The Jacksonville free press

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The Jacksonville free press
Running title:
Mrs. Perry's free press
Place of Publication:
Jacksonville Fla
Rita Luffborough Perry
Creation Date:
February 16, 2012
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 58 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
African American newspapers -- Florida ( lcsh )
African Americans -- Newspapers -- Florida ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
newspaper ( marcgt )
newspaper ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Florida -- Duval -- Jacksonville
30.31944 x -81.66 ( Place of Publication )


Additional Physical Form:
Available on microfilm from the University of Florida.
Additional Physical Form:
Also available on optical disc from Ethnic newswatch.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 4, no. 36 (June 28, 1990)-
General Note:
"Florida's First Coast only quality Black weekly."
Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Library Services and Technology Assistance granting program of Florida, the State Library and Archives of Florida, and other institutions and individuals.

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright The Jacksonville free press. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
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19095970 ( OCLC )
AKN0341 ( NOTIS )
sn 95007355 ( LCCN )
1081-3349 ( ISSN )

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Jacksonville advocate-free press


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Full Text

Black Does

5 Ways We
Age Our Skin
Page 9




Death Stuns



S-- Professional

Trades Are a

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50 Cents

Hispanic Workforce Expected to

Outpace All Others by 2020
Hispanic-Americans are expected to make up three-fourths of the
growth in the nation's labor force from 2010 to 2020, according to new
projections from the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the Pew Center.
The Pew Center said that the figures are largely a reflection of the fact
that the nation's Hispanic population is growing rapidly due to births and
immigration. At the same time, the aging of the non-Hispanic, white pop-
ulation is expected to reduce their numbers in the labor force over the
same period..
The report shows that over the same period the growth rate for African-
Americans in the labor force is projected to be slightly higher than 10
percent. With regard to the growth in the Black workforce, the rate is
expected to expand by 11.6 percent for Black men, with Black women
accounting for 8.8 percent of the growth, the report said.
The growth rate for the white workforce is expected to increase by
slightly less than 5 percent. However, the growth in the Asian-American
workforce is expected to rise robustly, only slightly below the Hispanic
rate, at 33 percent.
Another significant contributor to the growth in the Hispanic-
Americans growth rate is the fact that segment of the population has a
higher labor force participation rate than other groups.

NYPD Spied on Al Sharpton
As Rev. Al Sharpton and his National Action Network were busy organ-
izing large-scale protests of the police acquittals in the Sean Bell trial, an
informant from the NYPD was spying on the group and relaying infor-
mation back to the department, says reporter and author Len Levitt.
Levitt claims to have received access to a police document outlining the
spying mission.
"According to the police document, the informant, who was identified
not by name but by a five-digit number given to him by the department,
provided the NYPD with a detailed description of NAN's protest plans,
including the names of prominent African-Americans set to participate,
the locations where protesters would gather and the number of demon-
strators who would offer themselves up for arrest," Levitt writes.
According to Levitt, the document did not indicate whether the spying
was legally conducted according to court-monitored guidelines but,
under such rules, the police must have the belief that a group is planning
to commit a crime in order to conduct such surveillance.
The National Action Network was planning acts of civil disobedience.
Levitt also writes that the NYPD also spied on Sharpton continually in
the wake of the Tawana Brawley case, of which Sharpton was an out-
spoken advocate. Members of New York City's Muslim communities
recently blasted the NYPD after a 2006 report surfaced detailing the
department's efforts to spy on Shiite Muslims.

UF Suspends Alpha Phi

Alpha Chapter for Hazing
The president of the University of Florida has suspended the school's
chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity following a hazing incident involv-
ing the organization and prospective members.
In an email to students, Bernie Machen, the university's president,
labeled it as a "serious physical hazing incident."
Alpha Phi Alpha is the first African-American college Greek-letter
organization. The fraternity was founded in 1906 at Cornell University in
Ithaca, N.Y.
Dave Kratzer, Florida's vice president for student affairs, said, "This was
not a case that we know of that anyone went to the hospital thank
goodness." He added that the incident was "not in the realm of serious-
ness on the far end of things, when you think about what could have
occurred with hazing, and we want to stop it now."
The fraternity's executive director issued a statement, saying that the
organization had issued a cease-and-desist order upon the chapter at the
University of Florida and that, it, too, will conduct an investigation of the
"We recognize that hazing is a persistent social scourge that has proven
time and time again to be difficult to eradicate and too dangerous to tol-
erate," the statement said. "Alpha Phi Alpha does not condone hazing!
Alpha Phi Alpha has embraced programs, which provide leadership tools
to recognize, prevent and address hazing."

California Affirmative Action Ban,

Proposition 209, Challenged In Court
SAN FRANCISCO Backers of affirmative action asked a federal
appeals court this week to overturn California's 15-year-old ban on con-
sidering race in public college admissions, citing a steep drop in black,
Latino and Native American students at the state's elite campuses.
A three-judge panel of the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeal heard argu-
ments in the latest legal challenge to Proposition 209, the landmark voter
initiative that barred racial, ethnic and gender preferences in public edu-
cation, employment and contracting.
The affirmative action ban has withstood multiple challenges since vot-
ers approved it in 1996, but advocates say their campaign to overturn it
has been bolstered by recent court decisions, as well as support from
Gov. Jerry Brown.
Attorneys for the plaintiffs said affirmative action is needed to increase
racial diversity at the University of California's most prestigious cam-
puses and professional schools. Data shows that UC's efforts to enroll
diverse student populations without considering race have failed, they

Volume 25 No. 17 Jacksonville, Florida February 16-22, 2012

Urban Communities to Benefit Most from Foreclosure Settlement

As with every economic crisis,
African-Americans were among the
hardest hit when the housing bubble
burst. In addition to disproportion-
ately being offered subprime loans,
their communities also have experi-
enced extraordinarily high levels of
foreclosures. Now that the nation's
top five banks have agreed to a
huge settlement to help homeown-
ers, will the deal disproportionately

help African-Americans and other
Housing and Urban Development
Secretary Shaun Donovan cannot
provide a specific number but said
in a conference call with reporters
Friday that he expects a large share
of the estimated one-to-two million
households to benefit will be
African-American and Latino.
"We all know how the housing

bubble burst, how lenders sold
loans to people who couldn't afford
them and how they packaged those
mortgages up to make profits that
turned out to be nothing more than
a mirage," Donovan said. "We
know these actions hurt millions of
families, and particularly African-
American, Latino and other minori-
ty families who were targeted for
predatory loans and other prac-

Donovan noted that as a result of
those actions and foreclosures,
African-American communities
lost half of their wealth between
2004 and 2008. He estimates that
approximately one million home-
owners nationwide will be able to
take advantage of the component of
the settlement that directs banks to
Continued on page 3

lax Links Take Over the Capitol

'^BK^^ M^^Hi;

Shown above are Jacksonville area LinKs urging their visit to the
House of Representatives during the 2012 Links Day at the Capital L-
R) : Majoria Manning, Ava Parker, Alice Venson, Kia Kemp, Pat
Mitchell, Barbara Darby, Terry, Karen Smith, Diana Spicer, Pam
Prier and Jaquie Gibbs.
The Bold City and Jacksonville darity for their initiatives -
Chapters of The Links, Childhood Obesity and Science,
Incorporated, joined chapters from Technology, Engineering and Math
around the state in Tallahassee, FL (STEM) Education, served to
last week for the annual Links Day apprise Legislators of their need to
at the Capitol (LDAC). continue funding and support of
The organization's show of soli- these initiatives. Continued on page 3


Shown above are newly pinned Eagle Scouts (L-R) Spencer Vaughn
Raspberry, Tony DeMarco Hansberry, Tyler Sloan Hansberry, and
Jakari Bruce Stamper. (BACK) Herman Floyd (Assistant Scout
Master) and Robert Bradley (ScoutMaster).
Troop 175 Honors Four Young Men in
Earning Highest Eagle Scout Honor
Under the leadership of Troop 175's Scoutmaster Robert Bradley and
Asst. Scoutmaster and Herman Floyd, four young black males have earned
the rank of Eagle Scout with the Boy Scouts of America. This is the high-
est ranking possible in the organization. They were presented on Scout
Sunday last weekend at Greater Grant A.M.E. The guest speaker for the
special occasion was Reverend Wendell Webster of Historic Macedonia
AME Church in Fernandina Beach, Florida.

LaTasha and Reginald Fullwood
State Rep. Reggie Fullwood honored his still blushing bride with a 40th
birthday to remember last weekend at The Carling in downtown Jacksonville.
Guests arrived red carpet style complete with paparazzi and fanfare to the old
school 'basement style' party. The invitation only event spared no expense for
the hundred plus guests in attendance with a gourmet catered buffet and open
bar. Mrs. Fullwood, attired in a strapless designer cocktail dress, graciously
greeted all of her guests who stayed on the dance floor throughout the night.
She capped off her party with the cutting of her custom made cake, including
the traditional birthday cake and one fashioned "Louis Vuitton" style. The
fashionable attorney continued her celebration on Sunday with family and
friends followed by a trip to the West Coast in March.

ty brothers at his side at his 90th
Holiday Inn last weekend.
A gala celebration in honor of the
90th birthday of living history
maker, Dr. Wendell Holmes, was
held at the Holiday Inn -
Baymeadows on Saturday evening,
February 12 beginning at 6 pm.
Over 250 family and friends trav-
eled from throughout the country
for the event.
Festivities kicked off to a roaring
start with the entrance of the family
forming a Soul Train line and danc-
ing including the man of the hour
and his first lady, Wendell and
Jackie Holmes, dancing up the line.
Carol Alexander served as the

birthday gala at the Baymeadows

Mistress of Ceremonies and live
entertainment was provided by the
Bethune-Cookman University Jazz
Combo in addition to a short broad-
way style show by Harry Burney.
Comments and tributes were given
by Dr. Alvin White, BCU President
Dr. Trudie Reed and Dr. William
Sykes, Board of Trustees/Hampton
University. The birthday toast was
given by Wendell Holmes, III sur-
rounded by grandsons, Wendell
Holmes, IV and Robert Nesmith II.
The event was coordinated by
Jackie Holmes, Deirdre Kyle, Carol
Alexander and Omar Dickenson.

Valentine Birthday Celebrations Highlight Weekend

Dr. Wendell Holmes stands above with his wife Jackie and fraterni-

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Page 2 Ms. Perry's Free Press

February 16-22, 2012


.., .- ; fdtj


, : -

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Fi'hrnnr -- Ms

History Viewing Histry Members of the Montford Point Marine Association Chapter
29 and Post 197, recently viewed "Red Tails" courtesy of Congresswoman Corrine Brown. Shown above in
attendance are Hallie Williams Bey, Mary Norman, Rev E I Norman, Shaquill Burton, Sharon Burton, Alpha
Preston Gainous, Ron Jackson, and Teddy Green. The Montford Point Marines were trained at the segregated
Camp Montford Point, in Jacksonville, North Carolina, where from 1942 to 1949, over 20,000 'colored' sol-
diers to were trained. FMPowellphoto

Teen Orators Showcase the ABCs of

Black History at Annual Competition
The Jacksonville Chapter of Jack
and Jill of America recently held its
Annual Southeastern Regional Ann '" '.'
Owen Gordon Teen Oratorical
Competition and "Speak Up Speak
Out" Presentation. i
Four vocal students took to the i. .
stage of Edward Water College's
Milne Auditorium to speak on the
theme ofABC: American Black and
Participating teens included Austin
Cannington (Bishop Kenny High
School), Malcolm Chapman
(Stanton High School) and Cornetta
'CoCo' Jones (Ponte Vedra High
School). Ten year old Myles Sams
presented his topic "Nurture a
Reader Develop a Leader" in the "
Speak Up-Speak Out Youth .1
Presentation paying tribute to local Shown above is event Chair Wanda Willis, teen participants CoCo
author Brenda Jackson. Jones, Malcolm Chapman and Austin Cannington with Jack & Jill
First place winner Malcolm Chapter President Shana Allan.
Chapman will compete in the here in Jacksonville. The Speak Up Sams, will present his speech atl the
Florida Area competition in April Speak Out presenter, Myles Florida Area youth presentation.


Auntie Roz to Host
Tea & Cider Sip
Roslyn "Auntie
Roz" Burrough
will host a very
special Black his-
tory event at her
h o m e A
S Conversation with
Phil Petrie Sr."
Petrie Mr. Petrie is the
author of Tips and Maxims for
Living a Principled Life: A guide
for my children.
The Tea and Cider Sip for teens,
tweens and adults will include a
book signing and take place on
Sunay, February 26, at 5 p.m For
reservations or more information,
call 713-0885.

