Jacksonville courier

Material Information

Jacksonville courier
Uniform Title:
Jacksonville courier (Jacksonville, Fla.)
Place of Publication:
Jacksonville East Fla
L. Currier & Co.
Creation Date:
August 10, 1837
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
v. : ; 45-68 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
newspaper ( marcgt )
newspaper ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Florida -- Duval -- Jacksonville
30.31944 x -81.66 ( Place of Publication )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan. 1, 1835)-
Cf. Knauss, J.O. Territorial Fla. journalism, 1926.:
Ceased in 1838.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Suspended for several months in 1836. Cf. McMurtrie, D.C. Beginnings of print. in Fla.
General Note:
Publishers: Lorenzo Currier, 1835-1836; Haslam & Dexter, 1836-1838; O.M. Dorman, <1838>; Weir & Richardson, 1838.
General Note:
Editors: E. Williams, 1835; D. Brown, 1838.
General Note:
Description based on: Vol. 1, no. 27 (July 2, 1835)
Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Library Services and Technology Assistance granting program of Florida, the State Library and Archives of Florida, and other institutions and individuals.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services ( with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
002025285 ( ALEPH )
09263722 ( OCLC )
AKL2850 ( NOTIS )
sn 82016251 ( LCCN )

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actua re-crossed to the north bank. CoL
Paris Jvho commanded the volunteers
on th4 fide, hailed me across the river
and a d if he should continue to' hold,
that pOtion. I instructed him to do so.-
This Qn. Clinch may have been told, and
out ofjhis, by a strange conception, after
the layJIe of eighteen months, the charge
has bb delivered. Although it has beets
warming and cherished by its foster father,
and seit forth on an important mission, its
spurious origin and malicious birth ,will
I h e already shown that I formed tile
line at)he north bank facing to the rear
when tie alarm was first given, and be-
fore it vas known at what point the attack
would Oe made. I have also shown that
after tb Indians made their demonstra-
tion onthe south side the position of the
line wai changed, and that the men contin-
ued crysing from the north to the south
side of the river during the fight as fastias
possible. Nothing more I trust need be
said or those subjects.
Aftef describing the brilliant charges "
and proclaiming the glorious victory, it is
quite amusing to see the address with
which the Gen. quits the field and passes
in triumph to the north bank of the river.
He shysgTaVin^gept-eposession of the
field for more than two hours after the
fight, the troops were ordered to re-cross
which they did in the most perfect order."
Now there was not an officer or soldier on
that field who does not know this statement
to be entirely erroneous. Gen. Clinch did
not hold possession of the ground on which
he fought twenty minutes after the last gun
was fired. I arrived on the field the me-
ment after. The Indians had fallen back
but were not defeated. The firing had
ceased, but this was the third pause which
had ensued, during the fight, the attack
had been twice renewed, and we had every
reason to expect the third renewal. The
main body of the regulars were halted in
the open ground within point blank shot of
the hammock. They had not advanced
to take possession of it, and it was subject
to0bpbe-orp.rnpid by the Indians. His pep
were crowded in double file, and his right
flank subject to be turned, and greatly har-
rassed by the enemy. 1 informed Gen.
Clinch of that which he already knew,
that the main body of the volunteers were
yet on the other side of the river, and that
it would require nearly all the remaining
part of the day for them to cross. I told
him he could not hold that position; that
the Indians would get possession of the
scrub and hammock in his rear and cut
him off from the river. The volunteers
were formed in two lines at right angles
with the river, one above the other below
the crossing place. I advised him to fall
back and rest the right and left flank of
the regulars on the volunteers. Thus form-
ing a curved line, with both flanks secured
by the river, and presenting a front which
could not be broken. The suggestion was
adopted and under that gallant and accom-
plished officer Gen. Parkhill, than whom
there was not a braver soldier, or a better
tactician on the field, the troops retired and
assumed the new position. Scarcely had
this been accomplished when the Indians
advanced, and showed by their yells, what
I had before supposed, that they were
watching for a favorable opportunity to
renew the attack. They covered the whole
tront, and frequently gave the whoop, as
though they were about to rush upon us.
But they no longer found the men in open
ground in double file, exposed like targets
to their aim, but they were like themselves
covered by the Hammock, and prepared
at all points to receive them. This posi-
tion was held until the bridge was con-
structed by Capt. Wyatt, and the horses
were swam back to the north bank of the
river, which with every exertion that
could be made, was not done until sun set.
During the whole afternoon the Indians
reminded us by their shouts and yells of
their constant presence, and we were in
momentary expectation of an attack. Ve-

ry soon after the troops had taken this
new position, and after the war whoop
had frequently been given by th6e Indians
in front of our whole line, Gen. Clinch
addressing me, enquired whether he or I
should lead the men a cross the river. I
replied to him that I was a younger and a
more active man than himself, and that if
he would cross the river, and leave the
troops to my arrangement, I pledged my
life and honor for the success of the move-
men(. I was glad to have an opportunity
of relieving the Gen. He had been great-
ly exposed during the fight and appeared
very much fatigued. He accepted the
offer and immediately re-crossed to, the
north bank leaving the troops on the south
under my command. This was more than
two hours before they passed the river,,
every moment of which time the'line was
threatened with assault by the enemy.
Gen. Clinch says he certainly owed me

