Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 The Lion, the Tiger, the Wolf,...
 The Brown Bear, the Elephant, the...
 The Giraffe, the Hippopotamus,...
 The Hyaenas, the Stag, the Fox,...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Aunt Louisa's zoological gardens : comprising the lion, the tiger, the wolf, the polar bear, the orang-outang, the buffalo, the brown bear, the elephant, the leopard, the dromedary, the kangaroo, the zebra, the giraffe, the hippopotamus, the elk, the rhinoceros, the reindeer, the wild boar, the hy�¦nas, the stag, the fox, the jaguar, the otter, the camel
Title: Aunt Louisa's zoological gardens
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00035157/00001
 Material Information
Title: Aunt Louisa's zoological gardens comprising the lion, the tiger, the wolf, the polar bear, the orang-outang, the buffalo, the brown bear, the elephant, the leopard, the dromedary, the kangaroo, the zebra, the giraffe, the hippopotamus, the elk, the rhinoceros, the reindeer, the wild boar, the hyænas, the stag, the fox, the jaguar, the otter, the camel
Physical Description: 1 v. (various pagings) : col. ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Valentine, L ( Laura ), d. 1899
Kronheim, Joseph Martin, 1810-1896 ( Illustrator )
Frederick Warne and Co ( Publisher )
Scribner, Welford & Armstrong ( Publisher )
Publisher: Frederick Warne and Co.
Scribner, Welford, and Armstrong
Place of Publication: London
New York
Publication Date: [1876?]
Subject: Zoo animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1876
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: With twenty-four pages of illustrations printed in colours by Kronheim.
General Note: Date of publication from inscription.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00035157
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002222706
notis - ALG2952
oclc - 61287617

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
        Page iii
    The Lion, the Tiger, the Wolf, the Polar Bear, the Orang-outang, the Buffalo, or Bison
        Page iv
        The Lion
            Page 1
        The Tiger
            Page 2
        The Wolf
            Page 3
        The Polar Bear
            Page 4
        The Orang-Outang
            Page 5
        The Buffalo, Or Bison
            Page 6
    The Brown Bear, the Elephant, the Leopard, the Dromedary, the Kangaroo, the Zebra
        Page i
        The Brown Bear
            Page 1
        The Elephant
            Page 2
        The Leopard
            Page 3
        The Dromedary
            Page 4
        The Kangaroo
            Page 5
        The Zebra
            Page 6
    The Giraffe, the Hippopotamus, the Elk, the Rhinoceros, the Reindeer, the Wild Boar
        Page i
        The Giraffe
            Page 1
        The Hippopotamus
            Page 2
        The Elk
            Page 3
        The Rhinoceros
            Page 4
        The Reindeer
            Page 5
        The Wild Boar
            Page 6
    The Hyaenas, the Stag, the Fox, the Jaguar, the Otter, the Camel
        Page i
        The Hyaenas
            Page 1
        The Stag
            Page 2
        The Fox
            Page 3
        The Jaguar
            Page 4
        The Otter
            Page 5
        The Camel
            Page 6
    Back Cover
Full Text




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M OST English children have visited the Zoological Gardens or
seen WIild Beasts in Menageries. We think they will like'
to read about these animals in their wild state, and to learn how
wisely the great Creator has fitted them to live in the places where
He designed them to dwell, and how He has enabled them to get
the food best suited to them. They will also see that He has given
them many good qualities, which we should do well to imitate, such
as patience, courage, gratitude, and obedience; and that kindness is
capable of changing the savage nature of the wildest animal to
gentleness and tenderness.
We feel sure that no child can read of GOD'S wonderful care
for and goodness to His creatures without both reverencing and
loving more than ever OUR FATHER who is in Heaven.