Political Leadership
Institute Accepting
2012 Applications
The public leadership program of
the JAX Chamber, the Political
Leadership Institute (PLI), is seek-
ing applicants for its 2012 class
now until March 2nd. PLI prepares
tomorrow's outstanding political
The non-partisan program encour-
ages participants to explore the
possibility of public office and in
learn from experts about candidacy,
leadership and public policy. Visit or contact Mark
Mills at 888-430-0009 or email for more

City Providing

Free Shredding
The City of Jacksonville's
Behavioral and Human Services
Division will celebrate the 30th
Anniversary of the Victim Services
Center by providing a free opportu-
nity for local residents to shred per-
sonal documents. This is the first in
a series of events to honor the
anniversary of the Victim Services
Center. Participants can bring their
documents Wednesday, Feb. 29
from 10 a.m. 2 p.m. to the Victim
Services Center, 403 West 10th St.
- 32206. There will be a mobile
shred truck for onsite shredding.

'C '-sfla


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I'-. '-

Ca.' r

One person's vision can change how we see the world
When we want to see the influence Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. had on the world, we don't have to look far. We can see his legacy of equality and progress from the
playground to the workplace to the White House. And our goal is to have you also see it at Wells Fargo in our commitment to empowering communities through financial
education programs and volunteering. Dr. King taught us that one person's vision can change how everyone views the world.

Wells Fargo honors the life and legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

Together we'll go far

0 2012 Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. All rights reserved. Member FDIC.

M mortgage settlement continued from front
help eligible borrowers reduce their loan balances.
"This will help underwater homeowners in minority neighborhoods start
building equity again, but also their neighbors, who've watched their own
property values plummet by $5,000 to $10,000 each time a foreclosure
sign goes up in their neighborhood," he said.
The settlement also includes a provision that will help unemployed home-
owners catch up on late mortgage payments. And perhaps more important
for minorities, Donovan said, is funding to provide housing counseling and
legal services. Homeowners are twice as likely to be able to save their
homes if they get help from housing counselors.
Lenders, who'll be working with a court-appointed monitor, would begin
reaching out to homeowners eligible to participate in the settlement agree-
ment in the next month. For more information, they should visit the
National Mortgage Settlement web site at www.nationalmortgagesettle-

Links Day at the Capitol

Continued from page 1
Throughout the day, the 65+ Links
in attendance participated in semi-
nars in conjunction with the
Florida Black Caucus in addition to
a luncheon. A "Senate Resolution"
recognizing the efforts of The
t. d U AtB Links, Incorporated was introduced
S by Senator Arthenia Joyner.
"This is an opportunity for mem-
Sbers of our organization to advocate
the causes we serve with lawmak-
Y ers," said Dr. Thelecia Wilson,
j'1. State Coordinator for the event.
L"LDAC brings Links face to face
with our state's decision makers."
The event's theme was: "Linking
Arts, Mentoring and S.T.E.M.
Education: Empowering Students
to Achieve," and coordinated by Dr.
Thelea W n Thelecia Wilson of Jacksonville's
Thelecia Wilson
State Coordinator own Bold City Chapter.
State Coordinator

The Northeast Florida Community Action
Agency (NFCAA), a nonprofit organization, will
hold their monthly Board of Directors meeting:

Thursday, February 23, 2012
4:00 p.m.
4070 Boulevard Center Drive, 4500
Building, Suite 200, Jacksonville, Florida 32207.
For more Information, call 398-747-ext 224:


Ms. Perry's Free Press Page 3

February 16-23 2012


^ 4



Page 4 Ms. Perry's Free Press

Professional Trades Are Still a Major Option

Sometimes you have to deal with
the reality of an issue. For example,
I would love to say that everyone
graduating from a Duval County
High School should attend college.
I agree with that notion because I
believe that education is critical to
one's success.
In fact, Malcolm X said,
"Education is our passport to the
future, for tomorrow belongs to the
people who prepare for it today."
However, I am also a realist that
fully understands and concedes that
college just simply isn't for every-
one. While it would undoubtedly
be controversial, I feel that we
should target students who proba-
bly aren't going to college and
attempt to get them interested in
rewarding careers that don't
involve a college degree.
For example, you don't need a
degree to be a fireman, long shore-
man, carpenter, electrician, etc.
These are great careers that pay
high wages and provide good bene-
fits. How do we stabilize inner city
communities jobopportunities?
High wage jobs provide so many
positive opportunities for individu-
als in families. With a good job you
can buy a house, maintain and
upgrade the look of your home,
invest in your retirement, and pro-
vide for your family's well being,
In order for the black, lower-to-

upper middle class to grow,we have
to start promoting trade professions
as viable options for creating
strong, well paid careers.
In the late 1800s and early 1900s,
W.E.B. Dubois and Booker T.
Washington were black leaders
who both fought for economic and
social equality for freed slaves.
Although the overall goal was the
same, the means in which they sug-
gested we achieve the goal, was
very different.
Washington felt that blacks
should focus more on farming and
skilled labor, while Dubois felt that
every black should receive an edu-
cation. He also felt that ten percent
of the race would provide the lead-
ership we needed. Dubois called
this group the "Talented Tenth."
Actually, Washington was a pro-
ponent of education as well, but he
realized that in order for freed
slaves to survive economically,
there was a need to focus on the
jobs that were available at the time.
Washington said, "Education is
the sole and only hope of the Negro
race in America."
Today, I agree with both men in a
sense. I feel that all people, not just
blacks should receive some sort of
education after high school. Again,
I realize that college is not an
option for everyone; so we should
deal with the reality of matter, and
aggressively act as Booker T.

Washington suggested.
Although it will not be popular to
those in the academic arena, we
have to focus more of our youth's
attention on skilled trades.
With the national unemployment
rate still higher than it's been in 20
years, there are small signs of some
job recovery well, according to
experts. However, there continues
tobe a shortage in high wage jobs,
especially for blacks that don't
have college degrees.
What jobs are those might you
ask? Professional trades,
Electricians, Carpenters, Plumbers,
and Heating and Air Conditioning
Teclmicians are some of the jobs
that require a high level of training;
and can be very rewarding in the
long term.
The Northeast Florida Builders
Association, several local unions,
and Florida State College, all pro-
vide great trade programs for indi-
viduals. Once you become a
licensed professional in any of the
areas I just mentioned, the opportu-
nities are limitless.
Many people start off working
for large companies; and once they
reach the level of a master crafts-
man, they start their own compa-
But just like going to college -
you have to be committed to finish-
ing the program, if you want to be
successful. Too many of our youth

want instant gratification in life.
That's not how you build success.
Willie Bady, Jr, once said,
"Living a life is like constructing a
building; if you start wrong, you'll
end wrong."
There are definitely positions
that are available in these fields.
Another area that blacks can excel
is the maritime industry. The
Jacksonville Port Authority, along
with its clients have a $1.3 billion
dollar impact on our local econo-
The average annual salaries for
port jobs are $45,000, which is well
above the state average.
I have often written about the
need to grow the African American
middle class; and it's jobs like these
that can help grow and sustain a
strong black middle class. Again, I
can't say it enough, but the oppor-
tunities provided by the trade pro-
fessions and Jaxport are critical our
local economy.
As we slowly climb out of this
recession, construction trades jobs
will be critical to the country's eco-
nomic rebound.
As we deal with the realities of
life, college cannot continue to be
the primary option that we promote
to youth. Professional trades can be
a means of helping young men
establish long-term careers that
lead towards entrepreneurship and
long-term economic stability.

$25 Billon Mortgage Settlement

Seen as a Step Towards Fairness

By Charlene Crowell
NNPA Columnist
The recent mortgage agreement
reached with the nation's five
largest mortgage services brings
the first major consumer victory
after a nearly year-long effort. State
attorneys general, working with the
Departments of Justice and HUD
together announced a $25 billion
settlement for consumers in 49
states. Participating banks are Ally
Financial, Bank of America,
Citigroup, JP Morgan Chase and
Wells Fargo.
The largest share of the settle-
ment more than $20 billion -
will be dedicated to financial relief
for consumers. These funds will be
used to assist homeowners with
mortgages that are in distress or
foreclosure or underwater, now
owing more than the home is actu-
ally worth. Today, nearly 11 million
families with mortgages now owe
more than their home is worth.
Additionally, mortgage services
will pay state and federal govern-
ments $5 billion in cash. Among
these funds, $3.5 billion will be
used to repay public funds spent on
the investigation and to fund hous-
ing counselors and legal aid. This
funding for housing counseling and
legal aid is critical to ensuring that
homeowners obtain the loan modi-
fications and refinances promised
in the settlement. In addition,
because the settlement does not
affect individual lawsuits, the legal
aid funding will help homeowners
defend themselves against improp-

er foreclosure actions involving
mortgage fraud, service miscon-
duct or other legal violations.
The remaining $1.5 billion will
establish a Borrower Payment
Fund to provide cash payments to
eligible borrowers whose homes
were sold or taken in foreclosure
between January 1, 2008 and
December 31, 2011. This specific
initiative is in addition to restitution
already administered by federal
banking regulators.
The value of the settlement also
will increase if negotiations with
nine other lenders reach a success-
ful agreement.
Commenting on the agreement
second in size only to the 1998
tobacco settlement, President
Obama said, "No action, no matter
how meaningful, is going to entire-
ly heal the housing market. But this
settlement is a start."
Mike Calhoun, president of the
Center for Responsible Lending
(CRL) agreed, adding, "Despite its
limitations, the settlement requires
real reforms in the mortgage servic-
ing industry to stop sloppy business
practices and out-and-out fraud. It
will also help stabilize housing
markets and property values by
giving more homeowners a chance
to restructure or refinance out of
unaffordable loans that are under-
For consumers and communities
seeking financial relief and fair-
ness, the settlement offers three key
Bank accountability: The settle-

ment preserves the right to pursue
claims of criminal violations. State
attorneys general can also initiate
cases related to fair lending abuses
and securities fraud.
A stop to robo-signing and other
mortgage servicing abuses: Banks
are required to review foreclosure
documents individually. Before a
foreclosure can lawfully proceed,
other options must be exhausted.
Settlement payments for each fam-
ily affected by robo-signing could
receive $2,000. Even if a payment
is accepted, homeowners who have
already lost their homes to foreclo-
sure could still sue the bank for
Strong enforcement: An inde-
pendent monitor will regularly
assess bank performance against a
series of measures related to loan
modifications and foreclosure. Any
violations found will trigger penal-
ties up to $1 million per violation
or up to $5 million for certain
repeat violations. Joseph A. Smith,
most recently the North Carolina
Commissioner of Banks, will over-
see implementation of the new
servicing standards.
In June 2010, CRL research
found that African-American and
Latino homeowners with mort-
gages lost $350 billion of family
wealth through foreclosures. A
2011 foreclosure update by CRL
again found that these communities
of color continued to suffer dispro-
portionate losses. Even when
African-American and Latino con-
sumers had high credit scores of

660 or more, they were still three
times more likely than similar
white consumers to receive a high-
cost loan with risky features.
Wade Henderson, president and
CEO of the Leadership Conference
on Civil and Human Rights said of
the settlement, You cannot put a
dollar value on the suffering of
these families but we can seek
progress. And today's settlement is
a step in the right direction."

