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Aunt Charlotte's stories of French history for the little ones

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Title:
Aunt Charlotte's stories of French history for the little ones
Added title page title:
Aunt Charlotte's French history
Creator:
Yonge, Charlotte Mary, 1823-1901
Marks, Henry Stacy, 1829-1898 ( Illustrator )
Marcus Ward & Co
Royal Ulster Works
Place of Publication:
London
Belfast
Publisher:
Marcus Ward & Co. ;
Marcus Ward & Co.
Royal Ulster Works
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1875
Language:
English
Physical Description:
ix, 286, [6] p., [14] leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 17 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Kings and rulers -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- France ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1875 ( rbgenr )
Biographies -- 1875 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1875
Genre:
Publishers' catalogues ( rbgenr )
Biographies ( rbgenr )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
collective biography ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Northern Ireland -- Belfast
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Added t.p. and frontispiece printed in colors from a water-color by H.S. Marks.
General Note:
Publisher's catalogue precedes and follows text.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Charlotte M. Yonge.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
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60551858 ( OCLC )
027030629 ( AlephBibNum )

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AUNT CHARLOTTE’S

Pyaar) be ELS TO RY,









FUST PUBLISHED

BY TBE SAME AUTHOR

Aniform with “ Stories of Srench Pistory”’

UNT CHARLOTTE’S Stories of English History for

the Little Ones. In Fifty easy Chapters, with a Frontispiece in Colors by H.

Stacy Marks, A.R.A.; a Half-page Picture to each Chapter, and an Illuminated

Title-page. New Edition, with Questions. Square Octavo, Cloth Extra, Bevelled
Boards, Gilt Edges. Price 6/-

UNT CHARLOTTE’S Stories of Bible History for the

Little Ones. Three Readings and One Picture for each Sunday in the Year,

with an Illuminated Title-page and Frontispiece in Colors. Square Octavo, Cloth
Extra, Bevelled Boards, Gilt Edges. Price 6/—











INTERVIEW OF JOAN OF ARC WITH CHARLES VII.

FROM A WATER-COLOR BY HS MARKS,AR.A















for the J Et Sige: S
a Charlotte Me Vonge

Deora















AUNT CHARLOTTE'’S

STORIES OF

FRENCH HISTORY

FOR THE LITTLE ONES.

BY
CHARLOTTE M. YONGE,

AUTHOR OF ‘“‘THE HEIR OF REDCLYFFE,” ‘‘STORIES OF ENGLISH History,” &c.



Lonvon :

MARCUS WARD & CO., CHANDOS STREET, W.C.;
AND ROYAL ULSTER WORKS, BELFAST.

M.DCCC.LXXV.







PREFACE,



ef. fSHESE Stories on the History of France are meant

for children perhaps a year older than those on the
Es of England. They try to put such facts as
need most to be remembered in a comprehensible form,
and to attach some real characteristic to each reign;
though, in later political history, it is difficult to translate
the leading ideas into anything that can enter an
intellect of seven or eight years old. The gentleman
who, some time ago, recommended teaching history
backwards from our own time, could never have practi-
cally tried how much harder it is to make /a Charte or
the Reform Bill interesting to the childish mind, than
how King Robert fed the beggars or William Rufus
was killed by an arrow. Early history is generally
personal, and thus can be far more easily recollected
than that which concerns the multitude, who are indeed
everything to the philanthropist, but are nothing to the
child. Even the popular fairy tale has its princes and
princesses, and the wonder tale of history can only be
carried on in the infant imagination by the like dvamazzs
persone.

CHARLOTTE M. YONGE.
Nov. 17th, 1874.







CON Te Nt S,

el The Old Kelts. menutonteen sae
II.—The Roman Conquest. B.C. 67—A.D. 79
III.—The Conversion of Gaul. 100—400
IV.—The Frank Kingdom. 450—533
V.—The Long-haired Kings. 533—681.
VI.—Carl of the Hammer. 681
VII.—Carl the Great. 768 5
VIII.—The Carlings. 814—887
IX.—The Counts of Paris. 887—987
X.—Hugues Capet. 987—997
XI.—Robert the Pious. 997—1031
Henry I. 1031—1060 . °
Philip I. 1060—1108 5 ;
XII.—Louis VI., Le Gros. 1108—1137
XIII.—Louis VII., The Young. 1037—1180
XIV.—Philip II., Augustus. 1180—1223
XV.—The Albigenses. 1190 | :
Louis VIII., The Lion. 1223—1226
XVI.—St. Louis IX. 1226 . , ;
XVII.—Philip III., The Hardy. 1271—1284
Philip IV., The Fair. 1284—1314 .
XVIII.—Louis X., Hutin. 1314—1316
Philip V., Le Long. 1316—1322
Charles I1V., Le Bel. 1322
Philip VI. 1350
XIX.—John. 1350—1364 5
XX.—Charles V. 1364—1380 5 5
XXI.—Charles VI. 1380—1396 i
XXII.—Burgundians and Armagnacs. 1415—1422





Contents.







CHAP,
XXIII.—Charles VII. 1422—1461 .
XXIV.—Louis XI. 1461—1483 .
XXV.—Charles VIII. 1483—1498
XXVI.—Louis XII. 1498—1515
XXVII.—Francis I.—Youth. 1515—1526
XXVIII.—Francis I.—Middle Age. 1526—1547
XX1IX.—Henry II. 1547—1559 .
XXX.—Francis II. 1559—1562
Charles IX. 1572
XXXI.—Charles IX. 1572—1574 .
XXXII.—Henry HI. 1574 5 . .
XXXIII.—Henry IV. 1589—1610 k
XXXIV.—Louis XIII. 1610—1643 4
XXXV.—Louis XIV.—Youth. 1643—1661
XXXVI.—Louis XIV.—Middle Age. 1661—1688
XXXVI1i.—Louis XIV.—Old Age. 1688—1715
XXXVIII.—Louis XV. 1715—1774 . - :
XXXIX.—Louis XVI. 1774—1793 : .
XL.—The Great French Revolution. 1792—1796
XLI.—Napoleon I. 1796—1814
XLII.—Louis XVIII. 1814—1824 3
XLIII.—Charles X. 1824—1830
XLIV.—Louis Philippe. 1830—1848
XLV.—The Republic. 1848—1852
XLVI.—The Second Empire. 1852—1870
XLVII.—The Siege of Paris. 1870—1871
XLVIII.—The Communists. 1871 .



PAGE
159
165
171
177
183
190
196

202

209
215
221
227
233
239
245
251
257
263
270
277
283
288

294
300
306
312



LISF OF 1ELUSt wes tiONs:



PAGE

Interview of Joan of Arc with Charles VII. (p.161) . Frontispiece.
The Messenger of the Arverni sent to the Roman Camp : 16
Long-haired King, with his Major Domi : 4 ; eh 4d
The little Duke of Normandy carried off by his Squire in a bundle
ofhay . 3 9 . 5 5 3 . 71
Philip Augustus at the Elm of Gisors . . : - 98
“Pope Boniface VIII. attacked in the Church. . ; 124
The Count of Flanders hiding in the Widow’s House $ - 149
Charles VIII. hearing the Causes of the Rich and Poor . . 175
Nobles and Calvinist . , 3 7 , " - 197
Henry IV. playing with his Children ° . , : 225
Louis XV. shown to the People , : . ° eel
Louis XVIII. at his Death charging Charles X. , i a 282
Barricades, 1848 5 - f . < - 294
















CHAP. I—THE OLD KELTS.

B.C. 150.

BEGAN the “History of England” with
Julius Czesar’s landing in Britain, and did not
try to tell you who the people were whom he
found there, for I thought it would puzzle you; but you
are a little older now, and can understand rather more.

You must learn that in the old times, before people
wrote down histories, Europe was overspread by a great
people, whom it is convenient to call altogether the
Kelts—fierce, bold, warrior people, who kept together
in large families or clans, all nearly related, and each
clan with a chief. The clans joined together and
formed tribes, and the cleverest chief of the clans would
lead the rest. They spoke a language nearly alike—
the,language which has named a great many rivers



















12 Stories of French Flistory.



and hills. I will tell you a few. Ben or Pen means
a hill. So we see that the Ap-Pen-nine mountains
were named by the Kelts. Again, Avon is a
river. You know we have several Avons. Ren
Avon meant the running river, and Rhine and
Rhone are both the same word, differently pronounced.
Sen Avon was the slow river—the Seine and Saone;
and Garr Avonwas the swift river—the Garonne. There
were two great varieties of Kelts—the Gael and the
Kymry (you should call this word Kewmri). The Gael
were the tallest, largest, wildest, and fiercest, but they
were not so clever as the black-eyed little Kymry. The
Kymry seem to have been the people who had the
Druid priests, who lived in groves of oak, and cut down
mistletoe with golden knives; and most likely they set
up the wonderful circles of huge stones which seem to
have been meant to worship in; at least, wherever those
stones are the Kymry have been. But we know little
about them, as all their knowledge was in verse, which
the Druids and bards taught one another by word of
mouth, and which was never written down. All we do
know is from their neighbours the Greeks and Romans,
who thought them very savage, and were very much
afraid of them, when every now and then a tribe set out
on a robbing expedition into the lands to the south.





The Old Kelts. 13



When the Kelts did thus come, it was generally be-
cause they were driven from their own homes. There
were a still fiercer, stronger set of people behind them,
coming from the east to the west; and when the Kelts
found that they could not hold their own against these
people, they put their wives and children into waggons,
made of wood or wicker work, collected their oxen,
sheep, and goats, called their great shaggy hounds, and
set forth to find new homes. The men had long
streaming hair and beards, and wore loose trousers of
woollen, woven and dyed in checks by the women—
tartan plaids, in fact. The chiefs always had gold
collars round their necks, and they used round wicker
shields, long spears, and heavy swords, and they were
very terrible enemies. When the country was free to the
west, they went on thither, and generally settled down
in a wood near a river, closing in their town with a
wall of trunks of trees and banks of earth, and setting
up their hovels within of stone or wood.

But if other clans whom theycould not beat were to the
west of them, they would turn to the south into Greece or
Italy, and do great damage there. One set of them,
in very old times, even managed to make a home in the
middle of Asia Minor, and it was to their descendants
that St. Paul wrote his Epistle to the Gal-atians.







14 Stories of French History.



Another great troop, under a very mighty Bran, or
chief, who, in Latin, is called Brennus, even broke into
the great city of Rome itself. All the women and
children of Rome had been sent away, and only a few
brave men remained in the strong place called the
Capitol, on the top of the steepest hill. There they
stayed for seven months, while the Bran and his Gauls
kept the city, drank up the wine in the long narrow
jars, and drove in the pale-coloured, long-horned oxen
from the meadow land round. The Bran never did get
into the Capitol, but the Romans were obliged to pay him
a great sum of money before he would go away. How-
ever, this belongs to the history of Rome, and I only
mean further to say, that the tribe who came with him
stayed seventeen years in the middle parts of Italy
before they were entirely beaten. When the Kelts
were beaten and saw there was no hope, they generally
came within the enclosure they had made with their
waggons, and slew their wives and children, set fire to
everything, and then killed themselves, that they might
not be slaves. All the north part of Italy beyond the
River Po was filled with Kelts, and there were many
more of them beyond the Alps. So it came about that
from the word Gael the Romans called the north of
Italy Gallia Cis-Alpina—Gaul on this side the Alps;







The Old Kelts. 15



and the country westward Gallia Trans-Alpina, or Gaul
beyond the Alps, and all the people there were known
as Gauls, whether they were Gael or Kymry.

Now, far up in Gaul, in the high ground that divides
the rivers Loire, Saone, and Rhine, there were rocks
full of metal, tin, copper, and sometimes a little silver.
The clever sailors and merchants called Phoenicians
found these out, and taught the Gauls to work the
mines, and send the metals in boats down the Rhone
to the Mediterranean sea. There is a beautiful bay
where Gaul touches the Mediterranean, and not only
the Phcenicians found it out, but the Greeks. They
came to live there, and built the cities of Marseilles,
Nice, Antibes, and several more. Lovely cities the
Greeks always built, with marble temples to their gods,
pillars standing on steps, and gardens with statues in
them, and theatres for seeing plays acted in the open
air. Inside these towns and close round them every-
thing was beautiful; but the Gauls who lived near
learnt some Greek ways, and were getting tamed.
They coined money, wrote in Greek letters, and bought
and sold with the Greeks; but their wilder brethren
beyond did not approve of this, and whenever they
could catch a Greek on his journey would kill him, rob
him, or make him prisoner. Sometimes, indeed, they









16 Stories of French Flistory.





threatened to rob the cities, and the Greeks begged the
Romans to protect them. So the Romans sent an
officer and an army, who built two new towns, Aix and
Narbonne, and made war on the Gauls, who tried to
hinder him. Then a messenger was sent to the Roman
camp. He was an immensely tall man, with a collar
and bracelets of gold, and beside him came a bard
singing the praises of his clan, the Arverni. There
were many other attendants ; but his chief guards were
a pack of immense hounds, which came pacing after
him in ranks like soldiers. He bade the Romans, in
the name of his chief Bituitus, to leave the country, and
cease to harm the Gauls. Tine Roman General turned
his back and would not listen; so the messenger went
back in anger, and the Arverni prepared for battle.
When Bituitus saw the Roman army he thought it so
small that he said, “This handful of men will hardly
furnish food for my dogs.” He was not beaten in the
battle, but just after it he was made prisoner, and sent
to Italy, where he was kept a captive all the rest of his
life, while his son was brought up in Roman learning
and habits, and then sent home to rule his clan, and
teach them to be friends with Rome. This was about
150 years before the coming of our Blessed Lord.










WN

\\\ |
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NN \ i‘









THE MESSENGER OF THE ARVERNI SENT TO THE ROMAN CAMP,

















CHAP. IIL—THE ROMAN CONQUEST.

B.C. 67.—A.D. 79.

EYSHE Romans called the country they had taken for

6 themselves in Gaul the Province, and Provence
has always continued to be its name. They filled it
with colonies. A colony was a city built by Romans,
generally old soldiers, who received a grant of land if
they would defend it. The first thing they did was to
set up an altar. Then they dug trenches the shape of
their intended city, marked out streets, and made little
flat bricks, everywhere after one pattern, with which
they built a temple, houses (each standing round a paved
court), a theatre, and public baths, with causeways as
straight as an arrow joining the cities together. Each
town had two magistrates elected every year, and a
governor lived at the chief town with a legion of the
army to keep the country round in order.

When the Romans once began in this way, they
always ended by gaining the whole country in time.





18 Stories of French History.



They took nearly a hundred years to gain Gaul. First
there came a terrible inroad of some wilder Kymry,
whom the Romans called Cimbri, from the west, with
some Teutons, of that fiercer German race I told you
of. They broke into Gaul, and defeated a great Roman
army; and there was ten years’ fighting with them
before the stout old Roman, Caius Marius, beat them
in a great battle near Aix. All the men were killed in
battle, and the women killed their children and them-
selves rather than fall into Roman hands. That was
B.C. 103; and Julius Cesar, the same who first came to
Britain, was nephew to Marius.

He did not conquer Britain, but he did really con-
quer Gaul. It would only confuse and puzzle you now
to tell you how it was done; but by this time many of
the Gaulish tribes had come to be friendly with the
Romans and ask their help. Some wanted help
because they were quarrelling with other tribes, and
others because the Germans behind them had squeezed
a great tribe of Kymry out of the Alps, and they wanted
to come down and make a settlement in Gaul. Julius
Cesar made short work of beating these new-comers,
and he beat the Germans who were also trying to get
into Gaul. Then he expected all the Gauls to submit
to him—not only those who lived round the Province,







The Roman Conquest. 19



and had always been friendly to Rome, but all the free
ones in the north. He was one of the most wonderful
soldiers who ever lived; and he did gain first all the
east side. He subdued the Belge, who lived between
the Alps and the sea, all the Armoricans along the
north, and then the still wilder people on the coast
towards the Atlantic ocean.

But while he was away in the north, the Gaulish
chiefs in the south agreed that they would make one
great attempt to set their country free from the enemy.
They resolved all to rise at once, and put themselves
under the command of the brave young mountain chief
of the Arverni, from whom Auvergne was named. The
Romans called his name Vercingetorix ; and as it really
was even longer and harder to speak than this word, we
will call him so. He was nota wild shaggy savage like
Bituitus, but a graceful, spirited chief, who had been
trained to Roman manners, and knew their ways of
fighting. All in one night the Gauls rose. Men stood
on the hill-tops, and shouted from clan to clan to rise
up in arms. It was the depth of winter, and Czesar
was away resting in Italy; but back he came on the
first tidings, and led his men over six feet deep of snow,
taking every Gallic town by the way.

Vercingetorix saw that the wisest thing for the Gauls

Nea





20 Stories of French Flistory.



to do would be to burn and lay waste the land them-
selves, so that the Romans might find nothing to eat.
“Tt was sad,” he said, “to see burning houses, but
worse to have wife and children led into captivity.” One
city, that now called Bourges, was left; the inhabitants
beseeched him on their knees to spare it; and it seemed
to be safe, for there was a river on one side and a bog
on all the rest, with only one narrow road across. But
in twenty-five days Cesar made his way in, and slew
all he found there; and then he followed Vercingetorix
to his own hills of Auvergne, and fought a battle, the
only defeat the great Roman captain ever met with ;
indeed, he was obliged to retreat from the face of the
brave Arverni. They followed him again, and fought
another battle, in which he was in great danger, and
was forced even to leave his sword in the hands of the
Gauls, who hung it up in a temple in thanksgiving to
their gods. But the Gauls were not so steady as they
were brave; they fled, and all Vercingetorix could do
was to lead them to a great camp under the hill of
Alesia. He sent horsemen to rouse the rest of
Gaul, and shut himself up in a great enclosure with his
men. Czesar and the Romans came and made another
enclosure outside, eleven miles round, so that no help,
no food could come to them, and they had only provi-





The Roman Conquest. 21



sions for thirty days. Their friends outside did try to
break through to them, but in vain; they were beaten
off; and then brave Vercingetorix offered to give him-
self up to the Romans, provided the lives of the rest of
the Gauls were spared. Czesar gave his word that this
should be done. Accordingly, at the appointed hour
the gates of the Gallic camp opened. Out came
Vercingetorix in his richest armour, mounted on his
finest steed. He galloped about, wheeled round once,
then drawing up suddenly before Czesar’s seat, sprang
to the ground, and laid his sword at the victor’s feet.
Czesar was not touched. He kept a cold, stern face ;
ordered the gallant chief into captivity, and kept him
for six years, while finishing other conquests, and then
took him to Rome, to walk in chains behind the car in
which the victorious general entered in triumph, with
all the standards taken from the Gauls displayed; and
then, with the other captives, this noble warrior, was
put to death in the dark vaults under the hill of the
Capitol.

With Vercingetorix ended the freedom of Gaul. The
Romans took possession of all the country, and made
the cities like their own. The old clans were broken
up. The fighting men were enlisted in the Roman
army, and sent to fight as far away as possible from





22 Stories of French History.



home, and the chiefs thought it an honour to be en-
rolled as Roman citizens; they wore the Roman tunic
and toga, spoke and wrote Latin, and, except among
the Kymry of the far north-west, the old Gaulish tongue
was forgotten. Very grand temples and amphitheatres
still remain in the Province of Roman building, especi-
ally at Nismes, Arles, and Autun ; and a huge aqueduct,
called the Pont du Gard, still stands across a valley
near Nismes, with 600 feet of three tier of arcades,
altogether 160 feet high. Roads made as only Romans
made them crossed hither and thither throughout the
country, and, except in the wilder and more distant
parts, to live in Gaul was very like living in Rome.
After Julius Cesar, the Romans had Emperors at
the head of their state, and some of these were very
fond of Gaul. But when the first twelve who had
some connection with Julius were all dead, a Gaul
named Julius Sabinus rose up and called himself
Emperor. Thereal Emperor, chosen at Rome, named
Vespasian, soon came and overthrew his cause, and
hunted him to his country house. Flames burst out of
it, and it was declared that Sabinus had burnt himself
there. But no; he was safely hidden in a cave in the
woods. No one knew of it but his wife Eponina and
one trusty slave, and there they lived together for nine







The Roman Conquest. 23



years, and had two little sons. Eponina twice left
him to go to Rome to consult her friends whether they
could obtain a pardon for her husband; but Vespasian
was a stern man, and they saw no hope, so she went
back disappointed ; and the second time she was
watched and followed, and Sabinus was found. He
was taken and chained, and carried to Rome, and she
and her two boys came with him. She knelt before
the Emperor, and besought his pardon, saying that here
were two more to plead for their father. Tears came
into Vespasian’s eyes, but he would not forgive, and
the husband and wife were both sentenced to die. The
last thing Eponina said before his judgment-seat was,
that it was better to die together than to be alive as
such an Emperor. Her two boys were taken care of,
and one of them lived long after in Greece, as far away
from his home as possible.







CHAP. III—THE CONVERSION OF GAUL.

A.D. 100-400.

(8 AUL could not be free in her own way, but the
OF truth that maketh free was come to her. The
Druids, though their worship was cruel, had better
notions of the true God than the Romans with their
multitude of idols, and when they heard more of the
truth, many of them gladly embraced it. The Province
was so near Rome that very soon after the Apostles
had reached the great city, they sent on to Gaul. The
people in Provence believe that Lazarus and his two
sisters came thither, but this is not likely. However,
the first Bishop of Arles was Trophimus, and we may
quite believe him to have been the Ephesian who was
with St. Paul in his third journey, and was at Jerusalem
with him when he was made prisoner. Trophimus
brought a service-book with him very like the one that
St. John the Evangelist had drawn up for the Churches
of Asia.







The Conversion of Gaul. 25



It was to Vienne, one of these Roman cities, that
Pontius Pilate had been banished for his cruelty. In
this town and in the larger one at Lyons there were
many Christians, and their bishop was Pothinus, who
had been instructed by St. John. It was many years
before the Gallic Christians suffered any danger for
their faith, not till the year 177, when Pothinus was
full ninety years old.

Then, under the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, a
governor was sent to the Province who was resolved
to put an end to Christianity. The difficulty was that
there were no crimes of which to accuse the Christians.
So he caused several slaves to be seized and put to
torture, while they were asked questions. There were
two young girls among them, Blandina and Biblis.
Blandina was a weak, delicate maiden, but whatever
pain they gave her, she still said, “I ama Christian,
and no evil is done among us.” Biblis, however, in
her fright and agony, said “ Yes” to all her tormentors
asked, and accused the Christians of killing babies, eat-
ing human flesh, and all sorts of horrible things. A fter-
wards she was shocked at herself, declared there was not
a word of truth in what she had said, and bore fresh and
worse torture bravely. The Christians were seized, The
old bishop was dragged through the streets, and so







26 Stories of French History.



pelted and ill-treated that after a few days he died in
prison. The others were for fifteen days brought out
before all the people in the amphitheatre, while every
torture that could be thought of was tried upon them.
All were brave, but Blandina was the bravest of all.
She did not seem to feel when she was put to sit on a red
hot iron chair, but encouraged her young brother through
all. At last she was put into a net and tossed by a
bull, and then, being found to be still alive, her throat
was pierced, everyone declaring that never had woman
endured so much. The persecution did not last much
longer after this, and the bones of the martyrs were
collected and buried, and a church built over them, the
same, though of course much altered, which is now the
Cathedral of Lyons.

Instead of the martyred Pothinus, the new bishop
was Irenzeus, a holy man who left so many writings
that he is counted as one of the Fathers of the Church.
Almost all the townsmen of Lyons became Christians
under his wise persuasion and good example, but the
rough people in the country were much less easily
reached. Indeed, the word pagan, which now means
a heathen, was only the old Latin word for a peasant
or villager. In the year 202, the Emperor Severus,
who had himself been born at Lyons, put out an edict









The Conversion of Gaul. 27



against the Christians. The fierce Gauls in the ad-
joining country hearing of it, broke furiously into the
city, and slaughtered every Christian they laid hands
upon, St. Irenzeus among them. There is an old
mosaic pavement in a church at Lyons where the in-
scription declares that nineteen thousand died in this
massacre, but it can hardly be believed that the
numbers were so large.

The northerly parts of Gaul were not yet converted,
and a bishop named Dionysius was sent to teach a
tribe called the Parisii, whose chief city was Lutetia,
on the banks of the Seine. He was taken in the year
272, and was beheaded just outside the walls on a hill
which is still known as Mont Martre, the martyr’s
mount, and his name, cut short into St. Denys, became
one of the most famous in all France.

The three Keltic provinces, Gaul, Spain, and Britain,
used to be put together under one governor, and the
brave, kindly Constantius ruled over them, and
hindered persecution as much as he could. His son
Constantine was also much loved, and it was while
marching to Italy with an army, in which were many
Gauls, to obtain the empire, that Constantine saw the
vision of a bright cross in the sky, surrounded by the
words, “In this sign thou shalt conquer.” He did









28 Stories of French Ffistory.



conquer, and did confess himself a Christian two years
later, and under him the Church of Gaul flourished.
Gallic bishops were at the great council of Nicea, in
Asia Minor, when the Nicene creed was drawn up,
and many beautiful hymns for Christian worship were
written in Gaul. :

After Constantine’s death, his son Constantius
fostered the false doctrine that the Nicene creed con-
tradicted. He lived at Constantinople, and dressed
and lived like an Eastern prince, and the Gauls were
growing discontented ; more especially as the Franks
—a terrible tribe of their Teuton enemies to the east—
were trying to break into their lands. A young cousin
of Constantius, named Julian, was sent to fight with
them. He fixed his chief abode in a little island in the
middle of the River Seine, at Lutetia, among his dear
Parisii, as he called the tribe around, and thence he
came out to drive back the Franks whenever they tried
to attack the Gauls. He was a very brave, able man,
but he had seen so much selfishness and .weakness.
among the Christians in Rome and Constantinople,
that he fancied their faults arose from their faith ;
and tried to be an old heathen again as soon as Con-
stantius was dead, and he became emperor. He only
reigned three years, and then, in the year 363, was





The Conversion of Gaut. 29



killed in a war with the Persians. Very sad times
followed his death. He was the last of his family,
and several emperors rose and fell at Rome. The
governor of Gaul, Maximus, called himself emperor,
and, raising an army in Britain, defeated the young
man who had reigned at Rome in the year 381, and
ruled the Keltic provinces for seven years. He was
a brave soldier, and not wholly a bad man, for he much
loved and valued the great Bishop Martin, of Tours.
Martin had been brought up as a soldier, but he was
so kind that once when he saw a shivering beggar he
cut his cloak into two with his sword, and gave the
poor man half. He was then not baptized, but at
eighteen he became altogether a Christian, and was
the pupil of the great Bishop Hilary of Poitiers. It was
in these days that men were first beginning to band
together to live in toil, poverty, and devotion in monas-
teries or abbeys, and Martin was the first person in
Gaul to form one, near Poitiers ; but he was called from
it to be Bishop of Tours, and near that city he began
another abbey, which still bears his name, Marmoutiers,
or Martin’s Monastery. He and the monks used to go
out from thence to teach the Pagans, who still
remained in the far west, and whom Roman punish-
ment had never cured of the old Druid ways. These









30 Stories of French History.



people could not learn the Latin that all the rest of the
country spoke, but lived on their granite moors as their
forefathers had lived four hundred years before. How-
ever, Martin did what no one else had ever done: he
taught them to become staunch Christians, though they
still remained a people apart, speaking their own tongue
and following their own customs.

This was the good St. Martin’s work while his
friend, the false Emperor Maximus, was being over-
thrown by the true Emperor Theodosius; and much
more struggling and fighting was going on among the
Romans and Gauls, while in the meantime the dreadful
Franks were every now and then bursting into the
country from across the Rhine to plunder and burn
and kill and make slaves.

St. Martin had finished the conversion of Gaul,
just before he died in his monastery at Marmoutiers,
inthe year 400. He died in time to escape the terrible
times that were coming upon all the Gauls, or rather
Romans. For all the southern and eastern Gauls
called themselves Romans, spoke nothing but Latin,
and had entirely forgotten all thoughts, ways, and
manners but those they had learnt from the Greeks
and Romans.





CHAP. IV—-THE FRANK KINGDOM.
A.D. 450-533.

EYSHAT race of people which had been driving the

, Kelts westward for six or seven hundred years
was making a way into Gaul at last; indeed, they had
been only held back by Roman skill. These were the
race which, as a general name, is called Teutonic, but
which divided into many different nations. All were
large-limbed, blue-eyed, and light-haired. They all
spoke a language like rough German, and all had the
same religion, believing in the great warlike gods,
Odin, Thor, and Frey, worshipping them at stone
altars, and expecting to live with them in the hall of
heroes after death. That is, all so called who were
brave and who were chosen by the valkyr, or slaughter-
choosing goddesses, to die nobly in battle. Cowards
were sent to dwell with Hela, the pale, gloomy goddess
of death.

Of course the different tribes were not exactly alike,





a2 Stories of French History.





but they all had these features in common. They had
lived for at least 500 years in the centre of Europe,
now and then attacking their neighbours, when, being
harassed by another fierce race who came behind them,
they made more great efforts. The chief tribes whose
names must be remembered were the Goths, who con-
quered Rome and settled in Spain; the Longbeards,
or Lombards, who spread over the north of Italy; the
Burgundians (burg or town livers), who held all the
country round the Alps; the Swabians and Germans,
who stayed in the middle of Europe; the Saxons, who
dwelt about the south of the Baltic, and finally con-
quered South Britain; the Northmen, who found a
home in Scandinavia; and the Franks, who had been
long settled on the rivers Sale, Meuse, and Rhine.
Their name meant Freemen, and they were noted for
using an axe called after them. There were two
tribes—the Salian, from the River Sale, and the
Ripuarian. They were great horsemen, and dreadful
pillagers, and the Salians had a family of kings, which,
like the kings of all the other tribes, was supposed to
descend from Odin. The king was always of this
family, called Meerwings, after Meerwig, the son of
Wehrmund, one of the first chiefs,

After the death of the great Theodosius, who had con-







The Frank Kingdom. 33
quered the false Emperor Maximius, there was no power
to keep these Franks back, and they were continually
dashing into Gaul, and carrying off slaves and plunder.
Even worse was the great rush that, in the year 450, was
made all across Europe by the Huns, a terrible nation
of another race, whose chief was called Etzel, or Attila,
and who named himself the Scourge of God. In 451,
he invaded Gaul with his army, horrible-looking men,
whose faces had been gashed by their savage parents
in their infancy, that they might look more dreadful.
It was worse to fall into their hands than into those of
the Franks, and everywhere there was terror. At
Lutetia there was a great desire to flee away, but
they were persuaded to remain by the holy woman,
Genoveva, She was a young shepherdess of Nanterre,
near Paris, who had devoted herself to the service of
God, and whose holy life made the people listen to her
as a kind of prophet. And she was right. The Huns
did not come further than Orleans, where the good
Bishop Lupus made the people shut their gates, and
defend their town, until an army, composed of Franks,
Goths, Burgundians, Gauls, all under the Roman
General Aétius, attacked the Huns at Chaldéns-sur-
Marne, beat them, and drove them back in 451.
Chaléns was the last victory won under the old Roman



Cc









34 Stories of French History.

eagles. There was too much trouble in Italy for Rome
to help any one. In came the Franks whenever they
pleased, and Hilperik, the son of Meerwig, came to
Lutetia, or Paris, as it was now called from the tribe
round it, and there he rioted in Julian’s old palace. He
had a great respect for Genoveva, heathen though he
was ; and when he came home from plundering, with
crowds of prisoners driven before him, Genoveva would
go and stand before him, and entreat for their pardon,
and he never could withstand her, but set them all free.
She died at eighty-nine years old, and St. Geneviéve,
as she was afterwards called, was honoured at Paris as
much as St. Denys.

Hilperik’s son was named Hlodwig, which means
loud or renowned war, but as the name is harsh,
histories generally name him Clovis. He wanted to
marry a Burgundian maiden named Clothilda, and as
she was a Christian, he promised that she should be |
allowed to pray to her God in the churches which still
stood throughout Gaul. When her first child was
born, she persuaded Clovis to let her have it baptised.
It died very soon, and Clovis fancied it was because
her God could not save it. However, she caused the
next child to be baptised, and when it fell sick she
prayed for it, and it recovered. He began to listen







The Frank Kingdom. | 35



more to what she said of her God, and when, soon after,
the Germans came with a great army across the Rhine,
and he drew out his Franks to fight with them at
Tolbiac, near Cologne, he was in great danger in the
battle, and he cried aloud, “Christ, whom Clothilda
calls the true God, I have called on my own gods, and
they help me not! Send help, and I will own Thy
name.” The Germans fled, and Clovis had the victory.

He kept his word, and was baptised at Rheims by
St. Remigius, with his two sisters, 3000 men, and
many women and children ; and as he was the first great
Teutonic prince who was a Catholic Christian, the
King of France, ever since his time, has been called the
Most Christian King and eldest son of the Church.
Clovis was the first Frank chief who really made a
home of Gaul, or who wore a purple robe and a crown
like a Roman emperor. He made his chief home at
Paris, where he built a church in the little island on the
Seine, in honour of the Blessed Virgin, measuring the
length by how far he could throw an axe; but, though
he honoured the Gaulish clergy, he was still a fierce
and violent savage, who did many cruel things. He
generally repented of them afterwards, and gave gifts
to churches to show his sorrow, and holy men were
about him when, in 511, he died at Paris.





36 Stories of French History.



His sons had all been baptised, but they were worse
men than he had been. The Frank kingdom was only
the north part of the country above the Loire. In the |
south, where the Romans had had possession so much
longer, and built so many more walled towns, the
Franks never really lived. They used to rush down
and plunder the country round about; but then the
townsmen shut themselves in, closed their gates, and
strengthened their walls, and the Franks had no
machines to batter the walls, no patience for a block-
ade, and went home again with only the spoil of the
country round; while in the Province people called
themselves Roman citizens still, and each place governed
itself by the old Roman law.

*Plenty of Gauls were in the northern part too,
speaking Latin still. They had to bear much rough
treatment from the Franks, but all the time their know-
ledge and skill made them respected. The clergy, too,
were almost all Gauls; and now that the Franks were
Christians, in name at least, they were afraid of them,
and seldom damaged a church or broke into a monas- —
tery. Indeed, if there was any good in a Frank, he
was apt to go into a monastery out of the horrid
barbarous ways of his comrades, and perhaps this left
those outside to be still worse, as they had hardly any


























The Frank Kingdom. 37



better men among them. The four sons of Clovis
divided the kingdom. ‘That is, they were all kings,
and each had towns of his own, but all a good deal
mixed up together ; and in the four chief towns—Paris,
Orleans, Soissons, and Metz—they all had equal shares.
Not that they really governed, only each had a strong
box filled with gold and jewels, and they always were
leaders when the Franks went out to plunder in the
southern lands of Provincia and Aquitaine. There
was another part the Franks never conquered, namely,
that far north-western corner called Armorica, which
Julius Czsar had conquered, and St. Martin had
converted last of all. The granite moors did not tempt
the Franks, and the Kymri there were bold and free.
Moreover, so many of their kindred Kymri from
Britain came over.thither for fear of the Saxons, that
the country came to be called from them Bretagne,
or Brittany, and the Kymric tongue is spoken there to
this day.
When Hlodmir, one of the sons of Claus, died, his
three little sons were sent to Paris to be under the care
of their grandmother, Clothilda. She was so fond of
them that their uncles, Hloter and Hildebert, were
afraid she would require that their father’s inheritance
should be given to them. So they asked her to send



38 Stories of French History.

the boys to them on a visit, and as soon as they arrived,
a messenger was sent to the Queen with a sword and
a pair of scissors, desiring her to choose. This meant
that she would choose whether the poor boys should be
killed, or have their heads shaven and become monks.
Clothilda answered that she had rather see them dead
than monks. So Hloter killed the eldest, who was
only ten, with his sword ; the second clung to Hildebert,
and begged hard for life, but Hloter forced his brother
to give him up, and killed him too; the third, whose
name was Hlodoald, was helped by some of the
bystanders to hide himself, and when he grew older,
he cut off his long hair, went into a monastery, and
was so good a man that he is now called St. Cloud.
This horrible murder happened about the year 533.







CHAP. V—THE LONG-HAIRED KINGS.
A.D. 533-681.

EYSHE Meerwings, or long-haired kings, were alto-
gether the most wicked dynasty (or race of kings)
who ever called themselves Christian. They do not
seem to have put off any of their heathen customs,
except the actual worship of Frey and Odin. They
murdered, plundered, and married numerous wives, just
as if they had been heathens still. Most likely they
thought that as Christ was the God of Gaul, He must
be honoured there; but they had no notion of obeying
Him, and if a Gallic bishop rebuked them, they only
plundered his church. By the Frank law, a murder
might be redeemed by a payment, and it was full twice
as costly to kill a Frank as to kill a Roman, that is
to say, a Gaul; for, except in the cities in the Province
and Aquitaine, this term of Roman, once so proud,
was only a little better than that of slave.
Out of all the Meerwing names, one or two have










40 Stories of French Hustory.



to be remembered above the rest for their crimes.
Hlother, the murderous son of Clovis, left four sons,
among whom the kingdom was, as usual, divided. Two
of these sons, Hilperik and Siegbert, wished for queenly
wives, though Hilperik, at least, had a houseful of wives
before, and among them a slave girl named Fredegond.
The two brothers married the two daughters of the
King of the Goths in Spain, Galswinth and Brynhild.
Siegbert seems to have really loved Brynhild, but
Hilperik cared for the beautiful and clever Fredegond
more than anyone else, and very soon poor Galswinth
was found in her bed strangled. Fredegond reigned
as queen, and Brynhild hated her bitterly, and con-
stantly stirred up her husband to avenge her sister’s
death. Siegbert raised an army and defeated Hilperik,
but Fredegond contrived to have him stabbed. She
also contrived to have all her husband’s other children
killed by different means, and at last, fearing he would
find out crimes greater than even he could bear with, she
contrived that he too should be stabbed when returning
from hunting, in the year 584. She had lost several
infants, and now had only one child left, Hloter II., a
few months old, but in his name she ruled what the
Franks called the Ne-oster-rik, the not eastern, or
western kingdom, namely, France, from the Saone








The Long-haived Kings. 4I







westward ;' while Brynhild and her son Hildebert ruled
in the Auster-rik, or eastern kingdom, from the Saone
to the Sale and Rhine. There was a most bitter hatred
between the two sisters-in-law. It seemsas if Fredegond
was of a wicked nature, and would have been a bad
woman anywhere. One’s mind shrinks from the
horrible stories of murder, treachery, and every sort of
vice that are told of her; but no outward punishment
came upon her in this world, and she died in 597 at
Paris, leaving her son, Hlother II., on the throne.
Brynhild often did bad things, but she erred more
from the bad times in which she lived than from her
own disposition. She tried, so far as she knew how, to
do good; she made friends with the clergy, she helped
the few learned men, she tried to stop cruelty, she tried
to repair the old Roman roads and bridges, and many
places are called after her—Queen Brynhild’s tower, or
stone, or the like—and she was very kind to the poor,
and gave them large alms. But she grew worse as
she grew older; she had furious quarrels with the
Frank chiefs, and when the Bishops found fault with
her she attacked them, and even caused the saintly
Bishop of Vienne to be assassinated. In her time there
came from Ireland a number of very holy men, Keltic
Christians, who had set forth from the monasteries to









42 Stories of French fustory.

convert such Gauls and Franks as remained heathen,and
to try to bring the rest to a better sense of what a Chris-
tian life was. St. Columbanus came into the Auster-
rik when Brynhild’s two grandsons, Theudebert and
Theuderick, were reigning there. Theuderick listened
willingly to the holy man, and was proceeding to put
away his many wives and mend his ways; but the old
Queen’s pride was offended, and she could not forgive
him for not allowing her to come into his monastery,
because no woman was permitted there. She stirred
up Theuderick to drive him away, whereupon he went
to. the Alps and converted the people there, who were
still worshippers of Odin. Soon after there was a fierce
quarrel between her two grandsons. Theuderick was
taken prisoner by his brother, and forced to cut his hair
and become a monk, but this did not save his life. He
was put to death shortly after, and his brother soon
after died; so that Brynhild, after having ruled in the
name of her son and grandsons, now governed for her
great-grandson, Siegbert, thirty-nine years after her
husband’s death. But she was old and weak, and her
foe, Fredegond’s son, Hlother, attacked her, defeated
her forces, and made her and her great-grandchildren
prisoners. The boys were slain, and the poor old
Gothic Queen, after being placed on a camel and led







The Long-haired Kings. 43

through the camp to be mocked by all the savage
Franks, was tied to the tail of a wild horse, to be
dragged to death by it! This was in 614.

Hlother thus became King of all the Franks, and so
was his son, Dagobert I., who was not much better as
a man, but was not such a savage, and took interest in
the beautiful goldsmith’s work done by the good Bishop
Eligius; and, somehow, his name has been more re-
membered at Paris than he seems properly to deserve.
In fact, the Franks were getting gradually civilized by
the Romanized Gauls—the conquerors by the con-
quered; and the daughters, when taken from their
homes, sometimes showed themselves excellent women.
It was Bertha, the daughter of King Haribert, the
murderer of his nephews, who persuaded her husband,
Ethelbert of Kent, to receive St. Augustine; and
Ingund, the daughter of Brynhild and Siegbert, was
married to a Gothic Prince in Spain, whom she brought
to die a martyr for the true faith,

Twelve more Meerwings reigned after Dagobert. If
they had become less savage they were less spirited,
and they hardly attended at all to the affairs of their
kingdoms, but only amused themselves in their rude
palaces at Soissons or Paris, thus obtaining the name
of Rots Fainéants, or do-nothing kings. The affairs of





Stories of French History.

the kingdom fell into the hands of the Major Domi, as
he was called, or Mayor of the Palace. The Franks, as
they tried to have courts and keep up state, followed
Roman patterns so far as they knew them, and gave
Roman names from the Emperor’s Court to the men in
attendance on them. So the steward, or Major Domi,
master of the household, rose to be the chief person in
the kingdom next to the king himself. The next
greatest people were called Comz¢es, companions of the
King, Counts; and the chief of these was the Master
of the Horse, Comes Stabulz, the Count of the Stable,
or, as he came to be called in the end, the Constable.
The leader of the army was called Dux, a Latin word
meaning to lead; and this word is our word Duke.
But the Mayor of the Palace under these foolish do-
nothing Meerwings soon came to be a much greater
man than the King himself, and the Mayor of the Palace
of the Oster-rik or Austrasia fought with the Palace
Mayor of the Ne-oster-rik or Neustria, as if they were
two-sovereigns. The Austrasian Franks stretched far
away eastward, and were much more bold and spirited
than the Neustrians, who had mixed a great deal with
the Gauls. And, finally, Ebroin, the last Neustrian
Mayor, was murdered in 681, the Neustrian army was
defeated, and the Austrasians beeame the most power-









HANAN
en

|



i
A
|
Nil
4

0 ae i ee

i



LONG-IIAIRED KING, WITH HIS MAÂ¥OR DOMI.





The Long-haived Kings. 45



ful. Their mayors were all of one family, the first of
whom was named Pepin of Landen. He was one of
Queen Brynhild’s great enemies, but he was a friend
of Dagobert I., and he and his family were brave
defenders of the Franks from the other German
nations, who, like them, loved war better than any-
thing else.





CHAP. XLVI.—THE SECOND EMPIRE.

1852-1870,
i? the beginning of the year 1852, the whole of the
French nation was called upon to decide by vote
whether they would form an empire again, or continue
to be a republic. Every man, rich or poor, who was

not a convict, had a vote; and the larger number decided
for the empire, and for Louis Napoleon Bonaparte as
the emperor. He considered himself as the successor
of his uncle, and therefore called himself Napoleon
III., counting the little child in whose favour the great
Bonaparte had abdicated at Fontainebleau as the
second Napoleon.

He married a Spanish lady of high rank, but not
royal, whose mother was Scottish. Her name was
Eugénie de Montijo, and she was one of the most
lovely women of her time. She was pious and kind-
hearted, and always ready to do anything good ; but it
was thought that the court would be more popular, and







The Second Empire. 301



trade prosper more, if an example was set of great
splendour and magnificence. So the ladies were en-
couraged to dress in a style of extravagance and
brilliancy, with perpetual changes of fashion ; and this,
as the Parisian dresses are always the models of those
‘of other countries, has led to much folly in all grades
of society everywhere. One son was born of this
marriage, who was called the Prince Imperial.

The emperor ruled with a strong hand, but he got
everything into order again, and he made Paris more
beautiful than ever, throwing down old narrow streets,
and building grand new ones, which, for the most part,
had asphalt pavement, so that there might be no paving-
stones to take up and make into barricades. He took
away a good many of the places to which old historical
remembrances were attached ; and it has never seemed
plain whether he did so for the sake of sweeping away
the old remembrances, or only because they stood in
the way of his plans.

The name the emperor wished to be called by was
the Napoleon of Peace, as his uncle had been the
Napoleon of War; but it was not always possible to
keep the peace. In the year 1853, just after he had
been crowned, the Russian emperor began to threaten
to conquer Turkey, and thereupon the French joined



302 Stories of French History.

with the English to protect the Sultan. The French
and English armies, both together, landed in Turkey,
and then made an expedition to the Crimea, where the
Russians had built a very strong fortified city named
Sebastopol, whence to attack the Turks. Marshal
Bugeaud was the French general, and, with Lord
Raglan, commanded in the great battle fought on the
banks of the Alma, and then laid siege to Sebastopol,
where again they fought a dreadful battle, when the
Russians sallied out, in the night of the 5th of
November, 1854, and attacked the camp at Inkerman.
All the winter and spring the siege lasted, the two
armies having much bitter cold to fear as they watched
in the trenches; but in the summer it was possible to’
assault the city, and while the English attacked the
Redan, the French attacked the Malakoff Tower, and
after much hard fighting this was taken. Then peace
was made, on condition that all the fortifications of
Sebastopol should be destroyed, and no fleet or army
kept there for the future.

Having thus been allies in war, England and France
became much greater friends, and Queen Victoria and
the emperor made visits to one another; and the trade
of the two nations was so mixed up together as to
make it much less easy to go to war, for the emperor







The Second Empire. 303



had a love and affection for England, which had been a
home to him in his days of exile.

The Italians were more uneasy and miserable than
ever under the rule of the Austrians, and begged Victor
Emmanuel, King of Sardinia, to help them, and become
an Italian king over them. Louis Napoleon gave
them his help, and went in person to Lombardy, where
the French and Italians defeated the Austrians at
Magenta and Solferino ; after which there was again a
peace, and Victor Emmanuel was owned as King of
Italy, on condition that, in return for the help he had
received, he should give to France the little province
of Nice, which had always been part of the dukedom
of Savoy, the old inheritance of his forefathers long
before they were kings, but which seemed as if it ought
to be a part of France. The Romans hoped that they,
too, should have shaken off the Papal government ;
but the guard of French soldiers was still maintained
at Rome.

Another undertaking of the emperor was to bring
Mexico into order. This country had been settled by
Spaniards, and belonged to Spain until it revolted; and
for many years there had been constant revolutions,
and very little law, so that it was full of outlaws and
robbers. Some of the better disposed thought that





304 Stories of French History.



they might do better if they set up a monarchy, and
the French promised to help them. The Archduke
Maximilian, brother of the Emperor of Austria, was
chosen, and went out, with his young wife Charlotte,
daughter of the King of Holland, and guarded by a
French army. But the Mexicans were much more
fierce and treacherous than had been expected; and
the French troops found that staying there only made
them more bitter, and it was costly to keep them there.
So they were brought home; and no sooner had they
left Mexico, than the Mexicans rose up, made their
emperor prisoner, and shot him, while his poor wife lost
her senses from grief. They were a good and noble
pair—true-hearted, and anxious to do right ; and theirs
is one of the saddest stories of our time.

The Emperor of the French had ruled prosperously
for a long time; but the burning hatred of the Red
Republicans was not quenched. His best advisers, too,
were growing old and dying, and his own health and
spirit were failing; but he was trying to teach the
people to rule themselves in some degree, instead of
expecting him to keep order with his power from
above. He was anxious to be sure of his son reigning
after him, and he put it to the vote all over France
whether the empire should be hereditary.








The Second Empire. 305





The vote was in his favour, and he seemed quite
secure. But at this time the Prussians had been
gaining great successes both against Denmark and
Austria, and the French were very jealous of them,
and expected a fight for some of the provinces that lie
along the Rhine. Just then, too, the Spaniards had
risen, and driven away Queen Isabella, who had not
ruled well; and they elected a cousin of the King of
Prussia to be their king. He never accepted the
Spanish crown, but the bare notion made the French
furious, and there was a great cry from the whole
nation that the pride of the Prussians must be put
down. The emperor saw his popularity was failing
him, and that his only chance was to please the people
by going to war. Nobody knew that the army had
been badly managed, and that it was quite changed
from what it was when it fought in Algiers and the
Crimea. Indeed, the French never think that anything
but victory can happen to them, so the army went off
in high spirits to meet the Prussians on the Rhine—
singing, shouting, drinking ; and the emperor took his
young son with him, and tried to seem as hopeful as
they did; but all who saw him near saw that he was
both ill and sad. This was in the summer of the year
1870.











CHAP. VI—CARL OF THE HAMMER.
A.D. 681.

GYSHE grandson of Pepin of Landen is commonly

called Pepin L’Heristal. He was Mayor of the
Palace through the reigns of four do-nothing Meer-
wings, and was a brave leader of the Franks, fighting
hard with their heathen neighbours on the other side of
the Rhine, the Saxons and Thuringians, along the
banks of the Meuse and Elbe; and not only fighting
with them, but helping the missionaries who came from
England and from Ireland to endeavour to convert
them. .

He died in 714, and after him came his brave son
Carl of the Hanger, after whom all the family are
known in history as Carlings. He was Duke of
Austrasia and Mayor of the Palace, over (one cannot
say under) Hlother IV. and Theuderick IV., and fought
the battles of the Franks against the Saxons and







Carl of the Hammer. 47



Frisians, besides making himself known and respected
in the Province and Aquitaine, where the soft Roman
speech softened his name into Carolus and translated
his nickname into Martellus, so that he has come down
. to our day as Charles Martel.

Whether it was meant that he was a hammer him-
self, or that he carried a hammer, is not clear, but
it is quite certain that he was the greatest man in
Europe at that time, and he who did her the greatest
benefit.

It was a hundred years since Mahommed had risen
up in Arabia, teaching the wild Arabs a strict law, and
declaring that God is but one, and that he was: His
prophet, by which he meant that he was a greater and
a truer prophet than the Lord Jesus Christ. He had
carried away many of the Eastern nations after him
and had conquered others. He taught that it was
right to fight for the spread of the religion he taught,
and his Arabs did fight so mightily that they overcame
the Holy Land and held the city of Jerusalem. Besides
this, they had conquered Egypt and spread all along
the north of Africa, on the coast of the Mediterranean
Sea; and thence they had crossed over into Spain, and
subdued the Christian Goths, all but the few who had
got, together in the Pyrenean Mountains and their





48 Stories of French Fistory.

continuation in the Asturias, along the coast of the
Bay of Biscay.

And now these Arabs—also called Saracens and
- Moors—were trying to pass the Pyrennees and make
attacks upon Gaul, and it seemed as if all Europe
was going to be given up to them and to become
Mahommedan. Abdul Rhaman, the great Arab
Governor of Spain, crossed the Pyrennees at the
Pass of Roncevalles, burst into Aquitaine, gained a
great battle near Bourdeaux, and pillaged the city,
which was so rich a place that every soldier was
loaded with topazes and emeralds, and gold was quite
common!

Then they marched on towards Tours, where the
Abbey of Marmoutiers was said to be the richest in all
Gaul. But by this time Carl of the Hammer had got
together his army; not only Franks, but Burgundians,
Gauls of the Province, Germans from beyond the
Rhine—all who willingly owned the sovereignty of
Austrasia, provided they could be saved from the
Arabs.

The battle of Tours, between Charles Martel and
Abdul Rhaman, was fought in the autumn of 752, and
was one of the great battles that decide the fate of the
world. For it was this which fixed whether Europe



Carl of the Hammer. 49

should be Christian or Mahommedan. It was a hotly-
fought combat, but the tall powerful Franks and
Germans stood like rocks against every charge of the
Arab horsemen, till darkness came on. The Franks
slept where they stood, and drew up the next morning
to begin the battle again, but all save the dead and
wounded Arabs were gone. They had drawn off in
the night, and the battle of Tours had saved Europe.
However, the Hammer had still to strike many blows
before they were driven back into Spain, and this
tended to bring the south of Gaul much more under
his power. Carl was looked upon as the great defender
of Christendom, and, as at this time the king of the
Lombards in Northern Italy seemed disposed to make
himself master of Rome, the Pope sent two nuncios, as
Pope’s messengers are called, to carry him presents,
among them the keys of the tomb of St. Peter, and to
beg for his protection. Still, great as he was in reality,
he never called himself more than Mayor of the Palace
and Duke of Austrasia, and when he died in 741, his
sons, Pepin and Carloman, divided the government,
still as Mayors, for the Meerwing Hilderick III. In
746, however, Carloman, weary of the world, caused his
head to be shaven by Pope Zacharias, and retired into
the great monastery of Monte Cassino, where, about a







50 Stories of French History.



hundred years before, St. Benedict had begun a rule
that became the pattern of most of the convents of the
west. Pepin, commonly called & éref, or the Short,
ruled alone, and in 751 he sent to ask Pope Zacharias
whether it would not be wiser that the family who had
all the power should bear the name of kings. The
Pope replied that so it should be. Hilderick was put
into a convent, and the great English Missionary-
bishop, St. Boniface, whom Pepin and his father had
aided in his work among the Germans, anointed Pepin
as King of the Franks at Soissons, and two years later,
the next Pope, Stephen II., came into Gaul again to
ask aid against the Lombards, and at the Abbey of St.
Denys’ anointed Pepin again, together with his two
young sons, Carl and Carloman. And so the Meer-
wings passed away, and the Carlings began.

Pepin was a great friend and supporter of St.
Boniface, who had been made Archbishop of Mayintz.
He did much by his advice to bring the Church of Gaul
into good order, and he was much grieved when the
holy man was martyred while preaching to the savage
men of Friesland. Pepin was constantly fighting with
the heathen Saxons and Germans to the east of him,
and he so far subdued them that they promised to send
300 horses as a present to the General Assembly ot





Carl of the Hammer. 51

Franks. To the north he had the old Gauls in Brit-
tany, who had to be well watched lest they should
plunder their neighbours; and to the south were the
Arabs, continually trying to maraud in the Province
and Aquitaine; while the Dukes of Aquitaine, though
they were quite unable to keep back the Moors without
the help of the Franks, could not endure their allies,
-and hated to acknowledge the upstart Pepin as their
master. These Dukes, though Teuton themselves,
had lived so long in the Roman civilization of the
southern cities, that they despised the Franks as rude
barbarians; and the Franks, on their side, thought them
very slippery, untrustworthy people.

Pepin was a great improvement in good sense,
understanding, and civilization on the do-nothing Meer-
wings, but even he looked on writing as only the
accomplishment of clergy, and did not cause his sons
to learn to write. Yet Pope Stephen was for a whole
winter his guest, and when the Franks entered Italy
and defeated Astolfo, King of the Lombards, Pepin
was rewarded by being made “Senator of Rome.”
Afterwards the Lombards attacked the Pope again.
Pepin again came to his help, and after gaining several
victories, forced King Astolfo to give up part of his
lands near Rome. Of these Pepin made a gift to



52 Stories of French History.

the Pope, and this was the beginning of the Pope’s
becoming a temporal sovereign, that is, holding lands
like a king or prince, instead of only holding a spiritual
power over men’s consciences as chief Bishop of the
Western Church.

Pepin died at the Abbey of St. Denys’ in the year
768. Do not call him King of France, but King of
the Franks, which does not mean the same thing.







CHAP. VII—CARL THE GREAT.
768.

(SARL and Carloman, the two sons of Pepin, at first
\)) divided the Frank domains; but Carloman soon
died, and Carl reignedalone. He is one of the mightiest
of the princes who ever bore the name of Great. Carl
der Grésse, the Franks called him; Carolus Magnus in
Latin, and this has become in French, Charlemagne ; and
as this is the name by which everybody knows him,
it will be the most convenient way to call him so here,
though no one ever knew him thus in his own time.
He was a most warlike king. When the Saxons
failed to send him 300 horses, he entered their country,
ravaged it, and overthrew an image or pillar near the
source of the Lippe, which they used as an idol, and
called Irminsul. Thereupon the Saxons burnt the
church at Fritzlar, which St. Boniface had built, and
the war went on for years. Charlemagne was resolved
to force the Saxons to be Christians, and Witikind, the





54 Stories of French History.

great Saxon leader, was fiercely resolved against yield-
ing, viewing the honour of Odin as the honour of his
country. They fought on and on, till, in 785, Charle-
magne wintered in Saxony, and at last persuaded
Witikind to come and meet him at Attigny. There
the Saxon chief owned that Christ had conquered, and
consented to be baptised. Charlemagne made him Duke
of Saxony, and he lived in good faith to the new vows
he had taken. The Frisians and Bavarians, and all
who lived in Germany, were forced to submit to the
great King of the Franks.

There was a new king of the Lombards, Desiderio,
and a new Pope, Adrian I.; and, as usual, they were at
war, and Adrian entreated for the aid of Charlemagne.
‘He came with a great army, drove Desiderio into
Pavia, and besieged him there. It was a long siege,
and Charlemagne had a chapel set up in his camp to
keep Christmas in; but for Easter he went to Rome,
and was met a mile off by all the chief citizens and
scholars carrying palm branches in their hands, and as
he mounted the steps to St. Peter’s Church, the Pope
met him, saying, “ Blessed is he that cometh in the name
of the Lord.” He prayed at all the chief churches in
Rome, and then returned to Pavia, which was taken soon
after. He carried off Desiderio as a prisoner, and took



Carl the Great. 55

the title of King of the Franks and the Lombards. This
was in 775, while the Saxon war was still going on.

_He had likewise a war with the Arabs in Spain,
and in 778 he crossed the Pyrenees, and overran
the country as far as the Ebro, where the Arabs
offered him large gifts of gold and jewels if he would
return without touching their splendid cities in the
South. He consented, but as he was returning, the
wild Basque people—a strange people who lived un-
conquered in the mountains—fell upon the rear guard
of his army in the Pass of Roncevalles, and plundered
the baggage, slaying some of the bravest: leaders,
among them one Roland, Warden of the Marches
of Brittany. Round this Roland wonderful stories
have hung. It is said, and it may be true, that he
blew a blast on his bugle-horn with his last strength,
which first told Charlemagne, on far before, of this
direful mischance ; and further legends have made him
the foremost and most perfect knight in the army, nay,
raised him to gigantic strength, for there is a great cleft
in the Pyrenean Hills called La Bréche de Roland, and
said to have been made with one stroke of his sword.
_ Pfabzgraf, or Count of the Palace, was the title of some
of the great Frank lords, and thus in these romances
Roland and his friends are called the Paladins.







56 Stories of French History.



But to return to Charlemagne. He had three sons—
Carl, Pepin, and Lodwig. When the two younger
were four and three years old, he took them both with
him to Rome, and there Pope Adrian anointed the
elder to be King of Lombardy ; the younger, King of
Aquitania. As soon as they had returned, Charlemagne
had the little Lodwig taken to his kingdom. As far
as the Loire he was carried in his cradle, but when he
entered Aquitania he was dressed in a little suit of
armour, and placed on horseback, that he might be
shewn to his subjects in manly fashion. Wise, strong
men formed his council, whose whole work was keeping
the Arabs back beyond the Ebro; but he was taken
back after a time to be educated in his father’s palace
at Aachen. Charlemagne had gathered there the most
learned men he could find—Alcuin, an Englishman,
being one—and had a kind of academy, where his
young nobles and clergy might acquire the learning of
the old Roman times. Discussions on philosophy were
held, everyone taking some old name, Charlemagne
himself being called David. He strove hard to remedy
the want of a good education; and such was his ability,
that he could calculate the courses of the planets in his
head, though he never wrote easily, in spite of carry-
ing about tablets in his bosom, and practising at odd







Carl the Great. ey



times. Latin was, of course, familiar to him; St.
Augustine’s “ City of God” was his favourite book ;
and he composed several hymns, among them the Venz
Creator Spiritus—that invocation of the Holy Spirit
which is sung at Ordinations. He also knew Greek,
and he had begun to arrange a Frankish Grammar,
and collect the old songs of his people,

No one was so much honoured and respected in
Europe, and after two more journeys to Rome on
behalf of the Pope, Leo III, the greatest honour
possible was conferred upon him. In the old Roman
times, the Roman people had always been supposed to
elect their Emperor. They now elected him. On the
Christmas Day of the year 800, as Carl the Frank
knelt down before the altar of St. Peter’s, the Pope
placed a crown on his head, and the Roman people
cried aloud, “ To Carolus Augustus, crowned by God,
the great and peaceful Emperor of the Romans, life
and victory !”

So the Empire of the West, which had died away
for a time, or been merged in the Empire of the East
at Constantinople, was brought to life again in the
person of Carl the Great; while his two sons were
rulers of kingdoms, and all around him were numerous
dukes and counts of different subject nations, all owning









58 Stories of French Fiistory.



his empire. The old cities, likewise, in Provence—
Aquitania, Lombardy, and Gaul—though they had
councils that governed themselves, owned him as their
Emperor. Moreover, he made the new territories
which he had conquered along the German rivers
great bishoprics, especially at Triers, Mentz, and Koln,
thinking that bishops would more safely and loyally
guard the frontier, and tame the heathen borderers,
than fierce warrior counts and dukes.

Aachen was the capital of this Empire. There Carl
had built a noble cathedral, and a palace for himself;
and he collected from Italy the most learned clerks
and the best singers of church music. His chosen name
of David did not ill befit him, for he was a great
founder and benefactor of the church, and gathered
together synods of his bishops several times during his
reign to consult for her good and defence. Indeed, his
benefits to her, and his loyal service, were such that he
has been placed in the calendar asa saint; although he
had several serious faults, the worst of which was that
he did not rightly esteem the holiness and closeness of
the tie of wedlock, and married and put away wives
in a lax way that makes a great blot in his character.

He was of a tall figure, with a long neck, and
exceedingly active and dextrous in all exercises—a





Carl the Great. 59



powerful warrior, and very fond of hunting, but pre-
ferring swimming to anything else. Nobody could
swim or dive like him; and he used to take large parties
to bathe with him, so that a hundred men were some-
times in the river at once. His dress was stately on
occasion, but he did not approve of mere finery; and
when he saw some young noble over-dressed, would
rather enjoy taking him on a long muddy ride in the
rain.

