Citation
Year-round grazing on a combination of native and improved pasture

Material Information

Title:
Year-round grazing on a combination of native and improved pasture
Series Title:
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations bulletin no. 554
Alternate Title:
Year round grazing on a combination of native and improved pasture.
Creator:
Jones, D. W. (David W.)
Hodges, E. M. (Elver M.)
Kirk, W. Gordon (William Gordon), 1898-1979
Affiliation:
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
13 p. : ill., map ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture ( LCSH )
Farm life ( LCSH )
Farming ( LCSH )
University of Florida. ( LCSH )
Grazing -- Florida ( LCSH )
Pastures -- Florida ( LCSH )
Cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida ( LCSH )
Agriculture -- Florida ( LCSH )
Farm life -- Florida ( LCSH )
City of Pensacola ( local )
Spatial Coverage:
North America -- United States of America -- Florida

Notes

Funding:
Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life

Record Information

Source Institution:
Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location:
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida








b Bulletin 554 A



AG


(Originally Printed November 1954)


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
RICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
J. R. BECKENBACH, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
(A Contribution from the Range Cattle Station)


Year-Round Grazing on a Combination of

Native and Improved Pasture


D. W. JONES, E. M. HODGES and W. G. KIRK
Range Cattle Experiment Station, Ona, Florida






Fig. 1.-Cows grazing hairy indigo in late October. The indigo was
fully matured and the most palatable portions of the plants were con-
sumed.


May 1960







- Canals
w-n Road
X Mineral Box
Z Water
Q Wooded Area


Wooded Area


IRc


Z Water
X Mineral Box
9 I


Fig. 2.-Map showing arrangement of native and improved pasture areas.










Year-Round Grazing on a Combination of

Native and Improved Pasture

D. W. JONES, E. M. HODGES and W. G. KIRK

CONTENTS
Page
Introduction ..................... ............. ........ 3
Experimental Procedure ..................................... 4
Experimental Data ..................................... ...... 5
Forage Requirements ---.... ........... ........--...... 6
Discussion ................... ... ....... ...... 9
Discussion- 1960 ................. .......... .......... 12
Summary and Conclusions .................................. 14

INTRODUCTION
There have been cattle in Florida for more than 4 centuries but
only within the past 3 decades have they assumed a role of promi-
nence in the beef supply of the nation. Several factors have con-
tributed to this expansion. The most important has been the
establishment of large areas of improved pasture. Efficient
utilization of both native and improved areas in combination is
a major problem.
Cattle on native range have good grazing in the spring and
summer months but the forage is low in both quality and quan-
tity during the fall and winter seasons. Records (7) 1 show
that with the breeding herd large weight losses, high mortality
and a low percentage calf crop are the result of poor feed con-
ditions which are magnified in severe winters or when the pas-
tures are overstocked. A more uniform supply of high quality
forage is needed throughout the year to reduce these losses.
Pastures in Florida have a definite growing season, making
them not unlike those of other sections of the United States.
Most of the grasses are tropical and semi-tropical in origin and
their rate of growth is reduced when temperatures drop below
700 F. Moisture extremes frequently limit production of pas-
ture forage. Experiments have shown that fertilization can be
used to increase both quantity and quality of forage as well as
;o influence the time of year in which a pasture provides feed
2, 3, 4,5).

1Figures in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

A practical method of management of a combination native
and improved pasture to provide near-optimum utilization of
forage and yet maintain a breeding herd in good production
throughout the year was studied at the Range Cattle Station
from 1947 to 1952.
The area selected for this experiment consisted of 400 acres,
80 acres of which were improved pasture and 320 acres were
unimproved native range, Fig. 2. The native range was cut-
over pine land with vegetation consisting primarily of wire-
grass, broad-leafed grasses, palmettos and pines. Soils of the
area were fine sands, being predominantly Leon and Immokalee
with some associated series.

TABLE 1.-FERTILIZATION OF IMPROVED PASTURES.

