Front Cover
 Title Page
 House of assembly
 Back Cover

Group Title: proceedings of the governor and Assembly of Jamaica, in regard to the Maroon Negroes:
Title: The proceedings of the governor and Assembly of Jamaica, in regard to the Maroon Negroes
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00029039/00001
 Material Information
Title: The proceedings of the governor and Assembly of Jamaica, in regard to the Maroon Negroes
Physical Description: iv, lxxxix p., 1 l., 109 p. : front. (port.) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Edwards, Bryan, 1743-1800
Publisher: J. Stockdale
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1796
Subject: Maroons   ( lcsh )
History -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00029039
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000911011
notis - AEM0554
lccn - 44038532

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Section I
            A 1
            A 2
            A 3
            A 4
            A 5
            A 6
            A 7
            A 8
            A 9
            A 10
            A 11
            A 12
            A 13
            A 14
            A 15
            A 16
            A 17
            A 18
            A 19
            A 20
            A 21
            A 22
        Section II
            A 23
            A 24
            A 25
            A 26
            A 27
            A 28
            A 29
            A 30
            A 31
            A 32
            A 33
            A 34
            A 35
            A 36
            A 37
            A 38
            A 39
            A 40
        Section III
            A 41
            A 42
            A 43
            A 44
            A 45
            A 46
            A 47
            A 48
            A 49
            A 50
            A 51
            A 52
            A 53
            A 54
            A 55
            A 56
            A 57
            A 58
            A 59
            A 60
            A 61
            A 62
            A 63
            A 64
        Section IV
            A 65
            A 66
            A 67
            A 68
            A 69
            A 70
            A 71
            A 72
            A 73
            A 74
            A 75
            A 76
            A 77
            A 78
            A 79
            A 80
            A 81
            A 82
            A 83
            A 84
            A 85
            A 86
            A 87
            A 88
            A 89
            A 90
    House of assembly
        November 1795
            Monday, 30 November
                B 1
        December 1795
            Thursday, 3 December
                B 2
                B 3
                B 4
                B 5
                B 6
                B 7
        March 1796
            Wednesday, 2 March
                B 8
                B 9
                B 10
                B 11
                B 12
                B 13
                B 14
                B 15
                B 16
                B 17
                B 18
                B 19
                B 20
                B 21
                B 22
                B 23
                B 24
                B 25
                B 26
                B 27
                B 28
                B 29
                B 30
                B 31
            Thursday, 3 March
                B 32
            Wednesday, 23 March
                B 32
                B 33
                B 34
                B 35
                B 36
                B 37
                B 38
                B 39
                B 40
                B 41
                B 42
                B 43
                B 44
                B 45
                B 46
                B 47
                B 48
                B 49
                B 50
                B 51
                B 52
                B 53
                B 54
                B 55
                B 56
                B 57
                B 58
                B 59
                B 60
                B 61
                B 62
                B 63
                B 64
                B 65
                B 66
                B 67
                B 68
                B 69
                B 70
                B 71
                B 72
                B 73
                B 74
                B 75
                B 76
                B 77
                B 78
                B 79
                B 80
                B 81
                B 82
                B 83
                B 84
                B 85
                B 86
                B 87
                B 88
                B 89
                B 90
                B 91
                B 92
                B 93
                B 94
                B 95
            Thursday, 24 March
                B 96
                B 97
        April 1796
            Wednesday, 20 April
                B 98
                B 99
                B 100
                B 101
                B 102
            Saturday, 23 April
                B 103
            Tuesday, 26 April
                B 103
            Wednesday, 27 April
                B 103
                B 104
            Thursday, 28 April
                B 105
            Friday, 29 April
                B 106
                B 107
        May 1796
            Sunday, 1 May
                B 108
                B 109
        B 110
        B 111
        B 112
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
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J" ll fC)N EL ICp a A R D /I7/1 ItilH t /

JL E OINAIR,D ]FA r[3K IN X Cpan of M R NS

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51/*/:^7 ^ ^/fy^Jcat/y




Governor and Affembly of Jamaica,








..- .dND

A Detail of the Origin, Progrefs, and Termination





Printed for JOHN STOCKDALE, Piccadilly.



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A COPY of the Proceedings of the
Governor and Affembly of Jamaica,.
in the difpofal of the Maroons (print-
ed in that island by authority) hav-
ing found its way to the prefs in
London, I was prevailed on to pro-
mife an introdu&ory difcourfe to be
prefixed to the present edition, con-
taining fome account of the Maroon
War; with fuch observations as oc-
curred to me, during a long ac-
quaintance with thofe people, con-
cerning their situation, chara6&er
and manners. This account is now
presented to the reader. It was writ-
ten, and partly printed, previous to
the late unexpeaed difcuflion in the
Houfe of Commons *. My principal
inducement in compiling it was the
: aift O ober.

gratification of the publickcuriofity;
bpt I have now a much fironger
motive for haffening its publication.
The good Faith and Honour, the
humanity and Juftice,, of the Go-
vernment of Jamaica, in the conduct:
v- *s '
of this affair,, have been questioned
by high authority before the Par-
liament of Great Britain. It is pre-
riined thiat the following sheets will
enawle the reader to fo a correct
dgmen on thewhole roceedigs
Sam not confcious of having fup-
preffed a single circu ni ance necef
fary to be known, 'or averted any
ry rted
5oe fas which I do not believe to
1e true,
7th November 1796.
Mr. Fox,.


J AMAICA, as every one knows, was con.
quered from the Spaniards, during the
proteCtorate of Cromwell, in the year i655,
by an armament under the command of Ad-
miral Penn and General Venables. The Spa-
nifh inhabitants are faid to have poffeffed,
before the attack, about i,500 enflaved
Africans, moft of whom, on the surrender of
their masters, retreated to the mountains, from
whence they made frequent excurfions to
harafs the Englifh. Major-general Sedge-
wick, one of the Britifh officers, in a letter
to Secretary Thurloe (1656) predicts, that
thefe blacks would prove a thorn in the fides
of the Englifh. He adds, that they gave no
quarter to his men, but destroyed them
whenever they found opportunity; fcarce a
week paffing without their murdering one or
more of them; and as the soldiers became
more confident and carelefs, the negroes grew
more enterprising and bloody-minded. "Hav-
ing no moral fenfe," continues he, and
"" not understanding what the laws and cuf-
a 6" toms

" toms of civil nations mean, we know not
"4 how to capitulate or treat with any of them.
" But be affured, they muff either be deftroy-
"' ed, or brought in, upon fome terms or
"' other; or elfe they will prove a great dif-
" couragement to the fettling the country."
What he foretold foon came to pafs. At the
latter part of the fame year (1656) the army
gained fome trifling fuccefs against them; but
this was immediately afterwards severely re-
taliated by the laughter of forty soldiers, cut
off as they were carelefsly rambling from
their quarters. A detachment was immediately
fent in purfuit of the enemy, which came
up with and killed even or eight of them;
but they tfill found means means to hold
out, until being hard preffed the year fol-
lowing by Colonel D'Oyley, who, by his
final overthrow of the Spaniards, had taken
from them all hope of future fuccour from
their ancient maflers, they became very much
Itreightened for want of provisions and am-
munition. The main body, under the com-
mand of a negro named Juan. de Bo/as (whofe
place of retreat in the parifh of Clarendon fill
retains his name) at length folicited for peace,
and surrendered to the Englifh on terms of
7 pardon

( ii Ii

pardon and freedom. A large party, however,
(who had now acquired the name of Ma-.
roons *) remained in their retreats within the
mountains; where they not only augmented
their numbers by natural increase, but, after
the island became thicker fown with planta-
tions, they were frequently reinforced by fu-
gitive flaves. At length they grew confi-
dent enough of their force to undertake
defcents upon the interior planters, many of
whom they murdered, from time to time,
without the leaft provocation; and by their
barbarities and outrages intimidated the whites
from venturing to any considerable distance
from the fea coat.
In .663 the Lieutenant-governor, Sir
Charles Lyttelton, and his council, iffued a
The word fignifes, among the Spanifh Americans, ac-
cording to Mr. Long, Hog-bunters: the woods abounding with
the wild boar, and the purfuit of them conflituting the chief em.
ployment of fugitive negroes. Marrino is the Spanilh word for
a young pig. The following is the derivation, however, given ir
the Encyclop6die, article Maron : On appelle marons, dans les
ifles Frangoifes les negres fugitifs. Ce terme vient du mot Ef-
pagnol Simaran qui fignifie un Singe. Les Efpagnols crurent
ne devoir pas faire plus d'honneur leurs malheureux efclaves
fugitifs, que de les appeller hinges, parcequ'ils fe retiroient
comme ces animaux aux fonds des bois et tien fortoient que
pour cueillir des fruits qui fe trouvoient dans les lieux les plus
voifins de leur retrait."
a z proclamation,
a 2 \

Siv )
proclamation, offering a full pardon, twenty
acres of land, and freedom from all manner
of flavery, to each of them who should fur-
render. But I do not find that any ofthem were
inclined to accept the terms offered, or quit
their favage way of life. On the contrary, they
were better pleaded with the more ample
range they poffeffed in the woods, where their
hunting grounds were not yet encroached upon
by settlements. They took effeaual care, in-
deed, that no settlement should be eftablifhed
near them; for they butchered every white
family that ventured to feat itself any confi-
derable distance inland. When the Governor
perceived that the proclamation wrought no
effea, Juan de Bolas, who was now made
Colonel of the Black Regiment, was fent to
endeavour their reduction; but in the profe-
cution of this service he fell into an ambuf-
cade, and was cut to pieces. In March, 1664,
Captain Colbeck, of the white militia, was etn-
ployed for the fame purpofe. He went by fea
to the north fide; and, having gained fome ad-
vantages over the Maroons, he returned with
one who pretended to treat for the reft. This
embaffy, however, was crily calculated to
amufe the whites, andgain fome refpite, for

the Maroons no fooner found themselves in a
condition to ad, and the white inhabitants lull-
ed into'ecurity, than they began to renew hof-
tilities, murdering, as before, every white per-
fon, without diflinAion of fex or age, who
came within their reach..
In this way they continued to diftrefs the
ifland for upward of forty years, during which
time forty-four aas. of Affembly were paffed,
and at leaft .240,0oo expended for their fup-
preffion. In 1730 they were grown fo for-
midable, under a very able general, named
Cudjoe, that it was .found expedient to
strengthen the colony against them by two
regiments of regular troops, which were af-
terwards formed into independent companies,
and employed, with other hired parties, and the
whole body of militia, in their reduAion. -In
the year 1734 Captain Stoddart, who com.-
manded one of thefe parties, projeeaed and exe-
cuted with.great fuccefs, an attack of the Maroon
windward town, called Nauny, fituate on one
of the highest mountains in the island. Hav-
ing provided fome portable fwivel guns, he
silently approached, and reached within a fmall
difance of their quarters undifcovered. After
a 3 halting,

Svi )
halting, for fome time, he began to afcend by
the only path leading to their town. He
found it fteep, rocky, and difficult, and not
wide enough to admit the paffage of two
persons abreaff. However, he furmounted
thefe obstacles; and having gained a fall
eminence, commanding the huts in which the
negroes were afleep, he fixed his little train of
artillery to the beft advantage, and fired upon
them fo brifkly, that many were flain in their
habitations, and several more threw themselves
headlong down precipices. Captain Stoddart
purfued the advantage, killed numbers, took
many prisoners, and in fhort fo completely de-
ftroyed, or routed the whole body, that they
were unable afterwards to effect any enterprise
of moment in this quarter of the ifland.
About the famne time another party of the
blacks, having perceived that a body of the
militia flationed at the barrack of Bagnel's
thicket, in St. Mary's parifh, under the com-
rmand of Colonel Charlton, ftrayed heedlefsly
from their quarters, and kept no order, formed
a proje&E to cut them off, and whilft the
officers were at dinner, attended by a very
few of their men, the Maroons rushed fud-