February 16-22, 2012

A -1 1

Make Your

Own Luck
Gambling is legally restricted in the United States,
but its availability and participation is increasing.
Under federal law, gambling is legal and each state is
free to regulate or prohibit it. Almost every state
allows some form of gambling. African Americans
have little impact in gaming, except as employees.
As African Americans lag economically, the gambling industry continues
to prosper. In 2011, gambling activities generated estimated revenues of
$92.27 billion: Card Rooms $1.18 billion; Commercial Casinos $34.41
billion; Charitable Games and Bingo $2.22 billion; Indian Casinos -
$26.02 billion; Legal Bookmaking $168.8 million; Lotteries $24.78 bil-
lion; Pari-mutuel Wagering $3.50 billion. Commercial casinos provided
354,000 jobs, and state and local tax revenues of $5.2 billion[update].
Nevada is the only state where casino-style gambling is legal statewide.
Both state and local governments impose licensing and zoning restrictions.
All other states that allow casino-style gambling restrict it to small geo-
graphic areas (e.g., Atlantic City, N.J. or Tunica, Miss.,) or to Native
American reservations. As sovereign nations, Native American tribes have
used legal protection to open casinos. There are 19 states (and two U.S.
Territories) that allow commercial casinos in some form.
The economic impact of legalized gambling is tangible and quantifiable.
They include construction of casinos that lead to many jobs for construc-
tion employees, employees to staff the casino, and the suppliers for ongo-
ing casino operations, all provide multiplier effects that ripple throughout
the overall economy.
The reality is, nearly one in four American men and 1 in 8 women gam-
bled on the recent Super Bowl in some way. Furthermore two-thirds of all
Americans have gambled, and some 80 percent of us approve of legal gam-
bling as a means of collecting taxes.
Entrepreneurship in gambling and gaming has traditionally been
eschewed by Blacks. More often than not, the image of an attractive man
or woman holding a drink in one hand and dice or cards in the other is an
African-American taboo. But, it was labeled "race progress" in 1955 when
the integrated Moulin Rouge Hotel-Casino Resort opened in the Westside
of Las Vegas. The resort had partial ownership by boxer Joe Lewis and was
built to accommodate African Americans banned from Strip resorts. The
integrated hotel-casino site afforded African Americans work and more
well-paying jobs such as managing and dealing.
Not until Don Barden became the owner of the Majestic Star and
Fitzgeralds Casino did an African American have an ownership presence on
Las Vegas' legendary Strip. In 2003, Black Enterprise Magazine rated Don
Barden one of the nation's top Black businessmen and one of the top Black
employers in the nation with more than 4,050 employees. Over four
decades, the late entrepreneur became a self-made multi-millionaire in real
estate, the cable TV industry, and in later years, a dominant force in casino
gambling. Barden's influence in gambling came against the odds. After
success in politics, real estate and cable, Barden joined forces with power-
ful Blacks attuned to gambling. In 1998, he and Michael Jackson submit-
ted a proposal for an amusement park along the downtown Detroit
Riverfront called The Thriller Theme Park. That project was rejected. In
2006, Barden tried again for a license to build a new casino, this time in
Pittsburgh with Smokey Robinson. He got the license, but not the casino.
Before he died in 2011, Barden had casino operations across America.
But the debate continues about whether or not gambling is an appropri-
ate economic development tool. The argument against it is that although the
numbers of jobs associated with new gambling facilities is significant; for
some it is not a compelling enough reason for its legalization. Detroit's
casino gambling has led to no noticeable downtown redevelopment. Still,
Black political, civic and church leaders have to admit that gambling can
be a powerful economic development tool. Las Vegas is a powerful testa-
ment to impressive job growth, a low tax burden that many state and local
governments envy and prosperity levels that have spawned significant pri-
vate and public sector investments..

P.O. Box 43580 903 W. Edgewood Ave. (904) 634-1993
Jacksonville, FL 32203 Jacksonville, FL 32208 Fax (904) 765-3803

Rita Perry


a E.O.Hut
acksonville Latimer,
('hombr or Commerce Vickie B

Sylvia Perry

Managing Editor

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BUTORS: Lynn Jones, Charles Griggs, Camilla Thompson, Reginald Fullwood,
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February 16-22, 2012

Ms. Perry's Free Press Page 5

F FOR THE WEEK OF FEB. 14 20, 2012

LOC Sports Photo

Calvin Stoudemire hold-
IN THE ing up the family tradition
with outstanding play at
FAMILY LeMoyne-Owen.




Only two black college players are among the over 300
draft eligible players invited to the February 22-28 NFL
Combine in Indianapolis.
Hampton cornerback Micah Pellerin and South
Carolina State free safety Christian Thompson are the
only ones to make the list.
Pellerin, 6-1 195-pound corner-
back who transferred from Southern
Mississippi, was a first team all-MEAC
selection as a senior after leading the
league in passes defended (19) and
finishing tied for second in interceptions
(4). Pellerin also had 51 total tackles, Pellerin
one forced fumble and 15 pass break-
ups. Pellerin reportedly performed well at the East-West
Shrine game and is rated in the top 30 at his position. He
is projected as a late round draft choice.
Thompson transferred to South
Carolina State from Auburn. The 6-1
213-pound free safety was named sec-
ond team all-MEAC this season after
piling up 66 tackles, third best on the
Bulldogs' roster, with two interceptions.
Thompson also had four kickoff returns.Thompson
Both Pellerin and Thompson have best
times of 4.45 in the 40.

HAMPTON, VA The St. Augustine's men's track
squad claimed its 14th straight title, and the Virginia State
Lady Trojans took the women's crown on Sunday in the
2012 CIAA Indoor Track and Field Championships at the
Boo Williams Sportsplex.
Led by men's field MVP Aaron Dudley, St. Aug's
scored 135 points to take home the ultimate gold. The
Virginia State Trojans finished in second place (86); while
Winston-Salem State finished in third place (67).
The Lady Trojans of Virginia State took the top notch
with a final mark of 105 points, with Johnson C. Smith
running second (93). The St. Augustine's Lady Falcons
finished in third place with 83.

1 St. Augustine's 135
2 Virginia State 86
3 Wi-Salem State 67
4 J. C. Smith 61
5 Bowie State 60
6 Virginia Union 39
7 Livingstone 14
8 Lincoln (PA) 3

1 Virginia State 105
2 J. C. Smith 93
3 St. Augustine's 83
4 W-Salem State 69
5 Bowie State 35
6 Virginia Union 29
7 Livingstone 15
8 Lincoln (PA) 5

From Xavier Athletic Communications
Monday at The Barn was filled with people and emo-
tion. It was senior night for five honorees from the Gold
Nuggets and four from the Gold Rush but Xavier University
of Louisiana also said goodbye to its 75-year-old gymna-
The curtain fell after Monday's game on The Barn,
which was dedicated onNov. 2, 1937, byArchbishop Joseph
Rummel of the Archdiocese of New Orleans and played
host to its first basketball game on Dec. 29 of that year a
32-19 Xavier men's victory against Alabama State.
The Barn will be razed after the completion of the
4,500-seat Convocation Academic Center later this year.
The Barn is expected to play host to most, if not all, XU
home women's volleyball matches this fall, but the CAC
is expected to be ready in November for the start of the
2012-13 basketball season.
The Barn acquired its name in the 1960s because of a
then-wood exterior and cavernous interior. But the facil-
ity no longer resembles a barn. The interior was enlarged
and air-conditioned, and 1987 renovations replaced the
wooden exterior with brick. The Barn underwent additional
renovations during 2005-06 because of the effects of Hur-
ricane Katrina. By July '06 the facility had been renovated
- including Jackson State University's generous loan of
a wooden basketball court.
"It'll definitely be nice, a major upgrade something
we've needed for a long time," said Bo Browder, in his
13th season as head coach of the Nuggets and the proud
owner of a 169-16 record at The Barn. The Convocation
Academic Center will be across Washington Avenue and
near the main campus on a site bounded by Short, Palm
and Stroelitz streets one block from South Carrollton
Avenue in New Orleans.

Bowie State 7 1 11 3 19 4
Virginia Union 6 1 9 4 14 11
Lincoln 4 4 6 8 11 14
Eliz. City State 4 5 6 9 12 13
Virginia State 2 5 5 8 6 17
Chowan 1 8 1 14 7 20
Shaw 7 0 13 0 21 2
J.C. Smith 3 4 5 8 10 13
St. Augustine's 3 4 8 5 13 10
W-Salem State 3 4 9 4 17 6
Fayetteville State 3 4 5 8 7 14
Livingstone 2 5 3 10 7 14
PLAYER Kenny Sharpe, 6-3, Jr., G LINCOLN Had 21
points, 10 boards vs. Chowan, 22 points vs. Bowie State.
Averaged 19 pts., 8.3 rebounds in three games.
NEWCOMER Dameatric Scott, 6-7, Jr., F, BSU Had
18 points in win over Lincoln.
ROOKIE Anthony Shelton, 6-1, Fr,, G, FSU Had
career-high 22 pts, in win over Livingstone, added 12 vs.
VSU. Averaged 12.0 points in three games.
COACH Cleo Hill, Jr., SHAW Led Panthers to 20th
win and 16th straight with wins over Livingstone and
WSSU. Third straight 20-win season under Hill. Up to

BowieState 6 2 7 7 7 14
VirginiaState 4 3 6 7 14 11
Virginia Union 4 3 6 7 9 13
Eliz. City State 4 5 7 8 13 12
Lincoln 3 5 3 11 7 19
Chowan 3 5 5 10 10 15
Shaw 6 1 121 17 6
J.C. Smith 5 2 11 2 17 5
W-Salem State 5 2 11 2 16 7
Fayetteville State 3 4 4 9 10 12
St.Augustine's 2 5 7 6 12 11
Livingstone 0 7 2 11 7 18
PLAYER Stephanie Harper, 5-11, Jr., F, ECSU Posted
three double-doubles in three games, averaging 17.0 ppg.,
14.0 rpg. Had 20 points, 18 rebounds vs. Bowie State.
NEWCOMER- Brooks Miles, 5-6, So., G, BSU Averaged
17.3 points in three games. Tallied 22 points, 3 rebounds
vs. Lincoln.
COACH Renard Smith, BSU Coach Smith has led his
BSU Lady Bullddogs to first place in the North, winning four


Norfolk State
Savannah State
Delaware State
Coppin State
NC Central
N. Carolina A&T
Florida A&M
Md.-Eastern Shore
Morgan State
South Carolina State

10 2
9 2
8 3
8 3
8 4
7 5
6 6
5 6
4 7
3 8
4 9
3 9
0 11

PLAYER Chris McEachin, 6-6, Sr., G/F, NSU In 2-0
week, had 20 points in win over UMES, career-best 27
points with 5 rebounds, 3 steals vs. Hampton.
ROOKIE Tahi Tate, 6-4, Fr., G, DSU Averaged 19.0
points, 3.0 rebounds, 4.0 assists and 1 5 steals in wins
over Hampton and Coppin Slale. Shot 57% from the field
and 83% from the line. Had 22 vs. Coppin State.
DEFENSE Kyle O'Quinn, 6-10, Sr., F/C, NSU Aver-
aged 12.5 rebounds, 4.5 blocks in two wins. Had 18
rebounds and 5 blocks in win over Hampton. Had 7
boards, 5 blocks vs. UMES.

FloridaA&M 10 1 17 6
Hampton 10 1 18 4
Howard 11 2 19 7
Coppin State 10 2 15 10
Md.-Eastern Shore 6 5 9 14
South Carolina State 6 5 11 11
N.CarolinaA&T 6 6 11 14
Bethune-Cookman 4 7 7 16
Norfolk State 4 8 9 14
Morgan State 3 9 6 19
Savannah State 2 9 9 15
Delaware State 2 9 5 19
NC Central 1 11 3 22
PLAYER Adobi Agbasi, 6-2, Sr., F/C, UMES Averaged
18.0 points, 14.0 rebounds and 8.0 blocks in wins over NSU
and MSU. Had 22 pis., 11 reb., 9 blocks vs. NSU, 18 pts.,
17 reb, 7 blocks vs. MSU.
ROOKIE Tiffanle Adair, 5-11, So., F, NC A&T Had 33
points, 24 rebounds in two games, gelling 27 points. 15
boards vs SCSU.
DEFENSE Oiana Donald, 6-0, Sr., F/C, FAMU Grabbed
21 rebounds wilh I block and steal in two games. Added
19 points and 1 assist.

LeMoyne-Owen 13 6 13 8
Tuskegee 13 7 13 9
Clark Atlanta 13 7 13 11
Benedict 12 7 13 8
Paine 11 8 12 9
Miles 11 9 11 11
Stillman 10 10 12 10
FortValley 10 10 10 12
Kentucky State 9 10 9 12
AlbanyState 9 11 10 12
Claflin 7 14 7 15
Morehouse 6 14 6 16
Lane 4 15 4 17
PLAYER Marcus Goode, 6-10, Jr., C, BENE-
DICT Averaged 24.7 points, 11.3 rebounds, 3.3
blocks, 1.3 assists in three wins. Leads SIAC in
scoring (20.3) and rebounding (11.2), second in
blocks (2.5).
NEWCOMER Allen Young, 6-8, Jr., F, PAINE
- Averaged 11 points, 8 rebounds, 5 blocks, 1.5
steals in two games.