He had intended his eldest son Carl to be Emperor,
and Pepin and Lodwig to rule Lombardy and Aqui-
taine under him as kings; but Pepin died in 810, and
Carl in 811, and only Lodwig was left. This last son
he caused to be accepted as Emperor by all his chief
nobles in the church at Aachen, and then made him a
discourse on the duties of a sovereign to his people;
after which he bade the young man take a crown that
lay on the altar and put it on his own head. “ Blessed
be the Lord, who hath granted me to see: my son
sitting on my throne,” he said.

Charlemagne died the next year, in 814, in his
seventy-first year, and was buried at Aachen, sitting
upright, robed and crowned, in his chair, with his sword
by his side.







CHAP. XLV.—_THE REPUBLIC,

1848-1852.

4~\. FTER Louis Philippe and his family had fled

from France, there was a time of confusion. An
assembly of deputies met from all parts of France to
arrange a fresh government; and a very clever poet
and author, named Lamartine, at first tried to bring
about something like order, but he was not strong
enough, and there was a great deal of tumult and
disorder.

In truth, the Red Republicans, who did not want to
see anyone richer than themselves, were very much
disappointed that, though noblemen and gentlemen had
no more rights than other people, yet still rich men
kept their money and estates; and though all sorts
of occupations were devised at Paris, for which they
were highly paid, in hopes of keeping them quiet
and contented, they only became more fierce and
violent. They had devised a way of fortifying the






















BARRICADES, 1848.



The Republic. 295





streets, by seizing on all the carts, carriages, and
cabs they could lay hands on, and fastening them
together with ropes, so as to form a line across the
street. Then they pulled up the paving-stones, and
built them up, banking them up with earth, and thus
making what they called a barricade. And when the
top and back of this was thronged with men and boys
armed with muskets, it was almost impossible to dis-
lodge them.

In the end of June, 1848, there were three dreadful
days of barricades. It was really a fight of the Red
Republicans against the Tricoloured. Liberty, Fra-
ternity, and Equality were the watchwords of them
both ; but the Red Republicans meant much more than
the Tricoloured by these words, for they thought
liberty was no order at all, and equality was that no
person should be better off than the rest. The good
Archbishop of Paris, Monseigneur Affre, going out on
one of these miserable days to try to make peace, was
shot through the back from behind a barricade, and
died in a few hours.

However, General Cavaignac, one of the brave men
who had been trained to war by the fighting in Algeria,
so managed the soldiers and the National Guard that
they put down the Red Republicans, and restored





296 Stories of French History.



order, though not without shedding much blood, and
sending many into exile.

Indeed, the two years 1847 and 1848 were unquiet
all over Europe. Much that had been settled at the

_ Congress of Vienna, in 1814, after Napoleon had been
overthrown, had been done more as if estates were
being carved out than as if what was good for the
people was considered ; and there had been distress and
discontent ever since, especially in Italy, where all the
‘north was under the Emperor of Austria, and his
German officers were very rough and disagreeable in
the towns where they were quartered.

The Italians rose, and tried to shake them off by the
help of the King of Sardinia; and at the same time
there was a great rising against the Pope, Pius IX., at
Rome. The Popes had held Rome for more than a
thousand years, and there ruled the Western Church ;
but they had never been very good princes to their
Roman subjects, and things had fallen into a sad state
of confusion, which, when first he was chosen, Pius IX.
had tried to improve; but his people went on too fast
for him, and at last rose up and so alarmed him that he
fled in the disguise of a servant behind an Austrian
carriage.

Now, the Roman Catholics think the Pope cannot







The Republic. 297

rule over the Church freely unless he has Rome quite
of his own, and lives there as a prince, instead of only
as a Bishop in a country belonging to someone else.
And though there were so many in France who had
not much faith in anything, yet there were a good many
honest, religious people, who were very anxious to have
him back, and said that it mattered more that he should
govern the Church than that the Romans should be
well off.

So a French army was sent to restore him; and the
Italians were grievously disappointed, for the Austrians
were putting them down in the north, and they thought
Republicans bound to help them. But Rome was taken,
and the Pope had his throne again; anda strong guard
of French soldiers were placed in Rome, for without
such help he could no longer have reigned.

The French at home were in more parties than ever.
The Red Republicans still wanted to overthrow every-
thing ; the Moderate ones cared chiefly to keep peace
and order; the Bonapartists longed to have another
empire like Napoleon’s; the Orleanists wished to bring
back the Count of Paris, grandson of Louis Philippe ;
and the Legitimists still held fast by Henry V., the
son of the murdered Duke of Berri, and the natural
king by birth. Never was there such a house divided





298 Stories of French Fitstory.



against itself; but, in truth, the real fear was of the
Red Republicans. All the rest were ready to be quiet,
and submit to anything so long as these could be kept
down.

After much deliberating in the Assembly, it was
settled to have a republic, with a president, as the
Americans have. Then Louis Napoleon Bonaparte,
the son of Napoleon’s brother Louis, offered himself as
president, and was elected, all the quiet people and all
the Bonapartists joining in the choice. Most of the
army were Bonapartists, for the sake of the old victories
of Napoleon ; and when Algeria was quieted, and they
came home, Louis Napoleon had a great power in his
hands. Soon he persuaded the people to change his
title from president to that of first consul, as his uncle
had once been called ; and then everyone began to see
what would follow, but most were glad to have a strong
hand over them, to give a little peace and rest after all
the changes.

And the next time there was any chance of a
disturbance at Paris, Louis Napoleon was beforehand
with the mob. He surrounded them with soldiers, had
cannon planted so as to command every street, and
fired upon the mob before it had time to do any harm,
then captured the ringleaders, and either had them





The Republic. 299

executed or sent into banishment. Some violence and
cruelty there certainly was, but the Parisians were
taught whom they must obey, and quiet people were
grateful. This master stroke is always called the coup
a’etét, or stroke of policy, for it settled affairs for the
time ; and after it Louis Napoleon did as he chose, for
no one durst resist him.









CHAP. X—HUGUES CAPET.

987-997.

78 ET one of the older maps of France, where it is
in provinces, and not departments, and I will try
to shew you what it was to be King of France when
Hugues Capet was crowned at Rheims. Remember,
there had once been a great Empire of the West;
indeed, there was an empire still, only the head of it
was a Saxon instead of a Frank, and it had been
divided into different nations or tribes, as it were, each
ruled over by an officer or count or duke of the
Emperor’s. Now, the nations had fallen apart in
groups, and their chiefs held together according to what
suited them, or who was the strongest, and some with
more, some with less, feeling that the Emperor had a
right over them all. But as to meddling in the
management of a duke or count’s province, no emperor

nor king had any power to do that.
The new king was Duke of France, and Count of



eel









Flugues Cafpet. 75



Paris, and Guardian of the Abbey of St. Denys’. So
in the place called the Isle of France he was really
master, and his brother Henri was Duke of Burgundy.
On the Loire was the great county of Anjou, with a
very spirited race of counts; and to the eastward were
Vermandois and Champagne, also counties. In all
these places the nobles, like the king himself, were
descended from the old Franks; but the people in the
towns and villages were Gauls, and they all talked the
form of broken Latin which was then called the Langue
a’otl, because ozé or ouz was the word for yes. This
has now turned into French. In Normandy the people
were Northmen, but were fast learning to talk nothing
but French ; and in Brittany both duke and people were
still old Kymry, and talked Kymric. They had never
been much under the Romans or Franks. They hated
the French and Normans, and never paid them any
homage if they could help it; but the Norman dukes
always considered that Brittany had been put under
them, and this led to plenty of wars.

The southern half of the country had only been
overrun from time to time, never subdued or peopled
even in the greatest Carling times. There the people
were less Gaul than Roman, and talked a less altered
Latin, which was called Langue d’oc, because they said





76 Stories of French Flistory.



oc instead of ouz; and it was also called Romance or
Provencal. Old Latin learning and manners, with
their graces and elegances, were still kept up in these
parts, and the few Frank chieftains who had come in
had conformed to them. These were the Dukes of
Aquitaine or Guyenne, the Counts of Toulouse, and
the Counts of Narbonne. But in the south-west of
Aquitaine, near the Pyrenees and the sea, were an
old race called Basques, who seem to be older still than
the Gauls, and do not speak their language, but a
strange and very difficult one of their own. The
Basques, where more mixed with the other inhabitants
in the plains, were called Gascons in France, Vascons
in Spain, and were thought great boasters.

These Romance-speaking counts were considered
by the King of France to belong to him; but whether
they considered themselves to belong to the King of
France was quite a different thing. The County of
Provence, Old Provincia, certainly did not, but held
straight from the Holy Roman Empire. So did the
other countries to the eastward, where a German tongue
was spoken, but which had much to do with the history
of France—namely, Lorraine, where the old Carlings
still ruled, and Flanders.

So you see a king of France was not a very mighty









flugues Cafpet. 77



person, and had little to call his own. But just as the
empire was cut up into little divisions, so each duke-
dom or county was cut into lesser ones. If the duke
or count did homage to emperor or king, he had under
him barons (sometimes counts) who did homage in
their turn for the lands they held. And as the king
could not make war without a council of his counts and
dukes, no more could the duke or count without a par-
liament or council of his barons. When money was
wanted, the clergy and the burghers from the towns had
to be called too, and to settle what they would give.
The lands held in this way were called fiefs, and the
great men who held straight from the king himself
were crown vassals; those under them were their
vassals. In time of war the king called his crown
vassals, they called their barons, the barons called the
vavasours or freemen under them, and got their men
in from working on the farms, and out they went.
Money was not common then, so the lands were held
on condition of serving the lord in war or by council,
of giving a share of help on great occasions in his
family or their own, and so many days’ work on his
own farm when it was wanted.

This was called the feudal system, and sometimes it
worked well; but if the baron was a hard man, the









78 Stories of French Htstory.



poor peasants often suffered sadly, for he would call
them to work for him when their own crops were
spoiling, or take the best of all they had. And the
Franks had got into such a way of despising and ill-
treating the poor Gauls, that they hardly looked on
them as the same creatures as themselves. When two
barons went to war—and this they were always doing
-—the first thing they did was to burn and destroy the
cottages, corn, or cattle on each other’s property, and
often the peasants too. The barons themselves lived
in strong castles, with walls so thick that, as there was
no gunpowder, it was not possible to break into them.
They filled them with youths whom they were training
to arms—the younger ones called pages, the elder
esquires or shield-bearers; and as they practised their
exercises in the castle court, the bearing of a gentleman
was called courtesy. When a squire had attended his
knight battle, grown perfect in all his feats of arms,
could move about easily in his heavy shirt of little
chains of linked steel, and ride a tilt with his lance
against another man armed like himself, and had learned
enough to be a leader, he was made a knight or
chevalier, as the French called it, by a blow on the
shoulders with the flat of the sword before an elder
knight. A belt and gilded spurs marked the knight ;











Flugues Cafpet. 79

and he was required to vow that he would fight for
God and his Church, be faithful and true, and defend
the poor and weak. Gradually chivalry, as this spirit
of knighthood came to be called, did much to bring in
a sense of honour and generosity ; but at this time, in
the reign of Hugues Capet, there was very little good
to be seen in the world. All over France there was
turbulence, cruelty, and savage ways; except, perhaps,
in Normandy, where Duke Richard the Fearless and
his son Duke Richard the Good kept order and peace,
and were brave, upright, religious men, making their
subjects learn the better, rather than the worse ways of
France.

Just at this time, too, the Church and the clergy
were going on badly. The Pope had—ever since, at
least, the time of Carl the Great—been looked on as the
head of the whole Western Church, and the people at
Rome had the power of choosing the Pope. Two
wicked women, named Marozia and Theodora, gained
such power by their riches and flatteries, that they
managed to have anyone chosen Pope whom they
liked ; and of course they chose bad men, who would
do as they pleased. This had gone on till the year
962, when the Emperor Otho came over the Alps,
conquered Italy, and turned out the last of these







80 Stories of French History.

shameful Popes. Then he and his successors chose
the Pope; but this was not the right way of doing
things, and the whole Church felt it, for there was no
proper restraint upon the wickedness of the nobles.
The bishops were too apt to care only for riches and
power, and often fought like the lay nobles ; and in the
monasteries, where prayer and good works and learning
ought to have been kept up, there was sloth and
greediness, if not worse; and as to the people, they
were hardly like Christians at all, but more like brute
beasts in their ignorance and bad habits.

Indeed, there hardly was a worse time in all the
history of Europe than the reign of Hugues Capet,
which lasted from 987 to 997.













{ ROBERT THE PIOUS,.... 997-1031
CHAP.” XI.--HENRY Tye. eae 1031-1060,
| PHILIP Liye ces nncenenarectneenen 1060-1 108,

“. N a very curious way a better spirit was stirred up in
& the world. In the Book of Revelation it is said that
Satan is to be bound for a thousand years. Now, as
the year 1000 of our Lord was close at hand, it was
thought that this meant that the Day of Judgment was
coming then, and there was great fear and dread at the
thought. At first, however, the effect only seemed to
be that the wicked grew worse, for they feasted and
drank and revelled, like the men before the flood; and
when the year 1000 began, so many thought it not
worth while to sow their corn, that there was a most
dreadful famine and great distress everywhere, so that
there were even wretches who set traps in the woods
to catch little children for their food.

But all this time there were good men who taught
repentance, and one blessed thing they brought about







82 Stories of French History.



while people’s hearts were soft with dread, was what
was called the Truce of God, namely, an agreement
that nobody should fight on Sundays, Saturdays, or
Fridays, so that three days in the week were peaceable.
The monasteries began to improve, the clergy to be
more diligent, and the king himself, whose name was
Robert, was one of the best and most religious men in
his kingdom. He used to come to the Abbey at St.
Denys’ every morning to sing with the monks; he used
the Psalms every day in prayer and praise, and wrote
and set to music several Latin hymns, which he carried
to Rome and laid on the altar at St. Peter’s; and he
loved nothing so well as waiting on beggars, and dressing
the wounds of the sick. But he could not manage his
kingdom well, and everyone took advantage of him.
He had married his cousin, Bertha of Burgundy, who
was heiress of Arles in Provence. Now Provence
belonged to the Empire, and the Emperor did not
choose that the Kings of France should have it ; so he
made the Pope, whom he had appointed, declare that
Robert and Bertha were such near relations that they
could not be husband and wife, and, with great grief,
Robert submitted, Bertha went into a nunnery, and he
married Constance of Aquitaine. She brought all the
gay fashions of Southern France with her, and her





Flenry I, 83



followers wore their clothes and cut their hair, sung songs
and made jokes, in a way that offended the Northern
French very much. She was vain and light-minded
herself, could not endure the king and his beggars,
and grew weary of his hymns and prayers. The sons
were more like her than like their father, and Robert
had a troubled life, finding little peace except in church,
until he died in the year 1031.

His eldest son, Henry I., reigned after him, and the
second, Robert, became Duke of Burgundy, and began
a family of dukes which lasted on four hundred years.
The spirit of improvement that had begun to stir was
going on. Everybody was becoming more religious.
The monks in their convents began either to set them-
selves to rights, or else they founded fresh monasteries
in new places, with stricter rules, so as to make a new
beginning. And a very great man, whose name was
Hildebrand, was stirring up the Church not to go on
leaving the choice of the Pope to the Emperor, but to
have him properly appointed by the clergy of the
Diocese of Rome, who were called Cardinals—that is,
chiefs. Though there was much fierceness and wildness,
and much wickedness and cruelty, among the great
nobles, they still cared more for religion; they built
churches, they tried to repent as they grew old, and





84 Stories of French History.



some went on pilgrimage to pray for the forgiveness
of their sins at the Holy Sepulchre, where our Blessed
Lord once lay.

One of these pilgrims was Robert the Magnificent,
Duke of Normandy. He walked on foot very humbly
in the country, but at Constantinople, he rode through
the gates of the city with his mule shod with silver
shoes, loosely fastened on, so that the people might
pick them up. He died on his way, and his young son,
William, had to fight very hard with enemies on all
sides before he could keep his dukedom.

Henry I. had been dead six years, and his son
Philip I. had reigned six, from 1060, when this great
Duke of Normandy became still greater, by winning
for himself the kingdom of England. Philip did not
much wish this. He was afraid of William, and did
not at all wish to see him grow so much more powerful
than himself. He spoke contemptuously of the new
King of England whenever he could, and at last it was
one of his foolish speeches that made William so angry
as to begin the war in which the great conqueror met
with the accident that caused his death.

Philip was by no means a good man. After he had
lost his first wife, he fell in love with the beautiful
Countess of Anjou, Bertrade de Montfort, and per-





Philip TI. 35



suaded her to come and pretend to be his wife. His
son Louis, who was so active and spirited that he was
called /’évezl/é, which means the Wide-awake, showed
his displeasure, and Philip and Bertrade so persecuted
him, that he was obliged to come for refuge to England.
However, in spite of the king’s wickedness, there was
much more spirit of religion in the people. There
were many excellent Bishops and Abbots, and some
good nobles; Godfrey de Bouillon, Duke of Lorraine,
the descendant of the old Carlings, was one of the very
best of the princes at that, or indeed any other time.

It was in this reign that a pilgrim, named Peter the
Hermit, came home with a piteous history of the cruelty
of the Mahometans, who had possession of the Holy
Land. He obtained leave from the Pope, Urban II.,
to call all the warriors of Christendom to save the Holy
Sepulchre, where our Blessed Lord had lain, from the
hands of the unbelievers. The first great preaching
was at Clermont, in Auvergne; and there the whole
people were so much moved that they cried as if with
one voice, “God wills it,” and came crowding round to
have their left shoulders marked with a cross made of
two strips of cloth. An army came together from many
of the lands of the west, and the princes agreed to lay
aside all their quarrels while the Crusade lasted. The





86 Stories of French History.



good Duke Godfrey led them, all through Germany
and Hungary, and across the narrow straits of the
Bosphorus, meeting with many troubles and perils as
they went; but at last they did get safe to Jerusalem,
laid siege to it, and conquered it. Then they chose
Godfrey to be King of Jerusalem, but he would never
be crowned ; he said it was not fitting for him to wear
a crown of gold where his Lord had worn a crown of
thorns. Many nobles and knights stayed with him to
help him to guard the holy places, while the others
went home. Two convents of monks resolved that,
besides being monks, they would be soldiers of the
Holy War. These were called the Knights of St.
John of Jerusalem, or Hospitalier Knights, and the
Knights of the Temple. The Hospitaliers had their
name because they had a house at Jerusalem for
receiving the poor pilgrims, and nursing them if they
were sick or wounded. People from England, Spain,
Germany, and Italy were of the Crusade, and might
belong to the two orders of knighthood, but there were
always more French there than of any other nation.

Louis the Wide-awake was fetched home by the
French barons, and ruled for his father for the last six
years of Philip’s reign, though the old king did not die
till the year 1108.








CHAP. XIII—LOUIS VIL, THE YOUNG.

1037-1180,

SYSHE “ Young” is an odd historical name for a king

who reigned a good many years; but he was
called so at first because he was only eighteen years old
when he came to the throne, and the name clung to
him because there was always something young and
simple about his character.

The first great event of his reign was that St.
Bernard stirred Europe once more to a crusade to help
the Christians in Palestine, who were hard pressed by
the Mahometans. At Vezelay there was a great
assembly of bishops and clergy, knights and nobles;
and St. Bernard preached to them so eagerly, that
soon all were fastening crosses to their arms, and
tearing up mantles and robes because enough crosses
had not been made beforehand for the numbers who
took them. The young king and his beautiful queen,

Eleanor of Aquitaine, vowed to make the crusade
too, and set out with a great army of fighting men,



a eee ee
94 Stories of French History.

and, besides them, of pilgrims, monks, women, and
children. The queen was very beautiful and very
vain ; and though she called herself a pilgrim, she had
no notion of denying herself, so she carried all her fine
robes and rich hangings, her ladies, waiting-maids,
minstrels, and jesters. The French had no ships to
take them direct to the Holy Land, but had to go by
land all the way, along the shore of Asia Minor.
Numbers of the poor pilgrims sank down and perished
by the way; and just as they had passed the city of
Laodicea, the Mahometan army came down on the rear
guard in a narrow valley, and began to make a great
slaughter. The king himself had sometimes to get
behind a tree, sometimes behind a rock ; and the whole
army would have been cut off, if a poor knight named
Gilbert, whom no one had thought much of, came
forward, took the lead, and helped the remains of the
rear guard to struggle out of the valley. Through all
the rest of the march, Gilbert really led the army ; and
yet after this he never is heard of again, and never
seems to have looked for any reward.

When Palestine was reached at last, there were not
10,000 left out of the 400,000 who had set out from
home; and the gay queen’s zeal was quite spent ; and
while the king was praying at the Holy Sepulchre,





Louis VII., The Young. 95



and trying to fight for it, she was amusing herself with
all the lively youths she could get round her. She
despised her good, pious husband, and said he was
more like a monk than a king; and as soon as they
, returned from this unhappy crusade, they tried to find
some excuse for breaking their marriage.

The Pope allowed the king to rid himself of this
wicked lady, and let them both marry again. He
married Constance of Castille, and Eleanor took for
her husband the young English king, Henry IL. and
brought him all her great possessions.

The very thing had come to pass that the King of
France feared—namely, that the Dukes of Normandy
should get more powerful than he was. For Henry
II. was at once King of England and Duke of Nor-
mandy and Count of Anjou, and his wife was Duchess
of Aquitaine and Guienne; and, as time went on,
Henry betrothed his little son Geoffrey to Constance,
the orphan girl who was heiress to Brittany, and under-
took to rule her lands for her; so that the lands over
which Louis had any real power were a sort of little
island within the great sea of the possessions of the
English king. Besides, Henry was a much cleverer man
than Louis, and always got the better of him in their
treaties. The Kings of France and Dukes of Nor-







96 Stories of French History.



mandy always met at Gisors, on their border, under
an enormous elm-tree, so large that three hundred
horsemen could find shelter under the branches; and
these meetings never went on well for Louis. He was
obliged to promise that his two daughters, Margaret
and Alice, should marry Henry’s two sons, Henry and
Richard, and to give them to Henry to be brought up.
When Henry had his great dispute with Archbishop
Becket, about the question whether clergymen were
subject to the law of the land, Becket fled to France.
Louis loved and respected him very much, gave him
shelter in an abbey, and tried hard to make peace
between him and Henry, but never could succeed, till,
after six years, Henry pretended to be reconciled, and
Becket went home in the year 1170. He was murdered
very soon after, as you have heard in the history of
England.

Louis must have been very much surprised when his
own former wife, Queen Eleanor, came disguised as a
man with her three eldest sons to his court, making ~
great complaints of Henry for keeping the government
of their provinces in his own hands. He must have
thought it only what they and he both deserved, and
he gave them what help he could; but Henry was a
great deal more strong and crafty than any of them,











Louis VIT., The Young. 97



and soon put them down. Eleanor was thrown into
prison, and kept there as long as she lived. She richly
deserved it; but her sons and the people of Aquitaine
did not think so. Those people of Aquitaine were a
curious race—they were very courtly, though not very
good ; and they thought more of music, poetry, and
love-making than of anything else, though they were
brave men too. Every knight was expected to be able
to write verses and sing them, and to be able to hold
an argument in the courts of love. The best poets
among them were called troubadours; and Eleanor
herself, and her two sons, Richard and Geoffrey, could
compose songs and sing them. All were as much
beloved in Aquitaine as Henry was hated; and the
troubadours did nothing but stir up the youths to fight
with their father and set their mother free ; but though
they broke out many times, they could never prevail
against him.

Louis VII. was married three times—to Eleanor of
Aquitaine, to Constance of Castille, and to Alice of
Champagne. These three queens had among them six
daughters, but no son; and this was a great grief, since no
woman had ever reigned in France, and it was believed
that the old Salian Franks had a law against women
reigning. At any rate, this grew to be the rule in



c











98 Stories of French History.



France, and it is called the Saliclaw. However, the
question had not to be settled this time, for at last a
son was born to Louis; and in his joy he caused the
babe to be christened Philip Déeu-donné, or God-given.
The boy was the cleverest son who had sprung from
the House of Paris for ages past ; and while still quite
young, cared for all that concerned his father and his
kingdom, at an age when other boys care only for
sports and games. When his father met the English
king at the elm of Gisors, young Philip looked on and
saw how Henry over-reached and took advantage of
Louis ; and he was bitterly grieved and angered, and
made up his mind that some day he would get back
all that his father was losing.

However, in the midst of his plans, young Philip
was one day out hunting in a forest with his father,
when he missed his companions, lost his way, and
wandered about all night. When he was found, he was
so spent with hunger and cold that he had a bad illness,
and was in great danger for some days. When he
grew better, King Louis, in great joy, thought this
precious life had been granted for the prayers of his
old friend Thomas a Becket, and asked leave of Henry
to come and give thanks at the archbishop’s tomb at
Canterbury. He came, and was welcomed as a friend













Ne SD oy






WW eee ss yy) SH
WWE Np
SN ae

PHILIP AUGUSTUS AT THE ELM OF GISORS.











Louis VII., The Young. 99



and guest. He gave great gifts to the cathedral, and
especially a beautiful ring, which became one of the
great treasures of the place.

He had had his beloved son, though only fifteen,
crowned, that France might have a king over her while
he was away ; and Philip was very soon the only king,
for good, honest, simple-minded Louis the Young died
very soon after his return from Canterbury, in the year
1180, nine years before the death of his great enemy,
Henry II.





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INTERVIEW OF JOAN OF ARC WITH CHARLES VII.

FROM A WATER-COLOR BY HS MARKS,AR.A












for the J Et Sige: S
a Charlotte Me Vonge

Deora












AUNT CHARLOTTE'’S

STORIES OF

FRENCH HISTORY

FOR THE LITTLE ONES.

BY
CHARLOTTE M. YONGE,

AUTHOR OF ‘“‘THE HEIR OF REDCLYFFE,” ‘‘STORIES OF ENGLISH History,” &c.



Lonvon :

MARCUS WARD & CO., CHANDOS STREET, W.C.;
AND ROYAL ULSTER WORKS, BELFAST.

M.DCCC.LXXV.




PREFACE,



ef. fSHESE Stories on the History of France are meant

for children perhaps a year older than those on the
Es of England. They try to put such facts as
need most to be remembered in a comprehensible form,
and to attach some real characteristic to each reign;
though, in later political history, it is difficult to translate
the leading ideas into anything that can enter an
intellect of seven or eight years old. The gentleman
who, some time ago, recommended teaching history
backwards from our own time, could never have practi-
cally tried how much harder it is to make /a Charte or
the Reform Bill interesting to the childish mind, than
how King Robert fed the beggars or William Rufus
was killed by an arrow. Early history is generally
personal, and thus can be far more easily recollected
than that which concerns the multitude, who are indeed
everything to the philanthropist, but are nothing to the
child. Even the popular fairy tale has its princes and
princesses, and the wonder tale of history can only be
carried on in the infant imagination by the like dvamazzs
persone.

CHARLOTTE M. YONGE.
Nov. 17th, 1874.

CON Te Nt S,

el The Old Kelts. menutonteen sae
II.—The Roman Conquest. B.C. 67—A.D. 79
III.—The Conversion of Gaul. 100—400
IV.—The Frank Kingdom. 450—533
V.—The Long-haired Kings. 533—681.
VI.—Carl of the Hammer. 681
VII.—Carl the Great. 768 5
VIII.—The Carlings. 814—887
IX.—The Counts of Paris. 887—987
X.—Hugues Capet. 987—997
XI.—Robert the Pious. 997—1031
Henry I. 1031—1060 . °
Philip I. 1060—1108 5 ;
XII.—Louis VI., Le Gros. 1108—1137
XIII.—Louis VII., The Young. 1037—1180
XIV.—Philip II., Augustus. 1180—1223
XV.—The Albigenses. 1190 | :
Louis VIII., The Lion. 1223—1226
XVI.—St. Louis IX. 1226 . , ;
XVII.—Philip III., The Hardy. 1271—1284
Philip IV., The Fair. 1284—1314 .
XVIII.—Louis X., Hutin. 1314—1316
Philip V., Le Long. 1316—1322
Charles I1V., Le Bel. 1322
Philip VI. 1350
XIX.—John. 1350—1364 5
XX.—Charles V. 1364—1380 5 5
XXI.—Charles VI. 1380—1396 i
XXII.—Burgundians and Armagnacs. 1415—1422


Contents.







CHAP,
XXIII.—Charles VII. 1422—1461 .
XXIV.—Louis XI. 1461—1483 .
XXV.—Charles VIII. 1483—1498
XXVI.—Louis XII. 1498—1515
XXVII.—Francis I.—Youth. 1515—1526
XXVIII.—Francis I.—Middle Age. 1526—1547
XX1IX.—Henry II. 1547—1559 .
XXX.—Francis II. 1559—1562
Charles IX. 1572
XXXI.—Charles IX. 1572—1574 .
XXXII.—Henry HI. 1574 5 . .
XXXIII.—Henry IV. 1589—1610 k
XXXIV.—Louis XIII. 1610—1643 4
XXXV.—Louis XIV.—Youth. 1643—1661
XXXVI.—Louis XIV.—Middle Age. 1661—1688
XXXVI1i.—Louis XIV.—Old Age. 1688—1715
XXXVIII.—Louis XV. 1715—1774 . - :
XXXIX.—Louis XVI. 1774—1793 : .
XL.—The Great French Revolution. 1792—1796
XLI.—Napoleon I. 1796—1814
XLII.—Louis XVIII. 1814—1824 3
XLIII.—Charles X. 1824—1830
XLIV.—Louis Philippe. 1830—1848
XLV.—The Republic. 1848—1852
XLVI.—The Second Empire. 1852—1870
XLVII.—The Siege of Paris. 1870—1871
XLVIII.—The Communists. 1871 .



PAGE
159
165
171
177
183
190
196

202

209
215
221
227
233
239
245
251
257
263
270
277
283
288

294
300
306
312
LISF OF 1ELUSt wes tiONs:



PAGE

Interview of Joan of Arc with Charles VII. (p.161) . Frontispiece.
The Messenger of the Arverni sent to the Roman Camp : 16
Long-haired King, with his Major Domi : 4 ; eh 4d
The little Duke of Normandy carried off by his Squire in a bundle
ofhay . 3 9 . 5 5 3 . 71
Philip Augustus at the Elm of Gisors . . : - 98
“Pope Boniface VIII. attacked in the Church. . ; 124
The Count of Flanders hiding in the Widow’s House $ - 149
Charles VIII. hearing the Causes of the Rich and Poor . . 175
Nobles and Calvinist . , 3 7 , " - 197
Henry IV. playing with his Children ° . , : 225
Louis XV. shown to the People , : . ° eel
Louis XVIII. at his Death charging Charles X. , i a 282
Barricades, 1848 5 - f . < - 294










CHAP. I—THE OLD KELTS.

B.C. 150.

BEGAN the “History of England” with
Julius Czesar’s landing in Britain, and did not
try to tell you who the people were whom he
found there, for I thought it would puzzle you; but you
are a little older now, and can understand rather more.

You must learn that in the old times, before people
wrote down histories, Europe was overspread by a great
people, whom it is convenient to call altogether the
Kelts—fierce, bold, warrior people, who kept together
in large families or clans, all nearly related, and each
clan with a chief. The clans joined together and
formed tribes, and the cleverest chief of the clans would
lead the rest. They spoke a language nearly alike—
the,language which has named a great many rivers
















12 Stories of French Flistory.



and hills. I will tell you a few. Ben or Pen means
a hill. So we see that the Ap-Pen-nine mountains
were named by the Kelts. Again, Avon is a
river. You know we have several Avons. Ren
Avon meant the running river, and Rhine and
Rhone are both the same word, differently pronounced.
Sen Avon was the slow river—the Seine and Saone;
and Garr Avonwas the swift river—the Garonne. There
were two great varieties of Kelts—the Gael and the
Kymry (you should call this word Kewmri). The Gael
were the tallest, largest, wildest, and fiercest, but they
were not so clever as the black-eyed little Kymry. The
Kymry seem to have been the people who had the
Druid priests, who lived in groves of oak, and cut down
mistletoe with golden knives; and most likely they set
up the wonderful circles of huge stones which seem to
have been meant to worship in; at least, wherever those
stones are the Kymry have been. But we know little
about them, as all their knowledge was in verse, which
the Druids and bards taught one another by word of
mouth, and which was never written down. All we do
know is from their neighbours the Greeks and Romans,
who thought them very savage, and were very much
afraid of them, when every now and then a tribe set out
on a robbing expedition into the lands to the south.


The Old Kelts. 13



When the Kelts did thus come, it was generally be-
cause they were driven from their own homes. There
were a still fiercer, stronger set of people behind them,
coming from the east to the west; and when the Kelts
found that they could not hold their own against these
people, they put their wives and children into waggons,
made of wood or wicker work, collected their oxen,
sheep, and goats, called their great shaggy hounds, and
set forth to find new homes. The men had long
streaming hair and beards, and wore loose trousers of
woollen, woven and dyed in checks by the women—
tartan plaids, in fact. The chiefs always had gold
collars round their necks, and they used round wicker
shields, long spears, and heavy swords, and they were
very terrible enemies. When the country was free to the
west, they went on thither, and generally settled down
in a wood near a river, closing in their town with a
wall of trunks of trees and banks of earth, and setting
up their hovels within of stone or wood.

But if other clans whom theycould not beat were to the
west of them, they would turn to the south into Greece or
Italy, and do great damage there. One set of them,
in very old times, even managed to make a home in the
middle of Asia Minor, and it was to their descendants
that St. Paul wrote his Epistle to the Gal-atians.




14 Stories of French History.



Another great troop, under a very mighty Bran, or
chief, who, in Latin, is called Brennus, even broke into
the great city of Rome itself. All the women and
children of Rome had been sent away, and only a few
brave men remained in the strong place called the
Capitol, on the top of the steepest hill. There they
stayed for seven months, while the Bran and his Gauls
kept the city, drank up the wine in the long narrow
jars, and drove in the pale-coloured, long-horned oxen
from the meadow land round. The Bran never did get
into the Capitol, but the Romans were obliged to pay him
a great sum of money before he would go away. How-
ever, this belongs to the history of Rome, and I only
mean further to say, that the tribe who came with him
stayed seventeen years in the middle parts of Italy
before they were entirely beaten. When the Kelts
were beaten and saw there was no hope, they generally
came within the enclosure they had made with their
waggons, and slew their wives and children, set fire to
everything, and then killed themselves, that they might
not be slaves. All the north part of Italy beyond the
River Po was filled with Kelts, and there were many
more of them beyond the Alps. So it came about that
from the word Gael the Romans called the north of
Italy Gallia Cis-Alpina—Gaul on this side the Alps;




The Old Kelts. 15



and the country westward Gallia Trans-Alpina, or Gaul
beyond the Alps, and all the people there were known
as Gauls, whether they were Gael or Kymry.

Now, far up in Gaul, in the high ground that divides
the rivers Loire, Saone, and Rhine, there were rocks
full of metal, tin, copper, and sometimes a little silver.
The clever sailors and merchants called Phoenicians
found these out, and taught the Gauls to work the
mines, and send the metals in boats down the Rhone
to the Mediterranean sea. There is a beautiful bay
where Gaul touches the Mediterranean, and not only
the Phcenicians found it out, but the Greeks. They
came to live there, and built the cities of Marseilles,
Nice, Antibes, and several more. Lovely cities the
Greeks always built, with marble temples to their gods,
pillars standing on steps, and gardens with statues in
them, and theatres for seeing plays acted in the open
air. Inside these towns and close round them every-
thing was beautiful; but the Gauls who lived near
learnt some Greek ways, and were getting tamed.
They coined money, wrote in Greek letters, and bought
and sold with the Greeks; but their wilder brethren
beyond did not approve of this, and whenever they
could catch a Greek on his journey would kill him, rob
him, or make him prisoner. Sometimes, indeed, they






16 Stories of French Flistory.





threatened to rob the cities, and the Greeks begged the
Romans to protect them. So the Romans sent an
officer and an army, who built two new towns, Aix and
Narbonne, and made war on the Gauls, who tried to
hinder him. Then a messenger was sent to the Roman
camp. He was an immensely tall man, with a collar
and bracelets of gold, and beside him came a bard
singing the praises of his clan, the Arverni. There
were many other attendants ; but his chief guards were
a pack of immense hounds, which came pacing after
him in ranks like soldiers. He bade the Romans, in
the name of his chief Bituitus, to leave the country, and
cease to harm the Gauls. Tine Roman General turned
his back and would not listen; so the messenger went
back in anger, and the Arverni prepared for battle.
When Bituitus saw the Roman army he thought it so
small that he said, “This handful of men will hardly
furnish food for my dogs.” He was not beaten in the
battle, but just after it he was made prisoner, and sent
to Italy, where he was kept a captive all the rest of his
life, while his son was brought up in Roman learning
and habits, and then sent home to rule his clan, and
teach them to be friends with Rome. This was about
150 years before the coming of our Blessed Lord.







WN

\\\ |
{ ‘ i
NN \ i‘









THE MESSENGER OF THE ARVERNI SENT TO THE ROMAN CAMP,














CHAP. IIL—THE ROMAN CONQUEST.

B.C. 67.—A.D. 79.

EYSHE Romans called the country they had taken for

6 themselves in Gaul the Province, and Provence
has always continued to be its name. They filled it
with colonies. A colony was a city built by Romans,
generally old soldiers, who received a grant of land if
they would defend it. The first thing they did was to
set up an altar. Then they dug trenches the shape of
their intended city, marked out streets, and made little
flat bricks, everywhere after one pattern, with which
they built a temple, houses (each standing round a paved
court), a theatre, and public baths, with causeways as
straight as an arrow joining the cities together. Each
town had two magistrates elected every year, and a
governor lived at the chief town with a legion of the
army to keep the country round in order.

When the Romans once began in this way, they
always ended by gaining the whole country in time.


18 Stories of French History.



They took nearly a hundred years to gain Gaul. First
there came a terrible inroad of some wilder Kymry,
whom the Romans called Cimbri, from the west, with
some Teutons, of that fiercer German race I told you
of. They broke into Gaul, and defeated a great Roman
army; and there was ten years’ fighting with them
before the stout old Roman, Caius Marius, beat them
in a great battle near Aix. All the men were killed in
battle, and the women killed their children and them-
selves rather than fall into Roman hands. That was
B.C. 103; and Julius Cesar, the same who first came to
Britain, was nephew to Marius.

He did not conquer Britain, but he did really con-
quer Gaul. It would only confuse and puzzle you now
to tell you how it was done; but by this time many of
the Gaulish tribes had come to be friendly with the
Romans and ask their help. Some wanted help
because they were quarrelling with other tribes, and
others because the Germans behind them had squeezed
a great tribe of Kymry out of the Alps, and they wanted
to come down and make a settlement in Gaul. Julius
Cesar made short work of beating these new-comers,
and he beat the Germans who were also trying to get
into Gaul. Then he expected all the Gauls to submit
to him—not only those who lived round the Province,




The Roman Conquest. 19



and had always been friendly to Rome, but all the free
ones in the north. He was one of the most wonderful
soldiers who ever lived; and he did gain first all the
east side. He subdued the Belge, who lived between
the Alps and the sea, all the Armoricans along the
north, and then the still wilder people on the coast
towards the Atlantic ocean.

But while he was away in the north, the Gaulish
chiefs in the south agreed that they would make one
great attempt to set their country free from the enemy.
They resolved all to rise at once, and put themselves
under the command of the brave young mountain chief
of the Arverni, from whom Auvergne was named. The
Romans called his name Vercingetorix ; and as it really
was even longer and harder to speak than this word, we
will call him so. He was nota wild shaggy savage like
Bituitus, but a graceful, spirited chief, who had been
trained to Roman manners, and knew their ways of
fighting. All in one night the Gauls rose. Men stood
on the hill-tops, and shouted from clan to clan to rise
up in arms. It was the depth of winter, and Czesar
was away resting in Italy; but back he came on the
first tidings, and led his men over six feet deep of snow,
taking every Gallic town by the way.

Vercingetorix saw that the wisest thing for the Gauls

Nea


20 Stories of French Flistory.



to do would be to burn and lay waste the land them-
selves, so that the Romans might find nothing to eat.
“Tt was sad,” he said, “to see burning houses, but
worse to have wife and children led into captivity.” One
city, that now called Bourges, was left; the inhabitants
beseeched him on their knees to spare it; and it seemed
to be safe, for there was a river on one side and a bog
on all the rest, with only one narrow road across. But
in twenty-five days Cesar made his way in, and slew
all he found there; and then he followed Vercingetorix
to his own hills of Auvergne, and fought a battle, the
only defeat the great Roman captain ever met with ;
indeed, he was obliged to retreat from the face of the
brave Arverni. They followed him again, and fought
another battle, in which he was in great danger, and
was forced even to leave his sword in the hands of the
Gauls, who hung it up in a temple in thanksgiving to
their gods. But the Gauls were not so steady as they
were brave; they fled, and all Vercingetorix could do
was to lead them to a great camp under the hill of
Alesia. He sent horsemen to rouse the rest of
Gaul, and shut himself up in a great enclosure with his
men. Czesar and the Romans came and made another
enclosure outside, eleven miles round, so that no help,
no food could come to them, and they had only provi-


The Roman Conquest. 21



sions for thirty days. Their friends outside did try to
break through to them, but in vain; they were beaten
off; and then brave Vercingetorix offered to give him-
self up to the Romans, provided the lives of the rest of
the Gauls were spared. Czesar gave his word that this
should be done. Accordingly, at the appointed hour
the gates of the Gallic camp opened. Out came
Vercingetorix in his richest armour, mounted on his
finest steed. He galloped about, wheeled round once,
then drawing up suddenly before Czesar’s seat, sprang
to the ground, and laid his sword at the victor’s feet.
Czesar was not touched. He kept a cold, stern face ;
ordered the gallant chief into captivity, and kept him
for six years, while finishing other conquests, and then
took him to Rome, to walk in chains behind the car in
which the victorious general entered in triumph, with
all the standards taken from the Gauls displayed; and
then, with the other captives, this noble warrior, was
put to death in the dark vaults under the hill of the
Capitol.

With Vercingetorix ended the freedom of Gaul. The
Romans took possession of all the country, and made
the cities like their own. The old clans were broken
up. The fighting men were enlisted in the Roman
army, and sent to fight as far away as possible from


22 Stories of French History.



home, and the chiefs thought it an honour to be en-
rolled as Roman citizens; they wore the Roman tunic
and toga, spoke and wrote Latin, and, except among
the Kymry of the far north-west, the old Gaulish tongue
was forgotten. Very grand temples and amphitheatres
still remain in the Province of Roman building, especi-
ally at Nismes, Arles, and Autun ; and a huge aqueduct,
called the Pont du Gard, still stands across a valley
near Nismes, with 600 feet of three tier of arcades,
altogether 160 feet high. Roads made as only Romans
made them crossed hither and thither throughout the
country, and, except in the wilder and more distant
parts, to live in Gaul was very like living in Rome.
After Julius Cesar, the Romans had Emperors at
the head of their state, and some of these were very
fond of Gaul. But when the first twelve who had
some connection with Julius were all dead, a Gaul
named Julius Sabinus rose up and called himself
Emperor. Thereal Emperor, chosen at Rome, named
Vespasian, soon came and overthrew his cause, and
hunted him to his country house. Flames burst out of
it, and it was declared that Sabinus had burnt himself
there. But no; he was safely hidden in a cave in the
woods. No one knew of it but his wife Eponina and
one trusty slave, and there they lived together for nine




The Roman Conquest. 23



years, and had two little sons. Eponina twice left
him to go to Rome to consult her friends whether they
could obtain a pardon for her husband; but Vespasian
was a stern man, and they saw no hope, so she went
back disappointed ; and the second time she was
watched and followed, and Sabinus was found. He
was taken and chained, and carried to Rome, and she
and her two boys came with him. She knelt before
the Emperor, and besought his pardon, saying that here
were two more to plead for their father. Tears came
into Vespasian’s eyes, but he would not forgive, and
the husband and wife were both sentenced to die. The
last thing Eponina said before his judgment-seat was,
that it was better to die together than to be alive as
such an Emperor. Her two boys were taken care of,
and one of them lived long after in Greece, as far away
from his home as possible.




CHAP. III—THE CONVERSION OF GAUL.

A.D. 100-400.

(8 AUL could not be free in her own way, but the
OF truth that maketh free was come to her. The
Druids, though their worship was cruel, had better
notions of the true God than the Romans with their
multitude of idols, and when they heard more of the
truth, many of them gladly embraced it. The Province
was so near Rome that very soon after the Apostles
had reached the great city, they sent on to Gaul. The
people in Provence believe that Lazarus and his two
sisters came thither, but this is not likely. However,
the first Bishop of Arles was Trophimus, and we may
quite believe him to have been the Ephesian who was
with St. Paul in his third journey, and was at Jerusalem
with him when he was made prisoner. Trophimus
brought a service-book with him very like the one that
St. John the Evangelist had drawn up for the Churches
of Asia.




The Conversion of Gaul. 25



It was to Vienne, one of these Roman cities, that
Pontius Pilate had been banished for his cruelty. In
this town and in the larger one at Lyons there were
many Christians, and their bishop was Pothinus, who
had been instructed by St. John. It was many years
before the Gallic Christians suffered any danger for
their faith, not till the year 177, when Pothinus was
full ninety years old.

Then, under the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, a
governor was sent to the Province who was resolved
to put an end to Christianity. The difficulty was that
there were no crimes of which to accuse the Christians.
So he caused several slaves to be seized and put to
torture, while they were asked questions. There were
two young girls among them, Blandina and Biblis.
Blandina was a weak, delicate maiden, but whatever
pain they gave her, she still said, “I ama Christian,
and no evil is done among us.” Biblis, however, in
her fright and agony, said “ Yes” to all her tormentors
asked, and accused the Christians of killing babies, eat-
ing human flesh, and all sorts of horrible things. A fter-
wards she was shocked at herself, declared there was not
a word of truth in what she had said, and bore fresh and
worse torture bravely. The Christians were seized, The
old bishop was dragged through the streets, and so




26 Stories of French History.



pelted and ill-treated that after a few days he died in
prison. The others were for fifteen days brought out
before all the people in the amphitheatre, while every
torture that could be thought of was tried upon them.
All were brave, but Blandina was the bravest of all.
She did not seem to feel when she was put to sit on a red
hot iron chair, but encouraged her young brother through
all. At last she was put into a net and tossed by a
bull, and then, being found to be still alive, her throat
was pierced, everyone declaring that never had woman
endured so much. The persecution did not last much
longer after this, and the bones of the martyrs were
collected and buried, and a church built over them, the
same, though of course much altered, which is now the
Cathedral of Lyons.

Instead of the martyred Pothinus, the new bishop
was Irenzeus, a holy man who left so many writings
that he is counted as one of the Fathers of the Church.
Almost all the townsmen of Lyons became Christians
under his wise persuasion and good example, but the
rough people in the country were much less easily
reached. Indeed, the word pagan, which now means
a heathen, was only the old Latin word for a peasant
or villager. In the year 202, the Emperor Severus,
who had himself been born at Lyons, put out an edict






The Conversion of Gaul. 27



against the Christians. The fierce Gauls in the ad-
joining country hearing of it, broke furiously into the
city, and slaughtered every Christian they laid hands
upon, St. Irenzeus among them. There is an old
mosaic pavement in a church at Lyons where the in-
scription declares that nineteen thousand died in this
massacre, but it can hardly be believed that the
numbers were so large.

The northerly parts of Gaul were not yet converted,
and a bishop named Dionysius was sent to teach a
tribe called the Parisii, whose chief city was Lutetia,
on the banks of the Seine. He was taken in the year
272, and was beheaded just outside the walls on a hill
which is still known as Mont Martre, the martyr’s
mount, and his name, cut short into St. Denys, became
one of the most famous in all France.

The three Keltic provinces, Gaul, Spain, and Britain,
used to be put together under one governor, and the
brave, kindly Constantius ruled over them, and
hindered persecution as much as he could. His son
Constantine was also much loved, and it was while
marching to Italy with an army, in which were many
Gauls, to obtain the empire, that Constantine saw the
vision of a bright cross in the sky, surrounded by the
words, “In this sign thou shalt conquer.” He did






28 Stories of French Ffistory.



conquer, and did confess himself a Christian two years
later, and under him the Church of Gaul flourished.
Gallic bishops were at the great council of Nicea, in
Asia Minor, when the Nicene creed was drawn up,
and many beautiful hymns for Christian worship were
written in Gaul. :

After Constantine’s death, his son Constantius
fostered the false doctrine that the Nicene creed con-
tradicted. He lived at Constantinople, and dressed
and lived like an Eastern prince, and the Gauls were
growing discontented ; more especially as the Franks
—a terrible tribe of their Teuton enemies to the east—
were trying to break into their lands. A young cousin
of Constantius, named Julian, was sent to fight with
them. He fixed his chief abode in a little island in the
middle of the River Seine, at Lutetia, among his dear
Parisii, as he called the tribe around, and thence he
came out to drive back the Franks whenever they tried
to attack the Gauls. He was a very brave, able man,
but he had seen so much selfishness and .weakness.
among the Christians in Rome and Constantinople,
that he fancied their faults arose from their faith ;
and tried to be an old heathen again as soon as Con-
stantius was dead, and he became emperor. He only
reigned three years, and then, in the year 363, was


The Conversion of Gaut. 29



killed in a war with the Persians. Very sad times
followed his death. He was the last of his family,
and several emperors rose and fell at Rome. The
governor of Gaul, Maximus, called himself emperor,
and, raising an army in Britain, defeated the young
man who had reigned at Rome in the year 381, and
ruled the Keltic provinces for seven years. He was
a brave soldier, and not wholly a bad man, for he much
loved and valued the great Bishop Martin, of Tours.
Martin had been brought up as a soldier, but he was
so kind that once when he saw a shivering beggar he
cut his cloak into two with his sword, and gave the
poor man half. He was then not baptized, but at
eighteen he became altogether a Christian, and was
the pupil of the great Bishop Hilary of Poitiers. It was
in these days that men were first beginning to band
together to live in toil, poverty, and devotion in monas-
teries or abbeys, and Martin was the first person in
Gaul to form one, near Poitiers ; but he was called from
it to be Bishop of Tours, and near that city he began
another abbey, which still bears his name, Marmoutiers,
or Martin’s Monastery. He and the monks used to go
out from thence to teach the Pagans, who still
remained in the far west, and whom Roman punish-
ment had never cured of the old Druid ways. These






30 Stories of French History.



people could not learn the Latin that all the rest of the
country spoke, but lived on their granite moors as their
forefathers had lived four hundred years before. How-
ever, Martin did what no one else had ever done: he
taught them to become staunch Christians, though they
still remained a people apart, speaking their own tongue
and following their own customs.

This was the good St. Martin’s work while his
friend, the false Emperor Maximus, was being over-
thrown by the true Emperor Theodosius; and much
more struggling and fighting was going on among the
Romans and Gauls, while in the meantime the dreadful
Franks were every now and then bursting into the
country from across the Rhine to plunder and burn
and kill and make slaves.

St. Martin had finished the conversion of Gaul,
just before he died in his monastery at Marmoutiers,
inthe year 400. He died in time to escape the terrible
times that were coming upon all the Gauls, or rather
Romans. For all the southern and eastern Gauls
called themselves Romans, spoke nothing but Latin,
and had entirely forgotten all thoughts, ways, and
manners but those they had learnt from the Greeks
and Romans.


CHAP. IV—-THE FRANK KINGDOM.
A.D. 450-533.

EYSHAT race of people which had been driving the

, Kelts westward for six or seven hundred years
was making a way into Gaul at last; indeed, they had
been only held back by Roman skill. These were the
race which, as a general name, is called Teutonic, but
which divided into many different nations. All were
large-limbed, blue-eyed, and light-haired. They all
spoke a language like rough German, and all had the
same religion, believing in the great warlike gods,
Odin, Thor, and Frey, worshipping them at stone
altars, and expecting to live with them in the hall of
heroes after death. That is, all so called who were
brave and who were chosen by the valkyr, or slaughter-
choosing goddesses, to die nobly in battle. Cowards
were sent to dwell with Hela, the pale, gloomy goddess
of death.

Of course the different tribes were not exactly alike,


a2 Stories of French History.





but they all had these features in common. They had
lived for at least 500 years in the centre of Europe,
now and then attacking their neighbours, when, being
harassed by another fierce race who came behind them,
they made more great efforts. The chief tribes whose
names must be remembered were the Goths, who con-
quered Rome and settled in Spain; the Longbeards,
or Lombards, who spread over the north of Italy; the
Burgundians (burg or town livers), who held all the
country round the Alps; the Swabians and Germans,
who stayed in the middle of Europe; the Saxons, who
dwelt about the south of the Baltic, and finally con-
quered South Britain; the Northmen, who found a
home in Scandinavia; and the Franks, who had been
long settled on the rivers Sale, Meuse, and Rhine.
Their name meant Freemen, and they were noted for
using an axe called after them. There were two
tribes—the Salian, from the River Sale, and the
Ripuarian. They were great horsemen, and dreadful
pillagers, and the Salians had a family of kings, which,
like the kings of all the other tribes, was supposed to
descend from Odin. The king was always of this
family, called Meerwings, after Meerwig, the son of
Wehrmund, one of the first chiefs,

After the death of the great Theodosius, who had con-




The Frank Kingdom. 33
quered the false Emperor Maximius, there was no power
to keep these Franks back, and they were continually
dashing into Gaul, and carrying off slaves and plunder.
Even worse was the great rush that, in the year 450, was
made all across Europe by the Huns, a terrible nation
of another race, whose chief was called Etzel, or Attila,
and who named himself the Scourge of God. In 451,
he invaded Gaul with his army, horrible-looking men,
whose faces had been gashed by their savage parents
in their infancy, that they might look more dreadful.
It was worse to fall into their hands than into those of
the Franks, and everywhere there was terror. At
Lutetia there was a great desire to flee away, but
they were persuaded to remain by the holy woman,
Genoveva, She was a young shepherdess of Nanterre,
near Paris, who had devoted herself to the service of
God, and whose holy life made the people listen to her
as a kind of prophet. And she was right. The Huns
did not come further than Orleans, where the good
Bishop Lupus made the people shut their gates, and
defend their town, until an army, composed of Franks,
Goths, Burgundians, Gauls, all under the Roman
General Aétius, attacked the Huns at Chaldéns-sur-
Marne, beat them, and drove them back in 451.
Chaléns was the last victory won under the old Roman



Cc






34 Stories of French History.

eagles. There was too much trouble in Italy for Rome
to help any one. In came the Franks whenever they
pleased, and Hilperik, the son of Meerwig, came to
Lutetia, or Paris, as it was now called from the tribe
round it, and there he rioted in Julian’s old palace. He
had a great respect for Genoveva, heathen though he
was ; and when he came home from plundering, with
crowds of prisoners driven before him, Genoveva would
go and stand before him, and entreat for their pardon,
and he never could withstand her, but set them all free.
She died at eighty-nine years old, and St. Geneviéve,
as she was afterwards called, was honoured at Paris as
much as St. Denys.

Hilperik’s son was named Hlodwig, which means
loud or renowned war, but as the name is harsh,
histories generally name him Clovis. He wanted to
marry a Burgundian maiden named Clothilda, and as
she was a Christian, he promised that she should be |
allowed to pray to her God in the churches which still
stood throughout Gaul. When her first child was
born, she persuaded Clovis to let her have it baptised.
It died very soon, and Clovis fancied it was because
her God could not save it. However, she caused the
next child to be baptised, and when it fell sick she
prayed for it, and it recovered. He began to listen




The Frank Kingdom. | 35



more to what she said of her God, and when, soon after,
the Germans came with a great army across the Rhine,
and he drew out his Franks to fight with them at
Tolbiac, near Cologne, he was in great danger in the
battle, and he cried aloud, “Christ, whom Clothilda
calls the true God, I have called on my own gods, and
they help me not! Send help, and I will own Thy
name.” The Germans fled, and Clovis had the victory.

He kept his word, and was baptised at Rheims by
St. Remigius, with his two sisters, 3000 men, and
many women and children ; and as he was the first great
Teutonic prince who was a Catholic Christian, the
King of France, ever since his time, has been called the
Most Christian King and eldest son of the Church.
Clovis was the first Frank chief who really made a
home of Gaul, or who wore a purple robe and a crown
like a Roman emperor. He made his chief home at
Paris, where he built a church in the little island on the
Seine, in honour of the Blessed Virgin, measuring the
length by how far he could throw an axe; but, though
he honoured the Gaulish clergy, he was still a fierce
and violent savage, who did many cruel things. He
generally repented of them afterwards, and gave gifts
to churches to show his sorrow, and holy men were
about him when, in 511, he died at Paris.


36 Stories of French History.



His sons had all been baptised, but they were worse
men than he had been. The Frank kingdom was only
the north part of the country above the Loire. In the |
south, where the Romans had had possession so much
longer, and built so many more walled towns, the
Franks never really lived. They used to rush down
and plunder the country round about; but then the
townsmen shut themselves in, closed their gates, and
strengthened their walls, and the Franks had no
machines to batter the walls, no patience for a block-
ade, and went home again with only the spoil of the
country round; while in the Province people called
themselves Roman citizens still, and each place governed
itself by the old Roman law.

*Plenty of Gauls were in the northern part too,
speaking Latin still. They had to bear much rough
treatment from the Franks, but all the time their know-
ledge and skill made them respected. The clergy, too,
were almost all Gauls; and now that the Franks were
Christians, in name at least, they were afraid of them,
and seldom damaged a church or broke into a monas- —
tery. Indeed, if there was any good in a Frank, he
was apt to go into a monastery out of the horrid
barbarous ways of his comrades, and perhaps this left
those outside to be still worse, as they had hardly any























The Frank Kingdom. 37



better men among them. The four sons of Clovis
divided the kingdom. ‘That is, they were all kings,
and each had towns of his own, but all a good deal
mixed up together ; and in the four chief towns—Paris,
Orleans, Soissons, and Metz—they all had equal shares.
Not that they really governed, only each had a strong
box filled with gold and jewels, and they always were
leaders when the Franks went out to plunder in the
southern lands of Provincia and Aquitaine. There
was another part the Franks never conquered, namely,
that far north-western corner called Armorica, which
Julius Czsar had conquered, and St. Martin had
converted last of all. The granite moors did not tempt
the Franks, and the Kymri there were bold and free.
Moreover, so many of their kindred Kymri from
Britain came over.thither for fear of the Saxons, that
the country came to be called from them Bretagne,
or Brittany, and the Kymric tongue is spoken there to
this day.
When Hlodmir, one of the sons of Claus, died, his
three little sons were sent to Paris to be under the care
of their grandmother, Clothilda. She was so fond of
them that their uncles, Hloter and Hildebert, were
afraid she would require that their father’s inheritance
should be given to them. So they asked her to send
38 Stories of French History.

the boys to them on a visit, and as soon as they arrived,
a messenger was sent to the Queen with a sword and
a pair of scissors, desiring her to choose. This meant
that she would choose whether the poor boys should be
killed, or have their heads shaven and become monks.
Clothilda answered that she had rather see them dead
than monks. So Hloter killed the eldest, who was
only ten, with his sword ; the second clung to Hildebert,
and begged hard for life, but Hloter forced his brother
to give him up, and killed him too; the third, whose
name was Hlodoald, was helped by some of the
bystanders to hide himself, and when he grew older,
he cut off his long hair, went into a monastery, and
was so good a man that he is now called St. Cloud.
This horrible murder happened about the year 533.




CHAP. V—THE LONG-HAIRED KINGS.
A.D. 533-681.

EYSHE Meerwings, or long-haired kings, were alto-
gether the most wicked dynasty (or race of kings)
who ever called themselves Christian. They do not
seem to have put off any of their heathen customs,
except the actual worship of Frey and Odin. They
murdered, plundered, and married numerous wives, just
as if they had been heathens still. Most likely they
thought that as Christ was the God of Gaul, He must
be honoured there; but they had no notion of obeying
Him, and if a Gallic bishop rebuked them, they only
plundered his church. By the Frank law, a murder
might be redeemed by a payment, and it was full twice
as costly to kill a Frank as to kill a Roman, that is
to say, a Gaul; for, except in the cities in the Province
and Aquitaine, this term of Roman, once so proud,
was only a little better than that of slave.
Out of all the Meerwing names, one or two have







40 Stories of French Hustory.



to be remembered above the rest for their crimes.
Hlother, the murderous son of Clovis, left four sons,
among whom the kingdom was, as usual, divided. Two
of these sons, Hilperik and Siegbert, wished for queenly
wives, though Hilperik, at least, had a houseful of wives
before, and among them a slave girl named Fredegond.
The two brothers married the two daughters of the
King of the Goths in Spain, Galswinth and Brynhild.
Siegbert seems to have really loved Brynhild, but
Hilperik cared for the beautiful and clever Fredegond
more than anyone else, and very soon poor Galswinth
was found in her bed strangled. Fredegond reigned
as queen, and Brynhild hated her bitterly, and con-
stantly stirred up her husband to avenge her sister’s
death. Siegbert raised an army and defeated Hilperik,
but Fredegond contrived to have him stabbed. She
also contrived to have all her husband’s other children
killed by different means, and at last, fearing he would
find out crimes greater than even he could bear with, she
contrived that he too should be stabbed when returning
from hunting, in the year 584. She had lost several
infants, and now had only one child left, Hloter II., a
few months old, but in his name she ruled what the
Franks called the Ne-oster-rik, the not eastern, or
western kingdom, namely, France, from the Saone





The Long-haived Kings. 4I







westward ;' while Brynhild and her son Hildebert ruled
in the Auster-rik, or eastern kingdom, from the Saone
to the Sale and Rhine. There was a most bitter hatred
between the two sisters-in-law. It seemsas if Fredegond
was of a wicked nature, and would have been a bad
woman anywhere. One’s mind shrinks from the
horrible stories of murder, treachery, and every sort of
vice that are told of her; but no outward punishment
came upon her in this world, and she died in 597 at
Paris, leaving her son, Hlother II., on the throne.
Brynhild often did bad things, but she erred more
from the bad times in which she lived than from her
own disposition. She tried, so far as she knew how, to
do good; she made friends with the clergy, she helped
the few learned men, she tried to stop cruelty, she tried
to repair the old Roman roads and bridges, and many
places are called after her—Queen Brynhild’s tower, or
stone, or the like—and she was very kind to the poor,
and gave them large alms. But she grew worse as
she grew older; she had furious quarrels with the
Frank chiefs, and when the Bishops found fault with
her she attacked them, and even caused the saintly
Bishop of Vienne to be assassinated. In her time there
came from Ireland a number of very holy men, Keltic
Christians, who had set forth from the monasteries to






42 Stories of French fustory.

convert such Gauls and Franks as remained heathen,and
to try to bring the rest to a better sense of what a Chris-
tian life was. St. Columbanus came into the Auster-
rik when Brynhild’s two grandsons, Theudebert and
Theuderick, were reigning there. Theuderick listened
willingly to the holy man, and was proceeding to put
away his many wives and mend his ways; but the old
Queen’s pride was offended, and she could not forgive
him for not allowing her to come into his monastery,
because no woman was permitted there. She stirred
up Theuderick to drive him away, whereupon he went
to. the Alps and converted the people there, who were
still worshippers of Odin. Soon after there was a fierce
quarrel between her two grandsons. Theuderick was
taken prisoner by his brother, and forced to cut his hair
and become a monk, but this did not save his life. He
was put to death shortly after, and his brother soon
after died; so that Brynhild, after having ruled in the
name of her son and grandsons, now governed for her
great-grandson, Siegbert, thirty-nine years after her
husband’s death. But she was old and weak, and her
foe, Fredegond’s son, Hlother, attacked her, defeated
her forces, and made her and her great-grandchildren
prisoners. The boys were slain, and the poor old
Gothic Queen, after being placed on a camel and led




The Long-haired Kings. 43

through the camp to be mocked by all the savage
Franks, was tied to the tail of a wild horse, to be
dragged to death by it! This was in 614.