( vii )
denly fiom the adjacent woods and attacked
them. Several pieces were discharged, the
report of which alarmed the militia, who im-
diately ran to their arms, and came up in time
to refcue their officers from deftruction. The
Maroons were repulfed, and forced to take
shelter in the woods, but the militia did not
think fit to purfue them. Some rumours of
this fkirmifh reached Spanifh Town, which is
distant from the fpot about thirty miles; and,
as all the circumstances were not known, the
inhabitants were thrown into the moft dreadful
alarm, from apprehensions that the Maroons
had defeated Charlton, and were in full march
to attack the town. Afcough, then com-
mander in chief, participating in the general
panick, ordered the trumpets to found, the
drums to beat, and in a few hours collected a
body of horfe and foot, who went to meet the
enemy. On the second day after their de-
parture they came to a place where, by the
fires which remained unextinguifhed, they
flippofed the Maroons had lodged the pre-
ceding night. They therefore followed the
track, and foon after got fight of them. Cap-
tain Edmunds, who commanded the detach-
ment, difpofed his men for aaion; but the
a 4 Maroons

C vii )
Vlll )
Maroons declined engaging, and fled different
ways. Several of them, however, were flain
in the purfuit, and others made prisoners.
Thefe two viaories reduced their strength, and
filled them with fo much terror that they never
afterwards appeared in any considerable body,
nor dared to make any ftand; indeed, from
the commencement of the war till this pe-
riod, they had not once ventured a pitched
battle, but fkulked about the fkirts of remote
plantations, furprifing ftragglers, and murder-
ing the whites by two or three at a time, or
when they were too few to make any refift-
ance. By night, they feized the favourable
opportunity that darknefs gave them, of fteal-
ing into the settlements, where they fet fire to
cane fields and out-houfes, killed all the cattle
they could find, and carried the flaves into
captivity. By this dafardly method of con-
duaing the war, they did infinite mifchief to
the whites, without much expofing their own
perfons to danger, for they always cautioufly
avoided fighting, except with a number fo
difproportionally inferior to themselves as
to afford them a pretty fure expectation
of vidory. They knew every fecret ave-
pue of the country; fo that they could

( ix )
either conceal themselves from purfult, or
fhift their ravages from place to place,
as circumrfances required. Such were the
many difadvantages under which the Englifh
had to deal with thofe defultory foes; who
were not reducible by any regular plan of
attack; who poffeffed no plunder to allure or
reward the affailants ; nor had any thing to lofe,
except life, and a wild and favage freedom.
Previous to the fucceffes above mentioned, the
diftrefs into which the planters were thrown,
may be colletedfrom the fenfe which the legif-
lature of Jamaica expreffed in fome of their
aas. In the year 1733, they fet forth, that
the Maroons had, within a few years, greatly
increased, notwithilanding all the measures
that had then been concerted, and made ufe of,
for their fuppreffion; in particular, that they
had grown very formidable in the North Eaft,
North Weft, and South Weftern diftrias of
the island, to the great terror of his Ma-.
jefty's fubjeas in thofe parts, who had
greatly suffered by the frequent robberies,
murders, and depredations committed by
them; that in the parifhes of Clarendon, St.
Ann, St. Elizabeth, Weftmorland, Hanover,

and St. James's, they were considerably munt-
tiplied, and had large settlements among the
mountains, and leaft acceffible parts; whence
they plundered all around them, and caufed
federal plantations to be thrown up and aban-
doned, and prevented many valuable trads of
land from being cultivated, to the great pre-
judice and diminution of his Majefty's reve-
nue, as well as of the trade, navigation, and
consumption of Britifh manufaaures ; and to-
the manifeft weakening, and preventing fur-.
ther increase of strength and inhabitants, in
the island." We may learn from hence, what
extensive mifchief may be perpetrated by the
moft defpicable and cowardly enemy. The
Affembly, perceiving that the employment of
flying parties had proved ineffefual, by the
length of their marches, the difficulty of fub-'
fifting them in the woods for fo long a time as
the service required, and the facility with
which the Maroons eluded their purfuit, or-
dered several defenfible houfes, or barracks,
fortified with baftions, to be ereaed in dif-
ferent parts, as near as poffible to the enemy's
ncft favourite haunts: in every one of thefe
they placed a strong garrifon, who were regu-

( xi )
larly fubfifted, and roads of communication
were opened from one to the other. Thefe
garrifons were composed of white and black
fhot and baggage negroes, who were all duly
trained. Every captain was allowed a pay of
ten pounds, the lieutenants each five pounds,
ferjeants four pounds, and privates two
pounds per month. They were fubjeaed to
rules and articles of war; and the whole body
put under the Governor's immediate order,
to be employed, conjunftly or separately, as
he should fee occafion. Their general plan of
duty, as direaed by the law, was to make excur-
fions from the barracks, fcower the woods and
mountains, and deftroy the provision gardens
and haunts of the Maroons; and that they
might not return without effeding f6me fer-
vice, they were required to take twenty days
provision with them on every fuch expedi-
tion. Every barrack, besides, was furn;yfJed
with a pack of dogs, provided by the church-
wardens of the refpetive parries; it being
forefeen that thefe animals would prove ex-
tremely ferviceable, not only in guarding
against furprizes in the night, but in tracking
the enemy,

( xii )
This. arrangement was the moft judicious
hitherto contrived for their effedual reduc-
tion ; for fo many fortreffes, ftationed. in the
very centre of their ufual retreats, well fup-
plied with every neceffary, gave the Maroons
a conflant and vigorous annoyance, and in
fhort became the chief means of bringing
on that treaty which afterwards put an, end to
this tiresome war..
About the year 1737, the Affembly resolved
on taking two hundred of the Mofquito In-
dians into their pay, to haften the fuppreflion
of the Maroons. They paffed an at for ren-
dering free Negroes, Mulattoes,, and: In-
dian more ufeful, and forming them into
conrfpanies, with proper encouragements.
Some floops were dispatched to the Mofquito
fhore; and that number of Indians was
brought into the island, formed into compa-
nies under their own officers, and allowed.
forty fillings a month for pay, besides fhoes
and other articles. White guides were affign-
ed to conduct them to the enemy, and they
gave proofs of great fagacity in this service.
It was their praXice to obferve the nmof

{ xiii )

profound Elence in marching to the enemy's
quarters; and when they had once hit upon
a track, they were fure to discover the haunt
to which it led. They effeaed -confiderable
service, and were, indeed, the moft proper
troops to be employed in that species of ac-
tion, which is known in America by the name
of hbufj-fightizg. They were well rewarded
for their good conduit, and afterwards dif-
miffed to their own country, when the paci-
fication took place with the Maroons.
In 1738, Governor Trelawney, by the ad-
vice of the principal gentlemen of the
island, proposed overtures of peace with
the Maroon chiefs. Both parties were ,now
grown heartily wearied out with this tedious
conflict. The white inhabitants wifhed re-
lief from the horrors of continual alarms, the
hardship of military duty, and the intolerable
burthen of maintaining the army. The Ma-
roons were not lefs anxious for an accommo-
dation: they were hemmed in, and clofely
befet on all fides; their provisions destroyed,
and themselves reduced to fo miserable a con-
dition, by famine and incefiant attacks, that
Cud oJ

( iv
Cudjoe afterwards declared, that if peace had
not been offered to them, theyhad no choice left
but either to be ftarved, lay violent hands on
themselves, or furrender to the Englifh at difcre-
tion. The extremity of their cafe, however, was
not at that time known to the white inhabitants,
and their number was fuppofed to be twice as
great as it was afterwards found to be. The
articles of pacification (which I have fubjoin-
ed) were therefore ratified with the Maroon
chiefs, and fifteen hundred acres of land
affigned to one body of them *, and one
thoufand acres to another, which the legislature
fecured to them and their pofterity in perpe-
tuity. The Affembly, by fubfequent laws,
augmented the premium allowed the Maroons
for apprehending fugitive flaves, to three
pounds per head ; and they paffed many other

". This was the body that fettled in Trelawney Town,
and are the ancestors of thofe who have lately taken up
arms. The other Maroon negroes were thofe of Acom-
pong Town, Crawford Town, and Nauny Town, to each
of which lands were allotted. The aggregate number, in
1795, was about 16oo, men, women, and children.

( xv )

regulations for their better government and
proteAion, for preventing their purchasing and
harbouring negro flaves, and for direding in what
manner they should be tried in the cafe of fe-
lony, and other crimes, committed against the
whites t, and thus an end was at length hap-

q- On com laint made, on oath, to a jufliceof peace, of
lany felony, burglary, robbery, or other offence whatsoever,
having been committed by Maroon negroes he is required to
grant a warrant to apprehend the offenders, and to have all
perfons brought before himo,r fome otherrjuffice, that can give
evidence; and if, upon examination, it appears that there are
grounds for public trial, the juice is to commit the accused,
.-unlefs the offence be bailable, and bind over the witneffes.
"They are to be tried where the quarter feffions are held, or
where parochial bufinefs is ufually tranfafaed, in.the fdl-
lowing manner :-Thejuftice is to call in two btherjuftices
(who mufft attend, or forfeit twenty pounds each), and they
are to fummon fifteen perfons, fuch as are usually impanelled
to ferve on juries, to appear at a specified time, ,who forfeit
five pounds each if they negle.t, There muft be ten days
,between the complaint and the triaL Of the fifteen per-
fons summoned, the firft twelve who appear are to compofe
a jury. If the Maroon .be found guilty, the juffices may
give sentence, according to law, of death, transportation,
public whipping, or confinement to hard labour for not
more than twelve months. Execution of women with
child is to be refpited until a rcafonable time after delivery;

( xvi

pily put to this tedious and ruinous contef ; a
contest which, while it lasted, seemed to
portend nothing lefs than the ruin of the
whole colony.

Articles of pacification with the Marons of
Trelawney Town, concluded March the
flrji, 1738-

In the name of God, Amen, WhereaW
Captain Cudjoe, Captain Acompong, Cap-
tai Johnny, Captain Cuffee, Captain Quaco,
and several other Negroes, their dependents
and adherents, have been in a fate of war
and hostility, for several years pait, against
our fovereign lord the King, and the inha-
bitants of this ifland; and whereas peace
and friendfhip among mankind, and the
preventing the effufion of blood, is agreeable

and where sentence of death or transportation ithall be paid
(except for rebellious conIpiracies,) execution is to be re-
fpited until the Governor's pleasure be fignified ; the iu(Iic.s
may alfo refpite the execution of any other featence tl hi
pleaifre be known, if th.e fee caufe. WhTere fever l u.e
capitally convi&ed for the fame offence, one o-Inl is to fur:
deatb, except for murder or rebeiio.


to God, confonant to reafon, and defired by
every good man; and whereas his Majefty
George the Second, King of Great Britain,
France, and Ireland, and of Jamaica Lord,
Defender of the Faith, &c. has by his letters
patent, dated February the twenty-fourth, one
thousand even hundred and thirty-eight, in
the twelfth year of his reign, granted full power
and authority to John Guthrie and Francis Sad-
ler, Efquires, to negotiate and finally conclude
a treaty of peace and friendship with the afore-
faid Captain Cudjoe, and the reft of his captains,
adherents, and others his men; they mutually,
fincerely, and amicably, have agreed to the
following articles: Firft, That all hostilities
hall ceafe on both fides for ever. Secondly,
"That the Aid Captain Cudjoe, the reft of his
captains, adherents, and men, hall be for
ever hereafter in a perfect fate of freedom
and liberty, excepting thofe who have beers
taken by them, or fled to them, within two
years laft paft, if fuch are willing to return
to their faid mafters and owners, with full
pardon and indemnity from their faid mafters
or owners for what is paft; provided always,
b th

( Xviii )
that, if they are not willing to return, they
hall remain in fubjeCtion to Captain Cudjoe
and in friendship with us, according to the
form and tenor of this treaty. Thirdly, That
they hall enjoy and poffefs, for themselves
and pofterity for ever, all the lands fituate
and lying between Trelawney Town and the
Cockpits, to the amount of fifteen hundred
acres, bearing northwest from the faid Tre-
lawney Town. Fourthly, That they hall
have liberty to plant the faid lands with cof-
fee, cocoa, ginger, tobacco, and cotton, and
to breed cattle, hogs, goats, or any other
ftock, and difpofe of the produce or in-
creafe of the faid commodities to the inhabi-
tants of this island; provided always, that
when they bring the faid commodities to
market, they hall apply firft to the cuftos, or
any other magiffrate of the refpe(tive parishes
where they expofe their goods to fale, for a
licence to vend the fame. Fifthly, That
Captain Cudjoe, and all the Captain's adhe-
rents, and people now in fubje6tion to him,
hall all live together within the bounds of
Trelawney Town, and that they have liberty
5 tQ