Field No. Kind of Forage Annual Fertilization

61 Common and Pensacola 500 pounds per acre 0-14-14
bahia, carpetgrass- in spring
Hairy indigo
62A* Pangola 350 pounds per acre 9-6-6
in spring and 25-30 pounds
N in fall
62B Pangola 25-30 pounds per acre N in
spring and 350 pounds 9-6-6
in fall
Pensacola bahia-Hubam
63A and 63B clover 500 pounds per acre 0-14-14
in fall and 250 pounds 0-8-24
in spring
64 Coastal bermuda 350 pounds per acre 9-6-6 in
__spring and 25-30 N in fall.
Fields 62 and 63 were divided into sections A and B in 1949. This permitted more
efficient utilization of these pastures, resulting in a more uniform supply of nutritious forage
during the winter and spring months.

The 80 acres of improved pasture were divided into 4 20-acre
fields, 2 of which were subdivided into 10-acre areas in 1949 to
permit more efficient utilization of the forage. The improved
areas received lime, 1 ton per acre for grass (5) and 2 for clover
(6), and a minor element treatment consisting of 20 pounds per
acre of both copper and manganese sulfates and 15 pounds of
zinc sulfate. Borax was added at the rate of 10 pounds per acre
where clover was grown. The forage planting and annual ferti-
lization of the improved pastures are shown in Table 1. The







Year-Round Grazing on Native and Improved Pasture 5

native pasture was given no treatment other than one-half be-
ing burned each year. Eighty acres were burned in early Decem-
ber and 80 acres in late January of each winter.
Cattle had continuous access to the native land but were
allowed to graze only 1 planted pasture at a time. The improved
pastures were used on a rotational basis, with grazing being
deferred on some during the fall to provide a reserve of feed for
the winter.
Forage yields were not obtained but animal performance rec-
ords, observations and comparisons with other areas were used
to derive estimates of forage production of the various pastures.
A herd of 65 mature cows and 2-year-old heifers was kept on
this area during the 5-year period. These cattle were mostly
grade Brahman with a few grade Devon, Hereford and Short-
horn. The cows all traced back to native cattle within 1 to 4
generations. One purebred Brahman bull was used during the
April 8 to August 8 breeding season. Weights of the cattle were
obtained at 28-day intervals and birth and weaning weights of
calves were recorded. Calves were graded as slaughter animals
at weaning time.
Cattle were given no supplemental feeding during the period of
study but had access at all times to Range Station complete
mineral mixture (1). This mixture has been modified since the
beginning of the test, and both old and new formulas for 100-
pound mixes are shown here:
Old Formula New Formula
Pounds Pounds
Steamed bonemeal ......................... 29.00 28.00
Defluorinated phosphate .................. 29.00 28.00
Common salt ...................................... 33.89 31.21
Red oxide of iron .............................. 3.39 3.12
Copper oxide, pulverized .................. 0.68 0.63
Cobalt sulfate ...................................... 0.04 0.04
Cane molasses ................................... 2.00 7.00
Cottonseed meal .................................. 2.00 2.00

EXPERIMENTAL DATA
Figure 3 is a graphic representation of forage furnished sea-
sonally by each pasture. The periods when no animals were on
a pasture designate that grazing was being deferred and the
forage reserved for fall or winter feed.
This 400-acre area provided feed through the year for the
65 cows and their calves until weaned and for the bull during
the April-August breeding season. The cows of breeding age
averaged an 80 percent yearly calf crop during the 5-year period








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


1948 to 1952, inclusive. The first calves were born about January
13 and all were on the ground by May 20. Calves from this
herd averaged 425 pounds when weaned at 6 to 8 months of age
and graded U. S. Good as slaughter animals.
The cows had average weights of 907 pounds in December,
848 pounds in March, 871 in June and 881 in September. The
herd was maintained in a thrifty condition at all times and no
death losses were encountered during the experimental period.


NATIVE
(60)


BAHIA-INDIGO
(61)


PANGOLA
62A 62B



PENSACOLA BAHIA-
CLOVER
63A 63B

COASTAL
(64)

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
Fig. 3.-Estimated amount of forage furnished by each pasture division
throughout the year. (Vertical space in each division equals grazing for
2 animal units per acre.)