THE 't out a fort there or at any point on the
SJACKSONVILLE COURIER ;*f tier and almost without provisions or
SJACKSONVILLE COURIERK munition. Had the Indians made the
A WEEKLY JOURNAL, DEVOTED TO COMMERCE, O, n te 'ust have fallen.
LITERATURE', THE FINE ARTS, &C. I `assault on them' they musihave fallen.
LITERATURE, THE FINSthe 20th' of December, a request was
Published every Tharsday, by ughtito my camp, by express, from Gen.
THE PROPRIET O.S ." S nch, that an escort might be sent from
S .e aalian .Icommand to meet his provision train,
TERMs--$4 per year, payable in adVance. n conduct it to Fort Drane, which was
If not paid till the end of the year, $ will promptly complied with; and that evening
be ,charged.* ,- R he volunteers surprised and destroyed a
Advertisements inserted at o,04 Atlsmall rty pf Indians near the road, and
persquare for the first insertion ',% FTyv w i minutes before his provision train
cnRts'rg for each subsequeqtto^ Nro oa te'- ri..i Ge...Clinh was then i
will e considerd-tH ." ) a square. opy, but a liasantndsome tune
All A etieents (time not being after the firing ceased, he rode to the
limited e- continued "until forbid, ground. Yet he seems to have known
andh-arged for accordingly, nothing of the Volunteers until the 16th of
( All communications by mail, may December, when he says they reported to
be addressed to the Publishers ofthe Cour- him. The troops under my command con-
ier Postage in all cases to be paid. tinued to scout the country in the most ac-
(OJMr. JAMEs W. SIMMONS is author- tive manner, for the purpose of driving
ized to give receipts for alimonies due this out the Indians, until the morning of the
office, fromethe 13th July, current year, 29th December, when we took up the line
whether on subscriptions or otherwise, of march for the Withlacoochee. The
hAeounts due previous to 13th i July guides informed us that we should find an
1837,Accounts dute previous to 13th July Indian town about thirty-five miles from
1837, belonging to the late Proprietors Fort Drane, and that we could cross the
HASLAM, DEXTER, & Co., or their assigns, river at a ford without difficulty. The
may be paid to Mr. R. B. GREGORY, or surprise of that town was the object of the
his order, expedition. I advised Gen. Clinch, as
V CALLTO GEN CINCH. the volunteers from Middle Florida had
GOV. CALL TO GEN. CLINCH. but four days to serve, and would insist on
.To the Editor of the Floridian. returning at the expiration of that time,
Sir-I have seen in the Augusta Chronicle to move without baggage carrying with us
and State Rights Sentinel of the 29th ult. only four days rations. 1 told him that
the reply of Gen. Clinch to Gov. Cass. I when his men became fatigued, the vol-
am no party to the controversy between unteers would dismount, and let them ride;
those gentlemen, and would most willing- and that by a rapid march, we could in
ly leave them to divide in their own way one day and part of the night arrive at the
the honour due for all the preparations town, and accomplish the object of the ex-
made by either of them to enforce the trea- petition. To this he assented, and the
ty with the Seminole Indians. But the volunteers were ordered to cook four days
ungenerous and illiberal remarks made by rations to take with them, and to leave their
Gen. Clinch in relation to myself, require wagons and baggage at Fort Drane, which
correction at my hands. The fictitious re- was accordingly done. But when we came
mutation and vainglorious boasting of this to move on the morning of the 29th, he set
individual has frequently excited my mirth; out with every cart and-wagon, mule and
and so long as his self-commendation was horse, he could raise on his plantation, or
administered without reflection on me, or among his troops. In consequence of this
;he volunteers of Florida, I felt no dispo- injudicious measure, instead of complet-
sition to disturb the happiness he seemed ing the march "in twenty-four hours, we
to derive from the sound of his own trum- did not arrive at the Withlacoochee until
pet: I was willing, too, that he should the morning of the third day. Instead of
have enjoyed the renown, not only that surprising the enemy, he himself was sur-
which was won on the far-famed battle praised. Instead of a fordable stream, we
field of Withlacoochee, but that which a were disappointed in finding a deep and
generous community has bestowed for his rapid river, fifty or sixty yards wide.-
services, on his own garbled and faithless When we arrived, the regulars were in
representation of them. 1 will iot attempt front, and after getting an Indian canoe
to assign a cause for the manifold errors he which was discovered on the opposite side,,
has committed, both in his official report they commenced crossing about sunrise,
of the battle of the 31st of'December, 1835, and were not all over until about 12 o'clock.
and in his reply to Gov. Cass. Charity In the mean time, the volunteers were en-
would say, they are the errors of the head, gaged in driving in and swimming their
and not of the heart; but while she thus horses over; and as soon as,they could get
covers him with her mantle to save him the canoe, they commenced crossing theni-
from the deep reproach of malicious repre- selves. Gen. Clinch had gone over, and
sensation, candor must admit,when the facts was quietly seated on the opposite bank,
are known, that he had less knowledge of when I called his attention to a collection
what occurred on that field, than any gen- of dry logs on the point of an island, a
eral who ever made report of a battle. As short distance below the crossing place,
a proof of this, I refer you to the letters of and suggested to him that if they were
Gen Parkhill and Major Wellford, here- rolled into the water, with the aid of ropes,
with enclosed, and which I have to request they might be drawn across the stream in
you will give a place in your paper. The such a manner as to construct a bridge.
former was in the staffof Gen. Clinch, and The suggestion was adopted. Gen. Clinch
the latter was my aid-de-camp. Their in- and his staff, with several of the field of-
teiliaence their opportunity of acquiring fleers of the volunteers, repaired to the is-.
correct information, and their highreputa- land on a ledge of rocks, which connected
tion, place their statements beyond doubt, it with the main land on the south side;
Gen Clinch, after speaking of the appeal and while they were rolling the logs into
which he made to the people of East Flor- the water, and I, with a party of men, by
ida about the 2d of December, 1835, ob- the assistance of ropes, was engaged in
serves: In the course of a few days, it drawing them across to the north bank,
was considered necessary to extend the ap- I heard quick and repeated exclamations
peal to othelections of the territory, in my rear, The Indians are coming!" I
which was also promptly and generously had heard no alarm from the opposite side
met; and in the course ofa short time, one of the river; no gun had been fired ; and