( xx )
to hunt where they hall think fit, except
within three miles of any settlement, crawl,
or pen; provided always, that in cafe the
hunters of Captain Cudjoe and thofe of other
settlements meet, then the hogs to be equally
divided between both parties. Sixthly, That the
faid Captain Cudjoe, and his flcceffors, do ufe
their beft endeavours to take, kill, fupprefs, or
deftroy, either by themselves, or jointly with
any other number of men, commanded on that
service by his excellency the Governor, or
Commander in Chief for the time being, all
rebels wherefoever they be, throughout this
island, unlefs they fubmit to the fame terms
of accommodation granted to Captain Cudjoe,
and his fucceffors. Seventhly, That in cafe
this ifland be invaded by any foreign enemy,
the faid Captain Cudjoe, and his fucceffors
hereinafter named or to be appointed, hall
then, upon notice given, immediately repair
to any place the Governor for the time b-.
ing hall appoint, in order to repel the faid
invaders with his or their utmoft force, and to
fubmit to the orders of the Commander in
Chief on that occafion. Eighthly, That if
any white man hall do any manner of injury
b 2 to

( xx )
to Captain Cudjoe, his fucceffors, or any of his
or their people, they hall apply to any com-
manding officer or magistrate in the neigh-
bourhood for justice; and in cafe Captain
Cudjoe, or any of his people, hall do any injury
to any white person, he hall fubmit himfelf, or
deliver up fucb offenders to juflice. Ninthly,
That if any negroes fall hereafter run away
from their masters or owners, and fall into
Captain Cudjoe's hands, they fall imme-
diately be lent back to the chief magistrate
of the next parifh where they are taken; and
thofe that bring them are to be satisfied for
their trouble, as the legislature fall appoint .
.Tenthly, That all negroes taken, fince the
xaifing of this party by Captain Cudjoe's
people, fall immediately be returned. Ele-
venthly, That Captain Cudjoe, and his fuccef.
fors, hall wait on his Excellency, or the Com-
mander in Chief for the time being, every
year, if thereunto required. Twelfth, That
Captain Cudjoe, during his life, and the cap-

"* The Affembly granted a premium of thirty fillings
for each fugitive flave returned to his owner by the Ma-
roins, besides expenses.

( xxi )
tains succeeding him, hall have full power to
inflit any punishment they think proper for
crimes committed by their men among them-
felves, death only excepted; in which cafe,, if
the Captain thinks they deferve death, he hall
be obliged to bring them before anyjuftice of
the peace, who hall order proceedings on
their trial equal to thofe of other free
negroes. Thirteenth, That Captain Cudjoe,
with his people, fall cut, clear, and keep
open, large and convenient roads from Tre-
lawney Town to Wefhnorland and St.
James's, and if poffible to St. Elizabeth's.
Fourteenth, That two white men, to be no-
minated by his Excellency, or the Com-
mander in Chief for the time being, hall
conftantly live and refide with Captain Cud-
joe and his fucceffors, in order to maintain
a friendly correspondence with the inhabitants
of this ifland. Fifteenth, That Captain
Cudjoe hall, during his life, be Chief Com-
mander in Trelawney Town; after his de-
ceafe the command to devolve on his brother
Captain Accompong; and in cafe of his de.
ceafe, on his next brother Captain Johnny;
and, failing him, Captain Cuffee (hall succeed;
who is to be succeeded by Captain Quaco;
b 3 an4

( xxi )
and after all their demifes, the Governor, or
Commander in Chief for the time being,
hall appoint, from time to time, whom he
thinks fit for that command.
In testimony, &c. &c.


( xxii


T iiHE preceding Section confifts chiefly of
an extra from the Hiftory of Jamaica,
by EDWARD LONG, Efq. published in 1774,
whofe account I have chofen to adopt, rather
than offer a narrative of my own; for two rea-
fons, firit, because I have nothing to add, con-
cerning the origin of the Maroons, to what
Mr. Long has fo diftindly related; and, fe-
condly, because its adoption exempts me
from all fufpicion of having fabricated a
tale, calculated to juftify certain circum-
ftances and tranfations, of which complaint
was made in the Britifh Parliament*, and
to which due attention hall hereafter be
paid. In the meanwhile I hall take up and
continue the fubjea where Mr. Long left it,
beginning with fome reflections on the fitua-
tion, character, manners, and habits of life of
the Maroon negroes; and thus tracing the
caufe of their late revolt to its origin.
"* March 1796.
b 4- The

The claufe in the treaty, by which thefe
people were compelled to refide within cer-
tain boundaries in the interior country, apart
from all other negroes, was founded, probably,
on the apprehenfion that, by suffering them
to intermix with the negroes in flavery, the
example which they would thereby conti-
nually present of fuccefsful hoftility, might
prove contagious, and create in the minds of
the flaves an impatience of fubordination, and
a difpofition for revolt: but time has abun-
dantly proved that it was an ill-judged and a
fatal regulation. The Maroons, instead of being
eftablifhed into separate hordes or communi-
ties, in the firongef parts of the interior coun-
try, fllould have been encouraged by all pof-
fible means to frequent the towns and to in-
termix with the negroes at large. All diftinc-
tion between the Maroons and the other free
blacks would foon have been loft; the greater
number would have prevailed over the lefs:
whereas the policy of keeping them a distinct
people, continually inured to arms, intro-
duced among them what the French call an
efprit de corps, or a community of sentiments

( xxv )
and interefts: and concealing from them the
powers and resources of the whites, taught
them to feel, and at the fame time highly to
overvalue, their own relative strength and im-
It has been urged against the colonial legift
lature, as another, and a fill greater, overnight,
that after the conclusion of the treaty, no
manner of attention was given to the im-
provement of thefe ignorant people in civil
lization and morals. The office of fupermii-!
tendant, it has been faid, and I believe truly,
was commonly beftowed on perions of no
education or confequence, and foon became a
mere Jinecure. Mr. Long obferved, many
years ago, that the Maroons would probably
prove more faithful allies, and better fubjed(s,
if pains were taken to inftil into their minds a
few notions of honefty and religion; and the
eftabliihment of schools, and the erection of
a chapel in each of the towns, were recom-.
mended, as measures of indifpenfible neceffity.
That thefe obfervations are altogether ill
founded, I will not prefume to affirm. Man,
in his iavage ftate, in all parts of the world,

( xxvi )
is the flave of fuperftition; and it is the duty
and policy of a good government (let its fyf-
tem of religion be what it may) to direct the
weakneffes of our fellow creatures to the pro-
motion of their happinefs. The Chriftian is
not only the beft fyftem of religion calculated
for the attainment of that end, but, by leading
the mind to the knowledge of truth and im-
mortality, contributes more than any other to
amend the heart, and exalt the human cha-
rader. It is a fyflem of humility, meeknefs,
and loving kindnefs : and although we should
admit, with the eloquent historian of the Ro-
man Empire *, that the fuperftitions of
Paganifm always bore the appearance of plea-
fure, and often of virtue we muft, at the
fame time, allow that they afforded no con-
folation to the wretched; they furnished but
few leffons of justice, and none of forgive-
nefs and mercy !
Of thefe high and important truths I hope
that I am fully fenfible. Yet I cannot fup-
prefs the opinion which I have long fince en-
tertained, that the conversion of favage men
from a life of barbarity to the knowledge and


( xvii )
practice of Chriftianity, is a work of much
greater difficulty than many pious and excel-
lent perfons in Great Britain feem fondly t6
Concerning the Maroons, they are in ge.'
neral ignorant of our language, and all of
them attached to the gloomy fuperftitions of
Africa (derived from their ancestors) with
fuch enthufiaftick zeal and reverential ardour,
as I think can only be eradicated with their
lives. The Gentoos of India are not, I con-
ceive, more fincere in their faith, than the ne-
groes of Guinea in believing the prevalence of
Obi, and the supernatural power of their Obeab
men. Obstacles like thefe, accompanied with
the fierce and fordid manners which I hall
prefently defcribe, few clergymen would, I
think, be pleaded to encounter, left they might
experience all the fufferings, without acquir-
ing the glory of martyrdom.
Under difadvantages of fuch magnitude was
founded the firft legal eftablifhment of our
Maroon allies in Jamaica. Inured, for a long
series of years, to a life of warfare within the
ifland, it is a matter of aftonifhment that they
submitted, for any length of time, to any fyftem
of fubordination or government whatever. It is

( xxviii
probable they were chiefly induced to remain
quiet by the great encouragement that was
held out to them for the apprehending fu.
gitive flaves, and being allowed to range over
the uncultivated country without interruption,
poffeffing an immenfe wildernefs for their
hunting grounds. Thefe purfuits, by giving
full employment to the reftlefs and turbulent
among them, diverted them from fchemes of
greater enterprise and projeAs of mifchief.
Their game was the wild boar, which abounds
in the interior parts of Jamaica; and the Ma-.
roons had a method of curing the flefh with-
out falling it. This commodity they fre-
quently brought to market in the towns; and,
with the money arifing from the fale, and the
rewards which they received for the delivery
to their owners of runaway flaves, they pur-
chafed faulted beef, fpirituous liquors, tobacco,
fire-arms, and ammunition, getting little or
no account on clothing of any kind, and
regarding as fuperfluous and ufelefs, moft of
thofe things which every people, in the loweft
degree of civilization, would consider as al-
moft absolutely neceffary to human exif-

(xxix )

Their language was a barbarous diffonance
of the African dialeas, with a mixture of Spa-
nilh and broken Englifh; and their thoughts
and attention seemed wholly engroffed by
their present purfuits, and the objecs imme-
diately around them, without any refleCtions
on the paft, or folicitude for the future. Ia
common with all the nations of Africa, they
believed, however, as I have observed, in the
prevalence of Obi (a fort of witchcraft of
moft extensive influence) and the authority
which fuch of their old men as had the repu-
tation of wizards, or Obeab-men, poffeffed
over them, was sometimes very fuccefsfully
employed in keeping them in fubordination to
their chiefs.
Having, in the resources that have been
mentioned, the means of procuring food for
their daily support, they had no inclination
for the purfuits of fober industry. Their
repugnance to the labour of tilling the earth
was remarkable. In fome of their villages I
never could perceive any veftige of culture
but the situation of their towns, in fuch cafes,
was generally in the neighbourhood of plan-
tations belonging to the whites, from the

( xxx )
provifion-grounds of which they either pur-
chafed, or ftole, yams, plantains, corn, and
other efculents. When they had no fupply
of this kind, I have sometimes observed finally
patches of Indian corn and yams, and per-
haps a few ftragglin'g plaintain trees, near
their habitations; but the ground was always
in a shocking ftate of neglect and ruin.
The labours of the field, however, fuch
as they were (as well as every other species of
drudgery) were performed by the women, who
had no other means of clearing the ground
of the vaft and heavy woods with which it
is every where incumbered, than by placing
fire round the trunks of the trees, till they
were consumed in the middle, and fell by
their own weight. It was a service of dan-
ger; but the Maroons, like all other favage
nations, regarded their wives as fo many
beats of burthen; and felt no more concern
at the lofs of one of them, than a white
planter would have felt at the lofs of a bul-
lock. Polygamy too, with their other African
customs, prevailed among the Maroons uni-
verfally. Some of their principal men claim-
ed from two to fixwives, and the miferies of

( xk~xi )

their situation left thefe poor creatures neither
leifure nor inclination to quarrel with each
This fpirit of brutality, which the Maroons
always difplayed towards their wives, extend-
ed in fome degree to their children. The
parental authority was at all times moft
harshly exerted; but more especially towards
the females. I have been affured that it was
not an uncommon circumstance for a father,
in a fit of rage or drunkennefs, to feize
his own infant, which had offended him by
crying, and dafh it against a rock, with a de-
gree of violence which often proved fatal.
This he did without any apprehension of pu-
nifhment; for the fuperintendant, on fuch oc-
cafions, generally found it prudent to keep his
distance, or be filent. Nothing can more
firikingly demonstrate the forlorn and abje&t
condition of the young women among the
Maroons, than the circumstance which every
gentleman, who has vifited them on, feftive
occasions, or for the gratification of curiosity,
knows to be true; the offering their own
daughters, by the firft men among them,
to their visitors; and bringing the poor girls

