Title Page
 To help you
 Man and his resources
 A better way - IPM
 The tools of IPM
 Reasons for using an IPM progr...
 How does an IPM program work?
 IPM already in use

Title: Pest management: where to start
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027994/00001
 Material Information
Title: Pest management: where to start
Series Title: Florida Cooperative Extension Service circular 548
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Boyles, C. A.
Affiliation: University of Florida -- Florida Cooperative Extension Service -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida,
Publication Date: 1983
Spatial Coverage: North American -- United States of America -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027994
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    To help you
        Page 4
    Man and his resources
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    A better way - IPM
        Page 8
        Page 9
    The tools of IPM
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Reasons for using an IPM program
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    How does an IPM program work?
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    IPM already in use
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
Full Text

Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension

By: Carolee Boyles, 4-H IPM Coordinator, Florida 4-H Department, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611.
Revised and edited by: Richard W. Gleason, Adjunct Assistant Florida 4-H Department, IFAS, University of Florida.
Principal investigators: Dr. James C. Northrop, Extension 4-H Youth Specialist, Florida 4-H Department and Dr. Philip G. Koehler,
Extension Entomologist, Department of Entomology and Nematology, IFAS, University of Florida.
Karen McFadyen and lane Wells provided the illustrations for
this publication.

This publication was developed through educational grants provided by the United States Department of Agriculture, Florida Power
and Light, and the Center for Environmental and Natural Resources, IFAS.
We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Dr. John Strayer, Professor of Entomology, and various extension specialists, IFAS, for
reviewing this publication.


Pest Management: Where to Start
C. A. Boyles


To Help You user chooses one or several ways to manage
As you use this publication, watch for words the pest.
written in italics. Look in the glossary in the Most pesticides are made from the same
back for an explanation of these words. materials as gas and oil. Gas and oil are also
used to apply pesticides. Through IPM, wiser
Statement of Purpose use of pesticides helps to save energy.
The purpose of this book is for you to learn
In the 1960's and 1970's, people began to the basic ideas of IPM. You should be able to
worry about the harmful effects of pesticides manage pests safely, with less energy and lower
and other poisons. Pesticides are needed to costs.
manage many pests of man, his crops and For more information check these
animals. To help protect soil, water and air (the publications available from your County
environment), man no longer uses some Extension Agent:
pesticides. All About Pests Circular 543
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an Using Natural Enemies to Manage Pests -
effective, but less harmful way of managing Circular 547
pests of all kinds. An IPM user looks at the Spraying Away Pests Circular 544
whole picture the pest, the host, and the Plants Protected from Pests Circular 546
environment. Then following IPM methods, the The ABC's of IPM Circular 549


Man and His Resources
resources that we do. They are competitors
To survive, we depend on earth's natural with us and our efforts to grow food.
resources. These resources include water, air, Weeds are plants growing in the wrong
soil and green plants. place. They use the same soil, sunlight,
Many other living things use the same nutrients and water that our crops need.

I. /

Animals, including insects, eat our buildings,
food and clothing.

Nematodes are tiny organisms that live in the
soil. They damage and destroy many valuable
ornamental and food plants.

-.. .-

Diseases also harm map, animals and plants.

These harmful competitors are called pests. that certain chemicals will kill pests. These are
To protect natural resources we must manage called pesticides. Many pesticides have been
pests. Man learned more than 100 years ago developed, and they are used in many ways.
They are used on crops. This helps farmers
produce more and better crops.

Pesticides are also used to control insects and
animals that damage our houses and structures.


Pesticides are used to kill insects that carry What actually happens when a pesticide is
diseases. This helps reduce the number of used? Suppose we spray corn with an
people who become sick and die from these insecticide. When we do, one of three things
diseases. might happen. Some of the insecticide will hit
the corn. That's what we want. But some will
also go into the air. It may then travel for long
distances. Pesticides often end up where they
are not wanted. Some of the insecticide may
Also get on the soil. It then gets washed down
into the ground by rain. Eventually, it may end
up in a lake or stream. It may then be taken in
by fish and other life. Other animals then feed
on the fish and other life. Sometimes these
animals become sick or die from pesticides in
their food.

