Citation
Summary histories

Material Information

Title:
Summary histories World War II regular Army Infantry and Cavalry Divisions
Series Title:
Special archives publication
Creator:
Picken, Jack L
Florida -- Dept. of Military Affairs
Place of Publication:
St. Augustine, Fla.
Publisher:
State Arsenal, St. Francis Barracks
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 v. (unnumbered) : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
World War, 1939-1945 -- Regimental histories -- United States ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
At head of title: Florida Department of Military Affairs.
General Note:
"... was compiled by Jack L. Picken of Waterloo, Iowa"--Introduction.
General Note:
Cover title.
Funding:
The Florida National Guard's Special Archives Publications was digitized, in part by volunteers, in honor of Floridians serving both Floridians in disaster response and recovery here at home and the nation oversees.

Record Information

Source Institution:
Florida National Guard
Holding Location:
Florida National Guard, St. Augustine Barracks
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the Florida National Guard. Digitized with permission.
Resource Identifier:
001753751 ( ALEPH )
26706906 ( OCLC )
AJG6731 ( NOTIS )

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Full Text



Digitized with the permission of the
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS

FLORIDA NATIONAL GUARD





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Items collected here were originally published by the
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DIGITIZATION

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FLORIDA



DEPARTMENT OF



MILITARY AFFAIRS














Special Archives Publication
Number
133


SUMMARY HISTORIES:
WORLD WAR II
REGULAR ARMY INFANTRY AND
CAVALRY DIVISIONS
State Arsenal
St. Francis Barracks
St. Augustine, Florida









STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS
OFFICE OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL




POST OFFICE BOX 1008
STATE ARSENAL. ST. AUGUSTINE
32085-1008






These Special Archives Publications are produced as a service to Florida communities,
historians and any other individuals, historical or geneaological societies and both national
and state governmental agencies which find the information contained therein of use or
value. They are automatically distributed to all official Florida State archival records
depositories.

At present, only a very limited number of copies of these publications are produced.
They are provided to certain state and national historical record depositories and other
public libraries and historical societies at no charge. Any copies remaining are given to
other interested parties on a first come, first served basis.

Information about the series is available from the Historical Services Division, Depart-
ment of Military Affairs, State Arsenal, PO Box 1008, St. Augustine, Florida 32085.



Robert Hawk
Director









INTRODUCTION


The information in all the Summary Unit Histories was compiled by Jack L. Picken of
Waterloo, Iowa. He is an amateur historian who has made the research and study of
American combat units in the wars of the twentieth century his life's work. These
summaries were sent to us as part of his contribution to the establishment of the Camp
Blanding Museum and Memorial Park of the Second World War.

Some of the material was extracted from the standard works on US units listed below.
But there is considerable information contained in these pages that is the result of dogged
research in original records, especially the detailed information concerning unit casualties
and decorations awarded. The statistics on day to day casualties Mr. Picken has
researched for most combat units is absolutely unique and available in this form in no other
source. (His statistics on casualties are more accurate than those available from normal
official sources!)

There are some gaps in the information available and some "fine tuning" yet to be
accomplished but eventually we hope to put this material on a computer and publish it in
a more complete and professional manner. Until then these photocopied compilations will
meet the immediate needs of all those interested in the incredible history of America's
soldiers, airmen and marines during the Second World War.



Robert Hawk
Department of Military
Affairs
St. Augustine, Florida
1991



RESOURCES

Army Almanac (1950)
Committee on Veterans Affairs; Medal of Honor Recipients 1863-1978
Fighting Divisions; Kahn, Ely J. and McLemore, Henry
Library, US Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania
University of Iowa; Army Divisional Combat Narratives, World War II (Archives)
Other public and private standard informational sources and institutions were con-
sulted as necessary











FLORIDA STATE DEPOSITORIES

State documents are distributed to the following depository libraries and are
available to Florida citizens for use either in the libraries or on interlibrary
loan, subject to each library's regulations. An asterisk (*) indicates libraries
that are obligated to give interlibrary loan service. Requests should be
directed to the nearest depository.

Bay Vista Campus Library (1982) *State Library of Florida (1968)
Documents Department Documents Section
Florida International University R. A. Gray Building
North Miami, Florida 33181 Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0250

Brevard County Library System (1968) Stetson University (1968)
308 Forrest Avenue Dupont-Ball Library
Cocoa, Florida 32922-7781 Deland, Florida 32720-3769

Broward County Division of Libraries (1968) Jacksonville University (1968)
100 South Andrews Avenue Carl S. Swisher Library
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33301 University Blvd., North
Jacksonville, Florida 32211
*Central Florida Regional Lib. System (1972)
15 Southeast Osceola Avenue *Tampa-Hillsborough County (1968)
Ocala, Florida 32671 Public Library System
900 North Ashley Street
*Florida Atlantic University (1968) Tampa, Florida 33602
Library
P. O. Box 3092 *University of Central Florida (1968)
Boca Raton, Florida 33431 Library
Post Office Box 25000
F*lorida International University (1971) Orlando, Florida 32816-0666
Documents Section
Tamiami Campus Library Tamiami Trail *University of Florida Library (1968)
Miami, Florida 33199 Documents Department
Gainesville, Florida 32611
*Florida State University Library (1968)
Documents Maps Division *University of Miami Library (1968)
Tallahassee, Florida 32306 Gov't Publications
P.O. Box 248214
*Jacksonville Public Libraries (1968) Coral Gables, Florida 33124
122 North Ocean Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32202-3374 *University of North Florida Library
Documents Division (1971)
Lee County Library System (1991) Post Office Box 17605
2025 Lee Street Jacksonville, Florida 32216
Ft. Myers, Florida 33901-3989
*University of South Florida (1968)
*Miami-Dade Public Library System (1968) Library Special Collections
101 West Flagler Street 4204 Fowler Avenue
Miami, Florida 33130-1523 Tampa, Florida 33620

Northwest Regional Library System (1968) University of West Florida (1968)
25 West Government Street Documents John Pace Library
Panama City, Florida 32402 Pensacola, Florida 32514- 5750

Orange County Library District (1968) Volusia County Library Center (1990)
101 East Central Boulevard City Island
Orlando, Florida 32801 Daytona Beach, Florida 32114

St. Petersburg Public Library (1968) West Palm Beach Public Library (1968)
3748 Ninth Avenue, North 100 Clematis
St. Petersburg, Florida 33713 West Palm Beach, Florida 33401




















IST INFANTRY DIVISION "The Big Red One"

Regular Army
Activated-- June 1917
Battle Credits, World War IIs Algeria Tunisia Sicily Normandy
Northern France-Belgium Siegfried Line Ardennes
Days In Combat-443 Rhineland Ruhr Pocket Central Europe
Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Terry M. Allen August 1942-July 1943
Maj-Gen Clarence R. Huebner July 1943-December 1944
Maj-Gen Clift Andrus December 1944-August 1946

Combat Chronicle: The 1st Infantry Division, also known as the "Fighting First", has
an outstanding record not only in World War I, when it was the first American division
to fire upon the enemy and to also launch a major attack, but also, in World War II,
when it was one of the first U.S. divisions to do battle with the enemy in North Africa.
The Fighting First got off to an early start when, after amphibious training in the
United States and England, the division stormed ashore in Algeria, North Africa, on
8 November 1942. The 16th and 18th Infantry Regiments went ashore east of Oran, while
the 26th Infantry Regiment landed at Les Andalouses. Oran was entered on 10 November.
The French offered some fierce resistance, until a cease-fire was reached on the llth.
In Tunisia, the 18th Infantry went into action with the British at Djebel-el-Ahmera,
while the 26th Infantry cleared the Ouseltia Valley by 25 January 1943. The Americans
then sustained heavy losses at Kasserine Pass, 14-21 February 1943, before the Germans
were finally forced to withdraw.
The 1st attacked as a concentrated whole division for the first time on 16 March 1943,
east of El Guettar, and took Gafsa in a driving rainstorm. Two strong German counter-
attacks were contained on 23 March. The 1st then took Sakket, 3 April 1943, but further
offensive movement down the Gabes road was stopped, 5 April 1943.
The 1st relieved the British 4th Infantry Division near Beja, 16 April, and attacked
on 22 April 1943, along the Medjez-el-Bab-Tunis highway. Bitter and heavy fighting en-
sued as the 18th Infantry took Hill 407, and the 26th Infantry Regiment cleared Hill 575.
The 26th Infantry next reached Djebel-el-Anz against strong German resistance on 28 Ap-
ril. These attacks were in conjunction with the 34th Infantry Division's assault on the
key enemy bastion of Hill 609. On 29 April 1943, the 1st began its attack on Hill 523.
As enemy defenses began to crumble, the 1st advanced toward Mateur, and took it on 9
May 1943. By the 13th, the war was over for the Germans and Italians in North Africa,
and many thousands of prisoners were taken. The 1st lost 794 men in North Africa.
The Ist's second amphibious assault of the war was at Gela, Sicily, on 10 July 1943.
The Hermann GSring Panzer and Italian Livorno Infantry Divisions launched strong attacks,
trying to push the Americans back into the sea. However, the 1st was aided by two Ran-
ger battalions, by some tanks from the 2nd Armored Division which had managed to reach
shore, and by naval gunfire against the advancing enemy, who was beaten back with heavy
losses.








In 37 days, the Big Red One took 18 cities and towns, inching its way up cliffs and
along torturous mountain trails. The 1st seized the Salso River crossings, east of
Caltanissetta, and repelled a German counterattack at Gangi, on 25 July 1943.
The Ist's toughest battle on Sicily occurred at Troina, on the more northern part of
the island. It took the 1st Division and two regiments of the 9th Infantry Division,
plus artillery bombardments and air strikes, before the 15th Panzer Grenadier Division
finally withdrew during the night of 6 August 1943. The Sicilian campaign ended on 17
August 1943. It took the Allies just 38 days to conquer the large island. It cost the
lives of 264 men in the 1st Infantry Division.
The 1st never got to Italy because General Eisenhower wanted it to spearhead the vit-
al invasion of Normandy. And so, the 1st sailed back to England for more training and
long waiting, and the men of the First had plenty of time to get to know many of the
English girls.
Then, finally, on 6 June 1944, the 1st, along with the 29th Infantry Division, strug-
gled ashore on bloody Omaha Beach, Normandy, France, in its finest hour. Some companies
suffered 30 per cent casualties in the first bloody hour of the landing, as the Germans
had every foot of the beachhead zeroed-in by artillery, mortar, machinegun, and small-
arms fire. But the Americans grimly hung on, and forced their way inland by sheer cou-
rage, coupled with desperation. In the process, the Big Red One badly mauled an entire
German division that stood in the way. There were many acts of individual heroism on
this fateful day, including that by 1st Lieutenant Jim Monteith of the 16th Infantry
Regiment.
Lt Monteith landed with the initial assault wave under heavy enemy fire. He led an
assault over a narrow, protective ledge and across the flat, exposed terrain to the com-
parative safety of a cliff. Completely exposed to intense fire, the lieutenant led two
tanks through a minefield and, under his direction, several German positions were put
out of action.
He then supervised his men in the defense of a key position on a hill, as they beat
back repeated vicious counterattacks. When the Germans succeeded in surrounding his
platoon, he was killed while leading his men out of this situation, a lasting inspirat-
ion to his men. Lt Monteith posthumously won the Medal of Honor.
The whole traumatic experience of the invasion prompted famed war correspondent,
Ernie Pyle, to later write, "Now that it's over, it seems a pure miracle that we ever
took the beach at all." Perhaps it was a miracle.
Altogether, on this historic day on the beaches of Normandy, the Allies had some
2,500 men killed or die of wounds, with around 1,000 being on bloody Omaha Beach. Yes,
it was plenty bad enough-but it could have been a great deal worse:
Soon, the 1st entered the fighting in the hedgerows, in the Caumont sector. But then,
after awhile, the 1st was given a break. On 13 July 1944, the 1st was relieved by the
5th Infantry Division, and withdrew to Colmbieres.
Then, on 26 July 1944, after a highly risky saturation bombing behind the German lines,
the Americans succeeded in achieving a major breakthrough just west of St. L8. On the
right of the breakout, the 1st swung west, took Marigny, and trapped 30,000 Germans, in-
cluding much of the 2nd SS "Das Reich" Panzer Division, near Coutances. Some of these
enemy troops broke out of this trap in furious fighting, but many more were captured.
The 1st then helped stop a dangerous enemy counterthrust in the vicinity of Mortain
by mid-August, and then raced 300 miles in a week to take Soissons, where the division
had suffered 9,000 casualties in 4 days in World War I:
Continuing on in through Belgium against ineffectual opposition, the 1st then ran up
against the Siegfried Line (West Wall) at the city of Aachen--and into some of the most
bitter fighting on the Western Front. Defending Aachen was the German 246th Infantry
Division, veteran of the Russian Front, and it contested every yard of ground.
The battle began with an attack by the 1st on the city's municipal forest on 12 Sept-
ember 1944. As the 1st tried to encircle Aachen, the 16th Infantry Regiment was stopped
at the Siegfried Line, 15 September 1944.
On 8 October 1944, the Big Red One renewed its assault on Aachen. The 18th Infantry








Regiment advanced through Verlautenheide, the 26th Infantry Regiment attacked through
the heart of Aachen, while the 16th Infantry Regiment held defensive positions near
Eilendorf. It was on 8 October 1944, that one of the war's most outstanding soldiers
won another Medal of Honor for the Fighting First.
Captain Bobbie E. Brown, Company C, 18th Infantry Regiment, rough-featured, looked
like and was a soldier in the best sense of the word. Highly respected by his men, he
had already done a number of very daring exploits on the battlefield. But his big day
came on 8 October 1944.
Captain Brown commanded Company C, as it attacked Crucifix Hill, a key bastion in
the German defense of Aachen. Soon, an intense artillery barrage fell upon his men,
and they were pinned down in an exposed position. Casualties quickly mounted.
Seeing that a number of pillboxes must be neutralized to prevent the slaughter of
his men, Captain Brown obtained a pole charge and started forward alone toward the
first pillbox about 100 yards away. Hugging the ground while bullets whipped around
him, he crawled and then ran toward the fortification, and rammed his explosive inside,
jumping back as the pillbox and its occupants were blown up.
The captain rejoined the assault platoon, secured another pole charge, and led the
way toward the next pillbox under continuous fire from all types of weapons. He succ-
eeded in eliminating the second pillbox in the same manner. Fire from a third pillbox
then pinned down his company again. In knocking out this third emplacement, he was
wounded by a mortar burst but refused medical aid.
While blowing up these installations, the captain also shot several snipers who att-
empted to pick him off. Every one of them was drilled through the head--except for one
who was hit in the stomach. This shot later puzzled the captain, since he was normally
a crack shot. He couldn't figure how the one shot he had made was so low.
Later, realizing the need for information of enemy activity beyond the hill, Captain
Brown went out alone to reconnoiter. Twice more, on his self-imposed mission, he was
wounded. Nevertheless, he was able to secure information which led to the destruction
of several enemy guns, and enabled his company to throw back two powerful counterattacks
with heavy losses to the Germans. Only when his company's position was completely sec-
ure did he permit treatment of his three wounds.
By his indomitable courage, fearless leadership, and outstanding skill as a soldier,
Captain Brown contributed in great measure to the capture of Crucifix Hill. And he
survived the war to receive his award.
By 12 October 1944, the 26th Infantry Regiment had gained most of the factory dist-
rict between Aachen and Haaren, and began an all-out central attack the next day. After
severe fighting this regiment gained most of Observatory Hill, but German counterattacks
forced all further advances to a halt on 15 October. The 16th Infantry Regiment was for-
ced to defend its area against strong German assaults, as well.
On 18 October 1944, the 1st was reinforced for still another attack on Aachen. Ob-
servatory Hill finally fell, and on 21 October 1944, the city was taken by direct assault.
Aachen was the first city inside Germany to fall to American troops.
After a rest, the 1st was elected to help make the southern part of the assault to the
Roer River, beginning 16 November 1944. On this day, 4,500 U.S. and British planes dump-
ed thousands of tons of bombs and rockets in front of the 1st Division's zone of attack.
Then the 1st advanced.
What followed still sends shivers down the spines of the veterans of the dreaded Hurt-
gen Forest. This forest may well have been the most devilish military trap ever devised
by man. Enemy shell-proof bunkers, yet invisible, spat death in every direction, and
artillery and mortar bursts shredded men by the score. The ground was nothing but mud,
for it rained almost continually. The nights were freezing. But the worst thing of all
were the mines--mines in the ground and in low-hanging trees. Some could not even be
detected with mine detectors, Yet, heroism was never lacking.
On 16 November 1944, near Hamich, Germany, Technical Sergeant Jake W. Lindsey, 16th
Infantry, knocked out two machinegun nests, put two German tanks to flight and, though
wounded, still managed to kill three Germans and captured 8 others.
Three days later, 19 November 1944, the Germans threw a savage attack at Company H,








26th Infantry Regiment, and the company was wiped out. But Pfc Francis X. McGraw rem-
ained at his machinegun. When the area this enemy attack had overrun was later retaken,
Pfc McGraw was found dead beside his gun. Over 50 German corpses littered the nearby
area. Both Sgt Lindsey and Pfc McGraw were awarded the Medal of Honor.
The Germans continued to fight tenaciously, and on 29 November 1944, the 26th Infantry
Regiment was again hit very hard by another German attack, near Merode, which decimated
two more companies of the 26th. But then, replacements, fighting from deep foxholes,
avenged their fallen comrades by killing over 1,200 Germans in three days.
On 5 December 1944, the Red One was relieved by the 9th Infantry Division, and went
to a rest area in the Luchem-Langerwehe-Juengersdorf-Merode region (less the 16th Infan-
try, attached to the V Corps). By Hirtgen Forest standards the 1st had done quite well.
In 21 weeks of fighting in the HUrtgenwald, the 1st had inflicted very heavy losses on
the enemy and advanced 4 miles--while suffering 4,000 casualties: The 26th Infantry
Regiment, alone, sustained 1,479 casualties.
After this extremely costly and bitter experience, the 1st got exactly 12 days of
rest, while receiving many replacements. And then, the Germans struck their all-out
counterblow in the Ardennes.
And so, the handful of "old men" and the fresh, green replacements were rushed for-
ward to help stop the German onslaught. They did a superb job. The Fighting 1st, into
combat on the northern side of the German salient (the "Bulge"), held off an entire Ger-
man corps near BUtgenbach, fighting in the bitter cold. The Ist's lines were pierced,
22 December 1944, but quickly restored. The ground was frozen so hard that foxholes had
to be blasted with explosives instead of dug. Men urinated on their weapons to keep them
from jamming, and white bedsheets and pillowcases were thrown over uniforms to blend in
with the snow. Newspaper was stuffed into boots for warmth. Wounds healed slowly in the
cold, and gangrene could set-in easier. Corpses froze solid, and after a few days, burst
and splintered like glass.
In January 1945, the 1st went over to the attack and took Steinbach on the 15th. This
opened a passage for the 7th Armored Division's drive on St. Vith.
The 1st next ran into stiff opposition northeast of Schoppen, as the 16th Infantry
cleared the Bambusch Woods.
The division next advanced on the Siegfried Line, 28 January 1945, and attacked into
and through the Buchholz Forest. It was relieved by the 99th Infantry Division on 5
February 1945, and moved to an assembly area at Aywaille, Belgium.
The 1st next attacked across the Roer River, at Kreuznau, on 25 February 1945, against
moderate to heavy resistance. This was part of an all-out U.S. 1st Army drive to the
Rhine. Reaching that fabled river, 7 March 1945, at Bonn, the 1st then advanced into the
Remagen bridgehead, crossing the Rhine, 15-16 March 1945.
Fighting out of the bridgehead against desperate, but somewhat disorganized resistance,
the 1st headed north along the east bank of the Rhine to the Sieg River, running up again-
st fierce resistance. On 30 March 1945, the 1st attacked with all three regiments in line
to gain the heights dominating the sizeable town of Siegen. On 1 April, the 1st was rel-
ieved by the 8th Infantry Division in this region, and trucked to blocking positions
southwest of Paderborn to help seal the Ruhr Pocket. The Americans, aided by fighter-
bombers, were too strong to be held back for very long. Numerous other U.S. divisions
fought into the Ruhr Pocket and, by mid-April 1945, well over 300,000 Germans had surren-
dered--as many as at Stalingrad.
After this big battle, the Big Red One advanced across the Weser River, and deep into
central Germany, heading toward the Harz Mountains. This was a sizeable region of very
high, steep, wooded hills, where some 70,000 German troops were holding out, including
the crack 5th Parachute Division. Several other U.S. divisions, including the 9th, 35th,
and 83rd Infantry and 8th Armored, converged upon this region, as well. The Germans used
the terrain to their advantage, but again, the Americans were too strong and well-organ-
ized with lavish air support. On 14 April 1945, troops of the 1st and 83rd Divisions
linked-up in the Harz interior, thus cutting the German pocket in two. The 1st's haul of








prisoners ran from 200-1,000 daily in the area, and on 23 April 1945, the Germans in the
Harz surrendered.
Finally, the 1st was shifted way to the south to take part in Patton's 3rd Army attack
into western Czechoslovakia, in the last several days of the war. With Combat Command A
of the 9th Armored Division attached, the 1st helped deliver the final blow on 5 May 1945.
Attacking on a line directly west of Prague, the 1st met mostly moderate resistance.
The Germans defended road junctions and village strongpoints bitterly, making good use of
small-arms and automatic weapons fire. Artillery fire was light, scattered, and confined
to the southern part of the Ist's zone of attack.
At Drenice, the Germans held out in positions on a hill just north of the town, and the
area was not cleared until late in the day of 5 May, when division tanks were able to move
in and clear up the situation.
The advance continued on 6 May 1945, against lighter and more scattered opposition. The
1st pushed on 10-20 kilometers in the northern and southern sectors of the attack. In the
center, however, the Germans fought stubbornly. Along the main road from Cheb to Falkenov,
88mm guns, being used as anti-tank weapons, were deployed in depth, and each one had to be
destroyed by the infantry before the tanks could budge. In the vicinity of Eubabrunn the
Germans put up a tough fight, but the small towns of Klinghart, Plesna, Sneky, Mnichov,
Sangerberg, and Kynsperk were all cleared by the end of 6 May. Those troops who advanced
beyond the largely pro-German Sudetenland, and into the land of the Czechs, were treated to
tumultuous and heart-warming receptions by this long-oppressed people.
V-E Day finally came on 8 May 1945.
Few, if any, other outfits had been through as many tough battles as the great Fighting
First, and the men who wore the Big Red One shoulder patch had good cause for thinking that
the 1st was, indeed, number 1.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor--16 Casualties: Total Battle Deaths--4,365
Distinguished Unit Citations---20 Killed In Action--- 3,616
Distinguished Service Crosses-161 Wounded 15,208
Silver Stars 6,116 Missing 1499
Captured 1,336
Total Casualties-- 20,659

* Two to entire regiments-the 16th and 18th Infantry--
D-Day, Omaha Beach, Normandy, France

The 1st Infantry Division later served in the Vietnam War. As of this writing, the 1st
is stationed at Ft. Riley, Kansas (with large elements in Germany). (7 July 1990)

Other 1st Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II. Killed in action *
(Includes all of those men not mentioned in this article)
Pvt Carlton W. Barrett, 18th Inf Rgt, 6 June 1944, Normandy beachhead
S/Sgt Arthur F. DeFranzo, 10 June 1944, near Vaubadon, Normandy, France
S/Sgt Walter D. Ehlers, 18th Inf Rgt, 9-10 June 1944, near Goville, Normandy, France
Pvt Robert T. Henry, 16th Inf Rgt, 3 December 1944, Luchem, Germany
Pfc Gino J. Merli, 18th Inf Rgt, 4-5 September 1944, near Sars-la-Bruyere, Belgium
S/Sgt George Peterson, 18th Inf Rgt, 30 March 1945, near Eisern, Germany
T/5 Grade John J. Pinder, Jr., 16th Inf Rgt, 6 June 1944, Normandy beachhead
Pvt James W. Reese, 26th Inf Rgt, 5 August 1943, Monte Vassillio, Sicily
S/Sgt Joseph E. Schaefer, 18th Inf Rgt, 24 September 1944, near Stolberg, Germany
Sgt Max Thompson, 18th Inf Rgt, 18 October 1944, near Haaren, Germany
Cpl Henry F. Warner, 26th Inf Rgt, 20-21 December 1944, near BUtgenbach, Belgium
1st Lt Walter J. Will, 18th Inf Rgt, 30 March 1945, near Eisern, Germany

An update. The 1st Infantry Division served in the Persian Gulf (war with Iraq), late-
February-early-March 1991.






















2ND INFANTRY DIVISION "Indianhead"

Regular Army

Activated-26 October 1917

Battle Credits, World War II: Normandy Brittany Siegfried Line Ardennes
Rhineland Central Europe
Days In Combat-303

Commanding General (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Walter M. Robertson May 1942-June 1945

Combat Chronicles The 2nd Infantry Division, like the "Fighting First", had an outstanding
record in World War I. It became the only division all of whose units were authorized to
wear the fourragare of the Croix de Guerre. The 2nd made history at Belleau Wood and at
Ch&teau-Thierry. It was the only division composed of one infantry and one marine brigade.
A since-forgotten truck driver painstakingly adorned the side of his vehicle with a painted
Indianhead--the idea stuck--and it later became the division insignia.
The 2nd didn't have a back seat in World War II, either. After training in Northern
Ireland and Wales from October 1943 to early-June 1944, it landed on Omaha Beach, Normandy,
on D-plus 1, 7 June 1944. German shells were still pouring into the thinly held beachhead.
An attack was commenced on 9 June. The men of the 2nd received their baptism of fire
without their heavy weapons. Starting with only rifles and carbines for firepower, the
combat teams jumped-off. Machineguns and other automatic weapons were brought up as soon
as they could be unloaded from the landing barges. Stiff resistance was immediately met
around Trevieres. The attack went slowly at first, due to the absence of heavy weapons.
The German units in the area were the 716th Infantry and elements of the 352nd Infantry
Divisions and the 30th "Schnelle" Brigade, a mobile unit.
The attack was resumed, 10 June, and the Germans fought with great tenacity, doggedly
defending Trevibres house-by-house. Many had to be literally dug-up from their cellars be-
fore the town was taken.
After this battle, the 38th Infantry Regiment made rapid progress along the west side of
the Cerisy Forest. Elements pushed on through an arm of the forest to the road junction
Haute Littee, on the St. Lb-Bayeux Highway. Here was met strong German resistance. A
heavy division artillery barrage then scattered the Germans, and the infantry seized the
road junction.
On 12 June, the 2nd made its first contact with the formidable German 3rd Parachute Div-
ision, recently rushed from Brittany. Heavy and bitter fighting soon occurred in the vic-
inity of St. Germain d'Elle. The 9th Infantry Regiment was strafed by two enemy planes and
one of them was shot down.
By 17-18 June, the 2nd had consolidated its gains made in the previous several days.







The 2nd had come to grips with the most hardened, seasoned, highly-trained soldiers of the
Third Reich, and had held their own.
The 2nd next prepared to attack Hill 192, on the road to St. Lo. The base of this hill
was zeroed in by the Germans at every gap in the hedgerows, and the hedges, themselves,
provided an excellent natural advantage for them. They also employed deadly anti-personnel
mines against the 2nd. Snipers were found everywhere, even in the trees which grew as high
as 20 feet above the hedgerows.
Despite all this, on 11 July, striking in a magnificently planned attack, the 2nd accom-
plished the reduction of Hill 192. Greatly aiding the 2nd was a terrific artillery bomb-
ardment of the hill prior to the attack. The capture of Hill 192 gave the Allied forces
the key for communications which they needed for the planned breakout offensive. The 2nd
went on the defensive until 26 July 1944.
Then came the major breakthrough near St. LS. In extremely heavy fighting, exploiting
the breakthrough, the 2nd advanced over the Vire to take Tinchebray on 15 August. It was
the toughest kind of combat for the infantrymen, but the 2nd performed valiantly, and no
ground gained was ever given up. In this fighting, 376 prisoners were taken from 3 differ-
ent German divisions.
The Indianhead Division next turned west, 200 miles into the western tip of Brittany,
besieging the heavily defended port of Brest. There were 40,000 Germans in and around the
city including the 266th and 343rd Infantry Divisions and the elite 2nd Parachute Division.
These troops put up fanatical resistance.
Attacking with the 8th, 29th, and 2nd Infantry Divisions, 2 Ranger battalions, and elem-
ents of the FFI (French Forces of the Interior), the two Allies had to exert great efforts
to destroy one strongpoint after another in hard, tedious house-to-house, block-by-block
fighting. The troops were greatly aided by U.S. naval bombardments and by air strikes, but
the soldiers sometimes had to charge the German positions again and again. As the fighting
was too close-in for the extensive use of machineguns, the infantry often charged with gren-
ades, and the Germans reciprocated in kind. Even under the fiercest hand-to-hand assaults
the German paratroopers clung to their prepared positions and refused to be routed. Three
times men of the 2nd charged Hill 105, and three times were hurled back with heavy losses
to both sides. A fourth attack succeeded in breaking through.
On 30 August, the 23rd Infantry Regiment waged a hand-to-hand and hedgerow to hedgerow
fight to gain some 800 yards, and repulsed several counterattacks.
With the fall of Bourg-Neuf on 1 September, the defenses of Brest began to crack. But
the bitter, bloody fighting continued until 17 September 1944. It took the Americans 39
days to reduce Brest, although military "experts" had predicted a 90-day campaign. Some
35,000 Germans surrendered---11,000 of them to the 2nd Infantry Division.
After this exhausting battle, the 2nd rested in the open fields of Brittany from 19-26
September 1944.
Then, the division was sent by rail clear across France, through Belgium, and to near the
German frontier. Here, it took up defensive positions near St. Vith, in the Siegfried Line
area. Facing the 2nd was the German 91st Infantry Division which had been badly battered in
Normandy. Action consisted mainly of patrol activities and skirmishes,
On 13 December 1944, the 2nd, as part of the 5th Corps, U.S. 1st Army, started an attack
toward the Roer River Dams, and was on the move and ready for anything. It was a good thing
that it was, because on 16 December 1944, it ran smack into the extreme northern flank of
the German counteroffensive in the Ardennes.
Heavily outnumbered, the 2nd and 99th Infantry Divisions, in very furious fighting, fell
back in reasonably good order to some high ground known as Elsenborn Ridge. Cooks, clerks,
and MPs were thrown into the line in a desperate attempt to stop the Germans. It was during
this fighting that the 2nd produced one of its 6 Medal of Honor winners of the war, Pfc
Richard E. Cowan, Company M, 23rd Infantry Regiment, 17 December 1944.
Pfc Cowan was a heavy machinegunner in a company which was attacked by a numerically sup-
erior force of German tanks and infantry. The first 6 waves of enemy infantry were repulsed
with heavy casualties, but a seventh assault with tanks killed or wounded all but three of
his section, leaving him to man his gun, supported by only 15 to 20 riflemen. Pfc Cowan
maintained his position, holding off the Germans until the rest of his men had set-up a new
defense line along a firebreak.








Then a Royal Tiger tank began approaching with about 80 infantrymen. At a distance of
about 150 yards he opened fire, killing or wounding about half the infantrymen. The tank
fired, rocking his position with an 88mm shell, but he stuck to his gun, and poured deadly
fire into the Germans when they again advanced. Machinegun and small-arms fire struck all
around him. An enemy rocket shook him badly, but he still remained at his gun.
By this time, enemy infiltration had madehis position untenable. Pfc Cowan was the last
man to leave, covering the withdrawal of his comrades. His heroic action was entirely res-
ponsible for allowing the remaining men in his platoon to successfully retire further back
to a safer position.
The Germans hurled four of their best formations at the Americans on Elsenborn Ridge--
the 3rd Parachute, 12th SS Panzer, and 12th and 277th Volksgrenadier Divisions. Braving
point-blank tank fire which blasted men from their foxholes, the men of the 2nd held their
positions cutting down wave after wave of the Germans. There was hand-to-hand combat, and
many of the enemy were slashed or stabbed with bayonets or clubbed with rifles, as many men
sacrificed themselves to hold off the German onslaught. For 56 hours, the 12th SS Panzer
Division, of murderous inclinations, assaulted the positions of the 2nd head-on, accompanied
by the faithful 277th Volksgrenadiers.
Although in a very precarious position, the 2nd and 99th Divisions held off repeated ene-
my assaults in some of the most ferocious fighting of the war. Though the Americans sust-
ained very heavy casualties, the German losses were staggering. This heroic stand was one
of the most crucial of the entire Bulge battle, and gained valuable time for other U.S. out-
fits to move into position and help further strengthen the northern shoulder of the Bulge
salient. This proved to be fatal to the German effort.
After the German offensive was eventually forced back in the most bitter, strenuous com-
bat, after receiving rest and replacements, the 2nd began rolling again. It slashed through
the Siegfried Line, and spilled out into the Rhineland in February 1945, taking Monschau,
Ahrweiler, and other smaller towns against desperate, but somewhat disorganized resistance.
The 2nd moved too fast for the enemy to make a co-ordinated stand in its sector of front.
Continuing the advance, the Indianhead seized Gemind on 4 March, and reached the Rhine
on the 9th. The 2nd then advanced southeast to take Breisig, and guarded the Remagen bridge
from 12-20 March 1945.
Crossing the Rhine on the 21st, the 2nd advanced deep into central Germany. After reach-
ing Hadamar and Limburg, it headed further east in the wake of the 9th Armored Division. In
this advance, spotty resistance was met in some areas, and fierce fighting in others.
The 2nd crossed the Weser River, 6-7 April, captured the university city of Gbttingen on
the 8th, and then met increasingly fierce opposition. A dazzling battle of German antiair-
craft guns against American artillery occurred until hundreds of the German guns were knock-
ed out, the U.S. artillery firing with amazing accuracy. The great synthetic rubber plant
at Schkopau fell on 11 April.
Between 13-19 April 1945, the 2nd captured or destroyed 505 heavy antiaircraft artillery,
as well as capturing 9,111 POWs, including some battalions of German women trained as gunn-
ers. Numerous small towns on the approaches to the city of Leipzig, including Grossgrafen-
dorf, Bad Lauchst&dt, Dorstewitz, Milzau, and Bendra were all cleared in the face of fierce
resistance.
Around sizeable Merseburg, the 2nd met considerable small-arms and direct 105mm fire from
antiaircraft artillery. East of Merseburg there was encountered sustained rifle and machine-
gun fire from German troops dug-in along the levee on the east side of the Saale Canal. The
town of Kayna was then cleared against the same kind of obdurate opposition. Leuna, the
chief manufacturing source of synthetic gasoline for the Reich, as Merseburg was of synthet-
ic rubber, both fell on 15 April 1945. Casualties were moderate. The big city of Leipzig
was, for the most part, left for the 69th Infantry Division and part of the 9th Armored Div-
ision to deal with. Elements of the 2nd occupied only a small portion of the city.
On 20 April, the 2nd began relieving elements of the 9th Armored Division along the Mulde
River. Mostly patrol activity occurred along the Mulde, but a German counterattack drove
some troops off of Hill 194 on 22 April. But a counterattack soon restored the situation.
Then, after being relieved at the Mulde, the 2nd was sent 200 miles to the south to take
part in Patton's 3rd Army attack into western Czechoslovakia. After going through the Sud-
etenland, which was pro-German, the 2nd was received by the cheering, deliriously happy







Czech people who gave the GIs wine, beer, cheeses, cakes, and other pastries, flowers--
and many kisses from pretty Czech girls.
There were no major battles inside Czechoslovakia for the 2nd, but the Germans commit-
ted a number of acts of sabotage and pulled off a few ambushes. Domallice, Klatovy, Slo-
vice, Dobrzany, and other smaller Czech towns and villages were liberated. Then the fam-
ous beer city of Pilsen (PlzeA) was entered on 7 May, behind the 16th Armored Division
which had gotten to the city a day earlier. Patrols of the 2nd had ventured as far north
and east of Pilsen as Manetin and Kralovice, when the war in Europe finally ended on
8 May 1945.
The 2nd Infantry Division had a splendid record to show that it was, indeed, second to
none.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor--6 Casualties: Total Battle Deaths-3,512
Distinguished Unit Citations--16 Killed In Action-- 3,031
Distinguished Service Crosses-34 Wounded 12,785
Silver Stars 741 Missing 193
Captured 786
Total Casualties-- 16,795

Other 2nd Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action *
S/Sgt Alvin P. Carey, 38th Inf Rgt, 23 August 1944, near Plougastel, Brittany, France
T/4 Grade Truman Kimbro, 2nd Engineer Bn, 19 December 1944, near Rocherath, Belgium
Sgt Jose M. Lopez, 23rd Inf Rgt, 17 December 1944, near Krinkelt, Belgium
Sgt John J. McVeigh, 23rd Inf Rgt, 29 August 1944, near Brest, Brittany, France
Pfc William A. Soderman, 9th Inf Rgt, 17 December 1944, near Rocherath, Belgium

The 2nd Infantry Division later saw very extensive service in the Korean War.
Since then, the 2nd has been stationed in South Korea for many years, and still is,
as of this writing. (21 November 1985)






1 WWII


2ND INFANTRY DIVISION "Indianhead"


JUNE 1944 JULY 1944
6 June 11111111 8 1 July 111
7 June 11 2 July 11
8 June 1111111 3 July 1111111111111 13
9 June 1111111111111111 16 4 July 11
10 June 1111 5 July 111
11 June 11111 6 July 1
12 June 1111111111111111111111111 25 8 July 1
13 June 111111111111111111111111111111111111 36 9 July 1
14 June 111 11 July 1111111 111111111111lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 50
15 June 111111111111111 15 12 July 1111111111111111111111111111111111 34
16 June 11111111111111111111111111 26 13 July 111111111111111111111 21
17 June 111111111111111111111 21 14 July 111111111111111111111 21
18 June 111111111 9 15 July 11111111111 11
19 June 11111111111111111111111 24 16 July 1111
20 June 111111111111111111 18 17 July 11
21 June 1111111111111111111 19 18 July 1
22 June 1111111111111111111 19 19 July 111
23 June 111111111111111111 18 20 July 1
24 June 1111111111111111111 19 22 July 1
25 June 11111111111 11 23 July 111
26 June 1 25 July 111
27 June 11111 26 July 1111111111111111i1 1ii 111111111111111111i11 11 11111111 52
28 June 1 27 July 11111i1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
29 June 111 111111111 70 approx. 130* men
30 June 1111 28 July 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 59
29 July 11111111 8
319 30 July 11111111111111 14
31 July 1111111111111 13
397





2 WWII


2ND INFANTRY DIVISION "Indianhead"


AUGUST 1944 SEPTEMBER 1944
1 Aug 11111111111111111111111111 26 1 Sept 1111111111 10
2 Aug 11111111111111 14 2 Sept 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111 44
3 Aug 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 50 3 Sept 1111111
4 Aug 11111111111111111111111111111111111111 38 4 Sept 11111111111111 14
5 Aug 11111111111111 14 5 Sept 111
6 Aug 111 6 Sept 11
7 Aug 1111 7 Sept 1
8 Aug 111111 8 Sept 11
9 Aug 111 9 Sept 1111111111 10
10 Aug 111111111111111 15 10 Sept 111
11 Aug 111111111 9 11 Sept 11111111 8
12 Aug 11111111111111111 17 12 Sept 111
13 Aug 111111111111111111111111111111111111111 39 13 Sept 111111111 9
14 Aug 1111111111111111111111111111 28 14 Sept 1
15 Aug 11111111111111111111 20 15 Sept 11
16 Aug 11 16 Sept 1
17 Aug 11 17 Sept 111111
20 Aug 1 18 Sept 11
21 Aug 1 19 Sept 1
22 Aug 1 28 Sept 1
23 Aug 111111111
24 Aug 11 130
25 Aug 111111111111111111111111111 27
26 Aug 111111111111111111 18
27 Aug 111111111111111 15
28 Aug 11111111111111111111111111111 29
29 Aug 11111111111111111111111111111k 30
30 Aug 11111111 8
31 Aug 111111111111 12
445






3 WWII


2ND INFANTRY DIVISION "Indianhead"


OCTOBER 1944 NOVEMBER 1944 DECEMBER 1944
3 Oct 1 1 Nov 1 7 Dec 1
5 Oct 111 8 Nov 1 11 Dec 11
6 Oct 11 9 Nov 1 14 Dec 111111111111111111 18
7 Oct 1 13 Nov 11 15 Dec 1111111111111 13
8 Oct 1 19 Nov 11 16 Dec 111111
9 Oct 1 24 Nov 111 17 Dec 111111111111111111111111111111 30
12 Oct 1 10 18 Dec 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 11165
13 Oct 111 19 Dec i11111111111111111111 21
14 Oct 1 20 Dec 111111
15 Oct 1 21 Dec 111
23 Oct 1 22 Dec 1
24 Oct 1 23 Dec 1
25 Oct 1 24 Dec 111
26 Oct 11 26 Dec 1
28 Oct 1 28 Dec 11111
29 Oct 1 29 Dec 1111111
30 Oct 1 30 Dec 111
23 31 Dec 11
188





4 WWII


2ND INFANTRY DIVISION "Indianhead"


JANUARY 1945 FEBRUARY 1945 MARCH 1945
1 Jan 11 1 Feb 11111 3 Mar 11
3 Jan 11 2 Feb 11 4 Mar 1111111111111 13
4 Jan 1 3 Feb 111111111111111111 18 5 Mar 1111111
9 Jan 11 4 Feb 1111 6 Mar 1
11 Jan 1 5 Feb 111111111 9 7 Mar 11
13 Jan 1 6 Feb 111 8 Mar 111111
14 Jan 1 7 Feb 11 9 Mar 1
15 Jan 111 9 Feb 11 10 Mar 11
16 Jan 1 10 Feb 11 11 Mar 1
17 Jan 11 12 Feb 11 15 Mar 1
18 Jan 1111111111111 13 13 Feb 1 18 Mar 1
19 Jan 1111 14 Feb 111 20 Mar 1
20 Jan 1111111111111 13 15 Feb 1 21 Mar 1
21 Jan 1111111 16 Feb 11 22 Mar 111
22 Jan 11 17 Feb 1 23 Mar 1111111111 10
23 Jan 11 19 Feb 1 24 Mar 1
24 Jan 1 20 Feb 111111111111 12 25 Mar 1111111
26 Jan 1 22 Feb 1 26 Mar 11
28 Jan 1 23 Feb 1 27 Mar 1
30 Jan 111111111111111 15 24 Feb 1 28 Mar 1111111
31 Jan 11111111111 11 27 Feb 1 29 Mar 1
86 74 30 Mar 1
72






5 WWII

2ND INFANTRY DIVISION "Indianhead"


APRIL 1945 MAY 1945
2 Apr 1111111 1 May 11
5 Apr 111 5 May 1
6 Apr 111 6 May 1
7 Apr 1 4
8 Apr 1111
9 Apr 1
11 Apr 11
12 Apr 1111
13 Apr 111111111111 12
14 Apr 1111111111 10
15 Apr 111111111111111 15
16 Apr 11111111111 11
17 Apr 1
18 Apr 11111111111111 14
20 Apr 1
21 Apr 1
23 Apr 11
26 Apr 1
93






2ND INFANTRY DIVISION'S
*bloodiest day 27 July 1944
bloodiest month August 1944
2nd bloodiest day 18 December 1944
3rd "" 28 July 1944
4th 26 July 1944
5th 11 July and 3 August 1944
Total battle deaths 3,272
1,841 are listed=56.2% KIA-2,833
















3RD INFANTRY DIVISION "The Fighting Third"

Regular Army

Activated-12 November 1917

Battle Credits, World War II: Morocco Sicily Southern Italy Anzio
Southern France Vosges Mountains Alsace
Days In Combat--433 Siegfried Line Rhineland Central Europe

Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Jonathan W. Anderson March 1942--March 1943
Maj-Gen Lucian K. Truscott March 1943-February 1944
Maj-Gen John W. O'Daniel February 1944-December 1945

Combat Chronicle: The 3rd Infantry Division has a superlative record, not only in World
War II, but in World War I, when it earned the nickname "Rock of the Marne" because of its
monumental stand against the Germans' last great offensive in that war. Its participation
in 3 major battles in 1918 is symbolized by the 3 white diagonal stripes of its shoulder
patch. They also represent the division's numerical designation. The blue stripes stand
for loyalty and devotion to the principles of right and justice.
In the Mediterranean-European Theater of Operations in World War II, the 3rd is the only
American division which fought the enemy on every major front--North Africa, Sicily, Italy,
France, and Germany. It had more casualties, nearly 26,000, than any other U.S. division,
and it holds the record for high combat citations, no fewer than 36 of its officers and en-
listed men having won the Congressional Medal of Honor.
The 3rd had been undergoing amphibious training at San Diego, a month prior to the Pearl
Harbor attack. In April 1942, the 3rd moved to Ft. Ord, California, for more amphibious
training. In September, the 3rd was sent to Camp Pickett, Virginia, for preparation for
going overseas.
The invasion of North Africa began on 8 November 1942, the 3rd landing in Morocco. Fort
Blondin, key to the enemy defense at Fedala, fell to the 30th Infantry Regiment. Then the
3rd moved into position for an attack on Casablanca, when the French agreed to cease-firing.
The main trouble with the French in North Africa was that they were under the overall comm-
and of Admiral Darlan, a notorious Nazi sympathizer, who was eventually assassinated.
The 3rd was later moved by truck clear across Algeria during the final phase of the Tun-
isian campaign, and was just about to go into action, when the German-Italian Army surrender-
ed in Tunisia on 13 May 1943. North Africa was mild, the 3rd losing around 70 men.
The first major battle for the 3rd was on Sicily, with landings taking place on 10 July
1943. After seizing the port of Licata, the 3rd was ordered to take the city of Palermo.
Against scattered resistance by, mostly, Italian troops, the men of the 3rd covered almost
100 miles in 3 days, a magnificent feat of arms.
Then, the 3rd, alternating with the 45th "Thunderbird" Infantry Division, advanced along
the northern coast. Besides the terrific heat, which topped 100 degrees, the German 29th
Panzer Grenadier Division offered very stubborn resistance, and the 3rd had to fight hard to
crack the San Fratello Line in a bloody 5-day battle.
This phase of the fighting on Sicily was marked by one of the most noteworthy engineering
feats of the war. The Germans, falling back, blew a stretch of highway off the face of a
cliff over the Tyrrhenian Sea. In 18 feverish hours, men of the 10th Engineers had liter-
ally "hung a bridge in the sky," as Ernie Pyle described in his book, "Brave Men."








The advance continued, and with the capture of Messina by the 3rd on 17 August 1943, the
campaign came to an end. It took the Allies just 38 days to conquer Sicily. 381 men in the
3rd made the supreme sacrifice.
Next, came the bitter Italian campaign, with the 3rd landing in southern Italy 9 days
after the initial assault landings at the Salerno beachhead. Three days later, 20 September
1943, the division contacted German troops, and for the next two months was in constant con-
tact with the enemy in southern Italy.
The first serious engagement for the 3rd in Italy was at Acerno. The brunt of the battle
fell on the 30th Infantry Regiment which took the town in 2 days of severe fighting after a
heavy artillery bombardment.
Advancing to the Volturno River against skillful delaying actions, the 3rd forced this
river barrier in intensive combat and took Triflisco Ridge, the key to the enemy defense in
this region. Continuing northward into the mountains, the 15th Infantry Regiment cleared
Roccaromano and Della Costa Ridge. These actions took place in October.
By early-November 1943, the 3rd had advanced into the jaws of the western part of the
strong German Winter Line, slightly south of Cassino. The Marnemen then fought a series of
tough, exhausting battles on Monte Camino, a particular grueling action, as well as on Monte
Cesima, Monte Lungo, and Monte Rotundo. Tanks were all but useless in this rugged terrain,
and supplies had to be brought forward by pack-mule. And the nights were bitter cold. It
was some of the 3rd's hardest combat of the war.
After forcing the Mignano Gap, just south of Cassino, the 3rd was relieved on 16-17 Nov-
ember 1943, by the 36th "Texas" Infantry Division, and pulled back to San Felice. The 3rd's
losses in southern Italy were substantial---683 men killed, 2,412 wounded, and 170 missing.
The 3rd received one full month of rest and recuperation, and then came more amphibious
training for the Anzio beachhead landing. This occurred on 22 January 1944, with the 3rd
being in on the initial assault. Hardly any resistance was met at the beach, since the Ger-
mans had been caught off guard. But they quickly recovered.
For the next four months, opposed by some of the best units in the German Army, including
the Hermann GBring Panzer Division, the 3rd, along with several other American and British
formations, clung tenaciously to the precarious beachhead.
The British 1st Infantry Division on the left, and the 3rd on the right first made strong
probing attacks toward Campoleone and Cisterna, respectively. But the British were stopped
by the 3rd Panzer Grenadier Division and the 3rd by the Hermann Goring Division.
At the end of January, two elite U.S. Ranger battalions, the 1st and 3rd, were assigned
the mission of taking Cisterns. They had almost made it, wading through a half-dry irrigat-
ion ditch when, at the last minute, they were detected. The Rangers then attempted to charge
over the last few remaining hundred yards to Cisterna, but were caught out in the open under
withering enemy fire. Many were killed or wounded as the remaining men threw themselves in-
to ditches. Then the Germans moved toward them with tanks and captured over 500 men. Out
of 767 men, only 6 returned safely back to American lines.
Meanwhile, the 3rd had been battling desperately to save these elite fighters. It fought
on, along a main road, past Isola Bella, to within 1,000 yards of Cisterna. But the casual-
ties were just too heavy, and on the following day the division had to pull back to a defen-
sive position near Isola Bella. This was in the more eastern part of the beachhead. The
loss of the two Ranger battalions was a heartbreaking blow to their commander, Colonel Will-
iam 0. Darby, who had trained them since the days in Northern Ireland.
Shortly after, on 3 February, the Germans opened a furious attack in the British sector
at Aprilia, and at a group of buildings called the factory, and heavy fighting ensued.
Then, on 16 February 1944, the Germans launched a major offensive to eliminate the Allied
toehold--"the abscess at Anzio" as Hitler put it. They came very dangerously close to suc-
ceeding, but were thrown back after some of the most violent and desperate combat of the war,
16-19 February 1944. The entire Allied Air Force in Italy was thrown into the struggle, such
was the seriousness of the situation, and German losses were terrific. And on 28-29 February,
the 3rd fought off an attack by three German divisions.
Soon after this, there occurred a stalemate at the beachhead, with highly dangerous pat-
rol actions and trench warfare reminiscent of the First World War.
In late-March, the 3rd was relieved by the 34th "Red Bull" Infantry Division which had
fought so valiantly at Cassino, and which had recently arrived in the beachhead. However,
the entire beachhead was subject to fire from long range German artillery, plus sorties by








the Luftwaffe, and so there was no such thing as a really safe rear area at Anzio.
In mid-April, the 3rd went back up front and relieved the 45th Infantry Division until
1 May, when the 45th went back up to relieve the 3rd.
Finally, on 23 May 1944, the Americans and British opened an all-out offensive to bust
out of the beachhead area. The 3rd saw extremely heavy and costly fighting as it and the
1st "Old Ironsides" Armored Division broke open a huge hole in the German defenses. The
3rd succeeded in capturing Cisterna and almost destroyed the German 362nd Infantry Division.
It was some of the most furious and intensive fighting of the entire war, and the 3rd lost
many men as it fought to Rome. In fact, the 3rd set another record for most casualties suf-
fered by any one American division in a single day--950 on 23 May 1944.
Many of the 3rd's Medal of Honor winners emerged from this furious fighting--men such as
Pfc Patrick J. Kessler, 30th Infantry Regiment, 23 May 1944, near Ponte Rotto, who destroyed
several enemy strongpoints in the face of murderous small-arms fire and captured a number
of prisoners--he was killed three days later in a subsequent action; Sgt Sylvester Antolak,
Company B, 15th Infantry Regiment, near Cisterna on 24 May, who charged 200 yards over flat,
coverless terrain to destroy an enemy machinegun nest, although badly wounded--he was kill-
ed in this action--(Audie Murphy witnessed this act of heroism); Pfc Henry Schauer, near
Cisterna, 23-24 May, who destroyed several German machinegun nests and their crews, plus a
number of snipers with his almost unbelievable long-range accuracy with his Browning Auto-
matic Rifle--he was luckier than many for he lived to receive his award. Needless to say,
there were many other acts of individual heroism, and it really does seem unfair to single
any one man out. Actually, 7 men from the 3rd won this nation's highest award during the
breakout from the Anzio beachhead and the battle to Rome, and 5 more at some time or other
during the entire struggle at the beachhead. 1,585 men in the 3rd were killed at Anzio.
Rome finally fell on 4 June 1944-2 days before the Allied invasion of Normandy. After
a week in the "eternal city", the Third prepared for another amphibious invasion.
On 15 August 1944, the 3rd, 36th, and 45th Infantry Divisions, plus a few French units,
landed on the southern coast of France, west of Nice. Against moderate resistance, the 3rd
advanced rapidly inland, taking Avignon, and then became involved in a raging battle at
Montelimar in the Rh6ne River Valley. The German 19th Army was badly shot-up as it retreat-
ed to the north. This phase of the fighting cost the 3rd around 220 men killed.
Advancing north up the Rhane-SaSne Valley, the 3 U.S. divisions and the French encountered
increasingly strong opposition as they neared the Vosges Mountains. These steep, high, hea-
vily wooded hills had never before been crossed by an enemy-opposed military force. The
fortress city of Besangon fell in 3 days, and there was some hard-fought action by the 3rd
around Vesoul.
Then, after crossing the Moselle in late-September, a very bloody engagement was fought
around Cleurie, notably by the 15th Infantry Regiment. It was a 6-day battle. The Germans
used every weapon at their disposal--mines, log roadblocks, booby-traps, 105 and 155mm
self-propelled artillery, tanks, mortars, machineguns, machine-pistols, grenades, field art-
illery fired in battery concentrations, 20mm flak guns, and numerous snipers with telescopic
sights on their rifles. The whole affair was a vicious, bloody nightmare, and both sides
suffered heavy losses.
By October 1944, the weather had turned increasingly foul, often windy and rainy and with
bitter-cold nights. The 3rd was in the thick of the battle in the high Vosges. During Oct-
ober, the division cracked the main line of German resistance at the Mortagne River, with
the 45th Division on its left and the 36th on the right, and with the 3rd capturing Le Haut
Jacques and Les Rouge Eaux. The GIs named the former place "The Crossroads of Hell." The
7th Infantry Regiment had 152 men killed and 824 more wounded at these two places. Between
20 October-10 November 1944 was the toughest period of combat in France that the 3rd had ex-
perienced up to this time.
Grinding ahead in the face of continued bitter enemy resistance, the 3rd forced the swol-
len Meurthe River under cover of darkness over rubber pontoon bridges, before it was finally
relieved by the newly arrived 103rd "Cactus" Infantry Division at Chevry on 11 November 1944.
The Vosges campaign was a very bitter and costly one for the Fighting 3rd. But the Ger-
mans also suffered very heavy losses, and surrendered 2,000 prisoners to the 3rd.
After a short rest, the Third again went into action. The German 19th Army was holding
onto a sizeable bridgehead west of the Rhine, with its nucleus about Colmar, roughly half-
way between Strasbourg and the Swiss border.







After reaching the city of Strasbourg, on the Rhine, the 3rd shifted places with the
36th Infantry Division and moved into the area which became known as the Colmar Pocket,
assisting the French 1st Army.
In December 1944, the 63rd "Blood and Fire" Infantry Division arrived in northeastern
France, and on 28 December, its 254th Infantry Regiment was attached to the 3rd Division.
More hard fighting took place in December. Bennewihr fell on Christmas Eve, but it took
five days to reduce Sigolsheim. German resistance was fanatical. Some of their infantry-
men attacked tanks with rifles, until run over and crushed beneath the treads.
After numerous U.S. and French attacks, and German counterattacks, an all-out offensive
was commenced by the two Allies on 20 January 1945. During the Battle of the Colmar Pocket
several more Medals of Honor were won by men of the 3rd Division in the course of this hard,
strenuous fighting. Indeed, the 3rd had so many men win this high award that, as has been
already indicated, it seems unfair to single any one man out. However, in this case, one
man does stand out.
As a member of the 3rd-Company B, 1st Battalion, 15th Infantry Regiment--2nd Lieuten-
ant Audie L. Murphy was in the company of heroes. As for himself, up to this time, he had
won just about every other award possible, including the Distinguished Service Cross in
southern France, and 2 Silver Stars for his outstanding actions at the Cleurie Quarry in the
Vosges. There, among other feats, he had killed several snipers. Audie was a crack shot.
He was also one of America's truly outstanding soldiers, inspite of his diminutive size and
youthful appearance, and he had recently won a battlefield commission, when the following
action occurred.
On 26 January 1945, near Holtzwihr, Alsace, France, Lt Murphy was commanding Company B,
when it was hit by a heavy German attack which included 6 tanks and waves of infantry.
Lt Murphy ordered his men to withdraw to prepared positions in a nearby woods, while he
remained forward at his command post and gave fire directions to the artillery by phone.
This fire killed large numbers of the advancing enemy infantry, but more came on. With the
enemy tanks abreast of his position, Lt Murphy climbed on top of a burning tank destroyer
which was in danger of blowing up at any moment, and began firing its .50 caliber machinegun
at the Germans. He was alone and exposed to enemy fire from three sides, but his deadly
fire killed dozens of the enemy and caused his infantry to waver. The German tanks, losing
infantry support, began to fall back.
For an hour, the Germans tried every available weapon to eliminate Lt Murphy, but he held
his position and wiped out a squad which was trying to creep up unnoticed on his right flank.
Germans reached as close as 10 yards, only to be mowed down by his fire. He received a hip
wound, but ignored it and continued his singlehanded fight until his ammunition ran out. He
then made his way to his company, refused medical treatment, and organized a counterattack
which forced the Germans to withdraw.
Lt Murphy's indomitable courage and refusal to give way saved his company from possible
encirclement and destruction, and enabled it to hold the woods which had been the enemy's
objective. It was on this day that Lt Murphy won his nation's highest award, the Congress-
ional Medal of Honor.
When later asked how he could have stayed on top of the burning tank destroyer so long,
he replied to the effect that it was the first time in several days that his feet had been
warm, and that he hadn't been too anxious to get off. (In his book, "To Hell and Back", he
stated that the nights during this battle were one long, bitter hell to try and keep one's
feet from freezing. On one of these nights, he and a buddie were sharing a foxhole, and the
next morning his friend had to be evacuated because both of his feet were frozen).
It was a miracle that Audie Murphy survived the war. He had come into the 3rd as a rep-
lacement in North Africa, and so, went through the whole bit, having too many close calls to
mention. When the war in Europe ended, Audie was deep in southeastern Bavaria. Out of his
original company, only he and a supply sergeant were left. Everyone else had been either
killed, wounded, possibly captured, or transferred out.
The 3rd crossed the Colmar Canal on 29 January, and captured Bischwihr, Fortschwihr,
Muntzenheim, Urschenheim, and Kunheim. As men of his company were assembling to leave Ursch-
enheim, 1 February, several German artillery shells fell in their midst. Eight men were kil-
led or wounded, but Lt Murphy was unharmed.
The Rhone-Rhine Canal was crossed on 2 February 1945, and then there was a vicious fight
in a walled Jewish cemetery, which the Germans had turned into a stronghold. By noon of the
4th, the enemy had been forced out of his macabre stronghold.






Bitter resistance was encountered until 8 February, when the town of Colmar finally fell
to a regiment of the 28th "Keystone" Infantry Division and some French units.
The Colmar Pocket was finally erased by 10 February 1945. During this period between 20
January-10 February, the 3rd Infantry Division, reinforced by the 254th Infantry Regiment,
had taken over 4,200 prisoners, captured 22 towns, virtually destroyed the 708th Volksgren-
adier Division, badly mauled the 16th and 189th Infantry Divisions, and decisively beaten
the elite Austrian 2nd Mountain Division which had been sent all the way from Norway for the
special purpose of stopping the 3rd Division.
For superb fighting on the northern side of the attack, through snow, storms, terrain
broken by unfordible streams, and enemy infested woods and marshes, the entire 3rd Infantry
Division and the 254th Infantry Regiment, 63rd Infantry Division were later awarded the
Distinguished Unit Citation. Other American outfits which fought in the Colmar Pocket were
the 12th Armored and 75th Infantry Divisions. This action cost the 3rd 317 men--killed.
And the 254th Infantry Regiment lost over 100 men.
After rest and rehabilitation, in mid-March 1945, the 3rd was moved further north, just
south of the Saar, to take part in the all-out 7th Army offensive to smash the Siegfried
Line. With the 63rd Infantry Division on its left flank and the 45th Infantry Division on
the right, the 3rd, attacking on a line to Zweibricken, slashed through the enemy defenses
after several days of hard fighting.
The 3rd was the first 7th Army unit to cross the Rhine--near Worms on 26 March 1945.
Advancing east, and then slightly north, the 3rd followed in the wake of the 14th "Liberator"
Armored Division. Gemunden, on the Main River, fell on 4 April to the 7th Infantry Regiment
and the 14th Armored after a fierce fight. The 15th Infantry captured Wildflecken, home of
a huge chemical warfare plant and a large training area on the 6th, and the 30th Infantry
took Bad Kissingen on 7 April, and captured an entire regiment of the 36th Volksgrenadier
Division. Further east, the 15th Infantry Regiment helped the 45th Division take Bamberg
in a 1-day battle.
Swinging south, the Fighting 3rd then became involved in a major battle lasting several
days to take the Nazi shrine of Nuremberg against two battered, but fanatical German divis-
ions, the 2nd Mountain and 17th SS Panzer Grenadier, in mid-April 1945. Already bombed, the
city was further reduced to a giant heap of rubble, but this didn't stop the Germans from
putting up a very skillful and tenacious resistance amid the ruins.
While the 45th Infantry Division swung around to attack from the northeast, and the 42nd
"Rainbow" Infantry Division pushed into the western suburbs of the city, the 3rd attacked
from the north.
The Germans had positioned hundreds of 88mm anti-aircraft guns in a protective arc around
the city. Their projectiles, fused to burst overhead, scattered steel fragments for hundreds
of yards down upon the advancing Americans. Scores of them were either killed or very badly
wounded. The soldiers were even subjected to sorties of what remained of the Luftwaffe. As
the GIs advanced into the ruined city, German soldiers and even teenagers took pot shots at
them with panzerfausts, machine-pistols, and rifles from second-story windows. There were
also numerous booby-traps placed by the enemy. Against this type of resistance, the GIs be-
came ruthless. They began blasting any house or building which offered opposition into rub-
ble. By the evening of 17 April, two-thirds of the city was under U.S. control. The 3rd
had knocked out more than 50 guns and taken numerous prisoners.
The Americans ground forward steadily, and on the 19th, a regiment of the 3rd closed in
on the inner city's north wall. Then elements of the 3rd and 45th Divisions met at the
Regnitz River which flows through the old city. The Germans launched a final counterattack
against elements of the 3rd, but it was beaten back.
Most of the soldiers shunned heroics this late in the war, but some still fought with al-
most reckless abandon, and the 3rd's last 3 Medals of Honor were won in Nuremberg. The city
was secured by 20 April 1945.
Then, heading south, the 3rd took Augsburg, after crossing the Danube, and then headed
for the big Bavarian city of Munich. It was much different than in Nuremberg. Although
there was some sharp fighting in certain parts of the city due to die-hard fanatics and SS
groups, resistance, for the most part, was sporadic. The civilians, by now, thoroughly dis-
illusioned and fed-up with the war, often even pointed out to the GIs the hiding places of
German soldiers, and many of them were determined to help put an end to the fighting.
Continuing on into extreme southeast Bavaria, the 3rd then cut across the Austrian bor-
der and captured Salzburg. In conjunction with the 101st Airborne Division, the 3rd then








pivoted further south, back inside Germany, to take Berchtesgaden, with the 20th Armored
Division close behind. On V-E Day, 8 May 1945, the 3rd was using as a messhall the din-
ing room of Schloss Klessheim, where Hitler once housed his "more important" guests.
One of the highest compliments paid to the 3rd was by former Field Marshal:Albert Kessel-
ring, right after the war. When asked by an American war correspondent what U.S. divisions
he considered to have been the most effective against his forces, the 3rd Infantry Division
topped his list.
From the beginning of the 7th Army assault on the Siegfried Line, beginning 15 March 1945,
to 8 May 1945, the 3rd had 373 men killed in action. During this same period, the Germans
who fought against the 3rd had at least 381 men killed in action, 1,020 more wounded, and
many thousands of men captured.
With little doubt, the 3rd Infantry Division was as good as any division in any army in
World War II--a truly great outfit. And just look at the awards and casualties, below:

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor--36 Casualties: Total Battle Deaths-5,634
Battle Stars 10 Killed In Action--4,922
Distinguished Unit Citations----11 Wounded ---18,766
Distinguished Service Crosses-109 Missing 554
Silver Stars '1,817 Captured 1,735
Total Casualties----25,977
One to the entire division--Colmar Pocket, Alsace, France

As most everyone knows by now, Hollywood made a movie called "To Hell and Back" in 1955,
about some of Audie Murphy's exploits in the war. He played himself in the movie which,
by now, has come to be considered a classic. He had previously written a book under the
same title which became a best seller. Tragically, many years later, Audie Murphy was
killed in a private plane crash near Roanoke, Virginia, on 28 May 1971, along with 5 other
men. He would have been 47 years old that following 20 June. Audie Murphy was America's
most decorated soldier of World War II. He was laid to rest in Arlington National Cemetary.