( xxxii )
forward, with or without their content, for the
purp fe of profti ution.
Vifits of this kind (though I believe not
frequent) were indeed but too acceptable both
to the Maroons and their daughters; for they
generally ended in drunkennefs and riot.
The visitors too were not only fleeced of their
money, but were likewise obliged tofurnijh the
feaft, it being indifpenfibly neceffary, on fuch
occasions, to fend beforehand wine and pro-
vifions of all kinds; and if the guests expeft-
ed to fleep on beds and in linen, like gentle-
men, they muft provide thofe articles alfo for
thenrfelves. The Maroons, however, if the
party confifted of perfons of confequence,
would consider themselves as highly honoured,
and would fupply wild boar, land-crabs, pi-
geons, and fi h, and entertain their guefts with
a hearty and boisterous kind of hospitality,
"which had at leaft the charms of novelty and
fingularity to recommend it.
On fuch occasions, a mock fight always
conftituted a part of the entertainment. Mr.
Long has given the following description of a
fcene of this kind, which was exhibited by
the Trelawney-Town Maroons, in the presence

( xxxiii )

6of the Governor, in 1764. No fooner (he
obferves) did the horn found the final, than
they all joined in a moft hideous yell, or war-
hoop, and bounded into aaion. With amaz-
ing agility they ran, or rather rolled, through
their various firings and evolutions. This
part of their exercise, indeed, more juftly
deserves to be filed evolution than any that is
pradifed by the regular troops; for they fire
looping almost to the very ground; and no
fooner is the piece discharged, than they
throw themselves into a thousand antick gef-
tures, and tumble over and over, fo as to be
continually shifting their place; the intention
of which is to elude the fhot, as well as to
deceive the aim of their adversaries, which
their nimble and almoft inflantaneous change
of position renders extremely uncertain.
When this part of their exercise was over,
they drew their words; and winding their
horn again, began, in wild and warlike gef-
tures, to advance towards his Excellency,
endeavouring to throw as much favage fury
into their looks as poffible. On ap-
proaching near him, fome waved their rufty
blades over his head, then gently laid them
c upon

( xxxiv
upon it:; whilft others clafhed their arms tu
gether in horrid concert. They next brought
their mufkets, and piled them up in heaps at-
his-feet, &c. &c."
With all this seeming fury and affeaedi
bravery, however, I fufped& that they are far
below the whites in personal valour. Their
mode of fighting in real war, is a fyftem of
ftratagem, bufh-fighting, and ambufcade. I
will not, indeed, affirm that fuch a fyftem,
alone, though it displays no proof of courage,
is absolutely evidence to the contrary. I be-
lieve it is the natural mode of attack and de-
fence, and that the praaice of open war,
among civilized nations, is artificial and ac-
quired. It is rather from. their abominable and
habitual cruelty to their captives, and, above
all, to women, and children, and from the
shameful and shocking enormities which they
praftife on the dead bodies of their enemies,
that I infer the deficiency of the Maroons, in
the virtue of true courage. In their treat-
ment of fugitive flaves-: they manifeft a
blood-thirftinefs of difpofition,, which is
otherwise unaccountable ; for,, although their
vigilance is stimulated by the profpea of re-

""( xa )

Warcd they can have no poffible motives of
revenge or malice towards the unfortunate ob-
jeas of their purfuit yet it is notorioufly
true, that they wifh for nothing more than a
pretence to put the poor wretches to death;
frequently maiming them without provoca-
tion; and, until mile-money was allowed by
the legislature, oftentitnes bringing home. the
head of the fugitive, instead of the living man;
making the plea of refiftance an excufe for
their barbarity.
In the year 1766, an occasion occurred of
putting the courage, fidelity, and humanity
of there people to the teft. The Koromantyat
flaves, in the parish of -St Mary, rofe into
rebellion, and the Maroons were called
upon, according to treaty, to co-operate in-
their fuppreffion. A party of them accord-'
ingly arrived at the feene of a&ion, the feeond&
or third day after the rebellion had broken
out. The .whites had already defeated the
infurgents, in a pitched battle, at Heywood.
Hall, killed eight or nine of their number,
and driven the remainder into ,the woods,
The Maroons were ordered to purfue them,
and were promised a certain reward for each'
c 2 rebel

( xxxvi )

rebel they might kill or take prisoner. They
accordingly pufhed into the woods, and after
rambling about for a day or two,. returned,
with a colle8ion- of human ears,. which they
pretended to have cut off from the heads of
rebels they had flain in battle, the particulars
of which they minutely related. Their re-
port was believed, and they received the
money ftipulatedto be'paid them; yet it was
afterwards found that they had not killed a
man; that no engagement had taken place,
and that the ears which they had produced,
had beera fevered from the dead bodies which
had lain unburied at Heywood-Hall.
"Some few days after this, as the Maroons,
and a detachment of the 74.th regiment, were
frationed at a folitary place, surrounded by
deep woods, called Downs's Cove, they were
suddenly attacked in the middle of the night.
by the rebels. The centinels were fhot, and
the huts in which the soldiers were lodged,
were fet on. fire.. The light of the flames,,
while it expofed the troops, served to conceal
the rebels, who poured in a shower of muf-
quetry from all quarters, and many of the:
soldiers were flain. Major Forfyth, who
comm handed

( xxxvii )

commanded the detachment, formed his
men into a fquare, and by keeping up a brifk
fire from all fides, at length compelled the
enemy to retire. During the whole of this
affair the Maroons were not to be found, and
Forfyth, for fome time, fiifpeted that they
were themselves the, affailants. It was
discovered, however, that immediately on
the attack, the whole body of them had
thrown themselves flat on the ground, and
,continued in that position until the rebels
retreated, without firing or receiving a
A party of them, however, had afterwards
the merit .(a merit of which they loudly
boafted) of killing the leader of the rebels.
He was a young negro of the Koromantyn
nation, named Tackey, and it was faid had
been of free condition, and even a chieftain,
in Africa. This unfortunate man, having
feen moaftof-his companions slaughtered, was
discovered wandering in the woods without
arms or clothing, and was immediately pur-
fued by the Maroons, in full cry. The chafe
was of no long duration,; he was thot through
4the head; and it is painful to relate, but un-
c 3 queftionably

XXXVii )

queftionably true, that his favage purfuers,
having decollated the body, in order to preserve
the head as the trophy of victory, roafted and
-adually devoured the heart and entrails of the
wretched vi-iim *
The mifconduwt of thefe people in this re-
bellion, whether proceeding from cowardice
or treachery, was, however, overlooked. Li-
ving fecluded from the reft of the community,
they were fuppofed to have no knowledge of
:the rules and reftraintsfto which all other claffes
of the inhabitants were fubjedt; and the vigi-
lance of justice notwithstandingg what has
recently happened) feldom purfued them,
even for offences of the mroft atrocious
In truth, it always seemed to me, that the
whites in general entertained an opinion of the

The circumstances that I have related concerning the
condu& of the Maroons, in the rebellion of 1760, are
partly founded on my own knowledge and personal obfer-
vation at the time (having been myfelf present;) or from
the testimony of eye witneflfs, men of charaEter and pro-
bity. The shocking fa& laft mentioned was attested by
federal white people, and was not attempted to be denied or
"concealed by the Maroons themselves. They seemed in-
deed to makg it the fubje$ of b9afting and triumph.

xXxix )
ufefulnefs of the Maroons; which no part of
their conduct, at any one period, confirmed.
"--Poffibly their personal appearance contri-
.buted, in fome degree, to preferve the delufion;
for, favage as they were in manners and dif-
pofition, their mode of living and daily pur-
fuits undoubtedly strengthened the frame,and
fveaed to exalt them to great bodily perfec-
tion. Such fine perfons are feldom beheld
among any other clafs -of African or native
blacks. Their demeanour is lofty, their walk
firm, rand their perfons ered. Every motion
difplaysa .combination of strength and agi-
lity. The mufcles (neither hidden nor de-
preffed by clothing) are very prominent, and
strongly marked. Their fight withal is won-
"derfully acute, and their hearing .remarkably
quick, Thefe charadterifticks, however, are
common, I believe, to all favage nations, in
warm and temperate climates; and, like other
favages, the Maroons have thofe fenfes only
perfea, which'are kept in conftantexercife.
"Their fmell is obtufe, and their tate fo-de-
-depraved, that I have feen them drink new
sum frefh from the fill, in preference to
wine which I offered them; and I remem-
c 4 ber,

( xl )
ber, at a great festival in one of their towns,
which I attended, that their highest luxury,
in point of food, was fome rotten beef which
had been originally faulted in Ireland, and was
probably presented to them, by fome perfon
who knew their tafte, because it was putrid.
Such was the fiiuation of the Maroon Ne-
groes of Jamaica, previous to their late re.,
volt; and the piaure which I have drawn
of their charader and manners, was deline-
ated from the life, after long experience and
observation. Of that revolt I hall now
proceed to describe the caufe, progress, and
termination; and, if I know myfelf, without
partiality or prejudice *.

^ It should not be omitted, that of late years a practice
has universally prevailed among the Maroons (in imitation
of the other free blacks) of attaching themselves to differ
ent families among the Englifh; and defiring gentlemen of
consideration to allow the Maroon children to bear their
names. Montague James, John Palmer, Tharp, Jarrett,
Parkinfon, Shirley, White, and many others, are names
adopted in this way; and I think great advantages might be
derived from it if properly improved.


( x1i )


SN the month of July 1795, two Maroons,
from Trelawney-Town, having committed
a felony in stealing fome pigs, were apprehend-
ed, fent to Montego Bay, and there tried for
the offence according to law. Having been
found guilty by the jury, the magistrates or-
dered each of them to receive thirty-nine
lafhes on the bare back. The sentence was
executed accordingly. They were whipped
in the workhoufe, by the black overfeer of
the workhoufe negroes; the person whofe
office it is to inflict punishment on fuch occa-
fions. The offenders were then immediately
discharged; and they went off, with fome of
their companions, abufing and insulting every
white person whom they met in the road.
On their return to Trelawney-Town, and
giving an, account of what had paffed, the
whole body of Maroons immediately affem-
bled; and after violent debates and alterca-
tions among themselves, a party of them re-
paire.d to Captain Crafkell, the fuperinten-
dant, and ordered him, in the name of the


whole, to quit the town forthwith, under
pain of death. He retired to Vaughan's-
field, a plantation in the neighbourhood; and
exerted himfelf, by friendly meffages and
Sotherwife, to pacify the Maroons; but with-
put effect They fent a written defiance to
the magiftrates of Montego Bay, declaring
their intention to meet the white people in
arms, and threatening to attack the town on
the zoth of that month (July). In the
mean while an attempt was made on Cap-
tain Crafkells life, and he very narrowly
Alarmed by the receipt of this letter, and
the intelligence which was received of the
-temper and difpofition of the Maroons, 'the
magistratess applied to General Palmer, re-
quefling him to call out the militia; which
was done; and the General fent an exprefs
to the Earl of Balcarres, in Spanifh-Town,
praying his Lordfhip to fend down a detach-
ment of the Jamaica dragoons. Eighty men
were accordingly fent, well accoutred and
The militia affembled on the x9th of July,
to the number of four hundred; and while
8 they

( xliii )

they were waiting for orders, one of the
Maroons, armed with a lance, made his ap-
pearance, and informed the commanding
officer, that they wished to have a conference
in Trelawney-Town, with John Tharp, Efq.
(the Cuftos and Chief Magiftrate of Tre-
lawney) Meffrs. Stewart and Hodges, the
Members in the Affembly, and Jarvis Gal,
limore, Efq. Colonel of the Militia.
As this meffage seemed to manifeft a difg
inclination, on the part of the chief body of
the Maroons, to proceed to hoflilities, .the
gentlemen above named very readily accepted
the invitation, and proceeded to the town the
next day (the 20th). They were accompa-
nied by Colonel Thomas Reed, of the St.
James's militia, a very diftinguifhed and gal-
lant officer, and a man of the highest ho-
pour and charader, by other perfons of con-
fideration; and alfo by Major James, whofe
fon had formerly aaed as fuperintendant of
the town, who was himself fuperintendant-
general of all the Maroon towns in the island,
and was fuppofed to have more weight and
to poffefs greater influence with the Maroons,
than any other man in the country.

