actor/director, in sales and management, and as a
freelance writer before coming to the Department of Military
Affairs.

Robert has written many articles for both the popular and
scholarly press in this country and abroad. He is the author of
"Florida's Army; The Militia, State Troops, National Guard
1565-1985" (Englewood: Pineapple Press, 1986.) He collects and
researches British military medals and is active in living
history and military re-enactment programs.





MARK JOHNSON

Mark Johnson is a National Park Service employee at the
Castillo de San Marcos. He is their Master Gunner and Black
Powder Safety Officer and is a member of the Park Service
national instructional stafffor historic weapons. Originally from
the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, Mark's interest in the life
and history of colonial Spanish America began when, as a Boy
Scout, he and his troop were granted permission to spend several
nights in the Castillo de San Cristobal in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Mr. Johnson studied Latin and North American History at the
University of Virginia and worked as a seasonal park ranger for a
number of years including tours in the Shenandoah National Park,
Desoto National Monument in Florida and at the Castillo de San
Marcos in St. Augustine. He became a full-time ranger at the
Castillo in 1978.

Mark has been an active participant in living history
programs since the beginning of the Bicentennial celebrations,
interpreting the British Period for those events and the 18th
century Spanish Period in Florida as part of the on-going living
history interpretive programs of the St. Augustine Garrison.


EUGENE LYON

Eugene Lyon is the Director, Center for Historic Research,
St. Augustine Foundation at Flagler College and Adjunct Associate
Associate Professor, Department of History, University of
Florida. A native Floridian, Eugene received his BA and Phd
degrees from the University of Florida (Political Science and
History respectively) and his MS from the University of Denver
(Government Management.) Following active service in the Naval
Reserve during the Korean War, Mr. Lyon re-settled in Florida and
commenced a career in city government.

During the early 1960's, Eugene re-directed his carrier into
Latin American Studies. Following the completion of his special
studies in Spanish paleography, he began a spectacular twenty
year, and continuing, career as an archivist, author, consultant,
and popular conference speaker specializing in the history of
Colonial Spanish America. His association with the search and
eventual discovery of the Spanish treasure ship, the Nuestra
Senora de Atocha, has given him national attention in both the
popular and scholarly media.

Mr. Lyon is the recipient of many honors and awards for his
work including fellowships from the National Endowment for the
Humanities, National Science Foundation, several prize awards for
his historical books and articles, and directorships in numerous
professional historical associations and societies. Eugene has
written and published a very large number of articles,
monographs, book chapters in the scholarly and popular press.
Virtually all of them are related to the history of Spain in the
Americas.

Among his published books are "The Enterprise of Florida"; a
history of Florida's earliest days under Spanish settlement and
rul (Gainesville, The University of Florida Press, 1977) and "The
Search for the Atocha", an examination of the documentary and
physical search for the wreck of a famous Spanish Treasure
galleon (New York; Harper and Row, 1979.)











STATE OF FLORIDA-
DEPARTMENT: OF MILITARY AFFAIRS
OFFICE OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL




POST OFFICE BOX 1008
STATE ARSENAL, ST. AUGUSTINE
32085-1008








The various works of Colonel Diaz, Eugene Lyon and Luis
Arana on topics related to colonial Spanish military history are
so extensive, a special effort seemed desirable to make at least
a list available to conference participants. A selection of the
works of Luis Arana are reproduced in Volume I of this conference
series. The following several pages contain a list of the works
of Mr. Lyon and Colonel Diaz.







EUGENE LYON


Publications. Books: The Adelantamiento of Florida. Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Florida,
1973.
The Enterprise of Florida. Gainesville,
University Presses of Florida, 1977.

The Search for the Atocha. New York,
Harper and Row, 1979.

Publications: Books in Preparation:
The Spanish North American Conquest by
Pedro Menendez de AvilTs, 1568-1577.

Publications. Monographs: Santa Elena: A Brief History of the Colony.
Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology,
University of South Carolina, 1984.

Publications: Chapters in Books:
"The Enterprise of Florida," in Competition
for Empire on the Southern Frontier.
S(No information of publication date)
"Continuity in the Age of Conquest," in
Proceedings, Conference on Alabama and
the Borderlands. (1985 date)
"Utilization of Marine Resources by the Keys
and Coastal Indians of the Pre7Contact
and Contact Periods," in Florida Maritime
Heritage, Barbara A. Purdy, Editor,
Florida State Museum, 1980.
"La Visita de 1.576 y la Transformacidn del
Gobierno en la Florida espaiola,"
La Influencia de Espana en el Caribe,
la Florida y la Luisiana, Madrid, 1983.
-"EL Can6n del< Calehn Nuestra Seffora de Atocha:
Patrimonit Devuelto," in El Archivo de
Indias en Mi Recuerdo. .Seville, Junta
de Andalucia, 1986.

Publications: Professional Journals:
(with Dr. Paul E. Hoffman) "Accounts of the
Real Hacienda, Florida, 1565 to 1602,"
Florida Historical Quarterly, 48, No.
1, (July 1969), 57-69.
"Captives of Florida," Florida Historical
Quarterly, 50, No. 1 (July 1971), 1-24.
"The Enterprise of Florida," Florida
Historical Quarterly, 52, No. 4 (April
1974), 411-422.
"St. Augustine 1580: The Living.Community,"
El Escribano (January 1978), 20-33.
"Spain's 16th-Century North American
Settlement Attempts: A Neglected Aspect,"
Florida Historical Quarterly, 59, No. 3
(January 1981), 275-291.











"Contraband in Spanish Colonial Ships,"
(with Barbara A. Purdy) Itinerario
(Journal of the Institute of European
Expansion, University of Leiden,
Netherlands), 6, No. 2 (1982), 91-108.
"The Spanish Mutineers," Tequesta (Journal
of the Historical Association of South
..Florida), XLIV (1984), 44-61.

Publications: Popular: "The Trouble with Treasure," National
Geographic, 149, No. 6 (June 1976), 786-
809.
"Treasure from the Ghost Galleon," National
Geographic, 161, No. 2 (February 1982),
228-243.
(Article above reprinted in Reader's Digest,
August 1982.)
"The Ni'a; Columbus' Stout Caravel of
Discovery," National Geographic,
November 1986).

Book Reviews: For the American Historical Review, the
Hispanic American Historical Review, the
... .lorida Historical Quarterly, El
Escribano- and the South Eastern Latin
Americanist.

.-l..i.. .,~,.-Papers: "More Light on the Indians of the Ays Coast,"
Gainesville, 1967.
"The Control Structure of Spanish Florida,
1580," St. Augustine Restoration
Foundation, 1977.
"The 1622 Shipwrecks: Data," Files, Treasure
Salvors, Inc.
Data for the Reconstruction of the Galleon
Los Tres Reyes Maqos, St. Augustine
Restoration Foundation, 1979.
"Towards a Typology of Spanish Colonial Nails,"
St. Augustine Restoration Foundation,
1979.
"Puerto Real: Research on a Spanish Town on
Hispaniola's North Coast," Port-au-Prince,
Institute de Sauvegarde du Patrimoine
National Republique d'Haiti, 1981.
"Forts Caroline and San Mateo Vulnerable
Outposts," Typescript (59 pp.) plus
exhibits, Fort Caroline National Memorial,
1982.
"The Canete Fragment: Another Narrative of
Hernando de Soto," Vero Beach, 1982.









Translation of Colonial Documents:
"Quiros Papers," from AGI Santo Domingo 231.
Log of Christopher Columbus' First Voyage,
10-27 October, from Las Casas' version.
"Merits and Services of Captain Antonio de
ArgUelles," from AGI Santo Domingo 23.
A Power-of-Attorney of Hern-n Cortds.
"Parecer of Fray Bartolome de las Casas,"
from Phillipps Ms.
The Libro de Armadas, from AGI Contratacion.
(Indexing) The Papers of Hernando de Soto.
Conference Papers: "The Enterprise of Florida," Florida Historical
Society, 1973.
"El Adelantado Pedro Men4ndez de Avilds y su
conquista de la Florida," Escuela de
Estudios Hispanoamericanos, Seville,
1975.
"The Historical and Archaeological Meaning of
the 1622 Shipwreck Sites," (jointly with
R. Duncan Mathewson) Florida Historical
Society, 1975.
"An Introduction to the Ethnohistory of the
S. ... ..-.. Lower. Florida. Keys," (jointly with R.
... .-..; .Duncan Mathewson) Conference of the
American Society of Ethnohistory, 1975.
"The _Identification of a 17th-Century Spanish
Galleon, Nuestra Seiora de Atocha," St.
Augustine Historical Society, 1977.
"Spanish cultures in colonial Florida and
their connection with historic shipwrecks,"
Conference on Florida Historic Shipwreck
Archaeology, 1977.
"Tequesta and Fontaneda: Some Recent Research,"
Historical Association of South Florida,
1977.
"St. Augustine 1580: The Living Community,"
Florida Historical Society, 1977.
"Spanish Colonization in North America; Some
Neglected Aspects," Society for the History
of Discoveries, 1978.
"Reconstruccidn de un pueblo espaffol del siglo
XVI," Escuela de Estudios Hispanoamericanos,
1978.
"A Historian's Thoughts on some Shipwreck Models,"
Conference on the Maritime Culture of the
Florida Keys, 1980.
"Utilization of Marine Resources by the Keys
and Coastal Indians of the Pre-contact and
Contact Periods," Florida Maritime Heritage
Conference, 1980.















"La Visita de 1576 y la transfornmacion en la
Florida espafola," Congress on the Impact
of Spain .in Florida,' the Caribbean, and
Louisiana, LaRdbida, 1981.
"Continuity in the Age of Conquest; The
Establishment of Spanish Sovereignity in
the 16th-Century," Conference on Alabama
and the Borderlands, Tuscaloosa, 1981-.
"A Brief History of the Colony," (of Santa
Elena), Southern Historical Association,
1982.
"The Spanish Mutineers," Florida Historical
Association, 1983.
"Symposium: Miami: 400 Years Under the Spanish
Flag," Historical Association of South
Florida, Columbus Day, 1983.
Comment, Papers on the Route of Hernando de Soto,
Southern Historical Association, 1984.
Seminar, "Miami in Spanish Times," Museum of
the Historical Association of South Florida,
1984.
"El Adelantazgo y la Corona," Conference on Spain
and the New World on the Eve. of Discovery,
: ': Madrid, 1985.
Comment, Papers on the Defense of the Caribbean
(Pedro Menendez de Avilds and Bautista
Antonelli), Southern Historical Association,
Houston, Texas, 1985.
"The Nina; Survivor Ship of the Fifteenth Century,"
American Historical Association, December
1985.
"Aspects of Pedro Menendez, the man," Annual
Meeting, St. Augustine Historical Society,
January 7, 1986.
"The CaRete Relacion; a New de Soto Narrative,"
Spring, 1986, Conference on Hernando de Soto,
University of Florida.
"Atocha: What Documents Told," Society for
Historical Archaeology, Savannah, January 9,
1987.







REDONDO DIAZ


2.1.-LIBROS.

-"Historia del Ejercito Espahol. Tomo II. Los Ejercitos de la Reconquista"
(Madrid, Servicio Hist6rico Militar, 1984)
-"Los observadores militares espafoles en la guerra de los Siete Afos", en
"Temas de Historia Militar. Tomo I (Ponencias del I Congreso de Historia
Military. Zaragoza. 1982" (Madrid, Colecci6n Adalid, tomo 2, Servicio de
Publicaciones del Estado Mayor del Ejercito, 1983)
-"El Ejercito del siglo XVIII", en "Historia General de Espana y America.
Tomo X-2. La Espafta de las Reformas. Hasta el final del reinado de Carlos
IV" (Madrid, Rialp, 1984)
-"La conducci6n de las operaciones", en "Marques de Santa Cruz de
Marcenado. Reflexiones Militares. Edici6n del Tercer Centenario" (Madrid,
1984)
-"El servicio military en "Memoria military de Espafa" (Madrid, 1986)

2.2.-ARTICULOS.

