Front Cover
 Title Page
 The First Voyage of Captain...
 The Second Voyage Round the...
 The Third and Last Voyage of Captain...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Captain Cook's three voyages round the world : with a sketch of his life
Title: Captain Cook's three voyages round the world
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00028351/00001
 Material Information
Title: Captain Cook's three voyages round the world with a sketch of his life
Alternate Title: Captain Cook's voyages
Physical Description: 512, 32 p., 2 leaves of plates : col. ill. ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Low, Charles Rathbone, 1837-1918 ( Editor )
George Routledge and Sons ( Publisher )
Charles Dickens and Evans ( Printer )
Crystal Palace Press ( Printer )
Publisher: G. Routledge and Sons
Place of Publication: London
New York
Manufacturer: Charles Dickens and Evans ; Crystal Palace Press
Publication Date: 1876
Subject: Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Ship captains -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Seafaring life -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1876   ( rbgenr )
Biographies -- 1876   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1876
Genre: Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
Biographies   ( rbgenr )
individual biography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: edited by Lieutenant Charles R. Low.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue follows text.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00028351
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Special Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002391238
notis - ALZ6127
oclc - 15092064

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    The First Voyage of Captain Cook
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
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    The Second Voyage Round the World
        Page 133
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    The Third and Last Voyage of Captain Cook
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    Back Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
Full Text


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(Late) H.M. Indian Navy, Fellow of the Royal Geograpkical Society, and
Member of the Royal United Service Institution








AMONG the most remarkable voyages of discovery of which
we have record, those made by the celebrated Captain Cook
hold in popular estimation, and deservedly so, the first place.
This is due as much to the magnitude and importance of his
discoveries as to the interest of the incidents he details ; the
graphic and accurate, yet simple, descriptions of the people
and places he visited; and the sad fate that ultimately over-
took him, which has cast around his name a halo of romantic
interest as one of the martyrs of scientific exploration.
James Cook was born in November, 1728, at Marton, in
Cleveland, near Great Ayton, in Yorkshire. He was of
humble parentage, and, when only two years of age, his
father, who was a day labourer to a farmer, removed to
Great Ayton, where he was employed in the same capacity
by Mr. Thomas Scottowe.
At first young Cook assisted his father in the different
branches of husbandry, but, at thirteen, was placed under the

care of Mr. Pullen, the village schoolmaster at Ayton, where
he learned arithmetic and book-keeping, and is said to have
displayed a remarkable aptitude for figures.
About January, 1745, when James Cook was seventeen
years of age, his father bound him apprentice to learn the
grocery and haberdashery business, at Snaith, about ten miles
from Whitby ; but after a year and a half's servitude, having
contracted a strong predilection for the sea, his master was
willing to indulge him in following the bent of his inclination,
and agreed to cancel the indentures. Accordingly, in July,
1746, the future circumnavigator was bound apprentice to
Mr. J. Walker, of Whitby, for the term of three years, which
he served to the full satisfaction of his employer. He first
sailed on board the Freelove, chiefly employed in the coal
trade between Newcastle and London; and, in May, 1748,
was employed in assisting to rig and fit out for sea the Three
Brothers, a ship of 300 tons, thus acquiring that intimate
knowledge of the rigger's art which forms so important an
element in the education of a sailor. After performing two
coaling voyages in this ship, she was chartered by the
Government as a transport, and conveyed troops to Dublin,
thence embarking other soldiers to Liverpool. Cook con-
tinued to serve in her, in the Norway trade, until the
expiration of his apprenticeship, and, in the spring of 1750,
we find him shipping as a seaman on board the Mlaria, under
the command of Captain Gaskin; in her he performed some
voyages in the Baltic trade. In 1752, Mr. Walker, of Whitby,
was glad to avail himself of his services as mate of one of his
ships, called the Friendship, and he gave so much satisfac-
tion to the owner that, it is said, he was offered the post of
master of the vessel, which, however, he declined. Hence-
forth his services were devoted to his country.
In the spring of 1755, hostilities broke out between this
country and France, and strenuous efforts were made to
man the ships of war. As press-warrants had been issued,
Mr. Cook, whose ship then lay in the Thames, afraid of being
pressed, at first resolved to conceal himself; but afterwards,
reflecting on the difficulties of doing so, he adopted the reso-

lution of entering the navy as a volunteer, "having a mind,"
as he expressed himself, "to try his fortune that way." In
pursuance of this design he repaired to a house of rendezvous
in Wapping, and entered on board the Eagle, of 60 guns, at
that time commanded by Captain Hamer ; on the appoint-
ment, in the following October, of Captain (afterwards Sir
Hugh) Palliser to the command of this ship, Cook's diligence
and attention to the duties of his profession, although in the
humble capacity of a foremast hand, attracted the notice of
that discerning and intelligent commander, and he afforded
him every encouragement. Cook's meritorious conduct also
came to the ears of his friends in his native county, and
representations were made to his captain by the Member for
Scarborough, which resulted in his being recommended for a
master's warrant on board one of His Majesty's ships. After
some delay he was appointed master of the Mercury, and
proceeded in her to North America, and was of signal service
during the reduction of Quebec by the combined military
and naval expedition under General Wolfe and Admiral Sir
Charles Saunders ; as is well known, the chief credit of that
famous exploit fell to the lot of the sister service, which covered
itself with glory, though at the sad cost of the loss of Wolfe,
whose death dimmed the lustre of even so great a victory.
At the siege of Quebec, Sir Charles Saunders committed
to his charge the execution of services of the first importance
in the naval department. He piloted the boats to the attack
of Montmorency, conducted the embarkation to the Heights
of Abraham, and examined the passage, and laid buoys for
the security of the large ships in proceeding up the river.
He was employed for several nights taking soundings opposite
the French camp at Montmorency, until at length he was
discovered by the enemy, who sent a number of canoes, filled
with Indians, to surround him; and he narrowly escaped
capture by pulling for the Isle of Orleans, the Indians seizing
the stern of his boat as he sprang ashore. The courage and
address with which he acquitted himself in these services,
and the admirable completeness of the plan of the channel
and its soundings, which he furnished to the admiral, gained

him the warm friendship of Sir Charles Saunders and his
successor, Lord Colville, who continued his zealous patrons
during the remainder of their lives.
After the conquest of Canada, Mr. Cook was appointed,
on the 2nd of September, 1759, master of the Iorzthuimber-
land, bearing the broad pennant of Lord Colville, which lay,
during the ensuing winter, at Halifax. But Cook, whose
chief anxiety was to rise in his profession, resolved to qualify
himself for promotion, and counteract the deficiencies of his
early education by application to those sciences and branches
of knowledge which are essential to success. Inspired by
this noble ambition, instead of devoting his spare time to
amusements, he was engaged in improving his mind. During
the hard winter of 1759 he first read Euclid, and applied him-
self to the study of mathematics and astronomy, without any
other assistance than was afforded him by a few books and his
own industry.
Mr. Cook's commission as lieutenant was dated the Ist
of April, 1760. In September, 1762, we find him assisting
at the recapture of Newfoundland ; and subsequently,
while the British fleet lay at Placentia, he was engaged
surveying the heights and harbour in order that it might
be put into a state of defence, a task which he per-
formed with such marked ability, as to attract the favourable
notice of the Governor of Newfoundland, Captain (after-
wards Admiral) Graves. Towards the close of the year,
Lieutenant Cook returned to England, and, on the 21st of
December, was married at Barking to Miss Batts, whose god-
father he was said to have been, although, it should be added,
there was only a difference of fourteen years in their ages.
For this lady, by whom he had six children, he entertained a
tender affection through life; but, like all great seamen, he
placed the requirements of the public service before his per-
sonal predilections, and was ever ready at the call of duty to
resign the solace of her society for years. In 1763 Lieut.
Cook accompanied Captain Graves when he went out for the
second time as Governor of Newfoundland, and he carried
out a survey of its coasts, as well as of the islands of

Miquelon and St. Pierre, which had been ceded to this
country by France in the treaty of peace. He again re-
turned to England, but, early in the following year, accom-
panied his former captain, Sir Hugh Palliser, who had been
appointed Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador, and
continued the prosecution of his surveys of those coasts and
of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. His charts were considered
admirable and most trustworthy, while he did not confine
his labours to marine surveying alone, but explored the
interior of Newfoundland. In 1765 he was with Sir William
Burnaby on the Jamaica station; he was employed by the
Admiral in carrying despatches to the Governor of Yucatan,
relative to the wood-cutters in the Bay of Honduras, and
a record of this mission, which he performed in an emi-
nently satisfactory manner, was published in 1769. Return-
ing to Newfoundland, he observed an eclipse of the sun
on August 5th, 1766, an account of which appears in the
seventh volume of the Philosophical Transactions of the
Royal Society.
Lieutenant Cook returned to England in 1767, when much
interest was felt by the astronomical and scientific world
at the approaching transit of Venus over the sun's disc in
1769. Acting on the advice of Captain Wallis, who had just
returned from his voyage round the world, it was decided
that Otaheite, in the Society Islands, would be the most
convenient spot for carrying out the observations; and,
after some delay, Lieutenant Cook was selected to command
the expedition, which was fitted out under the auspices of
the Royal Society and the patronage of his Majesty King
George the Third and the Board of Admiralty, whose
instructions to him embraced the prosecution of discoveries
in those seas, which had been already partially explored
by our countrymen, Captains Wallis, Carteret, and Byron.
These officers, by their discoveries, had greatly contributed
towards increasing our knowledge of the islands in Polynesia;
but how far the Pacific Ocean extended to the west, by what
lands it was bounded on that side, and the connection of
those lands with former discoveries, remained unknown until

Cook, on his return from his first voyage, brought back a
solution of these points.
After Lieutenant Cook's return from his first voyage, he
was promoted to Commander on the 19th of August, 1771;
and on the 9th of August, 1775, ten days after his arrival in
England from his second voyage, he was raised to the rank
of Post-Captain in the Royal Navy.
For the species of enterprise on which he was engaged
during these years, Captain Cook appears to have been
eminently qualified. The earliest habits of his life, the
course of his service, and the constant application of his
mind, all conspired to fit him for it, and gave him a degree
of professional knowledge which few officers had then or
have since attained.
His frame and constitution were robust, inured to labour
and capable of undergoing the severest hardships. When
necessity required it, he could submit, uncomplainingly, to
the coarsest and most unpalatable food; and, indeed, tem-
perance in him was scarcely a virtue, so great was the
indifference with which he submitted to every kind of self-
denial. The qualities of his mind were of the same hardy,
vigorous kind as those of his body. His understanding
was strong and perspicuous; his judgment, especially in pro-
fessional matters, quick and sure. His designs were bold,
and, both in the conception and in the mode of execution,
bore evident marks of original genius. His courage was cool
and determined, and accompanied with an admirable presence
of mind in the moment of danger. His manners were plain
and unaffected; his temper, it was said, was open to blame
on the score of hastiness and passion, but on the other hand
he was generous, benevolent, and humane.
Such was the outline of Captain Cook's character; but its
most distinguishing feature was that unremitting perseverance
in the pursuit of his object, which was superior to the oppo-
sition of dangers, difficulties, and hardships. During the
long and tedious voyages in which he was engaged, his
eagerness and activity were never in the least abated. No
incidental temptations could detain him for a moment; even

those intervals of recreation which sometimes unavoidably
occurred, were submitted to by him with a certain impatience
whenever they could not be employed in making further
provision for the more effectual prosecution of his designs.
It is not necessary here to enumerate the instances in which
these qualities were displayed, as his whole life bore witness
that he was the possessor of them ; but we will briefly state
the results of the great and important enterprises in which
he was engaged.
Perhaps no man ever made greater additions to our know-
ledge of the twin sciences of geography and navigation than
Captain Cook. In his first voyage to the South Seas he
discovered the Society Islands; determined the insularity of
New Zealand; discovered the straits called after his name,
which separate the two islands, and made a complete survey
of both.
With wonderful skill and perseverance, amidst perplexities,
difficulties, and dangers, he explored the eastern coast of
Australia, hitherto unknown, for an extent of twenty-seven
degrees of latitude, or upwards of 2,000 miles.
In his second expedition he traversed the southern hemi-
sphere, between the fortieth and sixty-seventh degrees of
latitude, having sailed nearer to the South Pole than any
previous navigator; and it was not until 1823, just fifty years
later, that Weddeli penetrated 214 miles further south, though
it was reserved for the late Sir James Clark Ross, in his
memorable voyage in 1841, in Her Majesty's ships Erebus
and Terror -the same that carried Franklin and his
associates on their last voyage-to prove the existence of an
antarctic continent, 450 miles in length, in 780 4'.
During this voyage Captain Cook discovered New Cale-
donia, one of the largest islands in the South Pacific, the
island of Georgia, and other islands, besides settling the
situations of the old and making several new discoveries.
But the third and last voyage was distinguished above
the others by the extent and importance of its results.
Although he had richly earned repose by reason of his great
services in the two former voyages, Cook voluntarily quitted

the comfortable quarters he had been allotted in Greenwich
Hospital by the bounty of the King, and once more embarked
on the dangers inseparable from the navigation of unknown
seas, the dealing with savage races, and the search for the
mysterious "north-west passage,"* which had baffled so many
of our most experienced navigators, and which, seventy years
later, was destined to engulf the great Franklin and upwards
of 1oo gallant officers and seamen at the moment when the
secret was yielded up to their energetic research.
Besides several smaller islands in the South Pacific, he
discovered, to the north of the equinoctial line, the group
called the Sandwich Islands, which, from their situation and
productions, have attained a position of importance not yet
assumed by other groups in Polynesia. He afterwards
explored what had hitherto remained unknown of the western
coast of America, from the latitude of 43' to 70o 44' north,
containing an extent of 3,500 miles, ascertained the proximity
of the two great continents of Asia and America, passed the
straits between them, and surveyed a considerable extent of
coast on each side; and it was not until 1826 that Captain
Beechey passed Cook's farthest, and again, many years later,
Sir Robert McClure and Sir Richard Collinson.
But Cook was destined never to return to England, and,
on the 14th of February, 1779, on the shores of an island he
had given to the civilised world, this great mariner perished
by the daggers of a horde of savages whom it had been
his utmost endeavour to conciliate by kind and friendly
Those who are conversant with naval history need not be
told at how dear a rate the scientific advantages which are
sought to be attained through the medium of long voyages
at sea have always been purchased. Scurvy, that dreadful
"* Strictly speaking, Cook was engaged in discovering the "north-east"
passage, from which point he attacked the great problem of Arctic navigation.
On this side Captain Beechey reached as far as 710 25', by which means a space
of about 150 miles only remained unexplored between Point Barrow, the N.E.
point reached by Captain Beechey, and Point Beechey, the N.W. limit of Sir
John Franklin's land expeditions from the mouth of McKenzie's River. This
interval was surmounted by the late Sir Robert McClure.

disorder which is peculiar to this service, and whose ravages
have marked the tracks of discoverers, as witness the records
of the voyages of Lord Anson and other navigators, must
have proved an insuperable obstacle to the prosecution of
such enterprises, unless the preservation of the lives of our
seamen were deemed a matter of no moment. It was
reserved for Captain Cook to show the world, by repeated
trials, that voyages might be protracted to the unusual length
of three or even four years, in unknown regions, and under
every change and rigour of climate, not only without affecting
the health, but even without diminishing the probability of
life in the smallest degree. The method he pursued was
fully explained by himself in a paper which was read before
the Royal Society, in the year 1776, a few months after he
quitted England on his last voyage, on which occasion Sir
Godfrey Copley's gold medal was awarded him; and he also
noted in his journal, up to the time of his death, whatever
improvements were suggested by experience.
With respect to his professional abilities, Captain King,
his able lieutenant, well observes, I shall leave them to the
judgment of those who are best acquainted with the nature
of the services in which he was engaged. They will readily
acknowledge that to have conducted three expeditions of so
much danger and difficulty, of so unusual a length, and in
such a variety of situation, with uniform and invariable
success, must have required not only a thorough and accurate
knowledge of his business, but a powerful and comprehensive
genius, fruitful in resources, and equally ready in the applica-
tion of whatever the higher and inferior calls of the service
Owing to the great care taken by Captain Cook of his men,
and the sanitary precautions he adopted, his voyages were
distinguished among those of the century for the small loss
incurred in their prosecution. But the last was destined to
be fatal to many of the officers who sailed in the two ships,
the Resolution and Discovery. In addition to Captain Cook,
killed on the 14th of February, 1779, Captain Clerke, who
succeeded to the chief command, succumbed, at the age of

thirty-eight, to consumption, from which he had suffered before
he left England, on the 22nd of August in the same year;
and Captain King, the accomplished historian of the voyage
after the death of Cook, died, at Nice, in the autumn of 1784,
of disease caused by the hardships and vicissitudes of climate
to which he had been exposed. King George the Third was
not forgetful of the services of his great subject, whose dis-
coveries shed no less glory on his reign than the victories by
sea and land, which we Englishmen regard with so much
pride and satisfaction. He settled a pension of 25 per
annum on each of the three surviving sons of the great
circumnavigator, and a pension of 200 a year on the
This lady had soon cause to deplore the loss, in their
country's service, of others only less dear to her than her
gallant and lamented husband. In October, 1780, the month
when, by the return of the Resolution and Discovery, Mrs.
Cook was first made aware of the irreparable loss she had
sustained, her second son, Nathaniel, sixteen years of age, was
lost on board the Thzznderer man-of-war, which foundered in
a gale of wind. The youngest son, Hugh, a student of
Christ's College, Cambridge, died of fever at the early age of
seventeen, on the 21st of December, 1793; and, on the 25th of
January in the following year, the eldest son, aged thirty-one,
who bore his father's name, and commanded the Spitfire sloop-
of-war, was driven to sea while attempting to board his ship
off Poole in a heavy gale, and perished, together with the
boat's crew. His body was afterwards recovered, and con-
veyed to Spithead on board his own ship, whence it was
removed to Cambridge, and buried by the side of his
youngest brother, whose funeral he had attended only six
weeks before. Mrs. Cook was herself brought to the brink
of the grave by these accumulated bereavements, but she
recovered her health, and lived to the extraordinary age of
ninety-three, having survived her husband fifty-six years.
She died on the 13th of May, 1835, at her residence at
Clapham, to the poor of which she left a charitable bequest,
and was buried in the middle aisle of St. Andrew's the Great,

Cambridge, by the side of her two sons. Within the com-
munion rail of that church is a tablet, having an appropriate
design descriptive of naval discovery sculptured at the top,
and below, a shield, the device of a "globe and a star, with
the motto,
"Nil intentatum reliquit."

On the tablet is the following inscription to the memory of
Captain Cook :-

Of the Royal Navy,
One of the most Celebrated Navigators that this or former ages can boast of;
Who was killed by the natives of Owyhee in the Pacific Ocean,
On the I4th day of February, 1779, in the fifty-first year of his age.

In continuation of the above, is an inscription to his widow
and their sons, with the names and ages of three children
who died in infancy; and, on the slab in the middle aisle,
beneath which lie Mrs. Cook and her sons, is a brief record
of their names and ages at the date of decease.
But though it is a meet and proper thing that this country,
even by a cenotaph, should record its sense of the services
and devotion to duty of one of the noblest of its sons, yet
more interest attaches to the memorials that have been raised
to our great countryman on the scene of his labours and of
his death. Until within the past year, however, no suitable
monument to the memory of Captain Cook had been raised
in the Sandwich Island, though this remissness did not
extend to the officers of the Royal Navy, who have ever
been proud of numbering the name of James Cook among
the most distinguished in the long roll of naval worthies.
About 100 yards from the beach, where he was so cruelly
murdered, stands a portion of the trunk of a cocoa-nut tree,
set in a bed of loose stones and broken lava, and bearing
four plates of copper, upon which appear the following

inscriptions, rudely stamped, apparently with a punch. On
the largest of these, the following is the only portion that is
now decipherable :-

"This bay was visited by Her Majesty's ship Carrysford, Right Honourable
Lord George Paulet."

A second plate bears the following inscription :-

"This tree having fallen, was replaced on this spot by Her Majesty's steam-
vessel Cormorant, G. T. Gordon, Esq., Captain, which visited this spot May 18,

The third plate has the following inscription :-

"This sheet and capping were put on by the Sparrow Hawk, September 16,
1839, in order to preserve this monument to the memory of Cook. Give this a
coat of tar."