( xliv )
"The Maroons received them under arms.
There appeared about three hundred able
men, all of whom had painted their faces for
battle, and seemed ready for a&ion; and they
-behaved with fo much insolence, that the
gentlemen were at firft exceedingly alarmed
for their own safety. A conference however
enfued; in which it was obfervable that the
Maroons complained-not of the injuftice or
-feverity of the punishment which had been
inflied on 'two of their companions; but-of
the disgrace which they infifted the magi-
frates -of Montego Bay had put on their
whole body, by ordering the punishment to
be infliited in the workhoufe by the black
overfeer.or driver, and in the presence of fugi-
tive and felon negroe flaves, many of whom they
had themselves apprehended *. They con-
cluded by demanding reparation for this in-
dignity; an .addition to the lands they pof-
It certainly is to be wifhed, that ,ome little attention had
been paid, by the magiflrates, to the pride or the prejudices of
the Maroons in this refpe&. The law however is wholly filent
on this head, and the court had a right to exercise its difcretion.
The punishment, and the mode of adminiftring it, were ftridly
Qegal; and a white offender in a similar cafe would have been
pihipped by the fame man.

( xlv )

feffed, the difmiffion of Capt. Crafkell, and;
the appointment of Mr.James, their former
The gentlemen had certainly no authority
to agree to any of thefe requifitions; they
promised however to fate their grievances
to the commander in chief, and to recom-
mend to the legislature to grant them an ad-
dition of land. In the meanwhile, they af-
fured the Maroons they would request the-
Governor to provide otherwise for Capt.
Crafkill their fuperintendant, and to re-ap-
point in his room their favourite Mr. James.
With thefe affurances the Maroons seemed
pacified, and declared they had nothing further
to aik ; and the gentlemen, having distributed
a considerable fum of money amongft them,
returned to Montego Bay.
It foon appeared however,, that the Ma-
roons, in defiring this conference, were ac-
tuated folely by motives of treachery. They
were apprized that a fleet of 50o fhips
was to fail for Great Britain on the morn-
ing of the 26th; and they knew that
very few Britill troops remained in the
Ifland, except the 83d regiment, aind that
this very regiment was, at that juncture,

( xlvi )

tinder orders to embark for St. Domingo i
they hoped, therefore, by the fpecious and
delufive appearance of defiring a conferences
to quiet fufpicion, until the July fleet was
failed, and the regulars fairly departed. In
the meanwhile, they pleaded themselves with
the hope of prevailing on the negroe flaves
throughout the Ifland to join them; and by
rifing in a mafs, to enable them to extermi-
nate the whites at a blow,
The very day the conference was held, they
began tampering with the negroes on the nu-
merous and extenfive plantations in the neigh.
bourhood of Montego Bay*. On fome of thefe
plantations their emiffaries were cordially
received and fecreted: on others, the flaves
themselves voluntarily apprized their over-
feers, that the Maroons were endeavouring to
feduce them from their allegiance. Infor-
mation of this nature was transmitted from
many refpeftable quarters; but moft of the
gentlemen who had vifited the Maroons on
the 20th, were fo confident of their fidelity
and .afecion, that the Governor, disbelieving

"* Trelawney Town is fituated within 20 miles cf the towri
and harbour of Montego Buy,

( xtvii

the charges against them, was prevailed on toi
let the troops embark as originally intended.
and they adually failed from Port Royal ori
the morning of the 29th, under convoy of the
Succefs Frigate.
In the course of that, and the two fuc-
ceeding days, however, fuch intelligence was
received at the King's houfe, as left no poflible
room to doubt the treachery of thefefaithfu[
and afJe5ionate people; and the Earl of Bal-
carres, with that promptitude and deciiioai
"which diftinguifh his character determined oif
a line of conduct adapted to the importance of
the occasion. The course from Port.Royal
to St. Domingo (as the reader is perhaps in-
formed) is altogether against the wind, and?
there is sometimes a firong lee current: as was,
fortunately the cafe at this juncture. Thefe
were favourable circumffances, and afforded&
the Governor room to hope that the tranf-
ports which conveyed the troops might pof-
fibly be overtaken at fea, by a faft failing,
boat, from the eaft end of the ifland, furniflh-
ed with oars for rowing in the night. His
Lordfhip was not mistaken; the boat which.
was provided came up with them on the 24z
of Auguft, off the north-eaft end of Jamaica,

( xlviii )

and delivered orders to Captain Pigot of the
Succefs, forthwith to change his course, and
proceed with the tranfports down the north
fide of the Ifland to Montego Bay. Captain
Pigot immediately obeyed; and by this happy
accident the country was faved.
The 83d regiment, confifting of upwards
of one thousand effective men, commanded by
Colonel Fitch, landed at Montego Bay on
Tuesday the 4th of Auguff. At this moment,
although the Militia of this part of the coun-
try were under arms, and had been joined by
the detachment of light dragoons, the utmoft
anxiety was vifible in every countenance,
The July fleet was failed; and the certainty
that the Maroons had colleaed great quan-
tities of arms and ammunition, and that
they had been tampering with the flaves,
and the uncertainty of the fuccefs and ex-
tent of their machinations, had caft a gloom
on the face of every man; and while rumours
of plots and confpiracies diftraded the minds
of the ignorant, many among the moft
thoughtful and confederate, anticipated all the
horrors of St. Domingo, and in imagination
already beheld their houses and plantations in
flames, and their wives and children bleeding

( xlix )

under the words of the moft mercilefs of
The fudden and unexpeded arrival of fo
powerful a reinforcement, in the moft critical
moment, immediately changed the fcene.
But further measures were adopted. By the
advice of a council of war, composed chiefly of
members of the Affembly, the Governor put
the whole Ifland under martial law. A further
reinforcement of 130 well mounted dragoons
under the command of Colonel Sandford, and
a detachment of xoo men of the 62d regi-
ment, were fent down on the 3d: Colonel Wal-
pole, with 150 difmounted dragoons, embarked
at the fame time for Black River, to command
the forces in St. Elizabeth and Weftmoreland,
and on the morning of the 4th, the Governor
himself left Spanifh Town for Montego Bay;
determined to command on the fcene of
action in person.
The reader will eafily conceive, that mea-
fures of fuch extent and magnitude were not
adopted folely in the belief that the Maroons
alone were concerned. It muft be repeated,
that the moft certain and abundant proofs had
been transmitted to the commander in chief,
d of

of their attempts to create a general revolt .f
the enflaved negroes, and it was impoffible to
forefee the refult. The situation of the flaves,
under prevailing circumflances, required the
moftferious attention. With the recent example
before- their eyes of the dreadful infurredtion
in St. Domingo, they bad been accustomed,
for the preceding even years, to hear of no-
thing but Mr. Wilberforoe, and his efforts to,
ferve them in Great Britain. Means of informa-
tion were not wanting. Infltrudors were con-
ftantly found among the black fervants conti-
nually returning from England,; and I have not
the fmalleft doubt that the negroes on every
plantation in the Weft Indies, were taught to
believe that their mafters were generally con-
fidered in the mother country, as a fet of
odious and ab-ominable mifcreants, whom it
Was laudable to maffacre The Society in the
Old Jewry had made no fcruple to avow this
dodrine in its fulleft extent, hy causing pam-
phlets to be distributed among fich of the ne-
groes as could read, and medals among fuch of
them as could not, to apprize them of the
wretchednefs of their situation, and to affure
them, in language arnd tokens well fuited to,

their capacity, that infurreElion was their aduly,
and that no cruelties, which they jfould commit in
the exercise of fuch a duty, could be considered as
criminal. *
", Having mentioned the name of a very refpeftable gerin
tleman (Mr. Wilberforce) I think it my duty to declare, that
I very-fincerely acquit him of any fuch atrocious wifhes or
intentions as, I have imputed to the Society in the Old Jewry
With regard to this Society, notwithstanding their public
declaration, that their efforts were meant only to put a period
to the Slave Trade, and by no means to interfere with the
actual condition of the enflaved negroes already in the pian-
tations, I do aver, that they purfued a line of condunTdi-&
redtly and immediately repugnant and contradi&ory to theiP
own profeffions. In many of the pamphlets and traa6
which they caufed to be distributed, throughout the Suigar
Colonies, arguments are exprefsly adduced, in language
which cannot be mifunderftood, to urge the negroes to rife
into rebellion, and murder their maflers.' In one of- hodfe
pamphlets, entitled, A Letter to Granville Sharpe, Efq. from
the Rev. Percival Stockdale, the reverend writer, after
pouring forth his earnest prayers for a fpeedy infurrea6ion -of
the enflaved negroes throughout the Britifh Weft Indies;
exclaims- as follows: "Should we not approve their con-
"( dud in their violence ? Should we not crown it with -eu-
logium, if they exterminate their tyrants with fire and
fword ? Should they even deliberately infJil the mof/ ex
", quplte tortures on thofe tyrants, would they not be excufable,
" &c.&c." Thir, and much more to the fame purpose, ii
the. language of a chriftian divine, addreffed to Granville
Sharp; yet I do not hear that either he, or Mr. Sharp, is in
Bedlam !
d The

( 1ii
The wifdom, decision, and adivity of the
Earl of Balcarres, on the present occafion, de-
feated all the projects, and rendered abortive
all the hopes of thefe pefilent reformers.
The effed of his Lordfhip's conduct thence-
forward, on the minds of the enflaved negroes
throughout the whole country, was wonder-
ful. Submiffion, tranquillity, and good order
prevailed universally among them. The cir-
cumflance attending the return of the 83d re-
giment, induced them to believe that Heaven
itself had declared in favour of the Whites,
and that all attempts at refiftance were not
only unavailing, but impious.
The Maroons themselves became divided in
their councils. Many of the old and experi-
enced among them, even in Trelawney Town,
the head quarters of edition, recommended
peace; and advifed their companions to poft-
pone their vengeance to a better opportunity;
and the whole of the Acompong people de-
clared in favour of the Whites. It was-deter-
mined, however, by a very great majority of
the Trelawney Maroons, to fight the Bucras
(meaning the white people). This was their
exprefion. The violent councils of the

liii )

younger part of their community prevailed;
moft ,of whom were' inflamed with,. a degree&
of favage fury against the Whites, which fet at
nought all considerations of prudence, policy,
and humanity.
The Commander in chief, however, previous
to any hostile movement, determined to fry
once more to effeEt an accommodation. As it
was evident the Maroons consulted fome per-
fon who could read and write, his Lordfhip, on
the 8th of Augufl, fent into their town a writ-
ten meffage or fummons in the following

'To the Maroons of Trelawney Town.

You have entered into a moft unprovoked,
ungrateful, and moft dangerous rebellion.
You have driven away your fuperinten-
dant, placed over you by the laws of this
You have treated him, your Commander,
with indignity and contempt. You have en-
deavoured to maffacre him.
You have put the Magiftrates of the
country, and all the white people, at defiance,
d3 "You

( liv )
You have challenged, and offered them
You have forced the country, which has
long cherifhed and foftered you as its children,
to consider you as an enemy.
Martial law has in confequence been pro-
Every pafs to your town has been occu-
pied and guarded by the militia and regular
"^ You are surrounded by thousands.
Look at Montego Bay, and you will fee
the force brought against you.
"c I have iffued a proclamation, offering a
reward for your heads; that terrible edidt will
not be put in force before Thurfday, the i 3th
day of Auguft.
To avert thefe proceedin-gs, I advife and
eomntand every Maroon of Trelawnrey Town,
capable of bearing arms, to appear before me
at Montego Bay, on Wednefday the 2th day
ofAuguft infant, and there fubmit themselves
to his Majefty's mercy.
"( On fo doing, you will escape the effects of
the dreadful command, ordered, to be put into
execution on Thurfday, the 3th Day of Au-

( Iv )
guft; on which day, ij failure of your obe-
dience to this fummons, your ;town hall be
burnt to the ground, and for evie destroyed.
"" And whereas it appears that other- ne-
groes, besides the Maroons of Trelawiy
Town, were there under .aris on the day
that town was, vifited by John Tharp; Efq.
and federal other magiffrates of the parifh of
Trelawney, you are ftrialy commanded aid
enjoyed to bring fuch fftanger negroes to
Montego Bay, as prisoners, on or before the
before mentioned Wednefdayk the xath day
of Auguif infant. 4
Apprehenfive, however, that this fummons
would have but little effect the Giderridr
at the fame time gave orders that the regu-
lars and militia should take poffeffion of all
the known paths leading to Trelawney Town
from the surrounding parishes; and the troops
arrived at their refpeAive stations early on
the 9th.
On the morning of the ith, thitty-ei'ht
of the Trelawney Maroons, being chiefly old
men, furrendered themselves to the Gover-
nor's mercy, at Vaughan's-field, and frankly
d4 declared,