2.2.1.-EN LA "REVISTA DE HISTORIC MILITARY"
-"Leyenda y realidad de la Marcha Real espafola" (Num. 54, 1983)
-"Autocritica de las NOCIONES DE ARTE MILITAR (Num. extraordinario, 1983)
-"La bandera national y banderas militares de Espafa" -(Num. 58, 1985)
-"Personas reales extranjeras, coroneles honorarios del Ejercito espanol"
(Num. 58, 1985)
-"Los observadores militares espafoles en la Primera Guerra Mundial" (Num.
59, 1985)
-"La logistica de la hueste cortesiana" (Num. especial. V Centenario de
Hernan Cort6s, 1986)

2.2.2.-EN EL "MEMORIAL DE INFANTERIA".
-"Para una historic de la Infanteria. Los banderines de compalia" (num. 3)

2.2.3.-EN LA REVISTA "RECONQUISTA".
-"Galeria de escritores militares", (3a epoca, 379, enero 1982)
-"Antonio Vallecillo y LujAn (1807-1880)" (380, febrero 1980)
-"Eduardo FernAndez de San RomAn, marquis de San RomAn (1818-1887)"(382,
abril 1982)
-"Jos4 IbAfez Marin (1862-1909)" (383, mayo 1982)
-"Jose Mufiz y Terrones (1839-1900)" (384, junior 1982)
-"Francisco Villamartin (1833-1872)" (385, julio-agosto 1982)
-"Jose Almirante Torroella (1823-1894)" (385, septiembre 1982)
-"Luis Berm6dez de Castro y TomAs (1864-1957)" (386, octubre 1982)
-"Fernando Ahumada L6pez (1890-1936)" (387, noviembre 1982)
-"Alvaro de Navia-Osorio y Vigil, marquis de Santa Cruz de Marcenado (1684-
1732)" (388, diciembre 1982)

2.2.4.-EN EL PERIODIC YA".
-"Carlos III introdujo el juramento a la bandera" (28-5-1986)

2.2.5.-EN LA REVISTA "TIERRA, MAR Y AIRE".
-La expedici6n espafiola en defense de Pio IX"






















2.2.6.-RECENSIONES (EN LA "REVISTA DE HISTORIC MILITARY) .
-"Historia del Arte de la Guerra dentro del armaz6n de la Historia
political, volume III, La Edad Media, por Hans Delbruck, traducida del
aleman por Walter J.Renfroe Jr., Vestport (Connecticut), Greenwood
Press,
1982, 711 p&ginas" (Num. 57, 1984)
-"Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army. Portraits and
Biographical Sketches. Por William Gardner Bell. Washington D.C., Center
of Military History, 1982. 174 paginas, conteniendo 69-fotografias en
color" (Num. 54, 1983)
-"Military Reform and Society.in New Granada, 1773-1808. Por Allan J.
Kuethe. Gainesville, University of Florida Press, 1978. 286 paginas"
(Num. 54, 1983)























CONFERENCE DIRECTOR'S NOTE







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STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS
OFFICE OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL




POST OFFICE BOX 1008
STATE ARSENAL, ST. AUGUSTINE
32085-1008



The process of organizing and producing a public conference
requires the concerted efforts of a great many individuals. In
most instances, the work they do is without recompense beyond the
knowledge of a job well done. Even for those who receive some
reward, the "extra" efforts required go far beyond normal duty.
As this is being written some time prior to the actual
conference, I am certain to leave some individuals off the list;
my apologies; the thanks remain.


...To my co-workers at the State Arsenal, Ken Forrester, Joanita
Nellenbach, Allen Crosby, Carol Wilson, Mathew Osgood, Eddie
Birkett and others for their contribution to the work load and
especially, their patience;


...To the many co-sponsoring organizations who provided many
necessary services;


...To Page Edwards and the staff of the St. Augustine Historical
Society whose help, encouragement and significant contributions
to the conference schedule was crucial to success and much
appreciated;


...To the members of the St. Augustine Garrison for many reasons,
not the least of which is their commitment to history and to
public service;


...To the City of St. Augustine which provided the great
facilities for the conference and whose staff provided essential
support;


...To Gerard Cyr and Candace Fleming who assumed the enormous
burden of providing the conference participants a lunch and a
grand Spanish banquet;







...To Kathy Brown and Gall McGonigle who assumed the burdens of
entire days on the conference schedule;
STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS
...To Dulce Freeman, FroRiCEFpH ~R A eT e Estes, Ron Custer, Frank
Suddeth, Ralph Reese and all the otehrs who stepped in at the
last moment to make it all work.


...To the staffs of th.PIC Ta and Minister for
Cultural Affaris at the SpanA3 h.,daybassy;


... To Sr. Modesto Iglesia of the National Tourist Office of
Spain whose help at at critical time is greatly appreciated;

...To the management, cast and crew of Cross and Sword;


Thank Youl
















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FLORIDA ENDOWMENT for the HUMANITIES
The State Program of the National Endowment for the Humanities
P. 0. Box 16989/Iarampa, Florida 33687- 6989
(813) 914-109z SUNCOM 574-4094


The Florida Endowment for the Humanities is an independent,
non-profit organization, funded by the National Endowment for the
Humanities, the State of Florida, and private contributions. It
supports public humanities activities in Florida, including
making grants to non-profit groups and agencies for public
humanities programs throughout the state. While the social and
natural sciences speak the language of "it," in which everything
is seen as an object to be talked about, the humanities speak the
language of "you" and "me," in which everything is understood as
having a place among us when we talk with each other. Through
the humanities we comprehend our lives, cultures and societies.
By the humanities we enter the ideas, texts, traditions and
aspirations which define our lives.

The Florida Endowment for the Humanities (FEH) was founded
in 1971 as a state program of the National Endowment for the
Humanities for the purpose of promoting the consideration and
investigation of our common intellectual heritage by both
humanities scholars and the general public. FEH sponsors
programs with a variety of educational and cultural institutions,
civic and professional groups, and community and regional
organizations.







Saint Augustine Historical Society
C_ 271 Charlotte Street Saint Augustine, Florida 32084 (904) 824-2872

St. Augustine Historical Society Functions

SAHS is dedicated to preserving the past of St. Augustine in
order that both residents and visitors can become aware of the unique
history of the city and the important part it has played in the larger
history of the United States.

The Society works toward this goal in several ways:

A. Library
The Society operates a public, non-circulating library which is
a major resource for materials pertaining to St. Augustine and nearby
areas. The collection includes not only books, but also photographs,
maps, microfilm, records, archives and.related materials. The library
is used by a variety of people, not only from St. Augustine but from
all over the United States.

B. Oldest House and Museum

The Society owns and maintains the Gonzalez-Alvarez House, also
known as the Oldest House, a structure which is over 250 years old.
Tours through the house are conducted on a regular basis; the story
of its occupants and architecture illuminates a significant piece of
St. Augustine's past. The house tours are supplemented by a museum
which gives a more comprehensive account of the history of St. Augustine
as a whole.

In conjunction with the Oldest House and the Museum, the Society
operates a Museum Store. We offer to visitors Society publications and
items which are related to the interpretation of St. Augustine's history.

C. Publications and Programs

The Society has in print well over twenty-five publications
ranging from a book-length history of St. Augustine to a short pamphlet
about Mary Evans, one of the residents of the Oldest House during the
British Period.

We publish annually El Escribano: The St. Augustine Journal of
History and three times a year The East Florida Gazette, a newsletter
of shorter articles on St. Augustine history.

Six to eight times a year we sponsor a speaker program which focuses
on some aspect of St. Augustine history, In the past Dr. Eugene Lyon,
Dr. Kathleen Deagan, John Griffin and B.J. Griffin, to name only a few,
have given lectures to the Society and to the general public, who is
always invited to Society lectures.

The Society sponsors symposiums on an aspect of St. Augustine
History (such as the Civil War Symposium and the upcoming Second Spanish
Period Symposium in 1988). As well, we sponsor meetings and conferences
of organizations to which we are members (such as the Florida Historical
Society meeting and the Florida Museum Association meeting).



















ade 156

The St. Augustine Garrison was established to fill a void in
historical interpretive demonstrations and reenactments within
the city of St. Augustine.
The Garrison is 6ne of the few historical militia detachments
authorized and qualified to do black powder cannon firing demon-
strations. The training is rigorous and authentic. Weekend inter-
pretive programs are provided throughout the summer months.
The Garrison's historical research efforts have ensured that
clothing and military drills are as historically accurate as can
be verified.
The Living History program of St. Augustine has been in exis-
tence for some time giving demonstrations for the young and old
alike. It has been in the last year that the Garrison has become
a part of that program. We give the military view of life in
St. Augustine along with the already active civilian intrepre-
tation of early St. Augustine.
Many Garrison members make their own uniforms and equipage.
We also have clothing and equipment made available from the
National Park Service and the St. Augustine Preservation Board.
Their willingness to lend extra clothing and articles make these
encampments and reenactments possible.
All Garrison members are volunteers and are here because they
want you to know how a Spanish soldier lived and worked during the
1740's. Feel free to ask any member questions we will all try
to help you.

We want you to feel St. Augustine as it was 250 years ago.

WELCOME TO ST. AUGUSTINE



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COMMITTEE FOR THE NIGHTWATCH

Jim Guier
8 St. George Street
St. Augustine, Florida 32084
904-824-8974

29 May 1987
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

ST. AUGUSTINE; America's oldest city will honor its
Hispanic heritage Saturday, 20 June, during the annual "Spanish
Nightwatch" torchlight parade, an event with roots reaching back
to the 18th century.

Wearing the traditional military uniforms of the 1740
period, St. Augustine's Spanish Garrison will lead thousands of
townspeople and visitors over a one-mile parade through the
narrow downtown streets, beginning at 8:30 P.M.

The Spanish Nightwatch has been identified as one of the top
20 events of June in the southeastern U.S. by the Atlanta-based
Southeast Tourism Society.

The colorful ceremonies will begin at Government House,
adjacent to the downtown Plaza de la Constitucion. Following the
command to "light your lights," the parade will march march to
the Castillo de San Marcos, pausing at the Cathedral on the way
for the traditional Blessing of the Flag. Following a nighttime
cannon firing at the Castillo, the parade will proceed to the
city gates for a changing of the guard, returning to Government
House along historic St. George Street. At that time, the
soldiers of the garrison will fire volleys of musketry in tribute
to the King of Spain.

There will be a full schedule of daytime activities
proceeding Saturday evening's festivities including military
drill and cannon firing demonstrations at the Castillo, an 18th
century living history military encampment, musical performances
and tours of the streets, gardens and houses of the Historic
Preservation area on St. George Street.

The Nightwatch festival commemorates the more than two
centuries of Spanish rule in St. Augustine, beginning with the
first permanent settlement here in 1565. Except for a brief
period of British control during the 18th century, (1763-1784),
Spain was to rule the Floridas until 1821.

According to a spokesman for the Commitee for the
Nightwatch, sponsors of the event, townspeople and visitors
planning to join the parade are urged to bring candles or candle
lanterns. Candles will also be sold by street vendors as a
fund-raising effort by the Committee.



















-I -


























NATIONAL PARK SERVICE: CASTILLO DE SAN MARCOS

Mrs. B.J. Griffith
1 Castillo Drive
St. Augustine, Florida 32084
904-829-6506

Castillo de San Marcos

"Grim, vital, defiant of time, this monument of Spain's
hours of greatness seems still to be peering defensively out upon
the Gulf Stream, seems still to be guarding the homegoing
galleons from the corsair. To touch its gray outer walls, to
wander among its rooms, to climb its ramp and look out upon the
blue waters of Matanzas Bay, is to wish to know the story of
Spain in America; and here a part of it is beautifully told."
(Freeman Tildon; The National Parks, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc)

As the Nation's principal conservation agency, the
Department of the Interior has responsibility for most of our
nationally owned public lands and natural resources. This
includes preserving the environmental and cultural values of
our national parks and historical places.









HISTORIC ST. AUGUSTINE PRESERVATION BOARD


On July 1, 1959, the Governor signed into Law a bill creating the St.
Augustine Historical Restoration and Preservation Commission. It was the first
board of its kind created within the state and was designed to preserve St.
Augustine, an historic and archaeological resource of unique state and national
value. The St. Augustine statute provided the model for similar legislative
initiative for preservation elsewhere in the state and nation.