On the fourth plate the following may be deciphered :-

Near this spot fell Captain James Cook, R.N., the renowned navigator,
who discovered this island A.D. 1778. His Majesty's ship Imogene, October
i7th, 1837."

Yet another rude memorial, supposed to be by the officers
of the Blonde, attests the estimation in which the name of
Cook is held by the Navy. About a mile from the bay, and
at an elevation of some 500 feet above the level of the sea, is
a post, about 10 feet in height, set in rude blocks of lava,
enclosed within a wall of the same material, and bearing the
following inscription upon a plate of copper:-

Who discovered this island A.D. 1778,
This humble monument is erected by his fellow-countrymen, A.D. 1825.

These memorials to Cook displayed a just appreciation on
the part of our naval officers, but the means at their disposal
were limited; and it was not until 1874 that a suitable
monument was erected to his 'memory. The "Honolulu
Gazette," of the 25th of November of that year, records the

circumstances under which this was effected. The chief
credit is due to Mr. Wodehouse, the British Commissioner,
who obtained the co-operation of the Hawaiian Government,
and Captain Cator, of Her Majesty's ship Scout, who con-
veyed the architect and men and materials to the spot in
Karakakooa Bay where Captain Cook fell.
The monument is a plain obelisk, standing on a square
base, the whole being 27 feet in height, and constructed
throughout of a concrete composed of carefully screened
pebbles and cement.
It stands on a level platform of lava, only a few feet
distant from and above high-water mark, and fifteen or
twenty yards from the stone or lava slab on which the great
seaman stood when struck down. The site is the gift of the
native Princess Likelike, and the expense of the erection is
partly borne by subscribers in England, among whom are
Admiral Richards, late Hydrographer at the Admiralty,
several officers who served under him when he commanded
H.M.S. Hecate, on this station, and Lady Franklin, who it
was natural should feel a peculiar interest in one who, like
her great husband, at the call of duty, left a competence, a
loving wife, and admiring friends, to perish in the prosecution
of nautical exploration.
On the seaward base of the obelisk is deeply cut the
following inscription :-

Who discovered these islands on the i8th of January, 1778, and fell near
this spot on the i4th of February, 1779.
This monument was erected in November, A.D. 1874,
By some of his fellow-countrymen.

The unveiling of the monument, which will be surrounded
by a fence or railing, took place on the 14th of November,
1874, in presence of Mr. Wodehouse, Mr. Lischman, the
architect, Captain Cator and the officers of the Scout, and
many foreign and native visitors and residents.

But no monument is needed to the fame of the discoverer
of the Sandwich group, of New Caledonia, of Georgia, and
other inferior islands; the explorer of the unknown coasts of
New Zealand, of Australia, and of the West Coast of America
as far as Icy Cape. Among the names most cherished by
his countrymen, is that of the greatest navigator of all time,
Captain James Cook, whose unassuming, genuine character
obtained for him the honourable title of Orbis investigator


DURING the past year the governments and scientific men
of all civilised nations were vying with each other as to
which should contribute most to the observation of one of the
rarest and most interesting of astronomical phenomena.
Numberless expeditions were organised under the auspices,
and at the expense of, governments, learned societies, and
munificent private individuals, and were despatched to some
of the most remote and inaccessible spots and islands on the
face of the globe, for the purpose of observing the transit of
Venus over the sun's disc.
Much more humble were the efforts made a century ago
to observe the same phenomenon, though it was the furtlier-
ing of this scientific end that brought before the world the
name of that great man, whose memory his countrymen will
not willingly permit to die ; and, indeed, of few, if any, of our
worthies, have so many biographical sketches been written,
while the narrative of his voyages has been edited by
numerous hands, and never so well as when the original text
of Captains Cook and King has been most closely adhered
to. This course we have adopted, abbreviating freely, and,
where necessary, throwing into modern language the some-
what antiquated phraseology of the early editions.
Calculations having been made that the planet Venus would

pass over the sun's disc in 1769, the Royal Society, under
the patronage of King George the Third, presented a
memorial to Government, requesting that a vessel might be
fitted out to convey proper persons to observe the transit,
either in the Marquesas or Friendly Islands, though, on the
recommendation of Captain Wallis, who at this time returned
from his voyage round the world, it was ultimately decided
that the observers should proceed instead to Otaheite, in the
Society Islands. Accordingly, Sir Hugh Palliser, a captain
in the Royal Navy, under whom Cook had served on board
the Eagle, of 60 guns, was commissioned to provide a proper
vessel; and after examining a great number, fixed on the
Endeavour, a vessel of 370 tons, which had been built for
the coal trade. Mr. Stephens, Secretary to the Admiralty,
having recommended Mr. Cook, and this recommendation
being strengthened by the testimony of Sir Hugh Palliser,
he was appointed to the distinguished post of Commander of
the expedition by the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty,
and promoted to the rank of Lieutenant in the Royal Navy,
on the 25th of May, 1768, being then nearly 40 years of age.
Mr. Charles Green, the coadjutor of Mr. Bradley, the Astro-
nomer Royal, was nominated to assist him in the astronomical
part of the undertaking; he was also accompanied by Mr.
(afterwards Sir Joseph) Banks, President of the Royal
Society, who took with him two draughtsmen, and had like-
wise a secretary and four servants. Dr. Solander, an in-
genious and learned Swede, who held a place in the British
Museum, and was an adept in natural history and philosophy,
also joined the expedition. The complement of the En-
deavour consisted of eighty-four persons. She was victualled
for eighteen months, and ten carriage and twelve swivel
guns, with abundance of ammunition, and all manner of
stores, were taken on board. Her principal officers were :-
Lieutenants Hicks and Gore; Mr. Molineux, master, who
died the i5th of April, 1771, and was succeeded by Mr.
Pickersgill; Mr. Charles Clerke, mate; Mr. Monkhouse,
surgeon, who died the 5th of November, 1770, and was
succeeded by Mr. Perry.

Captain Cook sailed from Deptford on the 30th of July,
1768, and on the 18th of August anchored in Plymouth
Sound, from which, in a few days, he proceeded to sea.
On the 2nd of September they made the first land after
leaving the Channel, and on the 13th arrived at Madeira,
where they unfortunately lost Mr. Weir, the master's mate,
who fell overboard and was drowned. They left Madeira on
the 19th of September, and on the 23rd sighted the Peak of
Teneriffe, which, from its great elevation, is visible a vast
distance at sea. On the 29th, Bona Vista, one of the Cape
de Verd islands, was passed, and on October the 25th they
crossed the line with the usual ceremonies. Provisions falling
short, it was determined to put into Rio Janeiro*, where they
arrived on the I3th of November, and having procured the
necessary supplies, weighed anchor on the 8th of December.
On the 22nd they were surrounded by a great number of
porpoises, of a singular species, about 15 feet in length, and of
an ash colour. On the following day they observed an eclipse of
the moon; and at seven o'clock in the morning a small white
cloud appeared in the west, from which a train of fire issued,
followed by a distinct explosion, when the cloud disappeared.
The year 1768 closed without any noteworthy incident.
On the 4th of January, 1769, they saw an appearance of
land, which they mistook for Pepys' Island, and bore away
for it; but it proved one of those deceptions which sailors
call a "fog bank." On the 14th they entered the straits of
Le Maire, but were driven out again with great violence, the
tide being against them. At length they got anchorage at
the entrance of a little cove, which Captain Cook called St.
Vincent's Bay. Dr. Solander and Mr. Banks went on shore,
and returned about nine in the evening with upwards of a
hundred different plants and flowers, hitherto unnoticed by
European botanists.
On Sunday, the 15th, they came to an anchor off this part
of Terra del Fuego, in twelve fathoms of water, upon coral
rocks, before a small cove, at the distance of about a mile
from the shore. Two of the natives came down upon the
"* So called after St. Januarius, the saint's day on which it was discovered.

beach, as if they expected the strangers would land; but as
there was no shelter the ship got under weigh again and the
natives retired. The same afternoon they came to an anchor
in the Bay of Good Success. The captain went on shore,
accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, to search for a
watering-place and confer with the natives. These gentlemen
proceeded above ioo yards in advance of Captain Cook, when
two of the natives who had seated themselves, rose up, and,
as a token of amity, threw away a small stick or boomerang
which they had in their hands. They afterwards returned to
their companions, who had remained some distance behind,
and made signs to their guests to advance. They received
the Englishmen in a friendly manner, and in return for their
civility, some buttons and beads were distributed among
them. Thus confidence was established, and the rest of the
English party joined and conversed with them in an amicable
manner. Captain Cook and his friends took three of the
natives to the ship, clothed them, and gave them provisions,
part of which they carried on shore. They, however, refused
to drink rum or brandy, after tasting it, intimating, by signs,
that it burned their throats. None of these people exceeded
5 feet io inches in height, but their bodies appeared large
and robust, though their limbs were small. They had broad
flat faces, high cheeks, noses inclining to flatness, wide
nostrils, small black eyes, large mouths, small but indifferent
teeth, and straight black hair falling down over their ears
and foreheads, the latter being most generally smeared with
brown and red paints; and, like all the original inhabitants
of America, they were beardless. Their garments were the
skins of seals and guanicos, which they wrapped round their
shoulders. The men likewise wore on their heads a bunch of
yarn, which fell over their foreheads, and was tied behind
with the sinews or tendons of some animal. Many of both
sexes were painted in different parts of their bodies with red,
brown, and white colours, and had also three or four perpen-
dicular lines pricked across their cheeks and noses. The
women had a small string tied round each ankle, and each
wore a flap of skin fastened round the middle. They carried

their children upon their backs, and were generally employed
in domestic labour and drudgery.
Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, Mr. Buchan, and attendants, set
out with a design of going into the country and returning
the same evening. The morning had been very fine, but the
weather afterwards became cold and disagreeable, the blasts
of wind were piercing, and the snow fell very thick; never-
theless, they pursued their route, in the hope of finding a
better road, as that which they had crossed was swampy.
An accident now happened that greatly disconcerted them
all. Mr. Buchan was attacked with a fit. Such as were
fatigued remained to assist him; but Mr. Banks, Dr.
Solander, and Mr. Monkhouse proceeded on further, and found
a great variety of plants that amply repaid their toil. When
they returned to the company amidst the snow, which now
fell in great abundance, they found that Mr. Buchan was
much recovered. It was now about eight in the evening, and
Dr. Solander, knowing from experience that extreme cold,
when joined with fatigue, occasions a drowsiness that is not
easily resisted, entreated his friends to keep in motion, how-
ever disagreeable it might be to them. His words were,
"Whoever sits down will sleep, and whoever sleeps will
awake no more." Accordingly, every one now seemed armed
with resolution; but, on a sudden, the cold became so very
intense as to threaten the most dreadful effects. It was
remarkable that the doctor himself, who had so forcibly
admonished his party, was the first person who insisted on
repose. In spite of their earnest entreaties, he lay down
amidst the snow, and it was with the greatest difficulty they
kept him awake. One of the black servants became also
weary and faint, and was on the point of following his
example. Mr. Buchan was therefore detached with a party
to make a fire at the first commodious spot they could find;
Mr. Banks and four more remained with the doctor and
Richmond, the black servant, who with the utmost difficulty
were persuaded to proceed; but when they had traversed
the greater part of the swamp, they expressed their inability
to go any further. When Richmond was told that if he

remained there he would soon be frozen to death, his reply
was that he was so exhausted with fatigue, that death would
be a relief to him. Dr. Solander said he was not unwilling
to go, but that he must first take some sleep, acting contrary
to the opinion which he himself had so lately delivered.
Thus resolved, they both sat down, supported by some
bushes, and in a short time fell fast asleep. Intelligence
now came from the advanced party that a fire was kindled
about a quarter of a mile in advance. Mr. Banks then
awakened the doctor, who had almost lost the use of his
limbs, though it was but a few minutes since he sat down ;
nevertheless, he consented to go on. Every measure, how-
ever, taken to relieve Richmond proved ineffectual; he
remained motionless, and they were obliged to leave him to
the care of a sailor and the other black servant, who appeared
to be the least affected by the cold, and they were to be
relieved as soon as two others were sufficiently warmed to
supply their places. The doctor, with much difficulty, was
got to the fire, but the party who were sent to relieve the
companions of Richmond returned without having been able
to find them.
A fall of snow continuing for nearly two hours, there now
remained no hopes of seeing the three absent persons again.
About twelve o'clock, however, a great shouting was heard
at a distance, when Mr. Banks and four others went forth
and met the sailor, who had just strength enough left to
walk. He was immediately taken to the fire, and they
proceeded to seek for the other two. They found Richmond
upon his legs, of which, however, he had lost the use, and
the other black was lying senseless upon the ground. All
endeavours to bring them to the fire were fruitless; nor was
it possible to kindle one upon the spot, on account of the
snow that had fallen and was still falling, so there remained
no alternative, and they were compelled to leave the two
unfortunate negroes to their fate, after they had made them
a bed of the boughs of some trees, and covered them over
thick with the same. As all hands had been employed in
endeavouring to move these poor fellows to the fire, and had
vt.~g/ r ~I-LI~b CV LLCV IV ~-IVLJ~ ;JVI LIIVY r3L~ II~illL) Cll~ II-LI

been exposed to the cold for near an hour and a balf in the
attempt, some of them began to be afflicted in the same
manner as those whom they went to relieve. Briscoe,
another servant of Mr. Banks, in particular, began to lose
his sensibility. At last they reached the fire, and passed the
night in a very disagreeable manner.
The party that set out from the ship consisted of twelve;
two were already judged to be dead, and it was doubtful
whether a third would be able to return on board; Mr.
Buchan, a fourth, seemed to be threatened with a return of
his fits. They reckoned that the ship was distant a long
day's journey through an unfrequented wood, and having
been equipped only for a journey of a few hours, they had
not a sufficiency of provisions left to afford the company a
single meal.
At daybreak on the 17th nothing presented itself to view
but snow, and the blasts of wind were so frequent and
violent that their journey seemed to be impracticable. How-
ever, about six in the morning they had a dawn of hope, by
discerning the sun through the clouds, and as they proposed
to set out on their return journey to the ship, messengers
were despatched to the unhappy negroes, but they returned
with the melancholy news of their death. They then started
about ten in the morning, and to their great astonishment
and satisfaction, in about three hours found themselves on
the shore, and much nearer the ship than their most sanguine
expectations could have suggested, for, instead of ascending
the hill in a direct line, they had made a circle almost round
the country.
On the 20th Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander again proceeded
on shore, and collected a number of shells and plants hitherto
unknown. After dinner they went to visit an Indian town,
about two miles up the country, situated on a small hill
covered with wood, and consisting of about a dozen huts,
constructed without art or regularity, composed of a few
poles, inclining to each other in the shape of a sugar loaf;
these poles were covered on the weather side with grass and
boughs, and on the lee side a space was left open which

served at once for a fireplace and a door. A little grass
formed their only beds and chairs; their utensils were a
basket for the hand, a satchel to hang upon the back, and a
bladder of water, out of which they drink through a hole in
the top. This town was inhabited by a tribe of about fifty
men, women, and children. Their bows and arrows were
constructed with neatness and ingenuity, being made of wood
highly polished, and the point, which was either glass or flint,
was very skilfully fitted. These latter substances were ob-
served among them unwrought, as also cloth, rings, buttons,
&c., from whence it was concluded that they sometimes
travelled to the northward, as no ship, for years past, had
touched at this part of Terra del Fuego. They did not show
any surprise at the sight of arms, but appeared to be well
acquainted with their use. They seemed to be of a very low
type of humanity, passing their lives in wandering in a for-
lorn manner over dreary wastes ; their only food was shell-
fish, nor had they the rudest implements of art-not even so
much as was necessary to dress their food.
On the 20th of January Captain Cook took his departure
from Cape Horn; and the weather being very calm, Mr. Banks
proceeded in a small boat to shoot birds, when he killed some
shearwaters and some large albatrosses. The latter proved
very good food. Notwithstanding that the doubling of Cape
Horn was represented by voyagers of that date as fraught
with danger, and it was generally thought that passing through
the Straits of Magellan was less perilous, yet the Endeavour
doubled "the Horn," as sailors call it, with as little danger
as she would the North Foreland on the Kentish coast. The
heavens were fair, the wind temperate, the weather pleasant,
and, being near shore, they had a very distinct view of the
coast. Captain Cook surveyed the Bay of Good Success
and traced the coast. The former charts of this part of
Terra del Fuego were nearly useless, they having been
formed from the rude sketches of Hermite, the Dutch
admiral, in 1624, and those still worse of the discoverers
Schouten and Le Maire.
On the 25th a marine, about twenty years of age, being

falsely charged with theft, took the accusation so much to
heart that, in the dusk of the evening, he threw himself into
the sea and was drowned.
On the 4th of April, about o1 o'clock, Peter Briscoe, servant
to Mr. Banks, discovered land to the south, at the distance of
about three or four leagues. Captain Cook immediately gave
orders to sail for it, when they found an island of an oval
form, having a lagoon or lake in the centre, whence he gave it
the name of Lagoon Island. The surrounding border of the
land was low and narrow in many places, especially towards
the south, where the beach consisted of a reef of rocks.
Three places on the north side had the same appearance, so
that, on the whole, the land seemed to resemble several
woody islands. When within a mile of the north side, no
bottom could be found at 130 fathoms, nor any good anchorage.
Several of the natives were discovered on shore; they appeared
to be tall, with heads remarkably large, which probably
some bandage might have increased. Their complexion was
copper colour and their hair black. Some of these people
were seen abreast of thle ship, holding poles or pikes of twice
their own height. They appeared also to be naked, but when
they retired, on the ship's passing by the islands, they put
on a light covering; some clumps of palm trees served them
for habitations.
The Endeavour, on the 5th, continued her course with a
favourable wind, and about three o'clock land was discovered
to the westward. It was low, in form resembling a bow, and
in circumference seemed to be ten or twelve leagues. Its
length was about three or four leagues, and its width about
200 yards. This island, from the smoke that was discovered,
appeared to be inhabited, and was named Bow Island.
On the ioth of April, after a tempestuous night, the
Endeavour came in sight of Osnaburgh* Island, called by
the natives Maitea. This island is circular, about four miles
in circumference, partly rocky and partly covered with trees.
"* Quiros, who first visited it in 16o6, named it Dezana; Wallis, in 1767, calls
it Osnaburgh ; Bougainville, in 1768, terms it Boudoir; and Cook calls it by the
native name.