( Ivi )

declared, that, with regard to the reft of the
town, they were determined on war. The
devil, they faid, had got into them," and no-
thing but superiority of force would bring
them to reason.
Two of the thirty-eight were, however,
fent back to try, for the laft time, if perfua-
fion would avail; but they were detained by
the reft, who, having fecreted their women
.and children, pajfd the Rubicon the enfuing
night, by getting fire themselves to their town,
and commencing hostilities on the outposts of
the army. The attack fell chiefly on. the St.
James's company of free people of colour, of
:,whom two were killed and fix wounded;' and
thus began this unfortunate war,
The Maroons immediately afterwards af-
fembled in a body, near a fmall viUage which
,was called their New Town, behind which
were their provision grounds.-- On the
.afternoon of the 12th, orders were given to
Lieutenant Colonel Sandford to march with
:a detachment of the i8th and 20th dragoons,
aod a.party of the horfe militia, and take
.poffeffionof thofe grounds the fame evening;
.it.being the Governor's intention to attack
S .the

( Ivii )

the Maroons at the fame time, in front. Co-
lonel Sandford proceeded accordingly, accorm-
panied by a body of volunteers; but having been
informed that the Maroons had retired to the
ruins of their old town, he was perfuaded, infteai
of waiting at his poft for further orders from
the Governor, to proceed beyond his limits, and
to pufh after the enemy; a moft unfortunate
and fatal determination, to which this gallant
officer, and many valuable men, fell a facri-
fice. The retreat of the Maroons. from the
New Town, was a feint to draw the whites
into an ambufcade, which unfortunately fuc-
ceeded. The road between the new and -old
towns was very bad and very narrow; and
the troops had marched about half way, the
regulars in front, the militia in the centre,
and the volunteers in the rear, when a heavy
fire enfued from the bufhes. Colonel Sand-
ford was among the firft that. fell, and, with
him perished Quarter Mafter. M'Bride, fix
privates of the o2th, and eight of the I8th
light dragoons. Of the militia, thirteen wer*
flain ouLright, and, among the reft, the com-
_manding officer, Colonel Gallimore; eight of
the volunteers alfo were killed, and many fall

( lviii ')

defctiptions wounded. The troops, however,
pushed forward, and drove the Maroons from
their hiding places, and after a night of un-
paralleled hardship, the survivors got back to
Vaaghan's-field in the morning, and brought
with them noft of their wounded com-
Thus terminated .this difaftrous and bloody
-conflidj in which it was never known with
certainty, that a single Maroon loft his life.
-Their triumph therefore was great, and many
of the ,beft informed ameng the planters, in
confequence of it, again anticipated the moft
dreadful impending calamities. So general
was the alarm, that the Governor thought it
mneceffary, in a proclamation which he iffued

Among the officers of the Militia who efcaped on this
6ccafion, was my late excellent and lamented friend George
Gdddin Ba*pett. He was attended cn that day by a favourite
Negro Servant; of whom it is related that, during the firft
attack, perceiving a Maroon from behind a tree present his
gun at his beloved mafter,.he inflantly rushed forward to
prote& him, by interpofing his own person; and actually re-
ceived the fliot in his breaft. I rejoice to add, that the
WOuMd was not mortal, and that the poor fellow has been
rewarded as he deferred, for fuch an instance of heroic
fidelity as history has feldom recorded. Yet this man was,
what is c4led).a Slave.

( lix )
on the occafion, to make public the orders he
had given to Colonel Sandford, and to declare
in exprefs terms, that if the detachment under
that officer's command had remained at the
poft which he was directed to occupy, the Ma-
roons, in all probability, would have been
compelled to surrender themselves prifoners of
war. Soldiers will learn from this fatal
leffon (adds his Lordfhip moff truly) the in-
difpenfible neceffity of ftriftly adhering to
orders. An excefs of ardour is often as pre-
judicial to the accomplishment of any miii.
tary enterprise, as cowardice itfelf."-The
truth was, that the whole detachment held
the enemy in too great contempt. They
marched forth in the confidence of certain
victory, and never having had any experience
of the Maroons mode of fighting diftegarded
the advice of fome faithful negro attendants,
who apprized them of it. Happily the clafs of
people on whom the Maroons relied forf Ap-
port remained peaceably difpofed ; nor did an
inflance occur to raife a doubt of their conti
nuing to do fo.
By the death of Sandford, the command,
in the Governor's abfence, devolved on Co-
lonel Fitch, an officer'whofe general deport-
Q ment

ment and character excited great expecation;
but the Maroons found means to elude his
vigilance. They had now eftablifhed their head
quarters at a place in the interior country,
of moft difficult accefs, called the Cockpits;
a fort of valley or dell, surrounded by fteep
precipices and broken rocks, and by mountains
of prodigious height; in the caverns of which
they had fecreted their women and children,
and depofited their ammunition. Piom this
retreat almostt inacceffible to any but them-
felves) they fent out fmall parties of their
ableft and moft enterprising young men,
fome of which were employed in prowling
about the country in fearch of provisions, and
others in getting fire by night to fuch houses
and plantations as were unprovided with a
sufficient guard. In the beginning of Sep-
tember, they burnt the habitation and fettle-
ment of Mr, George Gordon, called Ken-
mure; and. oon afterwards the dwelling
houfe and buildings of a coffee plantation,
called Lapland; the proprietor too fuftained
the fill greater lofs of thirty valuable negroes,
whom the Maroons compelled to go with
them, oaden with plunder. Another plan-

( Ixi )
station, called Catadupa, was deilroyed by
them in the fame manner, and ten of the
negroes carried off. About the fame time,
they burnt-the property of John Shand, Efq.
a settlement belonging to Meffrs. Stevens and
Bernard, a plantation called Bandon, a houfe
of a Mr. Lewis, and various others.,
At fome of there places several white people
unfortunately fell into their hands, all of whom
were murdered in cold blood, without any
diftindion of fex, or regard to age. Even
women in childbed, and infants at the breaft,
were alike indiscriminately flaughtered by this
favage enemy and the ihrieks of the mifera-
ble vi6ims, which were diftindly heard at the
pots, of the Britifh detachments, frequently
conveyed the firft notice, that the Maroons
were in the neighbourhood.
The fate of Mr. Gowdie, a refpeaable and
venerable planter, who lived within a few miles
of Trelawney Town, was remarkable. This
gentleman, having a better opinion of the
Maroons than they deferred, had employed
one of their chief men to aat as the overfeer
or fuperintendant of his plantation, whom he
treated with fingular kindnefs, and allowed

( Ixii )
him the fame wages as would have been paid
to a white person in the fame capacity. AI-
though, on the commencement of hostilities,
this man had joined the infurgents, Mr. Gow-
die continued to place a fatal dependance orr
his fidelity, and was induced to vifit his own
plantation, as often as his neceffary attendance
on military duty would allow. He had the
moft perfe confidence that his Maro.on
overfeer would interfere to proted him from
danger; yet did this barbarous villain come him-
flf to the houfe of his benefine r, at the head of
a band of favages, and having coolly informed
Mr. Gowdie, that the Maroons had taken an
oath, after their manner, to murder all the
whites without diftin&ion, he mafficred both
him and his nephew (the only white person
with him) without compunation or remorfe.
But, perhaps, no one circumstance in the
course of this moftW unfortunate war excited
greater indignation, or 'awakened more gene-
ral sympathy, than the death of Colonel Fitch,
who, notwithstanding the recent example of
Colonel Sandford's fate, perifhed nearly in the
fame manner as that unfortunate officer had
done; being like him furprifed by an enemy

( lxi )

in ambufh. On the I2th of September, he-
went out with a detachment of the 83d regi-
ment, confifting of thirty-two men, to re-,
lieve fome diftint out-pofts; ,at one of which
he left a guard, and proceeded onwards with
the reft of his men; but after getting about
half a mile further, he was attacked by A
"volley of mufquetry from the bufhes,.. and re
ceived a wound in the breast, with which .e
dropt. After expreffing a wif., and reccivhn
affiurances, that he thpquld not: fll-alivve ato
the hand of the p ercilefs favages, he-rqifedi
hinfelf up, when another ball took place iM
his forehead, which iftantly put aa- end t,
his life. A corporal and three private of ith
83d, and two negro fervants, were alfo kille4.
and Captain Leigh and nine of the party.
wounded; and if the guard, which h4 -be
left behind, had not pufhed forward to t-eii:
affiftance,, immediately on hearing the flings
not one of, the whole detachiient: would. hav
escaped with life; two of them tually fe1.
into the hands of the enemy, and; were put*
tp death. with circumstances of autragepus
barbarity, and Captain Leigh afterwards dieL
of his wounds. The misfortune of this day

( lxiV )

was aggravated too by a circumfiance, which,
though shocking to relate, muft not be omit-
ted, as it ftrongly marks the bafe and fero-
cious charader of the Maroons. When the
remains of Colonel Fitch were found, a day
or two afterwards, by a party fent to give
them the rites of fepulture, it was per-
ceived that the head had been separated from
the body, and was entombed in the ill-fated
ofacer's own bowels !
It now -became evident, that it would
prove a work of greater difficulty, than was
imagined,-to ftop the depredations which were
daily and hourly committed by this horde of
favages, and it was allowed that extraordinary-
mteafures were neceffary to counteradi their
constant praaice of planting ambufhes. Nei-
ther the courage nor condua of the beft dif-
ciplined, troops in the world could always avail
against men, who, lurking in fecret like the
tygers of Africa, themselvess unfeen) had no
obje& but murder. The legislative bodies of
the ifland were foon to meet, and the hopes
of the whole community refled on their


( -v )


"IH ^ General Affembly was convened
the latter end of September, and their
firft deliberations were directed to the fub-.
je&t of the Maroon rebellion, with a folicittde
equal to its importance. On this occasion it
was natural to recur to the experience of
former times, and enquire into the meafiire
that had been fuccefsfully adopted in the long
and bloody war, which, previous to the treaty
of 1738, had been carried on against the-
fame enemy. The expedient which had then
been reported to, of employing dogs to discover
the concealment of the Maroons, and prevent
the fatal effe6s which resulted from their mode
of fighting in ambufcade, was recommended as-
a fit example to be followed in the present
conjunaure; and it being known that the
Spanifh Americans poffeffed a certain species
bf thofe animals; which it was judged would
be proper for fuch a service, the Affembly
refolved to fend to the iflarnd of Cuba for.
one hundred of them, and to engage a fuf4
e ficient

( lxvi )

ficient number of the Spanifh huntfmnen, tc
attend and diref their operations. The em-
ployment to which thefe dogs are generally
put by the Spaniards, is the pursuit of wild
bullocks, which they laughter for-the hides;
and the great ufe pf the dog is to drive the
cattle from fuch heights and receffes in the
mountainous parts of the country, as are leaft
acceflfble to the hunters.
The Affembly were not unapprized that
the measure of calling in fuch auxiliaries, and
urging the canine fpecies to the purfuit of
human beings, would probably give rife to
much obfervation and animadverfion in -the
mother country. Painful experience on other
occasions, had taught them, that their con-
dud in the present cafe, would be scrutinized
with all the rigid and jealous circumfpedion,
which ignorance and hatred, and envy and
malice, and pretended humanity, and fanati-
cifm,- could exercise. The horrible enormi-
ties of/the Spaniards in the conquest of the
new world, would be brought again to re-v
membrance. It is mournfully true, that dogs
were ufed by thofe chriftian barbarians against
Sn 'pe,
peaceful and inoffenfive Americans, and the


juft indignation of all mankind has ever fine
branded, and will continue to brand, the
Spanifh tiation with infamy, for fuch atroci-
ties. It was forefeen, and strongly urged ag
an argument against recurring to the fame
Weapon in the prefent cafe, that the preju-
dices of party, and the virulent zeal of 'reftlefs
and turbulent men, would place the proceed-.
ings of the Affembly on this occafion, in a
point of view equally odious with the con-
duft of Spain on the fame blood-ftained thea-
tre, in times paft. No reasonable allowance
would be irade for the wide difference ex-
ifting between the two cafes. Some gentle-
inen even thought that the co-operation of
dogs with Britifh troops, would give not
only a cruel, but alfo a very daftardly com-
plexion to the proceedings of government.
To thefe, and similar, objections it was an-
fwered, that the fafety of the iflandi and the
lives of the inhabitants were not to be sacrificed
to the apprehension of perverfe mifconftruc-
tion or wilful mifreprefentation in the mother
country. It was maintained that the grounds of
the measure needed only to be fully examined
into, and fairly stated, to induce all reasonable
e 2 ,mea

men to admit its propriety and neceflity. To-
hold it as a principle, that it is an aA of cruelty
or cowardice in man to employ other animals
as inftruments- of war, is a position contradided
by the pradice of all nations--The Afiaticks
have ever ufed elephants in their battles; and
if liops and tygers poffeffed the docility of
the elephant,. no one can doubt that thefe
aifo would be made to affift the military ope-
rations of man, in thofe regions of which they
are inhabitants., Even the ufe of cavalry, as
eftablifhed among the moft civilized and polifh-
ed nations of Europe, muff be rejeded, if this
principle be admitted; for wherein, it was
afked, does the humanity of that dodrine
confift, which allows' the employment of
troops ofhorfe in the purfuit. of difcomfitted
and .flying infantry; yet shrinks at the pre-
ventive measure of paring the effufion of
human blood, by tracing with hounds the
haunts of murderers, and routing from amr
bufh, favages more ferocious and blood-thirfty
than the animals which track them ?
The merits of the qu'Ltion, it was.- faid
depended altogether on the origI a.nd caufe
of the war; and tle objets fouht to be b
trained by its continuance; a:nd e ,-,::r i:

\ i~xix )

oF the firft writers on public law, was ad.
duced in fup!prt of this confirudion. If
the cauf and end ,of wajr fayss Paley ) bz
justifiable, all the means that appear necef-.
fary to that end are juftifiable alib. This
is the principle which defends thofe extremi-
ties to which the violence of war usually pro-,
ceeds: for fince war is a contest by force
between parties who acknowledge no com-
mon superior, and fince it includes not in its
idea the fuppofition of any convention which
should place limits to the operations of force,
it has naturally no boundary but that in which
force terminates; the deftru6ion of the life
against which the force is direded." It was
.allowed (with the fame author) that gratuitous
barbarities borrow no excuse from the licence
of war, of which kind is every cruelty and
every infult that ferves only to exafperate the
sufferings, or to incenfe the hatred of an ene-
my, without weakening his strength, or in
any manner tending to procure his fubmif.
fion; fuch as the laughter of captives, the
fubjeating them to indignities or torture, the

Vol. ii. p. 417.

( xx )
violation of women, and in general the de,
ftruaion or defacing of works that conduce
nothing to annoyance or defence. Thefe enor-
mities are prohibited not only by the pra&ice
of civilized nations, but by the law of nature
itself; as having no proper tendency to accele-
rate the termination, or accomplish the objet
of the war; and as containing that which in
peace and war is equally unjuftifiable, namely,
ultimate and gratuitous micbhief Now all thefe
very enormities were pra&ifed, not by the
Whites against the Maroons, but by the Ma-
roons themselves against the Whites. Hu-
manity therefore, it was faid, was no way
concerned in the fort of expedient that was
proposed, or any other, by which fuch an
enemy could moft fpeedily be extirpated.
They were not an unarmed, innocent and de-
fencelefs race of men, like the ancient Ameri-
cans; but a banditti of affaffins: and tenderness
towards fuch an enemy, was cruelty to all the
reft of the community.
Happily, in the interval between the deter-
mination of the Affembly to procure the Spa-
nith dogs, and the adual arrival of thofe aux-
iliaries from Cuba, fuch measures were pur-


fued as pronmied to render their afiftance.a-
together unneceffary.-On th e death of Colo-
nel Fitch, the chief condud of the war, in the
abfence of the Governor, was entrufted to
Major General Walpole, an officer whofe
indefatigable zeal and alacrity;-whofe gal-
lantry' circumifpeQion, and adivity, in a very
fhort timr gave a new afpe& to affairs, and
reduced the enemy to the laft extremity. Al-
though the country to which the Maroons
retired, was perhaps the firongeft and moft
impra cable of any on the face of the earth,
it was entirely defftitute of springs and rivers.
All the water which the rains had left in the
hollows of the rocks was exhausted, and the
enemy's only resource was in the leaves of the
wild-pine; a wonderful contrivance, by which
Divine Providence has rendered the fterile and
rocky defarts of the orrid zone in fome degree
habitable ; but even this resource was at
e 4 length

"* The botanical name is Tllandfia maxima. It is not,
properly speaking, a tree; but a plant, which fixes itself
and takes root on the body of a tree, commonly in the
fork of the greater branches of the wild cotton tree. By
the conformation of its leaves, it catches and retains wa-
ser from every shower. Each leaf resembles a fpout, and

( Ixxii )

length exhausted, and the fufferings of the
rebels, for want both of water and food, were
exceffive. By the unremitting diligence and
indefatigable exertions of the troops, all or
troft of the paffes to other parts of the coun-
try were effeatually occupied; and a perfeve-
rance in the fame fyftem muft, it was thought,
foon force the enemy to an unconditional fur-
In fpite of all thefe precautions, however,
a rebel Captain of the name of Johnfon, found
means to condua a mall detachment of the
Maroons into the parifh of St. Elizabeth, and
to.fet fire to many of the plantations in that
fertile diftriA. His firft attempt was against
the habitation of a Mr. MC Donald, whofe
neighbour, a Mr. Haldane, together with his
fon, haflened to his affiftance. The elder
Haldane unfortunately fell by a mulket ball,
but the fon fhot the Maroon dead that fired it,
and carried his wounded father in his arms to

forms at its bafe a natural bucket or refervoir, which
contains about a pint of pure water, where it remains
perfeEtly fecure, both from the wind and the fun; yield-
ing refreshment to the thirty traveller in places where
water is not otherwise to be procured.
"a place

Ixxiii )

"a place of fafety, where he happily recovered.
-.The Maroons were repulfed; but proceed-
ing to a plantation of Dr. Brooks, they burnt
the buildings to the ground, and killed two
white men who opposed them. They left
however a white woman and her infant un-
molefted; and as this was the firft instance
of tendernefs fhewn by the rebels to women
and children, it was imputed rather to the
confcioufnefs of their inability to continue the
war, and the hopes of getting better terms on
a treaty by this adt of lenity, than to any change
in their difpofition.
The Earl of Balcarres, as foon as the bufi-
nefs of the Affembly would allow him to be
abfent from the capital, repaired in perfon
to the fcene of aion, and it is impoffible t.
peak of his, and General Walpole's exertions,
in terms of sufficient approbation, or to convey
anyjuft idea ofthefatigues and hardships which
the troops underwent, without entering into a
copious detail of the various enterprises and
lkirmifhes that enfued, and the difficulties they
had to encounter from the nature of the coun-
try. The line of operation extended upwards
of twenty miles in length, through traas and
8 ,glades

( lxxhv
glades of which the military term defile, gives
no adequate conception. The caves in which
the Maroons concealed their ammunition and
provisions, and secured their women and chil-
dren, were inacceffible to the Whites. The
place called the Cockpits before mentioned,
could be reached only by a path down a fteep
rock 150 feet in almost perpendicular height.
Strange as it may appear, this obstacle, was
surmounted by the Maroons without difficulty.
Ifabitqated to employ their naked feet with
singular effect, in climbing up trees and pre-
cipices, they had acquired a dexterity in the
praic e, which to Britifh troops was alto-
gether aftonifing and wholly inimitable. On
the other hand, all the officers and privates,
both. f the regulars and militia, from a well-
founded confidence in their chief command-
ers, feem to have felt a noble emulation which
flould moft diftinguifh themselves for zeal in
the caufe, obedience to orders, and a cheerful
alacrity in pushing forward on every service of
difficulty and danger; fuftaiuing without a
murmur many extraordinary hardfhips; among
which, diftrefs for want of water, and thirft
cven to extremity, were none of the leaft.

( lxx )

It was eafily forefeen that a perfeverance ir
the fame line of conduct, mufft ultimately prove
fuccefsful; and intimations were at length re-
ceived, by means of enflaved negroes whom
the Maroons had forced into their service, and
purpofely difiniffed, that they were extremely
defirous of an accommodation, on any terms
ihort of capital punishment, or transportation
from the country. They expreffed a willing.
nefs, it was faid, to deliver up their arms, and
all the fugitive flaves that had joined them, to
surrender their lands, and intermix with the
general body of free blacks, in fuch parts of
the country as the colonial government should
approve. Although thefe overtures were evi-
dently dictated by deprecation and despair,
it was the Qpinion of many wife and worthy
men among the inhabitants, that they ought
to be accepted; and it was faid that General
Walpole himself concurred in the fame fenti-
ment. It was urged that the war, if continu-
ed on the only principle by which it could be
maintained, muff be a war of extermination.
Some few of the Maroons, however, would
probably elude the lafl purfuit of vengeance;
and thpfe would form a central point to whM;i
t a t -

( Lxxvi )

the runaway negroes would report. Thus hof-
tilities would be perpetuated for ever; and it
was observed that a single Maroon, in the fea-
fon of crop, with no other weapon than a
firebrand, might destroy the cane fields of
many opulent parishes, and confume in a few
hours, property of immenfe value. To thefe
considerations, was to be added the vaft ex-
pence of continuing the war. The country
had already expended 500oo,o, exclusive
pofthe lofs which was fuftained by individual
proprietors; confequent on the removal from
their plantations of all the white fervants, to
attend military duty. In the meanwhile,
cultivation was fufpended, the courts of law
had long been fhut up; and the island at large
seemed more like a garrifon, under the power
of the law-martial, than a country of agricul-
ture and-commerce, of civil judicature and
increasing prosperity.
On the other hand, it was loudly declared
that a compromise with a lawlefs banditti,
who had flaughtered fo many excellent men,
and had murdered in cold blood even women
in child-bed, and infants at the breast, was-a
shameful sacrifice of the public honour; a

( lxxvii y

total difregard to the dictates of juffice; an'
encouragement to the reft of the Maroons
to commit finilar outrages, and a dreadful
example to the negroes in. fervitude;, tending
to imprefs on their minds an idea not of the
knity of the Whites, but of their inability to
punish fuch atrocious offenders. It was, al-
kldged, withal, that the rebel Maroons were
not themselves ferioufly defirous of fuch ar
accommodation. Their only purpose was to
gain; time, and procure an opportunity to get
into better quarters; judging perhaps that;
the militia of the country, .a large propor-
tion of whom were at the distance of one
hundred miles from their places- of residence,,
would- foon be tired. of the contest. Many
fads were indeed related, and fome ffrong cir-
cumftances adduced, which gave a colour to,
this charge;, and proved that the Maroons ha&
not altogether relinquished their hopes of
creating a general revolt among the enflaved
negroes. Such an event however was. not
likely to happen, while the country continued
in arms. The difmiffion of the troops, on the
fallacious idea of an accommodation with, the
Maroons, would alone, it was- faid, realize
the danger.


fortunately for all parties, this unnattiral
and deftruaive revolt, was brought to a happy
termination much fooner than might haVe been
apprehended. ,On the i4th of December, the
commiffioner who went to the Havannah for
affiftance, arrived at Montego Bay with forty
chafeurs or Spanifh hunters (chiefly people
of colour) and about one hundred, Spanifhr
dogs. Such extraordinary accounts were ima
mediately fpread of the terrific appearance,
and favage nature of thefe animals, as made
an impreflion on the minds of the negroes that
was equally furprizing and unexpeaed.
Though thefe dogs are not in general larger
than the shepherds' dogs in Great Britain,
(which in truth they much resemble) they
were represented as equal to the maftiff in
bulk, to the bull-dog in courage, to the
blood-hound in fcent, and to the grey-hound
in agility. If entire credit had been given to
the description that was tranfinitted through
the country of this extraordinary animal, it
might have been fuppofed that the Spaniards
had obtained the ancient and genuine breed of
Cerberus himself, the many-headed monfter
that guarded the infernal regions.