_ I_

I II_ __ II


T H E Lion-the king of beasts-is a native of Asia and Africa.
He is a grand animal, with great sharp teeth-and claws, and he
has a fine flowing mane, which distinguishes him from the Lioness, who
has no mane. His tongue is so rough that, if he licked a little child's
hand, he would take the skin off. By day the Lion hides in caves and
thickets of the forest. At night he comes out in search of prey, and
travellers say his roar, heard in the stillness and darkness, is very
terrible. You remember that the Bible says, "The Lions roaring
after their prey, do seek their meat from GOD." And GOD cares for
all His creatures.
Dr. Livingstone was once seized and bitten by a Lion. He tells
us that it shook him as a cat does a mouse, and that the shake
produced a sort of dreamy feeling, so that he felt no pain or fear as
he looked up at the Lion standing over him, though the beast had
"crunched the bone of his arm." He thought that this was perhaps
always the case, and that animals killed by beasts are, by the mercy
of GOD, thus saved from pain.
The Lion can be tamed, and becomes very fond of his master. He
is a generous beast, and kind to smaller animals. Many years ago
a dog was put into the den of a Lion kept in the Tower. The Lion
did not eat it, but made quite a pet of it, and let it share his food; and
when the dog died the Lion grieved very much, would not eat, and
soon after died.



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T HE Tiger is a native of Asia, where he lives in the thick jungles
and forests. He is very savage and one of the strongest beasts
in existence. His courage is much greater than that of the lion.
He does not fear to attack man, but has been known to spring into the
midst of a crowd in order to carry off a human victim. Numbers of
human beings are carried off yearly in India by Tigers, in spite of the
English officers' love for the sport of hunting them. Very often the
poor lapalls, or postmen, who run up the hills with letters to the
English dwelling on them, are carried off by this savage beast, and
neither the man nor his bag is ever seen again. When a Tiger has
once tasted human flesh he will hunt for men, and the natives then
call him a man-eater."
Great fear is felt in a Hindoo village when a "man-eater once
comes into the neighbourhood, and the English Government offers
fifty rupees (that is /5) for any true intelligence of the whereabouts of
a Tiger.
The hunters pursue him on elephants that are trained to the sport,
for naturally they have a great dread of the Tiger, who always attacks
their trunk, which is very sensitive.
The Tiger is so treacherous that, even when apparently quite tamed,
he can never be trusted.


'9. .






T HE Wolf iri form is very much like his enemy the dog. But
he is a savage beast of prey, and will attack sheep, horses,
and cattle, or even men, when he is hungry and in company with
other Wolves.
The Wolf is found in every part of the world-from the arctic snows
to the torrid zone. He was formerly a native of Great Britain and
Ireland also, but was systematically destroyed; and, happily for us, we
have no longer this cruel, cunning, greedy animal in our islands.
Our little readers may probably remember that the Saxon King
Edgar made the Welsh pay their tribute in Wolves' heads, instead of
money, and thus got rid of them in vast numbers.
Wolves hunt for their prey in troops called "packs," and are then
very terrible enemies. They will pursue travellers over the great plains
of Russia, and never tire of their chase; so that if the horses cannot
reach a shelter before they are exhausted, the Wolves are certain to
kill and devour both them and the travellers. We have read of one
of these Wolf chases, in which the traveller, standing up in the sledge
while his driver urged on the horses at full gallop, fired on and killed
the nearest Wolf. The others instantly stopped to tear and eat their
companion, and in this way the horses gained time, and were able to
reach a place of refuge; but not before the traveller had shot three
Wolves as food for the hungry pack.







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IN the frozen lands near the North Pole, where it is nearly always
winter, and night lasts for months, lives the Polar Bear. GOD
has clothed him in thick yellowish-white fur to keep him warm; his feet
even are well covered with fur, especially on the under surface, in order
to enable him to walk easily on the snow and ice. The Bear can live
in water as well as on land, but prefers the icebergs and icy plains.
He feeds on seals, young whales, and fish, and sometimes attacks the
walrus; he is also fond of vegetable substances when he can get them.
In November the female Polar Bear finds a snug nook in which
to enjoy her winter nap. At Christmas the little Bears are born, and
stay with their mother in their den till March, when they all go out to
walk on the ice and swim in the sea. When the little Bears are tired,
they ride on their mother's back; and she loves them so dearly that
she becomes a dangerous foe if she thinks that they are in peril.
The Polar Bear is a bold and formidable animal to hunt, and even
when wounded severely will continue to attack its assailant. When
Admiral Lord Nelson was a boy, he stole away once from his
ship, and was found on an iceberg attacking a large White Bear with
an unloaded musket, thinking he could knock it on the head. Luckily
the animal was divided from him by a rent in the ice. On the captain
scolding him, and asking why he had put himself into such danger,
he said, Sir, I wanted to kill the Bear, to send his skin to my father."
You see he was both affectionate and brave.
The skin of the Polar Bear is very valuable.