Hlother thus became King of all the Franks, and so
was his son, Dagobert I., who was not much better as
a man, but was not such a savage, and took interest in
the beautiful goldsmith’s work done by the good Bishop
Eligius; and, somehow, his name has been more re-
membered at Paris than he seems properly to deserve.
In fact, the Franks were getting gradually civilized by
the Romanized Gauls—the conquerors by the con-
quered; and the daughters, when taken from their
homes, sometimes showed themselves excellent women.
It was Bertha, the daughter of King Haribert, the
murderer of his nephews, who persuaded her husband,
Ethelbert of Kent, to receive St. Augustine; and
Ingund, the daughter of Brynhild and Siegbert, was
married to a Gothic Prince in Spain, whom she brought
to die a martyr for the true faith,

Twelve more Meerwings reigned after Dagobert. If
they had become less savage they were less spirited,
and they hardly attended at all to the affairs of their
kingdoms, but only amused themselves in their rude
palaces at Soissons or Paris, thus obtaining the name
of Rots Fainéants, or do-nothing kings. The affairs of


Stories of French History.

the kingdom fell into the hands of the Major Domi, as
he was called, or Mayor of the Palace. The Franks, as
they tried to have courts and keep up state, followed
Roman patterns so far as they knew them, and gave
Roman names from the Emperor’s Court to the men in
attendance on them. So the steward, or Major Domi,
master of the household, rose to be the chief person in
the kingdom next to the king himself. The next
greatest people were called Comz¢es, companions of the
King, Counts; and the chief of these was the Master
of the Horse, Comes Stabulz, the Count of the Stable,
or, as he came to be called in the end, the Constable.
The leader of the army was called Dux, a Latin word
meaning to lead; and this word is our word Duke.
But the Mayor of the Palace under these foolish do-
nothing Meerwings soon came to be a much greater
man than the King himself, and the Mayor of the Palace
of the Oster-rik or Austrasia fought with the Palace
Mayor of the Ne-oster-rik or Neustria, as if they were
two-sovereigns. The Austrasian Franks stretched far
away eastward, and were much more bold and spirited
than the Neustrians, who had mixed a great deal with
the Gauls. And, finally, Ebroin, the last Neustrian
Mayor, was murdered in 681, the Neustrian army was
defeated, and the Austrasians beeame the most power-






HANAN
en

|



i
A
|
Nil
4

0 ae i ee

i



LONG-IIAIRED KING, WITH HIS MAÂ¥OR DOMI.


The Long-haived Kings. 45



ful. Their mayors were all of one family, the first of
whom was named Pepin of Landen. He was one of
Queen Brynhild’s great enemies, but he was a friend
of Dagobert I., and he and his family were brave
defenders of the Franks from the other German
nations, who, like them, loved war better than any-
thing else.


CHAP. XLVI.—THE SECOND EMPIRE.

1852-1870,
i? the beginning of the year 1852, the whole of the
French nation was called upon to decide by vote
whether they would form an empire again, or continue
to be a republic. Every man, rich or poor, who was

not a convict, had a vote; and the larger number decided
for the empire, and for Louis Napoleon Bonaparte as
the emperor. He considered himself as the successor
of his uncle, and therefore called himself Napoleon
III., counting the little child in whose favour the great
Bonaparte had abdicated at Fontainebleau as the
second Napoleon.

He married a Spanish lady of high rank, but not
royal, whose mother was Scottish. Her name was
Eugénie de Montijo, and she was one of the most
lovely women of her time. She was pious and kind-
hearted, and always ready to do anything good ; but it
was thought that the court would be more popular, and




The Second Empire. 301



trade prosper more, if an example was set of great
splendour and magnificence. So the ladies were en-
couraged to dress in a style of extravagance and
brilliancy, with perpetual changes of fashion ; and this,
as the Parisian dresses are always the models of those
‘of other countries, has led to much folly in all grades
of society everywhere. One son was born of this
marriage, who was called the Prince Imperial.

The emperor ruled with a strong hand, but he got
everything into order again, and he made Paris more
beautiful than ever, throwing down old narrow streets,
and building grand new ones, which, for the most part,
had asphalt pavement, so that there might be no paving-
stones to take up and make into barricades. He took
away a good many of the places to which old historical
remembrances were attached ; and it has never seemed
plain whether he did so for the sake of sweeping away
the old remembrances, or only because they stood in
the way of his plans.

The name the emperor wished to be called by was
the Napoleon of Peace, as his uncle had been the
Napoleon of War; but it was not always possible to
keep the peace. In the year 1853, just after he had
been crowned, the Russian emperor began to threaten
to conquer Turkey, and thereupon the French joined
302 Stories of French History.

with the English to protect the Sultan. The French
and English armies, both together, landed in Turkey,
and then made an expedition to the Crimea, where the
Russians had built a very strong fortified city named
Sebastopol, whence to attack the Turks. Marshal
Bugeaud was the French general, and, with Lord
Raglan, commanded in the great battle fought on the
banks of the Alma, and then laid siege to Sebastopol,
where again they fought a dreadful battle, when the
Russians sallied out, in the night of the 5th of
November, 1854, and attacked the camp at Inkerman.
All the winter and spring the siege lasted, the two
armies having much bitter cold to fear as they watched
in the trenches; but in the summer it was possible to’
assault the city, and while the English attacked the
Redan, the French attacked the Malakoff Tower, and
after much hard fighting this was taken. Then peace
was made, on condition that all the fortifications of
Sebastopol should be destroyed, and no fleet or army
kept there for the future.

Having thus been allies in war, England and France
became much greater friends, and Queen Victoria and
the emperor made visits to one another; and the trade
of the two nations was so mixed up together as to
make it much less easy to go to war, for the emperor




The Second Empire. 303



had a love and affection for England, which had been a
home to him in his days of exile.

The Italians were more uneasy and miserable than
ever under the rule of the Austrians, and begged Victor
Emmanuel, King of Sardinia, to help them, and become
an Italian king over them. Louis Napoleon gave
them his help, and went in person to Lombardy, where
the French and Italians defeated the Austrians at
Magenta and Solferino ; after which there was again a
peace, and Victor Emmanuel was owned as King of
Italy, on condition that, in return for the help he had
received, he should give to France the little province
of Nice, which had always been part of the dukedom
of Savoy, the old inheritance of his forefathers long
before they were kings, but which seemed as if it ought
to be a part of France. The Romans hoped that they,
too, should have shaken off the Papal government ;
but the guard of French soldiers was still maintained
at Rome.

Another undertaking of the emperor was to bring
Mexico into order. This country had been settled by
Spaniards, and belonged to Spain until it revolted; and
for many years there had been constant revolutions,
and very little law, so that it was full of outlaws and
robbers. Some of the better disposed thought that


304 Stories of French History.



they might do better if they set up a monarchy, and
the French promised to help them. The Archduke
Maximilian, brother of the Emperor of Austria, was
chosen, and went out, with his young wife Charlotte,
daughter of the King of Holland, and guarded by a
French army. But the Mexicans were much more
fierce and treacherous than had been expected; and
the French troops found that staying there only made
them more bitter, and it was costly to keep them there.
So they were brought home; and no sooner had they
left Mexico, than the Mexicans rose up, made their
emperor prisoner, and shot him, while his poor wife lost
her senses from grief. They were a good and noble
pair—true-hearted, and anxious to do right ; and theirs
is one of the saddest stories of our time.

The Emperor of the French had ruled prosperously
for a long time; but the burning hatred of the Red
Republicans was not quenched. His best advisers, too,
were growing old and dying, and his own health and
spirit were failing; but he was trying to teach the
people to rule themselves in some degree, instead of
expecting him to keep order with his power from
above. He was anxious to be sure of his son reigning
after him, and he put it to the vote all over France
whether the empire should be hereditary.





The Second Empire. 305





The vote was in his favour, and he seemed quite
secure. But at this time the Prussians had been
gaining great successes both against Denmark and
Austria, and the French were very jealous of them,
and expected a fight for some of the provinces that lie
along the Rhine. Just then, too, the Spaniards had
risen, and driven away Queen Isabella, who had not
ruled well; and they elected a cousin of the King of
Prussia to be their king. He never accepted the
Spanish crown, but the bare notion made the French
furious, and there was a great cry from the whole
nation that the pride of the Prussians must be put
down. The emperor saw his popularity was failing
him, and that his only chance was to please the people
by going to war. Nobody knew that the army had
been badly managed, and that it was quite changed
from what it was when it fought in Algiers and the
Crimea. Indeed, the French never think that anything
but victory can happen to them, so the army went off
in high spirits to meet the Prussians on the Rhine—
singing, shouting, drinking ; and the emperor took his
young son with him, and tried to seem as hopeful as
they did; but all who saw him near saw that he was
both ill and sad. This was in the summer of the year
1870.








CHAP. VI—CARL OF THE HAMMER.
A.D. 681.

GYSHE grandson of Pepin of Landen is commonly

called Pepin L’Heristal. He was Mayor of the
Palace through the reigns of four do-nothing Meer-
wings, and was a brave leader of the Franks, fighting
hard with their heathen neighbours on the other side of
the Rhine, the Saxons and Thuringians, along the
banks of the Meuse and Elbe; and not only fighting
with them, but helping the missionaries who came from
England and from Ireland to endeavour to convert
them. .

He died in 714, and after him came his brave son
Carl of the Hanger, after whom all the family are
known in history as Carlings. He was Duke of
Austrasia and Mayor of the Palace, over (one cannot
say under) Hlother IV. and Theuderick IV., and fought
the battles of the Franks against the Saxons and




Carl of the Hammer. 47



Frisians, besides making himself known and respected
in the Province and Aquitaine, where the soft Roman
speech softened his name into Carolus and translated
his nickname into Martellus, so that he has come down
. to our day as Charles Martel.

Whether it was meant that he was a hammer him-
self, or that he carried a hammer, is not clear, but
it is quite certain that he was the greatest man in
Europe at that time, and he who did her the greatest
benefit.

It was a hundred years since Mahommed had risen
up in Arabia, teaching the wild Arabs a strict law, and
declaring that God is but one, and that he was: His
prophet, by which he meant that he was a greater and
a truer prophet than the Lord Jesus Christ. He had
carried away many of the Eastern nations after him
and had conquered others. He taught that it was
right to fight for the spread of the religion he taught,
and his Arabs did fight so mightily that they overcame
the Holy Land and held the city of Jerusalem. Besides
this, they had conquered Egypt and spread all along
the north of Africa, on the coast of the Mediterranean
Sea; and thence they had crossed over into Spain, and
subdued the Christian Goths, all but the few who had
got, together in the Pyrenean Mountains and their


48 Stories of French Fistory.

continuation in the Asturias, along the coast of the
Bay of Biscay.

And now these Arabs—also called Saracens and
- Moors—were trying to pass the Pyrennees and make
attacks upon Gaul, and it seemed as if all Europe
was going to be given up to them and to become
Mahommedan. Abdul Rhaman, the great Arab
Governor of Spain, crossed the Pyrennees at the
Pass of Roncevalles, burst into Aquitaine, gained a
great battle near Bourdeaux, and pillaged the city,
which was so rich a place that every soldier was
loaded with topazes and emeralds, and gold was quite
common!

Then they marched on towards Tours, where the
Abbey of Marmoutiers was said to be the richest in all
Gaul. But by this time Carl of the Hammer had got
together his army; not only Franks, but Burgundians,
Gauls of the Province, Germans from beyond the
Rhine—all who willingly owned the sovereignty of
Austrasia, provided they could be saved from the
Arabs.

The battle of Tours, between Charles Martel and
Abdul Rhaman, was fought in the autumn of 752, and
was one of the great battles that decide the fate of the
world. For it was this which fixed whether Europe
Carl of the Hammer. 49

should be Christian or Mahommedan. It was a hotly-
fought combat, but the tall powerful Franks and
Germans stood like rocks against every charge of the
Arab horsemen, till darkness came on. The Franks
slept where they stood, and drew up the next morning
to begin the battle again, but all save the dead and
wounded Arabs were gone. They had drawn off in
the night, and the battle of Tours had saved Europe.
However, the Hammer had still to strike many blows
before they were driven back into Spain, and this
tended to bring the south of Gaul much more under
his power. Carl was looked upon as the great defender
of Christendom, and, as at this time the king of the
Lombards in Northern Italy seemed disposed to make
himself master of Rome, the Pope sent two nuncios, as
Pope’s messengers are called, to carry him presents,
among them the keys of the tomb of St. Peter, and to
beg for his protection. Still, great as he was in reality,
he never called himself more than Mayor of the Palace
and Duke of Austrasia, and when he died in 741, his
sons, Pepin and Carloman, divided the government,
still as Mayors, for the Meerwing Hilderick III. In
746, however, Carloman, weary of the world, caused his
head to be shaven by Pope Zacharias, and retired into
the great monastery of Monte Cassino, where, about a




50 Stories of French History.



hundred years before, St. Benedict had begun a rule
that became the pattern of most of the convents of the
west. Pepin, commonly called & éref, or the Short,
ruled alone, and in 751 he sent to ask Pope Zacharias
whether it would not be wiser that the family who had
all the power should bear the name of kings. The
Pope replied that so it should be. Hilderick was put
into a convent, and the great English Missionary-
bishop, St. Boniface, whom Pepin and his father had
aided in his work among the Germans, anointed Pepin
as King of the Franks at Soissons, and two years later,
the next Pope, Stephen II., came into Gaul again to
ask aid against the Lombards, and at the Abbey of St.
Denys’ anointed Pepin again, together with his two
young sons, Carl and Carloman. And so the Meer-
wings passed away, and the Carlings began.

Pepin was a great friend and supporter of St.
Boniface, who had been made Archbishop of Mayintz.
He did much by his advice to bring the Church of Gaul
into good order, and he was much grieved when the
holy man was martyred while preaching to the savage
men of Friesland. Pepin was constantly fighting with
the heathen Saxons and Germans to the east of him,
and he so far subdued them that they promised to send
300 horses as a present to the General Assembly ot


Carl of the Hammer. 51

Franks. To the north he had the old Gauls in Brit-
tany, who had to be well watched lest they should
plunder their neighbours; and to the south were the
Arabs, continually trying to maraud in the Province
and Aquitaine; while the Dukes of Aquitaine, though
they were quite unable to keep back the Moors without
the help of the Franks, could not endure their allies,
-and hated to acknowledge the upstart Pepin as their
master. These Dukes, though Teuton themselves,
had lived so long in the Roman civilization of the
southern cities, that they despised the Franks as rude
barbarians; and the Franks, on their side, thought them
very slippery, untrustworthy people.

Pepin was a great improvement in good sense,
understanding, and civilization on the do-nothing Meer-
wings, but even he looked on writing as only the
accomplishment of clergy, and did not cause his sons
to learn to write. Yet Pope Stephen was for a whole
winter his guest, and when the Franks entered Italy
and defeated Astolfo, King of the Lombards, Pepin
was rewarded by being made “Senator of Rome.”
Afterwards the Lombards attacked the Pope again.
Pepin again came to his help, and after gaining several
victories, forced King Astolfo to give up part of his
lands near Rome. Of these Pepin made a gift to
52 Stories of French History.

the Pope, and this was the beginning of the Pope’s
becoming a temporal sovereign, that is, holding lands
like a king or prince, instead of only holding a spiritual
power over men’s consciences as chief Bishop of the
Western Church.

Pepin died at the Abbey of St. Denys’ in the year
768. Do not call him King of France, but King of
the Franks, which does not mean the same thing.




CHAP. VII—CARL THE GREAT.
768.

(SARL and Carloman, the two sons of Pepin, at first
\)) divided the Frank domains; but Carloman soon
died, and Carl reignedalone. He is one of the mightiest
of the princes who ever bore the name of Great. Carl
der Grésse, the Franks called him; Carolus Magnus in
Latin, and this has become in French, Charlemagne ; and
as this is the name by which everybody knows him,
it will be the most convenient way to call him so here,
though no one ever knew him thus in his own time.
He was a most warlike king. When the Saxons
failed to send him 300 horses, he entered their country,
ravaged it, and overthrew an image or pillar near the
source of the Lippe, which they used as an idol, and
called Irminsul. Thereupon the Saxons burnt the
church at Fritzlar, which St. Boniface had built, and
the war went on for years. Charlemagne was resolved
to force the Saxons to be Christians, and Witikind, the


54 Stories of French History.

great Saxon leader, was fiercely resolved against yield-
ing, viewing the honour of Odin as the honour of his
country. They fought on and on, till, in 785, Charle-
magne wintered in Saxony, and at last persuaded
Witikind to come and meet him at Attigny. There
the Saxon chief owned that Christ had conquered, and
consented to be baptised. Charlemagne made him Duke
of Saxony, and he lived in good faith to the new vows
he had taken. The Frisians and Bavarians, and all
who lived in Germany, were forced to submit to the
great King of the Franks.

There was a new king of the Lombards, Desiderio,
and a new Pope, Adrian I.; and, as usual, they were at
war, and Adrian entreated for the aid of Charlemagne.
‘He came with a great army, drove Desiderio into
Pavia, and besieged him there. It was a long siege,
and Charlemagne had a chapel set up in his camp to
keep Christmas in; but for Easter he went to Rome,
and was met a mile off by all the chief citizens and
scholars carrying palm branches in their hands, and as
he mounted the steps to St. Peter’s Church, the Pope
met him, saying, “ Blessed is he that cometh in the name
of the Lord.” He prayed at all the chief churches in
Rome, and then returned to Pavia, which was taken soon
after. He carried off Desiderio as a prisoner, and took
Carl the Great. 55

the title of King of the Franks and the Lombards. This
was in 775, while the Saxon war was still going on.

_He had likewise a war with the Arabs in Spain,
and in 778 he crossed the Pyrenees, and overran
the country as far as the Ebro, where the Arabs
offered him large gifts of gold and jewels if he would
return without touching their splendid cities in the
South. He consented, but as he was returning, the
wild Basque people—a strange people who lived un-
conquered in the mountains—fell upon the rear guard
of his army in the Pass of Roncevalles, and plundered
the baggage, slaying some of the bravest: leaders,
among them one Roland, Warden of the Marches
of Brittany. Round this Roland wonderful stories
have hung. It is said, and it may be true, that he
blew a blast on his bugle-horn with his last strength,
which first told Charlemagne, on far before, of this
direful mischance ; and further legends have made him
the foremost and most perfect knight in the army, nay,
raised him to gigantic strength, for there is a great cleft
in the Pyrenean Hills called La Bréche de Roland, and
said to have been made with one stroke of his sword.
_ Pfabzgraf, or Count of the Palace, was the title of some
of the great Frank lords, and thus in these romances
Roland and his friends are called the Paladins.




56 Stories of French History.



But to return to Charlemagne. He had three sons—
Carl, Pepin, and Lodwig. When the two younger
were four and three years old, he took them both with
him to Rome, and there Pope Adrian anointed the
elder to be King of Lombardy ; the younger, King of
Aquitania. As soon as they had returned, Charlemagne
had the little Lodwig taken to his kingdom. As far
as the Loire he was carried in his cradle, but when he
entered Aquitania he was dressed in a little suit of
armour, and placed on horseback, that he might be
shewn to his subjects in manly fashion. Wise, strong
men formed his council, whose whole work was keeping
the Arabs back beyond the Ebro; but he was taken
back after a time to be educated in his father’s palace
at Aachen. Charlemagne had gathered there the most
learned men he could find—Alcuin, an Englishman,
being one—and had a kind of academy, where his
young nobles and clergy might acquire the learning of
the old Roman times. Discussions on philosophy were
held, everyone taking some old name, Charlemagne
himself being called David. He strove hard to remedy
the want of a good education; and such was his ability,
that he could calculate the courses of the planets in his
head, though he never wrote easily, in spite of carry-
ing about tablets in his bosom, and practising at odd




Carl the Great. ey



times. Latin was, of course, familiar to him; St.
Augustine’s “ City of God” was his favourite book ;
and he composed several hymns, among them the Venz
Creator Spiritus—that invocation of the Holy Spirit
which is sung at Ordinations. He also knew Greek,
and he had begun to arrange a Frankish Grammar,
and collect the old songs of his people,

No one was so much honoured and respected in
Europe, and after two more journeys to Rome on
behalf of the Pope, Leo III, the greatest honour
possible was conferred upon him. In the old Roman
times, the Roman people had always been supposed to
elect their Emperor. They now elected him. On the
Christmas Day of the year 800, as Carl the Frank
knelt down before the altar of St. Peter’s, the Pope
placed a crown on his head, and the Roman people
cried aloud, “ To Carolus Augustus, crowned by God,
the great and peaceful Emperor of the Romans, life
and victory !”

So the Empire of the West, which had died away
for a time, or been merged in the Empire of the East
at Constantinople, was brought to life again in the
person of Carl the Great; while his two sons were
rulers of kingdoms, and all around him were numerous
dukes and counts of different subject nations, all owning






58 Stories of French Fiistory.



his empire. The old cities, likewise, in Provence—
Aquitania, Lombardy, and Gaul—though they had
councils that governed themselves, owned him as their
Emperor. Moreover, he made the new territories
which he had conquered along the German rivers
great bishoprics, especially at Triers, Mentz, and Koln,
thinking that bishops would more safely and loyally
guard the frontier, and tame the heathen borderers,
than fierce warrior counts and dukes.

Aachen was the capital of this Empire. There Carl
had built a noble cathedral, and a palace for himself;
and he collected from Italy the most learned clerks
and the best singers of church music. His chosen name
of David did not ill befit him, for he was a great
founder and benefactor of the church, and gathered
together synods of his bishops several times during his
reign to consult for her good and defence. Indeed, his
benefits to her, and his loyal service, were such that he
has been placed in the calendar asa saint; although he
had several serious faults, the worst of which was that
he did not rightly esteem the holiness and closeness of
the tie of wedlock, and married and put away wives
in a lax way that makes a great blot in his character.

He was of a tall figure, with a long neck, and
exceedingly active and dextrous in all exercises—a


Carl the Great. 59



powerful warrior, and very fond of hunting, but pre-
ferring swimming to anything else. Nobody could
swim or dive like him; and he used to take large parties
to bathe with him, so that a hundred men were some-
times in the river at once. His dress was stately on
occasion, but he did not approve of mere finery; and
when he saw some young noble over-dressed, would
rather enjoy taking him on a long muddy ride in the
rain.

He had intended his eldest son Carl to be Emperor,
and Pepin and Lodwig to rule Lombardy and Aqui-
taine under him as kings; but Pepin died in 810, and
Carl in 811, and only Lodwig was left. This last son
he caused to be accepted as Emperor by all his chief
nobles in the church at Aachen, and then made him a
discourse on the duties of a sovereign to his people;
after which he bade the young man take a crown that
lay on the altar and put it on his own head. “ Blessed
be the Lord, who hath granted me to see: my son
sitting on my throne,” he said.

Charlemagne died the next year, in 814, in his
seventy-first year, and was buried at Aachen, sitting
upright, robed and crowned, in his chair, with his sword
by his side.




CHAP. XLV.—_THE REPUBLIC,

1848-1852.

4~\. FTER Louis Philippe and his family had fled

from France, there was a time of confusion. An
assembly of deputies met from all parts of France to
arrange a fresh government; and a very clever poet
and author, named Lamartine, at first tried to bring
about something like order, but he was not strong
enough, and there was a great deal of tumult and
disorder.

In truth, the Red Republicans, who did not want to
see anyone richer than themselves, were very much
disappointed that, though noblemen and gentlemen had
no more rights than other people, yet still rich men
kept their money and estates; and though all sorts
of occupations were devised at Paris, for which they
were highly paid, in hopes of keeping them quiet
and contented, they only became more fierce and
violent. They had devised a way of fortifying the



















BARRICADES, 1848.
The Republic. 295





streets, by seizing on all the carts, carriages, and
cabs they could lay hands on, and fastening them
together with ropes, so as to form a line across the
street. Then they pulled up the paving-stones, and
built them up, banking them up with earth, and thus
making what they called a barricade. And when the
top and back of this was thronged with men and boys
armed with muskets, it was almost impossible to dis-
lodge them.

In the end of June, 1848, there were three dreadful
days of barricades. It was really a fight of the Red
Republicans against the Tricoloured. Liberty, Fra-
ternity, and Equality were the watchwords of them
both ; but the Red Republicans meant much more than
the Tricoloured by these words, for they thought
liberty was no order at all, and equality was that no
person should be better off than the rest. The good
Archbishop of Paris, Monseigneur Affre, going out on
one of these miserable days to try to make peace, was
shot through the back from behind a barricade, and
died in a few hours.

However, General Cavaignac, one of the brave men
who had been trained to war by the fighting in Algeria,
so managed the soldiers and the National Guard that
they put down the Red Republicans, and restored


296 Stories of French History.



order, though not without shedding much blood, and
sending many into exile.

Indeed, the two years 1847 and 1848 were unquiet
all over Europe. Much that had been settled at the

_ Congress of Vienna, in 1814, after Napoleon had been
overthrown, had been done more as if estates were
being carved out than as if what was good for the
people was considered ; and there had been distress and
discontent ever since, especially in Italy, where all the
‘north was under the Emperor of Austria, and his
German officers were very rough and disagreeable in
the towns where they were quartered.

The Italians rose, and tried to shake them off by the
help of the King of Sardinia; and at the same time
there was a great rising against the Pope, Pius IX., at
Rome. The Popes had held Rome for more than a
thousand years, and there ruled the Western Church ;
but they had never been very good princes to their
Roman subjects, and things had fallen into a sad state
of confusion, which, when first he was chosen, Pius IX.
had tried to improve; but his people went on too fast
for him, and at last rose up and so alarmed him that he
fled in the disguise of a servant behind an Austrian
carriage.

Now, the Roman Catholics think the Pope cannot




The Republic. 297

rule over the Church freely unless he has Rome quite
of his own, and lives there as a prince, instead of only
as a Bishop in a country belonging to someone else.
And though there were so many in France who had
not much faith in anything, yet there were a good many
honest, religious people, who were very anxious to have
him back, and said that it mattered more that he should
govern the Church than that the Romans should be
well off.

So a French army was sent to restore him; and the
Italians were grievously disappointed, for the Austrians
were putting them down in the north, and they thought
Republicans bound to help them. But Rome was taken,
and the Pope had his throne again; anda strong guard
of French soldiers were placed in Rome, for without
such help he could no longer have reigned.

The French at home were in more parties than ever.
The Red Republicans still wanted to overthrow every-
thing ; the Moderate ones cared chiefly to keep peace
and order; the Bonapartists longed to have another
empire like Napoleon’s; the Orleanists wished to bring
back the Count of Paris, grandson of Louis Philippe ;
and the Legitimists still held fast by Henry V., the
son of the murdered Duke of Berri, and the natural
king by birth. Never was there such a house divided


298 Stories of French Fitstory.



against itself; but, in truth, the real fear was of the
Red Republicans. All the rest were ready to be quiet,
and submit to anything so long as these could be kept
down.

After much deliberating in the Assembly, it was
settled to have a republic, with a president, as the
Americans have. Then Louis Napoleon Bonaparte,
the son of Napoleon’s brother Louis, offered himself as
president, and was elected, all the quiet people and all
the Bonapartists joining in the choice. Most of the
army were Bonapartists, for the sake of the old victories
of Napoleon ; and when Algeria was quieted, and they
came home, Louis Napoleon had a great power in his
hands. Soon he persuaded the people to change his
title from president to that of first consul, as his uncle
had once been called ; and then everyone began to see
what would follow, but most were glad to have a strong
hand over them, to give a little peace and rest after all
the changes.

And the next time there was any chance of a
disturbance at Paris, Louis Napoleon was beforehand
with the mob. He surrounded them with soldiers, had
cannon planted so as to command every street, and
fired upon the mob before it had time to do any harm,
then captured the ringleaders, and either had them


The Republic. 299

executed or sent into banishment. Some violence and
cruelty there certainly was, but the Parisians were
taught whom they must obey, and quiet people were
grateful. This master stroke is always called the coup
a’etét, or stroke of policy, for it settled affairs for the
time ; and after it Louis Napoleon did as he chose, for
no one durst resist him.






CHAP. X—HUGUES CAPET.

987-997.

78 ET one of the older maps of France, where it is
in provinces, and not departments, and I will try
to shew you what it was to be King of France when
Hugues Capet was crowned at Rheims. Remember,
there had once been a great Empire of the West;
indeed, there was an empire still, only the head of it
was a Saxon instead of a Frank, and it had been
divided into different nations or tribes, as it were, each
ruled over by an officer or count or duke of the
Emperor’s. Now, the nations had fallen apart in
groups, and their chiefs held together according to what
suited them, or who was the strongest, and some with
more, some with less, feeling that the Emperor had a
right over them all. But as to meddling in the
management of a duke or count’s province, no emperor

nor king had any power to do that.
The new king was Duke of France, and Count of



eel






Flugues Cafpet. 75



Paris, and Guardian of the Abbey of St. Denys’. So
in the place called the Isle of France he was really
master, and his brother Henri was Duke of Burgundy.
On the Loire was the great county of Anjou, with a
very spirited race of counts; and to the eastward were
Vermandois and Champagne, also counties. In all
these places the nobles, like the king himself, were
descended from the old Franks; but the people in the
towns and villages were Gauls, and they all talked the
form of broken Latin which was then called the Langue
a’otl, because ozé or ouz was the word for yes. This
has now turned into French. In Normandy the people
were Northmen, but were fast learning to talk nothing
but French ; and in Brittany both duke and people were
still old Kymry, and talked Kymric. They had never
been much under the Romans or Franks. They hated
the French and Normans, and never paid them any
homage if they could help it; but the Norman dukes
always considered that Brittany had been put under
them, and this led to plenty of wars.

The southern half of the country had only been
overrun from time to time, never subdued or peopled
even in the greatest Carling times. There the people
were less Gaul than Roman, and talked a less altered
Latin, which was called Langue d’oc, because they said


76 Stories of French Flistory.



oc instead of ouz; and it was also called Romance or
Provencal. Old Latin learning and manners, with
their graces and elegances, were still kept up in these
parts, and the few Frank chieftains who had come in
had conformed to them. These were the Dukes of
Aquitaine or Guyenne, the Counts of Toulouse, and
the Counts of Narbonne. But in the south-west of
Aquitaine, near the Pyrenees and the sea, were an
old race called Basques, who seem to be older still than
the Gauls, and do not speak their language, but a
strange and very difficult one of their own. The
Basques, where more mixed with the other inhabitants
in the plains, were called Gascons in France, Vascons
in Spain, and were thought great boasters.

These Romance-speaking counts were considered
by the King of France to belong to him; but whether
they considered themselves to belong to the King of
France was quite a different thing. The County of
Provence, Old Provincia, certainly did not, but held
straight from the Holy Roman Empire. So did the
other countries to the eastward, where a German tongue
was spoken, but which had much to do with the history
of France—namely, Lorraine, where the old Carlings
still ruled, and Flanders.

So you see a king of France was not a very mighty






flugues Cafpet. 77



person, and had little to call his own. But just as the
empire was cut up into little divisions, so each duke-
dom or county was cut into lesser ones. If the duke
or count did homage to emperor or king, he had under
him barons (sometimes counts) who did homage in
their turn for the lands they held. And as the king
could not make war without a council of his counts and
dukes, no more could the duke or count without a par-
liament or council of his barons. When money was
wanted, the clergy and the burghers from the towns had
to be called too, and to settle what they would give.
The lands held in this way were called fiefs, and the
great men who held straight from the king himself
were crown vassals; those under them were their
vassals. In time of war the king called his crown
vassals, they called their barons, the barons called the
vavasours or freemen under them, and got their men
in from working on the farms, and out they went.
Money was not common then, so the lands were held
on condition of serving the lord in war or by council,
of giving a share of help on great occasions in his
family or their own, and so many days’ work on his
own farm when it was wanted.

This was called the feudal system, and sometimes it
worked well; but if the baron was a hard man, the






78 Stories of French Htstory.



poor peasants often suffered sadly, for he would call
them to work for him when their own crops were
spoiling, or take the best of all they had. And the
Franks had got into such a way of despising and ill-
treating the poor Gauls, that they hardly looked on
them as the same creatures as themselves. When two
barons went to war—and this they were always doing
-—the first thing they did was to burn and destroy the
cottages, corn, or cattle on each other’s property, and
often the peasants too. The barons themselves lived
in strong castles, with walls so thick that, as there was
no gunpowder, it was not possible to break into them.
They filled them with youths whom they were training
to arms—the younger ones called pages, the elder
esquires or shield-bearers; and as they practised their
exercises in the castle court, the bearing of a gentleman
was called courtesy. When a squire had attended his
knight battle, grown perfect in all his feats of arms,
could move about easily in his heavy shirt of little
chains of linked steel, and ride a tilt with his lance
against another man armed like himself, and had learned
enough to be a leader, he was made a knight or
chevalier, as the French called it, by a blow on the
shoulders with the flat of the sword before an elder
knight. A belt and gilded spurs marked the knight ;








Flugues Cafpet. 79

and he was required to vow that he would fight for
God and his Church, be faithful and true, and defend
the poor and weak. Gradually chivalry, as this spirit
of knighthood came to be called, did much to bring in
a sense of honour and generosity ; but at this time, in
the reign of Hugues Capet, there was very little good
to be seen in the world. All over France there was
turbulence, cruelty, and savage ways; except, perhaps,
in Normandy, where Duke Richard the Fearless and
his son Duke Richard the Good kept order and peace,
and were brave, upright, religious men, making their
subjects learn the better, rather than the worse ways of
France.

Just at this time, too, the Church and the clergy
were going on badly. The Pope had—ever since, at
least, the time of Carl the Great—been looked on as the
head of the whole Western Church, and the people at
Rome had the power of choosing the Pope. Two
wicked women, named Marozia and Theodora, gained
such power by their riches and flatteries, that they
managed to have anyone chosen Pope whom they
liked ; and of course they chose bad men, who would
do as they pleased. This had gone on till the year
962, when the Emperor Otho came over the Alps,
conquered Italy, and turned out the last of these




80 Stories of French History.

shameful Popes. Then he and his successors chose
the Pope; but this was not the right way of doing
things, and the whole Church felt it, for there was no
proper restraint upon the wickedness of the nobles.
The bishops were too apt to care only for riches and
power, and often fought like the lay nobles ; and in the
monasteries, where prayer and good works and learning
ought to have been kept up, there was sloth and
greediness, if not worse; and as to the people, they
were hardly like Christians at all, but more like brute
beasts in their ignorance and bad habits.

Indeed, there hardly was a worse time in all the
history of Europe than the reign of Hugues Capet,
which lasted from 987 to 997.










{ ROBERT THE PIOUS,.... 997-1031
CHAP.” XI.--HENRY Tye. eae 1031-1060,
| PHILIP Liye ces nncenenarectneenen 1060-1 108,

“. N a very curious way a better spirit was stirred up in
& the world. In the Book of Revelation it is said that
Satan is to be bound for a thousand years. Now, as
the year 1000 of our Lord was close at hand, it was
thought that this meant that the Day of Judgment was
coming then, and there was great fear and dread at the
thought. At first, however, the effect only seemed to
be that the wicked grew worse, for they feasted and
drank and revelled, like the men before the flood; and
when the year 1000 began, so many thought it not
worth while to sow their corn, that there was a most
dreadful famine and great distress everywhere, so that
there were even wretches who set traps in the woods
to catch little children for their food.

But all this time there were good men who taught
repentance, and one blessed thing they brought about




82 Stories of French History.



while people’s hearts were soft with dread, was what
was called the Truce of God, namely, an agreement
that nobody should fight on Sundays, Saturdays, or
Fridays, so that three days in the week were peaceable.
The monasteries began to improve, the clergy to be
more diligent, and the king himself, whose name was
Robert, was one of the best and most religious men in
his kingdom. He used to come to the Abbey at St.
Denys’ every morning to sing with the monks; he used
the Psalms every day in prayer and praise, and wrote
and set to music several Latin hymns, which he carried
to Rome and laid on the altar at St. Peter’s; and he
loved nothing so well as waiting on beggars, and dressing
the wounds of the sick. But he could not manage his
kingdom well, and everyone took advantage of him.
He had married his cousin, Bertha of Burgundy, who
was heiress of Arles in Provence. Now Provence
belonged to the Empire, and the Emperor did not
choose that the Kings of France should have it ; so he
made the Pope, whom he had appointed, declare that
Robert and Bertha were such near relations that they
could not be husband and wife, and, with great grief,
Robert submitted, Bertha went into a nunnery, and he
married Constance of Aquitaine. She brought all the
gay fashions of Southern France with her, and her


Flenry I, 83



followers wore their clothes and cut their hair, sung songs
and made jokes, in a way that offended the Northern
French very much. She was vain and light-minded
herself, could not endure the king and his beggars,
and grew weary of his hymns and prayers. The sons
were more like her than like their father, and Robert
had a troubled life, finding little peace except in church,
until he died in the year 1031.

His eldest son, Henry I., reigned after him, and the
second, Robert, became Duke of Burgundy, and began
a family of dukes which lasted on four hundred years.
The spirit of improvement that had begun to stir was
going on. Everybody was becoming more religious.
The monks in their convents began either to set them-
selves to rights, or else they founded fresh monasteries
in new places, with stricter rules, so as to make a new
beginning. And a very great man, whose name was
Hildebrand, was stirring up the Church not to go on
leaving the choice of the Pope to the Emperor, but to
have him properly appointed by the clergy of the
Diocese of Rome, who were called Cardinals—that is,
chiefs. Though there was much fierceness and wildness,
and much wickedness and cruelty, among the great
nobles, they still cared more for religion; they built
churches, they tried to repent as they grew old, and


84 Stories of French History.



some went on pilgrimage to pray for the forgiveness
of their sins at the Holy Sepulchre, where our Blessed
Lord once lay.

One of these pilgrims was Robert the Magnificent,
Duke of Normandy. He walked on foot very humbly
in the country, but at Constantinople, he rode through
the gates of the city with his mule shod with silver
shoes, loosely fastened on, so that the people might
pick them up. He died on his way, and his young son,
William, had to fight very hard with enemies on all
sides before he could keep his dukedom.

Henry I. had been dead six years, and his son
Philip I. had reigned six, from 1060, when this great
Duke of Normandy became still greater, by winning
for himself the kingdom of England. Philip did not
much wish this. He was afraid of William, and did
not at all wish to see him grow so much more powerful
than himself. He spoke contemptuously of the new
King of England whenever he could, and at last it was
one of his foolish speeches that made William so angry
as to begin the war in which the great conqueror met
with the accident that caused his death.

Philip was by no means a good man. After he had
lost his first wife, he fell in love with the beautiful
Countess of Anjou, Bertrade de Montfort, and per-


Philip TI. 35



suaded her to come and pretend to be his wife. His
son Louis, who was so active and spirited that he was
called /’évezl/é, which means the Wide-awake, showed
his displeasure, and Philip and Bertrade so persecuted
him, that he was obliged to come for refuge to England.
However, in spite of the king’s wickedness, there was
much more spirit of religion in the people. There
were many excellent Bishops and Abbots, and some
good nobles; Godfrey de Bouillon, Duke of Lorraine,
the descendant of the old Carlings, was one of the very
best of the princes at that, or indeed any other time.

It was in this reign that a pilgrim, named Peter the
Hermit, came home with a piteous history of the cruelty
of the Mahometans, who had possession of the Holy
Land. He obtained leave from the Pope, Urban II.,
to call all the warriors of Christendom to save the Holy
Sepulchre, where our Blessed Lord had lain, from the
hands of the unbelievers. The first great preaching
was at Clermont, in Auvergne; and there the whole
people were so much moved that they cried as if with
one voice, “God wills it,” and came crowding round to
have their left shoulders marked with a cross made of
two strips of cloth. An army came together from many
of the lands of the west, and the princes agreed to lay
aside all their quarrels while the Crusade lasted. The


86 Stories of French History.



good Duke Godfrey led them, all through Germany
and Hungary, and across the narrow straits of the
Bosphorus, meeting with many troubles and perils as
they went; but at last they did get safe to Jerusalem,
laid siege to it, and conquered it. Then they chose
Godfrey to be King of Jerusalem, but he would never
be crowned ; he said it was not fitting for him to wear
a crown of gold where his Lord had worn a crown of
thorns. Many nobles and knights stayed with him to
help him to guard the holy places, while the others
went home. Two convents of monks resolved that,
besides being monks, they would be soldiers of the
Holy War. These were called the Knights of St.
John of Jerusalem, or Hospitalier Knights, and the
Knights of the Temple. The Hospitaliers had their
name because they had a house at Jerusalem for
receiving the poor pilgrims, and nursing them if they
were sick or wounded. People from England, Spain,
Germany, and Italy were of the Crusade, and might
belong to the two orders of knighthood, but there were
always more French there than of any other nation.

Louis the Wide-awake was fetched home by the
French barons, and ruled for his father for the last six
years of Philip’s reign, though the old king did not die
till the year 1108.





CHAP. XIII—LOUIS VIL, THE YOUNG.

1037-1180,

SYSHE “ Young” is an odd historical name for a king

who reigned a good many years; but he was
called so at first because he was only eighteen years old
when he came to the throne, and the name clung to
him because there was always something young and
simple about his character.

The first great event of his reign was that St.
Bernard stirred Europe once more to a crusade to help
the Christians in Palestine, who were hard pressed by
the Mahometans. At Vezelay there was a great
assembly of bishops and clergy, knights and nobles;
and St. Bernard preached to them so eagerly, that
soon all were fastening crosses to their arms, and
tearing up mantles and robes because enough crosses
had not been made beforehand for the numbers who
took them. The young king and his beautiful queen,

Eleanor of Aquitaine, vowed to make the crusade
too, and set out with a great army of fighting men,
a eee ee
94 Stories of French History.

and, besides them, of pilgrims, monks, women, and
children. The queen was very beautiful and very
vain ; and though she called herself a pilgrim, she had
no notion of denying herself, so she carried all her fine
robes and rich hangings, her ladies, waiting-maids,
minstrels, and jesters. The French had no ships to
take them direct to the Holy Land, but had to go by
land all the way, along the shore of Asia Minor.
Numbers of the poor pilgrims sank down and perished
by the way; and just as they had passed the city of
Laodicea, the Mahometan army came down on the rear
guard in a narrow valley, and began to make a great
slaughter. The king himself had sometimes to get
behind a tree, sometimes behind a rock ; and the whole
army would have been cut off, if a poor knight named
Gilbert, whom no one had thought much of, came
forward, took the lead, and helped the remains of the
rear guard to struggle out of the valley. Through all
the rest of the march, Gilbert really led the army ; and
yet after this he never is heard of again, and never
seems to have looked for any reward.

When Palestine was reached at last, there were not
10,000 left out of the 400,000 who had set out from
home; and the gay queen’s zeal was quite spent ; and
while the king was praying at the Holy Sepulchre,


Louis VII., The Young. 95



and trying to fight for it, she was amusing herself with
all the lively youths she could get round her. She
despised her good, pious husband, and said he was
more like a monk than a king; and as soon as they
, returned from this unhappy crusade, they tried to find
some excuse for breaking their marriage.

The Pope allowed the king to rid himself of this
wicked lady, and let them both marry again. He
married Constance of Castille, and Eleanor took for
her husband the young English king, Henry IL. and
brought him all her great possessions.

The very thing had come to pass that the King of
France feared—namely, that the Dukes of Normandy
should get more powerful than he was. For Henry
II. was at once King of England and Duke of Nor-
mandy and Count of Anjou, and his wife was Duchess
of Aquitaine and Guienne; and, as time went on,
Henry betrothed his little son Geoffrey to Constance,
the orphan girl who was heiress to Brittany, and under-
took to rule her lands for her; so that the lands over
which Louis had any real power were a sort of little
island within the great sea of the possessions of the
English king. Besides, Henry was a much cleverer man
than Louis, and always got the better of him in their
treaties. The Kings of France and Dukes of Nor-




96 Stories of French History.



mandy always met at Gisors, on their border, under
an enormous elm-tree, so large that three hundred
horsemen could find shelter under the branches; and
these meetings never went on well for Louis. He was
obliged to promise that his two daughters, Margaret
and Alice, should marry Henry’s two sons, Henry and
Richard, and to give them to Henry to be brought up.
When Henry had his great dispute with Archbishop
Becket, about the question whether clergymen were
subject to the law of the land, Becket fled to France.
Louis loved and respected him very much, gave him
shelter in an abbey, and tried hard to make peace
between him and Henry, but never could succeed, till,
after six years, Henry pretended to be reconciled, and
Becket went home in the year 1170. He was murdered
very soon after, as you have heard in the history of
England.

Louis must have been very much surprised when his
own former wife, Queen Eleanor, came disguised as a
man with her three eldest sons to his court, making ~
great complaints of Henry for keeping the government
of their provinces in his own hands. He must have
thought it only what they and he both deserved, and
he gave them what help he could; but Henry was a
great deal more strong and crafty than any of them,








Louis VIT., The Young. 97



and soon put them down. Eleanor was thrown into
prison, and kept there as long as she lived. She richly
deserved it; but her sons and the people of Aquitaine
did not think so. Those people of Aquitaine were a
curious race—they were very courtly, though not very
good ; and they thought more of music, poetry, and
love-making than of anything else, though they were
brave men too. Every knight was expected to be able
to write verses and sing them, and to be able to hold
an argument in the courts of love. The best poets
among them were called troubadours; and Eleanor
herself, and her two sons, Richard and Geoffrey, could
compose songs and sing them. All were as much
beloved in Aquitaine as Henry was hated; and the
troubadours did nothing but stir up the youths to fight
with their father and set their mother free ; but though
they broke out many times, they could never prevail
against him.

Louis VII. was married three times—to Eleanor of
Aquitaine, to Constance of Castille, and to Alice of
Champagne. These three queens had among them six
daughters, but no son; and this was a great grief, since no
woman had ever reigned in France, and it was believed
that the old Salian Franks had a law against women
reigning. At any rate, this grew to be the rule in



c








98 Stories of French History.



France, and it is called the Saliclaw. However, the
question had not to be settled this time, for at last a
son was born to Louis; and in his joy he caused the
babe to be christened Philip Déeu-donné, or God-given.
The boy was the cleverest son who had sprung from
the House of Paris for ages past ; and while still quite
young, cared for all that concerned his father and his
kingdom, at an age when other boys care only for
sports and games. When his father met the English
king at the elm of Gisors, young Philip looked on and
saw how Henry over-reached and took advantage of
Louis ; and he was bitterly grieved and angered, and
made up his mind that some day he would get back
all that his father was losing.

However, in the midst of his plans, young Philip
was one day out hunting in a forest with his father,
when he missed his companions, lost his way, and
wandered about all night. When he was found, he was
so spent with hunger and cold that he had a bad illness,
and was in great danger for some days. When he
grew better, King Louis, in great joy, thought this
precious life had been granted for the prayers of his
old friend Thomas a Becket, and asked leave of Henry
to come and give thanks at the archbishop’s tomb at
Canterbury. He came, and was welcomed as a friend










Ne SD oy






WW eee ss yy) SH
WWE Np
SN ae

PHILIP AUGUSTUS AT THE ELM OF GISORS.








Louis VII., The Young. 99



and guest. He gave great gifts to the cathedral, and
especially a beautiful ring, which became one of the
great treasures of the place.

He had had his beloved son, though only fifteen,
crowned, that France might have a king over her while
he was away ; and Philip was very soon the only king,
for good, honest, simple-minded Louis the Young died
very soon after his return from Canterbury, in the year
1180, nine years before the death of his great enemy,
Henry II.






CHAP. VIII—THE CARLINGS.
814-887.

SYSHE Carlings after Charlemagne are nearly as diffi-

» cult to understand or care about as the Meerwings.
The best way to understand the state of things is to
remember that the Empire—the Holy Roman Empire
of the West—consisted of a whole collection of separate
states—German, Frank, Lombard, Burgundian, Gallic,
Latin, and that a Carling was always king in one or
more of these, and the chief of the family Emperor ; but

they were constantly quarrelling, and whenever any of



them died, it was as if the whole were shaken up
together and the parts picked out afresh. They were
far from being as wicked or as ignorant as the Fainéants;
but it really was almost impossible for their utmost
efforts to have succeeded in keeping the peace, even
if they had been such giants in mind as Charlemagne
had been.

His only son, ee ee aca Pius, as the Latins


The Carlings. 61





called him; Louis le Debonnaire, as he stands in French
books—was a good, gentle, pious man, but his life was
one continual warfare with his sons. After he had
given three kingdoms to his three sons, their mother
died; he married again, and had a younger son, Carl or
Charles ; and his desire to give a share to this poor
boy led to no less than three great revolts on the part
of the elder brothers, till at last their poor father died
worn out and broken-hearted, on a little islet in the
Rhine, in the year 840.

The eldest son, Lothar, was then Emperor, and had
for his own, besides the kingdom of Italy and that
country where Aachen (the capital) stood, the strip
which is bounded by the Rhine and the Alps to the
east, and the Meuse and the Rhone to the west. He
was in the middle between his brothers—Lodwig, who
had Germany ; and Charles, who had all the remainder
of France. Of course, they fought over this; and
when Lothar died, his two sons divided his dominions
again—the elder (whose name was the same as his
own) got the northern half, between the Meuse and
Rhine ; and the younger had the old Provincia. They
both died soon, and would not be worth speaking of,

but that the name of the two Lothars remained to the
northern kingdom, Lotharick or Lorraine, and because


62 Stories of French Hvstory.



we shall sometimes hear of the old kingdom of Arles
or Provence.

Charles survived all his brothers, and came to be the
head of the family, the second Emperor Charles, com-
monly called the Bald. He was King from his father’s
death in 840, but Emperor only for two years, from
875 to 877; and his life was a dreary time of tumult
and warfare, though he was an active, able man, and
did his best. He had a good deal more learning than
Charlemagne had to begin with, and like him had a
school in his palace, where the most remarkable person
was a Kelt from one of the old Scottish or Irish
monasteries, called John; and also Scot, or Erigena (a
native of Erin). Hewas a great arguer and philosopher,
and got into trouble with the Pope about some of his
definitions. King Alfred the Great of England, who
had his own palace school, invited Scot to it, and after-
wards placed him in the abbey at Malmesbury ; but
there the rude English scholars’ hatred to Scot broke
out, and when he tried to keep order they killed him
with the iron pens with which they wrote on wax
tablets. At least so goes the story.

Charles the Bald had little peace to enjoy his palace
school, for the same reason as Alfred was at war. The
Northmen were even more dreadful enemies to France






The Carlings. 63



than to England. The first fleet of their ships had
been seen by Charlemagne, and he had shed tears at
the sight; for he perceived that all his efforts to subdue
and convert Bavarians, Saxons, and Frisians had not
saved his people from a terrible enemy of their own
stock, far more earnest in the worship of Odin, and (as
he foresaw) likely to come in greater numbers. All
through the troubles of Louis le Debonnaire parties of
Northmen were landing, and plundering any city or
abbey that was not strong enough to keep them off;
and when Alfred had made England too mighty for
them, they came all the more to France. Sometimes
they were met in battle, sometimes a sum was offered
to'them to spare a city from their plunder; and if the
walls were strong, they would generally accept it. Paris
was thus bought off in the time of Charles the Bald
from the terrible sea-king, Hasting. Sometimes the
bishop of the threatened place would fancy he had
converted the sea-king, and would add baptism to the
treaty. But once when this was done, and there was a
scarcity of white robes for the converts, they turned
round in a rage, declaring that wherever they had been
washed before they had been more handsomely treated.
Another heathen had almost accepted the faith, when
he paused and asked what had become of all his dead




64 Stories of French History.



fathers. His teachers, instead of answering that God
is merciful, and deals with men according to what they
have, not according to what they have not, replied that
they were in hell fire. “Then,” said the pupil, “do
you think I will desert them ? I cast in my lot with
them wherever they are.” It is not certain whether
it was one of Witikind’s Saxons or a Northman who
made this answer.

After Charles the Bald, three very short reigns,
only lasting seven years altogether, of his son and his
two grandsons, and then the head of the Carlings
was Charles III., commonly called der adicke (the
Thick or the Fat)—in France known as Charles le
Gros. He was the son of Lodwig called the German,
the son of Lodwig the Pious, and seems to have been
less fit than most of his kindred for the difficulties of
his post as Emperor of the West, or King of the
Franks,

The Northmen were worse than ever in his time,
not so much from his weakness, as because Harald the
Fairhaired had made himself sole King of Norway,
driving out all opposition ; and those who would not
brook his dominion now came southward, intending
not only to plunder, but to win homes for themselves.
One of these was the famous Rolf Gange, or Walker,




The Carlings. 65



so called because he went into battle on foot. In the
year 885 Rolf and another sea-king named Siguid sailed
up the Seine with 700 great ships, which stretched for
six miles along the stream, and prepared to take Paris.
First, however, Siguid sent for Bishop Gozlin, and
promised that if the city were only yielded to him he
would allow no harm to be done, no man’s goods to be
touched. But the bishop said the city had been
entrusted to him and Count Eudes (the governor) by
the Emperor, and that they could not yield it up; and
for full thirteen months the place was besieged, until
at last the Emperor arrived with an army collected
from all the nations under him; but, after all, he did
not fight—heyenly paid the Northmen to leave Paris,
and go to winter in Burgundy, which was at enmity
with him. In fact, every part of the domains of the
empire was at enmity with poor fat Charles; and the
next year (887) a diet or council met on the banks of
the Rhine and deposed him. Arnulf, a son of the
short-lived Carloman, was made Emperor, Count Eudes
was crowned King of France, Guy (Duke of Spoleto)
set up a kingdom in Italy, Boso of Arles called himself
King of Provence, and Rodolf (another count) was
crowned at St. Moritz King of Burgundy; so that the
whole Empire of Charlemagne seemed to have been




66 Stories of French Flistory.



broken up, and Rolf went on conquering more than
ever, especially in Neustria.

The siege of Paris, here mentioned, made an
immense impression on French and Italian fancy, and
was the subject of many poems and romances in later
times. Only they mixed up together in one the three
Karls—the Hammer, the Great, and the Fat—and
called him Carlo Magno, surrounded him with Pala-
dins, of whom Roland or Orlando was foremost; made
the Saracens besiege Paris, and be beaten off, and
pursued into Spain, where the battle of Roncevalles
and the horn of Roland played their part—all having
of course the manners of knights and ladies of the
fifteenth century, with plenty of giants, enchanters, and
wonders of all kinds of magical and fairy lore.












CHAP. XIV.—PHILIP IIL, AUGUSTUS.

1180-1223.

HILIP the Gift of God is most commonly known

in history as Philip Augustus. Why, is not quite
plain; but as he became a very powerful King of
France, it is most likely that one of the old names of
the Western Emperors, who were all Caesar Augustus,
got applied to him.

If his father had still been Louis the Young in his
old age, Philip might in his youth have been called
Philip the Old, for he was much older in skill and
cunning at fifteen than his father had been all his
life. The whole history of his reign is of his
endeavour to get the better of the Plantagenet
kings of England. He so much hated the thought
of what he had seen under the elm-tree of Gisors,
that he cut it down; and though he hated King
Henry and his sons all alike, he saw that the best way
to do them harm was by pretending to be the friend of

ca












Philip I1,, Augustus. 101



whichever was not king, and so helping on their
quarrels, The eldest and the third sons, Henry and
Geoffrey, were by this time dead, and Richard of
the Lion-heart was the favourite of the Aquitaine
troubadours.

There came news from Palestine that the Christians
had been conquered by the great Saracen chief Saladin,
and that Jerusalem had been taken by him. There
was great lamentation, and a fresh crusade was deter-
mined on by all the princes of Europe, the Emperor, the
King of France, the King of England, and his sons. The
Emperor, Frederick of the Red Beard, set off first, but
he was lost by the way while bathing in a river in Asia
Minor; and the two kings waited to arrange their
affairs. Philip's way of doing this was to get Richard
to his court, and to pretend to be so fond of him, that
they both slept in the same bed, drank out of the same
cup, and ate out of the same dish ; but he was stirring
up Richard —who needed it little —to demand his
mother’s freedom and the land of Aquitaine, and to
rebel against his father, leading his brother John with
him. This was the rebellion which broke the heart of
Henry II. He died, and Richard went on his crusade
as king.

It was the first crusade when the armies went by



























102 Stories of French Fiistory.



sea instead of by land. Richard had his own fleet, but
Philip was obliged to hire ships of the merchants of
Genoa; and when the two fleets reached Sicily, they
did not venture to sail on till the winter was over, but
waited till spring. Now that Richard was king, Philip
no longer pretended to love him ; and there were many
disputes among the Crusaders. At last they sailed on
to help the Christians, who were besieging Acre.
Philip arrived first, and quickened the works; but still
no great things were done till Richard arrived; and
then Philip was vexed that everyone talked so much
more of the English king’s brave doings than of him-
self. The heat of the climate soon made both kings
fall sick ; and when the city was taken, Philip’s doctors
declared that he must go home at once if he wished to
recover. Most likely they were right; but he was
glad to go, for he hoped to do Richard a great deal of
harm in his absence. The Pope forbade anyone to
attack a Crusader’s lands while he was away; but
Philip could stir up Richard’s subjects and his brother
against him. And when, as you remember, Richard
-was made captive in Austria, on his way home, Philip
even sent money to the Emperor of Germany to keep
him a prisoner. At last, when the German princes had
forced the Emperor to set him free, Philip sent word to
Pee






Philip If., Augustus. 103



John, in this short note, “ Take care of yourself, for the
devil is let loose.”

But when, two years later, Richard of the Lion-heart
was killed at Limoges, Philip became John’s most bitter
enemy, and the friend of the only other Plantagenet
left, namely, Geoffrey’s son Arthur, Duke of Brittany,
who appealed to his suzerain, Philip, to make him
Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou, as son of the
elder brother. Philip called on John to give up these
lands; but John offered to make a peace by marrying
his niece, Blanche, the daughter of his sister and the
King of Castille, to Philip’s son, Louis the Lion. Philip
was in trouble himself at the time, and consented to
make peace.

Philip’s trouble was by his own fault. His first wife,
Isabel of Hainault, was dead, and he had thought to
make friends with the King of Denmark by marrying
his daughter Ingeborg. But the Danes were then very
rough and untaught, and poor Ingeborg was a dull,
clumsy, ignorant girl, not at all like a courtly lady.
Philip took such a dislike to her that he sent her into
a convent, and married the beautiful Agnes de Meranie,
the daughter of the Duke of the Tyrol. But there
was then ruling one of the mightiest Popes who
ever lived, called Innocent III. He was deter-






104 Stories of French History.



mined not to let anyone, however great, go on in
sin unwarned; and he called on Philip to put Agnes
away, and take back his only true wife. And when
Philip would not, Innocent laid the kingdom under an
interdict—that is, he forbade any service to go on in
any church except in those of the monks and nuns,
and there only with the doors shut against all outside.
The whole nation was, as it were, cut off from God for
their prince’s sin. Philip tried to stand up against this
dreadful sentence at first; but he found the people
could not bear it, so he sent Agnes away, and took
Ingeborg back. He was then absolved, and his king-
dom went on prospering. When, in 1203, Arthur of
Brittany perished in prison, Philip summoned John,
as a vassal of France, to answer for the murder. The
great vassals met, the trumpets sounded, and John was
called on to appear; but as he did not come, he was
sentenced to have forfeited his lands of Normandy and
Anjou, and Philip entered them with his army and took
the castle, while John could not get men or money to
come and stop him; and only the lands of old Eleanor
of Aquitaine, who was still alive, remained to the
English.

This forfeit made a great step in the power of the
French kings, since not only had the English kings








“amet

Philip I1., Augustus. 105



lost Normandy and Anjou, but these two great domains
belonged to the French king as entirely as his County
of Paris. He had no duke or count between him and
the barons or cities. Philip’s designs against the Plan-
tagenets were favoured by John’s own crimes. The
quarrel with the Pope that you have heard of, about the
Archbishop of Canterbury, made Innocent III. invite
Philip to go and conquer England, but the fear of this
brought John to make his peace with the Pope.

However, John’s nephew, Otho of Brunswick, was
emperor, and he too had quarrelled with the Pope,
who wanted to make young Frederick of Sicily emperor.
Philip took Frederick’s part, and Otho marched against
him into Flanders. All the French nobles had gathered
round their king, and at Bonoines there was one of the
greatest battles and victories that French history tells
of. Otho had to gallop away from the battle, and
Philip said, “ We shall see nothing more of him than
his back.” This great battle was fought in the year
1214.

Very shortly after, Philip’s eldest son, Louis, called
the Lion, was invited to England by the barons, because
they could no longer bear the horrible cruelties and
wickednesses of John; and he would not keep Magna
Charta, which he had signed. Louis went to England,






106 Stories of French History.



and London was put into his hands; but when King
John died, the barons liked better to have his little
innocent son, Henry III, as their king, than to be joined
onto France. So, after Louis’s troops had been beaten
by land and by sea, he came home and gave up the
attempt.

