Citation
Silvicultural practices

Material Information

Title:
Silvicultural practices
Series Title:
Florida Cooperative Extension Service circular 632
Uniform Title:
Forestry Information System 6
Creator:
Munson, Ken.
Watts, John
Dippon, Duane
Flinchum, Mitch
Affiliation:
University of Florida -- Florida Cooperative Extension Service -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher:
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
19 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture ( LCSH )
Farm life ( LCSH )
Farming ( LCSH )
University of Florida. ( LCSH )
Forest soils -- Fertilization -- Florida ( LCSH )
Forest soils -- Fertilization -- Computer programs ( LCSH )
Forests and forestry -- Florida ( LCSH )
Agriculture -- Florida ( LCSH )
Farm life -- Florida ( LCSH )
Spatial Coverage:
North America -- United States of America -- Florida

Notes

Funding:
Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life

Record Information

Source Institution:
Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location:
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
16403451 ( OCLC )
AEP2503 ( NOTIS )
030248913 ( ALEPH )

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This item has the following downloads:


Full Text


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The Authors

Ken Munson, formerly Assistant Professor in the School of Forest Resources and
Conservation, is research and extension regeneration specialist with International
Paper Company in Oregon; John Watts is a graduate student, Duane Dippon is Assistant
Professor and Mitch Flinchum is Associate Professor, School of Forest Resources and
Conservation, IFAS, University of Florida, Cainesville, 32611.











SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES


INTRODUCTION

FORINSY'S "Silvicultural Practices" module offers the latest recommendations for
southern pines based on research conducted by the Cooperative Research in Forest
Fertilization (CRIFF) program at the University of Florida. Two options within this
module provide information.

The Site Prep and Planting option offers operational recommendations for
landowners interested in establishing a forest. These recommendations include:

1. Species preference
2. Limitations for harvest cutting if a mature stand is being liquidated on the
site beforehand
3. Water control needs
4. Sequence of appropriate mechanical operations

The Forest Fertilization option offers the latest fertilizer recommendations based
on CRIFF research. Topics addressed here include:

1. Recommended nutrients, if any
2. Appropriate fertilizer forms of the recommended nutrient
3. Application rates
4. Acceptable methods of application
5. Timing of application

All recommendations in this module are available in current publications (see
bibliography); however, they have never been accessible in such a simple and direct
manner. They are based on eight CRIFF soil groups, each consisting of several soil
series. A description of the CRIFF groups is provided in Table 1. The user need only
provide the soil series; the program will automatically determine the appropriate CRIFF
group. As a reference, Table 2 lists the majority of the soil series found in Florida.

The CRIFF groups are intentionally broad enough for convenience, yet accurate
enough to be useful. The growth response variation within soil groups is taken into
account when recommendations are formulated. A summary of fertilizer recommendations
and associated response information is listed in Table 3 (mid-rotation) and Table 4 (at
time of planting).

The nature of certain recommendations may deserve special consideration,
particularly with respect to site preparation. Although large machinery is referred to
in these options, less energy consumptive, and perhaps more cost effective means could
be used to achieve similar results.

The user, either alone or with professional assistance, should evaluate the
alternatives that are available and determine those options that are the most practical
and economical.

The CRIFF recommendations are intended to serve as guidelines, rather than hard
and fast rules. Any recommendation from this program should be combined with an
on-site examination. If your desire is to get the greatest return on your invested
dollar, it is important to consider all unique site and stand conditions prior to
deciding on and/or implementing any silvicultural prescriptions.


3


















Table 1. CRIFF soil group definitions.


Soil Major Land 1/
o aor aDrainage- Important Features
Group Area



A Savannas very poor Sandy surface layer less than 20"
to poor deep, with clayey soil below

B Savannas very poor Sandy surface layer greater than 20"
to poor deep, with clayey soil below

C Flatwoods poor Spodic horizon below the surface
layer, clayey soil below the hardpan

D Flatwoods poor to Spodic horizon below the surface
moderate layer, sandy soil below the spodic

E Uplands moderate Sandy surface layer less than 20"
to well deep, with clayey soil below

F Uplands moderate Sandy surface layer greater than 20"
to well deep, with clayey soil below

C Sandhills excessive Sandy surface layer at least 60" deep

H Depressions very poor High in decomposing plant residues


/-Drainage ratings refer


to the removal of water from a soil. These are influenced by


soil texture (sands vs. clays) and position in the landscape (level vs. sloping land).


