Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Back Cover

Title: Bread and honey for young people
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00035134/00001
 Material Information
Title: Bread and honey for young people
Physical Description: 94 p. : ill. ; 16 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Garrett, Barbara Semple
George Routledge and Sons ( Publisher )
Publisher: Routledge
Place of Publication: London
New York
Publication Date: 1877
Copyright Date: 1877
Subject: Children's stories   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1877   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1877
Genre: Juvenile literature   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: by Barbara Semple Garret.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00035134
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AHL5990
oclc - 15320200
alephbibnum - 001591985

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
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    Back Cover
        Page 95
        Page 96
Full Text

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Author of "The Little Cutter," "Killed With Kindness,"
Etc., Etc.

\ htit1R gtir ,uo i r Illustrations.





"WHAT a nice pony! Surely no little boy
can look at this picture without thinking
it must be a very pleasant thing to have a
ride on such an animal. Those of you who
know anything about horses do not need to
be told that they are often very affectionate,
and soon come to know and love their masters
and those who are kind to them. I have
frequently been gratified to see the attach-
ment shown by ponies in costermongers'
carts to their owners, who, on their part,
seemed very fond of their dumb friends.
Love makes all service light, and it is quite
a pleasure to think that these poor beasts
of burden have their labour sometimes so
sweetly lessened.


THIS is a view of that part of London which
is called "the city." The lofty dome of St.
Paul's Cathedral, a grand edifice designed
by Sir Christopher Wren, can easily be
distinguished above the spires and chimneys.
That river on which boats and steamers are
passing is the Thames. You may form some
idea of the size, of the Metropolis-another
name for London, and signifying the mother
of cities-when I tell you that it contains
more than six thousand miles of streets.
There is but one other city in the world
which has so many inhabitants, and that is
Pekin, the capital of China; but London is
by far the most wealthy of all.



THE carp, one of which is here depicted, is
found in ponds, lakes, and sluggish streams,
and is remarkable for the great age to which
it lives. Some have even asserted that it
lives a good deal longer than man. Another
curious thing about this fish is that it can
exist out of water for three weeks or a month
by being kept in wet moss and hung in nets
in a cool place. This is done in Holland, and
the fish are fed with bread steeped in milk.
As their natural food consists of worms,
insects, and vegetables, it is surprising they
should eat so novel an article of diet.
Occasionally water is dashed upon them
while in this state.


THESE soldiers on horseback are dragoons.
If they had their sabres drawn they would
look somewhat as they do when making a
charge upon the enemy. As it is, they are
probably returning after a pursuit of those
with whom they have been fighting. The
flag of the regiment, which you can just see,
is an emblem of their honour and bravery.
On it are inscribed the names of the battles
they have won, and they would rather die
than surrender that silken banner, It serves
too as a rallying point for the soldiers when
they get scattered in the fray. Should you,
in after years, be called upon to carry such a
flag, you must protect it with your life.


THE tall chimneys whence the smoke is
issuing belong to factories, that is, large
houses where broadcloth, calico, paper, shawls,
and many other things are made. There is
a river, you see, close by, and that is the
reason this particular site was chosen for
public works. The machinery by which the
goods are manufactured is driven by steam-
engines, and steam, you know, cannot be
produced without water. In order to heat
the water there must be great fires, or furnaces
as they are called, and that accounts for the
chimneys, which are bound by law to be
very tall, that the smoke may be carried away
by the wind and not prove a nuisance to the


HERE is a mountain from the top of which
.flames and smoke are issuing. It is called
a volcano, and the boiling liquid which is
thrown out from it is termed lava. This lava
is very destructive, and the people who live
in the neighbourhood of volcanos suffer very
much from the injury done to the fields, as
was the case recently with regard to Mount
Vesuvius. You must not suppose, however,
that such mountains are constantly burning:
if that were so, no one would live near them.
The eruptions are only occasional, and people
go on for years sowing and planting without
injury, till some day the top of the mountain
opens and the fields are strewn with ashes.


CAN you guess what this is ? Well, it is a
safety-lamp used by miners when at work.
In all coal-mines there is a dangerous gas
called fire-damp, and if an ordinary lighted
candle were taken into such a place it would
set fire to this gas and cause an explosion.
But the candle in the lamp is inclosed in
wire gauze; so that the flame cannot pass
through. It was invented by Sir Humphry
Davy, and is called the Davy-lamp. Some-
times the miners are foolish enough to
uncover it, and then there is a frightful
explosion, by which many lives are lost and
numbers of poor children are left fatherless.
7 A2


THE perch is one of the most beautiful of
our freshwater fishes. The upper part of the
body is a rich greenish-brown, passing into
golden yellowish-white below. After a certain
age perches become blind; but whether they
receive much kindness under this affliction
from the young perches is more than I can
tell you. This fish can live for some hours
out of water, and can bear a journey of forty
or fifty miles if carried steadily and watered
occasionally. Sometimes, when the market-
women do not succeed in disposing of all
their perch they take them back to the ponds
when the day is over, and re-capture them
next morning to take to market.

OH, how these houses are tumbling down'
This is caused by a severe earthquake-a
dreadful calamity which we in England have
hitherto escaped, though slight shocks have
been felt in this country also. About a
hundred and twenty years ago the town
of Lisbon was nearly all destroyed by an
earthquake. In later times by a similar
catastrophe several towns in South America
became ruins, and many thousands of the
inhabitants lost their lives. More recently
still there was an earthquake at Aleppo and
Antioch, when twenty thousand people were
killed and as many more injured. Some-
times the earth has suddenly opened and
swallowed up the houses and the people in
them without giving a moment's time for


THE woodcock is a bird which, as a rule,
only spends the winter in England, arriving,
from Norway or Sweden, in October generally,
and leaving us in March. Its habit is to
sleep by day quietly hid in the dry grassy
bottoms of brakes and woods, or sometimes
a laurel or holly bush is chosen as its place
of rest. At nightfall it wakes up and
proceeds to seek its breakfast, just when
boys and girls are getting their supper. Its
favourite food is the common earthworm,
which it catches with remarkable dexterity,
being guided, it is believed, by the sense of
smell. As worms are very destructive to
plants the woodcock in this way, is actively
serviceable to man.