But Philip Augustus certainly had the wish of his
life fulfilled, for he had seen his foes of the House of
Plantagenet humbled, and brought to bitter trouble,
and he had taken to himself the chief of their og
possessions.

He died in the year 1223, having lived in the reigns
of four English kings, and done his utmost to injure
them all. He was not a good man; but as he was
brave and clever, and a good friend to the towns, the
French were very proud of him.














CHAP. IX.—THE COUNTS OF PARIS.

887-987.
SQOOR Carl the Fat died of misery and grief the

year after he was deposed, but he was not the last
Carling. Besides the Emperor Arnulf, there was a
son of Ludwig the Stammerer (another Carl), who
tried to win the old French domains back from Eudes.
In fact, the westerly Franks, who held Paris and all
the country up to the Atlantic Ocean, had become
much mixed with the old Gauls, and had learned to
speak Latin a little altered—in fact, the beginning of
what we call French—and they held with Eudes;
while the Franks round Laon and Soissons were much
more German, and chiefly clung to the Carling Carl,
though he bore no better surname than the Simple.
The further eastward Franks of Franconia, as we
now call it, with all the other German tribes—Swabians,
Frisians, Saxons, Bavarians, &c.—were under Arnulf,





aa)





68 Stories of French Hrstory..



and made up the kingdom of Germany. The Franks
west of the Rhine never were joined to it again; and
after the death of Arnulf’s only son, Ludwig the Child,
no more Carlings reigned there, and soon the Saxons
obtained the headship.

The Counts of Paris were not Gauls, but Saxons
who had settled in the Frank country and made
common cause with the Gauls. They had the same
sort of patience with which the first Carlings had
waited till the Meerwings were quite worn out. Eudes
let Charles the Simple govern the lands between the
Meuse and Seine, and when Eudes died, in 898, his
brother Robert the Strong only called himself Duke of
France, and left Charles the Simple to be King of the
Franks.

All this time Rolf and his Northmen had gone on
conquering a home in Northern Gaul. They did not
plunder and ravage like common vikings, but they
spared the towns and made friends with the bishops ;
and though they fought with the nations beyond, they
treated all the country between Brittany and the River
Epte as if it were their own. Charles the Simple came
to an agreement with Rolf. He said that if Rolf would
become a Christian, and accept him as his king, he
would give him his daughter in marriage, and grant



The Counts of Parts. 69



him the possession of all these lands, as Duke of the
Northmen. Rolf consented, and in 911 he was baptised
at Rouen, married Gisla (the king’s daughter), and then
went to swear to be faithful to the king. Now, this
ceremony was called swearing fealty. It was repeated
whenever there was a change either of the over or the
under-lord. The duke, count, or whatever he was,
knelt down before the over-lord, and, holding his hands,
swore to follow him in war, and to be true to him
always. The over-lord, in his turn, swore to aid him
and be true and good lord to him in return, and kissed
his brow. In return, the under-lord—vassal, as he was
called—was to kiss the foot of his superior. This was
paying homage. Kings thus paid homage, and swore
allegiance to the emperor; dukes or counts, to kings ;
lesser counts or barons, to dukes; and for the lands
they owned they were bound to serve their lord in
council and in war, and not to fight against him. Lands
so held were called fiefs, and the whole was called
the feudal system. Now, Rolf was to hold his lands
in fief from the king, and he swore his oath, but he
could not bear to stoop to kiss the foot of Charles. So
he was allowed to pay homage by deputy; but the
Northman he chose was as proud as himself, and,
instead of bending, lifted the king’s foot to his lips, so






70 Stories of French Fitstory.



that poor Charles the Simple was upset backwards,
throne and all.

Rolf was a sincere Christian ; he made great gifts to
the Church, divided the land among his Northmen, and
kept up such good laws that Normandy, as his domains
came to be called, was the happiest part of the country.
It was even said that a gold bracelet could be left
hanging on a tree in the forest for a whole year without
anyone stealing it.

Charles the Simple, in the meantime, was overthrown
in another way; for Robert of Paris and Duke Raoul
of Burgundy made war on him, and took him prisoner.
His wife was a sister of the English king Athelstan,
and she fled to him with her young son Ludwig, or
Louis. They stayed there while first Robert was king
for a year, and then Raoul, and poor Charles was dying
in prison at Peroune; but when Raoul died, in 936, the
young Louis was invited to come back from England
and be king. The Count of Paris, Hugues the Great,
and Rolf’s son, William Longsword (Duke of Nor-
mandy), joined together in making him king ; but he
was much afraid of them, and lived at Laon in constant
hatred and suspicion. The French people, indeed,
held him as a stranger, and called him Louis d’Outre
Mer, or from beyond seas.




















THE LITTLE DUKE OF NORMANDY CARRIED OFF BY HIS SQUIRE.


The Counts of Paris. 71



At last William Longsword was murdered by the
Count of Flanders, when his little son Richard was
only seven years old. Louis thought this his oppor-
tunity. He went to Rouen, declared himself the little
boy’s right guardian, and carried him off to Laon, and
there treated him so harshly that it was plain that there
was an intention of getting rid of the child. So Osmond
de Centeville, the little duke’s squire, rolled him up
in a bundle of straw, and carried him to the stable
like fodder for his horse, then galloped off with him by
night to Normandy. A great war began, and Harald
Blue-tooth, King of Denmark, came to the help of the
Northmen. Louis was made prisoner, and only gained
his freedom by giving up his two sons as hostages in
his stead. Hugh, Count of Paris, aided young Richard
of Normandy ; while the Saxon Emperor of Germany,
Otho, aided Louis; and there was a fierce struggle,
ending in the victory of the Count of Paris and the
Northmen. One of the young Frank princes died in
the hands of the Normans; the other, Lothar, was
given back to his father when peace was made, giving
the Counts of Paris another great step in power.

In the year 954 Louis IV. died at Rheims, and his
widow entreated that the great Count Hugues would
protect Lothar. He did so, and so did his son and






EE: Stories of French History.





successor, Hugues—commonly called Capet, from the
hood he wore—who managed everything for the young
king,

When there was a war with Otho, the Emperor, the
Franks said, “It is a pity so many brave men should
die for two men’s quarrel. Let them fight a single
combat, and we will have for chief whichever gains.”
This shocked the Germans, and one of them said,
“We always heard that the Franks despised their king.
Now we hear it proved.”

Peace was made, and the Emperor gave Lothar’s
younger brother Charles the province of Lotharrik, or
Lorraine, as it was coming to be called.

Lothar died soon after, in 986; and though his son
Louis V. was crowned, he only lived a year, and when
he died in 987, the great counts and dukes met in
consultation with the chief of the clergy, and agreed
that, as the Counts of Paris were the real heads of the
State, and nobody cared for the Carlings, it would be
better to do like the Germans, and pass over the worn-
out Carlings, who spoke old Frank, while the Paris
Counts spoke the altered Latin, which came to be
called French. So Charles, Duke of Lorraine, was not
listened to when he claimed his nephew’s crown, but
was forced to return to his own dukedom, where his




The Counts of Paris. 73



descendants ruled for full eight hundred years, and
then again obtained the empire, as you will hear.

And in 987, Hugues Capet, Count of Paris, was
crowned King of France, and from that time French
history begins. At first it was Gaulish history, then
it was Frank history, but at last it has become French
history.

The family which began with Robert the Strong
exists still, after more than 1000 years, of which it
reigned over France for 900 at least. It is usually
called the House of Capet, from Hugues’ nickname,
though it would be more sensible to call it the House
of Paris. So, remember three great families—Meer-
wings or Merovingians, Frank chiefs; Carlings or
Carlovingians, the chief of whom was Emperor of the
West ; House of Paris, or Capetians, Kings of France.

Neste

g


THE ALBIGENSES, ........00 1190.
LOUIS VIII., THE LION,,....1223-1226.

CHAP. xv. {

eee the Lion had a very short reign, but most
AY of his doings had been in his father’s time; and
I missed them out that you might hear, all in one, as
it were, the history of Philip Augustus and his crafty
dealings with the House of Plantagenet.

Now, we will go back and speak of Louis before he
came to the throne, and of the people he chiefly fought
with. You remember that the South of France, which
had first been settled by the Romans, and had never
been peopled by the Franks, was much more full of
learning and thinking than the northern part. The
Langue doc was much more used for poetry and elegant
speech than the Langue a’ouz. But, somehow, among
these people there rose up a heresy (that is, a false
doctrine), which seems to have come to them from the
East. It would not be well to tell you all about it,
even if you or I could understand it; but one great








108 Stories of French History.



point in it was, that these people said that the Power of
Evil is as great and strong as the Power of Good, thus
making Satan like another God, as some old Eastern
pagans had thought. The evil ways of Christians
strengthened the notions of these people, who were
called Albigenses, from the town of Albi. Their
southern cleverness saw what was amiss, and they made
songs laughing at the clergy, and at the way they dealt
with holy things, and often at the holy things them-
selves, till they led away a great many people after
them, and even some of the great princes of the South,
who began to feel as if the Albigenses were something
specially belonging to themselves, and to the old
culture of the Roman Provincia.

But the great Pope, Innocent III., could not allow
| all this country to fall away from the Church. While
he was thinking what was to be done, two men offered
themselves to him. One was a Spaniard, named Do-
minic, who wished to found an order of brethren to go
forth, preach, teach, and bring back heretics ; the other
was an Italian, named Francis, who cared above all for
holiness, and longed to be like our Lord, and wanted
to draw together men within the Church to be more
spiritual and less worldly, and give the enemy no cause
to take offence at their faults. Both these good men






The Albigenses. 109



were allowed to institute brotherhoods, orders not
quite like the monks in the old convents, but still
poorer. Their brethren were called friars, and went
about preaching and hearing confessions, and helping
men and women to lead holier lives—those of St.
Francis in Christian places, those of St. Dominic where-
ever there was heresy. Dominic was further allowed
to judge and punish with severe penances and cap-
tivity such as would not be convinced, and the inquiry
into opinions which he and his friars made was called
the Inquisition.

But the great dukes and counts in the South of
France—in Provence, Toulouse, Foix, Albi,and many
others—did not choose to have their people interfered
with. They all spoke much the same language, and
they were resolved, right or wrong, to hold together ;
and it is really one of the most difficult questions in the
world whether it is well or ill to put down false teach-
ing. The more people think and read, the more they
doubt about persecution; and so these Provengal princes,
being cleverer than their rough neighbours, were the
less disposed to punish their subjects; but they were
also less religious and less earnest, and Pope Innocent
had no question but that they ought to be called to
account. So he proclaimed a crusade against them, as






110 Stories of French Fustory.



if they had been Saracens, and made the leader of it
Simon, Count de Montfort, a stern, hard, though pious
old knight, the father of the Simon de Montfort who
fought with our Henry III. Pedro II., King of
Aragon, joined the Albigenses, and there was a terrible
war all over the south. In the year 1213 a great battle
was fought at Muret, in the County of Toulouse, in
which the Albigenses were beaten, and the King of
Aragon was killed. Those were cruel times, and the
Crusaders treated their captives very savagely. The
Count of Toulouse, Raymond, stood on against the
Crusaders, and with his son, also named Raymond,
fought hard ; but the Pope declared them unworthy to
rule, and granted Simon de Montfort all the lands he
had conquered in the South of France. In the northern
parts he was looked on as a saint, and when he went
to do homage to the king, people ran to touch his horse
and his clothes as something holy. Indeed, he was a
sincerely good man; and though he did many things
so cruel that I cannot tell you of them, it was all
because he thought it was his duty. Louis the Lion
aided him, and learnt the art of war during these
battles; but when the Crusaders tried to take the
city of Toulouse, the people, knowing how horribly
they would be treated, held out against them; and at


SS

Louis VIIL., The Lion. 111



last, in 1217, the year of our King John’s death, one
night, when Simon was attacking the walls, a woman
threw down a heavy stone, which struck him on the
head and killed him.

His eldest son, Amaury, was not such an able
warrior, and the Albigenses began to get the better of
the Crusaders, while Louis the Lion was away in Eng-
land; but in the year 1223, when Philip died, and he
became King of France, he was called upon by the
Pope to begin the war again. He fought with all his
might ; but in spite of his title of the Lion, he was not
as able a soldier as he was a brave man, and in the
three years of his reign he did not much weaken
the Albigenses, though he was at war with them all
through his short reign. While he was passing through
Auvergne, a sickness broke out in his army, he fell ill
himself, and died in the year 1226.

His eldest son, Louis IX., was only eleven years old;
but the queen, Blanche of Castille, his mother, was a
very good and spirited woman, and managed the king-
dom excellently. She sent troops, who gained such
successes that at last Count Raymond of Toulouse was
forced to make peace, and to give his only child into
Blanche’s hands to be brought up as a wife for her
third son, Alfonso. The Count of Provence, who held

i Ge






ee



112 Stories of French Frstory.



from the Emperor, had four daughters, and no son, and
these ladies were married in due time to the King of
France and his brother Charles, and to the King of
England and his brother Richard, and thus all that
great country of the Languedoc was brought under
the power and influence of the north. The Dominican
friars and the Inquisition were put in authority every-
where, that the false doctrine of the Albigenses might
be rooted out; and there was much of barbarous
punishment, imprisonment, torture, and even burn-
ing of heretics. It was a cruel age, and no doubt
terrible things were done; but that the punishments
were savage does not make the faith of the Albigenses
right.

It was a time when much thought was going on
throughout Europe. Pope Innocent III. had made
the Church of Rome very powerful, and though no one
who came after was as great as he was, his plans were
followed out, and the King of France, who was always
called the Eldest Son of the Church, was one of the
first to be reckoned on for carrying them out. They
were often plans for mere earthly power more than
spiritual, but all good men thought it their duty to aid
them, and it was a time when there were many good
men. The work of St. Bernard and the example






Louis VIIT., The Lion. FZ



of St. Francis were doing much to make the lives
of men and women more pure and holy, and there
was more learning and less roughness than in the last
age. Everything that was then made was strangely
beautiful too—castles, churches, and cities were in
most graceful architecture; armour and dress were
exquisite in colour and shape, and the illuminations
in the manuscripts were as lovely as hand could
make them.








CHAP. XVI.—ST. LOUIS IX.

1226.



BYSHE little king, Louis IX., who came to the throne

in 1226, when he was only eleven years old, was
happy in having a good and wise mother, Queen
Blanche of Castille, who both brought him up carefully,
and ruled his kingdom for him well and wisely.

She was sometimes a little too stern, and as he grew
up she was jealous of his caring for anybody else.
When he married Margaret of Provence, she did not
like the young husband and wife to be very much
together, for fear Louis should be drawn off from graver
matters ; but on the whole she was an excellent mother
and queen, and there have been very few kings in any
country so good and just and holy as Louis was. He
never seems in all his life to have done anything that
he knew to be wrong, and he cared more for God's
honour than for anything else. Sometimes such very
pious kings forgot that they had any duty to their




St. Louis 1X. 115



people, and did not make good rulers ; but Louis knew
that he could not do his duty properly to God if he did
not do it to man, so he shewed himself a wise, just
prince, and good warrior. He was so much stronger
and cleverer than our poor, foolish Henry IIL, that his
barons thought he could take away all Guyenne, which
had been left to King John; but he said he would not
do an injustice. Henry had married his queen’s sister,
and their children would be cousins, so he would not
do what would lead to wars between them. But when
Henry wanted him to give back Normandy and Anjou,
he had the matter well looked into; and he decided
that King John had justly forfeited them for murdering
Arthur of Brittany, and so that he ought to keep them.
So he was always sensible as well as just.

He was still a young man, when he had a very bad
illness, and nearly died. In the midst of it, he made a
vow that if he got well he would go to the Holy Land,
and fight to set Christ’s Sepulchre free from the Ma-
hometans. As soon as he grew better he renewed the
vow, though it grieved all his people very much; but
he left them to be governed by his mother, and as soon
as he could get his army together, he set out on his
crusade with his wife and his brothers.

As the Mahometans who held the Holy Land came






116 Stories of French History.



from Egypt, it was thought that the best way of fighting
them would be to attack them in their own country.
So Louis sailed for Egypt, and besieged and took
Damietta; and there he left his queen, Margaret, while
he marched on by the side of the Nile, hoping to meet
the enemy. But it was a bad season, for the Nile was
overflowing, and the whole country was one swamp,
where the knights and horses could hardly move, and
grievous sickness broke out. The king himself became
very ill, but he and his men roused themselves when
they found that a battle was near. It was fought at Man-
soureh. The adversaries were not native Egyptians,
but soldiers called Memlooks. They had been taken
from their homes in early infancy, made Mahometans,
and bred up to nothing but war; and very terrible
warriors they were, and quite as much feared by the
Sultan and the Egyptians as by the enemy. However,
the French feared nothing; they were only too fool-
hardy; and when the English Earl of Salisbury gave
advice to be prudent and keep a guard at the camp,
the king’s brother Robert called out that he was afraid,
and the earl answered in a passion that he should go as
far among the enemy as Robert himself. So they all
dashed in, and many others, and the Memlooks got
between them and the camp, and cut them off and killed




aa
St. Louts LX. 117



them. The king was so weak that he could hardly sit
on his horse, but he tried to call his men together and
save them; but it was all in vain, the Memlooks were
all round them, and he was so faint that his knights
took him off his horse, and laid him down with his head
in a woman’s lap, fearing each moment to see him die.
He gave himself up as a prisoner, and lay day after
day in a hut with two priests waiting on him. He
respected them so much that he could not bear to let
them do servants’ work for him ; and he was so patient
and brave, that the Memlooks themselves said he was
the best man they had ever seen, and wanted to make
him Sultan of Egypt. At last it was settled that he
should be set free, if he would pay a heavy ransom, and
give up the city of Damietta, which he had taken.
This was done, and afterwards he embarked with his
queen and the remains of his army, and went to the
Holy Land; but there was a peace just then, and no
fighting; and after he had fulfilled his vow of pilgrimage,
he returned to France, but not to find his mother there,
for she had died in his absence.

Fourteen most happy and good years followed his
return. He was a most wise and valiant king in his
own kingdom, and thoroughly just and upright. There
was a great oak-tree near his palace of Vincennes, under

I he sere eR




118 Stories of French History.

























which he used to sit, hearing the causes of the poor as
well as the rich, and doing justice to all.

He had a clear, good sense and judgment, that made
him see the right thing todo. The Pope had a great
quarrel with the Emperor Frederick II., and tried to
make Louis take up arms against him, as his father had
done against King John of England; but the good king
saw that even the Pope’s bidding would not make this
right, and held back. He and Henry III. of England
were very loving brothers-in-law; and during the
barons’ wars in England, Eleanor, the young wife of
Edward, the heir of England, was left with his aunt,
Queen Margaret of France. You recollect that Louis
IX. and Henry III. and their two brothers, Charles,
Count of Anjou, and Richard, Earl of Cornwall, had
married the four daughters of the Count of Provence.
The Earl of Cornwall was chosen to be King of the
Romans—that is, next heir to the Western Empire—
and when her three sisters were queens, the fourth
sister, Beatrice, kept the County of Provence. She is
said to have been unhappy because her sisters sat on
thrones, when she only sat on a stool ; but before long
the Pope offered the kingdom of the two Sicilies to her
husband, Charles of Anjou. It rightly belonged to

| the grandson of the Emperor Frederick, and Louis

eee




St. Louis LX. 119



wished his brother to have nothing to do with it; but
Charles was a false and ambitious man, though he
pretended to be as religious as Louis; and with an
army of Provencals he set out and gained the kingdom
we now call Naples and Sicily. The young heir Con-
radin set off to try to regain his inheritance, but Charles
defied him in battle, made him prisoner, and put him
to death on the scaffold.

Louis had always intended to make another crusade,
and Charles promised to join him in it, as well as
Edward of England. All the North of Africa was
held by the Moors, who were Mahometans; but Louis
had had letters that made him think that there was a
chance of converting the Dey of Tunis to the Christian
faith, and his brother Charles wished to show them the
crusading army in hopes of alarming them, and getting
power there. So Louis, with his army, landed in the
Bay of Tunis, and encamped in the plains of Old
Carthage to wait for King Charles and Edward of
England; but the Moors were foes instead of friends.
It was very hot and unwholesome, and deadly sickness
broke out. The good king went about from one tent
to another comforting and helping the sick, but he was
soon laid low himself. He lay repeating Psalms, and
dictating a beautiful letter of advice to his daughter, as
120 Stories of French Fiistory.



| he grew worse and worse ; and at last, with the words,
“© Jerusalem, Jerusalem!” on his tongue, he died in
the year 1270, nor has there ever been such a king in
France again, and few in any other country. Charles
of Sicily and Edward of England came three days
later ; and as soon as they could get together the poor,
broken, sad, and sick army, they sailed for Sicily, taking
with them the poor young king, Philip, who was very
ill himself, and could not go on with the crusade, so
that Edward was obliged to go alone, as we all know.
Louis and his youngest son, who had died a day or
two before him, were buried at St. Denys’, and he has
ever since borne the well-deserved title of saint.






CHAP. XLVIII—THE COMMUNISTS.
1871,

KYSHE terms of the treaty were no sooner known,

6 than all the ill-will and distrust of the Red Repub-
licans openly broke out. They declared that they were
betrayed ; that their generals and the National Guards
would not fight, and had sold them to the enemy ; and
that they would not give up their arms, or be bound by
the treaty. They drew together ona height with their
cannon, and closed the gates, and barricaded the streets
again. The Government withdrew to Versailles, to
wait for the arrival of all the troops who had been in
captivity ; and these Red Republicans did what they
chose. One horrible deed was, shooting, and that with
many repeated wounds, two generals who had tried to
maintain discipline in the first siege, and had thus
offended them.

A sort of government was set up, calling itself the
Commune—an old word for a town council governing




The Commuutsts. aig



itself—and thus the Red Republicans were known as
the Communists. They were either newspaper writers,
or else workmen and mechanics; and there was one
noble among them, quite as desperate as the rest. All
the former pride in the first Bonaparte had turned into a
ferocious hatred to the very name; so that even the
great column in the Place Vendome, raised in honour
of his victories, was thrown down; and the Communists
were as furious against law, order, property, and religion
as ever their grandfathers in the Reign of Terror had
been. They turned the clergy out of the churches,
and the Sisters of Charity out of the hospitals, and
uttered the maddest and most horrible blasphemies
against all that was good or great. The women were
equally violent, or even more so, with the men—they
sang songs of liberty, and carried weapons, uttering fear-
ful threats. Some of the leaders had been captured, and
kept at Versailles ; whereupon they seized on the arch-
bishop, Monseigneur Darboy, and five more clergy—
good and holy men, who had spent their whole lives in the
endeavour to teach and help them, and who, all through
the siege, had toiled to lessen the sufferings of the poor.
They were thrown into prison; and when the Com-
mune found that their own members were not released,
and that Marshal Macmahon and the army were closely



314 Stories of French F[rstory.





besieging Paris, all these good priests were brought to
the prison of La Roquette, and there shot, and hastily
buried. The good archbishop died with his hand
uplifted, as if in the act of blessing his murderers.
This. was on the 24th of May, 1871.

All France was against the madmen who had pos-
session of their much-loved Paris; but the Communists
held out desperately, and forced many quiet citizens to
fight, by making their carrying arms the only condition
of obtaining food, which, of course, they could not earn
by honest labour, as of old. At last, however, the
soldiers from Versailles began to force their way in,
and then, in their final madness, the Red Republicans
set fire to the city. The Hotel de Ville was soon
blazing, and so was the Tuileries. It was said that
inflammable materials had been placed in them for this
purpose, and that women went about throwing petro-
leum in at the windows of houses to set them on fire.

The Versailles government, their troops, and indeed
all who looked on, were in a frenzy of rage and grief
at seeing their beautiful city, the pride and darling of
every Frenchman’s heart, thus destroyed before their
eyes. And as the soldiers slowly fought their way in,
with cannon pointed down the streets, and mowing all
before them, they made a most fearful slaughter of men
The Communists. ~ 315
and women alike—and, it may be feared, the innocent
with the guilty. Indeed, the very cry of “une pétro-
leuse” was enough to cause a woman to be hunted
down, and shot without further trial. There wasa last
stand made by the Communists in the great cemetery
of Pére la Chaise, where most of them died the death of
wolves ; and large herds of the captured were marched
off towards Versailles—many to be shot at once, others
imprisoned, and after trial sent off to prison, and exiled
to Cayenne or New Caledonia.

Thus the Red Republic was extinguished in fire and
blood, and order was restored. The city was found to
be less injured by the fires than had been feared when
they were seen raging; and for the time M. Thiers
ruled as a sort of president, and set matters as right as
was possible in the torn and bleeding country. Mean-
time, the emperor, Napoleon III., died in his exile in
England; and the nation began to consider what
should be the government for the future. The old
parties still existed—the Legitimists, still loyal to
Henry, Count of Chambord; the Orleanists, wishing
for a son or grandson of Louis Philippe; the Bona-
partists, loving the memory of Napoleon III., and
hoping to restore his son; the Moderate Tricoloured
Republicans, chiefly seeking rest and order, and now


316 Stories of French History.

revenge upon Germany and the remnant of the Com-
munists.

Henry, Count of Chambord, having no children, so
that the Count of Paris, eldest grandson of Louis
Philippe, was his right heir, there was a plan that the
Legitimist and Orleans parties should join, and a pro-
posal was made to restore the Count of Chambord as
such a king as Louis Philippe was, and that the Count
of Paris should reign after him.

But the Count of Chambord’s answer was that he
would come to his forefathers’ throne if he were invited,
but only to reign as they did, by the right given to his
family by God, not as the chosen of the people. He
would be the most Christian king—the King of France,
not of the French—with the white flag of the Bourbons,
not the tricolour—and the Eldest Son of the Church,
obedient to the Pope.

Nobody except the old Legitimists was in a mood
to accept this answer; and so, when the choice of a
government was put to the vote of the nation, it was
decided to have a republic, with a president, instead of
a monarchy; and Marshal Macmahon was soon after
elected as president.

Marcus Ward & Co., Printers, Royal Ulster Works, Belfast.






CHAP. XVIIL—PHILIP IIL, THE HARDY; AND
PHILIP IV., THE FAIR.

1271~1284-1314.
GST. LOUIS left three sons. The second, Robert,
YY Count of Clermont, must be remembered, because
three hundred years later his descendants, the House of
Bourbon, came to the throne of France. The eldest
son, Philip III., was a man who left very little mark in
history, though he reigned thirteen years. The most
remarkable thing that happened in his time was a great
rising against his uncle, Charles of Anjou, in Sicily.
The French and Provengal knights he had brought
with him were proud, and rude in their behaviour to
the people of the country, and oppressed them heavily.
At last, on the Easter Monday of 1282, as the. people
of Palermo were on their way to hear vespers, all in
holiday attire, a French soldier was rude to a Sicilian
girl, and a fight broke out, which ended in the killing
of all the Frenchmen in the island except one, who had


122 Stories of French Htstory.



been more kind and gentle than the rest. This was
called the Sicilian Vespers. The Sicilians then sent to
offer their crown to Pedro, King of Aragon, the nearest
kinsman left to their old line. The Pope was so angry
with him for accepting it as to declare his own kingdom
forfeited, and to send Philip of France to take it from
him. But soon after the French army had advanced
into Aragon, sickness broke out among them, the king
himself caught it, and died in the year 1284; and Pedro
of Aragon gained the island of Sicily and kept it,
though Charles of Anjou and his sons reigned on in
Naples on the mainland.

Philip IV., called Le Bed, or the Fair, was only seven-
teen years old when he came to the crown; but he was
as clever and cunning as his uncle, Charles of Anjou,
or his great grandfather, Philip Augustus, and his great
object was to increase the power of the crown by any
means he could. He had not to deal with an English
king like John; but Edward I. was so much more
anxious to make one kingdom of Great Britain than to
be powerful in France, that he took little concern for
his French duchies. So when Philip picked a quarrel
and seized Guyenne, Edward would not draw off his
men from Scotland to fight for it, but made a peace
which only left him Gascony, and sealed it by himself




Philip IV., The Fair. 123



marrying Philip’s sister Margaret, and betrothed his
son Edward to Philip’s little daughter Isabel. It was
very wrong—almost the worst action of our great king’s
life—for young Edward was already betrothed to the
young daughter of the poor Count of Flanders, Guy
Dampierre, whom Philip was cruelly oppressing. When
England thus forsook their cause, Philip made the
count prisoner, and so kept him all the rest of his life.
Nothing but misery came of the marriage.

But the most remarkable part of the history of Philip
IV. is what concerns the Church and the Popes. For
the last two hundred years the Popes had been growing
more and more powerful, and ruling over kings and
princes—sometimes rebuking them manfully for their
crimes, but too often only interfering with what dis-
turbed the worldly power of the Church. Now, Philip
was a man of evil life, and was, besides, very hard and
grasping in requiring money from the clergy. The
Pope, Boniface VIII., was an old man, but full of fiery
vehemence ; and he sent a letter of reprimand, bidding
the king release the Count of Flanders, make peace,
and exact no more from the clergy.

Philip was very angry, and the two went on writing
letters that made matters worse, until the Pope
threatened to depose the king; and Philip sent off to








































POPE BONIFACE THE VIII. ATTACKED IN THE CHURCH.




124 Stories of French Fiistory.



Anagni, where the Pope generally lived, a French
knight, named Nogaret, and an Italian, called Sciarra
Colonna, who had quarrelled with the Pope and fled
to France. They rode into Anagni, crying, “Long live
the King of France! death to Boniface!” at the head
of a troop of worthless fellows who had gathered round
them. The people of Anagni were so shocked that
they never moved, and the men went on to the church,
where they found the Pope, a grand old man of eighty-
six, seated calmly by the altar in his robes, with his
tiara on his head. They rushed up to him, insulting
him and striking him on the cheeks ; indeed, Colonna
would have killed him on the spot but for Nogaret.
They dragged him out of the church, and kept him
prisoner for three days; but after that, the townspeople
recovered from their fright, rose, and rescued him, and
conducted him safely to Rome; but what he had gone
through had been too much for him, and a few mornings
later he was found lying quite dead, the head of his
stick at his lips, gnawed and covered with foam, and
his white hair stained with blood, as if ina fit of terror
he had dashed his head against the wall. This piteous
death was in the year 1303.

Another Pope was chosen; but as soon as Philip
found that the new one was determined to control him,




Philip IV, The Fair. 125



he caused him to be poisoned, and then determined to
get the future one into his hands. There were a good
many French cardinals who would, he knew, vote for
anyone he chose; and meeting in secret the Arch-
bishop of Bordeaux, the king told him he should have
their votes on six conditions. Five of these related
to the making up of the old quarrel with Boniface; the
sixth Philip would not tell then, but the archbishop
swore it should be fulfilled ; and the king then brought
about his election as Pope, when he took the name of
Clement V.

To everyone’s surprise, he chose to be crowned at
Lyons instead of, Rome, and then took up his abode at
Avignon, in Provence, which, though it belonged to
the empire, was so much in France as to be entirely in
the king’s power. As long as the Popes remained at
Avignon, they were nothing but tools to the kings of
France ; and this really seems to have been the greatest
misfortune that happened to France. The power of
the Popes was stretched much too far, and their inter-
ference in temporal matters was often wrong, but it was
the only authority that ever kept kings and princes in
order; and when the Popes lived on French ground,
and were afraid to reprove the lords of the country,
there was nothing to hinder the evil ways of either










126 Stories of French History.





kings or nobles, and they went on from bad to worse,
unrestrained by the Church, the witness of the truth.

Philip the Fair was a very greedy man, always
seeking after money, and oppressing his people heavily
to obtain it. Now, you remember that two orders of
soldier monks had been set up to defend the Holy
Sepulchre. Soon after St. Louis’ last crusade, Acre,
the last spot that belonged to the Christians, had been
taken from them. The Knights Hospitallers had settled
in the island of Rhodes, hoping some day to return ;
but the Knights Templars had gone to the houses in
Europe, where they used to train up young men to
arms. They were rich in lands, and, having nothing
to do, were proud and insolent. And Philip cast his
eyes on their wealth, and told the Pope that his sixth
condition was that all the Templars should be destroyed.
Most of them were living in France, but the others
were invited to hold a great chapter there ; and when
almost all were come, horrible accusations were made—
that they were really heathen, that no one came into
their order without being made to renounce his baptism
and trample on the Cross, that they murdered little
children, and other frightful stories ; and then 502 were
imprisoned by the Inquisition, and 72 tortured to make
them confess.








Philip IV., The Fair. 127



Most of them were brave, and denied it all; but
there were a few who could not bear the pain, and said
whatever was put into their mouths. Then, after being
kept in prison two years, the rest were sentenced,
brought out in parties of fifty and burnt to death, while
the Pope declared the order dissolved, and gave the
king all their possessions. This was in 1311. The
Grand Master, James de Molay, was kept in prison
three years longer, but then was brought out at Paris,
and burnt before the king’s palace garden. He was a
fine old white-bearded man; and as he stood there in
the fire, he called on Clement, Pope of Rome, and
Philip, King of France, to appear before the judgment
seat of God—the first within forty days, the second
within a year—to answer for their usage of him and
his knights.

Before the 4oth day, Clement V. actually died ; and
before the year was out, Philip the Fair sank away
from consumption, and died.in his 46th year, in the
year 1314, leaving the most hateful name in French
history.

895 ht—

Beto a, oes |




LOUIS X., HUTIN,............ 1314-1316,

PHILIP V., LE LONG.,....... 1316-1322,
CHAP. XVIII. CHARLES IV., LE BEL,,.....1322.

PHFEIP Vien caicc cde eee eee 1350.

SQMHILIP the Fair left three sons—Louis, Philip,

5 and Charles—and one daughter, Isabel, who was
married to Edward of England. Louis X. was called
by the nickname of Yu¢enx, which is said to mean the
Peevish or Ill-tempered. He was married to the young
Queen of Navarre, in her own right; but he only
reigned two years, and his only son lived but five days.
The French barons declared it was against the old law
of the Salic Franks that their kingdom should fall to a
woman, so Louis’s little daughter Joan was only to be
Queen of Navarre, while his brother, Philip V. (Le Long,
or the Tall), became king. He must have been as cruel
as his father, for there rose up in his time a foolish
story that the fountains of water had been poisoned by
the lepers and the Jews, whereupon he gave orders

nn




Charles IV., Le Bel. 129



that they should suffer for it. They were killed on the
spot, or else burnt at the stake throughout France,
while the king and his nobles seized the treasures of
the Jews; but in the midst the king died, at only thirty
years old, in the year 1322, leaving only four girls ; so
that his brother, Charles IV., reigned after him. It
was during the six years that Charles was on the throne
that his sister Isabel came from England with complaints
of her husband, Edward II., and succeeded in collecting
the knights, who helped her to dethrone him, after
which he was brought to a miserable end in prison.

Everyone believed that the sins of the wicked father
had been visited on these three sons—dying young,
and without heirs; and the French were glad when
Charles the Fair died, in 1328, that their kingdom
should go to Philip VI., Count of Valois, the son of the
younger brother of Philip IV., Charles of Valois.

But Edward III. of England called himself the right
heir, declaring himself nearer in blood to his uncle,
Charles IV., than Philip of Valois, their first cousin,
could be. This was true; but, then, if all the daughters
of the three last kings were shut out from reigning, it
was not reasonable that he should pretend to a right
through their aunt. At first, though he put his claim
forward, he seems to have been willing to let it sleep ;

I


130 Stories of French History.



but there was a certain Robert of Artois, who had been
deprived of what he thought his lawful inheritance.
and who was suspected of wanting to bring about
Philip’s death by sorcery. He was said to have made
a waxen image of the king and stuck it full of pins,
and set it before the fire, expecting that, as the wax
melted, so Philip would perish away and die. Philip
believed the story, and Robert was obliged to fly to
England, where, out of hatred and revenge, he stirred
up the king to put forward his claim, and to begin the
war with France which is sometimes called the Hundred
Years’ War. The great cities in Flanders, where cloth
was woven, were friendly to the English, because in
that peaceable country the sheep that bore the wool
could feed quietly, and their supplies of material came
from thence. Besides, Philip had tried to make them
accept a count whom they hated, so they drove him
away, and invited Edward to Ghent. The French fleet
tried to meet and stop him, but their ships were de-
feated and sunk, with great loss of men, off Sluys, in
the year 1340.

Not long after, there was a great dispute about the
dukedom of Brittany, which was claimed by the
daughter of the elder brother, and by the younger
brother, of the late duke. The niece had married


Philip VI, 131



Charles de Blois; the uncle was the Count de Montfort.
The King of France took the part of the niece, the
King of England that of Montfort. Before long, Mont-
fort was made prisoner and sent to Paris ; but his wife,
the brave Joan, defended his cause as well as any
knight of them all. She shut herself up in Hennebonne,
and held out the town while De Blois besieged her ;
and when the townsmen began to lose heart, and say
they must surrender, she opened the window of the
castle, and bade them look out to sea; and there was
the English fleet coming to their aid. Sir Walter
Manny commanded the troops it brought, and the first
thing he did was to lead a party to sally out and burn
the French machines for battering the town. When
they came back, Countess Joan came to meet them,
and kissed all the knights, like a right valiant lady as
she was, says the old chronicler Froissart, who has left
us a charming history of these times. The war in
Brittany lasted twenty-four years altogether. Montfort
made his escape from prison, but died very soon after
he reached home; and his widow sent her little son to
be bred up in Edward’s court in England, while she
took care of his cause at home. The English were
very much hated and disliked in Brittany, and seem to
have been very fierce and rough with the people, whose


132 Stories of French History.



language they did not understand; and some of the
knights who were the greatest foes of all to the English
grew up in Brittany, more especially Bertrand du
Guesclin and Oliver de Clisson, but they were as yet
boys.

Edward made his greatest attack on France in the
year 1346. Philip had gathered all the very best of
his kingdom to meet him. The knights of France were
nearly as strong as the knights of England, but there
was one great difference between the two armies, and
that arose from the harshness of the counts and barons.
Everyone below them was a poor, miserable serf (unless
he lived in a town), and had never handled arms.
Now, in England there were farmers and stout peasants,
who used to practice shooting with the bow once a
week. So there were always sturdy English archers
to fight, and the French had nothing of the same kind
to meet them, and tried hiring men from Genoa. The
battle was fought at Crecy, near Ponthieu ; and when
it was to begin by each troop of archers shooting a
flight of arrows at one another, it turned out that a
shower of rain which had just fallen had slackened the
bow-strings of the Genoese archers; but the English-
men had their bows safe in leathern cases, and their
strings were in full order, so the arrows galled the


Philip VI. 133

French knights, and a charge was ordered to cut them
down. But full in the way stood the poor Genoese,
fumbling to tighten their strings; and the knights were
so angry at being hindered, that they began cutting
them down right and left, thus spending their strength
against their own army, so that it was no wonder that
they were beaten and put to flight. King Philip him-
self had to ride as fast as he could from the battle-
field; and coming to a castle just as night set in, he
blew his horn at the gates, and when the warder called
out to know who was there, he answered, “ Open,
open! it is the fortune of France !”

The English went on to besiege and take the city of
Calais ; and in Brittany, Charles de Blois was defeated
and made prisoner; and there was the further mis-
fortune of a horrible plague, called the black death,
raging all through France. Five hundred people a-day
died in the great hospital called the Hotel Dieu, at
Paris, and it was bad also in England; so that both
kings were glad to have a truce, and rest for a few
years, though Edward still called himself King of
France, and the dispute was far from settled, Philip
paid his men by causing the nation to pay a tax upon
salt, while Edward’s chief tax was on wool; so while
Philip called his rival the wool merchant, Edward said


134 Stories of French History.



that the Valois did indeed reign by the Salic law (sal
being the Latin for salt).

The Counts of the Viennois, in the South of France,
used to be called Counts Dauphin, because there was a
dolphin in their coat of arms. The Dauphin Humbert,
having neither children nor brothers, bequeathed his
county to the king’s eldest grandson, Charles, on con-
dition that it should always be kept separate from the
Crown lands. Ever since that time the eldest son of the
King of France has always been called the Dauphin.

A year later Philip died, in the year 1350, after a
reign that had been little more than one long war.


CHAP. XIX.—_JOHN.,
1350-1364,
2 F Philip VI. had a reign which was all one war, it
was much the same with his son John, who thought
himself a brave and honourable knight, though he often
did evil and cruel actions.

The little kingdom of Navarre, in the Pyrenees, had
passed from the daughter of Louis Hutin to her son,
Charles, called the Bad. In right of his father, the
Count d’Eveux, he was a French noble, and he wanted
to hold the highest office a noble could hold—namely,
that of Constable of France. The Constable com-
manded all the armies, and was the most mighty person
in the realm next to the king ; and when John gave the
appointment to the Lord Charles de la Cerda, Charles
the Bad, in his rage and disappointment, contrived to
poison the new Constable ; and he was also said to have
tried to poison the Dauphin Charles ; and though the
dose failed to kill, it ruined the young man’s health,


136 Stories of French History.



and in the end shortened his life. It was owing to the
Dauphin that Charles the Bad was seized at last. He
invited him to dinner, and appeared to be very friendly ;
but in the midst of the feast the king appeared with a
band of soldiers, seized the King of Navarre, and
carried him to prison. It was very treacherous; but
the Dauphin Charles, young as he was, was much more
cunning than his father.

Charles the Bad was clever, and had many friends
who were angered by his imprisonment, and went over
~to the cause of the King of England. Edward, the
Prince of Wales, who was at Bordeaux, the capital of
Gascony, took the opportunity of advancing into the
French dominions, and John assembled an army to
meet and drive him back.

The battle was fought at Poitiers; John was there,
with his sons and his brother, and all his best knights,
and the battle was long and hotly fought. The French
did much better than at Crecy; but the English were
too strong for them, though the king was as brave as
a lion, and struck vehemently with his battle-axe, his
youngest son, Philip, keeping close to him, and warning
him where to strike. ‘ This way, father!” or, “ That
way, father!” “To the right!” “To the left!” But
at last the father and son found themselves almost





Fohn. 137





alone, with all their men scattered and dispersed, and
nothing but enemies around. The king had lost his
helmet, and was slightly wounded, and greatly worn
out ; so he called to the first squire he saw—one Denis
de Morbeque—and finding that he was a gentleman,
surrendered to him. He was brought to the Prince of
Wales, who treated him with the utmost kindness and
courtesy, and did his best to lighten the pain and
humiliation of captivity.

The Dauphin had fled early in the day, and was
thought to have been the cause of the loss of the battle.
Everything fell into a deplorable state. The Prince of
Wales ruled the old English Gascon territory at Bor-
deaux ; and though there was a truce between the two
kings, troops of soldiers—Free Companions, as they
called themselves — roamed about, plundering and
robbing all over France, while the king was a prisoner
in England. The Dauphin was hated and despised,
and had no power at all; and in Paris, a burgher named
Stephen Marcel was chosen provost, and led all the
populace to terrify the Government into doing what he
pleased. The mark of his followers was a hood, half
red and half blue; and thinking that the Dauphin’s
friends gave him bad advice, Marcel suddenly rushed
into his presence, at the head of a whole troop of








138 Stories of French History.

Parisians, wearing these colours, and demanded, “ Will
you put an end to the troubles, and provide for the
defence of the kingdom ?” “ That is not my part,” said
Charles, ‘but that of those who receive the money of
the taxes.” Marcel made a sign, and his followers
murdered the two noblemen who stood beside the
Dauphin. The prince, in terror, fell on his knees and
begged for his life; and Marcel thrust one of the red
and blue hoods upon his head, and then told him, point-
ing to the two corpses, “I require you, in the name of
the people, to consent to their death, for it is done by
the will of the people.”

The Dauphin consented; but he soon made his
escape, and took up arms against Marcel. Charles of
Navarre had been released from his prison, and was
fighting in the South of France; and Charles de Blois
had been ransomed, and was fighting in Brittany ; and,
to add to all these, the peasants, who had been always
ill-used and trampled down by the nobles, began to rise
against them. ‘“ Bon homme Facgues” had been the
nickname given them by the nobles, and hence this
rebellion was called the Jacquerie, and a terrible one
it was; for the peasants were almost savages, and
whenever they could surprise a castle, they murdered
everyone in it. They set up a king from among them,


Fohn. 139



and soon 100,000 had risen in Picardy and Champagne ;
but they were armed only with scythes and axes, and
the nobles soon put them down, and then were just as
brutal themselves in their revenge. The “ King of the
Jacques” was crowned with a red-hot tripod, and hung;
and the poor wretches were hunted down like wild
beasts, and slaughtered everywhere, and nothing was
done to lessen the misery that made them rebel.

The Dauphin besieged Paris, and Marcel, finding
he could not hold out, invited the King of Navarre to
help him; but another magistrate, who hated Charles
the Bad, contrived to attack Marcel as he was changing
the guard, killed him and six of his friends, and brought
the Dauphin back into Paris. This was only the first
of the many fierce and tumultuous outbreaks that have
stained the fair city of Paris with blood.

King John was so anxious to return, that he promised
to give up to Edward all that Henry II. and Coeur de
Lion had held ; but the Dauphin and the States-General
did not choose to confirm his proposal, thinking it better
to leave him in prison than to weaken the kingdom so
much. So Edward invaded France again, and marched
almost up to Paris, intending to fight another battle;
but the Dauphin had made up his mind never to
fight a battle with the English again; and between






140 Stories of French Hustory.



the war and the Jacquerie, the whole country was bare
of inhabitants, cattle, or crops. The English army was
almost starved, and a frightful tempest did it much
damage; so that Edward consented to make peace,
and set John free, on condition that his two sons should
be given up as hostages for the payment of a great
ransom, and a large part of Aquitaine ceded to England.

King John returned; but he found the kingdom in
such a dreadful state of misery and poverty, that he
could not collect the money for the ransom, nor would
his sons remain as pledges for it. They were allowed
to live at Calais, and make short journeys into France ;
but they would not submit to this, and at last stayed
away altogether. John was much grieved and ashamed,
and said the only thing he could do was to return and
give himself up as a prisoner, since he could not fulfil
the conditions of his release. When he was entreated
to remain at home, he said, “ Where should honour find
a refuge if not in the breasts of kings ?” and accordingly
he went back to London, where he was welcomed as a
friend by King Edward, and there he died in the year
1364. He left four sons—the Dauphin Charles; Louis,
the Duke of Anjou; John, Duke of Berry; and Philip,
who had married the heiress of Burgundy, and was
made duke of that province.




CHAP. XXI—CHARLES VI.
1380-1396,

sf; T was an evil hour for poor young Charles VI.
J, when, at twelve years old, he was left an orphan
king. His uncles—the Dukes of Anjou, Berri, and
Burgundy (his father’s brothers), and the Duke of
Bourbon (his mother’s brother)—quarrelled about the
government, and he was allowed to grow up little
‘heeded or restrained, and with all his passions un-
checked.

The Church was in a most unsettled state. The
Popes, while living at Avignon, were at the beck of the
French kings, and this could not be borne by the other
lands of the Western Church. Besides, they and their
cardinals had not enough to do in this little town, and
idleness led to all kinds of wickedness, while their
proper abode at Rome was left to wild tumults and
confusion. So at last, in the year 1376, Pope Gregory
XI. had decided on going back to Rome, though
Charles V. and all the cardinals of French birth did all




148 Stories of French History.





they could to prevent him, He died two years after
he came there; and then all the cardinals who wanted
to stay in Italy chose one Pope, and all the cardinals
who wished to live at Avignon chose another, and went
back with him. So there were two Popes, the real
Pope and the anti-Pope, and this made a grievous
division, which is known as the Great Schism. The
French and all their friends held by the Pope at
Avignon, the English and all theirs by the Pope at
Rome; and things grew worse than ever, for both
Popes were very poor, and wanted as much money as
they could; and they were also afraid to offend either
kings or bishops, for fear they should leave their party,
and so sin and wickedness went on unchecked.

One of the proudest nobles was Louis, Count of
Flanders. He had many rich cities in his county,
where almost all the best cloth, linen, and lace of the
time was made, and where the burghers were rich and
resolute. There was always much dislike and distrust
between the counts and the cities; and Louis was so
severe, that at last the men of Ghent rose against him
and shut their gates, choosing as their leader Philip von
Artevelde, the son of the brewer, Jacob von Artevelde,
who had been a friend of Edward III. Artevelde led
them out to fight with the count, gained a great victory,
















hi















































2 5 os 2 Le

THE COUNT OF FLANDERS HIDING IN THE WIDOW’S HOUSE,


Charles VT. 149



and hunted him into the city of Bruges. There he was
as much hated as he was in Ghent; all the people in
the streets rose up against him, and nobody would give
him shelter, till at last he found himself in the house of
a poor widow who had sometimes received alms at his
gate. He begged her to hide him, and she bade him
creep under the bed, where her three little children
were lying asleep. He had only just had time to do
so, when his enemies burst open the door, declaring he
had gone in there; but the widow bade them look in,
and when they saw only the bed full of children, they
thought he could not be there, and went away.

In the morning he managed to get out of the city,
and escaped to Paris, where he begged the king and
his uncles to come to his help. He had but one
daughter, who was to marry the son of the Duke of
Burgundy ; so it was their interest to bring the Flemish
towns to obedience, and the young king was very
eager to make his first campaign. All the revolted
burghers came out to battle with the knights and gen-
tlemen, but they could not make head against such a
well-tried old leader as the Constable de Clisson, though
they fought desperately; and at the battle of Ros-
becque 26,000 men were killed, and Philip von Arte-
velde was trampled to death in the flight.










150 Stories of French FHrstory.



The young king loved and admired the Constable
de Clisson more than anyone else; but the old man
was much hated by many others for his harshness and
cruelty ; and one night, in the streets of Paris, he was
set upon by some murderers, who wounded him badly,
and he was only saved by falling against a house door,
which gave way with his weight, so that he fell into a
dark passage, where his enemies left him for dead, and
fled away into Brittany. The king demanded that they
should be sent back to be put to death, but the Duke
of Brittany, who hated Clisson, would not give them up.
Charles made sure that the duke had set them on, and
in a great rage declared that he would lay all Brittany
waste. He collected his troops and set out, but a
strange thing happened as he was riding through the
forest of Mans, ona burning hot summer day. A man,
probably mad, rushed out from the bushes, caught his
bridle, and cried, “ Ride no further, king; thou art
betrayed !” The man was drawn away ; but presently
after, as they rode on, a page who had charge of the
king’s lance fell asleep on horseback, and let the point
ring against the helmet of the man in front. This must
have made the king fancy the treason had begun, and
becoming frantic that moment, he drew his sword and
rushed upon his followers, crying, “ Down with the


Charles VI. 151



traitors!” He killed four, but the others saved them-
selves by pretending to fall before the stroke; and at
last, as his strength became spent, a tall, strong knight
sprang on his horse behind him and overpowered him.
He was carried back to Mans, where he had a brain
fever; but he recovered, and was for some time in
perfect health, governing, not perhaps well, but with
kind intentions. He married Isabel of Bavaria; and
had she taken better care of him, his life would have
been far happier; but she was a dull, selfish woman,
who cared more for good eating and amusement than
for her husband and children, whom she neglected
greatly. ;

At a great festival, the king and five of his nobles
dressed themselves up as wild men of the woods, in
close garments, covered with pitch, with long loose
flakes of tow hanging to them to represent hair, and
green boughs round their heads and waists. Chained
together, they danced in among the ladies, who were to
guess who they were. The king’s brother (the Duke
of Orleans) held a torch so near to one of them, the
better to see who it was, that he set fire to the tow, and
the flames spread to the whole party. Four were burnt
to death, one saved himself by breaking the chain and
leaping into a tub of water, and the king himself was
152 Stories of French History.



preserved by the Duchess of Berri, who threw her
mantle over him ; but the shock had been so great that
his insanity came on again, and he was never sensible
for long together through the rest of his life. But he
still was supposed to rule France, and so the power
was in the hands of whoever had possession of him, and
this at first was his uncle Philip, Duke of Burgundy.

Still, as there was peace with England, the French
knights thought of crusades. Indeed, the Turks, under
their great leader Bajazet, were beginning to make their
way into Europe; and the eldest son of the Duke of
Burgundy, John the Fearless, set out with a party of
French knights to succour the Hungarians against
them. They came just as peace had been sworn to on
each side; but it seemed such a pity that their aid
should be wasted, that the Hungarians broke their
word, and attacked the Turks. But their breach of faith
met a due reward, for the whole army was defeated and
butchered, and John himself, with twenty-seven nobles,
alone lived to be ransomed.

Afterwards, Marshal Boucicault led another troop to
help the Emperor of Constantinople, Manuel Palzo-
logos, and brought him home to France to visit the
king, and ask further aid from the princes of Europe.






CHAP. XXII—BURGUNDIANS AND ARMAGNACS.
1415-1422.
Aye OTHING could be more sad than the state of
.N, France under the mad king. As long as his
uncle (the Duke of Burgundy) lived, he was not so ill
cared for, and the country was under some sort of
government; but when Duke Philip died, and the
dukedom passed to his son, John the Fearless, there
was a perpetual quarrel between this rough and violent
duke and the king’s brother Louis, Duke of Orleans.
The Duchess of Orleans—a gentle Italian lady (Valen-
tina of Milan)—-was the only person who could calm
the poor king in his fits of frenzy, and the friends of
Burgundy declared she bewitched him, and made him
worse. In the meantime, Queen Isabel would do
nothing but amuse herself with the Duke of Orleans,
and the king and her little children were left without
attendants, and often without proper clothes or food.
The people of Paris hated Orleans, and loved the






154 Stories of French History.



Duke of Burgundy, and this last was resolved to get
the king into his power. So one night, as the Duke of
Orleans was going home from supper with the queen,
he was set upon by murderers and killed in the streets
of Paris; and, what was even more horrible, the Duke
of Burgundy caused a priest to preach a sermon de-
fending the wicked act. The Duchess of Orleans came
with her sons and knelt at the king’s feet, imploring for
the murderer to be punished ; but he could do nothing
for her, and she went home and died broken-hearted.
However, her son, the young Duke of Orleans, married
the daughter of the Count of Armagnac, who took up
his cause so vehemently, that all the friends of the
House of Orleans were called Armagnacs, and were
known by wearing a white scarf over the left shoulder,
while the Burgundians wore blue hoods.

The king’s eldest son, the Dauphin Louis, was
sixteen years old, and tried to get into power; but he
was a foolish, idle youth, whom no one heeded. When
he heard that the new king of England, Henry V.,
meant to invade France, Louis sent him a present of a
basket of tennis balls, saying they were his most fitting
weapons, considering his way of life, as the madcap
prince. Henry answered that he hoped to return balls
from the mouths of cannon against Paris ; and it was not




Burgundians and Aimagnacs. 155



long before he actually crossed the channel, and laid
siege to Harfleur, in Normandy.

He soon took it, for no aid was sent to it; and he
proclaimed himself as King of France, like Edward III.
before him, and proceeded to endeavour to conquer the
country. The Dauphin collected an army, and marched
to intercept him, as he was on his way from Harfleur to
Calais to obtain fresh supplies. The French army
greatly outnumbered the English, and thought it would
be easy to cut them off, seeing them hungry, sick, and
worn with a long march. But the carelessness, the
dissensions, and the insubordination of the French
army would have caused it to be beaten by a far less
skilful general than was Henry V. ; and though each
noble and knight was personally valiant, this did little
good when they were not united. There was an
immense slaughter at this far-famed battle of Agincourt,
and many noted prisoners were taken by the English,
especially the Duke of Orleans; and Henry would not
allow these nobles to be ransomed, but kept them in
captivity in England, until he should have finished
winning the kingdom.

The Dauphin Louis escaped from the battle, but
died soon after; his next brother (the Dauphin John)
did not survive him long; and the third brother (the






156 Stories of French Flistory.



Dauphin Charles) was entirely under the power of the
Armagnac party, as well as his father and mother.

But the Count of Armagnac was so insolent that
Queen Isabel could bear it no longer, and fled to the
Duke of Burgundy’s protection; and soon after the
people of Paris rose against the Armagnacs, and
murdered everyone whom they found belonging to it.
The count himself was horribly gashed, and his body
was dragged up and down the streets. The poor king
was in a fit of madness in his palace; the Dauphin was
carried away by his friend, Sir Tanneguy du Chastel ;
and for a whole month there were nothing but savage
murders throughout Paris of all who were supposed to
be Armagnacs, until the queen and the Duke of Bur-
gundy arrived, and restored something like order.

No one, of course, had leisure to do anything to
relieve Rouen, which Henry V. was besieging, and took
in spite of the citizens holding out bravely. The queen
and duke determined to make peace with him, and met
him at a meadow near Pontoise, where beautiful em-
broidered tents were pitched; and they held a con-
ference, in which Henry asked in marriage Catherine,
the youngest daughter of Charles and Isabel, with the
whole of the provinces that had once belonged to the
English kings as her dowry—Normandy, Aquitaine,




Burguudians and Armagnacs. 157





and all. If this were refused, he would conquer the
whole kingdom for himself.

No promises were absolutely made. The Duke of
Burgundy could not make up his mind to give up so
large a portion of his native realm, and began to
consider of going over to the Dauphin and helping him
to defend himself. A meeting was arranged for the
duke and Dauphin on the bridge of Montereau ; but
Tanneguy du Chastel and the prince’s other friends
had no intention of letting the boy get into the power
of the great duke, and during the conference they
treacherously stabbed John the Fearless to the heart.
His murder of the Duke of Orleans was thus visited
upon him, but the crime was dreadful in those who com-
mitted it. The consequence was that his son Philip,
called the Good, went entirely over to the English ;
and before long, Henry V. was married to Catherine,
and was to be Regent of France as long as poor Charles
lived, and after that king, the Dauphin being disinherited
as a murderer.

All the North of France had been conquered by the
English, and the Dauphin and his friends had retired
to the South. Thence they sent to the Scots to ask
for help, and many brave Scotsmen came, glad of a
chance of fighting with the English. Henry had gone






158 Stories of French Hestory.



home to England to take his bride, and had left his
brother, the Duke of Clarence, in command, when, as
the English were marching into Anjou, the Scots fell
on them at Beaujé, and defeated them, killing the Duke
of Clarence.

Henry came back in haste, and again carried all
before him. He took the town of Meaux, where a
horrible robber lived, cruelly preying on the inhabitants
of Paris; but the siege lasted the whole winter. Henry
caught cold there, and never was well again, though he
kept his Whitsuntide at Paris with great state. Soon
after, he set out for another campaign, but he became
so ill on the journey that he had to be carried back to
Vincennes, and there died. No one of all his own
children had ever been so good to poor King Charles
as Henry had been, and the loss at last broke his heart.
He wept and wailed constantly for his good son Henry,
pined away, and died only three months later, in
October, 1422, after thirty years of madness,








CHAP. XXIII—CHARLES VII.
1422-1461.

EYSHOUGH all history counts the reign of Charles

VII. as beginning from the death of his unhappy
father, yet it was really the infant Henry, son of his
sister Catherine and of Henry V. of England, who was
proclaimed King of France over the grave in which
Charles VI. was buried, and who was acknowledged
throughout France as far as the Loire, while his uncle,
the Duke of Bedford, acted as Regent.

Charles VII. was proclaimed king by the Armagnacs,
but most people still called him the Dauphin, and many
termed him the King of Bourges, for he lived in that
little town, never seeming to trouble himself about the
state of his kingdom, but only thinking how to amuse
himself from day to day, and sometimes even talking
of fleeing to Scotland, and leaving everything to the
English.

Bedford, in the meantime, determined to push on the




i



160° Stories of French FHuistory.



work of conquest, and sent the Earl of Salisbury to lay
siege to Orleans ; but the place was bravely defended,
and Salisbury was killed by a shot in the throat while
looking on at the works. Soon after, as some stores
were being sent to the English, a party of French
nobles resolved to stop them, and fell upon the waggons,
The English came out to defend them, and there was
a general battle, which is known as the Battle of the
Herrings, because the provisions chiefly consisted of
salt fish, intended to be eaten in Lent.

The siege lasted on, but a wonderful aid came
to the French. A young girl, named Joan d’Arc,
thought she was called by the Angel St. Michael,
and the Virgin Saints, Catherine and Margaret, to
deliver her country and lead the king to be crowned at
Rheims. At first no one would believe her, but she
was so earnest that at last the king heard of her, and
sent for her. He received her by torchlight, and
standing in the midst of many nobles, more richly
dressed than he was; but she knew him at once
among them all, and led him a little apart, when she told
him things that he declared no one else could have
known but himself, and which made him sure she must
have some unearthly knowledge. She said her Voices
directed her to go and fetch a marvellous sword from




Charles VII. eu



the shrine of St. Catherine, at Fierbois, and with this
in her hand she led the troops to drive the English
from Orleans ; but she never herself fought or struck a
blow ; she only led the French, who had such trust in
her, that wherever she led they willingly followed. The
English soldiers, on the other hand, believed her to be
a witch, and fled in horror and dismay, leaving their
leaders, who stood firm, to be slain. Thus it was that
she succeeded in entering Orleans, and delivering it
from the siege. Thenceforth she was called the Maid
of Orleans, and victory seemed to follow her. She
fought in the name of Heaven, and did all she could to
make her followers holy and good, rebuking them for
all bad language or excess; and at last she had the great
joy of opening the way to Rheims, the city where all
French kings had been crowned ever since the begin-
ning of the Meerwings. Shesaw Charles VII. crowned
and anointed, and then she begged to go home to
her cottage; but the king and his council would not
permit this, because she was such an encourage-
ment to their men, and a terror to the English. But
her hope and confidence were gone, and the French
captains did not like her, though their men did; and
at Compiégne the governor shut the gates, and left her
outside to be made prisoner by the Burgundians. She


162 Stories of French History.



was kept in prison a long time—first in Burgundy, and
then at Rouen—and tried before French and Bur-
gundian bishops, who decided that her Voices had been
delusions of Satan, and her victories his work ; there-
fore, that she ought to be burnt as a witch. To the
eternal disgrace of Charles VII., he never stirred a
finger to save her, and she was burnt to death in the
market-place at Rouen.

No one ever deserved less to win back a kingdom
than Charles. He amused himself with one unworthy
favourite after another; but there was a brave spirit
among his knights and nobles, and the ablest of
them was Arthur, Count de Richemont, brother to the
Duke of Brittany, and Constable of France. As they
grew stronger, the English grew weaker and _ less
prudent. The Duke of Burgundy was offended, and
made his peace with the King of France; and the
Duke of Bedford soon after died at Rouen, worn out
with care and trouble.

_ Step by step, bit by bit, did the French king regain
his dominion. When his cause began to look hopeful,
he shook off his sluggishness, and came in person to
receive the submission of Paris, and to reconquer Nor-
mandy. But the war was not finally ended till the
year 1453, when Bordeaux itself was taken by the








Charles VT, 163

French ; and thus finished the hundred years’ war that
Edward III. had begun.