7' --




T HE Orang-Outang is a very large Monkey, taller than a tall
man, that is, rather more than six feet high. He is found chiefly
in the forests of Sumatra and Borneo, where he makes a sort of bower
of green boughs to sit under, to shelter him from the heat of the sun.
He generally lives on fruit, boughs, leaves, &c.; but when tamed he
will eat meat, cooked or raw, and he likes to drink tea, coffee, or wine.
He has four hands like all monkeys, instead of two hands and two feet.
There was an Orang at the Zoological Gardens twenty years ago
which was quite tamed-a gentle affectionate animal, very fond of his
keeper. He used to lay a cloth, spread the table for tea, pour the tea
out, stir it with his spoon, and drink it from the cup, or from the
saucer if it was too warm. He made his bed, and when he lay down,
would draw the counterpane over him. He had a gentle and melan-
choly face.
Orang-Outangs often form friendships for other animals. One that
was kept in Paris petted two kittens, which he generally carried in his
arms or put on his head. Finding that their claws, when they clung
to him for fear of falling, scratched him, he tried to pull them out; but
this was impossible, of course, and the cats did not like him to try, so
he gave it up, and bore with his pets' scratching rather than not have
them for playfellows.

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ON the grassy plains which stretch over a great part of North
America feed herds of wild bulls, called Buffaloes, or more
properly, Bison.
The Bison is a grand-looking animal. He has a hump on his
shoulders, which, with his entire head, is covered with a mass of long
hair like a lion's mane, only much longer. He has also a long black
beard. In winter, when the cold is severe, the good GOD causes thick
warm hair to cover the entire body of the Bison. At this time, there-
fore, the skin of the Buffalo is more valuable than in the summer,
when a great deal of the wool or hair falls off.
The great size of the Bison's head makes his legs look too small for
his body; but this is not really the case: the animal runs and leaps
with ease and swiftness.
"The Bison lives in great herds, and feeds on the sweet fresh grass
of the prairie. Though it looks so fierce, it is a mild-tempered animal,
and seldom or never attacks men, unless they first attack it. When
hunted, however, it is a formidable assailant, as it gores and tosses its
The flesh of the Bison is most delicious beef, and its hump is
considered a great dainty. It has been for centuries the food of the
Red Indians, and, as it affords also good sport to the white man,
and its skin is valuable for lining cloaks and robes, it stands a great
chance of being finally exterminated.










_ __ I




T HE Brown Bear is found in the great forests of the north of
Europe and America, where it lives in dens, or caves, or the
hollow of old trees.. It feeds on nuts, wild fruit, vegetables, and roots;
but when driven by hunger, it will eat sheep and even cows. It is
very fond of honey, strawberries, and grapes, and will travel for miles
to procure them. It is a very strong animal; it can stand on its hind
legs for some time together,' and thus it generally attacks its enemies.
It sits up to eat, and holds its food in its paws.
The Bear has a thick coat of valuable fur. The sole of its foot is
of excessive width, and the whole surface of it touches the ground
when it walks; nevertheless the animal runs or rather trots along as
swiftly as a man can run. It is also capable of climbing trees with
The strength of the Bear is enormous. It is a solitary animal, living
in the pine forests alone-not in herds; sleeping by day, and coming
out in the night in search of prey.
It is very intelligent, and can be taught many amusing tricks, which
have often been exhibited in our streets.
The female Bear is a remarkably tender mother, often dying in
defence of her young when they are attacked by the hunters.



