Citation
Summary histories

Material Information

Title:
Summary histories
Uniform Title:
Summary histories
Place of Publication:
St. Augustine, Fla.
Publisher:
State Arsenal, St. Francis Barracks
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
National Guard -- Florida ( lcsh )
St. Francis Barracks (Fla.) -- History ( lcsh )
History -- Saint Augustine (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Temporal Coverage:
Common Era ( 1516 - 3000 )
Spatial Coverage:
Florida

Notes

Funding:
The Florida National Guard's Special Archives Publications was digitized, in part by volunteers, in honor of Floridians serving both Floridians in disaster response and recovery here at home and the nation oversees.

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Florida National Guard
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Florida National Guard, St. Augustine Barracks
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the Florida National Guard. Digitized with permission.
Resource Identifier:
26728739 ( OCLC )

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Full Text



Digitized with the permission of the
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS

FLORIDA NATIONAL GUARD





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RIGHTS & RESTRICTIONS

Items collected here were originally published by the
Florida National Guard, many as part of its SPECIAL
ARCHIVES PUBLICATION series. Contact the Florida
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The Florida National Guard reserves all rights to
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DIGITIZATION

Titles from the SPECIAL ARCHIVES PUBLICATION series
were digitized by the University of Florida in
recognition of those serving in Florida's National
Guard, many of whom have given their lives in
defense of the State and the Nation.








FLORIDA



DEPARTMENT OF



MILITARY AFFAIRS














Special Archives Publication
Number
137


SUMMARY HISTORIES:
WORLD WAR II
INDEPENDENT REGIMENTS,
SPECIAL UNITS ARMY AIR CORPS,
MARINE CORPS DIVISIONS
State Arsenal
St. Francis Barracks
St. Augustine, Florida










STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS
OFFICE OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL




POST OFFICE BOX 1008
STATE ARSENAL, ST. AUGUSTINE
32085-1008






These Special Archives Publications are produced as a service to Florida communities,
historians and any other individuals, historical or geneaological societies and both national
and state governmental agencies which find the information contained therein of use or
value. They are automatically distributed to all official Florida State archival records
depositories.

At present, only a very limited number of copies of these publications are produced.
They are provided to certain state and national historical record depositories and other
public libraries and historical societies at no charge. Any copies remaining are given to
other interested parties on a first come, first served basis.

Information about the series is available from the Historical Services Division, Depart-
ment of Military Affairs, State Arsenal, PO Box 1008, St. Augustine, Florida 32085.



Robert Hawk
Director









INTRODUCTION


The information in all the Summary Unit Histories was compiled by Jack L. Picken of
Waterloo, Iowa. He is an amateur historian who has made the research and study of
American combat units in the wars of the twentieth century his life's work. These
summaries were sent to us as part of his contribution to the establishment of the Camp
Blanding Museum and Memorial Park of the Second World War.

Some of the material was extracted from the standard works on US units listed below.
But there is considerable information contained in these pages that is the result of dogged
research in original records, especially the detailed information concerning unit casualties
and decorations awarded. The statistics on day to day casualties Mr. Picken has
researched for most combat units is absolutely unique and available in this form in no other
source. (His statistics on casualties are more accurate than those available from normal
official sources!)

There are some gaps in the information available and some "fine tuning" yet to be
accomplished but eventually we hope to put this material on a computer and publish it in
a more complete and professional manner. Until then these photocopied compilations will
meet the immediate needs of all those interested in the incredible history of America's
soldiers, airmen and marines during the Second World War.



Robert Hawk
Department of Military
Affairs
St. Augustine, Florida
1991



RESOURCES

Army Almanac (1950)
Committee on Veterans Affairs; Medal of Honor Recipients 1863-1978
Fighting Divisions; Kahn, Ely J. and McLemore, Henry
Library, US Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania
University of Iowa; Army Divisional Combat Narratives, World War II (Archives)
Other public and private standard informational sources and institutions were con-
sulted as necessary



















503RD PARACHUTE REIMENT "The Rock"

Activated-2 March 1942 at Fort Benning, Georgia

Inactivated--24 December 1945

Reactivated-2 March 1951 ----

Battle Credits, World War II: Eastern New Guinea Mindoro Corregidor Negros

Commanding Officers (During Combat, WW II):
Colonel Kenneth H. Kinsler Early-1943-Mid-1943
Colonel George M. Jones Mid-1943-Inactivation

Combat Chronicles The 503rd Parachute Regiment was one of a number of separate regiments
which fought in World War II. That is, it was an independent unit and did not belong to
any division, as did the majority of other regiments in the war.
After intensive training at Fort Benning, Georgia, the 503rd arrived in Australia on
2 December 1942.
After more training, the 503rd drew its first combat mission. It jumped into the beaut-
iful Markham Valley in eastern New Guinea from 400 feet out of 81 C-4Ts onto the Nadzab Air-
strip, 10:20 A.M., 5 September 1943. The Japanese were caught completely by surprise. The
1st Battalion seized the airstrip, and the 2nd and 3rd Battalions approached east and west
of the field where they made contact with the 9th Australian Division by late-afternoon.
By seizure of the Markham and Ramu Valleys, a direct approach to the northern region of New
Guinea was opened. Practically all of the subsequent fighting in eastern New Guinea was
done by Australian troops. The 503rd was withdrawn from the area on 17 September. The unit
casualties totaled 3 men killed in the jump, 8 more by enemy action, 12 men wounded, and 33
injured during the jump.
The next scheduled jump was to be at Cape Gloucester, New Britain, but it was cancelled
due to unfavorable terrain and weather conditions.
The next actions for the 503rd were at Hollikang, Dutch New Guinea, and on the island of
Noemfoor, just off of the northern New Guinea coast.
Colonel George M. Jones, now commanding, led the jump on Kamiri Airdrome, Noemfoor, to
reinforce the 158th Infantry Regiment. This jump occurred on 3 July 1944. Due to the small
area of the drop zone and the clutter of wrecked Japanese planes off the runway, the 503rd
suffered an unusually high rate of jump casualties on 3-4 July. Colonel Jones decided to
bring in the one remaining battalion by boat.
The island was divided into two parts for the operation, and the 503rd was assigned the
southern zone, where it slew over 1,000 Japanese. It was on 23 July 1944, that the 503rd
had a Medal of Honor winner, Sergeant Ray E. Eubanks, Company D.
Sgt Eubanks singlehandedly charged an enemy machine-gun position with his Browning Auto-
matic Rifle (BAR). When his weapon was rendered useless by a Jap bullet, he continued to
charge, using his rifle as a club. Before he was overcome and killed, he had slain 19 Japs.
Next, on 15 December 1944, the 503rd Parachute Regiment, along with the 19th Infantry
Regiment, 24th Infantry Division, made an amphibious landing on the island of Mindoro, in
the western Philippines. This was a relatively easy operation, since there were not a large








number of Japanese on Mindoro, casualties were very light, and by 31 January 1945, control
of the island was turned over to Filipino guerrilla farces. However, the next operation
was anything but easy. It was, by far, the toughest tattle for the 503rd of the war.
On 16 February 1945, the 503rd made an airdrop on Corregidor to recapture "The Rock"
from the fanatical Japanese. The 2nd and 3rd Battalions dropped with about 14 per cent
casualties, and it was decided to bring in the rest of the troopers by boat. At about the
same time, the 34th Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division and the 151st Infantry Regin-
ent, 38th Infantry Division also made amphibious landings on the island to help recapture it.
Corregidor is a tadpole-shaped island and was heavily fortified by some 5,000 Japanese
troops, mostly naval personnel. Corregidor was severely pounded by naval and air bombard-
ments prior to the landings, but this did little good since the Japanese remained underground
during the worst of these bombardments.
The Japanese were initially surprised by the assault, but they quickly recovered and pour-
ed out of their caves and tunnels to give a hot reception to the invaders. However, Captain
Itagaki, the Japanese commander, was killed at his observation post. Leaderless, the Japan-
ese were no longer capable of co-ordinated offensive or defensive efforts. Each group fought
on from isolated and widely separated strongpoints. Nevertheless, the Japanese fought to
the bitter end--as usual. -.--
The island was quickly split in two. Between 16-19 February 1945, the 503rd had another
Medal of Honor winner, Private Lloyd G. McCarter, in a very gallant series of actions.
Shortly after the initial parachute assault, he crossed 30 yards of open terrain under
intense enemy fire and, at point-blank range, silenced a machine-gun with hand grenades.
On the afternoon of 18 February, he shot six snipers. That evening, when a large Japan-
ese force attempted to bypass his company, Pvt McCarter moved to an exposed area and opened
fire. The Japanese repeatedly attacked his position throughout the night and each time were
repulsed. By 2 A.M., all the men about him had been wounded. Shouting encouragement to his
buddies and defiance at the enemy, he continued to bear the brunt of the attack, exposing
himself to locate enemy soldiers and then pouring heavy fire upon them. When his subach-
inegun would no longer operate, he seized an automatic rifle and continued to inflict heavy
casualties. In turn, this weapon became too hot to use, so he then began firing with an
MI rifle.
At dawn, the Japanese attacked with renewed intensity. Completely exposing himself to
locate the most dangerous enemy positions, he was seriously wounded. But, although Pvt
McCarter had already killed at least 30 Japanese, he refused to be evacuated until be had
pointed out immediate objectives for attack.
Through his sustained and outstanding heroism in the face of grave and obvious danger,
Pvt McCarter made outstanding contributions to the success of his company and to the recap-
ture of Corregidor.
The Americans attacked with tanks, bazookas, and flamethrowers and, one by one, gradually
wiped out or sealed-off the Japanese. Often, in desperation, the Japs blew up their own
underground defenses, killing themselves and, frequently, some of the Americans with them.
On the night of 23 February, they set-off a huge explosion in a tunnel housing their main
ammunition stores, shaking the entire island and sending reverberations echoing along the
whole of Manila harbor. By the evening of the 26th, almost all of Corregidar was in Ameri-
can hands, and two days later it was declared secured. U.S. casualties came to almost 1,000
men with an unusually large portion of them wounded. 5,000 Japanese were killed, with only
19 being taken prisoner.
After this bitter battle, the 503rd rested.
Then, in the spring of 1945, the paratroopers landed by sea to help out the 40th Infantry
Division which was fighting a hard tattle on the northern part of Negros. Operations were
hampered by rainy, foggy weather as the 503rd, along with two regiments of the 40th Division
attacked the main line of Japanese defenses on 9 April 1945. The remaining Japanese soon
retreated further into the rugged, mountainous, jungled interior.
After the main battle, the 503rd occupied northwestern Negros, with one unit helping the
164th Infantry Regiment, Americal Division hunt remaining Japanese down in southern Negros.
With the aid of Filipino guerrilla forces, mopping-up operations continued on into the sum-
mer of 1945.








During its time in combat in the Pacific, the 503rd accounted for some 10,000 Japanese.
The 503rd Parachute Regiment was inactivated on 24 December 1945, at Camp Anza, Arling-
ton, California.

Honors, Congressional Medals of Honor--2 Casualtiess No official casualties
Distinguished Unit Citations--1 are available.
Distinguished Service Crosses--8
Silver Stars 75

* One to the entire regient--Corregidor





















517TH PARACHUI REBINMKT "Attack"

Army of the United States

Activated--15 March 1943 ---

Incorporated into the 13th Airborne Division on 1 March 1945

Battle Credits, World War II: Central Italy Southern France Ardennes Rhineland

Commanding Officer (During Combat, WW II):
Colonel Rupert D. Graves

Combat Chronicle: The 517th Parachute Regiment, an independent unit throughout most of
World War II, was activated at Camp Toccoa, Georgia, on 15 March 1943.
The tough men of the 517th gave little thought to the forthcoming days ahead that Fate
had brewing for them, as their troopship churned its way through the cold waters of the
Atlantic. The situation was alleviated a great deal by movies, jive-sessions, stage shows
-and the fact that there were also three detachments of WACs aboard ship.
In its first action, which was in west-central Italy north of Rome, the 517th was att-
ached to the veteran 36th "Texas" Infantry Division, and went into position south of Gross-
eto on a clear Sunday morning, 18 June 1944.
The 1st and 2nd Battalions moved around on the right flank and forced the Germans to
withdraw. They cut a path of destruction through the enemy positions, testified by twisted,
gray-clad forms sprawled in unnatural positions and by the stunned group of battle-dazed
prisoners.
Giving the "Tedeschi" no time to recover, the 517th pushed on. In rapid succession the
paratroopers hurled a series of knife-like thrusts into the retreating horde of Germans,
dislodging them from hillocks and mountain-top villages. Montarsio and Montepescali were
taken against disorganized rearguard actions, and then Stieciano. The paratroopers were
welcomed joyously by the populace and given fresh bread, cheeses, and wine. The night of
20 June was spent consolidating against possible counterattacks.
On the morning of the 24th, the 517th met stiff opposition at Follonica, Overcoming
this, the regiment pushed on to take the dominating high ground.
The 3rd Battalion then left the outskirts of Gavarrano before dusk on an historic march
that took them through enemy lines under the cover of darkness. Using mules and carts,
the men piled equipment on them, and anything that rattled was strapped down or discarded.
On both sides of the road the Germans slept in wheatfields, unaware of who was slipping by.
Around mid-day, under a terrific artillery and mortar barrage, intermingled by sporadic
bursts from small-arms, the troopers attacked up the slopes of Monte Peloso. By dusk, the
1st Battalion occupied the hill after battling for every contour mark on the mountain. All
positions were held despite desperate German attempts to dislodge the paratroops by artill-
ery fire, until the famous 442nd Infantry Regiment composed of Japanese-Americans relieved
them on 26 June 1944.
The 517th was then pulled back to around Frascati in preparation for an airdrop on
southern Frtnce.









In admiration of their fighting ability "Axis Sally" had this to say about the 517th.
"You men of the 517 are much better than we anticipated. But you are foolhardy...you will
lose many men."
On our side of the fence, the commanding general of the 36th Infantry Division commended
the 517th for its part in inflicting on the Wehraacht one of the worst defeats in its
history.
At about 4030 A.M., 15 August 1944, the dark sky over southern France became filled with
the paratroopers of the 517th. Some were scattered as far as 25 miles from their object-
ives. German convoys were attacked, communication lines severed, and towns and villages
occupied and vacated as assembling troopers merged toward the focal point of battle. The
men were widely scattered over the landscape, and town names such as Le Muy, La Motte,
Les Arcs, and Dragnignan would long be remembered.
The 1st Battalion made a gallant stand at Lea Arcs against overwhelming odds. The 2nd
Battalion pushed through to reinforce them and establish a battle line. The Germans began
massing for an attack, when the 3rd Battalion arrived on the scene and launched a co-ordin-
ated attack through the hills and vineyards. Once the 517th was intact, the Germans gave
up hope of reaching their own coastal defenses to help repel the landings.
The storming of St. Cesaile-on 22 August by two companies of the regiment was legend.
They surged up mountainous slopes under murderous fire and took the town, receiving a
commendation.
The next 2 weeks found German citadels falling in rapid succession--St. Yallier, Grasse,
Bouyon, and La Rocquette.
On 9 September 1944, elements of the 517th jumped-off to make a bid for Col De Braus, an
advantageous little stepping stone to the forbidden Sospel Valley, near the Italian border.
At 1100 hours the little cluster of naked shambles shook with battle violence. On the
night of the same day, the remnants of one platoon staggered back in silent testimony of
the Germans* determination to maintain this Alpine stronghold on French soil. However, on
the next day more infantry from the regiment occupied Col de Braus after a terrific 4-hour
artillery barrage by the regiment's 460th Artillery Battalion.
18 September was a red letter day in the history of the "Champagne Campaign." With the
artillery pieces of the 460th dug-in on the heights above the infantry, the 2nd and 3rd
Battalions charged out from under a curtain of withering support to seine Mont Ventebren
and Tete de Lavina. The paratroops apprehended an entire company of goosesteppers, togeth-
er with scores of German dead sprawled out in the sun or crumpled in their bunker havens.
September 1944, died-out with attacks on Hill 1098 and with the relentless roar of the
75mm guns echoing through the deep chasms of the Maritime Alps. Batteries of German 170mn
field guns chewed away at the thinning ranks of the 517th, while everybody counted the days
until the next passes to Nice, on the Riviera. Patrols felt out the defenses of Fort Bar-
bounet and Soepel, and found both suddenly deserted by the Germant.
Southern France may have been called the "Champagne Campaign but there was no semblance
of gaiety in those long, weary forced marches over the jagged trails of the Maritime Alps
carrying backbreaking loads and pursuing the enemy. Nor was there any for the silent forms
of American paratroopers that lay scattered in the hills and along the roads of southern
France.
After many weeks of comparative paradise along the Riviera, the survivors in the 517th
were suddenly entrained for northern France, thence into Belgium. The Germans had made a
major breakthrough in the American lines in eastern Belgium, and had to be stopped. It
was mid-December 194-the time of the Battle of the Bulge in the Ardennes.
The 1st Battalion was sent to the 3rd Armored Division sector near Soy-Hotton, Belgium,
where the German armor had been jabbing fiercely for several days. Not only did the 1st
Battalion soon bear the brunt of these attacks, it slowly forced the Germans around in the
opposite direction. And on 23-24 December 1944, the 517th had a Medal of Honor winner,
Pfc Melvin E. Biddle, Company B, let Battalion.
He killed 3 snipers with unerring marksmanship and advanced 200 yards to dispatch a
machine-gun crew. After signaling his company to advance, and shooting 3 more enemy sold-
iers, he crawled to within 20 yards of another machine-gun nest and tossed his last grenade
into it and destroying it.








At daybreak, Pfc Biddle again led an advance toward an enemy machine-gun nest and, from
50 yards away, killed the crew and two supporting riflemen. The remainder of the enemy,
finding themselves without automatic weapons support, fled in panic.
Pfc Biddle's courage and superb daring enabled his battalion to break the German grasp
in the Soy-Hotton area with a minimum of casualties.
The 1st Battalion won the Distinguished Unit Citation for its action in this area, and
was highly praised by Major-General Maurice Rose, commanding the 3rd Armored Division.
Christmas Day broke clear and cold. Dogfights, screens of flak, and "buss bombs" aff-
orded the groundfighters of the 517th a front row center at "the biggest show on earth."
Low-flying Messerschmitt 109s gave machine-gunners and the artillery their first crack at
enemy planes.
On 26 December 1944, the 517th was ordered to take Manhay at any cost. At 0205 hours
(2,05 A.M.) on the 27th, Manhay reeled under a terrific barrage from 15 supporting artill-
ery battalions. At 2:30 A.M. the 517th charged across the snowblanketed approaches to
Manhay and entered the town. The Germans counterattacked with tanks, many of them captured
American Shermans. This attack was smashed, and POWs asserted that they had been stunned
by the violence and speed of the 517th's attack.
On 3 January 1945, the 51 h again struck the Germans in conjunction with the 82nd Air-
borne Division. In less than three days it overran two villages, although snow, cold, and
enemy fire made conditions almost unbearable. 500 German volksgrenadiers were captured.
The 517th was again praised, this time by the commander of the 7th Armored Division, Major-
General Robert W. Hasbrouck.
By 13 January, the 3rd Battalion, attached to the 75th Infantry Division, swept for 5
kilometers (about 3 miles) against determined enemy mortar and small-arms fire, while the
2nd Battalion plunged into the German defenses at St. Vith. The Germans were staggered
from their last foothold in the Bulge salient. The huge battle officially was over on
28 January 1945.
The 517th then billeted down for a rather brief rest at Stavelot.
The regiment was next attached to the 78th Infantry Division somewhat further to the
north. Dawn of 6 February 1945, broke over the mudfields west of the Roer River, where
Hitler's crack 1st Parachute Army had devoted 6 weeks of preparations against US attacks.
By twilight of the second day, the battle for the east bank had reached a violent pitch.
Along with the 78th Division, the 517th was fighting some 6,000 men of the well-led and
well-dug-in 272nd Volksgrenadier Division. Pinched-in by thousands of mines, engineers
and infantry hammered away at the pillboxes and other emplacements all up and down the
Roer. All during the battle for the east shore, the 517th fulfilled its slogan "Attack."
The regiment attacked on 6 February in direct assault on some pillboxes. It attacked a-
gain on the 7th, three hours after being repulsed. It was still attacking when the 508th
Parachute Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division came up to reinforce it on 8 February.
The 517th was then sent to Joigny, France, for a well-earned rest and rehabilitation.
On 1 March 1945, the 517th Parachute Regiment was made a part of the 13th Airborne Div-
ision. As part of this unit, the 517th was made ready to make several jumps inside Germ-
any, but each time friendly troops had already overrun the proposed drop areas.
Following V-E Day, 8 May 1945, the 517th, along with the rest of the 13th Airborne, was
stationed at Vitry-le-Franqois, France, some distance east of Paris. The 13th Airborne
had been scheduled for redeployment to the Pacific, but this move proved unnecessary, and
its men began arriving back in the United States on 24 August 1945.

Honors Congressional Medals of Honor--- Casualties:
Distinguished Unit Citations--i



No other awards or casualty figures are available.










24TH INFANTRY REGIMENT "Blockhousers"

(No shoulder patch authorized)

Originally-Part of the Infantry School Brigade at Ft. Benning, Georgia

Inactivated-October 1951 in Korea

Battle Credits, World War II: Bougainville Saipan Tinian Kerama Retto

Commanding Officer (During Combat, WW II):
Colonel Julian G. Hearne

Combat Chronicle: The 24th Infantry Regiment was alerted for overseas duty in April 1942.
The regiment was understrength and received replacements from the 367th Infantry, another
separate regiment, prior to dearture. The 24th arrived at Efate, New Hebrides, May 1942.
The 24th Infantry didn't reach Guadalcanal until the mopping-up stage of the campaign.
The 2nd Battalion got there in March 1943, and the rest of the unit arrived in August. The
3rd Battalion was then sent on to Munda, New Georgia, several months later.
In February 1944, the 1st Battalion was attached to the 37th Infantry Division on Boug-
ainville, in the northern Solomons, for combat seasoning. The battalion engaged in patrol
action against the Japanese while with the 37th, and later with the Americal Division. As
of 10 May 1944, the 1st Battalion had suffered 11 men killed in action, 2 who died of their
wounds, and 13 more wounded. It killed an estimated 47 Japanese and captured one prisoner.
On 25 June, the unit was transferred to the Russell Islands.
In December 1944, the 24th Infantry Regiment moved to Saipan and Tinian, in the Marianas,
for garrison duty. Although the 2nd and 4th Marine and 27th Infantry Divisions had fought
a terrific battle on these islands and they had been declared secured, their jungles and
caves were still infested with Japanese, and it was the 24th's task to clear the islands of
all those who hadn't surrendered. By the time the 24th left Saipan and Tinian in July 1945,
it had killed or captured 722 Japanese at the cost of just 12 men killed and 20 wounded.
In July 1945, the 24th moved on to Kerama Retto, a small group of islands west of Okin-
awa, to continue mopping-up remnants of enemy forces there. Early in August 1945, the Jap-
anese on these islands capitulated, and on the 22nd, Colonel Hearne, with representative
officers and enlisted men, accepted on Aka Island the first formal surrender of a Japanese
army garrison,

No awards or a complete casualty listing is available.

From July 1950-October 1951, the 24th Infantry Regiment served in the Korean War
as part of the 25th Infantry Division.








-`-v 7









99TH INFANTRY BATTALION

Activated-10 July 1942

Battle Credits, World War II: Normandy Northern France-Belgium Siegfried Line
Ardennes Rhineland Bavaria

Commanding Officers (DuringS~pmbat, WW II):
Lt Colonel R. G. Turner June 1943-August 1944
Major Harold D. Hansen August 1944--Spring 1945

Combat Chronicle: The 99th Infantry Battalion (separate), was a U.S. Army unit composed
solely of Americans of Norwegian descent, and was activated in July 1942 at Camp Ripley,
Minnesota. Although, officially, it was not part of any division, the 99th was sometimes
attached to larger units during its time in combat.
On 17 December 1942, the 99th Infantry Battalion was sent from Fort Snelling, Minnesota,
to the mountain training center at Camp Hale, Colorado. Here the 99th underwent very rug-
ged training. From Camp Hale the unit shipped out east to Camp Shanks, New York in August
1943 in preparation for going overseas. Arriving in Scotland, 16 September, the 99th board-
ed a train for the Wiltshire area of England. After more tough training in England and in
Wales, the 99th landed in Normandy on 21 June 1944, eventually helping to secure the port
of Cherbourg.
On 14 August the 99th was attached to the famous 2nd Armored Division. In late-August
it participated in the capture of Elbeuf in furious house-to-house fighting.
Advancing into northern France, the 99th Battalion moved to Valenciennes, 8 September,
for the purpose of securing the 1st Army sector against possible attack by an enemy pocket
in a British sector of this area.
Continuing on into Belgium, the 99th advanced via Mechelen-Eupen-Herzogenrath where it
was attached to the 30th Infantry Division. By this time, the 99th had run up against the
Siegfried Line.
The battle of Wurselen, near Aachen, will always be a nightmare to the members of the
battalion who were lucky enough to come out of it alive. For 9 days and nights in the face
of continual and accurate concentrations of German artillery, mortar, and point-blank tank
fire, the 99th attacked daily, was counterattacked and outnumbered, and driven from their
hard-won positions only to surge back and retake them. The Germans fought savagely, throw-
ing everything in the book at the Americans. The 99th fought side-by-side with some famous
U.S. fighting divisions--the 30th, 1st, and 29th Infantry.
During the entire operation food, water, and ammunition were extremely hard to deliver
to forward areas because of accurate enemy observation. Even during darkness men bringing
up supplies were shelled with amazing accuracy.
After this German failure to break out of the trap around Aachen, the 99th was relieved
on 24 October 1944 by part of the 30th Infantry Division.
After a rest, the 99th was placed in reserve at Tilff, Belgium.
Then, on the fateful day of 16 December 1944, the Battalion was alerted and proceeded by
truck to Malmedy, Belgium to help check the onrushing Germans in the Ardennes. At night
the men shivvered in their foxholes and then helped beat back fanatical attacks by elements
of the Ist SS Panzer Division, the best troops that Germany had. Enemy air activity was









fairly constant and there were frequent dog-fights overhead. Christmas dinner consisted
of a K-ration. Each night furious artillery duels took place, while Germans dressed in
white camouflage suits raided forward positions without success.
From 1-6 January 1945, the 99th occupied front line defenses on the outskirts of Malm6dy.
Patrol action was common and enemy artillery and rocket fire fairly heavy. German troops
who had been wounded often came into the 99th's lines to surrender because of the intense
cold.
On 6 January, the 99th was moved to the vicinity of Stavelot with positions in a deep
pine woods. Its thin defense line was within shouting distance of German positions.
On 10 January, the Battalion successfully launched an attack, with the Germans offering
violent resistance. Many of them were killed or captured. The next day, hand-to-hand com-
bat occurred with both sides suffering fairly heavy losses.
On 15 January 1945, with the 517th Parachute Regiment on the right and the 119th Infantry
Regiment, 30th Infantry Division on the left, the 99th was pinched out of the attack. Af-
ter 31 days of continuous fighting, living in snowy foxholes in sub-zero weather, and under
unrelenting artillery fire, the tired, bearded men of the 99th were relieved from the front
lines on 18 January 1945. By this time, the Germans had been once again thrown back on the
defensive. -_
On the morning of 22 January, the Battalion boarded a train for a long trip back to the
coast of France, At Barneville the 99th Infantry Battalion joined the 474th Infantry Regi-
ment. This unit was composed of former paratroopers and the elite fighters of the disband-
ed let Special Service Force.
As part of the 474th Infantry Regiment, the 99th re-entered Germany, crossed the Rhine,
and soon advanced into Bavaria. Its mission was to patrol roads, woods, and towns, and
clear up pockets of SS troops and other German die-hards bypassed by the rapidly advancing
U.S. Army.
After V-E Day, 8 May 1945, the 99th was sent to the beautiful country of Norway to help
occupy and control the situation there, and to help disarm the large number of German troops
still stationed in that country. This was no small task. But the 99th carried out its in-
structions with the same efficiency and thoroughness that had helped pull it through the
numerous tough battles it had fought in doing its part to help defeat Nazi tyranny.

Honors Casualties:




No honors or casualty figures are available for the 99th Infantry Battalion.










112TH CAVALRY REGIMENT "Rarin' To Go"
(No shoulder patch authorized)

Originally-Texas National Guard
Activated-18 November 1940
Inactivated-January 1946 in Japan
Battle Credits, World War II: New Britain Northern New Guinea Leyte Luzon
Commanding Officers (During Combat, WW II):
Brig-Gen Julian W. Cunningham Sept 1941-July 1943
Colonel Alexander M. Miller July 1943-October 1945

Combat Chronicle: The 112th Cavalry Regiment was originally a National Guard regiment
from Texas, and was originally part of the 56th Cavalry Brigade. The 112th Cavalry
Regiment was not part of _-ry-division.
After being stationed at Fort Bliss and Fort Clarke, Texas, the 112th Cavalry took
part in maneuvers at Fort Bliss with the 1st Cavalry Division, and later in 1941 with
the 3rd Army. The 112th left the San Francisco port of embarkation on 21 July 1942,
and landed in Noumea, New Caledonia, on 11 August. The regiment arrived dismounted,
but with complete horse equipment. However, in May 1943, the unit was permanently
dismounted after having been moved to Townsville, Australia.
Following intensive training, the 112th Cavalry landed on Woodlark Island, between
the Solomons and New Guinea, on 1 July 1943. The beachhead was unopposed despite false
reports that large numbers of Japanese were on the island. Meanwhile, the 158th Inf-
antry Regiment had landed on also unoccupied Kiriwina Island. From these islands U.S.
aircraft soon operated against Japanese held bases at Kaveing, Rabaul, and Gasmata.
In November 1943, the 112th again moved, this time to Goodenough Island to prepare
for an assault on the Arawe Islands, which are about 75 miles off of the extreme west-
ern tip of New Britain.
Just before dawn on 15 December 1943, two battalions of the 112th landed at Arawe.
A terrific naval bombardment proceeded the landings, but heavy casualties were incur-
red by the 112th due to the heavy coastal defenses of the Japanese, who also launched
air strikes against the Americans.
From "shots" taken by Army photographers, the film "Attack-the Battle of New Brit-
ain", was conceived which became rated as the outstanding Army picture of 1943.
The battle for Arawe was officially closed in February 1944, although cavalry pat-
rols were active in reconnaissance around Gasmata until the following June. The 158th
Infantry Regiment also fought at Arawe. The primary purpose of this operation was as
a feint to fool the Japanese. For the main landing on New Britain took place at Cape
Gloucester, 26 December 1943, by the 1st Marine Division. The ruse succeeded.
Following the Arawe action, the 112th went to Finschhafen, eastern New Guinea, to
re-equip for a landing on the northern coast of that huge island. This landing occur-
red on 29 June 1944.
Remaining in the lines 45 consecutive days, which included some units of the 112th
being temporarily surrounded by the enemy, the cavalrymen, along with large contingents
of the 31st, 32nd, and 43rd Infantry Divisions battled the Japanese 18th Army in some
of the bloodiest fighting in the Pacific. The Japanese launched numerous heavy attacks
across the hotly contested Driniumor River, and the river soon ran red with the blood
of the fallen foe. The 112th Cavalry Regiment had two Medal of Honor winners-both
posthumously-emerge from this bitter fighting. One was 2nd Lieutenant Dale E. Christ-
ensen, Troop E, at the Driniumor River, 16-19 July 1944.
On 16 July 1944, his platoon engaged in a savage fire-fight in which much damage
was caused by one enemy machinegun effectively placed. Lt Christensen ordered his men
to remain under cover, crept forward under fire, and, at a range of 15 yards, put the








gun and its crew out of commission.
On 19 July, while attacking an enemy position strong in mortars and machine-
guns, his platoon was pinned down by intensive fire. Ordering his men to remain
under cover, Lt Christensen crept forward alone to definitely locate the Japanese
automatic weapons and the best direction from which to attack. Although his rifle
was struck by a bullet and knocked from his hands, he continued his reconnaissance.
He located 5 Jap machineguns, destroyed one with grenades, and rejoined his plat-
oon. He then led his men to the point selected for launching the attack and, call-
ing encouragement, led the charge. This assault was successful and the Japanese
were driven from their positions with a loss of four mortars and ten machineguns,
and leaving many dead on the battlefield.
On 4 August 1944, near Afua, Dutch New Guinea, Lt Christensen was killed in
action about two yards from his objective while leading his platoon in an attack
on an enemy machinegun position.
2nd Lt Christensen's leadership, intrepidity, and repeatedly demonstrated gall-
antry in action at the eventual cost of his life, above and beyond the call of duty,
reflected the highest traditions of the U.S. armed forces.
By the time of Lt Christensen's death, Japanese offensive action in the Afua area
had died down. On 4 Augul4-1944, after a last desperate attack, the Japanese with-
drew to the south. For the remainder of the war, this large group of the enemy were
hunted down by Australian forces. Over 2,000 enemy dead were accounted for by the
112th Cavalry Regiment.
After remaining at Aitape, northern New Guinea, until 3 November 1944, the 112th
embarked for embattled Leyte, in the Philippines. There, it came ashore on 16 Nov-
ember 1944, moving immediately up to the front lines to battle side-by-side with the
1st Cavalry Division on the northern end of the island. The 112th had a very tough
time in cracking the Jap defenses in its sector, with the enemy offering the fierc-
est type of resistance. Finally, on 21 December 1944, troops advancing from the
north linked-up with soldiers of the U.S. 24th Corps coming up from Ormoc. By 25
December 1944, Leyte was officially declared secured, but "mopping-up" actions con-
tinued for many months.
Next, came Luzon. From 9 February-13 March 1945, the 112th Cavalry maintained
a 100-mile front line in East-Central Luzon (east of Manila) on the right flank of
the 6th Infantry Division. This enabled the 6th Division to concentrate harder on
trying to break the Japanese defenses of the Shimbu Line. For this splendid work,
a commendation was given the regiment by Major-General O.W. Griswold, commander of
the U.S. 14th Corps.
In subsequent action in East-Central Luzon, the 112th began an all-out assault
on 8 April 1945, in the Santa Maria Valley to clean out pockets of Japanese holding
out in the Ipo Dam area. With heavy counterbattery fire the 112th and the 169th
Infantry Regiment, 43rd Infantry Division gradually bridged the span separating
enemy and American lines. Ipo Dam was captured intact on 17 May 1945. The 112th
then killed or captured hundreds of Japanese in the region east of Antipolo between
3 May-30 June 1945.
The 112th Cavalry Regiment was rated one of the more decorated units in the
Pacific. -And except for the 503rd Parachute Regiment, no other independent U.S.
regiment in the war had two Medal of Honor winners.
On 25 August 1945, the 112th left the Philippines for occupational duty in Japan.
It was inactivated there on 17 January 1946.
Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-2 Casualties: No casualty figures
Regrettably, no other awards are available. are available.
Other 112th Cavalry Regiment Medal of Honor winners in World War II: KIA *
2nd Lt George W.G. Boyce, Jr., 23 July 1944, Afua,northern New Guinea. He
smothered a live hand grenade with his body, thus saving the lives of several of
his men.
Footnote: East-Central Luzon is capitalized because it is the official name of a
battle.


















113TH CAVALBT GROUP "The Red Horse"

A ctivated-Early-1943

Battle Credits, World War IIM Normandy Northern France-Belgium Siegfried Line
Rhineland North-Central Germany
Days In Combat-309

Commanding Officer (During Combat, WW II):
Colonel William S. Biddle Early-1943--End of war

Combat Chronicle: The 113th Cavalry Group, previously regiment, originally consisted of
men mainly from the southern part of Iowa, but long before the war was over there were men
in it from many different states. This unit's history dates clear back to the so-called
"Black Hawk War" of 1832.
In World War II, the 113th Cavalry Group (Mechanized) landed on Omaha Beach, Nermandy,
on 29 June 1944, an incredibly hot day.
The Red Horse went into skirmish lines on 7 July, and soon tangled with Germans from
the 17th SS Panzer Grenadier Division, one of the best enemy units in Normandy. The 113th
fought like veterans, flanked by the crack U.S. 30th Infantry Division.
The story of the bitter fighting through the Normandy hedgerows has been told manytimes
-the yard by yard fighting, the stalled advances, and often sudden death. It was no diff-
erent with the Red Horse.
The rugged, bitter fighting eventually carried the 113th Cavalry to the edge of Gouch-
erie, and the next day the Group drove the Germans over a rise in the ground and captured
the town.
Next, came the heroic fight for St. L6 with the 113th attached to the 30th Infantry Div-
ision. The Germansi rained devastating artillery fire upon the advancing Americans, but
they still continued the advance. The Germans commanded the heights above the town and
kept on pouring murderous artillery fire down on the Americans. Working with the 29th Inf-
antry Division, the 113th helped to clear St. L8 of the last German troops inside the batt-
ered town, and the elite 3rd Parachute Division was practically wiped out.
In the American breakthrough west of St. L6, late-July 1944, the 113th was part of the
U.S. 19th Corps, consisting also of the 2nd Armored and 28th, 29th, and 30th Infantry Div-
isions. On^1 August, the 113th fought a fierce fight for Hill 263, two miles south of
Percy, and then helped to capture hotly contested Gathemo.
By mid-August, the 113th was fighting in the vicinity of Doafront. On 22 August, after
taking over 1,000 prisoners--which represented 2/3rds of the entire strength of the 113th
Cavalry Group, a number of contacts were made with units of the British Army. In one fire-
fight the 113th was ambushed by Germans with a bristling assortment of anti-tank guns, mor-
tars, small arms, and panzerfausts and suffered considerable losses. On 25 August, the
113th was relieved by a British unit in the area west of the Breteuil-Conches road.
Soon after, the 113th headed across northern France---a blitzkrieg in reverse. The unit
met mostly unorganized and ineffective opposition, but there was a bitter clash at Tournai,
Belgium. It was a classic cavalry operation, spectacular in its speed, and superb in ex-
ecution. The Red Horse continued on through Li6ge, and then into the Siegfried Line.
At the end of September 1944, the Group was attached to the crack 29th Infantry Division,








and in early-November 1944, found itself under the recently formed U.S. 9th Army. The
113th saw more furious fighting on the approaches to the Roer River.
When the Germans attacked in the Ardennes in aid-December 1944, the 113th helped hold
the Roer River line in 9th Army's sector, while the Battle of the Bulge raged further south.
However, the 113th spent Christmas Day up in the front line. It was a waiting game along
the Roer, but the Germans didn't have the strength to launch a powerful attack both in the
Ardennes and along the Roer at the same time.
Finally, on 23 February 1945, an all-out offensive was commenced to the Rhine. There
was no really heavy resistance in the 113th's zone of attack.
On 1 April 1945, the 113th Cavalry crossed the Rhine and pulled up even with the mighty
2nd Armored Division. 370 prisoners were taken by the Red Horse from 28 separate German
units, which indicated the disorganized state of the enemy.
On 2 April, the 113th overran a series of roadblocks and other defensive points, and
went on to capture an ordnance depot. The unit also bagged 227 more POWs. Casualties
were light.
Soon the 113th was advancing across north-central Germany in close co-operation with a
number of smaller asserted units. A number of smaller towns were taken in one day. For
the most part, opposition saa-quite disorganized.
The 113th advanced intoWernigerode, a large town of 55,000 people, at the foothills of
the Harz Mountains. There were some 6,000 slave laborers in this town.
Once the Red Horse had entered the city, the Germans from without began a deluge of art-
illery and assault gun fire on the Americans. To complicate the matter, many of the slave
laborers were running amok seeking revenge on any Germans they met. It took 4 hours to
gain control of the slave laborers and also drive off the enemy.
Heavy fire was than met on the outskirts of Heimburg. The action was fierce enough so
that the 113th temporarily pulled back, calling on the 83rd Infantry Division to flank the
German positions.
The 113th, meanwhile, made another frontal assault on Heiaborg and again met very fierce
resistance, largely from part of some 600 fanatical SS troops roaming the area. Eventually,
the 8th Armored Division relieved the 113th and assumed responsibility for eliminating the
enemy strongpoint.
The Germans still fighting staged a number of ambushes against the 113th, and there
were several sharp fights as the unit neared the wide Elbe River. After seizing Lidderitz,
the 113th then held defensive positions on the west bank of the Elbe.
Finally, contact was made with the Russian 121st Infantry Division.
Allied POWs were then transported from the notorious camp at Luckenwalde under the con-
trol of Major Everett E. Orman of the 113th Cavalry.
Part of the 30th Infantry Division then took over the 113th's sector along the Elbe.
The 113th had destroyed or captured over 600 tanks, armored cars, halftracks, and other
vehicles, and taken 21,599 POWs.
The 113th Cavalry Group had established an admirable combat record for one of the small-
er fighting outfits in the ETO.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor--- Casualties: Killed In Action--161
Distinguished Unit Citations-- (No other casualty figues
Distinguished Service Crosses--2 are aileble)
Silver Stars e ailable)

Comment: It seems rather hard to believe that even a combat unit the size of the 113th
Cavalry Group (about 1,500 men at full-strength) did not lose any more than 161 men killed
in action, in view of some of the battles they were in and their number of days in combat.
At any rate, this figure is an unofficial one.










147TH INFANTRY REGIMENT

(No shoulder patch authorized)

Activated--15 October 1940

Inactivated-25 December 1945

Battle Credits, World War II: Guadalcanal Northern Solomons Iwo Jima

Commanding Officers (During Combat, WW II)t
Colonel W. B. Tuttle April 1942-August 1944
Lt-Col Robert F. Johnson August 1944-May 1945
Lt-Col Walter N. Davies May 1945--End of war

Combat Chronicle: The 147th Infantry Regiment, originally part of the 37th Infantry Div-
ision, with the majority of-ts men from Ohio, was alerted for overseas movement and arr-
ived in Tongatabu in April 1942. In May, the 37th Division arrived in the Fiji Islands.
As the 147th settled into routine garrison duty, it seemed that fate had already dec-
ided its ultimate chore, but such wasn't the case as the unit would be one of the first
separate infantry regiments to see combat.
On 4 November 1942, a force consisting of 1,700 men of the 1st Battalion, 147th landed
unopposed at Aola Bay, Guadalcanal, about 30 miles southeast of Henderson Field. Their
mission was to cover the construction of an airstrip near the bay. Also landing were
several other units including 500 Seabees, two companies of the 2nd Marine Raider Battal-
ion, one battery of artillery from the Americal Division, and the 5th Defense Battalion.
The 147th later moved to Koli Point where it was relieved by a reconnaissance unit of
the Americal Division on 19 January 1943. The regiment then moved up to the Point Crus
area to be assigned to the Composite Army Marine Division (CAM), which was a temporary
structured formation. This composite division included the 6th Marine Regiment from the
2nd Marine Division and the 182nd Infantry Regiment from the Americal Division as well as
the 147th Infantry.
On 22 January 1943, the CAM Division opened a full-scale attack along and near the
north coast of Guadalcanal with the general direction of attack northeast toward Cape
Esperance. The 6th Marines attacked along the beach near the south of the Matanikau River,
the 147th Infantry advanced in the center, and the 182nd Infantry was on the left and
maintaining contact with the 25th Infantry Division. The Japanese resisted with the ut-
most skill and tenacity, bat, nevertheless, the Americans forced them back 7 miles by the
end of the month at a cost of 189 men killed and about 400 wounded. 4,000 Japanese were
slain and 105 captured.
On 2 February, two battalions of the 147th crossed the Bonegi River and by 1710 hours
(5:10 P.M.) had taken Tassafaronga. An estimated force of 700 Japanese had opposed the
crossing and it was bitter combat. On the 3rd, the 147th established a line running in-
land from Tassafaronga Point. On 4 February, the advance toward the Umasani River was
slowed down by the fierce action of enemy rearguards, but in the next 24 hours the 147th
succeeded in advancing 1,000 yards further. On 6 February, the 161st Infantry Regiment
passed through the 147th, thus giving it a rest, while it continued on in pursuit of the
enemy and reached the Umasani River. One company of the 147th was then landed at Beaufort
Bay astride the enemy's withdrawal route, and the last organized Japanese resistance on
Guadalcanal ended on 9 February 1943. However, the Japanese successfully evacuated some
12,000 troops from the island.
In May 1943, the entire regiment was sent to Samoa where it was attached to a marine
unit. In February 1944, the 147th was shipped to New Caledonia, and in April embarked
for Emirau Island, north of Bougainville in the Solomons, where it landed on 11 April 1944.
The 147th stayed here until 8 July 1944, when it returned to New Caledonia.
On 20 March 1945, the 147th landed on Iwo Jima where it took part in the final phase of









the bitter fighting on this terrible island, and participated in dangerous mop-up actions.
On 30 June 1945, the 1st Battalion of the 147th relieved the 24th Infantry Regiment on
Tinian.
On 8 September 1945, the entire regiment moved to Okinawa where it stayed until 8 Dec-
ember. The 147th was then shipped back to the United States and was inactivated on Christ-
mas Day 1945.

Regrettably, no awards or casualty information is available for the 147th Infantry Regiment.
However, it is known that there were no Medal of Honor winners.










158TH INFANTRY REGIMENT "Bushmasters"

(No shoulder patch available)

Activated-16 September 1940

Inactivated-17 January 1946 in Japan

Battle Credits, World War II: New Britain Northern New Guinea Noemfoor Luzon

Commanding Officers (During Combat, WW II):
Colonel J. Prugh Herndon Early-1943--May 1944
Colonel Earle 0. Sandlin May 1944-End of war

Combat Chronicle: The 158th Infantry Regiment (separate), originally part of the 45th
Infantry Division, was ind&uced at Ft. Sill, Oklahoma, and in February 1941 moved to
Camp Barkeley, Texas. The regiment maneuvered with the 45th, and then was released and
shipped to the Panama Canal area on 31 December 1941. In January 1943 the 158th shipped
first to Brisbane, Australia, and then to Port Moresby, New Guinea. In June 1943 the
unit, now at Milne Bay, was organized as the 158th Regimental Combat Team, and therefore
not part of any division.
In June 1943, the 158th landed on Kiriwina in the Trobriand Islands, while the 112th
Cavalry Regiment, another "independent" unit, land on Woodlark Island. These islands
are located roughly halfway between the Solosons and the eastern coast of New Guinea.
There were no Japanese. Work was quickly begun on an airfield on Kiriwina.
The first combat for the 158th occurred when it was again teamed-up with the 112th Cav-
alry for the invasion of the Arawe Islands just off the western tip of New Britain in co-
operation with the 1st Marine Division's landing on this large island.
Initially, there was some fierce action, with the Japanese launching air strikes again-
st the landings. This landing worked as a decoy for the marines' main assault at Cape
Gloucester, New Britain. The 158th remained in this area from 20 December 1943-into Feb-
ruary 1944, patrolling and occupying the area.
Early on the morning of 21 May 1944, the 158th sailed to an area near Toes, northern
New Guinea, and bivouacked near Arara.
On 23 May, the 158th passed through the lines of the 3rd Battalion, 163rd Infantry Reg-
iment, 41st Infantry Division, crossed the Tor River and on the following day the Tirfoae
River. The 158th then headed for a terrain feature called Lone Tree Hill. In front was a
short, violently twisting streak which was dubbed the Snaky Biver by the troops. At the
rear of this hill lay Maffin Airstrip, an objective.
As the Bushmasters approached the stream, heavy artillery and machine-gun fire stopped
their advance. Heavy artillery and naval gunfire was then adjusted on the Japanese posi-
tions.
On the following day the unit was again halted by heavy enemy fire. Probing of the
principal Japanese positions indicated that they were in greater strength in this area
than had been expected.
The 6th Infantry Division began arriving in the beachhead area on 5 June, and the 158th
again took up the offensive toward Lone Tree Hill. But, before they could recross the
Tirfoam River, the unit's mission was changed. General Krueger, commanding the U.S. 6th
Army, wanted to use the 158th for an assault on Noemfoor Island, just off the north coast
of New Guinea. And so, the 158th was relieved in place by the 20th Infantry Regiment,
6th Infantry Division. During the time the 158th spent in the Wakde-Sarni area, it suff-
ered 70 men killed, 257 wounded, and 4 missing. In return, the regiment killed 920 Japa-
nese and took 11 prisoners.
The 1st and 2nd Battalions of the 158th RCT landed on Noemfoor, 2 July 1944, and took
Kamiri Airdrome. The landing was lightly opposed, and the 158th pushed toward Kornasoren
Airdrome against scattered resistance,








The 503rd Parachute Regiment made an airdrop on the island, and for the purpose of
hunting down pockets of Japanese, the island was divided into two zones, The 503rd was
assigned the southern sector and the 158th the northern zone. Up through 31 August 1944,
the Bushmasters killed 611 Japanese, captured 179 more, and liberated 209 Korean slave-
laborers, while sustaining losses of only 6 dead and 41 wounded. The 158th remained on
Noemfoor until its departure for the invasion of Luzon.
The 158th landed at Lingayen Gulf on 11 January 1945, D-plus 2. The 158th was committ-
ed in the U.S. 1st Corps' extreme left flank as it headed into the Caraballo Mountains
(facing north), and met fierce Japanese resistance including heavy artillery fire and coun-
terattacks. The 158th was attached to the 43rd Infantry Division, on its right, and be-
gan an attack along the Damortis-Rosario Road on 12 January. The Bushmasters broke through
to Cataguintingan in fierce fighting on 26 January, and continued to help the assault to-
ward the key city of Baguio until relieved by the 33rd Infantry Division, 15 February 1945.
Transferred into southern Luzon, the 158th struck from the vicinity of Nasugbu, secur-
ing Balayan, and clearing the northern shores of Balayan and Batangas Bays. The town of
Batangas was liberated, 11 March, and from 19-23 March the unit overran the outer defenses
of Route 417. Along with the llth Airborne Division, the 158th then closed with the Fuji
Force's main line of resistace in bitter combat.
The 158th was then moved by sea to where it made an amphibious landing at the extreme
southeast tip of Luzon on the Bicol Peninsula, near Legaspi. Advancing west into the in-
terior of the wild peninsula, there were a number of smaller sharp actions but no major
battles of any serious consequence. Contact was made with elements of the 1st Cavalry
Division at Naga on 1 May 1945. The 158th remained at Naga until its transfer to Japan
for occupational duty.

No awards or official casualty listing is available, although an estimate may be assumed
of the number of men killed in action in the 158th Infantry Regiment. 70 men were lost in
northern New Guinea, 6 more on Noemfoor, and one historian gives the KIA figure for Luzon
at 245 men, but this last figure seems low. This historian has no figure for the Arawe
operation, but it was not probably too high. So, at the least, the 158th lost 321 men,
and possibly as high as 400.



















442ND INiFABTY REGIMET "Go For Broke"

Activated-1 February 1943

Battle Credits, World War II: Southern Italy Cassino Anzio Rome-Arno
Vosges Mountains Southern France Po Valley

Commanding Officers (During -Combat, W II):
Colonel Charles V. Pence
Colonel Virgil R. Miller

Combat Chronicle: The famous 442nd Infantry Regiment, except for some of its officers,
who were Caucasian, was composed of Japanese Americans (or Nisei, as they were referred
to at the time--second generation Japanese born in the United States). It was first
organized and then trained at Camp Shelby, Mississippi, consisting of approximately 1,500
volunteers from the mainland and about 3,000 more men from Hawaii.
However, to tell the full story of the Japanese Americans in World War II, it is nec-
essary to begin with the 100th Infantry Battalion.
On 10 June 1942, the Hawaiian Provisional Battalion landed in Oakland, California, and
two days later was activated as the 100th Infantry Battalion.
The Japanese Americans soon left by three different trains for Camp McCoy, Wisconsin.
While en route, the men of the 100th had an uneasy moment. One of the trains pulled into
a siding enclosed with barbed wire. Well aware of the internment of the West Coast Japan-
ese Americans, the islanders wondered if the same fate wasn't in store for them. After an
agonizing delay, the train slowly backed onto the main track and continued on its way.
From June-December 1942, the 100th trained in the summer heat and in the winter snow.
During this time, about 100 men were transferred to the Military Intelligence Service lan-
guage School at Camp Savage, Minnesota. Although kept under wraps, at the time, these men
would eventually serve in the Pacific as translators, interrogators, and interpreters.
This group was the forerunner of some 6,000 Japanese Americans who later valiantly served
in the Pacific, the story of which is just gradually being told.
After more intensive training at Camp Shelby, Mississippi and in Louisiana, the 100th
was sent to Camp Kilmer, New Jersey, and then shipped out for North Africa, landing at
Oran, Algeria, on 2 September 1943.
Subsequently, the 100th was attached to the battle-tough 34th "Red Bull" Infantry Divis-
ion which had seen very heavy fighting in Tunisia. There was no prejudice or animosity at.
all in General Ryder, the 34th's commander, and he was very glad to have the Japanese Amer-
icans. He would never have to regret it.
As the 34th entered the battle in southern Italy, the 100th shortly set about proving
itself to be one of the finest units the U.S. Army ever put in the field. The 100th slug-
ged north from Eboli, beginning 28 September 1943, through rugged terrain via Chiusano,
San Giorgio, and Benevento.
Continuing further north, the 100th fought through a score of towns from 17 October-ll
November 1943--San Martino, Airola, Santa Agata, Bagnoli, Limatola, and Caiazzo. Oppos-
ing enemy units included part of the Hermann Gbring Panzer Division, and the Germans rain-
ed heavy artillery fire and "screaming meemies" (6-barrel rocket launchers, or, in German,








Nebelwerfers) down on the 100th. Even the Luftwaffe appeared briefly. At the Volturno
River, the Germans were routed in a bayonet charge, probably the first such episode in
Italy.
Bitter fighting continued as the 34th (100th still attached) slowly advanced in the
mountains. There was desperate hand-to-hand combat on Monte Pantano. Then the Americans
were halted by the extremely strong German defenses at Cassino, with the towering hill
and its monastery above the town.
In some of the toughest fighting of the war, the 34th/100th succeeded in making a small,
but important breach in the German defenses. Intensive, grueling combat followed in ear-
ly-February 1944. Several hills about Cassino, and part of the town were taken by the
Americans, but the German defenses were just too strong, even though the monastery, it-
self, was involved in a controversial bombing by the Allies in mid-February. Cassino
wasn't taken until mid-May 1944 in a massive assault involving 5 Allied divisions. The
34th/100th had almost made it alone.
In late-March 1944, the 100th, now operating as a separate battalion, helped reinforce
the Anzio beachhead. In late-May, the Allies finally broke out of the beachhead in terr-
ific fighting. Rome fell on 4 June 1944. Rolling on through Rome, the 100th Infantry
Battalion continued north. .J_ Civitavecchia, on the western coast, it met up with the
442nd Infantry Regiment on-15 June. The regiment had just arrived in Italy, and now the
two forces joined together, totalling some 6,000 men, and actually being the strength of
a brigade.
A very skillful and daring operation occurred soon after. The Japanese Americans sur-
prised the Germans in the town of Belvedere, and what was remarkable about this action is
that some 170 of the enemy were killed, while the 442nd lost only one man and 8 more woun-
ded: The 100th Infantry Battalion, which did most of the fighting, was later awarded the
Distinguished Unit Citation.
Crossing the Cecina River, 1 July, Luciana fell in bitter house-to-house fighting against
elements of the 16th SS Panzer Grenadier Division. Further north, in Livorno (Leghorn),
the 442nd protected the entire western flank of the Allied advance, and its patrols were
the first to penetrate into the historic city of Pisa.
On 15 July 1944, the 442nd's anti-tank company was detached and sent to help support
the 517th Parachute Regiment in the coming invasion of southern France.
On 25 July, in Italy, the rest of the 442nd was pulled back to Vada for rest and recup-
eration.
Then, on 18 August 1944, the 442nd was attached to the 88th Infantry Division, and clear-
ed out a number of German pockets south of the Arno River. Many prisoners were taken, as
the Arno was crossed in early-September, and then the battle-weary Japanese Americans were
delayed by strong enemy resistance in the Serchio River area. Three days later they were
relieved in the line. The Rome-Arno campaign had cost the 442nd 1,272 casualties, and out
of this number, 239 men were killed in action and another 972 more wounded. During this
advance, the 442nd had covered 40 miles.
Then, on 26-27 September 1944, the outfit boarded Navy transports and headed for Mar-
seille, southern France. The 2nd and 100th Battalions were sent by truck and the 3rd Batt-
alion by freight train north up the Rhone Valley to join the U.S. 7th Army which had advan-
ced as far as the Vosges Mountains in northeastern France. This is a very hilly, densely
wooded region, and was full of fanatically resisting German troops. The 442nd was attach-
ed to the veteran 36th Infantry Division.
On 15 October 1944, the Japanese Americans began an assault on the town of Bruyeres.
The going was very tough. Mines, booby-traps, snipers, and artillery air bursts, coupled
with the increasingly foul weather and the determined German resistance, made the fighting
in the forests a nightmare. Nevertheless, BruyBres was taken after 3 days of bloody fight-
ing. Next, came Biffontaine in which the Germans savagely counterattacked, but were beat-
en back.
Then, further east, in one of the most courageous actions of the war, the 442nd fought
through a hornet's nest of Germans to rescue a battalion of the 36th Division which had
become cut-off and surrounded and was slowly being cut to pieces. Undaunted, the Japanese
Americans suffered heavy losses, but took an equally heavy toll of the enemy as they ten-









aciously slashed their way through to the trapped battalion. Needless to say, the men of
the 36th were overjoyed to see their Oriental looking rescuers, and couldn't praise them
enough.
After a month of the grimest fighting in the high Voeges, and having lost around 150 men
killed and with 1,800 more in hospitals, the 442nd was sent back down to southern France
by 21 November 1944. After the Voeges experience, the men of the 36th Infantry Division
began calling the men of the 442nd "the little men of iron".
The 442nd's main mission in southern France was to guard the French-Italian border in
case of an enemy thrust from northern Italy. However, this never occurred, although there
were dangerous patrol actions along the border. Numerous passes were issued, and the men
headed for the sunny Riviera.
Then, on 22 March 1945, the unit left southern France, and landed back in Livorne, Italy.
General Clark, the Army commander in Italy, was more than glad to have the 442nd back for
the final all-out Allied offensive, soon to commence.
Meanwhile, the 522nd Artillery Battalion had been detached from the 42nd, moved back
up the Rhone Valley in France, and, during the spring of 1945, gave added artillery support
to the 63rd, 45th, 44th, and again 63rd Infantry, 101st Airborne, and 4th Infantry Divis-
ions, in that order, during-these units' advance into various parts of southern Germany.
The 522nd was in on the liberation of the notorious concentration camp at Dachau.
Back in Italy, again on the left (west) flank of the Allied line, the rest of the 442nd
was in on the opening phase of the offensive by the Allies, beginning 5 April 1945. It was
some of the toughest fighting of the entire Italian campaign. This battle included the
442nd scaling a 3,000-foot saddle between Monte Cerreta and Monte Folgorita at night. The
Germans were taken completely by surprise, but, nevertheless, fought back furiously. It
was in this early phase of the offensive that the 442nd had a Medal of Honor winner, Pfc
Sadao S. Munemori, Company A, 100th Inf Bn, 5 April 1945, near Serravezza, Italy.
When his squad leader was wounded, he made a one-man frontal assault on 2 machine-gun
nests and knocked out both gun emplacements.
Withdrawing under murderous fire and a shower of enemy grenades, he had nearly reached
the safety of a shellhole when an unexploded grenade bounced off his helmet and tumbled to-
ward two of his comrades. Pfc Munemori instantly dove on top of the live missile as it ex-
ploded, covering it with his body. He was killed by the blast, but he had heroically saved
the lives of his two fellow soldiers.
The fighting continued hot and heavy as the 442nd battled north along and near the west-
ern Italian coast. On 11 April, the city of Carrara was entered, although Italian partisans
had already taken control.
Then, on 17 April, the 3rd Battalion tried to take Foedinova and Monte Nebbione and ran
into fierce opposition. The 2nd Battalion then joined in the attack on the 19th. It was
just north of Mte. Nebbione, near a village called Aulla, that another very courageous one-
man action occurred by 1st Lieutenant Daniel Inouye (now senator from Hawaii), Company E,
3rd Battalion, on 20 April 1945.
He led one of the attacking units in a determined assault on enemy positions up a slope.
In spite of serious wounds, the gallant lieutenant single-handedly destroyed 2 machine-gun
nests with grenades. Suddenly, a German arose from only some 10 yards away and fired a rif-
le grenade which struck him in the right arm and shattered it. Inspite of this grievous
wound, he still managed to throw another grenade which killed this German, but then was hit
in the thigh by machine-gun fire which knocked him down a slope. Somehow, Lt Inouye kept
from bleeding to death, and was later awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.
The village of Aulla fell on the same day, and the 442nd then began a mad dash up the
Ligrian coast. Italian Bersaglieri troops were routed at San Terenzo with 40 killed and
135 captured. By this time, enemy resistance in the western coastal area had just about
collapsed. When the 442nd entered the city of Genoa, and later Torino (Turin), they found
both cities under Italian partisan control.
The Germans finally surrendered in northern Italy on 2 May 1945. This was followed by
extensive occupational duty in northern Italy, although a great many men in the 442nd were
quickly rotated back home under the points system.
Altogether, 17,600 Japanese Americans had served in the Army. No one could have really









blamed any one of them if they had never served at all, in view of the way Japanese Ameri-
cans were treated shortly after Pearl Harbor-the forced moves to internment camps, con-
fiscation of their property (in some cases, even their homes were burned down), and other
humiliations and losses. Inspite of all of this, the younger generation of Japanese Amer-
icans went out of their way to show their patriotism for their country, which, at least in
the beginning had shunned then.
The 442nd Infantry Regiment was, for its size, the most decorated U.S. unit of World
War II. General Ryder of the 34th Infantry Division said that the 442nd was the fighting-
est outfit he had ever known-and, no question about it, the 442nd was one of the truly
great outfits of World War II.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-- Casualties Total Battle Deaths-
Distinguished Unit Citations--8 Killed In Action-- 680
Distinguished Service Crosses-52 Wounded
Silver Stars 560 Missing 67
captured
^- Total Casualties--9,486

* One to the entire 442nd Infantry Regiment (minus the 522nd Field Artillery Battalion)-
Po Valley, Italy

Notes: In 1951 Hollywood made a feature-length movie about the 442nd titled "Go For Broke".
Van Johnson starred in it, as well as several former members of the 442nd.

Many, many years later, in 1982, on the TV program "Real People*, it was arranged to have
a number of former members of the 442nd and some of the "lost battalion" they had rescued
of the 36th Infantry Division, meet on the show. It was quite a moving reunion, and the
Japanese Americans received a standing ovation from the audience.