Fort Valley State 14 4 16 6
Stillman 14 4 16 6
Tuskegee 13 5 16 6
Benedict 12 6 14 7
Miles 11 7 13 9
Clark Atlanta 10 8 10 11
LeMoyne-Owen 8 10 9 11
Albany State 8 10 8 14
Kentucky State 7 11 8 14
Claflin 6 13 6 14
Paine 3 14 3 18
Lane 2 16 2 17

LaQwesha Lewis, 6-2, Jr., C, CLARK ATLANTA
- In loss to Albany State, had 17 points, 17 rebounds. 5
blocks and 2 steals.
April Thomas, 5-1, Fr., G, ALBANY STATE Averaged
21 points in two games Also averaged 1 5 rebounds, 1 5
assists and 1 steal. Leads SIAC in scoring at 18.2 ppg

Miss. Valley St. 13 0 14 11
#Southern 9 4 13 13
Texas Southern 7 4 9 15
Prairie View A&M 7 5 11 14
Alabama State 6 6 9 15
AlcornState 5 8 8 17
Ark. Pine Bluff 5 8 6 20
Jackson State 4 9 6 19
Alabama A&M 3 9 5 16
# Grambling State 3 10 3 20
# Ineligible for SWAC Tournament
Paul Crosby, 6-8, Sr., C, MISS. VALLEY STATE Had
game-highsof23points and 15rebounds in win over South-
ern. Also had 10 points and 12 boards in win over Alcorn
State. Averaged double-double of 16.5 points and 13.5
rebounds to keep MVSU undefeated in SWAC play.

Next generation of hoops stars

Current NY
Knicks star

Former NBA
1st Round

Former NBA
1st Round

Fayetteville State @ Barber-Scotia
Davis & Elkins @ Livingstone
Kentucky State @ Stillman
Paine @ Albany State
Benedict @ Fort Valley State
Lane @ Tuskegee
Hampton @ Delaware
Liberty @ Morgan State
Delaware State @ Gardner-Webb
Tennessee State @ Miami (OH)
Virginia St. @ Bowie St. (CIAATV)
Chowan @ Allen
J. C. Smith @ W-Salem State
Shaw @ Fayetteville State
St. Augustine's @ Livingstone
Lincoln @ Virginia Union
NC Central @ NC A&T
Florida A&M @ Savannah State
B-Cookman @ SC State
Howard @ Coppin State
Claflin @ Albany State
Benedict @ Paine
Kentucky State @ Tuskegee
Lane @ Stillman
Miles @ LeMoyne-Owen
Fort Valley State @ Clark Atlanta
Alcorn State @ Alabama State
Jackson State @ Grambling State
Texas Southern @ Ark.-Pine Bluff
Prairie View @ Miss. Valley State
Southern @ Alabama A&M
Bowie State @ Virginia Union
J. C. Smith @ St. Augustine's
Lincoln @ Virginia State
Livingstone @ Fayetteville State
W-Salem State @ Shaw
UMES @ Howard
Florida A&M @ SC State
Longwood @ Norfolk State
Delaware State @ Hampton
B-Cookman @ Savannah State
Benedict @ Morehouse
Kentucky State @ Miles
LeMoyne-Owen @ Paine
Texas Southern @ Miss. Valley State
Southern @ Alabama State
Alcorn State @ Alabama A&M
Prairie View @ Ark.-Pine Bluff
Clark Atlanta @ Lane
Morgan State @ Coppin State
LeMoyne-Owen @ Benedict
Claflin @ Miles

in black college ranks

BCSP Editor
Three current black college bas-
ketball players have unique familial
ties to current and former professional
hoops standouts.
Six-seven LeMoyne-Owen
senior forward Calvin Stoudemire
is the little brother of current NBA
New York Knicks standout Amar'e
Tuskegee 6-4 sophomore
forward Moriah Johnson is the son
of former NBA standout forward
Marques Johnson.
And Shaw 6-6 junior forward
Mohammed Abdur-Rahim is the
youngerbrother of former NBAstand-
out forward Shareef Abdur-Rahim.
Each is carving out his own niche
while playing in the black college
ranks, unlike their more publicized
relatives who toiled in the hot glare
of 'so-called' big-time basketball.
While six-time NBA all-star
Amar'e Stoudemire (18.2 ppg., 8.1
rpg.), who jumped from high school
in Lake Wells, Fla. right into the NBA,
looks to fit in with the hoopla surround-
ing new Knicks' standout point guard
Jeremy Lin, younger brother Calvin
Stoudemire has found his place play-
ing for the LeMoyne-Owen Magicians
and head coach William Anderson.
Calvin is second in scoring (13.7
points per game) and the leading
rebounder (7.3 rebounds per game)
on a resurgent Magicians' squad that
currently leads the SIAC with a 13-6
conference record. The Magicians
are 13-8 overall. Calvin currently
ranks tenth in the SIAC in scoring and
rebounding. His .521 shooting per-
centage is seventh best in the league.
He also shows up in the SIAC stats
for steals (1.6, 10th) and blocks (1.8,
Perhaps more importantly, he's
making a name for himself instead
of playing in the shadow of his more

Calvin Stoudemire

I i&.
Moriah Johnson

famous brother. As he said in a recent
feature story about him on the SIAC
website (,
"People expect me to be Amar'e,
but I'm Calvin Stoudemire. I'll never
be Amar'e." That's good enough for
coach Anderson and the Magicians.
Moriah Johnson is not getting a
lot of playing time for the Tuskegee
Golden Bears (13-9, 13-7 SIAC) as
they battle for the SIAC title with
LeMoyne-Owen. But Johnson already
had some notoriety before he ever got
to Tuskegee.
Johnson was a 4.0 student, four-
sport athlete and standout hoopster at
Crenshaw High School in Los Angeles
but became a TV star and perhaps the
most recognizable face on the BET
reality show "Baldwin Hills" during
his sophomore year in high school.
He's also the third youngest of
eight siblings of Marques Johnson,
who attended Crenshaw before go-
ing on to a stellar career at UCLA
under John Wooden, winning the
1975 NCAAChampionship and being
named the College Basketball Player
of the Year for the 1976-77 season. He
was picked third overall in the 1977
draft by the Milwaukee Bucks and
went on to become one of the most
outstanding players in the league dur-
ing a 12-year NBA career.
The younger Johnson's present
coach, Tuskegee head man Leon

1. MISS. VALLEY STATE (14-11, 13-0 SWAC) Extended win streak to 14. NEXT:
Hosting Prairie View (Sat.) and Texas Southern (Mon.).
2. SHAW (21-2, 13-0 CIAA) Win streak at 16. Nintth nationally in NABC Div. II poll.
NEXT: At Fayv. St. (Sat), hosts WSSU (Mon).
3. NORFOLK STATE (18-8, 10-2) Beat Hampton. NEXT: Longwood (Mon.)
4. BOWIE STATE (19-4, 11-3 CIAA) Got three wins. Up to 19th in NABC Div. II poll.
NEXT: Hosts Va. State (Sat.), at Va. Union (Mon.).
5. SAVANNAH STATE (16-10, 9-2 MEAC)- Kept pace with Norfolk State atop MEAC.
NEXT: Host FAMU (Sat.), B-Cookman (Mon.)
6. BETHUNE-COOKMAN (12-14, 8-3 MEAC) Beat Howard NEXT: At SC State
(Sat.), at Savannah St. (Mon.)
7. DELAWARE STATE (11-11, 8-3) Wins at CSU and MSU moves streak to seven.
NEXT: At Gardner-Webb (Fri.), at Hampton (Mon.)
9. COPPIN STATE (13-12, 8-4 MEAC) Lost to DelState. NEXT: Hosts Howard (Sat).
9. SOUTHERN (13-13, 9-4 SWAC) -Fell to UAPB and Miss. Valley State..NEXT: At.
Alabama A&M (Sat), atAlab. State (Mon.).
10. WINSTON-SALEM STATE (17-6, 9-4 CIAA) Lost to Shaw and Livingstone. NEXT:
Hosts JCSU (Sat.), at Shaw (Mon.)

Douglas, is a contemporary of his
father and was an outstanding college
player at Alabama and also during a
ten-year NBA career.
With Moriah averaging less than
five minutes per game this season, he
said, in another feature on the SIAC
website, that his goals are "bettercourt
awareness, especially on defense, con-
sistent intensity, and ball handling."
Of the three with outstanding
pedigree, perhaps Shaw forward Mo-
hammed Abdur Rahim is on the best
team. His Bears are riding high-at21-2
overall, are tops in the CIAASouthern
Division at 7-0, are undefeated in
league play at 13-0 and are up to ninth
nationally in the latest NABC Div. II
Mohammed has started two
games and is averaging 3.5 points and
2.0 rebounds on the talented Bears'
squad. While just sophomore, head
coach Cleo Hill Jr. thinks he has a
bright future.
"He's tough around the basket and
plays hard," Hill said. "No doubt, he
can play."
If so, that would be much like
his brother Shareef, who played one
year at Cal before he was picked third
overall by the Vancouver Grizzlies in
the 1996 NBA Draft. He was selected
to two NBA All-Star teams and fin-
ished his career averaging 18 points
per game.

1. HAMPTON (18-4, 10-1 MEAC) Beat Norfolk State. NEXT: Hosts DelState (Mon.).
(TIE) FLORIDA A&M (17-6, 10-1 MEAC) Lost at Howard. NEXT: At Savannah State
(Sat.) and SC State (Mon.).
3. HOWARD (19-7, 11-2 MEAC) Knocked off FAMU and B-CU. NEXT: At Coppin State
(Sat), hosts UMES (Mon.)
(TIE) COPPIN STATE (15-10, 10-2 MEAC) Wins over DSU and UMES. NEXT: Howard.
5. SHAW (17-6, 12-1 CIAA) Beat WSSU and JCSU. NEXT: At Fayv. State (Sat.) and
hosts WSSU (Mon.).
(TIE) JOHNSON C. SMITH (17-5, 11-2 CIAA) Beat St. Aug's and lost to Shaw. NEXT:
At WSSU (Sat.) and at St. Aug's (Mon.).
7. SOUTHERN (11-9, 10-3 SWAC)- Wins over UAPB and MVSU to move back into first.
NEXT: At. Alabama A&M (Sat), at Alab. State (Mon.).
8. WINSTON-SALEM STATE (16-7, 11-2 CIAA) Fell to Shaw, beat Livingstone. NEXT:
Hosts JCSU (Sat.), at Shaw (Mon.)
9. FORT VALLEY STATE (16-6,14-4) BeatAlbany State. NEXT: Hosts Benedict (Thurs).
at Clark Atlanta (Sat.).
10. MISS. VALLEY STATE (12-12,9-4 SWAC) Lost toAlab. A&M andAlab. State. NEXT:
Hosting Prairie View (Sat.) and Texas Southern (Mon.).

Southern 10 3 11 9
Miss. Valley St. 9 4 12 12
AlcornState 8 5 10 15
Jackson State 7 6 10 12
Grambling State 7 6 11 12
Prairie ViewA&M 7 5 10 13
AlabamaA&M 7 5 12 10
Alabama Sate 6 6 9 12
TexasSouthern 2 10 4 19
Ark. Pine Bluff 0 13 0 24

AZEEZ Communications, Inc. Vol. XVIII, No. 29

1 20 11 L C O L GEB S E B L Mns Stadns ad. eelyHoos tr /1/2S

Mohammed Abdur-Rahim

2011-12 BLA K OLL GEBAS ET ALL(Wmens -tanins adWelHnr-

Greater Macedonia Baptist Church to
Celebrate Pastor's 36th Anniversary
Greater Macedonia Baptist Church will celebrate
the 36th Anniversary Celebration of Dr. Landon
Williams Sr. February 19, 2012. The Special
4- Anniversary Worship Service on starting at 4
p.m.,will feature the spoken word will by Dr. John
.N Guns of St. Paul Missionary Baptist Church. Guest
churches are First Missionary Baptist Church of
Jacksonville Beach, New Jerusalem Baptist Church
and Springhill Missionary Baptist Church. All serv-
ices will be held at Greater Macedonia Baptist
Church 1880 W. Edgewood Ave. For more informa-
Dr. Landon Williams
tion, contact the Church at 764-9257.

African American Brunch at Mt. Lebanon
Mt. Lebanon Missionary Baptist Church will celebrate its Annual African
American Brunch on Saturday, February 18th from 10 a.m. noon. The
luncheon will include fellowship, poetry, music, theatre and African cui-
sine. The speaker for the event will be Vanessa Richmond. The church is
located at 9319 Ridge Blvd 32208. For more information email

House of God to Host
Sabbath Day Churches
The House of God, located at 1916 Meharry Avenue, will host the Florida
State Meeting which is comprised of Sabbath Day churches throughout the
State of Florida. The presiding official will be the State Superintendent
Bishop James W. Paschal. The community is cordially invited to come out
and worship with us on Friday, February 17, 2012, beginning at 8:00 p.m.
and Saturday, February 18, 2012, beginning at 10:30 a.m and 4:00 p.m.
For directions to the church or to learn more about the significance of the
Sabbath Day please call (904) 764-4444.