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THE Elephant is the largest terrestrial animal-that is, animal
that dwells on the land-as the whale is the largest of fish. The
form of the Elephant is very awkward and ungainly, but he is wonder-
fully sagacious, and possesses a great memory, and much kind feeling
for his owner. His trunk-an organ which no other animal possesses-
is merely the nose prolonged to a great length, and terminating in the
openings of the nostrils. The trunk supplies the place of an arm and a
hand. It is strong, flexible, and highly sensitive; with it he can pick
up a pin, or root up a great tree.
Elephants live together in herds or troops in the great forests of
Africa and Asia. They have always a leader, who is generally an old
female elephant, but very often an old male. Their food consists of
herbs, roots, and grain.; they are also very fond of bananas and cocoa-
The Elephant when tamed becomes a very useful servant. He can
carry vast weights, and his skill in using his trunk makes him service-
able in other ways. We have seen the Elephant of an Indian rajah
go through his war exercises, which showed that he might be formid-
able in battle where cannon was not in use; and the same creature
(which then acted with apparently savage ferocity) fanned us when
seated on his back, and selected and gathered flowers for us at his
mahout's (or driver) order. Many stories are told of the intelligence
and affection of this wonderful creature.
The valuable ivory tusks of the Elephant cause him to be eagerly
hunted; and in his turn he assists his rider in hunting the tiger, for
which sport he is regularly trained.






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T H E Leopard is a very fierce and savage beast of prey, but much
smaller than the lion or tiger. Its skin is covered with spots.
It is found in the forests of Africa, near rivers and streams. It is
very strong, and can bound many feet at one spring.
Its den is chiefly found in the midst of great forests, on the tree-
trunks of which it is in the habit of sharpening its claws, thus leaving
marks on the bark, which warn travellers where it is likely to be
found. The Leopard never hunts in the middle of the day, as the
sunlight does not suit its sight; but at night it sees perfectly, and then
it starts in search of food, and makes great havoc amongst flocks and
herds, if there are any near.
The Leopard is sometimes called the Tree-Tiger," because it
climbs trees when it is hunted or when waiting for its prey.
The Leopard, which in its wild state is a terrible animal, may be
tamed easily, and is then very affectionate and playful. But it should
never be suffered to lick the hand, as its tongue is as rough as a rasp,
and if it takes off the skin and tastes blood, its savage nature is likely
to return, and it would become dangerous.
The Indian Leopard, called the Cheetah," can be trained to hunt
deer and antelopes. The Cheetah will become as tame as a cat;
but one cannot quite trust it.


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T H E Dromedary is the lightest and swiftest of the Arabian
Camels. He is formed by GOD to travel easily over the great
plains of sand on which he lives. He is provided for this purpose
with hard soles under his feet to help him to walk on them, and with
double lids to his eyes to protect them from the loose flying sand.
He can go many days without drinking, because in one of his
stomachs-he has four-there are cells in which he can store up water,
to keep by him till he wants it. He is also satisfied with very little
food: thistles and prickly shrubs and a little grain suffice him. He can
carry great weights, and runs very swiftly. He has been called the
"Ship of the Desert." The Arabian Camel has only one hump.
The Arabs drink the milk of the Camel, and travel about on its
back. Its hair is very fine and delicate, and makes fine woollen shawls,
and also brushes for painters. Dromedaries carry the luggage of
merchants and other people across the desert: an Arab goes before
them, singing a low song. If he sings slowly, the Dromedaries move
slowly; if he sings faster, they move faster; when he ceases singing,
they stand still, and kneel down, ready to be unloaded.
The Dromedary is very patient and obedient; but if too great a
burden is put on his back, he will not get up, but utters lamentable
cries, striking at his driver with his head.


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T HE Kangaroo is a very singular-looking animal. It has very
short fore legs, and very long and powerful hind ones, and a
strong thick tail, on which it partly rests when upright. It cannot walk
very easily, as you may suppose, with legs of such different lengths,
though at times it does so; but it bounds along in great leaps with
immense swiftness. 'The Kangaroo is also provided with a natural
cradle for its little ones. This is a bag or purse," as it is called, of
skin, in front of the animal. Here the little Kangaroo lives till it can
jump; then it gets out on the grass, to nibble it or to play on it; but
when it is tired, or danger approaches, it jumps into its soft warm
cradle again.
The Kangaroo lives in the plains and on the low grassy hills of
Australia and Tasmania. It eats herbage and low bushes, and during
the heat of the day it shelters itself in the high grass and among the
tall ferns. The Kangaroo is a very timid creature, but GOD has given
it the means of defending itself by making its tail very hard and strong,
and also by putting on the fourth toe of each of its hind feet a terribly
sharp and long nail.
The Kangaroo is hunted for its flesh and skin; the flesh is very
good to eat. It will live in England, and is very tame when kept in