On the I Ith they made Otaheite, or, as Captain Wallis had
named it, "George the Third's Island." This island, the
largest and most important of the Society group, was first
discovered by Quiros, a Spaniard, as early as the year 16o6,
and called Sagittaria. The next European to visit it was
Captain Wallis, in 1767; and it had been so ill described
by the Spanish navigator, that our countryman was unable
to recognize it as the island discovered by him. The third
visitor was Captain Cook, on the occasion under notice.
The Society group consists of five islands and numerous
small islets. The former are called Otaheite, Eimeo, Meatia
(or Maitea), Maiaviti, and Tituaro; and they all lie between
160 30' and 170 54' South lat., and 148 153' West long.
At the present time, the island of Otaheite is the seat of the
native government, as well as that of the French, since its
subjugation. This island is formed by two distinct mountains,
rising to the height of from 6,000 to 8,000 feet, and divided
from each other by a low isthmus some three miles in width.
The circumference of Otaheite is between Iio and 113 miles,
and its coasts are girded by a coral reef. Its geological for-
mation is volcanic, though the valleys and hill-sides are of
great fertility. The climate is temperate, the temperature
ranging in summer between 689 and 86. At the date of the
arrival of the first missionaries in 1797, the population is said
to have been under 20,000, and twenty years later it had
actually decreased to 5,000. Since 1820, owing to the aboli-
tion of infanticide and the influence of the new religion upon
the morals of the natives, the population has attained the
level of 1797, and again numbers 20,000."
The calms prevented the Endeavour approaching Otaheite
till the morning of the I2th of April, when a breeze sprang
up, and several canoes were seen making towards the ship.
Few of them, however, would come near, and the occupants
of those that did could not be persuaded to come on board.
They brought with them young plantains and branches of
trees, which were handed up the ship's side, and by their

"* "Travels in the Sandwich and Society Islands," by S. S. Hill. London, 1856.

desire were stuck in conspicuous parts of the rigging, as
tokens of peace and friendship. After this, the crew pur-
chased their commodities, consisting of cocoa-nuts, bananas,
bread-fruit, apples, and figs, which were very acceptable.
They lay "off and on" all night, and in the morning of the
13th entered Port Royal Harbour, in the island of Otaheite,
and anchored within half a mile of the shore. Many of the
natives came off immediately in their canoes, and brought
with them bread-fruit, cocoa-nuts, apples, and some hogs,
which they bartered for beads and other trinkets with the
ship's company. The tree which bears the bread-fruit is about
the size of a horse chestnut; its leaves are nearly a foot and
a half in length, in shape oblong, and very much resembling
those of the fig-tree. The fruit is enclosed in a thin skin,
and its core is as large as a man's thumb. The substance of
this fruit is somewhat like that of new bread, and as white
as the blanched almond. It should be roasted, and has a
sweetish taste to the palate.
Amongst those who came on board the Endeavour was an
elderly man named Owhaw, known to Mr. Gore and others
who had visited the island with Captain Wallis, and as he
was considered a very useful personage, they studied to
please him and to gratify all his wishes.
Captain Cook drew up several necessary rules to be ob-
served by every person on board, for the better establishment
of a regular trade with the natives. The substance of the
rules were, "That in order to prevent quarrels and confusion,
every one of the ship's crew should endeavour to treat the
inhabitants of Otaheite with humanity, and by all fair means
to cultivate a friendship with them. That no officer, seaman,
or other person belonging to the ship, excepting such only
as were appointed to barter with the natives, should trade
or offer to trade, for any kind of provision, fruit, or other
produce of the island, without having express leave so to do.
That no person should embezzle, trade, or offer to trade with
any part of the ship's stores ; and that no sort of iron or any-
thing made of iron, or any sort of cloth, or other useful
articles in the ship, should be given in exchange for anything

but provisions." These necessary rules were signed by
Captain Cook, and to the non-observance of them were an-
nexed certain penalties, besides the punishment accorded in
the navy to the infraction of the captain's orders.
When the ship was properly secured, Captain Cook, Mr.
Banks, and Dr. Solander went on shore, with an armed
party and their friend Owhaw. They were received with
awe and reverence by some hundreds of the natives, who
exchanged the tokens of peace, and offered to conduct them
to a spot of ground which would be more convenient for them
to occupy than where they landed. They now took a circuit
of about four miles, through groves of the bread-fruit and
cocoa trees. Intermingled with these were the dwellings of the
natives, which consisted of huts without walls. In the course
of their journey they found but few fowls or hogs, and under-
stood that none of their conductors, nor any of the people they
had hitherto seen, were persons of rank in the island. Those
of the crew who had before been at Otaheite, in the Dolkinz,
were likewise of opinion that the queen's residence had been
removed, as no traces of it were now to be discovered.
Next morning, before they could leave the ship, several
canoes came about her, filled with people, whose dress de-
noted them to be of the superior class. Two of these came
on board, and each fixed on a friend ; one of them chose
Mr. Banks and the other Captain Cook. The ceremonial of
investiture, if it may be so called, consisted in taking off
their clothes in a great part and putting them upon their
adopted friends. This compliment was returned by the
gentlemen presenting them with some trinkets. They then
made signs for their new friends to go with them to the place
of their abode, and the latter, desirous of being acquainted
with the people, and finding out a more convenient har-
bour, accepted the invitation and went with them. Mr.
Banks, Dr. Solander, and others, landed in two boats at
a distance of about three miles from the ship, among a great
number of the natives, who conducted them to a large
habitation, where they were introduced to a middle-aged
man, named Tootahah. When they were seated, he pre-

sented to Mr. Banks a cock, a hen, and a piece of perfumed
cloth, which compliment was returned by a present from
Mr. Banks. They were conducted to several other large
dwellings, wherein they walked about with great freedom.
Walking afterwards along the shore they met another chief,
named Tubourai Tamaide, with whom they settled a treaty
of peace, in the manner before described. The chief gave
them to understand that he had provisions at their service,
if they chose to eat, which he produced, and they dined
heartily upon bread-fruit, plaintains, and fish. In the course
of this visit, Dr. Solander having missed an opera-glass,
complaint was made to the chief, which interrupted the
convivial party. This complaint was enforced by Mr. Banks
starting up and striking the butt-end of his musket against
the ground, which alarmed the Indians so much that all
of them ran precipitately out of the house, except the chief
and a few others of the superior class. The chief observed,
with an air of probity, that he would endeavour to recover
it, adding that if this could not be done he would make
compensation, by giving as much new cloth as should be
thought equal to the value. The case, however, was brought
in a short time, and the glass itself soon after. After this
adventure was amicably terminated, they returned to the
ship about six o'clock in the evening.
On Saturday, the i5th, in the morning, several of the
chiefs came on board, bringing with them hogs, bread-fruit,
and other refreshments, for which they received linen, beads,
and other trinkets. The captain, attended by Mr. Banks
and some officers, went on shore to select a suitable spot
for the erection of a fort for their defence during their stay,
and the ground was marked out for the purpose, a great
number of the natives looking on, and behaving in the most
peaceable manner.
Mr. Banks and his friends having seen few hogs and
poultry in their walks, suspected that they had been driven
up the country, for which reason they determined to
penetrate into the woods, the tent being guarded by a petty
officer and a party of marines. On this excursion several

of the natives accompanied them. While on their march
they were alarmed by the report of two pieces, fired by the
guard of the tent. Owhaw, calling together the captain's
party, dispersed all the Indians except three, who, in token
of their fidelity, broke branches of trees, according to their
custom, and whom it was thought proper to retain. When
they returned to the tent they found that an Indian had
snatched away one of the sentries' muskets, and a young
midshipman, who commanded the party, was so imprudent
as to give the marines orders to fire, and many of the natives
were wounded; but as the offender had not fallen, they
pursued him and shot him dead. Mr. Banks was much
displeased at this conduct; but as what had passed could
not be recalled, nothing remained but to endeavour to accom-
modate matters with the Indians. Accordingly, through the
mediation of an old man, several of the natives were prevailed
to come over to them, and to give the usual tokens of friend-
ship. The next morning, however, they saw but few of the
natives on the beach, and none on board, from whence it was
concluded that the treatment they had received the former
day was not yet forgotten; and the English were confirmed
in this opinion by Owhaw's having left them. In consequence
of these circumstances the captain brought the ship nearer to
the shore, and moored her in such a manner as to make her
broadside bear on the spot which they had marked out for
erecting the fort. In the evening, the captain and some of
the gentlemen going on shore, the Indians came round them
and trafficked with them as usual.
On the I7th they had the misfortune to lose Mr. Buchan.
The same day they received a visit from Tubourai Tamaide
and Tootahah, who brought with them some plantain
branches, and till these were received they would not venture
on board. The erection of the fort commenced on the i8th.
Some of the ship's company were employed in throwing
up intrenchments, whilst others were busied in cutting
fascines, in which work the Indians assisted them. The
natives brought down such quantities of bread-fruit and cocoa-
nuts this day that it was necessary to refuse them, and to let

them know that none would be wanting for two days. Mr.
Banks slept for the first time on shore this night. None of
the Indians attempted to approach- is tent; he had, how-
ever, taken the precaution to place sentries about it for his
A sort of market was now established without the lines of
the fort, which was tolerably well supplied, and Tubourai
Tamaide was a frequent guest of Mr. Banks and the other
English gentlemen. He was the only native that attempted
to use a knife and fork, being fond of adopting European
manners. Mr. Monkhouse, the surgeon, being abroad on his
evening walk, reported that he had seen the body of the man
who had been shot from the tent. It was deposited in a shed,
close to the house where he had resided when alive. The
body lay on a bier, the frame of which was wood, supported
by pillars about 5 feet high and covered with a mat, over
which lay a white cloth; by its side lay a wooden mace, and
towards the head two cocoa-nut shells. Towards the feet
was a bunch of green leaves and small dried boughs tied
together, and stuck in the ground, near which was a stone
about the size of a cocoa-nut ; here were also placed a young
plantain tree, and on the stem of a palm tree, which was
placed upright outside of it, was placed a cocoa-shell, filled
with water. At the side of one of the posts there hung a little
bag with some roasted pieces of bread-fruit. The natives
were not pleased at his approaching the body, their jealousy
appearing plainly in their countenances and gestures.
On the 22nd they were entertained by some of the
musicians of the country, who performed on an instrument
somewhat resembling a German flute, but the performer blew
through his nostrils instead of his mouth, and others ac-
companied this instrument, singing only one tune. Some of
the Indians brought their axes to grind and repair, most of
which they had obtained from Captain Wallis and the crew
of the Dolhiin; but a French axe occasioned a little specula-
tion, and at length, upon inquiry, it appeared to have been
left here by M. De Bougainville.
On the 25th, several knives being missed, Mr. Banks,

who had lost his among the rest, accused Tubourai
Tamaide of having taken it, upon which the chief, with tears
in his eyes, made signs that if he had been guilty of such a
theft as had been imputed to him, he would suffer his throat
to be cut. But, though he was innocent, it was plain that
the natives in general were very much addicted to thieving,
as though Mr. Banks' servant had mislaid the knife in
question, yet the rest were produced in a day by one of the
On the 26th six swivel guns were mounted on the fort,
which alarmed the Indians, and several of the fishermen
removed, fearing that the guns would open fire on them.
The next day, Tubourai Tamaide came with three women
and a friend to dine at the fort, and after dinner returned to
his own house. In a short time after he came back to com-
plain of a butcher, who had threatened to cut his wife's throat
because she would not barter a stone hatchet for a nail. It
appearing clearly that the offender had infringed one of the
rules enjoined by the captain for trading with the natives, he
was flogged on board, in their sight. When the first stroke
had been given, they interfered, and entreated that the culprit
might be untied; but when this favour was denied them, they
appeared greatly concerned, and burst into tears.
Mr. Molineux, master of the Endeavour, seeing a woman
whose name was Oberea, he declared she was the same
person whom he judged to be queen of the island when he
was there with Captain Wallis. The eyes of every one were
now fixed on her, of whom so much had been said by the
crew of the Dolphin, and in the account given of her by
the captain. In person she was tall and rather large
made; she was about forty years of age, her skin white,
and her eyes had great expression in them ; she had been
handsome, but her beauty was now upon the decline. An
offer was made to conduct her on board the ship, which she
accepted. Many presents were made her, particularly a
child's doll, which she viewed very attentively. Captain
Cook accompanied her on shore, and when they landed, she
presented him with a hog and some plantains in return for

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it had received no real injury, though it had been taken to
When they returned in the evening, they were much
surprised to find Tootahah under confinement in the fort,
while a crowd of the natives surrounded the gate, discovering
marks of the greatest anxiety for the fate of their chief. The
occasion of his detention originated from the conduct of the
Indians, who, alarmed at Captain Cook's having gone up the
country with an armed party, left the fort that evening, and
one of the canoes attempted to quit the bay. The lieutenant
who commanded on board the ship, having received orders
not to suffer any canoes to depart, sent a boat to detain her,
but she no sooner approached than the Indians jumped into
the sea. Tootahah being of the number, was taken and sent
to the officer who commanded at the fort, who concluded he
should do right to detain him prisoner. The poor chief
expected to be put to death, until Captain Cook caused him
to be liberated, to the great joy of his countrymen. But the
natives entertained a sense of injury, and, as a proof of it,
they neglected to supply the market with provisions.
On the 3rd of May provisions were extremely scarce, and
it was not without difficulty that Mr. Banks got a few baskets
of bread-fruit from Tubourai Tamaide. Tootahah, on the
4th, sent for an axe and a shirt, in return for the hogs he had
left behind; and accordingly, early in the morning of the 5th,
Captain Cook, accompanied by Mr. Banks and the doctor,
set out in the pinnace, taking with them one of Tootahah's
people, and soon reached Eparre, where he resided. When
they arrived, they found a number of natives waiting for
them on shore, and were conducted directly to the chief,
the people, notwithstanding the offence they had so lately
taken, shouting out in their language, Tootahah is your
friend." He was sitting under a tree, and some old men
were standing about him. Having made signs for them to
be seated, he asked for the axe, which was then given him by
Captain Cook, as also the shirt, and a broad-cloth garment,
which latter he put on, and was well pleased with the present.
They were afterwards conducted to a large court-yard on .

side of the chief's house, where they were entertained with
wrestling, after the manner of the country. He himself sat
at the upper end of the arena, having on each side of him
several of his principal men as judges of the sport, which
was conducted as follows :-
Ten or twelve combatants entered the arena, and after
many simple ceremonies of challenging, engaged, each
endeavouring to throw his antagonist by mere strength : they
seized each other by the hand, or other parts of the body,
and without the least art, till one, by having a greater hold,
or stronger muscular force, threw his antagonist on his back.
The conquest was applauded by the old men with a few
words, repeated in a kind of tune, and with three huzzas.
After one engagement another succeeded : if the combatants
could not throw each other in the space of a minute, they
parted, either by consent, or the intervention of their friends.
A man with a stick officiated as master of the ceremonies,
keeping order among the people, and those of them who
pressed forward he struck with his stick very smartly.
During these athletic sports, another party of men performed
a dance for the space of a minute, but neither of these parties
took the least notice of each other, their attention being
wholly fixed on their own endeavours to please and conquer.
At the conclusion of this entertainment, not unlike the wrest-
ling matches of remote antiquity, they were told that some
hogs and a quantity of bread-fruit were preparing for dinner;
but their host, instead of setting his two hogs before them,
ordered one of them to be carried into the boat. Here they
thought to have enjoyed their good cheer, but, at the desire
of Tubourai Tamaide, they proceeded to the ship. How-
ever, they were at last gratified with the promised repast.
of which the chief and his friends had a liberal share. This
friendly reconciliation operated on the natives like a charm,
for it was no sooner known that Tubourai Tamaide was on
board, than provisions of all kinds were brought to the fort
in great plenty.
By this time the forge was set up and at work, which
afforded a new subject of admiration to the natives, and to

Captain Cook an additional opportunity of conferring obliga-
tions on them, by permitting the smith, in his leisure hours,
to convert the old iron which they were supposed to have
procured from the Dolhzin into various kinds of tools.
On the ioth they sowed, in ground properly prepared,
seeds of melons and other plants, but none of them came
up except mustard. Mr. Banks thought the seeds were
spoiled by a total exclusion of fresh air, they having all been
put into small bottles, and sealed up with rosin. They
learnt this day that the Indians called the island Otaheite,
the name by which it is now distinguished. They were not
so fortunate in endeavouring to teach them their names;
and after repeated attempts to pronounce them, which
proved fruitless, the natives had recourse to new names
of their own invention. Captain Cook they named Toote ;
Mr. Hicks, Hete; the master they called Boba, from his
Christian name, Robert; Mr. Gore, Toarro; Dr. Solander,
Toano; Mr. Banks, Tapane; and so on with the greater
part of the ship's crew.
On the 13th, Tubourai Tamaide offended Mr. Banks by
snatching his gun out of his hand, and firing it in the air,
an action which much surprised that gentleman, as he
imagined him totally ignorant of the use of it. As con-
sideration for their safety imperatively required that these
people should not acquire the use of firearms, Mr. Banks
made a serious matter of what probably the other meant
only as a joke ; and, not without threats, gave him to under--
stand that to touch the piece was a great insult. The
offender made no reply, but set out immediately with his
family for Eparre. Great inconvenience being apprehended
from this man, and as in many instances he had been par-
ticularly useful, Mr. Banks determined to follow him. He
set out the same evening from the fort, accompanied by
Mr. Molineux, and found him in the middle of a large circle
of people, the picture of extreme grief, which was also visible
in the countenances of his attendants. Mr. Banks lost
no time in effecting a reconciliation with the chief, and a
double canoe being got ready they all returned together

to the fort before supper, and as a pledge of reconciliation
both he and his wife passed the night in the tent of
Mr. Banks.
On Monday, the i5th, Tubourai Tamaide was detected in
a theft. Mr. Banks had a good opinion of this chief, but a
basket of nails, left in the corner of the tent, proved irre-
sistible. He confessed the fact of having stolen four nails,
but when restitution was demanded, Tamaide said the nails
were at Eparre. High words passed, and the Indian pro-
duced one of the nails, and was to be forgiven on restoring
the rest; but his virtue was not equal to the task, and he
withdrew himself as usual, when he had committed an
On the 27th, Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, Captain Cook, and
some others, set out in the pinnace to visit Tootahah, who
had again removed to a place called Atahouro, six miles from
his last abode. Having presented him with a yellow stuff
petticoat and other trifling articles, they wereinvited to
supper and to pass the night there. The party consisted of
six only, but the place was crowded with a greater number
than the houses and canoes could contain. Among the
guests was Oberea, with her train of attendants. Mr. Banks,
having accepted of a lodging in Oberea's canoe, left his com-
panions in order to retire to rest. Oberea had the charge of
his clothes; but, notwithstanding her care, they were stolen,
as were also his pistols, his powder-horn, and several other
things out of his waistcoat pockets. An alarm was given to
Tootahah in the next canoe, who went with Oberea in search
of the thief, leaving Mr. Banks with only his breeches and
waistcoat on, and his musket uncharged. They soon re-
turned, but without success, and Mr. Banks thought proper
to put up with the loss at present, and he then proceeded to
find his companions. He found the hut where Captain Cook
and three other gentlemen slept, and they told him that they
had lost their stockings and jackets. In effect, Dr. Solander,
who joined them the next morning, was the only one that
escaped being robbed, and he had slept at a house that was
a mile distant.

Preparations were now made for viewing the transit of
Venus, and two parties were sent out to make observations
from different spots, so that in case of failing at Otaheite,
they might succeed elsewhere. They employed themselves
in preparing their instruments, and instructing in the use of
them those gentlemen who were to go out; and on Thursday,
the ist of June, they sent the long boat, with Mr. Gore, Mr.
Monkhouse (the two observers), and Mr. Sporing, a friend of
Mr. Banks, with proper instruments, to Eimayo. Others
were sent to find out a spot that might answer the pur-
pose, at a convenient distance from their principal
The party that went towards Eimayo, after rowing the
greater part of the night, having hailed a canoe, were in-
formed by the Indians of a place which was judged proper
for their observatory. On this rock, which rose out of the
water, about 140 yards from the shore, they fixed their
On Saturday, the 3rd, the day of the transit, Mr. Banks, as
soon as it was light, left them in order to go and get fresh
provisions on the island, and had the satisfaction of seeing
the sun rise without a cloud. The king, whose name was
Tarrao, came to pay him a visit, and brought with him
Nuna, his sister. As it was customary for the people to be
seated at their conferences, Mr. Banks spread his turban of
Indian cloth, which he wore as a hat, upon the ground, and
they all sat down. Then the king's presents, consisting of a
hog and a dog, some cocoa-nuts and bread-fruit, were brought,
and Mr. Banks presented in return an adze, a shirt, and some
beads, which his Majesty received with apparent satisfaction.
The king, his sister, and three good-looking young women,
their attendants, then accompanied Mr. Banks to the obser-
vatory, where he showed them the transit of Venus over the
sun's disc, and informed them that his sole object in under-
taking a voyage from remote regions was to view the planet
in that situation. Both the parties that were sent out to
make observations on the transit met with good success,
though they differed more than might have been expected in

their records of the contact. Mr. Green's account was as
follows :-
Hours. Min. Sec.
The first external contact, or appearance of Venus on the Sun 9 25 4
The first internal contact, or total immersion . 9 44 4
The second internal contact, or beginning of the immersion. 3 14 8
The second external contact, or total immersion. 3 32 10
Latitude of the Observatory, 17 29' 15".
Longitude, 1490 32' 30' W. of Greenwich.