Cycle Ministry Seeks Participation
Rydas 4 Righteousness Christian Motorcycle Ministry Jacksonville
Chapter teamed up with Colon Cancer Alliance to bring awareness by
hosting a Colon Cancer Charity Event Weekend. March 23, 2012 March
25, 2012. This weekend includes a Charity Walk, Motorcycle Ride and
Bike Blessing. Please Contact Ruth-President of Rydas 4 Righteousness
Jax at 674-433 or

Seeking the lost for Christ
Matthew 28:19 20

Pastor Landon Williams

Black History Month Program at Family and Friends at Greater Grant
St. Simon B.C. of Orange Park Greater Grant AME Church will celebrate Family & Friends Day on
Sunday, February 26, 2012. Activities will be held throughout the month

In celebration of Black History Month, St. Simon Baptist Church of
Orange Park, FL, Rev. W. H. Randall, Founding Pastor, will present an
original drama presentation "The Journey From Slavery To Freedom". The
production is being sponsored by the St. Simon Sanctuary Choir and will
be performed by the choir and congregational family on Friday, February
24th at 7 p.m. The Church is located at 1331 Miller Street, Orange Park,
FL 32073. Call 215-3300 for more information or directions.
"Our History Month" Celebrated at First Church of Palm Coast

First Church Highlights Black
History Month with Special Services
During the month of February, First Church of Palm Coast will examine
in each of its 8 a.m.and 10 a.m. worship services, Biblical themes that pro-
vide hope to persons who have experienced ostracism and oppression in
North and South America.
Special services include: Sunday, February 19th Dr. Gillard S. Glover
- Remembering Have we forgotten that the story of Christianity begins
with Africans in Acts 2 and runs through Acts 8 in Ethiopia during the first
century of the Christian era?; Sunday, February 26th Dr. E. J. Parker, III
- Relinquishment How can we memorialize the millions of our ancestors
who died in the "Middle Passage" yet relinquish to God the bitterness,
hatred and guilt we harbor concerning the "Great Disaster"?; Sunday,
February 26th at 3 p.m. Dr. E. J. Parker, III Revival "People; Peril;
Pride and Promise" Deuteronomy 7:7-9
The First Church of Palm Coast, is pastored by the Dr. Gillard S. Glover.
It is located at 91 Old Kings Road North in Palm Coast, Florida, (386) 446-
Mt. Olive Celebrating 19th
Anniversary of Elder Lee Harris
Mt. Olive Primative Baptist Church is recognizing 19 years of service of
Elder Lee Harris, Pastor. Featured speakers include Feb. 26th : 11 a.m. Rev.
Keith Canady of Macedonia Baptist church and 4 p.m. Rev. Charles Cooper Jr.
of Saint Andrews Missionary Baptist Church and Rev. James Sampson of First
New Zion A.M.E. The theme is "A Servant of God" Trusting God's Salvation
and Doing His Work. The church is located at 1319 N. Myrtle Avenue.
For further information, contact the church at (904) 355-0015.

8:00 A.M. Early Morning Worship

9:30 a.m. Sunday School

11:00 a.m. Morning Worship
Tuesday Evening 7 p.m. Prayer Service
Wednesday Bible Study 6:30 7 p.m.
Mid-Week Worship 7 p.m.
Radio Weekly Broadcast WCGL 1360 AM
Sunday 2 PM 3 PM


including a Carnival on Feb. 25th from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. Greater Grant is
located at 5533 Gilchrest Road. For more information, call 764-5992.

BCU Leadership Breakfast
The Duval/Nassau Alumni Chapter of B-CU will be hosting its annual Dr.
Mary McLeod Bethune Community Leadership Breakfast at The Crown
Plaza Jacksonville airport on February 25, 2012 at 9:00 A.M. The theme is
"Enter to Learn and Depart to Serve".
The funds raised from this event will support ongoing scholarship oppor-
tunities for Duval/Nassau High School seniors and daily operations of the
college. Duval/Nassau Alumni Chapter offers graduating High School sen-
iors an opportunity to receive funds for assistance with textbooks.
The Duval/Nassau Alumni Chapter will also be having their monthly
Alumni Meeting at Bono's BBQ 5903 Norwood Avenue at 6 PM It will
be every First Thursday unless otherwise specified.
For more information visit or
call us @ 904.307.8492 or 904.610.3412.

Lent Worship Services at St. Thomas
The church family of St. Thomas Missionary Baptist Church, 5863
Moncrief Rd. Jacksonville, Fl., 32209, under the guidance of Pastor Ernie
L. Murray Sr., will have Lent Worship Service each Wednesday, February
22nd April 4th. The public is invitedto attend every Wednesday night at
7:00p.m. For more information, call 768-8800.

Revival Celebration at Mt. Zion
Historic Mt. Zion AME Church will host a Revival Celebration with Rev.
Dwayne Gaddis, Pastor of Mount Zion AME Church of Riverview, Florida.
The celebration wil be held February 22-24th at the church located at 201
East Beaver Street, 32202 at 7 p.m. nightly. Call 355-9475 for mroe info.

NOTICE: Church news is published free of charge. Information must be
received in the Free Press offices no later than Monday, at 5 p.m. of the
week you want it to run. Information received prior to the event date will
be printed on a space available basis until the date. Fax e-mail to 765-3803
or e-mail to*

Bethel Baptist Institutional Church
215 Bethel Baptist Street, Jacksonville, FL 32202 (904) 354-1464


Weekly Services

Sunday Morning Worship
7:40 a.m. and 10:40 a.m.

Midweek Services
Wednesday Noon Service

"Miracle at Midday"
S_ Church school 12 noon-1 p.m.
S9:30 a.m. The Word from the Sons
Bible Study and Daughters of Bethel
Bishop Rudolph 6:30 p.m. 3rd Sunday 4:00 p.m
McKissick, Sr.
Senior Pastor Come siare in Holy Communion n Ist Suldayat 7:40 and 10:40 a.m.

,rr;~;~~JI~~P~ I


Bishop Rudolph
McKissick, Jr.
Senior Pastor

Grace and Peace


Disciples of Christ Cbristiar) Fellowship
*A Full Gospel Baptist Church *

Sunday School
9 a.m.
Morning Worship
10 a.m.
Lord's Supper
Second Sunday
3:00 p.m.
Evening Worship
Every 3rd & 4th
4 :00 p.m.

A church

that's on the

move in

worship with

prayer, praise

and power!

Pastor Robert Lecount, Jr

School of Ministry Tuesday at 7:00 p.m.

Thursday High Praise Worship 7:00 p.m.

2061 Edgewood Avenue West, Jacksonville, Florida 32208
(904) 765-5683

Worship with us LIVE
on the web visit

Greater Macedonia

Baptist Church
1880 West Edgewood Avenue

t '''cr


Racial unrest and violence against African Americans permeated domestic developments in the United States during the post-World War 1 era. From individual
lynching to massive violence against entire African American communities, whites in both the North and the South lashed out against African Americans with a
rage that knew few bounds. From Chicago to Tulsa, to Omaha, East St. Louis, and many communities in between, and finally to Rosewood, white mobs pursued
what can only be described as a reign of terror against African Americans during the period from 1917 to 1923.



The Rosewood Massacre is now written in
history as one of the worst race riots in
American history, in which hundreds of an-
gry whites killed an undetermined number
of blacks and burnt down their Florida com-
In 1922 Rosewood, Florida, was a small,
predominantly black town. During the win-
ter of 1922, two events in the vicinity of
Rosewood aggravated local race relations:
the murder of a white schoolteacher in
nearby Perry, which led to the murder of
three blacks, and a Ku Klux Klan rally in
Gainesville on New Year's Eve.
On New Year's Day of 1923, Fannie Tay-
lor, a young white woman living in Sumner,
claimed that a black man sexually assaulted
her in her home. A small group of whites
began searching for a recently escaped black
convict named Jesse Hunter, whom they
believed to be responsible. They incarcer-
ated one suspected accomplice, Aaron Car-
rier, and lynched :..: -.:r Sam Carter. The
men then targeted Aaron's cousin Sylvester
Carrier, a fur trapper and private music in-
structor, who was rumored to be harboring
Jesse Hunter.A group of 20 to 30 white men
went to Sylvester Carrier's house to confront
him. They shot his dog, and when his
mother, Sarah, stepped outside to talk with
the men, they shot her.
Sylvester killed two men and wounded
four in the shoot-out that ensued. After the

Tulsa, O0
Although the number of lynching had de-
clined from 64 in 1921 to 57 in 1922. In
1921 Tulsa was the site of one of the worst
race riots in U.S. history. From the evening
of May 31", to the afternoon of June 1,
1921, more Americans killed fellow Ameri-
cans in the Tulsa riot than probably anytime
since the Civil War.
The official death count in the days fol-
lowing the riot was around 35, but evidence
has surfaced through an investigation to sug-
gest that at least 300 people were killed.
Rumors still persist that hundreds, not doz-
ens, of people were killed and that bodies
were crudely buried in mass graves, stuffed
into coal mines and tossed into the Arkansas
River. If so, the Tulsa race riot would go
down as the worst single act of domestic
violence on U. S. soil since the Civil War;
worse than the 1965 Watts riot, the 1967
Detroit riot, the 1992 Los Angeles riot and
the 1995 Oklahoma city bombing.
Those events left a total of 301 dead. Two
days of violence and arson directed by
whites against African American neighbor-
hoods left hundreds dead, hundreds injured,
and more than 1500 African American
owned homes and 600 businesses destroyed.
Also destroyed in the African American
neighborhoods were 21 churches, 21 restau-
rants, 30 stores, 2 movie theaters, a hospital,
a bank, the post office, libraries, and



men left, the women and children, who prior
to this had gathered in Carrier's house for
protection, fled to the swamp where the ma-
jority of Rosewood's residents had already
sought refuge.
The white men returned to Carrier's house
the following evening. After a brief shoot-
out, they entered the house, found the bodies
of Sarah Carrier and a black man whom they
believed to be Sylvester Carrier, and set the
residence on fire.
The men then proceeded to rampage
through Rosewood, torching other buildings
and slaughtering animals. They were joined
by a mob of about 200 whites who con-
verged on Rosewood after finding out that a
black man had killed two whites.That night
two local white train conductors, John and
William Bryce, who knew all of Rosewood's
residents, picked up the black women and
children and took them to Gainesville. John
Wright, a white general store owner who hid
a number of black women and children in
his home during the riot, planned and helped
carry out this evacuation effort. The African
Americans who escaped by foot headed for
Gainesville or for other cities in the northern
United States.
By the end of the weekend all of Rose-
wood was leveled except for the Wright
house and the general store. Although the
state of Florida claimed that only eight peo-
ple died in the Rosewood riot-two whites

dahoma Rac
On May 30, 1921, a 19-year-old African
American shoeshine man named Dick Row-
land entered the Drexal building downtown
to use the segregated restroom. While ap-
proaching the elevator, which apparently
hadn't stopped evenly with the floor, Mr.
Rowland tripped and fell on the operator, a
17-year-old white girl named Sarah Page.
Ms. Page not knowing it was accidental at-
tempts to hit Mr. Rowland with her purse.
Mr. Rowland grabs Ms. Page, attempting to
stop her assault. Ms. Page screams, Mr.
Rowland runs out of the elevator and the
building. Ms. Page tells the police that the
man had attempted to criminally assault her.
Ms. Page later changes her story and said he
grabbed her. Authorities arrested Mr. Row-
land and held him overnight in the county
jail, though Ms. Page declined to press
The following day, the Tulsa Tribune ran
a story in the afternoon edition headlined,
"Nab Negro For Attacking Girl In Elevator,"
and added a racially charged editorial calling
for a lynching. That evening a crowd of
about 400 whites gather around the jail,
some say to help with or view the lynching.
Shortly there after, the news reached the
African American community. A group of
about 25 African Americans, all armed head
to the jail.