4












Table 2. Soil series and corresponding CRIFF soil groups.


ADAMSVILLE G CHOBEE
ALAPAHA B CLARENDON
ALBANY F COCOA
ALPIN C COMPASS
AMERICUS F CONGAR
ANGIE E CORNELIA
ANKONA D COWARTS
APALACHEE X COXVILLE
APOPKA F CUTHBERT
ARCHER F DANIA
ARDILLA A DAWHOO
ARIPEKA X DAYTONA
ARRENDONDO F DE LAND
ASTATULA C DELKS
ASTOR X DELRAY
BAKERSVILLE B DOROVAN
BASINCER B DOTHAN
BAYBORO A DUETTE
BESSIE H DUNBAR
BETHERA A DUPLIN
BIBB B EATON
BLINNSVILLE X EAU CALLIE
BLADEN A EBRO
BLANTON F ECONFINA
BLICHTON B ELECTRA
BLUFF X ELLABELLE
BORADMAN X ELRED
BOCA RATON X ELMERA
BOHICKET B ENOREE
BONIFAY F ESCAMBIA
BOWIE E ESTERO
BRADEN F ESTO
BRIGHTON H EULONIA
BROWARD B EUREKA
BULOW X EUSTIS
BUSHNELL X EVERGLADES
CAHABA E FACEVILLE
CANAVERAL C FARMTON
CHANDLER G FELDA
CANOVA X FELLOW
CAPERS B FLEMING
CAPTIVA B FLORIDA
CARNEGIE E FT. DRUM
CASSIA D FT. MEADE
CHAIRS C FOXWORTH


CHARLOTTE
CHEWACIA
CHIPLEY
CHIPOLA


X GALVESTON G LOCHLOOSA F PANTEG
E GARCON F LUCIE F PALOA
X GATOR H LUTTER X PARKWOOD
E GENTRY X LYNCHBURG A PAHOKEE
X GOLDSBORO E LYNNE C PALM BEACH
D GRADY A LYNN HAVEN D PALMETTO
E GREENVILLE E MALABA X PAMLICO
A GRITNEY E MANATEE X PANSEY
E HAGUE X MANDARIN D PANTECO
H HALLANDALLE B MATTACHIE B PARKWOOD
B HANNAHATCHEE F MARGATE B PEDRO
D HEROD B MARLBORO E PELHAM
D HILOLO X MARTEL X PENDARVIS
C HOBE C MASARYKTOWN E PEPPER
X HOLOPA X MASCOTTE C PICKNEY
H HONTOON H MAUREPAS H PINE FLAT
E HORNSVILLE E MAXTON E PLACID
D IBERIA X MECCET X PLANTATION
A ICHETU X MICANOPY X PLUMMER
E IMMOKALEE X MICCO H POCOMOKE
X ISTOKPOCA H MILLHOPPER F POMELLO
C IUKA B MONTEOCHA C POMONA
H IZACORA E MONTVERDE H POMPANO
D JOHNS E MOULTRIE B PEOPLE
C JOHNSTON B MULAT B PORTSMOUTH
B JONATHAN X MUSTANG B POTTSBURG
C JONESVILLE X MYAKKA D RAINS
X JUMPER B MYATT A RED BAY
B JUPITER X NARCOOSSEE D RESOTA
A KALIGA H NETTLES C RIDGELAND
D KALMIA E NEWMAN RIMINI
E KANAPAHA B NOBLETON F RIVERVIEW
E KENANSVILLE F NORFOLK E RIVER
X KENDRICK F NUGENT B RUSTON
F KENNEY X OCHIOCKONEE B RUTLEDGE


A SENATE
G SELLERS
X SHUBUTA
H SMYRNA
G SPARR
B STILSON
H STOCKADE
A STOUGH
A SUNSWEET
X CURRENCY
X SUSANNA
B SUSQUE
D TALQUIN
C TANTILE
B TAVARRES
F TEQUES
B TERRA CEIA
B TIFTON
B TISONIA
B TOCOI
D TOMOKA
C TORHUNTA
B TORRY
X TROUP
A TURNBULL
D TUSCAW
A VALKARIA
E VERO
C WABASSO
D WACAHOOTA
X WAGRAM
F WAHEE
X WAUBER
E WAUCHULA
B WAVELAND