473BD INFANTRY REGENT
(No shoulder patch authorized)

Activated-January 1945 in Italy

Inactivated-July 1945

Battle Credits, World War II: Northern Apennines Po Valley

Commanding Officers (During Combat, WW II)i
Colonel Willis C. Cronk January-February 1945
Colonel William P. Yarborough February 1945-End of war

Combat Chronicle: The 473rd Infantry Regiment was made up of men largely from disbanded
antiaircraft units who had fought in many of the previous bitter battles in Italy.
After combat training at-lantecatini, the 473rd moved into the front line on the night
of 15 February 1945. TKe sector was broad and thinly held on both sides of the line, was
very rough and mountainous, and the situation was static. Opposing the 473rd were Italians
from the 5th "San Marco" Marine Regiment, augmented by a few Germans with light artillery.
On 17 February, Colonel Bill Yarborough, famed paratrooper and former commander of the
509th Parachute Battalion in rugged southern Italy fighting, arrived to take command of the
new regiment.
On 24 February, the 473rd moved into the Serchio Valley, scene of the late-Decemberl944
Italo-German attack against the 92nd (Black) Infantry Division, and the 473rd relieved two
regiments of this division.
On 2 March 1945, a raid was launched against the Italians who held well-prepared posit-
ions along a ridge, and a number of men were killed in this action.
During the remainder of March, intensive patrol actions were conducted, and the men of
the 473rd were amused at the number of Italians deserting to come over to the Allied side-
around 350 in all, not counting prisoners taken.
Then, in early-April 1945, the 473rd participated in the preliminary attack along the
west coast before the Allied main event took place on 9 April. For this assault, the 92nd
Infantry Division had been reorganized into one white regiment (the 473rd), the excellent
Japanese American 442nd Infantry Regiment, back from France, and the Black 370th Infantry
Regiment.
The attack began on 5 April 1945. The enemy had excellent fields of fire with maximum
observation, Artillery and mortar fire poured against the hillsides in thundering barrages
and the enemy replied in kind. It was intense fighting almost all the way, but the attack
still did well--in fact, all three regiments performed well. Massa was entered on 10 Ap-
ril amid the cheering populace, while all the time the enemy kept the entire area under
artillery fire.
The 473rd fought forward and in 5 days several companies were reduced in strength to 2
rifle platoons by the fighting at Strettoria Hill and Frigido.
On 13 April, the 473rd closed with the defenses of the Gothic Line. Facing the 473rd
were two regiments of the German 148th Infantry Division. This was bitter fighting of the
kind that won the war in Italy--every movement brought torrents of fire from the Germans.
It took bloody fighting to take Hill 366, and between 13-18 April, there were over 50 men
killed and 200 wounded in the 473rd.
Patrols to Sarzana on the 20th found it strongly held, but there were signs that the
enemy was beginning to crack. Motorized patrols took the lead in probing for the enemy.
On 24 April, the 1st Battalion advanced through San Stefano without firing a shot, and sei-
zed the high ground above the town after crossing the Magra River. La Spesia, a large town,
was soon entered and about 50 Italian marines who resisted were soon eliminated. On 27 Ap-
ril, the 473rd entered the city of Genoa, and engineered the surrender of nearly 3,000 en-
emy troops at Uscio and Ferrada northeast of the city.
Only the Monte Moro garrison held out, but after persuasive encouragements to surrender









by Major-General Almond, commander of the 92nd Division and by Colonel Tarborough, and
plans for a combined air-sea-land assault on this strategic fortress hill, the arrogant
German commander decided to give up. This brought the total POW bag of the 473rd to
11,553. Large quantities of enemy material, hundreds of weapons, and thousands of rounds
of ammunition of all descriptions were inventoried.
While the 1st Battalion garrisoned Genoa and the 2nd Battalion bivouacked in the city's
outskirts, the 3rd Battalion guarded the POW stockade and Company K moved to Savona for
garrison duty.
One month in the final all-out offensive in northern Italy had cost the regiment over
500 casualties, but it had inflicted probably three times that many on the enemy, not
counting the prisoners it had taken.
In a short 7-month period of time, a fighting team was born, trained, fought in the
decisive battle for victory in Italy, and was then disbanded so its men could be sent to
finish the job in the Pacific of bringing peace to a war-weary world. Fortunately, this
last move never proved necessary.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor--0 Casualties: Killed In Action--160
Distinguished Unit-Otations----O (No other exact casualty
Distinguished Service Crosses-- figures are available)
Silver Stars 18 available)




















MERILL'S MARAUDERS

Activated-3 October 1943

Inactivated-1 July 1945 in China

Battle Credits, World War II: Northern Burma

Commanding General (During Combat, WW II):
Brig-Gen Frank D. Merrill

Combat Chronicle: Merrill's Marauders, officially designated as the 5307th Composite Unit,
was an all-volunteer force of originally 3,000 men. These men had received jungle train-
ing and were recruited from the Southwest Pacific and Caribbean areas. The call for vol-
unteers stated it was for a hazardous mission of three months' duration with promise of
real contact with the enemy. This promise of only three months was an exaggeration, but
the part about contact with the enemy was very real. The force arrived in India in late-
October 1943, and was then assigned to northern Burma under the code name "Galahad."
General Stilwell named Colonel (later Major-General) Frank D. Merrill as commander of
the unit, and Colonel Charles Hunter, the original commander, remained to serve under Col-
onel Merrill.
Cocky and confident, the Marauders soon realized that they were to be General "Vinegar
Joe" Stilwell's shock troops whose aggressive example was to encourage the Chinese troops
in Burma to comparable aggressiveness.
The 5307th was dispatched by Stilwell to the Hukawng Valley in northern Burma with the
eventual mission of taking the key city of Myitkyina.
Stilwell's strategy was proven sound. After a 60-mile trek through the jungle which
took 8 days, the Marauders came out to meet their airdrop and seize the road at Walawbum
on schedule, 3 March 1944. While Chinese forces attacked the Japanese defensive positions
from the front, the Marauders had carried out a wide enveloping movement. This cut the
Japanese line of communications at Walawbum, and the latter sustained heavy losses. How-
ever, the Marauders were heavily counterattacked the next day and fought a fierce 5-day
battle alongside a Chinese regiment. Together, the two units killed 1,500 Japanese. Only
by a rapid withdrawal and by skillful delaying actions was the Japanese 18th Division able
to escape destruction.
Elated by this success, General Stilwell repeated this pattern with an even more sweep-
ing envelopment to get behind the Japanese at Shadusup in the hills separating the Hukawng
and Mogaung Valleys. This involved an 85-mile jungle march to Kamaing, the central Japan-
ese position in the Mogaung Valley. It rained 5 of the 6 days of this march.
After this grueling experience which included several skirmishes with the Japs to block
the road behind the enemy at Inkangahtawng, about 20 miles above Kamaing, the Marauders
were counterattacked and forced back to Nphau Ga. Here, they held off the Japs through 11
days of savage fighting. Then, threatened from behind by the advance of some Chinese troops
plus the Marauders' 3rd Battalion, the Japanese were temporarily caught in a trap. But,
in desperate fighting, 28 March-1 April, the Japanese succeeded in breaking out.









On 28 April 1944, the Marauders, accompanied by elements of the Chinese 30th Division,
began a bold advance eastward from the Mogaung Valley over the high Kumon Mountains, some
of which were over 6,000 feet above sea level. Using trails known only to their Kachin
guides, the task force secretly made its way through country considered impassable to or-
dinary combat units. Arriving in the Irrawaddy Valley, the advance continued to Myitkyina
where the main airfield was seized by a surprise attack on 17 May. Chinese reinforcements
were promptly flown in, inspite of the airfield still being under small-arms fire.
By this time, the ravages of disease and combat exhaustion had taken their toll of the
Marauders. Over half the men had already been evacuated, chiefly because of diseases such
as malaria and dysentery, coupled with exhaustion. Out of the original 3,000 men only
some 1,400 were now left. So far, they had covered around 300 miles, slipping and stumb-
ling, battling jungle growth, struggling with fallen mules, waiting for airdropped supp-
lies, eating cold K-rations, sleeping on wet ground, and suffering from the heat, hunger,
fever, and thirst. There were also tigers, boa constrictors, deadly poisonous kraits,
and, particularly troublesome and gruesome, the giant leeches which preyed on the men in
the jungle. One Marauder summed up the feelings of most of the rest of the outfit when
he said, "I'd rather get a bullet in the belly, than be eaten alive by the rotten, filthy
vermin in this place." -'
On 18 May 1944, the Marauders and the Chinese opened the assault on Myitkyina, and the
Japanese 18th Division resisted with the utmost skill and ferocity. The Japanese put up
a very brave defense of Myitkyina, and the Marauders' attack bogged down.
As has been indicated, by this time the Marauders were about physically and sometimes
mentally exhausted, with some of the men even going to sleep behind their weapons. Fin-
ally, after some very heavy and prolonged fighting, and a siege which lasted for 11 weeks,
the Japanese, not in much better physical shape themselves, withdrew from Myitkyina on
3 August 1944.
In all, it had been a very successful operation for General Stilwell, except that he
had hoped the Marauders would have been able to keep up the momentum longer. But it must
be remembered that Burma is one of the roughest jungle/hill/valley-you name it--places
in the world.
In the 11-week battle for Myitkyina, the Marauders lost 272 men killed and 955 wounded.
The Japanese had some 3,000 men killed.
The Marauders were relieved by the excellent British 36th Infantry Division.
On 10 August 1944, the remainder of the Marauders were consolidated with the 475th Inf-
antry Regiment. A little later, the 124th Cavalry Regiment (dismounted) arrived, and this
unit, along with the 475th Infantry, was formed into the 532nd Brigade, operating under
the code name of "Mars Task Force." This force took part in renewed operations in Burma
in 1945.
Out of the original 3,000 Marauders, about 1,200 of them were left when the war with
Japan ended on 15 August 1945.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor--O Casualties: No complete-figures are
Distinguished Unit Citations-- 1 available



* To the entire unit-Northern Burma

Note: No other awards are available

Footnote: It is known, however, that, altogether in Burma, U.S. forces lost 729 men.















RANGERS

Activated-19 June 1942

Battle Credits, World War II: Algeria Tunisia Sicily Southern Italy Anzio
Normandy Siegfried Line Rhineland Central Europe
New Guinea Leyte Luzon
Original Commander:
Colonel William 0. Darby

Combat Chronicle: The Rangers were the most elite U.S. Army force of World War II, the
American counterpart of the-'rktish Commandos.
The 20th century Rangers were raised after General Lucian K. Truscott had reported to
the Chiefs of Staff on 26 May 1942 that there should be an immediate formation of an Amer-
ican force along Commando lines. President Roosevelt gave his support, and an appeal for
"volunteers not averse to hazardous action" was answered by some 2,000 men stationed in
Northern Ireland. After vigorous selection this number was whittled down to 500 on the in-
itiation course at Carrickfergus on the coast north of Belfast. The 1st Ranger Battalion
was formed on 19 June 1942. The 1st, 3rd, and 4th Ranger Battalions were the original
Darby's Rangers. A few of the original Rangers participated in the Canadian raid on Dieppe,
on the coast of northern France, in August 1942.

1st Ranger Battalion: As part of the Allied invasion of North Africa, 8 November 1942, the
1st landed in Algeria at Arzew some 30 miles west of Oran. Encountering sporadic resistance,
the Rangers relatively easily accomplished their primary mission--the capture of two French
forts dominating the approaches to the harbor.
In February 1943 the 1st Battalion moved into Tunisia, coming into close combat with Ger-
man and Italian troops at Sened.
Shortly after, the Germans broke through the American lines at Kasserine Pass and the
Rangers covered the withdrawal of the U.S. 2nd Corps under the fortunate cover of a heavy
mist.
After the Kasserine Pass debacle, the 1st Battalion fought as straight-infantry for sev-
eral weeks. A notable action was the routing of some Italian troops in the mountains east
of El Guettar.
Although the war in Tunisia lasted until mid-May 1943, the Rangers were pulled out of the
fighting on 27 March 1943.
In the invasion of Sicily, beginning on 10 July 1943, the 1st Battalion landed at Gela
in support of the 1st Infantry Division. The Rangers held this town for 36 hours despite
German and Italian tank-infantry attacks, and vitally contributed in saving the beachhead.
On D-plus 3 they and the 4th Ranger Battalion-Darby's force on Sicily--attacked the-
Monte Delta LapL positions of the Italians which were supported by two batteries of heavy
artillery. With tank support and bayonet charges, the Rangers cleared these defenses tak-
ing 600 prisoners, and next day making contact with the 3rd Infantry Division advancing on
their left. Darby's Force became a self-contained unit on 13 July with the addition of 18
self-propelled guns. However, the old fortress mountain town of Butera was taken without
a bombardment. A 50-man patrol gained the center of the town after outflanking road defen-
ses and charging the old walled gate.
Three Ranger battalions, 1st, 3rd, and 4th, saw heavy action at the Salerno beachhead,
9-17 September 1943. In October these battalions were in the Allied line overlooking the
Venafro valley area some 40 miles north from Naples. Some mountains changed hands several
times while the Rangers were in the line 45 days, taking some 40 per cent casualties.








Reorganized for the Anzio landings, the let, 3rd, and 4th Battalions all came ashore
in the cold early morning of 22 January 1944. They dug-in on the perimeter and from 25-
28 January held the salient near the Carrocetto-Aprilla factory area. Relieved by Brit-
ish troops, 29 January, the Rangers marched through the night to positions for a spear-
head attack to lead the U.S. 3rd Infantry Division's assault on Cisterna. Unknown to the
Americans, the Germans had moved a crack division into Cisterns this very night.
By 0100 hours in the early morning darkness of 31 January, the 1st and 3rd Battalions
were through the German lines as planned after disposing a number of sentries.
Sometime after 0200 hours, the 4th Ranger Battalion, which was supposed to follow-up
the attack, was somehow detected and fired upon by a single machine-gun. Then the 4th
was caught in a cross-fire.
While this was occurring, the 1st and 3rd Battalions inched their way along a drainage
ditch in a long single-file and shot their way through several forward enemy positions.
However, by now, all element of surprise had been lost. Still, as daylight broke, the
Rangers attempted to race across the several hundred yards left to reach Cisterna, but the
Germans and also some Italian Fascist troops were ready and waiting and the Rangers were
caught in murderous fire. They fought valiantly but had little chance caught out in the
open. About midday German tanks overran the Rangers who had not already been killed and
captured over 500 of them.
Valiant efforts were made to save the 1st and 3rd Battalions. The 4th Rangers made a
gallant try to get through but were forced to fall back after suffering heavy casualties.
And the 3rd Infantry Division fought on past Isola Bella to within 1,000 yards of the Ran-
gers but then was also forced back after taking very heavy losses, There were just too
many Germans with too many tanks.
Colonel Bill Darby was deeply sorrowed by the loss of these two elite battalions. But
he soon reformed what was left of the 4th Battalion, which had suffered 50 per cent casua-
lties, and carried on. Figures have varied, but according to the Rangers, out of 767 men,
in the 1st and 3rd Battalions 60 per cent of them were killed or wounded (not 500 captured)
and only 18 men escaped capture to return safely back to friendly lines. The 1st and 3rd
Ranger Battalions were never reconstituted.

2nd Ranger Battalion:
Activated-In the United States in April 1943
Commander-Lt Colonel James Rudder
The 2nd Ranger Battalion completed its training in the States in November 1943, having
established a U.S. Army record of 15 miles in a 2-hour speed march. It crossed the Atlan-
tic on the liner Queen Elizabeth, and was based in extreme southwest England (Cornwall).
After spending some time on the Isle of Wight, and then completing their cliff-climbing
exercises in Dorset, the 2nd sailed for Normandy on 5 June 1944.
On D-Day, 6 June 1944, the 2nd Rangers, in a very courageous and skillful action, assau-
lted the Pointe du Hoc cliffs. This area was to the west of Omaha Beach. These cliffs
were climbed with difficulty since the rocket fired scaling ropes had become waterlogged.
The companies drove the enemy from his forward positions and established a perimeter for
aggressive patrolling. D Company on the right, E in the center, and F on the left set up
a semi-circle of defensive positions, and destroyed 4 unmounted 155mm guns before accurate
88mm fire stopped any movement in the forward positions. German counterattacks were rep-
ulsed.
Before dawn on 7 June, the second of two strong German attacks overran D Company, and
the rest of the battalion fell back to its reserve positions. Naval gunfire and accurate
small-arms fire from the Rangers broke up further enemy attacks during the rest of the day.
That evening strong patrols went out to successfully destroy an ammunition dump and a Ger-
man observation post. On 8 June, when the Rangers were relieved, they were down virtually
to the strength of single Sections, E Company having only one officer and 19 enlisted men
left.
Replacements were trained during July and August before the battalion's next mission:
protecting the U.S. 29th Infantry Division's right flank in the assault on the fortress
city of Brest in extreme western Brittany. This large pocket of Germans included their
crack 2nd Parachute Division and the 343rd Infantry Division. The Germans made good use








of their long-established defenses. In two days of hard fighting, the 2nd Ranger Battalion
advanced some 1,000 yards by 5 September 1944, but then came under heavy artillery fire for
several days before reaching the Lochrist (Graf Spee) battery on 8 September. The next day
Lt Colonel Rudder led his 2nd Rangers in a successful attack, the battalion securing the
battery by mid-day. 1,800 prisoners were taken at the battery and in mopping up Le Conquet
Peninsula. In difficult, tedious, and bloody fighting the port of Brest finally fell on
18 September 1944. Some 35,000 Germans went into captivity, but the 39-day battle cost the
2nd, 8th, and 29th Infantry Divisions, the 2nd Ranger Battalion, and the French Forces of
the Interior (FFI) some 10,000 casualties in killed and wounded. Besides this, the Germans
had totally wrecked the harbor facilities, making them useless to the Allies for several
months to come.
After a rest, the 2nd Battalion moved east to Paris and on through northern France into
Luxembourg. Moved further north, by 6 December 1944, the 2nd was camped deep inside the
grim Hiirtgen Forest. Snow had fallen earlier that day, but their log huts were warm if dim-
ly lit by number 10 can heaters filled with dirt soaked in oil.
That evening the battalion prepared for an assault on a hill mass beyond the towns of
Brandenberg and Bergstein. Several units had failed to capture this high ground overlooking
the Germans at Schmidt and the Roer River dams.
E Company opened the roaiTfo the hill at 0730, and D and F Companies passed through to
seize the hill by 0830. Withering fire pinned down all three companies who had lost half
their strength by 1100 hours, before a slight easing in the bombardment enabled them to im-
prove their positions. E Company went forward to reinforce the men on the hill, and that
following morning a second major enemy attack was repulsed. Evacuating the wounded to a
forward aid station at a church was difficult-some wounded men had lain on the hill all
night--but this task was at last completed when American artillery fire cut the road with
the German attacks dying away.
The battle reopened in the afternoon when for 3 hours German 88am and self-propelled
guns and 150 infantrymen tried to retake the hill, getting within 100 yards of the aid-
post church. Their last attack was stopped by artillery, although General Model had offer-
ed special awards to any unit able to retake this hill. The Rangers held on until relieved
on 9 December 1944. During this action they had helped support the 5th Armored Division.
In subsequent actions in the Hirtgen Forest area and on the approaches to the Roer, the
2nd Ranger Battalion also supported the 8th and 78th Infantry Divisions.
In the spring of 1945, the 2nd Ranger Battalion, advancing along the same route as the
2nd Infantry Division, moved through central Germany against mostly ineffectual resistance
along this zone of attack-via GUttingen, Merseburg, and Leipzig, to the Mulde River, and
when the war in Europe ended was in Pilsen, Czechoslovakia, along with the 2nd Infantry and
16th Armored Divisions.

3rd Ranger Battalion:
Activated-From volunteers around a nucleus of the 1st Ranger Battalion
Commander-Major Herman W. Dammer
The 3rd Ranger Battalion served on Sicily and also in Italy with the 1st and 4th Ranger
Battalions. (For the main actions of the 3rd Rangers, see 1st Ranger Battalion).

4th Ranger Battalion:
Activated-29 May 1943
Commander-Lt Colonel Roy Murray
The 4th Ranger Battalion landed at Gela, Sicily, 10 July 1943 along with the slt Ranger
Battalion, helping to beat back strong enemy counterattacks at the beachhead.
At the Anzio beachhead, Italy, in late-January 1944, the 4th Rangers attempted to break
through to the trapped 1st and 3rd Ranger Battalions near Cisterna. But they were checked
by murderous machine-gun fire. Then A and B Companies put in an attack to the west of the
road leading to Cisterna, but were again held up by heavy machine-gun fire. E Company man-
aged to take two enemy positions and some houses overlooking other Germans 150 yards away.
Although they were within 200 yards of the last German defenses between them and the 1st
and 3rd Battalions, they couldn't break through. Still, with the support of E Company's
machine-guns, C and F Companies got along the ditch east of the road and, by mid-day had








taken buildings on both sides of the road in fierce fighting. Mines lying on top of the
road were quickly cleared, and fire from half-tracks prevented the enemy from leaving the
ditches and buildings beyond the American advance.
Altogether, in this action, the 4th Ranger Battalion had 60 men killed and 120 wounded,
with 5 company commanders being killed.
The remainder of the 4th Battalion fought on at the Anzio beachhead for 60 more days.
After leaving Anzio the 4th Ranger Battalion was disbanded.

5th Ranger Battalion:
Activated-1 September 1943 at Camp Forrest, Tennessee
Commander--Major Max F. Schneider
The 5th Ranger Battalion arrived in the United Kingdom in March 1944. Once there, it
trained first in Scotland and then in Devonshire, England.
The 5th landed in Normandy on D-Day, 6 June 1944, near Vierville which is east of Pointe
du Hoc, and suffered about 60 casualties. On the night of 7 June, contact was made by
field telephone with the 2nd Rangers at Pointe du Hoc. On D-plus 2 the 5th relieved the
2nd Ranger Battalion at the Pointe. On 10 June, the 5th Battalion took the coastal defen-
see from Grandchamp lea Bajnet_to Isigny, meeting little resistance. For their actions at
the Normandy beachhead the-5th Ranger Battalion was awarded the Distinguished Unit Citation.
In the battle for Brest, Brittany, the 5th captured Le Conquet in a 2-hour assault and
La Mon Blanche with less opposition.
On 17 September 1944, attacking pillboxes defending Fort du Portzic, a 40-pound charge
failed to break open a steel and concrete strongpoint. So that night an 11-man patrol
placed 2 forty pound and 2 fifty pound charges of C-2 explosive on the concrete and cover-
ed these charges with 20 gallons of gasoline-oil mix. The flaming pyre burned for 40 min-
utes. The Germans then placed machine-guns around other posts to prevent further demolit-
ions, but they were demoralized by the great explosion and surrendered the next day.
During October-November 1944, the battalion provided the security guard for 12th Army
Group's headquarters in Belgium.
In December 1944 the 5th Rangers were attached to the 6th Cavalry Group of Patton's 3rd
Army which was fighting into the Saar. Many individual companies worked in close support
of the tankers.
Then, from 9 February to 11 March 1945, the 5th was attached to the 94th Infantry Divis-
ion during the difficult fighting in the Saar-Moselle Triangle. The Rangers took over an
11,000 yard (10 kilometers) front near Wehingen and attacked northwest toward Oberleuken
across an anti-tank ditch. Company F found itself in an.electrically controlled minefield
and under heavy enfilade machine-gun and mortar fire, but was extracted by the other comp-
anies' assaults.
Somewhat later the Rangers held defensive positions in and around some houses 1300 yards
from the Irsch-Zerf road. Two strong counterattacks were held off even though the Germans
had two supporting tanks. The 294th Field Artillery provided invaluable support by great-
ly helping to break up further attacks by the 136th Regiment of the Austrian 2nd Mountain
Division.
On 28 February, the Rangers attacked the high ground to the south, being checked once
on its heavily wooded slopes by rockets. The battalion was forced to stop near the top of
this hill mass, and that night over 1,100 rockets and artillery shells fell on its posit-
ions. Inspite of all this, the Rangers held on, thus easing the passageway for some Amer-
ican armor to break through. The battalion was finally relieved on 3 March, some 9 days
after it had set out on this infiltration mission.
In April 1945, as part of the 3rd Army's advance through central Germany, on General
Patton's orders, the 5th Rangers took some 1,000 Germans to look at the notorious concen-
tration camp at Buchenwald in the province of Thuringia. After this bitter, eye-opening
experience, the Rangers were shifted further south, but still under Patton's 3rd Army.
On 21 April, now in Bavaria, they rode on the tanks of the 3rd Cavalry Group and capt-
ured a bridge across the Danube River against minor resistance.
By V-E Day, 8 May 1945, the Rangers were in Ried, Austria. The 5th Ranger Battalion
was disbanded that following month.








6th Ranger Battalion:
Activated-Formed from the 98th Field Artillery Battalion on 20 August 1944 in
New Guinea
Commander-Colonel Henry A. Mucci
The 6th Ranger Battalion was the only Ranger battalion which fought in the Pacific.
The 6th Rangers participated in the initial American return to the Philippines. Companies
landed on the small islands of Dinagat, Homonhon, and Suluan, 17-18 October 1944, a few
days before the U.S. 6th Army landed on the large island of Leyte which was nearby. The
Rangers destroyed Japanese radar and observation posts, and looked for plans which might
show that land-fired sea mines were expected in Leyte Gulf. However, no such mines were
discovered.
When the Japanese battleship Yamashiro was lost with almost all of her crew in an action
with U.S. battleships, some of her crew managed to struggle ashore near the village of Lor-
eto. Company C was stationed near here to prevent Japanese reinforcements from joining
their garrison on Dinagat which had taken to the hills. The company spent two days round-
ing up these shipwrecked sailors, many of whom, once ashore, were armed and ready to fight.
Some escaped into the jungle, but 10 were captured. While they were being shipped to Ley-
te, 2 Japanese planes attacked the LCI transport and almost half the crew were killed or
wounded.
The weather in the Philippines was continually wet through October 1944 when the 6th
Battalion was patrolling from Loreto. The men were supplied by dugout canoes sailing from
the original beachhead. Patrolling through deep swamps in heavy jungle, and on steep moun-
tainsides, led to most of the men having skin infected with fungus, and many of them had
worn through the soles of their boots. However, fresh ten-in-one rations and fresh medical
supplies were parachuted in during the first part of November.
During the last half of November 1944, the 6th Rangers guarded the U.S. 6th Army Head-
quarters on Leyte, and later guarded a Seabee naval construction force building an airstrip
at Tanauen.
On 9 January 1945, the U.S. 6th Army landed at Lingayen Gulf, Luzon. The Rangers were
soon put ashore and set up a perimeter defense for the 6th Infantry Division.
Soon the 6th Army units were battling into the central Luzon plain and south toward
Manila, having furious and heavy battles with large forces of Japanese.
The 6th Ranger Battalion was placed on the eastern flank of the advance southward, when
it was discovered that the Japanese were holding a large group of Americans captive at a
prison camp at Cabanatuan in the central Luzon plain.
A very bold plan was put into effect and successfully executed. Each man in this dar-
ing night raid on the camp even knew the exact building he was to attack. With the help
of Filipino guerrilla units protecting their flanks, the Rangers struck swiftly, overpower-
ing the Jap guards and quickly releasing the captives. The raid was completed in 30 min-
utes. Had any one group of Rangers failed in their part of the mission, the Japs could
have killed their prisoners, or most of them, in moments. Ranger losses were almost neg-
ligible, as were the losses of the prisoners they rescued. For this valiant action their
commanding officer, Colonel Henry A. Mucci, received the Distinguished Service Cross, every
officer was awarded the Silver Star, and every enlisted man got the Bronze Star.
In the spring of 1945, B Company, as part of an ad hoc force called "Task Force Connolly,
made a very lengthy reconnaissance in force all the way up the western coast of Luzon (from
a point north of Lingayen Gulf). The sizeable towns of Laoag and Vigan were captured with
this force meeting, mostly, scattered and ineffectual opposition, since the larger Japanese
forces were located further inland in the mountains of the Cordillera Central. Upon reach-
ing the northwestern coast of Luzon, this force turned east and eventually reached Aparri,
preparing a landing zone for the 511th Parachute Regiment, 11th Airborne Division which
dropped into this area on 23 June 1945. This trek had taken 28 days and covered 250 miles.
The 6th Ranger Battalion was disbanded in Kyoto, Japan, on 30 December 1945.









Honors: Casualties:




No awards or complete casualty figures are available for the Rangers. However, the
following killed in action figures are available for some of the battalions:
KIA
1st Ranger Battalion 92
2nd Banger Battalion Unavailable
3rd Ranger Battalion 42
4th Ranger Battalion 140 (the minimum)
5th Ranger Battalion 117 (complete figure)
6th Ranger Battalion Unavailable

The KIAss of the 1st and 3rd Battalions do not include those suffered in the Anzio
beachhead ambush near Cisterna, Italy, in late-January 1944.

Notes In one of the more individual hard-luck ironies of the war, Colonel William 0. Darby
who had first organized and then trained the original Rangers into one of the toughest con-
bat organizations of World War II, was killed in Italy on 1 May 1945--one day before the
Germans surrendered in Italy. He had wanted to still be where the action was, and was up
front with the famous 10th Mountain Division as it advanced into the Alps around lake Garda
in northern Italy. He was killed by a burst from a mortar shell-not yet having reached
his 35th birthday.

The U.S. Rangers are still very much in existence, as of this writing (13 May 1984), with
headquarters at Fort Benning, Georgia. In the autumn of 1983 Banger troops took part in
the invasion of the island of Grenada in the Caribbean West Indies.

Footnote: Inspite of Ranger claims, the figure of around 500 men captured in the ambush
near Cisterns, Italy, may well be correct. Not long after this battle, the Germans march-
ed a large group of captured Rangers through the streets of Rome.





















1ST SPECIAL SERVICE FORCE "The Devil's Brigade"

Activated-5 July 1942

Inactivated-5 December 1944 in southern France

Battle Credits, World War II: Southern Italy Anzio Southern France

Commanding General In World War II:
Brig-Gen Robert T. Frederick July 1942-December 1944

Combat Chronicle: The 1st Special Service Force was a unique and very elite outfit of
World War II. A mixed U.S.-Canadian unit, the Force rarely numbered more than 1,600 combat
men at any one time. Yet, in its brief history, it had many times that number of casualties.
Hundreds died in battles which are now only brief historical footnotes, but, at the time,
represented major gains for the nations arrayed against the Axis. There never was an outfit
quite like it. Trained for anything, including extensive hand-to-hand combat, and with a
commander they idolized who was handsome enough to be a Hollywood actor and was whip-cord
tough, these wild fighting men did everything from conquering "unconquerable" mountain
strongholds, to smuggling in ladies of pleasure under the MP's noses.
Many men who made up the 1st Special Service Force had been in the stockade for various
offenses, and were given the option of continuing their sentences or joining the Force. How-
ever, contrary to popular belief, the majority of the Forcemen were not felons. There were
ex-college men, teachers, farmers, construction workers, and former guards of movie actors
and politicians, among others.
The Force's headquarters was set-up in Helena, Montana, and the Force trained at Fort
Harrison.
In late-October 1943, the 1st Special Service Force sailed to Casablanca, Morocco, arriv-
ing there on 5 November. After moving on to Oran, Algeria, the Force arrived in Naples,
Italy, on 17 November.
The Force was assigned the extremely difficult task of capturing two formidable mountains
called Monte la Difensa and Monte la Remetanea in the German Winter Line, just south of
Cassino. The Force was assigned to the 36th Infantry Division for "Operation Raincoat",
aptly named.because of the unusually inclement weather.
In early-December 1943, the attack jumped off. The German troops, among the best in
their entire army, thought these two mountain masses to be all but impregnable, but the 1st
Special Service Force took both in some of the toughest fighting in southern Italy.
The Germans soon realized that they were up against an elite force. Next, came Monte
Sammucro and the Monte Maio Range. In one hour of savage fighting, the ridge at the peak
of Sammucro was taken. The Germans launched several vicious counterattacks, but were beaten
back. The 1st Regiment of the Force remained under heavy shell fire throughout Christmas
Day 1943. At Monte Maio, the 3rd Regiment held through almost 3 days of sustained counter-
attacks. After these battles, out of 1,800 men, some 1,400 were either dead or in the hosp-
ital as casualties. The Force was renewed to a strength of approximately 2,300 men by rep-
lacements and the return of some of its men from the hospitals.
Then the Force was transferred to the Anzio beachhead. It is a matter of record that it









was given twice as much front to hold as the entire 3rd Infantry Division--and the 3rd
was considered one of the best divisions in the entire U.S. Army. However, the Mussolini
Canal helped aid the Force in its defense of the eastern flank of the beachhead. Opposing
it were two crack outfits--part of the Hermann Gbring Panzer Division and the 16th SS
Panzer Grenadier Division.
Within a week, the aggressiveness of Force patrols had caused the Germans to pull back
almost a half a mile. The tenseness of combat was present, alright, but the freezing dis-
comfort of the mountain fighting was gone. However, the Force was heavily shelled by Ger-
man artillery.
It was during this period that the Force got the name from the Germans, "The Black Dev-
il's Brigade." A diary was found on the body of a German lieutenant, an officer in the
Hermann G6ring Division. In it, was written, "The Black Devils are all around us every
time we come into the line, and we never hear them come." A German prisoner had on him a
German directive stating, "You are fighting an elite Canadian-American Force. They are
treacherous, unmerciful, and clever. You cannot afford to relax. The first soldier or
group of soldiers capturing one of these men will be given a 10-day furlough."
The hardest blow of the German offensive at Anzio in mid-February 1944, didn't fall on
the Forces' sector. NeverthAsess, it had its share of casualties, while holding its ground.
On 23 May 1944, the breakout at the beachhead began, and the Force suffered heavy casua-
lties as it almost recklessly raced into the German lines, ahead of most of the other U.S.
outfits. By 25 May, the Force had taken Monte Arrestina, and two days later Rocca Massina.
Meanwhile, the 1st Armored and 3rd Infantry Divisions had punched a wide hole in the German
lines.
The next objective for the Force was Valmontone. But near there, the Germans momentarily
stopped falling back, and lashed back with a heavy artillery barrage and a series of count-
erattacks. The Germans also had heavy and medium tanks, and their lethal 88mm guns caused
heavy losses in the Force. Finally, on the early morning of 4 June 1944, elements of the
Force entered Rome, among the first U.S. troops to do so. The men were almost completely
spent, and given a well-deserved rest and recuperation.
After this, the 1st Special Service Force was elected to help launch the invasion of
southern France. But the Force didn't initially land on the mainland. It was assigned to
capture the Hyeres Islands, off the southern coast. It was almost like right out of an
Errol Flynn movie as the men attacked the forts on these islands. But the Force lost many
good men before these islands were secured by 16 August 1944.
After the fall of the Hyeres Islands, the "Devil's Brigade" was moved to the mainland,
advancing from the Riviera coast to positions along the French-Italian border. Resistance
was moderate with numerous roadblocks and delaying actions being encountered.
While extensive patrolling was done along the border, the men had access to leaves in
Nice, Cannes, and Menton--light years away from the freezing cold of the mountains of Italy.
Then, on 28 November 1944, the Force was pulled back to Villeneuve-Loubet on the coast
between Cannes and Nice. The top brass figured that the day for a need of a small, elite
force had passed, and that corps and divisions were to make up the downfall of Nazi Germany.
On 5 December 1944, the Force had its final parade. For an outfit that had prided itself
on lack of sentimental or emotional displays, the farewell occasion was a highly moving one,
and many of the men wept including General Frederick.
The remnants of the Force were put in with the 474th Infantry Regiment, General Frederick
was given command of the 45th Infantry Division, and the 1st Special Service Force passed-
into history.

Honors: No award figures are available. Total Battle Deaths---449
Killed In Action --- 19
Wounded 1,800 *
Missing -38
Captured 4-
Total Casualties--2,300 *
Approximate figure *










IST AIR FRCE
Activated-18 December 1940 at Mitchel Field, New York
Covering the northeastern part of the United States and
nearby oceanic area-saw extensive patrolling against
German submarines.








S AIR FCRC:
Activated-18 December 1940 at McChord Field, Washington
Covering the western United States












3RD AIR FORCZ
Activated-18 December 1940 at MacDill Field, Tampa, Florida
Covering the southern United States and the Gulf of Mexico--
flew over 1,000 antisubmarine patrol sorties.











4TH AIR FORCE
Activated-18 December 1940 at March Field, California
Responsible for the coastal defense of the western United States
After September 1943, it assumed mostly training assignments.


















5TH AIR FOIC

Activated-20 September 1941 at Nichols Field, Luzon,
as the Philippine Department Air Force

16 November 1941-Redesignated the Far East Air Force

18 September 1942--Redesignated the Fifth Air Force

Battle Area, World War II: The Southwest Pacific

Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Lewis H. Brereton 16 November 1941-18 January 1942
Lt-Gen George H. Brett 23 February 1942-4 August 1942
Lt-Gen George C. Kenney 3 September 1942-15 June 1944
Lt-Gen Ennis C. Whitehead 15 June 1944-29 December 1945

Operational Notes: Operating against the Japanese in the Southwest Pacific,
the 5th Air Force made a total of 415,979 sorties, dropped 232,496 tons of bombs,
claimed 6,298) enemy planes destroyed, and lost 2,494 aircraft due to enemy action. The
5th Air Forces' combat experiences included Delaying actions in the Philippines and
Dutch East Indies--Defensive action in Australia and the Battle of the Coral Sea, all
in the winter to summer, 1942-The Papuan Offensive, Southeast New Guinea, with the
transport of some 15,000 Army troops including the majority of the U.S. 32nd Infantry
Division over the Owen Stanley Mountain Range in mid-September 1942, and subsequent
supply by air-An attack upon a Japanese convoy in the Bismarck Sea and upon targets
in the Bismarck Archipelago-Supporting action in the Northern New Guinea campaign,
spring-summer 1944-Supporting action in the Palau Islands and Morotai invasions, Sept-
ember-December 1944--Bombing of the Celebes and Ceram areas and the oil center at Balik-
papan, eastern Borneo-Reduction of the Philippines, October 1944-into 1945--The neut-
ralization of Formosa, spring 1945--Air strikes against the coast of Ch~I 1945--and,
finally, Attacks on Kyushu, flown from bases on Okinawa, spring-summer 1945.

No awards or casualties available.





















6TH AIR FORCE

Activated-20 November 1940 at Albrook Field, Canal Zone
as the Panama Canal Air Force

5 August 1941-Redesignated the Caribbean Air Force

5 February 1942-Redesignated the 6th Air Force

Battle Area, World War II: Caribbean Air Command

Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Davenport Johnson 19 September 1941-23 November 1942
Maj-Gen Hubert R. Harmon 23 November 1942-8 November 1943
Brig-Gen Ralph H. Wooten 8 November 1943-16 May 1944
Brig-Gen Edgar P. Sorenson 16 May 1944-September 1944
Maj-Gen William 0. Butler 21 September 1944-24 July 1945

Operational Notes: The primary mission of the 6th Air Force in World War II was the
defense of the Panama Canal against enemy air attacks. Continuing patrols begun by its
predecessors months before the time of Pearl Harbor, the 6th flew thousands of operation-
al hours in keeping watch over the Isthmus of Panama and the vast expanses of water and
jungle that constitute approaches to the canal.
In operations co-ordinated with those of the AAF Antisubmarine Command and the Antilles
Air Command, it participated in antisubmarine search and attack missions during the crit-
ical period of the German U-boat menace in the Caribbean.
Its units engaged in numerous reconnaissance and photographic sorties in connection
with establishment of new bases in Central and South America, and gave protection to the
southern air transport route.
Before the end of 1942, the 6th Air Force also undertook a program of training design-
ed originally to meet its own needs only. As danger to the Canal became less acute, this
work was gradually expanded to include operational training for crews destined to serve
in other theaters.

No awards or casualties available.



















7TH AIR FORCE

Activated-- November 1940 at Fort Shafter, Hawaii

5 February 1942-Redesignated the 7th Air Force

Battle Area, World War II.a.Central Pacific

Commanding Generals (During Combat ,WW II):
Maj-Gen Frederick L. Martin 2 November 1940-18 December 1941
Maj-Gen Clarence L. Tinker 18 December 1941-7 June 1942
Maj-Gen Howard C. Davidson 9 June 1942-20 June 1942
Maj-Gem Willis H. Hale 20 June 1942-15 April 1944
Maj-Gen Robert W. Douglass, Jr. 15 April 1944-24 June 1945
Maj-Gen Thomas D. White 24 June 1945-18 October 1946

Operational Notes: Operating against the Japanese in the Central Pacific, the 7th Air
Force made a tot~l of 59,101 sorties, dropped 32,733 tons of bombs, claimed the destruct-
ion of 794 enemy airplanes, and lost 378 aircraft due to enemy action. Its combat ex-
perience included participation in the Battle of Midway, Guadalcanal, Gilbert and Marsh-
all Islands, attacks upon Truk, Woleai, and other objectives in the Caroline Group, and
neutralization of Wake Island.
Although having little part in preliminary operations against the Marianas, 7th Air
Force fighters and bombers moved to Saipan soon after the capture of that island, prov-
iding air defense, support for ground operations, and cover for the invasions of Tinian
and Guam. The 7th also mined anchorages in the Bonin Islands, operated from the Palau
Islands against targets in the Philippines, and from Iwo Jima, after its capitulation,
escorted B-29s on missions to the Japanese home islands.
Shortly after the invasion of Okinawa, units of the 7th moved in to assist ground
forces in overcoming Japanese resistance, and they took part in tactical isolation of
the island of Kyushu.

No awards or casualties available.



















8TH AIR FCIRC

Activated-28 January 1942 at Savannah, Georgia

Battle Area, World War II: Europe

Commanding Generals (Durig-~i combat, WW II):
Brig-Gen Asa N. Duncan 28 January 1942-5 May 1942
Lt-Gen Carl A. Spaatz 5 May 1942-1 December 1942
Lt-Gen Ira C. Eaker 1 December 1942-6 January 1944
Lt-Gen James H. Doolittle 6 January 1944-10 May 1945

Operational Notes: The 8th Air Force was the daylight precision-bombing force in a com-
bined Anglo-American air assault against Germany. In successive phases of the offensive
begun in 1942, its objectives were submarine yards and pens, aircraft industries, trans-
portation, oil plants, and other critical war industries.
Although predominantly strategic in character, the 8th Air Force repeatedly employed
its striking power to attack tactical targets in operations co-ordinated with ground ar-
mies, such as advances in Normandy after D-Day and in the Battle of the Bulge. In addition,
it engaged in a large number of special missions--leaflet-dropping, supply of partisan
groups, and repatriation of displaced persons and prisoners of war.
By February 1943, a system was undertaken where the British would bomb Germany by night,
and the Americans by day--an almost "around the clock" bombing.
At peak strength, the 8th included 40h neavy bombardment, 15 fighter, and 2 photo rec-
onnaissance groups--an organization capable of dispatching in a single mission (Christmas
Eve 1944) more than 2,000 heavy bombers and almost 1,000 fighters, carrying 21,000 men.
The 8th Air Force claimed the destruction of 20,419 enemy aircraft and, on its 1,034,052
flights (332,904 by heavy bombers), consumed a total of 1,155,412,000 gallons of gasoline.
Transferred to the Pacific in the summer of 1945, the 8th established headquarters on
Okinawa, but had little opportunity to engage in combat before V-J Day, 14 August 1945.

The major and heaviest or most important bombing attacks and other actions of the 8th and
9th Air Forces over Europe:

15 April 1942---Raid on Cherbourg, Normandy, France

17 August 1942--Raid on Rouen, France, against marshalling yards area. Twelve B-17s part-
icipated and none were lost. This was the 8th Air Force's first attack of the war.

27 January 1943---Attack on Wilhelmshaven, northern Germany. First U.S. air strike of the
war on German soil.

5 April 1943--Heavy raid on Antwerp, Belgium, causing heavy damage.

13 June 1943---60 B-17 bombers attacked the submarine shipyards at Kiel, in north Germany,
and 22 planes are shot down.








22 June 1943--First big daylight bombing raid by the 8th Air Force--a successful attack
on a synthetic rubber factory at HUls, in the Ruhr, putting it temporarily out of action.

24 July 1943--167 bombers drop 400 tons of bombs on industrial targets at Heroya, Norway,
while 41 other B-17s bomb German naval installations at Trondheim.

1 August 1943--177 B-24 Liberator bombers from the 9th Air Force drop 311 tons of bombs
on the huge oil refineries at Ploesti, Rumania. The attack puts 4C% of the refining plant
out of commission, but the Americans suffer very heavy losses--54 bombers and 532 airmen.

17 August 1943--Attack on the Messerschmitt fighter-aircraft factories at Schweinfurt and
Regensburg, Germany. 60 planes are shot down by flak and the German fighter-planes. How-
ever, a new tactic is used. Instead of returning to England, the planes continue on to
land in Egypt.

27 August 1943--187 B-17 Flying Fortresses bomb Witten, a large town in the Ruhr.

22 September 1943--Raid omntEden, on the northwest coast of Germany where there are sub-
marine pens.

8 October 1943--357 bombers of the 8th Air Force carry out a massive raid on Bremen and
Vegesack, northwest Germany, but incur heavy losses.

14 October 1943--Second raid on Schweinfurt, this time on the vital ball-bearing plants.
290 bombers take part, and 60 are shot down and 138 more damaged. Only a moderate amount
of damage is inflicted. U.S. attacks on this scale are temporarily halted due to the heavy
losses sustained.

3 November 1943--A daylight raid by 500 aircraft devastates the harbor at Wilhelmshaven.
Many U-boat pens are destroyed.

5 December 1943--The 9th Air Force opens "Operation Crossbow" against the bases where the
Germans are experimenting with secret weapons.

13 December 1943--Attack on Kiel by 710 bombers.

4 January 1944--U.S. and R.A.F. airplanes begin dropping arms and supplies to French,
Belgian, Dutch, and Italian partisan formations under the code name "Carpetbagger".

12 January 1944--"Operation Pointblank" gets underway, a strategic air offensive against
the German aeronautical industry. Some 650 bombers attack factories in Braunschweig (Bruns-
wick), Halberstadt, and Oachersleben (all in north-central Germany). Losses are again
heavy--60 planes.

29 January 1944--800 bombers make a massive attack on the industrial center of Frankfurt.

4 March 1944-First 8th Air Force attack on Berlin. (The Royal Air Force also attacked
Berlin in this same period). A large ball-bearing works is temporarily put out of action.

12 May 194 --Along with the 15th Air Force, the 8th Air Force resumes attacks on not only
the oil refineries in Rumania, but on all other German oil refineries.

Spring 1944--Bombing of selected target areas in France--preparation of Normandy invasion.

21 June 1944--Major raid on Berlin by 1,000 bombers and 1,200 fighters. The planes then
continued on eastward and landed in Russia.

22 June 1944---9th Air Force tactical raid on Cherbourg, Normandy, with 1,000 bombers.
Support of subsequent American ground attack.









21 July 1944---Raids on German airfields in Rumania.

Late-July 1944--A highly risky, high-level saturating "carpet bombing" (the danger of hit-
ting friendly troops) of German-held positions in Normandy, in preparation for a major Am-
erican ground offensive. There were some U.S. casualties, notably in the 30th Infantry
Division, including Major-General Leslie McNair who was killed. However, whole German
platoons and companies were wiped out, and many tanks and hundreds of other vehicles were
destroyed.

11 December l944--Around 1,600 Flying Fortresses, the largest U.S. force yet sent over
Germany, blasts Frankfurt, Hanau, and Giessen.

February 1945--The destruction of the city of Dresden, Germany, a highly controversial--
and useless and tragic action. At this time, the city had little, if any, strategic im-
portance. The bulk of the bombing was done by the British R.A.F., but some 400 U.S. planes
also participated. To make the bombing even more tragic, the city was overflowing with
refugees from the eastern provinces of Germany who were fleeing the oncoming Russians, and
so, the casualties were terr-ibe-as high as 110,000 people may have perished: Just 8
Allied planes were shot down.
Note: In July 1943, a large part of Hamburg was destroyed by the R.A.F. with great loss
of life.

26 February 1945---1,000 bomber raid on Berlin.

Note: Some of the 9th Air Force attacks have been included in this article for the sake
of convenience.

Also, there were other American bombing raids over France and central Europe, some of
which were carried out by the 15th Air Force.

The British Royal Air Force (R.A.F.), besides repeated night bombings of Berlin and the
attacks on Hamburg and Dresden, carried out numerous raids on the Ruhr industrial complex
including the cities of Essen, Duisburg, Dortmund, and Wuppertal, plus others. Besides
this, the British also bombed Cologne, including a 1,000 bomber attack, and many other maj-
or German cities including DUsseldorf, Mannheim, Ludwigshafen, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Munich,
Augsburg, Nuremberg, Friedrichshafen, Kassel, Lubeck, and Stettin, and also the Eder-Mbhne
Dams, and the German V-l and V-2 "buzz bomb" (rocket) bases at PeenemiAnde, on the Baltic.
The Italian cities of Naples, Milano, Genoa, and Torino (Turin) were also bombed prior to
the Italian surrender in September 1943.

No awards or casualty figures are available other than those listed within this article.






















9TH AIR F(CE

Activated-2 September 1941 at Bowman Field, Kentucky,
as the 5th Air Support Command

8 April 1942-Redesignated the 9th Air Force

Battle Area, World War II: Mediterranean Area Europe

Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Lt-Gen Lewis H. Brereton 28 June 1942-2 August 1944
Lt-Gen Hoyt S. Vandenberg 2 August 1944-23 May 1945

Operational Notes: Arriving in the Middle East when Rommel's armies stood before El Ala-
mein, the 9th Air Force and its predecessor, the United States Army Middle East Air Force,
concentrated on disruption of enemy supply lines in the eastern Mediterranean and co-op-
erated with the British 8th Army in driving the Axis forces across North Africa. As the
campaign moved westward, its heavy bomber attacks were extended to targets in Tunisia,
Italy, and Sicily.
Reorganized in the United Kingdom, 16 October 1943, as the tactical arm of the United
States Army Air Forces in the ETO, the 9th engaged in the pre-invasion air offensive, took
part in D-Day, and crossed to France soon thereafter. Following close on the heels of the
enemy, it operated from five different countries in less than a year.
In addition to its primary mission of furnishing tactical support for American armies
in the ETO, the 9th participated with the 8th Air Force in the strategic bombing program,
providing escort and bombing when suitable targets were available.
By V-E Day, 8 May 1945, the 9th Air Force had made 659,513 sorties, dropped 582,701
tons of bombs, claimed destruction of 9,497 ememy aircraft, and lost 6,731 planes to enemy
action.

No awards or casualties available.




















1IPH AIR FORC

Activated-12 February 1942 at Patterson Field, Ohio

Battle Area, World War II: China-Burma-India

Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II),
Maj-Gen Lewis H. Brereton 5 March 1942-25 June 1942
Brig-Gen Earl L. Naiden 25 June 1942-18 August 1942
Maj-Gen Clayton L. Bissell 18 August 1942-19 August 1943
Maj-Gen Howard C. Davidson 19 August 1943-1 August 1945

Operational Notes: In the China-Burma-India Theater, the 10th Air Force had, as its
primary function, defense of the ferry route over the Hump. From the Kunming terminal,
its China Air Task Force struck at Japanese installations, port facilities, and shipping
in the China Seas, while its India Air Task Force guarded the Dinjan and insured neutral-
isation of airfields at Myitkyina and other places in northern Burma.
Although duties of the China Air Task Force were assumed by the 14th Air Force in
March 1943, the 10th continued to operate from bases in Assam, disrupting enemy lines of
communication, flying sweeps over the Bay of Bengal, and mining harbors at Rangoon, Bang-
kok, and Moulmein.
Later, as components of the Eastern Air Comamnd (15 December 1943-1 June 1945), 10th
Air Force units took part in all important phases of the Burma campaign, furnishing air-
borne support to General Wingate's forces, dropping supplies to Merrill's Marauders, and
facilitating General Stilwell's reconquest of northern Burma. By April 1945, some 350,000
men were wholly dependent upon air supply by these units.
In August 1945, the 10th moved to China, anticipating an offensive against the Japanese
home islands.

No awards or casualties available.





















lITH AIR FORCg

Activated-15 January 1942 at Elmendorf Field, Alaska,
as the Alaskan Air Force

5 February 1942-Redesignated the 11th Air Force

Battle Area, World War II: Northern Pacific

Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Col Lionel H. Dunlap 17 February 1942-8 March 1942
Maj-Gen William 0. Butler 8 March 1942-6 September 1943
Maj-Gen Davenport Johnson 6 September 1943-23 July 1945

Operational Notess When carrier-based planes of a Japanese task force struck at Dutch
Harbor on 3 June 1942, aircraft of the llth Air Force from well-concealed bases in an
advanced area participated in operations that resulted in the enemy's withdrawal to
Kiska and Attu.
During the next 14 months whenever weather permitted, units of the llth bombed Japan-
ese installations in the outer Aleutians--first from Umnak, then from Adak, and finally
from Amchitka. In addition, they ran search missions, struck at shipping, engaged in
photographic reconnaissance, and kept patrols in the air.
Before the close of the Aleutian campaign, 24 August 1943, elements of the llth Air
Force began to fly offensive sweeps against the Kurile Islands. These missions later
gave way to more direct attacks, in which airfields, canneries, staging areas, the Kat-
aoka Naval Base, and shipping in Paramushiru Strait were the principal targets.
On occasion, the 11th provided cover for naval vessels which were shelling the Kuriles
and, through its aircraft concentrating on high-altitude photographic reconnaissance, ob-
tained the first pictures of Japan's northern defenses.
The llth Air Force made 7,318 sorties, dropped 4,331 tons of bombs, claimed destruct-
ion of 113 enemy aircraft, and lost 88 planes to enemy action.

No awards or casualties available.























12TH AIR FORCE

Activated-20 August 1942 :a--olling Field, District of Columbia

Battle Area, World War II: Mediterranean Area

Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen James H. Doolittle 23 September 1942-1 March 1943
Lt-Gen Carl A. Spaatz 1 March 1943-21 December 1943
Maj-Gen John K. Cannon 21 December 1943-2 April 1945
Maj-Gen Benjamin W. Chidlaw 2 April 1945-26 May 1945

Operational Notes: On 8 November 1942, when Allied landings were made in French Morocco
and Algeria, elements of the 12th Air Force participated in the initial operations, and
secured bases newly won.
Operating, after February 1943, within the framework of the Northwest African Air For-
ces, and later under direction of the Mediterranean Allied Air Forces, the 12th took an
active part in the Tunisian campaign, bore the brunt of the attack upon Pantelleria, and
flew hundreds of missions contributing to the capitulation of Sicily.
Its units assisted in securing the beachheads at Salerno and Anzio, and gave tactical
assistance to the U.S. 5th Army in its advance through Italy.
In connection with the Allied landing in southern France, aircraft of the 12th carried
out preliminary bombings, provided cover for the invasion, and facilitated the northward
progress of Allied forces.
In the final assault in northern Italy, its units had a substantial part in immobiliz-
ing German lines of communication. Also, out of the XII Bomber Command came the Fifteenth
Air Force.
The 12th Air Force made 430,681 sorties, dropped 217,156 tons of bombs, claimed destruc-
tion of 3,565 enemy aircraft, and lost 2,843 planes to enemy action.

No awards or casualties available.





















15TH AIR FCCE

Activated-i November 1943 in Tunis, Tunisia

Battle Area, World War II: Mediterranean Area and Central Europe

Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen James H. Doolittle 1 November 1943-3 January 1944
Maj-Gen Nathan F. Twining 3 January 1944-26 May 1945

Operational Notes: Composed initially of heavy-bombardment groups of the XII Bomber Comm-
and, the 15th Air Force was established in the MTO to complete the strategic encirclement
of Germany and her satellites.
In attacks co-ordinated with 8th Air Force missions, its units, operating from Foggia,
Italy, and bases further south, attacked enemy airfields, hammered at aircraft factories
in the Wiener-Neustadt, Austria, and Begensburg, Germany, areas, bombed oil refineries at
Ploeoti, Blechhammer, distant Ruhland (in the province of Saxony, Germany), and Vienna,
and struck tank, armament, and munition plants at Linz, Pilsen, Prague, Budapest, and
Munich.
Overshadowed but never obscured by this effort was the 15th's campLign against enemy
lines of communication. Not only were marshalling yards, bridges, and tunnels hit, but
whenever the Italian ground situation demanded, more direct tactical support was given,
as in the Rome-Arno campaign and the stalemate at Cassino.
In connection with the Allied invasion of southern France, the 15th participated in
pre-invasion bombings, and provided cover on D-Day (southern France).
The 15th's units carried supplies to partisans in the Balkans, and rescued large num-
bers of air crews shot down in enemy held territory.
The 15th Air Force flew 242,377 sorties, dropped 309,278 tons of bombs, destroyed 6,258
enemy aircraft, and lost 3,410 planes to enemy action.

No awards or casualties available.





















14TH AIR FORCE

Activated-10 March 1943 at Kunming, China

Battle Area, World War II-.Central and Southern China and Northern Burma

Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Claire L. Chennault 10 March 1943-10 August 1945

Operational Notes, In March 1943, the 14th Air Force replaced the China Air Task Force,
which had continued the work of the Flying Tigers after disbandment of the American Vol-
unteer Group in July 1942.
Pursuing against the Japanese a policy of attrition similar to that of its predecess-
ors, the 14th whittled away at the enemy's air force, interdicted lines of communication,
and ferreted out troop concentrations.
From Hengyang, its units struck at Hankow, Canton, and traffic on inland waterways;
from Kweilin, they swept the coast of the South China Sea and mined shipping lanes; from
Yunnanyi, they protected the eastern end of the Hump route and bombed military targets
near the Burmese towns of Myitkyina, Bhamo, Lashio, and Katha.
To the Chinese armies, the 14th gave tactical support and furnished air supply--espec-
ially during the Japanese drive toward Hsian, Ankang, and Chihkiang in the spring of 1945.
In the area around the city of Chengtu, the 14th gave protection to forward bases of
B-29s then stationed in India. The 14th Air Force also engaged in night reconnaissance,
and flew diversionary missions co-ordinated with the invasion of Luzon and the landing on
Okinawa.

No awards or casualties available.





















13TH AIR FORCE

Activated-13 January 1943 at Noum6a, New Caledonia

Battle Area, World War IIT---Southwest and Western Pacific

Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Nathan F. Twining 13 January 1943-11 December 1943
Brig-Gen Ray L. Owens 12 December 1943-6 January 1944
Maj-Gen Hubert R. Harmon 6 January 1944-6 June 1944
Brig-Gen George L. Usher 6 June 1944-15 June 1944
Maj-Gen St. Clair Streett 15 June 1944-19 February 1945
Maj-Gen Paul B. Wurtsmith 19 February 1945-15 July 1946

Operational Notes: The 13th Air Force provided air defense for Guadalcanal, struck at
Japanese shipping, and bombed airfields in the Central Solomons, After the capture of
Munda, New Georgia, its attacks swung northward, culminating in the landing on Bougain-
ville, in Empress Augusta Bay.
With the 5th Air Force, it participated in the air offensive against the big Japanese
bases on New Ireland and on Rabaul, New Britain.
In support of landings at Hollandia and Aitape, northern New Guinea, the 13th neutral-
ized Woleai by a series of bombings, and struck at the Carolines in connection with the
Central Pacific push against the Marianas.
The 13th's aircraft attacked enemy defenses on Biak and Noemfoor prior to invasion,
hammered at Japanese airfields in western New Guinea and on Halmahera in support of land
operations on Morotai, and bombed the oil refining center at Balikpapan, Borneo.
After participation in the Philippine campaign, the 13th extended its striking power
to distant targets in Java, Malaya, Indo-China, and the China coast.
By V-J Day, some units had begun movement to Okinawa, in preparation for an assault up-
on Japan.
In all, the 13th Air Force made 93,726 sorties, dropped 65,318 tons of bombs, claimed
destruction-of 1.395 enemy aircraft, and lost 645 planes to enemy action.

No awards or casualties available.





















20TH AIR FORCE

Activated-- April 1944 in Washington, D.C.

Battle Area, World War IIt Superbombers against Japan

Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Gen-Henry H. "Hap" Arnold 6 April 1944-16 July 1945
Maj-Gen Curtis E. LeMay 16 July 1945-1 August 1945
Lt-Gen Nathan F. Twining 1 August 1945-15 October 1945

Operational Notes: The 20th Air Force, equipped with Superfortresses, had as its princ-
ipal function the carrying of the war to the Japanese homeland. This program was inaug-
urated on 15 June 1944, when India-based B-29s of the XX Bomber Command, staged through
forward areas in China, bombed the steel works at Yawata.
Attacks upon aircraft factories, oil refineries, ordnance plants, and other critical
industries followed until late-March 1945, when these groups were transferred to the
Marianas. Here units of the XXI Bomber Command stationed on Saipan, Tinian, and Guam,
had hammered at Japanese targets since 24 November 1944, when they made the first B-29
attack upon Tokyo.
During the last 5 months of the war, the 20th Air Force mined Japanese home waters,
initiated incendiary raids, and on 6 and 9 August 1945, dropped the two atomic bombs on
Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
In addition, the 20th lent support in the Burma campaign, facilitated the invasion of
Okinawa by bombing airfields on Kyushu, and, after V-J Day, dropped food and medical supp-
lies to Allied prisoners of war in Japan.
In all, the 20th Air Force flew 38,808 sorties, dropped 171,060 tons of bombs, claimed
1,225 enemy aircraft destroyed, and lost 494 planes to enemy action.

No awards or casualties available.

Some of the- major bombing attacks by the 20th Air Force on Japan:
15 June 1944--Raid on the steel works at Yawata

8 December 1944-Bombing begins on Japanese-held Iwo Jima

9 February 1945---arge Superfortress Raid on Tokyo

10 March 1945--Large fire-bombing raid on Tokyo. Over 300 planes from bases in the
Marianas--14 of them were lost. Over 100,000 people perished:

12 March 1945--Incendiary bombing attack on Nagoya









13 March 1945--Incendiary attack on Osaka. 300 bombers participated, and 8 square miles
of the city are destroyed.

20 March 1945--Second attack on Nagoya by 300 B-29s.

28 July 1945--Attacks on several large cities in Japan, including Kobe and Kure, by 2,000
planes (some from the U.S. Navy).