Charles VII. was not at all a foolish person when
once he chose to exert himself. When the war was
over, and the bands of men-at-arms had nothing to do,
he managed better than his grandfather, Charles V.; for
he laid them under strict rules, and gave them pay, so
that they made him stronger, instead of being a torment
to the whole country. But the nobles were very angry,
and rose in an insurrection, which the Dauphin Louis
joined, chiefly because he thought it would give his
father trouble ; but when he found the king too strong
for the rebels, he made his peace, and left them to
their fate.

Charles was a prosperous man, and established peace.
In the Church, too, there was peace ; for at the council
held by the Lake of Constance, in the year 1415, the
rival Popes of Rome and Avignon had both been made
to resign, and a new one had been elected, who was
reigning at Rome; but a great deal of evil had grown
up during the Great Schism, which had not been
remedied, and things were growing worse and worse ;
for if religion was not rightly taught, sin was sure to
get unrestrained. One of the worst parts of Charles’s
nature was that he was so cold and ungrateful. He




164 Stories of French History.



merchant, Jacques Coeur, had counselled him and lent
him money, and done more than anyone else to bear
him through his troubles; and yet he let false and
ridiculous accusations be brought forward, on which
this great man was stripped of all his property, and sent
away to die in exile. Yet Charles’s name in history is
the Well-served! But his son, Louis the Dauphin,
hated him, and in a cunning, bitter way did all he could
to vex and anger him. After many quarrels, Louis
fled from court, and asked the protection of Duke Philip
of Burgundy, who had become the most magnificent and
stately of European princes, and hoped to make him-
self or his son king of the Low Countries.

The old king lived in continual fear of this son of
his, and at last fancied that Louis meant to poison him,
and refused to take any food or drink, until he lost the
power of swallowing; and thus this cold-hearted, un-
grateful king died a miserable death, in the year 1461.
His coldness had made everyone the more admire the
splendid and generous Duke of Burgundy, whose riches
and liberality were the talk of all, and whose court was
the most stately in existence. Through his mother,
he had inherited Flanders, with all the rich manufactur-
ing towns; and Holland, with her merchant cities ; and
his court was full of beauty and luxury.


CHAP. XXIV.—LOUIS XI.
1461-1483.

OUIS XI. was one of the cleverest of men, but
AY also one of the most crafty and cruel, and who
has left the most hateful name in history. The one
thing he cared for was to be powerful, and no sense of
truth or pity would stop him in bringing this about.
But it was not for state or splendour that he cared.
He wore the meanest and most shabby clothes, and an
old hat, surmounted by little leaden images of the
saints, which he would take down and invoke to help
him. For though his religion could have been good
for nothing, since it did not keep him from ever com-
mitting any crime, he was wonderfully superstitious.
He must really have been taught, like all of his Church,
that the saints did not bestow benefits, and could only
be asked to intercede for them; but he not only prayed
to them direct, but to their images; and it actually seems
that he thought that if he told one image of the Blessed
166 Stortes of French History.





Virgin of some crime, or made it some promise, it was
a different thing from telling another.

His court fool once overheard him at his devotions,
and thought them so absurd and foolish that he could
not help telling of them. The truth was that Louis
had no love for God or man, he had only fear; and so
he tried to bribe the saints to keep from him the punish-
ments he knew he deserved, by fine promises of gifts
to their shrines. And his fear of man made him shut
himself up in a grim castle at Plessis-les-Tours, with
walls and moats all round, and a guard of archers from
Scotland, posted in iron cages on the battlements, to
shoot at any dangerous person. He did not like the
company of his nobles and knights, but preferred that
of his barber, Oliver le Daim, and his chief executioner,
Tristan Hermite; and whoever offended him, if not
put to death, was imprisoned in the castle of Loches,
often in an iron cage, so small that it was impossible to
stand upright or lie at full length in it.

He had one brother, the Duke of Berri, whom he
feared and hated, persecuting him till the Duke of
Burgundy took the young man’s part; but Louis
managed to break up their alliance, and get his brother
back into his own hands, and then to poison him.

The old duke, Philip the Good, died just after Louis
Louis XT. 167°
























came to the throne, and his son, Charles the Bold, was
a brave, high-spirited prince, with much that was noble
and earnest about him, though very ambitious, and even
more bent than his father on making his dukedom into
a kingdom, reaching from the German Ocean to the
Alps. To upset this power was Louis’s great object.
First, he began to stir up the turbulent towns of
Flanders to break out against Charles ; and then, while
this was at work, he came to visit him at his town of
Peronne, hoping to talk him over, and cajole him with
polite words. But what the king had not expected came
to pass. The mischief he had been brewing at Liége
broke out suddenly; and the people rose in tumult,
killed the duke’s officers, and shut their gates. No won-
der Charles went into a great rage ; and since Louis had
put himself into a trap, thought it only fair to close the
door on him. He kept him there till the French army
had been summoned, and helped to reduce and punish
Liége ; besides which, Louis made all manner of oaths,
which, of course, he never meant to keep.

King and duke hated one another more than ever ;
and Charles, who had married the sister of Edward IV.
of England, promised to aid the English if they would
come to conquer France. Then Edward should have
all the western parts, and he all the eastern. Edward


168 Stories of French History.



actually came, with one of the finest armies that had
ever sailed from England; but the Duke of Burgundy
had been drawn into a war with the German emperor,
and could not join him; and Louis sent cunning
messages and bribes to Edward and his friends, to
persuade them to go away without fighting. The two
kings met one another on the bridge of Pecquiguy,
across the Somme, with a great wooden barrier put up
between, for fear they should murder one another ; and
they kissed one another through the bars, while the
two armies looked on—the English ashamed, and the
French well pleased, but laughing at them for going
back in this dishonourable way.

Charles the Bold would have gone on with the war,
but Louis stirred up fresh enemies for him in Switzer-
land. The French king sent secret messengers into
the Swiss towns and cantons to set them against the
duke. The town of Basle rose, and murdered Charles’s
governor, and then joined the young Duke of Lorraine,
his bitter enemy, and made war on him. Charles was
beaten in two battles, at Morat and Granson; and at last,
when he was besieging Nancy (the capital of Lorraine),
the wicked Count Campobasso, the commander of his
hired Italian troops, on Epiphany night, betrayed him
to the Swiss, opened the gates of the camp, and went




hous XI: 169



over to the enemy. There was a great slaughter of the
Burgundians; and after it was over, the body of the brave
Duke Charles was found, stripped naked and gashed,
lying half in and half out of a frozen pool of water.

He only left one daughter, named Mary, His duke-
dom of Burgundy could not go to a woman, so that
returned to France; but Mary had all Flanders and
Holland. Her father had betrothed her to Maximilian
of Austria (the son of the German emperor) ; and when
Louis was stirring up her towns to rebel against her,
she sent her betrothed a ring as a token to beg him to
come to her help. He did so at once, and they were
married, and were most happy and prosperous for five
years, till Mary was killed by a fall from her horse, and
her baby son Philip had her inheritance.

So Louis obtained the French part of the duchy of
Burgundy. His mother (Mary of Anjou) had been the
sister of the Duke of Anjou, who had been adopted as
the son of Queen Jane of Naples, the descendant of
Charles of Anjou, St. Louis’s brother. René, Duke of
Anjou, his brother (the father of our Queen Margaret),
had never been able to get the kingdom of Naples,
though he was always called King René, but he did
get the county of Provence, which belonged to it ; and
there he led a cheerful, peaceable life, among painters,






170 Stories of French Fistory.



poets, and musicians, and was one of the few good men

of his time. His wife had been Duchess of Lorraine
in her own right, and the young Duke of Lorraine who
fought with Charles the Bold was the son of his eldest
daughter, for all his sons died young. Louis could not
take away Lorraine from the young duke; but he did
persuade old King René at his death to leave the
French kings all his claims to the kingdom of Naples—
a very unhappy legacy, as you will see.

Louis had three children—Anne, who married the
Duke of Bourbon’s brother, the Lord of Beaujeu, and
whom he loved; and Jane, a poor, deformed, sickly
girl, whom he cruelly teased because she was ugly, so
that she used to hide behind her sister to escape his
eye. She wanted to go into a convent; but he forced
her to marry her cousin Louis, Duke of Orleans, who
made no secret that he hated the very sight of her,
though she was as good and meek as possible. Charles
the Dauphin was sickly too, and the king himself had
lost his health. He was in great dread of death—sent
for a hermit from Italy (Francis de Paula) to pray for
him, and vowed to give silver and gold images and
candlesticks and shrines to half the saints if they would
save him; but death came to him at last, in 1483, just

as our wicked Richard III. had gained the crown.
—




CHAP. XXV.—CHARLES VIII.
1483-1498.

WPOUNG Charles VIII. was but nine years old
when he came to the crown. He was a weakly
boy, with thin legs and a large head, but very full of
spirit. . His father had never cared about his learning,
saying that to know how to dissimulate was all that
signified toa king; and his sister Anne, the Lady of
Beaujeu, who had the charge of him and his kingdom,
thought like her father, and took no pains to teach him.
He read nothing but poems and romances about knights
and ladies, dragons and enchanters ; but he did really
gain the best lessons they could teach him, for instead of
learning dissimulation, he hated it. He never deceived
anyone, never broke his word, was always courteous ;
and so far from showing mean spite, like his father, he
never wilfully grieved or vexed anyone of any sort
through his whole life.

At first, the Lady of Beaujeu was taken up with




172 Stories of French History.



quarrels with their cousin and brother-in-law, the Duke
of Orleans, who thought he had a better right to be
Regent than a woman; and when he could not rule,
went of to Brittany and made mischief there. The
Duke of Brittany had no son, and everybody wanted
to marry his little daughter Anne. Orleans himself
had hopes of getting himself divorced from his poor,
good Jane, and marrying this young girl; and at last a
battle was fought between the Bretons and French, in
which Orleans was knocked down, and made prisoner.
He was sent off to one castle after another; but his
good wife Jane always followed him to do her best to
comfort him, and never left him except to try to gain
his pardon; but the Lady of Beaujeu knew better than
to let him out as long as Anne of Brittany was not
married. Indeed, the Lady thought the best thing
would be if young Charles could marry Anne, and join
the great dukedom to his dominions,

But, on the one hand, Charles was betrothed to
Maximilian’s daughter Margaret, and Anne to Maxi-
milian himself; and, on the other, there was nothing
the Bretons hated so much as the notion of being
joined on to the French. They wanted the poor girl

of fourteen to marry a grim old baron, Alan de Foix,
who had eight children already, because they thought


Charles VIII, 173



he would fight for the duchy. In the midst of the
dispute, the Duke of Brittany died, and poor young ~
Anne had to strive for herself—on the one side
against the French, who wanted to get her duchy
into their hands; and on the other, against her own
Bretons, who wanted to force her into taking old
Alan d’Albret. She waited in vain for Maximilian,
hoping he would come to her, as he had once come
to Mary of Burgundy; and he was setting off, when
his son’s Flemish subjects, jealous of his raising
troops, rose in tumult; so that he had to hide in an
apothecary’s shop, till he was carried to prison in the
castle at Bruges.

Anne of Beaujeu, in the meantime, raised an army
and entered Brittany, taking one town after another.
Still Anne of Brittany held out in her city of Rennes.
But late one evening a young gentleman, with a small
suite, came to the gates and desired to see the duchess.
It was the king; and so sweet in manner, so gentle
and knightly was he, that Duchess Anne forgot her
objections, and consented to marry him. And so the
duchy of Brittany was joined to the crown of France.
The worst of it was, that Charles VIII. had been
betrothed to Maximilian’s daughter Margaret ; but his
sister cared little for scruples, and he was still under
174 Stories of French History.





her charge. As soon as Charles and Anne were
married, the Duke of Orleans was released.

Charles had always lived on romances, and wanted
to be a king of romance himself. So he recollected the
right to the kingdom of Naples which old King René
had left to his father, and he gathered together one of
the most splendid armies that ever was seen in France
to go and conquer it for himself. Nobody in Italy was
ready to oppose him, for the cities were all quarrelling
among themselves; and the Pope who was reigning
then, Alexander VI., was one of the wickedest men
who ever lived. All good men hoped that this young
king would set things to rights—call a council of the
Church, and have the court of Rome purified; but
Charles was a mere youth, who cared as yet chiefly for
making a grand knightly display; and he could not
even keep his army in order, so that they did dreadful
mischief to the people in Italy, and made themselves
very much hated. He was crowned: King of Naples,
and then left a division of his army to guard the king-
dom, while he rode back again the whole length of
Italy, and on the way claimed the duchy of Milan for
his brother-in-law, the Duke of Orleans, whose grand-
mother, Valentina Visconti, had been a daughter of
the Duke of Milan,































ae yp q
SIN) yp a
EEN eer eee
Na re
os ——

CHARLES VIII, HEARING THE CAUSES OF THE RICH AND POOR.





CAS \\\




Charles VIII, P75





The Italian States, however, had all leagued against
him, and a great army gathered together to attack him
at Fornova. Then he shewed all the high spirit and
bravery there was in him. He really seemed to grow
bigger with joy and courage; he fought like a lion, and
gained a grand victory, so that he could go home to
Queen Anne feeling like a true knight.

But more goes to make a king than knighthood, and
he did not keep up what he had conquered, nor send
men or provisions to his army in Naples ; so they were
all driven out by the great Spanish captain, Gonzalo
de Cordova, and only a remnant of them came home to
France, in a miserable condition.

Charles began to think more deeply as he grew
older. He lost both his infant sons, and his grief
changed him a good deal. He read better books than
the romances of chivalry; and as he had learnt truth,
honour, and kindness before, so now he learnt piety,
justice, and firmness. He resolved to live like St.
Louis, and began, like him, sitting under the oak-tree
to hear the causes of the rich and poor, and doing
justice to all.

Above all, he knew how vain and foolish he had
been in Italy, and what a great opportunity he had
thrown away of trying to get the terrible evils that




176 Stories of French fiistory.

were going on among the Pope and his cardinals cured,
by helping the good men left in Italy, together with
Maximilian and Henry VIL., to call a council of the
Church, and set matters to rights.) He was just be-
ginning to make arrangements for another expedition
to make up for his former mistakes, when one day, as
he was going through a dark passage leading to the
tennis court at Blois, he struck his forehead against the
top of a doorway, was knocked backward, taken up
senseless, and after lying in that state for a couple of
hours, died, in the 29th year of his life and the 15th of
his reign, in 1498. He was so much loved that one of
his servants died of grief, and his noble temper had
trained up in France such a race of knightly men as
perhaps has never been seen at any other time.




CHAP. XXVI—LOUIS XII.

1498-1515.

(SHARLES VIII. had lost both his children, so the
throne went to Louis, Duke of Orleans, grandson
to the second son of Charles V. He wasa kindly man,
when selfishness did not come in his way, and he was
much admired for saying, when he was asked to punish
some of his old enemies, that the King of France forgot
all injuries to the Duke of Orleans. The first thing
he did, however, was to bribe the wicked old Pope,
Alexander VI., to separate him from his good, faithful
wife, Jane, who went into a convent and spent the rest
of her life in praying for him; while he married Anne
of Brittany, in order to keep her duchy united with the
crown. She was a very noble and high-spirited queen,
and kept her court in such excellent order, that the time
of good Queen Anne has always been looked back to
as the very best time of the French court.

Louis was a vain man, and could not rest till he had



IM.


178 Stories of French History.



done as much as Charles VIII. So he allied himself
with the Pope, set off into Italy with another brilliant
army, and seized Milan. He did not himself go to
Naples, but he sent thither an army, who seized a large
portion of the kingdom; but then the Spanish King
Ferdinand persuaded Louis to make peace, and divide
the kingdom of Naples in half. But while the two
kings and their ministers were settling where the
division should be, the soldiers in the kingdom itself
were constantly quarrelling, and the war went on there
just as if the kings were not making a treaty. At first
the French had the advantage, for their knights were
courage itself, especially one whose name was Bayard,
and who was commonly called “the fearless and blame-
less knight.” The Spaniards, with Gonzalo de Cordova,
their captain, were shut up in the city of Barletta, and
stood a long, weary siege; but he was wonderfully
patient, and held out till fresh troops came out to
him from Spain, and then he beat the French com-
pletely at the battle of Cerignola, and then drove
them out, city by city, castle by castle, as he had done
once before.

The Italians themselves hated both French and
Spaniards alike, and only wanted to get Italy free of
them ; but instead of all joining openly together against


Louts XII. 179



them, their little states and princes took different sides,
according to what they thought most likely to be profit-
able, though in a battle they did not much care whom
they killed, so long as he was a foreigner. A clever
Florentine, named Machiavelli, wrote a book called
“The Prince,” in which he made out that craft and
trickery was the right way for small states to prosper
and overthrow their enemies; and this spirit of false-
hood was taken for good policy, and is known by his
name.

The manner of fighting was curious. Able captains
used to get together bands of men-at-arms, who had
been trained to skill in warfare, but who did not care
on what side they fought, provided they were paid well,
allowed to plunder the towns they took, and to make
prisoners, whom they put to ransom. Some of these
bands were on horseback, some on foot, and the most
feared of all among the foot soldiers were the Swiss,
who were very terrible with their long pikes, and would
hire themselves out to anyone who paid them well; but
if they did not get money enough, were apt to mutiny
and go over to the other side.

The wicked Pope, Alexander VI., was poisoned by
drinking by mistake the wine he had meant to poison
another person with; and the new Pope, Julius II., made




180 Stories of French Firstory.



a league with Louis and Maximilian against the Vene-
tians. It was called the League of Cambrai, but no
sooner had the brave French army gained and given
to Julius the towns he had been promised, than he
turned again to his Italian hatred of the foreigner, and
deserted their cause. He made another league, which
he called the Holy League, with the Emperor Maxi-
milian, the Spanish Ferdinand, and our own Henry
VIIL., for driving the French out of Italy. This was
the sort of bad faith that Machiavelli had taught men
to think good policy.

The French army in Italy was attacked by the
Spaniards and Italians, and though the brave young
general, Gaston de Foix, Duke of Nemours, gained a
grand battle at Ravenna, he was killed at the close of
the day ; and the French having everybody against
them, were driven back out of the duchy of Milan, and
over the Alps, and entirely out of Italy. Louis XII.
could not send help to them, for Ferdinand was attack-
ing him in the south of France, and Henry VIII. in
the north. The sister of the Duke of Nemours was
the second wife of Ferdinand, and he said she ought
to be Queen of Navarre; and as the real queen was
wife to a French count, Ferdinand seized the little
kingdom, and left only the possessions that belonged




Louis XT1, 18:
to the French side of the family; so that henceforth
the King of Navarre was only a French noble.

Henry VIII. brought a fine army with him, with
which he besieged and took the city of Tournay, and
fought a battle at Enguingate, in which the French
were taken by surprise; a panic seized them, they left
their brave knights, Bayard among them, to be made
prisoners, and galloped off so fast that there were only
forty men killed, and the English called it the Battle
of the Spurs.

Terouenne was also taken, and Louis thought it
time to make peace. His wife, Anne of Brittany, was
just dead. She had had only two daughters, Claude
and Renée; and as Claude was heiress of Brittany, it
was thought well to marry her to Francis, Duke of
Angouléme, who was first cousin to her father, and
who would be King of France. Francis was a fine,
handsome, graceful young man, but he had a very
bad mother, Louise of Savoy. Queen Anne knew
Claude would not be made happy, and tried hard to
prevent the match, but she could not succeed, and
she died soon after it was concluded. Louis then
offered himself to marry Henry’s youngest sister, Mary,
the most beautiful princess in Europe, and she was
obliged to consent. Louis was not an old man, but he



182 Stories of French History.





had been long obliged to take great care of his health,
and the feastings and pageants with which he received
his young bride quite wore him out, so that he died at
the end of six weeks, on the New Year’s Day of
BS5:

He is sometimes called the father of his people,
though he does not seem to have done much for their
good, only taxed them heavily for his wars in Italy;
but his manners were pleasant, and that went for a
great deal with the French. The Italian wars, though
very bad in themselves, improved the French in taste
by causing them to see the splendid libraries and build-
ings, and the wonderful collections of statues, gems,
and vases of the old Greek times, which the Italian
princes were making, and those most beautiful pictures
that were being produced by the greatest artists who
have ever lived. This brought in a love of all these
forms of beauty, and from that time forward the French
gentlemen were much more cultivated than they had
been in the old knightly days, though, unfortunately,
they were much less religious, for the sight of those
wicked Popes had done them all much harm.






CHAP. XII—LOUIS VI. LE GROS.

1108-1137,

A. T is disappointing to find that Louis the Wide-

awake soon became Louis the Fat (Louis le Gros,
as in that time, when everybody had a nickname, he
was called). But still he was spirited and active, and
much more like the old Counts of Paris than any of the
four kings before him had been; and he was a good,
brave, and just man, who made himself respected. One
great change was going on in his time, which had begun
in that of his father. The old Roman cities in the
South of France had gone on governing themselves
much as in the Roman times, but the northern towns
had most of them fallen under the power of some
Frankish noble family, who were apt to call on them
for money, and take away the young men to fight.
Whenever one of these towns grew rich and strong
enough, it would buy leave from the king and the noble
to take care of itself. Then the noble had no more


88 Stories of French History.



right over it; but the burghers built their walls, practised
themselves in fighting, and guarded their gates and
towers. All the chief men in each trade made up a
town council, and one of them was chosen each year to
be the mayor or provost, and manage their affairs. A
great bell was rung when the people were wanted to
come together, or in time of danger; and they knew
well how to take care of themselves. The burghers
only went out to war when the king himself wanted
them, and then they went on foot, and wore plain
armour, not like the gentlemen, who were all knights
and squires. These free towns were called communes ;
but often they could not get or keep the freedom
without a great deal of fighting, for the nobles were
very jealous of them, and the kings never made more
communes than they could help.

Do you remember that when Robert, Duke of Nor-
mandy, governed so badly, his Normans asked King
Henry I. his brother, to help them? Louis did not
choose to see the eldest brother despoiled, and he was
glad that the King of England and the Duke of Nor-
mandy should not be the same person. So he helped
Robert, but could not keep him from being beaten at
Tenchebray, and afterwards made prisoner. After-
wards Louis befriended poor young William, Robert’s


Louis VI., Le Gyros. 89





son; but he was beaten again at Brenneville. There
were 900 knights in this battle of Brenneville, and only
three were killed, the armour they wore was so strong.
Afterwards Louis helped William to obtain the County
of Flanders, which he inherited in right of his grand-
mother, Queen Matilda; but the poor young prince
had not long been settled in it before he died of a hurt
in the hand from a lance-point.

Three noted men lived in the time of Louis VI.
They were Suger, St. Bernard, and Pierre Abailard.,
Suger was abbot of the monastery of St. Denys’, of
which the Kings of France, as Counts of Paris, were
always the protectors; where their most precious banner,
the oriflamme, was kept, and where they always were
buried. He was a clever and able man, the king’s
chief adviser, and may perhaps be counted as the first
of the men who filled the place of king’s adviser, or, as
we now call it, prime minister. In those times these
statesmen were almost always clergy, because few
others had any learning. Pierre Abailard was a
learned Breton, who studied deeply at Paris (where
there was a university much esteemed), and went
very far into all sorts of sciences, He became the
teacher of a young lady called Heloise, niece to a
clergyman at Paris. They fell in love with one another,
90 Stories of French History.



and he took her away to Brittany; but she left him
soon after their marriage, because a married man could
not be a priest, and only clergy could flourish as
scholars. So she went into a convent, and at last
became the abbess; and Abailard became a monk of
St. Denys’, where he went on studying and writing till
at last he confused himself, and taught wrong doctrines,
which a council of the Church condemned; but the
struggle and debate went on many years longer, until
the death of Abailard in the course of the next reign.
Heloise, who survived him, made this epitaph for him ©
in Latin, The title is epitaph enough :—“ Here lies
Pierre Abailard, to whom alone was open all possible
knowledge.” But to know all that can be known does
not bring peace or happiness ; and Bernard, the monk,
was a more really great man. He was the son of a
nobleman in Burgundy, and had been brought up by a
good mother. One of the monasteries that had lately
been made the most strict, and which was much
esteemed for the holy lives led there, was at Citeaux ;
and Bernard, at the age of twenty-three, not only
retired there himself, but persuaded all his brothers (six
in number) to go thither with him, They intended to
have left the youngest, a little boy, to keep up the
castle and inherit the lands; but he said, “ What! all


Louis VI, Le Gros. gI



heaven for you, and earth for me?” and insisted on
going with them. It seems to us a mistake; but we
must remember that a noble in the twelfth century had
dreadful temptations to be cruel and lawless, and that
a convent often seemed the only way to avoid them.

Citeaux grew so overful of monks that a branch
convent was founded at Clairvaux, of which Bernard
was made the abbot. His brothers went thither with
him, and their old father came after a time to end his
days among his sons.

Bernard was one of the most holy and earnest of
men, and so learned and wise that he is sometimes
called the last of the Fathers of the Church, for many
of his writings still remain. His sermons were full of
love and beauty, though he never failed to reprove men
for their crimes; and though he was the most humble
of men, his fame reached throughout his own country
and the whole Church, and he was the adviser of kings
and popes. He was the person best able to argue with
Abailard’s subtle errors, and the discussion between
them lasted for many years—on, indeed, into the next
reign.

For Louis VI., though not an old man, fell soon into
declining health. He thought he had contrived ad-
mirably to get more power for the kings, by giving his






92 Stories of French H: astory.



son in marriage to Eleanor, the daughter of the Duke
of Aquitaine. As she had no brother, her son would
have owned that great southern dukedom as entirely
as the County of Paris, and this would make a great
difference. Young Louis was sent to marry the lady,
and fetch her home; but while he was gone, his father
became worse, and died in the year 1137.

It will help you with the dates to remember that
Louis began to govern in his father’s name in 1100,
just as our Henry I. came to the crown; and that
he died three years after Henry, while Stephen and
Matilda were fighting in England.








CHAP. XXVII—FRANCIS I.—YOUTH.
1515-1526.

ok RANCIS I., the new King of France, was twenty

s years old, and very brilliant, handsome, gracious,
brave, and clever, with his head full of chivalrous
notions, but with no real sense of religion to keep him
up to the truth and honour that are the most real part
of chivalry.

To conquer Italy was, as usual, his first notion, and
he set out across the Alps; but the Swiss had turned
against him, and blocked up his way at Marignano.
There was a terrible battle, beginning late in the day,
and when night came on everything was in confusion.
The king lay down to rest on a cannon, and asked for
some water; but the only water that could be found
was red with blood, and he turned from it, sickened.
All night the great cow-horns, which were the signal of
the Swiss troops, were heard blowing, to gather them


184 Stories of French History.



together; but the French rallied sooner, and won a
complete victory, which was very much thought of, as
no one had ever beaten the Swiss before. When it
was over, Francis knelt down before Bayard, and
desired to be dubbed a knight by him, as the bravest
and truest of knights. When this was done, Bayard
kissed his sword, and declared that it should never be
put to any meaner use.

After this, Francis went on to take possession of
Milan; and he had an interview with the Pope at
Bologna. It was a new Pope, called Leo X., a man
very fond of art and learning, and everything beautiful,
though he cared little for duty or religion. He made
an agreement with Francis, which is called the Con-
cordat of Bologna. By this the king gave the Pope
certain payments every year for ever, and gave up the
calling synods of his clergy regularly ; and the Pope,
in return, gave the king the right for himself and his
successors of appointing all the bishops, deans, abbots,
and abbesses in France for ever. Nothing ever did so
much harm in France, for the courtiers used to get bad
men, little children, and all sorts of unfit persons ap-
pointed, for the sake of their lands and wealth; and the
clergy, being hindered from taking counsel together,
grew more idle and dull. The people were taught


Frrancis [., Youth. 185



nothing good, and every sin that they were prone to
grew worse and worse.

Francis himself was a spoilt child, caring only for
pleasure and what he called glory. He wanted to be
Emperor of Germany, and tried to get Henry VIII. to
help him; and they had a great meeting at Ardres (near
Calais), when such splendours in tents, oraaments, and
apparel were displayed, that the conference was known
as the Field of the Cloth of Gold. The two kings
were both joyous young men, and they wrestled and
played together like two boys; but nothing came of
this display, for Henry really preferred the young King
Charles of Spain, who was grandson to the Emperor
Maximilian and Mary of Burgundy, and thus inherited
the Low Countries.

When Maximilian died, Francis offered himself for
the empire, and told the electors they were to think of
him and Charles, not as enemies, but as rivals for the
same lady. This, however, was only a fine speech, for
Francis was much discontented when Charles was
chosen emperor, and began a war again at once; but
all he got by this was, that the Italians rose and drove
his army out of Milan. Another misfortune befel him.
His mother, Louise of Savoy, who had always spoilt
him, and whom he gave way to more than anyone else,




186 Stories of French Fltstory.



was so foolish as to fall in love with Charles, Duke of
Bourbon and Constable of France; and when the Con-
stable laughed at her, she resolved to ruin him, and
made the king most unjustly decide against him ina
suit about his lands. The Constable was so angry that he
went to Spain, and offered to serve Charles against his
king and country. He was so good a captain that
Charles was glad; but everyone felt that he was a
disgraced man, and the old Spanish noble in whose
castle the emperor lodged him would not so much as
shake hands with him. However, he was with the
army that Charles sent into Italy to meet that with
which Francis tried to regain Milan. Ina little battle
near Ivrea, the good knight, Bayard, was shot through
the back. The French were retreating before the
enemy, and were forced to leave him lying under a
tree ; but the Spaniards treated him with the deepest
respect, and when the Constable de Bourbon came to
him, it was with much grief and sorrow. “Sir,” said
the dying Bayard, “ you need not pity me for dying in
my duty, like a brave man; but I pity you greatly for
serving against your king, your country, and your oath.”
And Bayard set up his cross-handled sword before
him, and died as a true and good knight.

But Bourbon did not take warning. He actually led




Francis [,—Youth. 187



a Spanish army to invade his own country, and ravaged
Provence; but all the French rallied under Francis,
and he was driven back. Then Francis himself crossed
the Alps, hoping to recover what he had lost in Italy,
and for a time he had the advantage ; but Charles’s
best general, the Marquis of Pescara, marched against
him while he was besieging Pavia. There was a terrible
battle, fought on the 24th of February, 1525. Francis
was too hasty in supposing the victory was his, charged
with all his horse, got entangled in the firm Spanish
squadrons, and was surrounded, wounded, and obliged
to yield himself asa prisoner. Most of his best knights
were killed round him, and in a fortnight after the
battle there was not a Frenchman in Lombardy who
was not a prisoner.

The Marquis of Pescara treated Francis respectfully,
and he was sent as a prisoner to Madrid, where he was
closely guarded; and Charles, who had given out as
his object to break the pride of France, would only
release him upon very hard terms—namely, that he
should yield up all his pretensions to any part of Italy,
renounce the sovereignty of the Low Countries, make
Henry d’Albret give up his claim to Navarre, and
marry Charles’s sister Eleanor, giving his two sons as
hostages till this was carried out. Francis was in des-






| 188 Stories of French History.



pair, and grew so ill that his sister Margaret came from
Paris to nurse him, when he declared that he would
rather abdicate his throne than thus cripple his king-
dom. If he had held to that resolution, he would have
been honoured for ever; but he had no real truth in
him, and after about ten months’ captivity, he brought
himself to engage to do all that was demanded of him ;
but, at the same time, he made a protest, before a few
of his French friends, that he only signed the treaty
with Charles because he was a prisoner and in his
power, and that he should not think himself bound to
keep it when he was free. If any Spaniard had heard
him, this would have been fair; but as no one knew of
it but the French, it was a shameful deceit. However,
he signed and swore to whatever Charles chose, and
then was escorted back to the borders, where, on the
river Bidassua, he met his two young sons, who were
to be exchanged for him; and after embracing them,
and giving them up to the Spaniards, -he landed,
mounted his horse, made it bound into the air, and,
waving his sword above his head, cried out, “ I am yet
a king!’ He had better have been an honest man;
but though his first thought was how to break the
treaty, he was at first so glad to get home that he
spent his time in pleasures. He had one or two




Francis [.—VYouth. 189
good and noble tastes. He was so fond of those great
artists who were then living, that some of their
very grandest pictures were painted for him, such
as Raffaelle’s beautiful picture of the Archangel St.
Michael ; and Leonardo de Vinci, one of the greatest
of painters, found a home with him, and died at last in
his arms.






CHAP. XX.—CHARLES V.

1364-1380.

(SHARLES V., in spite of his troubles as Dauphin,
was a much abler man than his father, John; and
he had seen the best way to treat the English enemy—
namely, not to fight with them, but to starve them out.
The French knights could beat anyone except the
English ; and just now there professed to be peace with
Edward III., but with Charles the Bad of Navarre
there was still war, until a battle was fought at Cocherel,
between the French, under the brave Breton knight,
Bertrand du Guesclin, and the Navarrese, under the
great friend of the Black Prince, the brave Gascon
knight, the Captal de Buch. Du Guesclin gained a
great victory, and made the Captal prisoner, and from
that time no French knight was equal to him in fame.
Thus Charles the Bad had to make peace.
The young De Montfort, who had been brought up
in England, was by this time old enough to try to fight









142 Stories of French History.





for Brittany ; and though the kings were at peace, the
Prince of Wales lent him a troop of English, com-
manded by the best captain in all Europe, Sir John
Chandos ; and at the battle of Auray, Charles de Blois,
who had so long striven to win the duchy, was killed,
and Du Guesclin was made prisoner. After this, the
king accepted Montfort as Duke of Brittany, and this
war was likewise over.

But after so many years of fighting, there were a
great many men who knew and cared for nothing else.
They could not be quiet. All they wanted was a horse
and armour, and some one to hire them to fight, let
them gain plunder, and take prisoners to put to ransom.
They called themselves Free Companions, or Free
Lances, and used to get some skilful warrior to be their
leader. When the wars were over and nobody wanted
to hire them, they would take possession of some castle,
and live by plundering the travellers in the country
round, so that they were the most dreadful plague
imaginable.

King Charles asked Du Guesclin how to get rid of
them, and Bertrand thought of a plan. Castille, in
Spain, had just then one of the wickedest kings who
ever lived, Peter the Cruel, who murdered his wife (a
cousin of Charles), and killed most of his half-brothers,




Charles V. 143

besides many other persons. One of the brothers,
Henry of Trastamare, managed to escape, and came to
France to beg for help; and Du Guesclin told the king
that it would be an excellent way of getting rid of the
Free Companions to draw them off into Spain. Charles
consented, and Du Guesclin invited their leaders to
meet him; and when they found that he would lead
them, they all consented, making sure of plenty of
fighting and plundering. As they rode past Avignon,
they frightened the Pope into giving them a large con-
tribution; and as soon as they entered Castille, Peter
the Cruel fled away, and Henry was crowned king.
He kept Du Guesclin in his service, but sent all the
others back to France.

However, Peter came to Bordeaux, and showed him-
self to the Black Prince as an ill-used, distressed king ;
and Edward took up his cause, and undertook to set
him on his throne again. All the Free Companions,
who were coming back from Spain, no sooner heard
that the Prince was going there, than they took service
with him to restore the very king they had just
dethroned. A great battle was fought at Navareta, in
which the Prince was victorious. Du Guesclin was
made prisoner, and Henry of Trastamare fled for his
life. Pedro was placed on the throne once more; but




144 Stories of French Frstory.



he kept none of his promises to the English, and they
soon perceived what a horribly cruel and wicked wretch
he was. Sickness broke out among them, and they
went back to Bordeaux, leaving him to his fate. Every-
one in France was most anxious to have Du Guesclin
free again, and even the maidens of Brittany are said
to have spun day and night to earn money for his
ransom. As soon as the sum was raised and he was
at liberty, he returned to Spain with Henry, and they
chased Pedro into the castle of Montiel, whence he
came out in the night and attempted to murder his
brother, but in the struggle was himself killed, to the
great relief of all concerned with him.

The Black Prince was, in the meantime, ill at Bor-
deaux, and in trouble how to pay the Free Companions,
since Pedro had not given him the promised sum. He
was obliged to tax his Gascon subjects, and this made
them angry. They appealed to Charles V., who was
still their suzerain, and he summoned the Prince to
appear at Paris and answer their complaint.

Edward said he should only come with his helmet
on his head and sixty thousand men behind him, and
so the war began again; but the Prince was out of
health, and could not fight as he used to do, and the
French king forbade his captains ever to give battle,
Charles V. 145





even Du Guesclin, whom he made Constable of France,
and who grumbled much at being forbidden.

The war was carried on by sieges of castles, which,
one by one, fell into French hands for want of means
on the part of the English prince to relieve them.

Stung and embittered, at last he roused himself;
and though he could no longer mount his horse, he
went in a litter to besiege the city of Limoges, and
when it was taken, he sought his revenge in a terrible
massacre of all the inhabitants. This, his saddest, ex-
pedition was his last. He went back to England a sick
man, and never recovered. Governors were sent to
Bordeaux; but they could do little against the con-
tinually advancing French, and at last nothing in
France was left to Edward but the province of Gascony
and the city of Calais. A truce was made; and before
the end of it both the great Edwards were dead, and
Richard II. on the throne, under the regency of his
uncles, who tried to carry on the war, but still with no
better fortune.

It was while besieging a little castle, named Chateau
Randon, that the brave Du Guesclin fell sick of a fever
and died. The English captain had promised to sur-
render if help did not come to him within a certain
time ; and when he heard that the great constable was



K


146 Stories of French Hestory.



dead, he would not yield to anyone else, but caused
himself to be led to the tent of the dead man, on whose
breast he laid down the keys of the castle. The king
made Du Guesclin’s friend, Oliver de Clisson, Constable
in his stead. He was a Breton too, a brave knight,
and a skilful leader; but his brother had been made
prisoner by the English, and hung, and he had made
the savage vow that he would never spare the life of
an Englishman, so that he was called the Butcher; and
it was a dreadful thing to fall into his hands.

The king himself did not live much longer. He had
never entirely shaken off the effects of the poison his
bad namesake had given him, and knew he should die
young. He carefully instructed his queen, Joan de
Bourbon, how to protect his two young sons, Charles
and Louis; but to his great grief she died first, and he
was obliged to leave the boys to the care of their uncles,
when he died on the 16th of September, 1380, after a
reign of so much success that he is commonlv known

as Charles the Wise.






CHAP. XXVIII—FRANCIS I—MIDDLE AGE.
1526-1547.

EYSHE other nations of Europe thought that the

emperor was too hard upon Francis, and they
were the more inclined to join against him when the
Imperial army, without any orders to that effect,
marched to Rome, under the Constable de Bourbon,
and actually took the city. Bourbon himself was shot
dead in the assault, and there was no one to stop the
troops in the horrible savage cruelties and profanations
they committed. The Pope gave himself up as prisoner,
and Charles could make what terms he pleased.
Francis found he could not stand up against him, so
the mother of the French king (Louise of Savoy) and
the aunt of the emperor (Margaret of Austria) met at
Cambrai, and made what was called the Ladies’ Peace,
which gave France somewhat better terms than the
treaty of Madrid had done.




Francis 1—Middle Age. 191



Things were very bad in France just then, and good
and earnest men longed to set them right. John Calvin,
a man of much learning, who had been intended for a
priest, had, during his course of study, come to think
that much of the teaching of the Church of Rome was
mistaken, and he put forth books which were eagerly
read by great numbers, especially by the king’s sister
Margaret, who had married the dispossessed King of
Navarre ; and by his sister-in-law, Renée, the Duchess
of Ferrara.

The king himself liked very well to laugh at the
greedy and vicious ways of the clergy he had got
about him, and he was too clever a man not to see that
they let the people be taught a great deal that was
foolish, and could not be true; but Calvin and his
friends condemned strongly all his own easy, pleasure-
loving ways of life. A real good priest of the Church
would have done just the same; but Francis did not
bring good ones about him, and the Calvinist teaching
made him angry. Besides, Calvin condemned things
that were right as well as things that were wrong, and
his followers shocked many devout and reverent spirits
by treating all the things that they had always thought
sacred as idols. Some one broke a statue of the Blessed
Virgin in the streets of Paris, and this led to a cry on




192 Stories of French Flistory.



the part of the people that such things should not be
allowed to go on. The persons who were pointed out
as Calvinists were seized ; and when they showed how
little they agreed with the doctrines of the Roman
Catholic Church, they were delivered over by the
clergy to the State, and burnt alive, according to the
cruel laws for dealing with heretics.

But their brethren were only the firmer in their
doctrine, and hated the Romish Church the more for
thus trying to put down the truths that contradicted
some of her teachings. The Calvinists were called in
France Huguenots, though no one quite knows why.
The most likely explanation is, that it is from two
Swiss words, meaning “oath-comrades,” because they
were all sworn brothers. Calvin himself, when he could
not safely stay in France, accepted an invitation from
the Reformers of Geneva to come and guide them, and
thence he sent out rules which guided the French
Huguenots.

Margaret, the Queen of Navarre, thought with the
Huguenots that much was wrong in her Church, but
she would rather have set the Church right; and her
brother, the king, never allowed measures to be taken
for driving her to break with the Church. Her only
child, Jane, was, however, brought up an ardent Hugue-






Francis [—Middle Age. 193





not. She was a determined, high-spirited little girl;
and when, in her twelfth year, her uncle, King Francis,
wanted to marry her to the dull, heavy Duke of Cleves,
and send her off to Flanders, she cried and entreated
till the good-natured king could hardly bear it. When
the poor little bride was dressed, against her will, she
either could not stand under the weight of her jewels
or she would not try, and her uncle bade the stout
Constable de Montmorency take her in his arms and
carry her to the church, and so the wedding was gone
through ; but before the feasts were over, or she could
be carried to Cleves, Francis heard news of the duke’s
having made friends with the emperor, and was very
glad to be able to say that, as the bride had never
consented, the marriage was null and void. Jane after-
wards married Antony, Duke of Bourbon, who was
always called King of Navarre in her right, though the
Spaniards had all the real kingdom of Navarre, and she
only had the little French counties of Béarn and Foix, but
here she fostered the Huguenots with all her might.
Charles V. and Francis kept up a war for most of
their lives, but without any more great battles. Francis
would do anything, however disgraceful, to damage
Charles; and though he was persecuting the Calvinists
at home, he helped and made friends with the Pro-



N


194 Stories of French History.



testants in Germany, because they were the emperor’s
great trouble; and again, because Charles was at war
with the Turks and the Moors, Francis allied himself
with them. However, as he deserved, his treachery
profited him little, for the emperor gained a fast hold
on Italy, and, moreover, invaded Provence; but the
Count de Montmorency laid waste every town, village,
and farm in his way, so that his army found nothing to
eat, and he was forced to retreat, though, in truth, the
poor Provengals suffered just as much from their own
side as they could have done from the enemy. How-
ever, Montmorency was made Constable of France as
a reward,

After this, peace was made for a time, and Charles,
who wanted to go in haste from Spain to Flanders,
asked leave to pass through France; and Francis
admired himself immensely for receiving him most
courteously, sending the Dauphin to meet him, and
entertaining him magnificently. But at one of the
banquets, we are told that Francis pointed to the
Duchess of Chatelherault, saying, “ Here’s a lady who
says I am a great fool to let you go free.” The
emperor took the hint, and dropped a costly ring into
the gold basin that the duchess held to him to wash
his hands in.




francis I.—Middle A ge. 195



He departed in safety, but no sooner did Francis
hear of his being in trouble in his own domains, than
all promises were again broken, and the war began
again. This time Henry VIII. was very angry with
his bad faith, and joined the emperor to punish it.
Charles invaded Champagne, and Henry landed at
Calais, and besieged and took Boulogne. However,
the emperor first made peace, and then Henry, who
promised, in eight years’ time, to give back Boulogne
for a ransom of two million crowns. Just after this
peace was made Henry died, and Francis only lived
two months after him, dying in January, 1547, when
only fifty-three years old. Poor Queen Claude had
long been dead, and he had married the emperor’s
sister Eleanor, to whom he did not behave better than
to Claude. She had had no children, and most of
Claude’s were weakly and delicate, so that only two
survived their father—-Henry, who had been the
second son, but had become Dauphin; and Margaret,
the youngest daughter.




CHAP. XLVII—THE SIEGE OF PARIS.

1870-1871.

ae knew that whatever might be said
XY to be the quarrel between France and Prussia, the
truth was that the two fighting nations were jealous of

one another, and wanted to measure their strength
together. The Prussians had never forgotten the elder
Napoleon’s cruelty to their queen, and the harshness
with which the whole nation had been treated; and all
the Germans distrusted Napoleon III, and thought
he had plans for spreading the French empire into the
German provinces beyond the Rhine. All the Germans,
therefore, felt as if they were defending their fatherland,
and came to the army in a very different temper from
the boastful one of the French.

It was in the provinces of the Rhine that the battle
was to be fought out. In the first fight, at Werth, the
French were successful, and a great deal was made of
the victory. The Prince Imperial was made to fire the


The Stege of Paris. 307



first cannon, and all the newspapers profanely called it
his baptism of fire. Indeed, one of the worst signs
was that nobody was telling truth, The emperor had
been deceived as to the strength and order of his army ;
and the whole French nation were entirely deceived as
to the state of things with the army, and thought they
were beating the Prussians, and should soon be at
Berlin. Instead of this, all round the city of Sedan
there was a most frightful battle, which lasted day after
day, and in which the French were entirely beaten,
and so surrounded and cut off from retreat by the
German forces, that the emperor was obliged to
surrender himself a prisoner to the King of Prussia.

He had before sent his son to England, as soon as
he saw how things were going. The Empress Eugénie
had been left as regent at Paris; but as soon as the
dreadful news came, all the Parisians rose up, and
declared that the emperor was deposed, and that they
would have a republic again. All that her best friends
could do for her was to help her to pass out of the
Tuileries in a plain black dress, get into a fly, and
be driven to the station, whence she safely reached
England.

Marshal Macmahon and a large portion of the army
who were in Sedan were made prisoners, and sent off





308 Stories of French History.



to Germany. Still there was a general belief that help
must come—that an army would come home from
Algeria, or be put together from the garrisons—or that
the whole nation would rise up and drive out the
enemy. So the cities of Strasburg, Phalsburg, and
Nancy shut their gates, and bravely stood a siege from
the Germans; and when the Parisians found that the
main body of the enemy was advancing, they likewise
prepared for a siege, under their commandant, General
Trochu, a good man, but not enterprising. They were
in a strange delirium of ungrateful joy at being rid of
the empire; they went about knocking down the
carved eagles and effacing the great crowned N’s, and
declaring that now they should prosper, as if the enemy
were not actually on their own ground.

Almost every available man was enrolled in the
National Guard or the Garde Mobile ; but the Prussians
put a stop to any warfare of the peasantry, for at a
little village called Bazeille, where some shots were
fired on them, they burnt and destroyed every building,
and killed all who fell into their hands. They gave
out that though regular soldiers would be treated as
prisoners of war, and those who did not fight would
not be hurt, there was to be no mercy for places where
Germans were fired upon.


The Siege of Paris. 309



The Prussians meant to be just, but their justice was
of a hard kind; and though they hardly ever did
violence to anyone’s person, they had less scruple
about plundering than they ought to have had. Indeed,
they had bitterly hated the French ever since the elder
Napoleon had so tyrannously misused Prussia, and
broken the heart of Queen Louisa, the mother of the
King William who was now leading his forces to Paris;
and much that they called retribution, lookers-on called
revenge. .

The king placed his headquarters in the grand old
palace of Versailles, and thence besieged Paris, cutting
off all supplies and all communication from outside.
No one could come in or out, save through the German
camp, except in a balloon; and one of the Republican
leaders, M. Gambetta, actually came out in a balloon,
to try to raise the spirit of the rest of France to come
to the relief of the capital. Letters came and went,
too, by carrier pigeons ; and tiny letters on thin paper,
and newspapers in print so small that they could only
be read with a magnifying glass, were prepared for this
pigeon post. Meantime, the people ate up all their
stores ; and after finishing the mutton and beef, all the
horses were seized, and the cats and dogs were killed ;
the flour was diluted with sawdust; and the starvation


310 Stories of French History.





became all the more wretched as the winter came on ;
and there was as sad a want of fuel as of food. Mean-
while, the German shells were constantly flying in,
destroying houses, and killing all whom their splinters
struck,

It was as bad at Strasburg, while these Parisians were
consoling themselves by offering garlands to the statue
of that city in the Place de la Concorde; but Strasburg,
Metz, and Phalsburg all were taken, and all the hopes
of help from without faded away. The supposed army
in the south never appeared at all, and one in the west,
which at first had some success, was soon defeated.
The Prussian army occupied more and more ground ;
and though the Parisian troops tried to sally out and
attack the German camp, this turned out to be all in
vain. For the Parisians, both in the National Guard
and Garde Mobile, had no notion of obeying orders or
observing discipline, and without these nobody can
fight ; while even as to bravery, they showed them-
selves sadly unlike their loud boasts of themselves.
Nobody did show any steady courage but the few real
soldiers, the gentlemen, and the Bretons; and their
bravery ended in their being killed when no one sup-
ported them. It was all the worse, because there was
bitter distrust between the Red Republicans and the




The Stege of Paris. 311



Moderate party, and each expected to be betrayed by
the other. The only pleasant thing to think of in the
whole war was the care taken by a society, gathered
from all nations—chiefly Swiss, German, and English—
for sending nurses to the wounded and help to the
ruined. They were known by the Red Cross, and
wherever this was seen they were respected.

One difficulty was—Who or what was the govern-
ment which might make peace with the Prussians ? but
after half-a-year of siege, M. Thiers and General
Trochu, and others of the Moderate party, made
terms. Paris was, in fact, surrendered; but the King
of Prussia promised not to grieve the French by
marching in at the head of his army, but to be content
with quietly entering himself. The two provinces of
Lorraine and Alsace, which used to be German, were
to be given up to him; Prussian troops were to be left
for a year in garrison in France; and a fine was to be
paid. At the same time, quantities of food and firing
were sent in for the famished Parisians, the prisoners
were released, and among them the emperor, who came
to England.




CHAP. XXIX.—_HENRY II.
1547-1559.
Je ENRY II, the son of Francis I., had better

Ld qualities than his vain and faithless father, and
if he had lived in better times, and had good men
about him, he might have been an excellent person.
He was not one of the men, however, who can change
the whole face of a country for good, but was led
along in the stream: his grandmother and father had
made the whole court wicked and corrupt, while, now
that the Church of France had lost its freedom, the
clergy were so much in bondage that nobody dared to
speak plain truths to the king, and he went on in sin
unrebuked.

The Calvinists (or Huguenots), who read the Bible
and tried to keep the Commandments, looked at the
wicked court with horror, and declared that the way
the clergy let it go on was a sign that their Church
could not be true; and, on the other hand, the young


; i

Nicest



































NOBLES AND CALVINIST.
flenry IT. 197



nobles mixed up Calvinism and strictness of life in their
fancies, and laughed at both; and so the two parties
made one another worse.

The king was a kind-hearted man, and very constant
in his affections. His greatest friend was the Constable
de Montmorency, to whom he held fast all his life ; and
his other strongest feeling was for a beautiful lady
called Diana of Poitiers. She was a widow, and he
wore her colours (black and silver) and twisted her
initial (D.) up with his own (H.) in his device, without
ever being made to see how wrong it was to forsake
his wife Catherine, who had been chosen for him when
his father wanted to make friends in Italy. She was
the daughter of the great Florentine family of Medici,
and was very wary and cunning, living so quietly while
her husband neglected her, that no one guessed how
much ability she had. She had a large family, and the
eldest son, Francis, was betrothed to the infant Mary,
Queen of Scots, who was sent from her own kingdom
to be brought up with her young husband in the court
of France.

_ Henry went on with the war with the emperor, and
would not let the French bishops go to Trent, where
Charles was trying to get together a council of the
Church, to set to rights the evils that had led to the




198 Stories of French History.



separations. Henry had one very able general, Francis
de Lorraine, Duke of Guise (a son of that René, Duke
of Lorraine, of whom you may remember hearing as
grandson to old King René). He sent this general to
seize the city of Metz, which he declared he had a right
to; and there Guise shut himself up and stood a siege
by the emperor himself, until hunger and famine made
such havoc in the besieging army that they were forced
to retreat.

The emperor was growing old, and suffered much °

from the gout, and he longed for rest and time to
prepare himself for death. So he decided on resigning
his crowns, and going and spending the remainder of
his life in a Spanish monastery. He gave the empire
to his brother Ferdinand, and the kingdoms of Spain
and the two Sicilies, with Lombardy and the Low
Countries, to his son, Philip II., who was married to
our queen, Mary Tudor. This made the English join
in the war against Henry II., and a small, brave body
was sent to the Spanish army, which, with Philip him-
self, was besieging St. Quentin, a town on the borders
of Picardy. One of the bravest men in France (a
Huguenot nobleman), Gaspar de Chatillon, Admiral
de Coligny, was defending the town, and his brother,
the Siem d’Andelot, tried hard to break through and


Flenry IT. 199



bring him provisions, but he was beaten back; and
there was a great battle fought on the roth of August,
1557, before the walls, when the Constable de Mont
morency, who commanded the French, was entirely
beaten. He was himself made prisoner, 4000 men
were killed, and Coligny was forced to surrender.
France had not suffered such a defeat since the battle of
Agincourt ; and Philip was so thankful for this victory
of St. Quentin, that, as it happened upon St. Law
rence’s Day, he built, in Spain, a palace and a convent
all in one, the ground plan of which was shaped like
the gridiron, or bars of iron, on which St. Lawrence
was roasted to death. However, it was some comfort
to the French that the Duke of Guise managed to take
by surprise the city of Calais, which the English had
held ever since the time of Edward III., and which
was their last French possession. But other mischances
forced Henry to make peace; and at Cateau Cambresis,
in 1559, a treaty was signed which put an end to the
long Italian wars that had been begun by Charles
VIII. nearly seventy years before. After this, there
were great rejoicings; but the persecution of the
Calvinists was carried on with the more rigour, and
the king and all his court, even the ladies, used to be
present at the burnings in the market-place. One poor



|


200 Stories of French History.





tailor, on his way to the stake, turned round and gave
the king a last look, which, it was said, Henry never
forgot all the days of his life.

These days were not, however, very long afterwards.
One of the unjust acts Francis had done was the seizing
the little dukedom of Savoy, in the Alps, and adding
it to his kingdom. The landless Duke of Savoy had
gone and served in the Spanish army, and was an able
general—indeed, it was he who had really gained the
battle of St. Quentin ; and one article in the peace of
Cateau Cambresis had been that the French should
give him back his dukedom and marry him to Margaret,
the only sister of Henry. The wedding festivities were
intended to be very magnificent, and Henry began
them with a splendid tournament, like those of the old
times of knighthood, when the knights, in full armour,
rode against each other with their heavy lances. Henry
himself took part in this one, and tried to unhorse the
Sieur des Lorges, eldest son of the Count de Mont-
gomery. There was generally very little danger to
men in steel armour, but as these two met, the point
of Des Lorges’ lance pierced a join in the visor of
Henry’s helmet, and penetrated his eye and his brain.
He was carried from the lists, and lay speechless for
two days; and, in the meantime, his sister was hastily




Flenry I. 201





married in private to the Duke of Savoy, that his death
might not delay the fulfilment of the treaty. He died
on the 29th of June, 1559, leaving four sons (Francis,
Charles, Henry, and Hercules) and three daughters
(Elizabeth, Claude, and Margaret), all very young.
Some fortune-teller told their mother, Catherine de
Medicis, that her sons would be all kings; and this made
her very uneasy, as she thought it must mean that they
would all die, one after the other, without heirs, like
the three sons of the wicked Philip the Fair. However,
though the fortune-teller was nearly right, he was not
entirely so.








FRANCIS IUI.,...... 1559-1562.
CHAP. XXX. { CHARLES IX,,....1572.

SYSHE next two reigns, though they are, of course,

called the reigns of Francis II. and Charles IX.,
were really the reign of their mother, Catherine de
Medicis. Francis was only fifteen when he lost his
father, and was weakly and delicate ; and though his
mother took the chief management of affairs, she knew
that he did not care for her half so much as for his
young wife Mary, Queen of Scots, who despised her
for not being a born queen, like herself, but only of a
race of Italian merchants.

Mary’s mother had been a sister of the Duke of
Guise, and Catherine knew that she would help her
uncle forward. Besides, the duke was the handsomest
and bravest gentleman in France, and had such gracious
manners that all loved him. He was quite the head
of the zealous Roman Catholics, and Catherine wanted
to keep him down. So, as she did not much care for




Frrancis Lf. aa



any religion, she made friends with the chiefs of the
Huguenots. Queen Jane of Navarre was the real
chief, for she had made her little county of Béarn quite
Calvinist ; but her husband, Antony, Duke of Bourbon,
loved amusement more than anything else, and never
cared enough to make up his mind. However, his
brother Louis, Prince of Condé, saw that they would
be thought more of by the Huguenots than by the
other party ; and though not a very religious man, he
was sincere in thinking the Roman errors wrong. So
these two drew Antony their way. Besides, the
Admiral de Coligny, who had defended St. Quentin,
was a thoroughly good, pious, sincere man, and was
much looked up to as the noblest of the Huguenots.
Condé hated nothing so much as the Duke of Guise,
and he had a plan for seizing him and the young king,
but it was found out in time; and Guise, on his side,
laid a plan for inviting the prince and his brother (who
was always called the King of Navarre) into the king’s
chamber. Francis was to call out, “ Here, guards!”
and the guards were to dash in and seize or kill the
two brothers. But Francis could not make up his
mind to do such a cruel, treacherous thing ; so he would
not give the word, and let the princes go safely. Guise
was very angry, and said he was a coward ; but it was


204 Stories of French Flistory.





happy for the poor boy that he was kept from this evil
deed, for it was the last act of his life. He died of a
swelling in the ear, in his seventeenth year, in 1560.
His wife, Queen Mary, went back to Scotland; and
his brother, Charles IX., who was only twelve years
old, began to reign.

The Duke of Guise lost power at court when his
niece went away, and Catherine listened more to Condé.
Indeed, she consented that the chief Calvinist ministers
should have a conference at Passy with the bishops, to
try if they could not be reconciled to the Church ; but
though they began peaceably, the argument soon ended
in a quarrel. However, the Huguenots were allowed
to hold meetings for worship, provided it was not in a
walled town, or where they could disturb Catholics ;
and in their joy at gaining so much, they ventured to
do much more ; and wherever they were the stronger,
they knocked down the crosses and the images of the
saints, and did all they could to show their dislike of
the Catholic worship.

At Vassy, where the mother of the Duke of Guise
lived, there was a barn where the Huguenots used
to meet. When her son was visiting her, she com-
plained of them; and when he went to church on
Sunday, he heard them singing. His followers were


I ee
Charles IX, 205



very angry at what they thought impertinence, broke
into the barn, made a riot, and killed several. This
was the beginning of the great war between the
Catholics and the Huguenots—a sad and terrible one.
It was interrupted by many short times of peace, but
you would only be puzzled if I tried to tell you of
all the wars and all the treaties. The chief thing
you have to remember is, that a Guise was always
at the head of the Catholics, and a Bourbon at the
head of the Huguenots; and that though the queen
was a Catholic, she sometimes favoured the Huguenots,
for fear of the Guises ; but she was so false that nobody
could believe a word she said. The most honest man
at court was old Constable de Montmorency, but he
was terribly stern and cruel, and everyone feared him.
The city of Rouen fell into the hands of the Hugue-
nots, and Guise besieged it; but in the course of the
siege he was shot by a murderer named Poltrot, and
died in a few hours. His son Henry, who was very
young at the time, always believed that the murderer
had been sent by the Admiral de Coligny ; and though
this is not at all likely, the whole family vowed
vengeance against him. During this siege, Antony,
Duke of Bourbon (called King of Navarre), was also
killed. He was no great loss to the Huguenots, for he
206 Stories of French Fiistory.





had gone over to the other side, and his wife, Queen
Jane, was freer to act without him.

Old Montmorency was killed not long after, in a
battle with the Prince of Condé, near St. Denis ; and
the queen thought the Huguenots so prosperous that
she said, in a light way, to one of her ladies, “ Well, we
shall have to say our prayers in French.” Her sons
were beginning to grow up. She did not like to put
the king forward, lest he should learn to govern, and
take away her power; but her third son, Henry, the
Duke of Anjou, was very handsome and clever, and
quite her favourite, for he was as false and cruel as
herself. In the battle of Jarnac, he commanded. The
Prince of Condé, who was on the other side, had his
arm in a sling, from a hurt received a few days before ;
and just as he had ridden to the head of his troops, a
horse kicked and broke his leg ; but he would not give
up, and rode into the battle as he was. He was
defeated, and taken prisoner. He was lifted off his
horse ; and while he sat under a tree, for he could not
stand, a friend of the Duke of Anjou shot him through
the head.

The Queen of Navarre felt that she must come to
the head of her party. She had one son, Henry, Prince
of Béarn. As soon as he was born, his grandfather
A
Charles IX. 207



had rubbed his lips with a clove of garlic, and bidden
him be a brave man; and the cradle he was rocked in,
a great tortoise’s shell, is still kept at Pau, in Béarn.
He had run about on the hills with the shepherd lads
to make him strong and hardy; and Queen Jane
had had him most carefully taught both religion and
learning, so that he was a boy of great promise. He
was fifteen years old at this time; and his cousin Henry,
son of the Prince of Condé, was about the same age.
Queen Jane took them to the head of the Huguenot
army, and all were delighted to serve under them,
while Admiral de Coligny managed their affairs.
Under him and Queen Jane they prospered more
than before, and Queen Catherine began to see that she
should never put them down by force. She pretended to
make friends with them, and she and her son, Charles
IX., made them grants that affronted all the zealous
Roman Catholics very much; but it was all for the
sake of getting them into her power. She offered to
marry her daughter Margaret to the Prince of Béarn,
and invited him to her court. Poor Queen Jane could
not bear to let her boy go, for she knew what would
_ happen. Catherine kept a whole troop of young ladies

about her, who were called the Queen Mother’s Squa- |
dron, and who made it their business, with their light


208 Stories of French Fistory.
songs, idle talk, and pleasant evil habits, to corrupt all
the young men who came about them. Now Jane's
little court was grave, strict, and dull, and Henry
enjoyed the change. Catherine read Italian poetry
with him, put amusements in his way, and found it
only too easy to laugh him out of the strict notions of
his home. Poor Jane tried to keep up his love; she
wrote to him about his dogs and horses, and all he used
to care for; but cunning Catherine took care never to
have mother and son at her court together. She sent
Henry home before she invited his mother to the court.
When Jane came, Catherine said to one of her friends,
“T cannot understand this queen; she will always be
reserved with me.” “Put her in a passion,” was the
answer ; “then she will tell you all her secrets.” But
Jane never would be put in a passion, and Catherine
could get no power over her.