J. ,'-

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A burning house in Rosewood, FL in January 4, 1923.

and six blacks-testimonies by survivors
suggest that more African Americans per-
ished. No one was charged with the Rose-
wood murders. After the riot, the town was
deserted and even blacks living in surround-
ing communities moved out of the area.
Although the Rosewood riot received na-
tional coverage in the New York Times and
the Washington Post as it unfolded, it was
neglected by historians. Survivors of Rose-
wood did not come forward to tell their story
because of the shame they felt for having
been connected with the riot. They also kept
silent out of fear of being persecuted or

:e Riots, Ma3
When they arrive, they find out the story
had been exaggerated. After talking to the
deputy sheriff, whom reassured them no
harm would come to Mr. Rowland, the Afri-
can Americans went home. But later they
returned, this time numbering about 75.
Again the sheriff convinced them no harm
would come to Mr. Rowland. As they were
leaving a white man (possibly a deputy)
attempted to disarm one of them. A shot was
fired. By 10pm shots were being fired indis-
criminately by both sides, 12 men were dead
(2 African Americans, 10 whites). The fight-
ing continued until around midnight.
The African Americans, being outnum-
bered, begin to retreat back to their section
of town. Mobs of whites began to drive
around the streets, shooting any African
American person they saw. Sometime near
lam, the mayor and the chief of police sent a
message to the governor, informing him that
the riot was out of control and requested
assistance. The governor activated the Okla-
homa National Guard and requested two
companies of soldiers from Fort Sill. The
first group of guardsmen arrived before
2:30am. By 5am, a mob of 10,000-15,000
whites gathered near First St. and Elgin then
marched on Greenwood, setting fire to every
building standing.
Friday, June 3rd martial law was revoked
and the national guard returned the city back

killed. In 1993 the Florida Department of
Law Enforcement conducted an investiga-
tion into the case, and this led to the drafting
of a bill to compensate the survivors of the
After an extended debate and several hear-
ings, the Rosewood Bill, which awarded
$150,000 to each of the riot's nine eligible
black survivors, was passed in April 1994.
In spite of the state's financial compensation,
the survivors remained frightened. When
asked if he would go back to Rosewood,
survivor Wilson Hall said, "No, ... They still
don't want me down there."

S30, 1921
to the local police. Within a week of the riot,
African Americans were made to carry
"green cards". African Americans working
in a permanent jobs wore "green cards",
signed by their employer as a matter of iden-
tification. Employers would go to the issuing
location to identify the employee, then the
employee would be issued the "green card".
Any African American found in the streets
without a "green card" were to be arrested
after Tuesday, June 7th and taken to the fair-
grounds camp to help the African American
victims of the riot. More than 7,500 cards
were issued.
The Greenwood District was rebuilt, but
never again achieved the national reknown
and economic status it had enjoyed as the
country's "Negro Wall Street". Now Okla-
homa officials are opening up a nearly 80-
year-old wound, conducting an investigation
to find out once and for all what happened in
Tulsa on May 31st and June 1,1921. Investi-
gators intend to sweep metal-detection de-
vices over a suspected site in search of belt
buckles, shoe nails and other evidence that
might suggest a mass grave. If investigators
find something, they may excavate the site
to search for remains. The main aims of the
project are to spur healing and closure in
Tulsa and possibly to offer survivors and
descendants of victims some sort of repara-

Lynching The Tuskegee Experiment,

T I. s Riots .* Rosewood .
'. .'
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The Tuskagee Experiment

In 1932 the American Government
promised 400 men all residents of
Macon County. Alabama, all poor, all
African American free treatment for
Bad Blood. a euphemism for syphilis
which was epidemic in the county.
Treatment for syphilis was never
given to the men and was in fact with-
held. The men became unwitting sub-
jects for a government sanctioned
medical investigation: The Tuskegee
Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Ne-
gro Male.
The Tuskegee Study. which lasted for 4
decades, until 1972. had nothing to do with
treatment. No new drugs were tested: neither
was any effort made to establish the efficacy
of old forms of treatment. It was a non-
therapeutic experiment, aimed at compiling
data on the effects of the spontaneous evolu-
tion of syphilis on black males. What has
become clear since the story was broken by
Jean Heller in 1972 was that the Public
Health Service (PHS) was interested in us-
ing Macon County and its black inhabitants
as a laboratory for studying the long-term
effects of untreated syphilis, not in treating
this deadly disease. These men, for the most
part illiterate sharecroppers from one of
the poorest counties in Alabama, were never
told what disease they were suffering from
or of its seriousness. The data for the experi-
ment was to be collected from autopsies of
the men, and they were thus deliberately left
to degenerate under the ravages of tertiary
syphilis which can include tumors, heart
disease, paralysis, blindness, insanity, and
death. "As I see it," one of the doctors in-
volved explained, "we have no further inter-
est in these patients until they die."
Using Human Beings as
Laboratory Animals
The Tuskegee Study symbolizes the medi-
cal misconduct and blatant disregard for
human rights that takes place in the name of
science. The studies principal investigators
were not mad scientists, they were govern-
ment physicians, respected men of science,
who published reports on the study in the
leading medical journals. The subjects of the
study bear witness to the premise that the
burden of medical experimentation has his-
torically been borne by those least able to
protect themselves.
The true nature of the experiment had to

Black men were told they were being treated for an illness, instead
they were monitored as doctors watched as they died from syphilis

be kept from the sub-
jects to ensure their
cooperation. The
sharecroppers' grossly
disadvantaged lot in
life made them easy to
manipulate. Pleased at
the prospect of free
Medical care -almost
I none of them had ever
I seen a doctor before-
Sthese unsophisticated
'i-, aand trusting men be-
came the pawns in what James Jones, author
of the excellent history on the subject, Bad
Blood, identified as "the longest non thera-
peutic experiment on human beings in medi-
cal history."
The government doctors who participated
in the study failed to obtain informed con-
sent from the subjects in a study of disease
with a known risk to human life. Instead, the
PHS offered the men incentives to partici-
pate: free physical examinations, free rides
to and from the clinics, hot meals on exami-
nation days, free treatment for minor ail-
ments, and a guarantee that a burial stipend
would be paid to their survivors. This mod-
est stipend of $50.00 represented the only
form of burial insurance that many of the
men had. By failing to obtain informed con-
sent and offering incentives for participa-
tion, the PHS doctors were performing un-
ethical and immoral experiments on human
subjects. From the moment the experiment
begun, the immorality of the experiment was
blatantly apparent.
The study was meant to discover how
syphilis affected blacks as opposed to
whites -the theory being that whites ex-
perienced more neurological complications
from syphilis, whereas blacks were more
susceptible to cardiovascular damage. How
this knowledge would have changed clinical
treatment of syphilis is uncertain.
Although the PHS touted the study as one
When the experiment was brought to the
attention of the media in 1972, news anchor
Harry Reasoner described it as an experi-
ment that "used human beings as laboratory
animals in a long and inefficient study of
how long it takes syphilis to kill someone."
A Heavy Price in the
Name of Bad Science
By the end of the experiment, 28 of the
men had died of syphilis, 100 were dead of
related complications, 40 of their wives had
been infected, and 19 of their children had
been born with congenital syphilis.
To persuade the community to support the
experiment, one of the original doctors ad-
mitted it "was necessary to carry on this
study under the guise of a demonstration and
provide treatment." At first, the men were
prescribed the syphilis remedies of the
day-but in such small amounts that only 3
percent showed any improvement.
These token doses of medicine were good
public relations and did not interfere with
the true aims of the study. Eventually, all

syphilis treatment was replaced with "pink
medicine" AKA aspirin.
To ensure that the men would show up for
a painful and potentially dangerous spinal
tap, the PHS doctors misled them with a
letter full of promotional hype: "Last
Chance for Special Free Treatment." The
fact that autopsies would eventually be re-
quired was also concealed.
As a doctor explained, "If the colored
population becomes aware that accepting
free hospital care means a post-mortem,
every darky will leave Macon County..."
Even the U.S. Surgeon General participated
in enticing the men to remain in the experi-
ment, sending them certificates of apprecia-
tion after 25 years in the study.
Following Doctors' Orders
It takes little imagination to ascribe racist
attitudes to the white government officials
who ran the experiment, but what can one
make of the numerous African Americans
who collaborated with them? The experi-
ment's name comes from the Tuskegee Insti-
tute, the black university founded by Booker
T. Washington. Its affiliated hospital lent
the PHS its medical facilities for the study,
and other predominantly black institutions as
well as local black doctors also participated.
A black nurse, Eunice Rivers, was a central
figure for most of its forty years.
The promise of recognition by a prestig-
ious government agency may have obscured
the troubling aspects of the study for some.
A Tuskegee doctor, for example, praised
"the educational advantages offered our in-
terns and nurses as well as the added stand-
ing it will give the hospital." Nurse Rivers
explained her role as one of passive obedi-
ence: "we were taught that we never diag-
nosed, we never prescribed; we followed the
doctor's instructions!"
It is clear that the men in the experiment
trusted her and that she sincerely cared about
their well-being, but her unquestioning sub-
mission to authority eclipsed her moral judg-
ment. Even after the experiment was ex-
posed to public scrutiny, she genuinely felt
nothing ethical had been amiss.
One of the worst aspects of the experi-
ment was how the PHS kept these men from
receiving treatment. When several nation-
wide campaigns to eradicate venereal dis-
ease came to Macon County, the men were
prevented from participating. Even when
penicillin, the first real cure for syphilis -
was discovered in the 1940s, the Tuskegee
men were deliberately denied the medica-
Blowing the Whistle
The story finally broke in the Washington
Star on July 25, 1972, in an article by Jean
Heller of the Associated Press. Her source
was Peter Buxtun, a former PHS venereal
disease interviewer and one of the few whis-
tle blowers over the years. The PHS, how-
ever, remained unrepentant, claiming the
men had been "volunteers" and "were al-
ways happy to see the doctors," and an Ala-
bama state health officer who had been in-

volved claimed "somebody is trying to make
a mountain out of a molehill."
Under the glare of publicity, the govern-
ment ended their experiment, and for the
first time provided the men with effective
medical treatment for syphilis. Fred Gray, a
lawyer who had previously defended Rosa
Parks and Martin Luther King, Jr. filed a
class action suit that provided a $10 million
out-of-court settlement for the men and their
families. Gray, however, named only whites
and white organizations as defendants in the
suit, portraying Tuskegee as a black and
white case when it was in fact more complex
than that -black doctors and institutions
had been involved from beginning to end.
The PHS did not accept the media's com-
parison of Tuskegee with the appalling ex-
periments performed by Nazi doctors on
Jews during World War II. Yet in addition to
the medical and racist parallels, the PHS
offered the same morally bankrupt defense
offered at the Nuremberg trials: they
claimed they were just carrying out orders ,
exempt from personal responsibility.
On July 23, 1973, Fred Gray, a prominent
civil rights lawyer, brought a $1.8 billion
class action civil suit against many of those
institutions and individuals involved in the
study. Gray demanded $3 million in dam-
ages for each living participant and the heirs
of the deceased. The case never came to
trial. In December, 1974, the government
agreed to a $10 million out of court settle-
ment. The living participants each received
$37,500 in damages, the heirs of the de-
ceased, $15 000. Gray received nearly $1
million in legal fees. Had the subjects of The
Tuskegee Study been taken advantage of?
Although the survivors and the families of
the deceased received compensation, no
PHS officer who had been directly involved
in the study felt contrition. No apologies
were ever tendered; no one ever admitted
any wrong doing. On the contrary, the PHS
officers made it clear that they felt they were
acting in good conscience. They felt be-
trayed by the government's failure to defend
the study they commissioned. But as one
survivor said "...I don't know what they used
us for. I ain't never understood the study."
The Legacy of Tuskegee
In 1990, a survey found that 10 percent of
African Americans believed that the U.S.
government created AIDS as a plot to exter-
minate blacks, and another 20 percent could
not rule out the possibility that this might be
true. As preposterous and paranoid as this
may sound, at one time the Tuskegee experi-
ment must have seemed equally farfetched.
Who could imagine the government, all
the way up to the Surgeon General of the
United States, deliberately allowing a group
of its citizens to die from a terrible disease
for the sake of an ill-conceived experiment?
In light of this and many other shameful
episodes in our history, African Americans'
widespread mistrust of the government and
white society in general should not be a sur-
prise to anyone.

I ~' ~ m*

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Lynchings were often photographed and highly popular, well attended social events in the southern states.