Other 3rd Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action *
(Includes all of those men not listed in this article)

S/Sgt Lucian Adams, 30th Inf Rgt, 28 October 1944, near St. Die, France
S/Sgt Stanley Bender, 7th Inf Rgt, 17 August 1944, near La Lande, France
1st Lt Maurice L. Britt, 30th Inf Rgt, 10 November 1943, north of Mignano, Italy
1st Lt Frank Burke, 15th Inf Rgt, 17 April 1945, Nuremberg, Germany
Pvt Herbert F. Christian, 15th Inf Rgt, 2-3 June 1944, near Valmontone, Italy
Sgt James P. Connor, 7th Inf Rgt, 15 August 1944, Cape Cavalaire, southern France
2nd Lt Robert Craig, 15th Inf Rgt, 11 July 1943, near Favoratta, Sicily
1st Lt Michael J. Daly, 15th Inf Rgt, 18 April 1945, Nuremberg, Germany
S/Sgt Russell E. Dunham, 30th Inf Rgt, 8 January 1945, near Kayserberg, Alsace, France
Pfc John W. Dutko, 30th Inf Rgt, 23 May 1944, near Ponte Rotto, Italy
T/5 Grade Eric G. Gibson, 30th Inf Rgt, 28 January 1944, near Isola Bella, Italy
Pfc Lloyd G. Hawks, 30th Inf Rgt, 30 January 1944, near Carano, Italy
Pvt Elden H. Johnson, 15th Inf Rgt, 3 June 1944, near Valmontone, Italy
2nd Lt Victor L. Kandle, 15th Inf Rgt, 9 October 1944, near La Forge, France
S/Sgt Gus J. Kefurt, 15th Inf Rgt, 23-24 December 1944, near Bennewihr, Alsace, France
Pfc Alton W. Knappenberger, 30th Inf Rgt, 1 February 1944, near Cisterna, Italy
Pfc Floyd K. Lindstrom, 7th Inf Rgt, 11 November 1943, near Mignano, Italy
T/5 Grade Robert D. Maxwell, 7th Inf Rgt, 7 September 1944, near Besangon, France
Pvt Joseph F. Merrell, 15th Inf Rgt, 18 April 1945, near Lohe, Germany
Sgt Harold 0. Messerschmidt, 30th Inf Rgt, 17 September 1944, near Raddon, France
Pvt James H. Mills, 15th Inf Rgt, 24 May 1944, near Cisterna, Italy
1st Lt Charles P. Murray, Jr., 30th Inf Rgt, 16 Dec 1944, near Kayserberg, Alsace, France
Capt Arlo L. Olson, 15th Inf Rgt, 13 October 1943, at the Volturno River, Italy
Sgt Truman 0. Olson, 7th Inf Rgt, 30 January 1944, near Cisterna, Italy
T/5 Grade Forrest E. Peden, 10th Field Arty Bn, 3 February 1945, near Biesheim, Alsace,
France








Pvt Wilburn K. Ross, 30th Inf Rgt, 30 October 1944, near St. Jacques, France
Pfc John C. Squires, 30th Inf Rgt, 23-24 April 1944, near Padiglione, Italy
2nd Lt John J. Tominac, 15th Inf Rgt, 12 September 1944, near Saulx-de-Vesoul, France
Pfc Jose F. Valdes, 7th Inf Rgt, 25 January 1945, near Rosenkrantz, Alsace, France
Lt Col Keith L. Ware, 15th Inf Rgt, 26 December 1944, near Sigolsheim, Alsace, France 1
1st Lt David C. Waybur, 3rd Recon Troop, 17 July 1943, near Agrigento, Sicily
let Lt Eli Whitely, 15th Inf Rgt, 27 December 1944, Sigolsheim, Alsace, France

1 Colonel Keith L. Ware stayed in the Army for a career and, many years later, was killed
in Vietnam. He was, for a time, Audie Murphy's battalion commander, and he and Audie were
good friends.

The 3rd Infantry Division later saw extensive service in the Korean War.
Since then, the 3rd has been stationed in Germany for many years, and still is,
as of this writing. (11 November 1985)


















4TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Ivy"

Regular Army
Activated (WW II)-3 June 1940
Returned To United States-10 July 1945
Inactivated-5 March 1946
Reactivated--15 July 1947
Battle Credits, World War II: Normandy Northern France-Belgium Siegfried Line
Days In Combat-299 Ardennes Rhineland Central Europe
Days In Combat--299
Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Raymond 0. Barton July 1942-December 1944
Maj-Gen Harold W. Blakeley December 1944-October 1945

Combat Chronicle: The 4th Infantry Division saw very heavy action in World War I, having
2,160 men killed in action, and 10,660 more wounded.
In World War II, the 4th took part in some of the heaviest and most desperate fighting
of the war. The 4th was in the initial D-Day assault in Normandy, 6 June 1944, landing on
Utah Beach. The Germans were caught off guard in this sector, and the fighting was not as
furious as on Omaha Beach, further to the east. Advancing inland against increasingly hea-
vy opposition, the 4th reached the isolated 82nd Airborne Division in the vicinity of Ste.
Mbr4 Eglise, and encountered several German attacks on. 7 June.
After isolating the Cotentin Peninsula, the 4th helped take it, along with the 9th and
79th Infantry Divisions. The three divisions attacked northward toward the port of Cher-
bourg, with the 4th in the right flank of the advance, and the fighting was murderous. The
Americans had to battle through difficult hedgerow country against determined German res-
istance, and losses were extremely heavy on both sides. Nevertheless, the Americans succ-
eeded in. forcing the Germans from the Montebourg Heights, and the latter then withdrew in-
to the key port of Cherbourg, being bombarded by heavy artillery and air strikes. However,
Hitler had ordered the port to be defended to the last man, and it was very tough going.
But the Americans, with tank support, attacked with considerable alan and, after bloody
house-to-house fighting, Cherbourg fell on 25 June 1944. However, the port facilities were
completely wrecked by the Germans, and so rendered useless to the Allies for quite some
time. The 4th garrisoned the port city until the end of the month when it was then reliev-
ed by the 101st Airborne Division.
The month of June 1944, was the 4th's bloodiest month of the war. It was also the most
costly month for any American division fighting in Normandy. During June 1944, the 4th. In-
fantry Division lost well over 1,500 men killed in action or died of wounds, alone:
As may be gathered, Normandy was some of the most lengthy, heavy, and bloody fighting
of the war, and the 4th was in the thick of it. After taking part in the very tough com-
bat near P6riers, 6-16 July 1944, the Ivy Division, after a brief rest, participated in
the major U.S. breakthrough west of St. L8. The men of the 4th smashed through the batter-
ed German defenses, clinging to the tanks of the 2nd Armored Division. This assault began








on 25 July 1944. As the breakout gained momentum, the 4th broke through the left flank of
the German 7th Army, and continued south. The furious fighting kept on, with a battle near
St. Pois, which was taken on 5 August 1944.
In the region of Mortain, beginning 7 August 1944, the Germans counterattacked with four
of their very best divisions-the 1st and 2nd SS Panzer, 2nd Panzer, and 116th Panzer. Fur-
ious combat ensued with the 4th having a key role in this battle by containing the 116th
Panzer at the northern flank of the German assault. After a week of the most intensive
combat, the Germans finally withdrew, and the 4th headed east across northern France.
Along with the French 2nd Armored Division, the 4th entered Paris on 25 August 1944.
Many of the populace had already risen up against their German oppressors, and there was
considerable sharp fighting in certain quarters of the city, with much sniping, before "the
city of light" was declared secured. After being allowed to spend a few glorious days in
Paris, the 4th moved on to the north in hot pursuit of the enemy.
On 1 September 1944, riding on tanks of the 5th Armored Division, the division pushed to
Chauny, and assembled near M6zieres, advancing forward from the Meuse River on 6 September.
Cutting through eastern Belgium against ineffectual opposition, the 4th hit the Siegfried
Line, in the Schnee Eifel, in mid-September 1944. The 4th penetrated the line on the 14th,
but was stopped after small gains over the next several days despite costly attacks. This
offensive was then halted in the face of determined German counterattacks.
All through October 1944, the 4th had it relatively easy. It was mostly a static type
of war, during this month for the division, with patrolling and skirmishing actions.
But then the Ivy Division was moved somewhat further north to relieve the battered 28th
Infantry Division in the Zweitfall area. By mid-November 1944, the 4th had entered the
dark, grim, enemy-infested Hirtgen Forest.
The fighting in the HUrtgenwald was some of the most bitter and bloody fighting of any
on the entire Western Front. All kinds of mines and booby-traps abounded, and the forbid-
ding place was filled with first-class German troops-many of them in concrete emplacements
or camouflaged bunkers, and often protected by numerous barbed-wire entanglements. Men were
literally shredded with sharp pine needles which, mixed in with the shrapnel from shell-
bursts, helped to make a special hell out of the evil forest. One had to live in the midst
of this kind of fighting, and to take part in it fully, to appreciate how men over a period
of time could become so completely and utterly beaten physically and morally, that they
sometimes stepped on the bodies of their fallen comrades because they didn't have the energy
to step over them. Some men broke from the sheer strain of carrying supplies and ammunition
over the debris-littered ground. The 9th and 28th Infantry Divisions had already been badly
battered in the Hirtgen, but the 4th Infantry Division's experience in this miserable forest
was as bad as any.
The 12th Infantry Regiment was subjected to a strong German attack on 10 November 1944,
which cut-off the regiment from the rest of the division until the 15th. The 8th and 22nd
Infantry Regiments had a gap wedged between them in the forest fighting which stopped the
offensive on 19 November 1944. In 5 costly days of combat the division had gained only 1I
miles. On 17 November 1944, one of the most heroic actions of the entire battle occurred
by 1st Lieutenant Bernard J. Ray, Company F, 8th Infantry Regiment.
Lt Ray was a platoon leader in an attack in wet, bitterly cold weather over rough, wood-
ed terrain, meeting brutal resistance from enemy positions spaced throughout the forest be-
hind minefields and wire obstacles. Fierce German fire caused heavy casualties in his com-
pany, and it was stopped by a concertina-type wire barrier. Under continued heavy enemy
fire, the lieutenant prepared to blow a path through the entanglement, which appeared quite
impossible to others who tried to dissuade him of it.
Determined to clear the way, he placed explosive caps in his pockets, obtained several
bangalore torpedoes, and wrapped a length of highly explosive primer cord about his body.
He then dashed forward under direct fire, reaching the barbed-wire, and prepared the demol-
ition charge. Lt Ray had placed a torpedo under the wire and was connecting it to a charge,
when he was severely wounded by a mortar burst. Apparently realizing that he would fail in
his self-imposed mission unless he completed it in a few seconds, he made a supreme decision,
He completed a hasty wiring system and thrust down on the handle of the charger, destroying
himself along with the wire barricade in the resulting explosion. Lt Ray was posthumously
awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroic self-sacrifice.








It was still very rough going. The attack was renewed on 22 November 1944, and the 22nd
Infantry Regiment eventually found a hole in the German defenses and surged forward, digging
in along both sides of a road leading east toward the villages of Kleinhau and Grosshau. Af-
ter hard fighting the 22nd Infantry took Grosshau by frontal assault on 29 November 1944.
The Germans then rushed reinforcements into the gloomy forest, their 344th Infantry Divis-
ion, and the casualties soared on both sides, with 3 December 1944, being a very bloody day.
Finally, the 4th was relieved by the 83rd Infantry Division and, a month after entering the
terrible forest, staggered back out of it on 8 December 1944. The 4th had eliminated five
German regiments, but, in return, suffered 6,000 casualties, over 800 of whom were dead!
After this searing experience the 4th was sent back down into Luxembourg to a supposedly
quiet sector of the front-the Ardennes. The 4th got a well-deserved, but much too short
rest of one week, and received replacements. And then the Germans hit hard with their all-
out counteroffensive on 16 December 1944.
On the southern flank of the German onslaught, in eastern Luxembourg, the 4th was hit by
the 212th and 276th Volksgrenadier Divisions. Still worn from the HUrtgen Forest experience
and still understrength, although forced back a little, the Fighting 4th fought valiantly,
holding the line in the region about Echternach. The 4th inflicted tremendous losses on
these two enemy formations which were hampered by too many 17-year old recruits in their
ranks, and by the lack of a sufficient number of self-propelled guns. These factors helped
even the odds, for the 4th was outnumbered 4 to 1 in personnel. Some American forward out-
posts were overrun, but the 4th's artillery knocked out temporary bridges the Germans had
built over the Sauer River, and also took care of some of their self-propelled guns and mor-
tar crews. Although in a rather precarious position, the 4th managed to hold the line in
strenuous combat, and recaptured Echternach on 27 December 1944. The 4th was relieved by
the 5th Infantry Division of Patton's 3rd Army, and was commended by the general for its
valiant stand.
After resting and receiving replacements the 4th went over to the offensive in the Battle
of the Bulge on 18 January 1945. In heavy fighting the division seized the heights overlook-
ing the Our River, and crossed the river at Bettendorf on 22 January.
The attack resumed on 29 January 1945, and the 4th advanced into Germany, 1 February,
breaching the Siegfried Line near Brandscheid, and entering the austere Eifel. The weather
was still bitter-cold with deep snow and, for awhile, the 4th and 87th Infantry Divisions
had to be supplied by airdrops.
Struggling forward in heavy combat the 4th succeeded in getting part of its components
across the Prum River on 9 February 1945, and the division stormed Prum on the 12th. The
4th then went over to the defensive, and defended the river line from Olzheim to Watzerath
against counterattacks.
On 28 February 1945, the 4th crossed the PrUm River in force, but suffered heavy losses,
while making only negligible gains. In fierce fighting the town of Gondelsheim was taken on
4 March, and the 4th then raced out of the bridgehead behind the llth Armored Division to the
Kyll River by 6 March 1945. This river was forced on. the following day.
After rest and rehabilitation, the 4th returned to action, and crossed the Rhine at the
Worms bridgehead on 29 March 1945. The 4th was now under the U.S. 7th Army.
The 4th advanced to the east into south-central Germany. At the beginning of April 1945,
the 4th, acting in conjunction with the 42nd Infantry Division and elements of the 12th Arm-
ored Division, secured the city of WUrzburg in some fierce fighting. By 3 April, the 4th had
established a bridgehead across the Main River, at Ochsenfurt.
The 12th and 22nd Infantry Regiments then fought determined opposition up the wooded
slopes in the area of Kbnigshofen, and the offensive was resumed on 10 April 1945.
The advance toward Rothenburg started on 11 April against strong German defenses. Resis-
tance then soon collapsed so that the Americans could spare this ancient, medieval shrine,
and on the 12th, the 8th Infantry Regiment reached Ansbach.
As the 4th advanced south-southeast into Bavaria, some heavy action occurred on 16 April
1945. After that, light to moderate resistance was met in the division's zone of attack.
The 4th first forced the Danube on 25 April 1945. A bridgehead was established across the
Lech at Schwabstadl, 27 April, and, by the end of the month, the 4th was deep in southern
Bavaria at Miesbach. On 4 May 1945, the 4th was moved back to Neumarkt for occupational








duty under the U.S. 3rd Army. V-E Day finally came on 8 May 1945.
The Fighting 4th was one of the great U.S. divisions of the war, but it had paid a very
heavy price. The 3rd Infantry Division is the only American division which had more total
battle deaths than the 4th Infantry Division in World War II. The 4th returned to the Unit
ed States in July 1945.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor--4 Casualties: Total Battle Deaths--4,907
Distinguished Unit Citations--12 Killed In Action -- ,097
Distinguished Service Crosses-60 Wounded ----17,371
Silver Stars 1,283 Missing '.1 61
Captured ---.731
Total Casualties----22,660
* Includes Distinguished Unit Citations to the following entire regiments:
8th Infantry Regiment-D-Day, Normandy, France
12th Infantry Regiment--Battle of the Bulge
22nd Infantry Regiment--St. Gillis-Marigny, Normandy, France
Hirtgen Forest, Germany

Other 4th Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action *
S/Sgt Marcario Garcia, 22nd Inf Rgt, 27 November 1944, Hirtgen Forest, Germany
Lt Col George L. Mabry, Jr., 8th Inf Rgt, 20 November 1944, HUrtgen Forest, Germany
Brig-Gen Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., 6 June 1944, D-Day, Normandy (Died of a heart attack
on 12 July 1944)

The 4th Infantry Division later served in the Vietnam War. As of this writing, the 4th
is stationed at Ft. Carson, Colorado. (15 August 1989)





1 WWII


4TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Ivy"


JUNE 1944
6 June 11111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111 60
7 June 111111111111111111111111111111 30
8 June 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 50
9 June 1111111111111111111111111111111111 34
10 June 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 52
11 June 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 49
12 June 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 63
13 June 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 48
14 June 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 44
15 June 111111111111111111111111111111111 33
16 June 11111111111111111 17
17 June 111111111111111111111 21
18 June 111111111111 12
19 June 111111111111111111111111111 27
20 June 111111111111111111111 21
21 June 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 64
22 June 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 75*
23 June 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111 40 approx. 125~en
24 June 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 63
25 June 11111111111111111111111111111111111111 38
26 June 1111111111111111111111111 25
27 June 111111111 9
28 June 11
29 June 11
30 June 1
880





2 WWII


4TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Ivy"


JULY 1944 AUGUST 1944
2 July 1 1 Aug 1111111111111111111111 1111111 33
5 July 11 2 Aug 1111111111111111 16
6 July 1111111111111111111111 22 3 Aug 11111111111111 15
7 July 111111111111111111111111111111111 111111111 50 4 Aug 11111111111111111111111111 29
8 July 11111111111111111111111111111111111111 38 5 Aug 11111111111111 14
9 July 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 55 6 Aug 11
10 July 1111111111111111111111111111111111111 37 7 Aug 11111
11 July 11111111111111111111111111111111 1111111 42 8 Aug 111111111 9
12 July 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111 42 9 Aug 11111111111111111111 20
13 July 11111111111111 14 10 Aug 1111111111111111 16
14 July 11111111111111 14 11 Aug 111111
15 July 11111111111111111111111111111111111 36 12 Aug 111111111111 12
16 July 1111111111111111 16 13 Aug 111
17 July 111111 15 Aug 111
18 July 1 16 Aug 11
20 July 1 23 Aug 1
21 July 11 24 Aug 1
22 July 111 25 Aug 1
24 July 11111111111111111 17 26 Aug 1
25 July 11111111111 11 27 Aug 1
26 July 111111111111111111 18 28 Aug 11111111 8
27 July 11111111 8 29 Aug 11111111 8
28 July 111111111111 12 30 Aug 1
29 July 11111111111111111111111111 28 31 Aug 1
30 July 1111111111111111111111111111 28 208
31 July 111111111111111 15
519





3 WWII


4TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Ivy"

SEPTEMBER 1944 OCTOBER 1944 NOVEMBER 1944
2 Sept 11 1 Oct 1 4 Nov 1
7 Sept 11 2 Oct 1 6 Nov 1
8 Sept 11 6 Oct 1 8 Nov 1
9 Sept 1 7 Oct 1111 9 Nov 1
14 Sept 111111 8 Oct 111 10 Nov 11111111111 11
15 Sept 111111111111111 15 9 Oct 1 11 Nov 11
16 Sept 111111111111111111111 21 10 Oct 1 12 Nov 11111111 8
17 Sept 1111111111111111111111111 25 11 Oct 11 13 Nov 11111111 8
18 Sept 1111111111111 13 14 Oct 11 14 Nov 1111111
19 Sept 1111111111111111 16 16 Oct 1 16 Nov 11111111111111111 17
20 Sept 111111111111111 15 20 Oct 1 17 Nov 11111111111111111 17
21 Sept 1 21 Oct 11 18 Nov 11111111111111111111111111111 29
22 Sept 111111 24 Oct 1 19 Nov 1111111111111111 16
23 Sept 1 25 Oct 1 20 Nov 11111111111111111111111111111111111 35
25 Sept 1 26 Oct 1 21 Nov 1111111111111111111 19
26 Sept 11 2 22 Nov 1111111111U111111111111 23
27 Sept 1 23 Nov 1111111111111111 16
28 Sept 1 24 Nov 111111111111111 15
29 Sept 1 25 Nov 11111111111111111111111111111111111 35
2 26 Nov 1111111111111111 16
27 Nov 11111111111 11
28 Nov 111111111111111111 18
29 Nov 11111111111111111111111111 26
30 Nov 111111111111111111111111111111 30
362






4 WWII

4TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Ivy"


DECEMBER 1944 JANUARY 1945
1 Dec 1111111111111111111111 22 1 Jan 1
2 Dec 11111111111111111111111111111111 32 2 Jan 1111
3 Dec 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 50 5 Jan 111
4 Dec 11111111111111111111111111111111111 35 6 Jan 1
5 Dec 1111111111 10 7 Jan 1
6 Dec 111 11 Jan 111
8 Dec 1111 15 Jan 1
11 Dec 1 16 Jan 1
12 Dec 11 18 Jan 11
13 Dec 11 19 Jan 11111
14 Dec 1 20 Jan 1111111111111111111111111 25
15 Dec 111 21 Jan 11111111111 11
16 Dec 11111111 8 22 Jan 111111111111111111 18
17 Dec 1111111 23 Jan 111111111111 12
18 Dec 111 25 Jan 11111
19 Dec 111111 26 Jan 1
20 Dec 11111111 8 29 Jan 1111111111 10
21 Dec 1111 30 Jan 1
22 Dec 1 31 Jan 111
23 Dec 111111111 9 108
24 Dec 11
25 Dec 111
26 Dec 1111
27 Dec 1
28 Dec 1
30 Dec 11
224





5 WWII

4TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Ivy"


FEBRUARY 1945 MARCH 1945 APRIL 1945
1 Feb 1 1 Mar 11111111111111 14 1 Apr 11111111111111111 17
2 Feb 11111111111111 14 2 Mar lllllll1111111111111111111111111 32 2 Apr 11
3 Feb 11111 3 Mar 1111111111111111 16 3 Apr 1111111
4 Feb 11111111 8 4 Mar 11111111111 11 4 Apr 1111111111111 13
5 Feb 11111111111 11 5 Mar 1111111111111111 17 5 Apr 11111111111111 14
6 Feb 111111111111111111 18 6 Mar 1 6 Apr 1
7 Feb 111111111111 12 7 Mar 1111111111 10 7 Apr 11
8 Feb 1111111111111111111111 22 8 Mar 111 10 Apr 111
9 Feb 111111111111111111111 21 9 Mar 111111111 9 11 Apr 111111
10 Feb 1111111111111111111 19 12 Mar 1 12 Apr 111
11 Feb 111111111111 12 14 Mar 1 13 Apr 111
12 Feb 1111111111 10 17 Mar 1 14 Apr 111111
13 Feb 1 21 Mar 1 15 Apr 1111
14 Feb 1111 24 Mar 1 16 Apr 1111111111 10
15 Feb 11 31 Mar 11 17 Apr 1111
17 Feb 1 120 18 Apr 1111
20 Feb 1 19 Apr 11
21 Feb 1 21 Apr 1
22 Feb 1 22 Apr 1111
23 Feb 1 24 Apr 111
27 Feb 111 29 Apr 1
28 Feb 111111111111111111111111 24 110
192
MAY 1945
4TH INFANTRY DIVISION'S 2 My I
3 May 11
*bloodiest day 22 June 1944
bloodiest month --June 1944
2nd bloodiest day 21 June 1944
3rd -12 and 24 June 1944
4th 6 June 1944
5th 9 July 1944
Total battle deaths----- 798
2,881 are listed=60.QC KIA--4,017


















5TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Red Diamond"

Regular Army
Activated (WW II)-2 October 1939
Returned To United States-19 July 1945
Inactivated-20 September 1946
Reactivated-15 July 1947
Battle Credits, World War IIs Normandy North-Central France Lorraine-Saar
Ardennes Siegfried Line Rhineland Ruhr Pocket
Central Europe
Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Stafford L. Irwin June 1943-April 1945
Maj-Gen Albert E. Brown April 1945--June 1946

Combat Chronicle: The 5th Infantry Division was no stranger to France, or to German sold-
iers. In World War I, the Red Diamond, entering the line on 14 June 1918, fought at St.
Mihiel and in the Meuse-Argonne, and took 2,356 prisoners, while sustaining 9,116 casualt-
ies, including 1,630 men killed in action.
In World War II, the 10th Infantry Regiment sailed to Iceland three months before Pearl
Harbor. In March 1942, the rest of the division arrived, and by August 1943, the 5th had
moved on to England, and then Northern Ireland. These early moves were cloaked with secrecy.
Then, on 9 July 1944, the 5th entered the Normandy inferno, taking up defensive posit-
ions near Caumont, and relieving the 1st Infantry Division on the 13th.
Launching a successful attack on Vidouville, 26 July 1944, as part of the general U.S.
1st Army breakout from the difficult hedgerow country, the 5th drove back a well-organized,
well dug-in, and stubborn German force. Both sides sustained heavy losses, and hastily
reorganized for the fighting yet to come.
The 5th next became involved in a bloody battle for Hill 183 against German paratroop-
ers. 30 July 1944, was the 5th's bloodiest day in combat of the war. The division then
advanced southeast of St. L6, and captured the sizeable town of Angers, after more tough
fighting, 8-10 August 1944.
Advancing to the east and now under Patton's 3rd Army, the Red Diamond, in conjunction
with the 7th Armored Division, battled through Chartres, and then headed for the Seine Riv-
er, at Fontainebleau and Montereau, 23-25 August 1944. More heavy fighting developed, as
the 5th attempted to get a bridgehead across the river. It was during this action that one
soldier acted especially heroically.
Private Harold A. Garman, Company B, 5th Medical Battalion, a litter bearer, was working
on the friendly side of the Seine, carrying the wounded from the boats to waiting ambulan-
ces. As one boatload of wounded reached midstream, a German machinegun suddenly opened up
on it from the northern bank 100 yards away. All of the men immediately took to the water
except one man who was so badly wounded that he couldn't rise from his stretcher. Two oth-
er men who couldn't swim, due to their wounds, clung to the sides of the boat.
Seeing the grave danger of these men, Pvt Garman, without hesitating, plunged into the








Seine. Swimming directly into a hail of machinegun bullets, he rapidly reached the boat,
and, while still under fire, towed the boat with great effort to the friendly shore.
This soldier's moving heroism not only saved the lives of three men, but so inspired his
fellow soldiers, that additional assault boats were immediately procured, and the evacuation
of the wounded resumed.
When later personally decorated by General Patton with the Medal of Honor, the general
asked him why he did it, and Pvt Garman replied, "Well, someone had to."
After forcing the Seine, the 5th captured Reims, on 30 August 1944. By this time, the
Germans, who had keenly felt the Red Diamond's cutting edge, decided that its nickname was
not aptly descriptive. They gave the 5th a new name--the "Red Devils."
Advancing into the province of Lorraine, the 5th next prepared to cross the swollen Meuse
River, and attack the fortress city of Metz, commencing on 7 September 1944, supported by
the 7th Armored Division.
The 2nd Infantry Regiment made repeated frontal assaults, while the engineers bridged the
river for tanks. Meanwhile, the llth Infantry Regiment pushed up the Meuse heights near
Dornot. On 8 September 1944, the 5th gained a precarious bridgehead over the Moselle River,
which came immediately under heavy shell fire and continuous German counterattacks. This
bridgehead was also hampered by deep mud and ammunition shortages, as well as continued det-
ermined enemy resistance. However, the 5th soon committed itself entirely into this battle
in very costly combat, 11 September 1944, being an especially bloody day.
The furious fighting continued, and the 5th regrouped inside the perimeter and defended
it against a strong German attack on 17 September 1944.
The 5th began attacking Ft. Driant on 27 September 1944, and the llth Infantry Regiment
forced its way into the bastion's outer edges, 3 October, but the Germans counterattacked
from tunnels after dark. By 12 October 1944, attempts to seize this fort were given up,
and the division withdrew to rest.
In the second week of November 1944, while the 95th Infantry Division assaulted a series
of extremely strongly defended forts ringing Metz, from the west, the 5th launched an attack
from the south. The 17th SS Panzer Grenadier and 462nd Volksgrenadier Divisions resisted
fanatically. On 12 November 1944, the 5th was counterattacked at once as it entered the
bridgehead of the 6th Armored Division. The fighting was vicious and bloody and, sometimes,
at close-quarters, with some bayonet fighting. Between 12-20 November 1944, the 2nd Infan-
try Regiment took Ancerville, the 10th Infantry reduced Fort Aisne, Boies de 1'H6spital,
Marly, and Fort Queuleu, and the llth Infantry captured Prayelle Farm, Frescaty airfield,
Fort Verdun, and Fort St. Privat. On 18 November, the 10th and llth Infantry pushed into
Metz, itself, and the division had completely encircled the town by the following day. Rear-
guard opposition inside Metz was mopped-up by 22 November 1944, except for Fort Driant,
which continued to hold out. The 5th left some infantry to contain this fort, and the rest
of the division attacked across the Nied River on 25 November 1944. The 87th Infantry Div-
ision, which arrived at the front in early-December, was given the task of the final reduc-
tion of Fort Driant.
The reduction of Metz was a very courageous feat of arms. Both sides had fought very
well, and had suffered very heavy losses. The 5th Infantry Division, alone, had close to
770 men killed in action or died of wounds.
Continuing eastward, the 5th, as one of General Patton's ace divisions, fought into the
southern part of the Saar, in the Siegfried Line. As the Germans were launching their all-
out counteroffensive in the Ardennes, further to the northwest, the 5th relieved the valiant
95th Infantry Division at Saarlautern, on 17 December 1944. However, the 5th's stint in the
Saar didn't last very long, as it was soon ordered into the Ardennes, Battle of the Bulge.
The 3rd Army transfer of so many troops out of the Saar, and into the Ardennes, called
for courageous endurance on the part of the soldiers involved, excellent staff work, and the
driving force of Patton, himself. It would be Europe's worst winter in half-a-century.
In a monumental feat of arms the 5th struggled northward into Luxembourg, in appalling
winter conditions with sometimes zero visibility. Beginning on 24 December 1944, the 5th
was in for some very severe fighting, especially in the Mullerthal Draw, where two companies
battled for 8 hours to gain a scant 200 yards.
Christmas Day dawned clear and crisp, and snow-laden evergreens imparted a poignant rem-







inder of the Yuletide season, as the 5th forged ahead to take Waldbilling and Haller. The
division then forged ahead to force the Germans back to the north side of the Sauer River.
The 5th advanced 6 miles in as many days to help thwart the German threat to the city of
Luxembourg, passing through the 4th Infantry and 9th Armored Divisions. In this costly
advance the Red Diamond faced heavy artillery and rocket fire, and sporadic enemy bombing
and strafing. The 5th succeeded in throwing two German divisions into utter confusion,
recaptured much American equipment, and took 830 prisoners. The threat in the southern
side of the Bulge was slowly eliminated.
After a brief respite, the 5th saw more heavy action in the Ardennes from 18-28 January
1945. The Bulge was slowly, but surely, erased, and the Germans were forced back to the
Siegfried Line by the end of January 1945.
Next, starting on 7 February 1945, the 5th and 76th Infantry Divisions crossed the swol-
len Sauer River from Luxembourg into Germany in a brilliant feat of arms, fighting numerous
barbed-wire entanglements and other obstacles, as well as the enemy. Both divisions sust-
ained heavy losses in this operation. By 19 February 1945, the 5th had cleared the area
up to the west bank of the PrUm River.
After regrouping, the division crossed the PrUm, near Peffingen, on the night of 24-25
February 1945. The 5th cut the Bitburg-Trier Highway on the 27th, and cleared to the west
bank of the Kyll River by the following day.
The 5th opened its attack to establish the Kyll bridgehead in the Erdorf area on 2 March
1945. Progress was rapid, and numerous towns and villages fell to the division. The Mos-
elle was reached on 10 March, and crossed on the 14th. Working closely with the 4th Armor-
ed Division, the Rhine was reached at Oppenheim and Nierstein on 21 March 1945.
Then the 5th made a remarkable sneak night crossing of the fabled river on the night of
22-23 March 1945, near Oppenheim. Patton and his superiors, Generals Omar Bradley and Eis-
enhower, were elated when they heard the news. Although there were considerable casualties,
this bridgehead was rapidly exploited, the Germans being caught completely off balance.
The 5th then attacked northward, and, along with the 6th Armored Division, cleared the
big city of Frankfurt, after some sharp action, 27-29 March 1945. The 5th was then placed
in reserve inside the war-torn city, and for around one week the men were allowed to enjoy
themselves as best as they could.
After this, the 5th was temporarily detached from 3rd Army command to help out in the
reduction of the Ruhr Pocket, further to the north. Except for 11 April 1945, when the div-
ision met heavy resistance, otherwise erratic opposition was met in the 5th's zone of att-
ack. Attacking westward from the eastern side of the pocket, Meschede, Kalle, and Arnsberg
were captured by the division, before resistance in the pocket collapsed by mid-April 1945.
In the closing days of the war, the Red Diamond was back with the 3rd Army. Patton wan-
ted it for his final push of the war into Czechoslovakia. The 5th was toward the southern
end of the attack, with its regiments in both extreme northern Austria, as well as the
southwest portion of Czechoslovakia. The 5th met mostly light and sporadic resistance.
However, around Kunzvart, elements of the 1st SS Panzer Division set-up and stubbornly def-
ended a roadblock.
The 5th then patrolled aggressively to the Tepla River, in Czechoslovakia, meeting some
opposition, and then capturing Milesice and Volary, on 6 May 1945. The division had its
last casualties of the war on 7 May 1945---1 man killed and 3 more wounded.
It was in Volary that the 5th discovered one of the many instances of excessive Nazi
brutality. A large group of Jewish women were in this town, the survivors of a forced
march through Austria by SS troops. Along the way they had been constantly beaten and oth-
erwise mistreated. Needless to say, the survivors of this group were more than a little
glad to see their American liberators.
The 5th was also given a tumultuous welcome by the Czech people, and contact was made
with the Russian 107th Infantry Division. Shortly after V-E Day, 8 May 1945, the 5th was
in the sizeable town of 6eske BudBjovice, on the Vltava (Moldau) River.
The 5th Infantry Division had proven itself to be one of the great fighting divisions of
the war, with an unusually..high esprit de corps. But it had been anything but easy. The
5th suffered 12,818 casualties.








Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-- Casualties: Total Battle Deaths-2,684
Distinguished Unit Citations- 2 Killed In Action---- 2,298
Distinguished Service Crosses-39 Wounded ... 9,549
Silver Stars 784 Missing 288
Captured --683
Total Casualties- 12,818

The 1st Brigade of the 5th Infantry Division served in the Vietnam War. As of this
writing, the 5th is stationed at Ft. Polk, Louisiana. (15 March 1985)






1 WWII


5TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Red Diamond"


JULY 1944 AUGUST 1944
12 July 1 1 Aug 11
13 July 1 4 Aug 1
15 July11 5 Aug 1
16 July 1 7 Aug 1
17 July 11 8 Aug 111111111111 12
18 July 1 9 Aug 11111111111111111111111111111 29
19 July 1111 10 Aug 111111111 9
20 July 1 12 Aug 1
21 July 11 14 Aug 1
22 July 11 15 Aug 1
24 July 111 17 Aug 1
26 July 1111111111111111111111111111111111111 37 18 Aug 11
27 July 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111 40 20 Aug 1
28 July 11111 21 Aug 111
29 July 11111111111111 14 22 Aug 111111111111111111111 21
30 July 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 50* 23 Aug 111111
31 July 11111111111111 14 approx. 24 Aug 1111111111111111111111111 25
180 90Mmen 25 Aug 1111111111 10
26 Aug 111111
28 Aug 1
29 Aug 1
31 Aug 1
136






2 WWII


5TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Red Diamond"


SEPTEMBER 1944 OCTOBER 1944 NOVEMBER 1944
1 Sept 111 1 Oct 1 1 Nov 11
7 Sept 111111111 9 2 Oct 1 2 Nov 1
8 Sept 1111111111111111111111111 25 3 Oct 1111111111 10 3 Nov 1
9 Sept 111111111111111111111111 24 4 Oct 11111 5 Nov 11
10 Sept 11111111111111111111111111 26 5 Oct 111111 7 Nov 1
11 Sept 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 42 6 Oct 11 8 Nov 11
12 Sept 1111111111111 13 7 Oct 1111111 9 Nov 11111111111 11
13 Sept 11111111111111111111111 23 8 Oct 1111 10 Nov 1111111111111111111111 22
14 Sept 11111111111111111 17 9 Oct 11 11 Nov 11
15 Sept 1111111111111111111111111111 30 10 Oct 1 12 Nov 11111111 8
16 Sept 111111 11 Oct 1 13 Nov 11
17 Sept 11111111 8 12 Oct 111 14 Nov 1
18 Sept 1111 13 Oct 1111 15 Nov 1111111111111 13
19 Sept 1111 15 Oct 1 16 Nov 111111111111111 15
20 Sept 1111111111111111111111111111 28 16 Oct 1 17 Nov 111111111111 12
21 Sept 11111111111111111111111111 26 17 Oct 1 18 Nov 111111111111 12
22 Sept 1111111111 10 18 Oct 1 19 N.ov 1111111111111111 16
23 Sept 1 20 Nov 111111
24 Sept 1 51 21 Nov 11
25 Sept 1111 23 Nov 1
26 Sept 11 24 Nov 1
27 Sept 1111111 26 Nov 1
28 Sept 11111111 8 28 Nov 11
30 Sept 1 29 Nov 11
322 30 Nov 1
139






3 WWII


5TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Red Diamond"


DECEMBER 1944 JANUARY 1945 FEBRUARY 1945
1 Dec 11111 1 Jan 1 7 Feb 111111111 9
4 Dec 11111 2 Jan 1 8 Feb 111111111111 12
5 Dec 111111 3 Jan 111 9 Feb 1111111111111111111111111111 28
6 Dec 1111 4 Jan 11 10 Feb 11111111111 11
7 Dec 111 5 Jan 1 11 Feb 1111111111111 13
8 Dec 111 6 Jan 1 12 Feb 11111
10 Dec 11 11 Jan 1 13 Feb 11111111 8
12 Dec 11 13 Jan 1 14 Feb 11
13 Dec 1 18 Jan 11111111111111111111 20 15 Feb 111
14 Dec 11 19 Jan 11111111111111111111 20 16 Feb 111
17 Dec 11 20 Jan 11111111 8 17 Feb 111111111111 12
18 Dec 111 21 Jan 11111111111 11 18 Feb 11111111 8
20 Dec 11111111111 11 22 Jan 111111111111 12 19 Feb 11111111 8
21 Dec 111 23 Jan llllllllllllll1111111111111111111l 22 20 Feb 1111111
22 Dec 111111111 9 24 Jan 11111 22 Feb 11
23 Dec 111111 25 Jan 111111 24 Feb 111
24 Dec 1111111111111111111111 22 26 Jan 11111 25 Feb 111111
25 Dec 1111111111111111111 19 27 Jan 1 26 Feb 11
26 Dec 111111111111111111111 21 28 Jan 1111111111111111111111111 25 27 Feb 111
27 Dec 111111111111111 15 29 Jan 1 28 Feb 11
28 Dec 11111 147 147
29 Dec 11
151







4 wwII

5TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Red Diamond"


MARCH 1945 APRIL 1945 MAY 1945
1 Mar 1 2 Apr 11 1 May 1
2 Mar 11 4 Apr 1 2 May 11
3 Mar 111111111111111 15 11 Apr 1111111111 10 3 May 11
4 Mar 1 12 Apr 11 5 May 11
6 Mar 1 14 Apr 11
7 Mar 111111111 9 15 Apr 1
8 Mar 1 30 Apr 1
11 Mar 1 19
12 Mar 1
14 Mar 111111
15 Mar 111
16 Mar 111
17 Mar 1
18 Mar 1
19 Mar 1
20 Mar 11
22 Mar 1
23 Mar 11111111111111111 17
24 Mar 1111111111111111111111111 25
25 Mar 111
27 Mar 111
28 Mar 1
30 Mar 1
31 Mar 1
101


5TH INFANTRY DIVISION'S
*bloodiest day 30 July 1944
bloodiest month September 1944
2nd bloodiest day 11 September 1944
3rd bloodiest day 27 July 1944
Total battle deaths 2,628
1,400 are listed=53.2% KIA--2,277


















6TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Sightseeing"

Regular Army

Activated (WW II)-12 October 1939

Battle Credits, World War II: Northern New Guinea Luzon

Days In Combat-306

Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Franklin C. Sibert October 1942--August 1944
Maj-Gen Edwin D. Patrick August 1944--arch 1945
Maj-Gen Charles E. Hurdis March 1945--April 1946

Combat Chronicle: The 6th Infantry Division was first activated in November 1917, and saw
relatively minor action in the Vosges Mountains in World War I, losing 38 men.
The 6th saw much more than just minor action in World War II.
After being stationed at several different Army bases in the United States, including
Ft. Lewis, Washington, and Ft. Leonard Wood, Missouri, the 6th then took part in the Tenn-
essee maneuvers, September-November 1942. The Sightseers left the San Francisco port of
embarkation on 21 July 1943.
The 6th reached Hawaii late that same month and was charged with the defense of Oahu,
relieving the 27th Infantry Division.
In January 1944, the 6th set sail for Milne Bay, New Guinea, and 5 months later moved
on to the Toem-Wakde area on the northern coast of New Guinea.
In June 1944, the 6th went into action west of Toem in the bloody battle of Lone Tree
Hill. The Red Star received its fill of combat under the most difficult conditions con-
sisting of heavy rains, rough terrain, and determined Japanese resistance.
On 14 June 1944, the 20th Infantry Regiment relieved the 158th Infantry Regiment along
the Tirfoam River.
Then, on 23 June, the 1st Infantry Regiment, which had been actively patrolling in the
steaming jungles of the beachhead's main perimeter, entered the battle.
For almost two days the Japanese strong defensive positions restricted the assaulting
troops to the use of 60 and 81mm mortars from exposed positions on the beach. Repeated
attempts to storm the high clay bank that bounded the beach were stopped by intense grazing
fire from machine-gun emplacements dug-in at the foot of the steep cliffs of Lone Tree Hill's
western side.
On 26 June, when the mortars and artillery had eventually reduced the volume of fire on
the 6th's positions, the infantry again surged forward. During the next 2 days, the 63rd
Infantry Regiment cleared the top of the ridge, mopping-up snipers and occasional machine-
gunners that still remained. This victory was a major one for it secured the Maffin Bay
area for the Americans. Between 20-30 June 1944, the 6th suffered over 800 casualties, in-
cluding more than 150 men killed in action. A total of 942 Japanese dead were counted.
After a short rest, the 6th again went into action. This time, the men who wore the six-
pointed bright red star made a landing at Sansapor, on the Vogelkop Peninsula of northwest-
ern New Guinea on 30 July. Striking swiftly against a surprised Japanese garrison, the 6th
rapidly secured the Sansapor coast from Cape Weimak to the Mega River. The 6th, in its








lightning strike at Sansapor, captured many prisoners. Division casualties were light.
The 6th garrisoned this area until late-1944, when it then joined the vast armada sail-
ing for the initial assault landing on Luzon. The 6th landed at Lingayen Gulf on D-Day,
9 January 1945, along with the 37th, 40th, and 43rd Infantry Divisions.
No division had a tougher assignment in the recapture of Luzon than did the 6th. It
immediately took to the Cabaruan Hills in pursuit of the Japanese--and into some of the
worst artillery fire that the Americans faced in the entire Luzon campaign. The GIs aptly
dubbed one low-lying area "Purple Heart Valley."
Then the 6th was ordered into the plains of central Luzon against the Japanese 2nd Tank
Division. Temporarily checked at Munoz, the Sightseers, in conjunction with the 25th Inf-
antry Division, killed 5,000 Japanese in the first month of the campaign. During the fur-
ious fighting around Muioz under a broiling tropical sun, the 6th knocked out 57 enemy med-
ium and light tanks and destroyed a formidable number of artillery pieces. General Walter
Krueger, commanding the U.S. 6th Army, commended the division for its magnificent perform-
ance in this battle. This phase of the fighting on Luzon cost the 6th around 300 men kill-
ed in action.
Then, while the 1st Infantry Regiment was sent south to help out the 38th Infantry Div-
ision in recapturing the rest of the Bataan Peninsula, last half of February 1945, the rest
of the 6th, along with the 1st Cavalry Division, the 43rd Infantry Division, and the 112th
Cavalry Regiment, was sent into the hills northeast of Manila. This battle is officially
called the Battle of East-Central Luzon. The object of this action was to wipe out or neu-
tralize some 15,000 Japanese who were controlling two dams in this region which were vital
to Manila's water supply--and, hopefully, capture these dams intact.
The Japanese had spent many months preparing their defenses in the towering hills and in
the wooded draws of the lower Sierra Madre Mountains. Forced Filipino labor had prepared
an elaborate system of mutually supporting strongpoints in caves and pillboxes located on
commanding ground, and the only routes of approach for the 6th lay across flat rice fields
that were open to constant enemy observation and fire.
From 24 February-30 April 1945, the division's 20th and 63rd Infantry Regiments grinded
away at these extremely tough Jap defenses in rough, bitter, exhausting combat, with the
63rd Infantry being greatly handicapped by having to guard its open left flank. (The 112th
Cavalry Regiment was on the 20th Infantry's right flank).
As the 6th's attack opened on 24 February 1945, all sectors of the division's front re-
ceived heavy artillery and rocket fire. For the first time the troops learned the terror
of the 8-inch rockets, whose siren scream caused every soldier within hearing distance to
dive for cover. At the same time, however, 73 P-47s and Marine dive-bombers supported the
6th's assault. As usual, Japanese resistance was tenacious.
In the early-morning hours of 2 March, the Japs launched a vicious Banzai attack and,
later on, an attack at midnight in the Mt. Pacawagan area. Both were beaten back, as the
bitter fighting continued.
And then, on the morning of 14 March, the Sightseers lost their commanding officer, Maj-
or-General Edwin D. Patrick, and the 1st Infantry Regiment's commander, Colonel James E.
Rees. They were at a forward battalion observation post making plans for a continuance of
the attack to the east, when a burst of machine-gun fire from a draw 75 yards away instant-
ly killed Colonel Rees and mortally wounded General Patrick who died 3 days later in a Man-
ila hospital. His place was taken by Brigadier (later Major) General Charles E. Hurdis.
Two days later, 2 early-morning Jap counterattacks were repulsed. The enemy also ans-
wered back with heavy counter-battery artillery fire in an unsuccessful attempt to silence
the "hellfire" of the 6th Division artillery.
The 20th Infantry advanced through the desperately defended hill country to the very base
of Mt. Mataba, but was then forced to dig-in to escape murderous enemy fire. Meanwhile, the
artillery continued to blast the Japanese.
The harrowing, exhausting battle continued. On 10 April 1945, the final attack was com-
menced on Mt. Mataba, which finally fell on 17 April. Supported by 6th Division artillery,
Mt. Pacawagan fell on 29 April to the 145th Infantry Regiment, 37th Infantry Division. The
battle far from being over, the exhausted 6th was relieved on 30 April 1945, by the 38th In-
fantry Division.
From the period of 25 March-30 April 1945, 2,394 Japanese were slain, raising to over








6,500 of the enemy destroyed in east-central Luzon by the 6th Infantry Division and attached
units. In this drawn-out period of bitter fighting the 6th lost around 400 men.
The men of the 6th who left the Shimbu Line for their new stations in west-central Luzon
were red-eyed and worn, their faces reflecting the sleepless nights and agonizing days that
had been their lot for over 2 months on the Shimbu Line. They had faced some of the heav-
iest artillery and rocket fire of the war in the Pacific.
There then followed a rather short "mopping-up" period in west-central Luzon in which the
6th accounted for 1,320 more Japanese.
After this action, the 6th was given a well-deserved rest and recuperation.
Then, it was shifted up into northern Luzon, taking part in the final fighting of the war
on Luzon which was just as vicious as any of the earlier battles. Undermined by the summer
rains which made negotiating the steep hills even more difficult, and which caused landslides
along the roads, the 6th battled forward. It took Bolog on 29 June, and Mt. Santo Domingo
on 10 July. In the latter action some units of the 6th were cited. The 63rd Infantry for-
ced its way into Kiangan on 12 July 1945, and captured a huge amount of Japanese military
equipment. And the last Medal of Honor of the war was won by a member of the 6th, Corporal
Melvin Mayfield, Company D, 20th Infantry Regiment, 29 July 1945.
Corporal Mayfield displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the
call of duty while fighting in the Cordillera Mountains of northern Luzon.
When two Filipino companies were pinned down under a torrent of Japanese fire that con-
verged on them from a circular ridge commanding their position, Cpl Mayfield, in a gallant
singlehanded effort to aid them, rushed from one shellhole to another until he reached four
Japanese-held caves atop the barren, fire-swept hill. With grenades and his carbine, he
assaulted each of the caves while enemy fire hit all around him. However, before he annih-
ilated the last hostile redoubt, a machine-gun bullet destroyed his weapon and slashed his
left hand. Disregarding his wound, he secured more grenades and dauntlessly charged again
into the face of point-blank fire to help destroy an enemy observation post.
By his gallant determination and heroic leadership, Cpl Mayfield inspired the men to el-
iminate all remaining pockets of resistance in this area and to press the attack against the
Japanese. And he survived the rest of the war to receive his award.
When V-J Day finally arrived on 14 August 1945, the 6th had fought forward to some three
miles beyond Kiangan with the Japanese offering fierce resistance right to the very end.
When the war ended, the 6th had been the most fully committed American division still fight-
ing the Japanese. This final action in northern Luzon cost the 6th 99 men killed in action
and 432 wounded.
After the war ended, the 6th was sent to South Korea, and was stationed there until Jan-
uary 1949. Of course, most all those men who had seen very much combat had long since rot-
ated back home.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor--2 Casualties: Total Battle Deaths--1,120
Distinguished Unit Citations----7 Killed In Action---- 898
Distinguished Service Crosses-15 Wounded 3,876
Silver Stars 697 Missing 3
Captured 0
Denotes killed in action (died of wounds) (page 1) Total Casualties -4,777

Other 6th Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II:
2nd Lt Donald E. Rudolph, 20th Inf Rgt, 5 February 1945, Musoz, Luzon

In 1986 the 6th Infantry Division was, once again, reactivated and, as of
February 1988, was stationed in Alaska.





1 WWII


6TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Sight-seeing"


JUNE 1944 JULY 1944 AUGUST 1944 JANUARY 1945
6 June 1 1 July 11 11 Aug 1 9 Jan 111
8 June 1 3 July 1 22 Aug 11 11 Jan 1
10 June 1 4 July 11 12 Jan 111
15 June 11 7 July 11 13 Jan 111111
16 June 1 13 July 1 14 Jan 1
19 June 1 20 July 1 SEPTEMBER 1944 15 Jan 1111
20 June 1111 26 July 1 Sept 1 16 Jan 1111111
22 June 1111111111111111 16 29 July 1 11 Sept 1 17 Jan 111111111111 12
23 June 1111111111111111111111111111111111 34* 30 July 11 18 Jan 1111111111111 16
24 June 111111111111111111111111 24 approx. 3 19 Jan 11
26 June 111111111 9 65Xmen 20 Jan 111111111111 12
28 June 111111 OCTOBER 1944 21 Jan 111
29 June 1 22 Jan 1111111111111 13
24 Oct 1 23 Jan 1
101 24 Jan 1
25 Jan 11111111111 11
26 Jan 11111111111111111111111 23
27 Jan 1111111111 10
28 Jan 111
29 Jan 1
30 Jan 1111
31 Jan 11
139





2 WWII


6TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Sight-seeing"


FEBRUARY 1945 MARCH 1945 APRIL 1945 MAY 1945
1 Feb 1111 1 Mar 111 2 Apr 11111111111 11 5 May 1
2 Feb 111111111 9 2 Mar 111111 3 Apr 1 9 May 11
3 Feb 1111111111 10 3 Mar 1111 4 Apr 1 10 May 1
4 Feb 11111111111 11 4 Mar 111 6 Apr 1111 11 May 1
5 Feb 111111111111111111 18 5 Mar 1 7 Apr 1111111 16 May 1
6 Feb 111 6 Mar 1111 8 Apr 111 27 May 1
7 Feb 111111 7 Mar 111 9 Apr 111 31 May 1
10 Feb 1 8 Mar 111 10 Apr 11
13 Feb 1 9 Mar 11 11 Apr 1
15 Feb 1111111 10 Mar 111111 13 Apr 1
16 Feb 1 11 Mar 1111 14 Apr 1
20 Feb 1 13 Mar 11 15 Apr 11111
21 Feb 1 15 Mar 1 16 Apr 11
23 Feb 11111 16 Mar 111 17 Apr 111111
24 Feb 111111 17 Mar 11111111111111111 17 18 Apr 111111
25 Feb 11 18 Mar 111 19 Apr 1
26 Feb 11111111111111 14 19 Mar 111111 20 Apr 1
27 Feb 111111111111111 15 21 Mar 111 56
28 Feb 1111111111 10 22 Mar 11
23 Mar 1111111
125 24 Mar 1
25 Mar 1111111
26 Mar 111
27 Mar 1
28 Mar 11111
29 Mar 1111
30 Mar 1111
31 Mar 111
111





3 WWII


6TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Sight-seeing"


JUNE 1945 JULY 1945 AUGUST 1945
9 June 1 3 July 1 1 Aug 1
15 June 1 5 July 1 2 Aug 1
16 June 111 6 July 11 3 Aug 11
17 June 1111 7 July 1 5 Aug 1
19 June 1 8 July 11 9 Aug 111
21 June 1 9 July 11 10 Aug 11
22 June 11 13 July 1 11 Aug 1
25 June 1 14 July 1 12 Aug 1
26 June 11 15 July 11 13 Aug 1
27 June 1 18 July 1 15 Aug 1
28 June 11 20 July 1 16 Aug 1
29 June 111 22 July 1 17 Aug 1
22 25 July 1 16
17












6TH INFANTRY DIVISION'S
*bloodiest day 23 June 1944
bloodiest month January 1945
2nd bloodiest day 24 June 1944
3rd bloodiest day 26 January 1945
Total battle deaths -1,120
615 are listed=54.9% KIA- 898



















7TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Hourglass"

Regular Army
Activated (WW II)-- July 1940
Battle Credits, World War II: Attu Marshall Islands Leyte Okinawa
Days In Combat-208
Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Eugene M. Landrum May-June 1943
Brig-Gen A. V. Arnold July-September 1943
Maj-Gen C. H. Corlett September 1943-February 1944
Maj-Gen A. V. Arnold February 1944-September 1945

Combat Chronicle: The 7th Infantry Division didn't see action as an integral unit in
World War I. Nevertheless, its various components had a total of 1,709 casualties, includ-
ing 204 men killed in action.
The 7th saw plenty of action in World War II, and it was regarded as ruthless by the
Japanese.
After being reactivated at Fort Ord, California, in July 1940, the division moved to
Camp San Luis Obispo, for desert training, and later back to Ft. Ord, for special amphib-
ious training. The 7th set sail for the Aleutians, on 24 April 1943.
The 7th landed on bleak, windy, desolate, foggy Attu, on 11 May 1943. In abominable
weather, the 7th became involved in bitter combat with the 2,500 Japanese. The landing
forces advanced toward the Jarmin Pass, but about 1900 hours (7 P.M.) were held up by in-
tense Japanese fire from on the heights on either side of the pass. Deep mud paralysed
trucks, jeeps, tractors, and other vehicles.
By 13 May, the Americans were still pinned down. Finally, after the attack got going,
the 7th sustained severe losses not only from enemy fire, but also from being mistakenly
bombed by U.S. aircraft.
The 7th then commenced attacks in the Holtz Bay area. Fighting over freezing tundra
against a fanatical enemy, the battle spread into the mountains and the valleys. Outnumb-
ered, the Japs elected to retire on 16-17 May, to Chicagof Harbor. After hard fighting,
by 20 May 1943, the 7th succeeded in advancing into the Sarana Valley. The division then
took strongly defended Clevesy Pass on the next day, and cleared Fish Hook Ridge by 27 May.
On 29 May 1943, after being subjected to heavy artillery bombardments, the remaining
Japanese threw themselves at the Americans in a drunken, do-or-die Banzai attack. In an
absolutely ferocious battle, the Japanese were all but annihilated and, by mid-June 1943,
Attu was secured.
There was no jungle rot on Attu, nor was there the stench from the corpses which, after
a few days, burst and splintered like glass. The 7th lost 441 men on miserable Attu!
On 15 August 1943, the 17th and 184th Infantry Regiments of the 7th landed on Kiska, but
it had already been evacuated by the Japanese.
The Hourglass Division then shipped to Hawaii, 15 September 1943, and engaged in intense
jungle and amphibious training.
The 7th's next battle was in the Marshall Islands, in conjunction with the 4th Marine








Division. While the marines landed on Roi and Namur, the 17th Infantry Regiment of the
7th landed on Ennylabegan and Enubuj Islands, on 31 January 1944. On 1 February, the 32nd
and 184th Infantry Regiments assaulted heavily defended Kwajalein. Elements also landed
on Engebi. On Kwajalein, Japanese night attacks were repulsed with the aid of giant search-
lights which prevented the Americans from being caught by surprise. The 184th Infantry was
engaged in heavy fighting against a blockhouse sector, 3 February, and the next day was very
bloody, but by 5 February 1944, the 7th was conducting a mopping-up operation.
Then the 7th sailed to Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, and remained there until it was time for
the invasion of Leyte, in the Philippines.
On 20 October 1944, the liberation of the Philippines began. Under the U.S. 6th Army,
four divisions made the initial assault landings on the east coast of Leyte. From north
to south they were the 1st Cavalry and the 24th, 96th, and 7th Infantry. The 7th met heavy
resistance upon landing. It was opposed by the infamous 16th Division, perpetrators of the
"Bataan Death March." Fighting for every yard, the 7th battled its way inland and, after
heavy combat, within four days captured Dulag, and the San Pablo and Buri Airstrips.
The 7th then crashed into the sizeable town of Burauen. Swinging north, the 7th plowed
through rice paddies, waist-deep mud, and monsoon gales to crush Japanese defenses at the
key town of Dagami. It was in this fighting that the 7th had one of its 3 Medal of Honor
winners of the war, Pfc Leonard C. Brostrom, Company F, 17th Infantry Regiment, near Dagami,
on 28 October 1944.
He was a rifleman with an assault platoon which ran into powerful Japanese resistance.
From pillboxes, trenches, and foxholes so well camouflaged that they could be detected no
more than 20 yards away, the Japanese poured deadly machinegun and rifle fire, causing sev-
ere casualties in his platoon.
Realizing that a key pillbox in the center of the strongpoint would have to be knocked
out if the company were to advance, Pfc Brostrom, without orders and completely ignoring
his own safety, ran forward to attack the pillbox with grenades. He immediately became the
prime target for all of the enemy riflemen in the area, as he rushed to the rear of the
pillbox and tossed grenades through the entrance. Six Japs left a trench in a bayonet
charge against this heroic soldier, but he shot one and drove off the others with rifle
fire. He threw more grenades from his exposed position, and was mortally wounded in the
abdomen and knocked to the ground. Although suffering intense pain and rapidly weakening
from loss of blood, he slowly rose to his feet and once more hurled his deadly missiles at
the pillbox. As he collapsed, the Japs began fleeing from the fortification and were cut
down by riflemen in his platoon.
Pfc Brostrom died while being carried from the battlefield, but his heroic one-man att-
ack against overwhelming odds enabled his company to carry on the attack, and annihilate
the entire Jap position. His actions were in the highest traditions of the U.S. military.
The 7th next eliminated Japanese forces south of the Marabang River, and took Bambay.
The 32nd Infantry Regiment attacked toward Ormoc, on 14 November 1944.
The battle for Shoestring Ridge began on 23 November 1944, as the Japanese counterattack-
ed the spread-out 32nd Infantry along the Palanas River. Reinforced by the 184th Infantry,
numerous Japanese attacks were repulsed in the bamboo thickets. The 7th was relieved in
this region on 28 November 1944, by the llth Airborne Division, which temporarily retained
the 17th Infantry Regiment.
The 7th attacked north from Damulaan, 5 December 1944, toward Ormoc. Advance elements
of the 7th overtook the 77th Infantry Division, and seized Ipil, on 11 December. This act-
ion divided the Japanese forces on Leyte.
The 7th, shifting south, and then to the west coast, attacked north, securing Valencia
against heavy resistance by 25 December 1944. This operation was accomplished under the
most adverse weather conditions. The men were pelted by torrential rains, blown down by
typhoon velocity winds, and fought flash floods, swollen rivers, and streams, as well as
the Japanese.
The 7th then landed on the Camotes Islands, 15 January 1945, and soon eliminated all of
the enemy there, thus concluding its part in the Leyte campaign. Altogether, the 7th had
covered over 100 miles on Leyte, and killed over 16,000 Japanese, while losing 584 men.