2 August 1945--Large Superfortress raid on several Japanese cities-Toyama largely
destroyed.

6 August 1945--First atomic bomb ever dropped on the enemy from a B-29, the Enola Gay,
destroying Hiroshima.

9 August 1945--A second atomic bomb destroys Nagasaki.

14 August 1945---B-29 attacks on several Japanese cities--last bombing raid of World WarII.




















1ST MARINE DIVISION "The Big One"

Activated-- February 1941

Battle Credits, World War II: Guadalcanal New Britain Peleliu Okinawa

Commanding Generals (During Tomlat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Alexander A. Vandegrift
Maj-Gen William H. Ruppertus
Maj-Gen Pedro delle Valle

Combat Chronicle: The 1st Marine Division was the first American division to conduct an
offensive operation against the enemy in World War II.
Little was known about the Solomon Islands by Americans before 1942, least of all, Guad-
alcanal, an island roughly 90 miles by 60 long, disease-ridden, full of jungle rot, and num-
erous Japanese. And yet, from the distance aboard ship, the island actually looked beautif-
ul. The operation would be sort of "a shot in the dark", but at this stage of the war, the
American people were quite desperate for any kind of strong offensive action.
On 7 August 1942, the 1st Marine Division landed on Guadalcanal with no opposition on the
beaches--an ominous sign. The Japanese had already begun a key airstrip on the island, cal-
led Henderson Field by the Americans, and this was a major objective of the marines-to take
and hold this important airfield.
During those early days and weeks, the Japanese had naval and local air superiority and
they could, and did shell and bomb the marines almost at will. Meanwhile, the Japanese were
busy sending reinforcements of 1,000 crack troops, the Ichiki Detachment, to annihilate the
marines. Most of these men were China veterans and, overconfident and ignorant, they thought
the marines would be a pushover. How wrong they were:
In the early pre-dawn hours of 21 August 1942, after a mortar barrage, the Japs threw them-
selves against the marines--and were stopped cold. Greatly aiding the marines was this sin-
gle strand of barbed wire that they had just had time to erect, about waist high, and the
Japs, failing to detect it in the darkness, greatly had the momentum of their charge upset.
They were decimated, and during the next day the marines surrounded and wiped out the remain-
der of the enemy force in a coconut grove. At the end of the battle, the marines were com-
pelled to put a bullet through the heads of the Jap corpses lying on the beach. Some of the
Japs had been known to play dead, and then shoot marines in the back. This action became
known as the Battle of the Tenaru, although the battle actually took place near the smaller,
nearby Ilu River. The morale of the marines was decidedly strengthened. Colonel Ichiki, one
of the few Japanese who got away, burned his unit's colors and then committed suicide.
The marines tried to strengthen their positions as best they could with defenses around
the airfield, and awaited the next onslaught. It came on 12 September 1942.
After trekking through the jungle, and after a heavy shelling by Japanese warships, some
2,000 men from the 35th Brigade under General Kawaguchi, threw themselves against an area
which soon became known as "Bloody Ridge." The 1st Marine Division, widely strung out, was
aided in this battle by the 1st Marine Raider Battalion under Colonel Edson. The first enemy
assault failed in vicious fighting.
Despite this, Kawaguchi resumed the assault again on the following night. The Japanese,








under American mortar and artillery fire, plunged up the ridge in a frenzied, wild attack
shouting and screaming obscenities. They were again beaten back.
Then, later on in the night, the Japs fiercely assaulted the ridge for the third time,
and came dangerously close to Henderson Field. The marines were temporarily forced back,
but then rallied and closed with the Japanese in some of the most wild, desperate, and con-
fused night hand-to-hand fighting of the entire war. Although the battle didn't die-out
until daylight, it had already been decided by then, and it was a costly failure for the
Japanese, the remainder of whom fled back into the jungle to the north. They lost over 600
men, while the marines had around 150 men killed in action or die of wounds.
Subjected to continuous Japanese naval bombardments, the marines tried to improve their
positions, while hoping for some reinforcements. They arrived on 13 October 1942--the
164th Infantry Regiment of the Army's Americal Division. That very same night the marines
and soldiers were subjected to a very heavy naval bombardment.
Then, on 23 October, the Japanese attacked with their entire 2nd "Sendai" Division in
the most ferocious, heaviest, and bloodiest fighting on Guadalcanal. This assault came not
far from the "Bloody Ridge" area.
It was during this massive assault that Sergeant John Basilone, 1st Battalion, 7th Marine
Regiment, won the Medal of Honor in a very courageous action on the night of 24-25 October.
While the Japanese were-baamering at the marines' defensive positions, Sgt Basilone, in
charge of two sections of heavy machineguns, fought valiantly to check the savage and det-
ermined enemy assault. In a fierce frontal attack with the Japanese blasting his guns with
grenades and mortar fire, one of the sergeant's gun crews was put out of action, leaving
only two men to carry on. Moving an extra gun into position, he placed it in action, then,
under continual fire, repaired another and personally manned it, holding the line until re-
placements arrived.
A little later, with ammunition running critically low and the supply lines cut-off, Sgt
Basilone, at great risk of his life and in the face of continued enemy attack, battled his
way through hostile lines with urgently needed ammunition for his gunners, thereby contrib-
uting in large measure to the virtual annihilation of a Japanese regiment. His actions were
in the highest traditions of the U.S. armed forces.
(Sgt Basilone could have sat the rest of the war out as a war hero. Instead, he felt bad
about this, and eventually re-enlisted. He was killed by a burst from a mortar shell on
Iwo Jima in February 1945).
In the most desperate kind of fighting, the Marine and Army troops held all their posit-
ions and beat the Japanese to a standstill. In three days and nights of ferocious, some-
times hand-to-hand combat, the enemy was thrown back and again retreated into the jungle.
The Americans waited for them to return, but they didn't. This was the crucible of the
fighting on Guadalcanal.
After only a brief rest, the 1st Marine Division went over to the attack on 1 November
1942, with powerful air support and also artillery and naval gun support. It was on this
very first day of attack that one of the most heroically incredible acts of the war occurred,
and it begs to be told.
Corporal Anthony Casamento was a member of the 5th Marine Regiment which was making the
main effort in this attack. On the morning of the 1st, he and 29 other men were sent to
protect a vital sector of the U.S. airfield. However, they were soon attacked by superior
enemy forces, and, in a short time, all of his men except himself and two others were eith-
er killed or seriously wounded. One of these 2 men was dazed from a mortar burst, so Corp-
oral Casamento sent the remaining other man who had a leg wound, back for help.
For the next 2 hours, which seemed like an eternity, manning a machinegun, he blazed away
at a force of approximately 1,000 Japanese troops: The ground in front of him became cover-
ed thick with the bodies of dead enemy soldiers as he frantically fought to turn back the
screaming enemy tide. Miraculously, he held his position inspite of the overwhelming odds,
and the fact that he was covered with blood from no less than 14 wounds--including one from
a bullet that had passed through his neck:
Finally, other marines came to the rescue and routed the Japanese in a savage bayonet
charge.
By his skill and incomparable courage, Corporal Casamento had practically singlehandedly
turned back a major enemy attack. The most ironic part about this incredible act of heroism








is that Mr. Casamento wasn't awarded the Medal of Honor until President Carter was in office
a great many years later.
The 5th Marines advanced to within a short distance of Point Cruz, a Japanese strongpoint.
Other units of the 1st advanced toward the Metapona River to stop the Japs from landing fresh
troops at Koli Point. On 3 November, a Japanese pocket at Point Cruz was wiped out.
Meanwhile, the 7th Marines destroyed the Japanese whom they had surrounded in the area of
the Gavaga torrent.
The 1st was aided in this offensive toward Point Cruz by elements of the 2nd Marine Divis-
ion and the 164th Infantry Regiment, Americal Division. Further offensive operations temp-
orarily halted on 11 November 1942, due to largely the drenching downpours which hit the is-
land during this period, and also to let other recently arrived Marine and Army units event-
ually resume the attack and give the 1st Marine Division a most hard-earned respite from the
fighting.
Finally, during the first week in December 1942--after 4 long, bitter, desperate months
on this island of death, the 1st Marine Division began evacuating for a so well-deserved rest.
Some of the men were so weak from exhaustion, malaria, and dysentery that they had to be help-
ed aboard the ships by naval personnel. The 1st Marine Division lost 642 men on the "Canal",
but statistics alone don't begin to tell the story. For the men of the 1st Marine Division,
Guadalcanal was more than jnt-a name--it was an emotion.
The 1st was sent to Australia for rest and rehabilitation.
It was a full year before the division began its next operation, a landing at the western
tip of the large island of New Britain--at Cape Gloucester, on 26 December 1943.
New Britain has some of the worst climate and jungle terrain in the Pacific. Slightly
inland, the marines sank to their waist in swampy water and mud. Eventually, they reached
drier ground, and beat back a sizeable Japanese attack. Then, counterattacking, the marines
advanced through tall Kunai grass and captured an important airstrip. Due to the rainsoaked
foliage, bazooka and mortar rounds failed to explode in the wet earth, and the effect of
flamethrowers was reduced because of the dampness.
During January 1944, there were some furious clashes, as the marines drove the Japanese
deeper into the island. An amphibious landing was made on the Willaumez Peninsula, and more
hard fighting ensued. With around the western 1/4 of the large island secured, the marines
were relieved by the 40th Infantry Division and other Army elements in April 1944. The 1st
Marine Division had 310 men killed and some 1,100 wounded.
After rest and recuperation, the Ist's next battle was one of the most vicious and bloody
of the entire war in the Pacific--Peleliu, in the Palau Island chain, some 550 miles east
of Mindanao. The invasion took place on 15 September 1944.
The Japanese had 11,000 men on Peleliu, centered around their 14th Infantry Division.
There was the usual preliminary naval bombardment which did little, if any, good against the
Japanese in their caves and other underground hideaways. As they landed, to the marines'
surprise, although there were skirmishes, the Japanese launched no Banzai attack at the beach
but waited for the marines to advance inland.
The marines crossed the airfield and headed toward the Umurbrogal, a high ridge mass, as
the Japs opened up with a murderous hail of fire. There was no cover and the terrific heat,
as high as 110 degrees, was almost as deadly as the Jap bullets. The direct attack up this
ridge was encharged to the 1st Marine Regiment. Many men dropped from sheer heat exhaustion.
As others inched their way upward, the Japs sometimes fired upon them from behind from their
concealed connections of underground tunnels. It was bitter combat at its worst. The sharp
coral rocks added to the ordeal, as the marines got to the top of one hill and fought off a
counterattack from another.
In the continuous, ferocious, chaotic battle for the series of hills of the Umurbrogal,
the marines beat off repeated counterattacks. They would reach the top of one hill, only to
find that they were exposed to flanking fire from another part of this ridge mass. The Jap-
anese had emplacements which included some made of concrete. These and others often had to
be blasted with demolitions or attacked with flamethrowers. And there was also some savage
hand-to-hand fighting.
By early-October, the 1st Marine Regiment was relieved by part of the 81st Infantry Div-
ision as the raging battle continued. The 5th Marine Regiment came up against an immense








system of caves. The Sherman tanks and flamethrowers were in action, while Marine Corsairs
(planes) dropped napalm and phosphorus on the Japanese who were skillfully using their art-
illery in this Pacific holocaust. At one place, the Japs ambushed a company of marines,
some of whom were saved by other marines throwing smoke grenades to help cover their exposed
plight. Pfc Arthur J. Jackson, 3rd Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment, won the Medal of Honor
in another very daring and gallant action.
Boldly taking the initiative when his platoon was held up by intense enemy fire, he pro-
ceeded forward and charged a large pillbox housing some 35 Japanese. He then hurled white
phosphorus grenades brought up by a fellow marine, and killed all of the enemy inside. Ad-
vancing alone under the continuous fire from other enemy emplacements, he employed similar
means to eliminate two smaller positions in the nearby area.
Determined to smash this entire pocket of resistance, although harassed on all sides by
the shattering blasts of Japanese weapons, and covered only by small rifle parties, he stor-
med one gun position after another. Dealing death and destruction to the savagely fighting
Japanese, he succeeded in wiping out a total of 12 pillboxes and 50 enemy soldiers.
The skillful, intrepid, courageous one-man assault of Pfc Jackson greatly contributed to
the complete annihilation of the enemy on the southern sector of the island, and his conduct
reflected the highest credit upon himself and the U.S. military.
By mid-October 1944, alm*e-all of the 1st had been evacuated from the terrible island,
and the 81st Infantry Division, which had fought a bitter battle on nearby Angaur, took over
the task of eliminating the remaining Japanese from Peleliu. The living nightmare that was
Peleliu cost the 1st Marine Division an incredible total of 1,252 men killed or missing in
action. The 81st Division lost 208 men.
As if this wasn't enough, the last and biggest battle for the 1st was when it and the
6th Marine and 7th and 96th Infantry Divisions all invaded Okinawa on Easter Sunday, 1 April
1945. Few had any illusions that this would be an easy operation. It wasn't, to say the
least:
After securing the northern part of the long, narrow island the 1st and 6th Marine Div-
isions came down to assist the Army on the southern part of the island where the heavy figh-
ting was occurring--extremely heavy fighting. The 1st relieved the exhausted 27th Infan-
try Division on 30 April 1945, and clashed against the highly formidable defenses of the
Shuri Line. The fighting was on a level with what had occurred on Iwo Jima. The Japanese
had an extremely strong system of cave defenses and huge pillboxes, besides numerous artill-
ery pieces of all types and many mortars, and the casualties quickly mounted on both sides
at an alarming rate. At the cost of very heavy casualties, the 1st took the greater part
of Dakeshi Ridge, while the recently arrived 77th Infantry Division advanced slowly toward
the town of Shuri. This occurred around 12 May.
It was in May that drenching downpours hit the island, turning the larger shell craters
into miniature lakes and adding to the misery of this incredible battle. The incessant
fighting continued unabated.
By mid-May, the 1st was battling to take the Wana River Valley but, at first, could make
little headway even with tanks and flamethrowers. On 19 May, Wana Ridge was taken in a
heavy assault by the 1st Marine Regiment, and then strong Japanese counterattacks were
thrown back.
Inching forward against extremely heavy resistance with the 77th Infantry Division on
its left flank, the two divisions drove on Shuri, and with Shuri Ridge finally being captur-
ed by the 1st on 29 May. Shuri town fell two days later to the 77th.
The dreadful fighting continued. On 10 June, after several Japanese night counterattacks
in which they suffered heavy losses, the marines, at the cost of heavy casualties took a
hill west of the town of Yuza. On the 12th, the 1st captured part of Kunishi Ridge.
There was some more hard fighting, but the Japanese flanks had, by now, been pushed in,
and by 21 June 1945, the terrible island was declared secured. The 1st Marine Division had
lost over 2,200 men:
Regarding numbers of men in a comparatively confined area (there were 2 Marine and 4 Army
divisions on Okinawa-plus over 100,000 Japanese), and the. sustained and intense nature of
the fighting, plus the cost--over 7,600 soldiers and marines killed and 4,900 more naval
personnel also dead--few battles could compare with Okinawa.
And few outfits can compare with the 1st Marine Division's record in World War II.








Honors; Congressional Medals of Honor--19 Casualties: Total Deaths and
Distinguished Unit Citations---3 Missing In Action--4,465
Navy Crosses Wounded 13,849
Silver Stars Total Casualties--18,314

* Three to the entire 1st Marine Division--Guadalcanal--Peleliu--Okinawa

No number of Navy Crosses or Silver Stars are available

Other 1st Marine Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action *
Cpl Lewis K. Bausell, 5th Mar Rgt, 15 September 1944, on Peleliu
Hosp Apprentice 1/c Robert E. Bush, 5th Mar Rgt, 2 May 1945, on Okinawa
Pfc William A. Foster, 1st Mar Rgt, 2 May 1945, on Okinawa
Cpl John P. Fardy, 1st Mar Rgt, 7 May 1945, on Okinawa
Pvt Dale M. Hansen, 1st Mar Rgt, 7 May 1945, on Okinawa
Cpl Louis J. Hauge, 1st Mar Rgt, 14 May 1945, on Okinawa
Sgt Elbert L. Kinser, 1st Mar Rgt, 4 May 1945, on Okinawa
Richard E. Kraus, 8th Ampbhiious Tractor Bn, 5 October 1944, on Peleliu
Pfc John D. New, 7th Mar-Rgt, 25 September 1944, on Peleliu
Pltn Sgt Mitchell Paige, 26 October 1942, on Guadalcanal
Pvt Wesley Phelps, 7th Mar Rgt, 4 October 1944, on Peleliu
Capt Everett P. Pope, 1st Mar Rgt, 19-20 September 1944, on Peleliu
Pfc Charles H. Roan, 7th Mar Rgt, 18 September 1944, on Peleliu
1st Lt Carlton R. Rouh, 5th Mar Rgt, 15 September 1944, on Peleliu
Pfc Albert E. Schwab, 7 May 1945, on Okinawa
Maj-Gen Alexander A. Vandegrift, 1st Mar Dvn (Commanding), 7 Aug-9 Dec 1942, Guadalcanal

The 1st Marine Division later saw extensive service in both the
Korean and Vietnam Wars. For many years the 1st Marine Division has been based at
Camp Pendleton, California, and is there, as of this writing. (27 November 1985)




















2ND MARINE DIVISION "Liberty"

Activated-1 February 1941
Battle Credits, World War II: Guadalcanal Tarawa Saipan Tinian Okinawa
Commanding Generals (DuriBg-ombat, WW II):
Maj-Gen John Marston April 1942-April 1943
Maj-Gen Julian C. Smith May 1943-April 1944
Maj-Gen Thomas E. Watson April 1944-June 1945
Maj-Gen Leroy P. Hunt June 1945-July 1946

Combat Chronicle: The 2nd Marine Division was organized in February 1941, at Camp Elliott,
San Diego, California. In May 1941, the 6th Marine Regiment was detached and sent to Ice-
land. A year later, it rejoined the rest of the division back at Camp Elliott. After in-
tensive training, the 8th Marine Regiment was sent to Samoa, to assume the defense there.
In early-August 1942, the 2nd Marine Regiment saw some of the most bitter fighting of
the opening days of the Guadalcanal campaign, when it took the smaller, nearby islands of
Gavutu and Tanambogo. This regiment then went over to Guadalcanal, and part of it saw
heavy fighting.
The 8th Marines of the 2nd arrived on Guadalcanal in early-November 1942, helping to
aid the hard-pressed 1st Marine and part of the Army Americal Divisions.
In November 1942, a large force of Americans from four different regiments, including
the 8th Marines, began an offensive toward Point Cruz. The Japanese resisted very deter-
minedly, but the marines had made fairly good progress, when suddenly, for no apparent
reason, they were ordered to withdraw. Evidently, the top "brass" wanted to further soft-
en up the Japanese positions with artillery bombardments before sending the ground troops
any further. Further attacks were temporarily suspended. There then followed a period of
extensive patrol activities.
Also, on Guadalcanal, during November 1942, the Japs made nightly air raids, and sleep
became a nervous luxury.
Getting back to patrolling, from 24 November-well into December 1942, the 2nd had 100
men killed and 198 wounded. Throughout December 1942, while the valiant 1st Marine Divis-
ion was finally evacuated, extensive patrolling and probing actions continued. In late-
December the 25th Infantry Division arrived on the island.
In early-January 1943, the 2nd's 6th Regiment came to Guadalcanal, and for the first
time the 2nd Marine Division was fighting as an integral unit.
Finally, on 10 January 1943, an all-out offensive was commenced. The 2nd Marine Divis-
ion pushed the enemy into the interior in intensive combat. After a heavy artillery bomb-
ardment, Army troops attacked Mt. Austen, while the marines attacked nearer the northern
coast, just north of the Matanikau River, toward Point Cruz.
In mid-January 1943, a temporary combined Army-Marine division was formed to simplify
tactical command purposes. This structure consisted of the Army 182nd and 147th Infantry
Regiments and the 2nd's 6th Marine Regiment. It was called the CAM Division (Combined
Army Marine). This organization did well. In five days of brisk fighting, Japanese posi-








tions were overrun, and the offensive now became a pursuit.
After a surprise Japanese air attack on 26 January 1943, in which moderate damage was
inflicted, the 6th Marines and the 182nd Infantry resumed the attack west of Poha, and con-
tact was made with the 25th Infantry Division.
The mopping-up phase of the campaign now began, and by 10 February 1943, Guadalcanal was
finally declared secured. The 2nd Marine Division lost 272 men on the "Canal".
After Guadalcanal, the 2nd sailed to New Zealand for rest and rehabilitation, plus fur-
ther training. The New Zealanders were unusually friendly, and a lot of the marines soon
had a girl friend, some even wives.
Then, on 20 November 1943, the 2nd Marine Division assaulted Tarawa Atoll, in the Gil-
bert Islands. While one regiment of the 27th Infantry Division landed on Makin Atoll, fur-
ther to the north, the 2nd headed into the 3 by 1/3 mile island of Betio.
The Japanese commander on Tarawa had boasted that "a million men couldn't take the atoll
in a hundred years." It was that well fortified. The Japanese had coconut tree log bunk-
ers, interlaced with heavy sandbags, plus sometimes cement, concrete pillboxes several feet
thick, and other emplacements---and 4,700 picked troops.
Due to a miscalculation on judging the tides, the marines had to wade several hundred
yards in chest to neck-deep water through murderous enemy machinegun fire. Many of them
never reached shore. Those who did huddled below a long seawall near the water's edge,
many of them being in a state of shock. Casualties were very heavy. Gradually, men here
and there courageously began to seek out the enemy despite the intense machinegun, rifle,
and mortar fire. One such man was 1st Lieutenant William Dean Hawkins, commanding officer
of a scout sniper platoon.
Lt Hawkins unhesitatingly moved forward under heavy enemy fire at the end of a pier,
neutralizing Japanese emplacements in coverage of troops assaulting the beaches. He repeat-
edly risked his life throughout the day and night to direct and lead attacks on pillboxes
and other Jap installations with grenades and demolitions.
At dawn of the next day, he personally initiated an assault against a position fortified
by five machineguns and, crawling forward in the face of withering fire, boldly fired point-
blank into the loopholes of the Jap emplacement and completed its destruction with grenades.
The lieutenant was seriously wounded in the chest during this action, but refused to with-
draw. He continued to carry the fight to the enemy, and destroyed three more pillboxes be-
fore he was caught in a burst of enemy shellfire and fell mortally wounded.
Lt Hawkins' indomitable courage was an inspiration and a vital factor in helping over-
come seemingly insurmountable enemy obstacles. He was posthumously awarded the Congression-
al Medal of Honor.
The fighting on Tarawa was unmatched in its ferocity, and for the number of men concent-
rated in such a small area. It was still touch and go until about 1300 hours of the second
day, 21 November 1943, as Colonel David Shoup, the commander on the beaches, urged his men
inland. Had the Japanese been able to mount a counterattack early in the battle, the mar-
ines may have been in serious trouble. But the heavy U.S. Navy bombardment, prior to the
landings, seriously upset their lines of communication, and no such attack occurred.
The marines were gradually able to get some tanks ashore, and slowly moved inland. The
Japanese offered suicidal resistance, but by the 4th day this terrible battle was ended.
The Japs were annihilated, with some of them actually killing themselves toward the end of
the battle. Some put the barrels of their rifles to their heads and pulled the triggers
with their toes. The 2nd Marine Division lost close to 1,000 men:
Many mistakes in amphibious assault landing techniques were corrected from out of the
experience of terrible Tarawa. And the entire 2nd Marine Division received the Distinguish-
ed Unit Citation.
After Tarawa the 2nd sailed back to the island of Hawaii, for rest and recuperation.
On 15 June 1944, the 2nd and 4th Marine Divisions landed on Saipan, in the Marianas. Sai-
pan was a key Japanese bastion, and they had some 30,000 men on the island centered around
their 43rd Division, and part of their 29th Division.
The 2nd encountered heavy fire almost immediately--in fact, a number of landing craft
were hit by Jap artillery and mortar shells. The Japs fought fanatically, and the battle








was furious, with considerable hand-to-hand combat occurring. Losses were very heavy on
both sides. For awhile, the beachhead was mass confusion, and it was almost every man for
himself until late in the afternoon of the 15th, when a fairly solid front line was estab-
lished. There were over 2,000 marine casualties by the end of the first day:
The Japs launched strong counterattacks with tanks, 15-17 June 1944. At night, the mar-
ines were aided by flares and, in bloody fighting, the Nips lost close to 1,000 men.
Next, the 2nd Marine Division captured Point Afetna and the village of Charan Kanoa, in
fierce fighting.
Saipan was some of the costliest and one of the more prolonged and vicious battles in
the Pacific. The fighting was especially intense on Mt. Tapotchau and in Death Valley, the
former of which part of the 2nd reached the summit on 25 June 1944. This key feature on
Saipan was held by the 2nd against a furious counterattack.
The 2nd then fought into, and through, the town of Garapan despite desperate, but futile
Japanese opposition.
Then, in the early morning darkness of 7 July 1944, the Japs executed a huge, fanatical
Banzai (or Gyokusai) attack. There were some 5,000 Japs in on the assault, and some were
armed only with swords or clubs. Many were drunk. None seemed afraid to die.
Elements of the 2nd fought-valiantly. However, the main blow fell upon the Army's 27th
Infantry Division. The soldiers fought courageously, and, finally, this onslaught lost
momentum and died-out after one huge hand-to-hand free-for-all struggle.
There were numerous acts of valor on Saipan, and it may seem unfair to single any one
man out. However, in this case, one man does stand out.
Pfc Guy Gabaldon, 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Division was certainly unique---an
outstanding marine. What he did on Saipan (and later Tinian) was truly incredible-almost
beyond belief.
Pfc Gabaldon had spent much time growing up in East Los Angeles with friends of Japanese-
American heritage, and learned to speak fluent Japanese. Guy, himself, was of Hispanic
descent, and stood only some 5'3" tall. But his knowledge of Japanese was his ticket into
the Marine Corps, as interpreters were needed very badly.
The Corps has always frowned upon "lone wolf" tactics. The underlying code has always
been teamwork. Yet, this is exactly what Pfc Gabaldon defied. He began operating as a
lone wolf. His first excursion behind Japanese lines netted one enemy soldier killed and
two prisoners.
His commanding officer, Captain John Schwabe, took him aside, asked him what he was try-
ing to prove, and threatened to have him court-martialed if he acted on his own again.
Undaunted, Pfc Gabaldon, soon after, again went out alone into the night. He shot and
killed more of the enemy and took more prisoners. This time Captain Schwabe admitted that
Guy might have a very good thing going as some of these Jap POWs came forth with some very
valuable information.
Soon, Pfc Gabaldon was allowed to roam about pretty much at his own free will. Some-
times another marine went along with him. He seemed to have a charmed life.
His most incredible feat of arms was at Marpi Point, at the northern tip of Saipan,
right after the huge Banzai attack. With great courage, combat savvy, and daring, under
extremely dangerous circumstances, he somehow was able to persuade over 800 Japanese sold-
iers into surrendering: He told a ranking Japanese officer that they would all be very
well treated--good food, clean place to sleep, and humane conditions otherwise. He ment-
ioned that a marine general had said all of this and this carried a great deal of weight
with the Japs, as they are very respectful of any kind of authority. It may also very well
have saved his life, as many of these Japs were still full of fight.
At length, the Japanese commander finally agreed to surrender his men. Other marines,
appearing over a hill, could hardly believe their eyes.
Pfc Gabaldon was eventually very seriously wounded in the hand while on a hazardous pat-
rol mission.
Altogether, on Saipan and Tinian, he had captured over 1,000 Japanese, killed at least
33 more, and had saved the lives of hundreds of Americans, and Japanese, as well. With
great daring, much courage, great combat sagacity, and incredible luck Pfc Gabaldon had








shortened the entire battle on Saipan, and his name became a symbol throughout the entire
2nd Marine Regiment. Pfc Gabaldon's actions were in keeping with the very highest tradit-
ions of the U.S. armed forces.
The 4th Marine Division finished clearing the northern tip of Saipan, and the entire
island was declared secured by 10 July 1944. However, Japanese stragglers, hiding in the
jungled areas and in the hills, were still being flushed out years after the war ended.
The Japanese commander on Saipan committed suicide, as did Vice-Admiral Nagumo. Such was
the seriousness with which the Japanese took the loss of Saipan.
On 25 July 1944, the 2nd Marine Division landed on nearby Tinian, a day after the 4th
Marine Division. Pushing through the canebrake the 2nd fought off a number of fierce coun-
terattacks, and was then forced to eliminate the remaining Japs on the higher ground.
On 27 July 1944, a typhoon hit Tinian. Rain turned the heat to steam, and the rich red
soil of the island into an abysmal of ankle-clutching muck. Despite all of this and the
enemy resistance, Tinian was secured by 1 August 1944.
The 2nd Marine Division then went back over to Saipan to act as a defense force, and,
along with the 27th Infantry Division, more Japanese were flushed out of the jungle and the
hills in difficult and dangerous "mopping-up" operations. On 31 December 1944, the 2nd was
relieved of this duty, and began training for the invasion of Okinawa. The 2nd Marine Div-
ision lost over 1,300 men'--o"Saipan, and close to 200 men on Tinian.
On the day of the Okinawa invasion, 1 April 1945, the 2nd Marine Division was designated
as floating-reserve.
In June 1945, part of the 8th Marine Regiment secured the small islands of Iheya and
Aguni. This regiment then joined in the battle on Okinawa, taking part in the final attacks
between 18-21 June 1945. The 8th Marines lost 58 men.
In September 1945, the 2nd Marine Division moved to Japan for occupational duty. During
July 1946, the 2nd moved to Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor--8 Casualtiess Total Dead and
Distinguished Unit Citations--3 Missing In Action--2,795
Navy Crosses Wounded 8,753
Silver Stars Total Casualties-11,548
* Two to the 2nd and 8th Marine Regiments--Guadalcanal
One to the entire 2nd Marine Division---Tarawa
No Navy Crosses or Silver Stars are available.
Other 2nd Marine Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action *
Pfc Harold C. Agerholm, 10th Mar Arty Rgt, 7 July 1944, on Saipan
1st Lt Alexander Bonnyman, Jr., 8th Mar Rgt, 20-22 November 1943, on Tarawa
S/Sgt William J. Bordelon, 20 November 1943, on Tarawa
Pfc Harold G. Epperson, 6th Mar Rgt, 25 June 1944, on Saipan
Colonel David M. Shoup, 20-22 November 1943, on Tarawa
Sgt Grant F. Timmerman, 6th Mar Rgt, 8 July 1944, on Saipan
Pfc Robert L. Wilson, 6th Mar Rgt, 4 August 1944, on Tinian
Since July 1946, the 2nd Marine Division has been based at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.
However, an update is now in order, as the 2nd is now in Saudi Arabia. (5 February 1991)
As of this writing, Guy Gabaldon has yet to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor. Why?
Simple. Because, during World War II, the Marine Corps was very prejudiced against Hispan-
ics, and also Orientals, or any other non-white elements. A grave injustice? To say the
least: Mr. Gabaldon, at great length, received the Navy Cross. He may yet finally receive
his so well-deserved and so long-awaited Medal of Honor.


















3RD MARINE DIVISION "The Fighting Third"

Activated-16 September 1942

Battle Credits, World War II: Bougainville Guam Iwo Jima

Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Allen H. Turnage
Maj-Gen-raves B. Erskine

Combat Chronicle: The 3rd Marine Division was officially activated in September 1942, in
two echelons: the advance echelon (3rd and 9th Marine Regiments) at Camp Elliott, San Diego,
California, and the rear echelon (21st Marine Regiment and reinforcing units, including the
12th Artillery Regiment) at New River, North Carolina.
After being stationed on Guadalcanal through much of 1943, and undergoing intensive trai-
ning there, the 3rd Marine Division's first major operation in World War II was when it lan-
ded at Cape Torokina, on the southern coast of Bougainville, in the northern Solomon Islands,
1-2 November 1943. In the meantime, there occurred a naval clash in nearby Empress Augusta
Bay, in which American forces inflicted a sound defeat on a Japanese cruiser-destroyer for-
ce which had been sent to bombard the troops who had just gotten ashore.
The Japanese already on the island soon attacked the beachhead but were sent reeling
back. They sustained considerable losses.
The terrain to the rear of the beaches was not bad, but worse than that. It was a sink,
a swamp, a bog, a miasma, swimming with giant crocodiles, dark with the tangle of creepers
and lianas, shadowy with the great, gray bulk of the mangrove trees or crisscrossed with
their fallen trunks. This was nature in the raw, the Bougainville rain forest, where the
3rd Marine Division would live and fight for the next two months. And Bougainville was al-
so filled with English speaking Japs.
The marines pushed inland, and there were numerous clashes with the Japanese. The Jap-
anese attempted to roll up the left of the Marine line which was anchored on the southern
edge of the Koromokina swamp. The marines stopped them but, temporarily, failed to throw
them back. The battle in the swamp then see-sawed back and forth, with marines and Japs
trading shot for shot, and blundering around in a slop of muck and slimy water.
Then, thanks greatly to a Captain Gordon Warner, who came up leading a tank and with a
helmet full of white phosphorus grenades, the Japs were wiped out in droves, and the mar-
ines attacked through the suddenly silent swamp choked with the bodies of the foe. Captain
Warner lost a leg, and was later awarded the Navy Cross.
The 23rd Regiment of the infamous Japanese 6th Division which had raped Nanking, China,
soon after attacked a marine roadblock but was hurled back.
There then developed a furious battle for a dominating ridge area, in which hand grenades
were the decisive weapon. It lasted for 9 days and cost the Japanese 1,200 men.
Meanwhile, the 37th Infantry Division had arrived in mid-November, and the Americal Div-
ision in January 1944, with the 3rd Marine Division leaving the island that same month.
Among other casualties, Bougainville cost the 3rd 253 men killed and missing.
The 3rd Marine Division's next battle was when it took part in the historic recapture of
Guam. The 3rd landed at Asan Point, west of Agana, on 21 July 1944. The 1st Marine Prov-
isional Brigade landed further south at Agat.
The marines had established the beachhead to several hundred yards in depth, when the
Marine Brigade was hit by a Japanese night attack. In wild fighting, this attack was beat-
en back.









The terrain on Guam was much like that of Saipan and Tinian--some dense jungle areas,
combined with broken, jagged crevices, and always the hill regions plus, in this case, num-
erous caves, and the heat. In this type of rugged terrain, the 3rd inched forward and, a
few days later, the excellent 77th Infantry Division landed.
Then, on the night of 25 July 1944, the Japanese launched their biggest Banzai attack of
the war, with the main blow crashing against the 3rd Marine Division. Screaming obscenit-
ies, thousands of Japs came on and were scythed down, but more took their place. They man-
aged to force a gap between two of the 3rd's regiments, and sprayed damaging fire into eith-
er side of the marine positions. Every available man was thrown into the line in a desper-
ate attempt to throw back the frenzied Japanese assault. A counterattack was mounted, and
this succeeded in stopping them. The remaining Japs were routed and hunted down the follow-
ing day. The Japanese left 3,500 dead on the battlefield. It was a close call for the 3rd,
which lost around 200 men.
The Marine and Army troops then battled north up the island with the 3rd on the left
flank. It had a tough battle at Finegayen--and a Medal of Honor winner, Pfc Frank Witek,
1st Battalion, 9th Marine Regiment, 3 August 1944.
When his rifle platoon was halted by heavy surprise fire from well-camouflaged enemy
positions, Pfc Witek daring2ypemained standing to fire his BAR into a depression holding
some Japanese. Eight of the enemy were killed. When his platoon withdrew to a safer area,
he remained to guard a severely wounded buddy, and courageously returned the enemy fire un-
til stretcher bearers arrived.
When his platoon was again pinned down, on his own initiative, he moved forward boldly
with the reinforcing tanks and infantry. He alternately threw hand grenades and fired his
rifle, coming to within 5-10 yards of the enemy positions. He destroyed the hostile mach-
ine-gun emplacement and 8 more Japanese before he was struck down and killed.
Pfc Witek's gallant action was an inspiration to those around him, and effectively re-
duced the Japanese strongpoint, enabling his platoon to reach its objective.
Organized Japanese resistance on Guam ended by 10 August 1944, but dangerous mopping-up
operations continued for several months. Years later, Japanese were still being discovered,
not knowing the war had ended. Guam cost the 3rd Marine Division 619 men--killed.
The 3rd stayed on Guam--until it was time to sail into the hell of Iwo Jima.
Iwo Jima was invaded on 19 February 1945. The 4th and 5th Marine Divisions made the in-
itial assault landings, and on the 23rd, the 3rd's 9th and 21st Regiments were thrown into
the awful battle.
Placed in between the 4th and 5th Divisions, the 3rd charged forward with a yell, into
the windblown sand that pelted the men's faces like buckshot, into a storm of fire that
stripped them of their company commanders in minutes. They pressed on, led by lieutenants
and then sergeants, flowing like a green wave around the mounds of the Japanese pillboxes,
and surging beyond to flood the Jap trenches with jabbing bayonets. The Americans then
swept out of these trenches and across a bullet-drenched airfield, and then up a hill to
fight the counterattacking Japanese. The enemy was thrown back. The men of the 3rd held
this hill, and eventually went on to crack the heart of the most heavily fortified fixed
positions the world has ever known.
The Japanese had the most intricate cave-tunnel system imaginable, with their strong
pillboxes, heavy artillery, mortars, and 23,000 men. Often, the Japs had to be buried in
their holes with bulldozers, or burned alive with flamethrowers. They also launched numer-
ous local counterattacks, and did much infiltrating at night with frequent hand-to-hand en-
counters.
There were countless acts of heroism on Iwo Jima. One case, among many, was that of
Corporal Hershel Williams of the 3rd's 21st Regiment, who destroyed one pillbox after anoth-
er and its occupants with his flamethrower. On one occasion, he grimly charged enemy rifle-
men who attempted to stop him with fixed bayonets, and eliminated them with a burst of flame
from his weapon. He was greatly responsible for reducing an enemy strongpoint which had
been holding up part of his regiment, and enabled his own company to reach its objective.
Corporal Williams was one of 26 men who won the Medal of Honor on Iwo---many of them never
living to tell about it.
On 26 March 1945, the horrible island was finally declared officially secured but, as








usual, "mopping-up" actions continued for some time. Altogether, some 6,800 marines and
sailors paid the supreme price. One-third of all the marines who fought on Iwo were eith-
er killed or wounded--some 20,000 men, with the 3rd Marine Division having close to 1,000
men either killed in action or dying of wounds. Almost the entire Japanese force was ann-
ihilated, although over 1,000 were taken prisoner.
The U.S. Marine Corps has, so far, considered Iwo Jima the toughest battle in its long
history.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor--9 Casualties: Total Dead and
Distinguished Unit Citations-- Missing In Action--1,932
Navy Crosses 6I4 Wounded 6,?44
Silver Stars Total Casualties----8,676

Other 3rd Marine Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action *
2nd Lt John H. Leims, 9th Mar Rgt, 7 March 1945, on Iwo Jima
Pfc Leonard F. Mason, 3rd Mar Rgt, 22 July 1944, on Guam
Sgt Robert A. Owens, 1 November 1943, Cape Torokina, Bougainville
Pfc Luther Skaggs, Jr., 3pdi-Mar Rgt, 21-22 July 1944, on Guam
Sgt Herbert J. Thomas, 5rd Mar Rgt, 7 November 1943, Koromokina River, Bougainville
Pvt Wilson D. Watson, 9th Mar Rgt, 26-27 February 1945, on Iwo Jima
Captain Louis H. Wilson, Jr., 9th Mar Rgt, 25-26 July 1944, on Guam

Note: The 3rd Marine Division later saw extensive service in the Vietnam War. As of this
writing, the 3rd is stationed on Okinawa. (14 July 1984)





















4TH MARINE DIVISION "Fighting Fourth"

Activated-16 August 1943
Inactivated-After World War II
Battle Credits, World WaSrTit Marshall Islands Saipan Tinian Iwo Jima
Commanding Generals (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Harry Schmidt August 1943--July 1944
Maj-Gen Clifton B. Cates July 1944--November 1945

Combat Chronicle: The 4th Marine Division was activated at Camp Pendleton, Oceanside,
California, on 16 August 1943.
The first battle for the 4th Marine Division was when it invaded Kwajalein Atoll, in
the Marshall Islands, in conjunction with the 7th Infantry Division, on 1 February 1944.
While the 7th attacked Kwajalein Island, the 4th invaded the twin islands of Roi and
Namur, at the northern end of the atoll. The invasions were proceeded by heavy naval
bombardments.
The fighting on all three of these islands was fierce. Isolated into pockets by lack
of communications, which were disrupted by the U.S. naval bombardments, the Japanese on
Roi were mopped-up in two days.
Namur, unlike Roi, was densely wooded, giving considerable cover to the defenders.
Despite desperate, but unco-ordinated defense efforts by the Japanese, the 24th Marine
Regiment made good progress. A most unfortunate incident occurred in this battle. A
demolitions team hurled a satchel charge into a blockhouse full of torpedo warheads. The
resulting explosion sent trunks of palm trees and huge chunks of concrete hurling through
the air. 20 marines were killed and 100 more wounded as a result. But the attack stall-
ed only momentarily. By dusk, the regiment held 3/4ths of the mile-wide island. The
night was marked by small-scale Jap counterattacks, before Namur was secured on 2 Feb-
ruary 1944. The 4th Marine Division lost 190 men in this entire operation..
The 4th soon sailed back to the Hawaiian Islands, on the island of Maui.
The next battle for the 4th Marine Division was on Saipan, in the Marianas. The 4th
and the 2nd Marine Division made the initial assault landing on 15 June 1944. There was
initial opposition, but, mainly, from artillery, mortar, and antiboat gun fire. However,
most of the assault troops in the 4th's zone of attack were ashore and dispersed before
the Japanese could concentrate their artillery and mortar fire.
Soon, though, all down the line from Charan Kanoa and Lake Susupe to Agingan Point,
enemy fire increased in intensity. The terrain was all in the enemy's favor, and the Jap-
anese had an unusual proportion of heavy weapons. Everywhere the severity of the battle
heightened.
The Japs mounted a counterattack that first night, although the brunt of it fell upon
the 2nd Marine Division. This was repulsed with heavy losses to the Japanese. It was on
16 June 1944, that the 4th Marine Division had a Medal of Honor winner on Saipan, Sgt
Robert H. McCard, Company A, 4th Tank Battalion.
Cut-off from the other units of his platoon when his tank was put out of action by a








battery of enemy 77mm guns, G/Sgt McCard carried on resolutely, bringing all the tank's
weapons to bear on the Japanese. However, the severity of hostile fire caused him to ord-
er his crew out of the escape hatch, while he courageously exposed himself to enemy guns
by throwing hand grenades, in order to cover the evacuation of his men.
Seriously wounded during this action, and with his supply of grenades exhausted, Sgt
McCard then dismantled one of the tank's machineguns, and faced the Japanese for the second
time. He delivered vigorous fire into their positions, destroying 16 of the enemy, but
sacrificing himself to insure the safety of his crew.
Sgt McCard's valiant fighting spirit and heroic self-sacrifice to protect the lives of
some of his fellow marines upheld the highest traditions of the U.S. armed forces.
By now, the battle was on in full fury. In the first two days and nights on Saipan, the
2nd and 4th Marine Divisions sustained losses of 2,500 men killed, wounded, and missing!
To maintain the momentum of the attack, and to help compensate for casualties, the Army
27th Infantry Division was landed on 17 June 1944.
On 23 June 1944, the 27th Division was placed in between the two marine divisions, and
the three divisions battled northward slowly against fanatical opposition. On 3 July 1944,
strong resistance on Hill 721 temporarily stopped the advance, and it wasn't until the next
day that this hill and another Japanese strongpoint, Hill 767, were stormed and taken.
A tremendous Banzai attack was launched against, mainly, the 27th Infantry Division in
the pre-dawn darkness of 7 July 1944. With the greatest effort, aided by the 10th Marine
Artillery Regiment, plus Army cooks, clerks, rear-echelon officers, and other elements,
this terrible enemy onslaught was finally defeated.
A very grim event was witnessed by the men of the 4th Marine Division as they reached
the northern tip of Saipan, at Marpi Point. The Japs had told the civilians on the island
that if they fell into the hands of the Americans, they would be beaten and tortured. As
a result, hundreds of them hurled themselves over the edges of cliffs into the sea, or to
the rocks at the bottom of the cliffs. Some of these people were women and children, some,
even, with babies in their arms, and some who were pregnant. Even the combat-hardened vet-
erans of the 4th grimaced in horror at this sickening mass-suicide.
By August 1944, the Japanese had lost close to 30,000 men killed on Saipan. The 2nd and
4th Marine and 27th Infantry Divisions all lost well over 1,000 men killed in action or died
of wounds: The 4th Marine Division, alone, had 1,107 men killed and missing in action.
While the 27th Infantry Division conducted mopping-up operations on Saipan, the 4th Mar-
ine Division landed on nearby Tinian on 24 July 1944. The 2nd Marine Division landed the
following day.
The 4th received two furious Japanese attacks--as usual, after dark. There was a con-
siderable break made in the marine lines, and the fighting was at close-quarters. But by
daybreak, the Jap attackers had been wiped out, with some of the remainder of them blowing
themselves up with hand grenades.
Although not as prolonged or heavy as the fighting on Saipan, Tinian was still rough
going. The marines had to attack across an open area toward a ridge held by the Japanese,
and they sustained severe losses. After battling to the top of this ridge, the marines had
to beat back a night attack. There was some wild hand-to-hand combat. This was followed
by a Banzai charge of some 600-700 Japs. It failed, and the island was declared secured by
1 August 1944. The 4th lost 214 men on Tinian. The entire 4th Marine Division was awarded
the Distinguished Unit Citation for Saipan and Tinian.
After Saipan and Tinian came rest and rehabilitation back again on Maui.
Then, in February 1945, came the hell of Iwo Jima. The 4th and 5th Marine Divisions
landed on this black, volcanic-sanded island, dominated by the 550-foot Mt. Suribachi, on
the morning of 19 February 1945. It was murderous, and the casualties quickly mounted at
an alarming rate. The 5th was on the left and closest to the hail of death raining down on
the beachhead from Mt. Suribachi, but the 4th also suffered heavily. Courageously, however,
the marines forced their way inland in ferocious fighting. Actually, they had little other
choice, for to remain on the beach would have meant almost certain death. A very courag-
eous and inspiring leader in this early stage of the fighting on Iwo Jima was Colonel Just-
ice M. Chambers, of the 25th Marine Regiment.
Lt Col Chambers, leading the 3rd Battalion of the 25th, seized the high ground to the








left of a quarry, and then engaged in a fire fight until relieved. His men had suffered
considerable casualties, but had tenaciously held their ground. At 1900 hours, 19 February
1945, Lt Colonel Chambers battalion had only 150 men, when they were later relieved at 0100
(1 A.M.) by the 1st Battalion, 24th Marines. The closing of the day found the high ground
in the 4th's zone of attack secured, but it had cost 35 per cent casualties.
For the above action, as well as outstanding qualities of valor and leadership displayed
up through 22 February 1945, Lt Col Chambers was later awarded the Medal of Honor--one of
26 awarded to marines on Iwo Jima, where "uncommon valor was a common virtue". Colonel
Chambers was luckier than so many others, for he survived the war to receive his medal.
The 3rd Marine Division was landed on 23 February 1945, and the three divisions gradually
worked into a turning maneuver to the right, with the 4th Division on the right flank, near-
est the east coast.
No one had ever seen anything like Iwo Jima. The Japanese had the most intricate cave-
tunnel system of defenses imaginable. Often, they would slip to a concealed hole after the
marines had advanced beyond, and shoot them in the back. Frequently, the marines would have
to go back and retake ground they already thought had been secured. And, at night, there
was considerable Japanese infiltration. This resulted in frequent hand-to-hand encounters.
One of the 4th's major objectives was Motoyama Airfield No. 1. It would take the 4th
24 grim days of relentless combat to advance from this airstrip to the eastern coast just
above Tachiiwa Point--a distance of slightly over 3 miles:
On 8-9 March 1945, the Japs made a large counterattack in the 4th's sector. It cost
them close to 1,000 men.
The grinding, harrowing ordeal continued. Between 12-16 March, the 25th Marines cleaned
out many pockets of the enemy. The Japs, as usual, resisted with the utmost tenacity. Hun-
dreds of pounds of demolitions were used in blasting the Jap-held cave entrances and exits.
One of the many acts of heroism on Iwo Jima may be worth noting.
On 15-16 March 1945, Pharmicist Mate 1/c Francis Pierce, serving as a corpsman with the
24th Marine Regiment, repeatedly risked his life to save wounded marines in dangerously ex-
posed positions, some of whom had been ambushed. He also fired his submachinegun at the
Japs, and killed one with his .45 automatic. When wounded, he brushed aside help until oth-
ers were assured of safety. Francis Pierce was also more fortunate than many others, for
he, too, lived to receive the Medal of Honor.
During the same above period, about 60 Japs tried to break out of a pocket they were
trapped in. They failed and were driven back into their caves. By 1000 hours on 16 March,
this pocket was finally reduced.
Meanwhile, the remainder of the 4th Division conducted extensive mopping-up actions, pol-
iced the area, and buried the dead.
Finally, Iwo Jima was declared secured on 26 March 1945. The 4th Marine Division had
lost over 1,800 men, and one-third of all the marines who fought on Iwo were either killed
or wounded--some 20,000 men! The Japanese force of over 23,000 men was mostly annihilated,
with the 4th taking only 44 prisoners.
Iwo Jima was the last, and, by far, toughest battle of the 4th Marine Division in World
War II.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor--12 Casualties: Total Dead and
Distinguished Unit Citations--- Missing In Action--3,317
Navy Crosses 111 Wounded 13,006-
Silver Stars 646 Total Casualties--16,323
* One to the entire 4th Marine Division--Saipan and Tinian

Other 4th Marine Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action *
Pfc Richard B. Anderson, 1 February 1944, on Roi, Kwajalein Atoll
Sgt Darrell S. Cole, 23rd Mar Rgt, 19 February 1945, on Iwo Jima
Lt Col Aquilla J. Dyess, 24th Mar Rgt, 1-2 February 1944, on Namur, Kwajalein Atoll
Sgt Ross F. Gray, 25th Mar Rgt, 21 February 1945, on Iwo Jima
Pfc Douglas T. Jacobson, 23rd Mar Rgt, 26 February 1945, on Iwo Jima
Capt Joseph J. McCarthy, 24th Mar Rgt, 21 February 1945, on Iwo Jima








Pvt Joseph W. Ozbourn, 23rd Mar Rgt, 30 July 1944, on Tinian
1st Lt John V. Power, 1 February 1944, on Namur, Kwajalein Atoll
Pvt Richard K. Sorenson, 1-2 February 1944, on Namur, Kwajalein Atoll




















5TH MARINE DIVISION "Spearhead"

Activated-21 January 1944

Inactivated-After World War II

Battle Credits, World War T. Iwo Jima

Commanding General (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Keller E. Rockey

Combat Chronicle: The 5th Marine Division was activated at Camp Pendleton, Oceanside,
California, on 21 January 1944. Although untried in combat as a unit before Iwo Jima,
the 5th was composed of 40 per cent seasoned veterans who had already been in combat
with one of the other Marine divisions or regiments.
On 19 February 1945, the 5th, 4th, and 3rd Marine Divisions assaulted the black, vol-
canic sanded island of Iwo Jima, some 660 nautical miles south of Tokyo. The marines had
made repeated practice landings on beaches as similar to Iwo as possible, and even with a
hill quite like the 550-foot Mount Suribachi, which dominated the southern end of the
island.
Iwo Jima is only 5 miles long at its extreme from north to south, and about half that
distance across. From the air, the shape may remind one of a pork chop. The Japanese
had spent years fortifying Iwo with the most intricate system of cave/tunnel defenses im-
aginable, and they had 23,000 men on the island, centered around their 109th Division,
plus plenty of artillery, mortars, and machineguns.
Although the Air Force and Navy had both bombed and shelled the island for weeks prior
to the assault, the Japanese were so well dug-in that these bombardments did only a moder-
ate amount of damage.
The marines began landing at about 0900 hours on 19 February 1945, with the 5th Marine
Division on the left and closest to Mount Suribachi. The 4th Marine Division was on their
right, while the 3rd Marine Division was held ready in floating reserve.
For 20 minutes the Japanese held their fire. Then they opened up with a devastating
hail of pre-sighted artillery, mortar, machinegun, and small-arms fire, particularly from
the slopes and caves of Mt. Suribachi. Some of the marines from the 5th who had advanced
a short distance inland, as well as those on the beach, burroughed into the black, volcanic
sands, desperately seeking to escape this hail of death. About the only cover was wherever
there was a shellhole or crater, and these were dubious in their safety. No place was really
safe, but the marines had to get off the beach or be slowly cut to pieces. Casualties moun-
ted at an alarming rate, but the marines courageously inched their way forward. They had
little other choice, since to remain on the beach meant almost certain death.
In 4 days of savage fighting, elements of the 5th battered their way to the top of Mt.
Suribachi, 23 February, and planted "Old Glory", producing perhaps the most famous photo-
graph to come out of the war, taken by Joe Rosenthal. (Actually, more than one picture was
taken of the flag raising. Three of the six men in the most famous of these photos were
later killed in action).
Reaching the top of Mt. Suribachi by no means meant an end to the struggle. In fact, it








was violent almost beyond belief, and on the same day of the flag raising, two regiments
of the 3rd Marine Division were thrown into the inferno.
Against the most fanatical resistance, the marines were slowly able to conduct a grad-
ual turning maneuver and advance slowly northward, with the 5th Division on the left-
or outer rim of the wheel of attack. This meant that the 5th had the furthest distance to
cover of the three divisions.
No one had ever seen anything like Iwo Jima. In this holocaust the marines often dis-
covered that the Jap positions would have to be retaken all over again. With their tunnel
network, the Japanese could oppose the Americans as they advanced, and then sneak to a con-
nected underground position to the rear and fire upon them from behind. Or they would pro-
ceed to an underground hole establishment further ahead. Often, the only way to destroy
the enemy was to blast him out or bury him beneath, sealing up the tunnel entrances with
bulldozers. Flamethrowers were also used a great deal. At night, the Japs often tried to
infiltrate back within the marine lines, and there were frequent hand-to-hand encounters.
There were countless acts of heroism on Iwo, where "uncommon valor was a common virtue."
The 5th Marine Division, alone, had 17 Medal of Honor winners--many of them posthumously,
and it would be hard to single out any one action. The following one, in particular, may
be worth noting; that of Private Franklin Sigler, 2nd Battalion, 26th Marine Regiment, on
14 March 1945.
Pvt Sigler led a bold charge against an enemy gun installation which had held up his
company for several days and, reaching the position ahead of the others, assailed the Jap
emplacement with grenades and annihilated the entire crew.
As more Japanese troops opened fire from concealed tunnels and caves above, he quickly
scaled the rocks leading to the guns, surprised the Japanese with a furious one-man assault
and, though severely wounded, deliberately crawled back to his squad. He refused evacuat-
ion, and directed heavy machinegun and rocket barrages on the enemy cave entrances. He
then carried 3 wounded men to safety, inspite of his own wounds, and then returned to the
battle until ordered to retire for medical treatment.
Each time the marines managed to penetrate one defense line, they would find another
even more formidable one ahead. The marines used everything they could muster against the
Japanese--tanks, flamethrowers, bazookas, satchel charges, rifles, and bayonets. Finally,
American persistence won out, and the northern tip of the island was reached, and the terr-
ible place secured by 26 March 1945.
The 23,000-man Japanese force was mostly annihilated, although 1,083 were taken prisoner,
a good percentage of them by the 5th Division. One-third of all the marines who fought on
Iwo were either killed or wounded--some 20,000 men on "hell's half acre:"
Although Iwo Jima may have been the 5th Marine Division's only battle of World War II,
no one can deny that it was one of the war's toughest and bloodiest.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor--17 Casualties: Total Dead and
Distinguished Unit Citations--- 1 To the entire Missing In Action--2,113
Navy Crosses division- Wounded 6,450
Silver Stars Iwo Jima Total Casualties----8,563

No Navy Crosses or Silver Stars are available for the 5th Marine Division.

Other 5th Marine Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II--all on Iwo Jima: KIA *
Cpl Charles J. Berry, 26th Mar Rgt, 3 March 1945
Pfc William R. Caddy, 26th Mar Rgt, 3 March 1945
Capt Robert H. Dunlap, 26th Mar Rgt, 20-21 February 1945
Sgt William G. Harrell, 28th Mar Rgt, 3 March 1945
Platoon Sgt Joseph R. Julian, 27th Mar Rgt, 9 March 1945
Pfc James D. La Belle, 27th Marine Rgt, 8 March 1945
Pfc Jack H. Lucas, 26th Mar Rgt, 20 February 1945
1st Lt Jack Lummus, 27th Mar Rgt, 8 March 1945
1st Lt Harry L. Martin, 5th Pioneer Bn, 26 March 1945
Pvt George Phillips, 28th Mar Rgt, 14 March 1945









Pvt Donald J. Ruhl, 28th Mar Rgt, 19-21 February 1945
Cpl Tony Stein, 28th Mar Rgt, 19 February 1945
Pharmacist's Mate 2/c George E. Wahlen, 26th Mar Rgt, 3 March 1945
Sgt William G. Walsh, 27th Mar Rgt, 27 February 1945
Pharmacist's Mate 3/c Jack Williams, 28th Mar Rgt, 3 March 1945
Pharmacist's Mate /c John H. Willis, 27th Mar Rgt, 28 February 1945

Two regiments of the 5th Marine Division served in the Vietnam War.


















6TH MARINE DIVISION "The Striking Sixth"

Activated-- September 1944 on Guadalcanal

Inactivated--After serving in North China

Battle Credits, World War II: Okinawa

Commanding General (During Combat, WW II):
Maj-Gen Lemuel C. Shepherd

Combat Chronicle: The 6th Marine Division was primarily a new outfit in name only. As a
division, it was expanded from Marine units which had fought in battles previous to Okinawa.
The 6th included the rebuilt 4th Marine Regiment, the original of which had been lost in the
Philippines in 1942, and the 22nd Marine Regiment which had fought on Eniwetok Atoll in the
Marshall Islands. These two regiments had been combined to form the 1st Marine Provisional
Brigade which took part in the historic recapture of Guam in the summer of 1944. In turn,
the new 29th Marine Regiment was added to make up the 6th Marine Division, plus the 15th
Artillery Regiment, as well as all the other various types of supporting units such as engin-
eers, supply, medical detachment, communications, etc., which make up any American fighting
division. And so, many of the men in the 6th were the cream of the Corps. There were vet-
erans of not only Eniwetok, Saipan, and Guam, but of also the disbanded Marine Raider battal-
ions which had fought on Guadalcanal, New Georgia, and Bougainville. The 6th also had anoth-
er nickname, due to a number of professional football players in its ranks--"The All-Stars."
The division was anxious to prove itself in the terrific battle that was about to come.
On 1 April 1945, the 6th Marine Division, along with the 1st Marine and 7th and 96th Inf-
antry Divisions, invaded Okinawa, landing toward the southwest side of the long, narrow is-
land. It was both Easter Sunday and All Fool's Day, but few of the veterans in these outfits
were under any illusions that it would be easy. Not with the only too well-known type of
resistance that the Japanese were capable of putting up. They had their 24th and 62nd Divi-
sions, the 44th Independent Mixed Brigade, a tank unit, and various other assorted troops on
Okinawa initially totaling some 80,000 men. However, the Japanese had elected to make their
major stand toward the southern end of the island. Unaware of this, the Americans sent the
two Marine divisions wheeling north, while the two Army divisions, after capturing two air-
fields, pivoted south.
The 6th Marine Division bore the brunt of the fighting on northern Okinawa. It cleared
the northern 2/3rds of the island throughout April and into early-May. In particular, there
was heavy fighting on the Motobu Peninsula, a rather heavily wooded area. And on this pen-
insula, the 6th assaulted and cracked the powerfully organized Japanese defenses on Mount
Yaetake, where there were a number of acts of individual heroism. By early-May 1945, the 6th
had methodically killed-off the 2,500 defenders of northern Okinawa, while losing 236 men.
On 30 April, the 1st Marine Division had come down to relieve the exhausted 27th Infantry
Division, and the 6th Marine Division soon followed into the inferno of southern Okinawa.
The Americans battered away at the highly formidable Shuri Line in extremely tough, heavy,
and costly fighting. The marines and soldiers were plastered almost continuously with art-
illery fire and the Japanese had their "knee" mortars which they used so accurately, plenty
of automatic weapons, and the most intricate cave/tunnel system of defenses that the Americ-
ans had yet met anywhere in the Pacific.








The 6th Marine Division was in the extreme right flank of the U.S. line, with the Ist
Marine Division on its left flank. On the 6th's right flank was nothing but the open sea.
In savage, exhausting combat the 6th hammered away at the extremely tough Jap defenses,
along with the 1st Marine and 77th, 96th, and 7th Infantry Divisions, from west to east,
facing south. Gains were measured in terms of yards and even feet, as the 6th achieved a
series of small gains at the cost of very heavy casualties.
And then came the rains--incessant, drenching downpours which turned the battlefield
into one big mass of slippery mud and muck, and made miniature lakes out of some of the
larger shell craters. But the dreadful battle continued unabated, as the casualties kept
on mounting. On 14-15 May 1945, the 6th had one of its 5 Medal of Honor winners on Okinawa
in a very daring and courageous display of leadership and initiative by Major Henry A.
Courtney, Jr., executive officer of the 2nd Battalion, 22nd Marine Regiment.
Ordered to hold for the night in static defense behind Sugar Loaf Hill after leading the
forward elements of his command in a prolonged fire fight, Major Courtney weighed the effect
of a hostile night counterattack against the tactical value of an immediate marine assault.
Resolving to initiate the assault, he promptly obtained permission to advance and seize the
forward slope of the hill.
Quickly explaining the situation to his small remaining force, he then proceeded to ad-
vance forward, boldly blasting nearby Japanese cave positions and neutralizing their guns
as he went. Inspired by his courage, every man followed without hesitation. Together, the
intrepid marines braved a terrific concentration of enemy fire to skirt the hill on the right
and reach the reverse slope. Temporarily halting, Major Courtney sent men to the rear for
more ammunition and possible replacements. Reinforced by 26 men and more grenades, and lead-
ing by example rather than command, he pushed ahead with unrelenting aggressiveness, hurling
grenades into cave openings with devastating effect.
He then saw large numbers of Jape forming 100 yards away and instantly attacked, killing
many and forcing the others to retire into some caves. He then ordered his men to dig-in,
and cooly disregarding the continuous hail of flying enemy shrapnel, tirelessly rallied his
men and aided casualties.
Although instantly killed by an enemy mortar burst while moving among his men, Major
Courtney had made an important contribution to the success of the 6th Marine Division's ad-
vance on Okinawa. His deeds were a lasting inspiration to all those men around him.
Slowly, but surely, American persistence and courage paid off, and the main Japanese def-
ense line finally crumbled, with Naha falling in fierce house-to-house fighting.
On 4 June, the 4th and 29th Regiments made a classic amphibious assault landing on the
Oroku Peninsula at the southwest end of Okinawa. The Japanese had dug-in emplacements in
the hills, and the cost in extracting the Japs out of their strongholds was fairly heavy.
But by 13 June, the marines had occupied all the high ground in the region and surrounded a
flat, swampy area on three sides. With this development, some of the remaining Japanese
blew themselves up with grenades, while others were cut down by marine fire, and still many
more surrendered.
By 21 June 1945, incredible Okinawa was finally officially declared secured.
Yes, the 6th Marine Division had been anxious to prove itself--and it did, performing
almost flawlessly in its only battle of World War II--but a battle that was one of the
longest, hardest, and bloodiest of the war.
After V-J Day, 14 August 1945, the 1st and 6th Marine Divisions were later sent to help
occupy and control the situation in certain areas of northern China. The marines were pull-
ed out of China before the communist takeover there in October 1949.

Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-5 Casualties: Total Dead and
Distinguished Unit Citations-- 1 Missing In Action--- 1,637
Navy Crosses Wounded -6,590
Silver Stars Total Casualties------8,227
* One to the entire 6th Marine Division-Okinawa
Other 6th Marine Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action *
Cpl Richard E. Bush, 4th Mar Rgt, 16 April 1945, Mount Yaetake, Okinawa
Pfc Harold Gonsalves, 15th Mar Arty Rgt, 15 April 1945, Mount Yaetake, Okinawa
Hospital Apprentice 1/c Fred F. Lester, 22nd Mar Rgt, 8 June 1945, on Okinawa
Pvt Robet M, Mrcureous, 29th Mar Rgt, 7 June 1945, on OKinawa


















MARINE RAIDERS

Activated-16 February 1942

Battle Credits, World War II: Makin Atoll Tulagi Guadalcanal
New Georgia and smaller islands in the Central Solomons
Bougainville
Original Commanders: -
Lt Colonel Merritt A. Edson
Lt Colonel Evans F. Carlson

Combat Chronicle: The Marine Raiders were the cream of the Corps, the Marine counterpart
of the Army Rangers.
When the United States was plunged so shockingly into World War II, President Roosevelt
wanted commando-like formations. He was influenced in this by Prime Minister Churchill
and, no doubt, by Captain James Roosevelt, USMC (the President's son), who, in January 1942,
wrote to the Commandant proposing marine units of commandos, stressing in his letter the
value of guerrillas in China as well as British experience. The Marine Corps had already
made a study of the British Commandos when two of their captains visited Scotland. Large-
ly on the basis of their report the 1st and 2nd Separate Battalions--later renamed Raider
Battalions--were formed in early-1942. Their roles included landing on beaches generally
thought inaccessible, raids requiring surprise and high speed, and guerrilla-type operat-
ions for protracted periods of time behind enemy lines.

1st Marine Raider Battalion:
Activated-16 February 1942
Commander--Lt Colonel Merritt A. Edson
The 1st Marine Raiders landed on Tulagi in early-August 1942, just before the 1st Marine
Division landed on nearby Guadalcanal. Four separate Japanese attacks on the Raiders were
beaten back, and by nightfall on 8 August the Raiders had secured Tulagi.
Soon after, the battalion was moved over to Guadalcanal. In mid-September 1942, the 1st
Marine Raiders helped the 1st Marine Division beat back large, frenzied Japanese attacks on
Bloody Ridge which included some of the most wild and desperate night fighting in the war.
On 16 October, the Raiders left Guadalcanal for rest and reorganization in Noumea, New
Caledonia 800 miles south of the "Canal".
Then, on 5 July 1943, during the invasion of New Georgia, the battalion was in a series
of actions. Their heaviest fighting, on 20 July, began at 1015 hours when advancing to- -
ward Bairoko, they came upon Japanese machine-gun and sniper positions. In minutes they
were pinned down, as the enemy's log and coral bunkers under sprawling banyan roots made a
series of well camouflaged defenses along a ridge. The thick jungle caused marine mortar
rounds to explode before they reached the Jap bunkers, and without flamethrowers the mar-
ines had only demolition charges and small-arms to reduce these defenses. The 1st Raiders
were joined by the 4th Raider Battalion, but progress was slow despite the Raiders' deter-
mination. Finally, the Raiders withdrew during the night to positions around Enogai.
The 1st Marine Raider Battalion lost 74 men killed and 139 wounded before leaving bloody
New Georgia on 28-29 August 1943. This was the 1st Battalion's last action, and it was dis-
banded on 1 February 1944. It received a Distinguished Unit Citation for its operations
in the Solomon Islands.








2nd Marine Raider Battalion:
Activated-16 February 1942
Commander-Lt Colonel Evans F. Carlson
The 2nd Marine Raiders made a raid on Makin Island (north of Tarawa) on 17-18 August
1942. The Raiders were taken from Pearl Harbor in an 8-day voyage on two 2,700 ton sub-
marines, the Nautilus and the Argonaut. The primary mission of this raid was to, hope-
fully, divert Japanese troops from Guadalcanal. This surprise raid caused considerable
casualties to the Japanese garrison, and the battalion had a posthumous Medal of Honor
winner, Sergeant Clyde Thomason. The Raiders had 30 fatal casualties--14 men killed in
action, 7 who drowned when they were caught in large waves breaking the surf, and 9 men
who drifted westward in a boat and were later caught by the Japanese and executed.
The 2nd Raider Battalion eventually continued on to Guadalcanal. Their most notable
feat on this embattled island was when they made a landing, early-November 1942 along
with elements of the Army's 147th Infantry Regiment, at Aola. This area was 30 miles
south from Henderson Field. For a month these highly-trained men fought a series of run-
ning fights with the Japanese who were scattered in various areas of the jungle, and in
general, harrassing them, while losing just 17 men. Meanwhile, they sent a few hundred
of the enemy to their ancestopm.
In November 1943, under-Lt Colonel Joseph P. McCaffrey* the 2nd Battalion landed west
of Cape Torokina on Bougainville, helping to support the 3rd Marine Division. The Raiders
advanced east to a mission station, and on 9 November fought a stubborn battle for a trail
junction that they succeeded in taking that afternoon.
For the rest of November and into December, the battalion fought in support of the 3rd
Marine Regiment of the 3rd Division, before being withdrawn to Guadalcanal on 11 January
1944. The 2nd Marine Raider Battalion received the Distinguished Unit Citation for its
actions in the Solomon Islands before being disbanded on 31 January 1944.
Killed in action
3rd Marine Raider Battalion:led in cton
Activated-20 September 1942 on Samoa
Commanders-Lt Colonel Harry B. Liversedge (Harry "The Horse" was an international
athlete)
Lt Colonel Fred D. Beans
The 3rd Marine Raiders, on the night of 20-21 February 1943, landed on Pavuvu in the
Russell Islands northwest of Guadalcanal, supporting an Army landing that same night on
nearby Banika Island. There were no Japanese, and the Raiders garrisoned Pavuvu for one
month.
On 1 November 1943, the 3rd Battalion (now under Lt Colonel Beans), landed on Puruata
which is off-shore from Cape Torokina, Bougainville, where the main marine landing occurr-
ed. On Puruata the battalion overcame resistance by a reinforced Japanese rifle company.
Meanwhile, M Company, detached from this landing, went ashore on the main beachhead and
set up a road block 1,000 yards inland.
later that month, along with other marine elements including the 1st Marine Parachute
Battalion, M Company landed at Koiari, Bougainville, an hour's voyage south of Cape Toro-
kina. Put ashore by mistake in the middle of a Japanese supply base, they fought all day
and were only extricated that evening by U.S. destroyers and the 155mm guns at the Cape
laying a three-sided box protective barrage of fire.
The 3rd Marine Raider Battalion was withdrawn from Bougainville on 11 January 1944, and
was disbanded at the end of the month.

4th Marine Raider Battalion:
Activated-23 October 1942 at Camp Linda Vista, California
Commanders-Major James Roosevelt
Lt Colonel Michael S. Currin
The 4th Marine Raiders arrived at Espiritu Santo in the New Hebrides in February 1943.
After being trained by Major Roosevelt, command of the battalion passed to Lt Colonel Curr-
in in May 1943.
The battalion's first action was on New Georgia near Segi Point. It pre-empted any Jap-








anese attempt to occupy the eastern tip of the island. A week later, after paddling their
boats 8 miles, they landed at Regi on a patrol in strength that would take them through
jungle and swamp, often waist-deep in muddy water. On this first day they set up a rear-
guard 2 miles inland protecting their swing west to their first bivouac. From here they
needed two days in-terrible terrain to work their way around the Viru inlet, a distance of
some 12 miles. Several attacks by Japanese patrols were brushed off before the two platoons
east of the inlet took Tombe village on 1 July 1943, and the same morning the rest of the
battalion took Teterma with its 3-inch gun overlooking the narrow harbor entrance. An att-
empted forcing of this passage by a naval force was blocked, and the 4th Marine Raiders, af-
ter a 6-hour battle, had to fight off a final suicide attack before the village was taken.
In the meantime, N, Q, and Headquarters Companies had landed at Oloana Bay on Vangunu,
a staging point for New Georgia which it adjoins. The Raiders contacted a scouting party
and established a beachhead for the 103rd Infantry Regiment, 43rd Infantry Division. In
spite of this, the Army landing parties were scattered in the rough weather. In subsequent
fighting, the Marine and Army companies became separated, but still took the main Japanese
positions by nightfall.
On the following night, a Japanese barge convoy attempted to land supplies and was sunk.
Other mopping-up by the thcee~gaider companies was completed before they rejoined the rest
of the 4th Battalion which -moved to New Georgia's north coast on 18 July 1943.
After their valiant action at Bairoko during 6 weeks on New Georgia with the 1st Marine
Raider Battalion, the 4th Marine Raiders effective strength was only 154 men. 54 men had
been killed, 139 wounded, and the others were sick.
The 4th Marine Raider Battalion was not brought back up to full strength before being
disbanded on 1 February 1944.

Note: No other awards or casualty figures are available for the Marine Raiders--only these
listed in the above articles,excepting number of Cougressional Medal of Honor winners---.




















SEABEES "Fighting Seabees"

First Organized-8 January 1942

Battle Credits, World War II: Practically anywhere there was a major
U.S. amphibious assault landing

Combat and Work Chronicle: The Seabees were the rugged offspring of the U.S. Navy--a
weird breed of roughnecks and near-geniuses, men who weren't really supposed to fight but
always managed to get into the scrap. They served wherever the guns blazed, but it was in
the Pacific that they racked up a record that brought blushes of inferiority to soldiers,
marines, sailors, and airmen alike.
Born of one of the best-kept secret scandals of the war, the Naval Construction Battal-
ions were one of the major factors in the winning of the war in the Pacific. They went
everywhere the troops went, often getting there before the first GI or marine hit the beach.
Despite everything, through it all, they always remained rugged and untamed, the "wild men"
of the war. In the States they were the "terrors of the taverns." Kid sailors and marines
saw their graying hair and lined faces and sometimes tried to bait or ridicule them, but
few ever tried it a second time.
The younger servicemen soon cracked, "Never hit a Seabee--he may be your grandfather."
The first Naval Construction Battalion was hastily slapped together not long after our
country entered the war. On 8 January 1942, personnel and equipment were hurriedly assem-
bled at Quonset, Rhode Island. By 28 February, the prototype of the Naval C.B.--hence
Seabee-had off-loaded at Bora-Bora, in the Society Islands. Other sailors with construc-
tion experience were rushed to Pearl Harbor.
The Seabee experiment worked out so well that immediate authority was obtained to form-
ally recruit men into a special and separate branch of the Navy-the Naval Construction
Battalions, themselves.
Almost from the beginning, the Seabees took on a flavor and color all their own. The
outfit attracted all types, but many men were "older" guys who wanted to get into action
but had been turned down by the various branches of the service. Among others, there were
oil-field roustabouts and sandhogs, miners, truck drivers, and rugged types who had built
bridges in the Andes Mountains of South America or skyscrapers in New York.
As the war went on, Seabee battalions fanned out across the world. They often did the
seemingly impossible wherever they went. On desolate Adak, in the Aleutians, they used
their power shovels, bulldozers, and dump trucks to peel off the mucky gunbo of the tundra,
often 4 feet or more deep. Once down to solid ground, they built airfields and roads.
On embattled Guadalcanal, a marine patrol was cut-off and surrounded by the Japanese.
It was early in the campaign and with no reserves to spare. And so, five Seabee bulldozers
were fired up. Armed with sumachineguns and grenades, and with the heavy steel dozer
blades raised high for a shield, the Seabees roared into the jungle, taking the Japs comp-
letely by surprise. As bullets spanged harmlessly off the dozers, the marines loaded up
their dead and wounded and were successfully evacuated from the area.
It was on the "Canal" that a Seabee still, which was turning out 50 gallons of white
lightning a day, was ruined by enemy-thrown hand grenades.
"Our booze:" bellowed the Seabees.








The counterattack they made with a vengeance never hit the communiques, but it was
highly successful. The Seabees tare into the Japs, killed 17 of them, and sent the better
part of an entire battalion on the run.
The Seabees converted the muddy mangrove swamps of Merauke, Dutch New Guinea, into a
finished airstrip in just 8 days.
On Eniwetok, in the Marshall Islands, after the island had been taken, the Seabees were
ordered to build an officer's club. After asking to build one far the enlisted men first,
the answer was what could be expected. "No." The officer's club came first.
And so, the Seabees did it, throwing up a club that provided the barest minimum of shel-
ter and comfort, in less than five days,
Then, by scrounging and stealing, they got the materials to build an EM club. And it
was a thing of beauty, complete with hot and cold running water and a bar that was a regu-
lar boose-spring, everlastingly fed by a special still the Seabees had rigged for the sole
use of the suffering swabbies and gyrenes.
When he heard about it, the island commander hit the roof, but there wasn't a thing he
could do about it: He would have been a laughing stock in short order if he would have
tried.
On Saipan, the Seabees were building airstrips while the fighting raged on around them.
Shells and slugs ripped overFhe heads of the men clearing the strip. The Japanese began
closing in on the Seabees and it looked as if they might be overrun. About half of them
then stopped working and formed a perimeter defense, while the other half kept on working.
The Japanese were driven back.
It was on Saipan that the Japanese launched a huge Banzai attack against the 27th Infan-
try Division. After this terrible battle was over, more than 2,000 dead Japanese were
counted on the battlefield. The overpowering stench of the corpses in the hot sun was in-
tolerable, so the Seabees buried their fallen foe the easy way. They simply bulldozed the
bodies into one huge, massive grave.
On nearby Tinian, the Seabees moved 11 million cubic yards of mud, rock, and coral to
build the world's biggest bomber base--six strips, each 1l miles long. Seabees construct-
ed fuel tanks, barracks, and hospitals, and pushed through highways and railroads. On Guam
they carved out and surfaced 100 miles of road in 90 days!
The Seabees also served in North Africa, Sicily, and Italy, but it was in the Pacific
where they achieved their real reputation. Through it all, the Regular Navy shook its head
in amazement. The Seabees simply would not tolerate "chicken" and just rebelled if their
orders made no sense.
As the island hopping continued across the vast reaches of the Pacific, the Construction
Battalions reached a fabulous level of ability and efficiency.
On Iwo Jina and Okinawa, the Seabees labored under constant enemy fire, often far in
front of the main line of resistance. They drove roads through heavily wooded areas and
swamps, and leveled off entire hills so that planes could land and take off.
When his attack bogged down in one sector on Okinawa, an Army commander radioed for re-
inforcements. When informed that the only available troops were 163 Seabees he shouted,
"Then for God's sake send them up. They're worth a regiment of infantry'."
The 163 Seabees got their guns and tare into the bush. Thirty minutes later the Army
outfit's commander radioed that the impasse was broken.
"Those crazy bastards came charging out of the trees and the Japs took off and ran:" he
reported in amazement. "They're all nuts-but I wish I had 'em in my unit:"
On occasions, Seabee surveying parties went into enemy-held islands hours or even days
ahead of the assault troops. They slipped in by night in tiny rowboats or by swimming, to
survey the lay of the land and choose where they would begin working. It was deadly dang-
erous work, but only 3 men were lost in all these operations:
During the war, American servicemen had a habit, which has never been satisfactorily
explained, of writing "Kilroy was here" in almost any place they served. At any rate,
"Kilroy" became sort of a symbol of the spirit of the American fighting man.
What with their record and spectacular accomplishments, it's little wonder that many of
the 260,000 Seabees of World War II insisted that "Kilroy" was one of their own. No one
argued with them.
Navy Unit Commendations for the following Seabee (Construction Battalions): The 3rd, 33rd,
71st, 301st, and lO06th. No other awards or any casualty figures are available,













U.S. UNIT CASUALTIES--WORLD WAR II
(In the order of the number of total battle deaths)
UNIT TOTAL DEAD KIA WOUNDED TOTAL CASUALTIES
3rd Infantry Dvn 5,634 4,922 18,766 25,977
4th Infantry Dvn 4,798 4,017 17,371 22,580
29th Infantry Dvn 4,736 3,870 15,541 20,603
9th Infantry Dvn 4,531 3,863 17,416 23,284
*lst Marine Dvn 4,465 13,849 18,314
1st Infantry Dvn 4,365 3,616 15,208 20,659
45th Infantry Dvn ---4276 3,714 14,541 21,260
-36th Infantry Dvn 3,890 3,318 14,190 20,652
90th Infantry Dvn 3,868 3,270 14,386 19,128
34th Infantry Dvn 3,708 3,145 12,545 17,680
'30th Infantry Dvn 3,525 2,992 13,376 18,435
83rd Infantry Dvn 3,387 2,960 11,000 14,902
4th Marine Dvn 3,317 13,006 16,323
2nd Infantry Dvn 3,272 2,833 12,000 16,812
80th Infantry Dvn 3,194 2,800 11,500 15.865
35th Infantry Dvn 2,936 2,476 11,526 15,813
.79th Infantry Dvn 2,923 2,454 10,971 15,181
28th Infantry Dvn 2,873 2,316 9,609 16,762
8th Infantry Dvn 2,804 2,513 10,057 13,967
2nd Marine Dvn 2,729 8,753 11,482
5th Infantry Dvn 2,628 2,277 9,549 12,797
88th Infantry Dvn 2,529 2,282 9,225 13,095
32nd Infantry Dvn 2,524 2,108 6,627 8,763
101st Airborne Dvn 2,500 2,188 6,800 10,162
7th Infantry Dvn 2,346 1,957 7,258 9,221
3rd Armored Dvn 2,302 2,043 7,160 9,673
96th Infantry Dvn 2,166 1,596 7,281 8,945
26th Infantry Dvn 2,116 1,892 7,886 10,743
82nd Airborne Dvn 2,116 1,737 6,950 9,581
5th Marine Dvn 2,113 6,450 8,563
27th Infantry Dvn 1,977 1,545 5,485 7,071
3rd Marine Dvn 1,932 6,744 8,676
1st Armored Dvn 1,907 1,623 6,300 8,657
77th Infantry Dvn 1,904 1,482 6,000 7,559
85th Infantry Dvn 1,749 1,572 6,314 8,785








2


UNIT TOTAL DEAD KIA WOUNDED TOTAL CASUALTIES
78th Infantry Dvn 1,655 1,432 6,103 8,151
6th Marine Dvn 1,637 6,590 8,227
91st Infantry Dvn 1,633 1,456 6,748 8,800
43rd Infantry Dvn 1,514 1,213 5,187 6,411
25th Infantry Dvn 1,508 1,253 4,190 5,450
4th Armored Dvn 1,483 1,282 5,098 7,258
104th Infantry Dvn 1,465 1,285 5,200 6,818
2nd Armored Dvn 1,456 1,200 5,757 7,283
37th Infantry Dvn 1,456 1,112 5,261 6,378
84th Infantry Dvn 1,420 1,282 5,098 7,258
24th Infantry Dvn 1,441 1,209 5,321 6,547
95th Infantry Dvn 1,374 1,206 4,945 6,592
6th Armored Dvn 1,270 1,074 4,200 5,445
87th Infantry Dvn 1,269 1,124 4,342 6,004
Americal Dvn 1,259 1,075 3,350 4,442
7th Armored Dvn 1,222 994 4,000 6,084
1st Cavalry Dvn 1,152 887 4,035 4,932
99th Infantry Dvn 1,131 983 4,177 6,543
17th Airborne Dvn 1,130 978 4,704 6,332
6th Infantry Dvn 1,120 898 3,876 4,777
44th Infantry Dvn 1,101 940 4,209 5,557
94th Infantry Dvn 1,100 950 4,789 6,474
102nd Infantry Dvn 1,012 888 3,668 4,878
41st Infantry Dvn 975 758 3,504 4,275
63rd Infantry Dvn 960 844 3,326 4,487
10th Armored Dvn 945 790 4,000 5,070
100th Infantry Dvn 944 847 3,539 5,002
10th Mountain Dvn 941 862 3,134 4,062
75th Infantry Dvn 922 818 3,314 4,325
5th Armored Dvn 840 665 2,842 3,570
70th Infantry Dvn 840 758 2,713 3,922
103rd Infantry Dvn 821 659 3,329 4,497
66th Infantry Dvn 800 795 636 1,452
442nd Infantry Rgt 680
38th Infantry Dvn 791 653 2,814 3,472
76th Infantry Dvn 779 667 2,197 3,033
9th Armored Dvn 741 607 2,350 3,952









3

UNIT TOTAL DEAD KIA WOUNDED TOTAL CASUALTIES
12th Armored Dvn 718 605 2,416 3,516
40th Infantry Dvn 718 587 2,407 2,994
42nd Infantry Dvn 655 553 2,212 3,971
llth Airborne Dvn 631 516 1,926 2,453
llth.Armored Dvn 628 523 2,394 2,968
92nd Infantry Dvn 610 544 2,187 2,993
14th Armored Dvn 609 544 1,955 2,729
81st Infantry Dvn 520 374 1,942 2,322
106th Infantry Dvn 513 444 1,278 8,419 **
33rd Infantry Dvn -388 2,024 2,418
1st Spec Serv Force 449 419 2,500
*31st Infantry Dvn 418 342 1,392 1,733
69th Infantry Dvn 384 341 1,146 1,506
8th Armored Dvn 355 299 1,375 1,720
158th Infantry Rgt 340 290 1,097 1,390
89th Infantry Dvn 311 281 690 1,016
65th Infantry Dvn 261 233 927 1,230
97th Infantry Dvn 215 188 721 979
71st Infantry Dvn 169 150 643 821
113th Cavalry Grp 161 154
86th Infantry Dvn 161 136 618 785
473rd Infantry Rgt 160 450
3rd Ranger Bn 150
1st Ranger Bn 140
4th Ranger Bn 140
13th Armored Dvn 129 107 712 819
5th Ranger Bn 117
20th Armored Dvn 54 46 134 186
93rd Infantry Dvn 50 43 133 194
16th Armored Dvn 5 4 28 32

No casualty figures are available for the following units:
Philippine Inf Dvn 6th Ranger Bn 99th Infantry Bn
1st Marine Provl Bgde 6th Cavalry Grp 112th Cavalry Rgt
2nd Ranger Bn 13th Amd Grp 147th Infantry Rgt
2nd Cavalry Grp 14th Cavalry Grp 474th Infantry Rgt
3rd Cavalry Grp 15th Cavalry Grp 503rd Parachute Rgt
4th Cavalry Grp 22nd Marine Rgt 517th Parachute Rgt
Marine Raiders Merrill's Marauders Mars Task Force
102nd Cavalry Grp 106th Cavalry Grp









4


Notes on the casualty listing:

1 Some of the totals are approximate figures. However, the total battle death and
the KIA (killed in action) figures are quite accurate. An exception to this is
the Ranger battalions. All of those battalions which are listed are approximate
figures except for the 5th Ranger Battalion which is an exact figure.

2 The 66th Infantry Division lost over 700 men in the English Channel in
December 1944, due to enemy submarine action.

3 ** The 106th Infantry Division had close to 7,000 men captured in the
Battle of the Bulge in December 1944.

4 No killed in action figures are available for any of the Marine divisions--
only the total battl-death figures.

5 The total battle death column includes those men who later died of wounds.

6 Captured and missing in action figures have been omitted primarily due to lack of
space. In the Pacific, as a rule, very few men surrendered to the Japanese.

7 Figures are also incomplete for the 1st Special Service Force and the Japanese-
American 442nd Infantry Regiment, the 473rd Infantry Regiment, and the
113th Cavalry Group. The 473rd fought in Italy, and the 113th fought in Europe.

8 The casualty figures for all of these units does not include any units or per-
sonnel which may have been temporarily attached to a given unit at any time.













U.S. BATTLE DEATHS IN WORLD WAR II--INCLUDES AltMY, MARINE CORPS, AND NAVY

France 52,844
Germany 42,915
Sicily and Italy 25,953
Belgium 10,418
Tunisia 3,053
Holland 2,468
Luxembourg 1,297
Algeria 671
Morocco 130 *
Austria 118
Czechoslovakia 116
Yugoslavia -____
139,990
Philippines 26,428 (Leyte, Luzon, Mindanao, Cebu, Samar, Negros, and others
Okinawa 13,415 (Also, includes Ie Shima, Tsugen Shima, and Kerama Rettc
Iwo Jima 6,100 *
Mariana Islands 5,160 (Saipan, Tinian, and Guam)
Solomon Islands 3,625 Guadalcanal, New Georgia, Bougainville, and others)
New Guinea 2,774 Also, includes Biak, Wakde, Noemfoor, and Morotai)
Palau Islands 2,715 Peleliu, Angaur, and smaller islands)
Gilbert Islands 1,715 Tarawa and Makin)
Burma 729
Marshall Islands 708 Eniwetok and Kwajalein)
Aleutian Islands 457 Attu and Kiska)
Admiralty Islands 329 Los Negros, Manus, and Lorengau)
New Britain 315
China 61
64,530

GRAND TOTAL 204,520 (In this listing)


Approximate figures










I
WORLD WAR II
North Africa--battle deaths listed in order for Morocco-Algeria: Nov-Dec 1942
Listed Approx. Total
1st And Dvn 91 190
9th Inf Dvn 33 70
3rd Inf Dvn 66 (exact figure)
34th Inf Dvn 19 45
2nd Amd Dvn 7 20
1st Inf Dvn unavailable
Approx. total-290 (not including the 1st Infantry Dvn)


North Africa--battle deaths listed in order for Tunisia: Jan-13 May 1943
1st Inf Dvn 750 (approx. figure)
1st Amd Dvn 290 550
9th Inf Dvn 220 450
34th Inf Dvn 183 380
1st Ranger Bn unavailable
Approx. total-2,130 (not counting the 1st Ranger Bn)


Sicily--battle deaths listed in order for Sicily: 10 July-17 Aug 1943
3rd Inf Dvn 381 (exact figure)
45th Inf Dvn 302 (exact figure)
1st Inf Dvn 264 (exact figure)
82nd Abn Dvn 206 (exact figure)
9th Inf Dvn 63 130
2nd Amd Dvn 23 60
Rangers unavailable
Approx. total-1,345 (not counting the Rangers)


Italy--battle deaths listed in order for Southern Italy (includes 1st Battle of Cassino)
9 Sept 1943-into February 1944
Cassino:
36th Inf Dvn 692 1,400
34th Inf Dvn 601 1,225 34th Inf Dvn 610
45th Inf Dvn 404 820 36th Inf Dvn 370 (142nd Rg
3rd Inf Dvn 683 (exact figure)
82nd Abn Dvn 81 175 Approx. total-980
1st Amd Dvn 61 110
1st Spec Srv Force unavailable
Rangers unavailable
Approx. total-4,410 (not counting the last 2 units)










2
Italy--battle deaths listed in order for Anzio (includes both the beachhead and the
breakout to Rome): 22 Jan--4 June 1944
Listed Approx. Total
3rd Inf Dvn 1,585 (exact figure)
45th Inf Dvn 661 1,330
34th Inf Dvn 252 520
1st Amd Dvn 260 500
36th Inf Dvn 104 220
82nd Abn Dvn 68 150 (504th Para Rgt, only)
91st Inf Dvn 5 12
1st Spec Srv Frce unavailable
Rangers unavailable
Approx. total-4,320 (not counting the last 2 units)


Italy--battle deaths listed in order for the Rome-Arno Campaign: June-early-Sept 1944
91st Inf Dvn 270 545
88th Inf Dvn 237 490
34th Inf Dvn 195 415
1st Amd Dvn 156 300
36th Inf Dvn 93 200
92nd Inf Dvn 104 (exact figure)
85th Inf Dvn 35 65
Approx. total-2,120

Italy-battle deaths listed in order for the Battle Through the Gothic Line and into
the Northern Apennines (includes from about mid-Sept-through Oct 1944)
88th Inf Dvn 437 890
85th Inf Dvn 414 800
91st Inf Dvn 362 730
34th Inf Dvn 253 520
1st Amd Dvn 59 110
92nd Inf Dvn 80 (exact figure)
Approx. total-3,130

Italy-battle deaths listed in order for the Final Allied Offensive In Northern Italy-
from out of the Apennines-into the Po Valley and to the Alps: beginning
mid-April-2 May 1945
10th Mtn Dvn 272 500
88th Inf Dvn 91 195
91st Inf Dvn 75 155
1st Amd Dvn 73 130
92nd Inf Dvn 115 (exact figure)
34th Inf Dvn 40 90
85th Inf Dvn 18 35
442nd Inf Rgt unavailable
473rd Inf Rgt unavailable
Approx. total-1,220 (not including the last 2 units)













Europe--battle deaths listed in order for the Battle of Normandy: 6 June 1944-
Listed Approx. Total mid-Aug 1944
29th Inf Dvn 1,301 2,700
4th Inf Dvn 1,216 2,500 Helping to repulse German
90th Inf Dvn 1,049 1,950 Counteroffensive at Mortain, Normand,
9th Inf Dvn 847 1,700 7-14 August 1944:
2nd Inf Dvn 818 1,650
30th Inf Dvn 803 1,640 30th Inf Dvn 355
83rd Inf Dvn 810 1,580 35th Inf Dvn 165
79th Inf Dvn 596 1,200 4th Inf Dvn 115
101st Abn.Dvn 400 850 3rd Amd Dvn 110
35th Inf Dvn 394 825 2nd Amd Dvn 95
3rd Amd Dvn ._361 710 1st Inf Dvn unknown
28th Inf Dvn 332 710
8th Inf Dvn 320 630
82nd Abn Dvn 250 530
2nd And Dvn 197 425
5th Inf Dvn 134 300
80th Inf Dvn 70 135
5th Amd Dvn 45 105
4th Amd Dvn 42 90
1st Inf Dvn unavailable
Approx. total-20,230 (not counting the 1st Inf Dvn)


Europe--battle deaths listed in order for the Battle of Brittany: 1 Aug 1944-
8th Inf Dvn 411 790 mid-Sept 1944
29th Inf Dvn 325 700
2nd Inf Dvn 229 480
83rd Inf Dvn 213 400
6th And Dvn 117 250
4th Amd Dvn 42 100
Approx. total-2,720

Europe--battle deaths listed in order for U.S. 1st Army Attack Into The Siegfried Line:
Mid-Sept 1944
28th Inf Dvn 245
3rd Amd Dvn 225
9th -Inf Dvn 200
4th Inf Dvn 180
5th Amd Dvn 125
30th Inf Dvn 90
2nd Amd Dvn 25
Approx. total-1,090










2


Europe---battle deaths listed in order for the U.S. 3rd Army Offensive from Lorraine-
into the Saar, and U.S. 7th Army Offensive from southern Lorraine-into Alsace;
co-ordinated together into one big massive offensive: beginning 8 Nov 1944-
well into Dec 1944
Listed Approx. Total
95th Inf Dvn 481 980 (3rd Army)
26th Inf Dvn 412 840 3rd Army
90th Inf Dvn 331 640 3rd Army
80th Inf Dvn 321 635 3rd Army
35th Inf Dvn 277 575 (3rd Army
79th Inf Dvn 257 515 (7th Army
44th Inf Dvn 225 465 (7th Army
100th Inf Dvn 21 420 (7th Army)
103rd Inf Dvn -189 380 (7th Army)
87th Inf Dvn 169 315 (3rd Army
4th Amd Dvn 144 300 (3rd Army
5th Inf Dvn 134 285 (3rd Army
6th Amd Dvn 108 225 3rd Army
45th Inf Dvn 101 210 (7th Army
10th Amd Dvn 87 185 (3rd Army
14th Amd Dvn 55 100 (7th Army
12th Amd Dvn 33 62 (7th Army (exact figure)
Approx. total-7,335
note: Some of the above units entered combat well after the offensive was under way.





Europe--battle deaths listed in order for Southern France: August 1944
36th Inf Dvn 128 270
3rd Inf Dvn 220 (exact figure)
45th Inf Dvn 52 115
1st Spec Srv Frce unavailable
517th Para Rgt unavailable
Approx. total-605 (not including the last 2 units)
Italy--battle deaths listed in order for the Northern Apennines: November 1944-to the
beginning of the U.S. 5th Army Offensive which began on 14 April 1945. Also,
this listing doesn't include the beginning of the 92nd Infantry Dvn.'s attack
which commenced on 5 April 1945.
10th Mtn Dvn 440
92nd Inf Dvn 362 (exact figure)
34th Inf Dvn 180
88th Inf Dvn 175
91st Inf Dvn 130
85th Inf Dvn 90
1st Amd Dvn 55
Approx. total-1,430









2j



Europe--battle deaths listed in order for the Battle In The Hiirtgen Forest,
extreme western Germany-Altogether, beginning in mid-Sept 1944 and
lasting through most of Dec 1944. The 9th Infantry Dvn was the first
American unit to fight in this forest.
Listed Approx. Total
4th Inf Dvn 391 815
9th Inf Dvn 351 710
28th Inf Dvn 252 550
8th Inf Dvn 264 500
83rd Inf Dvn 204 390
5th Amd Dvn 120 255
1st Inf Dvn unavailable
ApWex. total-3,220 (not including the great 1st Infantry Dvn
which, no doubt, lost at least 400 men in
this terrible forest)


note: The 8th Infantry Dvn's fighting in this forest overlaps with the autumn
Assault To The Roer River.


Europe--battle deaths listed in order for U.S. 3rd Army divisions in Lorraine,
northern France (along the line of the Moselle River). Much of the
Battle of Metz is included in this time sequence which is from early-
September-? November 1944:
Approx. Total
80th Inf Dvn 1,000
5th Inf Dvn 735 M
35th Inf Dvn 600
90th Inf Dvn 300 M
7th Amd Dvn 250 M
4th Amd Dvn 230
26th Inf Dvn 190
6th Amd Dvn; 145
10th Amd Dvn 10
Approx. total-3,460
M-indicates was in the Battle of Metz









2 3/4


Italy--battle deaths listed in order (approx. totals):
Allied break through the Gustav Line, Italy: beginning 11 May 1944
85th Inf Dvn 510
88th Inf Dvn 220
Approx. total-730
Europe
Vosges Mountains, northeastern France: October 1944, only (approx. totals)
3rd Inf Dvn unavailable
79th Inf Dvn 380
36th Inf Dvn 320
45th Inf Dvn 300 Approx. total-1000 (not including the 3rd Infantry Dvn)


The Remagen Bridgehead, across the Rhine, Germany: Mid-March 1945
1st Inf Dvn unavailable
78th Inf Dvn 335
9th Inf Dvn 270
99th Inf Dvn 200
9th Amd Dvn 120
Approx. total-925 (not counting the 1st Infantry Dvn)


The Scheldt Estuary, southwestern Holland: Late-Oct-Early Nov 1944
104th Inf Dvn 270


"Operation Market Garden"--Airdrop Into Southern Holland: 17 Sept-into Nov 1944
101st Abn Dvn 750
82nd Abn Dvn 460
Approx. total-1,210


note: The break through the Gustav Line, Italy and the clearing of the Scheldt Estuary
in south Holland were largely British operations.


The Battle of Metz, Lorraine, France: beginning 7 Sept-late-Nov 1944
5th Inf Dvn 770
95th-Inf Dvn 380
7th Amd Dvn 250
90th Inf Dvn 230
Approx. total-1,630










3

Europe--tattle deaths listed in order for the Battle of the Bulge: 16 Dec 1944-
Listed Approx. Total 28 Jan 1945
101st Abn Dvn 290 610
26th Inf Dvn 280 575
80th Inf Dvn 292 570
30th Inf Dvn 227 475
75th Inf Dvn 223 465
84th Inf Dvn 232 455
17th Abn Dvn 218 450
83rd Inf Dvn 234 450
28th Inf Dvn 187 440
35th Inf Dvn 198 430
99th Inf Dvn -2219 425
5th Inf Dvn 172 400
106th Inf Dvn 189 400
90th Inf Dvn 204 385
3rd Amd Dvn 184 360
2nd Inf Dvn 175 350
87th Inf Dvn 170 320
6th Amd Dvn 142 315
82nd Abn Dvn 145 310
4th Inf Dvn 141 300
78th Inf Dvn 147 280
9th Amd Dvn 131 275
llth Amd Dvn 133 275
7th Amd Dvn 146 270
4th Amd Dvn 91 190
10th Amd Dvn 86 180
2nd And Dvn 80 175
9th Inf Dvn 75 150
5th Amd Dvn 14 35
1st Inf Dvn unavailable
Approx. total-11,315 (not counting the 1st Inf Dvn)

note: Several different cavalry groups (consisting of around 3,000 men each) were
also in the Battle of the Bulge, but no casualty figures are available for
them, and, likewise, the 517th Parachute Regiment.










4


Europe--battle deaths listed in order for the Battle Against the German Offensive In
Northern Alsace, France: Throughout Jan 1945
Listed Approx. Total
45th Inf Dvn 147 315
70th Inf Dvn 145 300
79th Inf Dvn 145 290
42nd Inf Dvn 140 290
12th Amd Dvn 102 245
14th Amd Dvn 115 225
36th Inf Dvn 85 185
44th Inf Dvn 73 170
100th Inf Dvn 70 150
103rd Inf Dvn 6 140
63rd Inf Dvn 85
95th Inf Dvn 9 25
Approx. total-2,420



Europe---battle deaths listed in order for the Battle of the Colmar Pocket,
eastern Alsace, northeastern France: 20 Jan-12 Feb 1945
3rd Inf Dvn 317 (exact figure)
28th Inf Dvn 75 170
75th Inf Dvn 65 150
63rd Inf Dvn 51 115 (254th Rgt, only)
12th Amd Dvn 28 65
Approx. total-820


Europe--battle deaths listed in order for U.S. 7th Army breakthrough the Siegfried Line
mid-March 1945
36th Inf Dvn 103 215
103rd Inf Dvn 80 160
45th Inf Dvn 57 120
42nd Inf Dvn 55 120
63rd Inf Dvn 46 105
65th Inf Dvn 43 90
70th Inf Dvn 27 60
14th'Amd Dvn 22 45
100th Inf Dvn 18 35
71st Inf Dvn 5 10
6th Amd Dvn 4 10
3rd Inf Dvn unavailable
Approx. total-965 (not counting the 3rd Inf Dvn)









5

Europe-battle deaths listed in order for the Assault to the Roer River: mid-November-
into Dec 1944
8th Inf Dvn 575
84th Inf Dvn 550
104th Inf Dvn 520
29th Inf Dvn 500
102nd Inf Dvn 460
30th Inf Dvn 225
2nd Amd Dvn 160
3rd Amd Dvn 140
Approx. total-3,130

Europe-- attle deaths listed in order for the Assault Across the Roer-to the Rhine:
beginning 23 Feb-into early-March 1945. U.S. 9th and part of 1st Armies.
8th Inf Dvn 365'-
84th Inf Dvn 265
102nd Inf Dvn 255
104th Inf Dvn 235
69th Inf Dvn 160
29th Inf Dvn 140
30th Inf Dvn 140
8th Amd Dvn 135
9th Amd Dvn 135
3rd Amd Dvn 130
2nd Amd Dvn 105
35th Inf Dvn 95
83rd Inf Dvn 50
5th Amd Dvn 30
75th Inf Dvn 30
79th Inf Dvn 15
Approx. total-2,310

Europe-battle deaths listed in order for the Battle of the Ruhr Pocket: late-March-
8th Inf Dvn 320 mid-April 1945
78th Inf Dvn 180
99th Inf Dvn 150
97th Inf Dvn 140
75th Inf Dvn 130
3rd Amd Dvn 120
9th Inf Dvn. 105
7th Amd Dvn 100
13th Amd Dvn 95
95th Tnf Dvn 95
8th Amd Dvn 90
86th Inf Dvn 90
104th Inf Dvn 80
35th Inf Dvn 60
82nd Abn Dvn 55
101st Abn Dvn 45
2nd Amd Dvn 40
79th Inf Dvn 40
5th Inf Dvn 25
94th Inf Dvn 25
29th Inf Dvn 15
83rd Inf Dvn 10
1st Inf Dvn unavailable
Approx. total-2,015 (not counting the 1st Inf Dvn)











6

Europe--battle deaths listed in order for the Eifel Campaign, western Germany, by
the U.S. 3rd Army: 29 Jan-12 March 1945
Listed Approx. Total
76th Inf Dvn 287 580
4th Inf Dvn 251 500
80th Inf Dvn 237 460
87th Inf Dvn 216 390
5th Inf Dvn 142 320
90th Inf Dvn 136 250
69th Inf Dvn 81 170 (1st Army)
4th Amd Dvn 77 165
2nd Inf Dvn 60 130 (1st Army)
6th Amd Dvn .-57 125
llth Amd Dvn 56 120
10th Amd Dvn 44 100
28th Inf Dvn 20 50 (1st Army)
17th Abn Dvn 12 30
Approx. total-3,390


Europe--attle deaths listed in order for the Palatinate Campaign, western Germany,
to the Rhine, by the U.S. 3rd Army: 13-23 March 1945
26th Inf Dvn 67 145
80th Inf Dvn 73 135
94th Inf Dvn 64 135
90th Inf Dvn 64 110
10th Amd Dvn 47 105
12th Amd Dvn 34 80
4th Amd Dvn 26 60
llth Amd Dvn 19 45
5th Inf Dvn 17 40
76th Inf Dvn 18 38
89th Inf Dvn 17 37
65th Inf Dvn 2 5
Approx. total-940









6j

Europe--number of battle deaths listed when and where the following units
crossed the Rhine in Germany: March-April 1945
1st Inf Dvn unavailable 15-16 Mar 45 Remagen bridgehead, 1st Army
2nd Inf Dvn 20 23 Mar 45 mid-Rhineland, 1st Army
2nd Amd Dvn negligible 27 Mar 45 near Wesel, 9th Army
3rd Inf Dvn unavailable 26 Mar 45 Worms bridgehead, 7th Army
3rd Amd Dvn 2 23 Mar 45 near Cologne, 1st Army
4th Inf Dvn negligible 30 Mar 45 7th Army area
4th Amd Dvn 18 24 Mar 45 Worms bridgehead, 3rd Army
5th Inf Dvn 3 22 Mar 45 Oppenheim bridgehead, 3rd Army
5th Amd Dvn 5 30-31 Mar 45 at Wesel, 9th Army
6th Amd Dvn 5 25 Mar 45 at Oppenheim, 3rd Army
7th Amd Dvn negligible 25 Mar 45 1st Army area
8th Inf Dvn 16 29-30 Mar 45 near Cologne, 1st Army
8th Amd Dvn negligible- 26 Mar 45 into the Ruhr, 9th Army
9th Inf Dvn 40 9 Mar 45 Remagen bridgehead, 1st Army
9th Amd Dvn 8 7 Mar 45 Remagen bridgehead, 1st Army
10th Amd Dvn negligible 28 Mar 45 7th Army area
llth Amd Dvn unknown late-Mar 45 at Oppenheim, 3rd Army
12th Amd Dvn 3 27-28 Mar 45 at Worms, 7th Army
14th Amd Dvn 2 1 Apr 45 near Worms, 7th Army
26th Inf Dvn negligible 26 Mar 45 at Oppenheim, 3rd Army
29th Inf Dvn unknown unknown 9th Army area
30th Inf Dvn 35 24 Mar 45 near BUderich, 9th Army
35th Inf Dvn 15 25-26 Mar 45 near Rheinberg, 9th Army
42nd Inf Dvn 3 31 Mar 45 7th Army area
44th Inf Dvn negligible 26-27 Mar 45 at Worms, 7th Army
45th Inf Dvn 30 26 Mar 45 near Worms, 7th Army
63rd Inf Dvn negligible 28 Mar 45 at Neuschloss, 7th Army
65th Inf Dvn negligible 29-30 Mar 45 near Schwabenheim, 3rd Army
69th Inf Dvn negligible 26-28 Mar 45 1st Army area
71st Inf Dvn negligible 30 Mar 45 at Oppenheim, 7th Army
75th Inf Dvn 6 24 and 30 Mar 45 into the Ruhr, 9th Army
76th Inf Dvn negligible 26-27 Mar 45 at Boppard, 3rd Army
78th Inf Dvn 16 8 Mar 45 Remagen bridgehead, 1st Army
79th Inf Dvn 40 24 Mar 45 near Rheinberg, 9th Army
80th Inf Dvn 30 27-28 Mar 45 Oppenheim vicinity, 3rd Army
83rd Inf Dvn negligible 29 Mar 45 south of Wesel, 9th Army
84th Inf Dvn negligible 1 Apr 45 9th Army area
87th Inf Dvn 35 25 Mar 45 Braubach-Boppard area, 3rd Army
89th Inf Dvn 110 26 Mar 45 Wellmich-Oberwesel region, 3rd Army
90th Inf Dvn 35 24 Mar 45 near Mainz, 3rd Army
95th Inf Dvn unknown early-Apr 45 into the Ruhr, 9th Army
99th Inf Dvn 30 10-11 Mar 45 Remagen bridgehead, 1st Army
100th Inf Dvn negligible 31 Mar 45 7th Army area
102nd Inf Dvn negligible 3-4 Apr 45 at Wesel, 9th Army
104th Inf Dvn 3 21-22 Mar 45 at Honnef, 1st Army

note: Any divisions not listed which were in Europe--they were either mopping-up,
policing, or resting in areas behind the main line of advance at the time of
these Rhine crossings. There are 520 known approximate battle deaths in this
works. The 17th Airborne Dvn airdropped across the Rhine near Wesel, on 24i
March 1945, losing, altogether, on that day, approximately 350 men:









6 3/4


Europe--battle deaths listed in order for Across The Elbe-Into Mecklenburg,
northern Germany: late-April-8 May 1945
82nd Abn Dvn 29
8th Inf Dvn 15
7th Amd Dvn 2
Approx. total 46

Europe--battle deaths listed in order-Into Czechoslovakia: late-April-9 May 1945
97th Inf Dvn 57
90th Inf Dvn 35
5th Inf Dvn 12
26th Inf Dvn 9
89th Inf Dvn _.--
16th Amd Dvn 5
87th Inf Dvn 2
9th Amd Dvn 2
Approx. total 131

Europe--battle deaths listed in order--At, and South Of The Danube, southern Germany,
including (for some units) Austria: late-April-8 May 1945
65th Inf Dvn 72
20th Amd Dvn 50 M
12th Amd Dvn 46
45th Inf Dvn 40 M
86th Inf Dvn 40
100th Inf Dvn 35 (southern WUrttemberg, somewhat north of the Danube)
63rd Inf Dvn 32
42nd Inf Dvn 31 M
llth Amd Dvn 28
99th Inf Dvn 27
44th Inf Dvn 24
13th Amd Dvn 20
103rd Inf Dvn 18
10th Amd Dvn 17
71st Inf Dvn 17
14th Amd Dvn 16
36th Inf Dvn 10
26th Inf Dvn 9
4th Inf Dvn 6
80th Inf Dvn 2
101st Abn Dvn 2 3rd Inf Dvn unavailable
Approx. total 542
M Includes fighting in Munich, Germany










7

Europe--battle deaths listed in order for April 1945: Germany and northern Italy
Listed Approx. Total Listed Approx. Tota
10th Mtn Dvn 270 510 26th Inf Dvn 20 45
63rd Inf Dvn 194 410 101st Abn Dvn 19 45
83rd Inf Dvn 164 305 103rd Inf Dvn 21 42
8th Inf Dvn 164 300 79th Inf Dvn 20 40
3rd Inf Dvn 250 5th Inf Dvn 14 40
3rd Amd Dvn 123 225 85th Inf Dvn 18 33
100th Inf Dvn 122 225 36th Inf Dvn 12 30
9th Inf Dvn 109 225 94th Inf Dvn 10 25
97th Inf Dvn 102 200 106th Inf Dvn 9 20
4th Inf Dvn 95 200 28th Inf Dvn 6 20
12th Amd Dvn 92 200 70th Inf Dvn 3 8
45th Inf Dvn i-i* 200 1st Inf Dvn unavailable
69th Inf Dvn 94 195 Approx. total-8,485 (not
88th Inf Dvn 90 195 counting the 1st Inf Dvn)-
78th Inf Dvn 100 185
99th Inf Dvn 95 180
10th Amd Dvn 86 180 In Brittany, France-April 1945
2nd Inf Dvn 80 170 66th Inf Dvn 12 (exact
80th Inf Dvn 86 165 figure)
91st Inf Dvn 80 165
104th Inf Dvn 68 150
14th Amd Dvn 78 145
75th Inf Dvn 67 145
86th Inf Dvn 74 145
42nd Inf Dvn 68 140
44th Inf Dvn 62 135
13th Amd Dvn 55 124
1st Amd Dvn 70 120
84th Inf Dvn 60 115
4th Amd Dvn 52 115
92nd Inf Dvn 115 (exact figure)
89th Inf Dvn 52 110
30th Inf Dvn 46 110
8th Amd Dvn 54 105
95th Inf Dvn 48 105
9th Amd Dvn 47 105
65th Inf Dvn 54 100
71st Inf Dvn 54 100
76th Inf Dvn 50 100
6th Amd Dvn 46 100
17th Abn Dvn 44 100
34th Inf Dvn 43 100
5th Amd Dvn 44 95
llth Amd Dvn 44 95
2nd Amd Dvn 41 95
7th And Dvn 55 90
87th Inf Dvn 45 80
90th Inf Dvn 42 80
82nd Abn Dvn 35 80
102nd Inf Dvn 35 80
35th Inf Dvn 27 65
29th Inf Dvn 23 55 (exact figure)
20th Amd Dvn 29 52









WORD WAR II

Pacific--battle deaths listed in order for all of the following units and campaigns:

Guadalcanal: 7 Aug 1942--9 Feb 1943
Listed Approx. Total
1st Mar Dvn 642 (exact figure)
Americal Dvn 193 365
2nd Mar Dvn 342 (exact figure)
25th Inf Dvn 115 230
Marine Raiders unavailable
147th Inf Rgt unavailable
Approx. total-1,580 (not including the last 2 units)

Papua, Southeast New Guinea: Nov 1942-2 Jan 1943
32nd Inf Dvn 253 530

Attu: May 1943
7th Inf Dvn 441 (exact figure)

New Georgia: July-August 1943
43rd Inf Dvn 171 550'
37th Inf Dvn 103 225
25th Inf Dvn 71 145
Marine Raiders unavailable
Approx. total-920'(not including the Marine Raiders)

Makin: 20-23 Nov 1943
27th Inf Dvn 71 (exact figure) (165th Rgt, only)

Tarawa: 20-24 Nov 1943
2nd Mar Dvn 1,000 (approx. figure)

Bougainville: Nov 1943-Nov 1944
Americal Dvn 151 275
3rdMar Dvn 253 (exact figure)
37th Inf Dvn 89 200
93rd Inf Dvn 13 25
Marine Raiders unavailable
Approx. total-755 (not including the Marine Raiders)
note: Only the Americal Dvn stayed on Bougainville until late-1944.










2

Pacific--battle deaths listed in order for all of the following units and campaigns:

New Britain: 26 Dec 1943-well into 1944
Listed Approx. Total
1st Mar Dvn 310 (exact figure)
40th Inf Dvn 5 15
Approx. total-325


Kwajalein: Early-Feb 1944
4th Mar Dvn 190 (exact figure)
7th Inf Dvn 65 170
XKP--'-ox. total-360

Eniwetok: Mid-Feb 1944
27th Inf Dvn 40 100 (106th Rgt, only)
22nd Mar Rgt unavailable


Admiralty Islands: March 1944
1st Cav Dvn 326 (exact figure)


Biak: May-Aug 1944
41st Inf Dvn 192 400
24th Inf Dvn 22 40 (34th Rgt, only)
Approx. total-440

Northern New Guinea: April-Sept 1944
32nd Inf Dvn 100 230
6th Inf Dvn 121 220
31st Inf Dvn 55 115
41st Inf Dvn 44 90
158th Inf Rgt 70 (exact figure)
24th Inf Dvn 43 (exact figure)
43rd Inf Dvn 13 35
33rd Inf Dvn 2 5
112th Cav Rgt unavailable
Approx. total-710 (not including the 112th Cavalry Rgt)

Saipan: 15 June-into Aug 1944
2nd Mar Dvn 1,200 (approx. figure)
4th Mar Dvn 1,107 (exact figure)
27th Inf Dvn 1,025 (approx. figure)
Approx. total-3,335










3

Pacific--battle deaths listed in order for all of the following units and campaigns:
Listed Approx. Total
Tinian: July-into
Aug 1944
4th Mar Dvn 214 (exact figure)
2nd Mar Dvn 185 (approx. figure)
Approx. total-400

Guam: July-Aug 1944
3rd Mar Dvn 619 (exact figure)
77th Inf Dvn 248 (exact figure)
1st Mar Prov Bgde---mnavailable
Total-867 (not including the 1st Marine Provisional Brigade)


Peleliu: Mid-Sept-Nov 1944
1st Mar Dvn 1,252 (exact figure)
81st Inf Dvn 208 (exact figure)
Total-1,460


Angaur: Mid-Sept-Oct 1944
81st Inf Dvn 265 (exact figure)


Morotai: Mid-Sept-into Dec 1944
31st Inf Dvn 34 75
33rd Inf Dvn 25 55
32nd Inf Dvn 2 5
Approx. total-135


Leyte: 20 Oct 1944-into Feb 1945
7th Inf Dvn 584 (exact figure)
24th Inf Dvn 544 (exact figure)
96th Inf Dvn 532 (exact figure
77th Inf Dvn 233 490
32nd-Inf Dvn 450 (exact figure)
1st Cav Dvn 203 (exact figure)
llth Abn Dvn 200 (approx. figure)
Americal Dvn 82 145
38th Inf Dvn 51 105
112th Cav Rgt unavailable
Approx. total-3,255 (not including the 112th Cavalry Rgt or the
6th Ranger Battalion)




Full Text

PAGE 1

Digitized with the permission of the FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS FLORIDA NATIONAL GUARD SOURCE DOCUMENT ADVISORY Digital images were created from printed source documents that , in many cases , were photocopies of original materials held elsewhere . The quality of these copies was often poor . Digital images reflect the poor quality of the source documents. Where possible images have been manipulated to make them as readable as possible . In many cases such manipulation was not possible . Where available, the originals photocopied for publication have been digitized and have been added, separately , to this collection. Searchable text generated from the digital images , subsequently, is also poor . The researcher is advised not to rely solely upon text-search in this collection. RIGHTS & RESTRICTIONS Items collected here were originally published by the Florida National Guard, many as part of its SPECIAL ARCHIVES PUBLICATION series. Contact the Florida National Guard for additional information. The Florida National Guard reserves all rights to content originating with the Guard . DIGITIZATION Titles from the SPECIAL ARCHIVES PUBLICATION series were digitized by the University of Florida in recognition of those serving in Florida's National Guard , many of whom have given their lives in defense of the State and the Nation.

PAGE 2

FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS Special Archives Publication Number 137 SUMMARY HISTORIES: WORLDWARII INDEPENDENT REGIMENTS, SPECIAL UNITS ARMY AIR CORPS, MARINE CORPS DMSIONS State Arsenal St. Francis Barracks St. Augustine, Florida

PAGE 3

STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS OFFICE OF THE ADJUTANT GENERA~ POST OFFICE BOX 1008 STATE ARSENAL, ST. AUGUSTINE 32085-1008 These Special Archives Publications are produced as a service to Florida communities, historians and any other individuals, historical or geneaological societies and both national and state governmental agencies which find the information contained therein of use or value. They are automatically distributed to all official Florida State archival records depositories. At present, only a very limited number of copies of these publications are produced. They are provided to certain state and national historical record depositories and other public libraries and historical societies at no charge. Any copies remaining are given to other interested parties on a first come, first served basis. Information about the series is available from the Historical Services Division, Depart ment of Military Affairs, State Arsenal, PO Box 1008, St. Augustine, Florida 32085. Robert Hawk Director

PAGE 4

INTRODUCTION The information in all the Summary Unit Histories was compiled by Jack L. Picken of Waterloo, Iowa. He is an amateur historian who has made the research and study of American combat units in the wars of the twentieth century his life's work. These summaries were sent to us as part of his contribution to the establishment of the Camp Blanding Museum and Memorial Park of the Second World War. Some of the material was extracted from the standard works on US units listed below. But there is considerable information contained in these pages that is the result of dogged research in original records, especially the detailed information concering unit casualties and decorations awarded. The statistics on day to day casualties Mr. Picken has researched for most combat units is absolutely unique and available in this form in no other source. (His statistics on casualties are more accurate than those available from normal. official sources!) There are some gaps in the information available and some "fine tuning" yet to be accomplished but eventually we hope to put this material on a computer and publish it in a more complete and professional manner. Until then these photocopied compilations will meet the immediate needs of all those interested in the incredible history of America's soldiers, airmen and marines during the Second World War. Robert Hawk Department of Military Affairs St. Augustine, Florida 1991 RESOURCES Army Almanac (1950) Committee on Veterans Affairs; Medal of Honor Recipients 1863-1978 Fighting Divisions; Kahn, Ely J. and Mclemore, Henry Library, US Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania University of Iowa; Army Divisional Combat Narratives, World War II (Archives) Other public and private standard informational sources and institutions were consulted as necessary

PAGE 5

,5o:,m PARACHtm: RmDIEHT "The Rock"' Activated.-2 March 1942 at Fort Benning, Georgia. Inactivated-24 December 1945 Reactivated-2 March 19.51 -:-Battle Credits, World War II: Eastern New Guinea Co111J11anding Officers (During Com tat, WW II) : Colonel Kenneth H. Kinsler Colonel George M. Jones Mirdoro Corregidor Early-1943-Mid-1943 Mid-1943-Inactivation Negros Coml:at Chronicles The 50Jrd Parachute Regiment was one of a. number of seps.rate regiments which fought in World War II. That is, it was an irdependent unit and did not belong to any division, as did the majority of other regiments in the war. Af'ter intensive training at Fort Benning, Georgia., the 503rd arrived. in Australia on 2 December 1942. Af'ter more training, the 503rd drew its first com't:at 111ission. It jumped into the beaut iful Mark.h&Jl Valley in ea.stern New Guinea f'r011 400 feet out of 81 C-4?s onto the Nadu.b Air strip, 10:20 A .M., S Septeaber 194'.3. The Jap1,nese were caught completely by surprise. The 1st Battalion seized the airstrip, and the 2rxl arxl J1'd Battalions approached east &rd west of the field where they made contact with the 9th Australian Division by la.te-a.f'ternoon. By seizure of' the Markhaa and Ra.au Valleys, a direct approach to the northern region of New Guinea was opened. Practically all of' the sumequent fighting in eaetern Nev Guinea. was done by Australian troop!I. The 503rd was withdra1fl1 fro• the area on 17 Septeaber. The unit ca.sua.lties totaled J •en killed in the juap, 8 aore by enemy a.ct.ion, 12 men wounded., and JJ injured during the jwap. The next scheduled juap was to be at Ca.pe Gloucester, Nev Britain, but it was cancelled due to unfavorable terrain and weather corditions. The next actions for the .50Jrd were at Hollikang, Dutch Nev Guinea, and on the island of Noelli'oor, just off of the northern New Guinea coast. Colonel George M. Jones, now collMnding, led the jullp on Kalliri Airdroae, Noea:foor, to reinforce the 158th Infantry Regiaent. This jullp occurred. on J July 1944. Due to the s•ll area. of the drop zone am the clutter of wrecked Ja.p,.nese planes off the rumra.y, the .5()3rd suffered an unuaU&lly high rate of juJllp casm.ltiea on J-4 July. Colonel Jones decided to bring in the one reaining l::attalion by boat. The island wa.a divided into two p&rts for the operation, arxi the ,50'.)rd was assigned. the southern zone, where it slew over 1,000 Jap,.neae. It was on 23 July 1944, that the ,50'.)rd had & Medal of Honor winner, Sergeant Ray E. Eu't:anka, Comp1,ny D. Sgt Eul::anks singlehandedly charged an enemy machine-gun potsition with his Browning Auto :natic Rifle (BAR). When his weapon was rendered useless by a. Jap bullet, he continued to charge, using his rifle as a club. Before he was overco111e a.nd killed, he ha.d slain 19 Japs. Next, on 15 December 1944, the .50Jrd Parachute Regiment, along with the 19th In:fantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division, :made an amJitibious landing on the island of Mindoro, in the western Philippines. This was a relatively easy operation, since there were not a large

PAGE 6

nWlber of Jap,.nese on Mirnoro, casualties were very light, am by Jl January 194.5, control of the isla.rn was turned over to Filipino guerrilla forces. However, the next operation was anything blt easy. It was, by :f'a.r, the toughest 1::attle for the .50Jrd of the wa.r. On 16 February 194.5, the ,50Jrd made an airdrop on Corregidor to recapture "The Rock" f'r011 the fanatical Jai:anese. The 2m am )rd Battalions dropped vith about 14 per cent casualties, am it was decided to bring in the rest o:f' the troopers by beat. At about the eaae time, the J4,th Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division am the 1,51.st Infantry Begi11ent, )8th Infantry Division also ll&de a.aJ)hibious laminga on the isl.Arn to help ree&pture it. Corregidor ia a tadpole-eh&ped isl.Arn am was heavily fortified by soae ,5,000 Japa.nese troops, mostly naw.l personnel. Corregidor was severely poumed by naval am air boa't:ard ents prior to the la.rnings, blt this did little gocd since the Ja:i:anese reained underground during the worst of these boal::ardJaents. The Japa.nese were initially surprised by the assault, blt they quickly recovered am pour ed out of their caves and tunnels to give a hot reception to the in\18.ders. However, Captain Itagald, the Jai:anese coma.mer, was killed at his observation post. Leaderless, the Ja:i:an ese were no longer oaiable o:f' co-ordinated offensive or defensive efforts. Each group fought on f'roa isolated a.rn widely se:pa.rated strongpoints. Nevertheless, the Jaianese fought to the bitter ern--as usua.l. -The isl.Arn was quickly split in two. Between 16-19 February 194.5, the .50)rd Md another Medal of Honor winner, Private Lloyd G. McCa.rter, in a very gallant series of actions. Shortly after the initial :i;ara.chute assault, he crossed JO yards of open termin under intense enemy fire am, at point-blank range, silenced a machine-gun with ham grenades. On the afternoon of 18 February, he shot six snipers. That evening, when a large Jai:an ese force attempted to bypLsa his comiany, Prt McCarter moved to an exposed area and opened fire. The Jaianese repeatedly attacked hia position throughout the night and ea.ch time were repulsed. By 2 A .M., all the men about hia had been wounded. Shouting encourageaent to his l:uidies am defiance at the eneay, he continued to be&r the brunt of the attack, exposing himself to locate eneay soldiers am then pouring heavy fire upon thea. When his subma.ch inegun would no longer operate, he seized an autoaatie rifie am continued to inflict heavy casua.ltiea. In turn, this weapon becaae too hot to uae, so he then beg&n firing with an MI rifle. At dawn, the Japa.neae attacked with renewed intensity. Coapletely exposing himelf to loe:&te the aost dangerous eneay pceitiona, he was seriously wOUDied. But, although Pvt McCa.rter had alre&d.y killed at least JO Japa.neae, he re:f'Uaed to be evacuated until he had pointed out illlledi&te objectiftl!I for attack. Through his sustained am outataming heroiaa in the face of grave am obvious danger, Pvt McCarter -.de outstanding contributiona to the succeaa of his c011pa.ny am to the recap. ture of Corregid.or. The Americans attacked with tanks. bu:oolcas. am f'.la.aethrowera am. one by one. gradm.lly wiped out or sealed-off' the Japa.neee. Often, in desperation, the Japs blew up their own 'Ul'ner.ground defenses, JdJ)1~ the•elves and, frequently, soae of the Auricana with thea. On the night of 23 Februll.ry, they set-ott a huge explOBion in a tunnel housing their •in auunition stores, shaking the entire isl.am am serning reverberations echoing along the whole of' Manila harbor. By the evening of the 26th. al.mOBt all of Carregidar wu in Aaeri can ha.ma, a.rxl two days later it wu declared secured. U.S. casualties caae to a:i.cst 1,000 men with an unusually large portion of' thea wounded. 5,000 Japa.neee were killed, with only 19 being taken prisoner. . . After this bitter tattle. the 50'.)rd. rested. Then, in the spring of 19+.5, the p1,r&t.roopers la.med by sea to help out the 4oth Infantry Division which was fighting a lard tattle on the northern p,.rt of Negroe. Operations were haJlpered by rainy, foggy weather as the .50Jrd, along with two regiaenta of' the 4oth Division attacked the main line of Jaianese defenses on 9 April 1945. 'nl9 re•ining Japa.neae soon retreated further into the rugged, mountainous, jungled interior. After the 11&in tattle, the 503rd occupied northwestern Negros. with one unit helping the 164th Infantry Regilllent, Amerioa.l Division hunt re-.ining Jaianese down in southern Negros. With the aid of Filipino guerrilla forces, mopping-up operations continued on into the sum mer of 1945.