I HAVE quite a shocking account to give you
of the stickleback, as related by one who
confined a number of these little fishes in
a large tub, and watched their movements.
They were, he tells us, remarkably quarrel-
some, biting and piercing each other with
their "spines" in a most cruel manner. It
is, however, only the males, I am glad to
tell you, who act so wickedly; the females,
it is said, are quite peaceable, giving all their
attention to growing fat. One good quality,
which it would be unfair not to mention, is
ascribed to the stickleback-it has affec-
tion for its young, for. which, contrary to
the custom of fishes, it actually prepares a


AN engine-driver on a railway is but rarely
seen by the passengers, and people leave
the train, when at the end of their journey,
without bestowing a thought upon the man
to whose care their lives have been entrusted
for hundreds of miles. All through the
bitter winter's night he stands peering into
the darkness to discover any signal of danger,
as the train rushes along at the rate, perhaps,
of fifty miles an hour. Sometimes he dis-
covers a train of waggons standing in the
way, and then, instead of jumping off his
engine to save his own life, he bravely thinks
of those in the train, and brings the carriages
to a standstill.


WHIRLWINDS, which are very common in
tropical countries, must be terrible things,
coming as they do without the slightest
warning. They are most frequent in deserts,
where pillars of sand are often raised by
them to a height of two or three hundred
feet. When they occur in regions that are
inhabited, they root up trees, throw down
houses, and do great damage. They advance
with a loud, rushing noise, and sometimes
a number are seen at one time in the deserts
of Africa and Arabia. Bruce, the African
traveller, saw eleven whirlwinds advance
towards him with great speed, but they
retreated before reaching him, which was
fortunate, as he could not have run away
from them.


THE Pharos of Alexandria, a light-house
built on a small island at the mouth of the
Nile, was so famous in ancient times as to
give its name, for a long while, to other
erections of the same kind. Such buildings,
for warning mariners after darkness has set
in that they are near land, are now always
called light-houses. They are usually placed
on headlands near the sea, or on rocks which
at high-water are quite surrounded by the
sea. As soon as it is getting dusk every
evening, the man who has charge of the
lamps ascends to the -top of the tower and
lights them. They are kept burning all


AN instance of the voracity of the deadly
snake called boa-constrictor occurs to me.
Not many years ago, two snakes of this
kind, said to be brothers, lived harmoniously
together in a large glass-case. One morning
when the keeper came to look at the reptiles,
he found that one of them had disappeared,
and that the other seemed to have something
like a cigar in his mouth. Close inspection
showed that the apparent cigar was the tail
of the other snake. It was then found that
one brother had swallowed the other; but
the meal soon disagreed with the unnatural
snake, and he was obliged to eject his old
companion, who seemed none the worse for
his disagreeable adventure.


HERE you see the reapers returning from
the harvest-field with the last cart-load of
the ripe grain. The farmer, who is a little
in front of the cart, is waving his hat joy-
ously, and the reaper just behind him and
the boy beside the carter are following the
example set by their master. It is usual
for farmers to give a harvest-home dinner
and dance to all those who have assisted in
getting in the corn. A plentiful harvest is
a matter for rejoicing to all in the land,
because wheat is then abundant, and bread
consequently becomes cheap, a matter, you
know, of the utmost importance, especially
to poor people with many little children to


THE turtle is called an amphibious animal
because it can live either on land or in water.
It closely resembles a tortoise, but is much
larger; indeed, the chief difference between
the two is that the turtle lives in the sea,
and the tortoise on the land. The flesh of
the turtle is greatly prized, and the soup
made from it is an unfailing viand at every
Lord Mayor's dinner. These animals can
live many weeks without food, and this being
so, it is not usual to feed them on their way
in ships to England. They are brought over
in large wooden boxes, divided into com-
partments like the shelves of a cupboard,
each turtle having a shelf to himself.


LOOK at that man astride of no less than
three horses, which are careering round a
ring covered with tanners' bark. He is a
rider in a circus, where feats of horsemanship
constitute the chief part of the entertain-
ment. The horses are wonderfully docile
and intelligent. Some of them will go down
on their knees, at a signal, and pick up a
handkerchief with their teeth. Others will
waltz round, keeping time with the music.
Very young children are often here seen
dancing on the back of a horse while it
trots round the circle; but such an exhibition
4s objectionable, for not only is it too dan-
gerous for little folk, but it involves a large
amount of painful training.

WHO are these youths so busy labouring?
Alas! they are not free and happy boys who
can go home when the day's work is over,
to spend the evening in the companionship
of their 'parents and of their brothers and
sisters. They are criminals, sentenced for
offences against the law to live for a certain
number of years in a reformatory. Here
they are taught useful trades, by which they'
may earn an honest living when released
from confinement. In most cases these young
offenders are the sons of ignorant and vicious
parents, who have brought up their children
to set at defiance the laws of both God and
man. Howi thankful should you be that
you have been better trained

-.t in I


THIS picture represents the interior of a
theatre, with the audience watching the per-
-formance of a play. Those people on the
stage are actors; but I cannot tell you with
certainty what the scene itself means, Let us
suppose, however, that the men with swords
in their hands have come to take that castle
on the hill during the absence of the chief-
tain to whom it belongs, and that the wife
of the latter has gone out to meet the
intruders, in the hope of inducing them to
abandon their intention. The greatest writer
of plays the world ever produced was William
Shakspeare, whose works you will one day
read with as much pleasure as profit.


LOOK at this wicker bird-cage. Do you see
that little feathered creature standing sadly
at the bottom of its prison-house ? Well,
it is a thrush, or perhaps a linnet. Idle
vagabonds make a trade of snaring these
poor little birds, which are sometimes, when
they are caught, made blind by these cruel
fellows, in the belief that the birds will sing
better when deprived of their sight. Then
the birds are sold, and people confine them
in a cage for years. No doubt it is very
nice to look at a bird, and to hear it warble,
but neither this enjoyment nor any other
should be indulged in at the expense of
inflicting such suffering upon any living


Two classes of persons are commonly called
chemists; but the more correct way of de-
cribing one who merely mixes medicines
and sells them in a shop is druggist; for a
chemist is a man who has such a knowledge
of chemistry that he can separate the par-
ticles of which things are composed. The
practice of this art is of vast importance tc
mankind, as I will explain. It is common
for dishonest people to mix up different kinds
of fat, and sell such stuff as butter; and nc
one by looking at or even tasting this could
detect the fraud. A chemist, however, can
put it to certain tests, and tell exactly ol
what the so-called butter really consists.