But the 7th had yet to enter its toughest and most costly battle. After much preparat-
ion, on 1 April 1945, Easter Sunday, the 7th and 96th Infantry and 1st and 6th Marine Div-
isions all landed on the southwest coast of Okinawa. The two Army divisions pivoted south-
ward, and ran into the most intense Japanese artillery fire of the Pacific War, and the
most tenacious of their defenses.
Progress was agonizingly slow. Among other devices the Japanese had pillboxes with
steel doors so thick that flamethrowers were all but useless against them. They were also
using their artillery and mortars quite accurately, and gains were measured in terms of
yards and even feet. The 7th was in the far left (east) end of the line as it inched south-
ward in this incredible battle.
With the assistance of massed artillery fire, the 184th Infantry Regiment took Tomb Hill
on 9 April 1945. After extremely tough fighting the 17th Infantry Regiment seized the crest
of Skyline Ridge, and sealed the caves there by 23 April. The 17th Infantry then took the
Rocky Crags area, but then failed to force Kochi Ridge.
On 1 May 1945, despite Japanese infiltrators, the 184th Infantry relieved the 32nd Inf-
antry in line. Then, in a heavy battle in which the Americans suffered very heavy losses,
Gaja Ridge was taken, but then lost to a Japanese counterattack.
On 4 May 1945, after an extremely heavy bombardment of over 12,000 artillery shells--
plus Kamikaze attacks--the Japanese executed a major counterattack. In furious fighting,
sometimes at close-quarters, they were repulsed, although they succeeded in temporarily
recapturing Tanabaru Ridge. The main blow of this assault fell against the 7th Infantry
Division. It cost the Japanese 5,000 men. The 7th lost 47 men.
The 7th was relieved by the 96th Infantry Division, 9 May 1945, and rested and rehabil-
itated until 21 May. During this period the island was subjected to very heavy rains which
made miniature lakes out of some of the larger shellholes and craters.
Yonabaru was captured on 22 May 1945. On the 23rd, the 7th suffered severe losses in an
attempt to take a hill that was one of the Japanese strongpoints in their defensive line
east of Chan. In this area the 7th was checked in heavy combat until 1 June 1945.
The battle continued unabated. There seemed to be no end to it for the tired, dirty men
of the 7th, but they continued to batter away at the Japanese defenses. In more furious
fighting Hills 153 and 115 were taken by 17 June. On the next day the 7th suffered further
heavy losses. By this time, however, the Japanese flanks had been pushed-in and, in a few
more days, 21 June 1945, Okinawa was officially declared secured, but severe mop-up actions
continued for about a week longer. In a cave, men of the 32nd Infantry Regiment found the
bodies of General Ushijima, commander of the Japanese 32nd Army, and his chief of staff,
both of whom had committed suicide. The bloodbath had cost the 7th 1,122 men.
After Okinawa was conquered, General Joe "Vinegar" Stilwell, of Burma fame, came to ass-
ume command of the 10th Army, and found his old division, the 7th, waiting for him with a
combat record few other outfits in the Pacific could surpass.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor--3 Casualties: Total Battle Deaths--2,346
Distinguished Unit Citations--9 Killed In Action-- 1,957
Distinguished Service Crosses-26 Wounded 7,258
Silver Stars 982 Missing 'I
Captured 2
* One to the entire 17th Infantry Regiment--Leyte Total Casualties--- 9,221

Other 7th Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action *
Pvt Joe P. Martinez, 32nd Inf Rgt, 26 May 1943, on Attu
Pfc John F. Thorson, 17th Inf Rgt, 28 October 1944, Dagami, Leyte
The 7th Infantry Division later saw extensive service in the Korean War. The 7th is
stationed at Ft. Ord, California. (29 September 1990)


















8TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Golden Arrow"

Regular Army

Activated (WW II)-- July 1940

Battle Credits, World War II: Normandy Brittany Siegfried Line Rhineland
Ruhr Pocket Northern Germany
Days In Combat-266

Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Donald A. Stroh July-December 1944
Maj-Gen William G. Weaver December 1944-February 1945
Maj-Gen Bryant E. Moore February-November 1945

Combat Chronicle; The 8th Infantry Division was first activated during World War I, but
never saw any action. It was a very different story in World War II.
When the Japanese struck at Pearl Harbor, the 8th was immediately assigned to patrolling
the east coast from North Carolina to the Florida Keys.
In December 1943, the 8th sailed to Northern Ireland, and trained with the British near
Belfast.
The Golden Arrow landed in Normandy on the 4th of July 1944, and went into action four
days later. The first assault squads found themselves on the target end of a shooting gall-
ery. Those who made it through the minefields and barbed wire found shells bursting in their
midst. Then there was the terror of the hedgerow. It could hide an enemy machinegun that
could cut a man down from only a few yards away--and still not be seen by other troops.
Stragglers were picked-off by unseen snipers, while enemy 88s completed the havoc. The
8th's losses quickly mounted.
Two days later, another attack by the 8th was beaten back by the Germans, who immediately
counterattacked. The 8th, suddenly finding itself, temporarily withdrew in good order.
Tactics were quickly changed, and the hedgerows were taken in flanking attacks rather
than in costly frontal assaults. The morale of the 8th rapidly rose.
On 14 July, the division reached its first main objective, the north bank of the Ay Riv-
er. Here, it remained in defensive positions for two weeks.
And then, on 26 July 1944, as part of a general offensive, the 8th crossed the Ay River,
flanked by the 79th and 90th Infantry Divisions, and advanced southward in the face of bit-
ter resistance. Nevertheless, by the following day, a huge gap was punched in the German
lines through which the armor of the U.S. 1st Army raced toward Avranches. While the 79th
Infantry followed up behind the 6th Armored Division, the 8th followed in the wake of the
rampaging 4th Armored Division.
Next, the 8th was temporarily split-up. The 13th Infantry Regiment was attached to the
4th Armored, and after a sharp fight, took Rennes. Meanwhile, the 121st Infantry Regiment
was assigned to help out the 83rd Infantry Division to reduce the sea fortress of Dinard in
eastern Brittany. The German garrison consisted of 4,000 men and proved a tough nut to
crack. First attacks were beaten off, and the 3rd Battalion was surrounded for 3 days and
later won the French Croix de Guerre. In a co-ordinated assault the fortress was finally
taken.







Then the 8th, along with the 2nd and 29th Infantry Divisions, the 2nd and 5th Ranger
Battalions, and the French Forces of the Interior (FFI) assaulted the fortress port city
of Brest, at the extreme western tip of Brittany. It was a rough, exhausting battle, to
say the least, and the 8th became involved in bloody, building-to-building street fighting.
However, with several units trying to fight forward through the rubble, it soon became im-
possible to maneuver, and the 8th was pinched out of the attack.
The 8th then crossed over to the Crozon Peninsula. A German map was captured showing
the complete German artillery dispositions on the peninsula. Two hours later, a tremendous
American artillery barrage fell on every German gun on Crozon. The men of the 8th soon
swarmed all over the peninsula, prying Germans out of their pillboxes and dugouts, and by
11 September, the German 343rd Infantry Division had been decimated.
The crack German 2nd Parachute Division was also in Brest with elements on the peninsula,
with the famed German paratroop leader General Ramcke in charge. The assistant commander
of the 8th, Brigadier-General Charles Canham, was told that the paratroop general was pre-
pared to surrender his forces to "an officer of suitable credentials." General Canham mot-
ioned to his grim-faced soldiers with their fixed bayonets and said, "These are my credent-
ials." That phrase has since been immortalized as part of the 8th's history.
After Brest finally fell by mid-September 1944, the 8th drove across northern France and
into Luxembourg, running up against the Siegfried Line. A general assault was made by sev-
eral divisions of the U.S. 1st Army in mid-September, but this attack made little headway
against very fierce resistance. After extensive and aggressive patrolling in this area,
the Golden Arrow was moved further north for a crack at the miserable Hiirtgen Forest, in
November 1944. Two other American divisions, the 9th and 28th Infantry, had already been
very badly battered in this forest, and the 4th Infantry Division was fighting in the area
as the 8th moved in, also sustaining very heavy casualties, It was the 8th's worst battle.
The green hell of the HUrtgenwald was filled with first-class German troops, extensive
mines and booby traps, tough enemy defensive positions including concrete and log bunkers,
barbed wire entanglements, and mud. It rained much of the time, and sometimes turning into
snow. Still, by Hiirtgen Forest standards, the 8th did very well, and a very heroic one-man
action took place in the forest on 21 November 1944.
Staff Sergeant John W. Minick's battalion from the 121st Infantry Regiment was halted by
extensive minefields, exposing the Americans to heavy German artillery and mortar fire.
Further delay in the advance would have resulted in more casualties. A movement through the
minefield was essential.
Voluntarily, S/Sgt Minick led 4 men through the minefield for a distance of 300 yards.
An enemy machinegun opened fire, and he signaled his men to take cover. Then Sgt Minick
edged his way alone toward the flank of the weapon and opened fire, killing two of the crew
and capturing three others. Moving forward again, he singlehandedly engaged an entire com-
pany, killing 20 of the enemy and capturing 20 more. His platoon captured the remainder of
the Germans in this area.
Again advancing forward, Sgt Minick spearheaded his battalion's attack, coming under
heavy machinegun fire. Crawling toward the gun, he knocked it out of action. But then an-
other minefield had to be crossed. Undeterred, the brave sergeant advanced forward alone
through constant enemy fire and, while advancing, detonated a mine and was killed instantly.
For his exceptional gallantry and intrepidity, S/Sgt Minick was posthumously awarded the
Congressional Medal of Honor.
Inspite of such tough going, the 8th managed to clear the small town of Hirtgen, deep in
the forest, 28 November, and Brandenberg by 3 December, then reaching the Roer River.
Then, while the great Battle of the Bulge raged further south, the 8th received orders to
clear the last remaining German positions west of the Roer, around Obermaubach. The fight-
ing was bitter, as the crack 6th Parachute Regiment resisted fiercely, and men fell upon
each other in hand-to-hand combat in the ghostly white wilderness. But Obermaubach was seiz-
ed by the end of December 1944.
For the next two months, opposite the Roer, the Golden Arrow fought a static kind of war,
as the Bulge was being flattened and the front stabilized. The 8th built extensive fortif-
ications, conducted numerous patrol actions, and beat back a number of counterattacks.
Then, on 23 February 1945, the 1st and 9th Armies began their offensive across the Roer.
The 8th's big artillery pieces poured on a 45-minute barrage that virtually flattened the








town of DUren. The Germans fought stubbornly. Upon reaching the Rhine, the 8th cleared
the big city of Cologne--or what was left of it after the Allied bombings--in conjunction
with the 3rd Armored and 104th Infantry Divisions. The Germans had numerous snipers and
men with burp guns and panzerfausts lurking amid the ruins, but the gutted city was still
cleared after only a few days of fierce fighting. The 8th was then given a rest.
The division then swung up against the south side of the Ruhr Pocket, and had to beat
back furious counterattacks by the 12th Volksgrenadier Division which flung itself at the
8th with some of the Wehrmacht's old style. The 8th had to fight hard to take the large
town of Siegen. Battling into the pocket, the 8th took 5,000 prisoners in one day alone as
German resistance began to slacken. Organized German opposition inside the pocket ended by
mid-April 1945, with a tremendous number of POWs taken--well over 300,000:
And then, in the last major assignment of the war for the 8th, it was moved up into nor-
thern Germany, beginning on 26 April 1945. The 8th was one of the few U.S. outfits to act-
ually cross the wide Elbe River. Although some resistance was initially encountered, this
quickly diminished as the Americans got over the river. The Germans knew the jig was all
but up, anyway, and were only too glad to get away from the advancing Russians from the
east, and give themselves up to the Americans and British.
The British 6th Airborne Division and U.S. 7th Armored, 82nd Airborne, and 8th Infantry
Divisions all moved into the western portion of the province of Mecklenburg (greatly, to
forestall a Russian advance into Denmark) meeting very little or no opposition. On 2 May,
the 8th entered the city of Schwerin. Elements of the division captured other smaller
towns against negligible opposition. And then the entire German 3rd Panzer Army surrendered
to the 8th--150,000 first-class German troops:
By the time the war in Europe ended on 8 May 1945, the 8th had captured a grand total of
316,000 prisoners, the highest total of any American division in World War II. But all of
this hadn't been without heavy cost. By V-E Day, the 8th had suffered 13,986 casualties.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor--3 Casualties: Total Battle Deaths-2,852
Distinguished Unit Citations----5 Killed In Action----2,532
Distinguished Service Crosses-33 Wounded ---10,057
Silver Stars 768 Missing---- 729
Captured ...668
Total Casualties-- 13,986

* One to the entire 121st Infantry Regiment--Hirtgen Forest, Germany

The third line infantry regiment of the 8th Infantry Division in World War II
was the 28th Infantry Regiment.

Other 8th Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action *
Pfc Ernest W. Prussman, 13th Inf Rgt, 8 September 1944, near Les Coates, Brittany, France
Pfc Walter C. Wetzel, 13th Inf Rgt, 3 April 1945, Birken, Germany

The 8th Infantry Division has been stationed in the Rhineland, West Germany,
for many years, and still is, as of this writing. (20 September 1984)








8TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Golden Arrow"


JULY 1944 AUGUST 1944
7 July 11 2 Aug 1
8 July 111111111 4 Aug 1111
9 July 111111 5 Aug 1111111
10 July 1111111 7 Aug 1111
11 July 1111111111111111111 19 9 Aug 111111
12 July 11111111111111111111111111111131 10 Aug 111
13 July 111111111111111111111 21 11 Aug 111
14 July 1111111111111111111111111111111 31 12 Aug 11111111111 11
15 July 1111111111111111111 20 13 Aug 111111111111111111111111 24
16 July 1111111111111111111111111111111 36 14 Aug 1111111111111111111111111111 28
17 July 11111111111111 14 15 Aug 1111
18 July 111111111111 12 16 Aug 1111111
19 July 1111111111 10 17 Aug 111111
20 July 111111111111111111 18 18 Aug 111
22 July 1111 19 Aug 1111111
23 July 1111 20 Aug 1
24 July 11111 21 Aug 11111
25 July 11 22 Aug 1111
26 July 11111111111 11 23 Aug 1
27 July 11111111111111111111111111 26 24 Aug 1111
28 July 11111111111111111111 20 25 Aug 11111
29 July 11111111 8 26 Aug 11111111111111 14
30 July 11 27 Aug 11111111111111 14
31 July 11 28 Aug 11111111111111111111111111 26
2 29 Aug 111111
32 30 Aug 111111
31 Aug 111111111 9
213





2 WWII


8TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Golden Arrow"


SEPTEMBER 1944 OCTOBER 1944 NOVEMBER 1944
1 Sept 111111111111111111111 21 2 Oct 1 1 Nov 1
2 Sept 111111 3 Oct 1 5 Nov 1
3 Sept 1111111111111111111111 22 4 Oct 11 8 Nov 1
4 Sept 111111111111111111 18 5 Oct 1 13 Nov 1
5 Sept 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111 40* 6 Oct 11 18 Nov 11
6 Sept 11111 approx. 7 Oct 11 19 Nov 1
7 Sept 1111111 75*men 9 Oct 1 20 Nov 111111
8 Sept 1111 10 Oct 1 21 Nov 11
9 Sept 1111 11 Oct 1 22 Nov 1111111
10 Sept 111111 13 Oct 1 23 Nov 11111111 8
11 Sept 111111 15 Oct 1 24 Nov 111111111 9
12 Sept 11111 18 Oct 11 25 Nov 111111111 9
13 Sept 111 26 Oct 1 26 Nov 11111111 8
14 Sept 11 27 Nov 111
15 Sept 111111 28 Nov 111111111111111 15
16 Sept 11111111 8 29 Nov 11111
17 Sept 111111111111 12 30 Nov 11111111111111 14
18 Sept 1111111111111 13
19 Sept 1111111
20 Sept 111
21 Sept 1
22 Sept 1
27 Sept 1
30 Sept 1
200





3 wwII


8TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Golden Arrow"

DECEMBER 1944 JANUARY 1945 FEBRUARY 1945
1 Dec 1111111111111111 16 1 Jan 11 5 Feb 11
2 Dec 11111111111 11 2 Jan 11 11 Feb 11
3 Dec 1111111 3 Jan 11 13 Feb 1
4 Dec 11111111111 11 4 Jan 1111 15 Feb 11
5 Dec 11111111111 11 5 Jan 1 16 Feb 1
6 Dec 1111111 7 Jan 1 19 Feb 1
7 Dec 11111111 8 9 Jan 1 20 Feb 1
8 Dec 111 10 Jan 1 22 Feb 111
9 Dec 1111 11 Jan 111 23 Feb 11111111111111111111111111111111 32
10 Dec 11111111 8 12 Jan 111 24 Feb 111111111111111111111 21
11 Dec 111111 13 Jan 111 25 Feb 111111111111111111111111111 27
12 Dec 111 15 Jan 1 26 Feb 1111111111111 13
13 Dec 11111111111 11 16 Jan 11 27 Feb 111111111 9
14 Dec 1111111111 10 17 Jan 1 28 Feb 1111111111111111 16
15 Dec 1111111 18 Jan 11 131
16 Dec 111 19 Jan 1
17 Dec 111111111 9 31 Jan 1
18 Dec 11111 31
19 Dec 111111
20 Dec 1111
21 Dec 111111
22 Dec 1111
23 Dec 11111
24 Dec 111111
25 Dec 11111
26 Dec 11111111 8
27 Dec 1111111111111 13
28 Dec 1111111111 10
29 Dec 111111
30 Dec 11111
31 Dec 1111
222








8TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Golden Arrow"

MARCH 1945 APRIL 1945 MAY 1945
1 Mar 11111111111 11 1 Apr 11111111 8 1 May 111
2 Mar 11111111111 11 2 Apr 111111111111111 15 11 May 1
3 Mar 11111111111111111111111111111 29 3 Apr 111111111111 12 4
4 Mar 11111 4 Apr 1111111111111 13
5 Mar 1111111111 10 5 Apr 1111111111 10
6 Mar 11111111111 11 6 Apr 11111111111111 14
7 Mar 1111111111 10 7 Apr 1111111
8 Mar 1 8 Apr 1111111111111111111111 22
9 Mar 1 9 Apr 11111111 8
10 Mar 11 10 Apr 1
16 Mar 11 11 Apr 111111
17 Mar 1 12 Apr 111
19 Mar 11 13 Apr 1111111
23 Mar 1 14 Apr 1111111111 10
24 Mar 1 15 Apr 111
25 Mar 1 16 Apr 1111111111111 13
29 Mar 111 17 Apr 111111
30 Mar 11 18 Apr 1
31 Mar 1111 25 Apr 1
108 26 Apr 1
27 Apr 11
28 Apr 1
164


8TH INFANTRY DIVISION'S
*bloodiest day 5 September 1944
bloodiest month July 1944
2nd bloodiest day ---16 July 1944
3rd 23 February 1945
4th -12 and 14 July 1944
5th 3 March 1945
Total battle deaths 2,804
1,503 are listed=53.6% KIA-2,513



















9TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Varsity"

Activated (WW II)-- August 1940
Inactivated-15 January 1947
Reactivated-15 July 1947
Battle Credits, World War IIt Morocco Algeria Tunisia Sicily
Normandy Northern France-Belgium
Days In Combat-4C04 Siegfried Line Ardennes Rhineland
Central Germany
Commanding Generals (During Combat, WV II):
Maj-Gen Manton S. Eddy August 1942-August 1944
Maj-Gen Louis A. Craig August 1944-May 1945

Combat Chronicle: The 9th Infantry Division has a World War II record that
few outfits can surpass. Its 23,277 casualties attest to the tough fighting
it saw. And the battles the 9th won attest to its high combat effectiveness.
"Stars and Stripes" called it "The Varsity." Someone else dubbed the division
"Hitler's Nemesis."
In its first combat of the war, the invasion of North Africa, 8 November
1942, the 9th was divided up. The 39th Infantry Regiment, as part of the East-
ern Task Force, landed at Algiers, and the other two infantry regiments landed
on the coast of Morocco-the 47th at Safi, and the 60th at Port Lyautey. The
worst resistance was encountered at the latter place, where the French fought
fiercely. The defenders included Legionnaires, and the heights above Port Lyau-
tey bristled with French artillery that exchanged salvos with U.S. battleships
and destroyers, forcing them to withdraw. Hardest hit in the 60th Infantry was
the 2nd Battalion. One company lost five of its six officers. The walls of a
kasbah were scaled, but it wasn't until 11 November, that a cease-fire was rea-
ched. The main problem with the French in North Africa was that they were und-
er the overall command of Admiral Darlan, a notorious Nazi collaborator who was
eventually assassinated.
The 9th then patrolled the Spanish Moroccan border against possible inter-
vention by Franco's Spanish Army. Franco was a well-known Nazi sympathizer.
However, this never occurred, and the 9th entered the battle in Tunisia in
February 1943.
Part of the 9th fought at Sened against seasoned Italian troops. At Mak-
nassy, the fighting continued for nearly two weeks, and at El Guettar, with
the 1st Infantry Division alongside, the battle raged for 11 days and nights in
the bitterest kind of combat. In the latter action, the 47th Infantry Regiment
suffered heavy losses, while the entire division failed in an assault on Hill
772. By 7 April 1943, however, the Germans and Italians in central Tunisia
were thrown back, and the British 8th Army broke through the Mareth Line in the
south. The enemy retreated into northern Tunisia around a final line of brist-
ling, well-fortified defenses.
On 11 April 1943, the 9th was moved into northern Tunisia, and took over the










British 46th Infantry Division's sector. Reinforced by the French Expedition-
ary Corps, the 9th attacked toward enemy positions near Jefna, 23 April 1943,
and took Djebel Dardyss the next day. After sustained combat, the 9th captured
Hill 382 and Kef en Nsour. Battling along and near the northern coast, the 9th
slashed through the Sedjenane Valley and on to Bizerte. Axis resistance coll-
apsed on 13 May 1943.
On Sicily, the 9th landed at Palermo in the end of July 1943, and two of its
regiments, again fighting next to the 1st Infantry Division, took part in the
bitter battle at Troina, the Americans' toughest fight of the campaign. It
took almost two weeks of intense fighting, plus artillery and air strikes, be-
fore the 15th Panzer Grenadier Division finally withdrew during the night of
6 August 1943. Continuing north,the 9th took Floresta and Randazzo, and help-
ed capture the city of Messina, on the northern tip of the large island, con-
cluding the campaign on 17 August 1943. Both North Africa and Sicily cost the
9th 681 men dead and 2,542 wounded.
Then the Varsity sailed for England to take part in the invasion of Normandy.
After a long period of training and waiting, the 9th landed on 10 June 1944
(D-plus 4) and almost immediately ran into the toughest fighting it had yet en-
countered. Swinging west, the 9th cut off the Cotentin Peninsula, and then,
along with the 4th and 79th Infantry Divisions, battled north up the peninsula
through difficult hedgerow country and strong German opposition in a spirited
assault. The objective was the port of Cherbourg. After intense street-fight-
ing, the port was captured in late-June 1944, with the 9th capturing the German
commander of the seaport garrison. On 29 June, the 9th attacked Cap de la Hag-
ue Peninsula and secured it quickly.
On 9 July 1944, the 9th arrived in the Taute sector of Normandy to take part
in the costly fighting southward toward St. L8. The division was soon hit by an
attack by the crack Panzerlehr Division which penetrated its lines in the L6
Desert area on 11 July. However, this attack Was soon contained.
Then the 9th, along with the 83rd and 90th Infantry Divisions, launched an
offensive. Advancing south, 3 regiments abreast through the bocage country,
German soldiers had to be blasted and bayoneted out of holes dug into the root
bases of the hedgerows. The St. L&-Coutances Road was reached, and then the
St. Lo-P4riers Road in the heaviest kind of fighting.
After a short rest, the 9th took part in the major U.S. breakthrough west
of St. Lo, beginning 25 July 1944, which was also the 9th Infantry Division's
bloodiest day in combat of the entire war. On this extremely bloody day the
9th lost over 170 men killed in action.
Exploiting the breakthrough, the 9th found itself, in August 1944, helping
to trap thousands of German troops in the Falaise Gap, although many of them
did manage to fight their way out. Altogether, the entire bloodbath in Norm-
andy cost the 9th over 1,700 men killed in action or died of wounds
Turning eastward, the Varsity crossed the Marne, near Mieux, on 27 August,
fought at ChAteau-Thierry, and continued in fast pursuit with the 3rd Armored
Division into Belgium. The 9th crossed the Meuse River at Dinant, 6 September,
in the face of strong resistance. Libge was cleared and, on 13 September 1944,
the division entered Germany, south of Rotgen.
By mid-September 1944, the 9th had plunged into the dark depths of the Hurt-
gen Forest, probably the worst place to fight in the entire Siegfried Line.
The 9th was the first American division to fight in this miserable forest,
which was filled with mud, mines, booby-traps, and well dug-in first-class
German troops. In fact, Hitler had just recently ordered the crack, full-
strength, 14,000-man 12th Infantry Division by rail, all the way from East
Prussia, for the sole purpose of helping to stop the Americans in this forest.
Casualties quickly mounted on both sides, and officers in the 9th leaped up-










ward on the senority lists by the mere fact of survival.
The 60th Infantry Regiment engaged in close-quarters fighting in the forest,
while the 39th Infantry took Hill 554 after heavy combat by 29 September 1944.
Severe weather hampered continued fighting in the forest. However, an import-
ant road junction was finally secured by 14 October, but the 9th was stopped
far short of its objective of the town of Schmidt.
The 28th Infantry Division relieved the 9th in the Hirtgen Forest on 26 Oct-
ober 1944. The 9th lost over 700 men.
After a rest, rehabilitation, and receiving replacements, the 9th held def-
ensive positions from Monschau to Losheim. However, in a limited attack on
Frenzenberg Castle, near Weisweiler, Germany, the 9th had one of its 5 Medal
of Honor winners of the war, Pfc Carl V. Sheridan, Company K, 47th Infantry
Regiment, 26 November 1944.
In an attack on this fortress, held by 70 German paratroopers, Company K
advanced 1,000 yards through shattering artillery and mortar fire, and captured
two buildings in the courtyard of the castle, but was left with only 35 men.
Pfc Sheridan, a recently arrived 18-year-old replacement, was a bazooka man.
The only approach to this stone castle was across the courtyard and over a draw-
bridge above a moat, leading to a heavy, barricaded oaken door.
Realizing that his weapon was the only one left with the power to blast-in
this door and, although handicapped by the lack of an assistant, he skillfully
fired two rounds into the door, weakening it, but not destroying it. Carefully,
he reloaded with his last rocket, took careful aim, and blasted in the heavy
barricade. Turning to his company he shouted, "Come on, let's get them:" With
his .45 pistol blazing, he charged into the gaping entrance and was killed by
the withering fire that met him.
The final assault on Frenzenberg Castle was made through the gap which Pfc
Sheridan gave his life to create. His action was in keeping with the highest
traditions of the U.S. military.
Not long after this episode, the 9th relieved the great 1st Infantry Divis-
ion on 7 December 1944, in the Luchem-Langerwehe-Juengersdorf-Merode region.
The 9th, in conjunction with the 3rd Armored Division, then launched an attack
toward the Roer River, 10 December, taking the small towns of Echtz and Schlich.
When the Germans struck with their all-out counteroffensive in the Ardennes
on 16 December 1944, the 9th was holding a sector toward the northern end of
the assault. It helped contain German attacks toward Mariaweiler and Guerzen-
ich. The 9th next relieved the 2nd and 99th Infantry Divisions, and defended
the Monschau area, and restoring the Monschau Forest line by 23 December 1944.
Of course, there were many untold instances of individual heroism during
the Battle of the Bulge, but a very courageous action was that of Technical
Sergeant Pete Dalessondro, Company E, 39th Infantry Regiment, near Kalterher-
berg, Germany, 22 December 1944.
Sgt Dalessondro manned a machinegun after its 2-man crew had been put out
of action. Assaulted by an overwhelming force of the enemy, he ordered his
platoon to withdraw, while directing a murderous rain of lead at the Germans
who, thinking that the machinegun had been knocked out for good, scurried for
cover at the edge of a woods. This action saved the probable annihilation of
his platoon, while upsetting the entire German advance in the area.
Theh, as the Germans infiltrated in close, he directed artillery fire right
onto the area of his position, even though the officer on the other end of the
phone greatly hesitated to do this. But Pete insisted.
Soon, Sgt Dalessondro was captured and forced to lie out in the open as the
artillery barrage pounded into the Germans. But, miraculously, he wasn't ser-
iously injured, while all around him Germans cried out in pain. When the bar-
rage lifted, the irate German commanding officer took him behind the German
lines. There, he was treated for minor wounds by a much more sympathetic doc-









tor. However, he used paper bandages because of the medical shortages in Ger-
many. Sgt Dalessondro remained a prisoner for the duration of the war, and was
later awarded the Medal of Honor. Ironically, he was liberated by his own 9th
Infantry Division.
The 9th maintained defensive positions throughout the remainder of the Bulge
battle.
On 30 January 1945, the 9th jumped-off from Monschau, after relieving the
99th Infantry Division, and helped the 78th Infantry Division take the vital
Roer River Dams. The 9th then advanced to the Rhine, and was one of the first
outfits to go into the Remagen bridgehead. The 9th helped defeat furious Ger-
man attacks on the bridgehead, and then battled its way out of it. The entire
47th Infantry Regiment was later awarded the Distinguished Unit Citation for
this action. The 9th then cut the Cologne-Frankfurt autobahn (4-lane divided
highway), and captured the ancient walled town of ZUlpich.
Next, the 9th entered the huge Battle of the Ruhr Pocket, fighting on the
eastern side of it. Parts of the 9th and llth Panzer Divisions counterattack-
ed so fiercely near Winterberg, that the 9th was forced to dig-in and tempor-
arily go over on the defensive. Reinforcements arrived and, after heavy fight-
ing, organized resistance in the pocket ended by mid-April 1945.
After this, the Varsity Division advanced eastward into central Germany and
took Nordhausen, liberating a slave-laborer camp.
Then, swinging somewhat to the north, the 9th attacked into the Harz Mount-
ains, a very high-hilled, heavily wooded region. Several other U.S. divisions
also attacked into the Harz from all different directions. There were 70,000
Germans in the Harz, including the crack 5th Parachute Division, but they were
too disorganized, at this stage of the war, to put up any more than a limited
defense. Still, they caused considerable casualties. On 18 April 1945, the
60th Infantry Regiment overran Magdesprung and Friedrichsbrunn, while the 47th
Infantry cleared Opperode, and the motorized 39th Infantry Regiment reached
the sizeable town of Quedlinburg. By 23 April 1945, the Germans in the Harz
had given up.
Heading back to the east, the 9th pulled up along the Mulde River, which
flows into the Elbe, and relieved the 3rd Armored Division near Dessau. The
9th held that line until V-E Day, 8 May 1945.
Ernie Pyle, the famous war correspondent, once said, "The 9th is good."
He knew what he was talking about.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor--5 Casualtiess Total Battle Deaths-4,550
Distinguished Unit Citations--24 Killed In Action-- 3,856
Distinguished Service Crosses-76 Wounded 17,416
Silver Stars 2,282 Missing ----357
Captured 1,648
Total Casualties--23,277
* One to the entire 47th Infantry Regiment--Remagen. Bridgehead, Germany
Other 9th Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World War IIs KIA *
2nd Lt John E. Butts, 60th Inf Rgt, 14, 16, and 23 June 1944, Normandy
Sgt William L. Nelson, 60th Inf Rgt, 24 April 1943, near Sedjenane, Tunisia
Lt Col Matt Urban, Summer 1944, Northern France
The 9th Infantry Division served in the Vietnam War. The 9th is stationed at
Ft. Lewis, Washington (as of this writing). (17 August 1989)






1 WWII


7TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Hourglass"


MAY 1943 JUNE 1943 FEBRUARY 1944
11 May 11 1 June 1 2 Feb 11111111 8
12 May 111111111111 12 5 June 1 3 Feb 1111111111111111111111111 25
13 May 1111111 6 June 1 4 Feb 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111 40
14 May 111111111111 12 7 June 1 5 Feb 11111111111111 14
15 May 1111 8 June 1 6 Feb 1111
16 May 11 5 91
17 May 1111111111111111 16
18 May 1
19 May 111111111 9
20 May 111111111111111111111111 24
21 May 11111111 8
22 May 1111
23 May 11
24 May 111111
25 May 111111111 9
26 May 11111111 8
27 May 11
28 May 1111111
29 May 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
30 May 111111 110k approx. 200* men
251





2 WWII


7TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Hourglass"

OCTOBER 1944 NOVEMBER 1944 DECEMBER 1944 JANUARY 1945
20 Oct 11 1 Nov 1 1 Dec 1111 2 Jan 1
21 Oct 1111111111111 13 2 Nov 1 3 Dec 11 3 Jan 1
22 Oct 111111111111111111111 21 3 Nov 111 5 Dec 111111111 9 4 Jan 1
23 Oct 11111111111 11 4 Nov 1111 6 Dec 11111111111111111111 20 7 Jan 1
24 Oct 11111111111111111 17 5 Nov 1 7 Dec 1111 8 Jan 1
25 Oct 11111111111111111 17 6 Nov 1 8 Dec 11111111 8 9 Jan 11
26 Oct 111111111 9 8 Nov 1 10 Dec 111111111 9 13 Jan 11
27 Oct 111111111111 12 13 Nov 1 11 Dec 1 15 Jan 11
28 Oct 111111111111111111111113 24 15 Nov 11 12 Dec 111111 17 Jan 1
29 Oct 111111111111111 15 16 Nov 1 13 Dec 1 21 Jan 1
30 Oct 111111111111111111 18 17 Nov 11111111 8 14 Dec 111 23 Jan 1
31 Oct 11111111 8 18 Nov 11 16 Dec 11111111 8 24 Jan 111111
167 19 Nov 1 17 Dec 111 25 Jan 1
16 25 Nov 11 18 Dec 11 28 Jan 1
27 Nov 1 19 Dec 11 29 Jan 1
29 Nov 11 21 Dec 11 31 Jan 11
24 Dec 11
32 25 Dec 25
27 Dec 11111
30 Dec 11
94





3 WWII 7TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Hourglass"


APRIL 1945 MAY 1945 JUNE 1945
1 Apr 1 1 May 1U lllll 111llllllll111llllllllll 33 1 June 11
2 Apr 11 2 May 1111111 2 June 11
3 Apr 1111111111 10 3 May 11111111111111111 17 3 June 11111
4 Apr 11 4 May 111111111111111 15 4 June 111
5 Apr 111111111111 12 5 May 1111111111111 13 5 June 1111111
6 Apr 1 6 May 111 6 June 11
7 Apr 111 7 May 11 7 June 111111
8 Apr 11111111111111111 17 8 May 11111 8 June 11111111 8
9 Apr 11111111 8 9 May 11111111 8 9 June 111111
10 Apr 1111111111 10 11 May 111 10 June l1111111111111 15
11 Apr 11111111111 11 13 May 11 11 June 1
12 Apr 1111 22 May 1 12 June 111
13 Apr 11111111 8 23 May 11111111111111111111111111111 29 13 June 1111111111 10
14 Apr 111111 24 May 11111111111111 15 14 June 111
15 Apr 1111111 25 May 1111111 15 June 11111111 8
17 Apr 11111 26 May 11 16 June 1111
18 Apr 1 27 May 11111111 8 17 June 1111111
19 Apr l111111111111111 17 28 May 11 18 June 1111111111111111 16
20 Apr 111111 29 May 11111111 8 19 June 111111111 9
21 Apr 11111111111111111111 20 30 May 11 20 June 11111111 8
22 Apr 1111111111111111111111111 25 31 May 111111 21 June 1
23 Apr 11111111111 11 188 22 June 11111
24 Apr 11111111111111 14 23 June 111
25 Apr 1111 24 June 111
26 Apr 111111 25 June 11
27 Apr 11111111 8 26 June 1
28 Apr 111111111111111 15 27 June 1
29 Apr 111111111111111111 18 141
30 Apr 11111111111111111111111 23
275

7TH INFANTRY DIVISION'S
*bloodiest day 29 May 1943
bloodiest month April 1945
2nd bloodiest day '4I February 1944
3rd bloodiest day- 1 May 1945
Total battle deaths-2,346
1,269 are listed=54.Q% KIA-1,957





1 WWII


9TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Varsity"

NOVEMBER 1942 FEBRUARY 1943 APRIL 1943 MAY 1943
8 Nov 111111111111111111111 21 20 Feb 11 1 Apr 11111 1 May 1111111
9 Nov 111111 21 Feb 1111 2 Apr 1111111 3 May 1
10 Nov 111111 22 Feb 11111111 8 3 Apr 11111111111 11 6 May 111
11 Nov 1 28 Feb 11 4 Apr 11111111 8 7 May 111
20 Nov 11 16 5 Apr 11111 13 May 11111
6 6 Apr 11111111111 11 14 May 1
7 Apr 11111
MARCH 1943 8 Apr 11111111111 11 20
DECEMBER 1942 10 Mar 1 9 Apr 1
10 Apr 1
5 Dec 1 19 Mar 11 Apr 1
28 Dec 1 23 Mar 111 14 Apr 1
2 24 Mar 11111 1 Apr 1
25 Mar 111 17 Apr 1
18 Apr 11
28 Mar 11111111111111111111111 23 2
23 Apr 111111111111 14
29 Mar 11111111111111111111111 23 2 Ap 11111 1
24 Apr 111111111111i m 12
30 Mar niiiiiIiIIiii 15 24 Apr IiiiiIiiiiIn 12
31 Mar 111111111111 12 Apr 1111111111 10
25 Apr 1111111111 10
87 26 Apr 111
27 Apr 111
28 Apr 1111
29 Apr 11
30 Apr 111111
127





2 WWII


9TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Varsity"

JULY 1943 JUNE 1944
31 July 111111111111 12 12 June 111
12 13 June 1
2 14 June 111111111111 12
15 June 1111111111111111111i1111ii llllM 32
AUGUST 1943 16 June 1111111111 15
17 June 11111111111111111 17
1 Aug 111 18 June 11111111111111111111111 24
2 Aug 1 19 June 11
3 Aug 1 20 June 1111111111111 13
4 Aug 1 21 June 11111111 8
5 Aug 1 22 June 11111U111111111111111111 24
6 Aug 111111111 9 23 June 111111Ui111U11111U1111111U11i 32
7 Aug 1111111111111111111111111 25 24 June lUi11l1111 12
8 Aug 1 25 June 111111U111111111111111 22
9 Aug 111 26 June 11111111111 11
10 Aug 11 27 June 11
11 Aug 1 28 June 11
12 Aug 111111 29 June 11111111111111111 17
13 Aug 1 30 June 111111111U11111111111 21
6 270





3 WWII


9TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Varsity"


JULY 1944
1 July 11
5 July 1
7 July 1
9 July 1
10 July llll111111111llll1111111111111 32
11 July 1111111111111111 16
12 July 111111111111111111111111111111111111 36
13 July 111111111111111111111111111111 34
14 July 1111111111111-111111111111111111111111 40
15 July 11111111111111ll11 111111 28
16 July 111l11111111111111111111111111 33
17 July 1111111111111111111ll11111111111111 40
18 July 11111111111111111111 20
19 July 1111111111111111111111111111 28
20 July 1111111111111111111111 22
21 July 111111111111 12
22 July 111
23 July 11111
24 July 11111111111111111111 20
25 July 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111ll11111111111111U1111 95
26 July 11111111111111111111111111111111111 36 approx.
27 July 111111111111111111 18 170Xmen
28 July 111
30 July 11
31 July 11
530





4 WWII


9TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Varsity"

AUGUST 1944 SEPTEMBER 1944
1 Aug 1111111 1 Sept 11111
2 Aug 1111111111111111111111 22 2 Sept 111
3 Aug 11111111111111111111111111111111111111 39 3 Sept 1111111
4 Aug 111111111111111111111 22 4 Sept 1111111
5 Aug 11111111111111 14 5 Sept 1111111111111 13
6 Aug 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 52 6 Sept 11111111111111111111111111 28
7 Aug 1111111111111111111111111 25 7 Sept 11111
8 Aug 1111111111111111111111111 25 8 Sept 11
9 Aug 1111111111111111 16 9 Sept 11
10 Aug 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111 40 10 Sept 1
11 Aug 111111111111111111 18 11 Sept 1
12 Aug 1 12 Sept 1
13 Aug 11 13 Sept 11111
15 Aug 11 14 Sept 111
16 Aug 111 15 Sept 11111111 8
17 Aug 11111111111111111 17 16 Sept 11111111111111111 17
18 Aug 1 17 Sept 111111111111111111111111111 27
19 Aug 1 18 Sept 111111111111 12
21 Aug 1 19 Sept 11111
26 Aug 11 20 Sept 1111111111111 13
28 Aug 1 21 Sept 1111
31 Aug 11 22 Sept 111111111111111111 18
23 Sept 1111
313 24 Sept 1
25 Sept 11111111111 11
26 Sept 111111111 9
27 Sept 11111111 8
28 Sept 11111111 8
29 Sept 1111111
30 Sept 11111
240





5 ww11


9TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Varsity"

OCTOBER 1944 NOVEMBER 1944 DECEMBER 1944
1 Oct 1 1 Nov 1 3 Dec 1
2 Oct 11 12 Nov 1 6 Dec 1
3 Oct 11 16 Nov 11111111 8 8 Dec 1
5 Oct 11 19 Nov 1 9 Dec 11
6 Oct 1111111111111111111 19 20 Nov 1111111111111111111 20 10 Dec 111111111111 12
7 Oct 11111111111111111111111 23 21 Nov 1111111111 10 11 Dec 11111111111 11
8 Oct 1111111111111111 16 22 Nov 11 12 Dec 111111111111111111111111111111 30
9 Oct 111111111111111111 18 23 Nov 1 13 Dec 11111
10 Oct 111111111111 12 24 Nov 111 14 Dec 11
11 Oct 111111111111111111111111111 27 25 Nov 1111111111 10 15 Dec 1111111
12 Oct 1111111111111111111111111 25 26 Nov 111111111 16 Dec 1
13 Oct 111111111111111111111111111111 30 27 Nov 111 17 Dec 111
14 Oct 11111111111111111111111111 26 28 Nov 11 18 Dec 1
15 Oct 11111111111111111111111 24 71 20 Dec 1
16 Oct 1111111 21 Dec 111
17 Oct 111111111 9 22 Dec 11111111 8
18 Oct 11111111 8 23 Dec 111
19 Oct 11 24 Dec 1
20 Oct 111111 26 Dec 1
21 Oct 111 27 Dec 111
22 Oct 1 28 Dec 111
23 Oct 11 29 Dec 1
24 Oct 11 30 Dec 11
25 Oct 111 31 Dec 11
26 Oct 11 105
27 Oct 1
28 Oct 1
31 Oct 11
276





6 wwII

9TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Varsity"

JANUARY 1945 FEBRUARY 1945 MARCH 1945 APRIL 1945
1 Jan 1111111 1 Feb 111111111 9 1 Mar 111111111111 12 1 Apr 1111111111111111 16
3 Jan 11111 2 Feb 1 2 Mar 11111111 8 2 Apr 11111111111111111 17
4 Jan 111 3 Feb 11111111111 11 4 Mar 1111111 3 Apr 11111111 8
6 Jan 1 4 Feb 11 5 Mar 1 4 Apr 1
7 Jan 11 5 Feb 11111111 8 6 Mar 11111 5 Apr 111111111 9
10 Jan 1111 8 Feb 111 7 Mar 111 6 Apr 1111
12 Jan 1 9 Feb 1111111111111 13 8 Mar 1111111 7 Apr 1111
15 Jan 111 10 Feb 111 9 Mar 11111111111111111111 22 8 Apr 1
23 Jan 1 11 Feb 1 10 Mar 111 9 Apr 1111
24 Jan 111 12 Feb 1 11 Mar 111111111111111111111 21 10 Apr 11
25 Jan 11 18 Feb 1 12 Mar 111111111111111111111 21 13 Apr 1
28 Jan 11 20 Feb 1 13 Mar 11111111111111 14 14 Apr 11111111 8
30 Jan 111111111 9 27 Feb 1111111 14 Mar 111111111111111111 18 15 Apr 11
31 Jan 1111 28 Feb 1111111111111 13 15 Mar 1111111111111111111111111 25 16 Apr 111111111111111 15
7 16 Mar 11111111111111111111 20 17 Apr 111111111111111 15
47 17 Mar 1111111111111111111 20 18 Apr 1111111
18 Mar 111111111111111111 18 19 Apr 111
19 Mar 11111111 8 20 Apr 11
20 Mar 11 23 Apr 11
21 Mar 11 25 Apr 1
22 Mar 1 27 Apr 11
23 Mar 11111 124
24 Mar 1
25 Mar 111111111 9
9TH INFANTRY DIVISION'S 26 Mar 11 MAY 1945
29 Mar 111
*bloodiest day----- 25 July 1944 30 Mar 1 3 May 1
bloodiest month July 1944 3 Mar 1 17 May 1
2nd bloodiest day- -6 August 1944 31 Mar 26 May 1
3rd bloodiest day 14 and 17 July and 260
10 August 1944
4th 3 August 1944
5th --- 12 and 26 July 1944
6th 13 July 1944
Total battle deaths -,531
2.677 are listed=59.0% KIA-3,863




















10TH MOUNTAIN DIVISION "Mountaineers"

Activated-15 July 1943

Returned To United States-11 August 1945

Inactivated-30 November 1945

Battle Credits, World War II: Northern Apennines Po Valley

Commanding General (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen George P. Hays November 1944-November 1945

Combat Chronicle: The 10th Mountain Division was activated at Camp Hale, Colorado, on
15 July 1943, and, at that time, was known as the 10th Light Division. It was not off-
icially designated as the 10th Mountain Division until more than a year later. Previous-
ly, however, the 87th Mountain Infantry Regiment had seen minor action in the Aleutians
in May 1943, losing 16 men.
Except for this, the 10th Mountain Division saw all of its actual combat in Italy.
First elements of the division began arriving in Italy in late-December 1944. After a
brief training period, the 10th Mountain entered combat in the northern Apennines, near
Cutigliano and Orsigna, on 6 January 1945.
After preliminary defensive actions, the Mountaineers were given the highly difficult
task of dislodging crack German troops from some very formidable heights in the northern
Apennines, in mid-February 1945. It was rugged country, even for a St. Bernard, but the
men of the 10th had trained for a year and a half for such an operation. They had train-
ed in sub-zero weather, and many of them had been battling the elements all their lives.
Some of them were famous skiers, and others were climbers, forest rangers, and park and
wild-life service men.
On the night of 18-19 February 1945, some 1,300 men from the 10th Mountain climbed
the steep slopes of Riva Ridge in the snow and ice. This monumental feat of arms com-
pletely surprised the Germans who thought the icy slopes to be impregnable. This feat
greatly facilitated the attack on Monte Belvedere. German counterattacks were defeated
and the 10th gained the crests of both Monte Belvedere and Monte Gorgolesco on 20 Feb-
ruary. The 10th then advanced against the crest of Monte della Torraccia in the face of
strong enemy opposition, and reached its summit after heavy fighting on 24 February 1945,
and routed the first-rate German 232nd Infantry Division.
In early-March 1945, the 10th, in limited objective attacks, fought its way north of
Canolle, taking several more peaks, beating back counterattacks, and advancing to within
15 miles of the city of Bologna. The object of these attacks was to gain better jumping-
off positions for the coming Allied offensive in the spring, and the 10th Mountain did a
splendid job.
The 10th then maintained defensive positions for the next three weeks.
Then, on 14 April 1945, the 5th Army was ready to begin its long-awaited offensive
out of the mountains and into the Po Valley. The morning was covered with fog and mist







and the situation was very tense. Both commanders and troops were depending heavily
on close air support for the attack. Then, about 9:45 A.M., the weather began to clear,
and the air force went into action, as did the artillery, pounding enemy targets, many
of them pre-selected. While the ground still shook, the troops began advancing forward.
The 10th Mountain led the way, fighting in the clouds, and the battle was intense. The
10th slugged ahead relentlessly, smashing through elements of two German divisions which
were blocking the way. The Germans hastily moved over their mobile reserve, the 90th
Panzer Grenadier Division, but this also failed. 14 and 15 April 1945, were the 10th
Mountain Division's two bloodiest days of the war, and it was also on 14 April that the
10th had a Medal of Honor winner, Pfc John D. Magrath, Company G, 85th Mountain Infan-
try Regiment, near Castel d'Aiano, Italy.
His company was pinned down by heavy artillery, mortar, and small-arms fire near
Castel d'Aiano. Voluntarily acting as a scout, and armed only with a rifle, he charged
headlong into withering fire, killing two Germans and wounding three others in order to
capture a machinegun. Carrying this weapon across an open field through heavy fire, he
eliminated two more machinegun nests. Pfc Magrath then circled behind four other Ger-
mans who were firing into his company, and dispatched them with a burst from his weapon.
Spotting another enemy position to his right, he knelt down and exchanged fire with them
until he had killed 2 of the enemy and wounded 3 more.
Pfc Magrath next volunteered to brave the shelling of his company to collect a report
of casualties. As he was carrying out this task, he was killed, his actions in keeping
with the highest traditions of the U.S. military.
The intensive fighting continued with the 10th Mountain capturing Mongiorgio on 20
April. On this same day the 10th Mountain and 85th Infantry Divisions broke out of the
mountains and into the Po Valley, with the 10th seizing the strategic towns of Pradal-
bino and Bomporto. The 10th Mountain advanced 75 miles in 8 action-packed days in rea-
ching the Po at San Benedetto on 23 April 1945.
Crossing the river on that same day, the 10th reached the vicinity of Verona, 25 Ap-
ril, and ran into heavy fighting at Torbole and Nago, near the southern end of Lake
Garda. After an amphibious crossing of this large mountain lake, the 10th secured
Gargnano and Porto di Tremosine by 30 April 1945.
The 10th Mountain had many outstanding soldiers in its ranks. One was world champion
ski jumper, Sergeant Torger Tokle, from Norway, who was killed in action in March 1945.
And, as the 10th moved into the Alps, Colonel Bill Darby, famous organizer of the elite
Rangers, was killed by a mortar burst near Lake Garda, on 1 May. He had wanted to be up
front where the action was, and got it with the 10th Mountain.
The 10th advanced north into the Alps and through Trento, capturing many prisoners,
and when the Germans surrendered in Italy on 2 May 1945, was in the old gray-walled city
of Merano. The 10th then went on security duty, receiving the surrender of various Ger-
man units, and screening the areas of occupation.
During the month of April 1945, the 10th Mountain Division lost more men than any
other U.S. division fighting in either Italy or Germany:
The Germans were continually surprised by the offensive power of the American divis-
ions in the mountains of Italy, especially the 10th Mountain Division, one of the truly
41ite American outfits to come out of the war.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor--- Casualties: Total Battle Deaths--955
Distinguished Unit Citations---- Killed In Action-----872
Distinguished Service Crosses--3 Wounded '3,134
Silver Stars ''l19 Missing --38
Captured 28
Total Casualties---4,072
The 10th Mountain was reactivated in July 1948 as the 10th Infantry Division,
but was later, again inactivated.
In 1986, the 10th Mountain Division was again reactivated and, as of February 1988,
was stationed at Fort Drum, New York.





WWII



10TH MOUNTAIN DIVISION "Mountaineers"


JANUARY 1945 FEBRUARY 1945 MARCH 1945
6 Jan 111 2 Feb 1 1 Mar 11
10 Jan 1 4 Feb 1 2 Mar 11
21 Jan 1 17 Feb 1 3 Mar 1111111111111111111111111111 28
25 Jan 1 20 Feb 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111 4 Mar 11111111111111 14
26 Jan 1 1111111111 50 5 Mar 111111111111111111111111 24
30 Jan 11 21 Feb 111111111111111111111111111 27 6 Mar 11111111 8
22 Feb 1111111111111111 16 7 Mar 11111
S23 Feb 11111111 8 8 Mar 1111
24 Feb 11111111 8 9 Mar 11
25 Feb 111111 10 Mar 1
26 Feb 111 11 Mar 1111
27 Feb 1 12 Mar 1
28 Feb 1 13 Mar 1
18 Mar 1
123 19 Mar 1
21 Mar 1
24 Mar 1
25 Mar 1
26 Mar 1
30 Mar 1
31 Mar 1
o10





2 WWII


1OTH MOUNTAIN DIVISION "Mountaineers"


APRIL 1945 MAY 1945
1 Apr 1 1 May 111
5 Apr 1 4 May 1
14 Apr 1111111111111111111111111111111111III111111111111111111i i 60 21 May 1
15 Apr 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 61j*
16 Apr 111111111111111111111 21 approx .
17 Apr 1111111111111 13 11O-l_5men
18 Apr 11111111 8
19 Apr 1111111111111111111111 22
20 Apr 11111
21 Apr 1111111111111111 16
22 Apr 11111111111 11
23 Apr 111111111111111 15
24 Apr 111
25 Apr 1
28 Apr 111
29 Apr 11111111111 11
30 Apr 111111111111111111 18
270







10TH MOUNTAIN DIVISION'S
*bloodiest day 14 or 15 April 1945
bloodiest month April 1945
2nd bloodiest day 20 February 1945
3rd bloodiest day -3 March 1945
Total battle deaths -- 94
510 are listed=54.3% KIA-862

















24TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Taro Leaf"

Regular Army

Activated--25 February 1921 in Hawaii as the Hawaiian Division

Redesignated-24th Infantry Division on 26 August 1941

Battle Credits, World War IIt Northern New Guinea Leyte Central Philippines
Bataan Peninsula Mindanao

Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Durward S. Wilson October 1941-August 1942
Maj-Gen Frederick A. Irving August 1942--November 1944
Maj-Gen Roscoe B. Woodruff November 1944-November 1945

Combat Chronicle: The 24th Infantry Division was among the first to see action in World
War II, and among the last American troops to stop fighting. The 24th was on Oahu, with
headquarters at Schofield Barracks, when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, 7 December
1941, and sustained minor casualties. Charged with the defense of Oahu, the 24th built
an elaborate system of coastal defenses.
By September 1943, the Taro Leaf Division had completed its movement to Australia, near
Rockhampton, on the eastern coast. After a period of intensive training, the division mov-
ed on to Goodenough Island, 31 January 1944, to stage for a landing on the coast of north-
ern New Guinea.
In an almost perfectly executed maneuver, the 24th landed in New Guinea, 22 April 1944,
and slashed its way to the important Hollandia Airdrome despite torrential rains and marshy
terrain. Enemy resistance was scattered and ineffective, and by 6 June, the 24th had kill-
ed 1,777 Japanese and taken over 500 prisoners, many of then Korean laborers, while losing
only 43 men.
Shortly after, the division's 34th Infantry Regiment went over to weird, craggy, cave-
ridden Biak to help out the 41st Infantry Division in that bloody battle. Biak wasn't sec-
ured until August 1944.
Next, for the 24th, came the invasion of Leyte on 20 October 1944, along with the 1st
Cavalry and 7th and 96th Infantry Divisions. It was on Leyte, where the backbone of the
Japanese defense of the Philippines was broken, that the 24th proved itself one of the
great fighting outfits of the war. The men landed on Red Beach and it was an inferno. Jap
mountain guns blasted away at the landing boats, and planes sprayed the beach with machine-
gun fire. The dunes were raked by mortar, machine-gun, and small-arms fire. But the men
of the 24th kept moving, battling their way inland, and repulsing one counterattack after
another.
The 24th bore the brunt of some of the toughest fighting on Leyte. It fought on and al-
ong dirt roads, in jungles, rice paddies, along the banks of dirty streams, and in the hills.
Early in the fighting, one heroic action was that of Private Harold H. Moon, Jr., Company G,
34th Infantry Regiment, at Pawig, Leyte, 21 October 1944.
Pvt Moon was cut-off from his platoon and beat back several attempts to take his position.
In supreme defiance, he fired his own weapon and then those of his fallen buddies and hurl-
ed grenades at the enemy, while challenging them with curses. A Jap officer, covered by








machine-guns and hidden by an embankment, attempted to knock out his position with grenades,
but Pvt Moon, after protracted and skillful maneuvering, shot him. A little later, he kill-
ed two Japs who were charging a medic.
Near dawn an entire platoon of Japanese charged his position, and Pvt Moon, firing his
submachine-gun, calmly cut down about 20 of the attackers before he was, himself, killed as
he attempted to throw a grenade at an enemy machine-gun. Later, nearly 200 dead Japanese
were found within 100 yards of his foxhole.
The tenacity, combat sagacity, and magnificent courage with which Pvt Moon fought on ag-
ainst overwhelming odds contributed in large measure to breaking up a powerful enemy threat,
and did a great deal in insuring the 24th's initial success on Leyte. Pvt Moon was posthum-
ously awarded the Medal of Honor.
After taking the town of Carigara, the 24th advanced into wild northwestern Leyte. The
town of Jaro fell in hard fighting. But a particularly tough, bloody, and see-saw type of
bitter combat occurred at a place called Breakneck Ridge.
The Japanese had planned a large assault to throw the Americans back, but they underest-
imated the U.S. strength, and so, were forced to remain, basically, on the defensive.
Heavy rains continued to handicap both the American and Japanese movements.
On Breakneck Ridge the Japanese employed two of their army's best units, the 1st Division
which had arrived all the way from Manchuria, and the 57th "Tempei" Brigade. Their defenses
were very imaginative and intricate, and the ridge itself was rough ground with much of it
covered by tall cogon grass. The main advantage the 24th had was its powerful artillery,
but the Japanese were consistently skillful and accurate with their mortars.
From 6-16 November 1944, this ridge was the scene of the most bitter and incessant type
of fighting, some of it hand-to-hand. As well as the savage fighting, the ordeal was noted
for the tactics of the Japanese. Among other devices, they didn't indulge in reckless ban-
zai charges, but used tricky infiltration attacks, especially at night, although they some-
times attacked during daylight. They frequently fired upon the Americans from the rear,
from holes and hidden dugouts which the GIs sometimes didn't detect until it was too late.
Some of the Jap snipers had rifles with telescopic sights, Also, some of the Japs spoke
English with which they tried to fool the U.S. soldiers during night infiltrations.
The 24th's tanks were of little value because the ground was too steep and rugged, so the
soldiers relied heavily upon artillery and deadly phosphorus shells.
The ferocious struggle ebbed back and forth, with each side attacking and counterattack-
ing, and with the 21st Infantry Regiment eventually bearing the brunt of the battle. To
help keep up the pressure and maintain the momentum, the 32nd Infantry Division began relie-
ving the exhausted 24th on 15 November 1944, and continued the eventually successful battle.
Altogether, the 24th was in combat on Leyte for 78 days, and slew over 7,000 Japanese,
while losing 544 men.
While mopping-up continued on Leyte, the 24th's 19th Infantry Regiment landed on Mindoro,
in the western Philippines, and south of Luzon. Resistance was light with some 20 Americans
killed and around 50 wounded. Other elements of the 24th secured the smaller islands of
Marinduque and Verde against scattered resistance.
Also, from late-January-mid-February 1945, the 34th Infantry Regiment, helping out the
38th Infantry Division, ran into a furious battle at Zig Zag Pass at the top of the Bataan
Peninsula. Fighting in some of the most rugged and densest jungle terrain anywhere in the
world, both the 34th Regiment and the 38th Division suffered heavy casualties before this
pass was cleared by mid-February. As an indication as to just how tough this battle was,
the 34th Infantry suffered almost half as many casualties in two weeks at Zig Zag Pass as it
had in over two months on Leyte'
Meanwhile, elements of the 24th landed on Corregidor and helped the 503rd Parachute Regi-
ment take "the Rock" in another vicious battle.
After a number of mopping-up actions during March 1945, and then with the whole division
reassembled, the 24th and 31st Infantry Divisions landed on the southern coast of Mindanao
on 17 April 1945. While the 31st headed into the central interior, the 24th struck eastward
through jungle terrain, rice paddies, and overgrown hemp plantations, reaching Digos, and
then capturing the city of Davao fairly easily on 2 May. But this was because the Japanese
100th Division had decided to make a stand in the hills northwest of the city. But in so
doing, it allowed the 24th to establish Davao as a valuable base and communications center.