The statute provided for a seven-member board appointed by the Governor
with a responsibility "to acquire, restore, preserve, maintain, reconstruct,
reproduce, and operate for the use, benefit, education, recreation, enjoyment,
and general welfare" of the people,the historical, and antiquarian sites in St.
Augustine and its environs. The Governmental Reorganization Act of 1968 renamed
the Commission the Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board.

Since its creation the Board has conducted an historical and archaeological
research program to support acquisition and development of historically significant
properties. It also has become a depository for the area's archaeological
artifacts as well as an archive of St. Augustine architectural, cartographic, and
historical materials.

Employing funds, raised essentially through private sources, the Board
has acquired twenty pieces of historic property on which it has preserved,
restored, or reconstructed thirty structures. It has cooperated closely with
municipal, county, and private agencies and institutions to restore and
reconstruct over forty significant sites and buildings in the city. The Board's
work has inspired many individuals in the community to preserve or restore
historically significant properties they own. It has conducted an interpretive
and educational program that has introduced hundreds of thousands of visitors
to this unique aspect of America's past. Working under the Board's auspices,
the University of Florida and Florida State University have conducted intensive
graduate study programs involving historical and archaeological research efforts
in the city. The program of the Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board has
focused major national attention on Florida, provided tourist impetus, rescued the
city's heritage, revived what, in 1959, was a stagnant local economy, and
transformed a blighted urban area into a thriving commercial and tourist sector.

The Board consists of seven members appointed by the Governor of Florida
with terms as follows: one for two years, two for three years, and four for
four years. The Board annually elects a chairman, vice chairman and secretary
treasurer and meets bimonthly. Board staff under a Director consists of 30
career service positions, 15 part-time positions, and an active volunteer group
of about 100 people.




April, 1987










Cj''- sPaul Green's *q- Swo d

Cross and Sword
FLORIDA'S OFFICIAL STATE PLAY




Tina J. Puckett April 9, 1987
Public Relations Director



PLAY SYNOPSIS


CROSS AND SWORD, "Florida's Official State Play", is
a historical drama written by Pulitzer prize winner,
Paul Green. This outdoor drama depicts the first two
years of Menendez' struggle to found a settlement in
the New World and to protect the Spanish claim of
dominion from the French.
The story of Pedro Menendez de Aviles moves from the
court of King Phillip II of Spain to the untamed shores
of Florida. With sword-clashing battles with the French
and Indians, to the devastating hurricane, which threat-
ens the Colonists with starvation, we experience the
strength and faith that enables the colony to become an
enduring settlement. Interwoven in these dramatic events
is the conflict between church and the conquistador,
Menendez. The star-crossed love for the Indian Princess
Notina leads to the climatic battle with the Indian Chief,
Oriba. The excitement of cannons firing and the tragedy
of Notina's death propelled you through time as history
is brought to life as almost 75 actors, dancers, and
singers in authentic costumes, together with dramatic
special effects, lighting and stirring music provides a
theatrical experience under the stars.





P.O. Box 1965, St. Augustine, Florida 32084 (904) 471-1965


NEWS RELEASE












ST. AUGUSTINE/ ST. JOHNS COUNTY CHAMBER OF COMMERCE


THE ORGANIZATION


What is the Chamber The St.Augustine/St. Johns County Chamber
of Commerce? of Commerce is a voluntary organization
of business and professional men and
women who have joined together for the
purpose of promoting the civic and
commercial progress of our community.
The area's economic well-being is
related directly to the caliber of work
that is done by the Chamber. That is why
the St.Augustine /St. Johns County
Chamber has a major impact on business,
income and future growth of the area.
There are two primary functions of a
chamber of commerce: (1) it acts as
spokesman for the business and
professional community and translates
into action the group thinking of its
members, and (2) it renders specific
services of a type that can be most
effectively rendered by a community
organization both to its members and to
the community as a whole.


Objectives of the 1. To promote a better understanding of
Chamber the nation's private enterprise system.
2. To coordinate the efforts of commerce,
industry and the professions in
maintaining aqd strengthening a sound and
healthy business climate in the St.
Johns County area.
3. To sponsor aggressive programs of work
and stimulate activities that will
provide for full development and
employment of our human and economic
resources.
4. To provide creative business
leadership and effective coordination of
all interested parties in initiating
constructive community action.
5. To create broad understanding and
appreciation of the great opportunities
in the St. Johns County area, and to
promote the advantages and assets of our
community within the area, in the state,
and in the world.













THE ST. AUGUSTINE FOUNDATION


The St. Augustine Foundation, Inc., was established more than
seventeen years ago to aid the Historic St. Augustine Preservation
Board in the acquisition of properties for restoration and
reconstruction. It also purchased or otherwise received other
properties in the Historic Districts. It was also assigned the role
of specializing in the sixteenth century period of the city's past.
To this end, a team of historians and anthropologists were retained
to create a data base for the construction of a "living history
town" of the sixteenth century. When this plan was abandoned, two
films, "Dream of Empire," and "Struggle to Survive" were made from
the data gathered by the academic team; these films are now ex-
hibited at the Theater-Museum at 5 Cordova St.

In 1985, it was decided to create a Center for Historic Research,
designed to work in the period of Pedro Men6ndez de Aviles'estab-
lishment of St. Augustine. This Center has transferred the
previously-gathered historic data into a computerized data base,
continues to acquire primary historical documentation in Spain and
elsewhere, and works on publications from the period. In 1986, the
Foundation sponsored the microfilming of the Revillagigedo Papers,'
the archives of the families which include that of Men6ndez. These
.r: :;.i-:d..,-n 66>2-i66 ls of microafAj, are located at the Cen-
ter, now at 20 Valencia St.

As cf January first of 1987, the St. Augustine Foundation became
affiliated with Flagler College; its properties are managed by the
College Business Services Office. Dr. William Proctor is President
of the Foundation, and Dr. Eugene Lyon is Director of the Center.
It is a particular desire of the Center to cooperate whole-
heartedly with other historic entities in St. Augustine towards the
goal of creating a Union catalog of resources in the community, and
to aid in any other meaningful way to advance the study of history
in the city.
















THE SAINT GEORGE STREET PLAYERS span the gap between historic
theatre and historic re-enactment with their unique presenta-
tion "An Evening In Colonial San Agustin--1740", a program
which has logged more than 1,500 performances here, around
Florida and in Texas during the last eight years.

The Players, founded in 1980 by Joan and Steve Hansen for
the purpose of fulfilling a contract for historic theatre in
the San Agustin Antiguo Museum, now perform six nights weekly
year-round at their colonial tavern in St. Augustine Fiesta,
at 1 King Street.

Their major work is the translation and staging of the 26
Pasos of the 16th Century Spanish comedian Lope de Rueda. They
present three pasos each night, along with an historic interpre-
tive monologue describing their life as 18th Century Spanish ac-
tors shipwrecked on the coast of Florida in 1740 while on a
tour of the New World.
Their work of bringing to the English-speaking world the
works of Lope de Rueda for the first time was recognized in
1984 when they were invited to perform at the International
Siglo de Oro Drama Festival at Chamizal Memorial in El Paso,
Texas, and in January, 1987 when they received a commendation
from Governor Wayne Mixon for their work on behalf of Florida's
historic heritage, and they have performed for five years at the
annual Florida Folk Festival.
Joan and Steve Hansen are theatrical jacks-of-all-trades
who have produced more than 150 theatrical events in spaces
ranging from the 2,000-seat St. Augustine Amphitheatre to the
25-seat storefront theatre which they ran in North Miami for
three years, Steve has written and successfully produced 36
plays, including the St. Augustine Passion Play which is staged
annually during Easter Week in the Castillo de San Marcos National
Monument.
Joan studied Spanish in high school and college for a total
of seven years, and spent 15 years as a newspaper reporter and
editor in her native city of Miami. Steve, a native of Washing-
ton State, is a graduate of the Army Language School, and spent
seven years as a Russian linguist with the U.S. Army. He has a
thea re degree from Florida International University, and has
translated from Russian the six one-act comedies of Anton Chekhov.
The Players have created a second historic theatre-re-enactment
program, "An Evening in Victorian St. Augustine--1888" featuring
Steve's Chekhov translations with an historic interpretive mono-
logue about life in St. Augustine of the Flagler Era.

Saint George Street Players
Joan and Steve Hansen 101-C Madeora Street St. Augustine, Florida 32084 (904) 824-8696
















-eMparsmet of 1tae HI








S I certify that the attached is a true and correct copy of the
S Articles of Incorporation of THE FLORIDA NATIONAL GUARD

S HISTORICAL FOUNDATION, INC., a corporation organized under the

0 Laws of the State of Florida, filed on April 21, 1987, as shown by

the records of this office.

SI The purposes and objects for which the corporation is
organized are the following;
To bring together those individuals and organized groups
dedicated to the preservation, accurate presentation, and
dissemination of material and information relating to the history
of Florida's Militia, State Troops, National Guard and of those
Florida citizens who served in other military and naval
Formations of the United States or of the several nations which
Shave occupied the Peninsula during its more than four hundred
years of continuous existence.
To present and interpret the history of Florida's Militia,
MM State Troops and National Guard from 1565 to the present; to
Maintain a library, documents archive, and museum; to locate and
collect any material which may help to establish oC illustrate
the military history of florida and its citizens.
aTo provide for the preservation of such material and its
Accessibility to all who wish to examine or study it, and to
prepare and publish special studies, histories and archival
compendiums relating to the military history of Florida and
,its citizens.
no To support a variety of activities relating to the public
promulgation and dissemination of information associated with
SFlorida's military past.
-i To issue citations of merit and bestow medals or other
acknowledgements of distinction upon persons, firms,
t associations, institutions, and public or private corporations
deemed worthy of such recognition.
iTo do such other things as are incidental to the purposes of ,
the Corporation or necessary or desirable in order to accomplish
them. -
0 IV,4 WIeorge Jfirvstone
CR2E022 (10-85) itr9tat of 0tatP

MMMMMMaMMiMeMMMEMMMMMg:>
















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PRE-REGISTERED CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS















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Luis Arana Rene Chartrand
Luis Areana 2630 Sheffield Rd
National Park Service Ottawa, Ontario
Castillo de San Marcos Canada K1A 1G2
Castillo Drive
St. Augustine, FL 32084

Kathy Brown
32 Marine St.
John A. Armstrong St. Augustine, Fl 32084
40 Water St.
St. Augustine 32084

Amy Burdon
Thomas Basham Steve Young
Rt. 5 Box 24 20 Beacon St.
St. Augustine, Fl 32084 St. Augustine, FI 32084

Cameron Bates
Box 40, Mavis Christopher
Flagler College Roxanne Christopher
Scott Christopher
St. Augustine, Florida 32084 Tamara White

Rt. 7 Box 253
Mayor Kenneth Beeson St. Augustine, Fl 32084
Mayor Kenneth Beeson
City Hall
City of St. Augustine John Collins
Fl 32084 212 Ridgewood

Victoria
Texas 77901
Ann Bliss
348 Dusty Road Peter Cowdrey
St. Augustine, Florida 32084 Museum of Florida History

RA Gray Bldg
Bonnie Wray Brade Tallahassee
1835 Neal Rd Florida 32399-0250
St. Augustine, Fl 32084

Richard Coyle
Karla Brandt 607 Carolina Blvd
4124 NW 7th St. Isle of Palms
Gainesville, FI 32609 South Carolina 29451

Mr. Richard Breitengross
531 Penn Ave West Peter Cristus
Deland, FL 32720 Box 3244

St. Augustine, Fl 32084
Mrs. Richard Breitengross
531 Penn Ave West Ron Custer
Deland, Florida 32720 19 Arenta Ave

St. Augustine, Fl 32084
Miguel Bretos Flo Cyr
Cuban Exile History Project 291 Blod Des Pins
Library 317 St. Augustine, Florida 32084
Florida International University
Miami, FL 33199
Gerard Cyr
1202 Pope Road #12
St. Augustine Bch, FL 32084







Elizabeth Freeman
Theodore Cyr 130 Moore St.
291 Blvd Des Pins St. Augustine, Fl 32084
St. Augustine, Fl 32084

Jackie Fretwel I
Karen Donley 271 Charlotte St.
162 Oneida St. St. Augustine, FI 32084
St. Augustine, Florida 32084

Lori A. Gardner
Rt 5 Box 12F4
Tuck Donley St. Augustine, Fl 32084
162 Oneida St.
St. Augustine, Fl 32084