_ l-i


A VERY pleasant prospect of travelling along
nice country roads is awakened by the sight
of a stage-coach. Railways take us far more
quickly from one place to another; but you
can see very little of the fields, farmhouses,
and other objects in the landscape when you
are whisked along so fast by a steam-engine.
The coach here depicted is preparing to set
out on its journey. You can see the coach-
man sitting with the reins of his horses in
one hand, and his whip in the other. The
guard is helping to lift up a portmanteau,
and when that is stowed away he will blow
his horn merrily, and away they will all go.
23 R

THERE was a time when English archers were
famed for their deeds upon the battle-field.
The bow-and-arrow has, however, long since
ceased to be used as a weapon, as some,
possibly, of my young readers know. With
the discovery of gunpowder came the in-
vention of fire-arms-such as guns and
pistols. Cannon, too, that throw shot of
great weight, are used. Archery is still
practised, but only as an amusement; and
people shoot arrows at a target to see which
of these pointed shafts can be driven into
the centre, or bull's eye. Sometimes a prize
is given to the most skilful archer; in other
words, to him who hits the bull's eye most
frequently with an arrow.

," ,, *


A LITTLE boy, the son of a gardener in
Scotland, was one day playing on the moor,
close by his father's house. On returning
home, he told his mother that he had been
playing with a pretty spotted beast." With
some concern she questioned the child
further, for the horrible thought at once
occurred to her that he had been playing
with the venomous adder so common in that
district. She asked him if he could take
his father to the place where "the beast"
was. The little fellow said he could, and
the gardener was led by his son to the spot,
and there indeed was an adder. Though
hostile to man, it had. not harmed the
helpless child.

ROOKS live upon grubs, caterpillars, and
other insects destructive to our fields and
gardens, and they are therefore of great
service to us in keeping down what would
otherwise be a serious pest. It is related
that a flight of locusts visited Craven, and
caused no small degree of alarm to the
farmers of the district, who were, no doubt,
forcibly reminded of the Egyptian plague
mentioned in Scripture. But they were soon
relieved of their anxiety, for the rooks flocked
to the spot from all quarters by thousands
and tens of thousands, and atherefoe locusts
so greedily, that in a short time not one
remained. It must have been the odour
which attracted them to the place.


MANY curious tales are told about the
rook, which is said to display a remarkable
amount of sagacity in selecting fit trees in
which to build. On one occasion a number
of rooks had built their nests in the branches
of some old elms. The owner, however,
\decided to fell a few of these trees, and
stripped off a portion of their bark in order
to mark such as were intended for the axe.
Upon this the rooks quitted the trees thus
indicated, and it was subsequently observed,
that immediately after any of the other
elms were marked in this way the birds
at once left them, as if they knew that the
trees were doomed to fall.


A GREAT many years ago, long before it
was usual to import corn from other coun-
tries, there happened to be very great
scarcity of food in Scotland. In a certain
village all the people were famishing except
two .women in humble circumstances, whot
had, to the surprise of all, every appearance
of being well fed. In those days people
were extremely ignorant, so the villagers,
foolishly supposing the two women to be
sustained by some evil agency, would have
burnt them as witches if they had not
confessed by what strange food they had
been nourished. Taking up a plank in the
cottage flooring, they displayed a tubful of
snails, which, when cooked, served for food.



GIPSIES are a strange race of people, pre-
ferring as they do a wandering life, and an
existence chiefly spent out of doors. No
doubt it is very pleasant to be a good deal
in the open air in summer when the weather
is fine, but when it is cold and raining, or
when there is a biting east wind, it cannot
be very agreeable to sit in a ditch, which
is the only chair or sofa the gipsy knows.
The poorest cottage is still a better home
than these wanderers have, let people talk
as they will of the canopy of heaven, and
of the carpet of green of Nature's own
weaving which covers the floor of the gipsy's


A SHORT time ago many people suffered,
and some died, from having taken milk in
which there were poisonous particles. No
one put the poison into the milk, and it
would not be easy to explain to you on
this short page how it got there. We are
indebted to chemists for the discovery of
the poison. If you were to pour some
water into a jug containing milk you could
not afterwards separate the one from the
other, and no one could tell by looking at
the liquid how much water was mixed with
the milk. But a chemist, by the application
of certain tests, could tell you. The room
in which the chemist works is called a

WHAT a delightful thing is a pic-nic !
Everyone enjoys the novelty of dining in
the open air, and submits willingly to the
inconvenience of having no chairs and no
table. To compensate, there is beautiful
scenery to look at, and the sweet odour, it
may be, of a beanfield or of new-mown hay
wafted by the summer air. But the great
fun is when something has to be cooked,
such as potatoes; and then everybody is
busy looking for material with which to
make a fire-the young people busiest of
all. What failures there are sometimes in
getting the fire to burn but as all are ready
to be amused, failures are almost more
enjoyable than success.
31 B 2


LONDON children, who have an opportunity
of seeing sights all the year round, little
know what a glad event it is to those who
live in small towns when a show makes its
appearance in their native place. It is
probably only once a year that such a thing
is to be seen, and then it is usually in summer,
when people who cannot pay to go in may
stand outside and look at such wonders as
can be seen for nothing, without being afraid
of taking cold. What an excitement there
is among the children! who assemble in
great numbers, and are immensely pleased
with the pictures of the fat lady and the
learned pig, and think the music delightful.


A CURIOUS story is told about ants, proving
that they are able to communicate with'each
other. A number of these little insects
were found eating treacle out of a pot in a
cupboard. The pot was then removed and
hung by a string from the ceiling, the ants
having previously been shaken out. One,
however, had been left in, and it, after taking
a full meal, climbed up the string, then
crossed the ceiling and returned to its nest.
In less than half an hour a great number of
ants made their way to the treacle-pot by
the same route, that is,.by ceiling and string,
When satisfied they returned to their nest,
and other ants took their place.



THIS horse is eating his oats out of the
manger, a kind of trough, with which each
stall of a stable is provided. The rope and
bands which fasten his head to the manger
are called a halter, and above the horse you
can see the rack, behind which hay is placed.
The horse is first given a bucket of water to
drink, then his corn is put into the manger,
and when he has eaten that he can turn
to the hay by way of dessert. You should
never go near the hind-legs of a horse,
particularly when he is in the stable, for
he is sometimes nervous, and night kick
you-breaking, perhaps, one of your legs.