Mindanao was some of the 24th's toughest and most drawn-out fighting of the war, most of
it in terrific, stifling heat.
Very heavy fighting occurred in the first half of May 1945, as the 34th Infantry Regiment
reduced a Japanese pocket in the Guma sector, and the 21st Infantry Regiment, supported by
massive artillery fire, attacked along the Talamo River on 12 May 1945. The 19th and 34th
Infantry then tackled Hill 550, which fell to the latter unit after a battle lasting sever-
al days which ended on 21 May 1945.
In fierce fighting the 24th continued to clear the Talamo River Valley, with the 19th
Infantry taking Mandog, on 9 June 1945.
As late as 24 June 1945, heavy combat was taking place, but by this time, the 24th had
succeeded in cracking the center of the Japanese defenses, and the Japanese 100th Division
was then forced deeper into the interior regions of the large island. By this time the
Japanese division had lost over 4,500 men.
The end of organized enemy resistance on Mindanao, was declared on 30 June 1945, but the
24th continued operations in the Kibangay area.
The 21st Infantry landed at Sarangani Bay, on the southern coast of Mindanao, and secur-
ed this area by 12 July 1945.
Aided by large, well-equipped, and well-organized Filipino guerrilla forces, the 24th
continued mopping-up, patrolling, and performing security on Mindanao, until the end of the
war, 14 August 1945. Mindanao, one of the least publicized battles of the war, cost the
24th over 600 men.
On 15 October 1945, the 24th left Mindanao, for occupational duty in Japan. When the
Korean War erupted in late-June 1950, the 24th was the first American unit to enter that
conflict, first clashing with the North Koreans near Osan, on 5 July 1950.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor--3 Casualties: Total Battle Deaths--1,691
Distinguished Unit Citations--8 Killed In Action------1,374
Distinguished Service Crosses-15 Wounded 5,621
Silver Stars 625 Missing 11
Captured 6.
Total Casualties----7,012
* One to the entire 19th Infantry Regiment-Davao, Mindanao

Other 24th Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action *
Pfc James H. Diamond, 21st Inf Rgt, 8-14 May 1945, Mintal, Mindanao
Sgt Charles E. Mower, 34th Inf Rgt, 3 November 1944, near Capoocan, Leyte

The 24th Infantry Division saw extensive action in the Korean War. Later on, the division
was stationed in southern Germany for many years, and then at Ft. Stewart, Georgia. As of
this writing, the 24th Infantry (Mechanized) Division is in Saudi Arabia. (23 October 1990)





1 WWII


24TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Taro Leaf"

APRIL 1944 JUNE 1944 OCTOBER 1944
22 Apr 1 14 June 1 20 Oct 111111111111111111111111 24
23 Apr 1111111 21 June 1 21 Oct 111111111111111111111l1111111111111111111 481
24 Apr 11111 22 June 1 22 Oct 111111111 9 approx.
25 Apr 111 24 June 1 23 Oct 1111111 85xmen
26 Apr 1 28 June 111 24 Oct 1111111
28 Apr 11 29 June 111111 25 Oct 11111111111 11
26 Oct 1111111111 10
19 13 27 Oct 11111111 8
28 Oct 111
MAY 1944 JULY 1944 29 Oct 1111111
30 Oct 111111111111 12
1 May 1 3 July 111 3 Oct 111111
3 May 1 3
4 May 1 152
9 May 1
4





2 WWII


24TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Taro Leaf"


NOVEMBER 1944 DECEMBER 1944 FEBRUARY 1945 MARCH 1945
1 Nov 11 7 Dec 1 2 Feb 1 2 Mar 1
2 Nov 111 11 Dec 1 3 Feb 1111111111 10 12 Mar 1
3 Nov 111111111111 12 15 Dec 1 4 Feb 1111111111111111 16 14 Mar 1
4 Nov 11111 16 Dec 11 5 Feb 11111111111111111111 20 22 Mar 1
5 Nov 111111 17 Dec 1 7 Feb 1 23 Mar 111111111111 12
6 Nov 1111111111111111 16 19 Dec 1 8 Feb 1 16
7 Nov 11 21 Dec 1111111-- 10 Feb 1
8 Nov 11111 24 Dec 1 U1 Feb 1
9 Nov 11111111111111111111111111 26 28 Dec 1 12 Feb 1
10 Nov 111111111111111111 18 16 14 Feb 111
12 Nov 1111111111 10 15 Feb 11111111111111111111111 23
13 Nov 111111 16 Feb 11111111111 11
14 Nov 1111 JANUARY 1945 17 Feb 1111111111 10
15 Nov 11111 9 Jan 1 18 Feb 1111111
16 Nov 11 23 Jan 1 19 Feb 1
17 Nov 111 30 Jan 1 20 Feb 11
18 Nov 11111111 8 30 Jan 21 Feb 11111111 8
19 Nov 111 3 22 Feb 1
20 Nov 111111111 9 26 Feb 1
21 Nov 111111 119
22 Nov 11
23 Nov 11111111 8
24 Nov 11
25 Nov 1
26 Nov 11
29 Nov 1
167





3 WWII

24TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Taro Leaf"


APRIL 1945 MAY 1945 JUNE 1945 JULY 1945 AUGUST 1945
5 Apr 1 1 May 1111111 1 June 111111 1 July 1 12 Aug 11
19 Apr 1 2 May 111 2 June 1 2 July 1 14 Aug 11
23 Apr 1 3 May 11111111 8 3 June 1111 4 July 11111 15 Aug 11
28 Apr 11 4 May 11 4 June 11111111 8 13 July 111
29 Apr 1 5 May 11111111111111 14 5 June 1111111111111 13 14 July 1
30 Apr 1 6 May 11111111 8 6 June 111 17 July 1
7 May 1111111111 10 7 June 1111111 18 July 1
8 May 111111111111111 15 8 June 11111 25 July 1
9 May 1111 9 June 1 14
10 May 11 10 June 111111
11 May 1111111111111111 16 11 June 111
12 May 11111 12 June 1
13 May 1111111111111111 16 13 June 11
14 May 11111111111 12 14 June 11
15 May 11111 15 June 1
17 May 1 17 June 1111
18 May 1 21 June 111
19 May 11 22 June 111
20 May 1 24 June 1111111111111 13
21 May 111111 25 June 111
22 May 111111111 9 26 June 11
23 May 111111 27 June 1
24 May 11 29 June 1
25 May 11 30 June 1
26 May 111 94
30 May 1111111
31 May 111111111111 12
179

24TH INFANTRY DIVISION'S
*bloodiest day 21 October 1944
bloodiest month May 1945
2nd bloodiest day --9 November 1944
3rd bloodiest day--- 20 October 1944
Total battle deaths- 1,441
812 are listed=56.3% KIA-1.209


















25TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Tropic Lightning"

Regular Army

Activated-lO October 1941 in Hawaii

Battle Credits, World War II: Guadalcanal Central Solomons Luzon

Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Maxwell Murray October 1941-May 1942
Maj-Gen J. Lawton Collins May 1942-January 1944
Maj-Gen Charles L. Mullins January 1944--May 1948

Combat Chronicle: The 25th Infantry Division was but two months old when the Japanese
attacked Pearl Harbor. Activated from elements of the Hawaiian Division's Regular Army
troops in October 1941, it was burying its dead on 7 December 1941. Few other American
divisions have ever had such a shocking introduction to combat.
All through 1942 the Tropic Lightning Division fretted for a chance to get revenge
against the Japanese. It came in early-1943, when the men who wore the Spanish red taro
leaf, with a lightning flash on it, cleared for Guadalcanal.
First elements of the 25th went ashore on the open beaches west of the Tenaru River.
Entering combat on 10 January 1943, prior to an all-out attack, the division assembled
numerous artillery pieces--75, 105, and 155mm guns---and fired over 5,000 rounds into the
Japanese positions. To make all initial rounds hit their targets simultaneously, the art-
illery used time-on-target fire. This technique invariably caused carnage among any troops
caught in the open, and in this instance it was later found to have been very effective.
The 25th then slashed forward in some of the most bitter fighting of the war in the
Pacific. The rough and broken terrain made supply, communication, and evacuation of the
wounded very difficult. Lack of suitable maps was another handicap. The Japanese were
there in abundance, and the high quality of their camouflage and their tenacious resistance
made the attack very rough going.
It was on this very first day of the 25th's entry into combat that it had a pair of Medal
of Honor winners, both men from Company M, 35th Infantry Regiment, 10 January 1943.
Company K turned west and, to cover its right flank while crossing a branch of the Mata-
nikau River, posted two .30 caliber machine-guns from Company M, plus some riflemen, on a
knoll. As Company K crossed the river, a large group of Japanese further down the river
attacked and nearly broke through the company's right flank. The Japs drove back the rifle-
men, knocked one machine-gun out of action, and killed the gunner and wounded the assistant
gunner of the second.
They were then prevented from hitting the flank of vulnerable Company K by the heroism
of two soldiers from Company M, Sgt William G. Fournier and T/5 Grade Lewis Hall. In spite
of being ordered to withdraw, the two men ran forward to the idle machine-gun and opened
fire on the Japanese, who were then in the low stream bottom in front of and below them. As
the gun couldn't bear low enough on them, Sgt Fournier lifted it by its tripod to depress
the muzzle sufficiently to fire on the enemy, while T/5 Grade Hall operated the trigger.
Both soldiers stayed at their exposed post, pouring fire at the enemy, and were fatally
wounded before other troops could come forward. But these two valiant soldiers had broken
the enemy attack.








In bitter, strenuous fighting, by 15 January, the Japanese were bottled-up into three
main pockets. The 27th "Wolfhounds" Infantry Regiment fought them in the open. The 35th
"Cacti" Infantry Regiment fought them in the thick jungles of Mt. Austen, while the 161st
Infantry Regiment was temporarily held in reserve.
By 20 January, heavy rain, mud, and particularly poor visibility had limited effective
operations.
However, on the following day, three light tanks started up a jeep trail toward Mt. Au-
sten's 1,514-foot crest. Two broke down, but the third reached the top. Supported by 16
infantrymen, the tank drove into the northeast part of the Gifu Line and destroyed 3 pill-
boxes with high explosive 37mm shells and then shot the defenders with canister and mach-
ine-gun fire. Turning south, the tank eliminated five more pillboxes. The infantry then
moved forward before dark to occupy the gap. This lone tank, in a few hours, had torn a
200-yard hole in the Japanese defenses which had withstood infantry assaults for a month:
The reduction of the Gifu Line cost the 25th 64 men killed and many more wounded, while
518 Japanese were slain.
Meanwhile, in the overall battle for Mt. Austen, the 35th Infantry Regiment wiped out
almost 1,100 of the enemy and captured 29 prisoners. American losses were not light.
During the final phase of the fighting on Guadalcanal, 26 January-9 February 1943, units
of the 25th, in conjunction with elements of the Americal and 2nd Marine Divisions and the
147th Infantry Regiment, advanced northwest along and near the north coast from a point
west of Kokumbona. The 27th Infantry Regiment captured the highest ground dominating the
landing beaches between Kokumbona and Cape Esperance. The 27th also captured an enemy rad-
ar station, some trucks, landing craft, field artillery, and anti-aircraft guns, besides
dispatching over 400 Japanese.
On 6 February, the 161st Infantry passed through the understrength 147th Infantry Regi-
ment. After making a junction with the Americal Division, the 161st continued the pursuit
toward Cape Esperance, The Japanese didn't resist as determinedly as usual, and eventually
withdrew from Guadalcanal with only scattered stragglers left on the island. Organized re-
sistance ended on 9 February 1943. And so, along with the campaign in Papua, southeast New
Guinea, the 25th Infantry Division played an important role in winning this other of the
two crucial early land battles in the Pacific---Guadalcanal.
A period of garrison duty followed, ending on 21 July 1943. Then the 25th joined the
37th and 43rd Infantry Divisions and Marine Raider battalions in the bitter, frustrating
struggle for New Georgia, in the central Solomons. The 161st Regiment was the first of the
division to reach the embattled island. So fierce was the opposition and so miserable the
weather, it required nine days to fight its way to its line of departure. By this time the
27th Infantry had arrived and, in an historic 19-day march through the jungle and mud, sec-
ured the harbor of Bairoko along with Marine Raider elements.
Soon after, the 35th Infantry fought a relatively light battle on Vella Lavella, 15 Aug-
ust-15 September 1943. Other elements of the division cleared Arundel Island, 24 September,
and Kolombangara on 6 October.
After all this fighting, the 25th was sent to New Zealand for a well-earned rest. From
there it went to New Caledonia, 3 February-14 March 1944, where replacements brought the
division back up to full strength.
After renewed training on New Caledonia, the Tropic Lightning entered the battle on Luzon
on 11 January 1945--D-plus 2. Attacking between the 6th and 43rd Infantry Divisions, the
25th met the enemy at Binalonan on the 17th, capturing this town and cutting Route 8. The
Japanese counterattacked furiously, but the 25th held and then captured a tremendous ammun-
ition dump.
The 25th then fought a savage 5-day battle for San Manuel. The Japs had dug-in their
tanks up to the turrets and every building was a fortress. The 25th's brilliant assistant
commander, Brigadier-General James L. Dalton, II, was killed in this battle.
Advancing through the rice paddies, the 27th Infantry took Umingan in heavy fighting. A
few, small, scattered trees afforded the only shade in the vicinity, and the broiling trop-
ical sun was a real problem. On 2 February, the 35th Infantry pushed on to Lupao meeting
very fierce resistance. At Lupao, the 35th lost 95 men killed and 270 wounded, but in the
overall battle in the Central Luzon Plains, the 25th, in conjunction with the 6th Infantry
Division, destroyed a large part of the Japanese 2nd Tank Division.







As some of the 6th Army units were heading south toward Manila, the 25th pivoted at
San Jose and advanced north into the Caraballo Mountains---and into some of the most
bitter and drawn-out fighting of the war.
The offensive was initiated, 21 February 1945, as the 25th drove up Highway 5 toward
Balete Pass. The 161st Infantry Regiment captured Bryant Hill, northwest of Puncan on
25 February, while the 35th Infantry Regiment took Puncan, 2 March 1945, and opened the
road as far as Digdig by 5 March. Continuing the attack, the division's 27th and 161st
Infantry Regiments pushed forward along Highway 5, while the 35th Infantry moved up the
Old Spanish Trail. All three regiments met determined opposition and strong counter-
attacks. On 15 March 1945, the 25th began attacking Norton's Knob, but the entrenched
Japanese repulsed all attacks for the next ten days. Putlan fell on the 18th. Three
high hills were then taken in fierce combat-the 35th Infantry took Fishhook Ridge,
2 April 1945, the 161st Infantry captured Crump Hill, 8-13 April, and the 27th Infantry
fought for Mt. Myoko, 9-19 April 1945. The town of Kapintalan was finally entered on
19 April 1945, by the 35th Infantry.
The 25th next made a three-pronged drive on Balete Pass, and the 161st took Lone Tree
Hill on 25 April. The 25th was reinforced by the 126th Infantry Regiment, 32nd Infantry
Division and the 148th Infantry Regiment, 37th Infantry Division. It then took a bloody
battle at Kapintalan Ridge and the sealing of over 200 Japanese-held caves, before Bal-
ete Pass finally fell on 13 May 1945.
As tough as the battle for Balete Pass was, the 25th's final operation wasn't over
until it seized the junction of Route 5 and the Villa Verde Trail, in co-operation with
the 32nd Infantry Division at Santa Fe.
From 14-22 May 1945, operating in mainly heavily forested, rough terrain, the 27th
Infantry Regiment battled to destroy fanatically resisting remnants of the Japanese 10th
Division blocking the approaches to Sawmill Valley. After this was accomplished, the
Americans cleared Kanami Ridge. Meanwhile, the 161st Infantry Regiment mopped-up on
forested Mt. Haruna by 22 May 1945. Following this, the 25th conducted mopping-up act-
ions along Skyline Ridge, and maintained a block on the Old Spanish Trail. It relieved
the 37th Infantry Division south of Aritao, 10 June 1945, and secured Highway 5. The
25th was relieved from combat by the 32nd Infantry Division on 30 June 1945. During the
lengthy battle from central Luzon to on up through Balete Pass to Santa Fe, the 25th
slew several thousand Japanese, while losing 685 men. By the conclusion of the battle
on Luzon, the 25th had established a record of 165 continuous days in combat.
On 1 July 1945, the 25th moved to Tarlac, and then for occupational duty in Japan on
20 September 1945. The division was assigned to south-central Honshu with headquarters
in the large city of Osaka. The 25th was still occupying this area when the Korean War
erupted in late-June 1950, and, soon after, entered that conflict.
The Tropic Lightning Division--one of the best outfits to come out of the war in the
Pacific.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor--6 Casualties: Total Battle Deaths--1,508
Distinguished Unit Citations--6 Killed In Action----1,253
Distinguished Service Crosses-72 Wounded '--- 4,190
Silver Stars 622 Missing 5
Captured 2
One to the entire 35th Infantry Regiment-- Total Casualties----5,450
Guadalcanal
Other 25th Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action *
S/Sgt Raymond H. Cooley, 27th Inf Rgt, 24 February 1945, near Lumboy, Luzon
Major Charles W. Davis, 12 January 1943, on Guadalcanal
M/Sgt Charles L. McGaha, 35th Inf Rgt, 7 February 1945, near Lupao, Luzon
T/4 Grade Laverne Parrish, 161st Inf Rgt, 18-24 January 1945, Binalonan, Luzon

The 25th Infantry Division saw extensive service in both the Korean and Vietnam Wars.
As of this writing, the 25th is stationed at Schofield Barracks, on the island of
Oahu, Hawaii. (26 June 1984)





1 WWII


25TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Tropic Lightning"


JANUARY 1943 FEBRUARY 1943 JULY 1943 AUGUST 1943 SEPTEMBER 1943
10 Jan 111111111111111111 18 1 Feb 111 16 July 11111 1 Aug 11 4 Sept 11
11 Jan 111111111111111111 20 2 Feb 1 17 July 1 2 Aug 111 10 Sept 11
12 Jan 1111111111111111111111111 25* 4 23 July 1 3 Aug 111 11 Sept 11
13 Jan 11111111111111 14 approx. 24 July 1 4 Aug 111111111 9 12 Sept 1
14 Jan 1111111111 10 40Xmen 25 July 1111 5 Aug 111 14 Sept 1
15 Jan 111111111111111 15 MARCH 1943 26 July 111111111 9 6 Aug 1 15 Sept 1
17 Jan 111 14 Mar 1 27 July 1111111 7 Aug 11 18 Sept 111
18 Jan 11111111 8 2 Mar 1 28 July 1111 8 Aug 1 19 Sept 1
19 Jan 111 29 July 1 9 Aug 111111 20 Sept 1
20 Jan 1111 2 30 July 11 10 Aug 111 29 Sept 11
22 Jan 11 31 July 11111111 8 11 Aug 11 16
23 Jan 111 43 12 Aug 11
24 Jan 1111 15 Aug 11111
25 Jan 1 16 Aug 11 OCTOBER 1943
27 Jan 1 18 Aug 1 11 Oct
131 21 Aug 1
131 1
46






2 WWII

25TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Tropic Lightning"


JANUARY 1945 FEBRUARY 1945 MARCH 1945 APRIL 1945
17 Jan 1111111111 10 1 Feb 11111111 8 2 Mar 111111 1 Apr 11
18 Jan 1111 2 Feb 11111111111111 14 4 Mar 1 2 Apr 1111111
19 Jan 11111111 8 3 Feb 11111 5 Mar 11 3 Apr 11
20 Jan 1 4 Feb 11111111111111111111 20 6 Mar 111 4 Apr 11111111 8
21 Jan 1 5 Feb 111111111 9 7 Mar 11 5 Apr 1111
24 Jan 111111111111111111111 21 6 Feb 1111111 8 Mar 111111 6 Apr 11
25 Jan 111111 7 Feb 111111111111 12 9 Mar 111111 7 Apr 11
26 Jan 11111 8 Feb 11111111 8 10 Mar 1 8 Apr 111111111111 12
27 Jan 11111111111111 14 9 Feb 1 11 Mar 1 9 Apr 111111
28 Jan 111 10 Feb 1111 12 Mar 11 10 Apr 111
29 Jan 111 11 Feb 111 13 Mar 11111 11 Apr 111111111 9
30 Jan 11111111111 11 13 Feb 1 15 Mar 111 12 Apr 1111111
31 Jan 11 16 Feb 11 16 Mar 1 13 Apr 1111
17 Feb 111 18 Mar 111 14 Apr 111
9 19 Feb 111 19 Mar 1 15 Apr 1111
21 Feb 1 20 Mar 1111 16 Apr 1
23 Feb 1 21 Mar 11111111 8 17 Apr 111
24 Feb 1111111111111111 16 22 Mar 111111111 9 18 Apr 11
25 Feb 11 23 Mar 1111 19 Apr 1111111111 10
26 Feb 111 24 Mar 1 20 Apr 111111
27 Feb 1 25 Mar 1111 21 Apr 11111
28 Feb 11 26 Mar 11111111 8 22 Apr 1111
6 27 Mar 1111 23 Apr 1
6 28 Mar 111 24 Apr 11
29 Mar 1111 25 Apr 1111111111 10
30 Mar 1111111 26 Apr 11111111111 31
31 Mar 11111111 8 27 Apr 1111111
107 28 Apr 1111
29 Apr 11111111 8
30 Apr 11
151






3 wwII
25TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Tropic Lightning"

MAY 1945 JUNE 1945
1 May 1111111111111 13 2 June 11
2 May 111 4 June 11
3 May 1111 12 June 1
4 May 1111111 22 June 1
5 May 1111111111 10 23 June 111
6 May 111 9
7 May 11
8 May 1111
9 May 11111
10 May 1
11 May 1111
12 May 111111
15 May 111
16 May 11
17 May 111111111111 12
18 May 111111
19 May 111111
20 May 11111
21 May 1111
22 May 111
23 May 1111
24 May 11
25 May 11
26 May 1
27 May 1
28 May 11
29 May 1
30 May 1111111
31 May 1
124

25TH INFANTRY DIVISION'S
*bloodiest day 12 January 1943
bloodiest month April 1945
2nd bloodiest day 24 January 1945
3rd bloodiest day ----11 January 1943; 4 February 1945
Total battle deaths --1,508
849 are listed=56.2% KIA-1,253



















PHILIPPINE DIVISION

Activated-8 June 1921 in the Philippines

Officially inactivated-30 April 1947 in the Philippines

Battle Credits, World War II: Luzon

Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Jonathan M. Wainwright November 1940-December 1941
Brig-Gen Maxon S. Lough December 1941-May 1942

Combat Chronicle: The Philippine Infantry Division consisted of approximately 2/3rds
American and 1/3rd Filipino personnel. Units of the division were on security missions
at Manila, Fort McKinley, and the Bataan Peninsula, prior to the declaration of war in
the Pacific on 8 December 1941.
After undergoing two days of bombings, the Philippine Division moved into the field
to cover the withdrawal of troops into Bataan, and to resist the Japanese in the Subic
Bay area. Positions were organized and strengthened and, while the 31st Infantry Reg-
iment moved to the region of Zig Zag Pass, the rest of the division organized the main
and reserve lines of defense on the Bataan Peninsula.
From 10-12 January 1942, elements of the division repulsed Japanese night attacks near
Abucay. It was during this action that the Philippine Division had one of its 3 Medal of
Honor winners, 2nd Lieutenant Alexander R. Nininger, Jr., 57th Infantry Regiment, Philip-
pine Scouts, near Abucay, 12 January 1942.
Although assigned to a company not then engaged in combat, he voluntarily attached him-
self to Company K of the same regiment, as this unit was being attacked by Japanese forces
superior in firepower. There were enemy snipers in trees and foxholes, and hand-to-hand
fighting soon followed. Lt Nininger repeatedly forced his way into the hostile positions.
A Jap officer leaped at him with a sword, but the lieutenant shot him a split second be-
fore the fatal blow would have fallen.
Exposed to heavy enemy fire, he continued to attack with rifle and grenades, and succ-
eeded in destroying several Jap groups in foxholes, as well as several snipers. Although
wounded 3 times, he continued his attacks until he was killed, after pushing far alone in-
to the enemy positions. Lt Nininger's bravery was in keeping with the highest traditions
of the U.S. armed forces.
On 16 January, the Philippine Division counterattacked. However, strong offensive, as
well as defensive action, was unable to prevent enemy penetrations. The division then
withdrew to the reserve battle line in the Pilar-Bagac area, 26 January.
Until the latter part of March 1942, the Japanese, made cautious by heavy losses, engag-
ed in patrols and limited local attacks. They didn't start any serious activity again un-
til 28 March. During this period, elements of the division were shifted to assist in the
defense of other sectors.
Had the Americans and Filipinos been able to carry on the battle much longer, the Japan-
ese would probably have been forced on to the defensive until they received reinforcements.
As it was, the Japanese attack on 28 March 1942, struck at a division weakened by malnutrit-








ion, sickness, and prolonged exposure to combat. The division, no longer able to operate
as a co-ordinated unit, was unable to counterattack against the heavy Japanese assaults.
On 8 April, the 31st and 57th Infantry Regiments were lost near the Alangan River, and the
45th Infantry Regiment surrendered on 10 April 1942. Some men escaped over to the island
of Corregidor to continue the battle for another month, but most of the division went into
captivity.
And so, the Philippine Division ceased to exist as an active combat unit. But--it had
vastly upset the Japanese timetable by the heroic stand on Bataan, as well as helping the
United States gain several precious months to build-up its forces for the coming battles
in the Pacific.
The defenders of Bataan had hoped in vain for the help their country was not yet able
to send. They fought when no one could have blamed them for surrendering, and they were
cited three times for their heroism. When they finally had to quit, those who were still
alive suffered the tortures and indignities of the infamous Bataan Death March--78 miles
from Mariveles to Camp O'Donnell, under a blistering hot sun, and subjected to the savage
and barbaric acts of a ruthless enemy. Many of the men never made the long march all the
way. Weakened by various tropical illnesses such as malaria and dysentary, by the heat,
exhaustion, and lack of sleep, not a few were shot, bayoneted, or clubbed to death along
the roadsides on the way to the camp.
The victory over Japan ended the misery for those men still in Japanese prison camps.
Some of the men of the Philippine Division who later made it back home, wore their shoulder
patch with a special pride, but with the pride of men who have been through all the worst
horrors of war.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-3
Distinguished Unit Citations--- *

No other awards or a casualty listing is available for the Philippine Division.

* To the entire division--Defense Of Bataan

Other Philippine Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action*
1st Lt Willy C. Bianchi, 45th Inf Rgt, 3 February 1942, Bataan Peninsula, Luzon
Sgt Jose Calugas, 88th Field Artillery Bn, 16 January 1942, Bataan Peninsula, Luzon






















1ST CAVALRY DIVISION "Hell For Leather"

Regular Army
Activated-31 August 1921 at Ft. Bliss, Texas
Battle Credits, World War II: Admiralty Islands Leyte Luzon
Days In Combat--521
Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Innis P. Swift April 1941-August 1944
Maj-Gen Verne D. Mudge August 1944-February 1945
Brig-Gen Hugh Hoffman February-July 1945
Maj-Gen William C. Chase July 1945-End of war

Combat Chronicle: The 1st Cavalry Division, after participating in the Louisiana maneu-
vers (3 different times), left the San Francisco port of embarkation on 26 June 1943.
The 1st Cavalry (dismounted in early-1942), arrived in Australia, in July 1943, and,
for months, slaved away at amphibious training and jungle fighting methods in Queensland.
In February 1944, the 1st Cavalry Division moved to New Guinea, to stage for a landing
in the Admiralty Islands, in the Bismarck Archipelago.
A squadron of the 5th Cavalry Regiment landed on Los Negros Island, in the Admiralties,
on 29 February 1944. Despite intense Japanese opposition, the cavalrymen swept inland
to seize Momote Airstrip within half an hour. Elements of the 7th Cavalry Regiment arr-
ived on 4 March 1944, and fanatical Japanese attacks were thrown back. In one of these
attacks the 1st Cavalry had a Medal of Honor winner on 4 March 1944.
Sergeant Troy A. McGill, with an 8-man squad, occupied a revetment which was attacked
by 200 drink-crazed Japanese. Being in an exposed position, he could receive little, if
any, support, and all members of the squad were killed except Sgt McGill and one other
man, whom he ordered to try to get to the rear. Courageously resolving to hold his posi-
tion, he fired his weapon until it ceased to function. Then, with the Japs only 5 yards
away, he charged from his foxhole into the face of certain death, and clubbed the enemy
with his rifle in hand-to-hand combat until he was killed. At dawn, 105 dead Japanese
were found around his position! Sgt McGill's extraordinary courage was an inspiration
to his fellow soldiers, and helped increase their determination in defeating a fanatical
enemy.
The 8th Cavalry Regiment assaulted Manus Island, on 15 March 1944, and overran Lugos
Mission, as the 7th Cavalry also landed. After furious fighting, by 18 March, Lorengau
and its airfield were captured, and the division mopped-up on both Los Negros and Manus,
and seized other smaller nearby islands. The Admiralties were secured by 18 May 1944.
Altogether, the 1st Cavalry slew 3,300 Japanese on these islands, while losing 326 men!
The division then trained for operations in the Philippines.








The next battle for the 1st Cavalry Division was when it took part in the initial
assault on Leyte, in the Philippines, 20 October 1944. The 1st Cavalry landed in the
right (northern flank) of the attack, and cleared San Jose, Taclobin Airfield, and the
Cataisan Peninsula. Meanwhile, the 8th Cavalry Regiment landed on southern Samar, and
secured the San Juanico Strait, on 24 October 1944.
On Leyte, the 1st Cavalry battled some of the best units the Japanese had. After
taking Tacloban and heading inland, the troopers had to fight torrential downpours and
gale velocity winds reaching up to 80 miles per hour. General Walter Krueger, command-
ing the U.S. 6th Army, described it as "the most brutal terrain and conditions American
soldiers have ever been asked to stand." The soldiers sweated it out by day, and near-
ly froze at night. Food, ammunition, and medical supplies had to be brought in by air-
drop, native carriers, or by carabao pack. The men fought their way up trails knee-deep
in mud, and waded neck-deep in jungle streams, while under continual artillery, mortar,
and small-arms fire. There was also a good deal of hand-to-hand fighting with the Japs,
and on more than one occasion, cooks, clerks, signalmen, and engineers were used in the
front line.
The 1st Cavalry regrouped on 28 October 1944, as the 2nd Cavalry Brigade assembled at
Barugo, converged on Carigara, and contacted the 24th Infantry Division on 2 November
1944. On 15 November 1944, the 112th Cavalry Regiment was attached to the division, and
assumed responsibility for the Capocan-Carigara-Barugo area.
The 1st Cavalry cleared the Mount Badian-Hill 2348 region from 28 November-9 December
1944, and the 112th Cavalry Regiment battled at the ridge south of Limon, 30 November-
10 December. The 7th Cavalry then relieved the 112th, and finally took this ridge on
14 December. The 12th Cavalry Regiment pushed into Lonoy, 19 December 1944, and seized
Kananga, on the 21st.
The 1st Cavalry attacked west toward the coast through swamps against scattered res-
istance on 23 December 1944, and Tibur was reached on the 28th. The 1st then fought
past Villaba to contact the 32nd Infantry Division on 30 December 1944. The western
coast of Leyte was reached on 1 January 1945. For every let Cavalry soldier killed on
Leyte, the Japanese paid with 24 of their own. The 1st Cavalry lost 203 men.
Next came Luzon. The ist Cavalry landed at Lingayen Gulf, 27 January 1945, and,
spearheading the attack, fought its way to Manila, after a bitter night battle, by 3
February 1945.
There then followed an extremely tough and costly battle inside the city--the only
major city battle in the Pacific. Following a fairly simple plan of assault, the 37th
Infantry Division attacked south along the Manila waterfront, the llth Airborne Division
attacked from the south, and the 1st Cavalry swung around to make its assault from the
northeast and east.
The Japanese were heavily outnumbered, but had no intention of giving up. On the con-
trary, their 16,000-man force resisted fanatically, and American losses quickly mounted.
The GIs came to the regretful conclusion that they would be unable to save very many of
Manila's buildings, and still eliminate the Japanese. So restrictions were reluctantly
lifted on artillery fire. Any stronghold that blocked the advance was pounded into a
shambles. While churches and hospitals were spared, the toll in other large structures
and in civilian lives was high. Many of the Filipinos were slaughtered by the Japs, as
they, themselves, were being annihilated. During the vicious fighting the cavalrymen
liberated some 4,000 civilian internees at Santo Tomrs University.
The 1st Cavalry fought through fierce opposition in the northern and eastern suburbs
of Manila. Manila Bay was reached on 12 February 1945, as the raging battle continued.
On 23 February 1945, the 1st Cavalry had its second Medal of Honor winner of the war,
Pfc William J. Grabiarz, 5th Cavalry Regiment, in Manila.
As his unit advanced with tanks through a street in Manila, without warning, enemy
machinegun and rifle fire from the Customs Building swept the street, striking down the
troop commander and driving the men to take cover.
Pfc Grabiarz suddenly ran from behind a tank to rescue his exposed commander, although
he, himself, was wounded. Finding it impossible to drag the wounded officer out of range








from the enemy fire, he deliberately used his own body as a shield to cover the officer,
and, in so doing, was riddled by bullets before a tank could knock out the enemy posit-
ion. His commander survived.
By his heroic self-sacrifice, Pfc Grabiarz had saved his commander's life, and set an
inspiring example of bravery for his fellow soldiers.
While large elements of the 1st Cavalry Division kept on fighting in Manila, a large
portion of the division began an attack against the Japanese Shimbu Line in the hills
northeast of Manila. However, this attack was checked on 25 February 1945.
Meanwhile, the 5th Cavalry Regiment captured the Agriculture Building in Manila, on
1 March 1945. The city finally fell on 3 March 1945. This battle cost the 1st Cavalry,
llth Airborne, and 37th Infantry Divisions over 1,000 men killed in action or died of
wounds, and a great many more wounded. The Japanese were all but annihilated.
The 1st Cavalry began its drive against the Shimbu Line with four regiments abreast
on 8 March 1945. After seizing and securing crossings over the Marikina River, and then
securing the Tagaytay-Antipolo Line in exhausting combat, the division was relieved of
this assignment on 12 March 1945, as the 6th and 43rd Infantry Divisions and 112th Cav-
alry Regiment continued the battle. The 1st Cavalry was then given rest and rehabilitat-
ion until late-March 1945.
After this, the 1st Cavalry moved into southern Luzon. By 29 March 1945, the 8th Cav-
alry Regiment had taken Lipa, and established contact with the llth Airborne Division.
The Batangas-Calamba supply road into Manila was then opened.
The 1st Cavalry then turned east and the 7th Cavalry seized Alaminos on 1 April 1945,
while the 12th Cavalry fought the battle for Imoc Hill, 1-5 April. The 5th Cavalry Regi-
ment reached San Pablo, 2 April, and after heavy fighting took Mauban, on the east coast,
on 10 April 1945. Contact was again made with the llth Airborne Division at Lamon Bay,
on the next day.
The men of the 1st Cavalry next advanced into the Bicol Peninsula on 12 April 1945,
and the Japanese in this region were soon pocketed-in north of Mount Matasana Bundoc, by
16 April. Beginning on 17 April 1945, this area was gradually reduced. On 2 May, the
5th Cavalry Regiment probed Mount Isarong for the next two weeks. Eventually, the 1st
Cavalry contacted, near Naga, the 158th Infantry Regiment which had landed on the eastern
end of the Bicol Peninsula. Resistance in southern Luzon was officially declared ended
on 1 July 1945. Luzon had cost the 1st Cavalry well over 600 men.
The 1st Cavalry Division left Luzon on 25 August 1945, for occupational duty in Japan.
It arrived in Yokohama, 2 September 1945, and entered Tokyo on 8 September, the first
American division to enter the Japanese capital. The 1st Cavalry Division was still in
Japan when the Korean War .erupted in late-June 1950, and, soon after, entered that war.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor--2 Casualties: Total Battle Deaths--1,152
Distinguished Unit Citations--10 Killed In Action 887
Distinguished Service Crosses-14 Wounded '-,-035
Silver Stars 542 Missing 9
Captured 1
Total Casualties----4,932

The 1st Cavalry Division later saw extensive service in both the Korean and Vietnam Wars,
(Airmobile) in the latter conflict. As of this writing, the 1st Cavalry is stationed at
Ft. Hood, Texas. (9 September 1990)






1 WWII


]ST CAVALRY DIVISION "Hell For Leather"


MARCH 1944 APRIL 1944 OCTOBER 1944 NOVEMBER 1944 DECEMBER 1944
1 Mar 11 1 Apr 1 20 Oct 111 1 Nov 11 1 Dec 11111
2 Mar 11111 10 Apr 1 21 Oct 111111 3 Nov 1 2 Dec 11
3 Mar 111 21 Apr 1 22 Oct 11111 7 Nov 111 3 Dec 11
4 Mar 1111111111111 13 25 Apr 1 24 Oct 111 8 Nov 111 5 Dec 11
5 Mar 11111 4 25 Oct 1 9 Nov 11 11 Dec 1
6 Mar 1 27 Oct 1 12 Nov 1111 12 Dec 11
7 Mar 111111 28 Oct 11 13 Nov 11 13 Dec 111
8 Mar 111 MAY 1944 29 Oct 11 14 Nov 1 14 Dec 111
9 Mar 1 M 31 Oct 1 16 Nov 1 15 Dec 1
10 Mar 111 10 May 1 18 Nov 1 16 Dec 1
11 Mar 111 22 May 1 24 19 Nov 1 19 Dec 1111111111 10
12 Mar 111 2 20 Nov 1 20 Dec 1111
13 Mar 111111 22 Nov 11111 21 Dec 1111111
14 Mar 111 28 Nov 1 22 Dec 1
15 Mar 1 29 Nov 1 25 Dec 11
16 Mar 1111111111 10 30 Nov 1 26 Dec 111111
17 Mar 111111 30 29 Dec 11
18 Mar 11111111111 11 30 Dec 1
20 Mar 111111 31 Dec 11
21 Mar 11111
22 Mar 111111111111 12
23 Mar 1111
24 Mar 111
25 Mar 1111
26 Mar 1
27 Mar 111
28 Mar 1
29 Mar 1
30 Mar 1111
31 Mar 1
129





2 WWII


1ST CAVALRY DIVISION "Hell For Leather"


JANUARY 1945 FEBRUARY 1945 MARCH 1945 APRIL 1945
1 Jan 1 1 Feb 11 1 Mar 111111 1 Apr 1111
4 Jan 1 2 Feb 11 2 Mar 1111111 2 Apr 111
6 Jan 1 3 Feb 11111111111 11 3 Mar 1 3 Apr 11
16 Jan 1 4 Feb 111 4 Mar 1 4 Apr 111
17 Jan 1 6 Feb 111 5 Mar 111 5 Apr 1
28 Jan 1 7 Feb 111 6 Mar 111 6 Apr 1
30 Jan 1 8 Feb 1 7 Mar 1 7 Apr 111
9 Feb 1111111 8 Mar 1111111111111111 16* 9 Apr 1
10 Feb 1111 9 Mar 11111111 8 approx. 10 Apr 111111
11 Feb 1111111111111 13 10 Mar 11111111 8 30*men 11 Apr 1111
12 Feb 1111 11 Mar 111111 12 Apr 111
13 Feb 111 12 Mar 1 15 Apr 1
14 Feb 1 13 Mar 11 16 Apr 11111111 8
15 Feb 11111111111 11 15 Mar 11 17 Apr 11
16 Feb 111 16 Mar 1 18 Apr 1
17 Feb 11 18 Mar 11 19 Apr 11
18 Feb 111111 22 Mar 111 21 Apr 11
19 Feb 111111 24 Mar 1 22 Apr 111
20 Feb 1111111111 10 25 Mar 1111111 25 Apr 1
21 Feb 111111 26 Mar 111 26 Apr 11
22 Feb 1111 27 Mar 111111 27 Apr 11
23 Feb 1111111 28 Mar 11 28 Apr 11
24 Feb 1111111111 10 29 Mar 1111 29 Apr 111
25 Feb 111111111111 12 30 Mar 1111
26 Feb 11111111111 11 31 Mar 1111111
27 Feb 111
28 Feb 11111
164






3 WWII


1ST CAVALRY DIVISION "Hell For Leather"


MAY 1945 JUNE 1945
7 May 11 2 June 1111
8 May 1 3 June 1
9 May 1 6 June 1
12 May 1 8 June 111
14 May 1 11 June 11
16 May 1 15 June 1
18 May 11 16 June 11
20 May 1 21 June 1
22 May 1 23 June 1
23 May 111 28 June 1
26 May 1
27 May 1 17
28 May 11
30 May 1
19











1ST CAVALRY DIVISION'S
-bloodiest day 8 March 1945
bloodiest month -February 1945
2nd bloodiest day I---- March 1944; 11 February 1945
3rd bloodiest day 22 March 1944; 25 February 1945
Total battle deaths -1,152
617 are listed=53.$ KIA--887













U.S. UNIT CASUALTIES--WORD WAR II
(In the order of the number of total battle deaths)
UNIT TOTAL DEAD KIA WOUNDED TOTAL CASUALTIES
3rd Infantry Dvn 5,634 4,922 18,766 25,977
4th Infantry Dvn 4,798 4,017 17,371 22,580
29th Infantry Dvn 4,736 3,870 15,541 20,603
9th Infantry Dvn 4,531 3,863 17,416 23,284
I1st Marine Dvn 4,465 13,849 18,314
1st Infantry Dvn 4,365 3,616 15,208 20,659
45th Infantry Dvn 4,276 3,714 14,541 21,260
-36th Infantry Dvn 3,890 3,318 14,190 20,652
90th Infantry Dvn 3,868 3,270 14,386 19,128
34th Infantry Dvn 3,708 3,145 12,545 17,680
30th Infantry Dvn 3,525 2,992 13,376 18,435
83rd Infantry Dvn 3,387 2,960 11,000 14,902
4th Marine Dvn 3,317 13,006 16,323
2nd Infantry Dvn 3,272 2,833 12,000 16,812
80th Infantry Dvn 3,194 2,800 11,500 15,865
35th Infantry Dvn 2,936 2,476 11,526 15,813
-79th Infantry Dvn 2,923 2,454 10,971 15,181
28th Infantry Dvn 2,873 2,316 9,609 16,762
8th Infantry Dvn 2,804 2,513 10,057 13,967
2nd Marine Dvn 2,729 8,753 11,482
5th Infantry Dvn 2,628 2,277 9,549 12,797
88th Infantry Dvn 2,529 2,282 9,225 13,095
32nd Infantry Dvn 2,524 2,108 6,627 8,763
101st Airborne Dvn 2,500 2,188 6,800 10,162
7th Infantry Dvn 2,346 1,957 7,258 9,221
3rd Armored Dvn 2,302 2,043 7,160 9,673
96th Infantry Dvn 2,166 1,596 7,281 8,945
26th Infantry Dvn 2,116 1,892 7,886 10,743
82nd Airborne Dvn 2,116 1,737 6,950 9,581
5th Marine Dvn 2,113 6,450 8,563
27th Infantry Dvn 1,977 1,545 5,485 7,071
3rd Marine Dvn 1,932 6,744 8,676
1st Armored Dvn 1,907 1,623 6,300 8,657
77th Infantry Dvn 1,904 1,482 6,000 7,559
85th Infantry Dvn 1,749 1,572 6,314 8,785








2


UNIT TOTAL DEAD KIA WOUNDED TOTAL CASUALTIES
78th Infantry Dvn 1,655 1,432 6,103 8,151
6th Marine Dvn 1,637 6,590 8,227
91st Infantry Dvn 1,633 1,456 6,748 8,800
43rd Infantry Dvn 1,514 1,213 5,187 6,411
25th Infantry Dvn 1,508 1,253 4,190 5,450
4th Armored Dvn 1,483 1,282 5,098 7,258
104th Infantry Dvn 1,465 1,285 5,200 6,818
2nd Armored Dvn 1,456 1,200 5.757 7,283
37th Infantry Dvn 1,456 1,112 5,261 6,378
84th Infantry Dvn 1,420 1,282 5,098 7,258
24th Infantry Dvn 1,441 1,209 5,321 6,547
95th Infantry Dvn 1,374 1,206 4,945 6,592
6th Armored Dvn 1,270 1,074 4,200 5,445
87th Infantry Dvn 1,269 1,124 4,342 6,004
Americal Dvn 1,259 1,075 3,350 4,442
7th Armored Dvn 1,222 994 4,000 6,084
1st Cavalry Dvn 1,152 887 4,035 4,932
99th Infantry Dvn 1,131 983 4,177 6,543
17th Airborne Dvn 1,130 978 4,704 6,332
6th Infantry Dvn 1,120 898 3,876 4,777
44th Infantry Dvn 1,101 940 4,209 5,557
94th Infantry Dvn 1,100 950 4,789 6,474
102nd Infantry Dvn 1,012 888 3,668 4,878
41st Infantry Dvn 975 758 3,504 4,275
63rd Infantry Dvn 960 844 3,326 4,487
10th Armored Dvn 945 790 4,000 5,070
100th Infantry Dvn 944 847 3,539 5,002
10th Mountain Dvn 941 862 3,134 4,062
75th Infantry Dvn 922 818 3,314 4,325
5th Armored Dvn 840 665 2,842 3,570
70th Infantry Dvn 840 758 2,713 3.922
103rd Infantry Dvn 821 659 3,329 4,497
66th Infantry Dvn 800 795 636 1,452
442nd Infantry Rgt 680
38th Infantry Dvn 791 653 2,814 3,472
76th Infantry Dvn 779 667 2,197 3,033
9th Armored Dvn 741 607 2,350 3,952









3

UNIT TOTAL DEAD KIA WOUNDED TOTAL CASUALTIES
12th Armored Dvn 718 605 2,416 3,516
40th Infantry Dvn 718 587 2,407 2,994
42nd Infantry Dvn 655 553 2,212 3,971
11th Airborne Dvn 631 516 1,926 2,453
llth.Armored Dvn 628 523 2,394 2,968
92nd Infantry Dvn 610 544 2,187 2,993
14th Armored Dvn 609 544 1,955 2,729
81st Infantry Dvn 520 374 1,942 2,322
106th Infantry Dvn 513 444 1,278 8,419 **
33rd Infantry Dvn 509 388 2,024 2,418
1st Spec Serv Force 449 419 2,500
31st Infantry Dvn 418 342 1,392 1,733
69th Infantry Dvn 384 341 1,146 1,506
8th Armored Dvn 355 299 1,375 1,720
158th Infantry Rgt 340 290 1,097 1,390
89th Infantry Dvn 311 281 690 1,016
65th Infantry Dvn 261 233 927 1,230
97th Infantry Dvn 215 188 721 979
71st Infantry Dvn 169 150 643 821
113th Cavalry Grp 161 154
86th Infantry Dvn 161 136 618 785
473rd Infantry Rgt 160 450
3rd Ranger Bn 150
1st Ranger Bn 140
4th Ranger Bn 140
13th Armored Dvn 129 107 712 819
5th Ranger Bn 117
20th Armored Dvn 54 46 134 186
93rd Infantry Dvn 50 43 133 194
16th Armored Dvn 5 4 28 32

No casualty figures are available for the following units:
Philippine Inf Dvn 6th Ranger Bn 99th Infantry Bn
1st Marine Provl Bgde 6th Cavalry Grp 112th Cavalry Rgt
2nd Ranger Bn 13th And Grp 147th Infantry Rgt
2nd Cavalry Grp 14th Cavalry Crp 474th Infantry Rgt
3rd Cavalry Crp 15th Cavalry Grp 503rd Parachute Rgt
4th Cavalry Grp 22nd Marine Rgt 517th Parachute Rgt
Marine Raiders Merrill's Marauders Mars Task Force
102nd Cavalry Grp 106th Cavalry Grp









4


Notes on the casualty listing:

1 Some of the totals are approximate figures. However, the total battle death and
the KIA (killed in action) figures are quite accurate. An exception to this is
the Ranger battalions. All of those battalions which are listed are approximate
figures except for the 5th Ranger Battalion which is an exact figure.

2 The 66th Infantry Division lost over 700 men in the English Channel in
December 1944, due to enemy submarine action.

3 ** The 106th Infantry Division had close to 7,000 men captured in the
Battle of the Bulge in December 1944.

4 No killed in action figures are available for any of the Marine divisions--
only the total battle death figures.

5 The total battle death column includes those men who later died of wounds.

6 Captured and missing in action figures have been omitted primarily due to lack of
apace. In the Pacific, as a rule, very few men surrendered to the Japanese.

7 Figures are also incomplete for the 1st Special Service Force and the Japanese-
American 442nd Infantry Regiment, the 473rd Infantry Regiment, and the
113th Cavalry Group. The 473rd fought in Italy, and the 113th fought in Europe.

8 The casualty figures for all of these units does not include any units or per-
sonnel which may have been temporarily attached to a given unit at any time.




Full Text

PAGE 1

Digitized with the permission of the FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS FLORIDA NATIONAL GUARD SOURCE DOCUMENT ADVISORY Digital images were created from printed source documents that , in many cases , were photocopies of original materials held elsewhere . The quality of these copies was often poor . Digital images reflect the poor quality of the source documents. Where possible images have been manipulated to make them as readable as possible . In many cases such manipulation was not possible . Where available, the originals photocopied for publication have been digitized and have been added, separately , to this collection. Searchable text generated from the digital images , subsequently, is also poor . The researcher is advised not to rely solely upon text-search in this collection. RIGHTS & RESTRICTIONS Items collected here were originally published by the Florida National Guard, many as part of its SPECIAL ARCHIVES PUBLICATION series. Contact the Florida National Guard for additional information. The Florida National Guard reserves all rights to content originating with the Guard . DIGITIZATION Titles from the SPECIAL ARCHIVES PUBLICATION series were digitized by the University of Florida in recognition of those serving in Florida's National Guard , many of whom have given their lives in defense of the State and the Nation.

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FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS Special Archives Publication Number 133 SUMMARY HISTORIES: WORLD WAR II REGULARAR1\1YINFANTRYAND CAVALRYDMSIONS State Arsenal St. Francis Barracks St. Augustine, Florida

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STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS OFFICE OF THE APJUTAHT OEHEAAL POST OFFICE BOX 1008 STATE ARSENAL, ST. AUGUSTINE 32085 These Special Archives Publications are produced as a service to Florida communities, historians and any other individuals, historical or geneaological societies and both national and state governmental agencies which find the information contained therein of use or value. They are automatically distributed to all official Florida State archival records depositories. At present, only a very limited number of copies of these publications are produced. They are provided to certain state and national historical record depositories and other public libraries and historical societies at no charge. Any copies remaining are given to other interested parties on a first come, first served basis. Information about the series is available from the Historical Services Division, Depart ment of Military Affairs, State Arsenal, PO Box 1008, St. Augustine, Florida 32085. Robert Hawk Director

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INTRODUCTION The information in all the Summary Unit Histories was compiled by Jack L. Picken of Waterloo, Iowa. He is an amateur historian who has made the research and study of American combat units in the wars of the twentieth century his life's work. These summaries were sent to us as part of his contribution to the establishment of the Camp Blanding Museum and Memorial Park of the Second World War. Some of the material was extracted from the standard works on US units listed below. But there is considerable information contained in these pages that is the result of dogged research in original records, especially the detailed information concering unit casualties and decorations awarded. The statistics on day to day casualties Mr. Picken has researched for most combat units is absolutely unique and available in this form in no other source. (His statistics on casualties are more accurate than those available from normal official sources!) There are some gaps in the information available and some "fine tuning" yet to be accomplished but eventually we hope to put this material on a computer and publish it in a more complete and professional manner. Until then these photocopied compilations will meet the immediate needs of all those interested in the incredible history of America's soldiers, airmen and marines during the Second World War. Robert Hawk Department of Military Affairs St. Augustine, Florida 1991 RESOURCES Army Almanac (1950) Committee on Veterans Affairs; Medal of Honor Recipients 1863-1978 Fighting Divisions; Kahn, Ely J. and Mclemore, Henry Library, US Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania University of Iowa; Army Divisional Combat Narratives, World War II {Archives) Other public and private standard informational sources and institutions were consulted as necessary

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FLORIDA S%AD DEPOSI1'0~ISI State documents are distributed to the foll0"1ing depoaitory librui•• llnd are availa.ble to Florida citizen• for either in the librari•• or on interlibrary loan, 1ubjact to each library•• regulationa. An uterilk (*) indicate• libraries that are obligated to give interlibrary loa.n ••rviee. Requelta ahould be directed to the neareat depository, Bay Vista Campus Library (1982) Document• Department Florida International University North Miami, Florida 33181 Brevard County Library System (1968) 308 Forrest Avenue Cocoa, Florida 32922-7781 Broward County Division of Libraries (1968) 100 South Andrews Avenue Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33301 •central Florida Regional Lib. System (1972) 15 Southeast Osceola Avenue Ocala, Florida 32671 •Florida Atlantic University (1968) Library P. o. Box 3092 Boca Raton, Florida 33431 •Florida International University (1971) Document• Section Tamia..mi Campus Library Ta.miami Trail Miami, Florida 33199 •Florida State Oniver•ity Library (1968) Documents Mapa Division Tallahassee, Florida 32306 •Jacksonville Public Libraries (1968) 122 North Ocean Street Jacksonville, Florida 32202-3374 Lee County Library System (1991) 2025 Lee Street Ft. Myers, Florida 33901-3989 *Hiami-Dade Public Library System (1968) 101 West Flagler Street Mia.mi, Florida 33130-1523 Northwest Regional Library System (1968) 25 West Government Street Pana.ma City, Florida 32402 Orange County Library District (1968) 101 East Central Boulevard Orlando, Florida 32801 St. Petersbur9 Public Library (1969) 3748 Ninth Avenue, North St. Petersburg, Florida 33713 ---~ -------- •state Library of Florida (1968) Documents Section R. A. Gray Building Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0250 Stetson University (1968) Dupont-Ball Library Deland, Florida 32720-3769 Jacksonville Oniver1ity (1968) Carl S. Swisher Library Univeraity Blvd., North Jacksonville, Florida 32211 •Tampa-Hillsborough County (1968) Public Library Syatem 900 North Ashley Street Tampa, Florida 33602 •Univeraity of Central Florida (1968) Library Post Office Box 25000 Orlando, Florida 32816-0666 •University of Florida Library (1968) Document• DepartJDent Gaine•ville, Tlorida 32611 •Univeraity of MiAllli Library (1968) Gov't Publications P.O. Box 2482H Coral Gablee, Florida 33124 •University of North Documents Divi1ion Post Office Box 17605 Jacksonville, Florida Florida. (1971) 32216 Library *University of South Florida (1968) Library Special Collections 4204 Fowler Avenue Tampa, Florida 33620 University of West Florida (1968) Documents John Pace Library Pensacola, Florida 325145750 Volusia County Library Center (1990) City Island Daytona Beach, Florida 32114 West Palm Beach Public Library (1968) 100 Clematis West Palm Beach, Florida. 33401

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Regular Army Activated-8 June 1917 1ST INFANTRY DIVISIOO "The Big Red One"' Battle Credits, World War ll: Algeria Tunisia Sicily Normandy Northern France-Belgium Siegfried Line Days In Coml::at--44J Rhineland Ruhr Pocket Central Europe Commanding Generals (During Coml::a t, WW II): Ardennes Maj-Gen Terry M. Allen Maj-Gen Clarence R. Huetner Maj-Gen Clift Andrus August 1942-July 194) July 1943-December 1944 December 1944-A~st 1946 Coml::at Chronicle.: The 1st Infantry Division, also known as the "Fighting First", has an outstanding record not only in World War I, when it was the first American division to fire upon the enemy and to also launch a major attack, but also, in World War II, when it was one of the first U.S. divisions to do l::attle with the enemy in North Africa. The Fighting First got off to an early start when, after amphibious training in the United States and England, the division stormed ashore in Algeria, North Africa, on 8 N.ovember 1942. The 16th and 18th Infantry Regiments went ashore east of Oran, while the 26th Infantry Regiment landed at Les Andalouses. Oran was entered on 10 November. The French offered some fierce resistance, until a cease-fire was reached on the 11th. In Tunisia, the 18th Infantry went into action with the British at Djebel-el-Ahmera, while the 26th Infantry cleared the Ouseltia Valley by 25 January 194). The Americans then sustained heavy losses at Ka.sserine Pass, 14-21 February 1943, before the Germans were finally forced to withdraw. The 1st attacked as a concentrated whole division for the first time on 16 March 1943, east of El Guettar, and took Gafsa in a driving rainstorm. Two strong German counter attacks were contained on 23 March. The 1st then took Sakket, 3 April 194'.3, but further offensive movement down the Gabes road was stopped, .5 April 194). The 1st relieved the British 4th Infantry Division near Beja, 16 April, and attacked on 22 April 1943, a.long the Medjez-el-Ba.b-Tunis highway. Bitter and heavy fighting en sued as the 18th Infantry took Hill 407, and the 26th Infantry Regiment cleared Hill 575. The 26th Infantry next reached Djebel-el-Anz against strong German resistance on 28 Ap ril. These attacks were in conjunction with the ;4th Infantry Division's assault on the key enemy l::astion of Hill 6()9. On 29 April 1943, the 1st began its attack on Hill ,52J. As enemy defenses began to crumble, the 1st advanced toward Ma teur, and took it on 9 May 194). By the lJth, the war was over for the Germans and Italians in .tiorth Africa, and many thousands of prisoners were taken. The 1st lost 794 men in North Africa. The lst's second amphibious assault of the war was at Gela, Sicily, on 10 July 194). The Hermann G8ring Panzer and Italian Livorno Infantry Divisions launched strong attacks, trying to push the Americans back into the sea. However, the 1st was aided by two Ran ger l::attalions, by some tanks from the 2nd Armored Division which had managed to reach shore, and by naval gunfire against the advancing enemy, who was beaten l::ack with heavy losses.

PAGE 7

In 37 days, the Big Red One took l8 cities and towns, inching its way up cliffs and along torturous mountain trails. The 1st seized the Salso River crossings, east of Ca.lta.nissetta, and repelled a German counterattack at Gangi, on 2.5 July 194,J. The lst's toughest battle on Sicily occurred at Troina, on the more northern pa.rt of the island. It took the 1st Division and two regiments of the 9th Infantry Division, plus artillery bomba.rdments and air strikes, before the 15th Panzer Grenadier Division finally withdrew during the night of 6 August 194,J. The Sicilian ca.mpa.ign ended on 17 August 194,J. It took the Allies just J8 days to conquer the large island. It cost the lives of 264 men in the 1st Infantry Division. The 1st never got to Italy because General Eisenhower wanted it to spearhead. the vit al invasion of Normandy. And so, the 1st sailed be.ck to England for more training and long waiting, and the men of the First had plenty of time to get to know many of the English girls. Then, finally, on 6 June 1944, the 1st, along with the 29th Infantry Division, strug gled ashore on bloody Omaha. Beach, Normandy, France, in its finest hour. Some compa.nies suffered JO per cent casualties in the first bloody hour of the landing, as the Germans had every foot of the beachhead zeroed-in by artillery, mortar, machinegun, and small arms fire. But. the Americans grimly hung on, and forced their way inland by sheer cou rage, coupled with desperation. In the process, the Big Red One badly mauled an entire German division that stood in the way. There were many acts of individual heroism on this fateful day, including that by 1st Lieutenant Jim Monteith of the 16th Infantry Regiment. Lt Monteith landed with the initial assault wave under heavy enemy fire. He led an assault over a narrow, protective ledge and across the flat, exposed terrain to the com p:1,rative safety of a cliff. Completely exposed to intense fire, the lieutenant led two tanks through a minefield and, under his direction, several German positions were put out of action. He then supervised his men in the defense of a key position on a hill, as they beat be.ck repeated vicious counterattacks. When the Germans succeeded in surrounding his platoon, he wa.s killed while leading his men out of this situation, a lasting inspirat ion to his men. Lt Monteith posthumously won the Medal of Honor. The whole trauma.tic experience of the invasion. prompted famed war correspondent, Ernie Pyle , to later write, "N.ow tha. t it's over, it seems a pure miracle that we ever took the beach at all~" Perhaps it was a miracle. Altogether, on this historic day on the beaches of Normandy, the Allies had some 2,500 men killed or die of wounds, with around 1,000 being on bloody Omaha. Beach. Yes, it was plenty bad enough-but it could have been a great deal worse! Soon, the 1st entered the fighting in the hedgerows, in the Ca.umont sector. But then, after awhile, the 1st was given a break. On lJ July 1944, the 1st was relieved by the .5th Infantry Division, and withdrew to Colmbieres. Then, on 26 July 1944, after a highly risky saturation bombing behind the German lines, the Americans succeeded in achieving a major breakthrough just west of St. Lo. On the right of the breakout, the 1st swung west, took Marigny, and trapped J0,000 Germans, in cluding much of the 2nd SS "Das Reich" Panzer Division, near Coutances. Some of these enemy troops broke out of this trap in furious fighting, but many more were captured. The 1st then helped stop a dangerous enemy counterthrust in the vicinity of Mortain by mid-August, and then raced JOO miles in a week to take Soissons, where the division had suffered 9,000 casual ties in 4 days in World War I: Continuing on in through Belgium against ineffectual opposition, the 1st then ran up against the Siegfried Line (West Wall) at the city of Aachen-and into some of the most bitter fighting on the Western Front. Defending Aachen was the German 246th Infantry Division, veteran of the Russian Front, and it contested every yard of ground. The battle began with an attack by the 1st on the city's municipa.l forest on 12 Sept ember 1944. As the 1st tried to encircle Aachen, the 16th Infantry Regiment was stopped at the Siegfried Line, 1.5 September 1944. On 8 October 1944, the Big Red One renewed its assault on Aachen. The 18th Infantry

PAGE 8

Regiment advanced through Verlautenheide, the 26th Infantry Regiment attacked through the heart of Aachen, while the 16th Infantry Regiment held defensive .positions near Eilendorf. It was on 8 October 1944, that one of the war's most outstanding soldiers won another Medal of Honor for the Fighting First. Captain Bobbie E. Brown, Company C, 18th Infantry Regiment, rough-featured., looked like and was a soldier in the best sense of the word. Highly respected by his men, he had already done a number of very daring exploits on the 1:attlefield. But his big day came on 8 October 1944. Captain Brown commanded. Company C, as it attacked. Crucifix Hill, a key bastion. in the German defense of Aachen. Soon, an intense artillery barrage fell upon his men, and they were pinned down in an exposed position. Casualties quickly mounted. Seeing that a number of pillboxes must be neutralized to prevent the slaughter of his men, Captain Brown obtained a pole charge and started forward alone toward the first pillbox about 100 yards away. Hugging the ground while bullets whipped around him, he crawled and then ran toward the fortification, and rammed his explosive inside, jumping 1:ack as the pillbox and its occupants were blown up. The captain rejoined the assault platoon, secured another pole charge, and led the way toward the next pillbox under continuous fire from all types of weapons. He succ eeded in eliminating the second pillbox in the same manner. Fire from a third pillbox then pinned down his compa.ny again. In knocking out this third emplacement, he was woW1ded by a mortar burst but refused medical aid. While blowing up these installations, the captain also shot several snipers who att empted to pick him off. Every one of them was drilled through the head-except for one who was hit in the stomach. This shot later puzzled the captain, since he was normally a crack shot. He couldn't figure how the one shot he had made was so low. Later, realizing the need for information of enemy activity beyond the hill, Captain Brown went out alone to reconnoiter. Twice more, on his self-imposed mission, he was wounded. Nevertheless, he was able to secure information which led to the destruction of several enemy guns, and enabled his company to throw 1:ack two powerful counterattacks with heavy losses to the Germans. Only when his company's position was completely sec ure did he permit treatment of his three wounds. By his indomitable courage, fearless leadership, and outstanding skill as a soldier, Captain Brown contributed in great measure to the capture of Crucifix Hill. And he survived the war to receive his award. By 12 October 1944, the 26th Infantry Regiment had gained most of the factory dist rict between Aachen and Ha.a.ren, and began an all-out central a tta.ck the next day. After severe fighting this regiment gained most of Observatory Hill, but German counterattacks forced all further advances to a halt on 1.5 October. The 16th Infantry Regiment was for ced to defend its area against strong German assaults, as well. On 18 October 1944, the 1st was reinforced for still another attack on Aachen. Ob servatory Hill finally fell, and on 21 October 1944, the city was taken by direct assault. Aachen was the first city inside Germany to fall to American troops. After a rest, the 1st was elected to help make the southern :i:e,rt of the assault to the Roer River, beginning 16 November 1944. On this day, 4,.500 U.S. and British planes dump ed thousands of tons of bombs and rockets in front of the 1st Division's zone of attack. Then the 1st advanced.. What followed still sends shivers down the spines of the veterans of the dreaded Hurt gen Forest. This forest may well have been the most devilish military trap ever devised by man. Enemy shell-proof bunkers, yet invisible, s:i:e,t death in every direction, and artillery and mortar bursts shredded men by the score. The ground was nothing but mud, for it rained almost continually. The nights were freezing. But the worst thing of all were the mines-mines in the ground and in low-hanging trees. Some could not even be detected with mine detectors. Yet, heroism was never lacking. On 16 November 1944, near Hamich, Germany, Technical Sergeant Jake W. Lindsey, 16th Infantry, knocked out two machinegun nests, put two German tanks to flight and, though wounded, still managed to kill three Germans and captured 8 others. Three days later, 19 November 1944, the Germans threw a savage attack at ComJ;Bny H,

PAGE 9

26th Infantry Regiment, and the compuiy was wiped out. But Pfc Francis X. McGraw rem ained at his machinegun. When the area this enemy attack had overrun was later retaken, Pfc McGraw was found dead beside his gun. Over 50 German corpses littered the nearby area. Both Sgt Lindsey and Pfc McGraw were awarded the Medal of Honor. The Germans continued to fight tenaciously, and on 29 November 1944, the 26th Infantry Regiment was again hit very hard by another German attack, near Merode, which decimated two more compuiies of the 26th. But then, replacements, fighting from deep foxholes, avenged their fallen comrades by killing over 1,200 Germans in three days. On 5 December 1944, the Red One was relieved by the 9th Infantry Division, and went to a rest area in the Luchem-La.ngerwehe-Juengersdorf-Merode region (less the 16th Infan~ try, attached to the V Corps). By Hurtgen Forest standards the 1st had done quite well. In 2 weeks of fighting in the HUrtgenwald, the 1st had inflicted very heavy losses on the enemy and advanced 4 miles-while suffering 4,000 casualties: The 26th Infantry Regiment, alone, sustained 1,479 casualties. After this extremely costly and bitter experience, the 1st got exactly 12 days of rest, while receiving many replacements. And then, the Germans struck their all-out counterblow in the Ardennes. And so, the handful of "old men" and the fresh, green replacements were rushed for ward to help stop the German onslaught. They did a superb job. The Fighting 1st, into coml:at on the northern side of the German salient (the "Bulge"), held off an entire Ger man corps near Biltgen re.ch, fighting in the bitter cold. The 1st• s lines were pierced, 22 December 1944, but quickly restored. The ground was frozen so hard that foxholes had to be blasted with exploeives instead of dug. Men urinated on their weapons to keep them from jamming, and white bedsheets and pillowcases were thrown over uniforms to blend in with the snow. Newspa.per was stuffed into boots for warmth. Wounds healed slowly in the cold, and gangrene could set-in easier. Corpses froze solid, and after a few days, burst and splintered like glass. In January 1945, the 1st went over to the attack and took Steinl:ach on the 15th. This opened a pa.ssage for the 7th Armored Division's drive on St. Vith. The 1st next ran into stiff opposition northeast of Schop:pen, as the 16th Infantry cleared the Bambusch Woods. The division next advanced on the Siegfried Line, 28 January 1945, and attacked into and through the Buchholz Forest. It was relieved by the 99th Infantry Division on .5 February 194.5, and moved to an assembly area at Aywaille, Belgium. The 1st next attacked across the Roer River, at Kreuznau, on 2.5 February 194.5, against moderate to heavy resistance. This was pa.rt of an all-out U.S. 1st Army drive to the Rhine. Reaching that fabled river, 7 March 194.5, at Bonn, the lst then advanced into the Rema.gen bridgehead, crossing the Rhine, 15-16 March 194,5. Fighting out of the bridgehead against desperate, but somewhat disorganized resistance, the lst headed north along the east 1:e.nk of the Rhine to the Sieg River, running up again st fierce resistance. On JO March 194.5, the 1st attacked with all three regiments in line to gain the heights dominating the sizeable town of Siegen. On l April, the 1st was rel ieved by the 8th Infantry Division in this region, and trucked to blocking positions southwest of Pa.derborn to help seal the Ruhr Pocket. The Americans, aided by fighter bombers, were too strong to be held l:ack for very long. Numerous other U.S. divisions fought into the Ruhr Pocket and, by mid-April 194.5, well over J00,000 Germans had surren dered-as many as at Stalingrad. After this big tattle, the Big Red One advanced across the Weser River, and deep into central Germany, heading toward the Ha.rz Mountains. This was a sizeable region of very high, steep, wooded hills, where some 70,000 German troops were holding out, including the crack 5th Parachute Division. Several other U.S. divisions, including the 9th, 35th, and 83rd Infantry and 8th Armored, converged upon this region, as well. The Germans used the terrain to their advantage, but again, the Americans were too strong and well-organ ized with lavish air support. On 14 April 1945, troops of the 1st and 83rd Divisions linked-up in the Harz interior, thus cutting the German pocket in two. The lst's haul. of

PAGE 10

prisoners ran from 200-1,000 daily in the area, and al 2J April 194.5, the Germans in. the Harz surrendered. Finally, the 1st was shifted way to the south to take pa.rt in Patton's Jrd Army attack into western Czechoslovakia, in the last several days of the war. With Combat Command A of the 9th Armored Division attached, the 1st helped deliver the final blow on .5 May 194.5. Attacking al a line directly west of Prague, the 1st met mostly moderate resistance. The Germans defended road junctialS and village strongpoints bitterly, ma.king good use of small-arms and automtic weapons fire. Artillery fire was light, scattered, and confined to the southern pa.rt of the lst's zone of attack. At Drenice, the Germans held out in positions on a hill just north of the town, and the area was not cleared until late in the da.y of .5 May, when division tanks were able to move in and clear up the situation. The advance continued on 6 May 194.5, against lighter and more scattered opposition. The 1st pushed on 10-20 kilometers in the northern and southern sectors of the attack. In the center, however, the Germans fought stubbornly. Along the ma.in road from Cheb to Falkenov, 88mm guns, being used as anti-tank weapons, were deployed in depth, and each one had to be destroyed by the infantry before the tanks could budge. In the vicinity of Eubabrunn the Germans put up a tough fight, but the small towns of Klinghart, Plesna, Sneky, Mnichov, Sanger berg, and Kynsperk were all cleared by the end of 6 May. Those troops who advanced beyond the largely pro-German Sudetenland, and into the land of the Czechs, were treated to tumultuous and heart-warming receptions by this long-oppressed people. V-E Day finally ca.me on 8 May 194.5. Few, if any, other outfits had been through as many tough battles as the great Fighting First, and the men who wore the Big Red One shoulder patch had good cause for thinking that the 1st was, indeed, number 1. Honors: Congressiooa.1 Meda.ls of Honor-16 Distinguished Unit Citations-20 * Distinguished Service Crosses-161 Silver Stars-------6,116 Casualties: Total Battle Deaths--4,J6.5 Killed In Action-J,616 Wounded,------1.5,208 Missing 1 199 Captured------l,JJ6 Total Casualties-20,6.59 * Two to entire regiments-the 16th and 18th Infantry D-Day, Omaha. Beach, H,ormandy, France The 1st Infantry Division later served in the Vietna.a War. As of this writing, the 1st is stationed at Ft. Riley, Kansas (with large elements in Germany). (7 July 1990) Other 1st Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II. Killed in action * (Includes all of those men not mentioned in this article) Pvt Carlton W. Barrett, 18th Inf Rgt, 6 June 1944, Normandy beachhead S/Sgt Arthur F. DeFranzo, * 10 June 1944, near Vaul:adon, Normandy, France S/Sgt Walter D. Ehlers, 18th Inf Rgt, 9-10 June 1944, near Goville, Normandy, France, Pvt Robert T. Henry, * 16th Inf Rgt, J December 1944, Luchem, Germany Pfc Gino J. Merli, 18th Inf Rgt, 4-.5 September 1944, near Sara-la-Bruyere, Belgium S/Sgt George Peterson, * 18th Inf Rgt, JO March 194.5, near Eisern, Germany T/.5 Grade John J. Pinder, Jr., * 16th Inf Rgt, 6 June 1944, Normandy beachhead Pvt James W. Reese, * 26th Inf Rgt, .5 August 1943, Monte Vassillio, Sicily S/Sgt Joseph E. Schaefer, 18th Inf Rgt, 24 September 1944, near Stolberg, Germany Sgt Max Thompson, 18th Inf Rgt, 18 October 1944, near Haaren, Germany Cpl Henry F. Warner, * 26th Inf Rgt, 20-21 December 1944, near Biltgen each, Belgium 1st Lt Walter J. Will, * 18th Inf Rgt, JO March 1945, near Eisern, Germany An update. The 1st Infantry Division served in the Persian Gulf (war with Iraq), late February-early-March 1991.