Thomas Graham
1535 San Rafael Way
Jack Duggan St. Augustine, FI 32084
Ft. Moultrie
Sullivan Island
Charleston, SC John W. Griffin

450 Owens Ave
St. Augustine, FI 32084
Page Edwards
271 Charlotte St.
St. Augustine, Florida 32084 Jim Guier

8 St. George St.
Elise Estes St. Augustine, FL 32084
50 Corunna St. VB
St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Ale Hamond

1202 Pope Rd. U14
Jackie Feagin St. Augustine, FI 32084
St. Augustine Record
PO Box 1630 Philip Hammond
St. Augustine 32085-1630 1020 Pope Rd. 414

St. Augustine, Fl 32084
Carlos Fernandez-Shaw
Spanish Consulate Jo Madeore St.
151 Sevilla St St101 Madeore St.
Coral Gables, FL 33134 St. Augustine, Florida 32084


Steve Hansen
Candace Fleming 101 Madeore St.
26 Anderson St. Ae 32084
St. Augustine, Florida 32084 St. Augustine, F 32084

Timothy Fleming Wesley Hansen
26 Anderson St. 348 Dusty Road
St. Augustine, FL 32084 St. Augustine 32084

Kenneth Forrester
State Arsenal
St. Augustine, Florida 32084 Robert Hawk

Conference Director
State Arsenal
Barry Fox St. Augustine, Florida 32085-1008
PO Box 944 904-824-8461
Hastings, Fl 32045







Jackie ays Jean McCarthy
Jackie Hays 1213 Fort Caroline Rd.
531 Penn Ave West Jacksonville, FI 32225
Deland, Florida 32720
David McCormack
National Park Service
John Hays P.O. Box 712 Old San Juan
531 Penn Ave West Puerto Rico 00902
Deland, FL 32720

Gaill McGonigle
Sr. Modesto de la Iglesia 49 Zamora St.
Casa Del Hidalgo St. Augustine, Fl 32084
Hypolita and St. George St.
St. Augustine, FL 32084
Mike McGonigle
49 Zamora St
Mark Johnson St. Augustine, Florida 32084
101 Hercules Rd.
St. Augustine, Fl 32084W..
T.W.H. Miller
8430 Tomahawk Rd.
Veronica Johnson Overland Park
165 M.L. King Ave KS 66207
St. Augustine, FI 32084

Joe Mills
James B. Levy Jr. 99 Markland PI
Bureau of Archaeological Research St. Augustine, Fl 32084
500 S. Bronough St
R.A. Gray Bldg Judy Mills
Tallahassee, Fl. 32399-0250 99 Markland PI

St. Augustine, Florida
Eugene Lyon Joanita Nellenbach
PO Box 631 4420 Carter Rd
St. Augustine Wildwood Apts #51
Fl 32085 St. Augustine 32086

SK Shelley Owens
John K. Mahon Rt 5 Box 12 F4
4129 SW 2nd Ave Fl 32084
Gainesville, Fl 32607 St. Augustine, F 32084

Bruce Oxford
Hector Marin Rhode St.
National Park Service St. Augustine, Florida 32084
PO bo 712 Old San Juan
Puerto Rico 00902 S R
Susan R. Parker
HSAPB
48 King St.
Greg Masters St. Augustine, Fl 32084
17 Franciscan Way
St. Augustine, Florida 32084

Peter and Mary Paul
Lisa Masters c/o State Arsenal
17 Franciscan Way St. Augustine
St. Augustine, Fl 32084







Charles Tingley
Charlene Peterson 18 Carrera St.
PO Box 2176 St. Augustine, FL 32084
St. Augustine, FI 32085

Jean Traped-Rosenthal
Patti Rang 271 Charlotte St.
6315 State Rd 208 St. Augustine, Florida 32084
St. Augustine, FI 32084

J.A. Warmack
Rima Robbins 1334 Prince Rd
Rt 1 Box 1128 St. Augustine, FI 32084
(or)
9121 Gene Johnson Rd Fred White
St. Augustine, Florida 32084 32 Marine St.
St. Augustine, FI 32084
Michael Roman Pat Wickman
4760 Hwy 196 Art Director
Cantonment, FL 32533 Kislak Organization

7900 Miami Lakes Drive West
Mark Santiago Miami 33016
Arizona Historical Society
240 Madison Ave
Yuma AZ 85364 Robert K. Wright Jr.

U.S. Army Center of Military History
S20 Massachusetts Ave NW
5 Dogwood D. Washington D.C. 20314-0200
15 Dogwood Dr.
St. Augustine, FI 32084
Charlie and Maria Chapetta
Joan Scott P.O. Box 1044
15 Dogwood Dr St. Augustine, Florida 32085
St. Augustine, FI 32084

Vicki Sellner Kathryn and Lincoln Hammond
C/o City Hall 6941 Catlett Rd
St. Augustine, Fl 32084 St. Augustine, Fl 32084

H.H. and E.A. Mercer
Carla Sheridan 8585 A1A South
2352 N. Fork Rd St. Augustine, FI 32084
Green Cove Springs,
Florida 32043 Mike Fry
Shawn Prentiss
Rick Sheridan
2352 N. Fork Rd Bob and Francis Case
Green Cove Springs, FI 32043 122 Linden Rd.
St. Augustine, FI 32086

Bob Smith
8 Cathedral Place
St. Augustine, FI 32084


Frank Suddeth
793 Viscaya Blvd
St. Augustine, FI 32084




















+ +











NOTES









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Full Text

PAGE 1

Digitized with the permission of the FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS FLORIDA NATIONAL GUARD SOURCE DOCUMENT ADVISORY Digital images were created from printed source documents that , in many cases , were photocopies of original materials held elsewhere . The quality of these copies was often poor . Digital images reflect the poor quality of the source documents. Where possible images have been manipulated to make them as readable as possible . In many cases such manipulation was not possible . Where available, the originals photocopied for publication have been digitized and have been added, separately , to this collection. Searchable text generated from the digital images, subsequently, is also poor . The researcher is advised not to rely solely upon text-search in this collection. RIGHTS & RESTRICTIONS Items collected here were originally published by the Florida National Guard, many as part of its SPECIAL ARCHIVES PUBLICATION series. Contact the Florida National Guard for additional information . The Florida National Guard reserves all rights to content originating with the Guard. DIGITIZATION Titles from the SPECIAL ARCHIVES PUBLICATION series were digitized by the University of Florida in recognition of those serving in Florida's National Guard, many of whom have given their lives in defense of the State and the Nation.

PAGE 2

n epartment of Military Affairs Florida National Guard Special Archives Publication Number 41 The Military and Militia in Colonial Spanish America St. Augustine, Florida 18, 19, 20, 21 June 1987

PAGE 3

STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS OFFICE OF THE ACIJUT ANT GENERAL POST OFFICE BOX 1008 STATE AllSENAL, ST. AUGUSTINE 32085-1008 This conference is funded, in part, and/or co-sponsored by the fol lowing organizations and institutions; FLORIDA ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL TOURIST OFFICE OF SPAIN MINISTER OF CULTURAL AFFAIRS, EMBASSY OF SPAIN OFFICE OF MILITARY ATTACHE, EMBASSY OF SPAIN ST. AUGUSTINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY ST. AUGUSTINE GARRISON NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, CASTILLO DE SAN MARCOS CROSS AND SWORD CITY OF ST. AUGUSTINE FLORIDA NATIONAL GUARD HISTORICAL FOUNDATION COMMITTEE FOR THE NIGHTWATCH HISTORIC ST. AUGUSTINE PRESERVATION BOARD ST. GEORGE STREET PLAYERS ST. AUGUSTINE AND ST. JOHNS COUNTY CHAMBER OF COMMERCE PUBLIX FOOD STORES JAX LIQUORS BROUDY'S LIQUORS PETERSEN ' ' S BAKERY

PAGE 4

DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS; FLORIDA NATIONAL GUARD State Arsenal 82 Marine Street St. Augustine, Florida 32084 904-824-8461 The State of Florida Department of Mi I itary Affairs, is a State Agency, created according to Florida Statutes and is composed of a mi I itary force provided for in state law. The Florida National Guard is provided for in the Constitution of the United States and the laws of the State of Florida. The Governor is the Commander in Chief of the Florida National Guard. The Adjutant General is Chief of the Department of Military Affairs and Corrrnanding General of the Florida Army and Air National Guard. There is an Assistant Adjutant General, an Assistant Adjutant General for Air, and a Directorate staff organization in the Headquarters. As provided for under the provisions of the National Defense Act, units of the Florida National Guard, both Army and Air, have a dual mission. (1) A state mission; to provide mi I itary organizations trained and equipped to function when necessary in the protection of I if e and property, and in the preservation of peace, order and the public safety as directed by competent State Authority; and (2) A Federal mission, as Reserve Components of the Army and Air Force of the United States, to provide trained and qualified individuals avai I able for Federal Service in time of war or national emergency, or at such other times as the national security may require augmentation of the United States Armed Forces. The State Adjutant General and his Headquarters has an additional Federal mission to direct and coordinate the pre-attack planning and post-attack operations of al I mi I itary forces (Army, Navy, Air Force) made avai I able within the State, to support civi I authorities engaged in providing for survival of people and continuity of government in a nuclear environment.

PAGE 5

SPONSOR

PAGE 6

... -~...:~ ... Major General Robert F. Enssl in, Jr. Adjutant General State of Florida

PAGE 7

CONFERENCE SYMBOL; ARMS OF CHARLES I I I The coat of arms which adorns our program and many other documents related to this conference was a product of the research and artistry of Frank Suddeth and Mark Johnson of St. Augustine. The professionally drafted design and color separation master was done by Jim Sagner Printing as were the black and white brochures. The Southern Printing Company did the color posters/program covers. Charles I I I became King of Spain in 1759, just prior to the end of the First Spanish Period in Florida and on the eve of the great expansion of Spanish settlements in California, Texas and Louisiana and thus seems of maximum relevance to colonial Spanish history in North America. MEANING OF INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS IN COAT OF ARMS The pi I lars on the left and right of the crest represent the Pi I lars of Hercules, (the ancient world's name for the Straits of Gibraltar) the symbol of Spain's overseas empire. The crest is surrounded by the col far device of the Order of the Golden Fleece and is surrmounted by a regal crown. The various interior components of the crest reflect the diversity and geographical extent of Spain's European empire at its peak a few generations prior to the ascension of Charles I I I. 1 . Cast i I e 8. Tuscany 2. Leon 9. Old Burgundy 3. Aragon 10. Flanders 4. Sic i I y 1 1 . Tyrol 5. Austria 12. Brabant 6. New Burgundy 13. New Anjou 7 Parma 3 4 5

PAGE 8

cm
PAGE 9

ctn, ::> r , ,.,.,.~ "7~i The Military and Militia in Colonial Spanish America St. Augustine, Florida 18, 19, 20, 21 June 1987 THURSDAY 18 June 1987 12:00 Noon to 7:00 P.M. Registration for Conference; information packets and guide to local attractions ....... Conference Room, City of St. Augustine Offices, (City Hal I, L\ghtner Building) (See Map) 7:00 to 8:00 P.M. Informal conference reception and social, Con-mission Room and Courtyard, City Ha I I (As above) 8:00 P.M. Conferees to be transported to the ampitheater for a performance of the Official Florida State Play, "Cross and Sword" as guests of management.