While still at court, Jane fell suddenly ill and died.
Everyone thought Catherine had poisoned her. There
was a man about court, a perfumer, whom people called,
in whispers, “‘ The Queen’s Poisoner.”

PENS








CHAP. XXXI.—CHARLES IX.

1572-1574.
ees young Charles IX. would have been a good
é» man if his mother would have allowed him; but
she taught him that the way to reign was to deceive,
and he was so much afraid of her that he choked all
his better feelings. She was exceedingly afraid of the
Huguenots, and thought they were conspiring against
her; and the young Henry, Duke of Guise, was ready
to do anything to be revenged on Coligny, whom he
viewed as his father’s murderer. So, to get the Hugue-
nots into her power, Catherine invited all their chief
nobles to come to the wedding of her daughter Mar-
garet with young Henry, who had become King of
Navarre. The Pope would not give leave for the
princess to marry one who stood outside the Church,
but the queen forged his consent ; and the poor bride,
who was in love with the Duke of Guise, was so un-
willing, that, at the wedding itself, when she was asked





oO


210 Stories of French History.



if she would have this man for her husband, she would
not say yes; but her brother Charles pushed her head
down into a nod, to stand for yes.

Coligny and all his friends had come to the wedding ;
and the king was so much delighted with the brave,
honest old soldier, that Catherine thought she should
lose all her power over him. One day, Coligny was
shot in the streets of Paris by a murderer ; and though
only his hands were shattered, he was so ill that the
king came to see him, and all his friends mustered
round him to protect him. Thereupon, Catherine
settled with her son, the Duke of Anjou, and the Duke
of Guise, that, when the bell of the Church of St.
Germain TAuxerrois, close to the palace of the
Tuileries, should begin to ring at midnight before St.
Bartholomew’s Day, the people of Paris, who were all
devoted to the Duke of Guise, should rise upon the
Huguenots who were lodging in their houses, and
kill them all at once. It was hard to get King
Charles to consent, for there were many Huguenots
whom he had learnt to love; but when he found
that he could not save Coligny, he said, “ Let them
all die; let none live to reproach me.” However, he
called into his own bedroom those whom he most
wished to save—nameély, his good doctor and his old








Charles IX. 211



nurse; but there were a great many more in the

palace, attending upon the young King of Navarre, and
everyone of these was slaughtered, except one man,
who dashed into Queen Margaret's room and clung to
her. Everywhere murder was going on. The followers
of Guise wore white scarves on one arm, that they
might know one another in the dark; and a troop of
them rushed in, slew good old Coligny in his bedroom,
and threw the corpse out at the window. His chaplain
escaped over the roof, and hid in a hayloft, where a hen
came every day and laid an egg, which was all he had
to live on. All the rabble of Paris were slaying and
plundering their neighbours, and in all the other towns
where the Huguenots were the weakest the same horrid
work was going on. The Massacre of St. Bartholomew
is the deadliest crime in the history of France. The
young king was half mad that night. He is said to
have shot Ara the palace isco at some whom he
saw running away; and though this may not be true,
it is quite certain that he drew his sword against the
King of Navarre and Prince of Condé, and would have
struck them, if his young wife, Elizabeth of Austria, had
not heard of it, and ran in, as she was, with her hair
hanging down, entreating him to spare them ; and their
lives were given them on condition that ee oo onront he Ee ee would
212 Stories of French Fiistory.



return to the Church, which they did; but they were
watched and forced to live like a sort of prisoners at
court.

When our Queen Elizabeth heard of this shocking
day, she dressed herself and all her court in mourning,
and would not speak to the French ambassador. She
broke off the plans for marrying her to the Duke of
Anjou—a scheme on which Catherine de Medicis was
much set, as it would have made her third son a king
without the death of the second. However, a kingdom
did come to him, for the old realm of Poland always
chose the king by election by all the nobles, and their
choice fell upon Henry, Duke of Anjou. He did not
like going to that wild country, away from all the
amusements of Paris, and delayed as long as he could,
but he was forced to set off at last.

Meantime, the poor young king was broken-hearted.
He tried to forget the horrors of the night of St. Bar-
tholomew, and the good men he had learnt to love and
respect, while he was only drawing them into a trap.
He went out hunting, rode violently for long distances,
and blew furious blasts on his hunting-horn; but
nothing could drive away that horrible remembrance,
and all that he did was to hurt his own health. His
lungs were injured ; and whenever a bleeding came on,








Charles IX, 913



it seemed to him that he was in the midst of the blood
of the Huguenots. All the comfort he had was in his
old nurse and surgeon, whom he had saved; for his
mother was too busy trying to secure the throne for his
brother to attend to him, and kept him closely watched
lest his grief for the massacre should be known. So
he died in the year 1574, when only twenty-three years
old, and his last words were, “If our Lord Jesus will
have mercy on me!” And so we may hope that his
repentance was true.

The war with the Huguenots was still going on
when he died, for though Coligny was slain, and the
King of Navarre still watched and guarded at court,
there were enough nobles left alive, especially in the
South of France, to hold out against their enemies.
Everybody was growing dreadfully cruel on both sides.
It was the fashion to boast of killing as many as
possible. If the troops of the queen and Duke of
Guise came on a preaching of the Huguenots, they
burnt the building, and slew everyone who came out of
it; and if the Huguenots found a church or convent
not defended, they did not use the monks or nuns much

better. The Count de Montgomery, whose lance had

caused the death of Henry II., was on the Huguenot
side, and had some ships, with which he sailed about,






214 Stories of French Frstory.



capturing all the vessels that came in his way, and
plundering them. It was a miserable time, and every-
one watched anxiously for the new king; but though
he was delighted to leave Poland, and galloped away
in the night from Cracow as if he were a thief, for fear
the Poles should stop him, he was in no hurry to take
all the troubles of his French kingdom upon him, but
went out of his way to Italy, and stayed there amusing
himself, while all the time the Duke of Guise was
growing more and more strong, and a greater favourite
with the people of Paris, who would do anything for
him. Catherine, too, was trying to marry her fourth
son, the Duke of Alengon, to Queen Elizabeth, who
pretended to think about it, and even sent for him to
see her; but it was all in order to keep the peace with
France—she never really meant it—and the duke was
an ugly little spiteful youth, whom everybody at court
hated and feared.



COSTES







CHAP. XXXII.—HENRY III.

1574.

SYSHE new king, Henry III., was a strange person.

He seemed to have used up all his spirit and
sense at the battle of Jarnac, which had made people
think him a hero; and though he was not a coward in
battle, he had no boldness in thinking of danger—no
moral courage in making up his mind. On his way
home through Savoy, he saw Louise de Vaudémont, a
beautiful girl, a cousin of the Duke of Guise, and
determined to marry her. Queen Catherine tried to
prevent it, because Mary of Scotland had been .so
haughty with her, and poor Louise herself was be-
trothed to a man she loved; but the king would not
be withstood, and she led a dreary life with him. He
cared for little but fine clothes, his own beauty, and a
sort of religion that did him no good. He slept in a
mask and gloves for the sake of his complexion, and
painted his face; and every day he stood over his wife


216 Stories of French History.



Yo see her hair dressed, and chose her ornaments. He
had a set of friends like himself, who were called his
mignons, or darlings, and were fops like him; but they
all wore rosaries, of which the beads were carved like
skulls ; and they, king and all, used to go in procession,
barefoot and covered with sackcloth, to the churches
in Paris, with whips in their hands, with which to flog
one another in penance for their sins. Yet they were
horribly cruel, and thought nothing of murder. If one
of them was killed, the king would go and weep over
him, take out the earrings he had himself given him,
and then become just as fond of another meguon.
Henry was also very fond of little dogs; he used to
carry a basket of them slung round his neck, and fill
his carriage with them when he went out with the
queen, generally to church, where he used to stick
illuminations, cut out of old books of devotion, upon
the wall.

Henry of Navarre stayed in this disgraceful court for
nearly two years longer; but at last, in 1576, he grew
ashamed of the life he was leading, fled away to the
Huguenot army in the South of France, and professed
himself a Calvinist again. He soon showed that he
was by far the ablest leader that the Huguenots had
had, and he obtained another peace, and also that his



errr ene eae one =


Flenry IIT, 217



wife Margaret should be sent to him to his little court
at Nérac; but she had been entirely spoilt by her
mother’s wicked court, and had very little sense of
right or wrong. The pair never loved one another ;
and as they had no children, there was nothing to draw
them together, though they were friendly and civil to
one another, and Margaret tried to help her husband
by the lively court she kept, and the letters she wrote
to her friends at Paris.

Even the Duke of Alengon, the youngest brother, |
could not bear the life at Henry’s court, and fled from it.
At one time the Dutch, who had revolted from Philip
of Spain, invited him to put himself at their head ; but
he did them no good, and on his way home he died.
He had never been worth anything, but his death made
a great difference, for Henry III. had no children ; and
as women could neither reign in France themselves nor
leave any rights to their children, the nearest heir to
the crown was Henry of Navarre, whose forefather,
the first Count of Bourbon, had been a son of St. Louis.

Everybody knew he was the right heir; but to have
a Calvinist king to reign over them seemed so frightful
' to all the more zealous Catholics, that they formed
themselves into a society, which they called a League
for maintaining the Church, and the great object of




218 Stories of French History.



which was to keep Henry of Navarre from being King
of France. The Duke of Guise was at the head of this
League, which was so powerful, especially at Paris, that
he could do almost everything, and threatened and cowed
the king till Henry was almost a prisoner in his hands.
There was a third party—Catholics, but loyal, and with
the Count de Montmorency at their head—and these
were the persons to whom Henry trusted most. He
was fond of his bright, kindly brother-in-law, the King
of Navarre, and never would do anything to prevent
him from succeeding, although he found that it was not
safe to remain in Paris, and went to his palace at Blois.
Here he framed a plot for freeing himself from the
Duke of Guise. He placed guards on whom he could
depend under the staircase and in his ante-room; and
when Guise came to visit the king in early morning,
they fell upon him, threw him down, and murdered
him. His brother, the Cardinal of Guise, was killed
the same day; and Henry went up to his mother,
Queen Catherine, who was ill in bed, to tell her that
he was free from his enemy ; but she saw plainly that he
was only bringing more trouble on himself. “ You have
cut,” she said; ‘can you sew up again? Have you
thought of all that you will bring on yourself?” He
said he had done so. “ Then you must be prompt

_.
flenry TI. 219



and firm,” she said ; but she did not live to help him
through his difficulties. She died a fortnight later,
having done the most cruel harm to her children, her
country, and her Church.

Henry was far from able to sew up again. All the
League was mad with rage. Guise’s sons were little
children ; but his brother, the Duke of Mayenne, took
the lead, and though he was not a clever man, the
party was so strong that it took no great ability to
make it terrible to the king. The duke’s sister, the
Duchess of Montpensier, really was like a fury, and
went about the streets of Paris stirring up the people,
who already hated and despised the king, and now
raged against him. They tried him in effigy, deposed
him, carried his figure through the streets heaping
insults upon it, and made an anagram of his name,
Flenrt de Valois, into Vilain Herodes. All the world
seemed to have been turned against him, and he was
brought to such distress that he was obliged to beg
Henry of Navarre to come and help him. The two
kings met at Plessis-les-Tours, and were most friendly
together. They joined their armies and began to
besiege Paris; but of course this made the Leaguers
more violent against Henry than ever, and a young
monk named Clément, fancying that there was no sin,


220 Stories of French History.



but even virtue, in freeing the Church from a man like

Henry, crept out of Paris with a packet of letters, and

while the king was reading one, stabbed him in the

body with a dagger. Clément was at once slain by the

gentlemen of the guard, and the King of Navarre was

sent for in time to see his brother-in-law still alive.

Henry embraced him, bade his people own him King

of France, and added, “ But you wiil never be able to

reign unless you become a Catholic.” Then he died,

in the year 1589, the last and most contemptible of the

miserable house of Valois. The Leaguers rejoiced in

his death, and praised the murderer Clément as a saint
and martyr, while they set up as king the Cardinal of
Bourbon, the old uncle of the King of Navarre, declaring

that it was impossible that a heretic should ever reign

in France.




CHAP. XXXIIIL—HENRY IV.
1589—1610,

EYSHE new king, Henry IV., was so poor, that he was
obliged to dress himself in the velvet coat left by
his brother-in-law to receive the gentlemen who came

to make submission to him. France was now divided
into two parties instead of three, for the Leaguers
were of course set against the Huguenots, while the
moderate Catholics, who thought that the birthright of
the crown called them to be loyal to any sort of king,
all came over to Henry. And he was so bright,
gracious, and good-natured, that no one could help
being fond of him, who had once heard his frank voice
and seen his merry smile.

His old uncle, Cardinal Charles, the Leaguers’ king,
soon died, and then they talked of Isabel, a daughter
of Philip II. of Spain, because her mother had been the
eldest sister of the last three kings; but as there was
a great hatred of the Spaniards among the French, this






222 Stories of French History.





plan rather did harm to their cause, and made many
more of the Catholics turn to Henry. He was fighting
his way to the throne, through more battles and sieges,
ups and downs, than it is possible to tell of here,
though the adventures he met with are delightful to
read of. At the battle of Ivry, in Normandy, he told
his followers that if they wanted a guide in the thick of
the fray they had only to follow his white feather ; and
the saying became a by-word after his great victory.
The Spaniards came to help the League, and the war
lasted year after year, while Henry still was kept out
of Paris. At last he made up his mind that he would
return to the Roman Catholic Church. He used to say
in after times that one of the true things that nobody
would believe was, that he had changed out of an honest
belief that the Calvinists were wrong; and certainly
he did gain a kingdom by so doing ; but the truth was
that he had very little right religion at all, and that he
did not like the strict ways of the Calvinists. If the
Catholic clergy had been in a better state, they would
not have received him unless he had left off all the sinful
habits he loved ; but they were only too glad to gain him
over, and accepted him heartily. But still the League
was not satisfied, and only in the year 1594, when he
had been king five years, did he ride into Paris, with




flenry LV. 223



his hair and moustache grey from his cares and toils ;
and even then the Leaguers went on opposing him,
till at last his wisdom, and that of his good old friend,
the Duke of Sully, succeeded in overcoming the
remains of their dislike, and the Duke de Mayenne
consented to make peace with him.

Then only did Henry IV. really begin to reign. He
had to put down some of the great nobles, who had
grown over-powerful and insolent during the long civil
war; but he was one of the most kind-hearted of men,
and never punished if he could help it. He felt kindly
towards the poor, and wished that the time should come
when every Frenchman should have a fat hen to boil
in his pot. And, besides, he tried to do justice between
the Catholics and the Calvinists. He had friends on
both sides, and was anxious to make them live in peace,
without fighting with one another or persecuting one
another—a plan which had been proved to convince
nobody, and only to lead to hatred, cruelty, and misery.
So he brought about a law which gave the Calvinists
leave to have places of worship where there was a sufh-
cient congregation, provided it was not where they would
annoy Catholics. And they were not hindered from
taking offices at court or in the army, nor from keeping
schools in certain places ; and to secure all this to them,


224 Stories of French Fitstory.



they were allowed to hold three towns as pledges—La
Rochelle, Montauban, and Montpellier. In this last,
there was a college for educating their pastors, and at
each of the three in turn there were meetings of their
clergy to consult on the affairs of the Church. This
law was called the Edict of Nantes, because Henry had
it registered by the parliament of the old duchy of
Brittany, since each old province still kept its own laws
and parliament. He obtained this Edict of Nantes
with great difficulty, for almost all the Catholics
thought it a very wicked thing to allow any person to
remain outside the Church; but everyone was worn
out with the long and bloody civil war, and was glad
to rest; so the Edict was passed, and France began to
recover.

Henry had no children, and wished to be rid of his
wife Margaret, that he might marry another, instead of
having to leave his crown to his young cousin, the
Prince of Condé. So, as there had never been real con-
sent on the Pope’s part to the marriage of the cousins,
and as the bride had been forced into it against her will
by her mother and brother, the Pope was persuaded to
pronounce the wedding null and void, and that the two
were free to marry again. Still it was not easy to find
a princess, for all the Spaniards and Austrians and








we

fm [ler













































































































































































HENRY IV. PLAYING WITH HIS CHILDREN.


flenry IV. 225



their allies were his greatest enemies, and he could not
now marry a Protestant ; so he ended by choosing one
of the Medici family, Mary, who proved to be a dull,
selfish woman, not so clever as Catherine, but not much
of a companion to him.

However, she gave him two sons and three daughters,
and there never was a fonder father. Once, when the
Austrian ambassador came to see him, he was found
on all-fours, with his little son riding on his back.
“ Are you a father, sir?” he said to. the new-comer.
“Yes, sire.” “ Then we will finish our game,” returned
the king.

‘There were many of the remnants of the Leaguers
who hated the king for having once been a Huguenot,
and for the Edict of Nantes; and though the love of
the whole country was more and more with him, he
still was not willing to gather a great crowd together
in Paris, lest harm might follow. So, as he had been
crowned long before he was married, the coronation of
Mary de Medicis was put off, year after year, till it
should seem safer; but she was vexed at the delay,
and prevailed at last. Henry was not with her, and
only looked on from a private box at the pageant, and
while so doing, he gravely said to the friend who
was with him, that he had been thinking how all this





226 Stories of French Fitstory.





crowd would feel if the last trumpet were at once to
sound.

His own call was nearer than he thought. The next
day, just as he had seated himself in his carriage, a man
named Francis Ravaillac sprang on the wheel, held a
paper to him to read, and the next moment stabbed
him to the heart with a knife, so that he died in an
instant, one of the greatest losses his country had ever
known. It was on the 14th of May, 1610. He was
known to the French as “le Grand Monarque,” the
Great Monarch ; and he really was a great man, and
would have been a far greater if he had been really
good,




CHAP. XXXIV.—LOUIS XIII.
1610-1643.

SYSHE eldest son of Henry IV., Louis XIII., was

but nine years old when his father was killed ; and
his mother, Mary de Medicis, became regent. She
was a weak, foolish woman, and let herself be entirely
guided by an Italian lady in her train, named Galigai,

who had married a man named Concini. Mary made
her son give him the title of Marshal d’Ancre, and it
was they who really ruled France. When Leonora
was asked how she managed the queen, she answered,
“ By the power of a strong mind over a weak one.”
But all the old French nobles greatly hated d’Ancre for
his pride and insolence, and Mary declared that
Leonora had bewitched the queen,

Their rule lasted seven years; but when the young
king was sixteen years old, a young nobleman named
Luynes stirred him up to free himself from them, telling
him that, now he was growing up, they would secretly






228 Stories of French Fustory.





kill him, that his mother might continue regent in the
name of his little brother. So Louis desired his guards
to arrest d’Ancre next time he came to the palace, and
to kill him if he resisted. He did resist, and was cut
down and slain, and his wife was tried for bewitching
the queen, and put to death. Mary had to leave
court, and go into the country; whence, after some
years of wrangling with her son, she went to England,
after her youngest daughter, Henrietta Maria, had
married King Charles I.; and she afterwards died in
great poverty.

Louis XIII. was a strange person—slow, dull, and
cold-hearted, though not ill-disposed. His health was
bad, and he hated trouble and thinking more than
anything else. What he chiefly cared for was to
have some friend about him, who would hunt, talk,
and amuse him, while all trouble was saved him.
One very clever man was in his court, Armand de
Richelieu, Bishop of Lucon, who was the ablest man in
court. Albert de Luynes was the king’s first minister
after d’Ancre’s fall; but when he died of a fever,
Richelieu obtained the management of everything.
He let the king have young men as his companions and
favourites ; but if ever one of these showed any spirit,
and tried to stir the king up to act for himself and




Louts XTIT, 229

overthrow the tyranny he lived under, Richelieu always
found it out, and put the bold man to death. The
king did nothing to save his friends, and when they
were once out of his sight seemed to forget all about
them ; for in truth he disliked trouble more than any-
thing else, and would have been very sorry to think
for himself instead of letting Richelieu think and act
for him.

The cardinal, for so the Pope created him, was really
one of the most wonderful statesmen who ever lived,
and made France a much greater and more mighty
power than ever before, and the king much more
powerful too. He was a hard, stern man, and did not
care for justice, or for anyone’s suffering, provided he
could do that one thing—make the crown of France
more powerful. The nobles, who had grown strong
and haughty during the long wars, were very sternly,
and even cruelly, put down by him. He thought
nothing of getting them accused of treason, shutting
them up in prison, or having them put to death; and
he thus managed to get rid of all the great men who
had been almost princes, such as the Count de Mont-
morency, grandson to the old Constable.

He also made war upon the Huguenots, in spite of
the Edict of Nantes, and tried to take La Rochelle


230 Stories of French Fitstory.



from them. There was a long and terrible siege.
Charles I. of England sent them help; and _ his
favourite, the Duke of Buckingham, was to have had
the command of the fleet that was coming to them, but
he was killed at Portsmouth, as you have heard.
When at last the people were starved ont, after fourteen
months, the cardinal made the king himself come down
to receive their submission. La Rochelle was a terrible
loss to them, and they were far more at the king’s
mercy than when they had sucha strong town. But
at least the Roman Catholic Church was in a much
better state than it had been when they had broken
away from it. Much still needed to be set right ; but
some of the worst evils had been put a stop to, and
there were many very good men among the clergy,
especially Francis de Sales, Bishop of Geneva, and
Vincent de Paul, a good priest, who gathered together
the poor desolate children who had no homes, and were
starving in the streets of Paris, and set good ladies to
take care of them. He also first established the order
of Sisters of Mercy, who are like nuns, only not shut
up in convents, but going about to nurse the sick, take
care of orphans, and teach poor children. The great
ladies at court used to put on plain dresses and go to
nurse the sick in the hospitals, even the queen herself.



Louis XIII,

oa





She was a Spanish princess, called Anne of Austria—a
good, kind, and gracious lady—but no one cared for her
much at court; and for many years she had no children,
but at last, when all hope had been given up, she had
first one and then another boy, and there was immense
rejoicing.

Wars had been going on with the Spaniards, all
through the reign, in Italy and the Low Countries, as
well as a terrible fight between the Roman Catholics
and Protestants in Germany, which is called the Thirty
Years’ War. Cardinal de Richelieu managed matters
so well that France always gained the advantage ; and
some excellent generals were growing up in the army,
especially the Viscount de Turenne, brother to the
Duke of Bouillon, and the Duke d’Enghien, eldest
son of the Prince of Condé, who gained some wonderful
victories in the Low Countries while still a mere youth.

But Richelieu’s own iron rule was coming to an end.
He had been in very bad health for years, but he never
seemed to care about it, and was as fierce as ever if a

friend of the king tried to take away his power. The

Baron de Cinq Mars was put to death for conspiring

against him when he was almost at the gates of the

grave. He declared, when he was receiving his last
communion, that he had always meant to work for the




330 Stories of French Hrstory.

honour of God and the good of the State; and he died,
in his 58th year, on the 4th of December, 1642, after
advising the king to trust to an Italian priest named
Mazarin, as he had trusted to him.

Louis seemed to care very little for the loss of
Richelieu. He only said, “ There’s a great statesman
dead ;” and when there was a great storm on the day
of the funeral, he said, “ The cardinal has a bad day
for his journey.” But he was in a very weakly state
himself, and only lived five months after Richelieu,
dying at forty-two years old, on the 14th of May, 1643.
Never was a son more unlike his father than he had
been to Henry IV., seeming to be his exact opposite
in every one of his better or worse qualities; and
though his reign was a grand one to France, it was no
thanks to him, but to the great statesman who ruled
both him and the country.








CHAP. XXXV.—LOUIS XIV.—YOUTH.
1643-1661.

“J. AM Louis XIV.,” cried the little five years’ old
J Dauphin, as he stood by his dying father’s bed-
side. “Not yet,” the old king was still strong enough
to say, though he did not live many more hours. Poor
child! he did not know what he rejoiced in. His was
the longest reign that ever king had (no less than
seventy-seven years), and he was sick and weary of it
long before it ended.

At first his mother, Queen Anne, was regent, and
she trusted entirely to Cardinal Mazarin. He was not
a great man, like Richelieu, but he was clever and
cunning, and the saying was, “The fox comes after
the lion ;’ for as he was a foreigner, and of low birth,
the French found it much harder to submit to him than
to Richelieu, who was of one of the noblest families in
France. Only four days after the accession of the
little king, the Duke d’Enghien won the great battle






234 Stories of French History.



of Rocroy, in the Low Countries, which quite destroyed
the fine old Spanish foot soldiers ; and after two more
victories, peace was made between France and Spain.
But this did not make things easier for Mazarin, for all
the nobles who had been away with the army came
home, with nothing to do, and especially the Duke
d’Enghien, who soon, on his father’s death, became
Prince of Condé, and who was proud and fiery, and
hated the upstart Mazarin.

All this hatred broke out in a great quarrel between
the queen and the parliament of Paris. You must
remember that the parliament of Paris was a very
different thing from our parliament. It did not repre-
sent the whole kingdom, for each of the great old
provinces had a separate parliament of its own; and it
was only made up of the lawyers of Paris and the great
nobles who belonged to the old duchy of France, with
the bishops and princes of the blood-royal. It used to
judge peers of France for State offences, and in matters
of property; but it could not make laws or grant taxes.
All it could do was to register the laws and the taxes
when the king had made them; and the king’s acts
were not valid till this had been done. Now, when
Mazarin, in the king’s name, laid an unjust tax on all
the food that was brought into Paris, the parliament


Louis XI V.—YVouth.





refused to register the act, and there was a great
struggle, which is known by the strange name of the
Fronde. Fronde is the French name of a sling ; and
in the earlier part of the quarrel the speakers used to
stand up and throw sharp words at one another, then
draw back, just like the little boys slinging stones at
one another. But they soon came to much worse
weapons. You could not understand or remember all
the strange things that then took place; it is enough
for the present to remember that the Fronde was the
effort of the parliament to stand up against the royal
power, and that there were two sieges of Paris in the
course of it. The Prince of Condé at first would not
turn against the king, and helped to make a short
peace; but then he insisted on the queen sending
Mazarin away, and when he was gone, the queen found
Condé such a stern, insolent master, that she contrived
to get Mazarin back, and he threw Condé into prison.
Condé’s wife joined with the other Frondeurs to try to
gain his freedom again, and he was set free, but only
to make another war, in which, however, he was over-
come, and forced to go into banishment, when, to his
shame be it spoken, he joined the Spaniards, and
helped them to make war against his own country.

It was no small punishment for him that Marshal
236 Stories of French History.



Turenne was commanding the French, and Condé was
under a very lazy, indolent Spanish general, so that he
was sure that there must be a defeat. He said to the
Duke of York, who was serving with him, “ Now you
will see how a battle ought not to be fought.”

For this was the time when all King Charles’s family
were living scattered about in banishment. Queen
Henrietta was at Paris with her youngest daughter ;
but when Oliver Cromwell made a treaty with the
French, he had required that Charles II. and his
brother, the Duke of York, should not be allowed to
live in France.

Cardinal Mazarin followed up all the plans of Riche-
lieu, and France went on prospering and gaining
victories, until the Spaniards at last, in the year 1659,
made what was called the Peace of the Pyrenees,
giving up several towns in the Low Countries. The
young King Louis was to forgive the Prince of Condé,
and to marry Maria Teresa, the daughter of the King
of Spain.

Only two years later died Cardinal Mazarin, leaving
an immense fortune. He had, like Richelieu, cared for
the greatness of the kingdom of France and for the
power of the crown more than for the character of the
king who held all this power, and so he had let the








Louis XTV—Youth. 237



young king grow up very ignorant, for fear of being
interfered with. Anne of Austria, who was a good
woman, tried hard to make her boys religious, and they
always respected religion; but their flatterers did not
teach them how it should tame their pride or make
them care for the good of the people, and Louis XIV.
grew up thinking that the nation was made for his
glory, and not himself for the good of his people. Yet
he was a wonderfully able man. Mazarin said, “ There
is stuff in him to make four kings, and an honest man into
the bargain.” When the cardinal died, and the ministers
asked to whom they should come, he answered, “To
myself ;” and for all the half-century after that his reign
lasted, he was always ready for them. He tried after-
wards to study and make up for the neglect of his
youth, but he never was the same man he might have
been with good training. One thing he had from his
mother, namely, the grandest and most stately courtesy
and the most kingly manners that perhaps were ever
seen. He never received a curtsey from any woman
without a bow, and his gracious dignity seems fairly to
have dazzled the eyes of the very best and wisest men,
so that they looked up to him like a sort of divinity,
and could not even see his faults. His court was
exceedingly splendid, and very stiff. Everyone had


238 Stories of French History.



his place there, and never came out of it; and who
must stand or who might sit, who might be on stools
and who must kneel, in the royal presence, was thought
a matter of the greatest importance. Richelieu and
Mazarin had robbed the nobles of all useful work ; so
all they cared for was war and waiting at court, and
getting money from their poor peasants to support the
expense,






CHAP. XXXVI.—LOUIS XIV.—MIDDLE AGE.
1661-1688,

Se OUIS XIV. loved to be called the Great, but he

did not understand that real greatness is making
a kingdom happier instead of making it larger, and he
only cared for his own glory. He had the two best
generals then in Europe, in the Viscount de Turenne
and the Prince of Condé, and his nobles were very
brave and spirited; so he was always going to war,
without thinking whether it were justly or not, and
fancying the honour was his, whereas his victories were
all owing to his generals; and when he went out to
war, he only went to the siege of some city, where he
rode about in a splendid gold-laced coat, with a huge
white feather in his cocked hat, quite out of reach of
danger. And yet his people were all so proud of him
that the very sight of him made his soldiers fight all
the better, and poets wrote verses comparing him to
Jupiter, and Mars, and every other warlike hero they
could think of.




240 Stories of French History.



He had married Maria Teresa, daughter to the King
of Spain ; and when her father died, he pretended that
he ought to inherit all the Low Countries, instead of
her little brother Charles. This was very unjust, and
would have made France much too powerful; so the
Dutch and English joined together to prevent it, and
there were some terrible fights. But it was when
Charles II. was king, and his youngest sister Henrietta
had married Louis’s brother, the Duke of Orleans.
So Louis sent the duchess to persuade King Charles
and his minister, by promises of money and favour, to
desert the Dutch; and, to our great shame, she suc-
ceeded. The brave Dutch were left alone against all
the power of France. William, Prince of Orange,
commanded their armies; and though he was beaten
again and again, the little State never gave in; though,
to keep out the French, it was needful to open the
flood-gates that protect Holland from the sea, and let
in so much water that the enemy could not pass.

Then the Emperor of Germany took up the cause
of the Dutch, but Louis sent Turenne against his
troops, and conquered Alsace. Turenne went on into
Germany, and there his army was grievously cruel.
Crops were burnt down, houses and villages burnt and
plundered, and the inhabitants brought to misery








Louis XIV. —Middle Age. 241



beyond imagination. Turenne could hardly help what
he was commanded to do, but this war was the darkest
spot in his life. He was a kind and merciful man in
general, and very just and upright; and his soldiers
loved him so much, that once, when he had fallen asleep
during a short halt on a bare, bleak hill-side, and it
began to snow, they made a tent for him with their
own cloaks. In this war he was killed, while standing
under a tree near the village of Salzbach, by a cannon-
shot, which nearly cut his body in two, and mortally
wounded a nobleman close by. ‘“ Do not weep for me,
but for that great man,” were the words of this gentle
man to his son. Turenne was buried among the kings
at St. Denys’, and Condé took the command of the
army, gaining many hard-fought battles ; until at last
peace was made, leaving Louis in possession of Alsace
and of the city of Strasburg, both of which properly
belonged to the empire.

But glory, or what he fancied glory, was all Louis
cared about; and besides his great generals, he had
about him many of the ablest men who ever lived in
France, both ministers of State and writers. He had
likewise most excellent bishops and clergy, such as
Bossuet, bishop of Meaux, who was a wonderfully
good preacher, as well as a great scholar. Louis made

Q


242 Stories of French Flistory.



Bossuet tutor to his only son; but the Dauphin was a
very dull and silly youth, who cared for nothing but
playing at cards and shooting, and very little could be
taught him. He married a German princess, who was
duller still, and they had three sons, the Dukes of
Burgundy, Anjou, and Berri. To them the king gave
as tutor Fénélon, Archbishop of Cambrai, one of the
best and holiest men then living. The Duke of
Burgundy was a fiery, selfish, passionate boy; but
under Fénélon he learnt to rule himself, and his whole
thought was how to be a good and religious prince,
heedful of his people rather than himself. Fénélon
would not have thought it right to blame the king
himself, but he could not teach the young prince his
duties without showing something very different from
Louis XIV. as a model. He wrote a story for him of
a young Greek prince named Telemachus, who went
on his travels in search of his father, and saw all
forms of government in his way. A servant who was
employed to write out the story stole a copy, and sent
it to Holland, and had it printed there ; and when the
old king saw it, he was keen-sighted enough to perceive
that it was meant to teach his grandson how to be a
better king than himself, and he hated Fénélon accord-
ingly. However, it was not for this open reason that










Louis XIV.—Middle Age. 243



the good archbishop was kept away from court, but
because he had taken the part of a religious lady named
Madame Guyon, who had written a book about the
Love of God, where there were sentences that Bossuet
thought likely to do harm. Fénédlon wrote a book
himself on the subject ; and though the Pope could see
no fault in it, Louis forced him to condemn it, and
Fénélon submitted most meekly, and went on quietly
with his work in his own diocese at Cambrai, often
writing to his dear pupil, though he was only once
allowed to see him again.

Louis lost his wife, Maria Teresa of Spain, and then
married a lady called Madame de Maintenon; but he
never owned her as his queen, and not more than three
or four people at court knew that she was his wife.
He looked up to her, and respected her opinion very
much; and she used to sit by with her work when he
was consulting with his ministers, and he would ask at
the end, “ What does your solidity think ?” She was
very religious, and tried to make him so; but he was
so proud that he never could bear to think that our
Blessed Lord had been a poor man and humble. And
the one thing she could make him do was a sad one,
and that was to persecute. All the poor nuns of Port
Royal were turned out, and shut up in other convents,




244 Stories of French History.



because they held fast to the teachings of their old
guide, M. de St. Cyran. And, what was worse, she
led him to repeal the Edict of Nantes, which pro-
tected the Huguenots, and begin to persecute them.
Dragoons were quartered in their houses, who ate up
their food, spoilt their goods, and tortured them to
make them become Catholic; they were allowed no
schools; their children were taken away to be bred up
in convents ; numbers were thrown into prison ; and if
they were caught escaping, they were sent to work as
convicts, or put to death. However, many did escape
to England and Prussia, and the English gave them a
kind welcome. Many who came from the south were
silk-weavers, and settled at Spitalfields, where they
worked and flourished for several generations. Some,
who were noblemen, came to court, and were officers
in the army; and the loss to France became gain to
England.




CHAP. XXXVII—LOUIS XIV.—OLD AGE.
1688-1715.

EN 1688, Louis lost the English alliance. Charles
» Il. and James II. having spent their youth in
France, and being Roman Catholics—the one at heart,
and the other openly—had always looked up to him
and been led by him; but when the Revolution took
place, and James was driven away to take refuge once
more in France, Louis’s greatest enemy, William of
Orange, became King of England. Louis gave James
and his queen a home at his palace of St. Germain’s, and
did all he could for them, sending an expedition with
James to Ireland; but all in vain—the English only
hated James the more for bringing the French upon
them, and his troops were beaten at the river Boyne
and his ships at Cape La Hogue, so that he was
obliged to cease from the attempt.

But another great war soon began. Charles II,
King of Spain, died in 1700, leaving no children. His






246 Stories of French Hrstory.



sister and his two aunts had married Emperors of
Germany and Kings of France ; but as the Spaniards
did not choose to have their kingdom joined on to
another, it was always the custom for the princesses
to renounce all right to the crown for themselves and
their children. However, the whole Spanish line had
come to an end, and there really was nobody else who
had any right at all. Now, Louis XIV. had married
the sister, so his son was the nearest heir; but, on the
other hand, the Emperor of Germany was descended
from the brother of the great Charles V., who had been
Emperor and King of Spain both at once. The
emperor wanted to make his second son, the Archduke
Charles, King of Spain; and Louis put forward his
second grandson, Philip, Duke of Anjou.

The Spaniards would have preferred Charles, but
Louis was ready the first. He made the Dauphin and
the Duke of Burgundy give up their right to Philip,
saluted him as King of Spain, and sent him off with
an army to Madrid, saying, “There are no more
Pyrenees ;” by which he meant that France and Spain
were now to be like only one country. Now this was
just what the rest of the world did not wish. France
was a great deal too powerful already, and nobody
could be glad to see Spain and the Low Countries








Louis XIV.—Old Age. 247



ruled over by a young man who was sure to do exactly
what his grandfather bade him; and so England and
all the other States of Europe joined to assist the
Archduke Charles in winning Spain.

Thus began what was called the War of the Spanish
Succession. The Archduke Charles went to Spain,
and the English helped him there; and a French army
invaded Germany, but there they met the English and
Austrian armies, under the Duke of Marlborough and
Prince Eugéne of Savoy, and were terribly defeated at
Blenheim.

This Prince Eugéne’s father had always lived in
France, and his mother was a niece of Cardinal
Mazarin; but he and some other young men had
grown tired of the dull court life, and had run away to
fight in the Austrian army against the Turks. Louis
had been very angry, and had had their letters seized ;
and there he found himself laughed at, and called a
stage king in peace, and a chess king in war. He was
very angry, and never forgave Prince Eugéne, who
took service under the Emperor of Germany, and was
the second-best general then in Europe. For all the
great generals of Louis’s youth were dead ; and though
Marshals Villars attd Boufflers were able men, they
were not equal to Marlborough, and were beaten again




248 Stories of French History.



and again in the Low Countries. The only victory
the French did gain was in Spain, at Almanza, where,
strangely enough, the English were commanded by a
French Huguenot, and the French by Marlborough’s
nephew, the Duke of Berwick, who had left home with -
James II.

But troubles came thick upon Louis XIV. He lost
his only son, the Dauphin; and all his great men who
had made his reign so splendid were dying round him,
and nobody rising up equal to them. His subjects, too,
were worn out; all their strongest young men had
been carried off to be soldiers, and there were not
enough left to till the ground properly. Besides, the
money that the king wanted for his wars and buildings
was far more than they could pay, and it was the
tradesmen, farmers, and lawyers who had to pay it all ;
for in France no priest and no noble ever paid taxes.
Moreover, all the family of a noble was considered as
noble for ever, instead of, as it is in England, only the
head of the house himself; and so all the younger sons
and their children for ever paid no taxes, and were
allowed to be of no profession, but only to be clergy
or soldiers. They were always the officers, so that a
soldier, however clever and brave, never could rise
unless he was of good birth. People were getting very


Louis XIV.—Old Age. 249



discontented, and especially when, instead of getting
glory, they were always beaten, at Ramillies and Oude-
narde and Malplaquet; and Louis’s buildings and
gardens at Versailles and Trianon heavily oppressed
them.

Old as Louis was, there was untamable pride and
resolution in him, and his steadiness was admired even
by his enemies, when he continued dauntlessly to resist
even when there seemed little to hinder Marlborough
and Eugéne from marching upon Paris. However,
this humiliation was spared the proud old king by the
change in Queen Anne’s councils, which deprived
Marlborough of power, and led to a peace at last with
France. The Archduke Charles became emperor after
the death of his father and brother; and thus Philip of
Anjou was allowed to remain King of Spain.

Everything, however, was sad and mournful at the
French court. The king kept up all his old state, but
his strength and spirit were gone; and Madame de
Maintenon used to say no one could guess what a
dreadful thing it was to have to amuse an unamusable
king. The brightest person at court was the young
Dauphiness, Adelaide of Savoy, wife to the Duke of
Burgundy, who was now Dauphin. She used to play
merrily with the king, and coax him into cheerfulness


250 Stories of French History.





as no one else could; but she was giddy and gay, and
sometimes grieved her husband. He was a grave,
thoughtful man, very pious and religious, always trying
to follow the counsels of his dear friend and master,
Fénélon, and thinking anxiously of the load that the
kingdom would be in the state in which his grandfather
would leave it.

But he never had to bear that load. A dreadful
form of malignant measles came into the court, and the
Dauphiness caught it and died, then the eldest of her
two little sons, and lastly, the good Dauphin himself.
All were ill so very few days that people talked about
poison; and no one was left of the whole family
except the old king and one little great-grandson, the
Dauphin’s second son, a baby not able to walk alone,
and the king’s nephew, Philip, Duke of Orleans, the
son of his brother, who was known to be a very bad
and selfish man.

It was a sad prospect for France when, a year later,
Louis XIV. died, after a reign of seventy years, when
he had been the greatest monarch in Europe, and
might have been one of the grandest of men, if he had
only known what true greatness is.












































































































LOUIS XV. SHOWN TO THE PEOPLE.


CHAP. XXXVIII—LOUIS XV.

1715-1774.
HE poor little boy who had become King of
France was so young that he could scarcely walk
alone, and so forlorn that he had no kinsman near
enough to take his hand when he was shown to the
people, but had to be held in purple ribbon leading-
strings.

It was a sad reign altogether. The regent was the
Duke of Orleans, a thoroughly dissipated man, not
unlike our Charles II., but worse in conduct, though
quite as good-natured; and the whole court became
nothing but a sink of iniquity under him. He died
just as the young king was growing up; but the boy
was slow, dull, and painfully shy—not at all fit to take
the command of everything, like Louis XIV. He had
had a good tutor, Cardinal Fleury, who was ruler for a
little while, but soon died ; and then there was nothing
to hinder the king from being drawn into all sorts of
252 Stories of French History.



evil by the wicked men who had grown up in the time
of the regent, Duke of Orleans.

The queen was a Polish princess, named Maria
Leckzinska. She was a gentle, kindly person, though
| not at all clever, and at first the king was very fond of
her; but these wretches thought it dull to have a
respectable court, and wanted to manage the king their
own way, so they taught him to be a glutton and a
drunkard, and to think it witty to talk the low, coarse
language of the vulgar crowd in Paris. The queen
was shocked, and when she showed her offence, Louis
was angry, and never cared for her again, but only
showed himself with her in public, and spent all his
spare time in the most disgraceful amusements.

Yet the people, who did not know all as yet, had
such a love and loyalty for the very name of king, that
they were ready to break their hearts when he had a
bad fever, and almost went mad with joy when he
recovered. They then called him Louis the Well-
beloved, a name that sounded very sad in after
times.

There was a great war going on all this time
between Maria Theresa, the Queen of Hungary and
Archduchess of Austria, and Frederick II., King of
Prussia. The English held with the Austrians, and


Louis XV. 253





the French with the Prussians; and at the battle of
Dettingen, George II. had been defeated by Marshal
de Noailles. Again, at Fontenoy, the English were
defeated ; and though Louis XV. was with the army,
the victory was owing to his general, Marshal Saxe.
The wars, however, pressed very heavily on the
French, and the poor were even more wretched than
in the former reign. The Duke of Orleans, a good
man, son to the wicked regent, one day brought a
horrible bit of black bread to the council, to show the
king what his subjects lived upon ; but nothing would
make Louis care for anybody but himself.

However, there was peace made for a little while,
but what was called the Seven Years’ War soon broke
out again; but this time the English were with the
Prussians and the French with the Austrians, and
there was a great battle at Minden, which the French
lost, and soon after there was a more lasting peace in
Europe.

But nothing could do the unfortunate kingdom of
France any good while it had such a king as Louis
XV., who had no feeling for anyone but himself, and
had such low tastes that he liked nothing but the
basest, coarsest pleasures, and hated all that interfered
with them. He had only one son, the Dauphin, who








254 Stories of French Ftstory.

had grown up, in the midst of that wicked court, pure,
upright, and pious, and lived a peaceful, quiet life with
his good wife, a Polish princess ; but there was nobody
the king disliked so much, because their goodness was
a continual reproof, and he could not help thinking
that the people would rather have had the Dauphin
for their king than himself. So the Dauphin was
never allowed to take any part in business, and all
he could do was to try to bring up his children well,
and to help his four sisters, whom the king had scarcely
educated at all, and who lived a very dull life in the
palace, so that the happiest was Madame Louise, who
became a nun.

The good Dauphin died of a decline, when. only
thirty-six years old, leaving five children, the eldest
eleven years old; and his wife followed him fifteen
months after, begging her sisters-in-law to watch over
her children. The king only grew worse than ever,
and used to amuse himself by going in disguise to low
dances among the Paris mob. Yet all the time he
went every morning to church; and among all the
clergy in the country, only one good Bishop once dared
to tell him what a sinner he was. There were still a
great many good clergy, but it was only the bad ones
who would not speak out about the wickedness at court
Louis XV. 255

who met with any favour. Half the people in the
country were getting mad with misery ; and when they
saw that the priests did nothing to rebuke all the
crimes they suffered from, it seemed to them that even
the Christian religion itself must be a mistake. There
were a great many clever men at that time, of whom
the most noted were Voltaire and Rousseau, who
wrote books that everyone was reading, which made
attacks on all Christianity, and pretended that the old
heathen philosophers were much better and wiser than
Christians; and it was a strange thing that though
Huguenots were still persecuted, and their religious
books burnt, nobody meddled with these infidels, who
had no religion at all.

Everyone saw that a great storm was coming, and
that there must be a terrible downfall of the royal
power that Richelieu, Mazarin, and Louis XIV. had
built up, and which Louis XV. used so shamefully ;
but when he was told that there was danger, he only
said the kingdom would last his time. His grandson,
the young Dauphin, had grown up, and was married
to the beautiful, bright young daughter of Maria
Theresa—Marie Antoinette. The evening she arrived
at Paris, there were grand illuminations and fireworks,
and in the midst some terror seized the people that




256 Stories of French History.



there was a fire, and they all rushed crowding together
in the gates of the Champs Elysées, so that a number
of them were trampled to death ; and this, though the
poor young bride had nothing to do with it, made
people feel that it had been a bad beginning.

Louis XV. died at the age of sixty-four, in the year
1774, after a disgraceful reign of sixty years, in which
he had constantly fallen deeper and deeper into the
mire of sin and disgrace.


CHAP. XXXIX.—LOUIS XVI.
1774-1793-



EYSHE young king, Louis XVI., and his queen, Marie

Antoinette, threw themselves on their knees when
they heard that their grandfather was dead, crying out,
“O God! help us; we are too young to reign.”

It was as if they knew what dreadful times were
coming, brought on by the selfishness and wickedness
of those who had gone before them. Nobody could be
more good or anxious to set things right than Louis
XVI.; but the evils that had been working up for hun-
dreds of years could not be set to rights by one word,
and it was hard to know how to begin. And though
the king wished well to all, he was not a clever man,
and could not see how to act. Besides, he was very
shy and awkward; he hated speaking to strangers, and
was so confused that people went away offended ; and,
besides, they were so much used to bad kings, that they
could not believe that he was a good and innocent man.

R


258 Stories of french History.





The queen gave offence in other ways. She was a
young, merry girl, who had been brought up in a court
where the habits were much more simple and less
stately than those in France; and she was always laugh-
ing at the formal court ways, and trying to get free
from them. When the ladies came to pay their respects,
some of her own attendants grew tired of standing
round her, and sat down on the floor, hidden’ by the
hoops of the others. She saw and nodded and smiled ;
and the old ladies who were being presented thought
she was making game of their dresses, and were very
angry. Her chief lady of the bedchamber, the Duchess
of Noailles, tried to keep her in order ; but she laughed,
and gave the old lady the name of Madame I’ Etiquette.
When once she was riding a donkey, and it fell with
her, she sat on the ground laughing till the duchess
came up, and then said, “ Pray, madame, when the
queen and her donkey both tumble down together,
which ought to be the first to get up ?”

The great palace that Louis XIV. had adorned at
Versailles was so grand that nobody could live in it in
comfort. Even he had made a smaller one at Trianon,
and this was too stately for the queen’s tastes ; so she
had another smaller house, with a farm and dairy,
where she and her ladies used to amuse themselves, in




Louis XVI, | 259

white muslin dresses and straw hats; but the people
would not believe but that something very wrong went
on there ; and they hated her greatly because she was
an Austrian, and her country had been at war with
theirs.

It was just then that the Americans began their war
with George III., and a young French nobleman, the
Marquis de la Fayette, ran away from home to fight in
theirarmy. Afterwards, Louis XVI. sent troops to help
them; and the sight of the freedom the United States
had gained made Lafayette and his friends feel far
more bitterly the state of things at home, where the poor
were ground down to wretchedness by all the old rights
of their lords; and till the laws were changed, neither
king, nobles, nor clergy, however much they might
wish it, could help them. No one felt this more than
the king himself. At last, in 1789, he called together
his States-General—that is, all his peers, and deputies
from the towns and provinces, to see what could be
done. It was not like the English parliament, where
the peers form one chamber and the commons another ;
but they were all mixed up together, and there were a
great many more deputies than peers, so that they had
it all their own way. Besides, they sat in the middle
of Paris, and the people of the city could not bear to


260 Stories of French History.



wait. Perhaps it was no wonder, for they were very
poor and miserable, and were fierce with hunger.
Whenever they saw anyone whom they fancied was
against the changes, they used to fly at him, crying out,
“To the lamp!” and hang him up to the lamps, which
were fastened by iron rods over the streets.

They rushed to the great old prison, the Bastile,
where the former kings had kept their State prisoners,
and tore it down; but they found hardly anyone there,
for Louis XVI. had released all his grandfather’s
prisoners. Most of the men were enrolled in what was
called the National Guard, and all wore cockades, and
scarfs of red, blue, and white. Lafayette was made
general of this guard.

The States-General called itself the National Assem-
bly, and went on changing the laws. It was at first
settled that no law could be passed without the king’s
consent; but the notion that he could stop any plan
added to the people’s hatred, and they were always
fancying he would bring his soldiers to stop the reforms.
At last, when there was a scarcity of food in Paris, the
mob all rushed out to Versailles, that most splendid of
palaces, upon which Louis XIV. had spent so much,
and whose iron gates looked down the long avenue of
trees leading from Paris, a memorial how little pity for


























Louis XVT, 261



their people the two last kings had had. It was the
less wonder that the mob of Paris believed that Louis
XVI. and Marie Antoinette had the same hard hearts,
and were willingly letting them starve. They came
and filled the courts of the palace, shouting and yelling
for the queen to show herself. She came out on the
balcony, with her daughter of twelve years old and her
son of six. “No children!” they cried; and she sent
them back, and stood, fully believing that they would
shoot her, and hoping that her death might content
them. But no hand was raised, and night came on.
In the night they were seized with another fit of fury,
and broke into the queen’s room, from which she had
but just escaped, while a brave lady and two of her
guards were barring the outer door.

The next day the whole family were taken back into
Paris, while the fishwomen shouted before them, “ Here
come the baker, his wife, and the little baker’s boy !”

The National Assembly went on to take away all the
rights of the nobles, and the property of the Church,
and to decree that the clergy must swear to obey them
instead of the Church, while those who refused were
turned out of their parishes. The National Guard
watched the Tuileries, and made the life of the royal
family so miserable that they tried to escape in disguise ;



262 Stories of French Htstory.



but fearing that they would come back with armies to
put down the Revolution, the National Guard seized
and stopped them, and they were more closely watched
than ever. On the 2oth of June, 1792, the mob rushed
into the palace, threatened all the family, and spent
three hours in rioting and insulting them; and on the
roth of August another attack was made. The queen
longed to let the Swiss guards and the loyal gentlemen
fight for her husband; but Louis could not bear to
have a drop of blood shed in his defence, and hoped to
save life by going to the National Assembly with his
wife, children, and sister; but no sooner were they
gone, than every one of the gallant men who would
have defended him was savagely massacred, and their
heads were carried about the streets of Paris on pikes.
It was fear that made the Parisians so ferocious, for the
German princes and the French nobles had collected
an army to deliver the king, and, as the mob thought,
to destroy them ; and in the bitter hatred that. had now
risen against all kings, the Assembly voted that Louis
XVI. was no longer King of France, but that the
nation was free. So his reign ended on the roth of
August, 1792.






CHAP. XL—THE GREAT FRENCH REVOLUTION.
1792-1796.
SHE Government, after the king was deposed, was
placed in the hands of the National Assembly—or
Convention, as it now called itself—of deputies chosen
by the people.

There is nothing but what is sad and terrible to be
told of France for the next four or five years, and the
whole account of what happened would be too hard for
you to understand, and some part is too dreadful to
dwell upon.

The short account of it is that, for years and years
before, the kings, the nobles, and some of the clergy
too, had cared for little but their own pride and pleasure,
and had done nothing to help on their people—teach,
train, or lead them. So now these people were wild
with despair; and when the hold on them was a little
loosened, they threw it off, and turned in furious rage
upon their masters. Hatred grew, and all those who
264. Stories of French History.

had once been respected were looked on as a brood of
wolves, who must be done away with, even the young
and innocent. The king, queen, his children, and sister
(Madame Elisabeth), were shut up in a castle called the
Temple, because it had once belonged to the Knights
Templars, and there they were very roughly and un-
kindly treated. A National Guard continually watched
them, and these men were often shockingly rude and
insulting to them, though they were as patient as
possible. Great numbers of the nobles and clergy were
shut up in the other prisons ; and when news came that
an army of Germans and emigrant nobles was marching
to rescue the king, a set of ruffians were sent to murder
them all, cutting them down like sheep for the slaughter,
men and women all alike. The family in the Temple
were spared for the time, but the emigrant army was
beaten at Jemappes ; and the brave nobles and peasants
who had risen in the district of La Vendée, in hopes of
saving them, could not make head against the regular
French army, all of which had joined in the Revolution,
being angered because no one not of noble birth could
be an officer. All his friends did for the king only
served to make his enemies hate him trebly ; and three
men had obtained the leadership who seem to have
had a regular thirst for blood, and to have thought



























The Great French Revolution. 265
that the only way to make a fresh beginning was to
kill everyone who had inherited any of the rights
that had been so oppressive. Their names were Marat,
Danton, and Robespierre ; and they had a power over
the minds of the Convention and the mob which no
one dared resist, so that this time was called the Reign
of Terror. A doctor named Guillotin had invented a
machine for cutting off heads quickly and painlessly,
which was called by his name; and this horrible instru-
ment was set up in Paris to do this work of cutting off
the old race. The king—whom they called Louis
Capet, after Hugh, the first king of his line—was tried
before the Assembly, and sentenced to die. He forgave
his murderers, and charged the Irish clergyman, named
Edgeworth, who was allowed to attend him in his last
moments, to take care that, if his family were ever
restored, there should be no attempt to revenge his
death. The last words of the priest to him were, “Son
of St. Louis, ascend to the skies.”

The queen and her children remained in the Temple,
cheered by the piety and kindness of Madame Elisa-
beth, until the poor little prince—a gentle, but spirited
boy of eight—was taken from them, and shut up in the
lower rooms, under the charge of a brutal wretch (a
shoemaker) named Simon, who was told that the boy
266 Stories of French History.





was not to be killed or guillotined, but to be “got rid
of”—namely, tormented to death by bad air, bad
living, blows, and rude usage. Not long after, Marie
Antoinette was taken to a dismal chamber in the Con-
ciergerie prison, and there watched day and night by
National Guards, until she too was brought to trial,
and sentenced to die, eight months after her husband.
Gentle Madame Elisabeth was likewise put to death,
and only the two children remained, shut up in separate
rooms ; but the girl was better off than her brother, in
that she was alone, with her little dog, and had no one
who made a point of torturing her.

Meanwhile the guillotine was every day in use. Cart-
loads were carried from the prisons—nobles, priests,
ladies, young girls, lawyers, servants, shopkeepers—
everybody whom the savage men who were called the
Committee of Public Safety chose to condemn. There
were guillotines in almost every town; but at Nantes
the victims were drowned, and. at Lyons they were
placed in a square and shot down with grape shot.

Moreover, all churches were taken from the faithful.
A wicked woman was called the Goddess of Reason,
and carried in a car to the great cathedral of Notre
Dame, where she was enthroned. Sundays were
abolished, and every tenth day was kept instead, and
The Great French Revolution. 267



Christianity was called folly and superstition ; in short,
the whole nation was given up to the most horrible
frenzy against God and man.

In the midst, Marat was stabbed to the heart by a
girl named Charlotte Corday, who hoped thus to end
these horrors; but the other two continued their work
of blood, till Robespierre grew jealous of Danton, and
had him guillotined; but at last the more humane of
the National Convention plucked up courage to rise
against him, and he and his inferior associates were
carried to prison. He tried to commit suicide with a
pistol, but only shattered his jaw, and in this condition
he was guillotined, when the Reign of Terror had lasted
about two years.

There was much rejoicing at his fall; the prisons
were opened, and people began to breathe freely once
more. The National Convention governed more mildly
and reasonably; but they had a great deal on their
hands, for France had gone to war with all the countries
round ; and the.soldiers were so delighted at the free-
dom they had obtained, that it seemed as if no one
could beat them, so that the invaders were everywhere
driven back. And thus was brought to light the won-
derful powers of a young Corsican officer, Napoleon
Bonaparte, who had been educated at a military school
268 Stories of French History.

in France as an engineer. When there was an attempt
of the mob to rise and bring back the horrible days of
the Reign of Terror, Colonel Bonaparte came with his
grape shot, and showed that there was a government
again that must be obeyed, so that some quiet and
good order was restored.

Some pity had at last been felt for the poor children
in the Temple. It came too late to save the life of the
boy, Louis XVII., as he is reckoned, who had for the
whole ninth year of his life lain alone in a filthy room,
afraid to call anyone lest he should be ill-used, and
without spirit enough to wash himself, so that he was
one mass of sores and dirt; and he only lingered till
the 8th of June, 1795, when he died, thinking he heard
lovely music, with his mother’s voice among the rest.
In the end of the same year his sister was released,
and went to Russia to join her uncle, who had fled at
the beginning of the Revolution, and was now owned
by the loyal among the French as Louis XVIII.

In the meantime, the French army had beaten the
Germans on the frontier, and had decided on attacking
their power in the north of Italy. Bonaparte made a
most wonderful passage of the Alps, where there were
then scarcely any roads but bridle-paths, and he gained
amazing victories.. His plan was to get all the strength




The Great French Revolution. 269
of his army up into one point, as it were, and with that —
to fall upon the centre of the enemy; and as the old
German generals did not understand this way of
fighting, and were not ready, he beat them everywhere,
and won all Lombardy, which he persuaded to set up
for a republic, under the protection of the French.

All this time, the French were under so many
different varieties of government, that you would not
understand them all; but that which lasted longest
was called the Directory. People were beginning to
feel safe at last; the emigrants were coming home
again, and matters were settling down a little more.






CHAP. XLI—NAPOLEON I.

1796-1814.
NM HEN Bonaparte had come back from Italy, he

S persuaded the Directory to send him with an
army to Egypt to try to gain the East, and drive the
English out of India. He landed in Egypt, and near
Grand Cairo gained the battle of the Pyramids, and
tried to recommend himself to the people of Egypt by
showing great admiration for Mahomet and the Koran.
But his ships, which he had left on the coast, were
attacked by the English fleet, under Sir Horatio Nelson,
and everyone of them taken or sunk except two, which
carried the tidings home. This was the battle of the
Nile.

The Sultan of Turkey, to whom Egypt belonged,
fitted out an army against the French, and Bonaparte
marched to meet it half-way in the Holy Land. There
he took Jaffa, cruelly massacred the Turkish garrison,
and beat the Sultan’s army at Tabor; but Acre was so








Napoleon I. 271
bravely and well defended, under the management of a
brave English sailor, Sir Sidney Smith, that he was
obliged to turn back without taking it. He led his
troops back, suffering sadly from hunger and sickness,
to Egypt, and there defeated another Turkish army in
the battle of Aboukir. However, he there heard news
from home which showed him that he was needed. The
French had, indeed, gone on to stir up a revolution
both in Rome and Naples. The Pope was a prisoner
in France, and the King of Naples had fled to Sicily ;
but the Russians had come to the help of the other
nations, and the French had nearly been driven out of
Lombardy. Besides, the Directory was not able to
keep the unruly people in order; and Napoleon felt
himself so much wanted, that, finding there were two
ships in the port, he embarked in one of them and
came home, leaving his Egyptian army to shift for
themselves.












However, he was received at home like a conqueror ;
and the people of France were so proud of him, that he
soon persuaded them to change the Directory for a
government of three consuls, of whom he was first.
He lived in the Tuileries, and began to keep something
very like the old court; and his wife, Josephine, was a
beautiful, graceful, kind lady, whom everyone loved,














272 Stories of French Fitstory.

and who helped very much in gaining people over to
his cause. Indeed, he gave the French rest at home
and victories abroad, and that was all they desired. He
won back all that had been lost in Italy ; and the battle
of Marengo, on the 14th of June, 1800, when the
Austrians were totally routed, was a splendid victory.
Austria made peace again, and nobody was at war
with France but England, which conquered everywhere
by sea, as France did by land. The last remnant of
the French army in Egypt was beaten at Alexandria,
and obliged to let the English ships transport them
home to France; and after this there was a short peace
called the Peace of Amiens, but it did not last long ;
and as soon as Bonaparte had decided on war, he
pounced without notice on every English traveller in
his dominions, and kept them prisoners till the end of
the war.

He had made up his mind to be Emperor of the
French, and before declaring this, he wanted to alarm
the old royalists ; so he sent a party to seize the Duke
dEnghien (heir of the Princes of Condé), who was
living at Baden, and conduct him to Vincennes, where,
at midnight, he was tried by a sham court-martial, and
at six in the morning brought down to the court-yard,
and shot beside his own grave.




Napoleon I. 273



After this, everyone was afraid to utter a whisper
against Bonaparte becoming emperor, and on the 2nd of
December, 1804, he was crowned in Notre Dame, with
great splendour. The Pope was present, but Bonaparte
placed the crown on his own head—a golden wreath of
laurel leaves ; and he gave his soldiers eagle standards,
in memory of the old Roman empire. He drew up an
excellent code of laws, which have been used ever since
in France, and are known by his name; and his won-
derful talent did much to bring the shattered nation
into order. Still, England would not acknowlege his
unlawful power, and his hatred to her was very great.
He had an army ready to invade England, but the
English fleet never allowed him to cross the Channel ;
and his fleet was entirely destroyed by Lord Nelson,
at the great battle of Trafalgar, on the 21st of October,
1805.