N . I' -; : .-I
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BEES live in communities, there being many
thousands, comprising a queen and a few
hundreds of drones, in a hive. It must not
be supposed, however, that the queen rules
over the others; for it is in reality the
working bees that take the management of
affairs, the queen being simply the bee of
greatest consequence, and one so jealously
guarded by the others that she is very
seldom seen by any person. A keeper of
bees relates that he one day had the queen
in his hand; but presently there arose
within the hive a great clamour, indicative
of the utmost distress at the loss of their
queen, which only ceased when she was
restored to them.

I'- 1 *---1


HERE is a peep-show, and it seems to, be
a source of great interest to these village
children, whose parents, no doubt, are poor
people, and unable to take their little sons
and daughters to places of amusement.
Somebody has given this bare-headed boy
a penny, and he has paid to see the show.
The faithful dog is waiting for him. I
hope the little girl with the baby in her
arms has a penny too, that she also may
see the pretty sights. Poor child, her arms
must be very tired; for she is too small to
act as nurse to so big a baby; but it is
likely she is very fond of her burden.

THE muscles on the breast of the swift weigh
more than all the rest of its body, and this
causes it to be very strong and able to move
its wings with great rapidity. This bird flies
at the rate of a hundred miles an hour.
Birds go from one country to another in
search of food. In cold climates insects die
or go to sleep during winter, and then' the
birds that feed upon insects have nothing to
eat, and are obliged to fly away to a warmer
climate. There are birds that feed upon
seeds, and these cannot get their proper food
when the ground is covered with snow, so
they too take wing to some more southern

"M.i. A 2, .

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ITAVE you ever seen a fair ? It is sometimes
a very lively scene, but it is pleasanter to
look on from a window than to be down
among the crowd. In the picture you see
some very well-dressed people standing out-
side what is probably an exhibition of horse-
manship; but at country fairs the streets are
usually chiefly occupied by farm-servants
who are there to be hired, and by farmers
who go thither to engage them. It is a busy
day, too, for the old women who sell either
-gingerbread or apples. The principal street
of the town may be seen on such occasions
lined with stalls, upon which sweetmeats of
various kinds are temptingly set forth.


THE drones have an easy, idle life; but not
a very long one, as they are always killed by
the working bees ere they are many months
old. As they are without a sting, they are
quite unable, poor creatures, to do anything
in self-defence, though even if they had the
usual weapon of bees their resistance would
avail little against such overwhelming num-
bers. Let us hope their brief life is a merry
one, and that as they take their daily lounge
in the sunshine they have no gloomy fore-
bodings as to the sad doom that awaits them.
But one cannot trust to the ignorance of a
creature which is said to have more correct
instinct than any other insect.


THE swallow is a bird of passage, and re-
,sembles the stork in two particulars, first,
the punctuality of its arrival and departure,
and second, its returning always to its old
nests. Some kinds of birds are silent in
their flight through the air, others utter loud
and constant cries, especially those that
travel during the night, such as herons, the
object being, no doubt, to keep the flock
together. Certain birds migrate singly, some
in groups, and others in flocks of thousands.
Those that fly in company generally have
a leader, and if moving in small numbers
observe a decided order. For example, wild
swans fly in the form of a wedge, and wild
geese in a line.


WHAT boy or girl is there who does not
delight in the companionship of a dog He
is often a capital playfellow, especially when
he is young; for dogs, like men and women,
grow sober and grave with age. Have you
ever engaged in a game at ball with a little
brother or sister when a terrier was present ?
If so, you have seen with what spirit he can
enter into your game; how with wagging
tail and joyful bark he has dashed after the
ball and tried to catch it. Sometimes old
dogs who are too feeble to romp are greatly
teased by thoughtless children, and then the
patience and good temper of the poor dumb
creatures are sorely tried.

< I ,:;I I


THIS is part of the interior of a court of
justice. That man standing with his back
to you is the prisoner at the bar, and the
gentleman opposite him, sitting at a desk
under the royal arms, is the judge. On
the right hand of the prisoner are two
barristers, one of whom has been pleading
the man's cause and trying to convince the
jury that he is not guilty; while the other
has probably been attempting to prove the
reverse. On the left of the unhappy man is
a policeman, ready to seize and remove him
to the condemned cell should the verdict be
against him. It must be terrible to be in
such a position.



THE vine is perhaps nowhere seen to better
advantage than in our English hot-houses,
where better grapes are produced than any I
have tasted abroad. The vine is subject to
the ravages of a very destructive insect
called pyralis vitis; but curiously enough
there are as many as a dozen kinds of insects
which select the larve or eggs of this foe to
the vine as fitting nests upon which to de-
posit their own eggs, the effect being that
many of the larve of te pyralis vitis are
destroyed. This provision of nature is an
immense benefit to vine cultivators. Indeed,
one-half the insects in existence may be
asserted to owe their destruction to the
other half.


THE stormy petrel, all the varieties of which
are called by sailors Mother Carey's chickens,
is about the size of a swallow, and nearly of
the same colour. The name of petrel is
given to this bird after St. Peter, because it
has the strange power of walking upon the
water-a feat which it accomplishes by
means of its large, flat, webbed feet, aided
by its widely-extended wings. I may here
remark that marine birds living on islands
fly with their heads against the wind when
they go, forth to sea. This course is taken in
order that they may have the wind at their
backs as they return, tired with being long
on the wing.


No freshwater-fish is so voracious as the
pike. Though its weight rarely exceeds
thirty pounds, it will swallow all sorts of
fish that are not larger than itself.
Its cruel eye surveys and spareth not
The silvery dace, or trout with ruby spot:
The jaw expansive, armed with daggers sharp,
Engulfs the timid roach, the golden carp."

Dreadful to say, it does not hesitate to
devour its own species also. Indeed, not
long ago a pike weighing about seven pounds
was captured near the Old Welsh Harp in
the neighbourhood of London, and it was
found to contain another pike of considerable
size, which had only been swallowed a short
time before.


THIS is a Sepoy soldier belong hg to the
native army in our Empire of India. There
are more than a hundred thousand troops of
that kind there, all of whom are commanded
by British officers. When the Prince of
Wales went to India one of the native
princes, at whose palace the Queen's eldest
son slept, had provided a plunge-bath made
of solid silver for his visitor. Another gave
our Prince a sword with the hilt and scabbard
covered with jewels of great value, and a
third presented him with a crown thickly
studded with pearls and diamonds. India,
of which our Queen is Empress, is a very
hot country, where the people wear but very
thin clothing.