While the gentlemen and officers were busied in viewing
the transit, some of the ship's company broke into the
store-room and stole a quantity of spike-nails. After a strict
search the thief was discovered, and was ordered to receive
two dozen lashes.
On account of the absence, on the 4th of June, of the two
parties sent out to observe the transit, Captain Cook deferred
keeping the birthday of King George the Third to the next
day, the 5th, when it was celebrated, and several of the Indian
chiefs partook of the entertainment, and drank his Majesty's
health in the name of Kihiargo, the nearest imitation they
could produce of King George. On the 12th, complaint was
made that the Indians had lost some of their bows and
arrows and strings of plaited hair; the affair was inquired
into, and being well attested, the offending sailors each
received two dozen lashes, which appears to have been the
limit of the corporal punishment ever inflicted by Captain
Cook, whose humanity appears in marked contrast to that of
naval commanders of his time, when frequently many hundred
lashes were adjudged for offences that would now be punished
by two dozen, or fifty lashes at the outside.
On the 19th, in the evening, Oberea and several of her
attendants paid the Endeavour a visit. She came from
Tootahah's palace in a double canoe, and brought with her a
hog, bread-fruit, and other presents, among which was a dog.
Tupia undertook to kill and dress the dog, which he did by
making a hole in the ground and baking it, and it was
esteemed a very good dish.

On the 21st they were visited by many of the natives, who
brought with them various presents. Among the rest was a
chief named Oamo, accompanied by a boy and a young
woman. Oberea and some of the Indians went from the fort
to meet them, bareheaded, and uncovered as low as the
waist, which the English judged to be marks of respect
usually shown to persons of high rank. When Oamo
entered the tent, the young woman, though seemingly very
curious, could not be prevailed upon to accompany him.
The youth was introduced by Dr. Solander, but as soon as
the Indians saw him, they took care to have him sent out.
Curiosity being raised by these circumstances, they made
inquiry concerning the strangers, and were informed that
Oamo was the husband of Oberea, but that by mutual con-
sent they had been for a considerable time separated, and
the boy and girl were their children. The former was called
Terridiri; he was heir-apparent to the sovereignty of the
islands, and when he attained the proper age was to marry
his sister.
On the 23rd, in the morning, one of the crew being missing,
they were told he was at Eparre, Tootahah's residence in the
wood, and one of the Indians offered to fetch him back. On
his return, he said that he had been taken from the fort and
carried to the top of the bay by three men, who forced him
into a canoe, after having stripped him, and conducted him
to Eparre, where he received some clothes from Tootahah,
who endeavoured to prevail on him to continue there. There
was reason to conclude this account true, for the natives
were no sooner acquainted with his return than they left the
fort with precipitation.
On June the 26th, early in the morning, Captain Cook
setting out in the pinnace with Mr. Banks, sailed to the
eastward, with a view of circumnavigating the island.
Coming to a large bay, they mentioned their design of going
to the other side; but their Indian guide, whose name was
Titubaola, said he would not accompany them, and also
endeavoured to dissuade them from going, observing, "that
the country was inhabited by people who were not subject to

Tootahah, and who would destroy them all." They resolved,
however, to put their design into execution, and on loading
their pieces with ball, Titubaolo ventured to go with them.
Having rowed till it was dark, they reached a narrow
isthmus which divided the island into two parts, which
formed distinct governments. They landed in the district of
a chief called Maraitata, a name which signifies the burying
place of men; his father was called Pahairede--that is, a
stealer of boats. The people, however, gave the captain a
very good reception, sold them a hog for a hatchet, and fur-
nished them with provisions.
A crowd of the natives came round the English gentlemen,
who continued to advance until they reached a district under
the government of Waheatua. They proceeded on their
journey for a considerable way along the shore, till at last
they were met by the chief, who had with him an agreeable
woman of about twenty-two years of age, who was called
The parts which they now passed appeared to be better
cultivated than any of the rest, and the burial-places,
which were neat and ornamented with carvings, were more
A little further to the eastward they landed again, and
were met by Mathiabo, a chief, with whom they were un-
acquainted. He supplied them with bread-fruit and cocoa-
nuts, and they purchased a hog for a glass bottle, which he
chose in preference to all the other articles presented for his
acceptance. A turkey and a goose were seen here, which were
much admired by the natives, and were supposed to have
been left by Captain Wallis's people. When they left the
place the chief piloted them over the shoals. In the evening,
on their arrival at a bay on the north-west side of the island,
they met with a very friendly reception from the chief, whose
name was Wiverou, with whom they supped, in company
with Mathiabo. Part of the house was allotted for them to
sleep in, and soon after supper they retired to rest. The
thieving propensities of these people, from the chiefs down-
ward, were incorrigible, and again received an illustration

in the conduct of Mathiabo, who, having borrowed a cloak
from Mr. Banks, to serve as a coverlet when he lay down,
made off with it. News of the robbery was brought them
by one of the natives, and they set out in pursuit of Mathiabo,
but had proceeded only a little way before they were met by
a person bringing back the cloak, which this person had
given up through fear.
On their return they found the house entirely deserted,
and about four in the morning the sentry gave the alarm
that the boat was missing. Their situation now was
extremely disagreeable. The party consisted of only four,
with one musket and two pocket pistols, without a spare
ball or a charge of powder. After remaining a considerable
time in a state of anxiety, the boat, which had been driven
away by the tide, returned ; and Mr. Banks and his com-
panions had no sooner breakfasted than they set out on their
On Friday, the 3oth, they arrived at Otahorou, where they
found their old acquaintance Tootahah, who received them
with great civility, and provided them a good supper and
convenient lodgings; and though they had been so shame-
fully plundered the last time they slept with this chief, they
spent the night in the greatest security, none of their clothes
nor any article being missing the next morning. They
arrived at the fort at Port Royal Harbour on the Ist of July.
After their return from this tour, they were very much in
need of bread-fruit, but their Indian friends soon supplied
their wants.
On the 3rd Mr. Banks made an excursion in order to trace
the river up the valley to its source, and to note the condition
of the country along its banks. He took some Indian guides
with him, and after passing houses for about six miles along
its course, came to one which was said to be the last
that could be met with. The master presented them with
cocoa-nuts and other fruits, and they proceeded on their
walk. In the course of their journey they often passed
through vaults, formed by rocky fragments, in which, as they
were told, benighted travellers sometimes took shelter.

Pursuing the course of the river about six miles further, they
found it banked on both sides by rocks almost 1oo feet in
height, and nearly perpendicular. Mr. Banks sought in
vain for minerals among the rocks, which, though bare on
almost all sides, were destitute of such substances. The
stones everywhere exhibited signs of having been burnt,
which was the case with all the stones that were found while
they stayed at Otaheite; and both there and in the neigh-
bouring islands the traces of fire were evident in the clay
upon the hills.
On the 4th a great quantity of the seeds of the water-
melon, oranges, limes, and other plants, brought from Rio
de Janeiro, were planted on each side of the fort by Mr.
Banks, who also plentifully supplied the Indians with them,
and planted many of them in the woods. Some melons,
the seeds of which had been sown on their first arrival on
the island, grew up and flourished before they left it.
Preparations were now made to depart. The carpenters
being ordered to take down the gates and palisades of the
fort, to be converted into firewood for the Endeavour, one
of the natives stole the staple and hook of the gate ; he was
pursued in vain, but the property was recovered and returned
by Tubouiai Tamaide.
Between the 8th and 9th two young marines one night
withdrew themselves from the fort, their absence being dis-
covered in the morning. Notice having been given the next
day that the ship would sail on that or the ensuing day,
Captain Cook began to suspect that they designed to remain
on shore; but as no means could be taken to recover them
without running a risk of destroying the harmony that sub-
sisted with the natives, he resolved to wait a day, in hopes
of their returning. But as they were still missing on the
Ioth, an inquiry was made after them, when the Indians de-
clared that they did not purpose to return, having taken
refuge among the mountains, where it was impossible for
them to be discovered, and that each of them had taken a
wife. In consequence of this, it was intimated to several of
the chiefs who were in the fort, with the women, among whom

was Tubourai Tamaide, Tomio, and Oberea, that they
would not be suffered to quit it till the deserters were pro-
duced. They did not show any signs of fear or discontent,
but assured the captain that the marines should be sent back.
In the meantime Mr. Hicks was despatched in the pinnace
to bring Tootahah on board the ship, and he executed his
commission without giving any alarm. Night coming on,
Captain Cook thought it imprudent to let the people whom
he had detained as hostages remain at the fort ; he therefore
gave orders to remove them on board, which greatly alarmed
them all, especially the females, who testified their fears by
floods of tears.
In the evening one of the marines was brought back by
some of the natives, who reported that the other, and two of
our men who went to recover them, would be detained till
Tootahah was released. Upon this Mr. Hicks was immedi-
ately sent off in the long boat, with a strong body of men to
rescue the prisoners; at the same time the captain told
Tootahah that it was incumbent on him to assist them with
some of his people, and to give orders, in his name, that the
men should be set at liberty, for that he would be held
answerable for the event. Tootahah immediately complied
and the party recovered the men without opposition. On ex-
amining the deserters, it appeared that the Indians had told
the truth, they having associated with the females, with whom
they intended to have remained in the island. Tupia, who
had been prime minister to Oberea when she was supreme,
and being also chief priest, was well acquainted with the
religion of the country, had often expressed a desire to go
with them whenever they continued their voyage.
On the morning of the 12th of July he came on board,
with a boy about twelve years of age, his servant, named
Taiyota, and earnestly requested permission to accompany
them. As it was thought he would be useful to them, his re-
quest was complied with. Tupia then went on shore for the
last time, to bid farewell to his friends, to whom he gave
several small tokens of remembrance.
Mr. Banks, being desirous of obtaining a drawing of the

Morai, which Tootahah had in his possession at Eparre,
Captain Cook accompanied him thither in the pinnace,
together with Dr. Solander. Immediately upon landing they
repaired to Tootahah's house, where they were met by Oberea
and several others. A general good understanding prevailed.
Tupia came back with them, and they promised to visit the
gentlemen early the next day, as they were told the ship
would then sail.
On the 13th these friendly people came very early on board,
and the ship was surrounded with a vast number of canoes,
filled with Indians of the lower sort. Between eleven and
twelve they weighed anchor, and took their leave of the
natives, who could not restrain their tears. Tupia supported
himself through this scene with a becoming fortitude, and
though tears flowed from his eyes, the effort he made to
conceal them did him additional honour. He went with Mr.
Banks to the mast-head, and waving his hand, took a last
farewell of his country. Thus they departed from Otaheite,
after a stay of just three months.
According to Tupia's account, this island could furnish
above 6,o00 fighting men. The produce is bread-fruit, cocoa-
nuts, bananas, sweet potatoes, yams, sugar-canes, the paper
mulberry, several sorts of figs, with many other plants and
trees, all which the earth produces spontaneously, or with
little culture. They have no European fruits, garden stuff,
pulse, nor grain of any kind. The tame animals are hogs, dogs,
and poultry; there are also wild ducks, pigeons, parroquets,
and a few other birds. The only quadrupeds are rats, and not
a serpent is to be seen. In the sea is a great variety of
excellent fish, which constitute their greatest luxury.
The people in general are of a larger make than the
Europeans. The males are mostly tall, robust, and finely
shaped; the women of the higher class are about the size of
our English ladies, but those of inferior rank are below our
standard, and some of them very short. Their natural com-
plexion is a fine clear olive, or what we call a brunette.
Their skins are delicately smooth and agreeably soft ; their
faces in general are handsome, and their eyes full of

sensibility. Their teeth are remarkably white and regular,
and their hair for the most part black. The men, unlike the
aboriginal inhabitants of America, have long beards, which
they wear in various shapes. Their motions are easy and
graceful, and their behaviour, when unprovoked, affable and
courteous. Contrary to the custom of most other nations,
the women of this country cut their hair short, whereas the
men wear it long, sometimes hanging loose upon their
shoulders, at other times tied in a knot on the crown of the
head, in which they stick the feathers of birds of various
colours. A piece of cloth, of the manufacture of the country,
is frequently tied round the heads of both sexes in the manner
of a turban, and the women plait their human hair into long
strings, which are tied on the forehead by way of ornament.
They stain their bodies by indenting or pricking the flesh
with a small instrument of bone, cut into short teeth, which
indentures they fill with a dark blue or blackish mixture
prepared from the smoke of an oily nut and water. This
operation, called by the natives tattaowing, whence we derive
the term tattooing, is exceedingly painful, and leaves an
indelible mark on the skin. It is usually performed when
they are about ten or twelve years of age, and on different
parts of the body; the instrument employed has twenty
teeth, and at each stroke blood issues; both males and
females are compelled to undergo the operation. They
clothe themselves in cloth and matting of various kinds ; the
first they wear in fine, the latter in wet weather. The
garments are in different forms, no'shape being observed in
the pieces, nor are they sewed together. The women of the
superior class wear three or four pieces; one, which is of
considerable length, they wrap several times round the waist
and it falls down to the middle of the legs. Two or three
other short pieces, with a hole cut through the middle of
each, are placed one on another, and their heads coming
through the holes, the long ends hang before and behind,
while both sides being open, they have the free use of their
The dress of the men is very similar, differing only in this,

that one part of the garment, instead of falling below the
knees, is brought between the legs. This dress is worn by
all ranks of people, the only distinction being quantity in the
superior class. At noon both sexes appear almost naked,
wearing only a piece of cloth tied round the waist. Their
faces are shaded from the sun with small bonnets made of
cocoa-nut leaves or matting, which they construct in a few
minutes. The men sometimes wear a sort of wig of human
or dog's hair, or of cocoa-nut strings, woven on a single
thread, and hanging down behind. Both men and women
wear ear-rings on one side, consisting of shells, stones,
berries, or small pearls ; but they soon gave the preference
to the beads brought by the Endeavour's company. The
boys and girls go quite naked ; the first till they are seven or
eight years old, the latter till they are about five.
The natives of Otaheite seldom use their houses but to
sleep in or to avoid the rain, and they eat their meals under
the shade of a tree. Their clothes serve them for covering
at night. There are no divisions or apartments ; the master
and his wife repose in the middle, next the unmarried
females, then the unmarried men, and in fair weather the
servants sleep in the open air. The houses of the chiefs,
however, differ in some particulars. There are some very
small, and so constructed as to be carried in canoes; all
sides of them are enclosed with the leaves of the cocoa-
nut; the air nevertheless penetrates. In these the chief
and his wife only sleep. There are also houses which are
general receptacles for the inhabitants of a district, many
of them being more than 200 feet in length, 40 in breath,
and 70 or 80 feet high. They are constructed at the common
expense, and have an area on one side, surrounded with low
palisades, but, like the others, without walls.
The cookery consists chiefly in baking. When a chief
kills a hog, which is seldom, he divides it equally among
his vassals. Dogs and towls are more common food. When
the bread-fruit is not in season, cocoa-nuts, bananas, plan-
tains, &c., are substituted in its stead. They bake their
bread-ruit in a manner which renders it somewhat like a

mealy potato. Of this three dishes are made by beating
them up with bananas, plantains, or sour paste, which is
called by them mahie. Their drink is generally confined to
water, or the milk of the cocoa-nut ; some of them would
drink so freely of the English liquors as to become quite
intoxicated, though they were never known to practise a
debauch of this kind a second time. It was said that their
chiefs sometimes became inebriated by drinking the juice of
a plant called ava, but of this not a single instance occurred
during the time the Endeavour remained at the island.
Chiefs eat generally alone, unless when visited by a stranger,
who is permitted sometimes to be a mess-mate. They sit
on the ground, with leaves of trees spread before them as a
table-cloth. Their attendants, who are numerous, having
placed a basket before the chiefs, containing their provisions,
and cocoa-nut shells of fresh and salt water, seat themselves
around them; they then wash their mouths and hands;
after which they eat a handful of bread-fruit and fish, dipped
in salt water, alternately, till the whole is consumed, taking
a sip of salt water between almost every morsel. The bread-
fruit and fish is succeeded by a second course, consisting of
either plantains or apples, which they never eat without
being pared. During this time a soft fluid of paste is
prepared from the bread-fruit, which they drink out of
cocoa-nut shells. This concludes the meal, and they wash
their hands and mouths again as at the beginning. They eat
an astonishing amount of food at a meal. Mr. Banks and
others saw one of them devour three fish of the size of a
small carp, four bread-fruits as large as a common melon,
thirteen or fourteen plantains seven inches long, and above
half as big round, to all which was added a quart of paste to
wash down and digest the whole.
The inhabitants of this island, though apparently fond of
the pleasures of society, have yet an aversion to holding any
intercourse with each other at their meals, and they are so
rigid in the observance of this custom, that even brothers
and sisters have their separate baskets of provisions, and
generally sit some yards apart, when they eat with their

backs to each other, and without exchanging a word. The
middle-aged of superior rank usually take a siesta after
dinner, but older people are not so indolent.
Music, dancing, wrestling, and shooting with the bow con-
stitute the greatest part of their diversions. Flutes and
drums are the only musical instruments among them. Their
drums are formed of a circular piece of wood, hollow at one
end only, which is covered with the skin of a shark, and
beaten with the hand instead of a stick. Their songs are
extempore and frequently in rhyme, but consisting only of
couplets, which are often sung by way of evening amuse-
ments, between sunset and bed-time; during this interval
they burn candles made of an oily nut, fixing them one above
another upon a small stick, which is run through the middle.
Some of these candles will burn a long time and afford a
good light.
Personal cleanliness is much esteemed among these
Indians. Both sexes are particular in washing three times
a day-when they rise, at noon, and again before they go
to rest. They are also cleanly in their clothes, so that
no disagreeable effluvia are found to arise in the largest
Cloth is the chief manufacture of Otaheite, and of this
there are three sorts, which are made out of the bark of
different trees, namely, the mulberry, the bread-fruit, and a
tree which bears some resemblance to the West Indian wild
fig-tree. The first of these produces the finest cloth, which
is seldom worn but by those of the first rank. The next
quality is made of the bread-fruit tree, and the coarsest of
that which resembles the wild fig-tree. This last sort, though
the coarsest, is manufactured only in small quantities.
Matting of various kinds is another manufacture in which
in many respects they excel Europeans. They make use
of the coarser quality to sleep upon, and in wet weather they
wear the finer. They excel in basket and wicker work, and
both men and women employ themselves in working them
in a great variety of patterns. They make ropes and lines
of all. sizes of the bark of the poerou, and their nets for fish-

ing are made of these lines. They make thread of the
fibres of the cocoa-nut, with which they fasten together the
several parts of their canoes, the forms of which are various,
according to the use to which they are applied. The fishing-
lines are esteemed the best in the world, made of the bark of
the erowa, a kind of nettle which grows on the mountains.
They are strong enough to hold the heaviest and most
vigorous fish, such as bonetas and albicores.
The tools which these people make use of for building
houses, constructing canoes, hewing stones, and for felling,
cleaving, carving, and polishing timber, consist of nothing
more than an adze of stone and a chisel of bone, most
commonly that of a man's arm; and for a file, or polisher,
they make use of a rasp of coral and coral sand. The blades
of their adzes are extremely tough, but not very hard ; they
are of various sizes, those for felling wood weigh six or seven
pounds, and others, which are used for carving, only a few
Some of the smaller boats are made of the bread-fruit
tree, which is wrought without much difficulty, being of a
light spongy nature. Instead of planes, they use their adzes
with great dexterity. Their canoes are all shaped with the
hand, the Indians not being acquainted with the method of
warping a plank. Of these they have two kinds, one used
for short trips, and the other for longer voyages. These
boats are in no degree proportionate, being from 60 to 70
feet in length, and not more than a thirtieth part in breadth.
The ivahahs, or war-boats, are fastened together side by side
when they go to sea, at the distance of a few feet, by strong
wooden poles, which are laid across them and joined to each
side. A stage or platform is raised on the forepart, about o1
or 12 feet long, upon which stand the fighting men, whose
missile weapons are slings and spears. Beneath these stages
the rowers sit, who supply the place of those who are wounded.
The pahies, or sea-going boats, in going from one island to
another, are out sometimes a month, and often a fortnight or
twenty days, and if they had convenience to stow more pro-
visions, they could keep the sea much longer. These vessels

are very useful in landing, and putting off from the shore
in a surf, for by their great length and high stern they land
dry, when the Endeavour's boats could scarcely land at all.
The care of the sick belongs to the priests, whose office is
hereditary, and whose method of cure consists generally of
prayers and ceremonies which are repeated till the patients
recover or die.
The religion of these islanders appears to be very myste-
rious. The Supreme Being they style The Causer of Earth-
quakes." They suppose that the chiefs and principal people
will have the preference to those of lower ranks in a future
state, and that the Deity takes no particular cognisance of
their actions.
Their weapons consist of slings, in the use of which they
are extremely dexterous, and of long clubs, remarkably hard,
with which they fight obstinately and cruelly, giving no quarter
to their enemies in battle.
On the 13th of July, 1769, the Endeavour quitted Otaheite.
Captain Cook was informed by Tupia that four islands, which
he called Huaheine, Ulietea, Otaha, and Bolabola, were at
the distance of about one or two days' sail, and that hogs,
fowls, and other refreshments, which had been very scarce,
were to be got there in abundance.
On the 16th they sounded near the north-west part of the
island of Huaheine, but found no bottom at seventy fathoms.
Several canoes put off, but the Indians seemed fearful of
coming near the ship, till the sight of Tupia removed their
apprehensions. They then came alongside, and the king
of the island, with his queen, came on board. They seemed
surprised at whatever was shown them, but made no inquiries
after anything but what was offered to their notice. The
king, whose name was Oree, as a token of amity, proposed
exchanging names with Captain Cook, which was readily
acceded to.
Having anchored in a small but convenient harbour on the
west side of the island (called by the natives Owparre), the
captain went on shore, accompanied by Mr. Banks and some
officers, with the king and Tupia. The moment they landed