But Napoleon was winning another splendid victory
at Ulm over the Austrians; and not long after, he beat
the Prussians as entirely at Jena, and had all Germany
at his feet. He was exceedingly harsh and savage to
the Prussians, and was insolent in his manners to the
good and gentle Queen Louisa, when she came with
her husband to try to make better terms for her country;
thus sowing seeds of bitter resentment which were to


274 Stories of French Htstory.

bear fruit long after. The Russians advanced to the
aid of Germany, but the battles of Eylau and Friedland
made them also anxious for peace. There never, indeed,
was a much abler man than Napoleon; but he had
no honour, honesty, or generosity, and had very little
heart amid all his seeming greatness. He made his
family kings of conquered countries. His brother
_Louis was King of Holland; Jerome of Westphalia,
and the eldest brother, Joseph, King of Naples; but
in 1808 he contrived to cheat the King of Spain of his
crown, and keep him and his son prisoners in France,
while Joseph was sent to reign in Spain, and General
Murat, the husband of his sister Caroline, was made
King of Naples. The Portuguese royal family were
obliged to flee away to Brazil; but the Spaniards and
Portuguese would not submit to the French yoke, and
called the English to help them. So year after year
the Duke of Wellington was beating Napoleon’s
generals, and wearing away his strength ; but he still
went on with his German wars, and. in 1809, after two
terrible battles at Aspern and Wagram, entered Vienna
itself. Again there was a peace; and Napoleon, who
was grieved to have no child to leave his empire to,
had the wickedness and cruelty to decide on setting
aside his good, loving Josephine, and making the Em-




Napoleon I. 275





peror Francis of Austria give him his young daughter,
Marie Louise. In 1810, the deed was done; and it
was said that from that time all his good-fortune left
him, though he had one little son born to him, whom
he called King of Rome.

He set out with what he named the Grand Army, to
conquer Russia; and after winning the battle of the
Borodino, he entered Moscow; but no sooner was he
there than the whole town was on fire, and it burnt on,
so that it was not possible to stay there. Winter was
just coming on, the Russian army was watching every-
where, and he could only retreat; and the unhappy
Grand Army, struggling in the snow, with nothing to
eat, and beset by the enemy everywhere, suffered the
most frightful misery. Napoleon left it in the midst,
and hurried home; but no sooner had this blow
been given him, than all the Germans—the Prussians
especially, to whom he had been so harsh—rose up and
banded together against him. France was worn out
with the long wars ; and though Napoleon still showed
wonderful skill, especially at the battle of Leipzic, he
was driven back, inch by inch, as it were, across Ger-
many, and into France, by the Emperors of Austria and
Russia and King of Prussia; for though each battle of
his was a victory, force of numbers was too much for him.
276 Stories of French History.

He went to the palace of Fontainebleau, and tried to
give up his crown to his little son, but the Allies would
not accept this; and at last, in the spring of 1814, he
was forced to yield entirely, and put himself into the
hands of the English, Prussian, Russian, and Austrian
sovereigns. They decided on sending him to a little
isle called Elba, in the Mediterranean Sea, where he
was still to be treated as a prince. His deserted wife
Josephine loved him so much that she died of grief for
his fall; but Marie Louise returned to her father, and
did nothing to help him.


CHAP. XLII—LOUIS XVIII.
1814-1824.

SYSHE Allies had entered Paris—Russians, Austrians,

and Prussians—and the Duke of Wellington, after
winning the battle of Toulouse, came up from the
south to meet them there.

It was left to the French to decide what government
they would have ; and those who loved the old royalty
took the lead, and invited back the brothers of their
king, Louis XVIII. and Charles, Count of Artois,
_ whose eldest son, the Duke of Angouléme, was married
to Marie Therése, the only survivor of the prisoners
of the Temple.

Louis XVIII. was a clever, cunning old man by this
time, and meant to do what he could to content the
French and keep the peace; but the Count of Artois
was stiff and haughty, and the poor Duchess of Angou-
léme so grave and sad that she could not exert herself
to please and amuse the people. There was much






278 Stories of French H. 2story.



discontent at the changes that had to be made, and at
the giving up of all that Napoleon had robbed other
countries of and given to France. He had carried off
all the best pictures and statues wherever he went, and
set them up in the Louvre; and these were all sent
home to their right owners. The lands that he had
taken were to be restored ; and ministers from all the
Allies met at the Congress of Vienna to settle how this
should be done.

Full in the midst came the news, like a thunderbolt,
that Napoleon had escaped from Elba, and landed in
France on the 27th of February, 1815. No soldier
who had served under him would fight against him.
The army threw away the white flag, and shouted his
name in ecstasy. Louis XVIII. was obliged to flee to
Belgium ; and in a very short time Napoleon seemed
as powerful as ever. But the Allies were collecting
their forces against him; and England and Prussia, as
being the nearest, first had their armies ready near
Brussels. Napoleon hoped to beat them before Austria
and Russia could come to their help, and marched
thither with all speed in the beginning of June. Four
days of battles with the Prussians left matters un-
decided ; but on the 18th of June, 1815, the Duke of
Wellington, assisted by the Prussians, gave the French








Louis XVIII. 279





an overwhelming defeat at Waterloo, and marched
direct on Paris; while Napoleon, after vainly seeking
shelter, went at last to Rochefort, and there finding it
impossible to escape to America, gave himself up to the
captain of an English ship, the Bellerophon. He was
taken to Plymouth harbour, and remained on board
until his fate was decided by the Allied Sovereigns,
who determined to send him where he should not again
escape to disturb all Europe; and he was therefore
placed in the little lonely island of St. Helena, in the
midst of the Atlantic Ocean, under the custody of an
English governor, who was to see him every day. He
fretted and chafed in his confinement ; and the governor
(Sir Hudson Lowe) was continually anxious, and there-
fore seemed harsh and insulting to him in the fallen
pride that did not know how to be really great. After
six miserable years, Napoleon died, in 1821, of cancer
in the stomach, and was buried under the willow trees
of Longwood, in St. Helena.

Of course his brothers and sisters had all been put
down from the thrones he had given them. Murat
tried to recover Naples, but was taken and shot ; but the
others submitted quietly, having never much enjoyed
their honours. Marie Louise had a little Italian duchy
given to her, and her son was called the Duke of
280 Stories of French Fltstory.





Reichstadt, and brought up at the court of his grand-
father, the Emperor of Austria. He died in early
youth, and the person who cared the most for the
greatness of the Bonaparte name was Louis Napoleon,
son to Louis, once King of Holland, and of Hortense
Beauharnois, the daughter of Josephine by her first
marriage.

Meantime, the English army had remained for three
years in France, to assist Louis XVIII. in case of any
fresh outbreak ; and Marshal Ney, the foremost of the
generals who had gone over to Napoleon, was tried by
court-martial and shot. Almost everybody else was
forgiven ; and Prince Talleyrand, one of the cleverest
and most cunning men who ever lived, who had risen
under Napoleon, worked on still with Louis XVIII.

It was the saying in France that in their exile the
Bourbons had learnt nothing and forgotten nothing.
This was not quite true of Louis XVIII., who was
clever in an indolent way, and resolved to please the
people enough to remain where he was till his death,
and really gave them a very good charter; only he
declared he gave it to them by his free grace as their
king, and they wanted him to acknowledge that they
had forced it from royalty by the Revolution. But his
brother Charles, Count of Artois, was much more


Louis XVIII. 281

strongly and openly devoted to the old ways that came
before the Revolution, and, as Louis had no children,
his accession was dreaded. His eldest son, the Duke
of Angouléme, had no children; and his second son,
the Duke of Berri, who was married to a Neapolitan
princess, was the most amiable and hopeful person in
the family ; but on the r2th of February, 1820, he was
stabbed by a wretch called Louvet, as he was leaving
the opera, and died in a few hours. His infant son,
Henry, Duke of Bordeaux, was the only hope of the
elder branch of the Bourbons.

France was worn out and weary of war, so that little
happened in this reign, except that the Duke of
Angouléme made an expedition to assist the King of
Spain in putting down an insurrection. The French
nobility had returned to all their titles; but many of
them had lost all their property in the Revolution, and
hung about the court much needing offices and employ-
ments; while all the generation who had grown up
among the triumphs of Napoleon looked with contempt
and dislike at the endeavour to revive old habits and
ways of thinking.

Louis XVIII. was in failing health, but he kept up
much of the old state of the French court, and was
most careful never to keep anyone waiting, for he used


282 Stories of French History.



to say, “ Punctuality is the politeness of kings.” Even
when very ill, he would never give up any of the court
ceremonies ; and when urged to spare himself, said, “A
king of France ought to die standing ;” but for some
years he was unable to walk, being dreadfully tormented
by the gout, and he was obliged to let his brother
manage his affairs. But he was shrewd enough to
dread the Count of Artois’ desire to return to the old
times of the overgrown royal power; and when he
found himself dying, he put his hand on the head of
his little four years’ old great-nephew, Henry, and said
to his brother, “ Let Charles X. take care of the crown
for this child.” He died in September, 1824,


































































LOUIS VIII. AT HIS DEATH CHARGING CHARLES X,
CHAP. XLIII—CHARLES X.
1824-1830.

: FHEN Charles X. had been the young Count of

Artois, before the Revolution, he had been
gay, lively, and thoughtless—a playfellow of Marie
Antoinette in those bright, giddy days when she had

caused so much ill-will, After all his exile and
wanderings, and in his old age, he had become very
religious; but not in a wise way, for he was guided
entirely by the Pope and a few clergy, who wanted to
bring things back to what they were before the Revo-
lution. It was just the same with the State. His
ministers were trying to get back the old power of the
crown, and this made everyone discontented and jealous,
though France had a share in two victories in his time.

The first was made on behalf of the Greeks, who
had long been trying to break away from the rule of
the Turks; and at last the Prussian, English, and
French fleets joined and defeated the Turks and
























284 Stories of French History.





Egyptians at the battle of Navarino; after which,
Greece was able to become a kingdom, under Christian
rule.

The other was to clear the Mediterranean Sea of the
Moorish robbers who had infested it for centuries past.
Ships came from the African ports, especially Algiers,
and fell upon any merchant vessel they could seize,
taking the goods and carrying the crew and passengers
off into slavery. Even the coasts of France, Spain,
and Italy were not safe; and people were continually
carried off, and set to work for, the Moors, until they
were ransomed by their friends in Europe. But in
1830 the English and French fleets united to attack this
nest of pirates, and gained a grand victory, which put
an end to all further sea robberies in the Mediterranean.

But no one was pleased by the victory, for the doings
of the king and his ministers enraged the public, and
the newspapers found great fault with them, and accused
them of all sorts of impossible things. On this, on the
26th of July, 1830, the king put out an edict putting
an end to the liberty of the press—that is, forbidding
anything to appear in any newspaper without being
approved by the government. Some other edicts were
also made, which offended the people so much that

| there was a frightful disturbance at Paris. Everyone



























Charles X. 285



begged the king to change his mind, and withdraw the
edicts; but he thought it was yielding that had ruined
his brother, Louis XVI., and nothing would persuade
him to give way, till too late, when for what are called
the “three days of July” there had been fighting
throughout Paris, and his troops had been broken and
driven out by the National Guard. Then he did
consent ; but the people would not be satisfied without
dethroning him, and he was obliged to leave France
again, taking with him his son and daughter-in-law (the
last Dauphin and Dauphiness), and his grandson, the
little Henry. They lived first in Scotland, and after-
wards in Italy and in Germany ; while all the old loyal
French still viewed Charles, and after his death his
grandson, Henry V., as they have always called him, as
the only true kings of France.

The Marquis de la Fayette, who had been one of
the first movers in the old Revolution, had lived to
assist in this, the Revolution of 1830, a far less bloody
and mischievous one. Some of the French wanted to
have another republic, but most of them wished to try
a limited monarchy, like ours in England, with a king
at the head, but without power to do anything without
the consent of the subjects. They resolved to put at
the head of their new constitution the Duke of Orleans.


286 Stories of French F1story.



He was of the Bourbon royal blood, for he was
descended from Louis XIV.’s brother, the Duke of
Orleans, and from the wicked regent of the childhood
of Louis XV. After these two, there had been two
quiet dukes, not noted for much, but the fifth had been
vehement in the cause of the Revolution. He had
given up his title of Duke of Orleans, and called him-
self Citizen Philip Egalité, or Equality, and he had
even voted for the death of Louis XVI. ; but when, in
the Reign of Terror, everyone who had any high birth
was put to death, he was guillotined. His eldest son,
Louis Philippe, had been brought up by a very clever
governess, Madame de Genlis, who wrote the “ Tales
of the Castle,” and many other books for children; and
she had made a great point of his learning many useful
habits, which princes had thought quite beneath them.
He served in the French army till his father, mother,
and younger brothers were thrown into prison, and he
was forced to fly to Switzerland, where he was obliged
to earn his bread as a teacher inaschool. Afterwards,
he came to England, where his brothers joined him ; but
they both fell into declines and died, one in England,
and the other at Malta, where Louis Philippe had taken
him for his health. Next he travelled in America, and
there, when he had a bad fall from his waggon in a


Charles X. 287

little lonely settlement, took out his own lancet, and
bled himself so dextrously, that the people begged him
to remain and be their doctor.

At the Restoration, he came back to France, with
his wife, Marie Amélie, the daughter of the King of
Naples, and his sister Adelaide, both very good and
clever women. They brought up their large family at
the Palais Royal, and were very kind and sensible
people, though all along there were many who thought
he was scheming to get the people’s favour away from
King Charles X. Whether this were true or not is not
certain. At any rate, when Charles fled, the leaders
of the nation all agreed to offer the crown to the Duke
of Orleans, but it was not to be as an old hereditary
monarch. He was not to be King of France, but King
of the French; he was not to be Louis XIX., but
Louis Philippe I.; and his eldest son was not to be
Dauphin, but Duke of Orleans; and his power was to
be bounded by peers and deputies, much as the power
of the English king is bounded by the peers and
commons.

This was the Revolution of the “three days of July,”
1830.


CHAP, XLIV.—LOUIS PHILIPPE.
1830-1848,

3 OUIS PHILIPPE of Orleans began prosperously.
JL He was called the Citizen King, and used the
tricoloured flag of the old Revolution instead of the
white one of the Bourbons, and the cock of Gaul
instead of the old blue shield with gold fleurs-de-lys,
to show that he reigned not as a son of the old royal
family, but by the choice of the people. There was a
chamber of peers and a chamber of deputies; and the
constitution was a limited monarchy.

Much was done to please the people, and much to
make them prosperous. Railways and steamboats
came in, and manufactures began to flourish, more
especially the weaving of silk at Lyons; and though
the French have never made articles as strong and
useful as the English do, they have much better taste,
and all that is gay and elegant is better finished there ;
so that Paris grew more and more to be the chief mart
for dress and ornament in the world.




Louis Philippe. 289



Almost all the colonies the French had once made
had been lost in the wars since the time of Louis XIV.;
and Louis Philippe thought it would be well to form
new ones, and to get the navy into good order again.
So a settlement was made in Algeria; but it caused a
long and fierce war with the Arab chiefs, which lasted
nearly throughout the reign; for no sooner had a grant
of land been made, and brought into good order, than
the Arabs would fall upon the farm in the night, and
burn, destroy, and plunder. Guards of soldiers had to
be kept in the forts all round the border; and there
was much terrible fighting, for the Arabs were as brave
as the French themselves, and had a most gallant chief,
named Abd-el-Kader. At last, however, after years of
fighting, he was forced to surrender himself a prisoner,
and was taken to France; but this was not till quite
at the end of the reign of Louis Philippe, though I
have told you about it all at once.

The French also tried to make settlements in the
Pacific islands, especially New Caledonia and the island
of Tahiti. They were not at all welcome in this last,
for the native queen, Pomaré, had been taught to be a
Christian by the English, and did not wish for French
protection or Roman Catholic teaching. However, the
French were the strongest, and have taken the manage-



290 Stories of French Hvstory.



ment there, though the island still professes to be under
its own government.

Louis Philippe did his utmost to keep the Parisians
in good humour, knowing that he could only reign by
their favour ; and as the miseries of the old wars were
forgotten, and the French only thought of the victories
of the times of Napoleon, praising him as the greatest
of heroes, the king gratified them by requesting the
English to allow him to bring home the corpse of the
Emperor from St. Helena, and bury it in the Church
of the Invalides, a great asylum for old soldiers at
Paris. It was fetched in a man-of-war by the king’s
sailor son, the Prince de Joinville, and brought to Paris
in a triumphal car, which was followed through the
streets by Louis Philippe and his sons. A chapel was
built, and ornamented with splendid marbles, for the
burials of the Bonaparte family. Napoleon’s little son
was dead, but his brother Louis had left a son, who
was living in exile in England or Germany.

Do what he would, Louis Philippe could not pre-
vent a great deal of discontent among the Bona-
partists on the one hand, and the Republicans on the
other. The richer the shopkeepers and merchants
grew, and the more show they made, the bitterer was
the hatred of the workmen, who said that everybody






Louis Philippe. 291

ought to be equal not only in rank, but in property ;
and these men used red alone, instead of the tricolour,
for their badge. A horrible conspiracy was made by
some wretches, of whom the chief was named Fieschi,
for destroying the king, as he rode out, by what was
called the Infernal Machine, which was like a whole
battery of guns fired off ina moment. The king was
not hurt, but fourteen people were killed, of whom one
was an old marshal of Napoleon’s. The men were
traced and seized, and Fieschi was put to death.

The queen, Marie Amélie of Naples, was one of the
best women who ever lived, and did all she could to
promote goodness and piety. So did the king’s prime
minister, M. Guizot, who was one of a staunch old
Huguenot family ; but the Republican dislike to having
religion taught in schools hindered the growth of good ;
and there were a great number of unbelievers, though
there were good and holy men struggling with the evil.
There were always many parties. There were the
Legitimists, who viewed first Charles X., and then his
grandson, Henry V., the Count of Chambord, as the
only true king, and would take no office under Louis
Philippe ; and there were the Bonapartists and the Red
Republicans, as well as the Moderate ones, who held
by the king.


292 Stories of French History.



The king had five sons, of whom the eldest, the Duke
of Orleans, was much loved and looked up to. He
married the Princess Helen of Mecklenburg Schwerin,
and they had had two little sons, before he was
unhappily killed by leaping out of his open carriage
while the horses were running away.

It is a curious thing that the power of a French
sovereign always seems to melt away as soon as he
shows any designs upon Spain. The king, Ferdinand
VII., whom Napoleon kept so long in prison, had left
two little daughters; and as they grew up, Louis
Philippe interfered about their marriages in a way that
caused much displeasure. He could only gain the
younger one for his son, the Duke of Montpensier ;
but he was thought to be grasping at the crown for
him, and this made everyone jealous. A little later, a
nobleman, the Duke de Praslin, horrified all Europe
by murdering his wife. He was, of course, condemned
to death, but he put an end to his own life in prison,
and the Red Republicans fancied that he must have
been allowed the means, in order that there might not
be a public execution of a nobleman ; and this added to
the discontent and hatred of poor against rich that had
been growing every year.

At last, in February, 1848, after the council and
Louis Philippe. 293

the chambers of deputies had decided against some
measures much desired by the people, there was a rising
of the mob throughout Paris. The troops were drawn
up, and the National Guard; but when the moment came
for action, the National Guard would not fire, but made
common cause with the people. The army would still
have fought, but Louis Philippe would not have blood
shed for him. He sent a message that he abdicated in
favour of his little grandson, the Count of Paris, with
his mother, the Duchess of Orleans, as regent. Then
he left the Tuileries privately, and under the name of
William Smith, safely reached England.

The Duchess of Orleans bravely came forward to
the people with her two boys, but there was no shout
in her favour, only angry looks, and her friends saw it
was all in vain, and hurried her away as fast as they
could. All the family made their way by different
means, one by one, to England, where the queen and
her people received them as kindly as warm hearts
always welcome the unfortunate. Claremont Palace
was lent to them as a dwelling-place, and there Louis
Philippe and his good queen spent the remainder of
their lives. He died in the year 1849, and Amélie a
few years later.






2 Yes
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NY 2 BRAS !
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13 bea I

eS



Allustrated & Educational Corks

PUBLISHED BY

MARCUS WARD & CO,
LONDON AND BELFAST.

JUST PUBLISHED.
JHE WATER-COLOUR ALBUM of Picturesque

SCOTTISH SCENERY. Quarto, Cloth, Gold and Black, Bevelled
Boards. Price 7/6

[HE Wa TER-COLOUR ALBUM of English Lake
SCENERY. Quarto, Cloth, Gold and Black, Bevelled Boards.
Price 7/6

[HE WATER-CoLoUR ALBUM of Views in North
WALES. Quarto, Cloth, Gold and Black, Bevelled Boards. Price 7/6
The above form three sets of exquisite Chromo fac-similes of Original Draw-
ings, by T. L. ROWBOTHAM, Member of the Society of Painters in Water-
Colours. With Archeological, Historical, Poetical, & Descriptive Notes.




2 List of New Lllustrated Works



pucK AND BLOSSOM: A Fairy Tale.—

By RosA MULHOLLAND, Author of ‘‘ The Little Flower-Seekers,”
“‘Eldergowan,” &c. Six Illustrations, in Gold and Colours. Small Quarto,
Cloth Extra, Bevelled Boards. Price 5/-

MelcomB MANOR: A Family Chronicle.—

By F. SCARLETT PoTTER. Six Illustrations, in Gold and Colours.
Small Quarto, Cloth Extra, Bevelled Boards. Price 5/-

CRUISE IN THE ACORN.—

By ALICE JERROLD. Six Illustrations, in Gold and Colours. Smait
Quarto, Cloth Extra, Bevelled Boards. Price 5/-

JHE SHIP OF ICE: A Strange Story of the

POLAR SEAS.—By S. WHITCHURCH SADLER, R.N., Author of
“Marshall Vavasour,” ‘‘The African Cruiser,” &c. Six Full Page Illus-
trations, Coloured Frontispiece, and Illuminated Title-page. Post Octavo,
Cloth, Gold and Black. Price 3/6

(GHROWICLES OF COSY NOOK: A Book of Stories

FOR BOYS AND GIRLS.—By Mrs. 8. C. HALL. With Six Full
Page Illustrations, Coloured Frontispiece, and Illuminated Title-page.
Post Octavo, Cloth, Gold and Black. Price 3/6

(OUNTRY MAIDENS: A Story of the Present

DAY.—By M. BRaMsToneE, Author of ‘‘The Panelled House,” &c.
With Six Full Page Illustrations, Coloured Frontispiece, and Illuminated
Title-page. Post Octavo, Cloth, Gold and Black, Price 3/6

CHRISTMAS AT ANNESLEY, or, How the

GRAHAMS SPENT THEIR HOLIDAYS.—By M. E. SHIPLEY.
With Five Full Page Illustrations, Coloured Frontispiece, and Illuminated
Title-page. Small Octavo, Cloth, Gold and Black, Price 2/6

[URNASIDE COTTAGE.—

By Mary SENIOR CLARK, Author of ‘‘ Lost Legends of the Nursery
Rhymes.” With Five Full Page Illustrations, Coloured Frontispiece, and
Illuminated Title-page. Small Octavo, Cloth, Gold and Black. Price 2/6

[HE FAIRY SPINNER.—

By MIRANDA HALL. With Five Full Page Illustrations, Coloured
Frontispiece, and Illuminated Title-page. Small Octavo, Cloth, Gold and
Black. Price 2/6



London: 67, 68, Chandos Street, Strand ;
Published by Marcus Ward & Co. 3



POLLiE AND JACK; A Small Story for Small

PEOPLE.—By AuLicE HEPBURN. With Five Full Page Illustrations,
Coloured Frontispiece, and Illuminated Title-page. Small Octavo, Cloth,
Gold and Black. Price 2/6

JHE TWIN BROTHERS OF ELFVEDALE ; A Story
OF NORWEGIAN PEASANT LIFE FIFTY YEARS AGO.—
By Cuas. H. EDEN, Author of ‘‘My Wife and I in Queensland,” ‘‘ The
Dominion of Canada,” &c. Four Coloured Illustrations, Cloth Extra.
Price 2/-
QuR GAMES; A Story for Children.—
By Mary HAMILTON, Five Coloured Illustrations. Cloth Illuminated.
Price 2/-

Fell 8 LOCKET, and What it Brought Her.—

By G. E. DARTNELL. Five Coloured Illustrations. Cloth Mlumi-
nated. Price 2/-

KATIE SUMMERS, A Little Tale for Little

READERS.—By Mrs. CHARLES HALL. Five Coloured Illustrations.
Cloth Illuminated. Price 1/6

Poses WITH AND WITHOUT THORNS.—

By ESTHER FAITHFULL FLEET. Five Coloured Illustrations. Cloth
Illuminated. Price 1/6

LITTLE ADA’S JEWELS.—

By FANNY LEVIEN. Five Coloured Illustrations, Cloth Illuminated.
Price 1/6

JHE HOUSE THAT JACK BUILT; A New Building
ON THE OLD FOUNDATION. Set forth in Twelve Full Page
Drawings in Colours, in the ancient style. Large Quarto, Clorh Extra.
Price 5/-
MARCUS WARD’S FUNNY-PICTURE-STORIES.

JHE TWINS ; Which was Which ? or Who was

WHO? AND OTHER TALES. By DAppy-JOHN, Price 1/-

[NQUISITIVE PETER, and Other Tales,—

By Dappy JouHN. Price 1/-



And Royal Ulster Works, Belfast.
List of Tilustrated Works



ILLUSTRATED HISTORIES FOR YOUNG CHILDREN.

AUNT CHARLOTTE’S Stories of English History
FOR THE LITTLE ONES.—By CHARLOTTE M. YONGE, Author
of ‘The Heir of Redclyffe,” &c. In Fifty easy Chapters, with a Frontis-
piece in Colours by H. Stacy Marks, A.R.A.; a Half Page Picture to
each Chapter, and an Illuminated Title-page. New Edition, with Questions.
Square Octavo, Cloth Extra, Bevelled Boards, Gilt Edges. Price 6/-
OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

“ Aunt Charlotte's Stories of Eng-
lish History for the Little Ones, by
Charlotte M. Yonge. This highly
esteemed authoress has undertaken
to write histories of various countries
for children, and the English History
is the first of the series.. We accord
her the title of ‘The Children’s His-
torian,’ for the stories of the rise and
progress of Britain are told in a very
lucid manner, and the language em-
ployed is so simple that a child of the
tenderest years will be perfectly able
to comprehend all that the writer
wishes to convey. The work is
adorned with numerous illustrations,
and there is a beautiful full-page
coloured drawing as a frontispiece ;
while the title-page is a lovely piece
of art in illuminated printing.”—
Edinburgh Courant.

“Is meant for children who are
scarcely yet out of the nursery. It
is beautifully got up, the stories are
well told, the type is large, the illus-
trations many, and altogether it is an
excellent and useful little gift-book.””
—Scotsman.

‘“The style is simple, and will in-
terest and amuse the little students
whose first steps it is meant to guide.”
—Northern Whig.

‘« Any boy or girl who fails to ad-
mire Miss Yonge’s Stories of English
History, wmust, indeed, be hard to
please.” —Bookseller.

“It is an attempt to teach history
on a method of projection, as it were,
and by this means of inducing chil-
dren to become familiar, first of all,
with the names and eras of the several
monarchs. The book is written ina
light, entertaining style, so as not to
be readily distinguishable by those
for whom it is designed from more
seductive and less truthful narratives.
The illustrations are numerous, and
suited to gratify the pictorial tastes
of children.” —Morning Post.

‘*The authoress of ‘The Heir of
Redclyffe’ has written a very good
child's book—just such a story asa
kind, intelligent nurse might tell her
little charge. There are here and
there passages which parents of par-
ticular opinions might think as well
omitted, for if they say nothing they
seem to give to understand. But we
must not forget the extreme difficulty
which besets the writer at every sen-
tence of such a work, and for our
part we think Miss Yonge has been,
upon the whole, as neutral between
all elements and episodes as it is pos-
sible to be. The book is handsomely
illustrated, and is, beyond question,
written in a style most attractive for
children.”—Dudblin Freeman's Four-
nal,

““The style is simple, and the facts
selected are such as would most in-
terest a boy or girl.” —Gloe,



London: 67, 68, Chandos Street, Strand;
Published by Marcus Ward & Co. 5



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS—Continued.

“Told in such a pleasant and in-
.teresting fashion, that the young can-
not fail to receive instruction without
almost being aware of it. There are
many well executed engravings which

will catch young eyes, and admirably
assist the understanding of the text.
A beautifully coloured frontispiece,
‘After the Battle of Crecy,’ from a
water-colour drawing by Mr. H. S.
Marks, A.R.A., executed in the style
for which this firm is now famous,
-will considerably enhance the volume
in the eyes of those for whom it is
intended—if they will not almost
prize it for this illustration and the
title-page alone. The latter is quite
a marvel of workmanship.”’—Czv¢l
Service Gazette.

“The narrative is exceedingly sim-
ple, and is quite within juvenile com-
prehension.” —Zcho.

‘It is, as its title indicates, a book
for the very young, simple in lan-
guage, and otherwise written to the
comprehension of those for whom it
is intended. Why should we not
have a History of Ireland of this
class?” —Belfast Morning News.

“Miss Yonge’s abilities are un-
questionable, her power of narrative
exceptional. . . . The volume is
creditable to the publishers, as all
their publications are, and the illus-
trations are numerous and sometimes
forcible.”"—Manchester Guardian.

‘‘This work is well written for
children, being in a simple easy style.
Its facts are, so far as we have ex-
amined them, perfectly correct, and
in this respect it compares favourably
with many nursery histories. It is
well illustrated, and very handsomely
bound.” —J/rish Times.

‘Written in a manner at once so
simple and attractive that it cannot,
we believe, fail to call forth the live-
liest attention of the most youthful
listener.” — Belfast News-Letter.

‘*A book intended for very little
children. It deals in a simple narra-
tive style with many leading facts,
and is, on the whole, fairly written.
The stories range from the invasion
of Julius Ceesar down to our own day,
everything being given in due chro-
nological order.” — Lloyds’ Weekly
London News.



JUST PUBLISHED—BY THE SAME AUTHOR.

A

UNT CHARLOTTE’S Stories of French History

FOR THE LITTLE ONES.—In Forty-eight easy Chapters, with

a Frontispiece in Colours by H. Stacy Marks, A.R.A.; Twelve Full

Page Illustrations, and an Illuminated Title-page.

Price 6/-



A

UNT CHARLOTTE’S Stories of Bible History

FOR THE LITTLE ONES.—Three Readings and One Picture for

each Sunday in the Year, with an Illuminated Title-page and Frontispiece

in Colours. Price 6/-



And Royal Ulster Works, Belfast.
6

List of Illustrated Works



[HE GARLAND OF THE YEAR; or, The Months:
THEIR POETRY AND FLOWERS.—Giving an Account of each
Month, with carefully chosen Poetical Selections, descriptive of the Seasons

and their Flowers, taken chiefly from the Standard British Poets.

Printed

in Black and Red, with Twelve Illuminated Full Page Floral Designs
in Gold and Colours. Small Octavo, Bevelled Boards, Cloth Elegant, Gilt
Edges, Price 5/-; Morocco Elegant, 10/6

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

inis 1s a nice little volume, nicely
‘got up,’and a good gift for a boy
or girl of finer taste than usual. The
text consists of well-chosen pieces of
English verse, by various authors,
such as Drayton, Wither, Words-
worth, Charlotte Smith, Spenser, and
others. The selection is creditable to
the compiler’s taste, and comprises
many gems, all of which are rich,
while some of them are rare.’’—
Atheneum.

‘Twelve beautiful illuminated chro-
mographs of the typical flowers of
each month. The poetical selections
are judicious, and distinguished for
their brevity and point.” —Standard.

‘A pretty little volume.”— Dazly
News.

‘A small but exquisitely printed
volume. It is illustrated by litho-
graphs of the typical flowers of each
month, on a golden back-ground,
and enclosing illuminated verses in
old English type. In taste and effec-
tiveness, this little volume will hold
its own with even any French work
of the class.” —Architect.

‘«The editor deserves great credit
for the pains he has taken to render
his descriptions interesting and in-
structive. "—/rish Times.

‘*A very pretty little volume, most
tastefully bound. Is compiled
with considerable literary judgment.
The drawing and colouring of the
floral illustrations are admirable.’’—
Northern Whig.

“*A very elegant little volume, con-
taining twelve chromo-lithographs of
flowers, one for each month, upon a
ground of gold, with a verse of suit-.
able poetry inscribed in illuminated
text, on the same ground. With each
month’s floral emblem, the editor
has connected a brief notice of the
month's natural and social history,
and a few passages selected from
the best English poets.” —/llustrated
London News.

‘Contains some brief but interest-
ing and instructive descriptions of
the months, together with selections
of appropriate poems from the best
authors. An eligible gift-book or
birth-day present.” —Morning Post.

‘* Far above the average pictures in
Christmas books. The designs are
most graceful, and the colouring ex-
quisite.”—Glode.

‘A bijou Christmas book of a
choice kind, suitable for girls of al-
most any age. It is beautifully
printed. . Great credit is due
both to the editor and artist for such
a delicate bit’ of bookmaking.”—
Manchester Guardian,

“We turned over the volume to
see which portrayal of floral beauty
was worthy of note, and finding we
could not fix on any one, we say—
‘all are best.’ — Zhe Irish Echo.

‘It is a perfect little gem, and ad-
mirably adapted as a gift-book for
this, and, indeed, for any festive
season.” —Belfast News-Letter.

London: 67, 68, Chandos Street, Strand;
Published by Marcus Ward & Co. 7



KATTY LESTER: A

Book for Girls.—

By Mrs. GEORGE CupPLES. With Twelve Chromographs of Animals,

after HARRISON WEIR.
Price 5/-

Foolscap Quarto, Cloth Extra, Bevelled Boards,

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

“Its young readers will hardly
know which to admire most—the
beautiful pictures of dogs, ducks,
pigeons, chickens, and half the do-
mestic animal creation, or the pretty
stories told by Uncle Peter about
them to his little niece during her
stay in his country home.”— Dadly
News.

‘Harrison Weir's illustrations are
excellent, and some of the pictures
of animal life, such as ‘Dog saving
Charlie's life,’ are almost as beautiful
as water-colours.”—Zcho.

‘« A book for girls, by Mrs. George
Cupples, who has judged her readers
well, and whose text is illustrated by
the excellent chromo-lithographs in
imitation of water-colours by Mr.
Harrison Weir.” —Standard.

“« A very pleasantly-told little story
for children, illustrated, or rather,
perhaps, we should say accompanied
by numerous charming sketches in
colour, from the facile pencil of Mr.
‘Harrison Weir. . A very pretty
story, not troubling itself about plot,
but relating little every-day incidents
of child life, just in the way in which
children like to have them related.”
—The Hour.

‘‘A capital book for girls. . .
The tone of the book is fresh and
wholesome. The illustrations are
very fine chromographs, after Harri-
son Weir.” —G/ode.

‘*Ts deserving of high commenda-
tion for its artistic beauty.” —Figaro.

‘« There are twelve chromographs
of animals, after Harrison Weir, and
they are without doubt perfect gems.”
—Edinburgh Courant.

“It is a pretty story of country life ;
but its chief charm will, no doubt, be
the twelve chromo-lithographs by Mr.
Harrison Weir, which serve as illus-
trations. They are very finely done.”
—Scotsman.

“An interesting story for girls.
The chromo-lithographs, after Har-
rison Weir, are, several of them at
least, worthy of good frames, and to
be hung up in a drawing-room.”’—
The City Press.

‘A pleasant and sensible story of
life in an English rural home, sur-
rounded by the familiar objects of the
country—sheep and cattle, horses and
dogs, birds and bees and butterflies,
trees, grass, corn, and wild flowers,
not to speak of the red deer of Ex-
moor.”-—/llustrated London News.

““A charming gift-book for chil-
dren. Nothing more acceptable than
the farm-yard and domestic scenes
Mr. Weir has added to Mrs. Cupples’
pretty story.” —Bookseller.

‘‘Contains chromographs, mostly
of animals. They are cleverly and
agreeably sketched. The text con-
sists of sensibly- written, rational
stories, which develope one from the
other in a simple way, with a running
narrative to connect them.”—A ¢hen-
eum, :

‘«The stories are interesting, but
they are far exceeded in value by the
numerous chromograph illustrations
of animals by Mr. Harrison Weir.”
—Manchester Guardian,

‘A delightful collection of stories
for little girls, adorned with a dozen
capital chromographs, after Harrison
Weir.” — Times.

And Royal Ulster Works, Belfast.
8

List of Illustrated Works

[HE LITTLE FLOWER-SEEKERS; or, The Aduen-

TURES OF TROT & DAISY IN A WONDERFUL GARDEN
BY MOONLIGHT.—By ROSA MULHOLLAND. With Twelve Chromo-

graphs of Flowers, after various Artists.

Bevelled Boards. Price 5/—

Foolscap Quarto, Cloth Extra

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

‘“‘A pretty story. The book will
charm many a girl and boy. The
chromographic illustrations are com-
posed of capital pictures of flowers,
brilliantly and richly coloured after
nature, and executed with a large
amount of skill and taste. In them-
selves, and as works of art, these pic-
tures are a great deal better than the
gaudy and coarse designs of figures
which we so often see in gift-books.”
—Atheneum.

‘‘These illustrations are among
the very best of an unusually prolific
period.” —Morning Post.

“In the child-world of literature,
few events of equal importance to the
publication of this volume have oc-
curred since ‘Alice in Wonderland’
saw the white rabbit pull its watch
out of its waistcoat pocket.” —Dudlin
Evening Post.

‘A dainty and delightful book. .
The text, ‘of course, is mainly a struc-
ture on which to hang pictures, and
very beautiful the pictures are. :
Reproduced with a closeness to the
originals simply astonishing.” —an-
chester Guardian.

‘A little gem of a book, with a
number of very prettily told stories
and a series of really exquisite chro-
mographic pictures of flowers, beau-
tifully drawn and reproduced with
extraordinary fidelity. One of the
most graceful efforts of the season.”
The Hour.

‘Contains some of the finest
coloured plates of flowers ever pub-
lished, and the story is in itself telling
and fresh.” —Standard.



‘‘Another most attractive book.
The stories told by the flowers are
fanciful and pretty ; but the illustra-
tions of the flowers are better still,
This, at least, will be the judgment
of grown-up people ; but we should
not be surprised if the little ones, for
whom these tales are written, will pre-
fer them to the chromographs, bright-
looking as they are. A prettier book
for young children we have not seen
for a long while.”—Pall Mall Gazette.

‘‘A charming volume.” — Daily
News.

“The Little Flower-Seekers tells
the adventures which befel Trot and
Daisy in a wonderful moonlit garden,
among talking apples, hyacinths and
honeysuckles, which find a tongue on
Midsummer Eve. The coloured pic-
tures are very good indeed.” — Tzmes,

“Whilst juveniles will be pleased
with the adventures of Trot and Daisy
in their wonderful garden by moon-
light, they can scarcely fail to be
charmed with the very choice chro-
mographs of flowers with which the
book is furnished.” — The City Press.

“This is undoubtedly a charming
work.” —Edinburgh Courant.

‘«The book is charmingly written,
a strong suppressed element of poetry
runs through it, it has the delicate
wildness of a child’s dream, and is
altogether one of the most fascinating
contributions to the juvenile literature
of the season.” —Freeman's Fournal.

‘*This charming story cannot fail
to please our little ones. It is ex-
quisitely illustrated with chromo-

graphs.” —Belfast News-Letter.

London: 67, 68. Chandos Street, Strand;
Published by Marcus Ward & Co.

°



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS—Continued.

‘The illustrations are singularly
beautiful, and have high artistic ex-
cellence, Indeed, together with the
stories, they make up a volume which
it would be difficult to overpraise.”—
Scotsman,

‘©The chromographs are exquisite
in grouping and colour. These
stories are the gems of the book, even
pictorially they are rich in pure
imagination, and overflowing with
poetic thought.” —/rish Monthly.

JHE CHILDREN’S VOYAGE; or, a Trip in the

WATER FAIRY.—By Mrs. GEORGE CUPPLES.

With Twelve

Chromographs of Ships, Boats, and Sea Views, after EDWARD DUNCAN.

Foolscap Quarto, Cloth Extra, Bevelled Boards.

Price 5/-

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

“The voyage is to Scotland, the
‘Water Fairy’ is a yacht, and the
passengers consist of the children of
two families, with nurse, governess,
one papa, &c., all bent upon seeking
health and enjoyment in a pleasant
sea trip. Mrs. Cupples unites—as
she is bound to do on such an occa-
sion, for is there not a governess on
board? —instruction with entertain-
ment ; and Mr. Grogan, the skipper,
a jolly, good-hearted tar, is her prin-
cipal mouth-piece. Miss Dalby, the
governess, does her duty also; and
those who have been in the habit of
sailing or steaming from the Thames
to Granton, will be amused to find
how much is made out of the voyage.
Mrs. Cupples deserves to be congra-
tulated on a success, and so assuredly
does the artist.” —Pall Mall Gazette.

‘This. pretty little volume is em-
bellished with chromographs, a novel
form of illustration.”—Dacly News.

“Jt is illustrated with excellent
chromographs, from originals in
water-colours by Mr. Edward Dun-
can.” —Morning Post.

“The Children's Voyage contains
some excellent coloured lithographs
of marine views, after Mr. E. Duncan,
and the story is well adapted to the
comprehension of children.” —Stan-
dard,

‘Mrs. Cupples has not, as one
might fancy from the title, carried
her little friends away into the realms
of the supernatural, but has taken
them for a safe and pleasant voyage
in their papa’s sailing-yacht, from the
Thames to the port of Edinburgh.
The artist who has in this instance
made drawings for the chromo-litho-
grapher is Mr. Edward Duncan, an
esteemed member of the Society of
Painters in Water-colours."—Jilus-
trated London News.

‘Fine chromographs also illustrate
The Children's Voyage. The scenes
visited by the ‘Water Fairy’ will
abide in the memory of every young
reader. Next to joining the merry
group in their trip is the pleasure of
following their adventures in this
charming volume.” —G/lode.

“Tt is sure to become acceptable
with all youths nautically inclined,
giving, as it does, a graphic descrip-
tion of a yachting expedition in which
Frank and Cicely were delighted par-
ticipators, discovering in this, their
first sea voyage, many of the hidden
treasures of the deep, witnessing novel
sights hitherto unknown to them, and
also becoming, for the first time,
fully aware of the dangers to which
sailors are exposed.""—Bel/ast News-
Letter.

And Royal Ulster Works, Belfast.
To

List of Illustrated Works



JOM: The History of a very Little Boy.

By H. RUTHERFURD RUSSELL,
Coloured Frontispiece and Illuminated Title-page.

Gold and Black. Price 2/6.

With Five Full Page Illustrations,
Small octavo, Cloth,

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

‘*Almost as good, in its way, as
Mr. Carroll's ‘Alice in Wonderland,’
though it has less of humorous fancy.
Parents and lovers of childhood will
like it much, as the childish reader is
sure to do.”—Jilustrated London
News.

‘‘Shows how a child may, by the
precept and example of an excellent
mother, learn to become good, from
the birthday of the Child Jesus.”—
Morning Post.

‘«In every way certain to give satis-
faction to the happy juvenile who
may have the good luck to receive it
as a present.”—Vorihern Whig.

“Ts sure to become a favourite with
all good little boys who may be for-
tunate enough to secure it as a
Christmas or New Year's gift. The
story is pleasingly told, and contains
many useful lessons.” —/Vews-Letéer.

“‘Tts tendency is quite unexcep-
tionable.”—Standard.

“Told in large print and easy
words, which alone must make it de-
lightful reading for the little ones,
even were Tom's adventures less
amusing than they are.” — Daily
News.

‘‘A very good story for boys.”—
Globe.

[)ODA’S BIRTHDAY: The faithful Record of all

THAT BEFEL A LITTLE GIRL ON A LONG, EVENTFUL
DA Y.—By EpwIn J. Evxis. With Five Full Page Illustrations, Coloured
Frontispiece and Hluminated Title-page. Small octavo, Cloth, Gold and
Black. Price 2/6. ,

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

“The book purports to be ‘the ‘‘Dealsa good deal with childish
faithful record of all that befela little adventures in the fields, childish

girl on a long eventful day,’ and it is
what it professes to be. Perhaps
some people may think that within
such narrow limits not much is pos-
sible. They have only to read this
little volume to come to a different
conclusion. The story is throughout
interesting, and the book in that re-
spect as pleasant a one as could be
given to any little girl.” —Scotsman.

‘A most suitable book for girls,
and one that will delight the little
misses immensely. The frontispiece
in colours is really very pretty.”—
Edinburgh Courant,

London: 67, 68, Chandos Street, Strand;

sports with animals, and childish ex-
periences and utterances in drawing-
rooms and daisy dells. This book is
handsomely illustrated.” —Freeman’s
Fournal, :

‘Will be found interesting to those
who wish to enjoy a portion of second
childhood without its senility.”’—
Morning Post.

“A very nice little volume, exactly
adapted for a gift-book.”—/orthern

Whig.

‘A charming book.”—Dazly News.

‘The story is told in a pleasing
style.”— The City Press.
Published by Marcus Ward & Co. 14



[HE MARKHAMS OF OLLERTON:: A Tale of the
CIVIL WAR, 1642-1647, By ELIZABETH GLAISTER. With Five
Full Page Illustrations, Coloured Frontispiece and Illuminated Title-page.
Small octavo, Cloth, Gold and Black. Price 2/6.
OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

“A tale of the civil war, and abounds
with thrilling incidents of that event-
ful period. It appears to be composed
by a close adherent to historical fact,
and will compare favourably with
some of the many sombre pages which
Sir Walter Scott has indited respect-
ing the same period.” —Morning Post

‘*A most readable little volume,
comprising in a well-told tale an his-
torical sketch of the period indicated,
written in an interesting and instruc-
tive manner, and suitably illustrated.”
—Belfast News-Letter.

‘‘A very interesting story, told in
a most interesting way. The coloured
illustrations are above the average,”
—Edinburgh Courant.

‘A well-written story of the civil
war, from 1642 to 1647." —Scotsman.

‘“‘The story of Charles I. is one
that never loses its charm, and when
so pleasantly and colloquially told,
and embellished by such pretty and
characteristic pictures as we have
here, it will be sure to find a large
and appreciative audience.” —Dazly
News.

‘A capitally-written story of the
great civil war, founded on a well-
developed plot, told in spirited lan-
guage, full of incident, and preserv-
ing to the close that historical se-
quence which is so indispensable and
so infrequent a quality in narratives
professing to illustrate notable events.
The illustrations, too, are excellent,”
—Freeman's Fournal,

‘«Has many scenes that will touch
boyish sympathies.” —Gloée.

JUST PUBLISHED.

EF: LDERGOWAN ; or, Twelve Months of my Life,

AND OTHER TALES.—By RosA MULHOLLAND. With Five Full
Page Illustrations, Coloured Frontispiece, and Illuminated Title-page.
Small octavo, Cloth, Gold and Black. Price 2/6

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

‘One of the pleasantest little books
we have met with for some time; it
does not aspire to the dignity of a
novel, but in truth there is more in it
than in nine-tenths of the more pre-
tentious works in three volumes. It

_ is charmingly illustrated, as might
have been expected from the pub-
lishers’ name.’’—J/dlustrated Review.

“The leading story in this prettily
got up little book possesses merits of
sueh an uncommon order, that it will
ye found all too brief. It is a perfect



little gem in its way, far exceeding in
worth most of the three-volume novels
which are published now-a-days. The
illustrations are well executed, and
Messrs. Marcus Ward & Co. have
turned the little volume out most
creditably.”"—Czvzl Service Gazette.

‘The book is very well got up, and
the title-page is a refreshing bit of
art.” —Ireland’s Eye.

‘A fine volume for girls. Its in-
fluences are on the right side.”—
Edinburgh Courant.



And Royal Ulster Works, Belfast.
12

List of Popular Works



NEW EDITION—ILLUSTRATED.

A

VERY YOUNG COUPLE.—

By the Author of ‘‘ Mrs. Jerningham’s Journal,” ‘‘ The Runaway,” &e.

With Six Full Page Engravings,

Crown Octavo, Cloth Extra.

Price 6/-

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS,

“Readers of this bright and spark-
ling story will forgive Mr. and Mrs.
Clare all their shortcomings, in the
way of housekeeping, on account of
the good nature of the former and the
devotion of the latter. . . Wedo
not exaggerate in the least, when we
say that this is the most charming
novelette of the season.” —Civil Ser-
vice Gazette.

“Though the story is slender, it has
some capital sketching, and abounds
in the characteristic humour and ob-
servation of life which distinguish the
writings of this author and her gifted
sister. We shall not so far wrong
the author as to tell how Fred's ab-
sence was cleared up and the very
young couple came together again,
older and wiser. But we may recom-
mend the story as delightful reading,
and also the binding, paper, and
printing of the book as most credit-
able to its popular and enterprising
publishers.” —//lustrated Review.

“«Affords some excellent sketches
of private life in pursuit of comfort
under difficulties. The first evening
of a newly-married pair, in rather
economical lodgings, is happily ren-
dered.” —Morning Post.

“The history of a young husband
and wife, who begin life in a small
lodging in a country town—he as a
bank clerk, and she as a childish little
housekeeper. . . . The story is
well and clearly told.” —Dazly News.

‘A simple story of true love, told
with much grace and naiveté. . .
One of the most readable and attrac-
tive tales of the season.”—Suxday
Times.



‘*A very lively and pleasant little
tale, vivid in its interest, and the har-
rowing part of it not too prolonged
for endurance, nor too artfully shaded
to leave a loophole for the entrance
of a beam of hope. The talks be-
tween the very young couple before
the crisis of the story, and the con-
duct of the young wife after it, are
both given with true spirit, and the
pathetic part carries the reader's
heart with it. . . Moreover, the
lively rattle of the story is not better
painted for us than the tension of its
deeper interest and the happy exulta-
tion of its close.” —Spectator.

“‘The young wife relates her own
distress so touchingly that she quite
wins our sympathy.” —A theneum,

‘«Many readers will welcome this
author once more, her ‘Journal’ hav-
ing left pleasant impressions on the
memory. ‘The story of the mistakes
of inexperienced housekeepers is by
no means new, but it is here told
with much freshness and vivacity.
The wife takes the reader into her
confidence, and most will sympathise
with her thoroughly, except when she
is too exacting in requiring her hus-
band to spend every spare moment
in her society. Trouble overtakes
them, and their whole horizon be-
comes dark for a time, only to
brighten, however, into a new dawn.”
—Globe.

‘“To those of our readers contem-
plating matrimony at too early an
age, we would suggest the perusal of
this every-day story, which bears all
the traces of being true to the life.”
—Belfast News-Letter.

London: 67, 68, Chandos Street, Strand;
Published by Marcus Ward & Co. 33



[LLUMINA TING: APractical Treatise on the Art.

‘By Marcus Warp, Illuminator to the Queen.

With Twenty-Six

Examples of the styles prevailing at different periods, from the sixth cen-
tury to the present time; Chromographed in Facsimile and in Outline.
Foolscap Quarto, Cloth Extra, Bevelled Boards, Gilt Edges. Price 5/-, or,

in Morocco Extra, 10/6

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

“The examples of illumination
given to illustrate the text confer
upon the book itself no slight artistic
value. The treatise, with its acces-
saries, reflect much credit upon its
author." —Morning Post.

“Full of precise suggestions on
the best form of pens and brushes,
the preparation of the material, the
mixing and laying on of colours, &c.,
all which subjects are treated with
great minuteness, such as could only
come from anexpert. ‘The illustra-
tions are taken from good examples
of the French, German, Italian, and
Celtic Schools. The coloured pages
are quite equal in style to those in
more expensive works. . . This
is a very creditable and remarkably
cheap little book.” —-Architect.

“An essentially useful book to
draughtsmen.’—Figaro,

“A most valuable work.” —£din-
burgh Courant.

““The educated eye, with or with-
out any intention of learning to prac-
tise this exquisite art, may derive a
great deal of refined pleasure from
Mr. Ward's book on the subject.” —
Mlustrated London News.

“Of all the volumes that we have
seen, none equals this as a compact
and cheap book of instructions.
Of these twenty-four plates there is
not one that is not worthy of admira-
tion as in itself a work of art.”—
Standard.

“‘Admirably adapted for the use of
all beginners in this lately revived and
beautiful art.”"—Bel/ast News-Letter.

. titled to high praise.

“It is a complete history of the
subject, and abounds with illustra-
tions of the styles prevailing at dif-
ferent periods, and the letterpress is
full of interest.. The writer is an en-
thusiast in his art, and a very beau-
tiful art it is—one, too, which may
be followed with success by many
persons of artistic taste, whose abili-
ties would not enable them to take
rank among ordinary painters.”—
Morning Advertiser.

‘These specimens are exceedingly
beautiful in design as well as colour-
ing. The instructions to students are
not only technically well written but
have a literary interest in connection
with the subject of illumination,”—
Freeman's Fournal.

“That Mr. Marcus Ward is a
master of the art this volume, like
others he has issued during the pre-
sent season, sufficiently proves. iy
A most tempting topic to the author,
the student, and the reviewer, but
which must lead us no further at this
moment than to the renewed ex-
pression of our admiration for Mr.
‘Ward's excellent manual.”—Mazx-
chester Guardian.

‘The volume, whether as regards
its literary or artistic qualities, is en-
The practical
instructions are concise and clear.”
—City Press.

‘cA very useful little treatise, the
merit of which is in no small degree
enhanced by the excellent illustrations
with which it is thickly studded.”—
The Hour.



And Royal Ulster Works, Belfast.
14 List of Illustrated Works





New Book of Design in Colours, for Decorators, Designers,
Manufacturers, and Amateurs.

PLANTS: Their Natural Growth & Ornamental

TREATMENT,—By F. EpwarD HuLmE, F.L.S., F.S.A., of Marl-
borough College, Author of ‘‘Plant Form.” Large Imperial Quarto, Cloth
Extra, Bevelled Boards. Price 21/-

This important work consists of Forty-four Plates, printed in Colours,
in facsimile of original Drawings made by the Author. It shows how the
common Plants and Flowers of the Field may be used to produce endless
variety of inventive form, for all manner of decorative purposes. The Plates
are accompanied by a careful ‘Treatise on the whole subject.

HULME ’S Freehand Ornament.—60 Examples,

for the use of Drawing Classes. Adopted by the Department of Science
and Art. By F. E. HubMg, F.L.S., F.S.A., Marlborough College. Imperial
8vo. Price 5/-, or, mounted on ‘Millboard, Cloth-bound Edges, 10/-
“To the Student of Drawing this book turer of textile fabrics of every description
. is a mine of well-drawn examples . . . in which patterns.are employed, and to
Cannot fail to be useful to the decorative many others whom it is not needful to
sculptor, the bookbinder, the manufac- point out.”—Art Fournal.



HANDSOME GIFT BOOKS FOR YOUNG FOLKS.
MWfARCUS WarvD'sS Fapanese Picture Book.

28 large Pictures of ALADDIN, ABOU HASSAN, ALI BABA, and SIND-
BAD ; designed in the true Eastern spirit, and Printed in Japanese Colours ;
the Stories done into English Rhyme. Imperial gto., Cloth Extra. Price 5/—

ARCUS WARD'S Fable Picture Book.—
24 large Pictures of ANIMALS AND THEIR MASTERS, drawn in

Colours, in the Medizeval manner—exemplifying the Fables of AZsop; with
the Fables in easy words. Imperial 4to, Cloth lextra. Price 5/—



Marcus Warn’s Golden Puture Book of

FAIRY TALES.—24 Full Page Pictures, comprising CINDERELLA,
THE Farr ONE WITH THE GOLDEN Locks, THE MARQUIS OF CARABAS,
and THE HIND OF THE FoREST—the Stories Versified and set to Music.
Imperial 4to., Cloth Extra. Price 5/-

(MARCUS WaRb’s Golden Picture Book of
LAVS AND LEGENDS.—24 \arge Pictures, comprising LADY
OUNCEBELLE & LorpD LOVELLE, KING ALFRED & OTHERE, POCAHONTAS,
and THE SLEEPING BEAUTY OR THE ENCHANTED PALACE—the Stories
Versified and set to Music. Imperial 4to., Cloth Extra. Price 5/-



London: 67, 68, Chandos Street, Strand;
Published by Marcus Ward & Co. 15



MARCUS WARD'S Royal Illuminated Legends.

New Edition—Six Pictures in each—Eight Books. Each Story or

. Legend is illustrated with a set of brilliant Pictures, designed in the quaint
spirit of Medizeval times, and printed in Colours and Gold. The Stories

are related in Antient Ballad form, with appropriate Music, arranged in an

easy style, for Voice and Pianoforte, suited to little folks or great folks, and
minstrels of all degrees. Price One Shilling each; or, mounted on Linen,

Two Shillings each. May also be had in 2 vols., Cloth Extra, price 5/— each.

1. Cinderella and the Little Glass Slipper.
2. The Fair One with the Golden Locks.
3. Lady Ouncebelle and Lord Lovelle.

4. The Sleeping Beauty; or, The Enchanted Palace (with Tennyson’s
Words, by the permission of Messrs. Strahan & Co.).

5 King Alfred and Othere (with Longfellow’s Words, by permission of Messrs.
Osgood & Co., for the United States).

6. The Marquis of Carabas; or, Puss in Boots.
7. Pochahontas; er, La Belle Sauvage.
8. The Hind of the Forest; or, The Enchanted Princess.

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

“We drew attention, a few days
since, to the wonderful improvement
upon the old picture-books noticeable
in some of the publications then un-
der review. There are some now be-
fore us, however, which put these
quite out of court. Marcus Ward's
Golden and Fable Picture Books as
far surpass any of those before no-
ticed as they were in advance of the
old daubs of our own childish days.
The Golden Picture Book isa most
gorgeous volume.” —T7he Hour.

‘“We have to welcome a new edi-
tion of the lovely /dluminated Legends
which made such a sensation last
year, as well they might, for who ever
saw such an approach to illumination
in gold and colours, for such a trifling
amount as the cost of these really ex-
quisite productions,” — Standard.

‘‘The drawing and colouring are
very good,”—Spectatur.

“The legends told in good ring-
ing rhymes, set to easy pretty tunes.”
— Bookseller.





‘“‘Many of the pictures are really
beautiful—clear, firmly outlined, and
decidedly characteristic. In the story
of ‘ The Sleeping Beauty,’ the awake-
ing both of the princess and the other
inmates of the palace is rendered
with genuine humour.” —G/ode.

‘Beautifully illustrated books, and
gorgeous in gold and bright colours.”
—Publishers' Circular.

“The illustrations of Lays and
Legends, with their golden back-
grounds, are quite dazzling. Among
children’s books, Messrs. Wards’
series hold the highest place.”—
Architect.

‘* Of the manner in which these are
executed it is hardly possible to speak
too highly. Nothing like them has
ever been brought under our notice
by any other publisher. The Royal
Liluminated Legends, printed in the
most gorgeous colours on a gold
ground, have certainly not been
equalled in our experience.” —Worth-
ern Whig.



And Royal Ulster Works, Belfast.
16 List of Illustrated Works

NEW PICTURE BOOKS FOR YOUNG FOLKS.
MARCUS WARD'S Japanese Picture Stories.

Tales told in brilliant Pictures, conceived in the true Eastern spirit,
and with all the forcible drawing and effective colouring of the Japanese, by
native talent ; with New Version of the Stories in English Rhyme. Each
book has Seven large Pictures (one double page), mounted in Japanese
Screen, or Panorama fashion. Price One Shilling each, on Paper; or,
mounted on Linen, Two Shillings each.

1. Aladdin; or, The Wonderful Lamp.
2. Abou Hassan; or, Caliph for a Day.
3. Ali Baba; or, The Forty Thieves.

4. Sindbad ; or, Seven Strange Voyages.

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.



“‘Astonishingly good. It was a
very funny notion in itself to take the
Arabic stories of Aladdin and Abou
Hassan and Ali Baba and Sindbad,
and give them to an artist imbued
with the fashionable Japanese feeling
to produce in picture shape; but the
way in which the idea has been car-
ried out is stlll funnier. The print-
ing and colouring are perfection, and
the humour of the drawing is always
extremely fine.” —Standard.

‘Brilliant pictures and narratives
in the true Eastern spirit, . . .
possessing much comic merit and
humour, yet suited to the tastes of
the young.” —Morning Post.

““Conveys a highly original idea,
carried out with spirit and ingenuity.
It is enough to make one wish to be
a child again, to look at the pictures,
so gorgeous, dazzling, and splendid
they are.” —Zcho.

“Tf all these illustrations are by
Marcus Ward, all we have to say is
that he should be president of the
Children’s Royal Academy, when
they have one.” —Buzlder.

“‘Many of the designs are not
without spirit, especially those which
illustrate ‘Sindbad.’ . the publi-
cation is creditable to Messrs, Ward.”
—Atheneum,

‘The pictures, which are brilliantly
coloured, are as quaint as possible,
and often clever and amusing. The
characters appear in the guise of
Japanese—certainly very odd Japan-
ese, but not likely to be less popular
with children for their eccentricity.
Nothing could be more comical than
the dignified advance of Aladdin to
the palace to claim the princess.” —
Globe.

“The illustrations are capitally
done, following, as the title-page may
fairly claim, the quaint Eastern spirit
with remarkable fidelity, and result-
ing ina series of pictures grotesquely
comic and brilliantly gay.” — The
flour.

‘‘A marvel of cheapness and at-
tractiveness.”—Figaro.

‘* A selection of Japanese drawings,
excellently re-produced on English
paper, and accompanied by some
spirited verses on Aladdin, Haroun
al Raschid, Ali Baba, and other
favourite subjects.” —Dazly News.

“One of the most admirable ex-
amples of humorous design and satis-
factory execution that we have ever
examined. The artist has caught
the salient characteristics of Japanese
illustration with really wonderful abil-
ity.”—Northern Whig.



London: 67, 68, Chandos Street, Strand;


Published by Marcus Ward & Co. 17



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS—Continued.

‘* Aladdin, Ali Baba, Sindbad, and
other old friends, are turned into
Japanese heroes, and their adventures
represented in brilliantly - coloured
pictures in the style of Japanese art.
Children cannot fail to be charmed
with the clear outlines and bright un-
shaded colouring.” —Guardian.