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During its time in coml:at in the Pacific, the ,503rd. accounted for BOJle 10,000 Japanese. The ,50Jrd Para.chute Regiaent was ina.ctivated on 24 Dece11.ber 194-.5, at Caap Anza, Arling ton, California.. Honors 1 Congressional Medals of Honor-2 Distinguished Unit Cit&tions-1 * Distinguished Service Crosses-8 Silver Sta.ra-------7.5 * One to the entire regiment--Corregidar -Casualties, Ho official casualties are available.

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5l?'ffl PAJ!ACHO'm DCDmNT "Attack" An.y of' the United States Activated-1,5 March 1943 -Ineo~rated into the 13th Airborne Division on 1 March 1945 Battle Credits. World War II: Central Italy Southern France Couandi~ Officer (Dur~ C011bat, WV II): Colonel Rupert D. Graves Ardennes Rhineland Co11m.t Chronicles The 517th Pa.rachute ftegillent. an independent unit throughout 111oat of World War II, was activated at Cup Toccoa. Georgia, on 1.5 March 194'.3. The tough men o'f the 511th g&"Ye little thought to the fo:rtbecia~ days ahead tha.t P'ate had brewing for thu. aa their troopship chu:rnecl ita way thr~ the cold waters at the Atlantic. 'nle situation was alleviated a great deal by movies. jive-sessions, stage ahova -and the fact that there were also three det&ehllents o'f WACs a.board ship. In its first action, which wa.a in weat-central Italy north of R011e, the ,5l?th was att ached to the veteran 36th "Texas" Infantry Division, a.nd went into position south of Groas eto on a clear Sunday aorning, 18 June l~. The lat and 2nd Battalions around on the right flank and forced. the Geru.na to withdraw. They cut a. iath of destruction through the enny positions, testi'!ied by twisted, gray-clad f'or11s sprawled in unnatural positions and by the stunned group of battle-d&ud. priaonert5. Givi~ the "Tedeschi" no time to recover, the 517th pushed on. In rapid succession the Jl8,ratrocrpera hurled a series of' knife-like tbrasts into the retreating horde or Geru.na, disl~~ them :froll hillocks and mountain-top vil~es. Monta.rsio and Monte:peac&li were taken against diso~ized re~ actions, and then Sticciano. The paratroopers were welcollled joyously by the populace and t;iven fresh bread, cheeses, and wine. The n~t of 20 June was a-pent consolidating against possible counterattacks. On the morning of the 24th, the 517th 11et stiff oppoeition at Follonica. Overcca~ this, the ~i111ent pushed on to take the doainating high grclffld. The Jrd Battalion then left the outskirts of Gan.rrano be~ore dusk on an historic aarch that took them thro~ eneay lines under the cover of darkness. Using mules and carts. the men -oiled eqnip1119nt on and anythi~ that rattled was strapped down or diacarded. On both sides of the road the Gemans slept in wheatfields, unaware of who was ali~ by. Around 111id-day, under a terrific artillery and 111ortar ~. interaingled by sporadic blrsts fro11 S111al1-a.rma, the troopers attacked up the alo-pea or Monte Peloso. By dnak, the 1st Battalion occupied the hill at'ter bl.ttl~ for every contour Jllark on the 111ountain. All positions were held despite desperate Genan atte•pts to dislodge the p,.ratroops by artill• ery fire, until the famous 442nd Infantry R~nt of Japanese-Aaericans relieved them on 26 June 1944. The 517th was then palled back to a.round Fraseati in preparation for an airdrop on southern Fr'!.nee.

PAGE 9

In adairation of their fighting ability "Axis Sally• had this to say about the 517th. "You t11en of the 517 are much better than we anticipated.. llut you a.re fool.hardy you will lose 11any aen." On our aide o'! the f'ence, the comu.nding general of' the )6th Intantry Division ccmaended. the .511th for its part in inflicting on the Vehru.cht one of the worst defeats in its history. At about 41)0 A.M., 1.5 A~at 1944, the dark sky cmtr southern P'rance becue filled with the :paratroopers o-r the ,5l'?th. SOH were scattered a.a far as 25 miles t'roll their object ives. Cena.n convoys were atta.cked., connmica.tion lines severed, and towns and villages occupied a.ncl vacated as aasnbling troopers ,aerged toward the focal point of battle. The un were widely scattered onr the la.adscape, and town naaea such as Le Ph:ry, La Motte, Les Arcs, and Draguignan would long be rnnbered. 'f'he lat Battalion ll&de a gallant stand at Lea Ares against oYerwhel.Jling odds. The 2nd Battalion pushed through to reinforce thn and establish a battle line. The Gen.ans began 11&88~ for an atta.ck, when the )rd Battalion arrived on the scene am launched a co-ordin ated attaelc thro~ the hills and vineyard.a. Once the 517th was intact, the Ger11a.na gave up ho-pe o'! reaching their ovn coastal defenses to help repel the landings. The stoning of St. Cemi.N 'On 22 A~t by tvo C011pmies o'! the regi11ent was legend. The:, eurged up 111otmtainons slopes under 11urderoue fire and took the town, receiving a eo1t1tendation. The next 2 weeks found German citadels falling in rapid succession-St. Vallier, Grasse, Bouyon, and La ltocquette. On 9 September 1944, eleaenta of the 511th jmlped-off to make a bid for Col De Braus, an advantageous little stepping stone to the 'forbidden Sospel Valley, near the Italian border. At 1100 hours the little cluster o'f naked aha.ables shook with battle violence. On the night af the same day, the rnnanta o'l one platoon staggered back in silent teatiaony of the Germana• deteraination to 11aint&in this Alpine stronghold on P'rench soil. Howeftr, on the next day •ore infantry :f'roll the 1:9guent occ:npied. Col de Braua after a ten-if'ic 4-hour artillery barrage by the regillent's 460th Artillery Battalion. 18 Septnber was a red letter day in the hiatory of the •Champagne Ca.ape.~." With the artillery pieces of the 46oth d~-in on the heights abOYe the inf'antry, the 2nd and 3rd Battalions charged out :f'rOll uncler a curtain of withering support to seize lfont Yentebren and Tete de La.Tina. The i-ratroops apprehended. an entire coapany af goosesteppera, togeth er with scores of Geraan dead sprawled out in the sun or cruapled in their bunker hawns. Septnber 1944, died-out with attacks on Hill 1098 and with the relentless roar af the ?.5• ~a echoing through the deep chasms of the Mari.ti• Alps. Batteries of Geru.n 170D rield guna chewed away at the thinning ranks af the 517th, while everybody counted. the d&ya until the next pusses to Jfice, cm the Rirlera. Patrols felt out the defenses of Fort B&r boune-t and Soapel, and :round both sndd.enly deserted. by the~Southern France 111ay haw been called the "Champagne ea.pa.1g-n: but there waa no N11blanee or ~iet:, in those long. weary :rorcee arches cm,r the jagged trails o-r the Marithe AlJ:B earryin-,; bacJcbrea.ki~ loads and pm:auing the eneJIIY. Jfor was there any far the silent t'ons A111eriean J'B,r&troopers that lay scattered. in the hills a.nd along the roads of' SOttthern France. After ll&?tf weeks of coaparathe paradise along the HiTiera, the surrlYOl'S in the 517th were suddenly entrained for northern France, thence into Belgi1:111. The Geru.na had made a ujor breakthrough in the Aaerican lines in eastern BelgiU11, am had. to be stopped. It was mid-Deceaber 1'91~ the tillle o'! the Battle o'f the Bulge in the Arclennea. The lat Batta.lion was sent to the )rd Ar111ared DiYision sector near Soy-Hotton, Be~illll, where the Gen.an arJltor had been jabbing f'iercely far senral d&ya. Not only did the lat Battalion soon bear the brunt or these attacks, it slowly :!arced the Geruns a.round in the ol'J)Osite direction. And on 2)-24 Dece111ber 1944, the 517th had. a Med.al o'l Honor winner, Pre PlelYin E. Biddle, Coapany B, lat Battalion. He killed. J snipers with unerring u.rkaaa.nship and aciYanced 200 yards to dispatch a Mchin~ crew. After s~li~ his c011pa.ny to ad.fl.nee, and. shooti~ J 111ore enny sold• ien, he crawled. to within 20 yards of another 'lll&chine~ neat and tossed his la.at ~na.de into it and destroyi~ it.

PAGE 10

At daybreak. Pre Biddle again led an advance toward an enemy 11&chine-gun neat a.nd. :f'ro11 .50 ya.rds any. killed the crew and two supporting rifieaen. '!be re111&inder of the ene•y• findi~ theaselves with012t aut0111&tic weapons support, fied. in p,.nic. ffc Biddle's courage and superb daring enabled his battalion to break the Geru.n grasp in the Soy-Hotton area with a ainillWI of casualties. The 1st Battalion won the Distinguished Unit Citation ror its action in this area, and was highly praised .by Major-General llaurice Rose, coJIJl&!lding the '.3rd Arllored DiTision. Christu.s Day broke clear and cold. Dogfights, screens o~ fiak, and "buzz bollbs" aff orded. the groum:f'ighters of the 517th & front row center at "the biggest show on earth." Low-fiying Mesaencbaitt 109s gave 111&chine-gunners and the artillery their first crack at enemy planes. On 26 Decuber 1944, the 517th was ordered. to take Manhay at any coat. At 020.5 hours (2,0.5 A.M.) on the 27th. Jllla.nhay reeled unier a terrific barrage rr0111.5 supporting artill ery b&ttalions. At 2,30 A.M. the 517th charged. across the anowblanketed approa.ches to P!anhay and entered the town. The Geru.ns c012nterattacked with tanks, many or captured American Shenians. This attack was saashed, and POVs asserted. that they had been stunned by the violence and speed of the .517th's attack. On 3 Janua.ry 194.5, the~h again struck the Ge1"1118.ns in conjunction with the 82nd Airborne Division. In less n three days it crterran two villages, although snow, cold, and enemy fire Mde conditions allllost unbearable. .500 German vol.Jasgrenadiers were captured. The 517th wa.s again praised. this tiae by the c01DU.nder or the 7th An.ored. Division. Major General Robert W. Hasbrouck. By 13 January, the '.3rd Battalion. attached to the ?5th Inf'antry Division, swept for 5 kilometers (about 3 111iles) against deteniined. ene111y mortar and Slllall-arms f'ire, while the 2nd Battalion plunged into the Genan def'enses a.t St. Vith. The Genans were s~red t'r-011 their last foothold in the Bulge salient. The huge bt.ttle officially waa over on 28 January 1945. The 511th then billeted dmm for a rather btlef rest at Stavelot. The regiment vaa next attached to the ?8th Int'antry Division sO!llewh&t f'urther to the north. Dawn o't 6 February 194-.5, broke crter the west of' the Roer River, where Hitler's crack lat Parachute Any had de-.oted 6 weeks a! preparations ~inst 00 attacks. By twil~t of the second day, the battle for the east bank had reached a violent pitch. Along with the 78th DiTision, the 517th was fighting soe 6,000 men or the well-led. and well-d~-in 272nd Volksgrenadier DiYision. Pinched-in by thousands of 11inea, engineers and in'tantry h&mlered away at the pillboxes and other eapl.aceaenta all up a.nd down the Roer. All during the battle for the ea.st shore, the 517th ful:.filled ita sl~n "Attack." The regiment attacked on 6 February in direct assault on soae pillboxes. It attacked a. ~in on the 7th, three hours after bei~ repulsed. It was still attacking when the 508th Parachute Re~i11ent. 82nd Airborne Division caJNt up to reint'orce it on 8 February. The 517th was then sent to Joigny, Ji'rance, for a well-earned rest an:l rehabilitation. On 1 March 194-.5, the 517th Parachute Regiaent was ll&de a part of the 13th Airborne Div ision. As part of' this unit, the 517th waa 11ade ready to u.ke several jmrps inside Gen any. bat each time friendly troo:pa had already overrun the proposed drop &reaa. l"ollowi~ V-E Day, 8 May 1945. the 517th. along with the rest of the lJth Airborne, wu stationed at Vitry-le-Fran~is, France. s011e distance east of' Paris. The 13th Airborne had been scneduled for redeployment to the Pa.cilie, bttt. this 11ove proved. unnececeary. and its 111en arriving mck in the United States on 24 August. 194.5. Honors t Co~ssional Medals o~ Honor-1 Distinguished. Unit Citationa-1 Caanaltieas No other awards or casualty f~s are avail.able.

PAGE 11

24TH INFANTRY REX;IMENT "Blockhousers" {No shoulder :i:atch authorized) Originally-Part of the Infantry School Brigade at Ft. Benning, Georgia Inactivated-October 19,51 in Korea Battle Credits, World War II: Bougainville Saipa.n Tinian Kerama Retto Commanding Officer {During Coml:at, WW II): Colonel Julian G. Hearne Coml:at Chronicle: The 24th Infantry Regiment was alerted for overseas duty in April 1942. The regiment was understrength and received replacements from the J67th Infantry, another separate regiment, prior t2~rture. The 24th arrived at Efate, New Hebrides, May 1942. The 24th Infantry didn'~ reach Guadalcanal until the mopping-up stage of the ca.mpa.ign. The 2nd Battalion got there in March 194J, and the rest of the unit arrived in August. The Jrd Battalion was then sent on to Munda, New Georgia, several months later. In February 1944, the 1st Battalion was attached to the J7th Infantry Division on Boug ainville, in the northern Solomons, for combat seasoning. The l:attalion engaged in patrol action against the Japanese while with the J7th, and later with the Americal Division. As of 10 May 1944, the 1st Battalion had suffered 11 men killed in action, 2 who died of their wounds, and lJ more wounded. It killed an estimated 47 Japa.nese and captured one prisoner. On 25 June, the unit was transferred to the Russell Islands. In December 1944, the 24th Infantry Regiment moved to Saipin and Tinian, in the Marianas, for garrison duty. Although the 2nd and 4th Marine and 27th Infantry Divisions had fought a terrific cattle on these islands and they had been declared secured, their jungles and caves were still infested with Japanese, and it was the 24th's task to clear the islands of all those who hadn't surrendered. By the time the 24th left Sai:p3.n and Tinian in July 1945, it had killed or captured 722 Japa.nese at the cost of just 12 men killed and 20 wounded.. In July 1945, the 24th moved on to Kerama Retto, a small group of islands west of Okin awa, to continue mopping-up remnants of enemy forces there. Early in August 1945, the Jap anese on these islands capitulated, and on the 22nd, Colonel Hearne, with representative officers and enlisted men, accepted on Aka. Island the first formal surrender of a Japinese army garrison, No awards or a complete casualty listing is available. From July 1950-0ctober 1951, the 24th Infantry Regiment served in the Korean War as pa.rt of the 25th Infantry Division.

PAGE 12

99TH INFA!ITRY BA'ITALION Activated-lo July 1942 Battle Credits, World War II: Normarxly Ardennes Commarxling Officers (Durin&~l:a t, WW II): Northern France-BelgiUJI Rhinelarxl Bavaria Siegfried Line Lt Colonel R. G. Turner Major Harold D Ha.Men June 1943-August 1944 August 1944-Spring 1945 Coml:at Chronicle: The 99th Infantry Batta.lion (seJB,rate), was a. U.S. Army unit com~ed solely of A111erica.ns of Norwegian descent, arxl was activated. in July 1942 at Ca.mp Ripley, Minnesota.. Although, officially, it was not JB,rt of any division, the 99th wa.ssometimes attached to larger units during its time in c011l:at. On 17 Deceaber 1942, the 99th Infantry Batta.lion was sent f'rom Fort Snelling, Minnesota, to the mountain training center at Caap Hale, Colorado. Here the 99th underwent very rug ged training. Froa Ca.lllp H&le the unit shipped out east to Ca.mp Sh&nla!, New York in August 1943 in prepua tion far going overseas. Arriving in Scotla?Xl, 16 Septeaber, the 99th board ed a train for the Wiltshire area of Englarxi. After more tough training in Engl.am am in Wales, the 99th la?Xled in Norma.my on 21 June 1944, eventua.lly helping to secure the port of Cherbourg. On 14 August the 99th was attached to the famous 2ni Antored Division. In late-August it pu-ticiJB,ted in the capture of Elbeuf in furious house-to-house fighting. Advancing into northern France, the 99th Battalion 110-ved to Va.lenciennes, 8 Septeaber, for the purpose of securing the 1st Army sector against possible attack by an enemy pocket in a British sector of this are&. Continuing on into Be~iwa, the 99th advanced via. Mechelen-Eupen-Herzogenr&th where it was attached to the '.30th Infantry Division. By this tiAe, the 99th had nm up against the Siegfried Line. '!be 1:&ttle of Wurselen, near Aachen, will always be a night•re to the meabers of the tat talion who were lucky enough to coae out of it alive. For 9 d&ya a?Xl nigh'bl in the face of continual and accurate concentratiorus of German artillery, mortar, am point-blank tank :fire, the 99th attacked d&ily, was counterattacked a.?Xl outnuabered, ard driven f'roa their ha.rd-won poeitioM only to surge tack ain retake The Genna.mi fought savagely, throw ing everything in the book at the Aaerica.ns. The 99th fought side-by-side with sO11e fa111ours U.S. :fighting divisions-the Jeth, 1st, ard 29th Infantry. During the entire operation focxi, water, a?Xl &lllllunition were extremely hard to deliver to forward areas because of accurate eneay observation. Even during darkness men bringing up supplies were shelled with amdng accuracy. After this German failure to break out of the trap arouni Aachen, the 99th W&8 relieved on 24 October 1944 by JB,rt of the '.30th Infantry Division. After a rest, the 99th wa.a placed in reserve at Tilf:f, Belgillll. Then, on the fateful day of 16 Deceaber 1944, the Battalion was alerted a?Xl proceeded by truck to Malmedy, Belgium to help check the onrushing Germans in the Ard.ennes. At night the 11en shivvered in their :foxholes a.rd then helped beat ht.ck fanatical attacks by eleaents of the l.st SS Panzer Division, the beet troop!! that Germany had. Enemy air activity was

PAGE 13

fairly constant and there were f'requent dog-f'ighte overhee.4. Chri.l!lt-.e dinner consisted. of a K-ration. Each night furious artillery duels took pl.Ace, while Gerans dressed in white caaouf'l&ge euits raided forward positions without success. From 1-6 January 194.5, the 99th occupied f'ront line defenses on the outskirts of Malmed.y. Patrol action was couon and ene111y artillery and rocket fire fairly hea.vy. German troop! who had been wounded often ca111e into the 99th's lines to surrender because of the intense cold. On 6 January, the 99th was moved to the vicinity of Stavelot with positions in a deep pine woods. Its thin defense line wu within shouting distance of' German positions. On 10 Janua.:ry, the Batta.lion successfully launched an attack, with the Germans offering violent resi.l!ltance. Many of them were killed or captured. The next day, hand-to-hand com cat occw:rl with both sides auf'fering fa.irly heavy losses. On 1.5 J&nUl!Lry 194.5, with the 517th Parachute Regiment on the right and the ll9th Infantry Regiment, '.30th In:fa.ntry Divi.Bion on the left, the 99th was pinched out of the attack. Af ter '.31 days of continuo\ll! fighting, living in snowy foxholes in sub-zero weather, and under unrelenting artillery fire, the tired, bearded 11en of the 99th were relieved f'rom the f'ront lines on 18 January 194,S. By thi.l!I time, the Genans had been once again thrown 't:ack on the defeMive. -On the morning of 22 January, the Battalion boarded a train for a long trip 't:ack to the coast of France. At Ba.rnetllle the 99th Infantry Ba.ttalion joined the 474th Infantry Regi ment. Thiz! unit was coapoeed of former i:aratroopers arxl the elite fighters of the disl:a.oo ed 1st Special Service Force. As p,.rt of the 474th In:fa.ntry Regiment, the 99th re-entered Germany, crossed the Rhine, and soon advanced into Ba.varia. Its mission was to i:atrol roads, woods, and towns, and clear up pockets of SS troop! and. other German die-ha.rd.8 byp!.ssed by the rapidly advancing u .s A.rr,.y. Af'ter V-E Day, 8 May 194.5, the 99th was sent to the beauti!'ul country of Norway to help occupy and. control the situa.tion there, arxl to help disant the large nl.lllber of Germ.n troop! still stationed in tblt country. This wu no s•ll task. But the 99th carried out its in structions with the same efficiency and. thoroughness that had helped pull it through the nllllerOUl!I tough l:attlee it had fought in doing its pt.rt to help defeat Na.zi tyranny. Honors: Casual ties: No honors or oa.aualty figures are available for the 99th Infantry Battalion.

PAGE 14

112TH CAVAU?.Y REGIMENT "Rarin' To Go" (No shoulder patch authorized) Originally-Texas National Guard Activated-18 November 1940 Inactivated-January 1946 in Japan Battle Credits, World War II: New Britain Commanding Officers (During Coml::a.t, WW II): Northern N.ew Guinea Leyte Brig-Gen Julian W. Cunningham Colonel Alexander M. Miller Sept 1941-July 1943 July 194}-0ctober 1945 Luzon Coml::a.t Chronicle: The 112th Cavalry Regiment was originally a National Guard regiment from Texas, and was originally part of the 56th Cavalry Brigade. The 112th Cavalry Regiment was not part of~ivision. After being stationed at Fort Bliss and Fort Clarke, Texas, the 112th Cavalry took part in maneuvers at Fort Bliss with the 1st Cavalry Division, and later in 1941 with the 3rd Army. The 112th left the San Francisco port of eml::a.rkation on 21 July 1942, and landed in Noumea, New Caledonia, on 11 August. The regiment arrived dismounted, but with complete horse equipment. However, in May 1943, the unit was permanently dismounted after having been moved to Townsville, Australia. Following intensive training, the 112th Cavalry landed on Woodlark Island, between the Solomons and New Guinea, on 1 July 194J. The beachhead was unopposed despite false reports that large numbers of Japanese were on the island. Meanwhile, the 158th Inf antry Regiment had landed on also unoccupied Kiriwina Island. From these islands U.S. aircraft soon operated against Japanese held l::a.ses at Kaveing, Ral::a.ul, and Gasmata. In November 1943, the 112th again moved, this time to Goodenough Island to prepare for an assault on the Arawe Islands, which are about 75 miles off of the extreme west ern tip of New Britain. Just before dawn on 15 December 1943, two l::e.ttalions of the 112th landed at Arawe.' A terrific naval boml::a.rdment preceeded the landings, but heavy casualties were incur red by the 112th due to the heavy coastal defenses of the Japanese, who also launched air strikes against the Americans. From "shots" taken by Army photographers, the film "Attack-the Battle of New Brit~ ain .. , was conceived which became rated as the outstanding Army picture of 1943. The l::e.ttle for Arawe was officially closed in February 1944, although cavalry :i;a.t rols were active in reconnaissance around Gasmata until the following June. The 158th Infantry Regiment also fought at Arawe. The primary purpose of this operation was as a feint to fool the Japanese. For the main landing on New Britain took place at Cape Gloucester, 26 December 1943, by the 1st Marine Division. The ruse succeeded. Following the Arawe action, the 112th went to Finschhafen, eastern New Guinea, to re-equip for a landing on the northern coast of that huge island. This landing occur red on• 29 June 1944. Remaining in the lines 45 consecutive days, which included some units of the 112th being temporarily surrounded by the enemy, the cavalrymen, along with large contingents of the 31st, J2nd, and 43rd Infantry Divisions l::a.ttled the Japanese 18th Army in some of the bloodiest fighting in the Pacific. The Japanese launched numerous heavy attacks across the hotly contested Driniumor River, and the river soon ran red with the blood of the fallen foe. The 112th Cavalry Regiment had two Medal of Honor winners-both posthumously-emerge from this bitter fighting. One was 2nd Lieutenant Dale E. Christ ensen, Troop E, at the Driniumor River, 16-19 July 1944. On 16 July 1944, his platoon engaged in a savage fire-fight in which much damage was caused by one enemy machinegun effectively placed. Lt Christensen ordered his men to remain under cover, crept forward under fire, and, at a range of 15 yards, put the

PAGE 15

gun and its crew out of commission. On 19 July, while attacking an enemy position strong in mortars and ma.chine guns, his platoon was pinned down by intensive fire. Ordering his men to remain under cover, Lt Christensen crept forward alone to definitely locate the Japanese automatic weapons and the best direction from which to attack. Although his rifle was struck by a bullet and knocked from his hands, he continued his reconnaissance. He located 5 Jap machineguns, destroyed one with grenades, and rejoined his plat oon. He then led his men to the point selected for launching the attack and, call ing encouragement, led the charge. This assault was successful and the Japanese were driven from their positions with a loss of four mortars and ten machineguns, and leaving many dead on the tattlefield. On 4 August 1944, near Afua, Dutch New Guinea, Lt Christensen was killed in action about two yards from his objective while leading his platoon in an attack on an enemy machinegun position. 2nd Lt Christensen's leadership, intrepidity, and repeatedly demonstrated gall antry in action at the eventual cost of his life, above and beyond the call of duty, reflected the highest traditions of the U.S. armed forces. By the time of Lt Christensen's death, Japanese offensive action in the Afua area had died down. On 4 Aug,1e• 1944, after a last desperate attack, the Japanese with drew to the south. For-the remainder of the war, this large group of the enemy were hunted down by Australian forces. Over 2,000 enemy dead were accounted for by the 112th Cavalry Regiment. After remaining at Aitape, northern New Guinea, until J N.ovember 1944, the 112th embarked for embattled Leyte, in the Philippines. There, it came ashore on 16 N.ov ember 1944, moving immediately up to the front lines to cattle side-by-side with the 1st Cavalry Division on the northern end of the island. The 112th had a very tough time in cracking the Jap defenses in its sector, with the enemy offering the fierc est type of resistance. Finally, on 21 December 1944, troops advancing from the north linked-up with soldiers of the U.S. 24th Corps coming up from Ormoc. By 25 December 1944, Leyte was officially declared secured, but "mopping-up" actions con tinued for many months. Next, came Luzon. From 9 February-lJ March 1945, the 112th Cavalry maintained a 100-mile front line in East-Central Luzon (east of Manila) on the right flank of the 6th Infantry Division. This enabled the 6th Division to concentrate harder on trying to break the Japanese defenses of the Shimbu Line. For this splendid work, a commendation was given the regiment by Major-General O.W. Griswold, commander of the U.S. 14th Corps. In sul:::,sequent action in East-Central Luzon, the 112th began an all-out assault on 8 April 1945, in the Santa Maria Valley to clean out pockets of Japanese holding out in the Ipo Dam area. With heavy counterl::e.ttery fire the 112th and the 169th Infantry Regiment, 4Jrd Infantry Division gradually bridged the span separating enemy and American lines. Ipo Dam was captured intact on 17 May 1945. The 112th then killed or captured hundreds of Japanese in the region east of Antipolo between 3 May-JO June 1945. The 112th Cavalry Regiment was rated one of the more decorated units in the Pacific. -And except for the 503rd Parachute Regiment, no other independent U.S. regiment in the war had two Medal of Honor winners. On 25 August 1945, the 112th left the Philippines for occupational duty in Japan. It was inactivated there on 17 January 1946. Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-2 Regrettably, no other awards are available. Other 112th Cavalry Regiment Medal of Honor Casualties: No casualty figures are available. winners in World War II: KIA* 2nd Lt George W.G. Boyce, Jr.,* 2J July 1944, Afua,northern New Guinea. He smothered a live hand grenade with his body, thus saving the lives of several of his men. Footnote: East-Central Luzon is capitalized because it is the official name of a tattle.

PAGE 16

llJl'H CA VALRY GROUP "The Red Horse" Aetivated--Early-1943 Battle Cred.ite, World War II, Noniandy Rhineland Days In Combat-J09 -H orthern P'ranee-Be ll;iUII Karth-central Genn.any Siegt'ried Line Collll\&nding Officer (During Coal::at, WW II)s Colonel William S. Biddle Early-1943-End of war Coscat Chronicles The llJth Cayalry Group, previously regiment, originally consisted. of men a&inly fr0111 the southern J&rl of Iowa, but long before the war was over there were Jll8n in it :fro• many different eta tes. This unit• s history d& tes clear back to the so-called "Black Ha.wk War" of 1832. In World War II, the 113th Cavalry Group (Mechanized) landed on Ou.ha Beach, Norm.ndy, on ~f} June 1944, an incredibly hot d&y. The ?led Horse went into skirmish lines on 7 July, an:l soon tangled with Genarus froa the 17th SS Panzer Grenadier Division, one of the beat eneay units in Normandy. The ll3th fought like vetera.ns, flanked. by the crack U .s. 30th In:t&ntry Di vision. The story of the bitter fighting throllgh the lformmy hedgerows has been told manytimes -the ya.rd by yard. fighting, the stalled adft!lces, a.m o:rten sm.den death. It was no diff erent with the Red Horse. 'nte rugged, bitter fighting eventually carried the llJth Canlry to the of Gouch erie, and the next day the Group dron the Geru.na over a rise in the ground and captured. the town. Next, e&ae the heroic fight far St. Lo with the 113th atta.ched to the Joth Int'a.ntry Div ision. The Gerunai rained dew.stating artillery fire upon the ad-n.ncing but they still continued the advance. The Gerans e011Mnded the heighte abo~ the town &lid kept on pouring nn:trder011S artillery fire down on the Anricans. Working with the 29th Inf antry Dirlsion, the ll3th helped to clear St. L8 ot the la.at German troops inside the l:att ered town, and the elite 3rd Parachute Division was practically wiped ottt. In the American breakthrough west of St. Lo, late-duly 1944, the 113th was put of the U .s. 19th Corps, consistint; also of the 2nd Armored and 28th, 29th, and Joth Inf'a.ntry Div isions. 0n-1 August, the 113th fought a fierce fight for Hill 263, two llliles south of Percy, and then helped to capture hotly contested G&theao. By mid-August, the 113th waa f~hting in the vicinity of DO!li'ront. On 22 A~t, after taking over 1,000 prisoners-which represented 2/'Jrds of the entire strength of the ll'.3th Ca.val.ry Group, a of contacts were made with units or the British Army. In one fire f~ht the llJth waa a.11bwshed. by Germans with a bristling a.asartaent of anti-tank gmus, 11or t&rs, s11&1l a.ra.s, and !BJ1Zer:f'austs and suffered considerable losses. On 2.5 August, the 113th was relieved by a British unit in the area west of the Bretenil-Conches road. Soon after, the 113th headed across northern France---a. blitzkrieg in reYerse. The unit met mostly unorganized and ineffective opposition, but there was a bitter clash at Tournai, Bel.gitlll. It was a classic cavalry operation, spectacul&r in its speed, and superb in ex ecution. The Red Ho:ree continued on through LUge, and then into the Siegfried Line. At the end of September 1944, the Group was attached. to the era.ck 29th Infantry DiTision,

PAGE 17

and in early-Nove11ber 1944, :found itaell under the recently :formed u.s. 9th Array. The 113th saw more :furious fighting on the approaches to the Roer River. When the Genians attacked in the Ardennes in aid-December 1944, the 113th helped hold the Roer River line in 9th Aray's sector, while the Battle of the lh1l.ge raged i'urther so'tlth. However, the 113th spent Christm&S Day up in the fi'ont line. It wa.a a waiting ga.ae along the Jtoer, but the Germans didn't have the strength to launch a powerful. att&ck both in the Ardennea and along the Roer at the l!ULlle tille. Finally, on 23 February 1945, an all-out offensive was conenced to the Rhine. There was no really heavy resistance in the llJth'e zone of attack. On 1 April 1945, the llJth Cavalry crossed the Rhine and pulled up even with the ~hty 2nd Armored Division. 370 :priaonera were taken by the Red Horse :fi-011 28 aep1.r&te Geran units, which indicated the disorga.nised st&ta of the On 2 April, the llJth overran a series of roadblocks arn other defensive points, and went on to capture an ordnance depot. The unit also 227 more FCYtls. Casualties were light. Soon the llJth was advancing acroea north-central Geru.ny in close co-operation with a number of su.ller a.sscrted units. A nuber of saa.ller towns were ta.ken in one da.y. For the 11ost pa.rt, opposition .J1A&-4uite disorganized. The ll:,t.h ad.va.nced into-wern~erode, a large town of 55,000 people, at the :foothills of the Ha.rz !!fountains. There were s011e 6,000 slave laborers in this town. Once the Red Horse had entered the city, the Genana from without began a. deluge of art illery and assault gun fire on the Aerlcana. To c011pllcate the 111&tter, many or the el.ave laborers were running amok seeking revenge on any Geraana they met. It took 4 hours to gain control of the slave laborers and also drive off the enemy. Heavy :fire waa than met on the outskirts of Heillbarg. The act.ion was fierce enough so tha.t the 113th teaporarily pulled back, calling on the 83rd. Infantry Division to fl&nk the Gersan positions. 'nle ll3th, lle&fflfhile. !IIILd.e another :f'ront&l assault on Heilabarg ancl aga.in aet very fierce resistance, largely :troll ps.rt. of soae 6oo fan&tice.l SS troops roang the area. Eventually, the 8th Armored. Division relieved. the llJth and. assmaed. responsibility !or the enemy strongpoint. The Geru..ns still righting staged a mmber of aa'bwshes against the 113th, and there were seYe:ra.1 sharp fights as the unit ne&red. the wide Elbe River. After seizing Ludd.eritz. the 113th then held defensive positions on the west lank of the Elbe. Fin&l.ly, contact. was made with the Ruaaian 121st Int'&ntry Division. Allied POWs were then transported froa the notorious caap at Luckenwalde under the con trol of Major herett X. OrMn o the llJth C&n.lry. Pa.rt of' the 30th Infantry Division then took onr the llJth's sector along the Elbe. The 113th had. destroyed. or captured over 600 tanka, a.r11ored. cara, half'tra.cks, a.nd other vehicles, and t&ken 21,.599 rows. The llJth Cavalry Group had est&bllsbed an acbd.rable comb&t record far one a! the sll&l.1er fighting outfits in the ETO. Honors: Co~ssiona.l Meda.ls of Honor-0 D is~int;uiahecl Unit Ci ta t.ions--0 Distinguished Service Crossea-2 Silver Stars---------96 Casualties, Killed In Action-161 (No other casualty fiures a.re available) Co-ents It seems rather hard to belie'f'e that even a coal:at unit the size o:f' the llJth Canlry Group (about il,500 men at full-strength) did not lose any11ore tM.n 161 aen killed in action, in view of soae of the 'l:attles they were in and their ntmber of days in c011b&t. At any rate, this fi~ is a.n unnofficial one.

PAGE 18

.. 14 ?TH IlfFAN'mY R!&IMDT (No shoulder i:atch authorized) Aetiva.ted-1.5 October 194,0 Inaetivated.-2.5 194.5 Battle Credits, World War IIr Guadalcanal COlll&&nding Of!icera (During Coacat, WW II) 1 Colonel w. B. Tuttle Lt-Col llobert F. Johnson Lt-Col Walter N. Davies Northern Sol01tons Iwo Jiu. April 1942--August 1~ August 1944 Ma.y 194 .5 M&y 194-.5-End of war C011l::at Chronicle: The 147th Infantry Regiment, originally Pl,rt of the J7th In:f'antry Div ieion, with the 111&.jority cir'Tts men from Ohio, was alerted for overseas 11oveaent and arr ived in Tongata.bu in April 1942. In May, the J7th Division arriTed in the Fiji Isl.&nds. As the 147th settled into routine garrison duty, it seemed that fate had already dec ided its ultiM.te chore, but such w&sn't the case as the unit would be one of the first separate inf"ant.ry regiments to see co111bat. On 4 Novembar 194-2, a force consisting of 1,700 men of the 1st Battalion, 147th landed unopposed at Aola Bay, Guad&lca.nal, about JO ailea southeast of Henderson Field. Their aission was to cover the construction of a.n airstrip near the cay. Also landing were several other units including .500 Se&bees, two coaianies of the 2nd Marine Raider Ba.tt&l ion, one cattery of artillery froa the A11eriee.l Division, and the 5th Defense Batta.lion. The 147th later J1oved to Koll Point where it was relieved. bf a reconnaiuance unit of the Aaerical Division on 19 January 194:,. The regi.Jl&nt then 110-n!ld up to the Point C:rus area. to be uaigned to the C01tposite A.ray Marine Division (CAM), which waa a teaporary structured. f'orsation. Thia c011poeite division inclm.ed the 6th Ha.rine Regiaent :r.r011 the 2nd Marine Ditlaion and the 182nd Infantry Regiaent froa the Aaerioal Division as well a.a the 147th Infantry. On 22 January 1943, the CAM Division opened a. :f'ull-scale attack along am near the north cca.st of Guadalca.nal with the general direction ot attack northeast toward C&pe Esperance. The 6th Marines attacked along the beach near the aouth of the Matanikau ftiver, the 147th In:fantry adftllced in the center, and the 182nd Inh.ntr,. was on the left and. u.int&ining contact with the 25th Infantry Division. The Jap.nese resisted with the ut most skill and tenacity, bat, ne'Yfftheleas, the Aaerieana :foreecl th• back? ailea bf the end of the aonth at a coat of 189 aen killed and about 4oo wounded. 4,000 Jai;:anese were el&in and 10.5 captured.. On 2 February, two 'tatt&lions of the 147th croaaed. the Bonegi River am by1710 hours (5:10 P.M.) had ta.ken Tassa.faro~. An eatiated f'oree of 700 Japanese had opposed the crOSBing and it wa.s bitter coa'tat. On the Jrd, the 147th established a. line running in land :f'roa Tneah.ronga Point. On 4 February, the advance ton.rd the. Ull&8&?li River was slowed down by the fierce action of eneay rear~, but in the next 24 hours the 147th succeeded. in adY&ncing 1,000 :yards further. On 6 February, the 161.at Infantry Regbent p1.5aed through the 147th, thuis giving it a rest, while it continued on in parsuit o! the enemy and. reached the U111&S&ni River. One coapi.ny of the 147th was then lAnded at :Beau:fort Ba.ya.stride the witbira.wal route, and the last organized. Jap,.nese resistance on Guadalcanal ended on 9 Febrt.ary 1943. Howe"Yer, the Jai:anese successfully ew.cuated BOJle 12,000 troope :r.roa the island. In May 1943, the entire ret;iment wa.s sent to S&lloa where it was attached. to a marine unit. In February 1944, the 147th wa.s shipped to New Caledonia, and in April eal:arked. for Emira.u Isla..nd., north of Bougainville in the Soloaons, where it landed on 11 April 1944. The 147th stayed here until 8 July 1944, when it returned to New Caledonia. On 20 March 1945, the 147th landed on Iwo Ji.ma where it took part in the fL"l&l Jha,se of

PAGE 19

the bitter :righting on this terrible islArd., ard. p,.rticip,.ted in dangerous 111op-up actions. On JO June 194.5, the 1st Battalion of the 147th relieved the 24th Infantry Regi.Jlent on Tinian. On 8 September 194.5, the entire regiment 1110Yed. to Okinawa where it stayed until 8 Dec e11ber. The 147th was then shipped l:ack to the United States and was ina.ctivated. on Christ Jlla.S D&y 194,.5. Regrettably, no awards or caaualty i.nformtion is available for the 147th Infantry Regillent. However, it is known tha.t there were no Medal o:r Honor winners. --

PAGE 20

l,58'l'H INFAN'lllY REGIMEll'l' "Bushastera" (Ko shoulder patch available) Acthated.-16 Septe•ber 1940 Inactivated-17 January 1946 in Ja:pan Northern New Guinea Noem:toor Battle Credits, World War II: New Brita.in Couaming Officers (During C011l:at, WW II)s Colonel J. Prugh Herndon Colonel Earle O. Sandlin Early-1943-May 1944 May l~End of war Luzon Coal:at Chronicle: The 158th In:f'antry Regbent (sep,.rate), or~ina.lly :part of the 4,5th Infantry DiTieion, was incblcted at Ft. Sill, Oklahoma, am in February 1941 lllOved to Callp Barkeley, Texas. The-regillent u.neuvered with the 4,5th, am then was released am shipped to the Panama Canal area on Jl Deceaber 1941. In January 1943 the l,58th shipped first to Brisl:ane, Australia, &rd then to Port Moresby, New Guinea. In June 194) the unit, now at Milne Bay, was organized as the l,58th Regiaenta.l Coml:at Team, am therefore not i:art of any division. In June 194;, the 158th la.nded on Kiriwina in the Trobriarxl Islands, while the 112th ca.valry Regilient, another "indepeaient .. unit, land on Woodlark Islam. These isl.ams are located. roughly h&l:f'way between the Sol011ona and the eastern c:oaat of Hew Guinea. There were no Japanese. Work vaa quickly begun on an airfield on Kiriwim. The first c011bat :f'or the l,58th occurred. when it was again teued-up with the 112th Cav alry for the invasion of the Arawe IslJm:le just off the western tip of New Britain in co operation with the lat Marine Diviaion'a laming on this l&rge ialand. Initially, there waa aoae fierce action, with the Japanese launching air strikes again st the landings. This laming worked as a decoy for the ll&rlnee' ain a.sea.ult at cape Gloucester, New Britain. The 158th reaained in this area frOll 20 194;-into Feb ruary 1944, I&trolling and. occupying the &re&. Early on the morning of 21 Kay 1944, the l,58th sailed to an area nea.r northern Nev Guinea, anrl bivouacked near Ara.ra. On 23 May, the 1,58th paaaed through the lines of the Jrd Battalion, 16)rd Infantry Reg iaent, 41st In:fantry Division, crosaed the Tor River am on the follOlfing day the Tirfoaa River. The l,58th then headed far a terrain feature called Lone Tree Hill. In front. lf&8 a short, rlolentl:r twisting streaa which was dubbed the Snaky River by the troops. At the rear of this hill lay Mattin Airstrip, an objective. Aa the Bushu.etera approached the stre&ll, heavy artillery and. 111achine-gun fire stopped their advance. Heavy artillery ani naval gunfire was then ad.justed on the Japa.neae poei tions. On the following day the unit was again halted by heavy eneay fire. Probing of the princi:pal Ja:i:aneae positions i?Xl.icated that they were in greater etrength in thia a.re& than had been expected. . The 6th In:fa.ntry Dirlaion began arriYing in the beachhead area on 5 June, &Di the 158th ~in took up the offensive toward Lone Tree Hill. But, before they could recrOSB the Tirt'O&Jl River, the unit's aiseion 1f&S cha.nged. General Krueger, the U.S. 6th Army, wanted to use the l,58tb far a.n a.asa.ult on Moea:roor Island, just off the north coast of New Guinea. And so, the 158th wu relieved in place by the 20th Infantry RegiMnt, 6th Infantry Division. During the ti.Ile the l,58th spent in the Wakxie-S&J:'Jli area, it suff ered 70 men killed, 257 wounded, and 4 missing. In return, the regiaent killed 920 Ja.p,. nese and took 11 prisoners. The 1st a.m 2nd Batta.lions of the l.,58th RCT lamed on Noem.foor, 2 July 1944, a.Di took Kamiri Airdrome. The la.ming was lightly opposed, arxi the 158th pushed toward Kornaaoren Airdroee against scattered resistance.

PAGE 21

The 503rd Parachute Regiaent made an airdrop on the isl.ani, and for the purpose of hunting down pockets of J&pe.nese, the island was divided into two zones, The 503rd was assigned the southern sector and the l,58th the northern zone. Up through Jl August 1944, the Bushlla.sters killed 6ll Jai:anese, captured. 1'79 more, am liberated 209 Korean slave laborers, while sustaining losses of only 6 dead &nd 41 wounded. The 1,58th remained on Noemf'oor until its depirture for the invasion of Luzon. The 1,58th landed a.t Li.nga.yen Gulf on 11 January 1945, D-plus 2. The l,58th was co1111itt ed in the U.S. lat Corps' extreme left !lank as it headed into the ca.ramllo Mountains {:racing north), am met fierce Japanese resistance incltxiing heavy artillery fire am coun terattacks. The 158th was attached to the 43rd Infantry Dhision, on its right, am be gan an attack along the Daaortis-Rosa.rio Road on 12 January. The Bushu.stera broke through to Cat&guintingan in fierce f~ting on 26 Januit.ry', and continued to help the assault to ward the key city of Baguio until reliefld by the JJrd Inf'antry Division, 15 Februa.ry l.94.5. Transferred into southern Luzon, the 158th struck f'roa the vicinity of Nuugbu, seCUX' ing Bal.ayan, and clearing the northern shores of Bal&yan am Batanga.s Bays. The town of Batangas was liberated, ll March, and f'roa 19-2:3 M&rch the unit overran the outer defenses of Route 417. Along with the 11th Airborne Division, the l,58th then closed with the Fuji Force's ma.in line of resist.aims in bitter coml:at. The 1,58th was then llOYed. by sea to where it aade an uJ,'hibious landing at the extre•e southeast tip of Luzon on the Bicol Peninsula, near Legaspi. Advancing west into the in terior of the wild peninsula, there were a nUJtber of s1111.ller sharp actions blt no ma.jor battles of any serious consequence. Contact was made with elements of the 1st Cavalry Division at Naga on 1 Ma.y 1945. The 158th reaained at Naga until its transfer to Jap,.n for occup,.tiol'l&l duty. Ho awards or of:t'ici&l ca.aualty listing is available, although an estimate may be a.ssuaed of the naber af aen killed in action in the l,58th In:rantry Regilllent. 70 en were loet in northern .Kew Guinea, 6 acre on Noea:roor, am one historian giyea the KIA :figure for Luzon at 245 Hn, bit this lut seen low. Thia histori&n hu no :figure for the Arawe operation, bit it was not prol:ably too ~. So, at the least, the l,58th loat 321 men, am possibly aa ~h aa 400.

PAGE 22

44211D INFAEmY Rl!&IMElff -Co For Broke" Activa.ted-1 February 1943 Battle Credits, Vorld Va.r II: Southern Italy Cassino Anzio Vosges Mountains Southern France -Couand.ing Officers (During-Co11l:at, W II): Colonel Charles V. Pence Colonel Virgil R. Miller Rome-Amo Po Valley Coml:at Chronicle: The flt.mous 442nd In:fantry Regiment, except for some of its officers, who were Caucasian, was composed of Japanese Americans (or Nisei, as they were referred. to at the time-second generation Japanese born in the United States). It was first organized and then trained at Caap Shelby, Mississippi, consisting of approxiately 1,,500 volunteers fro• the mainland a.nd. about 3,000 more men :from Hawaii. However, to tell the full story of the Japanese Americans in World Va.r II, it is nec essary to begin with the 100th Infantry Batta.lion. On 10 June 1942, the Hawaiian Provisiona.l Battalion landed in Oakland, California, and two da.ys later was activated as the 100th In:fantry Battalion. The Japanese Americans soon left by three different trains for Ca.mp McCoy, Visconain. While en route, the aen of the 100th had an uneasy moment. One of the trains pulled into a siding enclosed with larbed wire. Veil aware of the internment of the West Coast Japan ese Americans, the isl.am.ere womered if the same fate wasn't in store for them. A:f'ter an agonizing delay, the train slowly bl.eked onto the main track and continued on its way. From June-December 1942, the 100th t.Tained in the BUlllJIISr heat and in the winter snow. During thiis time, a bout 100 men were transferred to the Military Intelligence Senice lan guage School at Ca.ap Savage, Minnesota. Although kept under wra.ps, at the tille, these men would eventually serve in the Pacific as tra.Ml.a tors, interrogators, and interpreters. This group was the forerunner of some 6,000 Japanese Aaerie&M who later valia.ntly served in the Pacific, the story of which is just gradually being told. A:f'ter more intensive training at Caap Shelby, Mississippi and in Louisia.na, the 100th was sent to Camp Kilmer, New Jersey, and then shipped out for North A:f'rice., landing at Oran, Algeria.1 on 2 September 194'.3. Subsequently, the 100th was attached to the tattle-tough :,4th "Red Bull• Infantry Divis ion which ha.d seen very heavy fight!.ng in Tunisia. There was no prejudice or aili0&ity at. all in General Ryder, the 34,th'e coJBMmer, a.nd. he was glad to have the Jap;,.nese Americans. He would never have to regret it. As the '.34th entered the l::attle in southern Italy, the 100th shortly set about proving itself to be one of the finest units the U .s. Army ever put in the field. The looth slug ged. north :f'ro11 Eboli, beginning 28 September 1943, through rugged terrain via Chiusano, San Giorgio, a.nd Benevento. Continuing :further north, the 100th fought through a score of towns :f'rom 17 0ctober-11 November 194:3---san Martino, Airola, Sa.nta. Agata, Ba.gnoli, Limatola, am Caiazzo. Oppos ing enemy units incluied pi.rt of the Hemann Goring Panzer Division, am the Germans rain ed heavy artillery fire and "screaming meellli.es" (6-1:arrel rocket launchers, or, in Germa.n,

PAGE 23

Nebelwerf'ers) down on the 100th. Even the Lu:f'twa.ffe appeared briefly. At the Volturno River, the Germans were routed in a. ba.yonet charge, proba.bly the first such episode in Italy. :Bitter fighting continued a.a the :}4th (looth still attached) slowly advanced in the mountains. There was desperate ha.nd-to-hand. con.cat on Monte Pantano. Then the America.ns were halted by the extremely strong German defenses a.t Cassino, with the towering hill and its mona.stery above the town. In some of the toughest fighting o:f the war, the 34,th/lOOth succeeded in 1118.ld.ng a snall, wt important breach in the Ger1&n defenses. Intensive, grueling eomba t followed in ear ly-February 1944. Several hills about Cassino, and ];art of the town were ta.ken by the Aaerioe.ns, wt the German defenses were just too strong, even though the monastery, it self, was involved in a. controversial bombing by the Allies in mid-February. Cassino wasn't taken until mid-May 1944 in a massive assault involving 5 Allied divisions. The 34th/100th had almost made it a.lone. In la.te-Ma.rch 1944, the 100th, now opera.ting as a seiara.te battalion, helped reinforce the Anzio beachhead.. In la.te-Ma.y, the Allies :finally broke out o:f the beachhead. in terr ific fighting. Rome fell on 4 June 1944. Rolling on through Rome, the 100th Infantry Batta.lion continued north. _...A,:LCivitavecchia., on the western coast, it met up with the 442nd. In:f'antry Regiment on -15 June. The regiment ha.d just arrived in Ita.ly, and now the two :forces joined together, totalling some 6,000 men, and actually being the strength of a brigade. A very skil.l:ful. and daring operation occurred soon after. The Ja.pinese Americe.ns sur prised the Germans in the town of Belyedere, and what was remarkable a.bout this action is that some 170 of the enemy were killed, while the 442nd lost only one man and 8 more woun ded: The 100th In:fa.ntry Battalion, which did most of the fighting, was later a.warded the Distinguished. Unit Citation. . . Crossing the Cecina. River, 1 July, Lueia.na. fell in bitter house-to-house f~ting 89-inst elements of the 16th SS Panzer Grenadier Division. Further north, in Livorno (Leghorn), the ~nd. protected the entire western f'la.nk of the Allied advance, and its patrols were the :first to penetrate into the historic city of Pisa. On 15 July 1944, the 442nd's a.nti-ta.nk compiny wa.a detached and sent to help support the .5l7th Para.chute Regilllent in the coming invasion of southern France. On 2.5 July, in Italy, the rest of the 442nd. was pulled l:aek to Vada. for rest and reetlp eration. Then, on 18 August 1944, the 442nd was attached to the 88th In:fa.ntry Division, and clear ed out a nWllber of Cerma.n pockets south of the Arno River. Jla.ny prisoners were ta.ken, as the Arno was crossed in ea.rly-Septeaber, and then the battle-weary J&pa.nese Americans were delayed by strong enemy resistance in the Serchio River ax-ea. Three days later they were relieved in the line. The Rome-Amo ca.Jllplign had cost the 442nd 1,272 casualties, and out o:f this number, 2'.39 men were killed in action and another 972 more wotll'lded.. During this advance, the 442nd. had covered 40 miles. Then, on 26-27 September 1944, the outfit boarded Navy transports and headed for Ma.r seille, southern France. '!be 2nd and 100th Batta.lions were sent by truck andthe Jrd B&tt alion by :freight train north up the Rhone Valley to join the u.s. 7th A:ncy which had advan ced a.s fa.r a.a the V~s Mountains in northeastern France. This is a -,ery hilly, densely wooded region, and was full of fanatically resisting German troops. The 442nd. was attach ed. to the veteran 36th In:f'antry Division. On 1.5 October 1944, the Jaianese Americans began a.n assault on the town of Bruyeres. The going wa.s very tough. Kines, booby-tra.~, snipers, a.nd artillery air bursts, coupled with the increa.singly foul weather and the determined. German resistance, ma.de the fighting in the forests a. nightmre. Nevertheless, Bruyeres wa.s taken after 3 da.ys of bloody :fight ing. Next, ce.11e Biffontaine in which the Germns sa:va.gely counterattacked, but were beat en l:ack. Then, further east, in one of the most courageous actions of the war, the 442nd fought through a hornet's nest of Germa.ns to rescue a 1:atta.lion of the 36th Division which had become cut-off and surrounded and was slowly being cut to pieces. Undaunted, the Japu1ese Americans suffered heavy losses, but took an equally heavy toll of the enemy as they ten

PAGE 24

a.ciously slashed their wa.y through to the trapped l:atta.lion. Jfeedless to sa.y, the men of the :,6th were overjoyed to see their Oriental looking rescuers, and couldn't praise them enough. After a month of the grimest :fighting in the high Vosgea, arxl having l06t around 150 men killed a.nd with 1,800 11.ore in hospitals, the ~rxl was sent 'tack down te southern France by 21 Hove11ber 1944. After the Vosges experience, the men o:f' the 36th Inf'a.nt:ey Division began calling the men o:f' the 442nd. .. the little men o:f' iron ... The 442nd's min mission in southern France was to guard the French-Ita.lian border in case of an enemy thrust :from northern Italy. However, this newr occarred, a.lthough there were dangerous J:&. trol actions a.long the border. 1'waerous :i:assee were issued, and the aen headed for the sunny Riviera.. Then, on 22 March 1945, the unit left southern France, arxl la.nd.ed l:ack in Livarne, Italy. General Clark, the Army co .. mer in Italy, wae 11ore tha.n gla.d. to have the 442nd. 'tack for the :final all-out Allied offensive, soon to co111Unce. Meanwhile, the ,522nd Artillery Battalion had been detached :f'roa the 442rxi, moved lack up the Rhone Valley in P'ra.nce, a.nd, during the spring of 1945, gave added artillery support to the 63rd, 45th, 44th, and again 63rd Infl.nt:ey, 101st Airborne, a.nd 4th Inf&ntry Diris ions, in that order, during:~e units' adva.nce into various pa.rte of southern Geran:r. The ,522nd wa.s in on the liberation of the notorious concentration camp at Dachau. Back in Italy, a.gain on the left {west) flank ef the Allied line, the rest of the 442nd was in on the opening JX18.Se of the offensive by the Allies, beginning 5 April 1945. It was soae of the toughest fighting of the entire Italian oampdgn. Th.is ba.ttle included. the 442nd scaling a. ;,000-foot saddle between Monte Cerreta. a.nd Monte Fol8orita at night. The Germa.ns were taken coapletely by SlJrP:rise, bit, nevertheless, fought bi.ck furiously. It was in this early Jm,Se of the offensive tha.t the 442nd. had a Medal of Honor winner, Pfc Sada.o s. Muneaori, Co•pLDY' A, 100th In:f Bn, 5 April 1945, near Ser:ravezza., Italy. Vhen his sqtad leader was wounded, he made a. one-•n :frontal aasa.ult on 2 •chine-gun nests and knocked out both gun eapla.cements. Vithdr&wing under ?IUl:derous :f'ire and a shower of enemy grena.d.es, he had nearly reached. the safet:r of a sbellhole when a.n unexploded grenade bounced off his helmet and tumbled to n.rd.two of his com:ad.es. He MuneJK>ri instanUy dove on top of the live missile a.sit ex ploded, covering it with his body. He wa.a killed by the blast, but he had heroically saved the lives of his two fellow soldiers The fighting continued hot a.nd heavy a.s the 442nd. l:attled north a.long a.nd. near the west ern Italian coa.st. On 11 April, the city of ca.rrara was entered, although Italian partisans had already taken control. Than, on 17 April, the :,rd. Battalion tried to take Fosd.inova. and Monte Nebbione and ran into fierce oppoeition. The 2nd Battalion then joined in the attack on the 19th. It was just north of Mto. Nebbione, nea..r a village ca.lied. Aul.l&, tba.t another~ co~oua one ma.n action oocu:ued by lat Lieutenant Daniel Inouye (now senator :f'ro• Hawaii), Coai:-,nyE, )rd Batta.lion, on 20 Apl'il 1945. He led one of the a.tta.~ units in a. detenrl.ned assault on enemy peaitiena up a slope. In spite of serious wounds, the ga.ll.a.nt lieutenant single-ha.Diedly destroyed 2 m.chine-gun nests with grenades. Suddenly, a. Geran arose :from only some 10 yards away and fired a. rif le grenade which struck hi.la in the right arJ1 and shattered it. Inspite of this grieYOUB wound,--he still m,.naged. to throw another grenade which killed this German, but then wa.a hit in the thigh by ma.chine-gun fire which knocked hh down a. slope. Solll9how, Lt Inouye kept :froa bleeding to death, am was later awa.rded the Distinguished Serrlce Croes. The village of A ul.lA f'ell on the same day, and the ~nd then began a md. dash up the Liarian coast. Italian .Bersa.glieri troops were routed a.t San Terenzo with 40 killed &nd l'.35 captured. By this time, eneay resistance in the western coa.stal area had just a.bout collaJSed. Vhen the 442nd. entered the city of Genoa, and. later Torino (Turin), they found both cities under Italian JS,rti.sa.n control. The Germna :fina.lly surrendered in northern Italy on 2 May 1945. This wa.a followed by extensive occu:pa.tional duty in northern Italy, a.lthough a. grea.t 111.ny men in the 442m. were quickly rotated bl.ck home under the pointe syiste•. Al together, 17,600 Ja :pa.nese Americe.ns had served in the Army. No one could ha. ve really

PAGE 25

blamed any one of them if' they had neYer served &tall, in view of the way Ja:pa.nese Aaeri cans were trea. ted shortly after Pearl Harbor-the forced moves to internment camps, con fisoa tion of their property (in some cases, even their homes were burned down), a.nd other h'Wllilia.tions and losses. Inapite of' all of' thia, the ;younger generation of Japa.neae Amer ioa.ns went out of their way to show their pa.trioti.am for their country, which, at lea.st in the beg~_pn1J!& had shunned the•. The Lf42nd Infantry RegiJlent was, :f'or its size, the aost decorated U.S. unit of Vorld Var II. General Ryder of the :,4th Inf'a.ntry Division said that the 442nd. was the :rightingest outfit he had ever known---a.nd, n• question about it, the "4end was one of the truly great outfits of Vorld. Var II. Honors: Congressional. Meda.ls of Honor-1 Distinguished Unit Citations-8 * Distinguished Service Croases-52 Silver Sta.rs-------560 -Ca.sua.ltiess Total Battle Deaths Killed In Action-680 Vound.ed--Jlissing-----67 Captnred..--Total Ca.sualties--9,486 * One to the entire 442m Infantry Regiment {ainus the 522nd. Field Artillery Ba.ttalion) Po Valley, Italy Notes: In 19.51 Hollywood.Md.ea fea.ture-length 111ovie a.bout the 442nd titled .. Ge, For Broke ... Van Johnson sta.rred in it, as well as seven.l former aea'bers of the 442m. Ma.n:r, nany years later, in 1982, on the '1'Y progra.a "Real People•, it was a.rxanged. to have a number of' forur ae•bers of the ""'2nd. a.Jld some o:f the ost l:attalion• they had rescued. of the '.36th In:fantryDiviaion, Met on the show. It was quite a aoYing reunion, and the Japa.neae Aaeric:a.ns receiwd a et.anding ow.tion :troa the audience.