Tupia uncovered himself as low as the waist, and desired
Mr. Monkhouse to follow his example. Being seated, he
began a speech which lasted about twenty minutes; the king,
who stood opposite to him, answering him in what seemed
set replies. During this harangue, Tupia delivered, at dif-
ferent times, a handkerchief, a black silk neckcloth, some
plantains and beads, as presents to their Eatua or Deity;
and in return received a hog, some young plantains, and
two bunches of feathers, all which were carried on board.
These ceremonies were considered as a kind of ratifica-
tion of a treaty between the English and the King of
On the 19th, in exchange for some hatchets, they obtained
three very large hogs. As they intended to sail in the after-
noon, King Oree and others of the natives went on board to
take their leave. Captain Cook presented to Oree a small
pewter plate, stamped with this inscription, His Britannic
Majesty's Ship Endeavour, Captain Cook Commander. July
16th, 1769." They gave him also some medals or counters,
resembling English coins, and other trifles, which he pro-
mised to keep. From Huaheine, which is about sixty miles
from Otaheite, they sailed for the island of Ulietea, distant
seven or eight leagues.
On the 2oth the Endeavour anchored in a bay on the
north side of that island. Two canoes soon came off from
the shore, and the natives brought with them two small hogs,
which they exchanged for some nails and beads. The
captain, Mr. Banks, and other gentlemen now went on
shore, accompanied by Tupia, who introduced them with the
same kind of ceremonies that had taken place on their land-
ing at Huaheine; after this Captain Cook took possession of
this and the adjacent islands, in the name of his Britannic
On the 24th they put to sea, and steered northward within
the reef, towards an opening about five or six leagues
distant, in effecting which they were in danger of striking
on a rock, the soundings suddenly deepening to two
fathoms," supposed to be the edge of a coral rock, many of

which, in the neighbourhood of these islands, are as steep as
a wall.
On the 25th they were within a league or two of the
island of Otaha, but could not get near enough to land, the
wind being contrary until the morning, when Mr. Banks and
Dr. Solander went in the long-boat with the master, to sound
a harbour on the east side of the island, which they found
safe and convenient. They then went on shore and pur-
chased a large quantity of plantains and some hogs and
They made sail to the northward, and finding themselves
to windward of a harbour on the west side of Ulietea, on the
2nd of August, they moored in twenty-eight fathoms. Many
of the natives came off and brought hogs, fowls, and plantains,
which were purchased upon very moderate terms. Mr. Banks
and Dr. Solander went on shore and spent the day very
agreeably, the natives showing them very great respect. Being
conducted to the houses of the chief people, they found those
who had run hastily before them, standing on each side of a
long mat spread upon the ground, and the family sitting at
the further end of it.
In one of the houses they were entertained with a dance,
different from any they had yet seen. The performer put
upon his head a large piece of wicker-work, about four feet
long, of a cylindrical form, covered with feathers, and edged
round with shark's teeth. With this head-dress he began to
dance with a slow motion, frequently moving his head so as
to describe a circle with the top of his wicker cap, and some-
times throwing it so near the faces of the bystanders as to
make them jump back. This they considered as an excellent
piece of humour, and it always produced a hearty laugh when
practised upon any of the English gentlemen. On the 3rd
they met with another company of dancers, consisting of six
men and two women. The dancers were some of the prin-
cipal people of the island, and though they were an itinerant
troop, they did not, like the strolling parties of Otaheite,
receive any gratuity from the bystanders. The women wore
a considerable quantity of plaited hair, ornamented with

flowers, which were stuck in with taste, and made an elegant
head-dress. They advanced sideways, keeping time with
great exactness to the drums, which beat quick and loud;
soon after they began to shake themselves in a very whimsical
manner, and put their bodies into a variety of strange postures,
sometimes sitting down, and at others falling with their faces
to the ground, and resting on their knees and elbows, moving
their fingers at the same time with a quickness scarcely to be
credited. Between the dances of the women a kind of
dramatic interlude was performed by the men, consisting of
dialogues as well as dancing; but they could not learn the
subject of this interlude.
Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and some other gentlemen were
present at a more regular dramatic entertainment the next
day. The performers, who were all men, were divided into
two parties, one dressed in brown, the other in white, by way
of distinction. Tupia being present, informed them that the
party in brown acted the parts of a master and his servants,
and the party in white a gang of thieves. The master
having produced a basket of meat, which he gave in charge
to his servants, the party in white exhibited a variety of
expedients in endeavouring to steal this basket, and the
brown as many in preventing the accomplishment of the
design. After some time had been spent in this manner,
those to whom the basket was intrusted, laying themselves
on the ground round it, pretended to fall asleep; the other
party availed themselves of this opportunity, and carried off
their booty; the servants awaking soon after, discovered
their loss, but made no search after the basket, and began to
dance with as much alacrity as before.
On Saturday, the 5th, some hogs and fowls, and several
large pieces of cloth, many of them from forty to sixty yards
in length, with a quantity of plantains and cocoa-nuts, were
sent to Captain Cook as a present from the king of the
neighboring island of Bolabola, with a message to the effect
that he was then on the island, and intended waiting on the
captain. He, however, did not visit them according to his
promise, but sent three young women to demand something

in return for his present. After dinner they set out to visit
the king on shore, since he did not think proper to come on
board. As he had conquered Bolabola, and was the dread
of all the neighboring islands, they were greatly surprised at
finding a poor feeble old dotard, half blind, and sinking under
the weight of age and infirmities. He received them without
that state or ceremony which they had hitherto met with
among the other chiefs. On the 9th, having stopped a leak,
and taken on board a fresh stock of provisions, they sailed
out of the harbour, and flattered themselves that the fowls
and hogs would be a sufficient supply for the voyage, but in
this they were disappointed, for the hogs could not be brought
to eat European grain, or any provender that the ship af-
forded, and they were under the necessity of killing them
immediately. The fowls also all died of a disease in the
head, with which they were seized soon after they had been
brought on board. Being detained longer at Ulietea in
repairing the ship than they expected, they did not go on
shore at Bolabola, but after giving the general name of
" Society Islands to the whole group, they pursued their
course, standing to the southward for an island to which they
were directed by Tupia, at about 1oo leagues distant, which
they discovered on the I3th, and were informed by him that
it was called Ohiterea. On the 14th of August they stood in
for the land, and as they approached observed that the
Indians were armed with long lances. A number of them
were soon drawn together on the beach, and two jumped
into the water, endeavouring to gain the boat, but she soon
left them, and some others who had made the same attempt,
far behind.
Having doubled the point where they intended to land,
they saw another party of natives standing at the end of it,
armed like those whom they had seen before. Preparations
being made for landing, a canoe full of Indians came off
towards them. Tupia was desired to acquaint them that
the English did not intend to offer violence but meant to
traffic with them for nails, which were produced. Upon this
they came alongside the boat, and accepted some nails which

were given them, appearing well pleased with the present.
In a few minutes, however, several of these people boarded
the boat, designing to drag her on shore; but some muskets
being discharged over their heads, they leaped into the sea,
and having reached the canoe, joined their countrymen, who
stood ready to receive them. The boat pursued the fugitives,
but the crew finding the surf extremely violent, did not land,
but coasted along shore, to find a more convenient place.
After this it was proposed that the people of the Endeavour
should go on shore and trade with the natives if they would
lay aside their weapons; but to this they would not agree
unless the English would do the same. As treachery was
anticipated, the proposal was not complied with; and since
neither the bay which the Endeavour entered, nor any other
part of the island, furnished a good harbour or anchorage,
it was resolved to proceed to the southward.
On the 15th they sailed with a fine breeze, and on the 25th
celebrated the first anniversary of their leaving England.
A large Cheshire cheese, which had been preserved for this
festive occasion, was brought out, and a barrel of porter
tapped, which proved to be in sound condition.
Land was discovered on Thursday, the 7th of October, and
on the morning of the 8th* they came to an anchor opposite
the mouth of a small river, not above half a league from the
shore. Captain Cook, Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and some
others, went on shore in the evening, and proceeded to a few
small houses in the neighbourhood. Some of the natives,
who had concealed themselves, took advantage of their
absence from the boat, and rushed out, advancing and bran-
dishing their long wooden lances. The coxswain fired a
musket over their heads, but it did not appear to intimidate
them, in consequence of which he levelled his piece and shot
one of them dead on the spot. Struck with astonishment at
the death of their companion, they retreated to the woods
"*This day is memorable as that on which Captain Cook first landed in New
Zealand, the pioneer of thousands of his countrymen, who have made of these
islands a second Britain. The spot on the east coast on which he landed he
called Poverty Bay.

with great precipitation. The report of the gun brought the
advanced party back to the boats, and they returned imme-
diately to the ship.
On the 9th a great number of the natives were seen
near the place where the Englishmen landed the pre-
ceding evening, and the greater part of them appeared
to be unarmed. The long-boat, pinnace, and yawl being
manned with marines and sailors, Captain Cook, with
the rest of the gentlemen and Tupia, went on shore, and
landed on the opposite side of the river, over against a spot
where several Indians were sitting on the ground. They
immediately started up and began to handle their weapons,
each producing either a long pike, or a kind of truncheon made
of stone, with a string through the handle of it, which they
twisted round their wrists. Tupia was directed to speak to
them in his language; and they were agreeably surprised to
find that he was understood. Their intention at first ap-
peared to be hostile, brandishing their weapons in the usual
threatening manner ; upon which a musket was fired at some
distance from them, and the ball happening to fall into the
water they appeared terrified, and desisted from their me-
naces. Tupia informed them the English desired to traffic
with them for provisions, to which they consented, provided
the English crossed over to them to the other side of the
river. This was agreed to, upon condition that the natives
would quit their weapons; but the most solemn assurances
of friendship could not prevail with them to comply.
Not thinking it prudent, therefore, to cross the river,
the English in turn entreated the Indians to come over to
them, and after some time one of them did so. He was
presently followed by several others. They did not value
the beads and iron that were offered in the way of barter, but
proposed to exchange weapons, which being objected to,
the Indians endeavoured to snatch the arms, but in this
attempt they were frustrated, and Tupia gave them to under-
stand that any further offers of violence would be punished
with instant death. One of them, nevertheless, had the
audacity to snatch Mr. Green's dagger when his back was

turned to them, and retiring a few paces, flourished it over
his head; but his temerity cost him dear, for Mr. Monkhouse
fired a musket loaded with ball, and shot him dead. Soon
after the natives retreated slowly inland, and the. English
returned to their boats. This behaviour of the Indians,
added to the want of fresh water, induced Captain Cook to
continue his voyage round the bay, with a hope of inducing
some of the natives to come on board, so that by kind
treatment he might establish a good understanding with
them. An event occurred, which, though attended with dis-
agreeable circumstances, promised to facilitate this design.
Two canoes appeared, making towards land, and Captain
Cook proposed intercepting them with his boats. One of
them got clear off; but the Indians in the other, finding it
impossible to escape, began to attack them with their paddles.
This compelled the Endeavour's people to fire upon them,
when four of the Indians were killed, and the other three,
who were young men, jumped into the water and endeavoured
to swim to shore; they were, however, taken up and con-
veyed on board. At first they were greatly terrified, thinking
they should be killed; but Tupia, by repeated assurances of
friendship, removed their apprehensions. Having retired to
rest in the evening, they slept very quietly. The next morning
preparations were made for sending them to their country-
men, at which they expressed great satisfaction; but finding
the boat approaching Captain Cook's first landing-place, they
intimated that the inhabitants were foes. The captain,
nevertheless, judged it expedient to land near this spot,
resolving, at the same time, to protect the youths from any
injury that might be offered them. They had scarcely
departed on their return to their friends when two large
parties of Indians advanced hastily towards them, upon
which they again flew to the English for protection. When
the Indians drew near, one of the boys discovered his uncle
among them, and a conversation ensued across the river, in
which the boy gave a just account of our hospitality, and took
great pains to display his finery. After this the uncle swam
across the river, bringing with him a green bough, a token of

friendship, which was received as such, and several presents
were made him. The three youths, by their own desire,
returned to the ship; but as the captain intended to sail the
next morning he sent them ashore in the evening, though
much against their inclination.
Captain Cook, on the i th, set sail in hopes of finding a
better anchoring-place, and in the afternoon the Endeavour
was becalmed. Several canoes, full of Indians, came off
from the shore, who received many presents, and bartered
their clothes and some of their paddles for European com-
modities. Having finished their traffic, they returned in such
a hurry, that they forgot three of their companions, who
remained on board all night. These testified their fears and
apprehensions, notwithstanding Tupia took great pains to
convince them that they were in no danger, and about seven
o'clock the next morning a canoe came off, with four Indians
on board. It was at first with difficulty the Indians in the
ship could prevail on those in the canoe to come near them,
and not till after the former had assured them that the English
did not eat men.
On the 12th several Indians came off in a canoe; they
were disfigured in a strange manner, danced and sang, and
at times appeared peaceably inclined, but at others, to
menace hostilities. Notwithstanding Tupia earnestly invited
them to come on board, none of them would quit the canoe.
Whilst the Endeazour was getting clear of the shoals, five
canoes, full of Indians, came off, and seemed to threaten the
people on board by brandishing their lances, and other
hostile gestures. A 4-pounder, loaded with grape-shot, was
therefore fired over their heads, which made them drop
astern. Two more canoes came off whilst the Endeavour
lay at anchor, but the Indians behaved very peaceably,
and received several presents, but would not come on
On Friday, the I3th, they pursued their course. The next
morning they had a view of the inland country. Nine canoes,
full of Indians, came off from the shore, and five of them,
after having consulted together, pursued the Endeavour,

apparently with a hostile design. Tupia was desired to
acquaint them that immediate destruction would ensue if
they persevered in their attempts; but words had no influence,
and a 4-pounder, with grape-shot, was fired to give them
some notion of the arms of their opponents. They were
terrified at this kind of reasoning, and paddled hastily away.
Tupia then hailed the fugitives, and acquainted them that if
they came in a peaceable manner, and left their arms behind,
no annoyance would be offered them, upon which one of the
canoes, submitting to the terms, came alongside the ship, and
received many presents.
On the 15th, in the afternoon, a canoe with a number of
armed Indians came up, and one of them, who was clothed
with a black skin, found means to defraud the captain of a
piece of red baize, under pretence of bartering the skin for it.
As soon as he had got the baize into his possession, instead
of giving the skin in return agreeable to his bargain, he rolled
them together and ordered the canoe to put off from the ship,
turning a deaf ear to the repeated remonstrances of the captain.
After a short time, this canoe, together with the fishing-boats
which had put off at the same time, came back to the ship, and
trade was again began. During this second traffic with the
Indians, one of them unexpectedly seized Tupia's little boy,
Taiyota, and pulling him into his canoe, instantly put off
and paddled away with the utmost speed; several muskets
were immediately fired at them, and one of them receiving a
wound, they let go the boy, who before was held down in the
bottom of the canoe. Taiyota, taking advantage of their
consternation, immediately jumped into the sea and swam
back towards the Endeavour. He was taken on board
without receiving any harm, but his strength was so much
exhausted with the weight of his clothes, that it was with
great difficulty he reached the ship. In consequence of this
attempt to carry off Taiyota, Captain Cook called the cape
off which it happened, Cape Kidnappers.
The Endeavour now passed a small island, which was
named Bare Island. On the 17th Captain Cook gave the
name of Cape Turnagain to a headland, and on the 19th

named a peculiar-looking cape, Gable end Foreland. On
Friday, the 20th, they anchored in a bay about two leagues
further to the northward, to which they were invited by some
natives in canoes, who behaved very amicably, and pointed
to a place where they said they would find plenty of fresh
water. Two chiefs came on board; they were dressed in
jackets, the one ornamented with tufts of red feathers, the
other with dog-skin. They were presented with linen and
some spike-nails, though they did not value the last so much
as the inhabitants of the other islands. The rest of the
Indians traded without the least attempt at imposition, and
Tupia was directed to acquaint them with the views of the
English in coming hither, and promised that they should
receive no injury if they offered none. In the afternoon
the chiefs returned, and towards evening the captain, Dr.
Solander, and Mr. Banks went on shore. They were cour-
teously received by the inhabitants, who did not appear in
numerous bodies, and in many instances were scrupulously
attentive not to give offence. They made an agreeable tour
round the bay, and had the pleasure of finding two streams
of fresh water. They remained on shore all night, and the
next day Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander discovered several
birds, among which were quails and large pigeons. Many
stages for drying fish were observed, and some houses with
fences. They saw dogs with pointed ears, and very ugly.
Sweet potatoes were found also. The cloth-plant grew wild.
In the neighboring valleys the lands were laid out in
regular plantations; and in the bay they caught plenty of
crabs, cray-fish, and horse-mackerel, larger than those upon
the English coasts.
The women paint their faces with a mixture of red ochre
and oil, which, as they were very plain, rendered them even
less prepossessing. The faces of the men were not in general
painted, but they were daubed with dry red ochre from head
to foot, their apparel not excepted. Though in personal
cleanliness they were inferior to those of Otaheite, yet in
some particulars they surpassed them.
On the evening of Sunday, the 22nd, they weighed anchor

and put to sea, but the wind being contrary, they stood for
another bay a little to the south. They found a watering-
place in a small cove a little within the south point of the
bay, distant about a mile.
On Monday, the 23rd, in the afternoon, they went on shore,
and found the water extremely good, also plenty of wood ;
and the natives showed them much civility. In a valley
between two very high hills, they saw a curious rock that
formed a large arch. This cavern was 70 feet in length, 30
in breadth, and nearly 50 in height, and commanded a view
of the bay and the hills on the other side.
On their return they met an old man, who entertained
them with the military exercise of the natives, which he per-
formed with the patoo-patoo and the lance. The former is
used as a battle-axe ; and the latter is 18 or 20 feet in length,
made of hard wood, and sharpened at each end. A stake
was substituted for a supposed enemy. The old warrior first
attacked him with his lance, advancing with a most furious
aspect. Having pierced him, the patoo-patoo was used to
demolish his head, at which he struck with a force which
would at one blow have split any man's skull. At the water-
ing-place the Indians sang their war-song, which was a
strange medley of sighing, shouting, and grimace, at which
the women assisted. The next day Captain Cook and other
gentlemen went upon an island at the entrance of the bay
and met with a canoe which was 67 feet in length, 6 in
breadth, and 4 in height; her bottom, which was sharp,
consisted of three trunks of trees, and the sides and head
were curiously carved.
They also came to a large unfinished house; the posts
which supported it were ornamented with carvings that did
not appear to have been done upon the spot, though the
people seemed to have a taste for carving, as their boats,
paddles, and the tops of walking-sticks evinced. Their
favourite figure is a volute or spiral, which is sometimes
single, double, or triple, and is done with great exactness,
though the only instruments were an axe, made of stone,
and a chisel. Their taste is extremely whimsical and ex-