You are far from partial, I daresay, to the
company of beetles. It may therefore sur-
prise you to learn that there are beautiful
beetles in the Philippine Islands which are
so much admired by the ladies that they
keep them as pets in small bamboo cages.
This is very different treatment from that to
which our English beetle is accustomed. I
know how little girls will scream if they find
one near them, and how ladies will pull away
their skirts from what they deem a nasty
black thing. But after all it may be less
disagreeable to our home beetles to be despised
and let alone, than to the Philippine ones to
be well fed but made captives for life.
47 c


BoYs and girls do not like a rainy day,
because it interferes with out-of-door games,
nice country walks, and pleasure excursions.
One cannot fly a kite when the rain is falling
in torrents, nor can one have a ride on the
new pony in such weather. At the same
time, you know that what appears to you an
evil is really a good thing, without which we
could have neither fruit nor flowers, nor grass
nor corn. A week's rain, after a long drought,
will sometimes make a difference of two
millions of money; that is to say, the food
of the people will be all that amount cheaper
on account of the rain having watered the
thirsty land.


THE sperm whale breathes in a very remark-
able manner. It has two holes ori the top of
its head which serve as nostrils, and by these
it throws up a succession of spouts which
rise to a height of six or eight feet. The
spouts consist of air and water, and are re-
peated every quarter of an hour. When it
has thus taken breath it raises its tail high
in the air and dives head foremost under the
sea, where it remains till it is once more
necessary to take breath. They go in herds
numbering as many as five or six hundred.
Sometimes they leap with great agility into
the air and come down again with a tre-
mendous noise.


You have already been told something in
this little book about a chemist. Now the
subject of the picture is an astronomer, that
is, one who studies the heavens, who measures
the distance between one star and another,
and tells us all about the sun and moon.
Do you know what the effect would be if
the sun were. blotted out of the sky ? In
the space of three days there would probably
not be a vestige of animal or vegetable life
on the earth. Deluges of rain and piles of
snow would be the first result, and then a
universal frost would set in, of an intensity
hundreds of degrees more severe than any
ever before experienced in this world.


THIS is a telescope, the instrument by means
of which the astronomer studies the stars, so
that he is able to tell us wonderful facts
about those worlds at which we look up on a
winter night. I have already told you that
without the sun this earth would be so cold
that neither plant nor animal could exist
upon it; but what is more, this globe would
not know what to do with itself if it had no
sun round which to circle, but would set
forth on a journey into space and wander
thus for hundreds of years. The sun is to
the earth what the domestic hearth should
be to us all-the centre of attraction.

*'* 1 !


You see here a shaft by which miners go
down to the coal-mines. Would you like to
hear further how our winter fuel is procured,
or would you prefer learning how coal was
made? It took many thousands of years to
form that lump which is burning so fast
away in the grate. A long while ago, ferns,
mosses, and many other plants grew, on some
flat, wide, watery plains, and having spent
their little life, died, and lay where they fell.
Others grew, and in time they, too, faded,
and lay on the moist earth, and so on, till
there was a vast accumulation. Thousands
of years passed by, and the decayed plants
had become coal.


OBSERVE that miner busy at work digging
out coal far down in the bosom of the earth,
where no light of day can ever penetrate.
There is his Davy-lamp hanging on the coal
wall. Sometimes he has to lie on his back,
in places where there is not room for him to
stand upright, and in that position he uses
his iron pick upon the coal. No doubt it is
far from pleasant to pass so much time at so
great a distance below the surface of the
earth, particularly when the pleasant sunshine
is on the fields above; but miners, it must
be remembered, have very high wages, and
rarely work more than three or four days a


THE greater part of Africa is the home of
the lion, which lives, too, in the warmer
districts of India. It usually spends the
whole, night prowling round the herds of wild
animals, or near the flocks of the settlers, or
caravans of travellers. Watching for an op-
portunity, he seizes upon his prey, which he
carries to his lair and devours at leisure.
When wild animals are scarce and the lion
is very hungry, it becomes so bold that it
will tear a bullock from the team, or a horse
from the shafts, and even man is dragged
from the watch-fires though surrounded by
his companions. But there are many stories
of lions which have been successfully en-
countered by men.


THE screech owl, which is a bird of a delicate
colour, is frequently found in the vicinity of
farmyards, where it goes in order to catch
the mice which infest the ricks, fields, and
barns. On account of its taste in animal
food this owl has been termed the feathered
cat. It is in the evening that mice are most
active in the pursuit of food, and then it is
that the owl with noiseless flight sallies forth
in search of mice, watching with its great
round eyes every movement of a grass-blade,
and catching with its quick ears every sound
that issues from behind. This bird is easily
tamed when taken young, and makes a very
amusing pet. c 2
55 c 2

THERE could hardly be a more terrible sight
at sea than that presented by advancing
waterspouts, of which as many as twenty
have been seen at once by an alarmed ship's
crew. A dark cloud descends towards the
sea in a spiral column, attracting the water
immediately beneath it, so that there rises
out of the ocean a column of water the
ascent of which causes considerable agitation
amid the surrounding waves. Should the
waterspout burst when in the immediate
neighbourhood of a vessel, tons of water
would fall upon the unfortunate ship, and so
awful would be the consequences that the
vessel and its crew would in all probability
go to the bottom of the ocean.


IN former times the natives of the Highlands
of Scotland wore tartan clothes, consisting of
a tunic called a kilt, a plaid of the same
pattern worn across the shoulders, somewhat
like the figure in the picture, and tartan
stockings. It was a pretty dress; but about
a hundred and thirty years ago the Govern-
ment considered it advisable to prohibit it
being worn for reasons that I could easily
explain if I had space. Anyone wearing
this costume after it was forbidden by law
was liable to six months' imprisonment for a
first offence, and for a second, to transporta-
tion. The Highlanders are now dressed just
like Englishmen, a fact of which many people
seem to be ignorant.


THOUGH the osprey is a British bird, and one
which in former times was very common in
England, it is seldom seen in these isles now.
As it is a fish-eater it frequents the sea-coast,
and as soon as it sees a fish it shoots through
the air like a meteor and pounces upon its
prey with such force that it drives a shower
of spray into the air. It is an affectionate
and constant bird, and very attentive to its
mate, as the following circumstance shows:
An osprey having lost a leg and being by
this accident rendered unable to catch fish,
her mate redoubled his efforts and kept the
nest well supplied with food.