hundred volunteers were raised, and plac- believing the Indians were coming on the
.ed under the immediate command of Brig. north side, I commenced forming the line,
Gen Call." It would appear from this facing to the rear to receive them. In :a
remark that the volunteers who marched few moments, however, the Indians made
so promptly under my command to the their appearance on the opposite side, and

relief of East Florida, had been raised opened a fire on the line where I was sta-
by the appeal" of Gen. Clinch. This is tioned, but without effect. The fire was
far from being the fact ;-he made no ap- promptly returned, and they fled. All this

peal to them, nor had he the least agency occurred before a single snot nad been nfir-
in drawing them to the field. They were ed at the regulars. They had advanced
raised by me, arid on my responsibility. I beyond the river swamp about a quarter of
was informed by a petition from the people a mile, and taken a position in an open
,of Alachua that they were in danger; and piece of ground, surrounded on every side
in less than one week, two hundred and by scrub and hammock, which concealed
fifty mounted volunteers were raised, and the enemy, and gave him a decided advan-
-on their march for the relief of EastFlorida. tage in the contest. Although the Gener-
They were raised on the spur of the oc- al, in his official report of the battle, speaks
casion, and were called into service for of "brilliant charges" having been made,
three or four weeks only. Notwithstand- with the exception of the few volunteers
ing they made a rapid and forced march, who had crossed the river, and the corn-
on their arrival they found the country pany led by the brave Capt. Graham, not
completely overrun, and in possession of a man entered the hammock. They re-
the Indians. Gen. Clinch was unable to mained in the open ground, and were shot
give the least protection'to the inhabitants, down by an unseen enemy. It was from
For, though he seems to have spoken in this cause, and this alarm, that Gen. Clinch
prophetic language of coming events, to lost sixty odd of his gallant men and of-
the Secretary of War, he had not availed ficers, killed and wounded; while in all
himself of his foreknowledge. The war his "'brilliant charges," not a dead body,
found him at St. Augustine, and it found nor the blood of the enemy, was to be
'the regular troops encamped at the Agency found. The Indians were comparatively

exposed to no danger; while the regulars
in double file, in close order, and in open
ground, were shot down lii|p bullocks. The
only dead of the enemy fond on the field
were in front of the volunteers, a small
number of whom had crossed before, and
were reinforced by other during the fight.
Many of these were officers, among whom
were Col. Warren, Mill Cooper. Bailey,
Parish, Fisher, Ross, S ewart, and some
others not recollecit^. hey were judi-
ciously posted in,the swamp, extending
their line at very openordet from the river
almost to the left flank of the regulars.
They fought the Indians in their own way,
from tree to tree, and from bush to bush;
and it was the charge made by them, and
the gallant Capt. Graham at the head of
his company of regulars, which routed the
right flank of the enemy, and caused him
to give way at all points; for the centre
never did gain the hammock, but remain-
ed in the open ground, where 1 found it
when I arrived on the field.
Gen. Clinch observes, "During the hot-
test part of the engagement, discovering
that the volunteers did not come up as 1had
expected, I despatched Col. Read with or-
ders to Gen. Cl to bring up the volunteers
as soon as posst le."
Now, I will s ow t dr h satisfaction of
every unpreju*,ced mind, that if Gen.
Clinch had been capable of one moment's
reflection, he could not have expected"
any number of the volunteersto have cross-
ed the river and joined him in that time.-
He had attempted to cross an army over a
deep and rapid stream, in an old Indian ca-
noe, which, under the best management,
would carry only from five to seven per-
sons at a time, two of whom were required
to bring it back; and it had to be baled out
every trip, to prevent it from filling with
water. Gen. Clinch had crossed himself
in this canoe, and he had been an eye-wit-
ness, for more than four hours that morn-
ing, of the delay and difficulty which Hfad
attended the crossing of the regular troops,
about 260 in number, and.who were not
encumbered in crossing by horses. No
other preparation&shabee-made fobr cross-
ing the river when the fight commenced,
except the construction of a small raft of
green poles, which answered very little
purpose; and yet, in the hottest part of the
engagement, which ensued in less -tiar-
twenty-five minutes frorA the time he left
the river, he expected" rie to have crossed
with my command, and onme up to his
assistance. No man, wityi his proper re-
collection about him, could( have had any
such expectation, for he kmew it to be im-
possible. The General sa3 he despatched
Col. Read with orders to G(i. Call to come
up with his volunteers as st.n as possible.
Now, I affirm that Col. ReA brought no
such orders to me from Gen. Clinch, nor
do I believe any such were given by him.
The battle was fought about a quarter of a
mile from the river, and th swamp which
intervened excluded a vievr of the field.-
After a sharp fire, which cOntinued a few
minutes, a pause ensued, ar all was silent,
and we believed the Indias were routed
and driven from the field. 11uring this sus-
pension of the fight, Col. Kad rode to the
opposite bank of the river,and informed
me that the regulars were suffering severe-
ly, and required assistance, I1 replied to
him that the volunteers had een, and were
still crossing, as rapidly as possible. He
observed, Come yourself, or we are all
lost; if we are not already." This was the
first intelligence we had recdved of the ex-
tremity to which the regulrr were reduc-
ed ; and although my men could not cross
the river with me, and I could carry no
other aid to Gen Clinch that my personal
services, I hastened immediately across the
river, mounted the first horse I found sad-
died on the opposite bank, and galloped to
the field. While in the act of crossing the
river, the attack was renewed by the In-
dians. Their yells and heaw firing were
heard for a few moments, and all again was
silent Gen. Clinec observe s, After the
enemy was routed fd silenced, Col. Read
returned to the field, accompanied by Gei.