Pesticides are easy to buy. Many are also have been misused. Misuse has caused damage
effective and fast acting. For these reasons to people, animals and the environment.
pesticides have been used a lot. Also, pesticides

We need to remember that pesticides can be created some serious problems. Many people
both good and bad. We have received great have forgotten that there are other ways to
benefits from their use. But, we have also manage pests. Let's see how!


A Better Way IPM
IPM means Integrated Pest Management.
Integrated means using several methods of pest
management together.



Pest includes any living organism that we property, or our environment. Pests may be
regard as harmful, destructive, or annoying. insects, animals, weeds, nematodes, pathogens,
Pests affect us, our plants, our animals, our or other organisms.


Pest management is different from pest
control. Control implies killing all the pests.
This can be difficult and costly. Management
(O ~l- means limiting the numbers of pests, or limiting
the time or ways pests are harmful. Pesticides
may be used, but they are not the only tool
available to manage pests.

AlW pesLs i


IPM is the best approach to the problem of structures. The pests are the organisms causing
managing pests. It reduces the possibility of the damage. The environment is the
harm to people, animals, and the environment, surroundings of the pests and hosts.
The idea of IPM is to use many methods to It is important to remember that any changes
manage pests. Often IPM programs result in made to one part can affect the others. For
the use of less pesticide. example, the kind of plant (host) you can grow
There are three parts in an IPM system. They well depends on the kinds of pests in your area
are: and the time of year (the weather). The
1. The host weather affects how well the plant grows, and
2. The pest the kinds of pests that develop.
3. The environment
The host is what the pest damages. Hosts can
be people, plants, animals, materials, or


IPM can help reduce pollution. It can protect manage pests effectively, economically, and
the health of people and animals. Mostly, it can ecologically.

The Tools of IPM
An IPM program uses a number of methods
1to manage pests:
1. Mechanical methods These are the
simplest methods of pest management. You
may pick a tick off your dog, or slap a
mosquito. You may repair window screens to
keep flies out of the house. You would
probably pull weeds from your garden. These
are all mechanical methods of pest

2. Physical methods Physical methods prevents the growth of organisms in the food
include using heat, cold, humidity, light or that can make you sick. You can heat soil to kill
sound to manage pests. For example, you keep pathogens in it. This is done before you use it
food cold in the refrigerator or freezer. This for potted plants.

10/ /



3. Biological methods Biological
methods means using a beneficial organism to
manage an unwanted species. An example is
the use of cats or owls to catch mice around
barns. Ladybug beetles eat insects t at damage

to make the environment unfit for pests.
Cultural practices for agricultural crops include
row spacing and changing planting dates.
Other tools are fertilization, irrigation, crop
rotation, mulching, soil preparation, and
sanitation. Cultural practices you might use in
the home include regular washing of dishes
and emptying of garbage. This is sanitation. It
helps reduce the number of cockroaches in the

a 0

"- 5. Host plant resistance methods Plant
breeders have developed many varieties of
plants. Some are resistant to damage by some



6. Regulatory methods Some laws INsPCTION
control the movement of plants and animals 5TATIOM
infested with certain pests. This helps to control
the spread of pests. Other laws call for [
programs to eradicate certain pests. This helps
to keep them from causing problems. -
Agricultural inspection stations on major
highways help to enforce these laws.
7. Chemical methods Chemical methods
include pesticides, repellants and attractants.
You probably have several containers of
pesticides in your home.