A GENTLEMAN who has resided in India, and
who lived near the jungle, relates that in the
neighbourhood of Bengal a very plaintive
cry like that of a new-born infant is heard
in the rainy season. It is found that this
proceeds from a frog and is its despairing
wail when attacked by a serpent. The nar-
rator says that on hearing this mournful
appeal -he has often hastened to the spot just
in time to save the life of the frog, since in
many instances the snake, in its alarm at
approaching footsteps, drops its victim, and
makes its escape. At other times it slides
off bearing its prey in its mouth.


THE sight of this Highland lake with the
small boats skimming its smooth surface re-
minds me of a fishing excursion I once made
with some young people. Furnished with
fishing-lines we took our place in a small
boat and were rowed out to the middle of
just such a lake as you see in the picture.
We had nothing to do but hold a hand-line
over the side of the boat and wait till a tug
was felt where the hook was baited. Then
we drew up the long line and found, in many
cases, a fish at the end. The children were
greatly pleased with their day's amusement,
and wished for another trip of the same kind.


IF I had only space enough I could tell you
some odd stories about a tame panther which
became so much attached to its master that
it followed him about like a dog, and was so
good-tempered with children that it would
even allow them to pull its tail. As the
panther is a wild beast, and fierce by nature,
such gentleness of behaviour was, I must
tell you, very remarkable. One of the pecu-
liarities of this creature was a fondness for
lavender-water, with some of which it was
supplied twice a week by its indulgent owner.
Strange to say, it did not like black people.
This singular creature was brought to England,
where it ended its days.


ALL day the reapers on the hill
Have plied their task with sturdy will,
But now the field is void and still;
And, wandering thither, I have found
The bearded spears in sheaves well hound,
And stacked in many a golden mound."

SOMETIMES the children of the peasantry,
after the sheaves of corn are taken away, go
into the fields to glean, in other words, to
pick up stray stalks of grain that have been
left behind; and I have known a good deal of
wheat collected in this way. The Israelites
were ordered, you remember, to leave the
gleanings of the field for the benefit of the
poor and the stranger.

GREAT is the commotion among the poultry
of the farmyard and other birds when a kite
is perceived hovering overhead. As soon as
the foe is described the small birds will crouch
to the ground and lie there motionless as if
changed into a stone or a clod of earth : this
being their only way of escaping that terribly
quick eye which never fails to discern any
sign of life. The kite does not chase the
swift flying birds through the air. It prefers
taking unfledged ones from the nest, and
often dines upon a partridge which it has
seized while that bird was sitting on the
"ground. It also eats reptiles, such as snakes,
frogs, and lizards.


SPANIARDS live in that sunny land from
which we get oranges, nuts, sherry, and the
fine wool of the Merino sheep. In former
times Spain was a most prosperous country,
and her armies were very formidable; but
it has long since ceased to be of any great
importance in Europe, and, indeed, has been
for years a prey to civil war. One of the
amusements of the people is a particularly
cluel one. At their bull-fights, witnessed by
an immense concourse of people, the unfor-
tunate bull is excited by a red cloth waved
before his eyes-a colour to which he is said
to have a particular objection,-and then he
is goaded to fury by wounds.


THE ocelot, called also the tiger-cat, is a
playful, good-tempered animal, capable of
being domesticated and much attached to
those who feed it. At the same time its
gentleness depends a great deal upon its diet,
for it is much more mild when fed upon
milk, porridge, and vegetables, than when
given animal food in any great quantity.
Sometimes the playfulness of this animal is
ill-timed, as it was on that occasion when a
tame ocelot jumped upon the back of a horse
as it ate its oats in a stable-a liberty which
led to its being thrown to the ground and
kicked. Never after did it enter a stable,
but sought other means of amusing itself.


YOUNG people who have been in India know
that a jungle is a thick wood of small trees
or shrubs, and that tigers are to be seen
there. These animals seek their prey at
night and spend the day in sleep. At dawn
they watch at the edges of the jungle, and
especially at the springs and drinking-places
of the rivers, because here they have a good
opportunity of seizing such animals as are
forced by the heat to seek the cooling stream.
The tiger is readily tamed when taken young,
but its temper is scarcely so much to be
depended on as that of the lion. Keepers,
it is true, enter their cage, but they do so


THERE are nearly a hundred and twenty
thousand different kinds of insects known
to naturalists. Some of these have wings
and others have none; some live on water
and others only do so during the first stage
of their existence. Many live upon plants.
I do not mean that they feed upon them,
though they do that also, but that they make
the leaf of some vegetable or shrub their
dwelling-place. As many as forty different
kinds of insects are said to be quartered on
the common nettle. No doubt one species
devours the other, for the nettle itself would
otherwise be destroyed. The gnat is one of
those insects that spend their early days on
the water.


THE night-jar has been termed the goat-
sucker from a mistaken idea that it sucks
the milk of the goat. It is true that it is
often seen on the different pastures where
sheep and goats feed; but its object in
choosing such hunting-ground is because the
insects it especially likes as food are found
on ground where cattle graze. It usually
takes its prey while on the wing, and as it
has a large appetite it is often very fat in the
autumn. To moths and beetles the capacious
mouth of this bird is a fatal trap. It eats
caterpillars also, but prefers the larger insects.
The night-jar arrives in England about the
middle of May.


THAT figure on horseback is the Sultan of
Turkey, and you see how reverently his sub-
jects bow to him. Yet such monarchs are
rarely allowed to reign long, owing very fre-
quently to their bad and tyrannical conduct.
For this reason many of them have been
forcibly removed from the throne or have
been killed. At the moment I write a change
of sovereignty has just taken place: for
Abdul Aziz Khan, the sultan, has been de-
throned, and his nephew appointed to reign.
When the late sultan visited England a few
years ago, the Queen provided him with a
beautiful white Arabian horse from the royal
stables. Indeed, during the whole of his
stay here he was treated with great kindness.


VENICE is built upon seventy tiny islands,
and when the people want to pass from one
to another they have to enter a boat, such as
that in the picture. Such boats are called
gondolas. In fact, the streets are not dry
land but water. At one time Venice was a
republic,-that is, a state without king, queen,
or emperor,-and it was a city of vast im-
portance; but all its power and glory have
now passed away. I have heard that its
people became lazy and too fond of pleasure,
and that is quite enough to account for the
decay of any state. Shakspeare, our great
poet, has written a play called "The Merchant
of Venice."