Call !" that he "put his ]orst in motion to
meet us," &c. Now, fide ere two false
statements made in this short sentence.-
(See the statements of Gen Parkhill and
Major Wellford.) Col. Read did not re-
turn with me ; he had been sightly wound-
ed, and appeared to be in pai ; he accom-
panied me to the line where the volunteers
were stationed, near the river, where I left
him. When I "arrived on bhe ground, I
found the General on fbot, sanding very
close to the rear rank ofthe r'ulars Now,
if the General was incapable of knowing
whether he was on foot or d horseback,
and whether Col. Read returned with me
to the field, what credit is to e given to his
relation of the conversation Which, he says,
took'place between us on my Orrival ? What
credit is to be given to any statement he
has made wvith regard to the battle, unless
sustained by other testimony, His detail

of our conversation, so far from being con-
firmed by the statement of Col. Parkhill,
is positively contradicted. I do not attri-
bute to Gen. Clinch the degrading vice of
wilful falsehood; but in all his narrations
he betrays a treachery of memory, not very
creditable to that faculty of his mind.
Gen, Clinch says,4" I will here briefly an-
swer the question so frequently asked, and
which is repeated by Gov. Cass. why was
not the whole volunteer force in the en-
gagement?" This is an important ques-
tion, and one that-requires-a-true,-faithbfult
and honest answer. I am rejoiced that it
is thus openly and plainly put before the
country ; but I regret exceedingly that it
has been evaded by Gen. Clinch, and that
a spurious and faithless answer has been
given by him. The truth, however, is
known to Gen. Clinch, and to the whole
army, and shall be told in the presence of
the world. If Gen. Clinch had been dis-
posed to do justice to me, anrd the troops,
under my command, instead of giving a
statement of what he.says was told to him,
he would have said that which he knew to
be true-that the whole volunteer force was
not in the engagemeNt, because a deep and
rapid stream separated them from the en-
emy-that they had no other means of
crossing than in a canoe--,anai that It was
utterly impossible for them to have crossed
over and joined in the fight. These are
facts, which should not have been with-
held by Gen. Clinch, in his answer to the
question. He was on the bank of the riv-
er when the approach of the Indians was
announced. He knew that nearly the
whole of the preceding part of the day had
been occupied in crossing over the regu-
lars; and with the exception of some thir-
ty or forty officers and men, the whole vol-
unteer force was on the north side of the
river; and he knows full well that no con-
siderable number of them could have cross-
ed from the time he left the river, until I
joined him on the field. And why with-
hold these facts from the world ? The
reason is obvious. Gen. Clinch had been
guilty of the folly and culpable error of at-
tempting to cross his army over the river in
a canoe, when he had every reason to be-
lieve that his front would be attacked be-
fore his rear could cross to their assistance.
The General may not, and I presume he
dtd not, belhevelt ; but Thisis only another
evidence of his want of judgment, and ls
want of capacity. For the guides inform-
ed him we were near the town we march-
ed to surprise ; and the presence of the ca-
noe on the opposite bank, and the fresh
tracks of the Indians where they had just
crossed, gave certain indications that they
were near us, that they were apprised of
our approach, and would be prepared to
meet us. Yet this General, with all his
boasted experience and sagacity, placed his
army in a position where one part of it
might be slaughtered almost in the pres-
*ence of he other, without the possibility of
Should it be said, in defence of General
Clinch, that he availed himself of the best
means in his power to cross the army over
the river, I answer such is not the fact. A
bridge might have been constructed, and
the whole army might hrve crossed the riv-
er before an attack was commenced by the
Indians. As a proof of this, the logs which
were thrown into the river at my sugges-
tion, and with which we were engaged
when the alarm was given, were taken pos-
session of by Capt. Wyatt, of the Florida
volunteers, and a safe and convenient foot
way constructed over the river, on which
the regulars re-crossed, and by which they
were saved from havoc and slaughter. For
if no other means had been provided for
re-crossing than those afforded by the ca-
noe, no candid man, acquainted with the
circumstances, will say it could have been
done without great destruction.
But the General, in answer to the ques-
tion, why was not the whole volunteer
force in the engagement ?" says, I have
subsequently been informed by many of
the volunteer officers and men, that Gen.
Call gave positive orders to the volunteers
that no man should cross, and actually

formed those on the north side to receive
the attack of the enemy, if one should be
made." Now, I pronounce the charge of
my having given any order prohibiting the
men from crossing the river, to be false,
utterly false. The General says he has
been told so by many of the officers and
men of the volunteers." Out of the "many"
he can certainly produce one witness. Let
him come forward, and then the General
will be somewhat relieved,-he will stand
only in the unenviable light of a retailer
of foul and base calumny. The only oc-
currence of that day which could be dis-
torted in such a manner as to give colour-
ing to the charge against me took place af-
ter the troops retired from the field to the
bank of the river, where every preparation
was making for crossing, and after, to the
best of my recollection, Gen. Clinch had