A temporary feature was the harvesting of Pensacola bahia
seed and hay during the summer months. Yields of 50 to 75
pounds per acre of bahia seed were harvested during the sum-
mers of 1949 through 1952 from fields 61 and 63. About 300
bales of low quality Pensacola bahia hay were harvested from
field 63 in 1950.
FORAGE REQUIREMENTS

The forage requirement of a breeding herd varies from sea-
son to season, depending on the stage of lactation of the cows,
number and size of calves and whether or not the herd bull is
with the cattle. Anticipating this forage need is an important
step in planning pasture and cattle management.








Year-Round Grazing on Native and Improved Pasture 7

The calculated forage requirement from Morrison (8) for the
65 cows in this herd, 52 calves until weaned at about 7 months
of age and the bull during the breeding season is illustrated in
Fig. 4. An animal feed unit is considered as the feed require-
ment of a 900-pound cow during November and December. The
animal units of feed required by this herd during the year are
given in Table 2. Morrison (8) states that a 900-pound preg-
nant cow requires about 16 pounds dry matter, providing 0.7
pounds digestible protein and 8.4 pounds total digestible nutri-
ents (TDN) per day. In the 4 months after calving this same
cow needs 22 pounds dry matter daily, providing 1.2 pounds
digestible protein and 12.5 pounds TDN. On this basis, the
cows in the experiment required the equivalent of 65 animal-
feed units in November and December, increasing to 88 animal-
feed units in June, the highest for any month. This was followed
by a steady decline in feed units until all the calves were weaned
in October.


TIME IN MONTHS
Fig. 4.-Feed required (calculated from Morrison (8) ) to maintain a
35-cow herd, 52 calves from birth to weaning and a bull during the 4-month
breeding season.









8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

The dot-dash line, Fig. 4, indicates the feed units needed by
the calves. The calves born in January began to graze in Feb-
ruary and the amount of feed required by the calves increased
steadily as more calves were born and as they grew in size. It
is estimated that the 52 calves in September required feed equiv-
alent to that eaten by 26 cow units, Table 2. The calves born
from January 15 to March 6 were weaned the last of September
and the younger calves were weaned in late October, with an
average weaning age for all calves of 205 days.
The bull was placed with the herd in April and removed 4
months later. The forage needed by the bull is shown by the
dotted line at the bottom of Fig. 4.

TABLE 2.-CALCULATED FEED REQUIREMENT1 FOR A 65-Cow HERD, 52
CALVES FROM BIRTH TO WEANING AND A BULL DURING THE 4-MONTH
BREEDING SEASON.

Number of Animals Animal Feed Units 5
Cows | Calves I Bulls4 I Cows | Calves I Bull Total

January 65 10 0 66 0 0 66
February 65 25 0 70 0 0 70
March 65 40 0 74 1 0 75
April 65 48 1 78 3.5 1.5 83
May 65 52 1 83 6.5 1.5 91
June 65 52 1 88 10.5 1.5 100
July 65 52 1 83 14.5 1.5 99
August 65 52 0 78 20 0 98
September 65 526 0 73 26 0 99
October 65 126 0 67 6 0 73
November 65 0 0 65 0 0 65
December 65 0 0 65 0 0 65

1 Calculated from Morrison (8).
2Average weight of cows 900 pounds in December. No death losses as all cows were
thrifty.
s Eighty percent calf crop or an average of 52 calves yearly.
SOne-Bull herd. Breeding season (4 months) April through August.
5 Feed unit is the amount of feed eaten by a cow in November and December. Feed eaten
by bull is equal to that eaten by 1.5 cows. Calves weighing 400 pounds or more require one-
half as much feed as one cow.
s An average of 40 calves were weaned September 30 and 12 weaned October 31 of each
year.

The number of cattle in the herd and animal-feed unit require-
ments at monthly intervals are given in Table 2. The total feed
requirement ranged from 65 units in November to 100 in June.
It was estimated that 1,040 pounds of dry matter, 45.5 pounds
digestible protein and 546 pounds TDN daily were required in
November to maintain this herd of 65 cows. In June it took over
1,600 pounds dry matter, 70 pounds digestible protein and 840
pounds of TDN each day to support the 65 cows, 52 calves and
1 bull.