THESE two men are Egyptians, natives of
what is supposed to be the oldest kingdom
in the world. There is scarcely any rain in
Egypt, yet the land is very fertile, as it is
watered by the yearly overflowing of the
River Nile. Perhaps it will surprise you to
learn that the cat was held in particular
honour by the ancient Egyptians, by whom
it was valued not only for its domestic uses,
but because it was serviceable in hunting
and fowling, and especially for catching the
water-birds which abounded in the reeds and
sedges of the Nile. I suspect that very re-
markable animal Puss-in-Boots must have
been a descendant of the ancient Egyptian
71 D

To decorate our houses and churches with
the bright-berried holly at Christmas is a
very old custom. Some say it has been
handed down to us from the ancient Britons,
and others think that the practice began with
the early Christians at Rome, who introduced
it to England. The holly is a native of this
country, being found in all our natural forests.
You must not judge of the size of this tree
by the specimen of it you usually see on
lawns and shrubberies, nor yet in woods.
When it has sufficient space it attains, in
time, a great height; but in woods it is gene-
rally overtopped by trees which grow faster.
Its timber is valuable for cabinet-work.


THIs very handsome tree is supposed to be a
native of Asia, and to have been introduced
to this country about three hundred years
ago, or perhaps at a still earlier date. The
wood is inferior to that of some other trees,
and is chiefly used for the manufacture of
boxes and other small articles, for which it is
very suitable on account of its being soft and
easily wrought. The bark is sometimes used
in tanning. In Ireland the nuts are employed
for bleaching linen, and in Turkey they are
ground and mixed with other horse food,
being supposed to be of medicinal value.
Thus it is called horse-chestnut. This tree
is grown from seed.


WHAT happy memories of bygone days are
revived by the picture of a rabbit bounding
across the green sward I see a number of
little girls leave their home on a bright
summer day with the eager expectation of
successful sport. The object of their chase
is-rabbits, and their weapons nothing more
deadly than a little common salt, of which
each young sportswoman holds a tiny parcel
in her hand. They have been told that the
way to catch rabbits is to sprinkle a little
salt on their tails, and the method at once
recommends itself to them as a delightfully
easy one. So they set forth to a certain
avenue skirting a wood and close by a park.


SOON a rabbit is seen to enter the avenue
from the wood, and, in the most obliging
manner, to seat itself right in the middle of
the path, a little in advance of the group of
children. The moment is an exciting one.
Each little girl treads as softly as if she were
Walking upon eggs, and is careful to have her
pinch of salt quite ready. But, ah! the
rabbit has bounded off, and Bessie says it
was all because Sophy pushed against the
laurel-trees and made a rustling. With re-
gard to the game laws, it is the rabbit's
opinion that it would certainly like to be
considered game provided little girls alone
had licenses given to them.


As the shrew is very common in England,
such of you young people as live in the
country may possibly have seen that animal.
Its food consists of insects and worms which
it seeks in the woods, hedges, and fields,
though not without danger of being captured
by its enemies, the owls. The shrew is a
very fast runner, but its legs are of little use
to it when the keen-eyed owl has espied it.
Its feet are as well adapted for digging as for
running, and its habit is to form for its use
underground galleries, to which it hastens at
-the approach of danger. This animal has a
rank, unpleasant smell, and is of a quarrel-
some disposition.


THERE are a great many varieties of the oak,
only two of which are natural to Britain.
You are aware that hundreds of years ago,
when there were but few people on this
island, there were a great many forests that
had never been planted by man. Now, the
trees that grew in these forests we call indi-
genous, because they belong to the country.
In these native forests the most valuable tree
was the oak, its wood being very strong and
durable. For a long time our ships of war
were always built of oak, and were called
the wooden walls of old England. But now
the vessels of the British fleet are .made of
iron, and called ironclads.

SOME of you little people who live in the
country have, perhaps, on some occasions
disturbed this pretty bird as it sat on its nest
in the wood, while you were gathering
flowers. Perhaps you would like to know
something about its habits and history. It
is a native of Asia Minor, from which country
it was brought a thousand years ago. Its
food is very various, consisting of grain,
herbage, roots, berries, and small fruits, and,
just to show that it is not a vegetarian, it
adds insects to its bill of fare. Though it
generally makes its nest on the ground, it has
been known to select the deserted nest of an:
owl or a squirrel.


I HOPE every little girl is fond of babies.
Those of you who have an infant brother or
sister know that the house is ever so much
brighter for the chubby pet with whom you
.cannot be angry though it should tear your
new picture book, and suck the paint off your
wax-doll. Ah, how delightful when boys
continue to be gentle and forbearing with
,their sisters, and when girls are patient and
affectionate with their younger brothers,
though they have outgrown the period of
babyhood. There is nothing that gives so
much happiness as family love, and the time
will come, all too soon, when the sister or
brother now so dear will be separated from
79 D 2


IN villages, when the long nights of winter
have begun, the blacksmith, as he hammers
the red-hot iron on his anvil, is generally
watched by a little group of loiterers who
have gathered at the door of the forge. The
glow of the fire, blown by a huge pair of
bellows, and the scores of sparks which fly
about at every blow from his hammer, have a
great attraction for those outside. You can
easily see that the blacksmith represented
above is making a shoe for that horse which
stands neat him. There was once a black-
smith who always kept a book near at hand,
and so contrived to learn several languages
while working at his forge.


WHEN the egg of the butterfly is ready to be
broken, it is not, as you might suppose, a
little butterfly that comes into the world, but
a caterpillar with a long body divided into
numerous parts. Its head is provided with
horny jaws and several minute eyes. The
legs, of which there are a good many, are
very short: six of them are horny and
pointed, but the others soft. Caterpillars,
which are also called larvae, live for some
time in this condition, and often change their
skin as they increase in size. At length the
insect assumes another form called a chrysalis,
and after appearing quite dead for some time,
it emerges from its case a beautiful butterfly.


MOST of you have seen an elephant, I dare
say, and some of you who have been to the
Zoological Gardens have possibly had a ride
on his back, or rather, in the wooden box
with a seat which is occasionally placed on
his back. This wooden article is something
like an Indian howdah, but is much smaller.
"Well, there are a great many elephants in
India, and when the Prince of Wales went
there one of the native princes, who was very
rich, had a procession of two hundred ele-
phants with howdahs of gold or of silver on
their backs. Elephants soon become tame
and obedient; but they have been known to
resent cruelty by killing their keepers.