~-L4 r


Mandarin, who stated that a person, just ar-
rived at that place, had informed him that
the George & Mary lay a total wreck on the
shore south of the St. Augustine Light House,
and that all on board had perished I We are,
however, happy to -be able to state, that
though the Schooner was wrecked on the
shore south of this, no lives were lost-the
passengers having all reached St. Augustine
in safety. The vessel, we are informed, went
entirely to pieces on the beach., Her cargo,
being much damaged, has since been sold.
She was insured.
Col. Charles Downing, our Delegate to
Congress, left St. Augustine on the 27th ult.
in the Steamboat Cincinnati, for Washing-
ton. Col. Downing takes his family with
him. The people of Florida may anticipate
an able advocacy of their claims and rights
on*the floor of Congress, by the talented and
well loved citizen whom they have selected
to represent them in that body. His quick
perception, grasp of mind, and ready elo-
quence, which have so often excited admira-
tion in our Courts, well qualify him to sustain
and prosecute with success the interests of
our Territory, which we venture to predict
will suffer no detriment in his hands. With
equal talents, and zeal not less," he carries
with him a more intimate knowledge of the
interests of "the East," than was ever pos-
sessed by his predecessor, whdse visits to
this part of the Territory-" few and far be-
tween"-were with all so short and fleeting,
asto afford him but imperfect opportunities
of understanding our feelings, appreciating
our wants, or forwarding our wishes.
Gov. CALL's REPLY.---Agreeably to the
promise in our last, we lay before our readers,
in this day's paper, Gov. Call's reply to Gen.
Clinch. It is perhaps to be regretted that
Mr. Cass's "Appeal," which led to General
Clinch's reply, and, through the latter, to
Gov. Call's, was not, in the first instance,pub-,
lished in this paper, as in that case each of
the parties would have had the benefit of a
hearing before the public in this quarter.-
The question, however, as to whether the
present war may not have arisen in conse-
quence of the Ex-Secretary's disregard of
Gen. Clinch's representations made early in
1835, is of less interest than that far more se-
rious one-might not our indian difficulties
have been terminated by the battle of the
Withlacoochy, on the 31st of December of
that year ? That it might have been, seems to
be the general imprvesion of intelligent men
in this quarter; why it was not, is now the
question which Gen. Clinch and Gov. Call
are attempting to settle before the public.-
It is indeed a "vexed question," but one
which the people of Florida are, neverthe-
less, quite competent to decide for themselves.
We have given them the facts as alleged and
laid before the public by the respective par-
ties implicated; and they will doubtless form
an impartial and correct judgment of the mat-
ter. ,,
A West India paper says that the English
settlers in our "Far West," are preparing to
remove to Canada, in consequence of the
present "morbid state of feeling" in this coun-
try. If this be true, the morbidness must be
the other way-although the susceptibility of
the Tutonic races is any thing but prover-
bial. Is the state" of Canada, however, so
very pacific at this time, as to invite set
tiers' '-whether from the Far West," or any
where else ? A country on the verge of
Revolution, is at least one degree beyond a
morbid state of feeling -so that these dis-
creet settlers" are likely to go further and
fare worse."

Against the public utility of such a de-
cision of the Supreme Court of the U. S.
very likely it will be asserted, that in case
the judgment pronounced should be, that
the charters of the State Banks are clearly
repugnant to the Constitution of the U. S.
the immediate consequence would be, that
not one of those Banks could issue any
mrnore paper money, and that being their
very soul they must cease to exist. The
result would be, that they must, without
delay wind up their affairs. In doing that,
three fourths of them would be found to
be insolvent-even if most of them could
pay their debts, their stockholders would
loose at least one half of the amount of
the cost of their stock. This would ruin
many persons throughout the Union, and
is an evil that ought to be avoided, even
against the Supreme Law of the land.
Against such reasoning we need only an-
swer, "fiat justitia, ruat colum." This
maxim should prevail in every Court of'
justice. The Constitution of the U. S.
must, at all times, be preserved sacred and
inviolate otherwise the liberty, indepen-
dence arid happinesss of the American
Union are in jeopardy. CUJAS.
St. Augustine, 31st July, 1837.

who are fond of mechanical power and in-
vention may witness an anomaly at the A-
merican Museum at cornerof Broadway
and Ann street.-There is in operation in
the third story a piece of machinery, the
invention of Robert M'Carty, which per-
forms several operations at the same time,
viz: 1st the mtiking of carriage' wheels,
which lays out the YtobanAd bores P,morttis'e
the same without touching by hand, moves
itself alternately from one end of the morti-
ses to the other, and raises itself to give the
dis to the wheel. 2d. a new application of
the hollow augur, the chisel being so con-
structed, that when itleaves the mortis it
takes out the chip with it. 3d, a machine
Ior tenoning, which operates similar to the
mortising machine. 4th, a rotary machine
for the cutting out felloes without sawing
and plaining at the same time. 5th, an en-
tire new principal of the saw mill, which
cuts the log fore and aft; the carriages
feed both ways and change alternately as
the saw comes out at each end, and sets it-
self for any required thickness. The whole
of this machinery,which is beutifiuly made,
is propelled by two enormous black bears,
called Jack Downing and Davy Crockett,
working on a tread mill., The lovers of
minechanical ingenuity will enjoy a rich treat
by paying the Museum a visit.-[Gazette.

We regret to announce the death of Mrs.
Sophie Phillips, a most accomplished and
gilhed lady, the wife ofahighly esteemed
officer in theAmerican military service,well
known for a considerable time at West
Point, and of late in the Florida wars. His
lady was one of the best among the
female writers of our country. She was an
ornament to the circle in which she moved
and was admired by all who had the hap-
piness to make her acquaintance. What
she has written, if collected in a volume
would give to her a name which the world
would not willingly suffer to die.
[Philadelphia Gazette.

in the German language has been com-
menced in Cincinnati by Benjamin Boffin-
ger. Its title, Cincinnati Evening Courier.'