PAGE 11

Regular Army Activated-26 October 1917 Battle Credits, World War II: Days In Comba.t-JOJ 2ND INFANTRY DIVISION "Indianhead" Normandy Rhineland Brittany Siegfried Line Central Europe Commanding General (During Comb!l.t, WW II): Ardennes Ma.j-Gen Walter M. Robertson May 1942-June 1945 Comb!l.t Chronicles The 2nd Infantry Division, like the "Fighting First", ha.d an outstanding record in World War I, It became the only division all of whose units were authorized to wear the fourragere of the Croix de Guerre. The 2nd made history at Belleau Wood and at Chlteau-Thierry, It was the only division composed of one infantry and one marine brigade. A since-forgotten truck driver :painstakingly adorned the side of his vehicle with a i:ainted Indianhea.d-the idea stuck-a.nd it later became the division insignia, The 2nd didn't have a back seat in World War II, either, After training in Northern Ireland and Wales from October 1943 to early-June 1944, it landed on Omaha Beach, Normandy, on D-plus 1, 7 June 1944, German shells were still pouring into the thinly held beachhead, An attack was commenced on 9 June, The men of the 2nd received their ba.ptism of fire without their heavy weapons, Starting with only rifles and carbines for firepower, the coml::e.t tea.ms jumped-off, Machineguns and other automatic weapons were brought up as soon as they could be unloaded. from the landing ba.rges, Stiff resistance was immediately met around Trevieres, The attack went slowly at first, due to the absence of heavy weapons. The German units in the area were the 716th Infantry and elements of the J,52nd Infantry Divisions and the JOth "Schnelle" :Brigade, a mobile unit. The attack was resumed, 10 June, and the Germans fought with great tenacity, doggedly defending Trevi~res house-by-house. Many had to be literally dug-up from their cellars be fore the town was taken, After this ba.ttle, the 38th Infantry Regiment made rapid progress along the west side of the Cerisy Forest, Elements pushed on through an arm of the forest to the road junction Haute Littee, on the St, Lb-Ba.yeux Highway, Here was met strong German resistance, A heavy division artillery barrage then scattered the Germans, and the infantry seized the road junction, On 12 June, the 2nd made its first contact with the formidable German Jrd Parachute Div ision, recently rushed from Brittany. Heavy and bitter fighting soon occurred in the vic inity of St, Germain d'Elle. The 9th Infantry Regiment was strafed by two enemy planes and one of them was shot down. By 17-18 June, the 2nd had consolidated its gains made in the previous several days,

PAGE 12

The 2nd had come to grips with the most hardened, seasoned, highly-trained soldiers of the Third Reich, and had held their own. The 2nd next prepared to attack Hill 192., on the roa.d to St. Lo. The base of this hill was zeroed in by the Germans at every gap in the hedgerows, and the hedges, themselves, provided an excellent natural advantage for them. They also employed deadly anti-personnel mines against the 2nd. Snipers were found everywhere, even in the trees which grew as high as 20 feet above the hedgerows. Despite all this, on 11 July, striking in a magnificently planned attack, the 2nd accom plished the reduction of Hill 192. Greatly aiding the 2nd was a terrific artillery bomb ardment of the hill prior to the attack. The capture of Hill 192 gave the Allied forces the key for communications which they needed for the planned breakout offensive. The 2nd went on the defensive until 26 July 1944. Then came the major breakthrough near St. Lei. In extremely heavy fighting, exploiting the breakthrough, the 2nd advanced over the Vire to take Tinchebray on 15 August. It was the toughest kind of combat for the infantrymen, but the 2nd performed valiantly, and no ground gained was ever given up. In this fighting, 376 prisoners were taken from J differ ent German divisions. The Indianhead Division next turned west, 200 miles into the western tip of Brittany, besieging the heavily defended port of Brest. There were 40,000 Germans in and around the city including the 266th and 343rd Infantry Divisions and the elite 2nd Parachute Division. These troops put up fanatical resistance. Attacking with the 8th, 29th, and 2nd Infantry Divisions, 2 Ranger battalions, and elem ents of the FFI (French Forces of the Interior), the two Allies had to exert great efforts to destroy one strongpoint after another in hard, tedious house-to-house, block-by-block fighting. The troops were greatly aided by U .s. naval bombardments and by air strikes, but the soldiers sometimes had to charge the German positions again and again. As the fighting was too close-in for the extensive use of machineguns, the infantry often charged with gren ades, and the Germans reciprocated in kind. Even under the fiercest hand-to-hand assaults the German paratroopers clung to their prepared positions and refused to be routed. Three times men of the 2nd charged Hill 105, and three times were hurled tack with heavy losses to both sides. A fourth attack succeeded in breaking through. On JO August, the 23rd Infantry Regiment waged a hand-to-hand and hedgerow to hedgerow fight to gain some 800 yards, and repulsed several counterattacks. With the fall of Bourg-Neuf on l September, the defenses of Brest began to crack. But the bitter, bloody fighting continued until 17 September 1944. It took the Americans 39 days to reduce Brest, although military "experts" had predicted a 90-day campaign. Some 35,000 Germans surrendered-11,000 of them to the 2nd Infantry Division. After this exhausting battle, the 2nd rested in the open fields of Brittany from 19-26 September 1944. Then, the division was sent by rail clear across France, through Belgium, and to near the German frontier. Here, it took up defensive positions near St. Vith, in the Siegfried Line area. Facing the 2nd was the German 91st Infantry Division which had been l:adly battered in Normandy. Action consisted mainly of patrol activities and skirmishes, On 13 December 1944, the 2nd, as pa.rt of the 5th Corps, U.S. 1st Army, started an attack toward the Roer River Dams, and was on the move and ready for anything. It was a good thing that it was, because on 16 December 1944, it ran smack into the extreme northern flank of the German counteroffensive in the Ardennes. Heavily outnumbered, the 2nd and 99th Infantry Divisions, in very furious fighting, fell back in reasonably good order to some high ground known as Elsenborn Ridge. Cooks, clerks, and MPs were thrown into the line in a desperate attempt to stop the Germans. It was during this fighting that the 2nd produced one of its 6 Medal of Honor winners of the war, Pfc Richard E. Cowan, Company M, 23rd Infantry Regiment, 17 December 1944. Pfc Cowan was a heavy machinegunner in a company which was attacked by a numerically sup erior force of German tanks and infantry. The first 6 waves of enemy infantry were repulsed with heavy casualties, but a seventh assault with tanks killed or wounded all but three of his section, leaving him to man his gun, supported by only 15 to 20 riflemen. Pfc Cowan maintained his position, holding off the Germans until the rest of his men had set-up a new defense line along a firebreak.

PAGE 13

Then a Royal Tiger tank began approaching with about 80 infantrymen. At a distance of about 150 yards he opened fire, killing or wounding about half the infantrymen. The tank fired, rocking his position with an 88mm shell, but he stuck to his gun, and poured deadly fire into the Germans when they again advanced. Machinegun and small-arms fire struck all around him. An enemy rocket shook him 'l:adly, but he still remained at his gun. By this time, enemy infiltration had made•his position untenable. Pfc Cowan was the last man to leave, covering the withdrawal of his comrades. His heroic action was entirely res ponsible for allowing the remaining men in his platoon to successfully retire further 'l:ack to a safer position. The Germans hurled four of their best formations at the Americans on Elsenborn Ridge the Jrd Parachute, 12th SS Panzer, and 12th and 277th Volksgrenadier Divisions. Braving point-blank tank fire which blasted men from their foxholes, the men of the 2nd held their positions cutting down wave after wave of the Germans. There was hand-to-hand com'l:at, and many of the enemy were slashed or stabbed with tayonets or clubbed with rifles, as many men sacrificed themselves to hold off the German onslaught. For .56 hours, the 12th SS Panzer Division, of murderous inclinations, assaulted the positions of the 2nd head-on, accompanied by the faithful 277th Volksgrenadiers. Although in a very precarious position, the 2nd and 99th Divisions held off repeated ene my assaults in some of the most ferocious fighting of the war. Though the Americans sust ained very heavy casualties, the German losses were staggering. This heroic stand was one of the most crucial of the entire Bulge tattle, and gained valuable time for other U.S. out fits to move into position and help further strengthen the northern shoulder of the Bulge salient. This proved to be fatal to the German effort. After the German offensive was eventually forced back in the most bitter, strenuous com 'l:at, after receiving rest and replacements, the 2nd began rolling again. It slashed through the Siegfried Line, and spilled out into the Rhineland in February 1945, taking Monschau, Ahrweiler, and other smaller towns against desperate, but somewhat disorganized resistance. The 2nd moved too fast for the enemy to make a co-ordinated stand in its sector of front. Continuing the advance, the Indianhead seized Gemilnd on 4 March, and reached the Rhine on the 9th. The 2nd then advanced southeast to take Breisig, and guarded the Remagen bridge from 12-20 March 1945. Crossing the Rhine on the 21st, the 2nd advanced deep into central Germany. After reach ing Ha.damar and Limburg, it headed further ea.st in the wake of the 9th Armored Division. In this advance, spotty resistance was met in some areas, and fierce fighting in others. The 2nd crossed the Weser River, 6-7 April, captured the university city of Gottingen on the 8th, and then met increasingly fierce opposition. A dazzling 'l:attle of German antiair craft guns against American artillery occurred until hundreds of the German guns were knock ed out, the U.S. artillery firing with amazing accuracy. The great synthetic rubber plant at Schkopa.u fell on 11 April. Between lJ-19 April 1945, the 2nd captured or destroyed 505 heavy antiaircraft artillery, as well as capturing 9,111 POWs, including some 'l:attalions of German women trained as gunn ers. Numerous small towns on the approaches to the city of Leipzig, including Grossgrafen dorf, Bad Lauchstidt, Dorstewitz, Milzau, and Bendra were all cleared in the face of fierce resistance. Around sizeable Merseburg, the 2nd met considerable small-arms and direct 10.5mm fire from antiaircraft artillery. East of Merseburg there was encountered sustained rifle and machine gun fire from German troops dug-in along the levee on the east side of the Saale canal. The town of Kayna was then cleared against the same kind of o'txiurate opposition. Leuna, the chief manufacturing source of synthetic gasoline for the Reich, as Merseburg was of synthet ic rubber, both fell on 15 April 1945. casualties were moderate. The big city of Leipzig was, for the most part, left for the 69th Infantry Division and i:art of the 9th Armored Div ision to deal with. Elements of the 2nd occupied only a small portion of the city. On 20 April, the 2nd began relieving elements of the 9th Armored Division along the Mulde River. Mostly patrol activity occurred along the Mulde, but a German counterattack drove some troops off of Hill 194 on 22 April. But a counterattack soon restored the situation. Then, after being relieved at the Mulde, the 2nd was sent 200 miles to the south to take J:S,rt in Patton's Jrd Army attack into western Czechoslovakia. After going through the Sud etenland, which was pro-German, the 2nd was received by the cheering, deliriously happy

PAGE 14

Czech people who gave the Gis wine, beer, cheeses, cakes, and other pastries, flowers and many kisses from pretty Czech girls. There were no major battles inside Czechoslovakia for the 2nd, but the Germa.ns commit ted a number of acts of sabotage and pulled off a few ambushes. Doma~lice, Klatovy, Slo vice, Dobrzany, and other smaller Czech towns and villages were liberated. Then the fam ous beer city of Pilsen (Plze~) was entered on 7 May, behind the 16th Armored Division which had gotten to the city a day earlier. Patrols of the 2nd had ventured as far north and east of Pilsen as Manetin and Kralovice, when the war in Europe finally ended on 8 May 1945. The 2nd Infantry Division had a splendid record to show that it was, indeed, second to none. Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-6 Distinguished Unit Citations-16 Distinguished Service Crosses-J4 Silver Stars--------'741 Casualties: Total Battle Deaths-3,512 Killed In Action-3,031 Wounded-----12,785 Missing-------193 Captured------786 Total Casualties-16,?95 Other 2nd Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World Var II: Killed in action* S/Sgt Alvin P. Carey,* 38th Inf Rgt, 23 August 1944, near Plougastel, Brittany, France T/4 Grade Truman Kimbro, * 2nd Engineer Bn, 19 December 1944, near Rocherath, Belgium Sgt Jose M. Lopez, 23rd Inf Rgt, 17 December 1944, near Krinkelt, Belgium Sgt John J. McVeigh, * 23rd Inf Rgt, 29 August 1944, near Brest, Brittany, France Pfc William A. Soderman, 9th Inf Rgt, 17 December 1944, near Rocherath, Belgium The 2nd Infantry Division later saw very extensive service in the Korean War. Since then, the 2nd has been stationed in South Korea for many years, and still is, as of this writing. (21 November 1985)

PAGE 15

1 WWII 2ND INFANTRY DIVISIOO. "Indianhead" JUNE 1944 6 June 11111111 8 7 June 11 8 June 1111111 9 June 111111111111111116 10 June 1111 11 June 11111 12 June 111111111111111111111111125 lJ June 111111111111111111111111111111111111 J6 14 June 111 15 June 11111111111111115 16 June 1111111111111111111111111126 17 June 111111111111111111111 21 18 June 111111111 9 19 June 111111111111111111111111 24 20 June 11111111111111111118 21 June 111111111111111111119 22 June 111111111111111111119 2J June 11111111111111111118 24 June 111111111111111111119 25 June 1111111111111 26 June 1 27 June 11111 28 June l 29 June 111 JO June 1111 )19 JULY 1944 1 July 111 2 July 11 J July 1111111111111 lJ 4 July 11 5 July 111 6 July 1 8 July 1 9 July 1 11 July 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 50 12 July 1111111111111111111111111111111111 jf lJ July 111111111111111111111 21 14 July lllllllllllllllllllll 21 15 July 1111111111111 16 July 1111 17 July 11 18 July 1 19 July 111 20 July l 22 July l 2J July 111 25 July 111 26 July llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll .52 27 July lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 111111111 70* approx. lJ~ men 28 July lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 59 29 July 11111111 8 JO July 1111111111111114 Jl July 1111111111111 lJ 397

PAGE 16

2 WWII 2ND INFAN.TRY DIVISIOO "Indianhead" AUGUST 1944 1 Aug 11111111111111111111111111 26 2 Aug 1111111111111114 J Aug 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111150 4 Aug 11111111111111111111111111111111111111 J8 5 Aug 1111111111111114 6 Aug 111 7 Aug 1111 8 Aug 111111 9 Aug 111 10 Aug 11111111111111115 11 Aug 111111111 9 12 Aug 1111111111111111117 lJ Aug 111111111111111111111111111111111111111 J9 14 Aug 1111111111111111111111111111 28 15 Aug 11111111111111111111 20 16 Aug 11 17 Aug 11 20 Aug 1 21 Aug 1 22 Aug 1 2J Aug 11111111 24 Aug 11 25 Aug 11111111111111111111111111127 26 Aug 11111111111111111118 27 Aug 11111111111111115 28 Aug 11111111111111111111111111111 29 29 Aug 11111111111111111111111111111 JO JO Aug 11111111 8 Jl Aug 11111111111112 445 SEPI'EMBER 1944 l Sept 111111111110 2 Sept llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 44 J Sept 1111111 4 Sept 1111111111111114 5 Sept 111 6 Sept 11 7 Sept 1 8 Sept 11 9 Sept 111111111110 10 Sept 111 11 Sept 11111111 8 12 Sept 111 lJ Sept 111111111 9 14 Sept 1 15 Sept 11 16 Sept 1 17 Sept 111111 18 Sept 11 19 Sept 1 28 Sept 1 lJO

PAGE 17

J WWII OCTOBER 1944 J Oct 1 5 Oct 111 6 Oct 11 7 Oct 1 8 Oct 1 9 Oct 1 12 Oct 1 lJ Oct 111 14 Oct 1 15 Oct 1 2) Oct 1 24 Oct 1 25 Oct 1 26 Oct 11 28 Oct 1 29 Oct 1 JO Oct 1 2) NOVEMBER 19',14 1 Nov 1 8 Nov 1 9 Nov 1 .lJ Nov 11 19 Nov 11 24 Nov 111 10 2ND INFANTRY DIVISICfi "lndianhead'' DECEMBER 1944 7 Dec 1 11 Dec 11 14 Dec 11111111111111111118 15 Dec 1111111111111 lJ 16 Dec 111111 17 Dec 111111111111111111111111111111 JO 18 Dec 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 65 19 Dec 111111111111111111111 21 20 Dec 111111 21 Dec 111 22 Dec 1 2J Dec 1 24 Dec 111 26 Dec 1 28 Dec 11111 29 Dec 1111111 JO Dec 111 Jl Dec 11 188

PAGE 18

4 WWII JANUARY 191-5 1 Jan 11 J Jan 11 4 Jan 1 9 Jan 11 11 Jan 1 lJ Jan 1 14 Jan 1 1.5 Jan 111 16 Jan 1 17 Jan 11 18 Jan 1111111111111 lJ 19 Jan 1111 20 Jan 1111111111111 lJ 21 Jan 1111111 22 Jan 11 2J Jan 11 24 Jan 1 26 Jan 1 28 Jan 1 JO Jan 1111111111111111.5 Jl Jan 1111111111111 86 2ND INFANTRY DIVISION "Indianhead" FEBRUARY 191-5 1 Feb 11111 2 Feb 11 J Feb 11111111111111111118 4 Feb 1111 .5 Feb 111111111' 6 Feb 111 7 Feb 11 9 Feb 11 10 Feb 11 12 Feb 11 lJ Feb 1 14 Feb 111 1.5 Feb 1 16 Feb 11 17 Feb 1 19 Feb 1 20 Feb 11111111111112 22 Feb 1 2) Feb 1 24 Feb 1 27 Feb 1 74MARCH 191-5 J Mar 11 4 Mar 1111111111111 lJ .5 Mar 1111111 6 Mar 1 7 Mar 11 8 Mar 111111 9 Mar 1 10 Mar 11 11 Mar 1 1.5 Mar 1 18 Mar 1 20 Mar 1 21 Mar 1 22 Mar 111 2J Mar 111111111110 24 Mar 1 25 Mar 1111111 26 Mar 11 27 Mar 1 28 Mar 1111111 29 Mar 1 JO Mar 1 72

PAGE 19

5 WWII 2ND INFANTRY DIVISIOO "lndianhead" APRIL 194.5 2 A pr 1111111 .5 Apr 111 6 Apr 111 7 Apr 1 8 Apr 1111 9 Apr 1 11 Apr 11 12 Apr 1111 lJ Apr 11111111111112 14 Apr 111111111110 15 Apr 1111111111111111.5 16 Apr 1111111111111 17 Apr 1 18 Apr 1111111111111114 20 Apr 1 21 Apr 1 2) Apr 11 26 Apr 1 93 2ND INFANTRY DIVISIOO 'S *bloodiest day-------27 July 1944 bloodiest month August 1944 2nd bloodiest day 18 December 1944 Jrd" " " 28 July 1944 4th " " " 26 July 1944 MAY 194.5 1 May 11 .5 May 1 6 May 1 4 .5th " " " 11 July and J August 1944 Total blttle deaths-----J,272 1,841 are listed=,56.2% KIA-2,8JJ

PAGE 20

INFAN':mY DIVISION "The Fighting Third" Regular Army Activated-12 November 1917 Battle Credits, World. War II: Morocco Sicily Days In Comrat--4JJ Southern France Siegfried Line Commanding Genera.ls (During Comba.t, WW II): Maj-Gen Jonathan w. Anderson Maj-Gen Lucian K. Truscott Maj-Gen John w. O'Daniel Southern Italy Anzio Vosges Mountains Alsace Rhineland. Central Europe March 1942--March 194) March 194)-Februa.ry 1944 February 1944--December 194.5 Coml:at Chronicle: The Jrd Infantry Division has a superlative record, not only in World War II, but in World War I, when it earned the nickname "Rock of the Marne" because of its monUJllenta.l stand against the Germans' la.st great offensive in that war. Its p,.rticip:Ltion in J major rattles in 1918 is symbolized by the J white diagonal stripes of its shoulder p,.tch. They also represent the division's numerical designation. The blue stripes stand for loyalty and devotion to the principles of right and justice. In the Mediterranean-European Theater of Operations in World War II, the )rd is the only American division which fought the enemy on every major front-North Africa, Sicily, Italy, Fr&nce, and Germany. It had more casualties, nearly 26,000, than any other U.S. division, and it holds the record for high comrat citations, no fewer than '.36 of its officers and en listed men having won the Congressional Medal of Honor. The Jrd had been undergoing amphibious training at San Diego, a month prior to the Pearl Harbor attack. In April 1942, the Jrd moved to Ft. Ord, California, for more amJtiibious training. In September, the Jrd was sent to Ca.mp Pickett, Virginia, for preparation for going overseas. The invasion of North Africa began on 8 November 1942, the Jrd landing in Morocco. Fort Blond.in, key to the enemy defense at Fed.ala, fell to the Jeth Infantry Regiment. Then the Jrd moved into position for an attack on Casablanca, when the French agreed to cease-firing. The main trouble with the French in North Africa was that they were under the overall comm and. of Admiral Darlan, a notorious Nazi symp:Lthizer, who was eventually assassinated. The Jrd was later moved by truck clear across Algeria during the final Jtiase of the Tun isian campiign, and was just about to go into action, when the German-Italian Army surrender ed in Tunisia on 13 May 1943. North Africa was mild, the Jrd losing around 70 men. The first major rattle for the Jrd was on Sicily, with landings taking place on 10 July 1943. After seizing the port of Licata, the Jrd was ordered to take the city of Palermo. Against scattered resistance by, mostly, Italian troops, the men of the )rd covered almost 100 miles in 3 days, a magnificent feat of arms. Then, the Jrd, alternating with the 4,5th "Thunderbird" Infantry Division, advanced along the northern coast. Besides the terrific heat, which topped 100 degrees, the German 29th Panzer Grenadier Division offered very stubborn resistance, and the Jrd had to fight hard to crack the San Fratello Line in a bloody ,5-day battle. This pl&Se of the fighting on Sicily was marked by one of the most noteworthy engineering feats of the war. The Germans, falling back, blew a stretch of highway off the face of a cliff over the Tyrrhenian Sea. In 18 feverish hours, men of the 10th Engineers had liter ally "hung a bridge in the sky," as Ernil, Pyle described in his book, "Brave Men." ----------------

PAGE 21

The advance continued, and with the e&pture of Meaaina by the Jrd on 17 August l9'f-J, the C&J11paign ca.me to a.n end. It took the Allies just :,8 days to conquer Sicily. :,Bl ae11 in the Jrd made the supreme sacrifice. Next, came the bitter Italian campaign, with the Jrd landing in southern Italy 9 days after the initial assault landings at the Salerno beachhead. Three days later, 20 September 194J, the division contacted German troops, and for the next two months was in constant con tact with the enemy in southern Italy. The first serious engagement for the Jrd in Italy was at Acerno. The brunt of the 't:a.ttle fell on the JOth Infantry Regiment which took the town in 2 days of severe fighting after a. heavy artillery bombu-dment. Advancing to the Volturno River against skilli'ul delaying actions, the Jrd forced this river 1:arrier in intensive com't:a.t and took Trinisco Ridge, the key to the enemy defense in this region. Continuing northward into the mountains, the 15th Infantry Regiment cleared Roccaromano and Della Costa Ridge. These actions took place in October. By early-November 194J, the Jrd had advanced into the jaws of the western part of the strong German Winter Line, slightly south of Cassino. The Marnemen then fought a series of tough, exhausting 't:a.ttles on Monte C&mino, a particular grueling action, as well as on Monte Cesima, Monte Lungo, and Monte Rotundo. Tanks were all but useless in this rugged terrain, and supplies had to be brought forward by pack-mule. And the nights were bitter cold. It was some of the Jrd's ha.rd.est com't:a.t of the war. After forcing the Mignano Gap, just south of Cassino, the Jrd was relieved on 16-17 Nov ember l94J, by the J6th "Texas" Infantry Division, am pulled 't:a.ck to San Felice. The Jrd 's losses in southern Italy were subetantial-68J men killed, 2,412 wounded, am 170 missing. The Jrd received one f'ull month of rest and recuperation, and then ca.me more amphibious training for the Anzio beachhead landing. This occurred on 22 January 1944, with the Jrd being in on the initial assault. Hardly any resistance was met at the beach, since the Ger mans had been caught off gu&:rd. But they quickly recovered. For the next four months, opposed by some of the best units in the German Army, incluiing the Hermann Goring Panzer Division, the Jrd, a.long with several other American a.nd British formations, clung tenaciously to the precarious beachhead. The British 1st Infantry Division on the left, and the Jrd on the right first made strong probing attacks toward Cam.poleone and Cisterna, respectively. But the British were stopped by the Jrd Pa.nzer Grenadier Division and the J:rd by the Hermann Goring Division. At the end of January, two elite U.S. Ranger 't:a.ttalions, the 1st and '.3rd, were assigned the mission of ta.king Cisterna. They had al.most ma.de it, wading through a ha.lf-d.ry irrigat ion ditch when, at the last minute, they were detected. The Rangers then attempted to charge over the last few remaining hundred yards to Cisterna., but were caught out in the open under withering enemy fire. Many were killed or wourxled as the remaining men threw themselves in to ditches. Then the Germans moved toward them with tanks and ca. ptured over 500 men. Out of 767 men, only 6 returned safely 't:a.ck to American lines. Meanwhile, the Jrd ha.d. been 't:a.ttling desperately to save these ,lite fighters. It fought on, along a main road, past Isola Bella, to within 1,000 yards of Cisterna. But the casual ties were just too heavy, and on the following da.y the division ha.d. to pull 1::ack to a defen sive position near Isola Bella. This was in the more ea.stern pt.rt of the beachhead. The loss of the two Ranger 1:attalions was a heartbreaking blow to their colllll8.nder, Colonel Will iam O. Darby, who had trained them since the days in Northern Ireland. Shortly after, on J February, the Germans opened a :f'urious attack in the British sector at Aprilia, and at a group of buildings called the factory, and heavy fighting ensued. Then, on 16 February 1944, the Germans launched a major offensive to eliminate the Allied toehold-"the abscess at Anzio" as Hitler put it. They came very dangerously close to suc ceeding, but were thrown 't:a.ck after some of the most violent and desperate coml:at of the war, 16-19 February 1944. The entire Allied Air Force in Italy was thrown into the struggle, such was the seriousness of the situation, and German losses were terrific. And on 28-29 February, the Jrd fought off a.n attack by three German divisions. Soon after this, there occurred a stalemate at the beachhead, with highly dangerous p1.t rol actions and trench warfare reminiscent of the First World War. In late-March, the )rd was relieved by the )4th "Red Bull" Infantry Division which had fought so valiantly at Cassino, and which had recently arrived in the beachhead. However, the entire beachhead was subject to fire froa long range German artillery, plus sorties by

PAGE 22

the Luftwaffe, am. so there was no such thing as a. really afe rear area a.t Anzio. In mid-April, the 3rd went 'tack up front and relieved the 45th In:f'anuy Diviaion until l May, when the 4,5th went 'tack up to relieve the Jrd,. Finally, on 2J May 1944, the Americans and British opened an all-out offensive to bust out of the beachhead area. The 3rd saw extremely heavy and costly f"ighting as it and the 1st "Old Ironsides" Armored Division broke open a huge hole in the Gen.an def"enses. '!be 3rd succeeded in capturing Cistern& and almost destroyed the Germa.n 362nd Infantry Division. It was some of the moat furious and intensive fighting of the entire war, and the 3rd lost many men as it fought to Rome. In fact, the 3rd set another record for most caaua.lties suf fered by any one American division in a single day-950 on 23 May 1944. Many of the Jrd,'s Medal of Honor winners emerged from this furious fighting-men such as Pfc Patrick J. Kessler, JOth Infantry Regiment, 2J May 1944, near Ponte Rotto, who destroyed several enemy strongpoints in the face of murderous small-arms fire and captured a number of prisoners-he was killed three days later in a subsequent action; Sgt Sylvester Antolak, Company B, l.5th Infantry Regiment, near Cisterna on 24 May, who charged 200 yards over flat, coverless terrain to destroy an enemy ma.chinegun nest, although badly wounded-he was kill ed. in this action-(Audie Murphy witnessed. this act of heroism); Pfc Henry Schauer, near Cisterna, 2J-24 May, who destroyed. several German machinegun nests and their crews, plus a. number of snipers with his almost unbelievable long-range accuracy with his Browning Auto matic Rifle-he was luckier than many for he lived to receive his a.ward. Needless to say, there were many other acts of individual heroism, and it really does seem unfair to single any one man out. Actually, 7 men from the 3rd won this nation's highest award during the breakout from the Anzio beachhead and the 'tattle to Rome, and 5 more at some time or other during the entire struggle at the beachhead. 1,.585 men in the 3rd were killed at Anzio. Rome finally fell on 4 June 19'!.II2 days before the Allied invasion of Normandy. After a week in the "eternal city", the Third prepared for another amphibious invasion. On 1.5 August 1944, the Jrd., ;6th, and 45th Infantry Divisions, plus a few French units, landed on the southern coast of France, west of Nice. Against moderate resistance, the 3rd advanced rapidly inland, ta.king Avignon, and then became involved in a raging 'tattle at Montelimar in the Rh~ne River Valley. The German 19th Army was badly shot-up as it retreat ed to the north. This phase of the fighting cost the 3rd around 220 men killed. Advancing north up the Rh8ne-Sa8ne Valley, the J U.S. divisions and the French encountered increasingly strong opposition as they neared the Vosges Mountains. These steep, high, hea vily wooded hills had never before been crossed by an enemy-opposed military force. The fortress city of Besan9on fell in J days, and there was some hard-fought action by the Jrd around Vesoul. Then, after crossing the Moselle in late-September, a very bloody engagement was fought around Cleurie, notably by the l.5th Infantry Regiment. It was a 6-day battle. The Germans used every weapon at their disposal-mines, log roadblocks, booby-traps, 105 and 15.5mm self-propelled artillery, tanks, mortars, ma.chineguns, ma.chine-pistols, grenades, field art illery :fired in 1:attery concentrations, 20.. flak guns, and nUJ11erous snipers with telescopic sights on their rifles. The whole affair was a vicious, bloody nightmare, and both sides suffered heavy losses. By October 1944, the weather had turned increasingly foul, often windy and rainy and with bitter-cold nights. The Jrd was in the thick of the 'tattle in the high Vosges. During Oct ober, the division cracked the main line of German resistance at the Mortagne River, with the 45th Division on its left and the J6th on the right, and with the Jrd capturing Le Haut Jacques and Les Rouge Eaux. The Gis named the former place "The Crossroads of Hell." The ?th Infantry Regiment had 152 men killed and 824 more wounded at these two places. Between 20 October-lo November 1944 was the toughest period of coml:at in France that the 3rd had ex perienced up to this time. Grinding ahead in the face of continued. bitter enemy resistance, the Jrd forced the swol len Meurthe River under cover of darkness over rubber pontoon bridges, before it was :finally relieved. by the newly arrived lOJrd "Cactus" Infantry Division at Chevry on ll November 1944. The Vosges campaign was a very bitter and costly one for the Fighting 3rd. But the Ger mans also suffered very heavy losses, and surrendered. 2,000 prisoners to the 3rd. After a short rest, the Third again went into action. The German 19th Army was holding onto a sizeable bridgehead west of the Rhine, with its nucleus about Colmar, roughly half way between Strasbourg and the Swiss border.

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After reaching the city of Strasbourg, on the Rhine, the )rd shifted places with the J6th Infantry Division and aoved into the area which becaae known &a the Colu.r Pocket, assisting the French 1st Any. In December 1944, the 6Jrd "Blood am Fire" Infantry Division arrived in northea.stern France, and on 28 December, its 2,54th Infantry Regiment was attached to the )rd Division. More hard fighting took place in December. Bennewihr fell on Christ-.s Eve, but it took five days to reduce Sigolsheim. German resistance was fanatical. Some of their infantry men attacked tanks with rifles, until run over and crushed beneath the treads. After numerous U.S. and French attacks, a.nd German counterattacks, an all-out offensive was commenced by the two Allies on 20 January 1945. During the Battle of the Colmar Pocket several more Medals of Honor were won by men of the Jrd Division in the course of this hard, strenuous fighting. Indeed, the Jrd had so many men win this high a.ward that, as has been already indicated, it seems unfair to single any one man out. However, in this case, one man does stand out. As a member of the Jrd-Coa:pany B, 1st Battalion, 15th Infantry Regiment-2nd Lieuten ant Audie L. MurP'}y was in the comps.ny of heroes. As for himself, up to this time, he had won just about every other award possible, including the Distinguished Service Cross in southern France, and 2 Silver Stars for his outstanding actions at the Cleurie Quarry in the Vosges. There, among other feats, he had killed several snipers. Audie was a era.ck shot. He was also one of America's truly outstanding soldiers, inspite of his diminutive size and youthful appearance, and he had recently won a battlefield collllllission, when the following action occurred. On 26 January 1945, near Holtzwihr, Alsace, France, Lt MurJily was coJ1111&nding Com:pany B, when it was hit by a heavy German attack which included 6 tanks and waves of infantry. Lt Murphy ordered his men to withdraw to prepared positions in a nearby woods, while he remained forward at his command post and gave fire directions to the artillery by phone. This fire killed la.rge numbers of the advancing enemy infantry, rut more came on. With the enemy tanks abreast of his position, Lt Murphy climbed on top of a 1::urnii,g tank destroyer which was in danger of blowing up at any moment, a.nd began firii,g its .50 caliber ma.chinegun at the Germans. He was alone and exposed to enemy fire from three sides , but his deadly fire killed dozens of the enemy and caused his infantry to waver. The German tanks, losing infantry support, began to fall back. For an hour, the Germans tried every available weapon to elilllinate Lt MurJily, but he held his position and wiped out a squad which was trying to creep up unnoticed on his right flank. Germans reached as close as 10 yards, only to be mowed down by his fire. He received a hip wound, but ignored it and continued his singlehanded fight until his ammunition ran out. He then made his way to his com:i;any, refused medical treatment, and organized a. counterattack which forced the Germans to withdraw. Lt Murphy's indomit&ble courage and refusal to give way saved his company from possible encirclement and destruction, and enabled it to hold the woods which had been the enemy's objective. It was on this day that Lt Murphy won his nation's highest a.ward, the Congress ional Medal of Honor. When later asked how he could have stayed on top of the burning tank destroyer so long, he replied to the effect that it was the first time in several days that his feet had been warm, and that he hadn't been too anxious to get off. (In his book, "To Hell and Ba.ck", he stated that the nights during this battle were one long, bitter hell to try and keep one's feet from freezing. On one of these nights, he and a bud.die were sharing a fox.hole, and the next morning his friend had to be evacuated 'because both of his feet were frozen). It was a miracle that Audie Murphy survived the war. He had come into the )rd as a rep lacement in North Africa, and so, went through the whole bit, having too many close calls to mention. When the war in Europe ended, At.die was deep in southeastern Bavaria. Out of his original com:pany, only he and a supply sergeant were left. Everyone else had been either killed, wounded, possibly captured, or transferred out. The 3rd crossed the Colmar Canal on 29 January, and captured Bischwihr, Fortschwihr, Muntzenheim, Urschenheim, and Kunheim. As men of his company were assembling to leave Ursch enheim, 1 February, several German artillery shells fell in their midst. Eight men were kil led or wounded, but Lt Murphy wa.s unharmed. The Rhone-Rhine Canal was crossed on 2 February 1945, and then there was a vicious fight in a walled Jewish cemetary, which the Germans had turned into a stronghold. By noon of the 4th, the enemy had been forced out of his macabre stronghold.

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Bitter resistance was encountered until 8 February, when the town of Cola&r finally fell to a regiment of the 28th "Keystone" Infantry Division &nd aoae French unita. The Colma.r Pocket wu finally erased by 10 February 194,5. During this period between 20 Janua.ry-10 February, the 3rd Infantry Division, reinforced by the 2,.54th Infantry Regiaent, had taken over 4,200 prisoners, captured 22 towns, Yirtua.lly destroyed the 708th Volkagren adier Division, badly mauled the 16th and 189th Infantry Divisions, and decisively beaten the elite Austrian 2nd Mountain Division which had been sent all the way from Norway far the special purpose o:f stopping the 3rd Division. For superb fighting on the northern side of the attack, through snow, storms, terrain broken by unfordible streams, and enemy infested woods and marshes, the entire 3rd Infantry Division and the 2,54th Infantry Regiment, 63rd Infantry Division were later awarded the Distinguished Unit Citation. Other American outfits which fought in the Col.ll&r Pocket were the 12th Araored and 75th Infantry Divisions. This action coat the 3rd 317 men-killed. And the 2,54th Infantry Regiment lost over 100 men. After rest and rehabilitation, in mid-March 1945, the Jrd was moved further north, just south of the Saar, to take :pa.rt in the all-out 7th Army offensive to smash the Siegfried Line. With the 63rd Infantry Division on its left flank and the 45th Infantry Division on the right, the Jrd, attacking on a line to Zweibriicken, slashed through the enemy defenses after several days of hard fighting. The 3rd was the first 7th Army unit to cross the Rhine-near Worms on 26 March 1945. Advancing east, and then slightly north, the 3rd followed in the wake of the 14th "Liberator~ Armored Division. GemUnden, on the Main River, fell on 4 April to the 7th Infantry Regiment and the 14th Armored after a fierce fight. The 15th Infantry captured Wildflecken, home of a huge chemical warfare plant and a large training area on the 6th, and the JOth Infantry took Bad Kissingen on 7 April, and captured an entire regiment of the J6th Volksgrenadier Division. Further east, the 15th Infantry Regilllent helped the 45th Division take Ba.lllberg in a 1-day battle. Swinging south, the Fighting 3rd then became involved in a major 1::a.ttle lasting several days to take the Nazi shrine of Nuremberg against two battered, but fanatical German divis ions, the 2nd Mountain and 17th SS Panzer Grenadier, in mid-April 1945. Already bombed, the city was further reduced to a giant heap of rubble, but this didn't stop the Germans from putting up a very skillful and tenacious resistance amid the ruins. While the 45th Infantry Division swung around to attack from the northeast, and the 42nd "Rainbow" Infantry Division pushed into the western suburbs of the city, the 3rd attacked from the north. The Germans had positioned. hundreds of 88mm anti-aircraft guns in a protective arc around the city. Their projectiles, fused to burst overhead, scattered steel fragments for hundreds of yards down upon the advancing Americans. Scores of them were either killed or very 1::a.dly wounded. The soldiers were even subjected to sorties of what remained of the Luftwaffe. As the Gis advanced into the ruined city, German soldiers and even teenagers took pot shots at them with pa.nzerfausts, machine-pistols, and rifles from second-story windows. There were also numerous booby-traps placed by the enemy. Against this type of resistance, the Gis be came ruthless. They began blasting any house or building which offered opposition into rub ble. By the evening of 17 April, two-thirds of the city was under U.S. control. The 3rd had knocked out more than 50 guns and ta.ken numerous prisoners. The A11ericans ground :forward steadily, and on the 19th, a regiment of the Jrd closed in on the inner city's north wall. Then elements of the Jrd and 45th Divisions met at the Regnitz River which flows through the old city. The Germans launched afinal counterattack against elements of the 3rd, but it was beaten bl.ck. Most of the soldiers shunned heroics this late in the war, but some still fought with al most reckless abandon, and the jrd's last 3 Medals of Honor were won in Nuremberg. The city was secured by 20 April 1945. Then, heading south, the 3rd took Augsburg, after crossing the Danube, and then headed for the big Bavarian city of Munich. It was much different tha.n in Nuremberg. Although there was some sharp fighting in certain parts of the city due to die-hard fanatics and SS groups, resistance, for the most pa.rt, was sporadic. The civilians, by now, thoroughly dis illusioned and fed-up with the war, often even pointed out to the Gis the hiding places of German soldiers, and many of them were determined to help put an end to the fighting. Continuing on into extreme southeast Bavaria, the 3rd then cut across the Austrian bor• der and captured Salzburg. In conjunction with the 101st Airborne Division, the Jrd then

PAGE 25

pivoted turther aouth, back ineide Geruny, to t&ke lerchteepd.en, with the 20th Araored Division cloee behind. On V-E Da.y, 8 May 194.5, the )rd n.a 11111.nc aa a aeaaball the din ing rooa of Schloss llessheia, where Hitler once howsed hi.a "•ore :illparta.At" gueata. One of the highest c01tplillenta paid to the )rd W&a by f01'1ler Field Nanh&l: tlbert lea.i ring, right after the war. When asked by a.n America.n war correspondent wh&t U.S. division.a he considered to have been the most effective against his forces, the )rd Infantry Division topped his list. From the begiMing of the 7th Army assault on the Siegfried Line, beginning 1.5 March 194.5, to 8 May 1945, the )rd had 373 men killed in action. During this sue period, the Geraa.ns who fought against the )rd had at least 381 men killed in action, 1,020 more wounded, and many thousands of men captured. With little doubt, the )rd Infantry Division was as good as any division in any aray in World War II-a. truly great outfit. And just look at the awards and casualties, below: Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-36 Battle Stars---------10 Distinguished Unit Citations-11 * Distinguished Service Crosses-109 Silver Sta.rs------.... ,817 Casualties: Total Battle Dea.ths-5,6J4 Killed In Action lf ,922 Wounded-----18, 766 Miasing------554 Captured-----1, ?JS Total Casualtiea-2.5,977 * One to the entire division-Colmar Pocket, Alsace, France As most everyone knows by now, Hollywood made a movie called "To Hell and Ba.ck" in 195.5, about some of Audie Murphy's exploits in the war. He played himself in the movie which, by now, has come to be considered. a classic. He had previously written a book under the same title which became a best seller. Tragically, many years later, Audie Ml.lrJ)hy was killed in a private plane crash near Roanoke, Virginia, on 28 May 1971, along with .5 other men. He would have been 47 years old that following 20 June. Audie Murphy was America 'a most decorated soldier of World War II. He was laid to rest in Arlington National Cemetary. Other )rd Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: (Includes all of those men not listed in this article) Killed in action* S/sgt Lucian Adams, Joth Inf Rgt, 28 October 1944, near St. Die, France S/sgt Stanley Bender, 7th Inf Rgt, 17 August 1944, near La Lande, France 1st Lt Maurice L. Britt, Joth Inf Rgt, 10 November 1943, north of Mignano, Italy 1st Lt Frank Burke, 15th Inf Rgt, 17 April 194.5, Nuremberg, Germany Pvt Herbert F. Christian,* 15th Inf Rgt, 2-3 June 1944, near Valmontone, Italy Sgt Ja.mes P. Connor, 7th Inf Rgt, 15 August 1944, Cape Cavalaire, southern France 2nd Lt Robert Craig, * 15th Inf Rgt, 11 July 1943, near Favoratta, Sicily 1st Lt Michael J. Daly, 15th Inf Rgt, 18 April 194.5, Nuremberg, Gena.ny sjsgt Russell E. Dunham, Joth Inf Rgt, 8 January 1945, near Kayserberg, Alsace, France Pfc John W. Dutko, * 30th Inf Rgt, 23 May 1944, near Ponte Rotto, Italy T/5 Grade Eric G. Gibson, * 3oth Inf Rgt, 28 January 1944, near Isola Bella, Italy Pfc Lloyd G. Hawks, 30th Inf Rgt, 30 January 1944, near Carano, Italy Pvt Elden H. Johnson,* 15th Inf Rgt, 3 June 1944, near Valmontone, Italy 2nd Lt Victor L. Kandle, * 15th Inf Rgt, 9 October 1944, near La Forge, France S/sgt Gus J. Kefurt, * 15th Inf Rgt, 23-24 December 1944, near Bennewihr, Alsace, France Pfc Alton W. Knappenberger, 3oth Inf Rgt, 1 February 1944, near Cisterna, Italy Pfc Floyd K. Lindstrom, * 7th Inf Rgt, 11 November 1943, near Mignano, Italy T/.5 Grade Robert D. Maxwell, 7th Inf Rgt, 7 September 1944, near Besan9on, France Pvt Joseph F. Merrell, * l.5th Inf Rgt, 18 April 194.5, near Lobe, Germany Sgt Harold O. Messerschmidt, * 30th Inf Rgt, 17 September 1944, near Rad.don, France Pvt James H. Mills, 15th Inf Rgt, 24 May 1944, near Cisterna, Italy 1st Lt Charles P. Murray, Jr., 3oth Inf Rgt, 16 Dec 1944, near Kayserberg, Alsace, France Capt Arlo L. Olson,* 15th Inf Rgt, 13 October 1943, at the Volturno River, Italy Sgt Truman O. Olson,* 7th Inf Rgt, JO January 1944, near Cisterna, Italy T/.5 Grade Forrest E. Ped.en, * loth Field Arty Bn, '.3 February 194.5, near Biesheill, Alsace, France

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Pvt Wilburn K. Rosa, 30th In:f' Rgt, JO October 1944, near St. Jacques, Jl'rance Pfc John C. Squires, * 30th Inf Rgt, 23-24 April 1944, near Padiglione, Italy 2nd Lt John J. Tominac, 15th Inf Rgt, l2 Septeaber 1944, near Saulx-de-Veaoul, France Pfc Jose F. Valdez, * ?th Inf Rgt, 25 January 194.5, near Roaenkr&ntz, Aluce, France Lt Col Keith L. Ware, 15th Inf Rgt, 26 Dece11ber 1944, near Sigolsheim, Alsace, France l 1st Lt David c. Waybur, )rd Recon Troop, 17 July 1943, near Agrigento, Sicily 1st Lt Eli Whitely, 15th Inf Rgt, 27 December 1944, Sigolsheim, Alsace, France l Colonel Keith L. Ware stayed in the Army for a career and, 111&ny yea.rs later, was killed in Vietnam. He was, for a time, Audie Mur:phy's battalion commander, and he and Audie were good friends. The 3rd Infantry Division later saw extensive service in the Korean War. Since then, the 3rd has been stationed in Germany for many years, and still is, as of this writing. {ll November 198.5)

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4TH INFAN'mY DIVISION "Ivy" Regular Army Activated (WW II)-3 June 1940 Returned To United States-10 July 1945 Inactivated-5 Ma.rch 1946 Rea.ctivated-15 July 1947 Battle Credits, World Wa.r II: Normandy Ardennes Northern France-Belgium Siegfried Line Days In Combat-299 Rhinela.nd Central Europe Commanding Genera.ls (During Combat, WW II)r Ma.j-Gen Raymond o. Barton Ma.j-Gen Harold W. Blakeley July 1942-December 1944 December 1944-0ctober 1945 Combat Chronicle: The 4th Infantry Division saw very hea.vy action in World War I, having 2 , 160 men killed in action, a.n.d 10,660 more wounded. In World Wa.r II, the 4th took pa.rt in some of the heaviest and most desperate fighting of the war. The 4th wa.s in the initial D-Day assault in N orma.ndy, 6 June 1944, landing on Utah Bea.ch. The Germans were caught off guard in this sector, and the fighting wa.s not a.s furious a.s on Oma.ha. Bea.ch, further to the ea.st. Advancing inland against increasingly hea vy opposition, the 4th reached the isolated 82nd Airborne Division in the vicinity of Ste. Mer~ Eglise, a.nd encountered several German a tta.cks on. 7 June. After isolating the Cotentin. Peninsula, the 4th helped take it, along with the 9th and 79th Infantry Divisions. The three divisions attacked northward toward the port of Cher bourg, with the 4th in the right flank of the advance, and the fighting was murderous. The Americans had to battle through difficult hedgerow country against determined German res istance, and losses were extremely heavy on. both sides. Nevertheless, the Americans succ eeded in forcing the Germans from the Montebourg Heights, and the latter then withdrew in!"' to the key port of Cherbourg, being bombarded by heavy artillery and a.ir strikes. However, Hitler had ordered the port to be defended to the la.st ma.n, and it was very tough going. But the Americans, with tank support, attacked with considerable ~la.n and, a.fter bloody house-to-house fighting, Cherbourg fell on 25 June 1944. However, the port facilities were completely wrecked by the Germans, a.nd so rendered useless to the Allies for quite some time. The 4th garrisoned the port city until the end of the month when it wa.s then reliev ed by the 101st Airborne Division. The month of June 1944, wa.s the 4th's bloodiest month. of the wa.r. It was a.lso the most costly month for a.ny American division fighting in Normandy. During June 1944, the 4th: In fantry Division lost well over 1,500 men killed in action or died of wounds, a.lone! As ma.y be gathered, Normandy wa.s some of the most lengthy, hea.vy, a.nd bloody fighting of the war, a.nd the 4th was in the thick of it. After taking pa.rt in the very tough com, ba. t nea.r P~riers, 6-16 July 1944, the Ivy Division, a.fter a. brief rest, pa.rticipa.ted in the ma.jor U.S. breakthrough west of St. La. The men of the 4th smashed through the 'tatter ed German defenses, clinging to the tanks of the 2nd Armored Division. This assault began

PAGE 28

on 2.5 July 1944. As the breakout gained momentum, the 4th broke through the left flank of the German 7th Army, and continued south. The furious fighting kept on, with a. battle near St. Pois, which was taken on 5 August 1944. In the region of Morta.in, beginning 7 August 1944, the Germans counterattacked with four of their very best divisions-the 1st and 2nd SS Panzer, 2nd Panzer, and 116th Panzer. Fur ious coml:at ensued with the 4th having a. key role in this 1:attle by con.tain.ing the 116th Panzer at the northern flank of the German assault. After a week of the most intensive comm t, the Germans finally withdrew, and the 4th headed east across northern France. Along with the French 2nd Armored Division, the 4th entered Paris on 25 August 1944. Many of the populace had already risen up against their German oppressors, and there was considerable sharp fighting in certain quarters of the city, with much sniping, before "the city of light" was declared secured. After being allowed to spend a. few glorious days in Paris, the 4th moved on to the north in. hot pursuit of the enemy. On l September 1944, riding on tanks of the 5th Armored Division, the division pushed to Chauny, a.nd assembled near M6zieres, advancing forward. from the Meuse River on 6 September. Cutting through ea.stern Belgium against ineffectual opposition, the 4th hit the Siegfried Line, in the Schnee Eifel, in mid-September 1944. The 4th penetrated the line on the 14th, but was stopped after small gains over the next several days despite costly attacks. This offensive was then halted in the face of determined German counterattacks. All through October 1944, the 4th had it relatively easy. It was mostly a static type of war, during this month for the division, with pa.trolling a.nd skirmishing actions. But then the Ivy Division was moved somewhat further north to relieve the battered 28th Infantry Division in the Zweitfa.11 .area. By mid-November 1944, the 4th had entered the dark, grim, enemy-infested Hilrtgen Forest. The fighting in the Hilrtgenwald was some of the most bitter and bloody fighting of any on the entire Western Front. All kinds of mines and booby-traps abounded, and the forbid ding place was filled with first-class German troops-many of them in concrete emplacements or camouflaged bunkers, and often protected by numerous barbed-wire entanglements. Men were literally shredded with sharp pine needles which, mixed in with the shrapiel from shell bursts, helped to make a special hell out of the evil forest. One had to live in the midst of this kind of fighting, and to take pa.rt in it fully, to appreciate how men over a period of time could become so completely and utterly beaten physically and morally, that they sometimes stepped on the bodies of their fallen comrades because they didn't have the energy to step over them. Some men broke from the sheer strain of carrying supplies and ammunition over the debris-littered grolllld. The 9th and 28th Infantry Divisions had already been badly battered in the Hilrtgen, but the 4th Infantry Division's experience in this miserable forest was as bad as any. The 12th Infantry Regiment was subjected to a strong German attack on 10 November 1944, which cut-off the regiment from the rest of the division until the 15th. The 8th and 22nd Infantry Regiments had a gap wedged between them in the forest fighting which stopped the offensive on 19 November 1944. In 5 costly days of coml:at the division had gained only l miles. On 17 November 1944, aie of the most heroic actions of the entire battle occurred by 1st Lieutenant Berna.rd. J. Ray, Company F, 8th Infantry Regiment. Lt Ray wa.s a platoon leader in an attack in wet, bitterly cold weather over rough, wood ed terrain, meeting brutal resistance from enemy positions sp:i.ced throughout the forest be hind minefields and wire obstacles. Fierce German fire caused heavy casualties in his com pany, and it was stopped by a concertina-type wire barrier. Under continued heavy enemy fire, the lieutenant prepared to.blow a pa.th through the entanglement, which appeared quite impossible to others who tried to dissuade him of it. Determined to clear the way, he placed explosive caps in his pockets, obtained several ba.nga.lore torpedoes, and wrapped a length of highly explosive primer cord about his body. He then dashed forward under direct fire, reaching the 1:arbed-wire, and prepared the demol ition charge Lt Ray had placed a torpedo \lllder the wire and was connecting it to a charge , when he was severely wounded by a mortar burst. Appirently realizing that he would fail in his self-imposed mission unless he completed it in a few seconds, he ma.de a supreme decision. He completed a ha.sty wiring system and thrust down on the handle of the charger, destroying himself along with the wire barricade in the resulting explosiai. Lt Ray was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroic self-sacrifice.