Lynching Practices Terrorize

Blacks in the South for Decades

Lynching is the practice whereby a mob--usually several
dozen or several hundred persons--takes the law into its own
hands in order to injure and kill a person accused of some
wrongdoing. The alleged offense can range from a serious
crime like theft or murder to a mere violation of local cus-
toms and sensibilities. The issue of the victim's guilt is usu-
ally secondary, since the mob serves as prosecutor, judge,
jury, and executioner. Due process yields to momentary
passions and expedient objectives.
Vigilantism, or summary justice, has a long history, but
the term lynch law originated during the American Revolu-
tion with Col. Charles Lynch and his Virginia associates,
who responded to unsettled times by making their own rules

white dominance. Occasionally, this complemented the
profit motive, when the lynching of a successful black
farmer or immigrant merchant opened new economic oppor-
tunities for local whites and simultaneously reaffirmed eve-
ryone's "place" in the social hierarchy. Sometimes lynching
was aimed at unpopular ideas: labor union organizers, po-
litical radicals, critics of America's role in World War I, and
civil rights advocates were targets.
African-Americans suffered grievously under lynch law.
With the close of Reconstruction in the late 1870s, southern
whites were determined to end northern and black participa-
tion in the region's affairs, and northerners exhibited a
growing indifference toward the civil rights of black Ameri-

* first, to maintain social order over the black population through terrorism;
* second, to suppress of eliminate black competitors for economic, political, or social rewards
* third, to stabilize the white class structure and preserve the privileged status of the white aristocracy"

for confronting Tories and criminal elements. "Lynching" cans. Taking its cue from this intersectional white harmony,
found an easy acceptance as the nation expanded. Raw fron- the federal government abandoned its oversight of constitu-
tier conditions encouraged swift punishment for real, imag- tional protections. Southern and border states responded
ined, or anticipated criminal behavior. Historically, social with the Jim Crow laws of the 1890s, and white mobs flour-
control has been an essential aspect of mob rule. ished. With blacks barred from voting, public office, and
Opponents of slavery in pre-Civil War America and cattle jury service, officials felt no obligation to respect minority
rustlers, gamblers, horse thieves, and other "desperadoes" in interests or safeguard minority lives. In addition to lynch-
the South and Old West were nineteenth-century targets. ings of individuals, dozens of race riots--with blacks as vic-
From the 1880s onward, however, mob violence increas- tims--scarred the national landscape from Wilmington,
ingly reflected white America's contempt for various racial, North Carolina, in 1898 to Tulsa, Oklahoma, in 1921.
ethnic, and cultural groups. African-Americans especially, Between 1882 (when reliable statistics were first col-
and sometimes Native Americans, Latinos, Jews, Asian elected) and 1968 (when the classic forms of lynching had
immigrants, and European newcomers, felt the mob's fury. disappeared), 4,743 persons died of lynching, 3,446 of them
In an era when racist theories prompted "true Americans" to black men and women. Mississippi (539 black victims, 42
assert their imagined superiority through imperialist ven- white) led this grim parade of death, followed by Georgia
tures, mob violence became the domestic means of asserting (492, 39), Texas (352, 141), Louisiana (335, 56), and Ala-

bama (299, 48). From 1882 to 1901, the annual number :a-
tionally usually exceeded 100: 1892 had a record 230 dea-s
(161 black, 69 white). Although lynchings declined sonue-
what in the twentieth century, there were still 97 in 19\0S i9
black, 8 white), 83 in the racially troubled postwar year of
1919 (76, 7, plus some 25 race riots). 30 in 1926 7I. and
28 in 1933 (24, 4).
Statistics do not tell the entire story, however. These were
recorded lynchings; others were never reported beyond the
community involved. Furthermore, mobs used .:';_.::.
sadistic tactics when blacks were the prime targets. By the
1890s lynchers increasingly employed burning. torture, and
dismemberment to prolong suffering and excite a "festive
atmosphere" among the killers and onlookers. White fami-
lies brought small children to watch, newspapers sometimes
carried advance notices, railroad agents sold excursion tick-
ets to announced lynching sites. and mobs cut off black vic-
tims' fingers, toes, ears, or genitalia as souvenirs. Nor was it
necessarily the handiwork of a local rabble: not infre-
quently, the mob was encouraged or led by people promi-
nent in the area's political and business circles. Lynching
had become a ritual of interracial social control and recrea-
tion rather than simply a punishment for crime.


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F a 1

Ljlii @@ CjYi 5 Ways

We Prematurely Age Our Skin

Sof the visible changes associated
with aging comes from the sun.
Known as photo-aging, this is one
issue that African-Americans do not
ltke seriously\ enough. The sun's
effect are not as drastic on our skin
.as. on that ot Caucasians and realiz-
ing tl i; restLlt, in a false sense of
security and in reckless habits.
Make no mistake, sun exposure
does h\ae negaut\e effects on us if
\e don't take thie proper precau-
tions.. especially long-term.
:Taking the proper precau-
~t. ion, means applying and
'"reappl\ ig sun protection
Seai rl'ond. It means
S.. Y wearing protective cloth-
,.,, ng and accessories during
Periods of prolonged
sun exposure.
Furthermore, when
the sun is the bright-
e. ; you should do
q our best to stay
indoors or in the

It's ironic ho%\
things are-- younger people often
want to look older, while older peo-
ple want to look younger. Though
most of us are fully aware that
aging is a natural process, we often
try to intervene and manipulate the
pace to suit our preferences. This is
especially true when it comes to
anti-aging efforts. Hence the num-
ber of 20-somethings who concern
themselves with wrinkles and wrin-
kle prevention.
A second irony is that people put
a substantial amount of time, ener-
gy and money into maintaining a
youthful appearance. They place
deep emotional investments in the
results. Yet, they live lifestyles that
promote premature aging. Here are
five examples.
Sun UV rays are one of the lead-
ing causes of premature aging.
According to the EPA, 90 percent

S -hade.
S Sleeping Many
people are unaware
that the way you sleep
S can affect the way
1 |ou look. An experi-
4.enced dermatologist
can often determine patients sleep-
ing positions without being being
told. They do so by reading the
sleep lines, which are wrinkles that
appear on the area of the face that
spends the most time against the
bed or pillow.
Due to differing sleeping habits,
men tend to have sleep lines mostly
on their foreheads and women on
the sides of their faces. Both can
avoid these telling signs by sleeping
on their backs.
Not Sleeping How much a per-
son sleeps also impacts the aging
process. Rest is essential and irre-
placeable. When people are busy
and tired, they often come up with
quick fixes for energy, such as
power drinks or stimulants. But, it
is important to remember that the
body does the bulk of its repairing
and regenerating when we rest. If

denied that opportunity, the effects
can become visible. Therefore,
individuals should prioritize sleep
and get 6 to 8 hours per day.
Dehydration Have you ever
heard of the fountain of youth?
Now, ask yourself what is in a foun-
tain? Water, of course, indicating
that it is a fluid that plays a major
role in our appearance. This makes
sense considering that water is a
major component in the skin's
When skin is not properly hydrat-
ed is can become dry, cracked and
tight. It can lose its vibrance and
elasticity. As is the case with sleep,
the cells need water to remain
healthy. Therefore, make sure you
drink plenty and avoid regular,
heavy consumption of alcohol, a
major dehydrator.
Smoking Another of the side
effects of smoking is that it can
lead to premature aging. To begin
with the chemicals in tobacco prod-
ucts adversely affect collagen and
and elastin, essential components of
healthy skin. Aggravating matters
further, nicotine constricts the
blood vessels. When blood does
not effectively flow to the skin, the
skin does not receive an adequate
supply of oxygen and nutrients to
feed the cells.
Misleading Results Some peo-
ple will indeed argue that they have
and continue to do one or more of
the things listed above but still they
get regular compliments about their
youthful appearance. You may even
agree these people look good for
their age. Do not be mislead.
Most of the causes of premature
aging take a toll over the long term.
One day at the beach or a night
without sleep are not going to add
ten years to your appearance. But,
realize that premature aging is an
effect that tends to be delayed. The
result of one's actions often aren't
apparent for years or even decades.
Premature aging is a process that
may start in one's 20's or 30's but
the signs may not appear until she's
40 or 50.

New Details Emerge in Death of FAMU

Band Student in Hazing Incident

by Judith Ausuebe (AP)
ORLANDO, Fla. The parents
of a Florida A&M band member
who died after being hazed, have
filed a wrongful death lawsuit
against the owner and driver of the
charter bus where the incidents
took place. New details have also
been revealed on what happened
the night Robert Champion died.
The suit describes two types of
hazing that took place before
Champion died. During the first,
pledges of a band clique known as
"Bus C" run from the front to the
back of the bus while other band
members slap, kick and hit them,
the lawsuit said. A pledge who
falls can be stomped and dragged
to the front of the bus to run again.
In another ritual known as "the
hot seat," a pillow case was placed
over the pledge's nose and mouth
while the pledge was forced to
answer questions. If a pledge got a
right answer, the pillow case was
removed briefly; a pledge with a
wrong answer was given another
question without a chance to take a

breath, the lawsuit said.
A fellow pledge who was hazed
with Champion said band mem-
bers on the bus treated Champion
more brutally than others, accord-
ing to the lawsuit.
An attorney for the Champion
family said he doesn't know exact-
ly why he was on the bus.
Champion was a drum major, a
leader in the band, and had been a
vocal opponent of hazing, attorney
Chris Chestnut said.
Champion suffered blunt trauma
blows and he died from shock
caused by severe bleeding, author-
ities said. Detectives are investi-
gating the death as a homicide.
The lawsuit said bus company
managers knew that FAMU band
members held hazing rituals regu-
larly on buses after football games
but did nothing to stop them, and
they often times told bus drivers to
ignore the hazing.
The bus driver on the night of
Champion's death even stood
guard outside the bus and forced
the 26-year-old Champion back on

the bus after he had exited to
vomit, the lawsuit said. The law-
suit doesn't explain how Champion
was forced back on the bus.
"Am I suggesting that this bus
driver hit him? No," Chestnut said.
"Am I suggesting that she know-
ingly aided and abetted? She
opened a bus, it was running, the
air condition is on. If that's not par-
ticipation, then I don't know. You
availed a venue."
Three people were charged after
alleged band hazing ceremonies
Oct. 31 and Nov. 1, when Bria
Shante Hunter's legs were beaten
with fists and a metal ruler to initi-
ate her into the "Red Dawg Order,"
a band clique for students who hail
from Georgia.
The Board of Governors which
oversees Florida's 11 public uni-
versities launched its own inves-
tigation in November into whether
FAMU officials had ignored past
warnings about hazing. The
Florida Department of Law
Enforcement also is investigating
the band's finances.

James Lee Coon Black History Brain

Brawl Festival Returns February 25th

James Lee Coon, Jr.
The James Lee Coon, Jr. African
American History Brain Brawl

Festival 2012
inspired by the legacy of James
Lee Coon, Jr., a 20 year old college
student slain at the age of 20, will
take place Saturday, February 25,
From 9 a.m. 2 p.m., Holsey
Temple C.M.E. Church will host
over 80 students competing in
Black History trivia. Three divi-
sions, (elementary, middle and sen-
ior high), will compete for the
championship trophies. There will
also be free family fun activities
including an academic competition,
health screenings, face painting,
arts, crafts, entertainment and food.
James Coon was 15 years old
when he originated Duval
Countywide Black History Brain
Brawl. In his words, "Basically, I

wanted to form a way to celebrate
Black history to show something
positive that's happening in the
Black community." His life tragi-
cally ended when he was a young
scholar and leader in the
Jacksonville Community and a
sophomore at the University of
North Florida (UNF), President of
African American Student Union
Affairs and Co-Chairperson of the
Black History Program. James last
words "Let me live so I can finish
college" are preserved at UNF
Memorial site honoring him and the
James Lee Coon, Jr. Memorial
The church is located at 3483
West 1st Street, Jacksonville, FL
32254. For more information, call
the church at 904 387-5931.

*p AV

Dr. Chester Aikeos

505 TflST UnIOn STMPf


For All

Your Dental

Needs :


Monday- Friday F

8:30 AM 5 PM
Saturday Appointments Available
Dental Insurance and Medicaid Accepted

Mrs. Perry's Free Press Page 9

February 16-22, 2012


Page 10 Ms. Perry's Free Press

February 16-22,2012

Free Black History
Month Festival
A Black History Month festival
will be held, Thursday, February
16th at Florida State College at
Jacksonville's North Campus, 4501
Capper Rd., from 11 a.m. 1 p.m. in
the courtyard. The event includes
entertainers and testimonials and a
"Who I am Quiz?" For more details
call 766-6786 or visit

EWC to Present
Coming of Age Play
The Schell-Sweet Community
Resource Center on the EWC cam-
pus will present the coming of age
play "Choices" February, 17th and
18th in the Milne Auditorium. The
special production will include a
red carpet reception, silent auction
and cocktails from 5:30 p.m. 6:30
p.m. followed by the play at 7:00
p.m., entertainment by Akia
Uwanda. On February 18th at 4
p.m. will be the second perform-
ance. For more information call
Marie Heath at (904) 470-8140 or
Akia McDaniel at (904) 469-7511.