Messrs. W. D. & G" M. Gallagher have
issued a new journal in Ohio, called the
Ohio Political Register. Its principles are

The entire population of the United
States is estimated at near seventeen mil-
lions of souls.


would expire, and on that day they would which would ot ewise have been conceal-
have returned, ed. I here tenq er to him the same chiv-
One single remark on the subject ofGen. alric apologyimade to Gov. Cass. If I
have done hanInjustice, 1 pray his 1jhgi-;
Clinch's vigilance & bforesight, his prompt- have done sice, I pray his frgiv-
ness and efficiency of action, and on that ,nes; and if thalb winotdo, such further
subject I shall have done. He says, on the reparation sa e given as may be de-
2d day of December, 1835, he appealed to handed. Th editorss ofnewspapers who
the people of East Filo d.arally in de- have public ed the statemenrA-- on.
fence-oFmheir wives, their children, and Clinch, will I hope, as an act of justice to
their fire-sides. On the 2d day ofDecem- ne and the volunteers of Florida, give this
ber he saw the coming storm. On the 28th a place in their papers.
December, the gallant but unfortunate Ma- R. K. CALL.
jor Dade, and his brave companions in Tallahassee, July 20,1837.
arms, fell under the stroke of the toma- .
hawk. In the nanime of his country, in the [For the acksonville Courier.]
name of mercy, in the name of God hin- LEGAL AND LEGISLATIVE NON-
self, why was he not snatched from his im- SENSE.
pending fate? Gen. Clinch, in anticipa- No. V.
lion of war, but before the commencement Having been absent from home, for a
of hostilities, had ordered him to march month since ourNo. 4, was left at the of-
with his small devoted band, from Tampa fice of the Florioe Hearald, for publication,
Bay, through the heart of the Seminole (which No. was published in that paper
country, to Fort King. An express man, before our return to St. Augustine,) we
bearing coutntermnanding orders, would have been obliged to delay the continua-
have saved himn from an untimely and la- tion of our remarks, oh a subject of the
mnented death. Why was this not done ? highest importance, in our present derang-
Ifit is answered that all communication ed and woful monetary system. Our cir-
was ncut off,-that every pass was filled culating currency of money is in such a
with armed warriors, and thle express could vicious state, that it does not deserve the
not advance, I say, in reply, that the wide name of currency-ninetenthsof our paper
ocean was still left open to us. A courier money is not current, and specie no longer
could have reached St. Marks in two days, in circulation. How is this evil to be rean-
in case of such emergency; and in two or edied ? As we stayed in our former piece,
three days more, the order could have been (No. 4,) we are decidedly of opinion, that
conveyed by water to Tampa Bay. Why our only effebctual and radical cure, is the
was this not done ? One of two answers establishment of a National Bank, as soon
only can be given to this question : First, as possible. Let the State Banks go to the
that although Gen. Clinch gave phrophetic devil, wither they ought, many years ago,
warning to the Secretary of War of the ap- to have been sent, being clearly repugnant
preaching conflict, he neither understood to the plain and expllicit language of the
the extent of the hostility, or the power of Constitution of the Uinhit: States. This
the Seminole nation ;-or, secondly, if he; fact founded upon the usul eme law of the
-l-, fr, ajust e .ion -e-oe-e- h,^ lai ,111 oiac :, 1M '- .,'I ay anyl man of
was too inert and too impotent to project sound sense. ai' it1..liig.`e ; but they say,
or execute the plan of saving from inevi- that, as they eC...,ed f1, r so, ouiy years, and
table destruction, the thfaithful and devoted been of some r'vice, their illeogiunatlo birth
soldiers whom his orders had placed in must be wiakkt at.
jeopardy. This, in our opinion, is a pretty reason
Gen. Clinch has been pleased to allude given to palliate a courses of conduct
to my having been placed in command of which is notoriously in violation of the
the army in Florida. Heis the last man most valuable and sacred law of our coun-
l llo. .ei e th u h w
living who should have said one word on try-the Cnst' "titon. Besides though we
this subject. The command was given to admit that the otate Banks have rendered
me because Gen. Clinch would not have it. some service to the people of the U. S. they
To the honour of our army be it said, that have, within the last two or three years,
few instances have occurred in which a inflicted on the people immence evil, and
general officer has resigned, while his coun- finally brought the whole country on the
try was engaged in war, and at a time when verge of dreadful ruin.. They have lately
a most important and responsible com- done to the country at large a hundred
mrand was urged on him by his govern- times more hami than of benefit during
ment. The pride of the soldier, the spirit the whole previous period of their exis-
of the patriot, the duty of the citizen, should tenrce. They undoubtedly, by their wild
have prompted him to perform the last ser- and niiUiii'i-i"d themes and actions,
vice required of him. He says he had brought upon us all thed'l-nsress uTricrrw -
been near twenty-eight years in the service are now obliged to endure.
of his country. For twenty-eight years, It is really vn iter of great surprise that
then, he had lived on the bound of his in none of yr igly praised periodical
government, twerty-wve years o-,i. pabliciforis, or in qur daily and weekiy-
had been "days of piping peace." He had newspapers, do ivYw ever see an editorial
passed through the war with Great Britain word and vcry mrsely a communication,
without distinction ;-on no roll of fainme pretendingg l'o Support the constitutional
had his name been recorded. While Jes- h of te St to establish, by .acts of
right of' the bSitets to establish, by .acts of'
utip, Gaines, Scott, and many others his incorporation, ukms with the power and
contemporaries, were advanced one or two authority to .. their notes payable on
grades for gallant deeds and meritorious demand-thuis in plain English to "emit
services. Gen. Clinch was indebted for bils of credit." Neither do the editors of
his promotion to the death of his superiors, these pu.,lic.b,.n ever themselves exam-
who fell gloriously in battle, or became the n c '; inite their correspon-
victims of disease. But time, faithful and dents to do it,) the question whether the
advancing time, had done more for him in establishment of the state banks be or be
peace, than he had done for himself m war. not constitutheal. This misconduct or
It made him a Brevet Brigadier Genera-l neglect of tilae editors, we are sorry to
for ten years service in the same grade.- say, shows a slavish disposition-that they
And when the nation became engaged in are men who reatly lack firmness and in-
war, he owed it to himself, his country, dependence oimind. They no doubt think
and the profession of which he had been that by the discussion of such a question
so long a member, to stand to his post and in periodical publications and in news-
perform his duty. But the Gen, thought r ffn wu b t the
otherwise ; he resigned his commission and p'nd anp supporters, who are stoekhold-
retired to the enjoyment of that inglorious ers an th po ateks. Self interest is the
ease and luxury to which he has ever been esin tuet oa their conduct. They are
so much devoted. And why did he re- eternally prathg in editorial eloquence, on
sign? because, he says, he was superseded the subject of party politics, for one side
in command. This is an imposition prac- the other; but the really important and
ticed on the credulity ofa generous people, interestin1ff caution. as to the Constitution-