H KERSHAW C OCILLA B ST. AUGUSTINE G WEEKIWACHEE H
E KERSON B OCOEE H ST. JOHNS D WELAKA G
D KINSTON B OKEECHOBEE H ST. LUCIE C WESCONNETT D
X KLEJ G OKEELANTA H SALERNO D WESTON B
X KUREB G OKLAWAHA H SAMSULA H WICKHAM E
X LACOOCHIE B OLDSMAR C SANIBEL B WICKSBURG F
X LAKE G OLUSTEE C SANTEE X WILLIS X
G LAKELAND C ONA D SAPELO C WINDEMERE X
G LAKEWOOD G ORANGEBURG E SATELLITE G WULFERT H
G LAUDERHILL H ORLANDO G SAVANNAH A YONGES X


D FREEMANVILLE E LAWNWOOD
F FRIPP G LEAF
G FUQUAY F LEEFIELD
F GAINESVILLE G LEON


D ORTEGA G SAWYER
A ORSINO G SCOGGIN
B OSIER B SCRANTON
D PACTOLUS G SEABRO


E YULEE
B ZEPHYR
B ZOLFO
G ZUBER


5


X
A
D
X


















Table 3. CRIFF recommendations for fertilization of pine at midrotation or after
thinning for longer rotations.


2/ 2/
Soil 1T/ Probability- Volume Gain-
Treatment-
Group of Response 3/Ac/Yr
Ft- /Ac/Yr


A 150 lbs. N, 50 lbs. P/A 100% 45 to 75

B 150 Ibs. N, 50 Ibs. P/A 90% 20 to 60

C 150 Ibs. N, 50 Ibs. P/A 75% 25 to 55

D 150 Ibs. N, 50 Ibs. P/A 75% 45 to 90

E 150 Ibs. N, 50 Ibs. P/A 90% 30 to 50

F 150 Ibs. N, 50 Ibs. P/A 50% 10 to 40

G Fertilizer not recommended

3/s. N, 50 bs. P/A 75% 20 to 60
F- 150 lbs. N, 50 lbs. P/A 75% 20 to 60


1/There is little indication that the source of N and P is very
determining the growth response. Therefore, the most economical source
applied nutrient) should be selected.

2/
/ Estimated from over 50 CRIFF and North Carolina State Forest
Cooperative trials with slash, loblolly and sand pine.


important in
(in terms of


Fertilization


-/Limited research data from Florida are available for fertilization of high organic
soils. The recommendations provided are based primarily on the results of experiments
installed in pocosins of North Carolina.


6


















Table 4. CRIFF recommendations for pine at or near the time of planting.


2/ 2/
Soil 1/ Probability- Volume Gain-
Treatment-
Group of Response Ft3//Ac/Yr



A 50 Ibs. P/A 100% 50 to 75

B 50 lbs. P/A 90% 20 to 40

C Fertilizer not recommended 7515 to 30

C Fertilizer not recommended 75% -5 to 15

E Fertilizer not recommended 75% -5 to 15

E Fertilizer not recommended 25% -5 to 15

F Fertilizer not recommended 50% -5 to 5

H Fertilizer not recommended 50% -5 to 5
H Fertilizer not recommended 25% -5 to 30



1/
- There is little indication that the source of P is very important in determining the
growth response. Therefore, the most economical source (in terms of applied nutrient)
should be selected.

2/
- Estimated from over 40 CRIFF trials with slash, loblolly, and sand pine.

-/The probability of response and volume gain information for the C through H soils is
what one might expect from an application of 50 Ibs. P/A.


7











If a user finds information that is incomplete or incorrect please contact:

Duane Dippon Mitch Flinchum Ken Munson
(904) 392-1850 (904) 392-5420 (904) 392-1850

School of Forest Resources and Conservation
118 Newins-Ziegler Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

The operation of each module of this program is shown in Figures 1 and 2. The
instructions on how to use the program are included in the section Program Operation.
The material that appears on the screen is highlighted.


8



























INPUT


OUTPUT


WANT RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR ANOTHER SITE?
NOI


OUT


Figure 1. Flow Chart for Site Preparation and Planting


9



























OUT WANT TO OUT
CONTINUE? NO
YES

ENTER AGE CLASSES
INPUT 1. EARLY IN ROTATION
2. MID-ROTATION
3. LATE IN ROTATION
1 OR 2 3

INPUT ENTER SOIL SERIES


OUTPUT RECOMMENDATIONS


WANT RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR ANOTHER SITE? YES



OUT











Figure 2. Flow Chart for Forest Fertilization


10











PROGRAM OPERATION


Signing on to the Computer

The program is designed for the VAX computing system manufactured by the Digital
Equipment Corporation (DEC) but is not limited to DEC equipment. A computer terminal
with telephone hookup (acoustic coupler) is required. If peripheral equipment such as
hard copy printer are used, then the signal transmission type between terminal and
printer must be compatible (serial or parallel).