T HE Zebra is a very handsome animal, larger than the ass, and
rather resembling the mule. It has a large head and ears, and
fine delicate legs, and its skin is as smooth as satin, with beautiful
stripes on it like ribbon. On the male Zebra these stripes are brown
on a yellowish-white ground; on the female Zebra they are black on
a white ground.
Zebras inhabit the burning plains of Africa, over which they bound
with great swiftness, equalling a race-horse in speed.
These animals feed on grass and vegetables, like the ass and horse;
but in captivity they will eat anything that is given to them, even
The sight of the Zebra is very powerful: it can discern the hunters
at a great distance, and as soon as it sees them it takes to flight.
When caught young and carefully trained, the Zebra may be tamed.
A beautiful specimen kept in London some years ago was so gentle
that he would permit a child of six to ride on his back, and was
familiar even with strangers, whom he would let pat him. Occasionally,
however, the Zebra shows a fierce and savage temper.
The ancient Romans were fond of having wild beasts exhibited in
their circuses, and making them fight with each other; or sometimes
killing them themselves for sport. A Zebra was exhibited at these
Roman games, and was called a kIfzotgris (a horse-tiger), perhaps on
account of its stripes.











T HE Giraffe is found wild only in Africa. It lives in the forests,
and it is difficult, travellers tell us, to distinguish it from the
trunks of the trees at a distance. The Giraffe was intended by GOD
to feed on the foliage of lofty trees; it has therefore a long, supple,
graceful neck, which, united to its bodily height, makes it an immensely
tall animal. GOD has also given it a very wonderful tongue-very long,
strong, nimble, and capable of being compressed to quite a narrow
point. With this tongue it can pull down and gather the leaves and
little twigs of the highest trees, on which it feeds. The hind legs of
the Giraffe are the same length as the fore legs, though they appear
shorter, from the great length of the shoulder-blades. Its eyes are so
prominent that it can see behind it; a merciful provision of the great
Creator for its safety, as on the vast plains where it lives lurk many
enemies, whom it is thus able to perceive in time to escape from them.
The Giraffe is a very swift animal I a horse can scarcely overtake
it as it runs and bounds over the sands of the African desert. It
lives in herds of twenty or thirty together.
In captivity it is a very gentle creature, tame, and pleasing in its
ways. Some very fine specimens are to be seen in our Zoological



.0 40

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T HE Hippopotamus, or River Horse, is a native of Africa only.
It lives in the shallows of African rivers, and is found generally
in groups of from three to thirty. It is very amusing to watch these
enormous creatures at play in the streams. Sometimes they throw up
a fountain of water a yard high from their nostrils, while the young
ones sit on their mothers' backs, or chase each other through the shoals.
GoD has enabled the Hippopotamus to open and close its nostrils
whenever it pleases, and to draw back its prominent eyeballs when in
the water; its feet also are formed to walk on the bottoms of rivers.
It is therefore what is called amphibious, that is, a creature which can
live either on land or water. All day it remains in the river, but at'
night it comes on shore, and if any fields of grain are near the banks,
they suffer sadly from its visit; for it is not only a great eater, but its
huge flat feet destroy all that they trample on. The natives of Africa
are therefore always anxious to kill the Hippopotamus, and devise
artful traps on the banks of streams to catch it. But it is a very cunning
as well as ferocious beast, and does not let itself be taken easily.
Boats on the African rivers have often been attacked by the
Hippopotamus, which has been known to tear many planks from
them, or to upset them by getting underneath the keel.
This huge animal. feeds on grass, vegetables, grain, and aquatic
plants. Its flesh is a kind of very fat pork; the skin is immensely
thick, And can only be pierced behind the ear. The teeth of the
Hippopotamus are of remarkably hard and good ivory.