travagant, scarcely ever imitating nature. Their huts are
built under trees, in the form of an oblong square; the door
low on the side, with the windows at the ends. Reeds
covered with thatch compose the walls, the beams of the
eaves, which come to the ground, being also covered with
On the 29th of October the Endeavour quitted the bay, and
sailing to the northward, came to a small island about a mile
distant from the north-east point of the mainland; and this
being the most eastern part of it, the captain named it East
Cape, and the island East Island. Continuing under sail, they
came to an island which he named White Island. On the
ist of November forty canoes came off as before, threatening
to attack the Endeavour. One of their chiefs flourished his
pike and made several harangues, seeming to bid defiance to
those on board the vessel. At last, after repeated invitations,
they came close alongside; but instead of showing a dis-
position to trade, the haranguing chief took up a stone, which
he threw against the ship, and they immediately after seized
their arms. They were informed by Tupia of the dreadful
consequences of commencing hostilities, but this admonition
remained unheeded. A piece of cloth, however, happening
to attract their eyes, they began to be more mild and reason-
able. A quantity of cray-fish, muscles, and conger-eels were
now purchased. No fraud was attempted by this company
of Indians, but some others that came after them took goods
from the vessel without making proper returns. As one of
them, who had rendered himself remarkable for these prac-
tices, and seemed proud of his skill in them, was putting off
with his canoe, a musket was fired over his head, which cir-
cumstance produced good order for the present; yet when
they began to traffic with the sailors they renewed their
frauds, and one of them was bold enough to seize some linen
that was hung to dry, and run away with it. In order to
induce him to return, a musket was fired over his head, but
this not answering the end, he was shot in the back with
small shot, yet he still persevered in his design. This
being perceived by his countrymen, they dropped astern

and set up the song of defiance. In consequence of their
behaviour, though they made no preparations to attack the
vessel, the captain gave orders to fire a 4-pounder, and
its effects on the water so terrified them that they retreated
with precipitation.
On the 4th, at daybreak, no less than twelve canoes made
their appearance, containing nearly 200 men, armed with
spears, lances, and stones, who seemed determined to attack
the ship, and would have boarded her had they known
which quarter was most suitable for attack. While they were
paddling round her, the crew meantime being on the watch
in the rain, Tupia, at the request of the captain, used a
number of dissuasive arguments, to prevent their carrying
their designs into execution ; but nothing could pacify them
till some muskets were fired. They then laid aside their
hostile intentions, and began to trade; yet they could not
refrain from their fraudulent practices, for, after they had fairly
bartered two of their weapons, they would not deliver up a
third, for which they had received cloth, and only laughed at
those who demanded an equivalent. The offender was
wounded with small shot, but his countrymen took not the
least notice of him, and continued to trade without any dis-
On the morning of the 5th the Indians came off to the
ship again, and behaved much better than they had done the
preceding day. An old man in particular, named Tojava,
informed them that they were often visited by freebooters
from the north, who stripped them of all that they could lay
their hands on, and at times made captives of their wives and
children, and that, being ignorant who the English were after
their first arrival, the natives had been much alarmed, but
were now satisfied of their good intentions. He added that,
for their security against those plunderers, their houses were
built contiguous to the tops of the rocks, where they could
better defend themselves. Having despatched the long-boat
and pinnace into the bay to haul and dredge for fish with
little success, the Indians testified their friendship, and
brought for sale great quanltites of fish dressed and dried ;

they also supplied them with wood and good water. While
the English were out with their guns, the people who stayed
by the boats saw two of the natives fight. The battle was
begun with their lances, but some old men taking these away,
they were obliged to decide the quarrel, like Englishmen, with
their fists.
On the 9th the Indians brought a prodigious quantity of
mackerel, which they sold at a low rate, and the cargoes
purchased were so great that the ship's company cured as
many as would serve for a month's provision.
This being a clear day, Mr. Green, the astronomer, landed
with some of the gentlemen to observe the transit of Mercury.
The observation of the ingress was made by Mr. Green
alone, and Captain Cook took the sun's altitude to ascertain
the time. While the observation was making, a canoe,.with
various commodities on board, came alongside the ship,
and Mr. Gore, the officer who had then the command, being
desirous of encouraging them to traffic, produced a piece of
Otaheitean cloth, of more value than any they had yet seen,
which was immediately seized by one of the Indians, who
obstinately refused either to return it or give anything in
exchange. He paid dearly, however, for his temerity, being
shot dead on the spot. His death alarmed all the rest; they
fled with great precipitancy, and could not be induced to
renew their traffic. But when the Indians on shore had
heard the particulars related by Tojava, who greatly con-
demned the conduct of the deceased, they seemed to think
that he merited his fate.
The weather being favourable, the transit of Mercury was
viewed without a cloud intervening. In consequence of this
observation being made here, this bay was called Mercury
The Indians sup before sunset, when they eat fish and
birds, baked or roasted on a stick planted in the ground near
the fire. A female mourner was present at one of their
suppers. She sat on the ground and wept incessantly, at the
same time repeating some sentences in a doleful manner, but
which Tupia could not explain. At the termination of each

period she cut herself with a shell upon her breast, her
hands, or her face. Notwithstanding this spectacle greatly
affected the gentlemen, all the Indians who sat by her,
except one, were quite unmoved.
Abundance of oysters were procured from a bed which
had been discovered, and they proved exceedingly good.
Next day the ship was visited by two canoes, who bartered
with honesty. Captain Cook sailed from this island, having,
on the 15th of November, taken possession of it in the name
of his sovereign.
On the morning of the 18th the Endeavour steered between
the mainland and an island, which seemed very fertile, and
as extensive as Ulietea. Several canoes, filled with Indians,
came alongside, and they sang their war-song, but the
Endeavour's people paying them no attention, they threw
a volley of stones and then paddled away; however, they
presently returned and renewed their insults. Tupia spoke
to them, but they answered by brandishing their weapons,
intimating that they would destroy them all. The Endeavour
cast anchor in the evening, and early the next morning sailed
up an inlet. Soon after the canoes paddled off, and some
of the Indians came on board. They knew Tojava, and
called Tupia by his name. Having received some presents
they returned peaceably, and apparently highly gratified.
On Monday, the 2oth, after having run five leagues, they
came to anchor in a bay called by the natives Ooahaouragee,
which Captain Cook, Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and others,
set off in the pinnace to examine. They landed on the
west side to inspect the lofty trees that adorned its banks;
at the entrance of a wood they met with a tree 98 feet high
from the ground, quite straight, and 19 feet in circumference;
and as they advanced they found others still larger. Captain
Cook gave to this river the name of Thames, it having a
resemblance to the river of that name in England.
They made sail early on the 22nd, and kept under weigh
till the flood obliged them once more to come to an anchor.
The captain and Dr. Solander went on shore to the west, but
made no observations worth relating. After these gentlemen

departed, the ship was surrounded with canoes, and Mr.
Banks remained on board, that he might trade with the
Indians, who bartered their arms and clothes for paper; but
though they were in general honest in their dealings, one of
them took a fancy to a half-minute glass, and being detected
in secreting it, he was punished with the cat-o'-nine tails. The
Indians attempted to interfere, and they got their arms from
their canoes, but being informed of the nature of the intended
punishment, they appeared satisfied, and the criminal not
only received a dozen, but afterwards a good drubbing from
an old man who was thought to be his father. On the 24th
they kept steering along the shore, anchoring between the
tides. No inhabitants were visible, but from the fires per-
ceived at night, it was concluded to be inhabited.
On the 26th, towards night, seven large canoes paddled
off with about 200 men, some of whom came on board.
These were followed by two larger canoes, adorned with
carving. The Indians, after holding a conference, came along-
side the vessel. They were armed with various weapons, and
seemed to be of the higher order. Their patoo-patoos were
made of stone and whalebone, ornamented with dogs' hair,
and were held in high estimation.
On the 29th, having weathered a point of land which the
captain named Cape Brett, they bore away to leeward, and
got into a large bay, where they anchored on the south-west
side of several islands, and the ship was soon surrounded by
thirty-three large canoes, containing nearly 300 Indians,
all armed. Some of them were admitted on board, and
Captain Cook gave a piece of broadcloth to one of the
chiefs and some small presents to the others. They traded
peaceably for some time, being terrified at the firearms, with
the effects of which they were not unacquainted; but whilst
the captain was at dinner, on a signal given by one of the
chiefs, all the Indians quitted the ship and attempted to tow
away the buoy. A musket was first fired over them, but
without effect, and then small shot was fired at them, but it
fell short. A musket, loaded with ball, was therefore ordered
to be fired, and a son of the chief was wounded in the thighl

by it, which induced them immediately to throw the buoy
overboard. To complete their confusion, a round shot was
fired which reached the shore, and as soon as they landed
they ran to search for it. If they had been under any kind
of discipline they might have proved a formidable enemy.
Captain Cook, Mr. Banks, and Dr. Solander landed in a
small cove in the island, and were presently surrounded by
nearly 400 armed Indians; but the captain not suspecting any
hostile design on the part of the natives, remained peaceably
disposed. The Englishmen marching towards them, drew a
line, intimating that they were not to pass it. They did not
infringe upon this boundary for some time; but at length
they sang the song of defiance, and began to dance, whilst a
party endeavoured to drag the Endeavour's boat on shore;
these signals for an attack being followed by the Indians
breaking in upon the line, the gentlemen judged it timb to
defend themselves, and accordingly the captain fired his
musket, loaded with small shot, which was seconded by Mr.
Banks discharging his piece, and two of the men followed
his example. This threw the Indians into confusion, and
they retreated, but were rallied again by one of their chiefs,
who shouted and waved his patoo-patoo. The doctor now
pointed his musket at this hero, and hit him, when he took
flight with the other Indians. They were now at too great a
distance for a ball to reach them; but these operations being
observed from the ship, she brought her broadside to bear,
and by firing over them soon dispersed them. The Indians
had in this skirmish two of their people wounded, but none
killed. Peace being again restored, the gentlemen began to
gather celery and other herbs, but suspecting that some of
the natives were lurking about with evil designs, they repaired
to a cave, where they found the chief who had that day
received a present from the captain. He came forth with
his wife and brother, and solicited their clemency. It
appeared that one of the wounded Indians was a brother to
this chief, who was under great anxiety lest the wound should
prove mortal; but his grief was in a great degree alleviated,
when he was made acquainted with the different effects of

small shot and ball; and he was also assured that upon any
further hostilities being committed, ball would be used.
This interview terminated very cordially, after some trifling
presents were made to the chief and his companions.
Being again in their boats, they rowed to another part of
the island, when landing, and gaining an eminence, they had
a very agreeable and romantic view of a great number of
small islands, well inhabited and cultivated. The inhabitants
of an adjacent village approached unarmed, and testified
great humility and submission. Some of the seamen on
shore, having forced their way into some of the plantations,
and dug up potatoes, the captain showed strict justice in
punishing each offender with lashes; one of them being
refractory upon this occasion, and complaining of the hard-
ship of an Englishman being flogged for plundering an
Indian, received six additional lashes.
On Tuesday, the 5th of December, they weighed anchor,
but were soon becalmed, and a strong current setting towards
the shore, were driven in with such rapidity, that they ex-
pected every moment to run upon breakers, which appeared
above water not more than a cable's length distance. Indeed,
they were so near the land that Tupia, who was totally
ignorant of the danger, held a conversation with the Indians,
who were standing on the beach. They were happily re-
lieved, however, from this alarming situation by a fresh
breeze suddenly springing up from the shore.
On the 7th, several canoes put off and followed the
Endeavour, but a light breeze springing up they did not
wait for them. On the 17th they came off the northern
extremity of New Zealand, which Captain Cook named
North Cape. On the 27th it blew a gale from the east,
accompanied with heavy showers of rain, which compelled
them to bring the ship to, under her mainsail. The gale
continued till the 28th, when it fell about two o'clock in the
morning, but at eight increased to a hurricane, with a pro-
digious sea: at noon the gale somewhat abated, but with
heavy squalls.
January the Ist, 1770, at six in the morning, they tacked

and stood to the eastward, and on the 3rd they saw land,
trending away to the south-east, beyond the reach of the
naked eye. It is remarkable that the Endeavour was three
weeks in making ten leagues to the westward, and five
weeks in getting fifty leagues, the distance they were now
from Cape Brett.
On the 9th they saw high land to the east-north-east,
which the captain named Albatross Point. At about two
leagues distance from this point, to the north-east, they
discovered a remarkable high mountain, equal in height to
that of Teneriffe. Its summit was covered with snow, and it
was named Mount Egmont. At this place Captain Cook
proposed to careen the ship, and also to take in a fresh
supply of wood and water ; accordingly, on the 15th, at day-
break, they steered for an inlet, when, it being almost a calm,
the ship was carried by a current or the tide within a cable's
length of the shore, but she got clear by the assistance of the
boats. At two they anchored in a safe cove on the north.
west side of the bay, and moored in eleven fathoms of water,
with a soft bottom. Four canoes came off for the purpose,
as we imagined, of reconnoitering; for none of the Indians
would venture on board except an old man, who seemed of
elevated rank. His countrymen expostulated with him, laid
hold of him, and took great pains to prevent his coming on
board, but they could not divert him from his purpose. He
was received with the utmost hospitality. Tupia and the old
man joined noses, according to the custom of the country,
and having received several presents, he returned to his
associates, who began to dance and laugh, and then retired
to their fortified village.
Captain Cook and other gentlemen now went on shore,
where they met with plenty of wood, and a fine stream of
excellent water, and on hauling the seine were very success-
ful, having caught three hundredweight of fish in a short
On the I6th the crew were employed in careening the ship,
when three canoes came off, with a number of Indians, and
brought several of their women with them, a circumstance

which was thought to be a favourable presage of their peace-
able disposition; but they soon gave proofs to the contrary
by attempting to stop the long-boat, when Captain Cook had
recourse to the old expedient of firing shot over their heads,
which intimidated them for the present. Tupia asked them
if they had ever before seen a ship so large as the Endeavour,
to which they replied in the negative; nor had they heard
that such a vessel had ever been on their coast. The inhabi-
tants catch their fish, which are plentiful here, in cylindrical
nets, extended by several hoops at the bottom and contracted
at the top. The fish going in to feed upon the bait are caught
in great abundance. There are also birds of various kinds,
and in great numbers.
Captain Cook, Mr. Banks, and Dr. Solander visited another
cove, about two miles from the ship. They found here a
family of Indians, who appeared greatly alarmed at their
approach; these people were cannibals, there being several
human bones that had lately been dressed and picked. They
made no secret of this abominable custom, but, with great
composure, answered Tupia, who was desired to ascertain
the fact, that his conjectures were just, that they were the
bones of a man, and testified by signs that they thought
human flesh delicious food. There was a woman in this
family whose arms and legs were cut in a shocking manner,
and it appeared that she had thus wounded herself because
her husband had lately been killed and eaten by the enemy.
Some of the Indians brought four skulls one day to sell,
which they rated at a very high price. They seemed to pride
themselves upon their cruelty and barbarity, and took a
particular pleasure in showing the manner in which they
killed their enemies. This was done by first knocking them
down with their patoo-patoos, and then ripping up their
On the 20th, in the morning, Mr. Banks purchased of the
old Indian a man's head, which he seemed very unwilling to
part with. The skull had been fractured by a blow, and the
brains were extracted, and, like the others, it was preserved
from putrefaction. From the care with which they kept

these skulls, and the reluctance with which they bartered any,
they were considered as trophies of war and testimonials of
their valour. Some of the ship's company, in their excursions,
met with fortifications that had not the advantage of an
elevated situation, but were surrounded by two or three wide
ditches, with a drawbridge, such as, though simple in its
construction, would answer every purpose against the arms
of the natives. Within these ditches is a fence made with
stakes fixed in the earth.
On the 24th they visited a hippah, or fort, which was
situated on a very high rock, hollow underneath, forming a
very fine natural arch, one side of which joined the land and
the other rose out of the sea. The inhabitants received them
with great civility, and very readily showed everything that
was curious.
On the 25th the captain, Mr. Banks, and Dr. Solander
went on shore to shoot, when they met with a numerous
family, who were among the creeks catching fish : they be-
haved very civilly, and received some trifling presents from
the gentlemen, who were loaded, by way of return, with the
kisses and embraces of both sexes, young and old. The
next day, being the 26th, they made another excursion, in
order to survey, from the summit of a hill, the strait which
passes between the eastern and western seas. Before their
departure from this hill they erected a pyramid of stones,
and left some musket-balls, small shot, and beads, as me-
morials that this place had been visited by Europeans. On
the 27th and 28th they were engaged in making necessary
repairs, catching fish, and refitting the Endeavour for her
On Tuesday, the 3oth, some of the people who were sent
out early in the morning to gather celery, met with about
twenty Indians, among whom were five or six women,
whose husbands had lately been made captives. They sat
down upon the ground together and cut many parts of their
bodies in a most shocking manner with shells and sharp
stones, in testimony of their excessive grief. In the mean-
time their male companions paid not the least attention to

them, but with the greatest unconcern imaginable employed
themselves in repairing their huts.
The carpenter having prepared two posts, they were set up
as memorials, being inscribed with the date of the year, and
the month, and the ship's name. One of them was erected
at the watering-place, with the union jack hoisted at the
top, and the other in the island that lies nearest the sea,
called by the natives Motuara; and the inhabitants being
informed that these posts were set up to acquaint other ad-
venturers that the Endeavour had touched this place, they
promised never to destroy them. Captain Cook named this
inlet Queen Charlotte's Sound, and took possession of it in
the name of his sovereign.
On the 5th of February they got under weigh, but the wind
soon falling, came to anchor a little above Motuara.
On the following morning the Endeavour sailed out of
the bay, which, from the savage custom of eating human
flesh common to its people, the ship's company called
Cannibal Bay. The inhabitants, who number about 400, are
scattered along the coast, and upon any appearance of danger
retire to their hippahs, or forts. They are poor, and their
canoes are without ornaments. The traffic with them was
wholly for fish ; but they had some knowledge of iron, which
the natives of other parts had not.
The Endeavour stood over to the eastward, and was carried
by the current close to one of the islands at the entrance of
Queen Charlotte's Sound. They were every moment in
danger of being dashed to pieces against the rock, but after
having veered out 150 fathoms of cable, the ship was brought
up, when the rocks were not more than two cables' length
distant. In this situation they remained, being obliged to
wait for the tide's ebbing, which did not take place till after
On the 7th, at eight o'clock in the morning, they weighed
anchor, and a fresh breeze, with an ebb tide, quickly bore
them through the strait.
The next morning they were off Cape Palliser, and found
that the land stretched away to the north-eastward of Cape