Before using the terminal an account must be established with the Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) Extension Computer Network in Gainesville.

Use the following procedure to access the VAX computer:

1. Set the terminal to FULL DUPLEX.

2. Set the modem to FULL DUPLEX.

3. Dial (904) 392-5750 (for high-speed or 1200 baud terminals) or 392-5760 (for
low-speed or 300 baud terminals) to access the IFAS VAX computer.

4. When the "READY" light appears on the coupler, press the terminal's carriage
return (CR). The computer will respond "USERNAME" to which you will type
your User's name (usually 3 letters) and press (CR).

5. The computer will respond "PASSWORD" to which you will type your password and
press (CR).

6. When you see the message "WELCOME TO VAX/VMS..." you are signed on to the
IFAS VAX system successfully.

7. You should now see a "$" at the left margin of the bottom line on the
terminal screen or printer. To the right of the "$" is a blinking cursor
character. You now type "MENU" to access the IFAS Computer Network Menu
System.

8. The Forestry Information System (FORINSY) is listed as program #9 on the main
IFAS menu. After the instruction "PROGRAM NUMBER:" appears on your terminal
type in "9." The Silvicultural Practices program is one portion of FORINSY.

9. The computer responds to your selection by listing 5 options as illustrated
below to assist you with the program. You should type in "102" after the
prompt "PROGRAM OPTION" to execute the Forestry Information System. You will
be ready to select the Silvicultural Practices program after proceeding
through the preliminary menu.


11



































Preliminary Menu

The preliminary menu aids the School of Forest Resources and Conservation (SFRC)
in identifying the users of the programs. The preliminary menu is described by the
following:



Forestry Information System V1.L1
(FORINSY)

Have you used FORINSY before?

1. -- First-time FORINSY user.
2. -- Used FORINSY before.

Enter choice =



If you have used FORINSY before type "2" but if this is your first experience then
type "1" which will request the following information:



Forestry Information System (FORINSY)

Please introduce yourself by typing in the following information

LAST NAME:
FIRST NAME (OR INITIALS):
STREET (OR MAILING) ADDRESS:
CITY:
STATE:
ZIP CODE:


12


The programs you can run are:

100) DONE Goes back to program name

101) HELP Prints this message

102) EXECUTE Run the program

103) ABSTRACT A short abstract will be typed

104) INSTRUCTIONS How to run the program

ENTER a CTRL/Y to go back to the main menu

Program option:


r __












The user should supply the requested information on each line. By pressing (CR),
the computer moves to the next line until the "ZIP CODE" is supplied. The computer
then reprints your input along with the date and asks if everything is correct.


The user chooses the appropriate response: "1" to continue processing, "2" to
retype the information correctly and "3" to exit the program. After successfully
supplying this information the user will be provided an explanation of why these facts
are collected after which the user will press (CR) to call up the main FORINSY menu.

The Main Menu Forestry Information System


The main menu offers a selection of different programs relating to forestry.
following information will be displayed on the screen:


The


The user must select an option by typing in the menu number of the desired program
followed by a carriage return. To begin the Silvicultural Practices program, enter the
number "6," press carriage return (CR), and the following options are shown:


13


Forestry Information System V1.L1
(FORINSY)

Choose:

1. -- Exit.
2. -- Forestry Investment.
3. -- Volumes and Yields.
4. -- Products, Markets, and Prices.
5. -- Forestry Management Assistance.
6. -- Silvicultural Practices.
7. -- Wildlife Management.
8. -- Range Management.
9. -- Forest Pest Management.
10. -- Forest Water Management.
11. -- Identification of Pines.
12. -- Wood for Energy.

Enter Choice:























If the user chooses option "2," the following is displayed:


A response of NO to this question would merely bypass the description.


Pine trees, the most commercially important forest crop in Florida, tend to
constitute a fire subclimax ecosystem. The southern pines are basically intolerant of
shade and are most effectively regenerated on a clean site free of competing
vegetation.

Site preparation for pine in Florida commonly consists of the disposal of logging
slash, competing vegetation and other impediments by mechanical equipment, and if
necessary, prescribed burning. It may also include treatment of the mineral soil by
ditching to improve drainage, and by fertilizing to correct nutrient deficiencies.