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4nll) INFANTRY R&'.:IKENT (No shoulder :i;atch authorized) Activated-January 1945 in Italy In&ctivated.-July 1945 Battle Credits, World War ll: Northern Apennines Colllll&nding o:r:ricers (During Collbl.t, WW II)s Colonel Willis G. Cronk Colonel Willi.&m P. Yarborough Po Valley January-February 1945 February 194.5-End of war Co111bl.t Chronicles The 473rd Infantry Regiment was made up of men largely from disl:am.ed. antiaircraft unita who had fought in N.nY of the previous bitter l:attles in Italy. After coml:at training a.t...li;mteca.tini, the 473rd aoved into the front line on the night of 15 February 1945. nfe sector was broad and thinly held on both sides of the line, w&s very rough and 111ountainous, and the situation wa.s static. Opposing the 47Jrd were Italians from the 5th ''Sa.n Marco" Marine Regiment, augmented by a few Germans with light artillery. On 17 February, Colonel Bill Yarborough, fa.aed. pi.ratrooper &?Xi former collllllander of the 509th Para.chute Battalion in rugged southern Italy f~hting, arrived to take co1U11a.m. o'f the new regiment. On 24 February, the 473rd aoved. into the Serchio Va.lley, scene of the l&te-Dece111ber1944 Italo-Gerlll!!l.n atta.ck against the 92nd. (Black) In:fantry Division, a.nd. the 473rd relieved two :regiments o:r this division. On 2 March 194.5, a raid wa.s launched. against the Italians who held well-prepared. posit ions a.long & ridge, and a nuaber of men were killed in this action. During the reu.inder of March, intensive p,.trol actions were conducted., and the aen of the 47)rd were amused at the nmber of Italians deserting to cOJle onr to the Allied sidearound 3.50 in all, not counting prisoners taken. Then, in early-April 1945, the 473rd :partici:pe.ted in the preli.Jlina.ry attack along the west coast before the Allied aain event took place on 9 April. For this assault, the 92nd Inf'antry Division had been reorganized. into one white regiment (the 47.3rd), the excellent Japanese berican 442nd. Infantry Regiment, 'tack f:roa France, and the Black 370th Ini"antry Re~iJlent. The attack bega.n on 5 April 19'+.5. The ene11y had excellent fields of fire with lll&XllUII obsern.tion, Artillery and mortar fire poured ~inst the hillaides in thundering l:arrages and the eneay :replied. in kind. It wa.s intense ~ting a.host all the way, but the attack etill did well-in fact, &11 three regaenta perforaed well. M&ssa was entered on 10 Ap ril uid the cheering populace, while all the tille the ene11y kept the entire area under artillery fire. . The 473rd :f'ought forward and in 5 daya seyeral were reduced in strength to 2 rifle platoo_!'1s by the :f'ighting at Strettoria Hill and Frigido. On lJ April, the 473rd cloaed. with the defenses of the Gothic Line. Facing the 47Jrd were two regilllenta of the Genan 148th Ini"antry Division. This was bitter fighting or the kind that won the war in Italy-every •oveaent l:lrotlght torrents or 'fire froa the Gerll&na. It took bloody fighting to take Hill )66, and between 13-18 April, there were owr 50 men killed and 200 wounded. in the 473rd. Patrols to Sarzana on the 20th found it strongly held, bat there were signs that the enemy was beginning to era.ck. Pfotorized. :patrol• took the le&d in probing for the eneay. On 24 April, the 1st Battalion advanced thro~h San Ste:f'ano without firi~ a shot, and. sei zed. the high ground aboYe the town after crossing the Magra. River. La Spesia, a l&r~e town, wa.a soon entered and a.bout .50 Italian u.rines who resisted. were soon eli.JliM.ted.. On 27 Ap ril, the 47Jrd entered the city of Genoa, and engineered the surrender of nearly J,000 en emy troops at Uscio and Ferrada northeast of the city. Only the Monte Moro garrison held out, but after persuasive encotU"agements to surrender

PAGE 27

by Major-General Altllond, colllllB.JXier of the 92nd. Division and by Colonel Yarborough, and plane for a. CO!llbined air-sea-land assault on this strategic fortress hill, the arrogant GerJll&n co1111a.nder decided to give up. This brought the total POI bag of the 473rd to 11,55:,. L&rge quantities of enemy u.terial, hundreds of weapons, and thousands of rounds of ummition of all descriptions were inventoried.. While the lat Batta.lion garrisoned Genoa and the 2nd. Battalion bivouacked in the city's outskirts, the Jrd Batta.lion guarded the Pal stockade and Coap,.ny K aoved to Savona for garrison duty. One aonth in the fina.l all-out offensive in northern Italy had cost the regiaent over .500 casualties, bat it had inflicted prol:ably three tiJses th&t aany on the enemy, not counting the prisoners it had taken. In a short 7-aonth period o-f time, & fighting team was born, trained., -fought in the decisive l:attle -for victory in Italy, &Di was then disl:anded ao its men could be sent to finish the job in the Paci!i• of bringing peace to a war-weary world. Fortuna.tely, this last aove never proved necessary. Honors s Congressional Medals of Honor-0 Distinguished U~tions-0 Distinguished Service Crossee-1 Silver Sta.re--------18 Casua.ltiess Killed In Action-160 (No other exact casualty figures are available)

PAGE 28

MERRILL'S MARAtlDEBS Activated-) October 1943 Inactivated-1 July 194.5 in Chin& --Battle Credits, World War II: Northern Burma Commanding General (During Coml:e.t, WW II): Brig-Gen Frank D. Kerrill Coml:e.t Chronicle: Merrill's Marauders, officially designated as the 5307th Composite Unit, was an all-volunteer force or originally 3,000 men. These men had received. jungle train ing arxl were recruited from the Southwest Pacific and C&ribbea.n areas. The call 'for vol unteers stated it was for a hazardous aission of three months' dun.tion with prollise of real contact with the This promise of only three months was an exaggeration, 1::ut the part about contact with the ene_,. was very real. The force arrived in India. in late October 1943, and was then &BSigned to northern Burma under the code nu1e "G&l.ahad." General Stilwell nued Colonel (later Major-General) Frank D. Merrill as command.er of the unit, and Colonel Charles Hunter, the original commander, re111&ined to serve under Col onel Merrill. Cocky and confident, the Ma.rau:iers soon realized that they were to be General "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell 's shock troops whose aggressive eX&llple was to encourage the Chinese troops in Burma. to comparable aggressiveness. The 5'.307th was dispatched. by Stilwell to the Huka.wng Valley in northern Burs with the eventual mission of ta.king the key city of Myitkyina.. Stilwell 'a strategy was proven sound. A:f'ter a 60-aile trek through the jungle which took 8 days, the Marauders ca11e out to meet their airdrop and seize the road at Walawbmt on schedule, 3 March 1944. While Chinese forces attacked the J&P1?1ese defensive positions :f'roJl the front, the Marauders had carried out a wide enveloping movement. Th~ cut the Jap,..nese line of couunications at Walawbum, and the latter sustained. heavy losses. How ever, the M&raudens were heavily counterattacked the next day am fought a fierce _5-d.ay cattle alongside a Chinese regiment. Together, the two units killed 1,500 JaP1?1ese. Only by a rapid withdrawal and by sldll:f'ul delaying actions wu the Japa.nese 18th Division able to escape destruction. Elated by this success, General Stilwell repeated this p,.ttern with an even more sweep ing envelo:i;.ent to get behind the Japanese at Sha.du.sup in the hills separating the Huk&wng and Mogaung VaJ.leys. This involved an 8,5-aile jungle ma.rch to Ka.Ming, the central Japa.n ese position in the Moga.wig Valley. It rained 5 of the 6 days of this march. After this grueling experience which included sever&l skirmishes with the Japs to block the road behind the enemy at Inkangahtawng, about 20 miles above Kua.ing, the Maraulers were counterattacked a.nd forced bl.ck to Nphl:Dl G&. Here, they held off the Ja:ps through 11 days of sa~e fighting. Then, threatened from behind by the advance of soae Chinese troops plus the Marauders' Jrd Battalion, the Japanese were teaporarily caught in a trap. But, in desperate fighting, 28 M&rch-1 April, the Japanese succeeded in breaking out. ... , ..,

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On 28 April 1944, the Marauders, accompanied by eleaenta of the Chinese Joth Division, began a bold advance .eastward :f'ro11 the Mogaung Valley over the high Kum.on Mountains, some of which were over 6,000 feet above sea level. Using trails known only to their Kachin guides, the task force secretly made its way through country considered impassable to or dinary com't:at units, Arriving in the Irrawaddy Valley, the advance continued to Myitkyina where the 111&in airfield was seized by a surprise attack on 17 May. Chinese reinforcements were pr011ptly nown in, inspite of the a.irfield still being under s111&ll-a.rma fire. By this time, the ravages of disease a.m coml:at exhaustion had taken their toll of the Marauders. Over hali the men had already been evacuated, chiefly because of diseases such as malaria. and dysenta.r;y, coupled with exha.ustion. Out of the original 3,000 men only some l,4oo were now left. So far, they had covered aroum. JOO miles, slipping and stumb ling, 'tattling jungle growth, s~ling with fa.llen mules, waiting for airdropped supp lies, eating cold K-rations, sleeping on wet ground, and suffering :f'roa the heat, hunger, fever, and thirst. There were also tigers, boa constrictors, deadly poisonous kraits, and, p,.rticula.rly troublesoae and gruesome, the giant leeches which preyed on the men in the jungle. One Marauder sUDlllled up the feelings of most of the rest of the outfit when he said, "I'd rather get a bullet in the belly, than be eaten alive by the rotten, filthy vermin in this place." -On 18 May 1944, the Marauders am the Chinese opened the assault on Myitkyina, am the Jaianese 18th Division resisted with the utmost skill and ferocity. The Japi.nese put up a very brave defense of Myitkyina., and the Marauders' attack bogged down. As has been indicated, by this.time the Marauders were about physically and sometimes mentally exhausted, with some of the men even going to sleep behind their weapons. Fin ally, after some very heavy and prolonged fighting, and a. siege which lasted far 11 weeks, the Ja.p,.nese, not in IJ1Uch better physical shape themselves, withdrew :f'rom Myitkyina on 3 August 1944. In &11, it had been a very successful operation for General Stilwell, except that he had hoped the Marauders would have been able to keep up the momentum longer. But it must be remembered that Burm& is one of the roughest jungle/'hill/Y&lley-you nue it-places in the world. In the 11-week bt.ttle for Myitkyina, the Marauders lost 272 en killed and 955 woumed. The Jap,.nese had soae 3,000 men killed. The Marauders were relieved by the excellent British 36th In:f&ntry Division. On 10 August 1944,, the remainder of the Marauders were consolidated with the 475th In!' antry Regiment~ A little later, the 124th Cavalry Regiment (dismounted) arrived, a:rxi this unit, along with the 475th In:fantry, was formed into the ,532:m l3r~e, operating under the cede mae of "Mars Task Force." This farce took pl.rt in renewed operations in Burma in 1945. Out of the original 3,000 Pla:ra:tlllers, about 1,200 of the• were left when the war with J&p,.n ended on 15 August 1945. Honors: Co~essional Medals of Honor-0 Distinguished. Unit Citations-1 * * To the entire unit-lorthern Bu:rlla Note: No other awards are available Casualties, No complete-f~s are &nil.able Footnote: It is known, however, that, altogether in Burma, U.S. forces lost 729 men.

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RANGERS Activated-19 June 1942 Battle Credits, World War II: Original Co111Mnd.ers Algeria Norma.ndy New Guinea Colonel William O. Darby Tunisia Sicily Sieg:t'ried. Line Leyte Luzon Southern Italy Anzio Rhineland. Central Europe Colll't:a.t Chronicles The Rangers were the 11oet elite U.S. Army force of World War II, the American counterpt.rt of the:'British Co111Jn&nd08. The 20th century Rangers were raised after General Lucian K. Truscott had reported to the Chiefs of Staff on 26 Ma.y 1942 that there should be an immediate :formation o:f an Aller ie&n force along Col!lll&nd.o lines. President RoMevelt gave his support, and an appeal :for '"volunteers not averse to hazardous action" was answered by some 2,000 1ten stationed in Northern Ireland. After vigorous selection this number was whittled down to 500 on the in itiation course at Carrickfergus on the coast north of Belfast. The 1st Ranger Battalion was f0r11ed on 19 June 1942. The 1st, '.3l.'d, and 4th Ranger Ba. ttalions were the original Darby's Rangere. A few of the original Rangers pirticipited in the Canadian raid on Dieppe, on the coast of northern France, in August 1942. 1st Ranger Battalions As pirt of the Allied invasion of North A:f'rica, 8 November 1942, the 1st landed in Algeria at Arzew some JO 11iles west of Oran. Encountering sporadic resistance, the Rangers relatively easily accomplished their prina.ry mission-the capture of two French :forts dominating the approaches to the harbor. In February 1943 the 1st Battalion moved into Tunisia, coming into close com't:a.t with Ger •n and Italian troops at Sened. Shortly after, the Germans broke through the American lines at Kasserine Pass and the Rangers covered the wi thd.rawal of the U .s 2nd Corps under the fortunate cover of a heavy llist. After the Ka.sserine Pass del:acle, the 1st Battalion fought as straight-infantry for sev• era.1 weeks. A notable action was the routing of some Italian troops in the mountains east of El Guettar. Although the war in Tunisia lasted until Jrld.-Ma.y 1943, the Rangers were pulled out of the :fighting on 27 March 194J. In the invasion of Sicily, beginning on 10 July 1943, the 1st Battalion landed at Gel.a in support of the 1st Infantry Division. The Rangers held this town for J6 hours despite German and Ita'J.ian tank-infantry attacks, and vitally contriwted in saving the beachhead. On D-plue. 3 they am the 4th Ranger Battalion-Darby's force on Sicily--attacked the Monte Delta la.J:& positions of the Italiarus which were supported by two batteries of heavy artillery. With tank support and 1:ayonet charges, the Rangens cleared these defenaee ta.k ing 600 prisoners, am next day 11&king contact with the '.3l.'d Infantry Division advancing on their left. Darby's Force became a self-contained unit on 13 July with the addition of 18 self-propelled guns. However, the old fortress mountain town of Butera was taken without a bo1t1:ard1tent. A .50-•n p1.trol gained the center of the town after outflanking road defen ses am charging the old walled gate. Three Ranger 't:a.ttalions, 1st, 3?.'d, am 4th, saw heavy action at the Salerno beachhead., 9-17 Septe11ber 1943. In October these 1:atta.lions were in the Allied line overlooking the Vena:fro valley a.rea. some 40 ailes north :from Naples. So11e aountains changed hand.a aeveral ti.mes while the Rangers were in the line 45 days, ta.king soae 40 per cent casualties.

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Reorganized. for the Anzio landings, the 1st, 3rd, and 4th B&ttalions all caae ashore in the cold early 11orning of 22 January 1944. They dug-in on the periaeter and froa 2.528 January held the salient near the Carrocetto-Aprilla :factory area. Relieved by Brit ish troop!, 29 January, the Rangers arched through the nigbt to positions far a spear head a tt&ck to lead the U .s. 3rd Infantry Di vision's &BB&ul t on Cistern&. Unknown to the Aaericans, the Germans had aoved a crack division into Cisterna this very night. By 0100 hours in the early 11orning darkness of '.31 January, the let and Jrd Battalions were through the German linee ae planned &:ft.er dispoeing & nlllllber of eentries. Soaetiae a:rter 0200 houre, the 4th Ranger Battalion, which was supposed to follow-up the attack, was somehow detected and fired upon by & single 1111.chine-gun. Then the 4th was caught in a croes-fire. While this was occurring, the lat am Jrd Battalions inched their ny along a drainage ditch in & long single-f'i1e and shot their way through several forward eneay positions. However, by now, all element of surprise had been lost. Still, as daylight broke, the Rangers atteapted to race acroea the several hundred yards le:rt to reach Ciste:rna, but the Genans and aleo soae Italian Fascist troop! were ready and niting and the Rangers were caught in murderous fire. They fought valiantly but had little chance caught out in the open. About aid.day Geru.n tanks overran the Rangers who had not already been killed and captured over ,500 of Vali&nt efforts were Mde to save the let and )rd Battalions. The 4th Rangers aade a gall.ant try to get through but were farced to :fall bl.ck after suffering heavy casualties. And the Jrd Infantry Division fought on :past Isola Bella to within 1,000 yards of the lt&n gers but then was also farced l:aek after taking very heavy losses, There were just too mny Genans with too 111&ny tanks. Colonel Bill Darby was deeply sorrowed by the loss of' these two elite 1:attalions. But he soon reforJled what was left of the 4th Battalion, which had suffered ,50 per cent casua lties, and carried on. Figures have va.ried, but according to the Rangers, out of 767 men, in the 1st am Jrd Battalions 60 per cent of them were killed ar wounded (not .500 captured) and only 18 men escaped capture to return safely 'tack to friendly lines. The 1st and )rd Ranger Battalions were never reconstituted. 2nd Ranger Battalion: Activated-In the United States in April 194'.3 ColUl!lnder-Lt Colonel Jamee Ru:lder The 2nd Ranger Battalion completed its training in the States in November 194'.3, having established a u.s. A:r:ay record of' 15 ailes in a 2-hour speed arch. It crossed the Atlan tic on the liner Queen Eliza.beth, and was 1:ased in extreae southwest England (Cornwall). After spending soae tae on the Isle of Wight, and then completing their cliff-eliabing exercises in Dorset, the 2nd sailed for Normandy on 5 June 1944. On D-Day, 6 June 1944, the 2nd Rangere, in a very courageous and skillflll action, assau lted the Pointe du Hoc cliffs. This area was to the west of Omaha Beach. These cliffs were climbed with difficulty since the rocket fired scaling ropes had become waterlogged.. 'nle drove the enemy from his forward positions a.rd established a periaeter far aggreasi ve p!!L trolling. D CoJ1J:S,ny on the right, E in the center, a.rd I" on the left set up a. semi-circle of defensive positions, and destroyed 4 unmounted 155before accurate 881m fire stopped any movement in the forward positions. Germa.n counterattacks were rep ulsed. Before dawn on 7 June, the secord of two strong German attacks overran D Com.J:S,ny, and the rest of the l:e.ttalion fell l:ack to its reserve poeitioa. Na.val gu.n:f'ire and accurate s111&1l-arms fire from the Rangers broke up further enemy attacks during the rest of the day. That evening strong i:atrols went out to successfully destroy an auunition dwap and a Ger llo8.n observation post. On 8 June, when the Rangers were relieved, they were down virtually to the strength of single Sections, E ComJ:S,ny having only one officer and 19 enlisted men left. Replacements were trained during July and August before the l:attalion's next mission: protecting the U.S. 29th Infantry Division's right flank in the assault on the fortress city of Brest in extreme western Brittany. This large pocket of' Germans incluied their crack 2nd Parachute Division and the J4Jrd Infantry Division. The Germans ma.de good wse

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of their long-established. defeMea. In two days O'f ha.rd fighting, the 2rd. Ranger Battalion advanced some 1,000 ya.rds by 5 September 1944, but then i;::aae under heavy artillery fire far several days before reaching the Lochrist (Graf Spee) cattery on 8 September. The next day Lt Colonel Rudder led. his 2nd Rangers in a successful attack, the l::attalion securing the cattery by mid-day. 1,800 prisoners were taken at the tattery ard. in mopping up Le Conquet Peninsula. In difficult, tedious, and bloody fighting the port of Brest finally fell on 18 September 1944. Some 35,000 Germa.M went into captivity, but the 39-d.ay cattle c01!5t the 2rd., 8th, and 29th Infantry Di visions, the 2nd Ranger Battalion, and the French Forces of the Interior (FFI) some 10,000 casualties in killed and wounded. Besides this, the Germans had totally wrecked the harbor :facilities, ma.king them useless to the Allies for several aonths to come. After a rest, the 2rd. Battalion moved east to Paris &rd. on through northern France into Luxeabourg. Moved further north, by 6 Deceaber 1944, the 2rd. wa.s ca.aped deep iMide the ~i• Hurtgen Forest. Snow had :fallen earlier that day, but their log huts were wara i:r dia ly lit by nUJ1ber 10 can heaters filled with dirt sO&ked in oil. Tha.t evening the cattalion prel)!l,red for an assault on a hill 1118,SS beyord. the towns of Brandenberg a.rd Bergstein. Several units had :failed to capture this high grown overlooking the Geru.ns at Schmidt ard. the Boer River dae. E Coal)!l.ny opened the road"""to the hill at 0730, &rd D am F Jl!l,SSed through to seise the hill by 0830. Withering fire pinned down all three coaJ:&niea who had lost h&lf their strength by 1100 hours, before a slight easing in the bomtardment ena.bled the11 to im prove their positions. E went forward to reinforce the lllen on the hill, am that following morning a second 1111jor eneay attack was repulsed.. Evacuating the wounded to a forward aid station at a church was difficult-soae wounded men had lain on the hill all night-but this task was at last completed when American artillery fire cut the road with the Ger11&n attacks dying away. The cattle reopened in the afternoon when for 3 hours German 88mm and self-propelled guns ard 150 infantrymen tried to retake the hill, getting within 100 yards of the aid post church. Their last attack was stopped by artillery, although General Mod.el had offer ed special awards to any unit able to retake this hill. The Rangers held on until relieved on 9 1944. During this action they had helped support the 5th Aniored. Division. In suCl'Sequent actions in the Hurtgen Forest area ard on the approaches to the Roer, the 2rd Ranger Battalion also supported the 8th and 78th Infantry Divisions. In the spring of 1945, the 2rd Ranger Battalion, advancing along the same route as the 2rd Infantry Division, moved through central Germany ~inst moetly ineffectual resistance along this zone of attack-via GHttingen, Merseburg, ard. Leipzig, to the Mulde River, ard. when the war in Europe ended was in Pilsen, Czechoslovakia, along with the 2rd Infantry ard. 16th Armored Divisions. )rd Ranger Battalion: Activated-From volunteers aroum a nucleus of the 1st Ranger B&ttalion Commander-Major Herman W. Da-er The 3rd Ranger Battalion served on Sicily and also in Italy with the 1st and 4th Ranger Battalions. (For the 1111in actions of the 3rd Rangers, see lat Ranger Ba.ttallon). 4th Ranger Ba-=ttalion: Activated-29 May 1943 Commarder-Lt Colonel Roy Murray The 4th Ranger Battalion lamed at Gela, Sicily, 10 July 1943 along with the 1st Bal:lger Battalion, helping to beat lack strong enemy counterattacks at the bea.chhea.d. At the Anzio beachhead, Italy, in late-January 1944, the 4th Rangers atteapted to brea.k through to the trapped 1st and Jrd Ranger Battalions near Cistern.a.. But they were checked by aurderotm mchine-gun fire. Then A and B Co11.J)!l.nies put in an attack to the west of the road lea.ding to Cistern.a., but were again held up by heavy lll&chine-gun fire. E Comp,.ny 1118.n aged to take two enemy positions and some houses overlooking other Germans 150 ya.rd.a away. Although they were within 200 yards of the last German defenses between them ard the 1st ard 3rd Battalions, they couldn't break through. Still, with the support of E Coapa.ny's machine-guns, C arxl F Companies got along the ditch ea.st of the road ard., by aid-day had

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taken buildings on both sides of the road in fierce f~hting. Mines lying on top of the road were quickly cleared, am :fire :from half-tracks prevented the :fro• leaving the ditches a.rd buildings beyord the American advance. Altogether, in this action, the 4th Ranger Battalion had 60 killed &rd 120 wounded, with 5 coap,.ny collll8.rders being killed. The rema.irder of the 4th Battalion :fought on at the Anzio beachhead for 60 more days. After leaving Anzio. the 4th Ranger Ba.ttalion wa.s disb!Lnded. 5th Ranger Battalions Activated.-1 Septeaber 1943 at Ca.mp l"orrest, Tennessee CoaJ11&nder--Major Ma.x F. Schneider The 5th Banger Battalion arrived in the United JCingdo• in March 1944. Once there, it trained first in Scotlard ard then in Devonshire, England. The 5th landed in Normandy on D-Day, 6 June 1944, near Vierville which is east of Pointe du Hoc, and suffered about 60 casualties. On the night of ? June, contact was ll&d.e by :field telephone with the 2rd Rangers at Pointe du Hoc. On D-pl\115 2 the 5th relieved the 2nd Ranger Battalion at the Pointe. On 10 June, the 5th Battalion took the coastal de:fen see :from Grand.champ les Ba.j.~to Isigny, meeting little resistance. For their &ctions at the Noru.ndy l::leachhead. the-5th Ranger Battalion was awarded the Disti~ished Unit Citation. In the 'tattle for Brest, Brittany, the 5th captured Le Co~uet in a 2-hour aesault and Ia Mon Blanche with less opposition. On 17 September 1944, attacking pillboxes defending Fort du Portzic, a. 40-pound ch&rge failed to break open a steel and concrete strongpoint. So that n~ht an 11-•n pa.trol placed 2 forty pound and 2 fifty pound charges of C-2 explosive on the concrete ard cover ed these charges with 20 gallons of gasoline-oil aix. The flaming pyre burned for 40 min utes. The Germans then pl.a.ced m.chine-gune around other posts to prevent :f'urther demoli ions, but they were demoralized by the great explosion ard surrendered the next day. During 1944, the l:attalion provided the security guard 'for 12th Aray Group's headquarters in Belgium. In December 1944 the 5th Rangers were attached to the 6th Cavalry Croup of Patton's )rd Army which was fighting into the Saar. Many individual collra,nies worked in close support of the tankers. Then, :f'.roa 9 February to 11 March 1945, the .5th was attached to the 94th Infantry Divis ion during the difficult fighting in the Saar-Moselle Triangle. The Rangers took over &n 11,000 yard (10 kiloaeters) :f'.ront near Wehingen and attacked northwest toward Oberleuken a.cross an anti-tank ditch. Co11p,.ny F :found itself in an.electrioa.lly controlled minefield and under heavy enfilade ma.chine-gun and Jlortar fire, but was extracted by the other comp anies' assaults. Somewh!!.t later the Rangers held defensive positions in and around soJRe houses 1300 yards :f'.rom the Irsch-Zer:f' road. Two strong counterattacks were held off even though the Germans had two supporting tanks. The 294th Field Artillery provided invalua. ble support by gre& ly helping to break up :further attacks by the 136th Regi.Jient of the Austrian 2nd Mountain Division. On 28 February, the Rangers attacked the high ground to the south, being checked once on its heavily wooded slopes by rockets. The l:attalion was forced to stop near the top of this hill 111&ss, am that night over 1,100 rockets ard artillery shells fell on its posit ions. Inspite of all this, the Rangers held on, thus easing the ra,ssagewa.y far so11e Amer ican armor to break through. The b.l.ttalion wa.s finally relieved on 3 March, some 9 days after it had set out on this infiltration llission. In April 1945, as p,.rt of the )rd Arlny's advance through central Germany, on General Patton's orders, the 5th Rangers took some 1,000 Genia.ns to look at the notorious concen tration caap at Buchenwald in the province of Thuringia. After this bitter, eye-opening experience, the Rangers were shifted :f'urther south, but still under Patton's )rd Ar-.y. On 21 AJ]ril, now in Bavaria, they rode on the tanks of the )rd Cavalry Group am capt ured a bridge acroes the Danube River agaiMt minor resistance. By V-E Day, 8 Ma.y 1945, the Rangers were in Ried, Austria. The 5th Ranger Battalion was disl::am.ed th&t following month.

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6th Ranger Battalion: Activated-Farmed fro111 the 98th Field Artillery Batta.lion on 20 August 1944 in Rew Guinea COIU8nde1"-Colonel Henry A. Mucci The 6th Ranger Batta.lion wa.e the only Ranger "t:atta.lion which fought in the Pacific. The 6th Rangers p,.rticip!Lted in the initial American return to the Philippines. Coap!Lnies lAnded on the small islands of Dina.gat, H0111onhon, and Sulua.n, 17-18 October 1944, a. few days before the U .s 6th Army landed on the large island of Leyte which was nearby. The Rangers destroyed Jap,.nese radar and observation posts, and looked for plans which might show tha.t land-fired sea mines were expected in Leyte Gulf'. However, no such mines wsre discovered. When the Ja.ianese l:attleship Yamashiro was loet with alaOBt all of her crew in an action with U.S. "t:attleships, some of her crew managed to struggle ashore near the vil.l&ge of Lor eto. ComJany C was stationed near here to prevent Jaianese reinforceaents joining their garrison on Dinagat which had ta.ken to the hill.8. The comi;an:r spent two days round ing up these shipwrecked sa.ilare, many of wholl, once ashore, were armed and ready to fight. Some esca.ped into the jungle, but 10 were ca.ptured. While they were being shipped to Ley te, 2 Jap!Lnese planes attacked the LCI transport am almoet half the crew were killed a:r wounded. .. :The weather in the Philippines was continually wet through October 1944 when the 6th Batta.lion was iatrolling fro• Loreto. The men were supplied by dugout ca.noes sailing from the original beachhead. Pa.trolling through deep swamps in heavy jungle, am on steep aoun tainaides, led to moat of the :men having akin infected with f'unguls, and many of thea had worn through the soles of their boots. However, fresh ten-in-one rations and fresh medical supplies were iarachuted in during the first iart of November. During the la.st ha.li of November 1944, the 6th Rangers guarded the U .s. 6th Army Head quarters on Leyte, am la.ter guarded a Sea.bee naval construction force building an airstrip at Ta.na.uen. On 9 Janua.ry 194.5, the U.S. 6th Army landed at Lingayen Gulf', Luzon. The Rangers were soon put ashore a.m set up a periJleter defense for the 6th Infantry Division. Soon the 6th Ar:my units were "t:attling into the central Luzon plain am south toward Ma.nil.a, having :f'urious and heavy 'tattles with large forces of JaJanese. The 6th Ranger Batta.lion was placed on the eastern :f'lank of the advance southward, when it wa.s discovered. that the JaJanese were holding a. large group of Americans captive at a prison ca:mp a.t Ca.'t:anatuan in the central Luzon plain. A very bold plan was put into effect am succees:f'ully executed. Ea.ch man in this dar ing night raid on the ca.mp even knew the exact building he wa.s to attack. With the help of Filipino guerrilla units protecting their :flanks, the Rangers struck swiftly, overpower ing the Jap guards and quickly releasing the captives. The raid was completed in 30 min utes. Had any one group of :Rangers failed in their i:art of the mission, the Japs could have killed their prisoners, or most of them, in moments. Ranger losses were almost neg ligible, a.s were the losses of the prisoners they rescued. For this valiant action their commnding officer, Colonel Henry A. Mucci, received the Distinguished Service Cross, every officer was awarded the Silver Sta.r, am every enlisted man got the Bronze Sta.r. In the spring of 194.5, B Comi;any, as pi.rt of an ad hoc force called "Taak Force Connolly': Mcie a very lengthy recon:naiasa.nce in force all the way up the western coast of Luzon (:from a. point north of Linga.yen Gul.f). The sizeable towns of Ia.oag and V~n were captured with this force meeting, mOBtly, scattered and ineffectual opposition, since the larger JaJanese forces were located. further inla.nd in the mountains of the Cordillera Central. Upon reach ing the northwestern coast of Luzon, this force turned east am eventually reached Ap!Lrri, preiaring a laming zone for the .5llth Parachute Regiment, 11th Airborne Division which dropped into this area on 23'. June 194.5. Thia trek had taken 28 daye am covered 2.50 :miles. The 6th Ranger Battalion was disbt.med in Kyoto, Jaian, on JO December 194,5.

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Hon0%'1!5: Ca.sua.ltiee t No awards or collplete casualty figures a.re available for the Bangers. However, follONing killed in action figures are ava.ilable for some of the lattalionsa 1st Ranger Bl.ttalion 2nd Ranger Ba.tta.lion J:rd Ranger Battalion 4th Ranger Ba.ttalion ,5th Ranger Bl.ttalion 6th Ranger :Ba.ttalion KIA 92 Unavailable 42 140 (the minimull) 117 figure) Unavailable the The JCIAa_' of the 1st arr:l )rd Batta.lions do not inolule those suffered in the Anzio beachhead ambush near Cisterna, Italy,in late-January 1944. ' Notes, In one of the more irr:lividual ha.rd-luck ironies or the war, Colonel Villi&• o. Darby who had first organized arr:l then trained the original Rangers into one of the toughest 1:at organizations of World War II, was killed in Italy on l May 194-.5-one day before the Germns surrerr:lered in Italy. He had wanted to still be where the action was, arr:l was up :f'ront with the famous loth Mountain Division as it advanced into the Alps around lake Gud.a in northern Italy. He was killed by a burst from a aortar shell-not yet having reached his 35th birth:lay. The u.s. Rangers are still vm:y 11t1ch in existence, as of this writing (1:3 May 19ai.), with headq ua.rte:re at Fort Benning, Georgia. In the autwan of 1983 Ranger troops took pa.rt in the invasion of the ialarr:l of Grenada in the Caribbean West Iniiee. P'ootnotu Inepite of Ranger clam, the figure of aroum .500 aen c:aptured in the ubul!lh near Cisterm, Italy, •Y well be correct. lfot long after this 1:attle, the Germana arch ed a large group of captured. Rangers throlgh the streets of Boae.

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1ST SPECIAL SERVICE FORCE "The Devil's Brigade" Activated-5 July 1942 Inactivated-5 December 1944 in southern France -Battle Credits, World War fI: Southern Italy Anzio Southern France Commanding General In World War II: Brig-Gen Robert T. Frederick July 1942--December 1944 Combat Chronicle: The 1st Special Service Force was a unique and very elite outfit of World War II. A mixed U.S.-Canadian unit, the Force rarely numbered more than 1,600 coml:.a.t men at any one time. Yet, in its brief history, it had many times that number of casualties. Hundreds died in battles which are now only brief historical footnotes, but, at the time, represented major gains for the nations arrayed against the Axis. There never was an outfit quite like it. Trained for anything, including extensive hand-to-hand coml:.a.t, and with a commander they idolized who was handsome enough to be a Hollywood. actor and was whip-cord tough, these wild fighting men did everything from comuering "uncomuerable" mountain strongholds, to smuggling in ladies of pleasure under the MP's noses. Many men who made up the 1st Special Service Force had been in the stockade for various offenses, and were given the option of continuing their sentences or joining the Force. How ever, contrary to popular belief, the majority of the Forcemen were not felons. There were ex-college men, teachers, farmers, construction workers, and former guards of movie actors and politicians, among others. The Force's headquarters was set-up in Helena, Montana, and the Force trained at Fort Harrison. In late-October 194J, the 1st Special Service Force sailed to Casablanca, Morocco, arriv ing there on 5 November. After moving on to Oran, Algeria, the Force arrived in Naples, Italy, on 17 November. The Force was assigned the extremely difficult task of capturing two formidable mountains called Monte la Difensa and Monte la Remetanea in the German Winter Line, just south of Cassino. Th~ Force was assigned to the J6th Infantry Division for "Operation Raincoat", aptly named.because of the unusually inclement weather. In early-December 194J, the attack jumped off. The German troops, among the best in their entire army, thought these two mountain masses to be all but impregnable, but the 1st Special Service Force took both in some of the toughest fighting in southern Italy. The Germans soon realized that they were up against an elite force. Next, came Monte Sammucro and the Monte Maio Range. In one hour of savage fighting, the ridge at the peak of Sammucro was taken. The Germans launched several vicious counterattacks, but were beaten 1:.a.ck. The 1st Regiment of the Force remained under heavy shell fire throughout Christmas Day 194J. At Monte Maio, the )rd Regiment held through almost J days of sustained counter attacks. After these l:attles, out of 1,800 men, some 1,400 were either dead or in the hosp ital as casualties. The Force was renewed to a strength of approximately 2,JOO men by rep lacements and the return of some of its men from the hospitals. Then the Force was transferred to the Anzio beachhead. It is a matter of record that it

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was given twice as much front to hold as the entire 3rd Infantry Division-and the 3rd was considered one of the best divisions in the entire U.S. Army. However, the Mussolini Canal helped aid the Force in its defense of the eastern flank of the beachhead. Opposing it were two crack outfits-part of the Hermann Goring Panzer Division and the 16th SS Panzer Grenadier Division. Within a week, the aggressiveness of Force p:i.trols had caused the Germans to pull back almost a half a mile. The tenseness of combat was present, alright, but the freezing dis comfort of the mountain fighting was gone. However, the Force was heavily shelled by Ger man artillery. It was during this period that the Force got the name from the Germans, "The Black Dev il's Brigade." A diary was found on the body of a German lieutenant, an officer in the Hermann Goring Division. In it, was written, "The Black Devils a.re all around us every time we come into the line, and we never hear them come." A German prisoner had on him a German directive stating, "You a.re fighting an elite Canadian-American Force. They are treacherous, unmerciful, and clever. You cannot afford to relax. The first soldier or group of soldiers capturing one of these men will be given a lo-day furlough." The hardest blow of the German offensive at Anzio in mid-February 1944, didn't fall on the Forces' sector. Neve~ss, it had its share of casualties, while holding its ground. On 23 May 1944, the breakout at the beachhead began, and the Force suffered heavy casua lties as it almost recklessly raced into the German lines, ahead of most of the other U.S. outfits. By 25 May, the Force had taken Monte Arrestina, and two days later Rocca Massina. Meanwhile, the 1st Armored and 3rd Infantry Divisions had punched a wide hole in the German lines. The next objective for the Force was Valmontone. But near there, the Germans momentarily stopped falling back, and lashed back with a heavy artillery barrage and a series of count erattacks. The Germans also had heavy and medium tanks, and their lethal 88mm guns caused heavy losses in the Force. Finally, on the early morning of 4 June 1944, elements of the Force entered Rome, among the first U.S. troops to do so. The men were almost completely spent, and given a well-deserved rest and recuperation. After this, the 1st Special Service Force was elected to help launch the invasion of southern France. But the Force didn't initially land on the mainland. It was assigned to capture the Hyeres Islands, off the southern coast. It was almost like right out of an Errol Flynn movie as the men attacked the forts on these islands. But the Force lost many good men before these islands were secured by 16 August 1944. After the fall of the Hyeres Islands, the "Devil's Brigade" was moved to the mainland, advancing from the Riviera coast to positions along the French-Italian border. Resistance was moderate with numerous roadblocks and delaying actions being encountered.. While extensive p:i.trolling was done along the border, the men had access to leaves in Nice, Cannes, and Menton-light years away from the freezing cold of the mountains of Italy. Then, on 28 November 1944, the Force was pulled back to Villeneuve-Loubet on the coast between Cannes and Nice. The top brass figured that the day for a need of a small, elite force had pa.ssed, and that corps and divisions were to make up the downfall of Nazi Germany. On 5 December 1944, the Force had its final pa.rade. For an outfit that had prided itself on lack of sentimental or emotional displays, the farewell occasion was a highly moving one, and many of !he men wept including General Frederick. The remnants of the Force were put in with the 474th Infantry Regiment, General Frederick was given command of the 45th Infantry Division, and the 1st Special Service Force pa.ssed into history. Honors: No award figures are available. Total Battle Deaths 1 1 1 19 Killed In Action---19 Wounded 1,800 * Missing 38 Captured------__.... Total Casualties-2,300 * Approximate figure*

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JST Am FCllCE Activated-18 Decelllber 1940 at Mitchel Field, New York Covering the northeastern p,.rt of the United States and nearby oceanic area-saw extensive }lltrolll~ against German submarines. Am FCBCE Activated-18 December 1940 at McChord Field, Washington Covering the western United States :,lD Am FCECE Activated.-18 1940 at MacDill Field, TaaJB, Florida. Covering the southern United States ani the Gulf' of Mexico new over 1,000 antisubna.rine :i-trol sorties. 4TH Am FORCE Activated-18 December 1940 at March Field, California Responsible for the coastal defense of the western United States After September 194'.3, it asst111ed mostly tra.ining assign:aents.

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,5TH Am FORCE Activated-20 September 1941 at Nichols Field, Luzon, as the Philippine Depn-tment Air Force 16 November 1941--Redesigna.ted the Far Ea.st Air Force -18 September 1942--Redesignated the Fii'th Air Force :Ba.ttle Area, World War II: '!be Southwest Pacific Comma.ming Generals (During Coml:s.t, WW II): Maj-Gen Lewis H. Brereton L~en George H. Brett Lt-Gen George C. Kenney L~en Ennis c. Whitehead 16 November 1941-18 January 1942 23 February 1942-4 August 1942 3 September 1942-15 June 1944 15 June 1944-29 December 1945 Operational Notes: Operating against the Japinese in the Southwest Pa.ci:fic, the 5th Air Force made a total of 415,979 sorties, dropped 2'.32,496 tons of boabB, claimed 6r?98J eneay planes destroyed, am loet 2,494 aircra:ft due to eneay action. The 5th Air Forces' co111l:Bt experiences incluied: Delaying actions in the Philippines and Dutch East Indies-Defensive action in Aust.J:alia. and the Battle of the Coral Sea, all in the winter to smuaer, 1942-'lbe P&puan Offensive, Southeast New Guinea, with the t.T&nsport of so:ae 15,000 Army troops inclming the 111&jority of the u.s. 32nd Infantry Division over the Owen Stanley Mountain Range in mid-8epteaber 1942, and subsequent supply by air---An attack upon a Japinese convoy in the Bisarck Sea and upon targets in the :Sisma.rck Archipe~upparting action in the Northern New Guinea camp,.~, spring-swnmer 19'1 1 1 Supporting action in the Pa.la.u IslAnds and Morotai invasions, Septeaber-Deceaber 19'1t1 Boabing of the Celebes and Caram areas am the oil center at Ballkpipui, eastern Borneo--Reduction of the Philippines, October 1944-into 194.S--The neut :ral.ll&tion of Formoea, spring 194,5---Air strikes against the coa.st of ChinJ,, 194,5-,&nd, :f'in&lly, Attacks on Kyushu, flown :f:ro• bl.sea on Old.nan., spring-eUlllller 1945. No awards or casualties available.

PAGE 40

6TH AIR FORCZ Activated-20 November 1940 at Albrook Field, Canal Zone as the PanaM. Cana.l Air Force -.5 August 1941-Redesignated the Caribbean Air Force .5 February 1942-Redesigna.ted the 6th Air Force Battle Area, World War II: Caribbean Air Coooaarxi Couarrling Generals (During Coahl.t, WW II)z Maj-Gen Davenport Johnson Maj-Gen Hubert R. Haraon Brig-Gen Ral:ph H. Wooten Brig-Gen Ed.gar P. Sorenson Maj-Gen Willia-. o. Butler 19 Septeaber 1941-2) Novelllber 1942 2) Noveaber 1942-8 Noveaber 194) 8 November 1943-16 May 1944 16 May 1944-Septeaber 1944 21 Septeaber 1~24 July 194.5 Operational Notes: The primary mission of the 6th Air Force in World War II was the defense of' the Panama Ca.nal ~inst enemy air attacks. Continuing i:atrols begun by its predecessors months before the time of Pearl Harbor, the 6th flew thousands of operation al hours in keeping watch over the Isthmus of PanaM and the vast expuuses of water arxi jungle th&t constitute approaches to the canal. In operations co-ordinated with those of the AAF Antisublla.rine Col!Jl&Jld and the Antilles Air Collll8.Di, it :particii:ated in antisubu.rine search and attack llissions during the crit ical period of the German U-boat Mn&ce in the Caribbean. Its units e~ed in nW1erous reconai8S&llce and :photogra:phic sorties in connection with establishlllent of new hi.sea in Central and South America, and g&ve protection to the southern air tra.nsl)Ort route. Be:fore the end of 1942, the 6th Air Force also undertook a progn.11 of training design ed originally to meet its own needs only. As danger to the Canal beca.ae less acute, this work was gradually exi:anded to include operational training for crews destined to serve in other theaters. No awards or casualties available.

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7I'H Am FORCE Activated-1 November 1940 at Fort Shafter, Hawaii 5 February 1942--Redesigna.ted the 7th Air Force Battle Area, World War II.t....,.J:entral Pacific Co!llllla.nding Generals (During Coml:at, ,WW II)s Maj-Gen Frederick L. Martin Maj-Gen Clarence L. Tinker Maj-Gen Howard c. Davidson Maj-Gem Willis H. Ha.le Maj-Gen Robert W. Dougla.ss, Jr. Maj-Gen Thomas D. Vhi te 2 November 1940-18 December 1941 18 Dece111ber 1941-7 June 1942 9 June 1942-20 June 1942 20 June 1942-15 April 1~ 15 April 1944-24 June 1945 24 June 1945-18 October 1946 Operational Notes: Operating ~inst the Jal)&nese in the Central Pacific, the 7th Air Force made a to@..of 59,101 sorties, dropped 32,7.3'.3 tons of bombs, claiiled the destruct ion of 794 eneay airplanes, and lost J78 aircraft due to eneay &etion. Its coabat ex perience included p,.rticiiation in the Battle of Midway, Guadalcanal, Gilbert and Marsh all Islands, attacks upon Truk, Woleai, and other objectives in the Caroline Group, and neutralization of Wake Island. Although ha.Ying little p,.rt in prelillina.ry operations against the Ma.rianas, 7th Air Force f~ters and bollbers moved to S&ip!n soon after the capture of that island, prov iding air defense, support far ground operations, and cover for the invasions of Ti.ni&n and Guaa. The 7th also mined anchorages in the Bonin Islands, operated froa the Palau Islands against targets in the Philippines, and !r011 Iwo Ji.ma, after its capitulation, escorted B-29s on missions to the Jaianese h011e islands. Shortly after the invasion of Okinawa, units of the 7th moved in to a.aaist ground forces in overcoming Japanese resistance, and they took pl.rt in tactical isolation of the island of Kyushu. No awards or casualties available.

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8TH AIR FalCZ Activa.ted-28 January 1942 at Savannah, Georgia Battle Area., World War II: Europe Couarding Generals (During--C011bit, WW II): Brig-Gen Asa N. Duncan Lt-Gen Carl A. SJ:8,&tz Lt-Gen Ira C. F.a.ker Lt-Gen James H. Doolittle 28 January 1942-5 May 1942 5 May 1942-1 December 1942 l December 1942-6 January 1944 6 January 1944-10 May 1945 Operational Notes: The 8th Air Force was the daylight precision-bombing force in a com bined Anglo-American air assault against Ger?ll&ny. In successive :phases of the offensive begun in 1942, its objectives were sul:Jll&rine yards a.nd pens, aircraft irdustries, trans portation, oil pl&nts, ard other critical wa.r irdustries. Although predoainantly strategic in character, the 8th Air Force repeatedly employed its striking power to attack tactical targets in operations co-ordinated with grotmd ar llies, such as ad.V&nces in Norma.my a.f'ter D-Da.y ard in the Battle of the B\U8e. In addition, it engaged in a large nuaber of special missions-leaflet-dropping, supply of pi.rtisan groups, and repa.tri&tion of displaced parsons and prisoners of war. By February 1943, a system wa.s undertaken where the British would bomb Germany by night, and the Americans by day-an almost "around the clock" boa bing. At peai: strength, the 8th included 4<> neavy boal:ard.ment, 1.5 :fighter, and 2 Jiioto rec onnaissance groups-an organization cai:able of dispa.tching in a single mission (Christaas Eve 1944) more than 2,000 heavy bombers and alJlost 1,000 fighters, carrying 21,000 men. The 8th Air Force claimed the destruction of 20,419 enemy aircraft and, on its l,~,052 nights (332,9Mby heavy bosbers), consued a total of l,l.5.5,412,000 gallona of gasoline. Transferred to the Pacific in the sUJUler o:f 194.5, the 8th established headquarters on Okinawa, but had little opportunity to engage in co•tat before V-J Day, 14 AuU9t 194.5. The major and heaviest or most important bombing attacks and other actions of the 8th and 9th Air Forces over Europe: 15 April 1942--Raid on Cherbourg, Norma.my, France l? August 1942-Raid on Rouen, France, against marshalling yards area.. Twelve B-l?s pa.rt icipa.ted and none were lost. This was the 8th Air Force's first attack of the war. 27 January 1943--Attack on Wilhelmsh&ven, northern Geru.ny. First U.S. air strike of the wa.r on Germa.n soil .5 April 1943-Heavy raid on Antwerp, Be~iWll, causing heavy d.allage. 13 June 1943-60 B-17 bombers attacked the subaarine shipyards at Kiel, in north Germany, and 22 planes are shot down.

PAGE 43

22 June 1943-First big daylight bombing raid by the 8th Air Force--a success:rul attack on a synthetic rubber factory a.t Jftlls, in the Ruhr, putting it temporarily out of action. 24 July 1943-167 bombers drop 4oo tons of bomts on industrial targets at Heroya, Norway, while 41 other B-17s bomb German naval installations a.t Trondheim. 1 August 1943-177 B-24 Liberator bombers :f'rom the 9th Air Force drop '.311 tons of bomts on the huge oil refineries &t Ploe1Jti, Rumani&. The a.tt&ck puts 40' of the refining plant out of co11Jaission, but the Americans suffer very hea.vy losses-.,54, bombers a.nd .5'.32 airmen. 17 August 194'.3--Attack on the Messerschmitt fighter-aircraft factories at Schwei.n:rurt and Regensblrg, Germa.ny. 60 planes are shot down by flak and the German fighter-planes. How ever, a new tactic is used. Instead of returning to England, the planes continue on to land in Egypt. 27 August 1943-187 B-17 Flying Fortresses bomb Witten, a large town in the Ruhr. 22 September 194'.3-Raid Oft~en, on the northwest coast of Germany where there are submarine pens. 8 October 1943-357 bombers of the 8th Air Force carry out a massive raid on Bremen and Vegesack, northwest Germany, rut incur heavy losses. 14 October 194'.3--Second raid on Schweinfurt, this time on the vital tall-bearing plants. 290 bombers take pu-t, and 60 a.re shot down and 1'.38 more da.m&ged. Only a moderate a.mount of damage is inflicted. U.S. attacks on this scale are temporarily halted due to the heavy losses sustained. 3 November 1943---A day~t :raid by .500 &i.rc:r&ft devastates the harbor at Wilhelmshaven. Many U-boat pens are destroyed .5 December 194'.3-The 9th Air Force opens "Operation Crossbow" against the l:&ses where the Germans are experimenting with secret weapons. 13 December 194'.3-Att&ck on Kiel by 710 bombers. 4 January 191L1 U.S. and R.A.F. airplanes begin dropping &r1l8 and supplies to French, Belgian, Dutch, and Italian pu-tis&n formations under the code name "Ca.rpetbagger"". 12 January 191L1 "Operation Pointblank" gets und.erw&y, a strate~ic air offensive against the German aeronautical industry. Soae 6.50 bombers attack factories in Braunschweig (Bruns wick), Ha.lberstadt, and Oschersleben (all in north-central Germany). Losses are a.gain heavy--60 planes. 29 January 1~~4 800 boabers make a 11&Ssive attack on the industrial center of FrankfUrt. 4 March 191 1 1 First 8th Air Force attack on Berlin. (The Royal Air Force also attacked. Berlin in this S&J1e period). A large l:all-be&rint!; works ie teaporarily put out of action. 12 May 191L1 Along with the 15th Air Force, the 8th Air Force resW11es attacks on not only the oil refineries in RUMnia., rut on all other Germa.n oil refineries. Spring 1944-Bombing of selected ta.rget areas in France-prepi.ra.tion of Normandy invasion. 21 June 191 1 1 Major raid on Berlin by 1,000 bombers and 1,200 fighters. The planes the~ continued. on eastward and landed in Russi&. 22 June 191 1 1 9th Air Force tactical raid on Cherbourg, Normandy, with 1,000 boabers. Support of subsequent American ground attack.

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21 July l}IVI Raids on German airt'ields in Rwaani&. L&te..July 1944---A highly risky, high-level saturating "carpet bollbing" (the danger of hit ting friendly troops) of German-held positions in Normarxiy, in :preparation for a major Am erican ground offensive. There were some u.s. casualties, notably in the :,oth Infantry Division, including Major-General Leslie McNair who was killed. However, whole German platoons and coapa.nies were wiped out, and 111&ny tanks arxi humreds of other vehicles were destroyed. 11 Deceaber 19'11 1 1 Around. 1,600 Flying Fortresses, the largest U.S. force yet sent over Germany, blasts Frank:f'Urt, H&nau, and Giessen. February 194.5-The destruction of the city of Dresden, Germany, a highly controversial and useless and tragic action. At this time, the city ha.d little, if any, strategic im portance. The bulk of the bombing was done by the British R.A.F., b.lt some 4oo U.S. planes also JB.rticip,.ted. To make the bollbing even more tragic, the city wa.s overflowing with re:f'ugees from the eastern F-ovinces of Germany who were fleeing the oncoming Russians, arxi so, the casualties were terrible-as high as 110,000 people may have perished: Just 8 Allied planes were shot down. Note: In July 1943, a large p:1,rt o:f Hamburg was destroyed by the R.A.F. with great loss of life. 26 February 194.5-1,000 bomber raid on Berlin. Note: Some o:f the 9th Air Force attacks have been included in this article for the sake of convenience. Also, there were other Aaerican bombing raids over Prance arxi central Europe, some of which were carried out by the 15th Air Force. The British Royal Air Force (R.A.F.), besides repeated night bombings of Berlin arxi the attacks on Hamblrg and Dresden, carried out nUJlerous raids on the Ruhr irxiustrial complex including the cities of Essen, Duisburg, Dortmund, a.rd Wuppertal, plus others. Besides this, the British also bombed Cologne, including a. 1,000 bomber attack, am many other maj or German cities including I>Usseldor:f', Mannheim, Ludwigshafen, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Munich, Augsblrg, Nuremberg, Friedrichsh&fen, Kassel, Lubeck, arxi Stettin, and also the Eder-Mohne D&IIIS, arxi the German V-1 and V-2 "b.lzz bomb" (rocket) lases at Peeneaurxie, on the Baltic. The Italian cities of Naples, Mila.no, Genoa, and Torino (Turin) were also bombed prior to the Italian surrender in September 194:,. No awards or casualty figures are available other than those listed within thj,.s article.

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9TH AlR FORCE Activated-2 Septeaber 1941 at BOW111a?1 Field, Kentucky, a.s the ,5th Air_ S'!Eport Comrd 8 April 1942-Redesignated the 9th Air Force Battle Area, World War IIs Mediterranean Are& COIUl&?lding Generals (During Combat, WW II): Europe Lt-Gen Lewis H. Brereton Lt-Gen Hoyt S. Vandenberg 28 June 1942-2 August 1944 2 August 1944-23 May 194.5 Operational Noteas Arriving in the Middle East when Ro-el's a.rllies stood before El Ala mein, the 9th Air Force and. its predecessor, the United States Army Middle East Air Force, concentrated on disruption of eneay supply lines in the eastern Mediterranean am co-o~ erated with the British 8th Army in driving the Axis forces a.cross North A:f'rica. As the caapaign moved westward, its heavy boaber attacks were extended. to targets in Tunisia., Italy, and. Sicily. Rearga.nized in the United Kingd011, 16 October 1943, as the tactical &.r11 of the United States Aray Air Forces in the E'IU, the 9th e~ in the pre-invasion air offensive, took part in D-Day, and crossed to France soon thereafter. Following close on the heels of the it operated :f'roll f'ive different countries in leas tm.n a. year. In addition to its pria&ry aission of :furnishing tactical support for American araies in the ETO, the 9th p,.rticip,.ted with the 8th Air Force in the stra~c bollbing progra11, providing escort and boabing when suitable t&rgets were aYa.ilable. By V-E Day, 8 May 194.5, the 9th Air Force had made 6.59,.513 sorties, dropped .582,701 tons of bollbs, claiaed destruction of' 9,497 aircraft, am lost 6,7.31 planes to action. No awards or casmlties available.

PAGE 46

lcml AIR FCECE Activated-12 February 1942 at Patterson Field, Ohio Battle Area, World War IIz China-Burma-India -Commanding Generals (During C01100.t, WW II) z Maj-Gen Lewis H. Brereton Br~-Gen Earl L. Na.iden Maj-Gen Clayton L. Bissell Maj-Gen Howard C. Davidson 5 March 1942-25 June 1942 25 June 1942-18 August 1942 18 August 1942-19 August 1943 19 August 1943-1 August 1945 Operational Notes: In the China-Burma-India Theater, the 10th Air Force had, as its primary function, defense O'f the ferry route over the HUJ1p. From the Kunming teniinal, its China Air Task Force struck at Ja:i:anese installations, port facilities, and shipping in the China Seas, while its India Air Task Force ~eel the Dinjan and insured neutral ization of airfields at Myitkyina. and other places in northern Buru.. Although duties of the Chin& Air Task Force were usu.eel by the 14th Air Force in March 194-'.3, the loth continued to operate fi'oa bl.sea in Assaa, disrupting eneay lines of coam.unica.tion, flying mreei:e over the Bay of Bengal, and 11ining harbors at Rangoon, Bang kok, and Moullllein. Later, as coaponents of the Eastern Air COIIM.nd (15 December 1943-1 June 1945), loth Air Force units took :i;:art in all illport&nt Jil&ses of the Burma cami:aign, furnishing air borne support to General Wingate's f'orcea, dropping supplies to Merrill's Maramers, and facilitating General Stilwell's reconquest of northern Burma. By April 1945, soae 350,000 111en were wholly de:pendent upon air supply by these units. In August 1945, the loth moved to Chin&, anticii:ating an offensive against the Japuiese hoae isl.ands. No awards or C&8U<ies av-.11.able.

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11TH Am FORCE Activated.-15 January 1942 &t Eherdorl' Field, Al.&ska., as the Al&skan Air Force -5 February 1942-Redesignated the 11th Air Force :Battle Area, World War II1 Northern Pacific Comanding Generals (During Coa'ta.t, WW II): Col Lionel H. Dunl&p Maj-Gen Willia.Jn O. Butler Maj-Gen Davenport Johnson 17 February 1942-8 March 1942 8 March 1942-6 September 1943 6 Septeaber 1943-23 July 1945 Opera.tiona.l Noteas When ca.rrier-'tased planes of a Japa.nese task force struck at Dutch Harbor on 3 June 1942, aircraft of the 11th Air Force fr011 well-concealed bLses in an adn.nced a.rea pt.rticipated. in operations th&t resulted. in the eneay's withdrawal to Kiska and Attu. During the next 14 months whenever weather peraitted, units of the 11th bombed Japan ese installations in the outer Aleutians-first fr011 Umnak, then fro• Adak, am fin&lly fr011 Aachitka. In addition, they ran search missions, struck at shipping, engaged in :phot~J:hic recon&issance, am. kept patrols in the air. Before the close of the Aleutian C&J1pa~, 24 August 1943, elements of the 11th Air Force began to fly offensive sweeps ap.inat the Kurile Islands. These missions l&ter gave way to more direct attacks, in which airfields, canneries, staging areas, the Kat aoka Naval Base, am. shipping in Pa.raaushiru Strait were the principal targets. On occasion, the 11th provided. cover for naval vessels which were shelling the Kuriles and, through its aircra:rt concentrating on h~h-altitude J:hotcgraJ:hic reconnaissance, ob tained. the first pictures of Japan's northern defenses. The 11th Air Force nade 7,318 sorties, dropped 4,331 tons of bollm, claimed destruct ion of 113 eneay aircraft, and lost 88 planes to enemy action. No awa.rds or casualties avail.Able.

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12TH AIR FORCE Activated.-20 August 1942:a-Holling Field, District of ColUlllbia Battle Area, World War II: Mediterranean Area Couanding Generals (During Combl..t, WW II): Maj-Gen James H. Doolittle Lt-Gen Carl A. S]:B&tz l'laj-Gen John K. Cannon Maj-Gen Benjaai.n W. Chidlaw 2J Septe111ber 1942-1 March 194J 1 March 1943-21 December 194-J 21 Dece11ber 1943-2 April 1945 2 April 1945-26 Play 1945 Operational :Rotes: On 8 Noveaber 1942, when Allied landings were made in French Morocco and Algeria, elelllents of the 12th Air Force :plrticips.ted in the initial operations, &rd secured l:aaea newly won. . Opera.ting, aner February 194J, within the :f'ramework of the Northwest African Air For ces, and later under direction of the Mediterranean Allied Air Forces, the 12th took an active pa.rt in the Tunisian ca11p,.ign, bore the brunt of the attack upon Pa.ntelleria., and flew hundred.IS of missions contributing to the capitulation of Sicily. Its units assisted. in securi~ the bea.chheads at Salerno and Anzio, and gave tactical assistance to the U.S. 5th Any in its advance through Italy. In connection with the Allied landing in southern l"rance, aircraft of the 12th carried out preli.Jlinary' bollbings, provided. cover for the invasion, and facilitated the northward pr~ss of Allied forces. In the final assault in northern Ital:,, its units had a substantial psrt in illlaobiliz1~ Gerun lines of' COIUlltmie&tion. Also, out of the XII Boaber COIUl&Dd caae the Fifteenth Air Force. The 12th Air Force made 430,681 sorties, dropped 217,1.56 tons of boal:s, claillled destruc tion of J,.56.5 eneay aircraft, and lost 2,~J planes to enemy action. No awards or casualties available.

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15TH Am FOOCE Activa.ted-l Noveaber 1943 in Tunis, Tunisia Battle Area., World War II: Mediterranean Area am Central Euro:pe -Comma.ming Genera.ls (During Coml:at, WW II): Maj-Gen James H. Doolittle Maj-Gen Na.than F. Twining 1 November 194'.3-3 January 1944 3 January 1944-26 May 1945 Operational Notes: Composed initially of hea.vy-bombi.rdment groups of the XII Bomber Cou am, the 15th Air Force was established in the MTO to complete the strategic encirclement of Germany and her satellites. In attacks co-ordinated with 8th Air Farce missions, its units, operating from Foggia, Italy, am bt.ses further south, attacked eneay airfields, hammered at aircraft factories in the Wiener-Neustadt, Austria, am Regensburg, Germany, areas, bombed oil refineries at Ploef1ti, Blechhalmer, distant Ruhl&m (in the province of Saxony, Germa.ny), and Vienna, and struck tank, armaaent, and IIUl'lition pl&nts at Linz, Pilsen, Prague, Bm.a.:pest, am Kunich. Overshadowed brt never obscured by this e:f:fort was the 15th's e&IIJILign against enemy lines of co-unication. Not only were u.rshalling yards, bridges, am tunnels hit, but whenever the Italian groum situation deanded, 11ore direct tactical support was given, as in the Rome-Amo caaiaign and the st&leate at Cassino. In connection with the Allied invasion o:f southern France, the l.!)th particii:ated in pre-invasion bo•bings, and provided cover on D-D&y ( southern France). The 15th's units carried supplies to :partisans in the Balkans, and rescued l&rge nllll bers of air crews shot down in eneay held territory. The 15th Air Force new 'lA-2,Yn sorties, dropped 309,278 tons of bombs, destroyed 6,2,58 enemy aircraft, and loet J,410 planes to enemy action. No awards or ca.sualties avail.able.

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14TH AIR FORCE Activated-10 March 1943 at Kuruaing, China Battle Area, World War II.t--Central and Southern Chin& and Northern Burma Co111J1anding Generals (During Collll:at, WW II): Maj-Gen Claire L. Chennault 10 March 1943-10 August 1945 Operational Notess In March 1943, the 14th Air Force replaced the China Air Task Force, which had. continued the work of the Flying Tigers af'ter disca.ndment of the American Vol tmteer Group in July 1942. Pursuing against the Japinese a policy of attrition similar to that of its predecess ors, the 14th whittled away at the enemy's air force, interdicted lines of comaunica.tion, and ferreted out troop concentrations. From Hengyang, its units struck at Hankow, Canton, am traffic on inl&M wa.terways; frOlR Kweilin, they swept the coast of the South China Sea. am mined shipping lanes; fr0111 Yunnanyi, they protected the eastern em of the Hump route and boabed. military targets near the Burmese towns of Myitkyi.n&, Bhallo, Lashio, arxl Katha. To the Chinese armies, the 14th gave tactical support arxl furnished air supply-espec ially during the Jaianese drive tow&rd Hsian, Ankang, and Chihkia.ng in the spring of 1945. In the a.re& around the city of Cheng-tu, the 14th gave protection to forward 1:e.ses of B-29s then stationed. in India. '!be 14th Air Force also engaged in night reconnaissance, and new diversionary missions co-ordinated with the invasion of Luzon and the landing on Okinawa.. No awards or casualties available.

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lJI'H Am FORCE Activated-1'.3 January 194-J at Noumea., New Caledonia Battle Area, World War II!--Southwest ard Western Pacific Comtanding Generals (During Coml:at, WW II): Maj~en Nath&n F. Twining Brig~en Ray L. Owens Maj~en Hubert R. Harmon Brig~en George L. Usher Ma~en St. Clair Streett Maj~en Paul B. Wurtsmith l'.3 January 194-J-ll December 194-'.3 12 December 194-)-6 January 1944 6 January 1944-6 June 1944 6 June 1944-15 June 1944 15 June 1944-19 February 194-5 19 February 194-.5-15 July 1946 Operational Notes, The lJth Air Force provided air defense for Gua.da.lca.na.l, struck &t Japanese shipping, and boabed airfields in the Central Soloaons. After the capture of Munda, New Georgia, its attacks swung northward, culminating in the landing on Bougain ville, in Eapress Augusta Bay. With the 5th Air Force, it p&rticip1ted in the air offensive against the big Jap,.nese b!t.8es on New Irel.&nd and on Rabe.ul, New Britain. In support o-.r landings a.t Hollandia and Aitape, northern New Guinea, the l)th neutral ized Woleai by a series of bombings, and struck at the Carolines in connection with the Central Pacific push against the fta.rianas~ The l)th's aircra.t't attacked eneay defenses on Biak and Noea:foor prior to inYa.sion, ha.Jrulered at Ja-panese airfields in western New Guinea and on Halll&hera in support of land operations on Morota.i, and bombed the oil refining center at Bali.kpe.pm, Borneo. After -participation in the Philippine cup1ign, the lJth extended its striking power to distant targets in Java., Plalaya, Indo-Chin&, and the China coe..at. By V-J Day, soae units had begun movement to Okinawa, in pre:r;:aration for an assault up on Japan. In all, the 13th Air Force lll&de 93,726 sorties, dropped 65,JlB tons of bombs, claimed destruction-of l,J95 enemy aircraft, and lost 645 pl&nes to enemy action. lo awards or casua.lties available.