Turnagain. In the afternoon three canoes, ornamented like
those on the northern coast, put off from the shore. There
was no difficulty in persuading the Indians to come on board,
and they demeaned themselves very civilly, a mutual ex-
change of presents taking place. Their dress resembled that
of the natives of Hudson's Bay. One old man was tattooed in
a very peculiar manner, and had likewise a red streak across
his nose, while his hair and beard were remarkable for their
whiteness. His upper garment was made of flax, and had a
wrought border, and underneath he wore a sort of cloth
petticoat. Teeth and green stones decorated his ears, and it
was concluded, from his deportment, that he was a person of
.distinguished rank among his countrymen.
On the 14th about sixty Indians, in four double canoes,
came within a stone's throw of the ship. As they surveyed
her with surprise, Tupia endeavoured to persuade them to
come nearer, but this they could not be prevailed upon to
do. On this account the place was denominated the island
of Lookers-on.
On the 4th of March several whales and seals were seen.
On the 9th they saw a ledge of rocks, and soon after another
ledge, at three leagues' distance from the shore, which they
passed in the night to the northward, and at daybreak
observed the others under the bows. Proceeding north-
ward, the next day they fell in with a barren rock, about
fifteen miles from the mainland, of great height, and appa-
rently about a mile in circumference; this was named
Solander's Island.
On the 13th they discovered a bay, containing several
islands, where, if there was depth of water, shipping might
find shelter from all winds. Dusky Bay was the appellation
given to it by the captain, and five high-peaked rocks, for which
it was remarkable, gave to a point the name of Five Fingers.
They had now passed the whole north-west coast of Tovy
Poenamoo, which had nothing worthy of observation but a
ridge of naked and barren rocks covered with snow. As far
as the eye could reach the prospect was wild, craggy, and
desolate. Having sailed round the whole of this inhospitable

shore by the 27th, Captain Cook determined to depart. He
accordingly went on shore in the long-boat, and having
found a place suitable for mooring the ship, and a good
watering-place, the crew began to fill their casks, while the
carpenter was employed in cutting wood. The captain, Mr.
Banks, and Dr. Solander went in the pinnace to examine
the bay and the neighboring country. Landing there, they
found several plants of a species which was before unknown
to them. No inhabitants appeared, but they saw several
huts, which seemed to have been long deserted. Sufficient
wood and water having been taken on board, the vessel was
ready to sail by the time that they returned in the evening,
and it was resolved to steer for the coast of New Holland,
and return by the way of the East Indies.
On the 31st March they took their departure from an
eastern point they named Cape Farewell; the bay from which
they sailed was called Admiralty Bay, and the two capes,
Cape Stephens and Cape Jackson, after the two secretaries
of the Board of Admiralty. They called a bay between the
island and Cape Farewell, Blind Bay, which was supposed
to have been the same that was called Murderer's Bay by
Abel Jansen Tasman, who first discovered New Zealand in
December, 1642; but though he named it Staten Island,
wishing to take possession of it for the States-General, 'yet,
being attacked by the Indians, he never went on shore to
effect his purpose. The coast, being now more accurately
examined, was discovered to consist of two islands (now
known as New Zealand), which were before thought to be a
part of the southern continent so much sought for. They
are situated between the 34th and 48th degrees of south
latitude, and between the I8ist and 194th degrees of west
longitude. The northern island is called by the natives
Eahienomauwee, and the southern island, Tovy Poenamoo.
The former, though mountainous in some places, is well
wooded, and in every valley there is a rivulet. The soil in
those valleys is light but fertile, and well adapted for the
plentiful production of all fruits, plants, and corn of Europe.
The sea that washes these islands abounds with delicate

and wholesome fish. Wherever the vessel came to anchor,
enough were caught with hook and line only to supply the
whole ship's company; and when they fished with nets,
every man in the ship salted as much as supplied him for
several weeks. There were many sorts of fish here which
they had never before seen, and which the sailors named
according to their fancies.
About 400 species of plants were found, all of which are
unknown in England, except garden nightshade, sow thistle,
two or three kinds of ferns, and one or two sorts of grass.
They found wild celery and a kind of cress in great abund-
ance on the seashore ; and of eatable plants, raised by culti-
vation only, cocoas, yams, and sweet potatoes, of which there
were large plantations.
There is only one shrub or tree which produces fruit, a
kind of almost tasteless berry; but there grows on the islands
a plant which answers all the uses of hemp and flax. There
are two kinds of this plant, the leaves of one of which are
yellow and the other a deep red, and both resembling the
leaves of flags. Of these the natives make lines and cordage
much stronger than anything of the kind in Europe. They
likewise split these leaves into breadths, and by tying slips
together form their fishing-nets. Their common apparel,
by a simple process, is also made from them, and their finer,
by another preparation, is made from the fibres.
The natives are as large as the finest races of Europe.
Their complexions are brown, but little more so than that of
a Spaniard, and they are stout and well-shaped. As the
dress of both sexes is similar, the voice chiefly distinguishes
the women from the men. The latter are active in a high
degree; their hair is black and their teeth white and even.
They appear to be of a gentle disposition, and treat each other
with the utmost kindness; but they are perpetually at war,
every little district being at enmity with the rest. Notwith-
standing the custom of eating their enemies, the circum-
stances and temper of these people is in favour of those who
might wish to become settlers.
These Indians anoint their hair with oil melted from

the fat of fish or birds. The poorer people use that
which is rancid, so that they have a very disagreeable
smell; but those of superior rank use fresh oil. They
have combs made of bone and wood, which are considered
as an ornament when stuck upright in the hair. The men
tie their hair in a bunch on the crown of the head, and
adorn it with the feathers of birds, which they also some-
times place on each side of the temples. The hair of
the women is worn either flowing over the shoulders or
cut short.
Both sexes, but the men more frequently, mark their
bodies with black stains, called amoco. In general the
women only stain the lips, but sometimes mark other parts
with black patches. The men, on the contrary, put on
additional marks from year to year, so that the bodies of
those who are very old are almost covered. Exclusive of
the amoco, they mark themselves with furrows. These
furrows make a hideous appearance, the edges being in-
dented and the whole quite black. The ornaments of the
face are drawn in the spiral form, both cheeks being marked
exactly alike, while the paintings on their bodies resemble
filigree work and the foliage in old chased ornaments; but
no two faces or bodies are painted exactly after the same
model. The people of New Zealand likewise paint their
bodies, by rubbing them with red ochre, either dry or mixed
with oil. Their dress is formed of the leaves of the flags,
split into slips, which are interwoven and made into a kind
of matting, the ends, which are seven or eight inches in
length, hanging out on the upper side. One piece of this
matting, being tied over the shoulders, reaches to the knees;
the other piece, wrapped round the waist, falls almost to
the ground. The men wear the lower garment only at
particular times.
They have two kinds of cloth besides the coarse matting
or shag above mentioned, one of which is as coarse, but
beyond all comparison stronger than the English canvas;
the other, which is formed of the fibres of the plant,
drawn into threads, which cross and bind each other,

resembles the matting on which our dishes are placed at
They have a few dresses ornamented with feathers, and
one man was seen covered wholly with those of the red
The women never tie their hair on the top of their heads,
nor adorn it with feathers, and are less anxious about dress
than the men; their lower garment is bound tight round
them, except when they go out fishing, and then they are
careful that the men shall not see them.
The ears of both sexes are bored, and the holes stretched
so as to admit a man's finger. The ornaments of their
ears are feathers, cloth, bones, and sometimes bits of wood;
a great many of them made use of the nails given them by
the English for this purpose; and the women sometimes
adorn their ears with the white down of the albatross. They
likewise suspend to their ears chisels, bodkins, the teeth of
dogs, and the teeth and nails of their deceased friends. The
arms and ankles of the women are adorned with shells and
bones, or anything else through which they can pass a string.
The men wear slung round the neck, by a string, a piece of
green talc or whalebone, with the representation of a man
carved on it. One man had the gristle of his nose perforated,
and a feather passing through it projected over each cheek.
These people show less ingenuity in the structure of their
houses than in anything else belonging to them. They are
from 16 to 24 feet long, 10 or 12 wide, and 6 or 8 in height.
The frame is of light sticks of wood, and the walls and roof
are made of dry grass, firmly knit together. Some of them
are lined with the bark of trees, and the ridge of the house is
formed by a pole, which runs from one end to the other. The
door is only high enough to admit a person crawling on his
hands and knees, and the roof is sloping. There is a square
hole near the door, serving both for window and chimney
near which is the fireplace. A plank is placed over the door,
adorned with a sort of carving, and this they consider as an
ornamental piece of furniture. The side walls and roof, pro-
jecting 2 or 3 feet beyond the walls at each end, form a sort

of portico, where benches are placed to sit on. The fire is
made in the middle of a hollow square on the floor, which is
inclosed with wood or stone. They sleep near the walls,
their beds consisting of straw laid on the ground. The
wealthier, or those having large families, have three or four
houses, inclosed in their courtyard. Their clothes, arms,
feathers, some ill-made tools, and a chest in which all these
are deposited, form all the furniture of the inside of the
house. Their hammers to beat fern root, gourds to hold water,
and baskets to contain provisions, are placed without the
house. One house was found near 40 feet long, 20 wide, and
14 high. Its sides were adorned with carved planks, of
workmanship superior to the rest; but the building appeared
to have been left unfinished.
The canoes of this country are long and narrow; the
larger sort seem built for war, and will hold from 30 to
100 men. One of those of Tolaga measured nearly 70 feet
in length, 6 in width, and 4 in depth. It was sharp at the
bottom, and consisted of three lengths, about 2 or 3 inches
thick, and tied firmly together with strong plaiting; each
side was formed of one entire plank, about 12 inches broad,
and about i inch thick, which was fitted to the bottom
part with equal strength and ingenuity. Several thwarts
were laid from one side to the other, to which they were
securely fastened, in order to strengthen the canoes. Some
few of their canoes at Mercury Bay and Opoorage, were all
made entirely of one trunk of a tree, which is made hollow
by fire ; but by far the greater part are built after the manner
above described. The smaller boats, which are used chiefly
in fishing, are adorned at head and stern with the figure of
a man, the eyes of which are composed of white shells; a
tongue of enormous size is thrust out of the mouth, and the
whole face is a picture of absolute deformity. The grander
canoes, which are intended for war, are ornamented with
open work, and covered with fringes of black feathers, which
give the whole an air of perfect elegance; the side boards,
which are carved in a rude manner, are embellished with
tufts of white feathers. These vessels are rowed by paddles,

between 5 and 6 feet in length, the blade of which is a long
oval, gradually decreasing till it reaches the handle; and
the velocity with which they row with these paddles is very
surprising. Their sails are composed of a kind of mat or
netting, which is extended between two upright poles, one
of which is fixed on each side; two ropes, fastened to the
top of each pole, serve instead of sheets. The vessels are
steered by two men, each having a paddle, and sitting in the
stern; but they can only sail before the wind, in which
direction they move with considerable swiftness.
These New Zealanders use axes, adzes, and chisels, with
which last they likewise bore holes. The chisels are made of
jasper, or of the bone of a man's arm; their adzes and axes
of a hard black stone. They use their small jasper tools till
they are blunted, and then throw them away, having no in-
strument to sharpen them with. The Indians at Tolaga
having been presented with a piece of glass, drilled a hole
through it, and hung it round the neck. A small bit of jasper
was thought to have been the tool they used in drilling it.
Their tillage is excellent. A long narrow stake, sharpened
to an edge at bottom, with a piece fixed across at a little
distance above it, for the convenience of driving it into the
ground with the foot, supplies the place both of plough and
spade. The soil being light, their work is not very laborious,
and with this instrument alone they will turn up ground of
six or seven acres in extent.
The seine or large net, which has already been noticed, is
produced by their united labour, and is probably the joint
property of the whole town. Their fish-hooks are of shell or
bone, and they have baskets of wicker work to hold the fish.
Their warlike weapons are spears, darts, battle-axes, and the
patoo-patoo. The spear, which is pointed at the end, is about
16 feet in length, and they hold it in the middle, so that it is
difficult to parry a thrust with it. Whether they fight in boats
or on shore, the battle is hand to hand. They trust chiefly in
the patoo-patoo, which is fastened to their wrist by a strong
strap, that it may not be wrested out of their hands. These
are worn in the girdles of people of superior rank as a mili-

tary ornament. They have a kind of staff of distinction,
which is carried by the principal warriors. It is formed of
a whale's rib, is quite white, and adorned with carving,
feathers, and the hair of their dogs. Sometimes they have
a stick 6 feet long, inlaid with shells, and otherwise orna-
mented like a military staff. This honourable mark of dis-
tinction was commonly in the hands of the aged, who were
also more daubed with the amoco. When they came to
attack the English, one or more of these old men thus dis-
tinguished were in each canoe. It was their custom to stop
50 or 60 yards from the ship, when the chief, rising from his
seat, put on a dog's skin garment, and holding out his deco-
rated staff, directed them how to proceed. When they were
too far from the ship to reach it with their missile weapons,
they uttered cries of defiance. Thus they would ap-
proach the ship gradually till they were close alongside, still
talking at intervals in a peaceable manner, and answering
any questions that were asked them. Then again their me-
naces were repeated, till, encouraged by the supposed timidity
of the Endeavour's people, they began the war-song and
dance, the sure prelude to an attack, which always followed,
and sometimes continued till the firing of small shot repulsed
them ; but at others, they vented their passion by throwing
a few stones against the ship by way of insult.
In the war-dance their limbs are distorted and their faces
agitated with strange convulsive motions: their tongues hang
out of their mouths to an amazing length, and their eyelids
are drawn so as to form a circle round the eye. At the
same time they shake their darts, brandish their spears,
and wave their patoo-patoos to and fro in the air. There
is an admirable vigour and activity in their dancing ; and in
their song they keep time with such exactness, that sixty or
a hundred paddles, when struck against the sides of their
boats at once, make only a single report. In times of peace
they sometimes sing in a manner resembling the war-song,
but the dance is omitted. The women, whose voices are
exceedingly melodious and soft, sing likewise in a musical
but mournful manner. One of their instruments of music

is a shell, from which they produce a sound not unlike that
made with a common horn; the other is a small wooden
pipe not superior in sound to a child's whistle. They were
never heard to sing, or to produce any measured notes like
what we call a tune.
As to the horrid custom of eating human flesh, prevalent
among them, in most of the caves were found flesh and the
bones of men; and some of the heads that were brought
on board had false eyes and ornaments in their ears, as if
alive. The head purchased by Mr. Banks, and sold with
great reluctance, was that of a young person, and by the
contusions on one side, appeared to have received many
violent blows.
The hippahs, or villages of these people, of which there are
several between the Bay of Plenty and Queen Charlotte's
Sound, are all fortified. In these they constantly reside;
but near Tolagac Hawk's Bay, and Poverty Bay, only single
houses are to be seen, at a considerable distance from each
Both sexes eat together. The men cultivate the ground,
make nets, catch birds, and go out in their canoes to fish;
while the women are employed in weaving cloth, collecting
shell-fish, and dressing food.
As to the religion of these people, they acknowledge one
Supreme Being, and several subordinate Deities. Their
mode of worship could not be learned, nor was any place
proper for that purpose seen. There was, indeed, a small
square area, encompassed with stones, in the middle of
which hung a basket of fern roots on one of their spades.
This, they said, was an offering to their gods, to obtain from
them a plentiful crop of provisions. They gave the same
account of the origin of the world, and the production of
mankind, as the inhabitants of Otaheite.
A great similitude was observed between the dress, furni-
ture, boats, and nets of the New Zealanders and the inhabi-
tants of the South Sea Islands, which would seem to denote
a common origin. Indeed, the inhabitants of these different
places have a tradition, that their ancestors sprang from

another country many years since, and they both agree that
this country was called Heawige. Tupia, when he. accosted
the people here in the language of his own country, was per-
fectly understood, although the dialect is different.
On Saturday, the 31st of March, 1770, the Endeavour
sailed from Cape Farewell in New Zealand, having fine
weather and a fair wind. They steered westward with a
fresh gale till the 2nd of April, when they saw a tropic bird,
a sight very unusual in so high a latitude. On the 15th, they
saw a gannet; and as this bird never goes far from land, they
sounded all night, but had no ground at 130 fathoms. The
day following, a small land bird perched on the rigging, but
they had no ground at 120 fathoms. On the morning of the
19th, they discovered land, to -the southernmost point of
which they gave the name of Point Hicks, in compliment to
the first lieutenant, who discovered it.
At noon, in lat. 370 5' S. and 210 29' W. long., they saw
another remarkable point of land, distant about four leagues.
Captain Cook gave it the name of Ram Head Point, from its
remarkable resemblance to the promontory of the same name
at the entrance of Plymouth Sound. The land appeared to
be low and level, the shore white and sandy, and the inland
parts covered with wood and verdure. At this time they
saw three water-spouts. In the evening, at six o'clock, the
northernmost point of land, which they named Cape Howe,
was distant about two leagues. On the 27th they saw
several of the inhabitants walking along the shore, four of
them carrying a canoe on their shoulders; but as they did not
attempt to come off to the ship, the captain took Mr. Banks,
Dr. Solander, and Tupia in the yawl to that part of the shore
where they saw the natives, near which four small canoes lay
close inland. The Indians sat on the rocks till the yawl was
within a quarter of a mile of the land, when they ran away
into the woods. The surf beating violently on the beach,
prevented che boat from landing. At five in the evening they
returned to the ship, and a light breeze springing up, she sailed
to the northward, where they discovered several people on
shore. The pinnace having been sent ahead to sound,

arrived near the spot where the Indians had stationed them-
selves, on which one of them hid himself among the rocks
near the landing-place, and the others retreated up the hill.
The pinnace keeping along the shore, the Indians walked
nearly in a line with her ; they were armed with long pikes,
and a weapon resembling a scimitar, and by various signs
and words invited the boat's crew to land. Those who did
not follow the boat, having observed the approach of the
ship, brandished their weapons, and threw themselves into
threatening attitudes.
The Endeavour anchored opposite a village of about eight
houses, whereupon Captain Cook manned the boats and took
Tupia with him, but had no sooner come near the shore, than
two men advanced, as if to dispute their setting foot on land.
The captain threw them beads, nails, and other trifles, which
they picked up with great delight. He then made signals
that he wanted water, and used every possible means to con-
vince them that no injury was intended. They now made
signs to the boat's crew to land, but no sooner had Captain
Cook done so, than the two Indians came again to oppose
them. A musket was now fired between them, on the report
of which one of them dropped a bundle of lances, which he
immediately snatched up again in great haste. One of them
threw a stone at the boat, on which the captain ordered a
musket loaded with small shot to be fired, which, wounding
the eldest of them in the legs, he retired hastily to one of the
houses that stood at some distance. The people in the boats
now landed, imagining that the wound this man had received
would put an end to the contest. In this, however, they
were mistaken, for he immediately returned with an oval-
shaped kind of shield, painted white in the middle, and with
two holes in it to see through. They now advanced with
great intrepidity, and both discharged their lances at the
boat's crew, but did not wound any of them. Another
musket was now fired at them, on which they threw another
lance, and then took to their heels. The crew now went
up to the huts, in one of which they found the children, who
had secreted themselves behind some bark. Havin- thrown

several pieces of cloth, ribbons, beads, and other things into
the hut, they took several of their lances, and then re-
embarked in the boat. They now sailed to the north point
of the bay, and found plenty of fresh water. Some men
having been sent to get wood and water, they no sooner came
on board to dinner, than the natives crowded down to the
place, and examined the casks with great attention, but did
not offer to remove them. When the people were on shore
in the afternoon, about twenty of the natives, all armed,
advanced within a trifling distance of them, and then stopped,
while two of their number approached still nearer. Mr. Hicks,
the commanding officer on shore, went towards them, with
presents in his hands, and endeavoured by every possible
means to assure them of his friendly intention, but to no
purpose, for they retired before he came up to them. In the
evening, Messrs. Banks and Solander went with the captain
to a cove north of the bay, where they caught between three
and four hundredweight of fish, at four hauls.
On Tuesday, May the Ist, the south point of the bay was
named Sutherland Point, one of the seamen, of the name
of Sutherland, who died that day, being buried on shore.
More presents were left in the huts, such as looking-glasses,
combs, and other articles, but the former ones had not been
taken away. Making an excursion about the country, they
found it agreeably variegated with wood and lawn, the trees
being straight and tall, and without underwood. The second
lieutenant, Mr. Gore, who was dredging for oysters, saw some
Indians, who made signs for him to come on shore, which he
declined ; having finished his business, he sent the boat away,
and went by land with a midshipman to join the party who
were getting water. On their way they met with more than
twenty of the natives, who followed them so close as to come
within a few yards of them; Mr. Gore stopped and faced
them, on which the Indians stopped also, and when he pro-
ceeded again, they followed him ; but they did not attack
him, though each had a lance. The Indians coming in sight
of the water-casks, stood at the distance of a quarter of a
mile, while Mr. Gore and his companions reached their ship-