PAGE 10

FRIDAY 19 June 1987 8:00 to 8:30 A.M. H I I Coffee, juice and rolls; Corrrnission Room, City a 8:30 to 10:00 A.M. Presentation, Discussion Period, and Break fl On Span 1 sh Mi I itary Institutions " "French In uence (Rene Chartrand) 10 to 11 :30 A.M. Presentation, Discussion Period, and Break "16th Century Spanish Colonial Mi I i tary; Sources and Soldiers" (Eugene Lyon) 11:30 to 12:30P.M. Spanish "Haversack Lunch" (Provided) 1:00 to 2:30 P.M. Presentation, Discussion Period, Break "Spanish Mi I itary and the Presidio La Bahia 1721-1821" (John Co I I ins) 2:45 to 4:15 P.M. Presentation, Discussion Period, Break "The Pattern of Spanish Mi I itia in Colonial America" Colonel Fernando Redondo Diaz 4:15 to 4:30 1 Transport to St. Francis Barracks, Florida State Arsena 4:45 P.M. . Mi I itary Retreat; to include salute by St. Augustine Garrison, (18th century Spanish Mi I itary Re-enactment group)• 5:00 to 6:00 P.M. Reception and Tours; St. Francis Barracks and the Oldest House complex of the St. Augustine Historical Society. 8:00 P.M. Spanish Banquet. The Guest of Honor wi I I be Sr. Carlos Fernandez-Shaw, Consul General of Spain to the United States. He wil I offer some remarks and exchange formal presentations with the Mayor of St. Augustine, Kenneth Beeson. There wi I I be a formal flag ceremony and entertainment in the form of 18th century Spanish theater provided by the St. George Street Players of St. Augustine. (Mark Lance Armory, 190 San Marco Ave. The cost of the banquet is $20 per person. However, persons who attend in clothing appropriate to the colonial period are charged only $15 per person.)

PAGE 11

SATURDAY 20 June 1987 8:00 to 8:30 A.M. Coffee, Juice, Roi Is. Corrmission Room, City Hal I 8:30 to 10:00 A.M. Presentation, Discussion Period, Break "The Honor of Spanish Arms; Florida 1784-1821" (Luis Arana) 10:00 to 10:30 Transport to Casti I lo de San Marcos 10:30 to 11 :45 Guided Tour of Casti I lo and demonstration of 18th Century Spanish Mi I i tary Dr i I I and Cannon firing. (Mark Johnson) 12:00 to 1:00 P.M. Lunch; on your own 1 :00 to 5:00 P.M. Conferees have several choices in this time period and are invited to attend one or more of the activities as their personal interests indicate. 1:00 to 4:00 P.M. 18th Century Tea. (Llambias House, St. Francis Street) Sponsored by the distaff side of the St. Augustine Garrison. 1:00 to 2:00 P.M. 18th Century Spanish Battle Re-enactment (Fountain of Youth) 1 :00 to 3:00 P.M. Informal presentations and discussions; (Conference Room, City Ha I I) "The 1740 War in Florida" (Robert Hawk) "The Spanish Mi I itia in 18th Century Louisiana" (Robert England) 1 :00 to 5:00 P.M. Guided Tours; Spanish Quarter and 18th Century Spanish Mi I itary Encampment (Restoration Area, St. George Street) Dinner (On your own) 7:30 P.M. Spanish Night Watch; I I luminations and Parade; everyone invited 9:00 P.M. Informal Festivities; Spanish Encampment; Conferees invited SUNDAY 21 June 1987 9:00 A.M. Formal end of conference; City Hal I. Tentative schedule includes Spanish Mi I itary Church Parade and Mass. For the remainder of Sunday, conferees are . invited to explore and visit the many attractions and historically interesting sites of this, America's oldest city.

PAGE 12

. 1 I , 1 ... Lightner Bui !ding City Ha I I 2 ... St. Francis Barracks State Arsenal, Florida National Guard 3 ... Oldest House: St. Augustine Historical Society 4 ... Government House; Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board 5 Castillo de San Marcos National Park Service 6 ... Mark Lance Armory (190 San Marco Avenue) 7 ... Spanish Quarter: Restoration Area; Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board St~ Augustine, Florida .,

PAGE 13

MENU: SPANISH BANQUET ACEITUNAS ... PANS ... SAL ... VINAGRE ... ACEITE DE OLIVA (Marinated cl ives, Bread, Salt, Vinegar, 01 ive Oi I) GARBANZOS ALINADOS (Marinated Chick-peas or Garbanzo beans) GAZPACHO ANDALUZ (Cold Soup) TRES FRIJOLES A LA CIUDAD ANTIGUA SAN AGUSTIN (Three Beans with Meat, Onions, Peppers) PAELLA A LA VALENCIANA (Chicken-Seafood-Rice) LOMBARDA NAVIDENA (Baked Red Cabbage and fpples) TERNERA ASADA AL AJILLO (Beef in Gar I i c Sauce) FRUTAS FRESCAS (Fresh Fruit) REFRESCAS DE BEBIDA (Mineral Water, Red Wine, Coffee)

PAGE 14

OFFICIAL NIGHTWATCH SCHEDULE COMMITTEE FOR THE NIGHTWATCH FRIDAY------------------------909 Registration & Set up Ca1p De Nesa Area Ca1psite l39 la Relrela Retreat Ceremony Fla National Guard 509 Reception/Tours Oldest House/St Francis Barracks 800 Nililary Conference Banquet Armory Period Dress Welcome SATURDAY----. -739 800 909 939 1030 il30ish 1200 1238 109 100 100-409 200 230 330 400 400 S00 530 530 600 800 829 839 845 930 1000 la Diana Reveille El Desayuno Breakfast Open lo Public la Orden Co11anders Call Unit Co11anders Orientation De Mesa Area Campsite De Nesa Area Ca1psile De Nesa Area Ca1psile De Nesa Area Campsite Conference Dignitaries Tour Castillo de San Marcos Ejercicio de los Artilleros Castillo de San Narcos Cannon firing de1onstration El Almuerzo Lunch De Nesa Area Campsite Skirmish Participants lake haversack lunch to baltlesite la Asamblea la Puerta de Tierra-City Gates Troops assemble for transport Batlle Skiraish El Nil Quinientos also known as vi Military Safety Inspection 'Fountain of Youth' Nusicians Perfor1ances Carpinteria Garrison Distaff Tea House Fifes and Drums La Puerta de Tierra-City Gales Nusicians Performances Hispanic Gardens Ejercicio de Artilleros Castillo de San Narcos Cannon firing de1onstration Fifes and Drums Puerla _ de Tierra-City Gales Ejercicios de la Tropa -Drill North Green of Castillo Nusicians De Nesa Area Campsite La Oracion days work done ca1p closed lo visitors la Cena Supper De Nesa Area Campsite La Relreta Piper Retreat Castillo de San Marcos La Asamblea Asse1bly/Narch Calle Real Sl George Slreel El Bando-Sole1n Proclaiaation Government House Perfor1ances Pifanos y Taabores . la Bandera-New Flag Blessed Plaza Illumination Narch Begins La Llamada fort secured Castillo de San Marcos night cannon firing La Fagi na duly coapleted . troops club aras Las Fiestas de San Juan De Hesa Area Ca1psile Traditional Sl John's Day Bonfire l Jollification SUNDAY-----------------------739 la Diana-Reveille 800 El Desayuno Breakfast 1100 . La Nisa Call to Nass 111S Solean Crucifer Procession 112S La Tropa troops stack aras 124S Nass ends/ Troop back lo ca1p De Nesa Area De Nesa Area Troops asseably'for Nass Calle Real Sl George Slreel Cathedral 1ee El Alauerzo Lunch De Nesa Area Ca1psile 230 la Generala Strike Ca1p De Nesa Area 386 Ejercicio de Arlilleros Castillo de San Narcos Cannon firing La Fagina Caap Cleanup De Nesa Area

PAGE 15

CONFERENCE SPEAKERS il!l::::Pi~:t+-"1~L , ' . , , ,;~~~$~:

PAGE 16

LUIS RAFAEL ARANA Luis Arana is the official historian of the Casti I lo de San Marcos and Fort Matanzas National Monuments. Originally a native of Puerto Rico, he pursued his education there and in Florida, receiving an MA in history from the University of Florida. Luis served in the U.S. Army during World War I I and rema i ned in the Reserves after the war, eventually retiring as a_Lieutenant Colonel. He has I ived in St. Augustine since 1955. Mr. Arana was awarded the Silver Medal of the Spanish Association of Friends of Castles in 1979 "in recognition of his untiring research work on the Spanish fortifications in North America as an official historian of the National Park Service." In 1980, he received the Super i or Service Award from the U.S. Department of the Interior for exceptional service in the field of historical research and writing. Luis has written a vast number of articles for scholarly publications, most notably, El Escribano, the Journal of the St. Augustine Historical Society. A very great many of those articles concerned the mi I itary history of Spanish Florida. He is also the author, with Albert Manucy, of the widely popular "The Building of Casti I lo de San Marcos" (Published in Cooperation with the National Park Service.) RENE CHARTRAND Rene Chartrand is the Chief Curator, Mi I itary History and the Fur Trade with Parks, Canada, headquartered in Ottawa, Ontario. A native of Quebec, he was educated in Montreal, Boston, Massachusetts and Nassau, Bahamas. He pursued a career in private industry before becoming professional mi I itary museology consultant, his true avocation and area of interest. He joined Parks Canada in 1971. Mr . Chartrand resides in Hui I, Quebec and is interested in family I ife, good wines and the history of horseracing in Canada, a special hobby. Rene has published numerous articles for the scholarly press and several booklets and historical handbooks for various private and governmental agencies includ i ng "Mi I itary Uniforms in Canada" (Canadian War Museum, 1981) and "The French Soldier in Colonial America" (Museum Restoration Service, 1984.) He has specialized in the material history of French, British and Canadian forces and the comparative history with Spanish mi I itary institutions prior to 1815, especially of their uniforms and infantry and art ii lery dri I Is, a study which led to the topic of his presentation for this conference.

PAGE 17

JOHN COLLINS John Col I ins is the Chief Curator and Director of the Presidio La Bahia in Go I i ad, Texas. He received h_i_s education primarily in his home state of Texas including a BA from Incarnate Word College and graduate work at St. Mary's University, both in San Antonio. Later, he studied Museum Science and Maqnagement at Arizona State University. John's professional career began with the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs. This is not unusual as John's family on the maternal side are Native Americans, members of the Comanche Indian Nation, of which John is also an enrol led member. In a recent interview, he described himself as a citizen of two countries, the Comanche Indian Nation and the United States of America;" a reality that has had a strong influence on his persona I and pro fess i ona I I i fe. Mr. Col I ins is a member of several historical associations and corrmissions and an Associate Member of the Smithsonian Institution. He is also the Director, Office of Museums, History and Archives, Diocese of Victoria, Texas. It has been his association with the mi I itary history of the gulf coast region of Spanish Texas during the 18th century that has resulted in the preparation of the paper to be presented at this conference. REDONDO DIAZ Colonel Redondo Diaz is the Chief of the Spanish Historical Mi I itary Service in Madrid. He was born and raised in Havana, Cuba and entered the Spanish General Mi I itary Academy in 1951. Fol lowing attendence at that school and the Infantry Academy in Toledo, Colonel Diaz pursued a mi I itary career including service with a diverse selection of units, including a period of secondment to the Roya I Moroccan Army._ Since 1981, Colonel Diaz has been with the Mi I itary History Service. He received the Don Julian Sanchez EL CHARRO Research Prize for his work, "Ci udad Rodrigo in the War for Independence." (We wou Id ca I I it the Pen i nsu I ar War of the Nape I eon i c Era) Colonel Diaz has written several books including Volumne I I of the series, "The History of the Spanish Army" and a very great many articles, booklets and special reports on mi I itary history topics and has served on several historical corrmissions including a cooperative effort with Great Britian's National Army Museum commemorating the Peninsualar War.

PAGE 18

ROBERT DENNIS ENGLAND Robert England is a teacher and Coordinator of Living History at The Paideia School of Atlanta, Georgia. He received his BS from Samford University, MA from Montevallo University and PhD from the University of Alabama, al I in the Birmingham, Alabama area. His working career has included employment in the public parks and recreation field and in education, having held positions with several colleges and schools including Arkansas State University and the Bibb County Public Schools in Alabama. Mr. England has published a number of articles and special studies, many of which have been related to American Colonial History including several for American History I I lustrated, a popular national history magazine. He belongs to several professional societies including the Southern Historical Association and the 18th Century Society. ROBERT ALLAN HAWK Robert Hawk is the civi I ian Director of the Historical Services Division of the Department of Mi I itary Affairs (Florida National Guard.) Although a native of California, he was raised in a mi I itary family and I ived in many states, graduating from high school in Florida. Fol lowing service in the U.S. Navy as a hospital corpsman, he settled permanently in Florida, receiving both his BA and MA in history from the University of Florida. Mr. Hawk has had a diverse career including 18 years as a college history and humanities teacher. in thius country and in England, as an actor/director, in sales and management, and as a freelance writer before coming to the Department of Military Affairs. Robert has written many articles for both the popular and scholarly press in this country and abroad. He is the author of "Florida's Army; The Mi I itia, State Troops, National Guard 1565-1985" (Englewood: Pineapple Press, 1986.) He collects and researches British mi I itary medals and is active in I iving history and mi I itary re-enactment programs.