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T HE Elk, or Moose Deer, is found in the north of Europe, Asia,
and America. Elks are large animals, and very strong. Their
neck is so short that they are obliged to kneel to eat grass, but their
usual food is the young shoots, buds, and bark of trees. The Elk can
be tamed and driven in harness, like the reindeer. In Sweden it was
thus used a long time ago.
The flesh of the Elk is very good and nourishing. Its skin, hair,
and antlers are all of use.
Elks generally live in great numbers together. They choose a
leader, whom they always obey. They stop when he stops, and turn
as he directs them, and mind him perfectly; setting an example of
obedience to many children.
The Elk is an excellent swimmer, and has a keen sense both of
smell and hearing, which enables it to discover the approach of the
hunters in time to take flight from them. It is partial to damp forests
and marshy places near streams, and during the summer it submerges
its whole body (except the head) in water, to protect itself from the
stings of the horse-fly. Thus it passes nearly the whole day, feeding
on the water-plants growing about the spot.






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TH E Rhinoceros is a native of Asia and Africa. He is a very strong
animal, with a thick hard skin, and a wonderful horn which
grows on his nose instead of on his forehead. This horn is not made
of a kind of bone, as other horns are, but is a growth from the animal's
thick hard skin. It is very strong and sharp, however, and with it
the creature can break down and split up trees, and remove from his
path the great tangled branches of the forests in which he lives. He
also defends himself with it when attacked by the hunters, and it is a
very terrible weapon.
The Rhinoceros is subject to sudden and apparently causeless fits
of rage, when he will attack all in his path; but as he charges always
in a straight line, the hunter can easily elude his attack by springing
on one side.
GOD has also given the Rhinoceros a long and moveable upper lip,
which is nearly as useful to him as its trunk is to the elephant. With
it he breaks off the small branches and leaves of trees, on which, with
roots and plants, he lives.
The skin of the Rhinoceros is immensely thick, but in the folds it
is tender enough to admit of the sting of the gad-fly, to free himself
from which he wallows in mud till he is encrusted over with it. But
when the mud dries and falls off, the insects return, and the poor beast
tries to free himself from them by rubbing against a tree, uttering at
'the same time loud grunts, by which the hunters often find out his
retreat. The Rhinoceros, like all wild beasts, comes out chiefly at
night to drink, standing idly in the shade or sleeping during the great
heat of day.



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T HE Reindeer is one of the most useful animals that the great
GOD has created. He has given it to the poor Laplanders, a
people who live in a country near the North Pole, where the ground is
almost always covered with snow, and where there are few other animals.
The Laplanders would not know how to live without the Reindeer.
Its milk supplies them with butter and cheese, and it draws their
sledges (that is, snow carriages) very swiftly over the great icy plains.
The Laplanders eat the flesh of the Reindeer, which is very nice.
Its coat makes them thick and warm garments. Its skin is made into
leather; the long hairs on its neck are used for thread; and from the
horns the Laplanders make spoons and knife-handles. As the Rein-
deer has to move swiftly over the snow, GOD has given it wide hoofs,
which will divide and shut again as it pleases, so that it. can open
them on the snow, and close them when the hoof is lifted. Its eyes
are also protected fi-om the glare of the snow by a third nictating eye-
lid, with which it can cover the whole eye whenever it pleases; thus all
its wants are provided for.
The Reindeer goes up the mountains in summer, and browses on
the leaves and buds of the shrubs; but in winter it is content with the
moss and lichens'which it can scrape from under the snow.
A Laplander's riches consist in herds of Reindeer; sometimes a
very rich man has as many as a thousand of them.