To receive recommendations on site prep and planting, you need to know the soil
series predominant on the site. Do you have this information at your disposal?
YES


The user may not proceed in the program without the soil series. The soil series
may be found in the Soil Conservation Service's Soil Survey map. If the user's area
has not been mapped, he will need to consult with the nearest SCS office or his local
extension agent. An answer of "NO" sends the user back to the Silvicultural Practices
menu. A "YES" answer yields the following:


Enter the appropriate soil series by name.
Be sure your spelling is correct.
LEON
L


14


Choose:

1. -- Exit
2. -- Site Preparation and Planting
3. -- Fertilizer Treatments

Enter choice = A.


The program now determines which CRIFF group Leon fine sand fits into and lists
its recommendations.











f


If the user does not choose to view the glossary and answers "NO," the following
options are given:


If the user chooses to view the glossary and answers "YES," the following example
glossary is shown:


15


PRELIMINARY RECOMMENDATIONS

SPECIES IN ORDER OF PREFERENCE:
Slash
Loblolly if adequate phosphorus is applied
Longleaf on better drained D soils

LIMITATIONS FOR HARVEST CUTTING:
Full tree harvest may reduce residual fertility

WATER CONTROL NEEDS:
Access drainage beneficial but not mandatory for DC 0
Unnecessary for Drainage Class 1-2;
Silvicultural drainage beneficial for DC 0
but not mandatory; Unnecessary for Drainage Class 1-2

SITE PREP RECOMMENDATION:
Chop, bed, plant or
Chop, disc, bed

Would you like a glossary of site prep practices?


Choose:

A. Review the Recommendations for this Soil Series
B. Get Recommendations for Another Soil Series
C. Leave this Program

Enter a letter:


GLOSSARY OF SITE PREP PRACTICES:

Chop: a site prep practice in which undesirable vegetation and debris is crushed
by a rotary drum adorned with blades and pulled by a bulldozer or skidder.

Double chop: modification of ordinary or single chop whereby two rotary drums are
pulled by a bulldozer or skidder. Chopper blades on each drum act in tandem.

Disc: a site prep practice in which surface soil is loosened by several array of
curved discs on a trailer device pulled by a bulldozer, skidder, or tractor.












After the entire glossary has been shown the user is given the following options:



Choose:

A. Review the Recommendations for this Soil Series
B. Get Recommendations for Another Soil Series
C. Leave this Program

Enter a letter:



A selection of "A" in this portion of the program merely redisplays the
recommendations. "B" will begin the site preparation program again. "C" will take the
user back to the Silviculture menu, where the fertilization treatments exercise may be
selected by choosing "3."


Choose:

1. -- Exit
2. -- Site preparation and planting
3. -- Fertilizer Treatments

Enter choice = 3



The following introduction is displayed:
F-------------------


The carriage return is pressed to continue the following introduction:


16


FOREST FERTILIZATION

Many Florida soils lack sufficient nutrients for optimum tree growth under intensive
management systems. Research conducted by the Cooperative Research in Forest
Fertilization (CRIFF) program at the University of Florida indicates that fertilizers
can significantly increase tree growth on many of these soils. The nature of the
growth response is largely dependent on soil conditions and stand age.

The practical considerations of forest fertilization include (A) which nutrient to
apply, (B) what source of nutrient to use, (C) how much nutrient to apply, (D) where to
apply the fertilizer, (E) when to apply the fertilizer, and (F) what sites to
fertilize. These topics will be addressed in this program.

The recommendations offered in this program were developed primarily from field
experiments and operational experience with slash pine, but they have application for
loblolly pine, longleaf pine and sand pine. Pine species is not as important as soil
type and stand age in determining a practical fertilizer strategy.

Please press RETURN.













Consistent growth responses have been obtained with nitrogen and phosphorus. At
the present time, we do not have enough information to consistently identify sites that
are responsive to potassium and micronutrient fertilizers.

All fertilizer recommendations herein were developed by CRIFF program personnel.

In order to obtain fertilizer recommendations for your stand, you will need to
know (1) the predominant soil series on the site, and (2) the approximate age of your
stand. Do you have this information?
(Type yes or no):


If the user answers "NO," FERT offers suggestions for obtaining the necessary
information. If (1) or both (1) and (2) are unknown, the user is returned to the
Silvicultural Practices menu. If only (2) is unknown, the user has the option to
continue if the age class of the stand can be ascertained.