PAGE 19

MARK JOHNSON Mark Johnson is a National Park Service employee at the Castillo de San Marcos. He is their Master Gunner and Black Powder Safety Officer and is a member of the Park Service national instructional stafffor historic weapons. Originally from the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, Mark's interest in the I ife and history of colonial Spanish America began when, as a Boy Scout, he and his troop were granted permission to spend several nights in the Casti I lo de San Cristobal in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Mr. Johnson studied Latin and North American History at the University of Virginia and worked as a seasonal park ranger for a number of years including tours in the Shenandoah National Park, Desoto National Monument in Florida and at the Casti I lo de San Marcos in St. Augustine. He became a ful I-time ranger at the Casti I lo in 1978. Mark has been an active participant in I iving history programs since the beginning of the Bicentennial celebrations, interpreting the British Period for those events and the 18th century Spanish Period in Florida as part of the on-going I iving history interpretive programs of the St. Augustine Garrison. EUGENE LYON Eugene . Lyon . is the Di rector, Center for Historic Research, St. Augustine Foundation at Flagler College and Adjunct Associate Associate Professor, Department of History, University of Florida. A native Floridian, Eugene received his BA and Phd degrees from the University of Florida (Political Science and History respectively) and his MS from the University of Denver (Government Management.) Fol lowing active service in the Naval Reserve during the Korean War, Mr. Lyon re-settled in Florida and corrrnenced a career in city government. During the early 1960's, Eugene re-directed his carrer into Latin American Studies. Fol lowing the completion of his special studies in Spanish paleography, he began a spectacular twenty year, and continuing, career as an archivist, author, consultant, and popular conference speaker specializing in the history of Colonial Spanish America. His association with the search and eventual discovery of the Spanish treasure ship, the Nuestra Senora de Atocha, has given him national attention in both the popu lar and scho I ar I y media. Mr. Lyon is the recipiant of many honors and awards for his work including fellowships from the National Endo1MT1ent for the Humanities, National Science Foundation, several prize awards for his historical books and articles, and directorships in numerous professional historical associations and societies. Eugene has written and published a very large number of articles, monographs, book chapters in the scholarly and popoular press. Virtually al I of them are related to the history of Spain in the Americas. Among his published books are "The Enterprise of Florida"; a history of Florida's earl lest days under Spanish settlement and rul (Gainesvi I le, The University of Florida Press, 1977) and "The Search for the Atocha", an examination of the documentary and physical search for the wreck of a famous Spanish Treasure gal I eon (New York; Harper and Row, 1979.)

PAGE 20

POST OFFICE BOX 1008 STATE ARSENAL, ST. AUGUSTINE 32085 The various works of Colonel Diaz, Eugene Lyon and Luis Arana on topics related to colonial Spanish military history are so extensive, a special effort seemed desirable to make at least a I ist avai I able to conference participants. A selection of the works of Luis Arana are reproduced in Volume I of this conference series. The fol lowing several pages contain a I ist of the works of Mr. Lyon and Colonel Diaz.

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EUGENE LYON Publications~ Boq~s: The Adelantamiento of Florida. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida, 1973. The Enterprise of Florida. Gainesville, UniversityPresses of Florida, 1977. The Search for the Atocha. New York, Harper and Row, 1979. Publications: Books in Preparation: Publications. Monographs: The Spanish North American Conquest EX_ Pedro Menendez de Avilds, 1568-1577. Santa Elena: A Brief History of the Colony. Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, 1984. Publications: Chapters in Books: "The Enterprise of Florida," in Competition for Empire on the Southern Frontier. _ (No . information of publication date). __ . "Continuity in the Age of Conquest," in Proceedings, Conference on Alabama and the Borderlands. (1985 date) "Utilization of Marine Resources by the Keys and Coastal Indians of the Pre 7 Contact and Contact Periods,~ in Florida Maritime Heritage, Barbara A. Purdy, Editor, . . Florida State Museum, 1980. . "La Visita de 1.576 y la Transformaci6n del Gobierno en la Florida espanola, 11 Influencia de Espana en~ Caribe, . la Florida '1.. la Luisiana, Madrid, 1983. d 1 [1 Can6n dch G:i1t?~n Nuestra Senora de Atocha: Patrimoniu Devuelto, 11 in El Archlvo de Indias en Mi Recuerdo. Seville, Junta de AndaTucTa, 1986. Publications: Professional Journals: (with Dr. Paul E. Hoffman) "Accounts of the Real Hacienda, Florida, 1565 to 1602," Florida Historical Quarterly, 48, No. 1, (July 1969), 57-69. "Captives of Florida," Florida Historical Quarterly, 50, No. 1 (July 1971), 1-24. "The Enterprise of Florida," Florida Historical Quarterly, 52, No. 4 (April 1974), 411-422. . "St. Augustine 1580: The Living . Community, 11 El Escribano (January 1978), 20-33. l'Spain"Ts 16th-Century North American . Settlement Attempts: A Neglected Aspect, 11 Florida Historical Quarterly, 59~ No. 3 tJanuary 1~81), 275-291.

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Publications: Popular: Book Reviews: "Contraband in Spanish Colonial Ships,~ (with Barbara A. Purdy) Itinerario (Journal of the Institute of European Expansion, University of Leiden, Neth~rlands), 6, No. 2 (1982), 91-108. "The Spanish Mutineers," Tequesta (Journal of the Historical Association of South . Florida), XLIV (1984), 44-61. "The Trouble with Treasure," National Geographic, 149, No. 6 (June 1976), 786809. "Treasure from the Ghost Galleon," National Geographic, 161, No. 2 (February 1982}, 228-243. (Article above reprinted in Reader's Digest, August 1982.) 11 The Nina; Columbus' Stout Caravel of Discovery," National Geographic, November 1986). For the American Historical Review, the . ;~ : Hispanic American Historical Review, . ~--~•: ~'-~:_.:; ~} .Florida Historical Quarterly, _Q Escriban~ and the South Eastern Latin Americanist. "More Light on the Indians of the Ays Coast," Gainesville, 1967. "The Control Structure of Spanish Florida, 1580," St. Augustine Restoration Foundation, 1977. 11 The 1622 Shipwrecks: Data," Fil es, Treasure Sal vors, Inc. Data for the Reconstruction of the Galleon Los Tres Reyes Magos, St. Augustine Kestoration Foundation, 1979. . ' "Towards a Typology of Spanish Colonial Nails, 11 St. Augustine Restoration Foundation, 1979. "Puerto Real: Research on a Spanish Town on Hispaniola's North Coast," Port-au-Prince, Institut de Sauvegarde du Patrimoine National Republique d'Haiti, 1981. 11 Forts Caroline and San Mateo Vulnerable Outposts," Typescript (59 pp.) plus exhibits, Fort Caroline National Memorial, 1982. "The Canete Fragment: Another Narrative of Hernando de Soto," Vero Beach, 1982.

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Translation of Colonial Documents: Conference Papers: "Quiros Papers~" from AGI Santo Domtngo 231. Log of Christopher Columbus' First Voyage, 10-27 October, from Las Casas' version. "Merits and Services of Captain Antonio de ArgU~lles," from AGI Santo Domingo 23. A Power-of~Attorney of Hernan Cortes. "Parecer of Fray Bartolome de las Casas," from Phillipps Ms. The l"ibro de Armadas, from AGI Contratacion. (Indexing)The P~pers of Hernando de Soto. "The Enterprise of Florida," Florida Historical Society, 1973. "El Adelantado Pedro Menendez de Aviles y su conquista de la Florida," Escuela de Estudios Hispanoamericanos, Seville, 1975. "The Historical and Archaeological Meaning of the 1622 Shipwreck Sites," (jointly with R. Duncan Mathewson) Florida Historical Society, 1975. . "An Introduction to the Ethnohistory of the •, '" ; •. ;_.. ~~ c,~: .:; , .. Lower . Florida. Keys/' {jointly with R. . , . .. ,._, ; _J ' ; .• '. Duncan Conference of the American Society of Ethnohistory, 1975. "The _ Identification of a 17th-Century Spanish Galleon. Nuestra Senora de Atocha," St. Augustine Historical Society, 1977. "Spanish cultures in colonial Florida and their connection with historic shipwrecks," Conference on Florida Historic Shipwreck Archaeology, 1977. "Tequesta and Fontaneda: Some Recent Research," Historical Association of South Florida, 1977. "St. Augustine 1580: The Living Community," Florida Historical Society, 1977. "Spanish Colonization in North America; Some Neglected Aspects," Society for the History of Discoveries, 1978. "Reconstruccion de un pueblo espaffol del siglo XVI," Escuela de Estudios Hispanoamericanos, 1978. "A Historian's Thoughts on some Shipwreck Models," Conference on the Maritime Culture of the Florida Keys, 1980. "Utilization of Marine Resources by the Keys and Coastal Indians of the Pre-contact and Contact Periods," Florida Maritime Heritage Conference, 1980.

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•. "La Visita de 1576 Y la transfor:mac _ iQn en la Florida espanola, 11 Congress on the Impact of Spain .in Florida,' the Caribbean, and Louisiana, LaRibida, 1981. . . . . "Continuity in the Age of Conquest; The Establishment of Spanish Sovereignity in the l6th-Century, 11 Conference on Alabama and the Borderlands, Tuscaloosa, 1981~ "A Brief History of the Colony, 11 {of Santa Elena), Southern Hi~torical Association, 1982. 11 The Spanish Mutineers, 11 Florida Historical Association, 1983. 11 Symposium: Miami: 400 Years Under the Spanish Flag, 11 Historical Association of South Florida, Columbus Day, 1983. Comment, Papers on the Route of Hernando de Soto, Southern Historical Association, 1984. Seminar, "Miami in Spanish Times," Museum of the Historical Association of South Florida, 1984. "El Adelantazgo y la Corona," Conference on Spain . ,. -.. '.' .. , and the New World on the Eve . of Discovery, -.:.<••:;, : Madrid : , 1985. . . ::~ . Comment, Paoers on the Defense of the Caribbean {Pedro Menendez de Aviles and Bautista . Antonelli), Southern Historical Association, Houston, Texas, 1985. ' ' TheNina; Survivor Ship of the Fifteenth Century," American Historical Association, December 1985. . 11 Aspects of Pedro Menendez, the man, 11 Annual Meeting, St. Augustine Historical Society, January 7, 1986. "The Caffete Relacion; a New de Soto Narrative, 11 Spring, 1986, Conference on Hernando de Soto, , Universi : ty of Florida. 11 Atocha: What Documents Told, 11 Society for Historical Archaeology, Savannah, January 9, 1987.

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REDONDO DIAZ 2. 1.-LIBROS. -"Historia del Ejercito Espanol. Tama II. Los Ejercitos de la Recanquista" " (385, julio-agosto 1982> -"Jose Almirante Tarroella (1823-1894)" (385, septiembre 1982) -"Luis Bermudez de Castro y Tomas (1864-1957)" (386, octubre 1982) -"Fernando Ahumada Lopez <1890-1936)" <387, naviembre 1982> -"Alvaro de Navia-Osoria y Vigil, marques ere Santa Cruz de Marcenada (16841732)" (388, diciembre 1982) 2.2.4.-EN EL PERIODICO YA". -"Carlos III intraduja el juramenta a la bandera" (28-5-1986) 2.2.5.-EN LA REVISTA "TIERRA, MARY AIRE". -La expedici6n espaifola en defensa de Pio IX"

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2.2.6.-RECENSIONES
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CONFERENCE DIRECTOR'S NOTE .. . . : ,,.-:=:::---=...;_:___ ! ~ ' oh , . I

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POST OFFICE BOX 1008 STATE ARSENAL, ST. AUGUSTINE 32085-1008 The process of organizing and producing a public conference requires the concerted efforts of a great many individuals. In most instances, the work they do is without recompense beyond the knowledge of a job wel I done. Even for those who receive some reward, the "extra" efforts required go far beyond normal duty. As this is being written some time prior to the actual conference, I am certain to leave some individuals off the I ist; my apologies; the thanks remain . . . . To my co-workers at the State Arsenal, Ken Forrester, Joanita Nel lenbach, Allen Crosby, Carol Wi Ison, Mathew Osgood, Eddie Birkett and others for their contribution to the work load and especially, their patience; ... To the many co-sponsoring organizations who provided many necessary services; ... To Page Edwards and the staff of the St. Augustine Historical Society whose help, encouragement and significant contributions to the conference schedule was crucial to success and much appreciated; ... To the members of the St. Augustine Garrison for many reasons, not the least of which is their corrmittment to history and to publ le service; ... To the City of St. Augustine which provided the great faci I ities for the conference and whose staff provided essential support; ... To Gerard Cyr and Candace Fleming who assurnned the enormous burden of providing the conference participants a lunch and a grand Spanish banquet;

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... To the staffs of thJh.r,i~idM1f.~~_9l~M9~~ and Minister for Cultural Affaris at the Span 3 ~!R/g. 1 M1bassy; ... To Sr. Modesto Iglesia of the National Tourist Office of Spain whose help at at critical time is greatly appreciated; ... To the management, cast and crew of Cross and Sword; Thank You!