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T HE Wild Boar is a very savage and strong animal which inhabits
the forests of Europe, Asia, and Africa. When there were thick
woods in Great Britain, it was found also in them; and it is recorded
that, as late as King Henry the Second's reign, Wild Boars wandered
in the woods near London.
The Wild Boar makes its home in forests near shallow streams
or swamps, and it is fond of wallowing in muddy water.
In summer it comes to the outskirt of the woods, in order that -it
may be able to visit the fields and plantations in search of food; but it
retreats to the thickest shades of the forests when the harvests are over.
As the food of the Boar consists of roots-such as truffles, &c.-of
moles, worms, grubs, and sometimes of young rabbits, the good GOD
(who provides all His creatures with the means of procuring their
necessary nutriment) has given it a muzzle, the under part of which acts
as a ploughshare and cuts the ground; while above its upper lip is a
hard knob, with which it throws back the earth to uncover its food. Of
course this manner of seeking it causes it to do a great deal of mischief
to the grain, which is thus rooted up and destroyed.
The people who live in the countries where it is found are obliged,
therefore, to hunt it as much from necessity as choice. Hunting the
Boar, however, is very dangerous sport; for it has two terrible tusks
or teeth, which curl up outside its upper lip-you will see them in the
picture-and which are.very sharp and strong. It is able with them
to rip up horses and dogs, and is even dangerous to men, for when
brought to bay it will attack the hunters, often wounding them seriously.








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T HERE are two kinds of Hyaenas, the Striped and the Spotted.
They are found both in Asia and Africa, and live in woods and
caves, and come out chiefly at night in search of prey. They will eat
anything-dead bodies, garbage, or living creatures; and they are of
great use in the towns of savage nations, where they act as scavengers,
and eat up all remains of dead or putrid flesh..
The Hyena has strong teeth, intended rather for grinding than
cutting, and very powerful jaws, by means of which it can lift a prey
of great weight. Its tongue is rough, like the leopard's, and its claws
are short and strong, meant rather for digging than for tearing its food.
The Hyaena is a very cowardly animal, and never attacks man
willingly. It prefers flesh in a state of decomposition to that which is
fresh and good; but when it cannot find dead animals, it attacks living
ones, and often carries off the cattle of the natives in African villages.
The cry of the Hyaena is singularly disagreeable.
The Spotted Hyaena is found in Barbary, as well as in all South
Africa. It can be tamed by kind treatment, and made as useful as a
dog; but ill usage renders it dangerous.
The Striped Hyena is so named from the black lines which run
across its yellowish-grey coat. It is found in Asia, as well as in North
There are specimens of both these animals in the Zoological



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T HE Stag is the most beautiful of European animals. It is about
the size of a small horse. The Stag has every year a new set
of horns; it is very timid and gentle, and flies when it hears or sees
any one coming towards it.
The Stag loves to be alone, lying in the thickest parts of forests and
woods, under the great old trees. Its food is grass, leaves, fruits, and
buds; when winter comes, and it can get none of these, it eats lichens,
moss, and heath, or, when these are covered in snow, the bark of
Stags are bold with any animal except man. Many years ago,
George the Fourth's brother, the Duke of Cumberland, caused a tiger
and a Stag to be shut up in one place; and the Stag, when attacked
by the tiger, made such a brave defence with his horns and hoofs; that
the tiger was beaten, and crouched at a distance; but it was a very
cruel trial of the Stag's strength.
The Doe is very fond of her young one, called a "Fawn," but takes
care to hide it away in very secret places, for the Stag is a cruel father,
and would kill it if he found it.
The flesh of the Deer.is called "venison," and is a very. nice food.
The skin is useful, and the horns make knife-handles, &c.
Stags are hunted for sport in England, but are not killed (generally)
at the end of the chase, but reserved to be hunted again, for the
amusement of those who keep them.




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T HE Fox is an animal well known to us all. He makes his
home in a burrow in the ground: it is called his "earth," and
is divided into three rooms. Out of the first he slyly peeps to watch
his prey or his enemies; in the second he keeps his food; in the third
or farthest one he lives, and here his mate rears her young.
The Fox is a very cunning, clever animal. He goes out at night
to seek for prey, and steals fowls from the hen-roost if he can get in;
he digs rabbits out of their burrows, and robs the nests of partridges
and other game birds of eggs, eating the birds too if he can catch them.
He is also very fond of grapes and honey. He robs the poor bees of
their honest earnings, and when they fly on him to sting him, he rolls
on the ground, and thus crushes them. In fact, he is a sad thief. He
has been seen hunting hares, and springing at an otter to seize its fish.
The Fox is hunted every year, and the hunt is a favourite sport of
He is a playful animal, and is often seen running after his own tail,
-which is called a brush,"-like a kitten. In cold weather he wraps
it about his nose. The female is a very good mother.
The Fox is not easily tamed, and can never be cured of his habit
of stealing.
Cunning as a Fox" is a proverb you have heard. The Fox has
been the type of cunning and knavery from very early times.