( Ixix )
Whether thefe reports were propagated
through folly or design, they had certainly a
powerful and very falutary effea on the fears
of the rebel Maroons, -a large party of whom
now displayed strong and indubitable evidences
of terror, humiliation, and fubmiflion, and
renewed their solicitations for peace with great
earneftnefs and anxiety. A negotiation was at
length opened, and a treaty concluded; of
which, and the proceedings that followed, until
the embarkation of the Maroons for North
America, the Minutes of the Affembly fub-
joined, furnifh a copious and fatisfatory de-
tail. It is pleading to add, that not a drop of
blood was fhed after the dogs arrived,' Here
then I clofe this introduaory difcourfe. From
the account that I have given of the ferocious
charaaer, and diffolute manners of the Ma-
roon negroes of Jamaica, the calm and unpre-
judiced reader will draw the proper conclu-
fion, and perhaps agree with me in thinking,
that a wild and lawlefs freedom, suddenly be-
ftowed on any people on earth, neither con-.
tributes to benefit society, nor to promote the
happiness of the people themselves. Many of
the features which deforn the Maroons, have

( Ixxx )
hitherto been fuppofed peculiar to men in a
ftate of flavery, which undoubtedly debafes
and degrades the human mind, and depreffes
its faculties; yet, after the picture that has
been exhibited of the extreme of liberty,
Who will contend that a condition of life,
which allows the paflions to rage without
control or reftraint, is a fate conformable'
to nature, or conducive to the happinefs of
mankind ? Men in favage life, or but a little
removed from it, can only be made ufeful to
society, or beneficial to each other, by the
firong hand of authority. Perfuafion is loft on
fuch men, and compulfion, to a certain degree,
is humanity and charity.
Of the policy of ridding the country of fuch
an enemy (admitting the juffice of the war on
the part of the Whites) there can be but one
opinion. AfterJficb a war, carried on in fucb
a manner, it is impoffible to believe, that a
cordial reconciliation between the white in-
habitants and the Maroons could ever have
taken place; The latter would probably have
continued a fullen fubjugated people, em-
ployed only in reducing the enflaved negroes
from their fidelity, and ready to revolt them-

( lxxxi )

felves, whenever occasion fhouild offer. No
country on earth," fays Rutherford, would.
suffer a body of men to live within its terrine.
stories, unlefs they would agree to be ac-
countable to its laws, as far as the general
security requires." To expect fuch conduit
from the Maroons, was to manifeft a total ig-
norance of their difpofition. Concerning
another question which was started in Great
Britain, when the firft account was received
of the difpofal of there people, namely, the
legal right of the colonial government to banifh
a fet of mifcreants who had been guilty qf
felony, murder, and treafon; no doubt, I think,
could have been gravely maintained on the
fubjet; except in times like the present,
when the bonds of fociety feem every where
,to be loofened; and when crimes the moft
atrocious and abominable (if committed by
the lower orders of men against their fu-
periors) meet with apologists and advocates !
It has 'been affected, however, that the
Maroons were exprefsly proteaed against ba-
ni(hment, by treaty; and the high authority
of the gallant officer himself, with whom the
treaty was concluded, has been appealed to

( lxxxii )

in support of this affection. It is indeedbe-
coming the humane and generous nature of a
brave man, to h.few mercy to a vanquished
enemy; and the gratitude that is juftly duei
from the inhabitants of Jamaica to General
Walpole, gives great weight to his opinion.
On a question between fuch an authority on
the one hand, and that of the Governor and
Affembly on the other, and under fuch cir-
cumftances (independently of the personal
refpet and efteem which I bear towards.
General Walpole) it would ill become me
to offer any decision: the Affembly confi-
dered that the General was honourably re-
leafed from his pledge, and that their con-
dut towards the Maroons was defensible,
not only on the ground of good policy, but
of ftrid justice. In support of their proceed-
ings, they direded the fubfequent minutes to
be printed in Jamaica, that fadts might fpeak
for themselves; and they ar'e re-publifhed in
Great Britain for the fame purpose. To the
impartial Publick therefore, they are now re-
fpeafully submitted.



THaT no information on the fubjeit of:
the Maroons may be withheld from the
reader, it is thought neceffary to inform
him, that foon after the fubfequent minutes
were printed by order of the Affembly, his
Majefty's fhip the. Dover, with two. tran-
fports in company, having on board the Tre-
lawney Maroons (in number about fix hun-
dred) provided with all manner of neceffaries,
as well for their accommodation at fea, as for
the change of climate, failed from Bluefields
in Jamaica, for Halifax in North America, the
beginning oflaft June. They wereaccompanied
by William Dawes Quarrel and Alexander:
Ouchterlony, Efquires, commiffioners ap-
pointed by the Affembly, with authority and
inftrutions (fubje&t to his Majefty's appro-
bation and further orders) to purchase lands
in Lower Canada, or where .elfe his Majefty
should please to appoint, for the future efta-.
blifhment and fubfiftence of thofe Maroons,
as a free people. The commiffioners had or-
ders withal, to provide them the jneans of a
f comfortable

( Ixxkiv
comfortable maintenance, until they were ha-
bituated to the .country and climate. The
Sum of 25,000 was allowed for thofe pur-
The following votes and proceedings of the
Aflembly, having been omitted in the minutes,
are added in this place:


"Friday, April 22, 1796.
Refolved, nem. con. That the Receiver
General do remit the fum of kven hundred
guineas to the Agent of the ifland, for the
purpose of prchafing a fword, to be pre-
kfnted to the Right Hon. ALEXANDER Earl of
B1ALCAR RE s; as a teftimnyof the grateful fenfe
which the houfe entertain of his diftinguifhed
services, displayed both in the field and ca-
binet ; and under whofe aufpices, by the blef-
fing of; Divine Providence, a happy an.d com-
plete termination has been put to a moft dan-
gerous rebellion of the Trelawney-Town Mad
roons, whereby the general value of property.
?as weJ as security of the iand, have been
highly augmented.
t Ordered4

( lxxxv )
Ordered, That a copy of the above refolu-
tion be fent to his honour the Lieutenant-
Refolved, nem. con. That Mr. Speaker bh
requested to present the thanks of the Houfe
-to the Hon. Major General WAL POLE, for the
signal services performed by him to this ifland,
in the late rebellion of the Trelawney- Town
Refolved, nem. con. That the Receiver
General do remit to the agent of this ifland,
five hundred guineas, for the purpose of piuf
chafing a fword, to be prefented.co the Hori.
Major-General WALPOLE; as a testimony of
the grateful fenfe which the Houfe entertain of
his important services and diftinguifhed merit,
in the fuppreffion of the late rebellion of the
Trelawney-Town Maroons.
Resolved, nem. con. That Mr. Speaker be
requested to give the thanks of the Houfe to
the brave Officers and Privates of the regulars
and militia, for theirgallant services to the island,
during the late rebellion oftheTrelawnery-To wn
Maroons; and that the Commander in Chief,
under whofe aufpices they fought, be reque fed
by Mr. Speaker, to commfinicate .the high
""f 3 fen

( lxxxvi )
fenfe which.the Houfe entertain of their dif-
tinguifhed- mrit.
%hu urfday, April 2 ,
A motion being made, that a Committee be
appointed to enquire aid treprt to the Houfe
the -ames' of fuch peforis as have falten in
battle d iuing the late rebellion, that a monu-
ment may be! ereaed to perpetuate their me-
mories, and the gratitude of this country for
'their eminent services ;
Ordered, That Mr. Fitch, Mr. Vaughani,
Mr. Mathifon; Mr.-Stewart; and Mr. Hodges,
.be a Committee for that purpose.
Saturday, April 30,
"The Lieutenant Governor's Anfwer to' the
"meffage from the Houfe, with the refolution
of the 22d in ft.
,* 1. ?,' :. *. '.+ ,+ , -0
Mr. Speaker, and Gentlmen of the Ioujf
of Aebly a ,
The present you have made me, by your
unanimouss resolution of the zzd infant, is in-
A foldier's honour, with emblem and em-
"phafis is placed in his fword; and I hall
transmit your pecious gif to my pofterity, as

( Ixxxvii )
an everlaffting mark of the reverence, the at-
tachment, and the gratitude, I bear to the ifland
of Jamaica.

The following Addrefs was this day pre-
fented to his Honour the Lieutenant Gover-
WE, his Majefly's dutiful and loyal fub,
jets, the Affembly of Jamaica,,beg leave to
offer to your.Honour, our moft fincere and
cordial congratulations on the happy and com-
plete termination of the rebellion of the Tre-
lawney-Town Maroons,
This great and important event muft be pro-
dudtive of fubftantial benefits and falutary con-
fequences to the country, in every point of view
in which it can be contemplated: tranquillity
and the enjoyment of our civil rights, are re-
flored; public credit, fo effential to the support
of government and to the profperity, if not to
the very existence of the country, is re-efta-
blifhed, and our internal security greatly .in-
creafed and confirmed.
From all thefe ineftimable advantages, we
look forward with confidenceto the augmen-
3 nation

( lxxxviii
station of the value of property, which is likely
to take place; and which, in time, we truft,
will compensate all the loffes and expenditure
of treasure unavoidably incurred in the profe-
cution of the war.
It is with peculiar fatisfadion and gratitude
we acknowledge the lively impreffion made
on us by the energy displayed by your Lord-
fhip in difficult operations of war; which af-
fords the moft convincing proof, that the zeal,
ardour, and adivity manifested in your military
condua, have only been equalled by the found
policy, and decifive measures, which marked
the wifdom of your councils.


Mr. Speaker, and Gentlemen of the Houfe of

Your address excites in my bofom every
fnfiation ofpleafure, the mind of man is ca-.
pable of receiving.
The picture you have drawn of the future
prosperity of the Ifland, is ifrong and imprefT

( lxxxix

After contemplating the unavoidable calk-
mities of war, a sentiment arifes, grateful and
foothing to a feeling heart--
That, during your contefl with an enemy
the moft ferocious that ever difgraced the an-
nals of hiftory:
That, during your conteft with an army of
favages, who have indifcriminatelv maffacred
every prisoner whom the fortune of war had
placed in their power--no barbarity, nor a single
at of retaliation, has fullied the brightnefs
of your arms.
I pray that the energy, the vigour, and the
humanity, which you have fo honourably dif-
played, may defcend to your children; and fe-
cure to them for ever thofe bleffings which you
have hitherto enjoyed, under the mild and
happy government of the illustrious houfe of



i 7.



'7 (;




Governor and Affembly of Jamaica,





Re-printed for J. STOCK D A L Picadilly,
NAovmber 1796.

--- ------...---- .------------------^- ''--------..7
/ '5


MONDAY, 3 oth November, 179 .

A PETITION of fundry perfons, known un-
der the denomination of Maroons, was pre-
fented to the houfe, and read, getting forth,
That the petitioners have always been faithful
to their king and country, and obedient to the
That they have never joined in any rebellion
or rebellious conspiracy; on the contrary, they de-
teft and abhor all treafons and treafonable praEtices:
"c That they are willing and anxious to take the
benefit of the act, and to give up for ever any right
they may have of inheritance to any of the lands
granted to the maroons, wherefoever fituated:
"C That many of the petitioners are totally depen-
dent on the goonefs of the white inhabitants; that
many have children, and have it not in their power
to procure a settlement;"
And praying for relief.
Note. The above petition is fubfcribed with the
following names: Elizabeth Collins, Francis
Collins, Margaret Collins, Sally Collins, Joanna
Graham, Duajheba, Molly, Nancy Grey, Mary
Simp on, Elizabeth Palmer, Margaret Reid,
Amelia Lewis, Peggy Murray, Matthew T'bo

THURSDAY, 3d December, 1795.

A meffage from his honour the lieutenant-gover-
nor, by his secretary, as follows ;
"cc Mr. Speaker,
I am commanded by his-honour the lieutenant-
governor to lay before the houfe a petition presented
-to him from the Trelawny-Town maroons, who fur-
-rendered to his honour in obedience to his procla-
mation of the 8th of Auguft laft:
: To the right honourable ALEXANDER earl of
BALCARRES, lieutenant-governor and com-
mander in chief, &c. &c. &c.
i'-he Ainble petition of the iTrelawny.'own marons,
n w in the barracks in Kingfton.
Humbly jheweth,
That your petitioners, in purfuance of a pro-
damation of your lorfhip, of the 8th day of
Auguft laft, fent into the Trelawny maroon town,
furrcndered themselves to your lordfhip:
That, by virtue of an a& entitled, An a& to
repeal An a& for the better order and government
of the negoes belonging to the several negro-
towns ;-and for preventing them from purchasing of
slaves; and for encouraging the faid negroes to go
in purfuit of runaway flaves ; and for other pur-
pofes therein mentioned ;' and for giving the ma-
5 roon

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