mates in safety. Two or three of the waterers now advanced
towards the Indians, but observing they did not retire, they
here imprudently turned about, and retreated hastily. This
apparent mark of cowardice emboldened the savages, who
discharged four of their lances at the fugitives, which fell
beyond them. They now stopped to pick up the lances ; on
which the Indians retired in their turn. At this instant the
captain came up, with Messrs. Banks and Solander.
Tupia having learnt to shoot, frequently strayed alone to
shoot parrots, and the Indians constantly fled from him with
as much precipitation as from the English. The name of
Botany Bay was given to this place from the great number of
plants collected by Messrs. Banks and Solander.
While the captain remained in the harbour, the English
colours were displayed on shore daily, and the name of the
ship, with the date of the year, was carved on a tree near the
place where they took in water. On Sunday, the 6th of
May, they sailed from Botany Bay, and at noon were off a
harbour, which was called Port Jackson, and in the evening
near a bay to which they gave the name of Broken Bay.
The next day, at noon, the northernmost land in sight pro-
jected so as to justify the calling it Cape Three Points. As
they proceeded northward from Botany Bay the land ap-
peared high and well covered with wood. In the afternoon
of the 13th they discovered some rocky islands, and a day
later, by the assistance of their glasses, discerned about a
score of Indians, each loaded with a bundle.
Early in the morning of the 23rd, Captain Cook, attended
by several gentlemen and Tupia, went on shore to examine
the country. They landed within the point of a bay, which
led into a large lagoon, by the sides of which grew the true
mangrove, where they found many nests of ants of a singular
kind, as green as grass. When the branches were moved
they came forth in great numbers, and bit the disturber most
severely. These trees likewise afforded shelter for immense
numbers of green caterpillars, whose bodies were covered
with hairs.
On Thursday, the 24th, they made sail out of the bay, and

on the day following were abreast of a point, which, being
immediately under the tropic, the captain named Cape
Capricorn. On the west side of the point they saw an
amazing number of large birds, resembling the pelican, some
of which were near five feet high.
On Monday, the 28th, they sailed to the northward, and got
among another cluster of islands. Here they were greatly
alarmed, having on a sudden but three fathoms of water, in
a rippling tide; they immediately put the ship about, and
hoisted out the boat in search of deeper water ; after which they
stood to the west under easy sail, and in the evening came
to the entrance of a bay. In the afternoon, having sounded
round the ship, and found that there was water sufficient to
carry her over the shoal, they weighed, and stood to the west-
ward, having sent a boat ahead to sound, and at six in the
evening anchored in ten fathoms, with a sandy bottom, at
about two miles from the main land.
On Tuesday, the 29th, Captain Cook, intending to lay the
ship ashore, and clean her bottom, landed with the master
in search of a convenient place for that purpose; in this
excursion Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander accompanied them;
several places were found suitable for laying ashore, but,
to their great disappointment, they could meet with no fresh
water. They proceeded, however, up the country, and in
the interior parts found gum trees, on the branches of which
were white ants' nests, formed of clay, as big as a bushel. On
another tree, they saw black ants, which perforated all the
twigs, and after eating out the pith, formed their lodgings in
the hollows, notwithstanding which the trees were in a flour-
ishing condition. They also saw many thousands of butter-
flies, which covered every bough in incredible numbers.
On Wednesday, the 30th, Captain Cook and other gentle-
men went on shore, and having gained the summit of a hill,
took a survey of the coast and the adjacent islands, which
being done, the captain proceeded with Dr. Solander up an
inlet that had been discovered the preceding day; but the
weather proving unfavourable, and from fear of being lost
among the shoals in the night, they returned to the ship,

having seen during the whole day only two Indians, who
followed the boat a considerable way along the shore. As
no water was to be found in their different excursions, the
Captain called the inlet where the ship lay, Thirsty Sound.
On the ist of June they got under weigh, and had now
quite opened the western inlet, which they distinguished by
the name of Broad Sound. A point of land which forms
the north-west entrance they named Cape Palmerston, lying
21 30' S. lat. and 2100 54' W. long. Between this cape
and Cape Townshend is the bay which they called the
Bay of Inlets. At eight in the evening they anchored in
S1 fathoms, with a sandy bottom, about two leagues from the
Saturday, the 2nd, they made sail, and at noon saw a high
promontory which they named Cape Hillsborough. It bore
W. half N., distant seven miles. The land appeared to
abound in wood and herbage, and is diversified with hills,
plains, and valleys. A chain of islands large and small are
situated at a distance from the coast and under the land,
from some of which they saw smoke ascending in different
On Sunday, the 3rd, they discovered a point of land, which
they called Cape Conway, and between that and Cape Hills-
borough a bay, to which they gave the name of Repulse Bay.
By the help of their glasses, they discovered two men and a
woman on one of the islands, and a canoe with an outrigger
like those at Otaheite. They named the islands Cumberland
Islands, in honour of the duke ; and a passage which they
had discovered was called Whit-Sunday Passage, from the
day on which it was seen. At daybreak, on Monday, the
4th, they were abreast of a point which they called Cape
Gloucester. Names were also given this day to several other
places, namely Holbourne Isle, Edgcumbe Bay, and Cape
Upstart, which last was so called because it rises abruptly
from the low lands that surround it. Inland are some hills
or mountains which, like the cape, afford but a barren
On Tuesday, the 5th, they were about four leagues from land,

and continued to steer W.N.W. as the land lay, till noon on
the 6th, when their latitude by observation being I9 i' S.,
they had the mouth of a bay all open, distant about two
leagues. This they named Cleveland Bay, and the east
point Cape Cleveland, now forming part of the colony of
Queensland. The west, which had the appearance of an
island, was called Magnetical Island, because the compass
did not traverse well when they were near it. They are both
high, as is the mainland between them, the whole forming a
surface the most rugged, rocky, and barren of any they had
seen upon the coast. Yet it was not uninhabited, for they
saw smoke in several parts of the bottom of the bay.
Thursday, the 7th, at daybreak, they were abreast of the
eastern part of this land, and, in the afternoon, saw several
columns of smoke, also canoes, and some trees.
On Friday, the 8th, they stood away for the northernmost
point in sight, to which they gave the name of Point Hillock.
Between this and Magnetical Isle the shore forms Halifax
Bay, which affords shelter from all winds. At six in the
evening they were abreast of a point of land which they
named Cape Sandwich. From hence the land trends west,
and afterwards north, forming a fine large bay, which was
named Rockingham Bay. They now ranged northward
along the shore, towards a cluster of islands, on one of which
about forty or fifty men, women, and children were standing
together, all stark naked, and looking at the ship with a
curiosity never observed among these people before. At
noon their latitude, by observation, was 17 59' S., and they
were abreast of the north point of Rockingham Bay, which
bore from them west, distant about two miles. This boun-
dary of the bay is formed by an island of considerable height,
which they distinguished by the name of Dunk Island.
On Saturday, the 9th, in the morning, they were abreast of
some small islands, which were named Frankland's Isles. At
noon they were in the middle of the channel. The point on
the main, of which they were now abreast, Captain Cook
named Cape Grafton. Having hauled round this, they found
a bay three miles to the westward, in which they anchored,

and called the island Green Island. Here Mr. Banks and
Dr. Solander went ashore with the captain, with a view of
procuring water, which not being easily had, they soon re-
turned on board, and the next day arrived near Trinity Bay,
so called because it was discovered on Trinity Sunday.
Sunday, the ioth, was remarkable for the dangerous situa-
tion of the Endeavour.
As no remarkable accident had befallen our adventurers,
during a navigation of more than thirteen hundred miles,
upon a coast everywhere abounding with the most dan-
gerous rocks and shoals, no name expressive of distress had
hitherto been given to any cape or point of land which they
had seen. But they now gave the name of Cape Tribula-
tion to a point they had just discovered, because here they
became acquainted with misfortune. The cape lies in latitude
16 6' S. and 214 39' W. longitude.
On Sunday, the Ioth, at six in the evening, they shortened
sail, and hauled off shore close upon a wind, to avoid the
danger of some rocks which were seen ahead. They kept
standing off till near nine, with a fine breeze and bright
moon, and had got into twenty-one fathoms of water, when
suddenly they fell into twelve, ten, and eight fathoms, in a
few minutes. Every man was instantly ordered to his
station, and they were on the point of anchoring, when, on a
sudden, they had again deep water, so that they thought all
danger was at an end, concluding they had sailed over the
tail of some shoals, which they.had seen in the evening. In
less than an hour, however, the water shallowed at once from
twenty to seventeen fathoms, and before soundings could be
taken, the ship struck upon a rock, and remained immov-
able. Every one was instantly on deck, with countenances
fully expressive of the horrors of their situation. Knowing
they were not near the shore, they concluded they had struck
upon a rock of coral, the points of which are sharp, and the
surface so rough as to grind away whatever is rubbed
against it, even with the most gentle motion; all the sails
being immediately taken in and the boats hoisted out, they
found that the ship had been carried over a ledge of the

rock, and lay in a hollow within it. Finding the water
deepest astern, they carried out the anchor from the star-
board quarter, and applied their whole force to the capstan,
in hopes of getting the vessel off, but in vain. She beat so
violently against the rock, that the crew could scarcely keep
their legs. By the bright light of the moon, they could see
the sheathing-boards float from the bottom of the vessel, till
at length the false keel followed, so that they expected instant
destruction. As their only chance of escape seemed to be
lightening the ship, they started the water in the hold, and
pumped it up.
The decayed stores, oil-jars, casks, ballast, six of their
guns, and other articles were thrown overboard, in order to
get at the heavier stores; and in this business they were
employed till daybreak, during all which time not an oath
was sworn, so much were the minds of the sailors impressed
with a sense of their danger.
At daylight they saw land eight leagues distant, but not a
single island between them and the main, on which part of
the crew might have landed, while the boats went on shore
with the rest; so that the destruction of the greater part
would have been inevitable had the ship gone to pieces. It
happened, however, that the wind died away to a dead calm
before noon. As they expected high water about eleven
o'clock, everything was prepared to make another effort to
free the ship, but the tide fell so short, that she did not float
by 18 inches, though they had thrown overboard nearly fifty
tons weight; they therefore continued throwing overboard
everything that could possibly be spared. As the tide fell, the
water poured in so rapidly that they could scarcely keep her
free by the constant working of two pumps. Their only hope
now depended on the midnight tide, and preparations were
accordingly made for another effort to get the ship off. The
tide began to rise at five o'clock, when the leak likewise
increased to such a degree, that two pumps more were
manned, but only one of them would work; three, therefore,
were kept going till nine o'clock, at which time the ship
righted ; but so much water had been admitted by the leak,

that they expected she would sink as soon as the tide bore
her off the rock.
Their situation was now deplorable beyond description,
almost all hope being lost. They knew that when the
fatal moment arrived, all authority would be at an end. The
boats were incapable of conveying all on shore, and they
dreaded a contest for the preference as more shocking than
the shipwreck itself. Yet it was considered that those who
were left on board would eventually meet with a milder fate
than those who, by gaining the shore, would have no chance
but to linger out the remains of life among the rudest savages
in the universe, and in a country where fire-arms would
barely enable them to support a wretched existence. At
twenty minutes past ten the ship floated, when they were
happy to find that she did not admit more water than she
had done before. Yet, as the leak had for a considerable
time gained on the pumps, there was now 3 feet 9 inches of
water in the hold. By this time the men were so wearied
by fatigue of body and anxiety of mind, that none of them
could pump more than five' or six minutes at a time, when
they would throw themselves, quite spent, on the deck. The
succeeding man being fatigued in his turn, threw himself down
in the same manner, while the former jumped up and renewed
his labour, thus mutually struggling for life, till the following
accident almost gave them up a prey to absolute despair.
Between the inside lining of the ship's bottom and the out-
side planking, there is a space of about seventeen or eighteen
inches. The man who had hitherto taken the depth of water
at the well, had taken it no farther than the ceiling, but being
now relieved by another, who took the depth of the outside
planks, it appeared, by this mistake, that the leak had sud-
denly gained upon the pumps the whole difference between
the two planks. This circumstance deprived them of all
hope, and few thought it worth while to labour for the longer
preservation of a life which must soon be terminated. The
mistake, however, was soon discovered ; and the joy arising
from such unexpected good news inspired the men with so
much vigour, that before eight o'clock in the morning they

had pumped out considerably more water than they had
shipped. They now talked of nothing but getting the ship
into some harbour, and set heartily to work to secure their
anchors, one of which, and the cable of another, they had
lost. Having a good sea breeze, they set sail at eleven
o'clock, and steered for land. As they could not discover
the exact situation of the leak, they had no prospect of stop-
ping it from within the vessel, but the following expedient,
which one of the midshipmen had formerly seen tried with
success, was adopted. They took an old studding-sail, and
having mixed a large quantity of oakum and wool, chopped
small, it was stitched down in handfuls on the sail, as lightly as
possible, the dung of their sheep and other filth being spread
over it. Thus prepared, the sail was hauled under the ship
by ropes, which kept it extended till it came under the leak,
when the suction carried in the oakum and wool from the
surface of the sail. This experiment succeeded so well that,
instead of three pumps, the water was easily kept under with
They had hitherto intended to run the ship into some
harbour, and build a vessel from her materials, in which they
might reach the East Indies ; but they now began to think
of finding a proper place to repair her damages, and then to
pursue the voyage on its original plan. At six in the evening
they anchored seven leagues from the shore. Next morning
they passed two small islands, which they called Hope
Islands, because to reach them had been the object of their
wishes at the time of the disaster. In the afternoon the
master was sent out with two boats to sound and search for
a harbour where the ship might be repaired, and they
anchored at sunset, in four fathoms of water, two miles from
the shore. One of the mates being sent out in the pinnace,
returned at nine o'clock, reporting that he had found a suit-
able harbour, two leagues distant.
They sailed early on Wednesday, the 13th, and soon
anchored about a mile from the shore, when the captain
took soundings in a boat and found the channel very narrow,
but the harbour was better adapted to their present purpose

than any place they had seen in the whole course of their
voyage. As it blew very fresh this day and the following
night they could not venture to run into the harbour, but
remained at anchor during the two succeeding days.
The men, by this time, began to be afflicted with scurvy,
and Tupia was so ill with it, that he had livid spots on both
his legs ; Mr. Green, the astronomer, also suffered from the
same disorder. The wind continuing fresh till the 17th they
resolved to push in for the harbour, and twice ran the ship
aground; the second time she stuck fast, on which they
took down the booms, foreyard, and foretop-mast, and made
a raft on the side of the ship ; and, as the tide happened to
be rising, she floated at one o'clock. They soon got her into
the harbour, where she was moored close to the beach, and
the anchors and cables immediately taken out of her.
On Monday, the i8th, they erected a tent for the sick, who
were brought on shore as soon as it was ready for their
reception. They likewise set up another tent to hold the
provisions and stores, which were landed the same day.
The boat was now dispatched in search of fish for the sick,
but she returned without having procured any. Tupia, how-
ever, employed himself in angling, and living entirely upon
what he caught, recovered his health very fast. In an excur-
sion Mr. Banks made up the country, he saw the frames of
several huts, and Captain Cook having ascended one of the
highest hills, observed the land to be stony and barren, and
the low land, near the river, overrun with mangroves, among
which the salt water flowed every tide.
Tuesday, the 19th, the smith's forge was set up, and the
armourer prepared the necessary iron-work for the repairs. On
the 22nd they warped the ship higher up the harbour, in order
to stop the leak. Early in the morning, the tide having left
her, they proceeded to examine the leak, when it appeared
that the rocks had cut through four planks into the timbers,
and that three other planks were damaged. In these
breaches not a splinter was to be seen, the whole being
smooth, as if cut away by an instrument; but most provi-
dentially the vessel was preserved by a very singular circum-

stance. Though one of the holes was large enough to have
sunk her, even with eight pumps constantly at work, yet it
was partly stopped up by a fragment of the rock, which re-
mained sticking in it. They likewise found that some oakum,
wool, &c., had got between the timbers and stopped those
parts of the leak that the stone had left open. Exclusive of
the leak, great damage was done to various parts of the ship's
While the smiths were employed in making nails and bolts,
the carpenters began to work on the vessel; and some of
the people were sent on the other side of the river to shoot
pigeons for the sick. They found a stream of fresh water,
discovered many Indian houses, and saw a mouse-coloured
animal, very swift, and about the size of a greyhound. On
the 23rd, a boat was dispatched to haul the seine, and re-
turned at noon with only three fish, although they saw plenty
leaping about the harbour. This day many of the crew saw
the animal above mentioned, which was afterwards discovered
to be a huge black bat about the size of a partridge.
The repairs of the ship on the starboard side having been
finished, the carpenters now began to work under her port
bow, and on examination abaft, it appeared she had received
very little injury in that quarter. Mr. Banks having removed
his whole collection of plants into the bread-room, they were
this day under water, by which some of them were totally
destroyed; however, by great care, most of them were
restored to a state of preservation. A plant was found on
the 25th, the leaves of which were almost as good as spinach ;
also a fruit of a deep purple colour, and the size of a golden
pippin, which, after having been kept a few days, tasted like
a damson.
On Tuesday, the 26th, the carpenter was engaged in
caulking the ship, and the men in other necessary
business; and on the 27th the armourer continued to work
at the forge and the carpenter on the ship ; while the captain
made several hauls with the large net, but caught only be-
tween twenty and thirty fish, which were distributed among
the sick and the convalescent. Here they saw a tree notched

for climbing; also nests of white ants, from a few inches to
five feet in height, prints of men's feet, and the tracks of three
or four animals were likewise discovered.
One of the midshipmen saw a wolf, resembling exactly the
same species in America.
On the 29th of June, and again on the following day, they
had such a good haul of fish, that two pounds and a half
were distributed to each man, and plenty of greens were
gathered, which, when boiled with peas, made an excellent
mess, and they all thought this day's fare an unspeakable
On the Ist of July all the crew had permission to go on
shore, except one from each mess, part of whom were again
sent to haul the seine, and were equally successful.
On the 3rd the master, who had been sent out in the
pinnace, returned, and reported that he had found a passage
out to sea, between shoals consisting of coral rocks, many of
which were dry at low water. He found some cockles so
large that one of them was more than sufficient for two men ;
likewise plenty of other shell-fish, of which he brought a supply
to the ship. This day they made another attempt to float the
Endeavour, and happily succeeded at high water, when they
found that, from the position she had lain in, one of her
planks was sprung, so that it was again necessary to lay her
On the 5th she was again floated, and moored off the
beach in order to receive the stores on board. This day they
crossed the harbour, and found on a sandy beach a great num-
ber of fruits, not discovered before ; among others, a cocoa-
nut, which Tupia said had been opened by a crab, and was
judged to be what the Dutch call Beurs Krabbe. Mr. Banks
sailed up the river with a party on the 6th, and returned on
the 8th; they found its course contracted into a narrow
channel, bounded by steep banks, adorned with trees of a
most beautiful appearance, among which was the bark-tree.
The land was low and covered with grass, and seemed ca-
pable of being cultivated to great advantage. While in pursuit
of game, they saw four animals, two of which were chased by

Mr. Banks' greyhound, but they greatly outstripped him in
speed, by leaping over the long thick grass, which incommoded
the dog in running; it was observed that these animals bounded
forward on two legs instead of running on four. On their re-
turn to the boat, they proceeded up the river till it contracted to
a brook of fresh water, in which the tide rose considerably.
When preparing to halt for the night they saw smoke at a
distance, on which three of them approached the spot, but
the Indians were gone. They saw the impressions of feet on
the sand, below high-water mark, and found a fire sti!l burn-
ing in the hollow of an old tree. At a small disti.nce were
several huts, and they observed ovens dug in the ground,
and also the remains of a recent meal. They slept that night
on plantain leaves, with a bunch of grass for their pillows,
and the tide favouring their return in the morning, lost no
time in getting back to the ship. The master, who had been
seven leagues at sea, returned soon after Mri. Bauk. bringing
with him three turtles, which he took with a boat-hook, and
which together weighed nearly 800 pounds.
In the morning four Indians, in a small canoe, were within
sight. The captain now determined to take no notice of
these people, as the most likely way to be ni.ticed by
them. This project answered; two of them came within
musket-shot of the vessel, and after some conversation carried
on at a distance, the Indians gradually approached, with
their lances held up, not in a menacing manner, but as if
they meant to intimate that they were capable of defending
themselves. They came almost alongside, when the captain
threw them cloth, nails, paper, &c., which did not seem to
attract their notice ; at length one of the sailors threw a small
fish, which so pleased them that they hinted their design of
bringing their companions, and immediately rowed for the
shore. In the interim, Tupia and some of the crew landed
on the opposite shore. The Indians soon came alongside
the ship, and having received presents, landed where Tupia
and a few sailors went on shore. They had each two lances,
and a stick with which they throw them. Advancing to-
wards the English, Tupia persuaded them to lay down their

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