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It was still very rough going. The attack was renewed on 22 November 1944. and the 22nd Infantry Regiment eventually found a hole in the German defenses and surged forward. digging in along both sides of a road leading east toward the villages of Kleinhau and Grosshau. Af ter hard fighting the 22nd Infantry took Grosshau by frontal assault on. 29 November 1944. The Germans then rushed reinforcements into the gloomy forest. their 344th Infantry Divis ion. and the casualties soared on both sides. with J December 1944. being a very bloody day. Finally. the 4th was relieved by the 8Jrd Infantry Division and 1 a month after entering the terrible forest. staggered ba.ck out of it on 8 December 1944. The 4th had eliminated five German regiments. but. in return. suffered 6 1 000 casualties. over 800 of whom were dead! After this searing experience the 4th was sent ba.ck down into Luxembourg to a supposedly quiet sector of the front-the Ardennes. The 4th got a well-deserved. but much too short rest of one week. and received replacements. And then the Germans hit hard with their all out counteroffensive on 16 December 1944. On the southern flank of the German onslaught. in eastern Luxembourg. the 4th was hit by the 212th and 276th Volksgrenadier Divisions. Still worn from the Hilrtgen Forest experience and still understrength. although forced back a little. the Fighting 4th fought valiantly, holding the line in the region about Echternach. The 4th inflicted tremendous losses on these two enemy formations which were hampered by too many 17-year old recruits in their ranks, and by the lack of a sufficient number of self-propelled guns. These factors helped even the odds, for the 4th was outnumbered 4 to l in personnel. Some American forward out posts were overrun, but the 4th's artillery knocked out temporary bridges the Germans had built over the Sauer River, and also took care of some of their self-propelled guns and mor tar crews. Although in a rather precarious position, the 4th managed to hold the line in strenuous comba.t, and recaptured Echternach on 27 December 1944. The 4th was relieved by the 5th Infantry Division of Patton's Jrd Army, and was commended by the general for its valiant stand. After resting and receiving replacements the 4th went over to the offensive in the Battle of the Bulge on 18 January 1945. In heavy fighting the division seized the heights overlook ing the Our River, and crossed the river at Bettendorf on 22 January. The attack resumed on 29 January 1945, and the 4th advanced into Germany, 1 February, breaching the Siegfried Line near Brandscheid, and entering the austere Eifel. The weather was still bitter-cold with deep snow and, for awhile, the 4th and 87th Infantry Divisions had to be supplied by airdrop;. Struggling forward in heavy comba.t the 4th succeeded in getting pu-t of its components across the Prwn River on 9 February 1945, and the division stormed Prum on the 12th. The 4th then went over to the defensive, and defended the river line from Olzheim to Watzerath against counterattacks. On 28 February 1945, the 4th crossed the Prum River in force, but suffered heavy losses, while making only negligible gains. In fierce fighting the town of Gondelsheim was taken on 4 March, and the 4th then raced out of the bridgehead behind the 11th Armored Division to the Kyll River by 6 March 1945. This river was forced on.the following day. After rest and rehabilitation, the 4th returned to action, and crossed the Rhine at the Worms bridgehead. on 29 March 1945. The 4th was now under the U.S. 7th Army. The 4th advanced to the east into south-central Germany. At the beginning of April 194.5, the 4th, acting in conjunction with the 42nd Infantry Division and elements of the 12th Arm ored Division, secured the city of Wilrzburg in some fierce fighting. By J April, the 4th had established a bridgehead. across the Main River. at Ochsenfurt. The 12th and 22nd Infantry Regiments then fought determined opposition up the wooded slopes in the area of Konigshofen, and the offensiV-e was resumed on 10 April 1945. The advance toward Rothenburg started on 11 April against strong German defenses. Resis tance then soon collapsed so that the Americans could spu-e this ancient, medieval shrine, and on the 12th, the 8th Infantry Regiment reached Ansba.ch. As the 4th advanced south-southeast into Bavaria, some heavy action occurred on 16 April 1945. After that, light to moderate resistance was met in the division•s zone of attack. The 4th first forced the Danube on 2.5 April 194.5. A bri~ehead. was established across the Lech at Schwabstad.l, 27 April. and, by the end of the month, the 4th was deep in southern Bavaria at Miesba.ch. On 4 May 1945, the 4th was moved reek to Neumarkt for occuiational

PAGE 30

duty under the U.S. ;rd Army. V-E Da.y finally ca.me on 8 May 194,5. The Fighting 4th was one of the great U.S. divisions of the war, but it had 18,id a very heavy price. The Jrd Infantry Division is the only American division which had more total battle deaths than the 4th Infantry Division in World War II. The 4th returned to the Unit ed States in July 194.5. Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor--4 Distinguished Unit Citations-12 * Distinguished Service Crosses-60 Silver Stars-------1,283 casualties, Total Battle Deaths--4,907 Killed In Action l1 , 097 Wounded------17,371 Missing,----------+61 captured------731 Total casua.lties-22,660 * Includes Distinguished Unit Citations to the following entire regiments: 8th Infantry Regiment-D-Day, Normandy, France 12th Infantry Regiment-Battle of the Bulge 22nd Infantry Regimen.t---St. Gillis-Marigny, Normandy, France Hi.irtgen Forest, Germany Other 4th Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action* S/Sgt Marcario Garcia, 22nd Inf Rgt, 27 November 1944, Hilrtgen Forest, Germany Lt Col George L. Mabry, Jr., 8th Inf Rgt, 20 November 1944, Hilrtgen Forest, Germany Brig-Gen Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., 6 June 1944, D-Day, Normandy (Died of a heart attack on 12 July 1944) The 4th Infantry Division later served in the Vietnam War. As of this writing, the 4th is stationed at Ft. carson, Colorado. (15 August 1989)

PAGE 31

1 WWII 4TH INFANTRY DIVISIOO "Ivy" JUNE 1944 6 June lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 60 7 June 111111111111111111111111111111 JO 8 June 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 50 9 June 1111111111111111111111111111111111 Y., 10 June 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 .52 11 June lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 49 12 June 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 6J lJ June llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 48 14 June 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111144 15 June 111111111111111111111111111111111 JJ 16 June 1111111111111111117 17 June 111111111111111111111 21 18 Jtme 11111111111112 19 June 111111111111111111111111111 27 20 June 111111111111111111111 21 21 June 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 fl+ 22 June 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 75* 2J June llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 40 approx. 12.5)wen 24 June 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 6J 25 Jtme 11111111111111111111111111111111111111 J8 26 June 1111111111111111111111111 25 27 June 111111111 9 28 June 11 29 June 11 JO June 1 880

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2 WWII JULY 1944 2 July 1 5 July 11 6 July 1111111111111111111111 22 4TH INFANTRY DIVISIOO "Ivy" 7 July 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 50 8 July 11111111111111111111111111111111111111 J8 9 July 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 55 10 July 1111111111111111111111111111111111111 37 11 July 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111142 12 July 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111142 13 July 1111111111111114 14 July 1111111111111114 15 July 111111111111111111111111111111111111 J6 16 July 111111111111111116 17 July 111111 18 July 1 20 July 1 21 July 11 22 July 111 24 July 1111111111111111117 25 July 1111111111111 26 July 11111111111111111118 27 July 11111111 8 28 July 11111111111112 29 July 1111111111111111111111111111 28 JO July 1111111111111111111111111111 28 Jl July 11111111111111115 .519 AUGUST 1944 1 Aug 111111111111111111111111111111111 JJ 2 Aug 111111111111111116 J Aug 11111111111111115 4 Aug 11111111111111111111111111111 29 5 Aug 1111111111111114 6 Aug 11 7 Aug 11111 8 Aug 111111111 9 9 Aug 11111111111111111111 20 10 Aug 111111111111111116 11 Aug 111111 12 Aug 11111111111112 lJ Aug 111 15 Aug 111 16 Aug 11 2) Aug 1 24 Aug 1 25 Aug 1 26 Aug 1 27 Aug 1 28 Aug 11111111 8 29 Aug 11111111 8 JO Aug 1 Jl Aug 1 208

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J WWII SEPI'EMBER 1944 2 Sept 11 7 Sept 11 8 Sept 11 9 Sept 1 14 Sept 111111 15 Sept 11111111111111115 16 Sept 111111111111111111111 21 17 Sept 1111111111111111111111111 25 18 Sept 1111111111111 lJ 19 Sept 111111111111111116 20 Sept 11111111111111115 21 Sept 1 22 Sept 111111 2) Sept 1 25 Sept 1 26 Sept 11 27 Sept 1 28 Sept l 29 Sept 1 1)2 4TH INFANTRY DIVISICXf "Ivy" OCTOBER 1944 l Oct l 2 Oct 1 6 Oct l 7 Oct 1111 8 Oct 111 9 Oct l 10 Oct 1 11 Oct 11 14 Oct 11 16 Oct 1 20 Oct l 21 Oct 11 24 Oct l 25 Oct 1 26 Oct l 2J NOVEMBER 19'f4 Nov l 6 Nov 1 8 Nov 1 9 Nov 1 10 Nov 1111111111111 11 Nov 11 12 Nov 11111111 8 lJ Nov 11111111 8 14 Nov 1111111 16 Nov 1111111111111111117 17 Nov 1111111111111111117 18 Nov 11111111111111111111111111111 29 19 Nov 111111111111111116 20 Nov lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll J5 21 Nov 111111111111111111119 22 Nov lllllllllllllllllllllll 2J 2) Nov 111111111111111116 24 Nov 11111111111111115 25 Nov 11111111111111111111111111111111111 )5 26 Nov 111111111111111116 27 Nov 1111111111111 28 Nov 11111111111111111118 29 Nov 11111111111111111111111111 26 JO Nov 111111111111111111111111111111 JO )62

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i ___ _ 4 WWII 4TH IMFANTRY DIVISIOO "Ivy" DECEMBER 1944 1 Dec 1111111111111111111111 22 2 Dec 11111111111111111111111111111111 J2 J Dec llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll .50 4 Dec 11111111111111111111111111111111111 J.5 .5 Dec 111111111110 6 Dec 111 8 Dec 1111 11 Dec 1 12 Dec 11 13 Dec 11 14 Dec 1 1.5 Dec 111 16 Dec 11111111 8 17 Dec 1111111 18 Dec 111 19 Dec 111111 20 Dec 11111111 8 21 Dec 1111 22 Dec 1 23 Dec 111111111 9 24 Dec 11 2.5 Dec 111 26 Dec 1111 27 Dec 1 28 Dec 1 JO Dec 11 224 JANUARY 19+.5 l Jan 1 2 Jan 1111 5 Jan 111 6 Jan 1 7 Jan 1 11 Jan 111 1.5 Jan 1 16 Jan 1 18 Jan 11 19 Jan 11111 20 Jan 1111111111111111111111111 2.5 21 Jan 1111111111111 22 Jan 11111111111111111118 23 Jan 11111111111112 2.5 Jan 11111 26 Jan 1 29 Jan 111111111110 JO Jan l Jl Jan 111 108

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5 WWII FEBRUARY 19'-J.5 1 Feb l 2 Feb 11111111111111 14 J Feb 11111 4 Feb 11111111 8 5 Feb 1111111111111 6 Feb 11111111111111111118 7 Feb 11111111111112 8 Feb 111111111111111111111122 9 Feb 11111111111111111111121 10 Feb 111111111111111111119 11 Feb 11111111111112 12 Feb 111111111110 lJ Feb 1 14 Feb 1111 15 Feb 11 17 Feb 1 20 Feb 1 21 Feb 1 22 Feb 1 2J Feb 1 27 Feb 111 28 Feb 111111111111111111111111 24 192 4TH INFANTRY DIVISIOO'S 4111 INFANTRY DIVISIOO "Ivy" MARCH 194.5 1 Mar 1111111111111114 2 Mar llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll J2 J Mar 111111111111111116 4 Mar 1111111111111 5 Mar 1111111111111111117 6 Mar 1 7 Mar 111111111110 8 Mar Ill 9 Mar 111111111 9 12 Marl 14 Mar 1 17 Mar 1 21 Mar 1 24 Mar 1 Jl Mar 11 120 bloodiest day-------,22 June 1944 bloodiest month June 1944 2nd bloodiest day 21 June 1944 Jrd " " " 12 and 24 June 1944 4th " " " 6 June 1944 5th " " " ------'9 July 1944 Total tattle deaths-----.
PAGE 36

.5TH INFANTRY DIVISION ''Red Diamond" Regular Army Activated (WW II)-2 October 1939 Returned To United Sta.tes-19 July 194.5 Inactivated-20 September 1946 Reactivated-15 July 1947 Battle Credits, World War II: .Normandy North-Central France Lorraine-5aa.r Ardennes Siegfried Line Rhineland Ruhr Pocket Central Europe Commanding Generals {During Combat, WW II): Maj-Gen Stafford L. Irwin Maj-Gen Albert E. Brown June 1943-April 1945 April 194.5-June 1946 Combat Chronicle: The 5th Infantry Division wa.s no stranger to France, or to German sold iers. In World War I, the Red Diamond, entering the line on 14 June 1918, fought at St. Mihiel and in the Meuse-Argonne, and took 2,J.56 prisoners, while sustaining 9,116 casualt ies, including 1,6.30 men killed in action. In World War II, the 10th Infantry Regiment sailed to Iceland three months before Pearl Harbor. In March 1942, the rest of the division arrived, and by August 194.3, the .5th ha.d moved on to England, and then Northern Ireland. These early moves were cloaked with secrecy, Then, on 9 July 1944, the ,5th entered the Normandy inferno, ta.king up defensive posit ions nea.r Ca.umont, and relieving the 1st Infantry Division on the lJth. !Aunching a. successful attack on Vidouville, 26 July 1944, as pa.rt of the general U.S. 1st Army breakout from the difficult hedgerow country, the .5th drove back a well-organized, well dug-in, and stubborn German force. :Both sides sustained heavy losses, and hastily reorganized for the fighting yet to come. The ,5th next became involved in a bloody battle for Hill 18.3 against German paratroop ers. JO July 1944, was the ,Sth's bloodiest day in combat of the war. The division then advanced southeast of St. Lo, and captured the sizeable town of Angers, after more tough fighting, 8-10 August 1944. Advancing to the east and now under Patton's .3rd Army, the Red Diamond, in conjunction with the 7th Armored Division, battled through Chartres, and then headed for the Seine Riv er, at Fontainebleau and Montereau, 23-2.5 August 1944. More heavy fighting developed, as the .5th attempted to get a bridgehead across the river. It was during this action that one soldier acted especially heroically. Private Harold A. Garman, Company B, ,5th Medical Batta.lion, a litter bearer, was working on the friendly side of the Seine, carrying the wo1mded from the boats to waiting ambulan ces. As one boatload of wounded reached midstream, a German machinegun suddenly opened up on it from the northern bank 100 yards away. All of the men immedia. tely took to the water except one man who was so badly wounded that he couldn't rise from his stretcher. Two oth er men who couldn't swim, due to their wounds, clung to the sides of the boat. Seeing the grave danger of these men, Pvt Garman, without hesitating, plunged into the

PAGE 37

Seine. Swiudng directly into a hail of ma.chinegun bullets, he rapidly reached the boat, and, while still under fire, towed the boat with great effort to the friendly shore. This soldier's moving heroism not only saved the lives of three men, but so inspired his fellow soldiers, that additional assault boats were immediately procured, and the evacuation of the wounded resumed. When later personally decorated by General Patton with the Medal of Honor, the general asked him why he did it, and Pvt Garman replied, "Well, someone had to." After forcing the Seine, the 5th captured Reims, on JO August 1944. By this time, the Germans, who had keenly felt the Red Diamond's cutting edge, decided that its nickname was not aptly descriptive, They gave the 5th a new name-the "Red Devils." Advancing into the province of Lorraine, the 5th next prepared to cross the swollen Meuse River, and attack the fortress city of Metz, commencing on 7 September 1944, supported by the 7th Armored Division. The 2nd Infantry Regiment made repeated frontal assaults, while the engineers bridged the river for tanks. Meanwhile, the 11th Infantry Regiment pushed up the Meuse heights near Dornot. On 8 September 1944, the 5th gained a precarious bridgehead over the Moselle River, which came immediately under heavy shell fire and continuous German counterattacks. This bridgehead was also hampered by deep mud and auunition shortages, as well as continued det ermined enemy resistance. However, the 5th soon committed itself entirely into this battle in very costly comca.t, ll September 1944, being an especially bloody day. The furious fighting continued, and the 5th regrouped inside the perimeter and defended it against a strong German attack on 17 September 1944, The 5th began attacking Ft. Driant on 27 September 1944, and the 11th Infantry Regiment forced its way into the l::a.stion's outer edges, J October, but the Germans counterattacked from tunnels after da.rk. By 12 October 1944, attempts to seize this fort were given up, and the division withdrew to rest. In the second week of November 1944, while the 95th Infantry Division assaulted a series of extremely strongly defended forts ringing Metz, from the west, the ,5th launched an attack from the south. The 17th SS Panzer Grenadier and 462nd Volksgrenadier Divisions resisted fanatically. On 12 November 1944, the 5th was counterattacked at once as it entered the bridgehead of the 6th Armored Division. The fighting was vicious and bloody and, sometimes, at close-quarters, with some ca.yonet fighting. Between 12-20 November 1944, the 2nd Infan try Regiment took Ancerville, the lath Infantry reduced Fort Aisne, Boies de l'Hospital, Marly, and Fort Queuleu, and the 11th Infantry captured Prayelle Farm, Frescaty airfield, Fort Verdun, and Fort St. Privat. On 18 November, the lath and 11th Infantry pushed into Metz, itself, and the division had completely encircled the town by the following day. Rear guard opposition inside Metz was mopped-up by 22 November 1944, except for Fort Driant, which continued to hold out. The ,5th left some infantry to contain this fort, and the rest of the division attacked across the Nied River on 2.5 November 1944, The 87th Infantry Div ision, which arrived at the front in early-December, was given the task of the final reduc tion of Fort Driant. The reduction of Metz was a very courageous feat of arms. Both sides had fought very well, and had suffered very heavy losses. The 5th Infantry Division, alone, had close to 770 men killed in action or died of wounds. Continuing eastward, the 5th, as one of General Patton's ace divisions, fought into the southern part of the Saar, in the Siegfried Line. As the Germans were launching their all out counteroffensive in the Ardennes, further to the northwest, the 5th relieved the valiant 95th Infantry Division at Saarla.utern, on 17 December 1944. However, the 5th's stint in the Saar didn't la.st very long, as it was soon ordered into the Ardennes, Battle of the Bulge. The Jrd Army transfer of so many troops out of the Saar, and into the Ardennes, called for courageous endurance on the pa.rt of the soldiers involved, excellent staff work, and the driving force of Patton, himself. It would be Europe's worst winter in half-a-century. In a monwaental feat of arms the .5th struggled northward into Luxembourg, in apJE,lling winter conditions with sometimes zero visibility. Beginning on 24 December 1944, the 5th was in for some very severe fighting, especially in the Mullerthal Draw, where two companies ca.ttled for 8 hours to gain a scant 200 yards. Christmas Day dawned clear and crisp, and snow-laden evergreens imparted a poignant rem

PAGE 38

inder of the Yuletide season, && the 5th forged ahead to take Wald.billing and Haller. The di vision then forged ahead to force the Germans l:ack to the north side of the Sauer River. The 5th advanced 6 miles in as many days to help thwart the German threat to the city of Luxembourg, JB.Ssing through the 4th Infantry and 9th Armored Divisions. In this costly advance the Red Diamond faced heavy artillery and rocket fire, and sporadic enemy bombing and strafing. The 5th succeeded in throwing two German divisions into utter confusion, recaptured much Aaerioan equipment, and took 8J0 prisoners. The threat in the southern side of the Bulge was slowly eliminated. After a brief respite, the 5th saw more heavy action in the Ardennes from 18-28 January 194-5. The Bulge was slowly, but surely, erased, and the Germans were forced back to the Siegfried Line by the end of January 1945. Next, starting on 7 February 1945, the 5th and 76th Infantry Divisions crossed the swol len Sauer River from Luxembourg into Germany in a. brilliant feat of arms, fighting numerous barbed-wire entanglements and other obstacles, as well as the enemy. Both divisions sust ained heavy losses in this operation. By 19 February 1945, the 5th had cleared the area up to the west tank of the PrUm River. After regrouping, the division crossed the Prum, near Peffingen, on the night of 24-25 February 1945. The 5th cut the Bit.burg-Trier Highway on the 27th, and cleared to the west bank of the Kyll River by the following day. The 5th opened its attack to establish the Kyll bridgehead in the Erd.orf area on 2 March 1945. Progress was rapid, and numerous towns and villages fell to the division. The Mos elle was reached on 10 March, and crossed on the 14th. Working closely with the 4th Armor ed Division, the Rhine was reached at Oppenheim and Nierstein on 21 March 1945. Then the 5th aade a remarkable sneak night crossing of the fabled river on the night of 22-23 March 1945, near Oppenheim. Patton and his superiors, Generals Oma.r Bradley and Eis enhower, were elated when they heard the news. Although there were considerable casualties, this bridgehead wa.s rapidly exploited, the Germans being caught completely off ca.lance. The 5th then attacked northward, and, along with the 6th Armored Di vision, cleared the big city of Frankfurt, after some sharp action, 27-29 March 1945. The 5th was then placed in reserve inside the war-torn city, and for a.round one week the men were allowed to enjoy themselves as best as they could. After this, the 5th was temporarily detached from )rd Army command to help out in the reduction of the Ruhr Pocket, further to the north. Except for 11 April 1945, when the div ision met heavy resistance, otherwise erratic opposition was met in the 5th's zone of att ack. Attacking westward from the eastern side of the pocket, Meschede, Kalle, and Ams berg were captured by the division, before resistance in the pocket collapsed by mid-April 1945. In the closing days of the war, the Red Diamond was ca.ck with the 3rd Army. Pa. tton wan ted it for his final push of the war into Czechoslovakia. The 5th was toward the southern end of the attack, with its regiments in both extreme northern Austria, as well as the southwest portion of Czechoslovakia.. The 5th met mostly light and sporadic resistance. However, around Kunzvart, elements of the 1st SS Panzer Division set-up and stubbornly def ended a roadblock. The 5th then pa.trolled aggressively to the Tepla River, in Czechoslovakia, meeting some opposition, and then capturing Milesice and Volary, on 6 May 1945. The division had its last casualties of the war on 7 May 1945-1 man killed and J more wounded. It was in Volary that the 5th discovered one of the many instances of excessive Nazi brutality. A large group of Jewish women were in this town, the survivors of a forced march through Austria by SS troops. Along the way they had been constantly beaten and oth erwise mistreated. Needless to say, the survivors of this group were more than a little glad to see their American liberators. The 5th was also given a tumultuous welcome by the Czech people, and contact was made with the Russian 107th Infantry Division. Shortly after V-E Day, 8 May 1945, the 5th was in the sizeable town of ~eske Budl!jovice, on the Vlta.va (Mold.au) River. The 5th Infantry Division had proven itself to be one of the great fighting divisions of the war, with an unusually .. high esprit de '~orps. But it had been anything but easy. The 5th suffered 12,818 casualties.

PAGE 39

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-1 Distinguished Unit Citations-2 Distinguished Service Crosses-J9 Silver Stars-------784 Casualties: Total Battle Deaths-2.681+ Killed In Action---2.298 Wounded------9 .549 Missing-------288 Captured.------68) Total Casua.lties-12,818 The 1st Brigade of the 5th Infantry Division served in the Vietnam War. As of this writing. the 5th is stationed at Ft. Polk, Louisiana.. (15 March 1985)

PAGE 40

1 WWII 5TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Red Diamond" JULY 1944 12 July 1 lJ July 1 15 July 11 16 July 1 17 July 11 18 July 1 19 July 1111 20 July 1 21 July 11 22 July 11 24 July 111 26 July lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll J7 27 July llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 40 28 July 11111 29 July 1111111111111114 JO July llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 5~ Jl July 1111111111111114 approx. 180 9cEmen AUGUST 1~ 1 Aug 11 4 Aug l 5 Aug l 7 Aug l 8 Aug 11111111111112 9 Aug lllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 29 10 Aug 111111111 9 12 Aug l 14 Aug l 15 Aug 1 17 Aug l 18 Aug 11 20 Aug 1 21 Aug 111 22 Aug lllllllllllllllllllll 21 2J Aug 111111 24 Aug 1111111111111111111111111 25 25 Aug 111111111110 26 Aug 111111 28 Aug l 29 Aug l Jl Aug l 1)6

PAGE 41

2 WWII 5TH INFANTRY DIVISI

  • PAGE 42

    3 WWII DECEMBER 1944 1 Dec 11111 4 Dec 11111 5 Dec 111111 6 Dec 1111 7 Dec 111 8 Dec 111 10 Dec 11 12 Dec 11 13 Dec 1 14 Dec 11 17 Dec 11 18 Dec 111 20 Dec 1111111111111 21 Dec 111 22 Dec 111111111 9 23 Dec 111111 24 Dec 1111111111111111111111 22 25 Dec 111111111111111111119 26 Dec 111111111111111111111 21 27 Dec 11111111111111115 28 Dec 11111 29 Dec 11 151 5TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Red Diamond" JANUARY 1~5 1 Jan 1 2 Jan 1 3 Jan 111 4 Jan 11 5 Jan 1 6 Jan 1 11 Jan 1 13 Jan 1 18 Jan 11111111111111111111 20 19 Jan 11111111111111111111 20 20 Jan 11111111 8 21 Jan 1111111111111 22 Jan 11111111111112 2J Jan llllllllllllllllllllll 22 24 Jan 11111 25 Jan 111111 26 Jan 11111 27 Jan 1 28 Jan 1111111111111111111111111 25 29 Jan 1 147 FEBRUARY 1~5 7 Feb 111111111 9 8 Feb 11111111111112 9 Feb 1111111111111111111111111111 28 10 Feb 1111111111111 11 Feb 1111111111111 lJ 12 Feb 11111 lJ Feb 11111111 8 14 Feb 11 15 Feb 111 16 Feb 111 17 Feb 11111111111112 18 Feb 11111111 8 19 Feb 11111111 8 20 Feb 1111111 22 Feb 11 24 Feb 111 25 Feb 111111 26 Feb 11 27 Feb 111 28 Feb 11 147

    PAGE 43

    4 WWII 5TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Red Diamond" MARCH 1945 l Marl 2 Mar 11 J Mar lllllllllllllll 15 4 Mar 1 6 Mar 1 7 Mar 111111111 9 8 Mar 1 11 Mar 1 12 Mar l 14 Mar 111111 15 Mar 111 16 Mar 111 17 Mar l 18 Marl 19 Mar 1 20 Mar 11 22 Mar 1 2J Mar 1111111111111111117 24 Mar lllllllllllllllllllllllll 25 25 Mar 111 27 Mar 111 28 Mar 1 JO Mar 1 Jl Mar 1 101 5TH INFANTRY DIVISION'S *bloodiest day-------JO July 1944 bloodiest month eptember 1944 APRIL 1945 2 Apr 11 4 Apr l 11 Apr 111111111110 12 Apr 11 14 Apr 11 15 Apr 1 JO Apr 1 19 2nd bloodiest day 11 September 1944 3rd bloodiest day 27 July 1944 Total battle deaths 2,628 1,400 are listed=5J.2% KIA-2,277 MAY 1945 l May 1 2 May 11 J May 11 .5 May 11 7

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    6TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Sightseeing" Regular Army Activated (WW II)-12 October 1939 Battle Credits, World Wa.r II: Northern New Guinea Days In Commt-306 Commanding Generals (During Commt, WW II): Maj-Gen Franklin C. Sibert Maj-Gen Edwin D. Patrick* Maj-Gen Charles E. Hurdis Luzon October 1942--August 1944 August l9'lll=-March 1945 March 194.5-April 1946 Commt Chronicle: The 6th Infantry Division was first activated in November 1917, and saw relatively minor action in the Vosges Mountains in World War I, losing J8 men. The 6th saw much more than just minor action in World War II. After being stationed at several different Army l:ases in the United States, including Ft. Lewis, Washington, and Ft. Leonard Wood, Missouri, the 6th then took pu-t in the Tenn essee maneuvers, September-November 1942. The Sightseers left the San Francisco port of eml:arkation on 21 July 1943. The 6th reached Hawaii late that sa.me month and was charged with the defense of Oahu, relieving the 27th Infantry Division. In January 1944, the 6th set sail for Milne Bay, New Guinea, and 5 months later moved on to the Toem-Wakde area on the northern coast of New Guinea. In June 1944, the 6th went into action west of Toea in the bloody l:attle of Lone Tree Hill. The Red Star received its fill of coml:at under the most difficult conditions con sisting of heavy rains, rough terrain, and determined Japanese resistance. On 14 June 1944, the 2oth Infantry Regilllent relieved the l,58th Infantry Regiment along the Tirfoam River. Then, on 23 June, the 1st Infantry Regiment, which had been actively :pa.trolling in the steaming jungles of the beachhead's ma.in perimeter, entered the l:attle. For almost two days the Japanese strong defensive positions restricted the assaulting troops to the use of 60 and 81mm mortars from exposed positions on the beach. Repeated attempts to storm the high clay l:ank that bounded the beach were stopped by intense grazing fire from machine-gun emplacements dug-in at the foot of the steep cliffs of Lone Tree Hill's western side. On 26 June, when the mortars and artillery had eventually reduced the volume of fire on the 6th's positions, the infantry again surged forward. During the next 2 days, the 63rd Infantry Regiment cleared the top of the ridge, mopping-up snipers and occasional machine gunners that still remained. This victory was a major one for it secured the Maffin Bay area for the Americans. Between 20-30 June 1944, the 6th suffered over 800 casualties, in cluding more than 150 men killed in action. A total of 942 Japanese dead were counted. After a short rest, the 6th again went into action. This time, the men who wore the six pointed bright red star made a landing at Sansapor, on the Vogelkop Peninsula of northwest ern New Guinea on JO July. Striking swiftly against a surprised Japanese garrison, the 6th rapidly secured the Sansapor coast from Cape Weimak to the Mega River. The 6th, in its

    PAGE 45

    lightning strike at Sansapor, captured many prisoners. Division casualties were light. The 6th garrisoned this area until late-1944, when it then joined the vast armada sail ing for the initial assault landing on Luzon. The 6th landed at Lingayen Gulf on D-Day, 9 January 1945, along with the J'lth, 4oth, and 4Jrd Infantry Divisions. No division had a tougher assignment in the recapture of Luzon tha.n did the 6th. It immediately took to the Caba.ruan Hills in pursuit of the Japanese-and into some of the worst artillery fire that the Americans faced in the entire Luzon campaign. The Gis aptly dubbed one low-lying area "Purple Heart Valley." Then the 6th was ordered into the plains of central Luzon against the Japanese 2nd Tank Division. Temporarily checked at Munoz, the Sightseers, in conjunction with the 25th Inf antry Division, killed 5,000 Japanese in the first month of the campaign. During the fur ious fighting around Munoz under a broiling tropical sun, the 6th knocked out 57 enemy med ium and light tanks and destroyed a formidable number of artillery pieces. General Walter Krueger, comma.nding the U.S. 6th Army, commended the division for its magnificent perform ance in this battle. This phase of the fighting on Luzon cost the 6th around JOO men kill ed in action. Then, while the 1st Infantry Regiment was sent south to help out the 38th Infantry Div ision in recapturing the rest of the Bataan Peninsula, last ha.lf of February 1945, the rest of the 6th, along with the 1st Cavalry Division, the 4)rd Infantry Division, and the 112th Cavalry Regiment, was sent into the hills northeast of Manila. This battle is officially called the :&.ttle of East-Central Luzon. The object of this action was to wipe out or neu tralize some 15,000 Japi.nese who were controlling two dams in this region which were vital to Manila's water supply-and, hopefully, capture these dams intact. The Japanese had spent many months preparing their defenses in the towering hills and in the wooded draws of the lower Sierra Madre Mountains. Forced Filipino labor had prepared an elaborate system of mutually supporting strongpoints in caves and pillboxes located on comma.nding ground, and the only routes of approach for the 6th lay across flat rice fields that were open to constant enemy observation and fire. From 24 February-JO April 1945, the division's 2oth and 6)rd Infantry Regiments grind.ad away at these extremely tough Jap defenses in rough, bitter, exhausting combt.t, with the 6Jrd Infantry being greatly handicapped by having to guard its open left flank. (The 112th Cavalry Regiment was on the 2oth Infantry's right flank). As the 6th's attack opened on 24 February 1945, all sectors of the division's front re ceived heavy artillery and rocket fire. For the first time the troo:ps learned the terror of the 8-inch rockets, whose siren screu caused every soldier within hearing distance to dive for cover. At the S&lle time, however, 7.3 P-4?s and Marine dive-bombers supported the 6th's assault. As usual, Japi.nese resistance was tenacious. In the early-morning hours of 2 March, the Ja:ps launched a vicious Banzai attack and, later on, an attack at midnight in the Mt. Pacawagan area. Both were beaten bt.ck, a.s the bitter fighting continued. And then, on the morning of 14 March, the Sightseers lost their co1111&nding officer, Maj or-General Edwin D. Patrick, and the 1st In:fantry Regiment's commnder, Colonel James E. Rees. They were at a forward battalion observation post making plans for a continua.nee of the attack to the east, when a burst of machine-gun fire fros a draw 75 yards away instant ly killed Colonel Rees and mortally wounded General Patrick who died J days later in a Man ila hospital. His place was ta.ken by Brigadier (later Major) General Charles E. Hurd.is. Two days later, 2 ea.rly-morning Jap counterattacks were repulsed. The enemy also ane wered back with heavy counter-bt.ttery artillery fire in an unsuccessful attempt to silence the "hellfire" of the 6th Division artillery. The 20th Infantry advanced through the desperately defended hill country to the very base of Mt. Mata.bl., but was then forced to dig-in to escape murderous ene11.y fire. Meanwhile, the artillery continued to blast the Japanese. The harrowing, exhausting battle continued. On 10 April 194.5, the final attack was co11. menced on Mt. Mata.ba, which finally fell on 17 April. Supported by 6th Division artillery, Mt. Pacawagan fell on 29 April to the 145th Infantry Regiment, J?th Infantry Division. The battle far from being over, the exhausted 6th was :::-elieved on JO April 194.5, by the 38th In fantry Division. From the period of 25 March-JO April 1945, 2,)94, Jap,.nese were slain, raising to over

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    6,.500 of the enemy destroyed in ea.st-centra.l Luzon by the 6th Infa.ntry Division and attached units. In this drawn-out period of bitter fighting the 6th lost a.round 400 men. The men of the 6th who left the Shimbu Line for their new stations in west-centra.l Luzon were red-eyed and worn, their faces reflecting tbe sleepless nights and agonizing d&ys that had been their lot for over 2 months on the Shilllbu Line. They had faced some of the heav iest artillery and rocket fire of the war in the Pacific. There then followed a rather short "mopping-up" period in west-central Luzon in which the 6th accounted for 1,:,20 more Japanese. After this action, the 6th was given a well-deserved rest and recuperation. Then, it was shifted up into northern Luzon, taking pa.rt in the final fighting of the war on Luzon which was just as vicious as any of the earlier bi.ttles. Undermined by the sW11J1er rains which made negotiating the steep hills even more difficult, and which caused land.slides along the roads, the 6th lE.ttled forward. It took Bolog on 29 June, and Mt. Santo Domingo on 10 July. In the latter action some units of the 6th were cited. The 63rd. Infantry for ced its way into Kiangan on l2 July 194-.5, and captured a huge a.mount of Japanese lllilitary equipnent. And the last Meda.l of Honor of the war was won by a member of the 6th, Corporal Melvin Mayfield, Company D, 20th Infantry Regiment, 29 July 194-.5. Corporal Mayfield displayed. conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while fighting in the Cordillera Mountains of northern Luzon. When two Filipino companies were pinned down under a torrent of Japanese fire that con verged on them from a circular ridge coJIIJl&nding their position, Cpl Mayfield, in a gallant singlehanded effort to aid them, rushed from one shellhole to another until he reached four Japanese-held caves atop the l:arren, fire-swept hill. With grenades and his carbine, he assaulted ea.ch of the caves while enemy fire hit all around him. However, before he annih ilated the last hostile redoubt, a machine-gun bullet destroyed his weapon and slashed his left hand. Disregarding his wound, he secured more grenades and dauntlessly charged again into the face of point-blank fire to help destroy an enemy observation post. By his gallant determina.tion and heroic leadership, Cpl Mayfield inspired the men to el iminate all remaining pockets of resistance in this area and to press the attack against the Japanese. And he survived the rest of the war to receive his award. When V-J Day fina.lly arrived on 14 August 194.5, the 6th had fought forward to some three miles beyond Kiangan with the Japanese offering fierce resistance right to the very end. When the war ended, the 6th had been the most fully committed American division still fight ing the Japanese. This final action in northern Luzon cost the 6th 99 men killed in action and 432 wounded. After the war ended, the 6th was sent to South Korea, and was stationed there until Jan uary 194-9. Of course, most all those men who had seen very much comra.t had long since rot ated. bi.ck home. Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-2 Distinguished Unit Citations-? Distinguished. Service Crosses-15 Silver Stars--------097 Casualties: Denotes killed in action (died of wounds)* (page 1) Total Battle Deaths-1~120 Killed In Action---898 Wounded------J,876 Missing--------3 Ca.pture
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    1 WWII 6TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Sight-seeing" JUNE 1944 6 June 1 8 June 1 10 June 1 1.5 June 11 16 June 1 19 June 1 20 June 1111 22 June 111111111111111116 2J June 1111111111111111111111111111111111 J4 24 June 111111111111111111111111 24 approx. 26 June 111111111 9 6~en 28 June 111111 29 June 1 101 JULY 1944 l July 11 J July 1 4 July 11 7 July 11 lJ July 1 20 July 1 26 July 1 29 July 1 JO July 11 lJ AUGUST 19'f4 11 Aug 1 22 Aug 11 J SEPI'EMBER 19'f4 7 Sept 11 11 Sept 1 J OCTOBER 19'f4 24 Oct 1 1 JANUARY 1945 9 Jan 111 11 Jan 1 12 Jan 111 lJ Jan 111111 14 Jan 1 15 Jan 1111 16 Jan 1111111 17 Jan 11111111111112 18 Jan 111111111111111116 19 Jan 11 20 Jan 11111111111112 21 Jan 111 22 Jan 1111111111111 lJ 2J Jan 1 24 Jan 1 2.5 Jan 1111111111111 26 Jan 111111111111111111111112J 27 Jan 111111111110 28 Jan 111 29 Jan 1 JO Jan 1111 Jl Jan 11 139

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    2 WWll FEBRUARY 1945 1 Feb 1111 2 Feb 111111111 9 J Feb 111111111110 4 Feb 1111111111111 5 Feb 11111111111111111118 6 Feb 111 7 Feb 111111 10 Feb 1 lJ Feb 1 15 Feb 1111111 16 Feb 1 20 Feb 1 21 Feb 1 2J Feb 11111 24 Feb 111111 25 Feb 11 26 Feb 1111111111111114 27 Feb 11111111111111115 28 Feb 111111111110 125 6TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Sight-seeing" MARCH 1945 1 Mar 111 2 Mar 111111 J Mar 1111 4 Mar 111 5 Mar 1 6 Mar 1111 7 Mar 111 8 Mar 111 9 Mar 11 10 Mar 111111 11 Mar 1111 lJ Mar 11 15 Mar 1 16 Mar 111 17 Mar 1111111111111111117 18 Mar 111 19 Mar 111111 21 Mar 111 22 Mar 11 2J Mar 1111111 24 Mar 1 25 Mar 1111111 26 Mar 111 27 Mar 1 28 Mar 11111 29 Mar 1111 JO Mar 1111 Jl Mar 111 111 APRIL 1945 2 Apr 1111111111111 J Apr 1 4 Apr 1 6 Apr 1111 7 A pr 1111111 8 Apr 111 9 Apr 111 10 Apr 11 11 Apr 1 lJ Apr 1 14 Apr 1 15 Apr 11111 16 Apr 11 17 Apr 111111 18 Apr 111111 19 Apr 1 20 Apr 1 56 MAY 1945 5 May 1 9 May 11 10 May 1 11 May 1 16 May 1 27 May 1 Jl May 1 8

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    J WWII 6TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Sight-seeing" JUNE 19-1-5 9 June 1 15 June 1 16 June 111 17 June 1111 19 June 1 21 June 1 22 June 11 25 June 1 26 June 11 27 June 1 28 June 11 29 June 111 22 6TH INFANTRY DIVISION'S JULY 19-1-5 J July 1 5 July 1 6 July 11 7 July 1 8 July 11 9 July 11 lJ July 1 14 July 1 15 July 11 18 July 1 20 July 1 22 July 1 25 July 1 17 '1(-bloodiest day-------,2) June 19'-1-4 bloodiest month January 19-1-5 2nd bloodiest day 24 June 19'-1-4 Jrd bloodiest day 26 January 19-1-5 Total rattle deaths 1,120 615 are listed=_54.9,t KIA-898 AUGUST 19-1-5 1 Aug 1 2 Aug 1 J Aug 11 5 Aug 1 9 Aug 111 10 Aug 11 11 Aug 1 12 Aug 1 lJ Aug 1 15 Aug 1 16 Aug 1 17 Aug 1 16

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    7I'H INFANTRY DIVISION "Hourglass" Regular Army Activated (WW II)-1 July 1940 Battle Credits, World War II: Attu Marshall Islands Leyte Okinawa Days In Combat-208 Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II): Maj-Gen Eugene M. Landrum Brig-Gen A. V. Arnold Maj-Gen C.H. Corlett Maj-Gen A. V. Arnold May-June 1943 July-September 1943 September 1943-February 1944 February 1944-September 1945 Combat Chronicle: The 7th Infantry Division didn't see action as an integral unit in World War I. Nevertheless, its various components had a total of 1,709 casualties, includ ing 2o4men killed in action. The 7th saw plenty of action in World War II, and it was regarded as ruthless by the Japanese. After being reactivated at Fort Ord, California, in July 1940, the division moved to Camp San Luis Obispo, for desert training, and later back to Ft. Ord, for special amphib ious training. The 7th set sail for the Aleutians, on 24 April 1943. The 7th landed on bleak, windy, desolate, foggy Attu, on 11 May 1943. In abominable weather, the 7th became involved in bitter combat with the 2,500 Japanese. The landing forces advanced toward the Jarmin Pass, but about 1900 hours (7 P.M.) were held up by in tense Japanese fire from on the heights on either side of the J:8.SS, Deep mud J:8,ralysed trucks, jeeps, tractors, and other vehicles. By 13 May, the Americans were still pinned down. Finally, after the attack got going, the 7th sustained severe losses not only from enemy fire, but also from being mistakenly bombed by U.S. aircraft. The 7th then commenced attacks in the Holtz Bay area. Fighting over freezing tundra against a fanatical enemy, the battle spread into the mountains and the valleys. Outnumb ered, the Japs elected to retire on 16-17 May, to Chicagof Harbor. After hard fighting, by 20 May 1943, the 7th succeeded in advancing into the Sarana Valley. The division then took strongly defended Clevesy Pass on the next day, and cleared Fish Hook Ridge by 27 May. On 29 May 1943, after being subjected to heavy artillery bombardments, the remaining Jap!l.nese threw themselves at the Americans in a drunken, do-or-die Banzai attack. In an absolutely ferocious battle, the Japanese were all but annihilated and, by mid-June 1943, Attu was secured. There was no jungle rot on Attu, nor was there the stench from the corpses which, after a few days, burst and splintered like glass. The 7th lost 441 men on miserable Attu! On 15 August 1943, the 17th and 184th Infantry Regiments of the 7th landed on Kiska, but it had already been evacuated by the JaJ:anese. The Hourglass Division then shipped to Hawaii, 15 September 1943, and engaged in intense jungle and amphibious training. The ?th's next battle was in the Marshall Islands, in conjunction with the 4th Marine

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    Division. While the marines landed on Roi and Namur, the 17th Infantry Regiment of the 7th landed on Ennylabegan and Enubuj Islands, on 31 January 1944. On 1 February, the 32nd and 184th Infantry Regiments assaulted heavily defended Kwajalein. Elements also landed on Engebi. On Kwajalein, Japanese night attacks were repulsed with the aid of giant search lights which prevented the Americans from being caught by surprise. The 184th Infantry was engaged in heavy fighting against a blockhouse sector, J February, and the next day was very bloody, but by 5 February 1944, the 7th was conducting a mopping-up operation. Then the 7th sailed to Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, and remained there until it was time for the invasion of Leyte, in the Philippines. On 20 October 1944, the liberation of the Philippines began. Under the U.S. 6th Army, four divisions made the initial assault landings on the east coast of Leyte. From north to south they were the 1st Cavalry and the 24th, 96th, and 7th Infantry. The 7th met heavy resistance upon landing. It was opposed by the infamous 16th Di vision, perpetrators of the "Bataan Death March." Fighting for every yard, the 7th battled its way inland and, after heavy combat, within four days captured Dulag, and the San Pablo and Buri Airstrips. The 7th then crashed into the sizeable town of Burauen. Swinging north, the 7th plowed through rice paddies, waist-deep mud, and monsoon gales to crush Japanese defenses at the key town of Dagami. It was in this fighting that the 7th had one of its J Medal of Honor winners of the war, Pfc Leonard C. Brostrom, Company F, 17th Infantry Regiment, near Dagami, on 28 October 1944. He was a rifleman with an assault platoon which ran into powerful Japanese resistance. From pillboxes, trenches, and foxholes so well camouflaged that they could be detected no more than 20 yards away, the Japanese poured deadly machinegun and rifle fire, causing sev ere casualties in his platoon. Realizing that a key pillbox in the center of the strongpoint would have to be knocked out if the company were to advance, Pfc Brostrom, without orders and completely ignoring his own safety, ran forward to attack the pillbox with grenades. He immediately became the prime target for all of the enemy riflemen in the area, as he rushed to the rear of the pillbox and tossed grenades through the entrance. Six Japs left a trench in a bayonet charge against this heroic soldier, but he shot one and drove off the others with rifle fire. He threw more grenades from his exposed position, and was mortally wounded in the abdomen and knocked to the ground. Although suffering intense pain and rapidly weakening from loss of blood, he slowly rose to his feet and once more hurled his deadly missiles at the pillbox. As he collapsed, the Japs began fleeing from the fortification and were cut down by riflemen in his platoon. Pfc Brostrom died while being carried from the battlefield, but his heroic one-man att ack against overwhelming odds enabled his company to carry on the attack, and annihilate the entire Jap position. His actions were in the highest traditions of the U.S. military. The 7th next eliminated Japanese forces south of the Marabang River, and took Bambay. The 32nd Infantry Regiment attacked toward Ormoc, on 14 November 1944. The battle for Shoestring Ridge began on 23 November 1944, as the Japanese counterattack ed the spread-out 32nd Infantry along the Palanas River. Reinforced by the 184th Infantry, numerous Japanese attacks were repulsed in the bamboo thickets. The 7th was relieved in this region on 28 November 1944, by the 11th Airborne Division, which temporarily retained the 17th Infantry Regiment. The 7th attacked north from Damulaan, 5 December 1944, toward Ormoc. Advance elements of the 7th overtook the 77th Infantry Division, and seized Ipil, on 11 December. This act ion divided the Japanese forces on Leyte. The 7th, shifting south, and then to the west coast, attacked north, securing Valencia against heavy resistance by 25 December 1944. This operation was accomplished under the most adverse weather conditions. The men were pelted by torrential rains, blown down by typhoon velocity winds, and fought flash floods, swollen rivers, and streams, as well as the Japanese. The 7th then landed on the Ca.motes Islands, 15 January 1945, and soon eliminated all of the enemy there, thus concluding its pa.rt in the Leyte campaign. Altogether, the 7th had covered over 100 miles on Leyte, and killed over 16,000 Japanese, while losing 584 men.

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    But the 7th had yet to enter its toughest and most costly battle. After much preparat ion, on l April 194.5, Easter Sunday, the 7th and 96th Infantry and 1st and 6th Marine Div isions all landed on the southwest coast of Okinawa. The two Army divisions pivoted south ward, and ran into the most intense Japanese artillery fire of the Pacific War, and the most tenacious of their defenses. Progress was agonizingly slow. Among other devices the Japanese had pillboxes with steel doors so thick that flamethrowers were all but useless against them. They were also using their artillery and mortars quite accurately, and gains were measured in terms of yards and even feet. The 7th was in the far left (east) end of the line as it inched south ward in this incredible battle. With the assistance of massed artillery fire, the 184th Infantry Regiment took Tomb Hill on 9 April 1945. After extremely tough fighting the 17th Infantry Regiment seized the crest of Skyline Ridge, and sealed the caves there by 23 April. The 17th Infantry then took the Rocky Crags area, but then failed to force Kochi Ridge. On 1 May 1945, despite Japanese infiltrators, the 184th Infantry relieved the )2nd Inf antry in line. Then, in a heavy tattle in which the Americans suffered very heavy losses, Gaja Ridge was taken, but then lost to a Japanese counterattack. On 4 May 1945, after an extremely heavy bomba.rdment of over 12,000 artillery shells! plus Kamikaze attacks-the Japanese executed a major counterattack. In furious fighting, sometimes at close-quarters, they were repulsed, although they succeeded in temporarily recapturing Tanataru Ridge. The main blow of this assault fell against the 7th Infantry Division. It cost the Japa.nese .5,000 men. The 7th lost 47 men. The 7th was relieved by the 96th Infantry Division, 9 May 1945, and rested and rehabil itated until 21 May. During this period the island was subjected to very heavy rains which made miniature lakes out of some of the larger shellholes and craters. Yonataru was captured on 22 May 194.5. On the 23rd, the 7th suffered severe losses in an attempt to take a hill that was one of the Japanese strongpoints in their defensive line east of Chan. In this area the 7th was checked in heavy combat until 1 June 194.5. The tattle continued unatated. There seemed to be no end to it for the tired, dirty men of the 7th, but they continued to ba.tter away at the Japanese defenses. In more furious fighting Hills 1.53 and 115 were taken by 17 June. On the next day the 7th suffered further heavy losses. By this time, however, the Japanese flanks had been pushed-in and, in a few more days, 21 June 1945, Okinawa was officially declared secured, but severe mop-up actions continued for about a week longer. In a cave, men of the )2nd Infantry Regiment found the bodies of General Ushijima, commander of the Japanese )2nd Army, and his chief of staff, both of whom had committed suicide. The bloodbath had cost the 7th 1,122 men. After Okinawa was conquered, General Joe "Vinegar" Stilwell, of Burma fame, came to ass ume command of the 10th Army, and found his old division, the 7th, waiting for him with a comba.t record few other outfits in the Pacific could surpass. Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-) Distinguished Unit Citations-9 * Distinguished Service Crosses-26 Silver Stars--------'982 Casualties: Total Battle Deaths-2,)46 Killed In Action---1,957 Wounded-------7,258 * One to the entire 17th Infantry Regiment-Leyte Missing---------'-r Captured--------2 Total Casualties 9,221 Other 7th Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action* Pvt Joe P. Martinez, * 32nd Inf Rgt, 26 May 194), on Attu Pfc John F. Thorson, * 17th Inf Rgt, 28 October 1944, Dagami, Leyte The 7th Infantry Division later saw extensive service in the Korean War. The 7th is stationed at Ft. Ord, California. (29 September 1990)

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    Regular Army Activated (WW II)-1 July 1940 Battle Credits, World War II1 Days In Combat-266 8TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Golden Arrow" Normandy Brittany Siegfried Line Ruhr Pocket Northern Germany Commanding Generals {During Combat, WW II): July--December 1944 Rhineland Maj-Gen Donald A. Stroh Maj-Gen William G. Weaver Maj-Gen Bryant E. Moore December 1944-February 1945 February-November 1945 Combat Chronicle: The 8th Infantry Division was first activated during World War I, but never saw any action. It was a very different story in World War II. When the Japanese struck at Pearl Harbor, the 8th was immediately assigned to pi.trolling the east coast from North Carolina. to the Florida Keys. In December 1943, the 8th sailed to Northern Ireland, and trained with the British near Belfast. The Golden Arrow landed in Normandy on the 4th of July 1944, and went into action four days later. The first assault squads found themselves on the target end of a shooting gall ery. Those who made it through the minefields and barbed wire found shells bursting in their midst. Then there was the terror of the hedgerow. It could hide an enemy machinegun that could cut a man down from only a few yards away-and still not be seen by other troops. Stragglers were picked-off by unseen snipers, while enemy 88s completed the havoc. The 8th's losses quickly mounted. Two days later, another attack by the 8th was beaten 1:a.ck by the Germans, who immediat&ly counterattacked. The 8th, suddenly finding itself, temporarily withdrew in good order. Tactics were quickly changed, and the hedgerows were ta.ken in flanking attacks rather than in costly frontal assaults. The morale of the 8th rapidly rose. On 14 July, the division reached its first main objective, the north 1:a.nk of the Ay Riv er. Here, it remained in defensive positions for two weeks. And then, on 26 July 1944, as pa.rt of a general offensive, the 8th crossed the Ay River, flanked by the 79th and 9oth Infantry Divisions, and advanced southward in the face of bit ter resistance •. Nevertheless, by the following day, a huge gap was punched in the German lines through which the armor of the U.S. 1st Army raced toward Avranches. While the 79th Infantry followed up behind the 6th Armored Division, the 8th followed in the wake of the rampaging 4th Armored Division. Next, the 8th was temporarily split-up. The lJth Infantry Regiment was attached to the 4th Armored, and after a sharp fight, took Rennes. Meanwhile, the 121st Infantry Regiment was assigned to help out the 8):rd Infantry Division to reduce the sea fortress of Dina.rd in eastern Brittany. The German garrison consisted of 4,000 men and proved a tough nut to crack. First attacks were beaten off, and the )rd Batta.lion was surrounded for J days and later won the French Croix de Guerre. In a co-ordinated assault the fortress was finally taken.

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    Then the 8th, a.long with the 2nd and 29th Infantry Divisions, the 2nd and 5th Ranger Batta.lions, and the French Forces of the Interior (FFI) assaulted the fortress port city of Brest, at the extreme western tip of Brittany. It was a rough, exhausting battle, to say the least, and the 8th became involved in bloody, building-to-building street fighting. However, with several units trying to fight forward through the rubble, it soon became im possible to maneuver, and the 8th was pinched out of the attack. The 8th then crossed over to the Crozon Peninsula.. A German map was captured showing the complete German artillery dispositions on the peninsula.. Two hours later, a tremendous American artillery b&rrage fell on every German gun on Crozon. The men of the 8th soon swarmed all over the peninsula., prying Germans out of their pillboxes and dugouts, and by 11 September, the German Jl,l,Jrd Infantry Division had been decimated. The crack German 2nd Parachute Division was also in Brest with elements on the peninsula., with the famed German :paratroop leader General Ramcke in charge. The assistant commander of the 8th, Brigadier-General Charles Canham, was told that the paratroop general was pre pa.red to surrender his forces to ,.an officer of suitable credentials." General Canham mot ioned to his grim-faced soldiers with their fixed ba.yonets and said, ,.These are my credent ials.• That phrase has since been immortalized. as pa.rt of the 8th's history. After Brest finally fell by mid-September 1944, the 8th drove across northern France and into Luxembourg, running up against the Siegfried Line. A general assault was made by sev eral divisions of the U.S. 1st Army in mid-September, but this attack made little headway against very fierce resistance. After extensive and aggressive pa.trolling in this area, the Golden Arrow was moved further north for a era.ck at the miserable Hurtgen Forest, in November 1944. Two other American divisions, the 9th and 28th Infantry, had already been very badly battered in this forest, and the 4th Infantry Division was fighting in the area as the 8th moved in, also sustaining very heavy casualties. It was the 8th's worst battle. The green hell of the Hiirtgenwald was filled with first-cla.ss German troops, extensive mines and booby traps, tough enemy defensive positions including concrete and log bunkers, barbed wire entanglements, and mud. It rained much of the time, and sometimes turning into snow. Still, by Hurtgen Forest standards, the 8th did very well, and a very heroic one-man action took pla.ce in the forest on 21 November 1944. Staff Sergeant John w. Minick's battalion from the 121st Infantry Regiment was halted by extensive minefields, exposing the Americans to heavy German artillery and mortar fire. Further delay in the advance would have resulted in more casualties. A movement through the minefield was essential. Voluntarily, S/sgt Minick led 4 men through the minefield for a. distance of JOO yards. An enemy machinegun opened fire, and he signaled his men to take cover. Then Sgt Minick edged his way alone toward the flank of the weapon and opened fire, killing two of the crew and capturing three others. Moving forward again, he singlehandedly engaged an entire com pany, killing 20 of the enemy and capturing 20 more. His platoon captured the remainder of the Germans in this area. Again advancing forward, Sgt Minick spearheaded his battalion's attack, coming under heavy machinegun fire. Crawling toward the gun, he knocked it out of action. But then an other minefield had to be crossed. Undeterred, the brave sergeant advanced forward alone through constant enemy fire and, while advancing, detonated a mine and was killed instantly. For his exceptional galla.ntry and intrepidity, S/sgt Minick was posthumously awarded the Congressional Med.al of Honor. Inspite of such tough going, the 8th managed to clear the small town of Hurtgen, deep in the forest, 28 November, and Brandenberg by J December, then reaching the Roer River. Then, while the great Battle of the Bulge raged further south, the 8th received orders to clear the last remaining German positions west of the Roer, around Obermauba.ch. The fight ing was bitter, as the crack 6th Parachute Regiment resisted fiercely, and men fell upon each other in hand-to-hand comba.t in the ghostly white wilderness. But Obermaubach was seis ed by the end of December 1944. For the next two months, opposite the Roer, the Golden Arrow fought a static kind of war, as the Bulge was being flattened and the front stabilized.. The 8th built extensive fortif ications, conducted numerous patrol actions, and beat ba.ck a number of counterattacks. Then, on 23 Februa.ry 1945, the 1st and 9th Armies began their offensive across the Roer. The 8th's big artillery pieces poured on a 45-minute barrage that virtually flattened the

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    town of Dtiren. The Germans fought stubbornly. Upon reaching the Rhine, the 8th cleared the big city of Cologne-or what was left of it after the Allied bombings-in conjunction with the 3rd Armored and 104-th Infantry Divisions. The Germans had numerous snipers and men with burp guns and panzerfausts lurking amid the ruins, but the gutted city was still cleared after only a few days of fierce fighting. The 8th was then given a rest. The division then swung up against the south side of the Ruhr Pocket, and had to beat back furious counterattacks by the 12th Volksgrenadier Division which flung itself at the 8th with some of the Wehrmacht's old style. The 8th had to fight hard to take the large town of Siegen. Battling into the pocket, the 8th took 5,000 prisoners in one day alone as German resistance began to slacken. Organized German opposition inside the pocket ended by mid-April 1945, with a tremendous number of FOWs taken-well over JOO,OOO: And then, in the last major assignment of the war for the 8th, it was moved up into nor thern Germany, beginning on 26 April 1945. The 8th was one of the few U.S. outfits to act ually cross the wide Elbe River. Although some resistance was initially encountered., this quickly diminished. as the Americans got over the river. The Germans knew the jig was all but up, anyway, and were only too glad to get away :from the advancing Russians :from the east, and give themselves up to the Americans and British. The British 6th Airborne Division and U.S. 7th Armored, 82nd Airborne, and 8th Infantry Divisions all moved into the western portion of the province of Mecklenburg (greatly, to forestall a Russian advance into Denmark) meeting very little or no opposition. On 2 May, the 8th entered the city of Schwerin. Elements of the division captured other smaller towns against negligible opposition. And then the entire German Jrd Panzer Army surrendered. to the 8th-150,000 first-class German troops: By the time the war in Europe ended on 8 May 1945, the 8th had captured a grand total of 316,000 prisoners, the highest total of any American division in World War II. But all of this hadn't been without heavy cost. By V-E Day, the 8th had suffered lJ,986 casualties. Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-J Distinguished. Unit Citations-5 * Distinguished Service Crosses-JJ Silver Stars-------768 Casualties, Total Battle Deaths-2,852 Killed In Action-2,5J2 Wounded-----10,057 Missing------729 ca.ptured------668 Total Casualties-lJ,986 * One to the entire 121st Infantry Regiment-Hurtgen Forest, Germany The third line infantry regiment of the 8th Infantry Division in World War II was the 28th Infantry Regiment. Other 8th Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action* Pfc Ernest w. Prussma.n, * 13th Inf Rgt, 8 September 1944, near Les Coates, Brittany, France Pfc Walter c. Wetzel, * lJth Inf Rgt, J April 1945, Birken, Germany The 8th Infantry Division has been stationed. in the Rhineland, West Germany, for many years, and still is, as of this writing. (20 September 1984-)

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    .1. IOI J.J. 8TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Golden Arrow" JULY 1944 7 July 11 8 July 111111111 9 July 111111 10 July 1111111 11 July 111111111111111111119 12 July 1111111111111111111111111111111 31 lJ July 111111111111111111111 21 14 July 1111111111111111111111111111111 31 15 July 11111111111111111111 20 16 July 111111111111111111111111111111111111 J6 17 July 1111111111111114 18 July 11111111111112 19 July 111111111110 20 July 11111111111111111118 22 July 1111 23 July 1111 24 July 11111 25 July 11 26 July 1111111111111 27 July 1111111111111111111111111126 28 July 11111111111111111111 20 29 July 11111111 8 JO July 11 Jl July 11 J20 AUGUST 1944 2 Aug 1 4 Aug 1111 5 Aug 1111111 7 Aug 1111 9 Aug 111111 10 Aug 111 11 Aug 111 12 Aug 1111111111111 lJ Aug 111111111111111111111111 24 14 Aug 1111111111111111111111111111 28 15 Aug 1111 16 Aug 1111111 17 Aug 111111 18 Aug 111 19 Aug 1111111 20 Aug 1 21 Aug 11111 22 Aug 1111 23 Aug 1 24 Aug 1111 25 Aug 11111 26 Aug 1111111111111114 27 Aug 1111111111111114 28 Aug 1111111111111111111111111126 29 Aug 111111 JO Aug 111111 JI Aug 111111111 9 21J

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    2 WWH 8rH INFANTRY DIVISION "Golden Arrow" SEFIEMJER 1944 1 Sept 11111111111111111111121 2 Sept 111111 J Sept 1111111111111111111111 22 4 Sept 11111111111111111118 5 Sept 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111 40* 6 Sept 11111 approx. 7 Sept 1111111 7.5~en 8 Sept llH 9 Sept 1111 10 Sept 111111 11 Sept 111111 12 Se pt 11111 lJ Sept 111 14 Sept 1 1.5 Sept 111111 16 Sept 11111111 8 17 Sept 11111111111112 18 Sept 1111111111111 lJ 19 Sept 1111111 20 Sept 111 21 Sept 1 22 Sept 1 27 Sept 1 JO Sept 1 200 OCTOBER 1944 2 Oct 1 J Oct 1 4 Oct 11 .5 Oct 1 6 Oct 11 7 Oct 11 9 Oct 1 10 Oct 1 11 Oct 1 lJ Oct 1 1.5 Oct 1 18 Oct 11 26 Oct 1 17 NOVEMBER 1944 1 Nov 1 .5 Nov 1 8 Nov 1 lJ Nov 1 18 Nov 11 19 Nov 1 20 Nov 111111 21 Nov H: 22 Nov 1111111 2J Nov 11111111 8 24 Nov 111111111 9 25 Nov 111111111 9 26 Nov 11111111 8 27 Nov 111 28 Nov 1111111111111111.5 29 Nov 11111 JO Nov 1111111111111114 9J

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    J WWII DECEM.IER 19',14 1 Dec 111111111111111116 2 Dec 1111111111111 J Dec 1111111 4 Dec 1111111111111 5 Dec 1111111111111 6 Dec 1111111 7 Dec 11111111 8 8 Dec 111 9 Dec 1111 10 Dec 11111111 8 11 Dec 111111 12 Dec 111 lJ Dec 1111111111111 14 Dec 111111111110 15 Dec 1111111 16 Dec 111 17 Dec 111111111 9 18 Dec 11111 19 Dec 111111 20 Dec 1111 21 Dec 111111 22 Dec 1111 2J Dec 11111 24 Dec 111111 25 Dec 11111 26 Dec 11111111 8 27 Dec 1111111111111 lJ 28 Dec 111111111110 29 Dec 111111 JO Dec 11111 Jl Dec 1111 222 8TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Golden Arrow" JANUARY 1945 1 Jan 11 2 Jan 11 J Jan 11 4 Jan 1111 5 Jan 1 7 Jan 1 9 Jan 1 10 Jan 1 11 Jan 111 12 Jan 111 lJ Jan 111 15 Jan 1 16 Jan 11 17 Jan 1 18 Jan 11 19 Jan l Jl Jan l Jl FEBRUARY 194.5 5 Feb 11 11 Feb 11 lJ Feb 1 15 Feb 11 16 Feb 1 19 Feb 1 20 Feb 1 22 Feb 111 2J Feb 11111111111111111111111111111111 J2 24 Feb 11111111111111111111121 2.5 Feb 111111111111111111111111111 27 26 Feb 1111111111111 lJ 27 Feb 111111111 9 28 Feb 111111111111111116 lJl