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: ::_. ~y:, .. : : .. ,. ,r '. H:.'::: :t ~ }tt J/}t :. , CO-SPONSORING ORGANIZATIONS . _ . .. . , . _ 1 . . ;. : t\ _ : ,. . . .

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FEH FLORIDA ENDOWMENT for the HUMANITIES The Slate Program of the National l.:ndowrnent for the Humanities f>. 0. f3ox kl)89/lornpo. Florido 33c)B/.U)B9 (ffl3) 9/Ll-!J09Ll SUNCOrvl 574-1109/J The Florida Endo1MT1ent for the Humanities is an independent, non-profit organization, funded by the National Endo1MT1ent for the Humanities, the State of Florida, and private contributions. It supper ts pub I i c humanities activities in FI or i da, inc I ud i ng making grants to non-profit groups and agencies for public humanities programs throughout the state. While the social and natural sciences speak the language of "it," in which everything is seen as an object to be talked about, the humanities speak the language of "you" and "me," in which everything is understood as having a place among us when we talk with each other. Through the humanities we comprehend our I Ives, cultures and societies. By the humanities we enter the ideas, texts, traditions and aspirations which define our I ives. The Florida Endowment for the Humanities (FEH) was founded in 1971 as a state program of the National Endowment for the Humanities for the purpose of promoting the consideration and investigation of our corrrnon intellectual heritage by both humanities scholars and the general public. FEH sponsors programs with a variety of educational and cultural institutions, civic and professional groups, and corrmunity and regional organizations.

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, .. Saint Augustine Historical Society 271 Charlotte Street• Saint Augustine, Florida 32084 (904) 824-2872 St. Augustine Historical Society Functions SAHS is dedicated to preserving the past of St. Augustine in order that both residents and visitors can become aware of the unique history of the city and the important part it has played in the larger history of the United States. I The Society works toward this goal in several ways: A. Library The Society operates a public, non-circulating library which is a major resource for materials pertaining to St. Augustine and nearby areas. The collection includes not only books, but also photographs, maps, microfilm, records, archives ~nd related materials. The library is used by a variety of people; not only from St. Augustine but from all over the United States. B. Oldest House and Museum The Society owns and maintains the Gonzalez-Alvarez House, also known as the Oldest House, a structure which is over 250 years old. Tours through the house are conducted on a regular basis; the story of its occupants and architecture illuminates a significant piece of St. Augustine's past. The house tours are supplemented by a museum which gives a more comprehensive account of the history of St. Augustine as a whole. In conjunction with the Oldest House and the Museum, the Society operates a Museum Store. We offer to visitors Society publications and items which are related to the interpretation of St. Augustine's history. C. Publications and Programs The Society has in print well over twenty-five publications ranging from a book-length history of St. Augustine to a short pamphlet about Mary Evans, one df the residents of the Oldest House during the British Period. We publish annually El Escribano: The St. Augustine Journal of History and three times a year The East Florida Gaz~tte, a newsletter of shorter articles on St. Augustine history. Six to eight times a year we sponsor a speaker program which focuses on some aspect of St. Augustine history, In the past Dr. Eugene Lyon, Dr. Kathleen Deagan, John Griffin and B.J. Griffin, to name only a few, have given lectures to the Society and to the general public, who is always invited to Society lectures. The Society sponsors symposiums on an aspect of St. Augustine History (such as the Civil War Symposium and the upcoming Second Spanish Period Symposium in 1988). As well, we sponsor meetings and conferences of organizations to which we are members (such as the Florida Historical Society meeting and the Florida Museum Association meeting).

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The St. Augustine Garrison was established to fill a void in ~ictorical interpretive demonstrations and reenactments within the city of St. Augustine. The Garrison is 6ne of the few historical militia detachments authorized and qualified to do black powder cannon firing demon strations. The training is rigorous and authentic. Weekend inter pretive programs are provided throughout the summer months. The Garrison's historical research efforts have ensured that clothing and military drills are as historically accurate as can be verified. The Living History program of St. Augustine has been in exis tence for some time giving demonstrations for the young and old alike. It has been in the last year that the Garrison has become n part of that program. We give the military view of life in St. Augustine along with the already active civilian intrepre tation of early St. Augustine. Many Garrison members make their own uniforms and equipage. We also have clothing and equipment made available from the National Park Service and the St. Augustine Preservation Board. Their willingness to lend extra clothing and articles make these encampments and reenactments possible. All Garrison members are volunteers and are here because they want you to know how a Spanish soldier lived and worked during the 1740's. Feel free to ask any member questions we will all try to help you. We want you to feel St. Augustine as it was 250 years ago. WELCOME TO ST. AUGUSTINE :::...-:::.i:: ..... _....,.., ___ ..... ___ ., .... w..... U= C:Mr.__=:= ........... 0--..... .......... -' C:~o~ CF 'Ill MIA-IT00. 9, Q ~:!.=9.:. ............

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COMMITTEE FOR THE NIGHTWATCH Jim Guier 8 St. George Street St. Augustine, Florida 32084 904-824-8974 29 May 1987 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE ST. AUGUSTINE; America's oldest city wi I I honor its Hispanic heritage Saturday, 20 June, during the annual "Spanish Nightwatch" torchlight parade, an event with roots reaching back to the 18th century. Wearing the traditional military uniforms of the 1740 period, St. Augustine's Spanish Garrison wi I I lead thousands of townspeople and visitors over a one-mi le parade through the narrow downtown streets, beginning at 8:30 P.M. The Spanish Nightwatch has been identified as one of the top 20 events of June in the southeastern U.S. by the Atlanta-based Southeast Tourism Society. The colorful ceremonies wi I I begin at Government House, adjacent to the downtown Plaza de la Constitucion. Fol lowing the command to "I i ght your I i ghts," the parade w i I I march march to the Casti I lo de San Marcos, pausing at the Cathedral on the way for the traditional Blessing of the Flag. Fol lowing a nighttime cannon firing at the Cast I I lo, the parade wi I I proceed to the city gates for a changing of the guard, returning to Government House along historic St. George Street. At that time, the soldiers of the garrison wi I I fire volleys of musketry in tribute to the King of Spain. There wi I I be a ful I schedule of daytime activites preceeding Saturday evening's festivities including mi I ltary dri I I and cannon firing demonstrations at the Cast I I lo, an 18th century I iving history mi I itary encampment, musical performances and tours of the streets, gardens and houses of the Historic Preservation area on St. George Street. The Nightwatch festival commemorates the more than two centuries of Spanish rule in St. Augustine, beginning with the first permanent settlement here in 1565. Except for a brief period of British control during the 18th century, (1763-1784), Spain was to rule the Floridas unti I 1821. According to a spokesman for the Corrmitee for the Nightwatch, sponsors of the event, townspeople and visitors planning to join the parade are urged to bring candles or candle lanterns. Candles wi I I also be sold by street vendors as a fund-raising effort by the Committee.

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. ~;,\ .:' .~ . . . . ~ . .. , ~. ~ .; "'-::-.. . ;.-~~IJl!I --~~~"-i,;t;;;.:;:.:s""'; ,;.~~v.-,=....:.,....-:. ..... .:o~ -:. : 7 NATIONAL PARK SERVICE: CASTILLO DE SAN MARCOS Mrs. B.J. Griffith 1 Castillo Drive St. Augustine, Florida 32084 904-829-6506 Cast ii lo de San Marcos "Grim, vital, defiant of time, this monument of Spain's hours of greatness seems sti I I to be peering defensively out upon the Gulf Stream, seems sti I I to be guarding the homegoing gal I eons from the corsair. To touch its gray outer wal Is, to wander among its rooms, to climb its ramp and look out upon the b I ue waters of Matanzas Bay, is to wish to know the story of Spain in America; and here a part of it is beautifully told." (Freeman Ti Iden; The National Parks, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc) As the Nation's principal conservation agency, the Department of the Interior has responsibi I ity for most of our nationally owned public lands and natural resources. This includes preserving the environmental and cultural values of our national parks and historical places.

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HISTORIC ST. AUGUSTINE PRESERVATION BOARD On July l, 1959, the Governor signed into Law a bill creating the St. Augustine Historical Restoration and Preservation Commission. It was the first board of its kind created within the state and was designed to preserve St. Augustine, an historic and archaeological resource of unique state and national value. The St. Augustine statute provided the model for similar legislative initiative for preservation elsewhere in the state and nation. The statute provided for a seven-member board appointed by the Governor with a responsibility "to acquire, restore, preserve, maintain, reconstruct, reproduce, and operate for the use, benefit, education, recreation, enjoyment, and general welfare 11 of the people,the historical, and antiquarian sites in St. Augustine and its environs. The Governmental Reorganization Act of 1968 renamed the Commission the Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board. Since its creation the Board has conducted an historical and archaeological research program to support acquisition and development of historically significant properties. It also has become a depository for the area's archaeological artifacts as well as an archive of St. Augustine architectural, cartographic, and historical materials. Employing funds, raised essentially through private sources, the Board has acquired twenty pieces of historic property on which it has preserved, restored, or reconstructed thirty structures. It has cooperated closely with municipal, county, and private agencies and institutions to restore and reconstruct over forty significant sites and buildings in the city. The Board's work has inspired many individuals in the community to preserve or restore historically significant properties they own. It has conducted an interpretive and educational program that has introduced hundreds of thousands of visitors to this unique aspect of America's past. Working under the Board's auspices, the University of Florida and Florida State University have conducted intensive graduate study programs involving historical and archaeological research efforts in the city. The program of the Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board has focused major national attention on Florida, provided tourist impetus, rescued the city's heritage, revived what, in 1959, was a stagnant local economy, and transformed a blighted urban area into a thriving commercial and tourist sector. The Board consists of seven members appointed by the Governor of Florida with terms as follows: one for two years, two for three years, and four for four years. The Board annually elects a chairman, vice chairman and secretary treasurer and meets bimonthly. Board staff under a Director consists of 30 career service positions, 15 part-time positions, and an active volunteer group of about 100 people. April, 1987

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CiOSs and Sword FLORIDA'S OFFICIAL STATE.PLAY :. Tina J. Puckett April 9, 1987 Pu~lic Relations Director PLAY SYNOPSIS CROSS AND SWORD, "Florida's Official State Play", is a his tori cal drama written by Pulitzer prize winner, Paul Green. This outdoor drama depicts the first two years of Menendez' struggle to found a settlement in the New World and to protect the Spanish claim of dominion from the French. The story of Pedro Menendez de Aviles moves from the court of King Phillip II of Spain to the untamed shores of Florida. With sword-clashing battles with the French and Indians, to the devastating hurricane, which threat ens the Colonists with starvation, we experience the strength and faith that enables the colony to become an enduring settlement. Interwoven in these dramatic events is the conflict between church and the conquistador, Menendez. The star-crossed love for the Indian Princess Notina leads to the climatic battle with the Indian Chief, Oriba. The excitement of cannons firing and the tragedy 6f Notina's ~eath prop~lles you through time es histo~y is brought to life ~s almost 75 actors, dancers, and singers in authentic costumes, together with dramatic special effects, lighting and stirring music provides a theatrical experience under the stars. P .0. Box 1965, St. Augustine, Florida 32084 (904) 471-1965 NEWS RELEASE

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ST. AUGUSTINE/ ST. JOHNS COUNTY CHAMBER OF COMMERCE THE ORGANIZATION What is the Chamber of Commerce? Objectives of the Chamber The St.Augustine/St. Johns County Chamber of Commerce is a voluntary organization of business and professional men and women who have joined together for the purpose of promoting the civic and commercial progress of our community. The area's economic well-being is related directly to the caliber of work that is done by the Chamber. That is why the St.Augustine /St. Johns County Chamber has a major impact on busines, income and future growth of the area. There are two primary functions of a chamber of commerce: (1) it acts as spokesman for the business and professional community and translates into action the group thinking of its members, and (2) it renders specific services of a type that can be most effectively rendered by a community organization both to its members and to the community as a whole. 1. To promote a better understanding of the nation's private enterprise system. 2. To coordinate the efforts of commerce, industry and the professions in maintaining aqd strengthening a sound and healthy business climate in the St. Johns County area. 3. To sponsor aggressive programs of work . and stimulate activities that will provide for full development and employment of our human and economic resources. 4. To provide creative business leadership and effective coordination of all interested parties in initiating constructive community action. 5. To create broad understanding and appreciation of the great opportunities in the St. Johns County area, and to promote the advantages and assets of our community within the area, in the state, and in the world.