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T HE Jaguar is the Leopard of America, and is nearly as strong
and bold as a tiger. It can both climb and swim, and as it feeds
on flesh and fish, it kills both monkeys in the trees, and fish in the
rivers. It is a terrible animal to meet in the forests. One might get
out of the reach of a lion by climbing a tree; but a Jaguar will come
after one. It can break a horse's back by a single blow of its great
and powerful paw.
I have read a story, told by Humboldt, the great traveller, of two
little children being seated at play out of doors in an Indian village
near a forest, when a Jaguar came out of it and joined them. It began
to jump about and play like a cat; till suddenly it scratched the face
of one of them, a little boy: he began to cry, and the other child-a
tiny girl-struck the Jaguar with a stick she held; but it did not mind
the blow, luckily; and before it grew cross, or became angry, and recol-
lected that its little playmates were good to eat, the Indian hunters
came home; and as soon as it heard them it ran off into the woods.
The good GOD thus kept the helpless children safe from the anger
of this ravenous creature.
We ought to be very thankful that there are no wild beasts in our
country, except in the Zoological Gardens, in London, where it is a
pleasure to look at them, as we know that they cannot get at us to
hurt us.
At sunrise and at sunset the Jaguar utters two cries, well known to
the hunters, and by which they can find his haunt, where they attack
and kill him for his valuable skin.


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O TTERS were created by GoD for seeking their prey in water,
therefore He has given them webbed feet, with which they can
swim like a fish, flattened heads, and nostrils furnished with a valve or
covering, which opens and shuts, so that they can keep out the water
when beneath the surface. The tail is flat and moveable, and serves
as a rudder to steer them, and they have strong nails, with which they
burrow in the banks of rivers. Their fur is valuable, and they are
hunted for it by men with dogs. They live in deep holes in the banks
of rivers, and feed on fish.
Otters are found in every part of the world, but are most common
in Europe and America.
They can be tamed, if taken when quite young, and can be made
to fish for their masters. A tame Otter has been known to catch
eight or nine salmon a day. It is rewarded with part of the fish it
It is a pity this animal has not been made use of for the purpose;
but the cases of its being employed by men in fishing are very few-
only enough to show that it was intended for the use of man. But its
fur is so valuable that the animal is being gradually destroyed, and will
doubtless be at length exterminated.
Otters destroy a great many fish, as they kill more than they eat,
for they only bite a mouthful or two from the back of each fish taken.
The Sea-Otter has a bright, smooth, black coat, which is one of
the most valuable furs. It is found on the coast of the North Pacific


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T HE Camel is the gift of GOD to the poor people who live on
S the hot barren sands of Asia and Africa, where there are no
trees and grass, and where the springs of water are far apart. GOD
has formed the Camel for the work he is wanted to do in these
lands. He is provided with four stomachs, in the first of which are a
number of hollow places called cells, where he can store up enough
water to last him for several days. Then his feet are covered with
hard wide soles, so that he can walk on sand easily; his eyes have
double eyelids, to screen them from the sand; and he can see and
hear at a great distance. He is content with very little food: a few
balls of meal, or the sharp prickly thorns of the desert, fully satisfy
him. He is very patient, and will carry great weights of merchandise
or baggage. In order to allow the drivers to load him, he will kneel
down on the sand; but he will not let them put a heavier burden on
his back than he can well bear: he strikes with his head and utters
sad cries if such a wrong is intended him. The Camel is sometimes
very savage, and he never forgives an injury till he has punished his
enemy. When he is kindly treated, however, he is a good and faithful
The Bactrian Camel-this is one in the picture-has two humps;
the Arabian Camel, or Dromedary, only one.
The Camel would be quite useless in any other country but its
native land. Its broad feet, cushioned for walking on sand, slip about
on muddy ground, and are hurt by rocks or stones.

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