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    --t NrlJ..L 8TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Golden Arrow" MARCH 1945 1 Mar 1111111111111 2 Mar 1111111111111 J Mar 11111111111111111111111111111 29 4 Mar 11111 5 Mar 111111111110 6 Mar 1111111111111 7 Mar 111111111110 8 Mar 1 9 Mar 1 10 Har 11 16 Mar 11 17 Har 1 19 Mar 11 2J Mar 1 24 Mar 1 25 Mar 1 29 Mar 111 JO Mar 11 Jl Mar 1111 108 8TH INFANTRY DIVISION'S *bloodiest day-------5 September 1944 bloodiest month July 19'4 2nd bloodiest day 16 July 1944 Jrd " " " 2J February 1945 4th " " " 12 and 14 July 1944 5th " " " J March 194.5 Total m. t tle dea ths----,2 ,8df. 1,503 are listed=5J.{:f.C XIA-2,513 APRIL 1945 1 Apr 11111111 8 2 Apr 11111111111111115 J A pr 111111111113: 12 4 Apr 1111111111111 lJ 5 Apr 111111111110 6 Apr 1111111111111114 7 A pr 1111111 8 Apr 1111111111111111111111 22 9 Apr 11111111 8 10 Apr 1 11 Apr 111111 12 Apr 111 lJ Apr 1111111 14 Apr 111111111110 15 Apr 111 16 Apr 1111111111111 lJ 17 Apr 111111 18 Apr 1 25 Apr 1 26 Apr 1 27 Apr 11 28 Apr 1 164 MAY 1945 1 May 111 11 May 1 4

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    9TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Varsity" Activated (WW II)-1 August 1940 Inactivated-15 Januar~ 1947 Reactivated-15 July 1947 Battle Credits, World War Ile Morocco Algeria Tunisia Sicily Normandy Northem France-Belgium Days In Coml:at-4~ Siegfried Line Ardennes Rhineland Central Germany Commanding Genera.ls (During Combit, WW II)s Maj-Gen Manton S. Eddy Maj-Gen Louis A. Craig August 1942-August 1944 August 1944-May 1945 Coml:at Chronicle: The 9th Infantry Division has a World War II record that few outfits can surpass. Its 2J,277 casualties attest to the tough fighting it saw. And the l:attles the 9th won attest to its high combit effectiveness. "Stars and Stripes" called it "The Varsity." Someone else dubbed the division •'Hitler's Nemesis." In its first com'te.t of the war, the invasion of North Africa, 8 November 1942, the 9th was divided up. The J9th Infantry Regiment, as i:art of the East• em Task Force, landed at Algiers, and the other two infantry regiments landed on the coast of Morocco-the 47th at Safi, and the 60th at Port Lyautey. The worst resistance was encountered at the latter place, where the French fought fiercely. The defenders included Legionnaires, and the heights above Port Lyau tey bristled with French artillery that exchanged salvos with U.S. 'te.ttleships and destroyers, forcing them to withdraw. Hardest hit in the 60th Infantry was the 2nd Battalion. One company lost five of its six officers. The walls of a kastah were scaled, but it wasn't until 11 November, that a cease-fire was rea ched. The main problem with the French in North Africa was that they were und er the overall command of Admiral Darlan, a notorious Nazi collaborator who was eventually assassinated. The 9th then pa.trolled the Spanish Moroccan border against possible inter vention by Franco's Spanish Army. Franco was a well-known Nazi sympathizer. However, this never occurred, and the 9th entered the bittle in Tunisia in February 194J. Part of the 9th fought at Sened against seasoned Italian troops. At Mak nassy, the fighting continued for nearly two weeks, and at El Guettar, with the 1st Infantry Division alongside, the btttle raged for 11 days and nights in the bitterest kind of combat. In the latter action, the 47th Infantry Regiment suffered heavy losses, while the entire division failed in an assault on Hill 772. By 7 April 1943, however, the Germans and Italians in central Tunisia were thrown bl.ck, and the British 8th Army broke through the Mareth Line in the south. The enemy retreated into northern Tunisia around a final line of bristling, well-fortified defenses. , On 11 April 1943, the 9th was moved into northern Tunisia, and took over the

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    British 46th Infantry Division's sector. Reinforced by the French Expedition ary Corps, the 9th attacked toward enemy positions near Jefna, 2J April 194), and took Djebel Dardyss the next day. After sustained combat, the 9th captured Hill 382 and Kef en Nsour. Battling along and near the northem coast, the 9th slashed through the Sedjenane Valley and on to Bizerte. Axis resistance coll apsed on 13 May 1943. On Sicily, the 9th landed at Palermo in the end of July 1943, and two of its regiments, again fighting next to the 1st Infantry Division, took p:irt in the bitter battle at Troina, the Americans' toughest fight of the camp:iign. It took almost two weeks of intense fighting, plus artillery and air strikes, be fore the 15th Panzer Grenadier Division finally withdrew during the night of 6 August 1943. Continuing north,the 9th took Floresta and Randazzo, and help ed capture the city of Messina, on the northern tip of the large island, con cluding the camp:iign on 17 August 1943. Both North Africa and Sicily cost the 9th 681 men dead and 2, ;42 wounded. . Then the Varsi t.y sailed for England to take p:irt in the invasion of Normandy. After a long period of training and waiting, the 9th landed on 10 June 1944 (D-plus 4) and almost immediately ran into the toughest fighting it had yet en countered. Swinging west, the 9th cut off the Cotentin Peninsula, and then, along with the 4th and 79th Infantry Divisions, ba.ttled north up the peninsula through difficult hedgerow country and strong German opposition in a spirited assault. The objective was the port of Cherbourg. After intense street-fight ing, the port was captured in late-June 1944, with the 9th capturing the German commander of the seaport garrison. On 29 June, the 9th attacked Cap de la Hag ue Peninsula and secured it quickly. On 9 July 1944, the 9th arrived in the Taute sector of Normandy to take p;Lrt in the costly fighting southward toward St. La. The division was soon hit by an attack by the crack Panzerlehr Division which penetrated its lines in the 1' Desert area on 11 July. However, this attack was soon contained. Then the 9th, along with the 8Jrd and 90th Infantry Divisions, launched an offensive. Advancing south, J regiments abreast through the bocage country, German soldiers had to be blasted and ba.yoneted out of holes dug into the root bises of the hedgerows. The St. 1a-coutances Road was reached, and then the St. Lo-P~riers Road in the heaviest kind of fighting. After a short rest, the 9th took p:irt in the major U.S. breakthrough west of St. Lo, beginning 25 July 1944, which was also the 9th Infantry Division's bloodiest day in combat of the entire war. On this extremely bloody day the 9th lost over 170 men killed in action. Exploiting the breakthrough, the 9th found itself, in August 1944, helping to trap thousands of German troops in the Falaise Gap, although many of them did manage to fight their way out. Altogether, the entire bloodbath in Norm andy cost the 9th over 1,700 men killed in action or died of wounds Turning eastward, the Varsity crossed the Mame, near Mieux, on 27 August, fought at Ch!teau-Thierry, and continued in fast pursuit with the 3rd Armored Division into Belgium. The 9th crossed the Meuse River at Dinant, 6 September, in the face of strong resistance. Liege was cleared and, on 13 September 1944, the division entered Germany, south of Rotgen. By_mid-September 1944, the 9th had plunged into the.dark depths of theHilrt gen Forest, probibly the worst place to fight in the entire Siegfried Line. The 9th was the first American division to fight in this miserable forest, which was filled with mud, mines, booby-traps, and well dug-in first-class German troops. In fact, Hitler had just recently ordered the crack, full strength, 14,000-man 12th Infantry Division by rail, all the way from East Prussia, for the sole purpose of helping to stop the Americans in this forest. Casualties quickly mounted on both sides, and officers in the 9th leaped up

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    ward on the senority lists by the mere fact of survival. The 60th Infantry Regiment engaged in close-quarters fighting in the forest, while the 39th Infantry took Hill 5.54 after heavy combat by 29 September 1944. Severe weather hampered continued fighting in the forest. However, an import ant road junction was finally secured by 14 October, but the 9th was stopped far short of its objective of the town of Schmidt. The 28th Infantry Division relieved the 9th in the Hilrtgen Forest on 26 October 1944. The 9th lost over 700 men. , After a rest, rehabilitation, and receiving replacements, the 9th held def ensive positions from Monschau to Losheim. However, in a limited attack on Frenzenberg Castle, near Weisweiler, Germany, the 9th had one of its 5 Medal of Honor winners of the war, Pfc Carl V. Sheridan, Company K, 47th Infantry Regiment, 26 November 1944. In an attack on this fortress, held by 70 German paratroopers, Company K advanced 1,000 yards through shattering artillery and mortar fire, and captured two buildings in the courtyard of the castle, but was left with only 35 men. Pfc Sheridan, a recently arrived 18-year-old replacement, was a bazooka man. The only approach to this stone castle was across the courtyard and over a draw bridge above a moat, leading to a heavy, l:arricaded oaken door. Realizing that his weapon was the only one left with the power to blast-in this,door and, although handicapped by the lack of an assistant, he skillfully fired two rounds into the door, weakening it, but not destroying it. Carefully, he reloaded with his last rocket, took careful aim, and blasted in the heavy barricade. Turning to his company he shouted, .. Come on. let•s get them!" With his .45 pistol blazing, he charged into the gaping entrance and was killed by the withering fire that met him. The final assault on Frenzenberg Castle was made through the gap which Pfc Sheridan gave his life to create. His action was in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. military. Not long after this episode, the 9th relieved the great 1st Infantry Divis ion on 7 December 1944, in the Luchem-Langerwehe-Juengersdorf-Merode region. The 9th, in conjunction with the Jrd Armored Division, then laW1ched an attack toward the Roer River, 10 December, taking the small towns of Echtz and Schlich. When the Germans struck with their all-out counteroffensive in the Ardennes on 16 December 1944, the 9th was holding a sector toward the northern end of the assault. It helped contain German attacks toward Mariaweiler and Guerzen ich. The 9th next relieved the 2nd and 99th Infantry Divisions, and defended the Monschau area, and restoring the Monschau Forest line by 23 December 1944. Of course, there were many Wltold instances of individual heroism during the Battle of the Bulge, but a very courageous action was that of Technical Sergeant Pete Dalessondro, Company E, J9th Infantry Regiment, near Kalterher berg, Germany, 22 December 1944. Sgt Dalessandro manned a machinegun after its 2-ma.n crew had been put out of action. Assaulted by an overwhelming force of the enemy, he ordered his platoon to withdraw, while directing a murderous rain of lead at the Germans who, thinking that the machinegun had been knocked out for good, scurried for cover at the edge of a woods. This action saved the probable annihilation of his platoon, while upsetting the entire German advance in the area. Theh, as the Germans infiltrated in close, he directed artillery fire right onto the area of his position, even though the officer on the other end of the phone greatly hesitated to do this. But Pete insisted. Soon, Sgt Dalessondro was captured and forced to lie out in the open as the artillery barrage pounded into the Germans. But, miraculously, he wasn't ser iously injured, while all around him Germans cried out in pain. When the bar rage lifted, the irate German commanding officer took him behind the German lines. There, he was treated for minor wounds by a much more sympathetic doc

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    tor. However, he used pa.per bandages because of the medical shortages in Ger many. Sgt Dalessondro remained a prisoner for the duration of the war, and was later awarded the Medal of Honor. Ironically, he was liberated by his own 9th Infantry Division. The 9th maintained defensive positions throughout the remainder of the Bulge battle. . On JO January 1945, the 9th jumped-off from Monschau, after relieving the 99th Infantry Division, and helped the 78th Infantry Division take the vital Roer River Dams. The 9th then advanced to the Rhine, and was one of the first outfits to go into the Rema.gen bridgehead. The 9th helped defeat furious Ger man attacks on the bridgehead, and then battled its way out of it. The entire 47th Infantry Regiment was later awarded the Distinguished Unit Citation for this action. The 9th then cut the Cologne-Frankfurt autobahn (4-la.ne divided highway), and captured the ancient walled town of ZUlpich. Next, the 9th entered the huge Battle of the Ruhr Pocket, fighting on the eastern side of it. Parts of the 9th and 11th Panzer Divisions counterattack ed so fiercely near Winterberg, that the 9th was forced to dig-in and tempor arily go over on the defensive. Reinforcements arrived and, after heavy fight ing, organized resistance in the pocket ended by mid-April 1945. After this, the Varsity Division advanced eastward into central Germany and took Nordhausen, liberating a slave-laborer camp. Then, swinging somewhat to the north, the 9th attacked into the Harz Mount ains, a very high-hilled, heavily wooded region. Several other U.S. divisions also attacked into the Harz from all different directions. There were 70,000 Germans in the Harz, including the crack 5th Parachute Division, but they were too disorganized, at this stage of the war, to put up any more than a limited defense. Still, they caused considerable casualties. On 18 April 1945, the 60th Infantry Regiment overran Magdesprung and Fried.richsbrunn, while the ~7th Infantry cleared Opperod.e, and the motorized 39th Infantry Regiment reached the sizeable town of Quedlinburg. By 2J April 1945, the Germans in the Harz had given up. Heading tack to the east, the 9th pulled up along the Mulde River, which flows into the Elbe, and relieved the Jrd. Armored Division near Dessau. The 9th held that line until V-E Day, 8 May 1945. Emie Pyle, the famous war correspondent, once said, "The 9th is good." He knew what he was talking about. Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-5 Casualties, Distinguished Unit Citations-24 * Distinguished Service Crosses-76 Silver Stars-------2,282 Total Battle Deaths-4,550 Killed In Action-J,8,56 Wounded-----17,416 Missing------357 Captured-----1,648 Total Casualties-23,277 * One to the entire 47th Infantry Regiment-Rema.gen.Bridgehead., Germany Other 9th Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II, KIA* 2nd Lt John E. Butts, * 60th Inf Rgt, 14, 16, and 2J June 1944, Normandy Sgt William L. Nelson, * 60th Inf Rgt, 24 April 1943, near Sedjenane, Tunisia Lt Col Matt Urban, Summer 1944, N.orthem France The 9th Infantry Division served in the Vietnam War. The 9th is stationed at Ft. Lewis, Washington (as of this writing). (17 August 1989)

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    1 WWII 7I'H INFANTRY DIVISIC!f "Hourglass" MAY 1943 11 May 11 12 May 11111111111112 lJ May 1111111 14 May 11111111111112 1.5 May 1111 16 May 11 17 May 111111111111111116 18 May 1 19 May 111111111 9 20 May 11111111111111111111111124 21 May 11111111 8 22 May 1111 2J May 11 24 May 111111 25 May 1111111119 26 May 1111111 8 27 May 11 28 May llllill JUNE 194J 1 June l 5 June l 6 June 1 7 June 1 8 June l 5 29 May lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 JO May 111111 11~ approx. 2~ men 251 FEBRUARY 1944 2 Feb 11111111 8 J Feb 1111111111111111111111111 25 4 Feb 111111111111111111111111111111111111111140 5 Feb 1111111111111114 6 Feb 1111 91

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    2 WWII OCTOBER 1944 20 Oct 11 21 Oct 1111111111111 lJ 22 Oct 111111111111111111111 21 2) Oct 1111111111111 24 Oct 1111111111111111117 25 Oct 1111111111111111117 26 Oct 111111111 9 27 Oct 11111111111112 28 Oct 1111111111111111111111 24 29 Oct 11111111111111115 JO Oct 11111111111111111118 Jl Oct 11111111 8 167 71'H INFANTRY DIVISICli "Hourglass" NOVEMBER 1944 1 Nov 1 2 Nov 1 3 Nov 111 4 Nov 1111 5 Nov l 6 Nov l 8 Nov 1 13 Nov l 15 Nov 11 16 Nov 1 17 Nov 11111111 8 18 Nov 11 19 Nov 1 25 Nov 11 27 Nov 1 29 Nov 11 J2 DECEMBER 1944 1 Dec 1111 3 Dec 11 5 Dec 111111111 9 6 Dec 1111111111111111111120 7 Dec 1111 8 Dec 11111111 8 10 Dec 111111111 9 11 Dec 1 12 Dec llllll 13 Dec 1 14 Dec 111 16 Dec 11111111 8 17 Dec 111 18 Dec 11 19 Dec 11 21 Dec 11 24 Dec 11 25 Dec 1 27 Dec 11111 JO Dec 11 94 JANUARY 1945 2 Jan 1 J Jan 1 4 Jan 1 7 Jan 1 8 Jan 1 9 Jan 11 lJ Jan 11 15 Jan 11 17 Jan 1 21 Jan 1 2J Jan 1 24 Jan 111111 25 Jan l 28 Jan 1 29 Jan 1 Jl Jan 11 25

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    J WWII 71'H INFANTRY DIVISION "Hourglass" APRIL 1945 1 Apr 1 2 Apr 11 J A pr 1111111111 10 4 Apr 11 5 Apr 11111111111112 6 Apr 1 7 Apr 111 8 Apr 1111111111111111117 9 Apr 11111111 8 10 Apr 1111111111 10 11 Apr 1111111111111 12 Apr 1111 13 Apr 11111111 8 14 A pr 111111 15 Apr 1111111 17 Apr 11111 18 Apr l 19 Apr 1111111111111111117 20 A pr 111111 21 Apr 11111111111111111111 20 22 Apr 1111111111111111111111111 25 2) Apr 1111111111111 24 Apr 1111111111111114 25 Apr 1111 26 A pr 111111 27 Apr 11111111 8 28 Apr 11111111111111115 29 Apr 11111111111111111118 JO Apr 111111111111111111111112) 275 7TH INFANTRY DIVISION'S *bloodiest day-------.29 May 194) bloodiest month April 1945 MAY 1945 1 May lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll JJ 2 May 1111111 J May 1111111111111111117 4 May 11111111111111115 5 May 1111111111111 lJ 6 May 111 7 May 11 8 May 11111 9 May 11111111 8 11 May 111 lJ May 11 22 May l 2J May 1111111111111111111111111111129 24 May 11111111111111115 25 May 1111111 26 May 11 27 May 11111111 8 28 May 11 29 May 11111111 8 JO May 11 Jl May 111111 188 2nd bloodiest day February 1944 Jrd bloodiest day 1 May 1945 Total rattle deaths 2,)46 i,269 are listed=.54•" KIA-1,957 JUNE 1945 1 June 11 2 June 11 J June 11111 4 June 111 5 June 1111111 6 June 11 1 June 111111 8 June 11111111 8 9 June 111111 10 June 11111111111111115 11 Junel 12 June 111 13 June 111111111110 14 June 111 15 Jun& 11111111 8 16 June 1111 17 June 1111111 18 June 111111111111111116 19 June 111111111 9 20 June 11111111 8 21 June l 22 June 11111 2) June 111 24 June 111 25 June 11 26 June 1 27 June l 141

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    1 WWII NOVEMBER 1942 8 Nov lllllllllllllllllllll 21 9 Nov 111111 10 Nov 111111 11 Nov 1 20 Nov 11 36 DECEMBER 1942 5 Dec 1 28 Dec 1 2 9TH INFANTRY DIVISION .. Varsity'' FEBRUARY 194J 20 Feb 11 21 Feb 1111 22 Feb 11111111 8 28 Feb ll 16 MARCH 194,J 10 Mar 1 19 Mar 11 2J Mar 111 24 Mar 11111 25 Mar 111 28 Mar 1111111111111111111111123 29 Mar lllllllllllllllllllllll 23 JO Mar .lllllllllllllll 15 Jl Mar 11111111111112 87 APRIL 1943 1 Apr lllll 2 A pr 1111111 J Apr 1111111111111 4 Apr llllllll 8 5 Apr 11111 6 A pr lllllllllll 11 7 Apr 11111 8 A pr lllllllllll 11 9 Apr 1 10 Apr l 11 Apr l 14 Apr l 17 Apr 1 18 Apr 11 20 Apr 111 23 Apr 11111111111111 14 24 Apr 11111111111 12 25 Apr 111111111110 26 Apr 111 27 Apr 111 28 Apr 1111 29 Apr 11 JO A pr llllll 127 MAY 194) 1 May 1111111 J May 1 6 May 111 7 May 111 lJ May 11111 14 May l 20

    PAGE 68

    2 WWII JULY 1943 31 July llllllllllll 12 12 AUGUST 1943 1 Aug 111111111110 2 Aug 111 J Aug 1 4 Aug 1 5 Aug l 6 Aug 111111111 9 7 Aug lllllllllllllllllllllllll 25 8 Aug 1 9 Aug 111 10 Aug 11 11 Aug 1 12 Aug 111111 lJ Aug l Bf, 9TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Varsity" JUNE 19'-14 12 June 111 lJ June l 14 June 11111111111112 15 June llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll J2 16 June lllllllllllllll 15 17 June lllllllllllllllll 17 18 June llllllllllllllllllllllll 24 19 June 11 20 June lllllllllllll 13 21 June 111111118 22 June llllllllllllllllllllllll 24 2J June llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllli J2 24 June llllllllllll 12 25 June llllllllllllllllllllll 22 26 June lllllllllll 11 27 June 11 28 June 11 29 June lllllllllllllllll 17 JO June lllllllllllllllllllll 21 270

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    J WWII JULY 1944 1 July 11 5 July 1 7 July l 9 July 1 9TH -INFANTRY DIVISIC!i "Varsity" 10 July 11111111111111111111111111111111 J2 11 July 111111111111111116 12 July 111111111111111111111111111111111111 J6 lJ July 1111111111111111111111111111111111 14 July llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 40 15 July 111111111111111111111111111128 16 July 111111111111111111111111111111111 JJ 17 July 111111111111111111111111111111111111111140 18 July 11111111111111111111 20 19 July 111111111111111111111111111128 20 July 111111111111111111111122 21 July 11111111111112 22 July 111 23 July 11111 24 July 11111111111111111111 20 25 July lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 95* 26 July 111111111111111111111111111111111111 J6 approx. 27 July 11111111111111111118 17~en 28 July 111 JO July 11 Jl July 11 5)0

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    4 WWII 9TH INFANTRY DIVISIOO "Varsity" AUGUST 1944 1 Aug 1111111 2 Aug 1111111111111111111111 22 J Aug lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 39 4 Aug llllllllllllllllllllll 22 5 Aug 1111111111111114 6 Aug llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 52 7 Aug 111111111111111111111111125 8 Aug lllllllllllllllllllllllll 25 9 Aug 111111111111111116 10 Aug 111111111111111111111111111111111111111140 11 Aug 11111111111111111118 12 Aug 1 13 Aug 11 15 Aug 11 16 Aug 111 17 Aug 1111111111111111117 18 Aug 1 19 Aug 1 21 Aug 1 26 Aug 11 28 Aug 1 Jl Aug 11 JlJ SEPI'EMBER 1944 1 Sept 11111 2 Sept 111 J Sept 1111111 4 Sept 1111111 5 Sept 111111111111113 6 Sept llllllllllllllllllllllllllll 28 7 Sept 11111 8 Sept 11 9 Sept 11 10 Sept 1 11 Sept 1 12 Sept 1 13 Sept 11111 14 Sept 111 15 Sept llllllll 8 16 Sept 1111111111111111117 17 Sept 111111111111111111111111111 27 18 Sept 11111111111112 19 Sept 11111 20 Sept 111111111111113 21 Sept 1111 22 Sept 11111111111111111118 2J Sept 1111 . 24 Sept 1 25 Sept 1111111111111 26 Sept 111111111 9 27 Sept 11111111 8 28 Sept 11111111 8 29 Sept 1111111 JO Sept 11111 240

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    5 WWII 9TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Varsity" OCTOBER 1944 l Oct 1 2 Oct 11 3 Oct 11 5 Oct 11 6 Oct 111111111111111111119 7 Oct lllllllllllllllllllllll 23 8 Oct 111111111111111116 9 Oct 11111111111111111118 10 Oct 11111111111112 11 Oct lllllllllllllllllllllllllll 27 12 Oct lllllllllllllllllllllllll 25 13 Oct llllllllllllllllllllllllllllll JO 14 Oct 11111111111111111111111111 26 15 Oct llllllllllllllllllllllll 24 16 Oct 1111111 17 Oct 111111111 9 18 Oct 11111111 8 19 Oct 11 20 Oct 111111 21 Oct 111 22 Oct 1 23 Oct 11 24 Oct 11 25 Oct 111 26 Oct 11 27 Oct 1 28 Oct 1 31 Oct 11 . 276 NOVEMBER 1944, 1 Nov 1 12 Nov l 16 Nov llllllll 8 19 Nov 1 20 Nov llllllllllllllllllll 20 21 Nov 1111111111 10 22 Nov 11 23 Nov 1 24 Nov 111 25 Nov 111111111110 26 Nov llllllllr 27 Nov 111 28 Nov 11 71 DECEMBER 19443 Dec l 6 Dec 1 8 Dec 1 9 Dec 11 10 Dec llllllllllll 12 11 Dec 1111111111111 12 Dec llllllllllllllllllllllllllllll JO lJ Dec 11111 14 Dec 11 15 Dec 1111111 16 Dec 1 17 Dec 111 18 Dec 1 20 Dec 1 21 Dec 111 22 Dec 11111111 8 23 Dec 111 24 Dec 1 26 Dec 1 27 Dec 111 28 Dec 111 29 Dec 1 JO Dec 11 Jl Dec 11 105

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    6 WWII 9TH INFANTRY DIVISIOO "Varsity" JANUARY 1945 1 Jan 1111111 J Jan 11111 4 Jan 111 6 Jan 1 7 Jan 11 10 Jan 1111 12 Jan 1 15 Jan 111 2J Jan 1 24 Jan 111 25 Jan 11 28 Jan 11 FEBRUARY 194.5 1 Feb 111111111 9 2 Feb 1 J Feb 1111111111111 4 Feb 11 .5 Feb 11111111 8 8 Feb 111 9 Feb 1111111111111 lJ 10 Feb 111 11 Feb 1 12 Feb l 18 Feb l 20 Feb 1 JO Jan 111111111 9 Jl Jan 1111 27 Feb 1111111 28 Feb 1111111111111 lJ 47 74 9TH INFANTRY DIVISION Is *bloodiest day------25 July 1944 bloodiest month uly 1944 2nd bloodiest day 6 August 1944 .)rd bloodiest day 14 and 17 July and 4th" ,5th" 6th" .. .. .. 10 August 1944 " -----J August 1944 " -----12 and 26 July 1944 " -----13 July 1944 Total rattle deaths----..,..,.531 2,677 are listed=59.0' XIA-J,86J MARCH 1945 1 Mar llllllllllll 12 2 Mar llllllll 8 4 Mar lllllll 5 Marl 6 Mar 11111 7 Mar 111 8 Mar lllllll 9 Mar llllllllllllllllllllll 22 10 Mar 111 11 Mar 111111111111111111111 21 12 Mar 11111111111111111111121 lJ Mar 1111111111111114 14 Mar llllllllllllllllll 18 15 Mar 111111111111111111111111125 16 Mar 11111111111111111111 20 17 Mar 11111111111111111111 20 18 Mar llllllllllllllllll 18 19 Mar llllllll 8 20 Mar 11 21 Mar ll 22 Mar 1 23 Mar 11111 24 Marl 25 Mar 111111111 9 26 Mar 11 29 Mar 111 JO Mar 1 Jl Marl 260 APRIL 1945 1 Apr 111111111111111116 2 Apr lllllllllllllllll 17 J Apr 11111111 8 4 Apr 1 5 Apr 111111111 9 6 Apr 1111 7 Apr 1111 8 Apr 1 9 Apr 1111 10 Apr 11 lJ Apr 1 14 Apr 11111111 8 15 Apr 11 16 Apr 11111111111111115 17 Apr lllllllllllllll 15 18 A pr 1111111 19 Apr 111 20 Apr 11 2J Apr 11 25 Apr 1 27 Apr 11 124 MAY 1945 J May l 17 May l 26 May 1 J

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    laI'H MOUNTAIN DIVISION "Mountaineers" Activated-15 July 1943 Returned To United States-11 August 1945 Inactivated-JO November 1945 Battle Credits, World War II: Northern Apennines Commanding General (During Combat, WW II): Maj-Gen George P. Hays Po Valley November 1944-November 1945 Coml:at Chronicle: The 10th Mountain Division was activated at Camp Hale, Colorado, on 15 July 1943, and, at that time, was known as the loth Light Division. It was not off icially designated as the loth Mountain Division until more than a year later. Previous ly, however, the 87th Mountain Infantry Regiment had seen minor action in the Aleutians in May l94J, losing 16 men. Except for this, the 10th Mountain Division saw all of its actual combat in Italy. First elements of the division began arriving in Italy in late-December 1944. After a brief training period, the 10th Mountain entered combat in the northern Apennines, nea.r Cutigliano and Orsigna, on 6 January 1945. After preliminary defensive actions, the Mountaineers were given the highly difficult task of dislodging crack German troops from some very formidable heights in the northern Apennines, in mid-February 1945. It was rugged country, even for a St. Bernard, but the men of the loth had trained for a year and a half for such an operation. They had train ed in sub-zero weather, and many of them had been l::attling the elements all their lives. Some of them were famous skiers, and others were climbers, forest rangers, and pa.rk and wild-life service men. On the night of 18-19 February 1945, some l,JOO men from the 10th Mountain climbed the steep slopes of Riva Ridge in the snow and ice. This monumental feat of arms com pletely surprised the Germans who thought the icy slopes to be impregnable. This feat greatly facilitated the attack on Monte Belvedere. German counterattacks were defeated and the 10th gained the crests of both Monte Belvedere and Monte Gorgolesco on 20 Feb ruary. The 10th then advanced against the crest of Monte della Torraccia in the face of strong enemy opposition, and reached its summit after heavy fighting on 24 February 1945, and routed the first-rate German 2J2nd Infantry Division. In early-March 1945, the 10th, in limited objective attacks, fought its way north of Canolle, taking several more peaks, beating ba.ck counterattacks, and advancing to within 15 miles of the city of Bologna. The object of these attacks was to gain better jumping off positions for the coming Allied offensive in the spring, and the 10th Mountain did a splendid job. The 10th then maintained defensive positions for the next three weeks. Then, on 14 April 1945, the 5th Army was ready to begin its long-awaited offensive out of the mountains and into the Po Valley. The morning was covered with fog and mist

    PAGE 74

    and the situation was very tense. Both cownanders and troops were depending heavily on close air support for the attack. Then, about 9:45 A.M., the weather began to clear, and the air force went into action, as did the artillery, pounding enemy targets, many of them pre-selected. While the ground still shook, the troops began advancing forward. The 10th Mountain led the way, fighting in the clouds, and the battle was intense. The 10th slugged ahead relentlessly, smashing through elements of two German divisions which were blocking the way. The Germans hastily moved over their mobile reserve, the 90th Panzer Grenadier Division, but this also failed. 14 and 15 April 1945, were the 10th Mountain Di vision• s two bloodiest days of the war, and it was also on 14 April that the 10th had a Medal of Honor winner, Pfc John D. Magrath, ComJ:S,ny G, 85th Mountain Infan try Regiment, near Castel d'Aiano, Italy. His comJ:S,ny was pinned down by heavy artillery, mortar, and small-arms fire near Castel d'Aiano. Voluntarily acting as a scout, and armed only with a rifle, he charged headlong into withering fire, killing two Germans and wounding three others in order to capture a machinegun. Carrying this weapon across an open field through heavy fire, he eliminated two more ma.chinegun nests. Pfc Magrath then circled behind four other Ger mans who were firing into his company, and diSJB,tched them with a burst from his weapon. Spotting another enemy position to his right, he lmelt down and exchanged fire with them until he had killed 2 of the enemy and wounded J more. Pfc Magrath next volunteered to brave the shelling of his comJB,ny to collect a report of casualties. As he was carrying out this task, he was killed, his actions in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. military. The intensive fighting continued with the 10th Mountain capturing Mongiorgio on 20 April. On this same day the 10th Mountain and 85th Infantry Divisions broke out of the mountaims and into the Po Valley, with the 10th seizing the strategic towns of Pradal bino and Bomporto. The 10th Mountain advanced 75 miles in 8 action-packed days in rea ching the Po at San Benedetto on 23 April 1945. Crossing the river on that same day, the 10th reached the vicinity of Verona, 25 Ap ril, and ran into heavy fighting at Torbole and Na.go, near the southern end of Lake Gard.a. After an amphibious crossing of this large mountain lake, the 10th secured Gargnano and Porto di Tremosine by JO April 1945. The 10th Mountain had many outstanding soldiers in its ranks. One was world champion ski jumper, Sergeant Torger Tokle, from Norway, who was killed in action in March 1945. And, as the 10th moved into the Alps, Colonel Bill Darby, famous organizer of the elite Rangers, was killed by a mortar burst near Lake Gard.a, on 1 May. He had wanted to be up front where the action was, and got it with the 10th Mountain. The 10th advanced north into the Alps and through Trento, capturing many prisoners, and when the Germans surrendered in Italy on 2 May 1945, was in the old gray-walled city of Mera.no. The 10th then went on security duty, receiving the surrender of various Ger man units, and screening the areas of occupation. During the month of April 1945, the 10th Mountain Division lost more men than any other U.S. division fighting in either Italy or Germany: The Germans were continually surprised by the offensive power of the American divis ions in the mountains of Italy, especially the 10th Mountain Division, one of the truly ~lite American outfits to come out of the war. Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-1 Distinguished Unit Citations-1 Distinguished Service Crosses-J Silver Stars-------~4''9 Casualties: Total Battle Deaths-955 Killed In Action---872 Wounded------3, 134 Missing------JS Captured-------28 Total Casualties-4,072 The 10th Mountain was reactivated in July 1948 as the 10th Infantry Division, but was later, again inactivated. In 1986, the 10th Mountain Division was agai~ reactivated and, as of February 1988, was stationed at Fort Drum, New York.

    PAGE 75

    1 WWII JANUARY 1~5 6 Jan 111 10 Jan 1 21 Jan 1 25 Jan 1 26 Jan 1 JO Jan 11 9 10TH MOUNTAIN DIVISION "Mountaineers" FEBRUARY 1~5 2 Feb 1 4 Feb 1 17 Feb 1 20 Feb 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111 111111111150 21 Feb 111111111111111111111111111 27 22 Feb 111111111111111116 2J Feb 11111111 8 24 Feb 11111111 8 25 Feb 111111 26 Feb 111 27 Feb 1 28 Feb 1 123 MARCH 1~5 1 Mar 11 2 Mar 11 J Mar 1111111111111111111111111111 28 4 Mar 1111111111111114 5 Mar 111111111111111111111111 24 6 Mar 11111111 8 7 Mar 11111 8 Mar 1111 9 Mar 11 10 Mar 1 11 Mar 1111 12 Mar 1 lJ Mar 1 18 Mar 1 19 Mar 1 21 Mar 1 24 Mar 1 25 Mar 1 26 Mar 1 JO Mar 1 Jl Mar 1 1~ I I

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    2 WWII AHUL 1945 1 Apr 1 5 Apr 1 lOfH MOUNTAIN DIVISION "Mountaineers" 14 Apr llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllli 60 15 Apr 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 61* 16 Apr 111111111111111111111 21 approx. 17 Apr 1111111111111 lJ 110-11.5,tmen 18 A pr 11111111 8 19 Apr 1111111111111111111111 22 20 Apr 11111 21 Apr 111111111111111116 22 Apr 1111111111111 2J Apr 11111111111111115 24 Apr 111 25 Apr 1 28 Apr 111 29 Apr 1111111111111 JO Apr 11111111111111111118 270 lOfH MOUNTAIN DIVISION'S ~loodiest day------14 or 15 April 1945 bloodiest month April 1945 2nd bloodiest day 20 Februa.ry 1945 Jrd bloodiest day J March 1945 Total hlttle deaths---941 510 are listed.=_54.]% iIA-862 MAY 1945 1 May 111 4 May 1 21 May 1 5

    PAGE 77

    24TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Taro Lea.:'" Regular An.y Activated-2.5 February 1921 in Hawaii as the Hawaiian Division Redesignated-24th Infantry Division on 26 August 1941 Battle Credits, World Wa.r II: Northern New Guinea Leyte Ba ta.an Peninsula. Minda.na.o Commanding Generals (During Coml::at, WW II): Central Philippines Maj-Gen Durward s. Wilson Ma.j-Gen Frederick A. Irving Ma.j-Gen Roscoe B. Woodruff October 1941-August 1942 August 1942-November 1944 November 1944-November 1945 Coml:at Chronicle: The 24th Infantry Division wa.s among the first to see action in World Wa.r II, and among the last American troops to stop fi8hting. The 24th was on Oahu, with headquarters at Schofield Barracks, when the Ja:panese attacked. Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941, and sustained minor casualties. Charged with the defense of Oahu, the 24th built an elaborate system of coastal defenses. By September 1943, the Taro Leaf Division had completed its movement to Australia, near Rockha.mpton, on the ea.stern coast. After a. period. of intensive training, the division mov ed on to Goodenough Island, 31 January 1944, to stage for a. landing on the cOl!l.st of north e'rn New Guinea. In an almost perfectly executed. maneuver, the 24th landed in New Guinea, 22 April 1944, and slashed its way to the important Holla.nd.ia AiJ:drome despite torrential rains and aa.rshy terrain. Enemy resistance was scattered. am ineffective, and by 6 June, the 24th had kill ed. l,;n Ja:panese and taken over 500 prisoners, many of the• Korean laborers, while losing only 4J men. Shortly after, the division's J4,th Infantry Regiment went over to weird, craggy, cave ridden Biak to help out the 41st Infantry Division in that bloody battle. Biak wasn't sec ured until August 1944. Next, for the 24th, came the invasion of Leyte on 20 October 1944, along with the 1st Cavalry and. 7th and 96th Infantry Divisions. It was on Leyte, where the l:ackbone of the Japanese defense of the Philippines was broken, that the 24th proved itself one of the great fi8hting outfits of the war. The men landed on Red Beach and it was an inferno. Jap mountain guns blasted away at the landing boats, and planes sprayed the beach with lll&chine gun fire. The dunes were raked by mortar, machine-gun, and small-arms fire. But the men of the 24th kept moving, 1::attling their way inland, am repulsing one counterattack after another. The 24th bore the brunt of some of the toughest fighting on Leyte. It fought on am. al ong dirt roa.d.s, in jungles, rice piddies, along the banks of dirty streams, am. in the hills. Early in the fi8hting, one heroic action was that of Private Harold H. Moon, Jr., Compiny G, J4,th Infantry Regiment, at Pa.wig, Leyte, 21 October 1944. Pvt Moon was cut-off from his platoon ani beat 1::ack several attempts to take his position. In supreme defiance, he fired his own weapon and then those of his fallen buddies and hurl ed grenades at the enemy, while challenging them with curses. A Jap officer, covered by

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    ma.chine-guns and hidden by an embl.nkment, attempted to knock out his position with grenades, blt Pvt Moon, after protracted and skillful maneuvering, shot him. A little later, he kill ed two Japs who were charging a medic. Near da.wn an entire platoon of Ja:pa.nese charged his position, am Pvt Moon, firing his submachine-gun, calJnly cut down about 20 of the attackers before he was, hiuelf, killed as he attellpted to throw a grenade at an enemy ma.chine-gun. La.ter, nearly 200 dead Ja:pa.nese were found within 100 yards of his foxhole. The tenacity, coml:at sagacity, and magnificent courage with which Pvt Moon fought on ag ainst overwhelJning odds contributed in large measure to breaking up a powerful enemy threat, and did a great deal in insuring the 24th's initial success on Leyte. Pvt Moon was posth\1111ously awarded the Medal of Honor. After taking the town of Car~, the 24th advanced into wild northwestern Leyte. The town of Jaro fell in ha.rd fighting. But a :particularly tough, bloody, and see-saw type of bitter coml:at occurred at a place called Breakneck Ridge. The Japanese had planned a large assault to throw the Americans bl.ck, rut they underest imated the U.S. strength, and so, were forced to remain, l:asically, on the defensive. Heavy rains continued to handicap both the American am Ja:pa.nese movements. On Breakneck Ridge the Jai:anese employed two of their army's best units, the 1st Division which had arrived all the way from Manchuria, and the .57th "Tempei" Brigade. Their defenses were very illaginative and intricate, and the ridge itself was rough ground with much of it covered by tall cogon grass. The ma.in advantage the 24th had was its powerful artillery, but the Ja:pa.nese were consistently skillful and accurate with their mortars. Fro• 6-16 November 1944, this ridge was the scene of the most bitter and incessant type of fighting, some of it hand-to-hand. As well as the savage fighting, the ordeal was noted for the tactics of the Ja:pa.nese. Among other devices, they didn't indulge in reckless bl.n zai charges, blt used tricky infiltration attacks, especially at night, although they some times attacked during daylight. They frequently fired upon the Americans from the rear, fro• holes and hidden dugouts which the Gis sometimes didn't detect until it was too late. Some of the Jap snipers had rifles with telescopic sights, Also, soae of the Japs spoke English with which they tried. to fool the U.S. soldiers during night infiltrations. The 24th's tanks were of little value because the ground was too steep and rugged, so the soldiers relied heavily upon artillery and deadly phosphorus shells. The ferocious struggle ebbed 'tack and forth, with each side attacking and counterattack ing, and with the 21st Infantry Regiment eventually bearing the brunt of the battle. To help keep up the pressure and maintain the momentum, the 32:o:i Infantry Division began relie ving the exhausted 24th on 1.5 lfonmber 1944, and continued the eventually success:f'ul bl.ttle. Altogether, the 24th was in coml:at on Leyte for 78 days, atd slew over 7,000 Jap,.nese, while losing :fJ4, men. While mopping-up continued. on Leyte, the 24th's 19th Infantry Regiaent landed on Mindoro, in the western Philippines, and south of Luzon. Resistance was light with some 20 Americans killed and a.round .50 wounded. Other elements of the 24th secured the smaller islands of Marinduque and Verde against scattered resistance. Also, fro• late-January-mid-February 194.5, the )4th Infantry Regillent, helping out the ;8th Infantry Division, ran into a furious battle at Zig Zag Pass at the top of the Bataan Peninsula. Fighting in some of the most rugged and densest jungle terrain anywhere in the world, both the J4th Regiaent and the )8th Division suffered he&vY casualties before this :pa.as was cleared by mid-February. As an indication as to just how tough this cattle was, the J4th Infantry suffered alJnost half as many casualties in two weeks at Zig Zag Pass as it had in over two months on Leyte ! Meanwhile, eleaents of the 24th landed on Corregidor am helped the ,50Jrd, Parachute Regi ment take "the Rock" in another vicious battle. After a number of mopping-up actions during March 194.5, and then with the whole division reasseabled, the 24th and Jlst Infantry Divisions landed on the southern coast of Mindanao on 17 April 1945. While the Jlst headed into the central interior, the 24th struck eastward through jungle terrain, rice :pa.ddies, and overgrown hemp plantations, reaching Digos, and then capturing the city of Davao fairly easily on 2 May. But this was because the Ja:pa.nese lOoth Division had decided to make a stand in the hills northwest of the city. But in so doing,, it allowed the 24th to establish Davao as a valuable ba.se and couunications center_.

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    Mindanao was some of the 24th's toughest and most drawn-out fighting of the war. most of it in terrific, stifling heat. Very heavy fighting occurred in the first half of May 194.5, as the ;4th Infantry Regiment reduced a Japanese pocket in the Guma. sector, and the 21st Infantry Regiment, supported by massive artillery fire, attacked a.long the Talamo River on l2 May 1945. The 19th and ;4th Infantry then tackled Hill 550, which fell to the latter unit after a battle lasting sever al days which ended on 21 May 1945. In fierce fighting the 24th continued to clear the Talamo River Valley, with the 19th Infantry taking Mandog, on 9 June 1945. As late as 24 June 1945, heavy combat was taking place, but by this time, the 24th had succeeded in cracking the center of the Japanese defenses, and the Japa.nese 100th Division was then forced deeper into the interior regions of the large island. By this time the Ja:i;anese division had lost over 4,,500 men. The end of organized enemy resistance on Mindanao, was declared on JO June 194.5, but the 24th continued operations in the Kibangay area. The 21st Infantry landed at Sarangani Bay, on the southern coast of Mindanao, and secur ed this area by l2 July 1945. Aided by large, well-equipped, and well-organized Filipino guerrilla forces, the 24th continued mopping-up, i:a trolling, and performing security on Mindanao, until the end of the war, 14 August 1945. Mindanao, one of the least publicized battles of the war, cost the 24th over 600 men. On l.5 October 194.5, the 24th left Mindanao, for occu:i;ational duty in Japan. When the Korean War erupted in late-June 19.50, the 24th was the first American unit to enter that conflict, first clashing with the North Koreans near Osan, on 5 July 1950. Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-J Distinguished Unit Cita.tions-8 * Distinguished Service Crosses-1.5 Silver Stars--------625 Casualties, Total Battle Deaths-1,691 Killed In Action---1,374 Wounded-------5,621 Missing--------11 Captured--------6 Total Casualties---7,012 * One to the entire 19th Infantry Regiment-Davao, Mindanao Other 24th Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II1 Killed in action* Pfc James H. Diamond, * 21st Inf Rgt, 8-14 May 1945, Mint.al, Mindanao Sgt Charles E. Mower, * ;4th Inf Rgt, J November 1944, near Capooca.n, Leyte The 24th Infantry Division saw extensive action in the Korean War. La.ter on, the division was stationed. in southern Germany for many years, and then at Ft. Stewart, Georgia. As of this writing, the 24th Infantry (Mechanized) Division is in Saudi Arabia. (23 October 1990)

    PAGE 80

    1 WWII APRIL 1944 22 Apr 1 2J A pr 1111111 24 Apr 11111 25 Apr 111 26 Apr 1 28 Apr 11 19 MAY 1944 1 May 1 3 May 1 4 May 1 9 May 1 4 24TH IBFABTRY DIVISIOO 11 Taro Leaf" JUNE 1944 14 June 1 21 June 1 22 June 1 24 June 1 28 June 111 29 June 111111 lJ JULY 1944 J July 111 3 OCTOBER 1944 20 Oct 11111111111111111111111124 21 Oct lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 4~ 22 Oct 111111111 9 approx. 23 Oct 1111111 8,Sjtmen 24 Oct 1111111 25 Oct lllllllllll 11 26 Oct 111111111110 27 Oct 11111111 8 28 Oct 111 29 Oct 1111111 JO Oct 11111111111112 Jl Oct llllll 1,52

    PAGE 81

    2 WWII NOVEMBER 1944 1 Nov 11 2 Nov 111 3 Nov 11111111111 12 4 Nov 11111 5 Nov 111111 6 Nov 111111111111111116 7 Nov 11 8 Nov 11111 9 Nov 11111111111111111111111111 26 10 N.ov 111111111111111111 18 12 Nov 111111111110 13 Nov 111111 14 Nov 1111 15 Nov 11111 16 Nov 11 17 N.ov 111 18 Nov 11111111 8 19 Nov 111 20 Nov 111111111 9 21 Nov 111111 22 Nov 11 23 Nov 11111111 8 24 Nov 11 25 Nov 1 26 Nov 11 29 Nov 1 167 24TH INFANTRY DIVISIClf "Taro Leaf" DECEMBER 1944 7 Dec 1 11 Dec 1 15 Dec l 16 Dec 11 17 Dec 1 19 Dec 1 21 Dec 1111111-24 Dec 1 28 Dec 1 16 JANUARY 1945 9 Jan 1 23 Jan 1 JO Jan 1 J FEBRUARY 1945 2 Feb 1 J Feb 111111111110 4 Feb 111111111111111116 5 Feb 1111111111111111111120 7 Feb 1 8 Feb 1 10 Feb 1 11 Feb 1 12 Feb 1 14 Feb 111 15 Feb 11111111111111111111111 23 16 Feb 1111111111111 17 Feb 111111111110 18 Feb 1111111 19 Feb 1 20 Feb 11 21 Feb 11111111 8 22 Feb 1 26 Feb 1 119 MARCH 1945 2 Mar 1 12 Mar 1 14 Mar 1 22 Mar 1 23 Mar 11111111111112 16

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    ) WWII 24TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Taro Leaf" APRIL 1945 5 Apr 1 19 Apr 1 23 Apr 1 28 Apr 11 29 Apr 1 JO Apr 1 7 MAY 1945 1 May 1111111 2 May 111 3 May 11111111 8 4 May 11 5 May 1111111111111114 6 May 11111111 8 7 May 111111111110 8 May 11111111111111115 9 May 1111 10 May 11 11 May 111111111111111116 12 May 11111 13 May 111111111111111116 14 May 11111111111 12 15 May 11111 17 May 1 18 May 1 19 May 11 20 May 1 21 May 111111 22 May 111111111 9 23 May 111111 24 May 11 25 May 11 26 May 111 JO May 1111111 31 May 11111111111112 179 24TH INFANTRY DIVISION'S *bloodiest day-------.21 October 1944 bloodiest month May 1945 2nd bloodiest day 9 NoveJ11Der 1944 Jrd bloodiest day 20 October 1944 Total tattle deaths 1,441 812 are listed=56.3' KIA-1,209 JUNE 1945 1 June 111111 2 June 1 J June 1111 4 June 11111111 8 5 June 111111111111113 6 June 111 7 June 1111111 8 June 11111 9 June 1 10 June 111111 11 June 111 12 June 1 lJ June 11 14 June 11 15 June l 17 June 1111 21 June 111 22 June 111 24 June 111111111111113 25 June 111 26 June 11 27-. June 1 29 June 1 JO June 1 94 JULY 1945 l July 1 2 July 1 4 July 11111 lJ July 111 14 July 1 17 July 1 18 July 1 25 July 1 14 AUGUST 1945 12 Aug 11 14 Aug 11 15 Aug 11 6

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    2,5TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Tropic Lightning" Regular Army Activated-10 October 1941 in Hawaii Battle Credits, World War II: Guadalcanal Co11U1111.nding Genera.ls ( During Comte. t, WW II) : Maj-Gen Maxwell Murray Maj-Gen J. Lawton Collins Maj-Gen Charles L. Mullins Central S oloaons Luzon October 1941-Ma.y 1942 May 1942-January 19il4 January 1944-May 1948 Comte.t Chronicle: The 25th Infantry Division was but two aonths old when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, Activated from elements of the Hawaiian Division's Regular Army troops in October 1941, it was 'burying its dead on 7 Deceaber 1941. Few other American divisions have ever had such a. shocking introduction to comte.t. All through 1942 the Tropic Lightning Division fretted for a cha.nee to get revenge against the Ja.p1,nese. It caae in early-194'.3, when the men who wore the Spanish red taro leaf, with a lightning fl.a.sh on it, cleared for Guadalcanal. First elements of the 25th went ashore on the open beaches west of the Tenaru River. Entering comte.t on 10 January 194'.3, prior to an all-out attack, the division assembled numerous artillery pieces-75, 10.5, and 15.5n guns-and fired over 5,000 rounds into the Ja:i;:anese positions, To Mke all initial rounds hit their targets simultaneously, the art illery used time-on-target fire. This technique invariably caused carnage among any troops caught in the open, and in this instance it wa.s later found to have been very effective. The 25th then slashed forward in some of the aost bitter fighting of the war in the Pacific. The rough and broken terrain made supply, co:ramunication, am evacuation of the wounded very difficult. La.ck of suitable 111&}:8 was another handicap. The Japanese were there in abundance, am the high quality of their ca.mou:f'l&ge am their tenacious resistance IIIB.de the attack very rough going. It was on this very first day of the 25th's entry into co11l:a.t that it had a pair of Medal of Honor winners, both men from Company M, 35th Infantry Regiment, 10 January 1943. Company K turned west and, to cover its right flank while crossing a branch of the Mata nikau River, posted two .JO caliber ma.chine-guns from Comiany M, plus some riflemen, on a knoll. As Company K crossed the river, a large group of Ja.ianese further down the river attacked and nearly broke thl-ough the co111p1,ny 1 s right flank. The Jai:s drove ca.ck the rifle men, knocked one machine-gun out of action, and killed the gunner am wounded the assistant gunner of the second. They were then prevented from hitting the flank of vulnerable Comiany K by the heroism of two soldiers from ComJS,ny M, Sgt William G. Fournier a.Di T/5 Grade Lewis Hall. In spite of being ordered to witrdx'aw, the two men ran forward to the idle machine-gun and opened fire on the Japanese, who were then in the low stream botto11 in front of am below them. As the gun couldn't bear low enough on them, Sgt Fournier lifted it by its tripod to depress the muzzle sufficiently to fire on the enemy, while T/5 Grade Hall operated the trigger. Both soldiers stayed a.t their exposed post, pouring fire at the enemy, am were fa.tally wounded before other troops could co11e forward. But these two valiant soldiers had broken the enemy attack.

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    In bitter, strenuous fighting, by 15 January, the Japanese were bottled-up into three main pockets. The 27th ''Wolfhounds" Infantry Regiment fought them in the open. The 35th "Cacti" Infantry Regiment fought them in the thick jungles of Mt. Austen, while the l6lst Infantry Regiment was temporarily held in reserve. By 20 January, heavy rain, mud, and pa.rticula.rly poor visibility had limited. effective operations. However, on the following day, three light tanks started up a jeep trail toward Mt. Au sten's l,,514-foot crest. Two broke down, but the third reached the top. Supported. by 16 infantrymen, the tank drove into the northeast JS.rt of the Gi:f'u Line and destroyed 3 pill• boxes with high explosive 3?u shells and then shot the defenders with canister and ma.ch ine-gun fire. Turning south, the tank eliminated five aore pillboxes. The infantry then moved. forward before dark to occupy the gap. This lone tank, in a few hours, had torn a 200-yard hole in the Ja.:i:anese defenses which had withstood infantry assaults for a month~ The reduction of the Gifu Line cost the 25th 64 aen killed and ma.ny more wounded., while 518 Ja:pa.nese were slain. Meanwhile, in the overall cattle for Mt. Austen, the 35th Infantry Regiment wiped out allllost 1,100 of the enemy and captured. 29 prisoners. American losses were not light. During the final phase of the fighting on Guadalcana.l, 26 January-9 February l9ll,J, units of the 25th, in conjunction with eleMents of the Americal and 2nd Marine Divisions and the 147th Infantry Regiment, advanced northwest along and near the north coast from a point west of Kokwnbona. The 27th Infantry Regiment captured. the highest ground dominating the landing beaches between Kokumbona and Cape Espera.nce. The 27th also captured an enemy rad ar station, some trucks, landing craft, field artillery, am anti-aircraft guns, besides dis:i:atching over 400 Japa.nese. On 6 February, the 16lst Infantry :i:assed. through the understrength 147th Infantry Regi ment. After ,ma.king a. junction with the Americal Division, the 161st continued the pursuit toward Cape Esperance. The Ja:i:anese didn't resist as determinedly as usual, and eventually withdrew from Guadalcanal with only scattered stragglers left on the isl.and. Organized re sistance ended on 9 February 194'.3. And so, along with the caa:i:aign in Papua, southeast Hew Guinea., the 25th Infantry Division played an important role in winning this other of the two crucial ea.rly land 1:attles in the Pa.cific--Gua.da.le&nal. A period of garrison duty followed., ending on 21 July 194'.3. Then the 2.5th joined the 37th and 43rd Infantry Divisions and Marine Raider 1:attalions in the bitter, frustrating struggle for New Georgia, in the central Solomons. The 16lst Regiment was the first o:f the division to reach the eml:a.ttled. isl.and. So fierce was the opposition and so miserable the weather, it required nine days to fight its way to its line of depiLrture. By this time the 27th Infantry had arrived and, in an historic 19~y march through the jungle and nrud, sec ured the harbor of Bairoko along with Marine Raider elements. Soon after, the ;,5th Infantry fought a relatively light 1:attle on Vella. La.vella, 15 Aug ust-15 Septellber 194;. Other elements of the division cleared Arundel Island, 24 September, and Koloml:angara on 6 October. After all this fighting, the 25th was sent to New Zea.land far a well-earned rest. From there it went to New Caledonia, '.3 Febt-ua.ry-14 March 1944, where brought the division 1:ack up to full strength. After renewed training on New Caledonia, the Tropic Lightning entered the 1:attle on Luzon on 11 January 194.5-D-plus 2. Attacking between the 6th and 43rd Infantry Divisions, the 25th met the enemy at Binalona.n on the 17th, capturing this town and cutting Route 8. The Ja:i:anese counterattacked furiously, but the 25th held and then captured a tremendous aJ11111un ition dUllp. The 25th then fought a savage ,5-da.y 1:attle for San Manuel. The Jape had dug-in their ta.nlas up to the turrets and every building was a fortress. The 2.5th's brilliant assistant co11111&nder, Brigadier-General James L. Dalton, II, was killed in this 1::a.ttle. Advancing through the rice J:S,ddies, the 27th Infantry took Umingan in heavy fighting. A few, small, scattered trees afforded. the only shade in the vicinity, and the broiling troP ical sun was a real problem. On 2 February, the }5th Infantry pushed. on to Lupa.o meeting very fierce resistance. At Lupa.o, the 35th lost 95 men killed ar.d 270 wourded, rut in the overall 1:attle in the Central Luzon Pl.a.ins, the 25th, in conjunction with the 6th Infantry Division, destroyed a large :i:art of the Japa.nese 2nd Tank Division.