I myself once believed it. But, how was 0 1___. __ _
I myself once bedeved ?it. G ut, How was ality of the Sate Banks, being no party
fi0he supersede d fGen. Scott take foom question in pAlitics, in their opinion it is
him the commandohis brigade? No! he not worthy f their notice. Thoe stock-
still retained it. What then ? Why, the holders of every State Bank, we believe,
Government found that one brigade was are nearly equally divided in their political
not sufficient to conquer the Seminole na- ions. Arge proportion of the people
.. .notions. A large proportion of te people
tion; and it sent a division and a Maj. Gen. in each State though divided in their poli-
of the army of the U. S. to command it.- tis, are sty united in their devotional
A distinguished officer, the senior of Gen. tics, are striy nthe Ba nks of the State.
attachment ;o the Banks of the State.
Clinch, and who had a legitimate right to The active a influential men in the State
command him. But, the General resign- on both sides of party politics, would glad-
ed. So much for his patriotism to the ly cut the that's of their party opponents;
General Government. And where was but on the question of their Banks being
his fidelity to "unfortunate Florida?" Did repugnant tothe Constitution of the U. S.
he owe her nothing? If he had citizen- theyareal!nixtin politics and cheek b
ship any where it was here. At an early are .l ni tpr. This ru le among
period fie established a valuable plantation Bank wthcah er.w Thistedamng
in he eritoy.He adtakn liel Bank Stocklolders was manifested in the
in the Territory. He had taken a lively State of New York. They were nearly I
interest in her political affairs; and it was e f dvedo Thm er n pl
more than once understood that he as wiequally divided in umber on politics,
St iJackson beia President of the United
ling to serve her in some of her highest of-. States, and great many of them were in
fices. While in peace and prosperity he the habit of showing their bitter animosity
identified his fortunes with hers. But the habit of showing their bter animosity
when war ensued, in the midst of her ca- against him. When the question arose in
lamities and misfortunes, he leaves her to Congress on the re-chartering of the Bank
her fate, retires with his property, and of the U. S.bthree men so zealously divid-
seeks protection under the banner of Geor- ed in politic prudently showed their unity
in feeling and opinion to be against the
gia. The humblest herdsman on our bor- National Bark,and when President Jack-
ders, has not set so bad an example to our son put his eto on the actOf Congress to
frontier settlers, son put his eO on the act of Congress to
frontier settlers. re-charter t|!e Bank, those violent enemies
I now take my leave of Gen. Clinch, of his, in p litics, extolled his veto to the
and in doing so, I take occasion to say, skies. They were large stockholders in
that I had entertained no unkind feeling the State Banks and were jealous of the
towards him, but by the malicious attack Bank of the United States, having experi-
made on me, justifies me in my own esti- enced the power of the check of that Bank,
nation, in making a disclosure of facts' to keep all the State Banks in order iand