Year-Round Grazing on Native and Improved Pasture 9

DISCUSSION
This herd of cattle was supported by 5 acres of native range
and 1.2 acres of improved pasture per cow without any supple-
mental feeding. Cattle weights were maintained during the
winter with the exception of normal declines following calving.
It has been considered generally that about 15 acres of native
range is needed to support 1 cow weighing 800 to 900 pounds.
On this basis it appeared that 1 acre of well maintained improved
pasture replaced 8 to 10 acres of native range and provided
higher quality feed over a much larger portion of the year, re-
sulting in a larger calf crop and heavier and higher-grading
calves at weaning.
The native range, field 60, provided a small amount of forage
from September until the last of March (Fig. 5). In April and
part of May this type of pasture increased slightly in both qual-
ity and quantity of forage produced, remaining about constant
until July, when it started to decline, reaching the lowest level
of productivity by late fall.
The bahia-indigo, field 61, was not grazed from late May until
the last of August, this being the season when Hairy indigo
made its growth. It was reserved for late summer and fall graz-
ing (Fig. 1). This pasture was grazed intermittently through
the fall and winter and provided a substantial amount of forage
from March to early May.

Fig. 5.-Native range burned in mid-winter provides a small amount of
highly nutritious forage.


- -. a








10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Pangola, fields 62A and 62B, was fertilized twice annually,
as shown in Table 1, once in May and again about October 1.
An increase in forage was noted following the May fertiliza-
tion, the peak of production after this treatment being reached
late in June and followed by a gradual decline in growth until
the fall fertilization. After fall fertilization the areas were
reserved until December, when there was about 1 month of
good grazing for the 65 cows before most of the feed was con-
sumed and the carrying capacity of the area greatly reduced.
The Hubam sweetclover in fields 63A and 63B was usually
ready for grazing about the first of February. The herd was
allowed to graze this pasture only 2 to 4 hours daily, when the
clover was young or weather conditions did not permit rapid
growth. This provided some forage high in protein and pre-
vented overgrazing of the Hubam. The clover was used to offset
the poor quality grass in the other fields and was largely re-
sponsible for the good thrift of the herd at this season of the
year. The carrying capacity of the clover (Fig. 6) increased
until May, when it reached maturity. Following the clover the
Pensacola bahia provided excellent quality forage. However, it
continually decreased in quality from July to October, when the
cattle were removed and the areas reseeded and refertilized (6).
Field 64, Coastal bermuda, Fig. 7, was treated with a com-
plete fertilizer in March and given a nitrogen topdressing during
September. A peak of growth was reached in April and from
May until the September fertilization there was a steady decline

Fig. 6.-Hubam clover in February is valuable forage for the breeding herd.








Year-Round Grazing on Native and Improved Pasture 11


in carrying capacity. Cattle were removed from the area after
the September application of nitrogen and the field reserved
until November.
The pangola and Pensacola-clover pastures were each sub-
divided into 2 fields in the summer of 1949 and used 10 acres at
a time. This permitted more complete utilization of the forage
from these pastures, resulting in improved nutrition of the herd.
A rotation period of 8 to 10 days was used when growth con-
ditions permitted and every effort was made to avoid overgraz-
ing. When the herd had eaten most of the feed in 1 of the
improved pastures they used the native range, always seeking
the best forage. It was estimated that the cattle obtained 30
to 40 percent of their feed from the native pasture and each
week some grazing was obtained from this area.
A reserve of feed was obtained by practicing rotational and
deferred grazing and by the application of fertilizer on part of
the established pastures 3 to 6 weeks before the cattle needed
the forage. Forage reserves were used up when there was a
period of several months with little or no rain, such as occurred
from April to June 1950. The 1950 calves weighed an average of
30 pounds less at weaning than those born in 1949 and 1951,
and the cows were in poorer flesh in October because of the lack
of feed from April to June. This was a period when supplemen-
al feeding would have been profitable in a commercial herd.

Fig. 7.-Cows and calves on Coastal bermuda pasture in March.