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    As some of the 6th Army units were heading south toward Ma.nil.a, the 25th pivoted at San Jose and advanced north into the Caraballo Mountains-and into some of the most bitter and drawn-out fighting of the war. The offensive was initiated, 21 February 1945, as the 25th drove up Highway 5 toward Ba.lete Pass. The 161st Infantry Regiment captured Bryant Hill, northwest of Puncan on 2.5 February, while the J.5th Infantry Regiment took Puncan, 2 March 1945, and opened the road as far as Digdig by .5 March. Continuing the attack, the division's 27th and 161st Infantry Regiments pushed forward along Highway 5, while the 35th Infantry moved up the Old Spanish Trail. All three regiments met determined opposition and strong counter attacks. On 15 March 1945, the 25th began attacking Norton's Knob, but the entrenched Japanese repulsed all attacks for the next ten days. Putlan fell on the 18th. Three high hills were then taken in fierce coaba. t -the 35th Inf an try took Fishhook Ridge, 2 April 1945, the 161st Infantry captured Crump Hill, 8-lJ April, and the 27th Infantry fought for Mt. Myoko, 9-19 April 194.5. The town of Kapintalan was finally entered on 19 April 1945, by the J,5th Infantry. The 25th next made a three-pronged drive on Balete Pass, and the 161st took Lone Tree Hill on 25 April. The 25th was reinforced by the 126th Infantry Regiment, ;2nd Infantry Division and the 148th Infantry Regiment, 37th Infantry Division. It then took a bloody battle at Kapintalan Ridge and the sealing of over 200 Japanese-held caves, before Bal ete Pass finally fell on lJ May 1945. As tough as the 'tattle for Balete Pass was, the 25th's final operation wasn't over until it seized the junction of Route 5 and the Villa Verde Trail, in co-operation with the ;2nd Infantry Division at Santa Fe. From 14-22 May 1945, operating in ma.inly heavily forested, rough terrain, the 27th Infantry Regiment battled to destroy fanatically resisting remnants of the Japanese 10th Division blocking the approaches to Sawmill Valley. After this was accomplished, the Americans cleared Kanami Ridge. Meanwhile, the 161st Infantry Regiment mopped-up on forested Mt. Haruna by 22 May 1945. Following this, the 25th conducted mopping-up act ions along Skyline Ridge, and maintained a block on the Old Spanish Trail. It relie~ed the J7th Infantry Division south of Aritao, 10 June 1945, and secured Highway 5. The 25th was relieved from combat by the J2nd Infantry Division on JO June 1945. During the lengthy battle from central Luzom to on up through Balete Pass to Santa Fe, the 25th slew several thousand Japanese, while losing 685 men. By the conclusion of the ba. ttle on Luzon, the 25th had established a record of 165 continuous days in combat. On 1 July 1945, the 25th moved to Tarlac, and then for occupa.tional duty in Japan on 20 September 194.5. The division was assigned to south-central Honshu with head.quarters in the large city of Osaka. The 25th was still occupying this area when the Korean War erupted in late-June 1950, and, soon after, entered that conflict. The Tropic Lightning Division-one of the best outfits to come out of the war in the Pacific. Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-6 Ca.sualties1 Distinguished Unit Citations-6 * Distinguished Service Crosses-72 Silver Stars--------622 * One to the entire )5th Infantry Regiment Guadalcanal Total Battle Deaths-1,508 Killed In Action---1,253 Wounded-------,190 Missintl!!---------5 Captured--------2 Total Casualties---5,450 Other 25th Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action * S/Sgt Raymond H. Cooley, 27th Inf Rgt, 24 February 1945, near Lumboy, Luzon Major Charles W. Davis, 12 January 1943, on Guadalcanal M/Sgt Charles L. McGaha, 35th Inf Rgt, 7 February 1945, near Lu:i;ao, Luzon T/4 Grade Laverne Parrish, * 161st Inf Rgt, 18-24 January 1945, Binalonan, Luzon The 25th Infantry Division saw extensive service in both the Korean and Vietnam Wars. As of this writing, the 25th is stationed at Schofield Barracks, on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. (26 June 1984)

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    1 WWII JANUARY 194 3 10 Jan 1111111111111111H 18 11 Jan 11111111111111111111 20 12 Jan 1111111111111111111111111 25 13 Jan 1111111111111114 approx. 14 Jan 111111111110 4cbnen 15 Jan 11111111111111115 17 Jan 111 18 Jan 11111111 8 19 Jan 111 20 Jan 1111 22 Jan 11 23 Jan 111 24 Jan 1111 25 Jan 1 27 Jan 1 lJl 25TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Tropic Lightning" FEBRUARY 1943 1 Feb 111 2 Feb 1 4 MARCH 194J 14 Mar 1 27 Mar 1 2 JULY 194) 16 July 11111 17 July 1 2) July 1 24 July 1 25 July 1111 26 July 111111111 9 27 July 1111111 July 1111 29 July 1 JO July 11 31 July 11111111 8 4J AUGUST 194) 1 Aug 11 2 Aug 111 3 Aug 111 4 Aug 111111111 9 5 Aug 111 6 Aug 1 7 Aug 11 8 Aug 1 9 Aug 111111 10 Aug 111 11 Aug 11 12 Aug 11 15 Aug 11111 16 Aug 11 18 Aug 1 21 Aug 1 46 SEPTEMBER 194J 4 Sept 11 10 Sept 11 11 Sept 11 12 Sept 1 14 Sept 1 15 Sept 1 18 Sept 111 19 Sept 1 20 Sept 1 29 Sept 11 16 OCTOBER 194) 11 Oct 1 1

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    2 WWII JANUARY 1945 17 Jan 111111111110 18 Jan 1111 19 Jan 11111111 8 20 Jan 1 21 Jan 1 24 Jan 111111111111111111111 21 25 Jan 111111 26 Jan 11111 27 Jan 11111111111111 14 28 Jan 111 29 Jan 111 JO Jan 1111111111111 Jl Jan 11 89 25TH -INFANTRY DIVISION "Tropic Lightning" FEBRUARY 1945 1 Feb 11111111 8 2 Feb 1111111111111114 J Feb 11111 4 Feb 11111111111111111111 20 5 Feb 111111111 9 6 Feb 1111111 7 Feb 11111111111112 8 Feb 11111111 8 9 Feb 1 10 Feb 1111 11 Feb 111 lJ Feb 1 16 Feb 11 17 Feb 111 19 Feb 111 21 Feb 1 2J Feb 1 24 Feb 111111111111111116 25 Feb 11 26 Feb 111 27 Feb 1 28 Feb 11 126 MARCH 1945 2 Mar 111111 4 Mar 1 5 Mar 11 6 Mar 111 7 Mar 11 8 Mar 111111 9 Mar 111111 10 Mar 1 11 Mar 1 12 Mar 11 lJ Mar 11111 15 Mar 111 16 Mar 1 18 Mar 111 19 Mar 1 20 Mar 1111 21 Mar 11111111 8 22 Mar 111111111 9 2J Mar 1111 24 Mar 1 25 Mar 1111 26 Mar 11111111 8 27 Mar 1111 28 Mar 111 29 Mar 1111 JO Mar 1111111 Jl Mar 11111111 8 107 APRIL 1945 1 Apr 11 2 A pr 1111111 J Apr 11 4 Apr 11111111 8 5 Apr 1111 6 Apr 11 7 Apr 11 8 Apr 111111111111 Ll 9 Apr 111111 10 Apr 111 11 Apr 111111111 9 12 A pr 1111111 lJ Apr 1111 14 Apr 111 15 Apr 1111 16 Apr 1 17 Apr 111 18 Apr 11 19 Apr 111111111110 20 A pr 111111 21 Apr 11111 22 Apr 1111 2J Apr 1 24 Apr 11 25 Apr 111111111110 26 Apr 11111111111 )1 27 A pr 1111111 28 Apr 1111 29 Apr 11111111 8 JO Apr 11 151

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    J WWII MAY 1945 1 May 11111111111111) 2 May 111 J May 1111 4 May 1111111 5 May 111111111110 6 May 111 7 May 11 8 May 1111 9 May 11111 10 May 1 11 May 1111 12 May 111111 15 May 111 16 May 11 17 May 11111111111112 18 May 111111 19 May 111111 20 May 11111 21 May 1111 22 May 111 2) May 1111 24 May 11 25 May 11 26 May 1 27 May 1 28 May 11 29 May 1 JO May 1111111 Jl May 1 124 25TH INFANTRY DIVISION'S 25TH INFANTRY DIVISION "Tropic Lightning" JUNE 1945 2 June 11 4 June 11 12 June 1 22 June 1 2) June 111 9 it-bloodiest day-------12 January 194) bloodiest month April 1945 2nd bloodiest day 24 January 1945 )rd bloodif'lst day 11 January 194); 4 February 1945 Total oo.ttle deaths 1,508 849 are listed=56.2% KIA-1,25)

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    PHILIPPINE DIVISION Activated-8 June 1921 in the Philippines Officially inactivated-3O April 1947 in the Philippines Battle Credits, World War II: Luzon Commanding Generals (During Com'l:at, WW II): Maj-Gen Jonathan M. Wainwright Brig-Gen Maxon S Lough November 1940-December 1941 December 1941--May 1942 Com'l:at Chronicle: The Philippine Infantry Division consisted of approximately 2/'Jrds American and l/3rd Filipino personnel. Units of the division were on security missions at Manila, Fort McKinley, and the Bataan Peninsula, prior to the declaration of war in the Pacific on 8 December 1941. After undergoing two days of bombings, the Philippine Division moved into the field to cover the withdrawal of troop;; into Bataan, and to resist the Japanese in the Subic Bay area. Positions were organized and strengthened and, while the 31st Infantry Reg iment moved to the region of Zig Z~ Pass, the rest of the di vision organized the main and reserve lines of defense on the Bataan Peninsula. From 10-12 January 1942, elements of the division repulsed Jap,.nese nignt attacks near Abucay. It was during this action that the Philippine Division had one of its 3 Medal of Honor winners, 2nd Lieutenant Alexander R. Nininger, Jr., .,57th Infantry Regiment, Philip pine Scouts, near A bucay, 12 Ja.nua.ry 1942. Although assigned to a comiany not then engaged in comtat, he voluntarily attached. him self to Comiany K of the same regiment, as this unit was being attacked by Japanese forces superior in firepower. There were enemy snipers in trees and foxholes, and hand-to-hand fighting soon followed.. Lt Nininger repea.tedly forced his way into the hostile positions. A Jap officer leaped at him with a. sword, but the lieutenant shot him a split second be fore the fatal blow would have fallen. Exposed to heavy enemy fire, he continued to attack with rifle and grenades, and succ eeded in destroying several Jap group;; in foxholes, as well as several snipers. Although wounded 3 times, he continued his attacks until he was killed, after pushing far alone in to the enemy positions. Lt Nininger's bravery was in keeping with the highest traditions of the u.s. armed forces. On 16 January, the Philippine Division counterattacked. However, strong offensive, as well as defensive action, was unable to prevent enemy penetrations. The division then withdrew to the reserve 'l:attle line in the Pilar-Bagac area, 26 Janua.ry. Until the latter p,.rt of March 1942, the Japa.nese, made cautious by heavy losses, engag ed in pa.trols and limited local attacks. They didn't start any serious activity a.gain un til 28 March. During this period, elements of the division were shifted to assist in the defense of other sectors. Had the Americans and Filipinos been able to carry on the tattle much longer, the Japa.n ese would :protably have been forced on to the defensive until they received reinforcements. As it was, the Ja:pa.nese attack on 28 March 1942, struck at a division weakened by ma.lnutrit

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    ion, sickness, and prolonged exposure to com'tat. The division, no longer able to operate a.s a co-ordinated unit, was unable to counterattack against the heavy JaPJ,nese assaults. On 8 April, the '.31st and ,57th Infantry Regiments were lost near the Al&ngan River, and the 45th Infantry Regiment surrendered on 10 April 1942. Some men escaped over to the isla.nd of Corregidor to continue the 'tattle for another month, but most of the division went into captivity. And so, the Philippine Division ceased to exist as an active combat unit. But-it had vastly upset the Japanese timetable by the heroic stand on Bataan, as well as helping the United States gain several precious aonths to build-up its forces for the coming 'tattles in the Pacific. The defenders of Bataan had hoped in vain for the help their country wa.s not yet able to send. They fought when no one could have blamed them for surrendering, and they were cited three times for their heroism. When they finally had to quit, those who were still alive suffered the tortures and ind~ities of the infamous Bataan Death March-78 miles from Mariveles to camp O'Donnell, under a blistering hot sun, and subjected to the savage and barbaric acts of a ruthless enemy. Many of the men never made the long march all the way. Weakened by various tropical illnesses such as malaria and dysentary, by the heat, exhaustion, and lack of sleep, not a few were shot, 'tayoneted, or clubbed to death along the roadsides on the wa.y to the camp. The victory over Japan ended the misery for those men still in Japanese prison camps. Some of the men of the Philippine Division who later made it back home, wore their shoulder patch with a special pride, rut with the pride of men who ha.ve been through all the worst horrors of war. Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-) Distinguished Unit Citations-1 * No other awards or a casualty listing is available for the Philippine Division. * To the entire division-Defense Of l3ataan Other Philippine Infantry Division Medal of Honor winners in World War IIs Killed in action* 1st Lt Willy C. Bianchi, * 4,5th Inf Rgt, J February 1942, l3ata.an Peninsula., Luzon Sgt Jose Calugas, 88th Field Artillery Bn, 16 January 1942, Ba.ta.an Peninsula, Luzon

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    1ST CAVALRY DIVISION Hell For Leather" Regular Army Activated-31 August 1921 at Ft. Bliss, Texas Battle Credits, World War II: Admiralty Islands Days In Comba.t-.521 Commanding Generals (During Comba. t, WW II): Maj-Gen Innis P. Swift Maj-Gen Verne D. Mudge Brig-Gen Hugh Hoffman Maj-Gen William C. Chase Leyte Luzon April 1941-August 1944 August 1944-February 194.5 February-July 194.5 July 1945-End of war Combat Chronicle: The 1st Cavalry Division, after pa.rticipa.ting in the Louisiana maneu vers (J different times), left the San Francisco port of embarkation on 26 June l94J. The 1st Cavalry (dismounted in.early-1942), arrived in Australia, in July 194-3, and, for months, slaved away at amphibious training and jungle fighting methods in Queensland. In February 1944, the 1st Cavalry Division moved to New Guinea, to stage for a landing in the Admiralty Islands, in the Bismarck Archipelago. A squadron of the 5th Cavalry Regiment landed on Los N egros Island, in the Admiral ties, on 29 February 1944. Despite intense Japanese opposition, the cavalrymen swept inland to seize Momote Airstrip within half a.n hour. Elements of the 7th Cavalry Regiment arr ived on 4 March 1944, a.nd fanatical Japanese attacks were thrown back. In one of these attacks the 1st Cavalry had a Medal of Honor winner on 4 March 1944. Sergeant Troy A. McGill, with an 8-man squad, occupied a revetment which was attacked by 200 drink-crazed Japanese. Being in an exposed position, he could receive little, if any, support, and all members of the squad were killed except Sgt McGill and one other man, whom he ordered to try to get to the rear. Courageously resolving to hold his posi tion, he fired his weapon until it ceased to function. Then, with the Japs only 5 yards away, he charged from his foxhole into the face of certain death, and clubbed the enemy with his rifle in hand-to-hand combat until he was killed. At dawn, 105 dead Japanese were found around his position! Sgt McGill's extraordinary courage was an inspiration to his fellow soldiers, and helped increase their determination in defeating a fanatical enemy. The 8th Cavalry Regiment assaulted Manus Island, on 15 March 1944, and overran Lugos Mission, as the 7th Cavalry also landed. After furious fighting, by 18 March, Lorengau and its airfield were captured, and the division mopped-up on both Los Negros and Manus, and seized other smaller nearby islands. The Admiralties were secured by 18 May 1944. Altogether, the 1st Cavalry slew J,JOO Japanese on these islands, while losing J26 men: The division then trained for operations in the Philippines.

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    The next battle for the 1st cavalry Division was when it took pu-t in the initial assault on Leyte, in the Philippines, 20 October 1944. The 1st cavalry landed in the right (northern flank) of the attack, and cleared San Jose, Tacloban Airfield, and the Ca ta.isan Peninsula. Meanwhile, the 8th ca. valry Regiment landed on southern Samar, and secured the San Juanico Strait, on 24 October 1944. On Leyte, the 1st cavalry battled some of the best units the Jap:i.nese had. After ta.king Taclooo'.n and heading inland, the troopers had to fight torrential downpours and gale velocity winds reaching up to 80 miles per hour. General Walter Krueger, command ing the U.S. 6th Army, described it as "the most brutal terrain and conditions American soldiers have ever been asked to stand." The soldiers sweated it out by day, and nearly froze at night. Food, ammunition, and medical supplies had to be brought in by air drop, native carriers, or by carabao p:i.ck. The men fought their way up trails knee-deep in mud, and waded neck-deep in jungle streams, while under continual artillery, mortar, and small-arms fire. There was also a good deal of hand-to-hand fighting with the Japs, and on more than one occasion, cooks, clerks, signalmen, and engineers were used in the front line. The 1st cavalry regrouped on 28 October 1944, as the 2nd cavalry Brigade assembled at Barugo, converged on ca.rigara, and contacted the 24th Infantry Division on 2 November 1944. On 15 November 1944, the 112th cavalry Regiment was attached to the division, and assumed responsibility for the ca.pocan-ca.rigara-Barugo area. The 1st cavalry cleared the Mount Badian-Hill 2348 region from 28 November-9 December 1944, and the 112th Cavalry Regiment battled at the ridge south of Limon, JO November10 December. The 7th cavalry then relieved the 112th, and finally took this ridge on 14 December. The 12th cavalry Regiment pushed into Lonoy, 19 December 1944, and seized Kananga., on the 21st. The 1st Cavalry attacked west toward the coast through swamps against scattered res istance on 23 December 1944, and Tibur was reached on the 28th. The 1st then fought pa.st Villaba to contact the 32nd Infantry Division on JO December 1944. The western coast of Leyte was reached on l January 1945. For every 1st Cavalry soldier killed on Leyte, the Japanese p:i.id with 24 of their own. The 1st Cavalry lost 20J men. Next came Luzon. The 1st cavalry landed at Lingayen Gulf, 27 January 194.5, and, spearheading the attack, fought its way to Manila, after a bitter night battle, by J February 194.5. There then followed an extremely tough and costly battle inside the city-the only major city battle in the Pacific. Following a fairly simple plan of assault, the 37th Infantry Division attacked south along the Manila waterfront, the 11th Airborne Division attacked from the south, and the 1st cavalry swung around to make its assault from the northeast and east. The Japanese were heavily outnumbered, but had no intention of giving up. On the con trary, their 16,000-ma.n force resisted fanatically, and American losses quickly mounted. The Gis came to the regretful conclusion that they would be unable to save very many of Manila's buildings, and still eliminate the Japanese. So restrictions were reluctantly lifted on artillery fire. Any stronghold that blocked the advance was pounded into a shambles. While churches and hos pi ta.ls were sp:i.red, the toll in other large structures and in civilian lives was high. Many of the Filipinos were slaughtered by the Japs, as they, themselves, were being annihilated. During the vicious fighting the cavalrymen liberated .some 4,000 civilian internees at Santo Tomas University. The 1st cavalry fought through fierce opposition in the northern and eastern suburbs of Manila. Manila Bay was reached on 12 February 194.5, as the raging battle continued. On 23 February 194.5, the 1st cavalry had its second Medal of Honor winner of the war, Pfc William J. Grabiarz, .5th cavalry Regiment, in Manila. As his unit advanced with tanks through a street in Manila, without warning, enemy machinegun and rifle fire from the Customs Building swept the street, striking down the troop commander and driving the men to take cover. Pfc Grabiarz suddenly ran from behind a tank to rescue his exposed commander, although he, himself, 1 was wounded. Finding it impossible to drag the wounded officer out of range

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    from the enemy fire, he deliberately used his own body as a shield to cover the officer, and, in so doing, was riddled by bullets before a tank could knock out the enemy posit ion. His commander survived. By his heroic self-sacrifice, Pfc Grabiarz had saved his commander's life, and set an inspiring example of bravery for his fellow soldiers. While large elements of the 1st Cavalry Division kept on fighting in Manila, a large portion of the division began an attack against the Japanese Shimbu Line in the hills northeast of Manila. However, this attack was checked on 25 February 1945. Meanwhile, the 5th Cavalry Regiment captured the Agriculture Building in Manila, on l March 1945. The city finally fell on J March 1945. This battle cost the 1st Cavalry, 11th Airborne, and J?th Infantry Divisions over 1,000 men killed in action or died of wounds, and a great many more wounded. The Japanese were all but annihilated. The 1st Cavalry began its drive against the Shimbu Line with four regiments abreast on 8 March 1945. After seizing and securing crossings over the Marikina River, and then securing the Tagaytay-Antipolo Line in exhausting combat, the division was relieved of this assignment on 12 March 1945, as the 6th and 4Jrd Infantry Divisions and 112th Cav alry Regiment continued the battle. The 1st Cavalry was then given rest and rehabilitat ion until late-March 1945. After this, the 1st Cavalry moved into southern Luzon. By 29 March 1945, the 8th Cav alry Regiment had taken Lip:i., and established contact with the 11th Airborne Division. The Batangas-Calamba supply road into Manila was then opened. The 1st Cavalry then turned east and the 7th Cavalry seized Alaminos on l April 1945, while the 12th Cavalry fought the battle for Imoc Hill, l-5 April. The 5th Cavalry Regi ment reached San Pablo, 2 April, and after heavy fighting took Mauban, on the east coast, on 10 April 1945. Contact was again made with the 11th Airborne Division at Lamon Bay, on the next day. The men of the 1st Cavalry next advanced into the Bicol Peninsula on 12 April 1945, a:nd the Japanese in this region were soon pocketed-in north of Mount Matasana Bundoc, by 16 April. Beginning on 17 April 1945, this area was gradually reduced. On 2 May, the 5th Cavalry Regiment probed Mount !sarong for the next two weeks. Eventually, the 1st Cavalry contacted, near Naga, the 158th Infantry Regiment which had landed on the eastern end of the Bicol Peninsula. Resistance in southern Luzon was officially declared ended on 1 July 1945. Luzon had cost the 1st Cavalry well over 600 men. The 1st Cavalry Division left Luzon on 25 August 1945, for occupational duty in Japan. It arrived in Yokohama, 2 September 1945, and entered Tokyo on 8 September, the first American division to enter the Japanese capital. The 1st Cavalry Division was still in Japa.n when the Ko:r:ean ~ar .erupted in late-June 1950, and, soon after, entered that war. Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-2 Distinguished Unit Citations-lo Distinguished Service C:rosses-14 Silver Stars--------542 Casualties, Total Battle Deaths-1,152 Killed In Action---887 Wounded------"+-,0)5 Missing--------9 Ca.ptured--------1 Total Casual ties 1 1 , 932 The 1st Cavalry Division later saw extensive service in both the Korean and Vietnam Wars, (Airmobile) in the latter conflict. As of this writing, the 1st Cavalry is stationed at Ft. Hood, Texas. (9 September 1990)

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    1 WWII MARCH 1944 1 Mar 11 2 Mar 11111 J Mar 111 4 Mar 1111111111111 lJ 5 Mar 11111 6 Mar 1 7 Mar 111111 8 Mar 111 9 Mar 1 10 Mar 111 11 Mar 111 12 Mar 111 lJ Mar 111111 14 Mar 111 15 Marl 16 Mar 111111111110 17 Mar 111111 18 Mar 1111111111111 20 Mar 111111 21 Mar 11111 22 Mar 11111111111112 2J Mar 1111 24 Mar 111 25 Mar 1111 26 Mar 1 27 Mar 111 28 Mar l 29 Mar l JO Mar 1111 Jl Mar 1 129 APRIL 1944 1 Apr l 10 Apr l 21 Apr 1 25 Apr 1 4 MAY 1944 10 May 1 22 May 1 2 1ST CAVALRY DIVISION "Hell For Leather" OCTOBER 1944 20 Oct 111 21 Oct 111111 22 Oct 11111 24 Oct 111 2.5 Oct l 27 Oct 1 28 Oct 11 29 Oct 11 Jl Oct 1 24 NOVEMBER 1944 1 Nov 11 J Nov 1 7 Nov 111 8 Nov 111 9 Nov 11 12 Nov 1111 lJ Nov 11 14 Nov 1 16 Nov 1 18 Nov l 19 Nov l 20 Nov 1 22 Nov 11111 28 Nov 1 29 Nov 1 JO Nov 1 JO DECEMBER 1944 1 Dec 11111 2 Dec 11 J Dec 11 .5 Dec 11 11 Dec 1 12 Dec 11 lJ Dec 111 14 Dec 111 15 Dec 1 16 Dec l 19 Dec 111111111110 20 Dec 1111 21 Dec 1111111 22 Dec 1 25 Dec 11 26 Dec 111111 29 Dec 11 JO Dec 1 Jl Dec 11 57

    PAGE 95

    2 WWII JANUARY 1945 1 Jan 1 4 Jan 1 6 Jan 1 16 Jan 1 17 Jan 1 28 Jan 1 JO Jan 1 7 1ST CAVALRY DIVISION "Hell For Leather" FEBRUARY 1945 1 Feb 11 2 Feb 11 J Feb 1111111111111 4 Feb 111 6 Feb 111 7 Feb 111 8 Feb 1 9 Feb 1111111 10 Feb 1111 11 Feb 1111111111111 lJ 12 Feb 1111 lJ Feb 111 14 Feb 1 1.5 Feb 1111111111111 16 Feb 111 17 Feb 11 18 Feb 111111 19 Feb 111111 20 Feb 111111111110 21 Feb 111111 22 Feb 1111 2J Feb 1111111 24 Feb 111111111110 2.5 Feb 11111111111112 26 Feb 1111111111111 27 Feb 111 28 Feb 11111 164 MARCH 1945 1 Mar 111111 2 Mar 1111111 J Mar 1 4 Mar 1 .5 Mar 111 6 Mar 111 7 Mar 1 8 Mar 111111111111111116* 9 Mar 11111111 8 approx. 10 Mar 11111111 8 J
    PAGE 96

    J WWII MAY 1945 7 May 11 8 May 1 9 May 1 12 May 1 14 May 1 16 May 1 18 May 11 20 May 1 22 May 1 2J May 111 26 May 1 27 May 1 28 May 11 JO May 1 19 1ST CAVALRY DIVISION'S 1ST CAVALRY DIVISION "Hell For Leather" JUNE 1945 2 June 1111 J June 1 6 June 1 8 June 111 11 June 11 15 June 1 16 June 11 21 June 1 2J June 1 28 June 1 17 *bloodiest da.y-------8 March 1945 bloodiest month February 1945 2nd bloodiest da.y March 1944; 11 February 1945 Jrd bloodiest da.y 22 March 1944; 25 February 1945 Total bl.ttle deaths 1,1.52 617 are listed=5J.5' KIA--887

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    l U .s. UNIT CASUALTIES-WORLD WAR II (In the order of the nWllber of total i:e.ttle deaths) UNIT TOTAL DEAD .!CIA WOUNDED TOTAL CASUALTm 3rd Infantry Dvn 5,634 4,922 18,766 25,977 4th Infantry Dvn 4,798 4,017 17,371 22,580 29th Infantry Dvn 4,736 3,870 15,;,H 20,603 9th Infantry Dvn 4,531 3,863 17,416 23,281-1st Marine Dvn 4,465 13,84-9 18,:314 1st Infantry Dvn 4,365 J,616 15,208 20,659 45th Infantry Dvn 4,276 J,714 14,.541 21,260 )6th Infantry Dvn 3,890 J,318 14,190 20,652 90th Infantry Dvn 3,868 3,270 14,386 19,128 ]4th Infantry Dvn 3,708 J,145 12,.545 17,680 30th Infantry Dvn J,.525 2,992 lJ,J76 18,435 8Jrd Infantry Dvn J,387 2,960 11,000 14,902 4th Marine Dvn J,317 13,006 16,JZJ 2nd Infantry Dvn 3,272 2,83J 12,000 16,812 80th Infantry Dvn 3,194 2,800 11,500 1.5,86.5 3.5th Infantry Dvn 2,936 2,476 11,.526 1.5,813 ,-79th Infantry Dvn 2,923 2,4.54 10,971 1.5,181 28th Infantry Dvn 2,873 2,316 9,609 16,762 8th Infantry Dvn 2,8~ 2,.513 10,057 13,967 2nd Marine Dvn 2,729 8,7.53 11,482 ,5th Infantry Dvn 2-,628 2,277 9,.549 12,797 88th Inf'antry Dvn 2,.529 2,282 9,225 13,095 )2nd Infantry Dvn 2,524 2,108 6,627 8,763 101st Airborne Dvn 2,500 2,188 6,800 10,162 7th Infantry Dvn 2,:,46 1,957 7,2.58 9,221 3rd Armored Dvn 2,302 2,~3 7,160 9,673 96th Infantry Dvn 2,166 1,596 7,281 8,94.5 26th Infa.ntr;yDvn 2,116 1,892 7,886 10,743 82nd Airborne Dvn 2,116 1,737 6,9.50 9,581 .5th Marine Dvn 2,113 6,4.50 8,563 27th Infantry Dvn 1,977 1,.54.5 .5,48.5 7,071 3rd Marine Dvn 1,932 6,744 8,676 ls t Armored Dvn 1,907 1,623 6,J00 8,6.57 77th Infantry Dvn 1,9~ 1,482 6,000 7 ,.5.59 85th Infantry Dvn 1,749 1,.572 6,314 8,78.5

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    2 UNIT TOl'AL DEAD XIA WOUNDED TOTAL CASUALTIES 78th Infantry Dvn l,655 l,432 6,lOJ 8,151 6th Marine Dvn 1,637 6,590 8,227 91st Infantry Dvn l,6JJ 1,456 6,748 8,800 4:,xd Infantry Dvn 1,514 l,21J 5,187 6,411 25th Infantry Dvn 1,508 l,25J 4,190 5,450 4th Armored Dvn l,48J 1,282 5,098 7,258 l~th Infantry Dvn 1,465 1,285 .5,200 6,818 2nd Armored Dvn 1,456 1,200 5,757 7,28J J7th Infantry Dvn 1,456 1,112 5,261 6,J78 84th Infantry Dvn 1,420 1,282 5,098 7,258 24th Infantry Dvn 1,441 1,209 5,321 6,:/+7 95th Infantry Dvn l,J74 l,2o6 4,94.5 6,.592 6th Armored Dvn 1,270 1,074 4,200 5,445 87th Infantry Dvn 1,269 1,124 4,:342 6,0~ Americal Dvn 1,2.59 1,075 J,J.50 4,442 7th Armored Dvn 1,222 994 4,000 6,084 1st Cavalry Dvn 1,152 887 4,0J.5 4,932 99th Infantry Dvn l,lJl 98J 4,177 6,:/+J 17th Airborne Dvn l,lJO 978 4,7~ 6,JJ2 6th Infantry Dvn 1,120 898 J,876 4,777 44th Infantry Dvn 1,101 940 4,209 5,557 94th Infantry Dvn 1,100 950 4,789 6,474 102nd. Infantry Dvn 1,012 888 J,668 4,878 41st Infantry Dvn 975 758 J.5~ 4,275 6:,xd Infantry Dvn 960 844 J,326 4,487 10th Armored Dvn 945 790 4,000 5,070 100th Infantry Dvn 944 847 J,5J9 5,002 10th Mountain Dvn 941 862 J,1J4 4,o62 75th Infantry Dvn 922 818 J,Jl4 4,325 5th Armored Dvn 840 665 2,842 J,570 70th Infantry Dvn 840 7.58 2,7lJ J,922 lOJrd Infantry Dvn 821 659 J,329 4,497 66th Infantry Dvn * 800 795 6J6 1,452 442nd Infantry Rgt 680 J8th Infantry Dvn 791 65J 2,814 J,472 76th Infantry Dvn 779 667 2,197 J,OJJ 9th Armored Dvn 741 607 2,J.50 J,952

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    UNIT TOTAL DEAD KIA WOUNDED TOTAL CASUALTIES 12th Armored Dvn 718 605 2,416 J,516 40th Infantry Dvn 718 587 2,407 2,994, 42nd Infantry Dvn 655 553 2,212 J,971 11th Air borne Dvn 631 516 1,926 2,453 11th Armored Dvn 628 .52'.3 2,394 2,968 92nd Infantry Dvn 610 5442,187 2,993 14th Armored Dvn 609 5441,955 2,729 81st Infantry Dvn .520 '.374 1,942 2,322 106th Infantry Dvn 513 444 1,278 8,419 .... JJrd Infantry Dvn 509 J88 2,024 2,418 1st Spec Serv Force 449 419 2,500 -)1st Infantry Dvn 418 342 1,392 1,733 69th Infantry Dvn J8LI, 341 1,146 1,506 8th Armored Dvn 35.5 299 1,375 l, '720 l,58th Infantry Rgt J40 290 1,097 1,390 89th In:f'a.ntry Dvn Jll 281 690 1,016 65th In:f'a.ntry Dvn 261 2JJ 927 1,230 97th In:f'a.ntry Dvn 21.5 188 721 979 7lst Infantry Dvn 169 150 64J 821 113th Cavalry Grp 161 1,54, 86th Infantry Dvn 161 1J6 618 785 473rd Infantry Rgt 160 4,50 3rd Ranger Bn 150 ls t Ranger Bn 140 4th Ranger Bn 140 lJth Armored Dvn 129 107 712 819 5th Ranger Bn 117 20th Armored Dvn ,54 46 134 186 9Jrd Infantry Dvn 50 4J lJJ 194 16th Armored Dvn 5 4 28 J2 No casualty figures a.re available for the following units: Philippine Inf Dvn 6th Ranger Bn 99th Infantry Bn 1st Marine Provl Bgde 6th Cavalry Grp 112th Cavalry Rgt 2nd Ranger Bn lJth Amd Grp 147th Infantry Rgt 2nd Ca. valry Grp 14th Cavalry Grp 474th Infantry Rgt Jrd Ca.va.lry Grp 15th Cavalry Grp 503rd Para.chute Rgt 4th Ca.va.lry Grp 22nd Marine Rgt 517th Para.chute Rgt Marine Raiders Merrill's Marauders Ma.rs Ta.sk Force 102nd. Cavalry Grp 106th Cavalry Grp

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    4 Notes on the casualty listing: 1 Some of the totals a.re ap:proximate figures. However, the total l:a.ttle death and. the XIA (killed in action) figures are quite accurate. An exception to this is the Ranger l:a.ttalions. All of those l:a.ttalions which a.re listed a.re approximate figures except for the 5th Ranger Battalion which is an exact figure. 2 * The 66th Infantry Division lost over 700 men in the English Channel in December 1944, due to enemy subaa.rine action. J The 106th Infantry Division had close to 7,000 men captured in the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944. 4 No killed in action figures a.re available for any of the Marine divisions only the total l:a.ttle death figures. 5 The total l:a.ttle death column includes those men who later died of wounds. 6 Captured and missing in action figures have been omitted primarily due to lack of a:i;a.ce. In the Pacific, as a rule, very few men surrendered to the Ja:i;a.nese. 7 Figures a.re also incomplete for the 1st Special Service Force and the Japa.nese American 442nd Infantry Regiment, the 47Jrd Infantry Regiment, and. the llJth Cavalry Group. The 47Jrd fought in Italy, and. the llJth fought in Europe. 8 The casualty figures for all of these units does not include any units or per sonnel which may have been temporarily attached to a given unit at any time.

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    U.S. BATTLE DF.ATHS IN WORID WAR II-INCLUDES AHMY, MARINE CORPS, AND NAVY France Germany Sicily and Italy BelgiUlll Tunisia Holland Luxembourg Algeria Morocco Austria Czechoslovakia Yugoslavia. Philippines Okinawa Iwo Jima Mariana Islands Solomon Islands New Guinea Palau Islands Gilbert Islands Burma Marshall Islands Aleutian Islands Admiralty Islands New Britain China ,52,844 42,915 25,95:3 10,418 ),05) 2,468 1,297 671 1:30 * 118 116 7 1:39,990 26,428 lJ,415 6,100 * 5,160 :3,625 2,774 2,715 1,715 729 708 457 329 :315 61 64,5:30 (Leyte, Luzon, Mindanao, Cebu, Samar, Negros, and othen (Also, includes Ie Shima, Tsugen Shima, and Kerama. Rettc Saipa.n, Tinian, and Guam) Guadalcanal, New Georgia, Bougainville, and others) Also, includes Biak, Wakde, Noemfoor, and Morotai) Peleliu, Angaur, and smaller islands) Tarawa and Makin) ! Eniwetok and Kwa.ja.lein) Attu and Kiska) Los Negros, Ma.nus, and Lorengau) GRAND TOTAL,----2()'.l.,,520 (In this listing) * Approximate figures

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    1 WORLD WAR II North Africa-cattle deaths listed in order for Morocco-Algeria: Nov-Dec 1942 1st And Dvn 9th Inf Dvn Jrd Inf Dvn )4th Inf Dvn 2nd Allri Dvn 1st Inf Dvn Listed Approx. Total 91 190 JJ 70 66 (exact figure) 19 45 7 20 unavailable Approx. total-290 ( not including the 1st Infantry Dvn) North Africa-cattle deaths listed in order for Tunisia: Jan-lJ May 194J 1st Inf Dvn 1st Amd Dvn 9th Inf Dvn )4th Inf Dvn 1st Ranger Bn Sicily-battle deaths Jrd Inf Dvn 45th Inf Dvn 1st Inf Dvn 82nd. Abn Dvn 9th Inf Dvn 2nd And Dvn Rangers 750 (approx. figure) 290 550 220 450 18J J80 unavailable Approx. total-2,lJ0 (not counting the 1st Ranger Bn) listed in order for Sicily: 10 July-17 Aug 194J ;81 (exact figure) J02 (exact figure) 264 (exact figure) 2o6 (exact figure) 6J lJ0 2J 60 unavailable Approx. total-l,J45 (not counting the Rangers) Italy-cattle deaths listed in order for Southern Italy (includes 1st Battle of Cassino) 9 Sept 194'.3-into February 1944 )6th Inf Dvn 692 1,400 )4th Inf Dvn 601 1,225 45th Inf Dvn 4~ 820 Jrd Inf Dvn 683 (exact figure) 82nd.A~Dvn ~5 1st And Dvn 61 110 1st Spec Srv Force unavailable Rangers unavailable Cassino: )4th Inf Dvn J6th Inf Dvn 610 J70 ( 142nd Rg Approx. total-980 Approx. total-4,410 (not counting the last 2 units)

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    2 Italy-b!l.ttle deaths listed in order for Anzio (includes both the beachhead and the breakout to Rome): 22 Jan--4 June 1944 Jrd Inf Dvn 4.5th Inf Dvn )4th Inf Dvn 1st Am Dvn J6th Inf Dvn 82nd. A bn Dvn 91st Inf Dvn lst Spec Srv Free Rangers Listed Approx. Total l,585 (exact figure) 661 l,JJO 252 520 260 500 104 220 68 1.50 (504th Pa.ra. Rgt, only) .5 12 unavailable unavailable Approx. total-4,J20 (not counting the la.st 2 units) Italy-l:attle deaths listed 91st Inf Dvn 270 88th Inf Dvn 2J7 )4th Inf Dvn 195 lst Am Dvn 1.56 J6th Inf Dvn 9J 92nd Inf Dvn 85th Inf Dvn J.5 in order for the Rome-Amo camp:i.ign: 54-5 490 41.5 JOO 200 104 (exact figure) 65 Approx. total-2,120 June-early-Sept 1944 Italy-b!l.ttle deaths listed in order for the Battle Through the Gothic Line and into the Northern Apennines (includes from about mid-Sept-through Oct 1944) 88th Inf Dvn 4J7 890 85th Inf Dvn 414 800 91st Inf Dvn J62 7JO J4th Inf Dvn 2,5J _520 1st Amd. Dvn 59 110 92nd Inf Dvn 80 (exact figure) Approx. tota.1-J,lJO Italy-l:attle deaths listed in order for the Final Allied Offensive In Northern Italy from out of the Apennines-into the Po Valley and to the Ali:s1 beginning mid-April-2 May 1945 10th Mtn Dvn 272 500 195 1.55 lJO 88th Inf Dvn 91 91st Inf Dvn 75 1st Amd. Dvn 73 92nd Inf Dvn )4th Inf Dvn 85th Inf Dvn 442nd Inf Rgt 47Jrd Inf Rgt 11.5 (exact figure) 40 90 18 J.5 una vaila. ble unavailable Approx. total-1,220 (not including the last 2 units)

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    l Europe-tattle deaths listed in order for the Battle of Normandy: 6 June 1944Listed Approx. Total mid-Aug 1944 29th Inf Dvn 1,301 2,700 4th Inf Dvn 1,216 2,500 Helping to repulse German 90th Inf Dvn l,~ 1,9.50 Counteroffensive at Mortain, Normand: 9th Inf Dvn f'A,7 1,700 7-14 August 1944: 2nd Inf Dvn 818 1,6.50 )0th Inf Dvn JOth Inf Dvn 80J 1,640 3.5.5 8Jrd Inf Dvn 810 1,.580 ).5th Inf Dvn 16,5 79th InJ Dvn .596 1,200 4th Inf Dvn 11.5 101s t A bn Dvn 400 8,50 )rd Amd Dvn 110 J,5th Inf Dvn 394 82.5 2nd Amd Dvn 9.5 )rd Alld Dvn 361 710 1st Inf Dvn unlmown 28th Inf Dvn 332 710 8th Inf Dvn 320 630 82nd Abn Dvn 2.50 .530 2nd Amd Dvn 197 42.5 .5th Inf Dvn 134 JOO 80th Inf Dvn 70 13.5 5th Alld Dvn 45 10.5 4th Amd Dvn 42 90 1st Inf Dvn unavailable Approx. total-20,230 (not counting the 1st Inf Dvn) Europe-tattle deaths 8th Inf Dvn 29th Inf Dvn 2nd Inf Dvn 83rd Inf Dvn 6th Alld Dvn 4th And Dvn listed in order for the Battle of Brittany: 411 790 J2.5 700 229 480 213 400 117 2.50 42 100 Approx. total-2,720 l Aug 1944mid-Sept 1944 Europe-tattle deaths listed in order for U.S. 1st Army Attack Into The Siegfried Line: Mid-Sept 1944 28th ln'f Dvn Jrd And Dvn 9th Inf Dvn 4th Inf Dvn ,5th Amd Dvn )0th Inf Dvn 2nd Amd Dvn 24.5 22.5 200 180 12.5 90 2.5 Approx. total-1,090

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    2 Europe-l:a.ttle deaths listed in order for the U.S. Jrd Army Offensive from Lor:ra.ine into the Saar, and U.S. 7th Army Offensive from southern Lorraine-into Alsace; co-ordinated together into one big massive offensive: beginning 8 Nov 1944well into Dec 1944 Listed Approx. Total 95th Inf Dvn 481 980 (Jrd Army) 26th Inf Dvn 412 IY,O !)Id Armyl 90th Inf Dvn JJl 64-0 Jrd Army 80th Inf Dvn :321 6J.5 Jrd Army J5th Inf Dvn 27? .575 (Jrd Armyl 79th Inf Dvn 257 515 ( 7th Army 44th Inf Dvn 225 465 ( 7th Army 100th Inf Dvn 219 420 Fth Army~ lOJrd Inf Dvn 189 J80 7th Army 87th Inf Dvn 169 Jl.5 (Jrd Army 4th Amd Dvn 144 JOO ( Jrd Army .5th Inf Dvn 1'.34 285 I )Id Army 6th Amd Dvn 108 22.5 Jrd Army 45th Inf Dvn 101 210 7th Army 10th Amd Dvn 87 18.5 !Jrd Army 14th Amd Dvn .5.5 100 7th Army 12th Amd. Dvn JJ 62 7th Army (exact figure) Approx. total-7,JJ.5 note: Some of the above units entered coml::at well after the offensive was under way. Europe-1::attle deaths. listed in order for Southern France: J6th Inf Dvn 128 270 Jrd Inf Dvn 45th Inf Dvn 1st Spec Srv Free .517th Para Rgt 220 (exact figure) 52 11.5 unavailable unavailable August 1944 Approx. total-60.5 (not incluiing the last 2 units) Italy-1::attle deaths listed in order for the Northern Apennines: November 1944-to the beginning of the U.S. 5th Army Offensive which began on 14 April 194.5. Also, this listing doesn't include the beginning of the 92nd Inf an try Dvn.' s at tack which commenced on .5 April 194.5. 10th Mtn Dvn 440 92nd Inf Dvn J62 ( exact figure) :,4th Inf Dvn 180 88th Inf Dvn 17.5 91st Inf Dvn lJO 85th Inf Dvn 90 1st Amd Dvn 55 Approx. total-l,4JO

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    2t Europe-'cattle deaths listed in order for the Battle In The Hurtgen Forest, extreme western Germany-Altogether, beginning in mid-Sept 1944 and lasting through most of Dec. 1944. The 9th Infantry Dvn wa.s the first American unit to fight in this forest. 4th Inf Dvn 9th Inf Dvn 28th Inf Dvn 8th Inf Dvn 83rd Inf Dvn 5th Allrl Dvn 1st Inf Dvn Listed Approx. Tota.1 391 815 351 710 2.52 550 264 500 2d-l390 120 255 una. vaila. ble Approx. tota.l-J,220 (not including the great 1st Infantry Dvn which, no doubt, lost a.t lea.st 400 men in this terrible forest) note: The 8th Infantry Dvn' s fighting in this forest overlaps with the autumn Assa.ult To The Roer River. Europe-'cattle deaths listed in order for U.S. Jrd Army divisions in Lorraine, northern France (along the line of the Moselle River). Much of the Battle of Metz is included in this time sequence which is from early September-7 November 1944: Approx. Tota.l 80th Inf Dvn 1,000 5th Inf Dvn 735 M 35th Inf Dvn 600 90th Inf Dvn JOO M 7th Amd Dvn 250 M 4th Amd Dvn 2JO 26th Inf Dvn 190 6th Amd Dvn; 145 10th Amd Dvn 10 Approx. tota.l-J,460 M-indica tes was in the Ba. ttle of Metz

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    2 J/4 Italy-1:attle deaths listed in order (approx. totals): Allied break through the Gustav Line, Italy: beginning 11 May 1944 85th Inf Dvn 510 88th Inf Dvn 220 Approx. total-7JO Europe Vosges Mountains, Jrd. Inf Dvn 79th Inf Dvn J6th Inf Dvn 45th Inf Dvn northeastern France: October 1944, only (approx. totals) unavailable J80 )20 JOO Approx. total-1000 (not including the 3rd Infantry Dvn) The Remagen Bridgehead, across the Rhine, Germany: Mid-March 1945 1st Inf Dvn unavailable 78th Inf Dvn JJS 9th Inf' Dvn 270 99th Inf Dvn 200 9th. Anrl Dvn 120 Approx. total-925 (not counting the 1st Infantry Dvn) The Scheldt Estuary, southwestern Holland.: Late-Oct-Early Nov 1944 l~th Inf Dvn 270 "Operation Market Garden"-Aird.rop Into Southern Holland.: 17 Sept-into Nov 1944 101st A bn Dvn 750 82nd A bn Dvn 460 Approx. total-1,210 note: The braak through the Gustav Line, Italy and the clearing of the Scheldt Estuary in south Holland were largely British operations. The Battle of Metz, Lorraine, France: beginning 7 Sept-late-Nov 1944 5th Inf Dvn 770 95th Inf Dvn J80 7th Amd Dvn 250 90th Inf Dvn 2JO Approx. total-l,6JO

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    Europe-cattle deaths listed in order for the Battle of the Bulge: 101st A bn Dvn 26th Inf Dvn 80th Inf Dvn JOth Inf Dvn 75th Inf Dvn 84th Inf Dvn 17th Abn Dvn 8Jrd Inf Dvn 28th Inf Dvn )5th Inf Dvn 99th Inf Dvn 5th Inf Dvn 106th Inf Dvn 90th Inf Dvn Jrd hmd Dvn 2nd Inf Dvn 87th Inf Dvn 6th Amd Dvn 82nd Abn Dvn 4th Inf Dvn 78th Inf Dvn 9th Amd Dvn 11th And Dvn 7th Amd. Dvn 4th Amd Dvn 10th Am Dvn 2nd And Dvn 9th Inf Dvn 5th And Dvn 1st Inf Dvn Listed Approx. Total 290 610 280 575 292 570 227 475 223 465 2'.32 455 218 450 234 450 187 440 198 4JO 219 425 172 400 189 400 2W 385 184360 175 J.50 170 '.320 142 Jl.5 145 )10 141 JOO 147 280 1)1 275 133 275 146 270 91 190 86 180 80 175 75 150 14 J.5 unavailable Approx. total-11,)15 (not counting the 1st Inf Dvn) 16 Dec 194428 Jan 1945 note: Several different cavalry groups (consisting of around J,000 men each) were also in the Battle of the Bulge, but no casualty figures a.re available for them, and, likewise, the 517th Para.chute Regiment.

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    4 Europe-cattle deaths listed in order for the :Battle Against the German Offensive In Northern Alsace, France: Throughout Ja.n 1945 45th Inf Dvn 70th Inf Dvn 79th Inf Dvn 42nd Inf Dvn 12th Aud Dvn 14th Aud Dvn J6th Inf Dvn 44th Inf Dvn 100th Inf Dvn lOJrd Inf Dvn 6Jrd Inf Dvn 9 5th Inf' Dvn Listed Approx. Total 147 145 145 140 102 115 85 73 70 69 )6 9 J15 JOO 290 290 245 22.5 18.5 170 1.50 140 8.5 25 Approx. tota.1-2,420 Europe-cattle deaths listed in order for the :Battle of the Colmar Pocket, ea.stern Alsace, northeastern France: 20 Jan-12 Feb 1945 Jrd Inf Dvn Jl7 (exact figure) 28th Inf Dvn 75 170 75th Inf Dvn 65 1.50 6Jrd Inf Dvn 51 11.5 (254th Rgt, only) 12th And Dvn 28 65 Approx. total-820 Europe-cattle deaths listed in order for U.S. 7th Army breakthrough the Siegf~ied Line mid-March 1945 J6th Inf Dvn lOJ 21.5 lOJrd Inf Dvn 80 160 45th Inf Dvn 57 120 42nd Inf Dvn .55 120 6Jrd Inf Dvn 46 10.5 65th Inf Dvn 4J 90 70th Inf Dvn 27 60 ~thAudDvn n 100th Inf Dvn 18 J.5 71st Inf Dvn .5 10 6th Anrl Dvn 4 10 )rd Inf Dvn unavailable Approx. tota.1-96.5 (not counting the Jrd Inf Dvn)

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    5 Europe-tattle deaths listed in order for the Assault to the Roer River: mid-November into Dec 1944 8th Inf Dvn 575 84th Inf Dvn 550 104th Inf Dvn ,520 29th Inf Dvn 500 102nd Inf Dvn 460 JOth Inf Dvn 225 2nd Amd Dvn 160 Jrd Amd Dvn 140 Approx. total-J,lJO Europe-battle deaths listed in order for the Assault Across the Roer-to the Rhine, beginning 2J Feb-into early-March 1945. U.S. 9th and pu-t of 1st Armies. 8th Inf Dvn J8 5 84th Inf Dvn 265 102nd Inf Dvn 255 104th Inf Dvn 2J.5 69th Inf Dvn 160 29th Inf Dvn 140 JOth Inf Dvn 140 8th Amd Dvn lJ.5 9th Amd Dvn 1J5 Jrd Amd Dvn lJO 2nd Amd Dvn 105 J5th Inf Dvn 95 8Jrd Inf Dvn 50 5th Amd Dvn JO 75th Inf Dvn JO 79th Inf Dvn 1.5 Approx. total-2,JlO Europe-battle deaths listed in order for the Battle of the Ruhr Pocket: late-March8th Inf Dvn J20 mid-April 1945 78th Inf Dvn 180 99th Inf Dvn l,50 971:.h Inf Dvn 140 75th Inf Dvn lJO Jrd Amd Dvn 120 9th Inf Dvn 105 7th Amd Dvn 100 lJth Amd Dvn 95 95th Inf Dvn 9.5 8th Amd Dvn 90 86th Inf Dvn 90 104th Inf Dvn 80 J5th Inf Dvn 60 82nd A 1:n Dvn .5.5 101st A 1:n Dvn 45 2nd Amd Dvn 40 79th Inf Dvn 40 5th Inf Dvn 25 94th Inf Dvn 25 29th Inf Dvn 15 8Jrd Inf Dvn 10 1st Inf Dvn unavailable Approx. total-2,015 (not counting the 1st Inf Dvn)

    PAGE 111

    6 Europe-1:attle deaths listed in order for the Eifel Ca.111.pi.ign, western Germany, by the U.S. Jrd Army: 29 Jan-12 March 194.5 76th Inf Dvn 4th Inf Dvn 80th Inf Dvn 87th Inf Dvn ,5th Inf Dvn 90th Inf Dvn 69th Inf Dvn 4th And Dvn 2nd Inf Dvn 6th And Dvn 11th Amd Dvn 10th Amd Dvn 28th Inf Dvn 17th Abn Dvn Listed 287 251 2J7 2:1.6 142 1J6 81 77 60 57 .56 44 20 12 A ppr ox. Total 560 500 460 390 320 2.50 170 (1st Army) 16.5 lJ0 (1st Army) 12.5 120 100 50 (1st Army) JO Approx. total-J,J90 Europe-1:a.ttle deaths listed in order for the Palatinate Ca.mpi.ign, western Germany, to the Rhine , by the U .s . Jrd Army: lJ-23 March 194 .5 26th Inf Dvn 67 14,5 80th Inf Dvn 7J 13.5 94th Inf Dvn 01lJ.5 90th Inf Dvn 01110 10th Amd Dvn 47 10,5 12thAmdDvn 4th Amel Dvn 26 60 11th Amd Dvn 19 4,5 .5th Inf Dvn 17 40 76th Inf Dvn 18 JS 89th Inf Dvn 17 37 ~th~fDvn 2 ,5 Approx. total-940

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    Europe-number of 't:attle deaths listed when and where the following units croesed the Rhine in Germany: March-April 1945 1st Inf Dvn unavailable 15-16 Mar 45 Remagen bridgehead, 1st Army 2nd Inf Dvn 20 23 Mar 45 mid-Rhineland, 1st Army 2nd Amd Dvn negligible 27 Mar 45 near Wesel, 9th Army 3rd Inf Dvn unavailable 26 Mar 45 Worms bridgehead, 7th Army 3rd Amd Dvn 2 23 Mar 45 near Cologne, 1st Army 4th Inf Dvn negligible 30 Mar 45 7th Army area 4th Amd Dvn 18 24 Mar 45 Worms bridgehead, 3rd Army 5th Inf Dvn 3 22 Mar 45 Oppenheim bridgehead, 3rd Army 5th Amel Dvn 5 30-31 Mar 45 at Wesel, 9th Army 6th Amd Dvn 5 25 Mar 45 at Oppenheim, 3rd Army 7th Amd Dvn negligible 25 Mar 45 1st Army area 8th Inf Dvn 16 29-30 Mar 45 near Cologne, 1st Army 8th Amd Dvn negligible 26 Mar 45 into the Ruhr, 9th Army 9th Inf Dvn 40 9 Mar 45 Remagen bridgehead, 1st Army 9th Amd. Dvn 8 7 Mar 45 Rema.gen bridgehead, 1st Army 10th Amd Dvn negligible 28 Mar 45 7th Army a.rea 11th Amd Dvn unknown late-Mar 4,5 at Oppenheim, )rd Army 12th Amd Dvn 3 27-28 Mar 45 at Worms, 7th Army 14th Amd Dvn 2 1 Apr 45 near Worms, 7th Army 26th Inf Dvn negligible 26 Mar 45 at Oppenheim, 3rd Army 29th Inf Dvn unknown unknown 9th Army area 3oth Inf Dvn 35 24 Mar 45 near BUderich, 9th Army ~---35th Inf Dvn 15 25-26 Mar 45 near Rheinberg, 9th Army 42nd Inf Dvn 3 31 Mar 45 7th Army area 44th Inf Dvn negligible 26-27 Mar 4,5 at Worms, 7th Army 45th Inf Dvn JO 26 Mar 45 near Worms, 7th Army 63:rd Inf Dvn negligible 28 Mar 45 at Neuschloss, 7th Army 65th Inf Dvn negligible 29-30 Mar 45 near Schwabenheim, 3rd Army 69th Inf Dvn negligible 26-28 Mar 45 1st Army area 71st Inf Dvn negligible JO Mar 45 at Oppenheim, 7th Army 75th Inf Dvn 6 24 and 30 Mar 45 into the Ruhr, 9th Army 76th Inf Dvn negligible 26-27 Mar 45 at Boppard, 3rd Army 78th Inf Dvn 16 8 Mar 45 Remagen bridgehead, 1st Army 79th Inf Dvn 40 24 Mar 45 near Rheinberg, 9th Army 8oth Inf Dvn JO 27-28 Mar 45 Oppenheim vicinity, J:rd Army 83:rd Inf Dvn negligible 29 Mar 45 south of Wesel, 9th Army 84th Inf Dvn negligible l Apr 45 9th Army a.rea 87th Inf Dvn 35 25 Mar 4.5 Bra.uca.ch-Boppa.:rd area, 3rd Army 89th Inf Dvn 110 26 Mar 45 Wellmich-Oberwesel region, Jrd Army 9oth Inf Dvn 35 24 Mar 45 near Mainz, 3rd Army 95th Inf Dvn unknown early-Apr 45 into the Ruhr, 9th Army 99th Inf Dvn 30 10-11 Mar 45 Rema.gen bridgehead, 1st Army lOoth Inf Dvn negligible 31 Mar 45 7th Army area 102nd Inf Dvn negligible J-4 Apr 45 at Wesel, 9th Army lO'+th Inf Dvn 3 21-22 Mar 45 at Honnef, 1st Army note: Any divisions not listed which were in Europe-they were either mopping-up, policing, or resting in areas behind the main line of advance at the time of these Rhine crossings. There are 520 lui1own approximate rattle deaths in this wor1cs":-The i7th .. Airborne Dvn airdropped a.cross the Rhine n;~ Wes~i; o--;-24, March 194 5, losing, al together, on that day, a.pproxima. tely 350 men~

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    6 J/4 Europe-cattle deaths listed in order for Across The Elbe-Into Mecklenburg, northern Germany: late-April-8 May 194.5 82nd A en Dvn 29 8th Inf Dvn 1.5 7th Amd Dvn 2 Approx. total 46 Europe-cattle deaths listed in order-Into Czechoslovakia., late-April-9 May 194.5 97th Inf Dvn .57 90th Inf Dvn J.5 ,5th Inf Dvn 12 26th Inf Dvn 9 89th Inf Dvn 9 16th Amd Dvn .5 87th Inf Dvn 2 9th Amd Dvn 2 Approx. total 131 Europe-cattle deaths listed in order-At,: and South Of The Danube, southern Germany, including (for some units) Austria: late-April-8 May 194.5 65th Inf Dvn 72 20th Amd Dvn 50 M 12th Amd Dvn 46 45th Inf Dvn 40 M 86th Inf Dvn 40 100th Inf Dvn 35 ( southern Wtirttemberg, somewhat north of the Danube) 6Jrd Inf Dvn J2 42nd Inf Dvn Jl M 11th Amd Dvn 28 99th Inf Dvn 27 44th Inf Dvn 24 13th Amd Dvn 20 lOJrd Inf Dvn 18 10th Amd Dvn 17 71st Inf Dvn 17 14th Amd Dvn 16 36th Inf Dvn 10 26th Inf Dvn 9 4th Inf Dvn 6 80th Inf Dvn 2 101st A en Dvn 2 Jrd Inf Dvn unavailable Approx. total _542 M Includes fighting in Munich, Germany

    PAGE 114

    % 7 Europe-'c:a.ttle deaths listed in order for April 1945: Germany and northern Italy Listed Approx. Total Listed Approx. Tota 10th Mtn Dvn 270 510 26th Inf Dvn 20 45 6Jrd Inf Dvn 194 410 101st Abn Dvn 19 45 8Jrd Inf Dvn 164 305 lOJrd Inf Dvn 21 42 8th Inf Dvn 164 JOO 79th Inf Dvn 20 40 Jrd Inf Dvn 250 5th Inf Dvn 14 40 Jrd Amd Dvn 123 225 85th Inf Dvn 18 JJ 100th Inf Dvn 122 225 J6th Inf Dvn 12 JO 9th Inf Dvn 109 225 94th Inf Dvn 10 25 97th Inf Dvn 102 200 lo6th Inf Dvn 9 20 4th Inf Dvn 95 200 28th Inf Dvn 6 20 12th Amd Dvn 92 200 70th Inf Dvn J 8 45th Inf Dvn 92 200 1st Inf Dvn unavailable -;l':! 69th Inf Dvn 94 195 Approx. total-8,485 (not 88th Inf Dvn 90 195 counting the 1st Inf Dvn) 78th Inf Dvn 100 185 99th Inf Dvn 95 180 10th Amd Dvn 86 180 In Brittany, France-April 1945 2nd Inf Dvn 80 170 66th Inf Dvn 12 (exact 80th Inf Dvn 86 16.5 figure) 91st Inf Dvn 80 16.5 10'4-th Inf Dvn 68 150 14th Amd Dvn 78 14.5 75th Inf Dvn 67 145 86th Inf Dvn 74 14.5 42nd. Inf Dvn 68 140 44th Inf Dvn 62 lJ.5 13th Amd Dvn 55 124 1st Amd Dvn 70 120 84th Inf Dvn 60 115 4th Amd Dvn .52 11.5 92nd Inf Dvn 11.5(exact figure) 89th Inf Dvn 52 110 )0th Inf Dvn 46 110 8th Amd Dvn 54 105 95th Inf Dvn 48 10.5 9th Amd Dvn 47 10.5 65th Inf Dvn 54 100 71st Inf Dvn 54 100 76th Inf Dvn 50 100 6th Amd Dvn 46 100 17th Abn Dvn 44 100 J4th Inf Dvn 4J 100 ,5th Amd Dvn 44 95 11th Amd Dvn 44 95 2nd Amd Dvn 41 95 7th Amd Dvn 55 90 87th Inf Dvn 4,5 80 90th Inf Dvn 42 80 82nd Abn Dvn J.5 80 102nd Inf Dvn 35 80 J.5th Inf Dvn 27 65 29th Inf Dvn 2J 5.5 (exact figure) 20th Amd Dvn 29 .52

    PAGE 115

    l WORlll WAR II Pacific-cattle deaths listed in order for all of the following units and campLigns: Guadalcanal: 7 Aug 1942-9 Feb 1943 Listed Approx. Total 1st Mar Dvn Americal Dvn 2nd Mar Dvn 642 (exact figure) 193 365 J42 (exact figure) 25th Inf Dvn Marine Raiders 147th Inf Rgt 11.5 230 unavailable unavailable Approx. total-1,580 (not inclu:ling the last 2 units) Papua, Southeast New Guinea: 32nd Inf Dvn 2.53 Nov 1942-2 Jan 1943 .530 Attu: May 1943 7th Inf Dvn 441 (exact figure) New Georgia: July-August 1943 43rd. Inf Dvn 171 550; 37th Inf Dvn 103 22.5 2.5th Inf Dvn 71 14.5 Marine Raiders unavailable Approx. total-920 1 (not incltriing the Marine Raiders) Makin: 20-23 Nov 1943 27th Inf Dvn Tarawa: 20-24 Nov 1943 2nd Mar Dvn 71 (exact figure) (165th Rgt, only) 1,000 (approx. figure) Bouga.inville: Nov 1943-Nov 1944 Americal Dvn 3rd Mar Dvn 37th Inf Dvn 93rd Inf Dvn Marine Raiders 151 27.5 253 89 200 13 25 unavailable (exact figure) Approx. total-7.5.5 (not incltriing the Marine Raiders) note : Only the Americal Dvn stayed on Bouga.inville until la te-1944.

    PAGE 116

    2 Pacific-battle deaths listed in order for all of the following units and ca.mi:aigns: New Britain: 26 Dec 194)-well into 1944 1st Mar Dvn +0th Inf Dvn Listed 5 Approx. Total JlO (exact figure) 15 Approx. total-J25 Kwajalein: Early-Feb 1944 4th Mar Dvn 7th Inf Dvn 65 190 (exact figure) 170 Approx. total-J60 Eniwetok: Mid-Feb 1944 27th Inf Dvn 40 100 ( 106th Rgt, only) 22nd Mar Rgt ur.available Admiralty Islands: March 1944 1st Ca.v Dvn )26 (exact figure) Bia.k: May-A~ 1944 41st Inf Dvn 192 400 24th Inf Dvn 22 40 ()4th Rgt, only) Approx. total-440 Northern New Guinea: April-Sept 1944 32nd Inf Dvn 6th Inf Dvn Jlst Inf Dvn 41st Inf Dvn 158th Inf Rgt 24th Inf Dvn 4Jrd Inf Dvn JJrd Inf Dvn 112th Ca.v Rgt 100 2JO 121 220 55 115 44 90 70 ( exad. figure) 4J (exact figure) lJ 35 2 5 unavailable Approx. total-710 (not incluiing the 112th Cavalry Rgt) Saii:e.n: 15 June-into A~ 1944 2nd Mar Dvn 1,200 (approx. figure) 4th Mar Dvn 1,107 (exact figure) 27th Inf Dvn 1,025 (approx. figure) Approx. total-J,JJ5

    PAGE 117

    J Pacific-c:a.ttle deaths listed in order for all of the following units and campa.igns: Listed Approx. Total Tinian: July-into Aug 1944 4th Mar Dvn 2nd Mar Dvn 214 (ex.a.ct figure) 185 (approx. figure) Approx. total-400 Guam.: July-Aug 1944 Jrd Mar Dvn 77th Inf Dvn ls t Mar Prov Bgd.e 619 (ex.a.ct figure) 248 (exact figure) unavailable Total-867 (not including the 1st Marine Provisional Brigade) Peleliu: Mid-Sept-Nov 1944 1st Mar Dvn 81st Inf Dvn 1,252 (exact figure) 208 ( exact figure) Total-1,460 Angaur: Mid-Sept-Oct 1944 81st Inf Dvn 265 (exact figure) Morotai: Mid-Sept-into Dec 1944 Jlst Inf Dvn J4 75 J3rd Inf Dvn 25 55 32nd Inf Dvn 2 5 Approx. total-1J5 Leyte: 20 Oct 1944-into Feb 1945 7th Inf Dvn 584 24th Inf Dvn ,544 96th Inf Dvn 532 77th Inf Dvn 2JJ 490 (exact figurel ( exact figure (exact. figure )2nd Inf Dvn 450 ( exact figure) 1st Cav Dvn 20J (exact figure) 11th Abn Dvn 200 (approx. figure) America.l Dvn 82 145 38th Inf Dvn 51 105 112th Cav Rgt unavailable Approx. total-J ,255 ( not including the 112th Cavalry Rgt or the 6th Ranger Battalion)

    PAGE 118

    4 Pacific-cattle deaths listed in order for all of the following units and campi.igns: Luzon: 9 January-mid-August 1945 25th Inf Dvn 4Jrd Inf Dvn 6th Inf Dvn )2nd Inf Dvn 37th In Dvn 1st Cav Dvn J8th Inf Dvn 11th Abn Dvn JJrd Inf Dvn 40th Inf Dvn 158th In Rgt 24th Inf Dvn 6th Ranger Bn 13th And Grp 112th Cav Rgt Listed Approx. Total .5J6 1,070 47J 970 494 930 407 900 411 850 368 710 336 675 225 430 199 420 188 390 24.5 (exact figure) 60 140 (J4th Rgt, only) unavailable una va.ila ble unavailable Approx. total-6,730 (not including the last J formations) Iwo Jima.: 19 February-end of March 1945 ,5th Mar Dvn 2,113 (exact figure) 4th Mar Dvn 1,800 (approx. figure) 3rd Mar Dvn 988 ( exact figure) 147th Inf Rgt unavailable Approx. total-4,900 (not including the 147th Infantry Rgt) Okinawa: l April-end 1st Mar Dvn 6th Mar Dvn 96th Inf Dvn 7th Inf Dvn 77th Inf Dvn 27th Inf Dvn 2nd Mar Dvn Corregidor (recapture): .50Jrd Para Rgt Other minor elements of June 1945 (all are exact figures) 2,2J4 1,637 1,.506 1,122 1,018 711 36 (8th Rgt, only) Total-8,261+ February 194.5 2.50 (approx. figure) unavailable Cebu: Late-March-April 1945 Americal Dvn 410 (exact figure) Ie Shima.: 16-29 April 194.5 nth Inf Dvn 230 (approx. figure)

    PAGE 119

    5 Pacific-l:attle deaths listed in order for all of the following units and camJBignB: Pa.nay: March 1945 Approx. Total 40th Inf Dvn 20 (exact figure) N.egros: April-June 194.5 40th Inf Dvn 325 .50Jrd Para Rgt unavailable Mindanao: 17 April-mid-August 1945 24th Inf Dvn ,500 Jlst Inf Dvn 220 41st Inf Dvn 110 93rd Inf Dvn .5 83.5 Approx. total Burma.: February 194,4-August 194.5 Merrill's Marauders and Mars Task Force 729 (exact figure) In the Ba.ttle-Myitkyina-Summer 1944 Merrill's Marauders 272