nothing. He should have ower&meno ill I
will at least, for having relieved hit Aiom j
a most dangerous position, which cabled
L him to pass to of perfect safqy,and
for conducting hlis troops to him withoutt
the loss6ofa single man, a result mre fa-
vourable, than could have been aticipat-
ed when hie retired. Not more tOn ten
minutes before -we rnmmenced re-ossing
- tfie river the Indians gave a shod along
our front, indicating a ibformidable fee and
a determination to renew the attuk, and
it was owing to cool deliberatia with
which the troops retired, and the fepara-
tion made to sustain them by thevolun-
teers on the other side, that the Indians
were held in check and the rear we saved
from slaughter. Before the line cqnmen-
ced retiring I crossed to the nortl bank ;
and had the wounded, the horses id bag-
gage removed out of gun shot, aid the
banks of the river completely linedby the
volunteers in front, and for more tiant two
hundred yards above and below tde cross-
ing place, in order-to protect the troops
from the assault of the Indians wfi e pas-
singover. The arrangements beitg cornm-
pletely made I crossed again to the south
side, and put the troopsin motion \o pass
the river. The volunteers on the right
flank of the line, were under the inmedi-
ate command of Lieut. Col. Mils, and
posted on the bantik of the river, ust be-
low the bridge. The volunteers on the
left flank were under the conmoand of
Major Baily and were posted on htie river
above the crossing place. The Iegulars
formed the centre. The troops retired by
the left flank, wheeling by files to tie left,
and passing in the rear of the line to the
bridge, thus preserving an armed frout cov-
ering those who were retiring-while the
ground from whiol they rotired.waeji l-
pletely comm6anded by the voliihqers who
lined the north bank. The whoop of' the
Indians and their rustling in the bushes
Were frequently heard. It was known
that they were present and would avail
themselves of the first false step we might
make, but the steadiness and firmness with
which the troops passed over saved then
from assault. The least disorder or con-
fusion would have been attended with the
most fatal consequences. The rear was
brought up by Lieut. Col. Mills with 41
Florida volunteers. He was the last to
cross the river. The courage and deliber-
ation he displayed and that of his whole
command would have reflected honour on
the best tried veterans. Just as the rear
passed over and as our troops retired from
the bank the Indians rushed to the river
with a tremendous shout, but the difficul-
ty was then passed andr they t dd aA VA
temptto pursue us. I have here given a
faithful narrative of the facts and circum-
stances which occurred after the fight and
until the return of the troops across, the
river, all of which has been carefully avoid-
ed by Gen. Clinch and his eulogists.
I have no disposition to detract from the
meritof the army, on the contrary having
myself been bred a soldier, I have ever
cherished for them the best and kindest
feelings; and it affords me pleasure as far
as my knowledge extends, to bear testimo-
ny to the gallantry and fortitude with which
the officers and men sustained thew.;-Jves in
the battle of Withlacoochee.. They con-
tended against a powerful enemy, they
fought under every disadvantage, they suf-
fered severely, but they behaved nobly.
While I tender to them this tribute of re-
spect, I will repel any unjust censure of
myself, or of the brave and patriotic vol-
inteers who followed me on that occasion.
Gen. Clinch says that when 1 joined him
on the field, I spoke of the number of his
wounded, and observed that he could not
follow up the success already obtained
without sacrificing those noble fellows.
That after a moments reflection and a short
consultation ; he resolved at every hazard
to protect the wounded and gave orders to
have them removed across the river. 1
hope without any suggestion of mine, Gen.
Clinch would have protected his wound-

ed at all hazards; but if their safety or
comfort was in any degree promoted by
any suggestion of mine, I am truly happy
it was made. This however is introduced
in no kind feelings towards him, but to offer
a justification for the return march. For
this purpose too I am willing it should be
appropriated. I have no hesitation in
saying that I approved entirely of that
measure. I believed it proper at the time.
I still entertain the same opinion, and at
no time since have I ever doubted its pro-
priety. We had set out not to make a
campaign against the Seminole nation, for
we wanted, men, arms, provisions, and
every thing else necessary for that purpose.
But we marched to surprise an Indian
Town; owing to the unexpected sloth of
the march and the unexpected obsticles
we had found in crossing the river, we had
been delayed, and we ourselves had been
surprised by the enemy. Three outiof the
four days for which the expedition was
planned had nearly expired. We had
sixty odd wounded officers and men to re-
move, most of whom could only be carried
in litters. We could not leave them be-
hind and we could not have advanced fiur-
ther into the country with them. The en-
emy was on the alert, and we could have
accomplished nothing, with the means we
possessed and within the time we were
compelled to act. The next day the: time
for which the volunteers had engaged,

priidence. Prudence, discretion andnon-
et&ry knowledge are virtues that never be-
longed to any State Bank Directors.
It is certainly of great importancelthe
people throughout the United StateJthat
the question whether the charters 9 the
State Banks be or riot repugnant Io the
,oustluiionu or tne U. ;tstioutd-be dieded
by the Supreme Court of the U. S. 1 is
now altogether doubtful, and as muq of
the stock of the State Banks is ownM(by
widows and minor orphans who haveino
other property in the world, it beli es
every candid and true friend to justice id
humanity, to ardently desire that such" n
important question should be judicially, b-
gally and finally settled. It cannot be fi-
ally settled, but by a decision of the $i-
preme Court of the U. S.

THE LA E GALE -After a few hours of
" grim repose," the gale, which commenced
here on the morning of the 1st inst., revisited
us on Sunday last with augmented violence
-carrying away one of our wharves, and
awakening seriousfears for some of the hous-
eson the river, which, however, it spared.-
It was unaccompanied by thunder or light-
ning, which are usually of great severity in
this part of Florida. The sun has again dis-
pensed his beams to us, and the elemental
st-i seems to have subsided.

It is not to be expected that any Stat HOOr OOG & MA -We stated
Court would ever decide any question imn ., E A tae
evolving the Constitutionality of the charter in our last, that fears were entertained for
of a State Bank, against such a bank. Nothe safety ofthis vessel, which was seen at
State Judge, we presume, has firmn ess and" r ofiteur bar on the morning of the 31st
independence of mind suffiicient To- give ult., to come over in consequence of
such a judicial decision. A case On dversind n the following day the
that nature must 1.e carled up by appeal It ev re g-d nd the
-~~ l-at .. Ie sevee g -e-t,,tnce-d, and, nothing
to the Supreme Court of the U. S. It a v e o e anf h on
would be very similar to the case which having been seen or hea of e Schooner
we noticed in our former No. 4.-Craig et gince then, serious fears were entetbinedfor
al. vs. The State of Missouri, in 4 Peters' the safety of the lives of those on board. On
rep. page 410, and the decision of the Court Wednesday a gentleman came into town from

in that case is clearly applicable to one
which may soon (we hope) occur before
that Court involving directly the question
of the Constitutionality of the charter of
a State Bank.


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