Reasons for Using an IPM Program
1. Acceptable management IPM can
provide acceptable management of pests by
relying on several practices. For example,
natural enemies, host resistance, cultural
methods and chemicals may all be used


2. Pesticide management IPM provides a
good-sense approach to pesticide use. It
increases pesticide effectiveness.

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3. Economical crop protection IPM
programs apply management measures only as
they are needed. This usually results in lower
costs of managing pests.
4. Reduced hazards IPM can decrease
the exposure of people and the environment to
pesticides. This reduces the chance of possible
harmful side effects.


5. Energy conservation IPM programs This energy comes from the use of fuels such as
can play an important role in conserving gasoline and diesel. Also, LP gas, natural gas,
energy. and electricity may be used.
Today's agriculture is a heavy user of energy.

V Vi V\J\J\1\ /


-^ y/S \ ( i \Z 7/w i \ '\

Typical farm operations like tillage, pesticide freeze protection all use energy. Much of the
spraying, fertilizing, planting, irrigation, and energy is from fossil fuels.

-----------------. ----------------------------

made from petrochemicals. fuels.
The transportation of agricultural materials,

.__ rr^ --



The supplies of these natural fossil fuels are altered. High energy use operations will
steadily decreasing. The use of synthetic fuels is change. IPM can help make this change.
increasing. This will help the problem, but will
not solve it. Synthetic fuels are very expensive How Does an IPM Program Work?
to make and use.
We must conserve energy. IPM programs can IPM is a six-step process.
reduce agricultural energy use by: Step 1. Identification Pests and beneficial
1. Using less pesticides (remember, most organisms must be identified before any pest
pesticides are made from petrochemicals). management is started. Other factors that must
2. Changing agricultural operations. Less be identified are:
use of tractors and other powered equipment Biological factors predators and
will help conserve energy. parasites
The energy saved can then be used Physical factors soil, slope and water
somewhere else to benefit society. Energy Environmental factors rainfall and
problems are likely to get worse in the future, temperature
The whole food production system may be

Step 2. Prevention Preventive practices
may be used to keep pest populations from
developing. These practices may include:
Land preparation
Use of pest resistant species
MA Y Timing of preventive methods
Protection of parasites and other natural


Step 3. Monitoring Pest populations are pests in a given area. This monitoring is usually
monitored (counted and watched) by scouts, done several times.
Scouts are workers who count the numbers of

Step 4. Prediction The information damage by pests. This information helps the
developed by scouting is important. user know what the losses and risks may be.
Monitoring information is used to predict

Step 5. Decision Using facts from the first Step 6. Evaluation Evaluating the IPM
four steps, a decision may be made to use a program as it is used lets the user see how well
management method or continue monitoring, the treatment is working. Evaluation continues
Decisions are made based on facts, throughout the IPM program.

Step 5. Decision Using facts from the first Step 6. Evaluation Evaluating the IPM
four steps, a decision may be made to use a program as it is used lets the user see how well
management method or continue monitoring, the treatment is working. Evaluation continues
Decisions are made based on facts. throughout the IPM program.


Who Benefits from IPM? by having a balanced and effective method to
manage pests. They also have reduced
1. Pesticide users Pesticide users benefit exposure to pesticides.

2. Fish and wildlife Living things benefit
by reduced exposure to pesticides.

3. Water, air, and soil Environmental
pollution is reduced.


4. Society Society as a whole benefits
from a cleaner environment.

IPM Already in Use you won't need to do anything about them -
just forget about them.
People have been using some IPM methods You have just practiced IPM! Remember the
for a long time. However, these methods have six step process? The first thing that you did was
recently been expanded and refined. Now to identify these ants. You also monitored
many crops (such as soybeans and peanuts) are (counted) the ant hills. You probably thought
grown using IPM methods. Identification and about the possible risks. Finally, you made the
preventive practices are being followed. Pests decision that no action was necessary now. But
are monitored. This and other information you may have to keep your eye on them.
helps IPM users make better decisions. The
results are good crops and a cleaner As you can see, IPM is being used. It is easy
environment, and natural for the homeowner. In farm
Homeowners also use IPM methods. Suppose situations, IPM can be very difficult and time
you walk out onto your lawn. You find a small consuming. But overall, IPM is still the best
mound of ants in a far corner. You then walk approach. It makes it possible to manage pests,
the rest of the way around the yard, but don't and help avoid serious environmental
find any more ants. You decide that these ants problems.
won't be a problem for you now. Therefore