Once it is established that the user has the appropriate input information, the
program can proceed.

Suppose you are interested in a midrotation (age 18) treatment for a stand on an
Apopka sand (Grossarenic Paleudult). Input proceeds as follows:


APOPKA


The program determines that the CRIFF group for the Apopka series is F
(coarse-textured uplands soils), whereupon the CRIFF recommendations for semi-mature
stands on F soils are generated.


17


Select the age class of your stand:


1. Early in rotation age 0-8
2. Mid-rotation age 9-25; 7+ years before harvest
3. Late in rotation age 25+; 0-4 years before harvest

Enter 1, 2, or 3 (or 0 to exit): 2

Enter the name of your soil series.
Be sure your spelling is correct!











Recommended sources of nitrogen:


Urea
Ammonium sulfate
Ammonium nitrate


111-333
238-714
150-450


Recommended sources of phosphorus:

Ground rock phosphate
Concentrated superphosphate
Diammonium phosphate


Ibs/acre,
Ibs/acre, or
Ibs/acre.


565 Ibs/acre,
257 lbs/acre, or
250 Ibs/acre.


Best time for application is in early spring.

The decision of which source to use should be based on the lowest current cost per unit
of applied nutrient.

These materials may be broadcast or banded.

Please press RETURN.


By answering "YES," the user is sent back to the input statements.


By answering "NO," the user is sent to the Silvicultural Practices menu and given the
opportunity to exit to the FORINSY menu.

/c*,-------------------------- -

Forestry Information System V1.L1
(FORINSY)

Choose:

1. -- Exit.
2. -- Forestry Investment.
3. -- Volumes and Yields.
4. -- Products, Markets, and Prices.
5. -- Forestry Management Assistance.
6. -- Silvicultural Practices.
7. -- Wildlife Management.
8. -- Range Management.
9. -- Forest Pest Management.
10. -- Forest Water Management.
11. -- Identification of Pines.
12. -- Wood for Energy.

Enter choice =


18










If an exit is chosen by entering a "1," an exit from the FORINSY subsystem begins.
The exit is completed when the IFAS VAX computer system asks for a program number.
This number refers to the original VAX main menu seen earlier, which provided the
access to FORINSY and several other options. If no other option is desired, entering
"O" will cause the user to leave the main menu and go directly into the operating
system. This is signified by a "$" on the left side of the screen or page.


Program number:



$


The user can either go to other programs within the IFAS VAX operating system or
enter "Lo" to log off the host computer. At this point the signal is lost and the
equipment can be turned off.

In conclusion to this silvicultural practices module it is appropriate to repeat
the closing statements from the Introduction:

*The user, either alone or with professional assistance, should evaluate the
alternatives that are available and determine those options that are the most practical
and economical.

*The CRIFF recommendations are intended to serve as guidelines, rather than hard
and fast rules. Any recommendation from this program should be combined with an
on-site examination. If your desire is to get. the greatest return on your input
dollar, it is important to consider all unique site and stand conditions prior to
deciding on and/or implementing any silvicultural prescriptions.



BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bengtson, G.W. 1979. Forest fertilization in the United States: progress and
outlook. J. For. 77:222-229.

Burns, R.M., and Hebb, E.A. 1972. Site preparation and reforestation of drought,
acid sands. USDA Handbk. 426. 61 p.

CRIFF. 1982. Guide to classification and management of southeastern coastal plain
forest soils. Comerford, N.B., and Mollitor, A.V., editors. Univ. Fla.,
Gainesville. 85 p.

Fisher, R.F. 1981a. Soils interpretations for silviculture in the southeastern
coastal plain. Pg. 323-330 in: Proc. First Biennial Southern Silviculture
Research Conference, Atlanta, Ga., 1980. Barnett, J.P., editor. USDA For. Serv.
Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-34.

Fisher, R.F. 1981b. Productivity in Florida's third forest. J. For. 79:613-615.

Fisher, R.F., and Pritchett, W.L. 1982. Slash pine growth response to different
nitrogen fertilizers. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 46:133-136.


19










Haines, L.W., Maki, T.E.., and Sanderford, S.C. 1975. The effects of mechanical site
preparation treatments on soil productivity and tree (Pinus taeda L. and Pinus
elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii) growth. Pg. 379-395 in: Forest soils and
forest land management. Bernier, B., and Winget, C., editors. Laval Univ. Press,
Quebec.

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