.':
-*^ ** ^ V &







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


It will be seen from Fig. 3 that the 400-acre pasture did not
produce the same amount of feed each month. Forage growth
is dependent upon moisture, plant food supply and temperature.
Also, forage production does not at all times match the require-
ment levels indicated in Fig. 4. It would be possible to more
nearly meet these requirements by fertilization of more of the
improved pastures in either the summer or early fall, since this
is the time of highest forage consumption by cattle.
Table 2 shows that under this program the largest number
of animal units were on the pasture from June to September,
when the most forage was produced. As rate of forage growth
decreased, feed requirement of the cows was reduced with ad-
vance in stage of lactation, with a large drop when the calves
were weaned in September and October. Removal of calves
further reduced the feed eaten by their mothers. This resulted
in a minimum feed requirement at the time of year, November
to January, when growth was lowest.
Cattle in this study ate an average of 9 to 12 pounds of com-
plete mineral mixture yearly, a low figure as compared with the
35 to 50 pounds per animal consumed in a pasture where all
feed was obtained from native range (1). This shows that the
forage available to the cattle grazing on a combination of na-
tive and improved pasture was of higher nutritional quality
than that obtained from native range.

DISCUSSION-1960
Some pasture and herd management practices have been re-
vised since original publication.
1. Nitrogen fertilization of the grass pastures has been in-
creased to 100 pounds per acre, maintaining a 3-1-1 ratio of N,
P and K.
2. Coastal bermudagrass, planted in the original project,
failed to maintain a stand in competition with smutgrass and
other weeds. Renovation was not effective in restoring this
variety and the area was replanted to pangolagrass in 1958.
Replanting increased the grazing value but did not control all
weeds.
3. Spring fertilizer applications have been made at varying
dates on the different grass pastures. This prevents a glut of
grass at one time and spreads the good grazing quality and feed
supply from March to June. Fall fertilization is done when rain-








Year-Round Grazing on Native and Improved Pasture 13

fall and work conditions permit, usually between August 20 and
September 20. Later applications produce little growth.
4. Yellow sorghum aphid and armyworm attacks have caused
damage on pangolagrass. Chemical residue problems2 and cost
of treatment must be considered when pasture insects are to be
controlled.
5. Fertilization of the hairy indigo-grass pasture has been
revised to 250 pounds per acre of an 0-8-24 mixture. Growth
was good 3 out of 4 years and 2 reseedings were necessary be-
tween 1947 and 1960.
6. Hubam clover has been extremely variable from year to
year and nitrogen fertilization is required when clover fails.
Weather cycles strongly influence dry land winter clover and
its value should not be overrated. Fertilization consists of 250
pounds per acre 0-8-24 in both fall and spring; 50 pounds of
nitrogen is added in place of the spring application of 0-8-24 if
clover fails.
7. Cattle obtaining more than half their year-round forage
supply from improved pastures respond to supplemental feeding
during part of almost every winter. The requirement may be
for either extra roughage, more protein and energy or a com-
bination of these. Additional feed at strategic periods can be
used to prevent excessive weight loss and improved calving per-
centage; in an emergency such as the 1957-58 winter it is needed
to avoid death losses.
TABLE 3.-FERTILIZATION OF IMPROVED PASTURES-1960.

Field No. Kind of Forage | Annual Fertilization

61 Common and Pensacola 250 pounds per acre
bahiagrass-Hairy indigo 0-8-24 in spring

62A Pangolagrass 500 pounds per acre 9-6-6 in
spring, 50 pounds N in fall
62B Pangolagrass 50 pounds per acre N in
spring, 500 pounds 9-6-6 in
fall
63A and 63B Pensacola bahia-Hubam 250 pounds per acre 0-8-24
and whiteclover in fall, 250 pounds 0-8-24 in
spring
64A and 64B Pangolagrass 500 pounds per acre 9-6-6 in
Spring, 50 rounds N in fall


2 Consult county agricultural agent.








14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The use of native and improved pasture to supplement each
other is a management system that has been employed success-
fully. This combination reduces the acreage required per cow
as compared with native range and provides more feed of higher
quality. Winter feed supply, the most critical shortcoming of
the native range, can be greatly increased by a deferred grazing
schedule. This additional feed greatly reduces seasonal weight
declines and death losses and increases the production of the
herd.
The individual cattleman should determine the forage re-
quirement of the herd through the entire year and in addition
should study the production capabilities of his pastures. If
cattle needs exceed pasture performance the rancher has 3
choices: first, increase forage supply; second, provide supple-
mental feed; and third, reduce cattle numbers. Each pasture-
cattle unit is an individual problem in management, forage
production and cattle requirements and must be treated as such.
A workable balance between cattle needs and feed supply is vital
to the success of any pasture plan.