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THE ST. AUGUSTINE FOUNDATION . . . The St. Augustine Foundation, Inc., was established more than se~enteen years ago to ~id the Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board in the acquisition of properties for restoration and reconstruction. It also purchased or otherwise received other properties in the Historic Districts. It . ~as also assigned the role of specializing in the sixteenth century period of the city's past. To this end, a team of historians and anthropologists were retained to create a data base for the construction of a "living history town" of the sixteenth century. When this plan was abandoned, two films, "Dream of Empire," and "Struggle to Survive" were made from the data gathered by the academic team; these films are now ex hibited at the Theater-Museum at 5 Cordova st. ..I In 1985, it was decided to create a Center for Historic Research, designed to work in the period of Pedro Menendez de Aviles'estab lishment of St. Augustine. This Center has transferred the previously-gathered historic data into a computerized data base, continues to acquire primary historical documentation in Spain and elseiwhere, and works on publications from the period. In 1986, the Foundation sponsored the microfilming of the Revillagigedo Papers, the archives of the families which include that of Menendez. These .",: ' , , . . , . , c;:: . : ... ~ :,-.:;ii ;~ ~ ;:~ i : ,d:1,,t1.w. 667. ,-~: ~ P.".l.ls of mic!'.'n.fiJ, . '1;;, are lecated at the Cen ter, now at 20 Valencia St. As cf January first of 1987, the st. Augustine Foundation became affiliated with Flagler College; its properties are managed by the College Business Services Office. Dr. William Proctor is President of the Foundation, and Dr. Eugene Lyon is Director of the Center. It is a particular desire of the Center to cooperate whole heartedly with other historic entities in St. Augustine towards the goal of creating a Union catalog of resources in the community, and to aid in any other meaningful way to advance the study of history in the city.

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THE SAINT GEORGE STREEI1 PLAYERS span the gap between historic theatre and historic re-enactment with their unique presenta tion "An Evening In Colonial San Agustin--1740 11 , a program which has logged nore than 1,500 performances here, around Florida and in Texas ~uring the last eight years. The Players, founded in 1980 hy Joan and Steve Hansen for the purpose of fulfilling a contract for historic theatre in the San Agustin Antiguo Museum, now perform six nights weekly year-round at their colonial tavern in St. Augustine Fiesta, at 1 King Street. Their major work is the translation and st aging of the 26 Pases of the 16th Century Spanish comedian Lope de Rueda. They present three pases each night, along with an historic interpre tive monologue describing their iife as 18th Century Spanish ac tors shipwrecked on the coast of Florida in 1740 while on a tour of the New World. Their work of bringing to the English-speaking world the wor.ks of Lope de Rueda for the first time was recognized in 1984 when they were invited to perform at the International Siglo de Oro Drama Festival at Charnizal Memorial in El Paso, Texas, and in January, 1987 when they received a commendation from Governor Wayne Hixon for their work on behalf of Florida 1 s historic heritage, and they have performed for five years at the annual Florida Folk Festival. Joan and Steve Hansen are theatrical jacks-of-all-trades who have produced more than 150 theatrical events in spaces ranging from the 2,000-seat St. Augustine Amphitheatre to the 25-seat storefront theatre which they ran in Horth Hiami for three years. Steve has written and successfully produced 36 plays, including the St. Augustine Passion Play which is staged annually during Easter Week in the Castillo de San Marcos National Monument. Joan studied Spanish in high school and college for a total of seven years, and spent 15 years as a newspaper reporter and editor in her native city of Miami. Steve, a native of Washing ton State, is a graduate of the Army Language School, and spent seven years as a Russian linguist with the u.s. Army. He has a theatre degree from Florida International University, and has translated from Russian the six one-act comedies of Anton Chekhov. The Plav&rs have created a second historic theatre-re-enactment program: "An Evening in Victorian St. Augustine--1888 11 featuring Steve's Chekhov translations with an historic interpretive mono logue about life in St. Augustine of the Flagler Era. Saint George Street Players Joan and Steve Hansen 101-C Madeora Street St. Augustine, Florida 32084 (904) 824-8696

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PRE-REGISTERED CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS

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Luis Arana National Park Service Casti I lo de San Marcos Casti I lo Drive St. Augustine, FL 32084 John A. Armstrong 40 Water St. St. Augustine 32084 Thomas Basham Rt. 5 Box 24 St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Cameron Bates Box 40, Flagler Col legs St. Augustine, Florida 32084 Mayor Kenneth Beeson City Ha I I City of St. Augustine Fl 32084 Ann BI i ss 348 Dusty Road St. Augustine, Florida 32084 Bonnie Wray Brade 1835 Neal Rd St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Karla Brandt 4124 NW 7th St. Gainesvi I le, Fl 32609 Mr. Richard Breitengross 531 Penn Ave West Deland, FL 32720 Mrs. Richard Breitengross 531 Penn Ave West Deland, Florida 32720 Miguel Bretos Cuban Exile History Project Library 317 Florida International University Miami , FL 33199 Rene Chartrand 26 30 Sheffield Rd Ottawa, Ontario Canada K1A 1G2 Kathy Brown 32 Marine St. St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Amy Burdon Steve Young 20 Beacon St. St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Mavis Christopher Roxanne Christopher Scott Christopher Tamara White Rt. 7 Box 253 St. Augustine, Fl 32084 John Co I I ins 212 Ridgewood Victoria Texas 77901 Peter Cowdrey Museum of Florida History RA Gray Bldg Ta I I ahassee Florida 32399-0250 Richard Coyle 607 Carolina Blvd Isle of Palms South Carolina 29451 Peter Cristus Box 3244 St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Ron Custer 19 Arenta Ave St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Flo Cyr 291 Bled Des Pins St. Augustine, Florida 32084 Gerard Cyr 1202 Pope Road #12 St. Augustine Sch, FL 32084

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Theodore Cyr 291 Blvd Des Pins St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Karen Donley 162 Oneida St. St. Augustine, Florida 32084 Tuck Donley 162 Oneida St. St. Augustine, Jack Duggan Ft. Moultrie Su I I i van Is I and Charleston, SC Page Edwards Fl 32084 271 Charlotte St. St. Augustine, Florida 32084 Elise Estes 50 Corunna St. VB St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Jackie Feagin St. Augustine Record PO Box 1630 St. Augustine 32085-1630 Carlos Fernandez-Shaw Spanish Consulate 151 Sev i I I a St Coral Gables, FL 33134 Candace Fleming 26 Anderson St. St. Augustine, Florida 32084 Timothy Fleming 26 Anderson St. St. Augustine, FL 32084 Kenneth Forrester State Arsenal St. Augustine, Florida 32084 Barry Fox PO Box 944 Hastings, Fl 32045 Elizabeth Freeman 130 Moore St. St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Jackie Fretwe I I 271 Charl . otte St. St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Lori A. Gardner Rt 5 Box 12F4 St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Thomas Graham 1535 San Rafael Way St. Augustine, Fl 32084 John W. Gr if fin 450 Owens Ave St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Jim Guier 8 St. George St. St. Augustine, FL 32084 Ale Harrmond 1202 Pope Rd. #14 St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Phi I ip Harrmond 1020 Pope Rd. #14 St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Joan Hansen 101 Mad . eore St. St. Augustine, Florida 32084 Steve Hansen 101 Madeore St. St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Wesley Hansen 348 Dusty Road St. Augustine 32084 Robert Hawk Conference Director State Arsenal St. Augustine, Florida 32085-1008 904-824-8461

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Jackie Hays 531 Penn Ave West Deland, Florida 32720 John Hays 531 Penn Ave West Deland, FL 32720 Sr. Modesto de la Iglesia Casa Del Hidalgo Hypo! ita and St. George St. St. Augustine, FL 32084 Mark Johnson 101 Hercules Rd. St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Veronica Johnson 165 M.L. King Ave St. Augustine, Fl 32084 James 8. Levy Jr. Bureau of Archaeological Research 500 S. Bronough St A.A. Gray Bldg Tai lahassee, Fl. 32399-0250 Eugene Lyon PO Box 631 St. Augustine Fl 32085 John K. Mahon 4129 SW 2nd Ave Gainesvi I le, Fl 32607 Hector Marin National Park Service PO bo 712 Old San Juan Puerto Rico 00902 Greg Masters 17 Franciscan Way St. Augustine, Florida 32084 Lisa Masters 17 Franciscan Way St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Jean McCarthy 1213 Fort Caroline Rd Jacksonvi I le, Fl 32225 David McCormack National Park Service P.O. Box 712 Old San Juan Puerto Rico 00902 Ga i I McGon i g I e 49 Zamora St. St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Mik~ McGonigle 49 Zamora St St. Augustine, Florida 32084 T.W.H. Mi Iler 8430 Tomahawk Rd. Overland Park KS 66207 Joe Mi tis 99 Markland Pl St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Judy Mills 99 Markland Pl St. Augustine, Florida Joanita Net lenbach 4420 Carter Rd W i I dwood Apts St. Augustine Shelley Owens Rt 5 Box 12 F4 #51 32086 St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Bruce Oxford Rhode St. St. Augustine, Florida 32084 Susan R. Parker HSAPB 48 King St. St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Peter and Mary Paul c/o State Arsenal St, Augustine

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Charlene Peterson PO Sox 2176 St. Augustine, Fl 32085 Patti Rang 6315 State Rd 208 St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Rima Robbins Rt 1 Box 1128 (or) 9121 Gene Johnson Rd St. Augustine, Florida 32084 Michael Roman 4760 Hwy 196 Cantonment, FL 32533 Mark Santiago Arizona Historical Society 240 Madison Ave Yuma AZ 85364 . Hugh Scott 15 Dogwood Dr. St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Joan Scott 15 Dogwood Dr St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Vi ck i Se I Iner Clo Ci ty Ha I I St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Carla Sheridan 2352 N. Fork Rd Green Cove Springs, Florida 32043 Rick Sheridan 2352 N. Fork Rd Green Cove Springs, Fl 32043 Bob Smith 8 Cathedral Place St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Frank Suddeth 793 Viscaya Blvd St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Charles Tingley 18 Carrera St. St. Augustine, FL 32084 Jean Traped-Rosenthal 271 Charlotte St. St. Augustine, Florida 32084 J.A. Warmack 1334 Prince Rd St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Fred White 32 Marine St. St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Pat Wickman Art Director Kislak Organization 7900 Miami Lakes Drive West Miami 33016 Robert K. Wright Jr. U.S. Army Center of Mi I itary History 20 Massachusetts Ave NW Washington D.C. 20314-0200 Chari ie and Maria Chapetta P.O. Box 1044 St. Augustine, Florida 32085 Kathryn and Lincoln Harrmond 6941 Catlett Rd S~. Augustine, Fl 32084 H.H. and E.A. Mercer 8585 A1A South St. Augustine, Fl 32084 Mike Fry Shawn Prentiss Bob and Francis Case 122 Linden Rd. St. Augustine, Fl 32086

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NOTES