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20TH AIR FORCE Activated--4 April 1944 in Washington, D.C. Battle Area, World War II~Superbombers against Jap,.n Co111J11a.rrling Genera.ls (During Coml:at, WW II): Gen-Henry H. "Hap" Arnold Ma.j-Gen Curtis E. LeHay Lt-Gen Nathan F. Twining 6 April 1944-16 July 1945 16 July 194.5-1 August 1945 l August 1945-15 October 1945 Operational Notes: The 20th Air Force, equipped with Superf'ortresses, had as its princ ip,.l function the carrying of the war to the Ja::i;anese homela?Xl. This program was inaug urated. on 15 June 1944, when Imia.-b!t.sed. B-29s of the XX Bomber Couarxi, staged through forward areas in China, boabed. the steel works at Yawa.ta. Attacks upon aircraft factories, oil refineries, ordnance plants, arxl other critical industries followed until. late-March 1945, when these groups were transferred to the Marianas. Here units of the XXI Boaber C01111&nd stationed. on Saipui, Tinian, am Guam, had hamaered at Ja::i;anese targets since 24 Noveaber 1944, when they ll&de the first B-29 attack upon Tokyo. During the last 5 months of the war, the 20th Air Force mined Ja::i;anese hoae waters, initiated incerxiia.ry raids, &rd on 6 and 9 August 1945, dropped the two atomic boats on Hiroehiaa arxl Nagasaki. In addition, the 20th lent support in the Burma cam::i;a~. facilitated the invasion of Okinawa by bombing airf'ields on Kyushu, am, after V-J Day, dropped food am aedical supp lies to Allied prisoners of war in Ja ::i;an. In all, the 20th Air Force f'lew 38,808 sorties, dropped. 171,060 tons of boats, claimed 1,225 eneay aircraft destroyed., am lost 494 planes to eneay action. No awards or c&Sualties available. Soae of themajor boabing attacks by the 20th Air Force on J&p,.n: 15 June 1944--Ra.id on the steel works a.t Yawata 8 Deceaber 191 1 1 BOJ1bing begins on Japanese-held Iwo Jiu. 9 February 194.5-Large Superfortress Ra.id on Tokyo 10 March 194.5-La.rge fire-bombing raid on Tokyo. Over JOO planes froa bl.sea in the Ma.rianas-14 of them were lost. Over 100,000 people perished! 12 March 194.5-Incemiary bombing attack on Nagoya

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lj March 194,5--Incendiary attack on Osaka. JOO boabers iart,icipt.ted, &M 8 square ailes of the city a.re destroyed.. 20 March 194.S-Second attack on Nagoya by 300 B-29s. 28 July 194,5-Attacks on several l.a.rge cities in Jai:an, inclming Kobe and Kure, by 2,000 planes (some fro• the u.s. Navy). ' 2 August 194,5--Iarge Superfortreas raid on several J&pt.nese cities-Toya1111. largely destroyed.. 6 August 194.5--First atoaic bomb ever dropped on the enemy froa a B-29, the Enola G&y, destroying Hiroshi.n&. 9 August 194.5-A second ato11ic bo11b destroys 1fa.ga.s&ki. 14 August 1945-B-29 attacks on several Jai:anese cities-last bo111bing raid of World WarIL -

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lST MARINE DIVISION "The Big One" Activated-l February 1941 Battle Credits, World War II: Guadalcanal Commanding Generals (During :-coni'fut, WW II): New Britain Maj-Gen Alexander A. Vandegrift Maj-Gen William H. Ruppertus Maj-Gen Pedro delle Valle Peleliu Okinawa Comba.t Chronicler The 1st Marine Division was the first American division to conduct an offensive operation against the enemy in World War II. Little was known about the Solomon Islands by Americans before 1942, least of all, Guad alcanal, an island roughly 90 miles by 60 long, disease-ridden, full of jungle rot, and num erous Japanese. And yet, from the distance aboard ship, the island actually looked beautif ul. The operation would be sort of "a shot in the dark", but at this stage of the war, the American people were quite desperate for any kind of strong offensive action. On 7 August 1942, the 1st Marine Division landed on Guadalcanal with no opposition on the beaches-an ominous sign. The Japanese had already begun a key airstrip on the island, cal led Henderson Field by the Americans, and this was a major objective of the marines-to take and hold this important airfield. During those early days and weeks, the Japanese had naval and local air superiority and they could, and did shell and bomb the marines almost at will. Meanwhile, the Japanese were busy sending reinforcements of 1,000 crack troops, the Ichiki Detachment, to annihilate the marines. Most of these men were China veterans and, overconfident and ignorant, they thought the marines would be a pushover. How wrong they were: In the early pre-dawn hours of 21 August 1942, after a mortar barrage, the Japs threw them selves against the marines-and were stopped cold. Greatly aiding the marines was this sin gle strand of barbed wire that they had just had time to erect, about waist high, and the Japs, failing to detect it in the darkness, greatly had the momentum of their charge upset. They were decimated, and during the next day the marines surrounded and wiped out the remain der of the enemy force in a coconut grove. At the end of the battle, the marines were com pelled to put a bullet through the heads of the Jap corpses lying on the beach. Some of the Japs had been known to play dead, and then shoot marines in the back. This action became _ known as the Battle of the Tenaru, although the battle actually took place near the smaller, nearby Ilu River. The morale of the marines was decidedly strengthened. Colonel Ichiki, one of the few Japanese who got away, burned his unit's colors and then committed suicide. The marines tried to strengthen their positions as best they could with defenses around the airfield, and awaited the next onslaught. It came on 12 September 1942. After trekking through the jungle, and after a heavy shelling by Japanese warships, some 2,000 men from the 35th Brigade under General Kawaguchi, threw themselves against an area which soon became known as "Bloody Ridge." The 1st Marine Division, widely strung out, was aided in this battle by the 1st Marine Raider Battalion under Colonel Edson. The first enemy assault failed in vicious fighting. Despite this, Kawaguchi resumed the assault again on the following night. The Japanese,

PAGE 55

under American mortar and artillery fire, plunged up the ridge in a frenzied, wild attack shouting and screaming obscenities. They were again beaten 'tack. Then, later on in the night, the Japs fiercely assaulted the ridge for the third time, and came dangerously close to Henderson Field. The marines were temporarily forced back, but then rallied and closed with the Japanese in some of the most wild, desperate, and con fused night hand-to-hand fighting of the entire war. Although the battle didn't die-out until daylight, it had already been decided by then, and it was a costly failure for the Japanese, the remainder of whom fled back into the jungle to the north. They lost over 600 men, while the marines had a.round 150 men killed in action or die of wounds. Subjected to continuous Japanese naval boml:ardments, the marines tried to improve their positions, while hoping for some reinforcements, They arrived on 13 October 1942-the 164th Infantry Regiment of the Army's Americal Division. That very same night the marines and soldiers were subjected to a very heavy naval bombardment. Then, on 23 October, the Japanese attacked with their entire 2nd "Sendai" Division in the most ferocious, heaviest, and bloodiest fighting on Guadalcanal. This assault came not far from the "Bloody Ridge" area. It was during this massive assault that Sergeant John Basilone, 1st Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment, won the Medal of Honor in a very courageous action on the night of 24-25 October. While the Japanese were-ba,mmering at the marines' defensive positions, Sgt Basilone, in charge of two sections of neavy machineguns, fought valiantly to check the savage and det ermined enemy assault. In a fierce frontal attack with the Japanese blasting his guns with grenades and mortar fire, one of the sergeant's gun crews was put out of action, leaving only two men to carry on. Moving an extra gun into position, he placed it in action, then, under continual fire, repaired another and personally manned it, holding the line until re placements arrived. A little later, with ammunition running critically low and the supply lines cut-off, Sgt Basilone, at great risk of his life and in the face of continued enemy attack, battled his way through hostile lines with urgently needed ammunition for his gunners, thereby contrib uting in large measure to the virtual annihilation of a Japanese regiment. His actions were in the highest traditions of the U.S. armed forces. (Sgt Basilone could have sat the rest of the war out as a war hero, Instead, he felt bad about this, and eventually re-enlisted. He was killed by a burst from a mortar shell on Iwo Jima in February 1945). In the most desperate kind of fighting, the Marine and Army troops held all their posit ions and beat the Japanese to a standstill. In three days and nights of ferocious, some times hand-to-hand combat, the enemy was thrown back and again retreated into the jungle. The Americans waited for them to return, but they didn't. This was the crucible of the fighting on Guadalcanal. After only a brief rest, the 1st Marine Division went over to the attack on 1 November 1942, with powerful air support and also artillery and naval gun support. It was on this very first day of attack that one of the most heroically incredible acts of the war occurred, and it begs to be told. Corporal Anthony Casamento was a member of the 5th Marine Regiment which was making the main effort in this attack. On the morning of the 1st, he and 29 other men were sent to protect a vital sector of the U.S. airfield. However, they were soon attacked by superior enemy forces, and, in a short time, all of his men except himself and two others were eith er killed or-seriously wounded. One of these 2 men was dazed from a mortar burst, so Corp oral Casamento sent the remaining other man who had a leg wound, back for help. For the next 2 hours, which seemed like an eternity, manning a machinegun, he blazed away at a force of approximately 1,000 Japanese troops: The ground in front of him became cover ed thick with the bodies of dead enemy soldiers as he frantically fought to turn back the screaming enemy tide, Miraculously, he held his position inspite of the overwhelming odds, and the fact that he was covered with blood from no less than 14 wounds-including one from a bullet that had passed through his neck: Finally, other marines came to the rescue and routed the Japanese in a savage 1:ayonet charge, By his skill and incomparable courage, Corporal Casamento had practically singlehandedly turned back a major enemy attack. The most ironic pa.rt about this incredible act of heroism

PAGE 56

is that Mr. Casamento wasn't awarded the Medal of Honor until President Carter was in office a great many years later. The 5th Marines advanced to within a short distance of Point Cruz, a Japanese strongpoint. Other units of the 1st advanced toward the Metapona River to stop the Japs from landing fresh troops at Koli Point. On 3 November, a Japanese pocket at Point Cruz was wiped out. Meanwhile, the 7th Marines destroyed the Japanese whom they had surrounded in the area of the Gavaga torrent. The 1st was aided in this offensive toward Point Cruz by elements of the 2nd Marine Divis ion and the 164th Infantry Regiment, Americal Division. Further offensive operations temp orarily halted on 11 November 1942, due to largely the drenching downpours which hit the is land during this period, and also to let other recently arrived Marine and Army units event ually resume the attack and give the 1st Marine Division a most hard-earned respite from the fighting. Finally, during the first week in December 1942-after 4 long, bitter, desperate months on this island of death, the 1st Marine Division began evacuating for a so well-deserved rest. Some of the men were so weak from exhaustion, malaria, and dysentary that they had to be help ed aboard the ships by naval personnel. The 1st Marine Division lost 642 men on the "Canal", but statistics alone don't begin to tell the story. For the men of the 1st Marine Division, Guadalcanal was more than jtt~ name-it was an emotion. The 1st was sent to Australia for rest and rehabilitation. It was a full year before the division began its next operation, a landing at the western tip of the large island of New Britain-at Cape Gloucester, on 26 December 1943. New Britain has some of the worst climate and jungle terrain in the Pacific. Slightly inland, the marines sank to their waist in swampy water and mud. Eventually, they reached drier ground, and beat 1::ack a sizeable Jai:anese attack. Then, counterattacking, the marines advanced through tall Kunai grass and captured an important airstrip. Due to the rainsoaked foliage, bazooka and mortar rounds failed to explode in the wet earth, and the effect of flamethrowers was reduced because of the dampness. During January 1944, there were some furious clashes, as the marines drove the Japanese deeper into the island. An amphibious landing was made on the Willaumez Peninsula, and more hard fighting ensued. With around the western 1/4 of the large island secured, the marines were relieved by the 40th Infantry Division and other Army elements in April 1944. The 1st Marine Division had 310 men killed and some 1,100 wounded. After rest and recuperation, the lst's next battle was one of the most vicious and bloody of the entire war in the Pacific-Peleliu, in the Palau Island chain, some 550 miles east of Mindanao. The invasion took place on 15 September 1944. The Japanese had 11,000 men on Peleliu, centered around their 14th Infantry Division. There was the usual preliminary naval bombardment which did little, if any, good against the Japanese in their caves and other underground hideaways. As they landed, to the marines' surprise, although there were skirmishes, the Japanese launched no Banzai attack at the beach but waited for the marines to advance inland. The marines crossed the airfield and headed toward the Umurbrogal, a high ridge mass, as the Japs opened up with a murderous hail of fire. There was no cover and the terrific heat, as high as 110 degrees, was almost as deadly as the Jap bullets. The direct attack up this ridge was encharged to the 1st Marine Regiment. Many men dropped from sheer heat exhaustion. As others inch their way upward, the Japs sometimes fired upon them from behind from their concealed connections of underground tunnels. It was bitter coml:e.t at its worst. The sharp coral rocks added to the ordeal, as the marines got to the top of one hill and fought off a counterattack from another. In the continuous, ferocious, chaotic battle for the series of hills of the Umurbrogal, the marines beat off repeated counterattacks. They would reach the top of one hill, only to find that they were exposed to flanking fire from another :p3,rt of this ridge mass. The Jap anese had emplacements which included some ma.de of concrete. These and others often had to be blasted with demolitions or attacked with flamethrowers. And there was also some savage hand-to-hand fighting. By early-October, the 1st Marine Regiment was relieved by part of the 81st Infantry Div ision as the raging tattle continued. The 5th Marine Regiment came up against an immense

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system of caves. The Sherman tanks and flamethrowers were in action, while Marine Corsairs (planes) dropped napalm and phosphorus on the Japanese who were skillfully using their art illery in this Pacific holocaust. At one place, the Japs ambushed a company of marines, some of whom were saved by other marines throwing smoke grenades to help cover their exposed plight. Pfc Arthur J. Jackson, Jrd Battalion, '7th Marine Regiment, won the Medal of Honor in another very daring and gallant action. Boldly taking the initiative when his platoon was held up by intense enemy fire, he pro ceeded forward and charged a large pillbox housing some 35 Jai:a,nese. He then hurled white phosphorus grenades brought up by a fellow marine, and killed all of the enemy inside. Ad vancing alone under the continuous fire from other enemy emplacements, he employed similar means to eliminate two smaller positions in the nearby area. Determined to smash this entire pocket of resistance, although harrassed on all sides by the shattering blasts of JaJS,nese weapons, and covered only by small rifle parties, he stor med one gun position after another. Dealing death and destruction to the savagely fighting Japanese, he succeeded in wiping out a total of 12 pillboxes and 50 enemy soldiers. The skillful, intrepid, courageous one-man assault of Pfc Jackson greatly contributed to the complete annihilation of the enemy on the southern sector of the island, and his conduct reflected the highest credit upon himself and the U.S. military. By mid-October 1944, almeet=all of the 1st had been evacuated from the terrible island, and the 81st Infantry Division, which had fought a bitter battle on nearby Angaur, took over the task of eliminating the remaining Japanese from Peleliu. The living nightmare that was Peleliu cost the let Marine Division an incredible total of 1,2.52 men killed or missing in action. The 81st Division lost 208 men. As if this wasn't enough, the last and biggest battle for the 1st was when it and the 6th Marine and 7th and 96th Infantry Divisions all invaded Okinawa on Easter Sunday, l April 1945. Few had any illusions that this would be an easy operation. It wasn't, to say the least: After securing the northern i:a,rt of the long, narrow island the 1st and 6th Marine Div isions came down to assist the Army on the southern i:a,rt of the island where the heavy figh ting was occurring-extremely heavy fighting. The 1st relieved the exhausted 27th Infan try Division on JO April 1945, and clashed against the highly formidable defenses of the Shuri Line. The fighting was on a level with what had occurred on Iwo Jima. The Japanese had an extremely strong system of cave defenses and huge pillboxes, besides numerous artill ery pieces of all types and many mortars, and the casualties quickly mounted on both sides at an alarming rate. At the cost of very heavy casualties, the 1st took the greater part of Dakeshi Ridge, while the recently arrived 77th Infantry Division advanced slowly toward the town of Shuri. This occurred around 12 Hay. It was in May that drenching downpours hit the island, turning the larger shell craters into miniature lakes and adding to the nisery of this incredible battle. The incessant fighting continued unabated. By mid-May, the 1st was battling to take the Wana River Valley but, at first, could make little headway even with tanks and flamethrowers. On 19 May, Wana Ridge was taken in a heavy assault by the 1st Marine Regiment, and then strong Japanese counterattacks were thrown back. Inching forward against extremely heavy resistance with the 77th Infantry Division on its left flank, the two divisions drove on Shuri, and with Shuri Ridge finally being captur ed by the 1st on 29 May. Shuri town fell two days later to the 77th. The dreadful fighting continued. On 10 June, after several Japanese night counterattacks in which they suffered heavy losses, the marines, at the cost of heavy casualties took a hill west of the town of Yuza. On the 12th, the 1st captured pa.rt of Kunishi Ridge. There was some more hard fighting, but the Jai:a,nese flanks had, by now, been pushed in, and by 21 June 1945, the terrible island was declared secured. The 1st Marine Division had lost over 2,200 men: Regarding numbers of men in a comparatively confined area (there were 2 Marine and 4 Army divisions on Okinawa-plus over 100,000 Japanese), and the sustained and intense nature of the fighting, plus the cost-over 7,600 soldiers and marines killed and 4,900 more naval personnel also dead-few battles could compare with Okinawa. And few outfits can compare with the 1st Marine Division's record in World War II.

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Honors, Congressional Medals of Honor-19 Distinguished Unit Citations-J * Navy Crosses------Casualties: Total Deaths and Silver Stars------Missing In Action-4,465 Wounded-----lJ,849 Total Casualties-18,J14 * Three to the entire 1st Marine Division--Guadalcanal-Peleliu-Okinawa No number of Navy Crosses or Silver Stars are available Other 1st Marine Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action* Cpl Lewis K. Bausell, * 5th Mar Rgt, 15 September 1944, on Peleliu Hosp Apprentice 1/c Robert E. Bush, 5th Mar Rgt, 2 May 1945, on Okinawa Pfc William A. Foster,* 1st Mar Rgt, 2 May 1945, on Okinawa Cpl John P. Fardy, * 1st Mar Rgt, 7 May 1945, on Okinawa Pvt Dale M. Hansen,* 1st Mar Rgt, 7 May 1945, on Okinawa Cpl Louis J. Hauge, * 1st Mar Rgt, 14 May 194 5, on Okinawa Sgt Elbert L. Kinser,* 1st Mar Rgt, 4 May 1945, on Okinawa Richard E. Kraus,* 8th Aml>hibious Tractor Bn, 5 October 1944, on Peleliu Pfc John D. New, * 7th Mar-Rgt, 25 September 1944, on Peleliu Pltn Sgt Mitchell Paige, 26 October 1942, on Guadalcanal Pvt Wesley Phelps,* 7th Mar Rgt, 4 October 1944, on Peleliu Capt Everett P. Pope, 1st Mar Rgt, 19-20 September 1944, on Peleliu Pfc Charles H. Roan,* 7th Mar Rgt, 18 September 1944, on Peleliu 1st Lt Carlton R. Rouh, 5th Mar Rgt, 15 September 1944, on Peleliu Pfc Albert E. Schwab,* 7 May 1945, on Okinawa Maj-Gen Alexander A. Vandegrift, 1st Mar Dvn (Commanding) , 7 A ug-9 Dec 1942, Guadalcanal The 1st Marine Division later saw extensive service in both the Korean and Vietnam Wars. For many years the 1st Marine Division has been based at Camp Pendleton, California, and is there, as of this writing. (27 November 1985)

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2ND MARINE DIVISION "Liberty" Activated-1 February 1941 Battle Credits, World War II: Guadalcanal Commanding Generals (Duri?lg-eomtat, WW II): Maj-Gen John Marston Maj-Gen Julian c. Smith Maj-Gen Thomas E. Watson Maj-Gen Leroy P. Hunt Tarawa Saipm Tinian April 1942-April 194J May 194)-April 1944 April 1944-June 1945 June 1945-July 1946 Okinawa Comtat Chronicle: The 2nd Marine Division was organized in February 1941, at Camp Elliott, San Diego, California. In May 1941, the 6th Marine Regiment was detached and sent to Ice land. A year later, it rejoined the rest of the division tack at Camp Elliott. After in tensive training, the 8th Marine Regiment was sent to Samoa, to assume the defense there. In early-August 1942, the 2nd Marine Regiment saw some of the most bitter fighting of the opening days of the Guadalcanal ca.111.pdgn, when it took the smaller, nearby islands of Ga.vutu and Ta.n.ambogo. This regiment then went over to Guadalcanal, and ::i;:art of it saw heavy fighting. The 8th Marines of the 2nd arrived on Guadalcanal in early-November 1942, helping to aid the ha.rd-pressed 1st Marine and ::i;:art of the Army Alllerica.l Divisions. In November 1942, a large force of Americans from four different regiments, including the 8th Marines, began an offensive toward Point Cruz. The Japmese resisted very deter minedly, but the marines had ma.de fairly good progress, when suddenly, for no appu-ent reason, they were ordered to withdraw. Evidently, the top •brass" wanted to fUrther soft en up the Japmese positions with artillery bombardments before sending the ground troops any further. Further attacks were temporarily suspended. There then followed a period of extensive iatrol activities. Also, on Guadalcanal, during November 1942, the Japs ma.de nightly air raids, and sleep became a nervous luxury. Getting back to pitrolling, from 24 November-well into December 1942, the 2nd had 100 men killed and 198 wounded. Throughout December 1942, while the valiant 1st Marine Divis ion was finally evacuated, extensive p:i.trolling and probing actions continued. In late December the 25th Infantry Division arrived on the island. In early~Jariua.ry 194J, the 2nd 's 6th Regiment ca.me to Guadalcanal, and for the first time the 2nd Marine Division was fighting as an integral unit. Finally, on 10 January 194J, an all-out offensive was coDlllenced. The 2nd Marine Divis ion pushed the enemy into the interior in intensive comtat. After a heavy artillery bomb ardment, Army troops attacked Mt. Austen, while the marines attacked nearer the northern coast, just north of the Matanikau River, toward Point Cruz. In mid-January 194J, a temporary combined Army-Marine division was formed to simplify tactical command purposes. This structure consisted of the Army 182nd and 147th Infantry Regiments and the 2nd's 6th Marine Regiment. It was called the CAM Division (Combined Army Marine). This organization did well. In five days of brisk fighting, Japmese posi

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tions were overrun, and the offensive now became a pursuit. After a surprise Japanese air attack on 26 January 1943, in which moderate damage was inflicted, the 6th Marines and the 182nd Infantry resumed the attack west of Poha, and con tact was ma.de with the 25th Infantry Division. The mopping-up phase of the campaign now began, and by 10 February 1943, Guadalcanal was finally declared secured. The 2nd Marine Division lost 272 men on the "Canal". After Guadalcanal, the 2nd sailed to New Zealand for rest and rehabilitation, plus fur ther training. The New Zealanders were unusually friendly, and a lot of the marines soon had a girl friend, some even wives. Then, on 20 November 1943, the 2nd Marine Division assaulted Tarawa. Atoll, in the Gil bert Islands. While one regiment of the 27th Infantry Division landed on Makin Atoll, fur ther to the north, the 2nd headed into the 3 by 1/J mile island of Betio. The Japanese comunder on Tarawa. had boasted that "a million men couldn't take the atoll in a hundred years." It was that well fortified. The Japanese had coconut tree log bunk ers, interlaced with heavy sandta.gs, plus sometimes cement, concrete pillboxes several feet thick, and other emplacements-and 4,700 picked troops. Due to a miscalculation on judging the tides, the marines had to wade several hundred yards in chest to neck-de~ '2ter through murderous enemy machinegun fire. Many of them never reached shore. Those who did huddled below a long seawall near the water's edge, many of them being in a state of shock. Casualties were very heavy. Gradually, men here and there courageously began to seek out the enemy despite the intense machinegun, rifle, and mortar fire. One such man was 1st Lieutenant William Dean Hawkins, commanding officer of a scout sniper platoon. Lt Hawkins unhesitatingly moved forward under heavy enemy fire at the end of a pier, neutralizing Japanese emplacements in coverage of troops assaulting the beaches. He repeat edly risked his life throughout the day and night to direct and lead attacks on pillboxes and other Jap installations with grenades and demolitions. At dawn of the next day, he personally initiated an assault against a position fortified by five machineguns and, crawling forward in the face of withering fire, boldly fired point blank into the loopholes of the Jap emplacement and completed its destruction with grenades. The lieutenant lfa.S seriously wounded in the chest during this action, but refused to with draw. He continued to carry the fight to the enemy, and destroyed three more pillboxes be fore he was caught in a burst of enemy shellfire and fell mortally wounded. Lt Hawkins' indomitable courage was an inspiration and a vital factor in helping over come seemingly insurmountable enemy obstacles. He was posthumously awarded the Congression al Medal of Honor. The fighting on Tarawa was unmatched in its ferocity, and for the number of men concent rated in such a small area. It was still touch and go until about lJOO hours of the second day, 21 November 1943, as Colonel David Shoup, the commander on the beaches, urged his aen inland. Had the Japanese been able to mount a counterattack early in the l:attle, the mar ines !lla.Y have been in serious trouble. But the heavy U.S. Navy bo1111:ardment, prior to the landings, seriously upset their lines of coJaJ11unication, and no such attack occurred.. The marines were gradually able to get some tanks ashore, and slowly moved inland. The Japanese offered suicidal resistance, but by the 4th day this terrible l:attle was ended. The Japs were annihilated, with some of the• actually killing thelllBelves toward the end of the cattle. Some put the carrels of their rifles to their heads and pulled the triggers with their toes. The 2nd Marine Division lost close to 1,000 men! Many mistakes in amphibious assault landing techniques were corrected from out of the experience of terrible Tarawa.. And the entire 2nd Marine Division received. the Distinguish ed Unit Citation. After Tarawa the 2nd sailed bl.ck to the island of Hawaii, for rest and recuperation. On 15 June 1944, the 2nd and 4th Marine Divisions landed on Saipan, in the Marianas. Sai pan was a key Japanese l:astion, and they had soae J0,000 men on the island centered around their 4Jrd Division, and pa.rt of their 29th Division. The 2nd encountered heavy fire almost immediately-in fact, a nWlber of landing craft were hit by Jap artillery and mortar shells. The Jape fought fanatically, and the l:attle

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was furious, with considerable hand-to-hand com't:a.t occurring. Losses were very heavy on both sides. For awhile, the beachhead was mass confusion, and it was almost every ma.n for himself until late in the afternoon of the 15th, when a fairly solid front line was estal:> lished. There were over 2,000 marine casual ties by the end of the first day~ The Japs launched strong counterattacks with tanks, 15-17 June 1944. At night, the mar ines were aided by flares and, in blocxiy fighting, the Nips lost close to 1,000 men. Next, the 2nd Marine Division captured Point Afetna and the village of Charan Kanoa, in fierce fighting. Saipm was some of the costliest and one of the more prolonged and vicious battles in the Pacific. The fighting was especially intense on Mt. Ta.potchau and in Death Valley, the former of which :i;art of the 2nd reached the swnmit on 25 June 1944. This key feature on Saipui was held by the 2nd against a furious counterattack. The 2nd then fought into, and through, the town of Garapan despite desperate, but futile Japanese opposition. Then, in the early morning darkness of 7 July 1944, the Japs executed a huge, fanatical Banzai {or Gyokusai) attack. There were some 5,000 Japs in on the assault, and some were armed only with swords or clubs. Many were drunk. None seemed afraid to die. Elements of the 2nd fo~liantly. However, the ma.in blow fell upon the Army's 27th Infantry Division. The soldiers fought courageously, and, finally, this onslaught lost momentum and died-out after one huge hand-to-hand free-for-all struggle. There were numerous acts of valor on Saipm, and it may seem tmfair to single any one man out. However, in this case, one man does stand out. Pfc Guy Ga't:a.ldon, 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Division was certainly unique-an outstanding marine. What he did on Saipui (and later Tinian) was truly incredible-almost beyond belief. Pfc Gabaldon had spent much time growing up in East Los Angeles with friends of Japinese America.n heritage, and learned to speak fluent Japanese. Guy, himself, was of Hispanic descent, and stocxi only some S''.3" tall. But his knowledge of Japinese was his ticket into the Marine CorJ)S, as interpreters were needed very 't:a.dly. The CorJ)S has always frowned upon "lone wolf 11 tactics. The underlying code has always been teamwork. Yet, this is exactly what Pfc Gabaldon defied. He began operating as a lone wolf. His first excursicn behind Japinese lines netted one enemy soldier killed and two prisoners. His comnanding officer, Captain John Schwabe, took him aside, asked him what he was try ing to prove, and threatened to have him court-ma.rtialed if he acted on his own again. Undaunted, Pfc Ga't:a.ldon, soon after, again went out alone into the night. He shot and killed more of the enemy and took prisoners. This time Captain Schwabe admitted that Guy might have a very gocxi thing going as some of these Jap POWs ca.ae forth with some very valuable information. Soon, Pfc Gabaldon was allowed to roam about pretty auch at his own free will. Some times another marine went aloog with him. He seemed to have a charlled life. His aost incredible feat of arms was at Marpi Point, at the northern tip of Saipin, right after the huge Banzai attack. With great courage, combat savvy, and daring, under extremely dangerous circumstances, he somehow was able to persuade over 800 Japanese sold iers into surrendering: He told a ranking Japinese officer that they would all be very well treated-good food, clean place to sleep, and humane conditions otherwise. He ment ioned that a marine general had said all of this and this carried a great deal of weight with the Japs, as they are very respectful of any kind of authority. It may also very well have saved his life, as many of these Japs were still full of fight. At length, the Japanese co11J1a.I1der finally agreed to surrender his men. Other marines, appearing over a hill, could hardly believe their eyes. Pfc Gabaldon was eventually very seriously wounded in the hand while on a hazardous pit rol mission. Altogether, on Saipm and Tinian, he had captured over 1,000 Japanese, killed at least 3J more, and had saved the lives of hundreds of Americans, and Japinese, as well. With great daring, much courage, great combat sagacity, and incredible luck Pfc Ga't:a.ldon had

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shortened the entire 'tattle en Saipa.n, and his name beca.ae a symbol throughout the entire 2nd Marine Regiment. Pfc Gal:aldon 's actions were in keeping with the very highest tradit ions of the U.S. armed forces. The 4th Marine Division finished clearing the northern tip of Saipui, and the entire island was declared secured by 10 July 1944. However, Japanese stragglers, hiding in the jungled areas and in the hills, were still being flushed out years after the war ended. The Japanese commander on Saipa.n colRlllitted suicide, as did Vice-Admiral Na.gumo. Such was the seriousness with which the Japa.nese took the loss of Saipa.n. On 25 July 1944, the 2nd Marine Division landed on nearby Tinian, a day after the 4th Marine Division. Pushing through the canebrake the 2nd fought off a nUlllber of fierce coun terattacks, and was then forced to eliminate the re11aining Japs on the higher ground. On 27 July 1944, a typhoon hit Tinian. Rain turned the heat to steam, and the rich red soil of the island into an abysml of ankle-clutching muck. Despite all of this and the enemy resistance, Tinian was secured by l August 1944. The 2nd Marine Division then went l:ack over to Saipa.n to act as a defense force, and, a.long with the 27th Infantry Division, more Japanese were flushed out of the jungle and the hills in difficult and dangerous "mopping-up" operations. On Jl December 1944, the 2nd was relieved of this duty, and began training for the invasion of Okinawa. The 2nd Marine Div ision lost over l,JOO men:oii'Saipa.n, and close to 200 men on Tinian. On the day of the Okinawa invasion, 1 April 1945, the 2nd Marine Division was designated as floating-reserve. In June 1945, pa.rt of the 8th Marine Regiment secured the small islands of Iheya and Aguni. This regiment then joined in the 'tattle on Okinawa, taking pa.rt in the final attacks between 18-21 June 1945. The 8th Marines lost 58 men. In September 1945, the 2nd Marine Division moved to Japa.n for occupational duty. During July 1946, the 2nd moved to Ca.mp Lejeune, North Carolina. Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-8 Casualtiess Distinguished Unit Citations-)* Navy Crosses------Silver stars------* Two to the 2nd.and 8th Marine Regiments---Guadalca.nal One to the entire 2nd Marine Division-Tarawa No Navy Crosses or Silver Stars are available. Total Dead and Missing In Action-2,795 Wounded-----8,75) Total Ca.sualties-11,.548 Other 2nd Marine Division Medal of Honor winners in World War IIs JCilled in action * Pfc Harold C. Agerholll, * loth Mar Arty Rgt, 7 July 1944, on Saipa.n 1st Lt Alexander Bonnyman, Jr., * 8th Mar Rgt, 20-22 Noveaber 194), on Tarawa S/Sgt William J. Bordelon, * 20 November 194), on Tarawa Pfc Harold G. Epperson, * 6th Mar Rgt, 25 June 1944, on Saipa.n Colonel David M. Shoup, 20-22 November 1943, on Tarawa Sgt Grant F. Timmerman,* 6th Mar Rgt, 8 July 1944, on Saipa.n Pfc Robert L. Wilson, * 6th Mar Rgt, 4 August 1944, on Tinian Since July 1946, the 2nd Marine Di vision has been l:ased at Ca.ap Lejeune, North Carolina. However, an upiate is now in order, as the 2nd is now in Saudi Arabia. (5 February 1991) As of this writing, Guy Gal:aldon has yet to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor. Why? Simple. Because, during World War II, the Marine Corps was very prejudiced against Hispan ics, and also Orientals, or any other non-white elements. A grave injustice? To say the least! Mr. Gal:aldon, at great length, received the Navy Cross. He may yet finally receive his so well-deserved and so long-awaited Medal of Honor.

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3ll) MARINE DIVISION "The Fighting Third" Activa.ted-16 September 1~2 Battle Credits, World War II: Bougainville Collll!la.nding Genera.ls (During Combat, WW II): Maj-Gen Allen H. Turnage Maj-Ge.A~ra.ves B. Erskine Guam Iwo Jima Combat Chronicle: The Jrd Marine Division was officially activated in September 1942, in two echelons: the advance echelon (Jrd and 9th Marine Regiments) at Camp Elliott, San Diego, California, and the rear echelon (21st Marine Regiment and reinforcing units, including the 12th Artillery Regiment) at New River, North Carolina. After being stationed on Guadalcanal through much of 1943, and undergoing intensive trai ning there, the Jrd Marine Division's first major operation in World War II was when it lan ded at Cape Torokina, on the southern coast of Bougainville, in the northern Solomon Islands, 1-2 November 1943. In the 11eanti~e, there occurred a naval clash in nearby Empress Augusta Bay, in which American forces inflicted a sound defeat on a Japanese cruiser-destroyer for ce which had been sent to bombard the troops who had just gotten ashore. The Japanese already on the island soon attacked the beachhead. but were sent reeling back. They sustained considerable losses. The terrain to the rear of the beaches was not bad, but worse than that. It was a sink, a swamp, a bog, a miasma, swilltllling with giant crocodiles, dark with the tangle of creepers and lianas, shadowy with the great, gray bulk of the mangrove trees or crisscrossed with their fallen trunks. This was nature in the raw, the Bougainville rain forest, where the Jrd Marine Division would live and fight for the next two months. And Bougainville was al so filled with English speaking Japs. The marines :pushed inland, and there were nU111erous clashes with the Japa.nese. The Jap anese attempted to roll up the left of the Marine line which was anchored on the southern edge of the Koromokina. swup. The marines stopped them but, temporarily, failed to throw them back. The battle in the swamp then see-sawed back and forth, with marines and Japs trading shot for shot, and blundering around in a slop of muck and slimy water. Then, thanks greatly to a Captain Gordon Warner, who came up leading a tank and with a helmet full of white phospiorus grenades, the Japs were wiped out in droves, and the mar ines attackeg through the suddenly silent swamp choked with the bodies of the foe. Captain Warner lost a leg, and was later awarded the Navy Cross. The 23rd Regiment of the infamous Jai:anese 6th Division which had raped Nanking, China, soon after attacked a marine roadblock but was hurled back. There then developed a furious b:1.ttle for a dominating ridge area, in which hand grenades were the decisive weapon. It lasted for 9 days and cost the Jai:anese 1,200 men. Meanwhile, the 37th Infantry Division had arrived in mid-November, and the Americal Div ision in January 1944, with the 3rd Marine Division leaving the island that same month. Among other casualties, Bougainville cost the Jrd 253 men killed and missing. The Jrd Marine Division's next b:1.ttle was when it took pa.rt in the historic recapture of Guam. The Jrd landed at Asan Point, west of Agana, on 21 July 1944. The 1st Marine Prov isional Brigade landed further south at Agat. The marines had established the beachhead to several hundred yards in depth, when the Marine Brigade was hit by a Japanese night attack. In wild fighting, this attack was beaten back.

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The terrain on Guam was much like that of Saipan and Tinian-some dense jungle areas, combined with broken, ~ged crevices, and always the hill regions plus, in this case, nwn erous caves, and the heat. In this type of rugged. terrain, the 3rd inched forward and, a few days later, the excellent 77th Infantry Division landed. Then, on the night of 25 July 1944, the Japanese launched their biggest Banzai attack of the war, with the main blow crashing against the Jrd Marine Division. Screaming obscenit ies, thousands of Japs C&lle on and were scythed down, but more took their place. They man aged to force a gap between two of the Jrd's regiments, and sprayed damaging fire into eith er side of the marine positions. Every available man was thrown into the line in a desper ate attempt to throw back the frenzied Japanese assault. A counterattack was mounted, and this succeeded in stopping them. The remaining Japs were routed and hunted down the follow ing day. The Japanese left J,500 dead on the battlefield. It was a close call for the Jrd, which lost around 200 men. The Marine and Army troops then battled north up the island with the Jrd on the left flank. It had a tough cattle at Finegayen--a.nd a Medal of Honor winner, Pfc Frank Witek, 1st Battalion, 9th Marine Regiment, J August 1944. When his rifle platoon was halted by heavy surprise fire from well-camouflaged enemy positions, Pfc Witek daring~mained standing to fire his BAR into a depression holding some Japanese. Eight of the enemy were killed. When his platoon withdrew to a safer area, he remained to guard a severely wounded. buddy, and courageously returned the enemy fire un til stretcher bearers arrived. When his platoon was again pinned down, on his own initiative, he moved forward boldly with the reinforcing tanks and infantry. He alternately threw hand grenades and fired his rifle, coming to within 5-10 yards of the enemy positions. He destroyed the hostile mach ine-gun emplacement and 8 more Japanese before he was struck down and killed. Pfc Witek's gallant action was an inspiration to those around him, and effectively re duced the Japanese strongpoint, enabling his platoon to reach its objective. Organized Japanese resistance on Guam ended by 10 August 1944, but dangerous mopping-up operations continued. !or several months. Years later, Japanese were still being discovered, not knowing the war had ended. Guam cost the 3rd Marine Division 619 men-killed. The Jrd stayed on Guam-until it was time to sail into the hell of Iwo Jima. Iwo Jima was invaded on 19 February 1945. The 4th and 5th Ma.rine Divisions niade the in itial assault landings, and on the 23rd, the Jrd's 9th and 21st Regillents were thrown into the awful battle. Placed in between the 4th and 5th Divisions, the Jrd charged forward with a yell, into the windblown sand that pelted the men's faces like buckshot, into a storm of fire that stripped them of their company commanders in minutes. They pressed on, led by lieutenants and then sergeants, flowing like a green wave around the mounds of the Japanese pillboxes, and surging beyond to flood the Jap trenches with jabbing l::ayonets. The Americans then swept out of these trenches and across a bullet-drenched airfield, and then up a hill to fight the counterattacking Jap!lnese. The enemy was thrown rack. The men of the Jrd held this hill, and eventually went on to crack the heart of the most heavily fortified fixed positions the world has ever known. The Japanese had the most intricate cave-tunnel system imaginable, with their strong pillboxes, he~vy artillery, mortars, and 2J,OOO men. Often, the Ja.ps had to be buried in their holes with bulldozers, or burned alive with flamethrowers. They also launched numer ous local counterattacks, and did much infiltrating at night with frequent hand-to-hand en counters. There were countless acts of heroism on Iwo Jima. One case, among many, was that of Corporal Hershel Willia.ms of the Jrd's 21st Regiment, who destroyed one pillbox after anoth er and its occupants with his flamethrower. On one occasion, he grimly charged enemy rifle men who attempted to stop him with fixed bayonets, and eliminated them with a b.lrst of flame from his weapon. He was greatly responsible for reducing an enemy strongpoint which had been holding up i:art of his regiment, and enabled his own company to reach its objective. Corporal Williams was one of 26 men who won the Medal of Honor on Iwo-many of them never living to tell about it. On 26 March 1945, the horrible island was finally declared officially secured but, as .. , ..,

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usual, "mopping-up" actions continued for some time. Altogether, some 6,800 marines and sailors pa.id the supreme price. One-third of all the iaarines who fought on Iwo were eith er killed or wounded-some 20,000 men, with the 3rd Marine Division having close to l,000 men either killed in action or dying of wounds. Almost the entire Japanese force was ann ihilated, although over l,000 were taken prisoner. The U.S. Marine Corps has, so far, considered Iwo Jima. the toughest battle in its long history. Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-9 Distinguished Unit Citations Navy Crosses---------6ll Silver Stars------Casual ties: Total Dead and Missing In Action-l,932 Vounded------6,744 Total Casualties--8,676 Other 3rd Marine Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action* 2nd Lt John H. Leims, 9th Mar Rgt, 7 March 1945, on Iwo Jima Pfc Leonard F. Mason, Jrd Mar Rgt, 22 July 1944, on Guam Sgt Robert A. Owens, * l November 1943, Cape Torokina, Bougainville Pfc Luther Skaggs, Jr., Jpd...Jl&r Rgt, 21-22 July 1944, on GUa.Jl Sgt Herbert J. Thomas,* ;rd Mar Rgt, 7 November 1943, Koromokina River, Bougainville Pvt Wilson D. Watson, 9th Mar Rgt, 26-27 February 1945, on Iwo Jima Captain Louis H. Wilson, Jr., 9th Mar Rgt, 25-26 July 1944, on Guam Note: The Jrd Marine Division later saw extensive service in the Vietnam War. As of this writing, the Jrd is stationed on Okinawa. (14 July 1984-)

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4TH MARINE DIVISICfi "Fighting Fourth" Activated-16 August 1943 Inactivated-After World War II Battle Credi ts, World WarII: Marshall Islands Commanding Generals {During Combat, WW II): Maj-Gen Harry Schmidt Maj-Gen Clifton B. Cates Tinian Iwo Jima. August 194J-July 1944 July 1944-November 1945 Combat Chronicle: The 4th Marine Division was activated at Camp Pendleton, Oceanside, California, on 16 August 194J. The first battle for the 4th Marine Division was when it invaded Kwaja.lein Atoll, in the Marshall Islands, in conjunction with the ?th Infantry Division, on l February 1944. While the ?th attacked Kwajalein Island, the 4th invaded the twin islands of Roi and Namur, at the northern end of the atoll. The invasions were preceeded by heavy naval bombardments. The fighting on all three of these islands was fierce. Isolated into pockets by lack of communications, which were disrupted by the U.S. naval bombardments, the Japanese on Roi were mopped-up in two days. Namur, unlike Roi, was densely wooded, giving considerable cover to the defenders. Despite desperate, but unco-ordinated defense efforts by the Japanese, the 24th Marine Regiment ma.de good progress. A most unfortunate incident occurred in this battle. A demolitions team hurled a satchel charge into a blockhouse full of torpedo warheads. The resulting explosion sent trunks of Jalm trees and huge chunks of concrete hurling through the air. 20 marines were killed and 100 more woW1ded as a result. But the attack stall ed only momentarily. By dusk, the regiment held J/4ths of the mile-wide island. The night was marked by small-sea.le Jap counterattacks, before Namur was secured on 2 Feb nm.ry 1944. The 4th Marine Division lost 190 men in this entire operation •. The 4th soon sailed back to the Hawaiian Islands, on the island of Maui. The next battle for the 4th Marine Division was on Saipu1, in the Marianas. The 4th and the 2nd Marine Division ma.de the initial assault landing on 15 June 1944. There was initial opposition, but, mainly, from artillery, mortar, and antiboa.t gun fire. However, most of the assault troops in the 4th's zone of attack were ashore and dispersed before the Japu1ese could concentrate their artillery and mortar fire. Soon, though, all down the line from Charan Kanoa and Lake Susupe to Agingan Point, enemy fire increased in intensity. The terrain was all in the enemy's favor, and the Jap anese had an unusual proportion of heavy weapons. Everywhere the severity of the battle heightened. The Japs mounted a counterattack that first night, although the brunt of it fell upon the 2nd Marine Division. This was repulsed with heavy losses to the Japanese. It was on 16 June 1944, that the 4th Marine Division had a Medal of Honor winner on SaiJan, Sgt Robert H. McCard, Company A, 4th Tank Battalion. Cut-off from the other units of his platoon when his tank was put out of action by a

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battery of enemy 77mm guns, G/Sgt McCard carried on resolutely, bringing all the tank's weapons to bear on the Japanese. However, the severity of hostile fire ca.used him to ord er his crew out of the esca.pe hatch, while he courageously exposed himself to ene111y guns by throwing hand grenades, in order to cover the evacuation of his men. Seriously wounded during this action, and with his supply of grenades exhausted, Sgt McCa.rd then dismantled one of the tank's ma.chineguns, and faced the Japanese for the second time. He delivered vigorous fire into their positions, destroying 16 of the enellly, but sacrificing himself to insure the safety of his crew. Sgt McCa.rd's valiant fighting spirit and heroic self-sacrifice to protect the lives of some of his fellow marines upheld the highest traditions of the U.S. armed forces. By now, the battle was on in full fury. In the first two days and nights on Saipan, the 2nd and 4th Marine Divisions sustained losses of 2,500 men killed, wounded, and missing! To maintain the momentum of the attack, and to help compensate for casualties, the Army 27th Infantry Division was landed on 17 June 1944. On 23 June 1944, the 27th Division was pl.aced in between the two marine divisions, and the three divisions battled northward slowly against fanatical opposition. On J July 1944, strong resistance on Hill 721 temporarily stopped the advance, and it wasn't until the next day that this hill and aq~r Japanese strongpoint, Hill 767, were stormed and taken. A tremendous Banzai attack was launched against, ma.inly, the 27th Infantry Division in the pre-dawn darkness of 7 July 1944. With the greatest effort, aided by the 10th Marine Artillery Regiment, plus Army cooks, clerks, rear-echelon officers, and other elements, this terrible enemy onslaught was finally defeated. A very grim event was witnessed by the men of the 4th Marine Division as they reached the northern tip of Saipan, at Marpi Point. The Japs had told the civilians on the island that if they fell into the hands of the Americans, they would be beaten and tortured. As a result, hundreds of them hurled themselves over the edges of cliffs into the sea, or to the rocks at the bottom of the cliffs. Some of these people were women and children, some, even, with babies in their arms, and some who were pregnant. Even the combat-hardened vet erans of the 4th grimaced in horror at this sickening mass-suicide. By August 1944, the Japanese had lost close to J0,000 men killed on Saipa.n. The 2nd and 4th Marine and 27th Infantry Divisions all lost well over 1,000 men killed in action or died of wounds! The 4th Marine Division, alone, had 1,107 men killed and missing in action. While the 27th Infantry Division conducted mopping-up operations on Saipan, the 4th Mar ine Division landed on nearby Tinian on 24 July 1944. The 2nd Marine Division landed the following day. The 4th received two furious Japanese attacks-as usual, after dark. There was a con siderable break made in the 1118.rine lines, and the fighting was at close-quarters. But by daybreak, the Jap attackers had been wiped out, with some of the remainder of them blowing themselves up with hand grenades. Although not as prolonged or heavy as the fighting on Saipan, Tinian was still rough going. The marines had to attack across an open area toward a ridge held by the Japanese, and they sustained severe losses. After battling to the top of this ridge, the marines had to beat tack a night attack. There was some wild hand-to-hand comtat. This was followed by a Banzai charge of some 600-700 Japs. It failed, and the island was declared secured by 1 August 1~. The 4th lost 214 men on Tinian. The entire 4th Marine Division was awarded the Distinguished Unit Citation for SaiJ;Wl and Tinian. After Saipa.n and Tinian came rest and rehabilitation back again on Maui. Then, in February 1945, came the hell of Iwo Jima. The 4th and 5th Marine Divisions landed on this black, volcanic-sanded island, dominated by the 550-foot Mt. Suribachi, on the morning of 19 February 1945. It was murderous, and the casualties quickly mounted at an alarming rate. The 5th was on the left and closest to the hail of death raining down on the beachhead from Mt. Suriba.chi, but the 4th also suffered heavily. Courageously, however, the marines forced their way inland in ferocious fighting. Actually, they had little other choice, for to remain on the beach would have meant allllost certain death. A very courag eous and inspiring leader in this early stage of the fighting on Iwo Jima. was Colonel Just ice M. Chambers, of the 25th Marine Regiment. Lt Col Chambers, leading the Jrd Battalion of the 25th, seized the high ground to the

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left of a quarry, and then engaged. in a fire fight until relieved. His men had suffered considerable casualties, but had tenaciously held their ground. At 1900 hours, 19 February 1945, Lt Colonel Chambers 1:attalion had only 150 men, when they were later relieved. at 0100 (l A.M.) by the 1st Battalion, 24th Marines. The closing of the day found the high ground in the 4th's zone of attack secured, but it had cost J.5 per cent casualties. For the above action, as well as outstanding qualities of valor and leadership displayed. up through 22 February 194.5, Lt Col Cha.lllbers was later awarded the Medal of Honor-one of 26 awarded. to marines on Iwo Jima., where "uncommon valor was a common virtue". Colonel Chambers was luckier than so many others, for he survived the war to receive his medal. The Jrd Marine Division was landed on 2J February 194.5, and the three divisions gradually worked into a turning maneuver to the right, with the 4th Division on the right flank, near est the east coast. No one had ever seen anything like Iwo Jima.. The Japanese had the most intricate cave tunnel system of defenses imaginable. Often, they would slip to a concealed hole after the marines had advanced beyond, and shoot them ia the 1:ack. Frequently, the marines would have to go 1:ack and retake ground they already thought had been secured. And, at night, there was considerable Japanese infiltration. This resulted. in frequent hand-to-hand encounters. One of the 4th's major_ob_jectives was Motoyama Airfield No. 1. It would take the 4th 24 grim days of relentless com'l:at to advance from this airstrip to the eastern coast just above Tachiiwa Point-a distance of slightly over J miles! On 8-9 March 194.5, the Japs made a large counterattack in the 4th's sector. It cost them close to 1,000 men. The grinding, harrowing ordeal continued. Between 12-16 March, the 2,5th Marines cleaned out many pockets of the enemy. The Japs, as usual, resisted with the utmost tenacity. Hun dreds of pounds of demolitions were used in blasting the Jap-held cave entrances and exits. One of the many acts of heroism on Iwo Jima may be worth noting. On 1,5-16 March 1945, Pharmicist Mate 1/c Francis Pierce, serving as a corpsman with the 24th Marine Regiment, repeatedly risked his life to save wounded. marines in dangerously ex posed positions, some of whom had been a.JD.bushed. He also fired his subna.chinegun at the Japs, and killed one with his .4,5 aut011atic. When wounded, he brushed aside help until oth ers were assured of safety. Francis Pierce was also more fortunate than many others, for he, too, lived to receive the Medal of Honor. During the same above period, about 60 Japs tried to break out of a pocket they were trapped in. They failed and were driven 1:ack into their caves. By 1000 hours on 16 March, this pocket was finally reduced. Meanwhile, the remainder of the 4th Division conducted extensive mopping-up actions, pol iced the area, and buried the dead. Finally, Iwo Jima was declared secured on 26 March 194,5. The 4th Marine Division had lost over 1,800 men, and one-third of all the marines who fought on Iwo were either killed or wounded-some 20,000 men: The Japanese force of over 2J,OOO men was mostly annihilated, with the 4th taking only 44 prisoners. Iwo Jima was the last, and, by far, toughest 1:attle of the 4th Marine Division in World War II. Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-12 Distinguished Unit Citations-1 * Navy Crosses---------lll Casualties: Total Dead and Silver Stars--------646 * One to the entire 4th Marine Division-5a.ipin and Tinian Missing In Action-J,317 Wounded.-----lJ, Oo6Total Casualties-16,J2J Other 4th Marine Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action * Pfc Richard B. Anderson, * l February 1944, on Roi, Kwajalein Atoll Sgt Darrell S. Cole, * 2Jrd Mar Rgt, 19 February 194.5, on Iwo Ji.ma. Lt Col Aquilla J. Dyess, * 24th Mar Rgt, 1-2 February 1944, on Namur, Kwajalein Atoll Sgt Ross F. Gray, * 25th Mar Rgt, 21 February 194.5, on Iwo Jima Pfc Douglas T. Jacobson, 23rd Mar Rgt, 26 February 194.5, on Iwo Jima Capt Joseph J. McCarthy, 24th Mar Rgt, 21 February 1945, on Iwo Jima

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Pvt Joseph W. Ozbourn, * 2)rd Mar Rgt, JO July 1944, on Tinian 1st Lt John V. Power, * l Fe brua.ry 1944, on Namur, Kwajalein A toll Pvt Richard K. Sorenson, 1-2 February 1944, on Namur, Kwajalein Atoll -

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Activated-21 January 1944 Inactivated-After World War II 5TH MARINE DIVISION "Spearhead." Battle Credits, World War~ Iwo Jima Commanding General (During Combat, WW II): Maj-Gen Keller E. Rockey Coml:at Chronicle: The 5th Marine Division was activated at Ca.mp Pendleton, Oceanside, California, on 21 January 1944. Although untried in combat as a unit before Iwo Jima, the 5th was composed of 40 per cent seasoned veterans who had already been in combat with one of the other Marine divisions or regiments. On 19 February 1945, the 5th, 4th, and Jrd Marine Divisions assaulted the black, vol canic sanded island of Iwo Jima, some 660 nautical miles south of Tokyo. The marines had made repeated practice landings on beaches as similar to Iwo as possible, and even with a hill quite like the 550-foot Mount Suril:achi, which dominated the southern end of the island. Iwo Jima is only 5 miles long at its extreme from north to south, and about half that distance across. From the air, the shape may remind one of a pork chop. The Japanese had spent years fortifying Iwo with the most intricate system of cave/tunnel defenses im aginable, and they had 23,000 men on the island, centered around their 109th Division, plus plenty of artillery, mortars, and machineguns. Although the Air Force and Navy had both bombed and shelled the island for weeks :prior to the assault, the Japanese were so well dug-in that these boml:ardments did only a moder ate amount of damage. The marines began landing at about 0900 hours on 19 February 1945, with the 5th Marine Division on the left and closest to Mount Surita.chi. The 4th Marine Division was on their right, while the Jrd Marine Division was held ready' in floating reserve. For 20 minutes the Japanese held their fire. Then they opened up with a devastating hail of :pre-sighted artillery, mortar, ma.chinegun, and small-arms fire, pu-ticularly from the slopes and caves of Mt. Suril:achi. Some of the marines from the 5th who had advanced a short distance inland, as well as those on the beach, burroughed into the black, volcanic sands, desperately seeking to escape this hail of death. About the only cover was wherever there was a shellhole or crater, and these were dubious in their safety. No place was reall) safe, but the marines had to get off the beach or be slowly cut to pieces. Casualties moun ted at an alarming rate, but the marines courageously inched their way forward. They had little other choice, since to remain on the beach meant almost cert.a.in death. In 4 days of savage fighting, elements of the 5th 'tattered their way tothe top of Mt. Surilachi, 23 February, and planted "Old Glory", :producing perhaps the most famous photo graph to come out of the war, taken by Joe Rosenthal. (Actually, more than one picture was taken of the flag raising. Three of the six men in the most famous of these photos were later killed in action). Reaching the top of Mt. Surita.chi by no means meant an end to the struggle. In fact, it

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was violent almost beyond belief, and on the same day of the flag raising, two regiments of the Jrd Marine Division were thrown into the inferno. Against the most fanatical resistance, the marines were slowly able to conduct a grad ual turning maneuver and advance slowly northward, with the 5th Division on the leftor outer rim of the wheel of attack. This meant that the 5th ha.d the furthest distance to cover of the three divisions. No one had ever seen anything like Iwo Jima. In this holocaust the marines often dis covered that the Jap :positions would have to be retaken all over again. With their tunnel network, the Japanese could oppose the Americans as they advanced, and then sneak to a con nected underground :position to the rear and fire upon them from behind. Or they would :pro ceed to an underground hole establishment further ahead. Often, the only way to destroy the enemy was to blast him out or bury him beneath, sealing up the tunnel entrances with bulldozers. Flamethrowers were also used a great deal. At night, the Ja:ps often tried to infiltrate ba.ck within the marine lines, and there were frequent hand-to-hand encounters. There were countless acts of heroism on Iwo, where "uncommon valor was a common virtue." The 5th Marine Division, alone, had 17 Medal of Honor winners-many of them :posthU11ously, and it would be hard to single out any one action. The following one, in :particular, may be worth noting; that of ~te Franklin Sigler, 2nd Battalion, 26th Marine Regiment, on 14 March 1945. Pvt Sigler led a bold charge against an enemy gun installation which had held up his com:i;any for several days and, reaching the :position ahead of the others, assailed the Jap emplacement with grenades and annihilated the entire crew. As more Japanese troops opened fire from concealed tunnels and caves above, he quickly scaled the rocks leading to the guns, surprised the Japanese with a furious one-man assault and, though severely wounded, deliberately crawled ba.ck to his squad. He refused evacuat ion, and directed.heavy machinegun and rocket barrages on the enemy cave entrances. He then carried 3 wounded men to safety, inspite of his own wounds, and then returned to the battle until ordered to retire for medical treatment. Each time the marines managed to penetrate one defense line, they would. find another even more formidable one a.head. The marines used everything they could muster against the Japanese-tanks, flamethrowers, bazookas, satchel charges, rifles, and l:ayonets. Finally, American persistence won out, and the northern tip of the island was reached, and the terr ible place secured by 26 March 1945. The 23,000-ma.n Japanese force was mostly annihilated, although 1,083 were taken prisoner, a good percentage of them by the 5th Division. One-third of all the marines who fought on Iwo were either killed or wounded-some 20,000 men on "hell's half acre:" Although Iwo Jima may have been the 5th Marine Division's only battle of World War II, no one can deny that it was one of the war's toughest and bloodiest. Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-17 Casualties, Distinguished Unit Citations-1 *To the entire Navy Crosses------divisionSilver Stars------Iwo Jima. Total Dead and Missing In Action-2,113 Wounded------o,4.5() Total Casualties--8,.563 No Navy Crosses or Silver Stars are available for the 5th Marine Division. Other 5th Marine Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II--all on Iwo Jima.1 Cpl Charles J. Berry, * 26th Mar Rgt, 3 March 1945 Pfc William R. Caddy,* 26th Mar Rgt, 3 March 1945 Capt Robert H. Dunlap, 26th Mar Rgt, 20-21 February 1945 Sgt William G. Harrell, 28th Mar Rgt, 3 March 1945 Platoon Sgt Joseph R. Julian, * 27th Mar Rgt, 9 March 1945 Pfc James D. La. Belle, * 27th Marine Rgt, 8 March 1945 Pfc Jack H. Lucas, 26th Mar Rgt, 20 February 1945 1st Lt Jack Lummus, * 27th Mar Rgt, 8 March 1945 1st Lt Harry L. Martin,* 5th Pioneer Bn, 26 March 1945 Pvt George Phillips, * 28th Mar Rgt, 14 March 1945 KIA *

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Pvt Donald J. Ruhl, * 28th Mar Rgt, 19-21 February 1945 Cpl Tony Stein, * 28th Mar Rgt, 19 February 1945 Pha.rmacist•s Mate 2/c George E. Wahlen, 26th Mar Rgt, J March 1945 Sgt William G. Walsh, * 27th Mar Rgt, 27 February 1945 Pha.rma.cist•s Mate J/c Jack Williams, * 28th Mar Rgt, J March 1945 Pha.rmacist•s Mate 1/c John H. Willis, * 27th Mar Rgt, 28 February 1945 Two regiments of the 5th Marine Division served in the Vietnam War. -

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6TH MARINE DIVISION "The Striking Sixth" Activated-? September 1944 on Guadalcanal Inactivated-After serving in North China. Battle Credits, World War II: Okinawa -Collllll8.nding General (During 'Comblt, WW II): Maj-Gen Lemuel C. Shepherd Combat Chronicle: The 6th Marine Division was primarily a new outfit in name only. As a division, it was expanded from Marine units which had fought in blttles previous to Okinawa. The 6th included the rebuilt 4th Marine Regiment, the original of which had been lost in the Philippines in 1942, and the 22nd Marine Regiment which had fought on Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshall Isla.nds. These two regiments had been combined to form the 1st Marine Provisional Brigade which took plrt in the historic recapture of Guam in the SWU1er of 1944. In turn, the new 29th Marine Regiment wa.s added to make up the 6th Marine Division, plus the 15th Artillery Regiment, as well as all the other various types of supporting units such as engin eers, supply, medical detachment, couunicatioM, etc., which make up any American fighting division. And so, many of the men in the 6th were the crea11 of the Corps. There were vet erans of not only Eniwetok, Saipa.n, and Gua11, but of also the distanded Marine Raider tattal ions which had fought on Guadalcanal, New Georgia, and Bougainville. The 6th also had anoth er nickname, due to a nUJ11ber of professional footblll players in its ranks-"The All-Stars." The division was anxious to prove itself in the terrific tattle that was about to coae. On l April 1945, the 6th Marine Division, along with the 1st Marine and 7th and 96th Inf antry Divisions, invaded Okinawa, landing toward the southwest side of the long, narrow is land. It was both Easter Sunday and All Fool's Day, but few of the veterans in these outfits were under any illusions that it would be easy. Not with the only too well-known type of resistance that the Japlnese were ca:pe.ble of putting up. They had their 24th and 62nd. Divi sions, the 44th Independent Mixed Brigade, a tank unit, and various other assorted troops on Okinawa initially totaling some 80,000 men. However, the Ja:pe.nese had elected to make their 111&jor stand toward the southern end of the island. Una.ware of this, the Americans sent the two Marine divisions wheeling north, while the two Army divisions, after capturing two air fields, pivoted. south. The 6th Marine Division bore the brunt of the fighting on northern Okinawa. It cleared the northern 2/Jrde of the island throughout April and into early-May. In plrticula.r, there was heavy fighting on the Motobu Peninsula, a rather heavily wooded area. And on this pen insula., the 6th assaulted. and cracked the powerfully organized Japanese defenses on Mount Yaetake, where there were a nUlllber of acts of individual heroism. By early-May 1945, the 6th had methodically killed-off the 2,500 defenders of northern Okinawa, while losing 236 men, On JO April, the 1st Marine Division had come down to relieve the exhausted 27th Infantry Division, and the 6th Marine Division soon followed into the inferno of southern Okinawa. The Americans 1:attered away at the highly formidable Shuri Line in extremely tough, heavy, and costly fighting. The marines and soldiers were plastered almost continuously with art illery fire and the Jap3.nese had their "knee" mortars which they used so accurately, plenty of automatic weapons, and the most intricate cave/tunnel system of defenses that the Americ ans had yet met anywhere in the Pacific.