1. Beneficial Organism A plant or animal 4. Economical, economically Avoiding
that helps control a pest species, or helps waste; thrifty; money-saving.
plants or animals in some way. 5. Effective, effectiveness, effectively -
2. Compete, competitors Two or more Producing the results wanted; working
plants or animals trying to use the same properly.
resource. Each one reduces the amount of 6. Environment Surroundings, including
the resource that the other one can use. anything that affects man, other animals or
3. Ecological, ecologically All relations plants.
between organisms and their environment. 7. Eradicate To abolish or completely get
Ecology -The study of animals and plants, rid of; to destroy.
and the way they interact with the 8. Exposure Coming in contact with.


9. Fossil fuels Naturally occurring fuels 21. Pollute, Pollution Similar to
such as crude oil or natural gas. They were contamination, but the term pollution
formed from the fossil remains of refers mainly to the environment.
prehistoric plants and animals. They are 22. Population A group of organisms, all of
refined into gasoline, diesel and the same species, that lives in an area. They
kerosene. are capable of reproducing.
10. Host Any plant or animal that shelters or 23. Predators Natural enemies that kill and
gives a home to a parasite or other natural eat pests. Predators are usually larger than
enemy, pests. Example: cat = predator, mouse
11. Humidity The moisture in the air. pest.
12. Infested Overrun with pests. 24. Repellant A chemical that an organism
13. Misused Used wrongly or improperly, does not like, and that drives the organism
14. Nematode A tiny worm-like organism away.
that lives in the soil and damages the roots 25. Resistant Withstanding attack; offering
of plants. Other kinds of nematodes may opposition to pests. Able to withstand
live in water, in animals, or in plants. infection or contamination. Resistance -
15. Nutrients Food; substances that promote the ability of a pest population to stay alive
growth and development in plants and after it has been treated with a pesticide.
animals. 26. Resources Something that a plant or
16. Organisms Living things, includes all animal needs. Resources include water,
animals and plants. food, oxygen (for animals), carbon dioxide
17. Parasite An animal or plant that lives on (for plants), and many other things.
or in another organism from which it gets 27. Sanitation Keeping clean. Removing
food and shelter. In IPM, a natural enemy unhealthy or dirty materials.
that kills pests. Parasites are usually smaller 28. Species One kind of plant or animal; a
than the pests. Example: fly maggots eating group of plants or animals that are alike.
large caterpillars. Man is one species. Dogs are one species.
18. Pathogen Very tiny organism that causes One species may have different varieties.
a disease. The three types of pathogens are For instance, German Shepherd and
fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Doberman are varieties of dogs.
19. Pest An organism that hurts something 29. Synthetic Artificially produced by man.
or is bad for something that belongs to Man-made. Example: alcohol for gasohol is
man. A pest may be an insect, a plant, an produced from corn. Nitrogen fertilizer can
animal, a disease, or any other kind of be man-made from chemicals.
organism. 30. Weed A plant that is growing in the
20. Pesticides Poisons that are used to kill wrong place. To a farmer, a flower in the
organisms that man regards as pests. middle of a cornfield may be a weed. To a
Insecticides kill insects. Herbicides kill home gardener, the same flower may not
plants. Fungicides kill fungi, be a weed at all, but a very desirable plant.


This publication was promulgated at a cost of $1,007.65, or 44 cents per copy, to inform Florida residents
about IPM (Integrated Pest Management). 5-2.3M-83

SCIENCES, K. R. Tefertiller, director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this Infor-
mation to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educa- F
tional Information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or
national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Florida
residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers Is available from
C. M. HInton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this
publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.

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