LITERATURE CITED
1. BECKER, R. B., P. T. Dix ARNOLD, W. G. KIRK, GEORGE K. DAVIS and R.
W. KIDDER. Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 513. 1953.
2. BLASER, R. E., W. E. STOKES, J. D. WARNER, G. E. RITCHEY and G. B.
KILLINGER. Pastures in Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 409.
1945.
3. BLASER, R. E., R. S. GLASSCOCK, G. B. KILLINGER and W. E. STOKES.
Carpet Grass and Legume Pastures in Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bul. 453. 1952.
4. GAMMON, N., JR., W. G. BLUE, J. R. NELLER, D. W. JONES, H. W. LUNDY
and G. E. RITCHEY. Maintaining Fertility in Mineral Soils under
Permanent Pasture. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 515. 1953.
5. HODGES, E. M., D. W. JONES and W. G. KIRK. Grass Pastures in Cen-
tral Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 484. 1951.
6. HODGES, E. M., D. W. JONES and W. G. KIRK. Winter Clovers in Central
Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 517. 1953.
7. KIRK, W. G., A. L. SHEALY and BRADFORD KNAPP, JR. Weight Changes
of Cattle on a Florida Range. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 418. 1945.
8. MORRISON, FRANK B. Feeds and Feeding. Morrison Publishing Com-
pany. 21st Edition. 1949.








14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The use of native and improved pasture to supplement each
other is a management system that has been employed success-
fully. This combination reduces the acreage required per cow
as compared with native range and provides more feed of higher
quality. Winter feed supply, the most critical shortcoming of
the native range, can be greatly increased by a deferred grazing
schedule. This additional feed greatly reduces seasonal weight
declines and death losses and increases the production of the
herd.
The individual cattleman should determine the forage re-
quirement of the herd through the entire year and in addition
should study the production capabilities of his pastures. If
cattle needs exceed pasture performance the rancher has 3
choices: first, increase forage supply; second, provide supple-
mental feed; and third, reduce cattle numbers. Each pasture-
cattle unit is an individual problem in management, forage
production and cattle requirements and must be treated as such.
A workable balance between cattle needs and feed supply is vital
to the success of any pasture plan.

LITERATURE CITED
1. BECKER, R. B., P. T. Dix ARNOLD, W. G. KIRK, GEORGE K. DAVIS and R.
W. KIDDER. Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 513. 1953.
2. BLASER, R. E., W. E. STOKES, J. D. WARNER, G. E. RITCHEY and G. B.
KILLINGER. Pastures in Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 409.
1945.
3. BLASER, R. E., R. S. GLASSCOCK, G. B. KILLINGER and W. E. STOKES.
Carpet Grass and Legume Pastures in Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bul. 453. 1952.
4. GAMMON, N., JR., W. G. BLUE, J. R. NELLER, D. W. JONES, H. W. LUNDY
and G. E. RITCHEY. Maintaining Fertility in Mineral Soils under
Permanent Pasture. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 515. 1953.
5. HODGES, E. M., D. W. JONES and W. G. KIRK. Grass Pastures in Cen-
tral Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 484. 1951.
6. HODGES, E. M., D. W. JONES and W. G. KIRK. Winter Clovers in Central
Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 517. 1953.
7. KIRK, W. G., A. L. SHEALY and BRADFORD KNAPP, JR. Weight Changes
of Cattle on a Florida Range. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 418. 1945.
8. MORRISON, FRANK B. Feeds and Feeding. Morrison Publishing Com-
pany. 21st Edition. 1949.










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