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The 6th Marine Division was in the extreme right flank of the U.S. line, with the 1st Marine Division on its left flank. On the 6th's right flank was nothing but the open sea. In savage, exhausting comte.t the 6th hammered away at the extremely tough Jap defenses, along with the 1st Marine and 77th, 96th, and 7th Infantry Divisions, from west to ea.st, facing south. Gains were measured in terms of yards and. even feet, as the 6th achieved a series of small gains at the cost of very heavy ca.sualties. And then C&J11e the rains-incessant, drenching downpours which turned the battlefield into one big mass of slippery mud and muck, and. made miniature lakes out of some of the larger shell craters. But the dreadful battle continued unai:ated, as the casualties kept on mounting. On 14-1.5 May 194.5, the 6th had one of its .5 Medal of Honor winners on Okinawa in a very daring and. courageous display of leadership and. initiative by Major Henry A. Courtney, Jr., executive officer of the 2nd. Battalion, 22nd Marine Regiment. Ordered to hold for the night in static defense behind Sugar Loaf Hill after leading the forward elements of his collllll&nd in a. prolonged fire fight, Major Courtney weighed the effect of a hostile night counterattack against the tactica.1 value of an illllllediate marine assault. Resolving to initiate the a.ssault, he promptly obtained. permission to advance and seize the forward slope of the hill. Quickly explaining the ~ion to his small rema.ining force, he then proceeded to ad vance forward, boldly blasting nearby Ja.pt.nese ca.ve positions and neutralizing their guns as he went. Inspired by his courage, every man followed without hesitation. Together, the intrepid marines braved a terrific concentration of enemy fire to skirt the hill on the right and reach the reverse slope. Temporarily halting, Major Courtney sent men to the rear for more ammunition and possible replacements. Reinforced by 26 men and more grenades, and lead ing by example rather than co11m&nd, he pushed ahead with unrelenting aggressiveness, hurling grenades into cave openings with devastating effect. He then saw large numbers of Jape forming 100 yards away and instantly attacked, killing many and forcing the others to retire into some caves. He then ordered his men to dig-in, and cooly disregarding the continuous hail of flying enemy shrapnel, tirelessly rallied his men and aided casualties. Although instantly killed by a.n enemy mortar burst while moving among his men, Major Courtney had made an important contribution to the success of the 6th Marine Division's ad vance on Okinawa.. His deeds were a lasting inspiration to all those men around him. Slowly, but surely, American persistance and courage paid off, and the ma.in Ja.p:i.nese def ense line finally crumbled, with Na.ha. falling in fierce house-to-house fighting. On 4 June, the 4th and 29th Regiments ma.de a classic amphibious assault landing on the Oroku Peninsula at the southwest end of Okinawa. The Jap:i.nese had dug-in emplacements in the hills, and the cost in extracting the Jape out of their strongholds was fairly heavy. But by 1'.3 June, the marines had occupied all the high ground in the region and surrounded a flat, swampy area. on three sides. With this development, some of the remaining Jap:i.nese blew the111Belves up with grenades, while others were cut down by marine fire, and still many more surrendered. By 21 June 194.5, incredible Okinawa was finally officially declared secured. Yes, the 6th Marine Division had been anxious to prove itself--and it did, performing almost flawlessly in its only l:e.ttle of World War II-but a i:attle that was one of the longest, hardest, and bloodiest of the war. After V-J Day, 14 August 194.5, the 1st and 6th Marine Divisions were later sent to help occupy and control the situation in certain areas of northern China.. The marines were pull ed out of China. before the collJIIU?list takeover there in October 1949. Honors: Congressional Medals of Honor-.5 Distinguished Unit Citations-1 * Navy Crosses-----Silver Sta.rs------* One to the entire 6th Marine Division--Okina.wa Casual ties: Total Dead and Missing In Action-1,637 Wowlded-------o,.590 Total Ca.sualties---18,227 Other 6th Marine Division Medal of Honor winners in World War II: Killed in action * Cpl Richard E. Bush, 4th Mar Rgt, 16 April 194.5, Mount Ya.etake, Okinawa Pfc Harold Gonsalves, * 15th Mar Arty Rgt, 1.5 April 1945, Mount Yaetake, Okinawa Hospit,al Apprentice 1/c Fred F. Lester, * 22nd Mar Rgt, 8 June 1945, on Okinawa. Pvt Robe.rt N~ McTureous 1 * 29th Jl'lar Rgt, 7 June 194.5, on OJ
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MARINE RAmDS Activated.-16 February 1942 Battle Credits, World War II: Ma.kin Atoll TulAgi Guadalcanal Original Collll8rders: -New Ceorgia ard smaller iela.ms in the Central Sol011ona Bougainville Lt Colonel Merritt A. Edson Lt Colonel Evans F. Carlson Coml:at Chronicle: The Marine Raiders were the crea.• of the Corps, the Marine counterJ:S,rt of the Army Rangers. When the United States was plunged so shockingly into World War II, President Roosevelt wanted comna.mo-like formations. He was influenced. in this by Prime Minister Churchill ard, no doubt, by Captain James Roosevelt, t:5MC (the President's son), who, in January 1942, wrote to the CoJIIJl&nd.ant proposing marine units of comma.mos, stressing in his letter the value of guerrillas in China as well as British experience. The Marine Corps had already made a study of the British CoDlftl.rdos when two of their captains visited Scotla.rd. Large ly on the 1:asis of their report the 1st ard 2rd Sepa.rate Battalions-later renamed Raider Battalions-were formed in ea.rly-1942. Their roles included la.ming on beaches generally thought ina.ccessible, raids requiring surprise ard high speed, ard guerrilla-type operat ions for protracted periods of tiJae behind enemy lines. let Marine Raider Ba. ttalion: Activated.-16 February 1942 Comma.mer-Lt Colonel Merritt A. Edson The 1st Marine Raiders larded on Tula.gi in early-August 1942, just before the 1st Marine Division la.med on nearby Cuada.lca.nal. Four sei:arate Ja:pa.nese attacks on the Raiders were beaten 1:ack, ard by nightfall on 8 August the Raiders had secured Tula.gi. Soon after, the 1:attalion was moved over to Gua.da.lcanal. In mid-September 1942, the 1st Marine Raiders helped the 1st Marine Division beat 1:ack large, f'renzied JaJB,nese attacks on Bloody Ridge which included some of the moet wild ard desperate night fighting in the wa.r. On 16 October, the Raiders left Guada.lca.na.l for rest ard reorganization in Noumea., New Caledonia 800 miles south of the "Canal". Then, on .5 July 1943, during the invasion of New Georgia, the 1:attalion was in a series of actions. Their heaviest fighting, on 20 July, began at 1015 hours when advancing toward Ba.iroko, they cs.me upon JaJB,nese ma.chine-gun ard sniper positions. In minutes they were pinned down, as the enemy's log ard coral bunkers urder sprawling 1:e.nyan roots made a series of well ca.11ouflaged defense15 along a ridge. The thick jungle ca.used marine mortar rourds to explode before they reached the Jap bunkers, ard without flamethrowers the mar ines had only de•olition ch&rges ard sma.11-a.rins to reduce these defenses. The 1st Raiders were joined by the 4th Raider Battalion, but progress was slow despite the Raiders• deter mination. Finally, the Raiders with:irew during the night to positions arourd Enogai. The 1st Marine Raider Battalion loot men killed ard 139 wourded before leaving bloody New Georgia on 28-29 August 1943. This was the 1st Battalion's la.st action, ard it was dis1:arded on 1 February 1944. It received. a Distinguished. Unit Citation for its operations in the Solomon Isla.rxls.

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2nd Plarine Raider Battalion, Activated-16 February 1942 Co--.nder-Lt Colonel Evans F. Carlson The 2nd Marine Raiders IIBde a raid on Ma.kin Island (north of Tarawa) on 17-18 August 1942. The Raiders were taken f:rom Pearl Harbor in an 8-day vo~e on two 2, 700 ton sub marines, the Nautilus and the Argonaut. The primry mission of this raid was to, hope fully, divert JaJB,nese troop:3 f:rom Guadalcanal. This surprise raid caused considerable oa.sua.lties to the JaJB,nese garrison, and the tatta.lion had a pcstbUllous Medal of Honor winner, Sergeant Clyde Thomson. The Raiders had JO fatal ca.sua.lties-14 aen killed in action,? who drowned when they were caught in large wa.v98 breaking the surf, and 9 men who drifted westward in a. boa.t and were later caught by the Ja.pinese and executed. The 2nd Ra.id.er Battalion eventually continued on to Guada.lca.n&l. Their mOBt notable feat on this eml:attled ieland wa.e when they ll&d.e a landing, early-November 1942 along with elements of the Army's 147th Infantry Regiment, at Aola.. This area. was JO miles south f:roa Henderson Field. For a aonth these highly-trained men fought a series of run ning fights with the Ja i:anese who were sea ttered in various areas of the jungle, and in general, harrassing them, while losing just 17 men. Meanwhile, they sent a. few hundred of the enemy to their ance~t.mae~ In November 194'.3, under""Lt Colonel Joseph P. McCaff:reyf the 2m Battalion lamed west of Cape Torokina on Bougainville, helping to support the :3rd Ma.rine Division. The Raiders advanced ea.st to a mission station, a.rd on 9 November fought a stubborn mttle for a trail junction that they succeeded. in taking that afternoon. For the rest of' November ard into Decembe_r, the 1:attalion fought in support of the )rd Marine Regiment of the :3rd Division, before being wittrlrawn to Guadalcanal on 11 January 1944. The 2m Ma.rine Raider Battalion received the Distinguished. Unit Citation for its actions in the Solomon Islams before being distamed on Jl January 1944. Jrd. Marine Raider Battalion: * Xillecl in action Activa.ted-20 September 1942 on Samoa. Colllllli.rders-Lt Colonel Ha.rry B. Liversedge (Ha.rry "The Horse" was an interne.tiona.l athlete) Lt Colonel Fred D. Beans The Jrd Marine Raiders, on the night of 20-21 February 194'.3, lamed on Pa.vuvu in the Russell Islams northwest of Guada.lce.na.l, supporting an Army laming th&t saae night on nearby Ba.nika Isl&m. There were no Jai:anese, am the Raiders garrisoned Pavuvu for one month. On l November 194'.3, the '.3rd Battalion (now tuner Lt Colonel Beans), landed on Purus.ta. which is off-ehore from Cape Torokina., Bougainville, where the ma.in narine laming occurr ed. On Pu:rua.ta the l:attalion overca.ae resistance by a reinforced Ja.pinese rine compiny. Meanwhile, M Com:i:any, detached. :f"ro11 this larding, went aahare on the min beachhead ard set up a road block 1,000 yards inlard. Ia.ter that month, along with other ma.rine elements incluiing the 1st Marine Para.chute Battalion, M Com:rany larxled at Koi&ri, Bougainville, an hour's voyage south of Cape Toro kina.. Put ashore by mistake in the middle of a Japlnese supply 1:ase, they fought all day am were onl:y extricated that evening by U.S. destroyers arxl the 155llllll guns at the Cape laying a three-sided box protective bl.rra.ge of fire. The 3rd Marine Raider Ba.tta.lion was wittrlrawn from Bouga.inville on 11 January 1944, am was disca.rxied at the erd of the month. 4th Marine Raider Battalion, Activated-2'.3 October 1942 at Camp Lird& Vista, California. Comma.mers-Ma.jor James Roosevelt Lt Colonel Micha.els. Currin The 4th Marine Raiders arrived at F.spiritu Santo in the New Hebrides in Februa.ry 194'.3. After being trained by Major Roosevelt, conunarxi of the ca tta.lion JllSSed to Lt Colonel Curr in in May 194'.3. The ca.ttalion's first action was on New Georgia. near Segi Point. It pre-empted any Jap

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&neae &tteapt te occupy the ea.stern tip of the isl&nd.. A week l&ter, af"ter J:8,d.dling their boats 8 ailes, they la.med at Region a JB,trol in strength that would ta.Jee the• through jungle ard swamp, often waist.deep in mu:ldy water. On this i'irst day they set up a rear guard 2 miles inl&ni protecting their swing west to their first bivouac. here they needed two d&yis in .. terrible terrain to work their way around the Viru inlet, a distance of some 12 mi.lee. Several attacks by Japanese JB,trols were brwshed off before the two pla.toons ea.st of the inlet took Toabe village on l July 194'.3, ard the sa.ae morning the reet of the l:attalion took Tetarma. with its )-inch gun overlooking the narrow barber entrance. An a.tt eapted forcing of this by a naval force wu blocked, and the 4th Marine Raiders, af ter a 6-hour cattle, had to fight off a final suicide attack before the villa.ge wa.s taken. In the mea.ntue, N, Q, and. Headquarters CoaJB,niea h&d. larded at Oloa.na Bay on Vangunu, a staging point i'or New Georgi& which it adjoins. The Raiders contacted a scouting JB,rt:r and. established a beachhead for the lO)rd lnh.ntry Begillent, 4)rd In:tantry Division. In spite of this, the Army la.nd.ing pa.rties were sca.ttered in the rough weather. In sul::ll!lequent fighting, the Marine and. Aray coapLniea becaae separated, but still took the nain Ja.JB,nese positions by nibtfall. On the following night, a Japanese barge convoy atteapted to laJXl suppliee and. wa8 sUllk. other lllopping-up by the th:c~ider co11pLnies was completed before they rejoined the rest of the 4th Battalion which -.oved to New Georgia's north cout on 18 July 1943. After their valiant action at Bairoko during 6 weeks on New Georgia with the lst Marine Raider Battalion, the 4th Marine Raiders effective strength wa.e only 1_54 aen. .54 men had been killed, 139 woum.ed, am the others were sick. The 4th Marine Raid.er Battalion was not brought bl.ck up to f'ull strength before being disl:arned on l February 1944. Note: No other awards or casualty figures are available for the Marine Raiders-only those listed in the above a.rticlea,excepting naber or Coagreseional Med.al of Honor winners-4.

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SEABEES "Fighting Sea.bees" Fi.rat Organized--8 J&n1Jl!L1'Y 1942 Battle Credits, World War II: Practically anywhere there was a Mjor u.s. a11Jilibious assault laming -Coml::at am Work Chronicle: The Sea.bees were the rugged offspring of the U.S. Navy-a weird breed. of roughnecks and near-geniuses, men who weren't really supposed. to fight b.lt always managed to get into the scrap. They served wherever the gunl!l blazed, bit it was in the Pacific that they racked up a record that brought blushee of inferiority to soldiers, marines, sailors, ani airllen alike. Born of one of' the best-kept secret scarxl&ls of the war, the Naval Construction Battal ions were one of the major factors in the winning of the war in the Pa.cit'ic. They went everywhere the troops went, often getting there before the first GI or -.rine hit the beach. Despite everything, through it all, they always re•ined. rugged and untaaed., the "wild aen" of the war. In the States they were the "terrors of the taverna." Kid sailors ar:d -.rines saw their graying hair ar:d lined faces am sometiJlea tried to l::ait or ridicule thea, bit few ever tried it a second ti.Jle. The younger serviceaen soon cracked, "Never hit a Sea.bee-he nay be yam: gram.father." The first Naval Construction Battalion was hastily slapped together not long after our country entered the war. On 8 Jan'Ul!LrY 1942, personnel ar:d equipaent were hurriedly asae11bled at Quonset, Rhode Islam. By 28 February, the :prototype of' the Naval C.B.--hence Seabee-had. off-loaded at Bora-Bara, in the Society Islams. Other sailors with construc tion experience were rushed to Pearl Ha.rbar. The Sea.bee experaent worked out so well that imllediate authority was obtained to farJl ally recruit Mn into a special and seps.rate branch of the Navy-the Naval Construction Battaliona, the111H1lves. Allnoat :f'roa the beginning, the Seabeea took on a flavor ar:d color all their own. The outfit attracted all types, but •ny men were "older" guys who •nted to get into action bit had been turned dovn by the various branches of the service. Among others., there were oil-field roustabouts ar:d sandhogs, miners, truck drivers, ar:d rugged tn:,ea who had b.tilt bridges in the Ar.des Mount.a.ins o'f South America or skyscrapers in New Yark. As the wax.. went on, Seabee l::atta.llona fanned out &cross the world. They often did the seeaingly impossible wherever they went. On desolate Adak, in the Aleutian.a, they used their power shovels, bulldOHrS, ar:d duap trucks to peel off' the muck:, guabo of the tumra:, often 4 feet or aore deep. Once down to solid ground, they b.lilt airfield.a a.m reads. On eal:attled Guadalcanal, a -.rine p.trol waa cut-off am surrounded by the J&pt.nese. It was early in the e&•JIL~ am with no reeerTe& to si:are. Ar:d so, five Sea.bee bulldozers were fired up. Ared with sulaachinegun.a am grenadee, am with the heavy steel dozer blades raised h~h far a shield, the Seabeee roared into the jungle, taking the Japs coap letely by Surpt'i!le. As b.tllets sp.nged ha.ralesely off the dozers, the mrines loaded up their dead ar:d wour:ded ar:d were successfully evacuated. :f'r011 the area.. It was on the "C&nal" that a Seabee still, which was turning out .50 gallons of white lightning a day, was ruined by enemy-thrown har:d grenades. "Our booze:" bellowed the Seabees.

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The countera.tta.ck they lll!Lde with a. vengeance never hit the cOIIJlU?liquee, but it was highly successful. The Sea.bees tare into the Ja.ps, killed 17 of them, an! sent the better p,.rt of an entire l:atta.lion on the run. The Sea.bees converted the auddy mangrove Blf&lllps of Merauke,, Dutch Hew Guinea, into a finished airstrip in just 8 days. On Eniwetok, in the Marshall Islands, after the ialam had. been ta.ken, the Seabees were ordered to build an officer's club. A:rter asking to build one far the enlisted aen first, the answer was what could be expected. "No." The officer's club ca.me first. An! so, the Sea.bees did it, throwing up a club that provided the bLreet 1111.nilmm of shel ter an! coafort, 1n less than five days. Then, by scrounging and stealing, they got the •terials to build an E2'I club. An! it was a thing of beauty, complete with hot an! cold running water am a l:ar that was a regu lar boose-spring, everlastingly :fed by a. special still the Seabees had riged far the sole use of the suffering swabbies and gyrenes. When he heard about it, the islAnd comander hit the roof, but there wasn't a thing he could do about it: He would have been & laughing stock 1n short order if he would have tried. On Saips.n, the Sea.bees were building airstrips while the fighting raged on aroum them. Shells and slugs ripped over the heads of the clearing the strip. The Japs.nese began closing in on the Sea.bees and it looked as if' they •i8ht be overrun. A bout half' o:f them then stopped working and :foraed a perillleter defense, while the other half' kept on working. The Japs.nese were driven b!Lck. It was on Saii:an that the Jai:anese launched a huge Banr.ai a.tta.ck against the 27th In:f'a.n try Division. A:rter this terrible 'tattle 'N&8 over, more than 2,000 dead Japs.nese were counted on the l:attlefield. 'nle overpowering stench of the corpses in the hot sun was in tolerable, so the Sea bees wried their fallen foe the easy way. They sillply bulldozed the bodies into one huge, -.asive grave. On nearby Tinian, the Seabeee •OYed. ll million cubic ya.rd8 _of Jlud, rock, aa3. coral to build the world's biggest boaber l:ase--eix strips• ea.ch l JdleB long. Se& bees construct ed :fuel tanks, mrracks, &1'. hospitals, and pashed through higtnlays and railrcada. On Guam they carved out and surfaced 100 miles of road in 90 days! The See.bees also served in Marth Africa, Sicily, a.nd Ita.ly, but it was in the Pacific where they achieved their rea.l reputa.tion. Through it all, the Regular Navy shook its head in a-.zeaent. The Sea.bees simply would not tolerate "chicken" and just rebelled if their ard.ere 1111.de no sense. As the island hopping continued acrOBS the vast reaches of the Pacific, the Construction Batta.lions reached a fabulous level of ability and efficiency. On Iwo Ji.a and OJdna.wa, the Sea.bees labored under constant ene11y fire, o:rten far in front o-f the •in line of resiata.nce. They drove r011da through heavily wO
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1 U.S. UNIT CASUALTIES-WORLD WAR II (In the order of the number of total 'cattle deaths) UNIT TOTAL DEAD KIA WOUNDED TOTAL CASUALTIES Jrd Infantry Dvn 5,634 4,922 18,766 25,977 4th Infantry Dvn 4,798 4,017 17,J71 22,580 29th Infantry Dvn 4,7J6 J,870 1.5,541 20,60J 9th Infantry Dvn 4,.5Jl J,86J 17,416 2J,284 1st Marine Dvn 4,465 lJ,849 l8,Jl4 1st Infantry Dvn 4,J65 J,616 1.5,208 20,659 45th Infantry Dvn ~276 J,714 14,_slH 21,260 J6th Infantry Dvn J,890 J,Jl8 14,190 20,6.52 90th Infantry Dvn J,868 J,270 14,386 19,128 )4th Infantry Dvn J,708 J,14.5 12 ,.5'+.5 17,680 JOth Infantry Dvn J,.525 2,992 lJ,376 18,435 83rd. Infantry Dvn J,J87 2,960 11,000 14,902 4th Marine Dvn J,317 lJ,006 16,323 2nd Infantry Dvn J,272 2,8JJ 12,000 16,812 80th Infantry Dvn J,194 2,800 11,500 1.5,86.5 J5th Infantry Dvn 2,936 2,476 11,.526 1.5,813 :th Infantry Dvn 2,92J 2,4.5'+ 10,971 15,181 28th Infantry Dvn 2,87J 2,316 9,609 16,762 8th Infantry Dvn 2,8042,513 10,0.57 lJ,967 2nd Marine Dvn 2,729 8,75J 11,482 _5th Infantry Dvn 2,628 2,277 9 ,.5'+9 12,797 88th Infantry Dvn 2,.529 2,282 9,225 lJ,095 32nd. Infantry Dvn 2,.524 2,108 6,627 8,763 101st Airborne Dvn 2,500 2,188 6,800 10,162 7th Infantry Dvn 2,:,46 1,9.57 7,258 9,221 Jrd Armored Dvn 2,302 2,04-J 7,160 9,673 96th Infantry Dvn 2,166 1,.596 7,281 8,945 26th Infantry Dvn 2,116 1,892 7,886 10,74J 82nd Airborne Dvn 2,116 1,737 6,950 9,.581 .5th Marine Dvn 2,113 6,4.50 8,.563 27th Infant...-y Dvn 1,977 1,.5'+5 5,485 7,071 Jrd Marine Dvn 1,932 6,744 8,676 1st Armored Dvn 1,907 1,623 6,JOO 8,6.57 77th Infantry Dvn 1,9041,482 6,000 7,559 85th Infantry Dvn 1,749 1,.572 6,Jl4 8,78.5

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2 UNIT TOTAL DEAD lCIA WOUNDED TOTAL CASUALTIES 78th Infantry Dvn 1,655 1,432 6,103 8,151 6th Marine Dvn 1,637 6,590 8,227 91st Infant...-y Dvn l,633 1,456 6,748 8,800 4Jrd Infantry Dvn 1,514 l,21J 5,187 6,411 25th Infantry Dvn 1,508 1,253 4,190 5,450 4th Armored Dvn l,48J 1,282 5,098 7,258 ld+th Infantry Dvn 1,465 1,285 5,200 6,818 2nd Armored Dvn 1,456 1,200 5,757 7,283 37th Infantry Dvn 1,456 1,112 5,261 6,378 84th Infantry Dvn --1,420 1,282 5,098 7,258 24th Infantry Dvn 1,441 1,209 5,J21 6,547 95th Infantry Dvn 1,374 l,2o6 4,945 6,592 6th Armored Dvn 1,270 1,074 4,200 5,445 87th Infantry Dvn 1,269 1,124 4,:,42 6,0d+ Americal Dvn 1,259 1,075 3,350 4,442 7th Armored Dvn 1,222 994 4,000 6,084 1st Cavalry Dvn 1,1.52 887 4,035 4,9J2 99th Infantry Dvn 1,131 983 4,177 6,543 17th Airborne Dvn l,lJO 978 4,7d+ 6,JJZ 6th Infantry Dvn 1,120 898 J,876 4,777 44th Infantry Dvn 1,101 940 4,209 5,557 94th Infantry Dvn 1,100 950 4,789 6,474 102nd. Infantry Dvn 1,012 888 J,668 4,878 41st Infantry Dvn 975 758 J,5d+ 4,275 6Jrd Infantry Dvn 960 844 J,J26 4,487 10th Armored Dvn 945 790 4,000 5,070 100th Infantry Dvn 944 f:#7 J,539 5,002 10th Mountain Dvn 941 862 J,1J4 4,o62 75th Infantry Dvn 922 818 3,314 4,J25 5th Armored Dvn 840 665 2,842 J,570 70th Infantry Dvn 840 7.58 2,713 J,922 lOJrd. Infantry Dvn 821 659 J,329 4,497 66th Infantry Dvn * 800 795 6J6 1,4.52 442nd Infantry Rgt 680 J8th Infantry Dvn 791 653 2,814 J,472 76th Infantry Dvn 779 667 2,197 3,0JJ 9th Armored Dvn 741 607 2,350 J,9.52

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UNIT TOTAL DEAD KIA WOUNDED TOTAL CASUALTIES 12th Armored Dvn 718 60.5 2,416 J,516 40th Infantry Dvn 718 .587 2,407 2,994 42nd. Infantry Dvn 65.5 55) 2,212 J,971 11th Airborne Dvn 6Jl .516 1,926 2,4.5J 11th.Armored Dvn 628 .523 2,J94 2,968 92nd Infantry Dvn 610 5442,187 2,993 14th Armored Dvn 609 5441,955 2,729 81st Infantry Dvn .520 J74 1,942 2,)22 106th Infantry Dvn .51J 444 1,278 8,419..,. JJrd Infantry Dvn :-:,e9 J88 2,024 2,418 1st Spec Serv Force 449 419 2,500 ,Jlst Infantry Dvn 418 .'.342 l,J92 1,7'.3'.3 69th Infantry Dvn J84 .'.341 1,146 1,.506 8th Armored Dvn 355 299 1,375 1,720 158th Infantry Rgt .'.340 290 1,097 1,390 89th Infantry Dvn Jll 281 690 1,016 6,5th Infantry Dvn 261 2JJ 927 l,2JO 97th Infantry Dvn 21.5 188 721 979 71st Infantry Dvn 169 150 64J 821 llJth Ca va.lry Grp 161 1.54 86th Infantry Dvn 161 1J6 618 78.5 473rd Infantry Rgt 160 4.50 Jrd Ranger Bn 1.50 1st Ranger Bn 140 4th Ranger Bn 140 lJth Armored Dvn 129 107 712 819 .5th Ranger Bn 117 20th Armored Dvn .54 46 134 186 93rd In!'antry Dvn 50 4J lJJ 194 16th Armored Dvn .5 4 28 32 No casualty figures are available for the following units: Philippine Inf Dvn 6th Ranger Bn 99th Infantry Bn 1st Marine Provl Bgde 6th Cavalry Grp 112th Cavalry Rgt 2nd Ranger Bn lJth Amd. Grp 147th Infantry Rgt 2nd Cavalry Grp 14th Cavalry Grp 474th Infantry Rgt Jrd Cavalry Grp 15th Cavalry Grp .50Jrd Parachute Rgt 4th Cavalry Grp 22nd Ma.:rine Rgt 517th Parachute Rgt la.rine Raiders Merrill's Ma.:rauders Mars Task Force 102nd. Cavalry Grp 106th Cavalry Grp

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4 Notes on the casualty listing: 1 Some of the totals are approxima. te figures. However, the total cattle death and the KIA (killed in action) figures are quite accurate. An exception to this is the Ranger 1:B.ttalions. All of those 1:B.ttalions which are listed are approximate figures except for the 5th Ranger Battalion which is an exact figure. 2 * The 66th Infantry Division lost over 700 men in the English Channel in December 1944, due to enemy sutmarine action. J *""" The 106th Infantry Division had close to 7,000 men captured in the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944. 4 No killed in action figures are available for any of the Marine divisions only the total 1:e-til.e death figures. 5 The total 'tattle death column includes those men who later died. of wounds. 6 Captured and missing in action figures have been omitted primarily due to la.ck of ai:ace. In the Pacific, as a rule, very few men surrendered to the Jai:anese. 7 Figures are also incomplete for the 1st Special Service Force and the Jai:anese America.n 442nd. Infantry Regiment, the 47Jrd Infantry Regiment, and the llJth Cavalry Group. The 47Jrd fought in Italy, and the llJth fought in Europe. 8 The casualty figures for all of these units does not include any units or per sonnel which may have been temporarily attached to a given unit at any time.

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U.S. BA TIIE fil'.A THS IN WORID WAR II-INCLUDES AllMY, MARINE CORPS, AND NA VY France Germany Sicily and Italy Belgium Tunisia Holland Luxembourg Algeria Morocco Austria Czechoslovakia Yugoslavia Philippines Okinawa Iwo Jima Mariana Islands Solomon Islands New Guinea Palau Islands Gilbert Islands Burma Marshall Islands Aleutian Islands Admiralty Islands New Britain China .52,844 42,915 25,953 10,418 J,053 2,468 1,297 671 lJO * 118 116 7 1J9,990 26,428 13,415 6,100 * 5,160 J,625 2,774 2,715 1,715 729 708 457 J29 Jl.5 61 64,.530 (Leyte, Luzon, Mindanao, Cebu, Samar, Negros, and othe~ (Also, includes Ie Shima, Tsugen Shima, and Kerama Rettc Saipa.n, Tinian, and Guam) Guadalcanal, New Georgia, Bougainville, and others) Also, includes Biak, Wakde, Noemfoor, and Morotai) Peleliu, Angaur, and smaller islands) Tarawa and Makin) ! Eniwetok and Kwaja.lein) Attu and Kiska) Los Negros, Ma.nus, and Lorengau) GRAND TOTAL----2d+,.520 (In this listing) * Approximate figures

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l WORLD WAR II North Africa-1:a.ttle deaths listed in order for Morocco-Algeria: Nov-Dec 1942 1st Allxi Dvn 9th Inf Dvn Jrd Inf Dvn )4th Inf Dvn 2nd Allxi Dvn 1st Inf Dvn Listed Approx. Total 91 190 JJ 70 66 (exact figure) 19 45 7 20 unavailable Approx. total-290 (not including the 1st Infantry Dvn) North Africa.-1:a.ttle deaths listed in order for Tunisia: Jan-lJ May 194J 1st Inf Dvn 1st Amd Dvn 9th Inf Dvn )4th Inf Dvn 1st Ranger Bn 750 (approx. figure) 290 550 220 450 18J 380 unavailable Approx. total-2,lJO (not counting the 1st Ranger Bn) Sicily-1:a.ttle deaths listed in order for Sicily: 10 July-17 Aug 194J Jrd. Inf Dvn 45th Inf Dvn 1st Inf Dvn 82nd. Abn Dvn 9th Inf Dvn 2nd Amel Dvn Rangers J81 (exact figure) J02 (exact figure) 264 (exact figure) 2o6 (exact figure) 6J lJO 2J 60 unavailable Approx. total-l,J45 (not counting the Rangers) Italy-1:a.ttle deaths listed in order for Southern Italy (includes 1st Battle of Cassino) 9 Sept 194J-into February 1944 J6th Inf Dvn 692 1,400 )4th Inf Dvn 601 1,225 45th Inf Dvn 4C# 820 Jrd. Inf Dvn 68J ( exact figure) 82nd.A~Dvn fil 1~ 1st Allxi Dvn 61 110 1st S.pec Srv Force unavailable Rangers unavailable Cassino: )4th Inf Dvn J6th Inf Dvn 610 370 (142nd Rg Approx. total-980 Approx. total-4,410 (not counting the last 2 units)

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2 Italy-l:attle deaths listed in order for Anzio (includes both the beachhead and the breakout to Rome): 22 Jan--4 June 1944 Jrd Inf Dvn 4.5th Inf Dvn J4th Inf Dvn 1st And Dvn J6th Inf Dvn nd Abn Dvn 91st Inf Dvn Listed Approx. Total 1,.58.5 (exact figure) 661 1,JJO 2.52 .520 260 .500 1()/.l. 220 68 150 ( 5Q!.l.th Para. Rgt, only) 5 12 1st Spec Srv Free Rangers unavailable unavailable Approx. total-4,J20 (not counting the last 2 units) Italy-l:attle deaths listed in order for the Rome-Amo Ca.mp:i.ign: June-early-Sept 1944 91st Inf Dvn 88th Inf Dvn )4th Inf Dvn 1st Am Dvn J6th Inf Dvn 92nd Inf Dvn 8,5th Inf Dvn 270 2J7 195 1.56 93 J.5 .51+.5 490 41.5 JOO 200 1()/.l. (exact figure) 65 Approx. total-2,120 Italy-l:attle deaths listed in order for the Battle Through the Gothic Line and into the Northern Apennines (includes from about mid-Sept-through Oct 1944) 88th Inf Dvn 4J7 890 85th Inf Dvn 414 800 91st Inf Dvn J62 ?JO )4th Inf Dvn 253 ,520 1st And Dvn .59 110 92nd. Inf Dvn 80 ( exact figure) Approx. total-J,130 Italy-l:attle deaths listed in order for the Final Allied Offensive In Northern Italy from out of the Apennines-into the Po Valley and to the Alps: beginning mid-April-2 May 1945 10th -Mtn Dvn 272 .500 195 1.5.5 130 88th Inf Dvn 91 91st Inf Dvn 7.5 1st Amd Dvn 73 92nd Inf Dvn )4th Inf Dvn 85th Inf Dvn 442nd Inf Rgt 47Jrd Inf Rgt 115 (exact figure) 40 90 18 35 unavailable unavailable Approx. total-1,220 (not including the last 2 units)

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l Europe-cattle deaths listed in order for the Battle of Normandy: 6 June 1944mid-Aug 1944 29th Inf Dvn 4th Inf Dvn 90th Inf Dvn 9th Inf Dvn 2nd Inf Dvn 30th Inf Dvn 83rd Inf Dvn 79th Inf Dvn 101st A bTi .Dvn 35th Inf Dvn )rd Ami Dvn 28th Inf Dvn 8th Inf Dvn 82nd Abn Dvn 2nd Amd Dvn 5th Inf Dvn 80th Inf Dvn 5th Ami Dvn 4th Amd Dvn 1st Inf Dvn Listed Approx. Total l,JOl 2,700 1,216 2,500 l,d+9 1,950 ?/+7 1,700 818 1,650 803 1,640 810 1,580 .596 1,200 400 8.50 J94 825 ___.161 710 J32 710 J20 6JO 250 530 197 425 lJ4 JOO 70 135 45 105 42 90 unavailable Helping to repulse German Counteroffensive at Mortain, Normand: 7-14 August 1944: 30th Inf Dvn 3.55 35th Inf Dvn 16.5 4th Inf Dvn 115 3rd A md Dvn 110 2nd Amd Dvn 95 1st Inf Dvn unknown Approx. total-20,230 (not counting the 1st Inf Dvn) Europe-cattle deaths 8th Inf Dvn 29th Inf Dvn 2nd Inf Dvn 83rd Inf Dvn 6th And Dvn 4th Anrl Dvn listed in order for the Battle of Brittany: 411 790 J25 700 229 480 213 400 117 250 42 100 Approx. total-2,720 l Aug 1944mid-Sept 1944 Europe-cattle deaths listed in order for U.S. lst Army Attack Into The Siegf:ried Line: Mid-Sept 1944 28th Inf Dvn 245 )rd.Am:iDvn 225 9th -Inf Dvn 200 4th Inf Dvn 180 5th Amd Dvn 12.5 JOth Inf Dvn 90 2nd.A~Dvn Approx. total-1,090

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2 Europe-1:B.ttle deaths listed in o:rder for the U.S. J:rd Army Offensive f'rom Lorraine into the Saar, and U.S. 7th Army Offensive f'rom southern Lorraine-into Alsace; co-ordinated together into one big massive offensive: beginning 8 Nov 1944well into Dec 1944 Listed Approx. Total 95th Inf Dvn 481 980 (Jrd Army) 26th Inf Dvn 412 840 trd Army 90th Inf Dvn JJl 640 Jrd Army 80th Inf Dvn J21 635 Jrd Army J5th Inf Dvn 277 575 prd Army 79th Inf Dvn 257 51.5 7th Army 44th Inf Dvn 22.5 46,5 ( 7th Army 100th Inf Dvn 420 7th Army~ lOJrd Inf Dvn 9 J80 7th Army 87th Inf Dvn 169 Jl.5 (Jrd Army 4th Amel Dvn 144 JOO (J:rd Army 5th Inf Dvn 134 285 trd Army 6th Amd Dvn 108 225 J:rd Army 45th Inf Dvn 101 210 7th Army 10th Amd Dvn 87 185 (J:rd Army 14th Amd Dvn 55 12th Amel Dvn JJ 100 7th Army 62 7th Army (exact figure) Approx. total-7,JJ5 note: Some of the above units entered commt well after the offensive was under way. Europe-1::a.ttle deaths listed in order for Southern France: J6th Inf Dvn 128 270 J:rd Inf Dvn 45th Inf Dvn 1st Spec Srv Free 517th Para Rgt 220 (exact figure) 52 11.5 unavailable unavailable August 1944 Approx. total-605 ( not including the last 2 uni ts) Italy-battle deaths listed in order for the Northern Apennines: November 1944-to the beginning of the U.S. 5th Army Offensive which began on 14 April 1945. Also, this listing doesn't include the beginning of the 92nd Infantry Dvn.'s attack which commenced on 5 April 1945. 10th Mtn Dvn 92nd Inf Dvn )4th Inf Dvn 88th Inf Dvn 91st Inf Dvn 8,5th Inf Dvn 1st Amd Dvn 440 J62 (exact figure) 180 175 lJO 90 55 Approx. total-l,4JO

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zt Europe-cattle deaths listed in order for the Battle In The Hurtgen Forest, extreme western Germany-Altogether, beginning in mid-Sept 1944 and lasting through most of Dec. 1944. The 9th Infantry Dvn was the first American unit to fight in this forest. 4th Inf Dvn 9th Inf Dvn 28th Inf Dvn 8th Inf Dvn 83rd Inf Dvn 5th AIJi Dvn 1st Inf Dvn Listed Approx. Total 391 815 351 710 2.52 550 264 500 2()4. 390 120 255 unavailable ~ffll!'6X. total-J,220 ( not including the great 1st Infantry Dvn which, no doubt, lost at least 400 men in this terrible forest) note: The 8th In:fantry Dvn's fighting in this forest overlaps with the autumn Assault To The Roer River. Europe-cattle deaths listed in order for U.S. Jrd Army divisions in Lorraine, northern France (along the line of the Moselle River). Much of the Battle of Metz is included in this time sequence which is from early September-7 November 1944: Approx. Total 80th Inf Dvn l, 000 5th Inf Dvn 735 M 35th Inf Dvn 600 90th Inf Dvn JOO M 7th Amd Dvn 250 M 4th Amd Dvn 2JO 26th Inf Dvn 190 6th Amd Dvn, 145 10th Amd Dvn 10 Approx. total-J,460 M-indicates was in the Battle of Metz

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2 J/4 Italy-l:B.ttle deaths listed in order (approx. totals): Allied break through the Gustav Line, Italy: beginning 11 May 1944 85th Inf Dvn 510 88th Inf Dvn 220 Approx. total-?JO Europe Vosges Mountains, northeastern France: October 1944, only (approx. totals) Jrd Inf Dvn 79th Inf Dvn J6th Inf Dvn 45th Inf Dvn una. vaila ble J80 320 JOO Approx. total-1000 (not including the Jrd Infantry Dvn) -The Rema.gen Bridgehead, across the Rhine, Germany: Mid-March 1945 1st Inf Dvn unavailable 78th Inf Dvn JJ5 9th Inf Dvn 270 99th Inf Dvn 200 9th Amd Dvn 120 Approx. total-925 (not counting the 1st Infantry Dvn) The Scheldt Estuary, southwestern Holland: Late-Oct-Early Nov 1944 1C4th Inf Dvn 270 "Operation Market Garden"-Airdrop Into Southern Holland: 17 Sept-into Nov 1944 101st A bn Dvn 750 82nd A bn Dvn 460 Approx. total-1,210 note: The braak through the Gustav Line, Italy and the clearing of the Scheldt Estuary in south Holland were largely British operations. The Battle of Metz, Lorraine, France: beginning 7 Sept-late-Nov 1944 5th Inf Dvn 770 95th-Inf Dvn J80 7th Amd Dvn 250 90th Inf Dvn 2JO Approx. total-l,6JO

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Europe-1:a.ttle deaths listed in order for the Battle of the Bulge: 101st Abn Dvn 26th Inf Dvn 80th Inf Dvn J0th Inf Dvn 75th Inf Dvn 84th Inf Dvn 17th Abn Dvn 8Jrd Inf Dvn 28th Inf Dvn J.5th Inf Dvn 99th Inf Dvn .5th Inf Dvn 106th Inf Dvn 90th Inf Dvn Jrd A:nd Dvn 2nd Inf Dvn 87th Inf Dvn 6th Amd. Dvn 82nd Abn Dvn 4th Inf Dvn 78th Inf Dvn 9th And Dvn 11th And Dvn 7th And Dvn 4th And Dvn 10th Amd Dvn 2nd And Dvn 9th Inf Dvn _5th And Dvn 1st Inf Dvn Listed Approx. Total 290 610 280 575 292 570 227 47.5 22J 46.5 2J2 455 218 450 2)1} 450 187 440 198 430 --Zl.942 .5 172 400 189 400 204, 385 184 J60 17.5 350 170 J20 142 Jl.5 14.5 Jl0 141 JOO 147 280 131 27.5 lJJ 27.5 146 270 91 190 86 180 80 17.5 75 150 14 J.5 unavailable Approx. total-ll,J15 (not counting the 1st Inf Dvn) 16 Dec 194428 Jan 1<;45 note: Several different cavalry groups (consisting of around J,000 men each) were also in the Battle of the Bulge, but no casualty figures are available for them, and, likewise, the 517th Para.chute Regiment.

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4 Europe-l::attle deaths listed in order for the Battle Against the German Offensive In Northern Alsace, France: Throughout Jan 1945 45th Inf Dvn 7oth Inf Dvn 79th Inf Dvn 42nd Inf Dvn 12th Anrl Dvn 14th Anrl Dvn J6th Inf Dvn 44th Inf Dvn lOoth Inf Dvn lOJrd Inf Dvn 6Jrd Inf Dvn 95th Inf Dvn Listed Approx. Total 147 14.5 145 140 102 115 85 7J 70 9 315 JOO 290 290 24,_5 225 18.5 170 1.50 140 85 25 Approx. total-2,420 Europe-l::attle deaths listed in order for the Battle of the Colmar Pocket, eastern Alsace, northeastern France: 20 Jan-12 Feb 194.5 Jrd Inf Dvn J17 (exact figure) 28th Inf Dvn 75 170 75th Inf Dvn 6.5 1.50 6Jrd Inf Dvn .51 11.5 (2_54th Rgt, only) 12th Anrl Dvn 28 6.5 Approx. total-820 Europe-l::attle deaths listed in order for U.S. 7th Army breakthrough the Siegfxied Line mid-March 1945 J6th Inf Dvn lOJ 21.5 lOJrd Inf Dvn 80 160 4,5th Inf Dvn 57 120 42nd Inf Dvn 55 120 6Jrd Inf Dvn 46 10.5 65th Inf Dvn 4J 90 70th Inf Dvn 27 60 ~th~nrlDvn 100th Inf Dvn 18 J.5 71st Inf Dvn .5 10 6th A!IXi Dvn 4 10 Jrd Inf Dvn unavailable Approx. total-96.5 (not counting the Jrd Inf Dvn)

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5 Europe-cattle deaths listed in order for the Assault to the Roer River: mid-November into Dec 1944 8th Inf Dvn 57 5 84th Inf Dvn 550 104th Inf Dvn ,520 29th Inf Dvn 500 102nd Inf Dvn 460 JOth Inf Dvn 22.5 2nd Amd Dvn 160 Jrd Amd Dvn 140 Approx. total-J,lJO Europe-1::a. ttle deaths listed in order for the Assault Across the Roer-to the Rhine 1 beginning 2J Feb-into early-March 1945. U .s. 9th and u-t of 1st Armies. 8th Inf Dvn J8:.,..-84th Inf Dvn 26,5 102nd Inf Dvn 255 104th Inf Dvn 2J.5 69th Inf Dvn 160 29th Inf Dvn 140 Joth Inf Dvn 140 8th Amd Dvn lJ.5 9th Amd Dvn lJ.5 Jrd Amd Dvn lJO 2nd Amd Dvn 10,5 J.5th Inf Dvn 95 8Jrd Inf Dvn ,50 .5th Amd Dvn JO ?.5th Inf Dvn JO 79th Inf Dvn 1.5 Approx. total-2,JlO Europe-1::a.ttle deaths listed in order for the Battle of the Ruhr Pocket: late-March8th Inf Dvn J20 mid-April 194.5 78th Inf Dvn 180 99th Inf Dvn 150 97th Inf Dvn 140 ?.5th Inf Dvn lJO Jrd Amd Dvn 120 9th Inf Dvn . 10.5 7th Amd Dvn 100 lJth Amd Dvn 9.5 95th Tof Dvn 9.5 8th Amd Dvn 90 86th Inf Dvn 90 104th Inf Dvn 80 ).5th Inf Dvn 60 82nd A 1:n Dvn .5 .5 101st A 1:n Dvn 4.5 2nd Amd Dvn 40 79th Inf Dvn 40 ,5th Inf Dvn 25 94th Inf Dvn 25 29th Inf Dvn 15 8Jrd Inf Dvn 10 1st Inf Dvn unavailable Approx. total-2,015 (not counting the 1st Inf Dvn)

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6 Europe-'l:attle deaths listed in order for the Eifel Ca.m.J8.ign, western Germany, by the U .s. 3rd Army: 29 Jan-12 March 1945 76th Inf Dvn 4th Inf Dvn 80th Inf Dvn 87th Inf Dvn 5th Inf Dvn 90th Inf Dvn 69th Inf Dvn 4th Aud Dvn 2nd Inf Dvn 6th Allxi Dvn 11th Amd Dvn 10th Amd Dvn 28th Inf Dvn 17th Abn Dvn Listed 287 251 237 216 142 136 81 77 60 __.$I 56 44 20 12 Approx. Total 580 500 460 390 320 250 170 (1st Army) 165 lJO ( 1st Army) 125 120 100 50 ( 1st Army) JO Approx. total-J,J90 Europe-"ta.ttle deaths listed in order for the Palatinate Ca.mJ'.8,ign, western Germany, to the Rhine by the U .s . Jrd Army: 1J-2J March 194 5 26th Inf Dvn 67 145 80th Inf Dvn 73 135 94,thI~Dvn ~5 90th Inf Dvn 110 10th Amd Dvn 47 105 12th Amd Dvn J4 80 4th Amd Dvn 26 60 11th Amd Dvn 19 45 ,5th In:f' Dvn 17 40 76th Inf Dvn 18 J8 89th Inf Dvn 17 37 ~th~fDvn 2 5 Approx. total-940

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Europe-number cre&sed 1st Inf Dvn 2nd Inf Dvn 2nd Amd Dvn Jrd Inf Dvn Jrd Amd Dvn 4th Inf Dvn 4th Amd Dvn .5th Inf Dvn 5th Amd Dvn 6th Amd Dvn 7th Amd Dvn 8th Inf Dvn 8th Amd Dvn 9th Inf Dvn 9th Amd Dvn 10th Amd Dvn 11th Amd Dvn 12th Amd Dvn 14th Amel Dvn 26th Inf Dvn 29th Inf Dvn Joth Inf Dvn 35th Inf Dvn 42nd. Inf Dvn 44th Inf Dvn 45th Inf Dvn 6Jrd Inf Dvn 65th Inf Dvn 69th Inf Dvn 71st Inf Dvn 75th Inf Dvn 76th Inf Dvn 78th Inf Dvn 79th Inf Dvn Both Inf Dvn 8Jrd Inf Dvn 84th Inf Dvn 87th Inf Dvn 89th Inf Dvn 9oth Inf Dvn 95th Inf Dvn 99th .Inf Dvn 100th Inf Dvn 102nd Inf Dvn 10'.}th Inf Dvn of 1:a.ttle deaths listed when and where the following units the Rhine in Germany: March-April 1945 unavailable 15-16 Mar 45 Rema.gen bridgehead, 1st Army 20 2J Mar 45 mid-Rhineland, 1st Army negligible 27 Mar 45 near Wesel, 9th Army unavailable 26 Mar 45 Worms bridgehead, 7th Army 2 2J Mar 45 near Cologne, 1st Army negligible JO Mar 45 7th Army area 18 24 Mar 45 Worms bridgehead, Jrd Army J 22 Mar 45 Oppenheim bridgehead, Jrd Army 5 JO-Jl Mar 45 at Wesel, 9th Army 5 25 Mar 45 at Oppenheim, Jrd Army negligible 25 Mar 45 1st Army area 16 29-JO Mar 45 near Cologne, 1st Army neg-~le 26 Mar 45 into the Ruhr, 9th Army 1i-o 9 Mar 45 Rema.gen bridgehead, 1st Army 8 7 Mar 45 Rema.gen bridgehead, 1st Army negligible 28 Mar 45 7th Army area unknown late-Mar 4-5 at Oppenheim, Jrd Army J 27-28 Mar 45 at Worms, 7th Army 2 1 Apr 45 near Worms, 7th Army negl:.gible 26 Mar 45 at Oppenheim, Jrd Army unknown unknown 9th Army area J5 24 Mar 45 near Bilderich, 9th Army 15 25-26 Mar 45 near Rheinberg, 9th Army J Jl Mar 4 5 ?th Army area negligible 26-27 Mar 45 at Worms, 7th Army JO 26 Mar 45 near Worms, 7th Army negligible 28 Mar 45 at Neuschloss, 7th Army negligible 29-JO Mar 45 near Schwabenheim, Jrd Army negligible 26-28 Mar 45 1st Army area negligible JO Mar 45 at Oppenheim, 7th Army 6 24 and JO Mar 45 into the Ruhr, 9th Army negligible 26-27 Mar 45 at Bopp:i.rd, Jrd Army 16 8 Mar 45 Rema.gen bridgehead, 1st Army 40 24 Mar 45 near Rheinberg, 9th Army JO 27-28 Mar 45 Oppenheim vicinity, Jrd Army negligible 29 Mar 45 south of Wesel, 9th Army negligible 1 Apr 45 9th Army area J5 25 Mar 45 Brau1:a.ch-Boppard area, Jrd Army 110 26 Mar 45 Wellmich-Oberwesel region, Jrd Army J.5 24 Mar 45 near Mainz, Jrd Army unknown early-Apr 45 into the Ruhr, 9th Army JO 10-11 Mar 45 Remagen bridgehead, 1st Army negligible Jl Mar 45 7th Army area negligible J-4 Apr 45 at Wesel, 9th Army J 21-22 Mar 45 at Honnef, 1st Army note: Any divisions not listed which were in Europe-they were either mopping-up, policing, or resting in areas behind the main line of advance at the time of these Rhine crossings. There are 520 known approximate. 1:a. tl~ deL_ths _j.n __!h_~s wor1cs:--The l?th-Alrboi-ne Dvn airdropped across the Rhine near Wesel, on 24'; March 1945, losing, altogether, on that day, approximately J50 men!

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6 J/4 Euro:pe-l:attle deaths listed in order for Across The Elbe-Into Mecklenburg, northern Germany: late-April-8 May 1945 82nd A h1 Dvn 29 8th Inf Dvn 15 7th Amd Dvn 2 Approx. total 46 Euro:pe-l:attle deaths listed in order-Into Czechoslovakia: late-April-9 May 1945 97th Inf Dvn 90th Inf Dvn 5th Inf Dvn 26th Inf Dvn 89th Inf Dvn 16th Amd Dvn 87th Inf Dvn 9th Amd Dvn A ppr ox. total 57 35 12 9 ~:5 2 2 lJl Euro:pe-1::attle deaths listed in order-At,: and South Of The Danube, southern Germany, including (for some units) Austria: late-April-8 May 1945 65th Inf Dvn 72 20th Amd Dvn 50 M 12th Amd Dvn 46 45th Inf Dvn 40 M 86th Inf Dvn 40 100th Inf Dvn 35 ( southern Wtirttemberg, somewhat north of the Danube) 6Jrd Inf Dvn ,32 42nd Inf Dvn 31 M 11th Amd Dvn 28 99th Inf Dvn 27 44th Inf Dvn 24 lJth Amd Dvn 20 lOJrd Inf Dvn 18 10th Amd Dvn 17 ?1st Inf Dvn 17 14th Amd Dvn 16 36th Inf Dvn 10 26th Inf Dvn 9 4th Inf Dvn 6 80th Inf Dvn 2 101st A1:n Dvn 2 Jrd Inf Dvn unavailable Approx. total 542 M Includes fighting in Munich, Germany

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7 Europe-tattle deaths listed in order for April 1945: Germany and northern Italy Listed Approx. Tota.l Listed Approx. Tota loth Mtn Dvn 270 510 26th Inf Dvn 20 45 6Jrd Inf Dvn 194 410 101s t A bn Dvn 19 45 8Jrd Inf Dvn 164 305 lOJrd Inf Dvn 21 42 8th Inf Dvn 164 JOO 79th Inf Dvn 20 40 Jrd Inf Dvn 250 .5th Inf Dvn 14 40 Jrd Anxi Dvn 123 225 85th Inf Dvn 18 JJ lOoth Inf Dvn 122 225 J6th Inf Dvn 12 JO 9th Inf Dvn 109 225 94th Inf Dvn 10 25 97th Inf Dvn 102 200 lo6th Inf Dvn 9 20 4th Inf Dvn 95 200 28th Inf Dvn 6 20 12th Amd Dvn 92 200 70th Inf Dvn J 8 45th Inf Dvn :~ 200 1st Inf Dvn una vaila. ble 69th Inf Dvn 94 195 Approx. total-8,485 (not 88th Inf Dvn 90 195 counting the ls t Inf Dvn) 78th Inf Dvn 100 185 99th Inf Dvn 95 180 loth Amd Dvn 86 180 In: Bri tta.ny, France-April 1945 2nd Inf Dvn 80 170 66th Inf Dvn 12 (exact 80th Inf Dvn 86 165 figure) 91st Inf Dvn 80 165 104th Inf Dvn 68 150 14th Amd Dvn 78 145 75th Inf Dvn 67 145 86th Inf Dvn 74 145 42nd Inf Dvn 68 140 44th Inf Dvn 62 135 lJth Amd Dvn 55 124 1st Amd Dvn 70 120 84th Inf Dvn 60 115 4th Amd Dvn .52 115 92nd Inf Dvn 115(exact figure) 89th Inf Dvn 52 110 Joth Inf Dvn 46 110 8th Amd Dvn 54 105 95th Inf Dvn 48 105 9th Amd Dvn 47 105 65th Inf Dvn 54 100 71st Inf Dvn 54 100 76th Inf Dvn 50 100 6th Anxi Dvn 46 100 17th -A bn Dvn 44 100 J4th Inf Dvn 4J 100 5th Anxi Dvn 44 95 11th Anxi Dvn 44 95 2nd Amd Dvn 41 95 7th Anxi Dvn 55 90 87th Inf Dvn 45 80 90th Inf Dvn 42 80 82nd Abn Dvn 35 80 102nd. Inf Dvn 35 80 35th Inf Dvn 27 65 29th Inf Dvn 2J 55 (exact figure) 20th Anxi Dvn 29 52

PAGE 98

1 WORID WAR II Pacific-cattle deaths listed in order for all of the following units and cam:p3.igns: Guadalcanal: 7 Aug 1942-9 Feb 1943 Listed A ppr ox. Total 1st Mar Dvn Americal Dvn 2nd Mar Dvn 642 (exact figure) 193 365 J42 (exact figure) 25th Inf Dvn Marine Raiders 147th Inf Rgt 115 230 unavailable unavailable Approx. total-1,580 (not including the last 2 units) Papua., Southeast New_ Guinea: )2nd Inf Dvn 253 Nov 1942-2 Jan 1943 530 Attu: May 1943 7th Inf Dvn 441 (exact figure) New Georgia: July-August 1943 43rd. Inf Dvn 171 550 1 37th Inf Dvn lOJ 225 25th Inf Dvn 71 14.5 Marine Raiders unavailable Approx. total-920 1 (not inclu::ling the Marine Raiders) Makin: 20-23 Nov 1943 27th Inf Dvn Tarawa: 20-24 Nov 1943 2nd Mar Dvn 71 (exact figure) (165th Rgt, only) 1,000 (approx. figure) Bouga.inville: Nov 1943-Nov 1944 Americal Dvn Jrd_Mar Dvn 37th Inf Dvn 93rd Inf Dvn Marine Raiders 151 275 2.53 89 200 lJ 25 unavailable (exact figure) Approx. total-755 (not inclu::ling the Marine Raiders) note: Only the Americal Dvn stayed on Bougainville until la te-1944.

PAGE 99

2 Pacific-cattle deaths listed in order for all of the following units and cami:aigns: New Britain: 26 Dec 194J-well into 1944 1st Mar Dvn 40th Inf Dvn Listed .5 A ppr ox. Total JlO (exact figure) 15 Approx. total-J2.5 Kwajalein: Early-Feb 1944 4th Mar Dvn 190 (exact figure) 170 7th Inf Dvn 6,5 tt5Pr"ox. total-J60 Eniwetok: Mid-Feb 1944 27th Inf Dvn 40 100 (106th Rgt, only) 22nd Mar Rgt unavailable Admiralty Islands : March 1944 1st Cav Dvn 326 (exact figure) Biak: May-Aug 1944 41st Inf Dvn 192 400 24th Inf Dvn 22 40 (34th Rgt, only) Approx. total-440 Northern New Guinea: April-Sept 1944 J2nd Inf Dvn 6th Inf Dvn Jlst Inf Dvn 41st Inf Dvn 158th Inf Rgt 24th Inf Dvn 4Jrd Inf Dvn JJrd_ Inf Dvn 112 th Ca v Rgt 100 2JO 121 220 5.5 11.5 44 90 70 ( exac:t. figure) 4J (exact figure) lJ J.5 2 5 unavailable Approx. total-710 (not including the 112th Cavalry Rgt) Saip3.n: 15 June-into Aug 1944 2nd Mar Dvn 1,200 (approx. figure) 1,107 (exact figure) 1,025 (approx. figure) 4th Mar Dvn 27th Inf Dvn Approx. total-J,JJ.5

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J Pacific-'l::attle deaths listed in order for all of the following units and ca.mJB,igns: Listed Approx. Total Tinian: July-into Aug 1944 4th Mar Dvn 2nd Mar Dvn 214 (exact figure) 185 (approx. figure) Approx. total-400 Guam: July-Aug 1944 )rd Mar Dvn 619 ( exact figure) 77th Inf Dvn 248 ( exact figure) 1st Mar Prov Bgde :--mia.vailable Total-867 (not including the 1st Marine Provisional Brigade) Peleliu: Mid-Sept-Nov 1944 1st Mar Dvn 1,252 (exact figure) 208 (exact figure) 81st Inf Dvn Total-1,460 Angaur: Mid-Sept-Oct 1944 81st Inf Dvn 265 (exact figure) Morotai: Mid-Sept-into Dec 1944 )1st Inf Dvn )4 75 JJrd Inf Dvn 25 55 )2nd Inf Dvn 2 5 Approx. total-135 Leyte: 20 Oct 1944-into Feb 1945 7th Inf Dvn 584 ( exact figurel 24th Inf Dvn 544 ( exact figure 96th Inf Dvn 5J2 ( exacl figure 77th Inf Dvn 2)3 490 )2ndInf Dvn 450 ( exact figure) 1st Cav Dvn 20) (exact figure) 11th Abn Dvn 200 (approx. figure) America.l Dvn 82 145 J8th Inf Dvn 51 105 112th Cav Rgt unavailable Approx. total-J,255 (not including the 112th Cavalry Rgt or the 6th Ranger Battalion)

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4 Pacific-cattle deaths listed in order for all of the following units and ca.mpi.igns: Luzon: 9 January-mid-August 194.5 25th Inf Dvn 4Jrd Inf Dvn 6th Inf Dvn 32nd Inf Dvn J7th Inf Dvn 1st Cav Dvn 38th Inf Dvn 11th Abn Dvn JJrd Inf Dvn 40th Inf Dvn 158th Inf Rgt 24th Inf Dvn 6th Ranger Bn lJth And Grp 112th Cav Rgt Listed .5:36 473 494 407 411 368 336 22.5 199 -Approx. Total 1,070 970 9JO 900 8.50 710 675 4JO 420 390 24.5 (exact figure) 60 140 (34th Rgt, only) unavailable unavailable unavailable Approx. total-6,730 (not including the Iwo Jima.: 19 February-em of March 194 .5 .5th Mar Dvn 4th Mar Dvn 3rd Mar Dvn 147th Inf Rgt 2,llJ (exact figure) 1,800 (approx. figure) 988 (exact figure) una. vaila ble Approx. total-4,900 (not including the last 3 formations) 147th Infantry Rgt) Okinawa: 1 April-end of June 194.5 (all are exact figures) 1st Mar Dvn 6th Mar Dvn 96th Inf Dvn 7th Inf Dvn 77th Inf Dvn 27th Inf Dvn 2nd Mar Dvn 2,2:,4 1,637 1,.5o6 1,122 1,018 7ll 36 ( 8th Rgt, only) Total-8 ,264 Corregidor (recapture): .50Jrd Para Rgt February 194.5 Other minor elements 2 .50 (approx. figure) unavailable Cebu: Iate-1'1arch-April 194.5 Americal Dvn Ie Shima: 16-29 April 194.5 77th Inf Dvn 410 (exact figure) 2JO (approx. figure)

PAGE 102

5 Pacific-battle deaths listed in order for all of the following units and campaigns: Panay: March 194 5 Approx. Total 40th Inf Dvn 20 (exact figure) Negros: April-June 1945 40th Inf Dvn J25 503rd. Para. Rgt unavailable Mindanao: 17 April-mid-August 1945 24th Inf Dvn :--,00 Jlst Inf Dvn 220 41st Inf Dvn 110 93rd. Inf Dvn 5 835 Approx. total Burma: February 1944-August 1945 Merrill's Marauders and Mars Task Force 729 (exact figure) In the Battle-Myitkyina-Summer 1944 Merrill's Marauders 272