Kingsley Heritage
Saturday, February 18th and
February 25th, The Kingsley
Heritage Celebration will celebrate
with melodies, stories and music of
the Civil War era; re-enactor Rose
Person as Harriet Tubman's role in
the Civil War and a kids craft comer
and house tours. Other Includes re-
enactors demonstrations of life on
the plantation and the
Massachusetts 54th regiment, the
first African American unit in the
war. Tour begins at 1:30 p.m., For
more information contact Kingsley
Plantation, 11676 Palmetto Ave.,

For more information call (904)

Gladys Knight
on Stage!
Gladys Knight has long been one
of the greatest! Come hear the
seven-time Grammy winner,
Saturday, February 18th at 8 p.m.
at the Florida Theater. For tickets
visit or call
(904) 355-2787.

Museum and a Movie
The Ritz Museum presents the
movie "On the Shoulder of Giants"
Saturday, February 18th at 11 a.m.
The feature-length documentary
honors a group of sports pioneers
who have been all but forgotten to
time, and it celebrates the legacy of
a magical game and the shoulders
that today's players stand on. For
more information call (904) 632-
5555or email

Ritz Jazz Jamm
The Ritz Jazz Jamm will presents
Ladysmith Black Mambazo in con-
cert, Sunday, February 19th at 7
p.m.. For more information call
(904) 632-5555or email ritzthe-

Night at the Ritz
Former alumni and educators of
Northwestern are invited to attend
Friends and Family Night at the
Ritz Theatre and Museum, Tuesday,
February 21st, 6-8 p.m.. On dis-
play will be "More Than a Game:
African American Sports in
Jacksonville, 1900-1975,".
Participants wil share memories,
participate in conversations, re-con-
nect..with classmates, teachers and

coaches. For more information call
(904) 632-5555or email ritzthe-

Free Lecture on
Littlerock Revisited
Florida State College of
Jacksonville professor John Taylor
presents "Little Rock-55 years later
and more additional stories" at a
reading at 11:30 a.m. Tuesday,
February 21st at Jacksonville's
North campus, 4501 Capper Rd.
Room E-235. For more informa-
tion call (904) 766-6726 or visit

Kingsley Plantation
Drama at FSCJ
The play "Magijeen: The story of
Anna Kingsley," will be featured at
2 p.m. Thursday, February 23rd
on the campus of FSCJ's Kent
Campus, 3939 Roosevelt Blvd.,
Room F-128. The celebration will
feature campus instructor and play-
wright Jennifer chase and cast with
a shortened version of Chases full
length musical. For more informa-
tion call (904) 381-3674 or visit

Blues Brothers Revue
The Official Blues Brothers
Revue, a live concert show that
combines the comedy and hit songs
from the original 1980 hit film will
be performed at the Times Union
Center, Monday, February 23rd at
7:30 p.m. For more information
call 633-6110 or visit www.ticktet-

Poet Nikki
Giovanni at EWC
EWC Alumni Roundup invites the
commufiity- to "'ln Evening witi h'

Nikki Giovanni," February 24th,
7- p.m., on the campus of Edward
Waters College, Milne Auditorium,
1658 Old Kings Rd. For more infor-
mation on the free event, call (904)

ASLAH Meeting
The James Weldon Johnson
Branch for the Studies of African-
American Life and History, Inc.
will be celebrating Black History
on Saturday, February 25th at the
Urban League Bldg, 903 W. Union
Street, 10:00 a.m. For more infor-
mation contact Alonzo McNealy at
(904) 236.2930 or Flora
McClendon-Parker at (904) 378-
3897or email flparker0618@bell-

We Remember Raines
Documentary Premiere
The premiere of the documentary
"We Remember Raines," An All
American High school story, will be
on Saturday, February 25th at 7
p.m., in the Raines Auditorium.The
Film is narrated by former news
anchor Ben Frazier and DJ For more informa-
tion and tickets contact Emmanuel
Washington at (904) 465-6891 or

BCU Leadership
The Duval/Nassau Alumni
Chapter of Bethune Cookman
University will host its annual Dr.
Mary McLeod Bethune Community
Leadership Breakfast, at Airport
Crown Plaza, on February 25th,
at 9 a.m. The theme is "Enter to
Learn and Depart to Serve". Email or call
at (904) 307.8492 for more info.

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Alvin Ailey
The Alvin Ailey American Dance
Theatre will be in town Tuesday,
February 28th at the Times Union
Center of Performing Arts. The
dancers turn every movement
onstage into a testament to living.
For more information visit or call
(904) 632-3373.

Ritz Jazz Jamm
The March Ritz Jazz Jamm will
feature singer SIMONE on
Saturday, March 3rd, at 7 p.m. and
10 p.m. Tickets on sale now. For
more information call (904) 632-
5555or email

UniverSoul Circus
The UniverSoul Circus will return
to Jacksonville February 28-
March 4th. The big top tent will be
headquartered by the Prime
Osbome Convention Center. For
more information, contact
Ticketmaster at 1-800-745-3000.

Harlem Globetrotters
The Harlem Globetrotters will
bring their 2012 World Tour to
Jacksonville Veterans Memorial
Arena on Friday March 2, 2012, at
7:00 p.m. To purchase tickets visit or by phone
at (800) 745-3000 or email ccas-

Michael Jackson Tour
by Cirque du Soleil
The Michael Jackson Immortal

World Tour by Cirque du Soleil
will give fans a unique view into the
spirit, passion and heart of the artis-
tic genius who forever transformed
global pop culture. The show hits
the Veterans Memorial Arena
Wednesday, March 7 & 8th at 8
p.m. For tickets, call 630-3900 or

Royal Comedy Tour
The Royal Comedy Tour featuring
comedians Sommore, Bruce Bruce,
Mark Curry and more will stop in
Jacksonville Friday, March 9th at
the Veterans Memorial Arena. Call
(904) 630-3900 for more info.

Stanton Class of
1972A11 Class Party
Calling all Classes of 1972 -
Raines, Ribault, Jackson, Lee,
Wolfson, etc. The Stanton Class of
1972 is hosting the first ever com-
bined event "Spring Dance All
Classes of 1972 ," Saturday, March
24, 2012, 8 p.m. 2 a.m. at the
Prince Community Center, 3315
North Liberty Street. Food, fun, old
school and line dance. For more
info email

Bill Cosby in Concert
Renowned comedian Bill Cosby
will speak on the human condition,
family relationships, and the evolv-
ing roles of men and women.
Sunday, April 29th at 2 p.m., at the
Times Union Center. Call 633-
6110 or visit

Stanton 40th Class Reunion
Stanton Class of 1972 40th Class Reunion Planning Meetings will meet
on the 2nd and 4th Thursday of each month at 7:00 p.m. The meetings will
be held at Stanton in the bandroom, Stanton High School, 1149 West 13th
St. Alumni are invited to attend. For more information email

Do You Have an event

for Around Town?

The Jacksonville Free Press is please to print your public serv-
ice announcements and coming events free of charge. news
deadline is Monday at 6 p.m. by the week you would like your
information to be printed. Information can be sent via email,
fax, brought into our office or mailed in. Please be sure to
include the 5W's who, what, when, where, why and you must
include a contact number.
Email Fax (904) 765-3803
Mail: Coming Events Jacksonville Free Press
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Spectlul Evtet?

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professional affordable photos by the Picture Lady!

Call 874-0591
to reserve your day!


What to do from social, volunteer, political and sports activities to self enrichment and the civic scene
,., : I What to do from social, volunteer, political and sports activities to self enrichment and the civic scene

M}.I I O At .
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NEWARK, N.J. Whitney
Houston will be laid to rest
Saturday, February 18th in the
church where she first showcased
her singing talents as a child, her
family choosing to remember her
in a private service rather than in a
large event at an arena.
The funeral will be held at noon
at Newark's New Hope Baptist
Church, which seats up to 1,500
people. Gospel singer Marvin
Winans, a Grammy Award winner
and longtime family friend, has
been chosen to give the eulogy.
The family said no public memo-

ruled out.
Funeral home owner Carolyn
Whigham said the church service
will be by invitation only, reflect-
ing the family's decision to keep
the memorial more personal.
"They have shared her for 30-
some years with the city, with the
state, with the world. This is their
time now for their farewell," she
"The family thanks all the fans,
the friends and the media, but this
time is their private time," she said.
Houston, 48, died last Saturday
at a hotel in Beverly Hills, Calif.,
just hours before she was set to per-

form at producer Clive Davis' pre-
Grammy Awards bash. Officials
say she was underwater and appar-
ently unconscious when she was
pulled from a bathtub.
After an autopsy, authorities said
there were no indications of foul
play and no obvious signs of trau-
ma on Houston. It could be weeks,
however, before the coroner's
office completes toxicology tests to
establish the cause of death.
Los Angeles County coroner's
assistant chief Ed Winter said bot-
tles of prescription medicine were
found in the room. He would not
give details except to say: "There
weren't a lot of prescription bottles.
You probably have just as many
prescription bottles in your medi-
cine cabinet."
Houston was born in Newark
and was raised in nearby East
Orange. She began singing as a
child at New Hope Baptist
Church, where her mother,
Grammy-winning gospel singer
Cissy Houston, led the music
* program for many years. Her
cousin singer Dionne Warwick
also sang in its choir.
Houston's family has request-
ed that any donations in her
memory be sent to the arts-
Sfocused public school that she
Attended as a child and that was
^ named after her in the late
i 1990s.
In lieu of flowers, they said
mourners should donate to the
Whitney Houston Academy of
Creative and Performing Arts in
East Orange, a school serving stu-
dents in kindergarten through
eighth grade.
Houston attended the school as a
girl when it was named the
Franklin School and was a regular
visitor for many years afterward.
An impromptu memorial for
Houston was held Sunday during a
sadness-tinged Grammys, with
Jennifer Hudson saluting her mem-
ory with a performance of "I Will
Always Love You." Viewership for
the awards show soared over last

year by 50 percent, with about 40
million viewers tuning in to the
program on CBS.
New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie
ordered flags flown at half-staff
Saturday at state government
buildings, describing Houston as a
"cultural icon" who belongs in the
same category of New Jersey
music history as Frank Sinatra,
Count Basie and Bruce
Houston, a sensation from her
first album, was one of the world's
best-selling artists from the mid-
1980s to the late 1990s, turning out
such hits as "I Wanna Dance With
Somebody," "How Will I Know,"
"The Greatest Love of All" and "I
Will Always Love You." But as she
struggled with drugs, her majestic
voice became raspy and she could-
n't hit the high notes.
Houston left behind one child,
18-year-old daughter Bobbi
Kristina Brown, from her marriage
to singer Bobby Brown.
Winans, in his role as a pastor,
married Houston and Brown. The
Winans and Houston families have
been friends for years, and Houston
performed with Winans' siblings
CeCe and BeBe, members of one
of gospel music's first families.
Houston was especially close to
CeCe and BeBe Winans and per-
formed with both. She and CeCe
sang "Count on Me," for the movie
"Waiting to Exhale," in which
Houston starred. She recently
wrapped filming (which she pro-
duced with T.D. Jakes) of the
remake of the 70s hit "Sparkle"
whichis set for release in August.

First Black NBA Player Honored The first African-
American NBA player, Earl "Big Cat" Lloyd, center, is honored by Atlanta
Mayor Kasim Reed, left, and Atlanta Hawks Vice President Dominique
Wilkins during a halftime ceremony at an NBA basketball game between
the Miami Heat and the Hawks on Sunday, Feb. 12, 2012, in Atlanta, Ga.

No selling of baby pics for Jay-Z and Beyonce

Photos of the 1-month-old Blue Ivy, were posted by Jay-Z and Byonce on
Tumblr blog page A hand-written
note accompanying the photos reads, "We welcome you to share our joy."

Ms. Perry's Free Press Page 11

February 16-22, 2012

Pagec 12 --M.PrysFe rssFbur 62,21




,.,? r .

--R c ', 7'

Filled with favorite foods and full of unforgettable
stories, the serving dishes that have graced dinner
tables for generations are more than just plates.
They're treasured pieces of family history that
remind us that the past isn't just facts. And it's those
wonderful traditions that have nourished families
and kept them strong for centuries. So, enjoy a big
plate of history this month. It's delicious.


2011 Publix Asset Management Company

.- '7

Page 12 Ms. Perry's Free Press

February 16-22, 2012


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