THERE was once a little boy who used to get
into a copper, when it wasn't washing-day,
and tell stories and repeat poetry for the
amusement of'his brothers and sisters. He
was very clever at acting and speaking, and
when he came to be a man he was able to
write delightful tales, by means of which he
taught the world to be very kind, and con-
siderate to the poor, and to be generous,
truthful, and unselfish. When he walked
through the streets of London people turned
to look at him with reverence in their hearts,
and when he died thousands of. people who
had never seen him mourned his loss. His
name was Charles Dickens!

THERE is a pigeon which, for its remarkable
love of home, is called by naturalists the
homing pigeon. This bird will always return
to its native place if it can find its way thither,
and this peculiarity has rendered it useful to
man as a carrier. During the siege of Paris,
when no postmen could leave the city, and
when the telegraph wires were broken, there
was no way for the inhabitants to communi-
cate with the outer world than that afforded
by balloons and homing, or carrier, pigeons.
The pigeons, being natives of Paris, were sent
out in balloons. When liberated they flew
back to Paris with the letters that had been
tied to their legs or central tail feathers.


THOSE peculiar-looking men are natives of
Japan, an Eastern country which is a great
'distance from England. If their robes were
not so long as to conceal their feet you would
probably see that they wear wooden clogs or
shoes made of straw: for leather boots and
shoes are not worn in the country of which
I speak. When I tell you, however, that
pastrycooks and confectioners are very nu-
merous there, and also very skilful, and that
pastry served with jam is an important item
in a Japanese repast, it may perhaps appear
to you rather a nice couritry to live in. The
chief product of Japan is silk; but that
subject merits a page to itself.


SILK, a great deal of which comes from
Japan,.as I have already hinted, is the pro-
duct of a worm which, after passing through
the chrysalis state, becomes a moth. The
life of a worm appears to us a very lowly
one, particularly when compared with that
of a bright-winged moth: yet it is the worm
before it becomes a moth that produces an
article which adds much to the splendour
and pomp of the world. This valuable insect
is also a native of China, and it has been
introduced to several countries of Europe.
The curious-looking picture above is the
chrysalis of the silkworm. But the moth
is of great use too, for it lays the eggs.


WE should be badly off for silk without the
mulberry-tree, because its leaves furnish the
food of the silkworm. This tree comes to
perfection in England as well as in Japan, a
fact which has induced some people to unite
for the purpose of growing silk in this
country. As soon as the worm is hatched
it begins to eat mulberry-leaves, of which it
takes ten or fifteen meals a day. When it
can eat no more it climbs upon a branch or
twig, provided for the purpose, and begins to
form its web, which is called a cpcoon. This
is an oval ball of different shades of yellow,
and is in fact a silk house.


How pleasant is the sight of' this family
group! That man is a farm-labourer who
has been busy all day ploughing the land or
threshing the corn, and now his limbs are
very weary and it is a great relief to him to
know that the day's work is over. Still he
is not too tired to take his little girl on his
knee. He must be a kind father or his
children would not be so glad to see him
come home. Look! the dog wants to have
a share in this happy family meeting, and
his master does not leave him out of the
general joy. The next-illustration shows the
outside of this pleasant home.


LET me continue to dwell upon the interior of
this pretty cottage. No doubt Mrs. Labourer
is also tired, when the day is done, with the
many tasks that have fallen to her share
since her husband went out in the morning.
There are no holes to be seen in the children's
clothes, and it must cost her a good deal of
trouble to keep her darlings neat and clean.
Let us hope that they are very obedient and
affectionate, and that, though her back may
have ached as she washed the clothes and
cleaned the cottage, in order to have every-
thing sweet and bright for her husband's
return, her heart was light, because she
toiled for her loved ones.


I HAVE already told you that when Paris was
besieged homing pigeons were sent out of the
city in balloons. Letters also were sent by
this means. In those cases it was not of
course necessary that the balloons should
ascend to any great height, and so there was
the less danger to anyone that was in them.
But sometimes people who go up in this odd
vehicle are induced to ascend too high, and
that is very dangerous, because the atmo-
sphere is unfit to breathe above a certain
height. Do you wonder what it is that
makes the balloon ascend? It is because
it is filled with gas, which is lighter than
the atmosphere.

THOSE holes at which the men are standing
are tan-pits, where the hides of animals are
prepared in such a way that they become
leather, and are rendered fit to make a variety
of useful articles, among which boots and
shoes may be mentioned. It is a curious
fact, showing how silly people may be, that
in Japan all men who follow this trade are
regarded with the strongest dislike. In that
country tanners are compelled to live in vil-
lages by themselves, and are not allowed to
enter the house of any one who does not
belong to the same trade. In explanation of
this strange treatment it is said in Japan
that all tanners are the descendants of Corean


THAT boat contains men who are engaged in
pearl-fishing, and so I had better tell you
something about those pretty white gems
which you have seen in brooches, rings, and
necklaces. There is a very small worm which
is in the habit of boring its way into certain
shell-fish, and it is due to the injury done by
it that pearls are formed. Some of the men
in that boat will dive to the bottom of the
sea in order to get the mussels. They will
have no difficulty in telling which contain
pearls, because the worm always leaves its
mark, and they know that such mussels as
have not been entered by the worm cannot
contain any pearls.

IT is scarcely likely any of you will be able
to guess what those peculiar-looking things
are; unless, indeed, some of you may have
seen just such a cave as that of which the
above is a picture. Those pillars were never
made by the hand of man, but are the result
of a little sportiveness on the part of Nature.
They are formed by the droppings of water
which contains chalk. This water drops
from the roof like a huge icicle, or like the
spire of a church turned the wrong way, and
in its hardened state is called a stalactite;
when the accumulated drops on the floor
form something like a pillar it is termed a

THIS milestone serves to mark the distance
travelled by those wayfarers. It reminds
me that my pen has traversed over all the
pages but one of this little book, and that I
must now say farewell to those youthful
readers who have accompanied me thus far.
I hope that I have not cut the slices of bread
too thick, and laid on the honey too thin: in
other and less figure, tive words, my trust is
that you have been amused, as well as
instructed, in many things which it was
necessary that you should know. No little
boy or girl can thrive on honey alone, so
I have tried to supply you with a sufficiency
of bread also.



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