“The pictures, whether or not
literally the work of ‘native talent,’
are ‘drawn in the true Eastern spirit;’
and, as all things Japanese are now
the fashion, should be certainly popu-
lar.” — Spectator.

‘One of the most mirth-provoking
volumes we have seen for many a
day. . The poetical descriptions
of these old-world but ever fresh
legends are excellently well done, but
the pictures are inimitable for fun and
graphic power.”— Lhe /rish Echo.

‘The artist who illustrated Alad-
dix has studied Japanese art to some
effect. He has succeeded in turning
out a clever and brilliant series of
pictures, which even the Mikado -
would regard with approval.” —/Fuz.

‘‘Without undertaking to say that
there is much of the true Eastern
spirit to be found in these pictures,
yet we will allow that they are bril-
liant enough, and afford an agreeable
change from the true Western spirit,
which has for years been set forth in
the illustrations of these stories.”—
Saturday Review.

‘These are good books : pleasant
to examine and also to read. teas
An original and agreeable book of
coloured prints, perhaps the only veri-
table novelty of the season.”—Art
Journal,

THREE-SHILLING JUVENILE GIFT BOOK.
Arcus WARD’S Golden Rhymes Picture

BOOK.—Thirty-two large Medizeval Pictures, printed in Gold and
Colours ; with the Rhymes set to Music. Large Imperial Octavo, strongly

bound in cloth extra,

[Fust Published.



SIXPENNY TOY BOOKS,
[Arcus WARD’S Golden Rhymes of Olden

TIMES,—A collection of Nursery Rhymes, illustrated by Medizeval
Pictures (eight in each Book), in Gold and Colours; with appropriate

Music. Large Imperial Octavo.

x. Sing a Song of Sixpence, and the Little Market Woman.

2. Little Bo-Peep, and Simple Simon.

3. The Carrion Crow, Jack and Jill, A Little Man and his Little Gun.
4. Old Mother Hubbard, Twenty-four Tailors, and Little Miss Muffet.



And Royal Ulster Works, Belfast.
18

List of Illustrated Works



[fARCUS WARD’S Picture Fables from Asop.

Pictures of Animals and their Masters, suggested by the time-honoured
Parables of sop, drawn in the Medizeval manner, and with all its effective

colouring.

With New Version of the Fables in easy words for young

children. In Four Books—Price One Shilling each ; or, mounted on Linen,
Two Shillings each. May also be had in x vol., Cloth Extra, Price 5/—
4

1. The Wolf and the Lamb, and other Fables, including—Town and
Country Mouse—Boy who cried ‘‘ Wolf!’—Ass in Lion’s Skin—
Huntsman and Old Hound—Man and Bundle of Sticks.

2. The Hare and Tortoise, and other Fables, eee onlays Cats

—Boys and Frogs—Goose with Golden Eggs—Bear and

Conceited Stag.

ees—The

3. The Jackdaw and Peacock, and other Fables, ane ee eee of
e

Eggs—Dog and Shadow—Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing—

—Eagle and Jackdaw.

Two Pots

4. The Dog if the Manger, and other Fables, including—Mouse and Lion
—Countryman and Snake—Sun and Wind—Fox and Stork—The

Trumpeter.

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

«The colouring is broad and mas-
sive, but with a remarkable absence
of the crudeness which is commonly
noticeable in subjects thus handled.
Many of the sketches, too, display a
large amount of artistic skill in the
drawing and grouping, whilst the ex-
pression thrown into the faces and
attitudes of many of the animals is
exceedingly striking. Mr. Friswell,
too, has done his work well.” — The
Hour.

“The pictures aptly render the in-
tended expression, and are such as
would elicit the praise of Esop him-
self, were he still in the flesh.’—
Morning Post.

‘«The pictures are carefully, if not
finely, drawn, and that is a rare merit
in such works.” —Atheneum.

“Such a shilling’s worth is not
often seen, even in these days of
cheap and excellent books for chil-
dren.”"— Standard.

‘‘Carefully executed, and display
the power of seizing on quaint ele-
ments and rendering them amusing
hy a few broad touches.” —G/obe.

‘‘ Parents could not give their little
ones a better present, and one which
will be more appreciated, than this
enchanting volume.” — Edinburgh
Courant,

‘Leave nothing to be desired in
respect to the illustrations, which
are boldly and effectively drawn.”—
Stationer.

‘Besides their mechanical execu-
tion, there is real fancy and master-
ful artistic conception displayed in
them.” —Freeman's Fournal,

‘‘Messrs Ward are to be warmly
thanked by the young and those who
are in search of good gift-books for
the young.” —Art Fournal,

‘«The poet has done well, and has
contributed a substantial share of the
attractions of this capital fable-book
for children. It is very handsomely
bound.” —Manchester Guardian.

‘“The expression thrown into the
countenances of the various animals
would be worthy of the lamented
Landseer himself.” —Jrish Echo.

“Singularly good—full of fun and
cleverness.” —Buzlder,

London: 67, 68, Chandos Street, Strand;
Published by Marcus Ward & Co. 19



SUITABLE FOR SCHOOL PRIZES.

|/ERE FOSTER’S Complete Course of Drawing.

Handy Volumes of Drawing Copies on a good scale, in a free manner,
with Blank Paper to Draw on, and SIMPLE AND PRACTICAL LESSONS, for
Teaching or Self-instruction. In Paper Wrappers, 1/6 each; or, in Cloth
Extra, 2/6 each. The following is a list of the volumes (each complete
in itself) :-—

1, ELEMENTARY DRAWING. | 6. ANIMALS (2nd Series). By

2, LANDSCAPE & TREES. By! Harrison Weir.

J. Needham. | 7 FREEHAND ORNAMENT.
3. ANIMALS (rst Series). By Har- By F. E. Hulme, &c.

rison Weir. 8. FLOWERS (Outline). By F. E.
4. PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. By Hulme, W. H. Fitch, &c.

John Mangnall. 9. HUMAN FIGURE.

5. MECHANICAL DRAWING. |10. MARINE. By John Callow,
By John Mangnall. | Edward Duncan, &c.
tr, ORNAMENT AND FIGURE (Shaded).

ERE FOSTER’S Complete Course of Water-

COLOUR PAINTING.— Handy Volumes ; each containing Twelve
Chromograph Facsimiles of Original Water-Colour Studies, by eminent ©
Artists, and SmmpLeE & PRAcTICAL INSTRUCTIONS for copying each Plate.
In Paper Wrappers, at 1/6 and 2/- each; or, in Cloth Extra, 3/- each.
The following is a list of the volumes (each complete in itself) :—

1. FLOWERS. By Hulme, Cole-; 4. ANIMALS. By Harrison Weir.

man, French, &c. 1/6 and 3/- 2/- and 3/-
2. LANDSCAPE (Introductory). By | 5. MARINE. By Edward Duncan.
John Callow. 1/6 and 3/- 2/- and 3/-

3. LANDSCAPE (Advanced). By | 6. FLOWERS (and Series). By
John Callow. 1/6 and 3/- Fitch, Hulme, &c. 2/- and 3/-
ge ILLUMINATING. By Marcus Ward, Illuminator to the Queen. 2/-
(For larger Work on Illuminating, see page 12 of List).

he Vere Foster Drawing Pencils,—

Specially prepared for Vere Foster's Drawing Books. Warranted to
work well and rub out readily.

Price ONE PENNY Each. j Price TWOPENCE Each.
In Four Degrees—Superior Quality. In Five Degrees—Best Quality.
HB, B, BB, and H.—Adapted for the, _ HB, for General Work; B, for Shading,
Vere Foster Penny Drawing Books. &e. ; BB, for Deep Shading ; F, for Light
The best pencil it is possible to procure | Sketching and Outlining; H, for Sharp
at the price. ! Outlining and Mechanical.



And Royal Ulster Works, Belfast.
20 «List of Educational Works



/ERE FOSTER’S Drawing Books.—

On a New and Popular System, by the first Artists of the day, contain-
ing both Copies and Paper to draw upon. The Series embraces every
branch of Drawing, and has been approved and adopted by the Depart-
ment of Science and Art.

POPULAR EDITION, ONE PENNY EACH; BEST EDITION, THREEPENCE EACH.
A—Elementary. O 3—British Song Birds.
B—Familiar Objects—Simple. O 4—British Wild Animals.

C 1, 2—Familiar Objects—Advanced. | O 5—The Horse—Elememtary.
D 1,2—Leaves and Simple Flowers. | O 6—The Horse—Various Breeds.

E 1, 2, 3—Wild Flowers. O 7—Dogs.

G—Garden Flowers. O 8 Cattle.

I 1 to 6—Freehand. O 9—Australian Animals.

J x. 2,3—Trees. O 10—Various Animals,

K 1, 2, 3, 4—Landscape. Q 1 to 6—The Human Figure.
M 1, 2, 3) 4—Marine R 1, 2, 3—Practical Geometry.
O 1—Domestic Animals. T 1 to 6—Mechanical.

O 2—Families of Animals. Z—Blank Exercise Book.



[ERE FOSTER’S Water-Colour Drawing Books.

Chromo-Lithographed Facsimile Drawings by eminent Artists.
ELEMENTARY NOS.—THREEPENCE EAGH.: = ADVANCED NOS.—SIXPENCE EACH.

Wild Flowers—By various Artists. In| Animals—By Harrison Weir. In Four

Three Books—F 1, F 2, F 3. Books—Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4.
Garden Flowers—By various Artists. In| Marine—By Edward Duncan. In Four
Three Books—H 1, H 2, H 3 Books—Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4.
Landscape—By J. Callow. Flowers (Second Series)—By various
Lx, 2, 3:14, 5) 6—Introductory Lessons Artists. In Four Books—Nos. 1,
in Monochrome (Sepia). 2, 3) 4+
L 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12—Elementary Les- | Illuminating—By Marcus Ward, Illumi-
sons in Colours, in the various stages nator to the Queen. In Four Books
of Simple Landscape. —Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4

VERE FOSTER’S Larger Series of Drawing
COPIES.—Imperial Quarto. Price 2/6 each Part.

ANIMALS—By Harrison Weir. Six Parts of Four Plates each

LANDSCAPE & TREES—By Needham. Six Parts of Four Plates each.

London: 67, 68, Chandos Street, Strand;




Published by Marcus Ward & Co. 21
ERE FOSTER’S Writing Copy Books.—

Adopted by the Commissioners of National Education in Ireland,
and all the Principal Schools in Great Britain and the Colonies. The
Cheapest and best Copy Books ever published. Annual Circulation over
Three Millions.

POPULAR EDITION, ONE PENNY EACH; BEST EDITION, TWOPENCE EACH,
x. Strokes, Easy Letters, Short Words. | 9. Sentences, Finishing Hand.
2. Long Letters, Short Words, Figures, | 10. Plain and Ornamental Lettering.





3. Capitals. ux. Exercise Book, Wide Ruling, with

3}. Sentences in Bold Round Hand. Margins.

4» 44, 5, 6, 7, 8. Sentences, small by de-| 12. Exercise Book, Narrow Ruling in
grees. - Squares.

N.B.—An ENLARGED EDITION, Printed on a Superior Quality of
Paper, large 4to size, is also issued in the Nos. 4, 5, 6, and 7 of the above
list for the special use of High-class and Private Schools. Price 6d. each.

SPECIMENS OF THE SERIES OF WRITING AND DRAWING Books
Post FREE FoR Price In STAMPS.

[JERE FOSTER’S Copy Book Protector & Blotter.

For use with either Writing or Drawing Books. Price One Penny each.
ADVANTAGES—/nz Writing.—The Copy Book is kept clean, outside and
inside, and may be closed at any time without the risk of blotting. Jn .
Drawing.—By placing one of the blotting leaves under the drawing paper
a pleasant yielding surface for the pencil is obtained, whilst the opposite page
is covered by the other blotting leaf, and kept clean and free from rubbing.

//ERE FOSTER’S Water-Colour Blocks.—

Specially prepared for Vere Foster's Water-Colour Drawing Books,
and for Sketching from Nature. Composed of a number of sheets of Draw-
ing Paper, ready strained for the Pupil to begin painting.

No, 1, Threepence, 6}x4} ins. | No. 2, Sixpence, 9x6} ins.

Writing Charts for Class Teaching.—

A pair of Charts, showing the shapes and proportions of letters
adopted in Vere Foster's Copy Books. Size, 25x20 inches, Price, in
Sheets, 1/— per pair; mounted on Millboard, 1/6

/ERE FOSTER’S Hat Ink Well.—

Suitable for Schools Price One Shilling per dozen.

And Royal Ulster Works, Belfast.


22 Published by Marcus Ward & Co.
fARCUS WARD'S Concise Diaries for the

POCKET. Published Annually. Lightest—Neatest—Handiest—Best.
These Diaries meet the universal objection to all other Pocket Diaries—
their cumbrousness and unnecessary weight in the pocket. They are beau-
tifully printed in Blue and Gold, on a light, hard, Metallic Paper, and
combine the following advantages :—

1. Maximum of Writing Space. | 4. Equal Space for Sunday.
2. Minimum of Weight. 5. Daily Engagement Record.
3. Useless Matter omitted. 6. The Writing is Indelible.

The CONCISE DIARIES are made both in ‘‘ Upright” and ‘‘Oblong”
form, and in Three Sizes of each form.

Leading Features of the Four Part System (the Copy-
right Novelty of the Concise Series). Only one Part (Three Months) need
be carried in the pocket at once. Extra pages are given for ‘Cash Account”
and ‘‘Memoranda Forward,” to be transferred, according to date, when
changing to the following Part. Covers are made to take Two PARTS, so
that Part II., commencing April, may be carried in same Cover as Part I.,
towards end of March, for making prospective entries. When March is
ended, the Cover can be lightened of Part I., and so on; the abrupt break
between Old and New Year is thus overcome. A blank Memo. Book can
be carried under second elastic in Cover, in place of Second Part of Diary,
thus rendering an additional pocket book unnecessary. All so called
“Useful Information,” which few read, is excluded. The weight in pocket
is thus reduced to one-fourth that of Pocket Diaries of similar superficial
size, while the ofdinary writing space is almost doubled.

Advantages of the Oblong Series. —The Oblong form
of Diary, originated by Marcus WaRD & Co. in 1871, has become ex-
tremely popular. The Oblong Concise Diary, containing the year complete,
is the most convenient Complete Form Diary published. It is also made in
the Four Part Style. The Single Part, in its limp Cover, forms scarcely
any appreciable thickness in the pocket, and is, therefore, especially com-
mendable to many.

Upright Patterns, in Four Parts (issued with Part I. in
the Cover, and Parts II., III., IV., ina Packet). These are made in Three
Sizes, No. 1, 344 x2 ins.; No. 2, 4% x2% ins.; No. 3, 5x3 ns. They
are sold in strong useful Covers, and also in handsome Pocket Books of
Russia, Morocco, or Velvet, and with Elastic Band, or MARCUS WARD &
Co.'s Patent Sliding Bolt Lock, at prices to suit all buyers.





London: 67, 68. Chandos Street, Strand;
Published by Marcus Ward & Co, 23

QOONOISE DIARIES—Oontinued.
Upright Patterns in One Book,—These are made in

the same sizes as above, and are sold at the same prices.

Oblong Patterns in Four Parts (issued with Part I. in
the Cover, and Parts II., III., IV., in a Packet). These are made in Three
Sizes, No. 4, 3% x3 ins.; No. 5, 4x2% ins.; No. 6, 43¢x2% ins. They
are sold in strong loose Covers, to last for several years, and also in best
Russia or Morocco Covers, with Elastic Band, or MARCUS WARD & Co.'s

Patent Sliding Bolt Lock,

Oblong Patterns in One Book.—These are made in the
same sizes as above. They are sold in French Morocco Bindings, Gilt
Edges, and Elastic Band, as low as One Shilling each. They are made
also in best Morocco, or Russia loose Covers, to last several years.

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

‘By a capital arrangement, the
maximum amount of writing space is
secured in these handy little books,
with the minimum amount of weight,
by the simple expedient of changing
the Diary every quarter, instead of
only once a year.” —Dazly Telegraph.

“The Concise Diaries are singu-
larly good in the four-part arrange-

. ment, and the finish of the leather-

work leaves nothing to be desired,
whilst a new patent bolt lock, which
cannot readily be put out of order,
stamps the present issue as the most
complete series yet published.” —
Standard.

“The Diary pages are furnished
separately in quarterly parts, . .
and are much smaller and handier
than they would otherwise be. It is
a very good plan.”— Pall Mall
Gazette.

‘‘Elegant and tasteful little poc-
ket books, with moveable diaries,
divided into quarterly parts so as to
save room. We have never seen
anything better—if so BROd= oF the
kind.”—Fun.

“The Concise Diaries are as con-
venient in form as they are beautiful
in appearance.""—Globe.

‘Like everything published by
this firm, the Conctse Diary is hand-
some and handy. The Diary itself
being divided into four parts, the
well got-up Russia leather case, in
which it is enclosed, makes the book
much more eligible for the pocket
than the majority of so-called pocket
diaries.” —Sportsman.

‘The Diary is in arrangement
perfect for keeping a cash account,
memoranda, and engagements, be-
sides containing a deal of useful in-
formation. It is bound in a strong
Russia pocket book, making alto.
gether as good a present as one
would wish to give or receive on
New-Year's Day.” —Hour.

‘‘Conspicuous for the taste cis-
played in their manufacture.’”—A/Zorn-
ing Post.

‘The idea is so simple, that the
wonder is that nobody thought of it
before.’ ace ae News.

And Royal Ulster Works, Belfast.
24 Published by Marcus Ward & Co.

MARCUS WARD & Co.'s
VEWSPAPER CUTTINGS SCRAP-BOOK.—

A Ready Reference Receptacle for Scraps, from our daily sources of
knowledge, the Newspapers ; with an Alphabetical Index, and Spaces for
Marginal Notes.

“When found, make a note of.’--CAPTAIN CUTTLE,

The Newspaper Cuttings Scrap-Book has been intro
duced by MARcus WaRD & Co. to supply a want equally felt in house-
hold, office, or counting-house, as well as in the library of the literary man,
or in the chambers of the lawyer.

There are few readers of Newspapers who do not daily meet with para
graphs, notices, or advertisements, which they would gladly cut out and
retain, but, not having any convenient means of preserving them, they are
passed over and lost; or, even if cut out, are so carefully put away that
they cannot be found when wanted for reference.

By thé use of the NEWSPAPER CUTTINGS SCRAP BOOK all such incon-
veniences are prevented, as the cuttings can be readily fixed in order, and,

‘by means of the Index, may be referred to in a moment; thus forming a
volume of permanent interest and usefulness.



LIST OF SIZES, BINDINGS, AND PRICES.

eee eee ee —————E—e
No. DESCRIPTION. Pages| Size, in Inches. ‘ Price.



6021 | Fancy Cloth, Lstipted a Side Oh ...| 100] 7% by 9%! 2/3

3
6031 Do. too | 9% by 11%; 3/-
6012 Do. Extra Git, Lettered on Side...| 120 7% by 9% 3/3
6010 Do. do. do. «| 120] 9% by 113% 4/6
6or1r | Half Roan, Lettered on Back “ ...| 200 | 9% by 113%{| 5/6
6041 | Half Turkey Morocco, Letteredon Side <1.| 100 7% by 9%! 3/6
6042 Do. do. do. 200 | 8% by 10%] 5/6
6008 | Half French Morocco, Lettered on Back,

Superior Quality Paper ee .| 150] 9% by 11%] 7/6
6009 | Half Levant Morocco Extra, Lettered on

Back, Superior Quality Paper ... 150 | 9% by 113%] 10/6
6013 | Half Roan, Lettered on Back, Superior

Quality Paper wae 200 |10 by 15 9/-
6014 | Half Levant Morocco Extra, Lettered on

Back, Superior Quality Paper ... ...|200|10 by 15 | 15/-



London and Belfast.







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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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'2012-04-19T04:16:00-04:00'
describe
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describe
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'2012-04-19T04:18:18-04:00'
describe
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describe
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describe
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'2012-04-19T04:21:10-04:00'
describe
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describe
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'2012-04-19T04:12:26-04:00'
describe
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describe
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'2012-04-19T04:21:45-04:00'
describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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'2012-04-19T04:10:44-04:00'
describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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'2012-04-19T04:18:36-04:00'
describe
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describe
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'2012-04-19T04:20:15-04:00'
describe
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describe
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'2012-04-19T04:10:10-04:00'
describe
'2906832' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHAU' 'sip-files00025.tif'
de4973913cac5663ec6a7dc70f9e7aa9
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'2012-04-19T04:09:01-04:00'
describe
'210' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHAV' 'sip-files00025.txt'
7fe85a0bccec7a830e169f09d10239ff
af2341eb3e2f4e16a8e665f24b8941bc1c016fa5
'2012-04-19T04:11:46-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'140769' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHAW' 'sip-files00027.QC.jpg'
880c5dbb020489840ef428f1ed7b2af9
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'2012-04-19T04:15:46-04:00'
describe
'359346' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHAX' 'sip-files00027.QC2.jpg'
14085fa3c0062c4c190fa2fc41473587
f649475587d2a7db754837347130b38f54917118
'2012-04-19T04:23:11-04:00'
describe
'24562' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHAY' 'sip-files00027.pro'
812892cecde934edd2144efd9956e478
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'2012-04-19T04:14:56-04:00'
describe
'2916452' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHAZ' 'sip-files00027.tif'
a808846d1f779c4ca69e48eed5074a57
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'2012-04-19T04:17:25-04:00'
describe
'1020' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBA' 'sip-files00027.txt'
2f27986982e2b89b3cea7cd6fc0e8b8a
ad411275f694fb547ef9255e2fa0425886f17ebe
'2012-04-19T04:19:31-04:00'
describe
'34647' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBB' 'sip-files00028.pro'
f6dbd71c9407d907cbe9149ffeba708a
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'2012-04-19T04:12:17-04:00'
describe
'149375' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBC' 'sip-files00028.QC.jpg'
15172fc83a0083d9ff987becba6a8aef
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'2012-04-19T04:16:02-04:00'
describe
'374691' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBD' 'sip-files00028.QC2.jpg'
96b96ba520d7edb567a93f0c0d5ad173
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'2012-04-19T04:20:38-04:00'
describe
'2908116' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBE' 'sip-files00028.tif'
26ce94aaff4358875bc20bd68ae8aff7
354d02c0d511244ac79658cc6be6a58c50e45cf6
'2012-04-19T04:20:05-04:00'
describe
'1366' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBF' 'sip-files00028.txt'
195d1c7cde3bf53f72514f34b1741d61
8cb1446450cde7fa97ddeac4e9bf7ed88d9b7ff8
'2012-04-19T04:19:02-04:00'
describe
'148073' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBG' 'sip-files00029.QC.jpg'
b5294873d6406ea6c7b8d2b1a8474c3e
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'2012-04-19T04:10:51-04:00'
describe
'370099' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBH' 'sip-files00029.QC2.jpg'
2c147690a704eab8a5f63f949f9dc306
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'2012-04-19T04:09:13-04:00'
describe
'34624' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBI' 'sip-files00029.pro'
17618219ba0545696cbbf4989c6c78fc
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'2012-04-19T04:18:00-04:00'
describe
'2949608' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBJ' 'sip-files00029.tif'
e3589c6369a97db72e407e1846685d31
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'2012-04-19T04:15:37-04:00'
describe
'1385' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBK' 'sip-files00029.txt'
3cce7b2c8663afdaac76dc9911d4c287
0043d825ad625b517a588980a848a0f63f688924
'2012-04-19T04:24:26-04:00'
describe
'148398' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBL' 'sip-files00030.QC.jpg'
043755ea4e5fc4dde40bdab2da031aa6
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'2012-04-19T04:17:18-04:00'
describe
'372891' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBM' 'sip-files00030.QC2.jpg'
6f9f8071cd5e68e978b025f9e78233f7
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'2012-04-19T04:24:53-04:00'
describe
'36067' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBN' 'sip-files00030.pro'
306aa86e5c1fe20e01d0936b60103311
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'2012-04-19T04:13:13-04:00'
describe
'2970424' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBO' 'sip-files00030.tif'
73dfaf65d986e813118bcfe29a6bfa3a
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'2012-04-19T04:13:34-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBP' 'sip-files00030.txt'
a298a6ebd2888207571d612c7bf6ba9d
28c1ef9bd6ab9932a84decdebde07099431860c0
describe
'142104' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBQ' 'sip-files00031.QC.jpg'
426e380c7f7c62ccb41152ffa2c530ba
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'2012-04-19T04:22:13-04:00'
describe
'367031' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBR' 'sip-files00031.QC2.jpg'
40c07cf5da1500449e87e040a7d65d64
28d83d8d4fd08bbc72fe7a0e41afe0343a7921e8
describe
'34712' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBS' 'sip-files00031.pro'
e7325e3a72e495ca66497e062eb2f8ce
0aba0d2b32b9b35856f6e58ece9c879fbe4cb61e
describe
'3041784' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBT' 'sip-files00031.tif'
3543edb32f00a170e9c83874ee45ebfa
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'2012-04-19T04:16:43-04:00'
describe
'1383' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBU' 'sip-files00031.txt'
2db930c37e96ce5f856e5d6ca3acace3
c3492ee7182370d60a61e1ecbe3e9020d21e06c6
'2012-04-19T04:11:15-04:00'
describe
'147535' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBV' 'sip-files00032.QC.jpg'
e339188c6c32d7a96fb4f370c9be3f3a
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describe
'373869' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBW' 'sip-files00032.QC2.jpg'
8cd21aa8e0d36d0e49f18f587b314565
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'2012-04-19T04:22:53-04:00'
describe
'35161' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBX' 'sip-files00032.pro'
9a166aede5ea8860e482f9087d051972
6716191f14cc21a55bc91dc43d39d4c428a6fbd2
'2012-04-19T04:19:07-04:00'
describe
'2978892' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBY' 'sip-files00032.tif'
bdb0cfaea17b2f12ed52b56db5c09d61
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'2012-04-19T04:19:30-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHBZ' 'sip-files00032.txt'
8d8aa77451a70c5012966c5f38c4dab9
cdda98e2d6596be734b0da10fcc592d24b98896d
'2012-04-19T04:24:09-04:00'
describe
'121436' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCA' 'sip-files00033.QC.jpg'
67f63f99382df41655ac025e74afb10e
2a988698ab5b10383fd57538dca8b451fa739f44
'2012-04-19T04:09:36-04:00'
describe
'315747' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCB' 'sip-files00033.QC2.jpg'
1b6d560db057155d731c82d6a6dca41a
532de928640671f17495a80c994777a03678ffe8
'2012-04-19T04:21:42-04:00'
describe
'23511' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCC' 'sip-files00033.pro'
031fb1808335ae303adebb42fadfc944
3c7fb5be540491909635f0c7293699f5b839b497
'2012-04-19T04:24:51-04:00'
describe
'3012300' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCD' 'sip-files00033.tif'
ec40ec22e11b479fa59ecda1c4a15387
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'2012-04-19T04:11:43-04:00'
describe
'944' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCE' 'sip-files00033.txt'
f979319dc7f5e66a740c02ee9fb32996
dd6b897c40da0e51be74c9b2747a9bf0065d3fda
'2012-04-19T04:21:02-04:00'
describe
'134225' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCF' 'sip-files00034.QC.jpg'
b4dab96c628c2b3d6c1f19a645d6dcd7
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'2012-04-19T04:13:45-04:00'
describe
'347691' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCG' 'sip-files00034.QC2.jpg'
a64e619dff9e5a832c0ba77fb4c6e969
132ea72612d02dcc2966d6c3dac2fcad2d185ae2
describe
'24684' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCH' 'sip-files00034.pro'
c772038eed04edfd57e9b9692cbbc7a1
1856e44cbd0b6674d0c626dea82c36a2022ca391
'2012-04-19T04:19:49-04:00'
describe
'2966556' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCI' 'sip-files00034.tif'
174a8d49a3f50b8b6cba66690270636a
7a645dbd7e4c80689f663dea111a5b84e799e413
'2012-04-19T04:14:08-04:00'
describe
'1017' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCJ' 'sip-files00034.txt'
2be4452cad90e123c18153ca963ba1a6
61b3e1cfa38d6c8829b8a905ef695d1221a2e4c5
'2012-04-19T04:12:25-04:00'
describe
'148013' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCK' 'sip-files00035.QC.jpg'
93225118c37d84ff58bbded2684ec4ad
8bffb7ba4cffade35139c4cfd66db69bb4e26541
'2012-04-19T04:19:09-04:00'
describe
'371057' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCL' 'sip-files00035.QC2.jpg'
2283dd591fd9ffb015ce41c7445bd4ac
0644c74afa906aa669dae37997b109ab6e9f4bde
'2012-04-19T04:22:16-04:00'
describe
'34960' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCM' 'sip-files00035.pro'
f086aabd39025d628d83f83666f4be1d
d3b4043b0654b3341669fc3e9f4bbbf0f06e462e
'2012-04-19T04:11:55-04:00'
describe
'2953520' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCN' 'sip-files00035.tif'
394be47ecda02aa87d58551fff2e1dba
df4a88744be92b3df0739935bd976d253c91bf44
'2012-04-19T04:23:18-04:00'
describe
'1394' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCO' 'sip-files00035.txt'
ece88f54f85b353da3d4a26cd669dabf
706f22a857b22966f49c513c9785dcdfec1a6876
'2012-04-19T04:09:58-04:00'
describe
'150097' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCP' 'sip-files00036.QC.jpg'
947bc157218e063eba45802ce4e8b770
e8d2c07f83a6a6346dd7823edb7e33b54b2b044d
'2012-04-19T04:20:09-04:00'
describe
'368747' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCQ' 'sip-files00036.QC2.jpg'
3a7ce9264b6af4038d9e4058a3dc2dcd
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'2012-04-19T04:12:05-04:00'
describe
'34976' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCR' 'sip-files00036.pro'
43b6f3b140376aba90ab586c5af22747
4755382d1c21960edc93d38473967c8a002c5103
'2012-04-19T04:17:37-04:00'
describe
'2939344' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCS' 'sip-files00036.tif'
9cfde21e7638f75dbfa136623de1525f
f405155a7c614e04e3e57d46591d92376933ab2b
'2012-04-19T04:19:33-04:00'
describe
'1377' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCT' 'sip-files00036.txt'
d5d59424ff90176e645845bf82f45ccb
9fd2f7aa83f67b984e20fcc263899016bc824d79
'2012-04-19T04:23:58-04:00'
describe
'148865' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCU' 'sip-files00037.QC.jpg'
b8c169c37d3acce72708bb36124074ff
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'2012-04-19T04:23:32-04:00'
describe
'369228' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCV' 'sip-files00037.QC2.jpg'
161c8cc236fe0f7cf7f0dd92f0ad257a
58e86c44328d54fcf963fd26eaa3eb298e5cf58e
'2012-04-19T04:14:50-04:00'
describe
'33900' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCW' 'sip-files00037.pro'
5904fbacc06e8ce26e0525d8a1ba2829
4b003462934a346ff04e1db3e7b244aefc1fff16
'2012-04-19T04:16:26-04:00'
describe
'2958764' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCX' 'sip-files00037.tif'
efa522dffa39b1a23662201d7ba5b869
4d4a19827a5a6c65ca052ee2e2b21b95af07a00e
'2012-04-19T04:23:41-04:00'
describe
'1364' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCY' 'sip-files00037.txt'
ec1ad7aa877d1ca98efe518f73120196
d819344964cecdce713fc2938de92e894285c67c
'2012-04-19T04:12:48-04:00'
describe
'149679' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHCZ' 'sip-files00038.QC.jpg'
58eb481ef9fa701b2c13ec0fec89b0ee
9715fae4387b0a45579bf8d5e2bb9a42bfbe4d7f
'2012-04-19T04:23:21-04:00'
describe
'375694' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDA' 'sip-files00038.QC2.jpg'
ed0382bc7001b7a8804c3f2d4d6bf78b
42acfe0cad98322056277df169bf76fc0db73d99
'2012-04-19T04:20:30-04:00'
describe
'34410' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDB' 'sip-files00038.pro'
93c315dda0d91221d928c6dee2617158
d29b2cb4d6c4b72cb63560b87c62013023857127
'2012-04-19T04:22:36-04:00'
describe
'2880496' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDC' 'sip-files00038.tif'
0705596699201bf0eb7dc278ce51be51
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describe
'1357' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDD' 'sip-files00038.txt'
240b21eccb726ccf168b4dd48a70338b
f8fe8b4c275fee52a47d025dcdb3d76bfe396f06
'2012-04-19T04:15:07-04:00'
describe
'147411' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDE' 'sip-files00039.QC.jpg'
6b6cff51346ac2e5bb0676c706f14273
ec18ec7fe421d679d81f1abde36f4b5c650d9b11
'2012-04-19T04:15:00-04:00'
describe
'369541' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDF' 'sip-files00039.QC2.jpg'
43a3d4934c81752c82bdd54e6394c16c
b57dab78c78873c5804ab3db9438977e1259dfda
'2012-04-19T04:09:00-04:00'
describe
'34957' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDG' 'sip-files00039.pro'
45b5d1c031c1134b6707fe93b6b8c0b1
057e7df797e31a397a0006eb45657fda06a4bdd0
'2012-04-19T04:21:52-04:00'
describe
'3026108' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDH' 'sip-files00039.tif'
30699993520b75127637d73316e5b01b
074bb6dd65ba31304f2ba3e29e83e9c8c39aeeb7
'2012-04-19T04:08:39-04:00'
describe
'1393' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDI' 'sip-files00039.txt'
2a3c904c2e1c9f9fca894ffa223856e5
3478d39e64e631f82becc30bc6c78d32859263f4
describe
'142455' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDJ' 'sip-files00040.QC.jpg'
9d5b88ccc0e3a41c7ce8525c867f9c03
e62b8c4918a1bf8493938c10fe5c49b6d5242476
'2012-04-19T04:23:51-04:00'
describe
'357971' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDK' 'sip-files00040.QC2.jpg'
144d488dff7797527a64692a4eb32f70
9dd2ec9b3c3fac8da86fcbe348945c8cdda3aec5
'2012-04-19T04:10:36-04:00'
describe
'31496' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDL' 'sip-files00040.pro'
2d06893ac523a910ac8b00d3a0a6781a
7a86740e2482e2cd4b2e39938bcd2d4acaed8268
'2012-04-19T04:12:14-04:00'
describe
'2962936' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDM' 'sip-files00040.tif'
7e2b6557651b5ea130e60bd042eff95d
1fdabe8a89499379378572d06303da9431c958c7
'2012-04-19T04:20:37-04:00'
describe
'1248' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDN' 'sip-files00040.txt'
39c1ec49c2d8bba4071aaea2635fff55
fd8207da97ca2941d01ad8d1b1c2a0b22cf0a844
'2012-04-19T04:14:04-04:00'
describe
'135458' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDO' 'sip-files00041.QC.jpg'
54d08211e74aff1169a42c3a05f42de4
b79e68ee37e62410b4cc5b447129ee7284f6fe75
'2012-04-19T04:19:26-04:00'
describe
'347217' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDP' 'sip-files00041.QC2.jpg'
f002295728d64a504c02d383709ac597
bafae74e2a5357817221cb3a259b737031975b9b
'2012-04-19T04:17:01-04:00'
describe
'23408' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDQ' 'sip-files00041.pro'
b7d300eefb080f4d354fc0ceff51faa9
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'2012-04-19T04:08:50-04:00'
describe
'3001832' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDR' 'sip-files00041.tif'
9e92a70355e6fe58e460f7001a41ac00
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'2012-04-19T04:16:18-04:00'
describe
'969' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDS' 'sip-files00041.txt'
905ad44a8c8f8eb33ba299bf66a761fc
52377379bfc9cc32b862c4273643b0adf284fd35
'2012-04-19T04:11:29-04:00'
describe
'34345' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDT' 'sip-files00042.pro'
e136a32edc344bf74004a3e1a5ed3846
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'2012-04-19T04:14:51-04:00'
describe
'148199' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDU' 'sip-files00042.QC.jpg'
1449d0d68b53f2f5f6ae30c554a99bb8
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'2012-04-19T04:10:28-04:00'
describe
'375965' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDV' 'sip-files00042.QC2.jpg'
a8cb1bd094b434928220533667b7bf7b
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'2012-04-19T04:21:53-04:00'
describe
'2951676' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDW' 'sip-files00042.tif'
ed271f38b9103261ebacc81c04ee848b
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'2012-04-19T04:19:39-04:00'
describe
'1355' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDX' 'sip-files00042.txt'
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describe
'143059' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDY' 'sip-files00043.QC.jpg'
cd8017172fead661344d7a3d48987d36
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'2012-04-19T04:20:07-04:00'
describe
'361829' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHDZ' 'sip-files00043.QC2.jpg'
4f4c2a00502bab6c85c24b52e6038c7d
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'2012-04-19T04:20:23-04:00'
describe
'35270' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEA' 'sip-files00043.pro'
d0158f132fe472f09dc75ed4e857a1cf
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'2012-04-19T04:14:42-04:00'
describe
'3058032' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEB' 'sip-files00043.tif'
b86c5a1adefc59018113fc3294c55601
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'2012-04-19T04:23:54-04:00'
describe
'1532' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEC' 'sip-files00043.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:19:59-04:00'
describe
'2500' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHED' 'sip-filestoc.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:13:47-04:00'
describe
'150550' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEE' 'sip-files00044.QC.jpg'
709eee47990894cb10e407dff22bd839
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'2012-04-19T04:21:29-04:00'
describe
'381178' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEF' 'sip-files00044.QC2.jpg'
3f0ef95c44da517490f68ea93e1e3f30
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'2012-04-19T04:23:02-04:00'
describe
'34440' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEG' 'sip-files00044.pro'
bdfdf5b076c89cf792356ac470cc679a
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describe
'2915212' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEH' 'sip-files00044.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:24:31-04:00'
describe
'1356' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEI' 'sip-files00044.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:12:50-04:00'
describe
'147616' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEJ' 'sip-files00045.QC.jpg'
8afbf6e199d6603e3787c925300537a3
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describe
'367039' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEK' 'sip-files00045.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:19:01-04:00'
describe
'34868' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEL' 'sip-files00045.pro'
078189e7ab8c7e64e49172d6ed9a2ade
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'2012-04-19T04:21:28-04:00'
describe
'3031628' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEM' 'sip-files00045.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:11:05-04:00'
describe
'1386' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEN' 'sip-files00045.txt'
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describe
'159572' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEO' 'sip-files00046.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:22:19-04:00'
describe
'398523' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEP' 'sip-files00046.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:12:53-04:00'
describe
'34460' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEQ' 'sip-files00046.pro'
c84c4792efb3783faa07bcdcda08534f
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describe
'2881272' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHER' 'sip-files00046.tif'
a2625ce733c8eb5e3f7350f0eb6bac6a
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'2012-04-19T04:22:33-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHES' 'sip-files00046.txt'
6ae7cbd483aacbb3392bc86eaaa0f1e1
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'2012-04-19T04:14:28-04:00'
describe
'162828' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHET' 'sip-files00047.QC.jpg'
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describe
'409547' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEU' 'sip-files00047.QC2.jpg'
bcacfdcfc44f89bd771ab41bd92673e4
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'2012-04-19T04:11:24-04:00'
describe
'33926' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEV' 'sip-files00047.pro'
52574d342f4395f3bbdfb0363b0bfc54
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describe
'2838812' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEW' 'sip-files00047.tif'
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describe
'1367' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEX' 'sip-files00047.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:11:23-04:00'
describe
'139255' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEY' 'sip-files00048.QC.jpg'
2f226f4c16a83649edccf7d522a33f91
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'2012-04-19T04:24:20-04:00'
describe
'370468' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHEZ' 'sip-files00048.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'21664' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFA' 'sip-files00048.pro'
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'2012-04-19T04:14:11-04:00'
describe
'2905728' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFB' 'sip-files00048.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:14:17-04:00'
describe
'858' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFC' 'sip-files00048.txt'
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describe
'144668' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFD' 'sip-files00049.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:12:23-04:00'
describe
'378117' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFE' 'sip-files00049.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:12:42-04:00'
describe
'24150' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFF' 'sip-files00049.pro'
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'2012-04-19T04:08:41-04:00'
describe
'2895672' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFG' 'sip-files00049.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:13:21-04:00'
describe
'995' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFH' 'sip-files00049.txt'
331d41510e37d6798505b55d62bda36c
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'2012-04-19T04:23:40-04:00'
describe
'162478' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFI' 'sip-files00050.QC.jpg'
8b82815e0596c615bcda9eb865c680f8
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'2012-04-19T04:16:49-04:00'
describe
'407647' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFJ' 'sip-files00050.QC2.jpg'
7bd89d5455a83b5fced08e01bc7391fc
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'2012-04-19T04:12:28-04:00'
describe
'35682' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFK' 'sip-files00050.pro'
c84fed8619cd74302b268fad2b19bc73
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'2012-04-19T04:10:31-04:00'
describe
'2873748' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFL' 'sip-files00050.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:11:47-04:00'
describe
'1405' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFM' 'sip-files00050.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:15:34-04:00'
describe
'159008' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFN' 'sip-files00051.QC.jpg'
b5be6c42a6707f781620e5fc562f22ac
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'2012-04-19T04:20:48-04:00'
describe
'404415' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFO' 'sip-files00051.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:10:04-04:00'
describe
'35546' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFP' 'sip-files00051.pro'
e07cc5bbd81012706668a1c816d584bb
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'2012-04-19T04:17:33-04:00'
describe
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'2012-04-19T04:09:50-04:00'
describe
'1418' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFR' 'sip-files00051.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:16:22-04:00'
describe
'163810' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFS' 'sip-files00052.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:15:43-04:00'
describe
'410304' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFT' 'sip-files00052.QC2.jpg'
51c4357d0fe3a078381ba81be0e655f0
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'2012-04-19T04:15:28-04:00'
describe
'35732' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFU' 'sip-files00052.pro'
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describe
'2914972' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFV' 'sip-files00052.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:16:55-04:00'
describe
'1407' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFW' 'sip-files00052.txt'
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describe
'163058' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFX' 'sip-files00053.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:10:08-04:00'
describe
'411291' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFY' 'sip-files00053.QC2.jpg'
caff346974e68d335fc05bb5cb4c3759
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describe
'34256' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHFZ' 'sip-files00053.pro'
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'2012-04-19T04:17:24-04:00'
describe
'2899948' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHGA' 'sip-files00053.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:10:34-04:00'
describe
'1368' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHGB' 'sip-files00053.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:13:40-04:00'
describe
'162224' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHGC' 'sip-files00054.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:19:38-04:00'
describe
'407550' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHGD' 'sip-files00054.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:22:55-04:00'
describe
'35304' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHGE' 'sip-files00054.pro'
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'2012-04-19T04:16:05-04:00'
describe
'2911776' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHGF' 'sip-files00054.tif'
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describe
'1389' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHGG' 'sip-files00054.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:17:59-04:00'
describe
'157138' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHGH' 'sip-files00055.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:19:03-04:00'
describe
'428891' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHGI' 'sip-files00055.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'1379' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHGJ' 'sip-files00055.pro'
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'2012-04-19T04:17:35-04:00'
describe
'2880396' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHGK' 'sip-files00055.tif'
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describe
'130' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHGL' 'sip-files00055.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:11:53-04:00'
describe
'9153' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHGM' 'sip-files00056.pro'
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'2012-04-19T04:11:20-04:00'
describe
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describe
'309336' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHGO' 'sip-files00056.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:21:08-04:00'
describe
'2855236' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHGP' 'sip-files00056.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:22:05-04:00'
describe
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'2012-04-19T04:13:39-04:00'
describe
'144097' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHGR' 'sip-files00057.QC.jpg'
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describe
'378832' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHGS' 'sip-files00057.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:22:32-04:00'
describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
'158183' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHGW' 'sip-files00058.QC.jpg'
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describe
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describe
'33496' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHGY' 'sip-files00058.pro'
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describe
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describe
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describe
'151584' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHHB' 'sip-files00059.QC.jpg'
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describe
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describe
'30523' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHHD' 'sip-files00059.pro'
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describe
'2907520' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHHE' 'sip-files00059.tif'
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describe
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describe
'163854' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHHG' 'sip-files00060.QC.jpg'
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
'168651' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHHL' 'sip-files00061.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:11:31-04:00'
describe
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describe
'34694' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHHN' 'sip-files00061.pro'
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHHU' 'sip-files00062.txt'
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHIJ' 'sip-files00065.txt'
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHJD' 'sip-files00069.txt'
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
'378361' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHJU' 'sip-files00073.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:24:06-04:00'
describe
'34052' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHJV' 'sip-files00073.pro'
ad86b61aaa0c0c35b8cd7fb1942f244d
c429d98b705da3fe0041eec4aaef22b87a0bc6cf
'2012-04-19T04:14:41-04:00'
describe
'2905388' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHJW' 'sip-files00073.tif'
4997805fdb72a3a14b197205231a66d5
f19965f108ecae58a879aab8f571205bb363faae
'2012-04-19T04:11:35-04:00'
describe
'1343' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHJX' 'sip-files00073.txt'
b38f44315f7ffbe850888b3f657bbb52
1c287189ea5a38682dfb84b1b22b3151e13dc05d
'2012-04-19T04:19:40-04:00'
describe
'155856' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHJY' 'sip-files00074.QC.jpg'
bd1b2e287c95e0a49d5510e48996ba1c
0eed4f786de430bc7ddcbd8c8b2780828db5eeac
'2012-04-19T04:18:05-04:00'
describe
'383123' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHJZ' 'sip-files00074.QC2.jpg'
3cba17c5e931aae0f20df742b92a373f
dc201314d3baadec3096bf363b81a52be28864a3
describe
'35190' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKA' 'sip-files00074.pro'
8697e21f449ab35aa98abcbd63c5ddd0
dcacb3018ced985e6883fdcd4117563d837886aa
describe
'2891112' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKB' 'sip-files00074.tif'
c29199a0fa774f81c1f4c2aecf82e7ab
8fa92361939c0b6a09d40aa8469778f91e44cfec
'2012-04-19T04:11:44-04:00'
describe
'1408' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKC' 'sip-files00074.txt'
1e338652502fe8c19cd70e2e17f64b4a
4485579478a87dc81770efdc50ca89ddffd0f901
describe
'151319' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKD' 'sip-files00075.QC.jpg'
6d452731e6415ce668fc64c341907697
ead5c55cd7a94a33d8ebfdb8b790c2a9866c9af5
'2012-04-19T04:08:57-04:00'
describe
'376825' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKE' 'sip-files00075.QC2.jpg'
21008b83a71984b54110d9a2c8d8c428
80f834d0339bb4a4d887ff61b00fecb0d5cd17b8
'2012-04-19T04:11:32-04:00'
describe
'32798' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKF' 'sip-files00075.pro'
91aa700fff8e4f9d626aac6de2a407c3
3ab27a87d4562525f981aab4231ffc4bdea9ec19
'2012-04-19T04:20:56-04:00'
describe
'2843576' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKG' 'sip-files00075.tif'
046b613534b08a8d910ac5a2c3979c0a
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describe
'1293' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKH' 'sip-files00075.txt'
810ef7151c7af2e17cf653afce51478d
c3004550f1fa4f89b70eea34ca14a2babbc5aa77
'2012-04-19T04:14:16-04:00'
describe
'154722' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKI' 'sip-files00076.QC.jpg'
8d111a093609bfe9b62b82f36c6b671a
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'2012-04-19T04:16:21-04:00'
describe
'389980' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKJ' 'sip-files00076.QC2.jpg'
250db2a2b78cd3c009993d724cbe2d0b
d285573efc2f890f1dc1769849237eb7aa041841
'2012-04-19T04:23:16-04:00'
describe
'34926' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKK' 'sip-files00076.pro'
63127c96fc3d0d02166077131d9003e2
c0b0d035a5b4add5eeac3bd990ebb5e1c338aab9
'2012-04-19T04:08:54-04:00'
describe
'2876520' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKL' 'sip-files00076.tif'
14a16cb3b1a3dedd8c619116b0cac461
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'2012-04-19T04:12:04-04:00'
describe
'1410' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKM' 'sip-files00076.txt'
fbc9b6b3e74df7c8a15fea9f31c511bc
314ab9c8f7e4967eb523ddbf939a788fc43f8b08
describe
'123732' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKN' 'sip-files00077.QC.jpg'
a28e0b696201ca0dba2a3ace97c51b89
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'2012-04-19T04:14:37-04:00'
describe
'325704' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKO' 'sip-files00077.QC2.jpg'
9a7224de3eda6f1b343cd00da8c08c07
708728774b7863b3c8d6319de4bb09e394f2c242
describe
'20329' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKP' 'sip-files00077.pro'
fe3d8189efe4a2d76826f79dec5da17a
879099f8cbf80e91bdd58318ff2e5920b1693ef5
describe
'2908952' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKQ' 'sip-files00077.tif'
1e3fed9bf6a3ef62a98c83425b2e9314
6af1818a8dfacd35e619ca139b086f95dbc604cd
'2012-04-19T04:14:32-04:00'
describe
'808' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKR' 'sip-files00077.txt'
292936fe1aa10a5f3e98c8cc4fff06fa
9f7505ac905b1b5efae31a31233fcb8625516167
'2012-04-19T04:12:15-04:00'
describe
'139347' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKS' 'sip-files00078.QC.jpg'
0391c67b1400a81a1cf539332361c918
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'2012-04-19T04:24:47-04:00'
describe
'362167' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKT' 'sip-files00078.QC2.jpg'
8c15decf5c9830a4b7098c69c39885f9
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describe
'22476' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKU' 'sip-files00078.pro'
d2730ff1199e0416d64676418230bc84
93d9afd37d8c04934eba7fcaec85b4acee8c30a6
'2012-04-19T04:19:57-04:00'
describe
'2900664' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKV' 'sip-files00078.tif'
9a950838bd1d09cd1b9e6124b7b3c4e6
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'2012-04-19T04:11:52-04:00'
describe
'933' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKW' 'sip-files00078.txt'
1b53c576cb18801a560fecfa3170c37b
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describe
'151180' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKX' 'sip-files00079.QC.jpg'
7ba978010971bd102caaf81adaeccb0f
a65fb2c4a519d992b865db08840510ab47fe2391
'2012-04-19T04:20:57-04:00'
describe
'377662' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKY' 'sip-files00079.QC2.jpg'
7638d37de08560726c65cd500a2e291d
c7065c5bf35df5bc761e08ad4e5f80bb53a61048
'2012-04-19T04:18:25-04:00'
describe
'32688' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHKZ' 'sip-files00079.pro'
75800086642e7192994793bc04c59ca1
07ee3c991243eb14bb7995dc51d04deb28451b5e
'2012-04-19T04:16:14-04:00'
describe
'2939008' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLA' 'sip-files00079.tif'
58f7ca7df84ed61a5d05b336d99edc34
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'2012-04-19T04:20:55-04:00'
describe
'1292' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLB' 'sip-files00079.txt'
c8a065212bfff0e6df9a8e883aaf6a37
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'2012-04-19T04:21:46-04:00'
describe
'154424' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLC' 'sip-files00080.QC.jpg'
2c3cf8eb2f3b8d8785b2a93cb8a1ac47
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'2012-04-19T04:20:50-04:00'
describe
'378698' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLD' 'sip-files00080.QC2.jpg'
e5fc151d294b37c2016799d04336c342
062830a832a0c4e42ea979720565d323b64f0dee
'2012-04-19T04:14:23-04:00'
describe
'35526' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLE' 'sip-files00080.pro'
d1c97fe1fef884bb1abd013dac74c14d
b7019b941449f331045830dae0c4209ccf7fb688
'2012-04-19T04:24:00-04:00'
describe
'2925172' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLF' 'sip-files00080.tif'
3034f71513871b2542a4940ae0cb4d1b
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describe
'1413' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLG' 'sip-files00080.txt'
33a830ffe77aaaec1e500c70ed24c343
6edbb8ea54adaf8b625f80b2d3bbed3eb7e87e8a
'2012-04-19T04:10:50-04:00'
describe
'156813' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLH' 'sip-files00081.QC.jpg'
aebf011454523e3ae2aa311b2e275f38
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'2012-04-19T04:16:19-04:00'
describe
'399091' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLI' 'sip-files00081.QC2.jpg'
568503558035fff0671dfc3e2e1cafd6
1b46174f25258320d3c941bc2c0ee66d98e04436
'2012-04-19T04:13:15-04:00'
describe
'32818' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLJ' 'sip-files00081.pro'
77b1cc9703075c8f772a89eb0cf43d8e
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describe
'2796960' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLK' 'sip-files00081.tif'
c179a77287c73f4fb788657aaa8ed685
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'2012-04-19T04:12:31-04:00'
describe
'1297' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLL' 'sip-files00081.txt'
5ee8e4d3161846aa788f16c0cea09986
c9f504677e77838e67597bd10425f3989c3c0f12
'2012-04-19T04:16:06-04:00'
describe
'167069' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLM' 'sip-files00083.QC.jpg'
7ca10154ccc5276a4f47b333a58bbb5a
035f432b5b2a7a801d0c93fd8a386858ca3f588c
'2012-04-19T04:12:09-04:00'
describe
'447668' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLN' 'sip-files00083.QC2.jpg'
5ef8e0fe3d008a4432b2172cd74522f7
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'2012-04-19T04:24:41-04:00'
describe
'2745' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLO' 'sip-files00083.pro'
e1f976c0e332c9d90825202cac8fa5d7
c1481990940e21440efa31631c7d4c12c299ff45
'2012-04-19T04:16:15-04:00'
describe
'2929728' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLP' 'sip-files00083.tif'
d93e9bc681079139dd7bcfdf3b579bbb
fcb497170f60e8fa7eedc855ec816d84ac524c46
'2012-04-19T04:18:13-04:00'
describe
'268' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLQ' 'sip-files00083.txt'
cdf143630aaaba2e7fe7bdc57c88c9ad
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'2012-04-19T04:12:21-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'154116' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLR' 'sip-files00084.QC.jpg'
5063d4397d35e147d0f1926580cf4d6f
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'2012-04-19T04:23:23-04:00'
describe
'34847' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLS' 'sip-files00084.pro'
70a220c481892c98c4285629d12b2fb0
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'2012-04-19T04:18:31-04:00'
describe
'387805' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLT' 'sip-files00084.QC2.jpg'
dd288f5a5b3c860202240366570b93c9
1163dffdd68cf0aec10474a89698ea26ea382908
'2012-04-19T04:18:17-04:00'
describe
'2881828' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLU' 'sip-files00084.tif'
7142d18ce2758f47513110612855f290
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'2012-04-19T04:17:34-04:00'
describe
'1395' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLV' 'sip-files00084.txt'
3c38a3804453b4d28791b41d57efa943
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'2012-04-19T04:23:42-04:00'
describe
'32623' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLW' 'sip-files00085.pro'
397ccba741ffa60a6be5eeea5552bc90
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'2012-04-19T04:19:37-04:00'
describe
'152119' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLX' 'sip-files00085.QC.jpg'
841706c97d9b8593d7b3fcf3fd5aee29
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'2012-04-19T04:19:23-04:00'
describe
'380437' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLY' 'sip-files00085.QC2.jpg'
6f11115b08f56bb804df1a91d9815a56
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describe
'2847936' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHLZ' 'sip-files00085.tif'
8be63059a89b7bdd5da85ba22ff9f0bc
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'2012-04-19T04:23:00-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMA' 'sip-files00085.txt'
68fd29a454a30e872aa15693e819f13a
fe726b1ae89fc480390feb115845a69b585e0d96
'2012-04-19T04:11:50-04:00'
describe
'127133' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMB' 'sip-files00086.QC.jpg'
a5439ad0623e70bb38db23d7b2d586ff
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'2012-04-19T04:12:52-04:00'
describe
'326222' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMC' 'sip-files00086.QC2.jpg'
52bb4081b3b813655f5ef917eb2b5be7
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describe
'21363' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMD' 'sip-files00086.pro'
f64548847ecb20a7f2a4b0f663c479d5
e8541e6c9991d64f2f5356f16c78dca2f1be9bad
'2012-04-19T04:22:23-04:00'
describe
'2911528' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHME' 'sip-files00086.tif'
57ef5e8fcd3ef09d3c14c3aa45e9130e
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describe
'889' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMF' 'sip-files00086.txt'
4575bbd0a4349964181c027345908967
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describe
'135810' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMG' 'sip-files00087.QC.jpg'
91d4fde7842894d6dbce71cc7e899393
d709a906a3c2dbf75516ef17fdb0ecc66e105fbe
'2012-04-19T04:09:30-04:00'
describe
'353307' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMH' 'sip-files00087.QC2.jpg'
09f9a247a51b1eb98b0e1ab150fa64a8
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'2012-04-19T04:14:26-04:00'
describe
'23551' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMI' 'sip-files00087.pro'
a5c554f1db949334cc8979131551fa8a
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describe
'2969964' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMJ' 'sip-files00087.tif'
fc758b8773446f27c0b42982d7ec0c41
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'2012-04-19T04:24:49-04:00'
describe
'989' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMK' 'sip-files00087.txt'
5234955665233717ca1e5c915f873137
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'2012-04-19T04:09:37-04:00'
describe
'152739' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHML' 'sip-files00088.QC.jpg'
9bca90dc163e8065dfa0f1fe511b4d9d
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describe
'389574' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMM' 'sip-files00088.QC2.jpg'
ecc4a72103c5e6967e631bb534d40ce5
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'2012-04-19T04:10:46-04:00'
describe
'34386' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMN' 'sip-files00088.pro'
1e65310504d31f123a9b5b0d9232892c
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'2012-04-19T04:14:19-04:00'
describe
'2826808' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMO' 'sip-files00088.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:22:48-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMP' 'sip-files00088.txt'
090327e9cf2e91d14a3276f7084bbeb8
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'2012-04-19T04:10:13-04:00'
describe
'148744' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMQ' 'sip-files00089.QC.jpg'
2beb8cf582825dca03cd71052a8555b7
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describe
'367056' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMR' 'sip-files00089.QC2.jpg'
75b4e3991496cb1fa6ec8b73781f5378
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'2012-04-19T04:15:35-04:00'
describe
'33746' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMS' 'sip-files00089.pro'
baa5af88ba762f6be99b63bd6f7d4c1c
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'2012-04-19T04:10:55-04:00'
describe
'2954668' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMT' 'sip-files00089.tif'
fad22b4bfc032ffec77fdfdfcd9784b7
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describe
'1334' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMU' 'sip-files00089.txt'
74637e27277cf9ef7ed595fd74ed47b2
567a8109197e43c90bcae220e20ce5f0fea5b29f
'2012-04-19T04:12:16-04:00'
describe
'150774' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMV' 'sip-files00090.QC.jpg'
d6465b28dbd591c73cba48e7dee1e6ae
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describe
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describe
'34321' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMX' 'sip-files00090.pro'
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describe
'2927424' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMY' 'sip-files00090.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:15:26-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHMZ' 'sip-files00090.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:14:27-04:00'
describe
'155659' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHNA' 'sip-files00091.QC.jpg'
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describe
'384204' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHNB' 'sip-files00091.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:21:20-04:00'
describe
'35694' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHNC' 'sip-files00091.pro'
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describe
'2907724' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHND' 'sip-files00091.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHNE' 'sip-files00091.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:13:56-04:00'
describe
'152472' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHNF' 'sip-files00092.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:15:53-04:00'
describe
'384811' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHNG' 'sip-files00092.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'33325' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHNH' 'sip-files00092.pro'
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describe
'2867796' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHNI' 'sip-files00092.tif'
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describe
'1337' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHNJ' 'sip-files00092.txt'
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describe
'120629' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHNK' 'sip-files00093.QC.jpg'
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describe
'315560' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHNL' 'sip-files00093.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'19292' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHNM' 'sip-files00093.pro'
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describe
'2877824' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHNN' 'sip-files00093.tif'
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describe
'768' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHNO' 'sip-files00093.txt'
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describe
'138274' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHNP' 'sip-files00094.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:21:43-04:00'
describe
'359659' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHNQ' 'sip-files00094.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'25309' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHNR' 'sip-files00094.pro'
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
'394091' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHNV' 'sip-files00095.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'35095' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHNW' 'sip-files00095.pro'
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describe
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describe
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'2012-04-19T04:21:15-04:00'
describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHOD' 'sip-files00096.txt'
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
'35502' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHOL' 'sip-files00098.pro'
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describe
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describe
'1425' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHON' 'sip-files00098.txt'
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describe
'33718' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHOO' 'sip-files00099.pro'
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describe
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describe
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describe
'2824200' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHOR' 'sip-files00099.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHOS' 'sip-files00099.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:21:30-04:00'
describe
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describe
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describe
'24128' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHOV' 'sip-files00100.pro'
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describe
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describe
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'2012-04-19T04:18:39-04:00'
describe
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describe
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describe
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'2012-04-19T04:21:49-04:00'
describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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'2012-04-19T04:14:46-04:00'
describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHPM' 'sip-files00103.txt'
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
'16503' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHPU' 'sip-files00105.pro'
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describe
'2847608' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHPV' 'sip-files00105.tif'
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describe
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describe
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c0f517932d4fc5c120436e4c2de7cc51
719385e00a7f4b674f556e2b586cbc6df25a574a
'2012-04-19T04:11:41-04:00'
describe
'367392' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHPY' 'sip-files00106.QC2.jpg'
cac33814480669aab4ef35f630976a82
5cc1572ebede255ad255881ee86e1c2f613e27d3
'2012-04-19T04:10:27-04:00'
describe
'24466' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHPZ' 'sip-files00106.pro'
ac39ca271dd610bc616a5de9a1149b49
f2edb4df7b3f8622a80d99a04f19b6d93e9105e7
'2012-04-19T04:22:11-04:00'
describe
'2820112' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQA' 'sip-files00106.tif'
bcc5afcbc43a6d9e50d53630a0499fe2
9e7965843c9e13aadf65cfcba717fb9d9f63888c
'2012-04-19T04:23:56-04:00'
describe
'1010' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQB' 'sip-files00106.txt'
5fc71df2d45a8cc079f3f52a7f33381b
fd4ad89f822ad436010e68f6d63bbc9528a42cdf
'2012-04-19T04:08:58-04:00'
describe
'163064' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQC' 'sip-files00107.QC.jpg'
a7863fa6c599c30bd8b647f2dcf15c91
7e560a421cbde9f9fa848af1a77f47cafedbbbd8
'2012-04-19T04:19:44-04:00'
describe
'402217' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQD' 'sip-files00107.QC2.jpg'
44417862aed7e70a4bc3f4383ccfe05b
c13271fa8b916c1c44fd2702564e8eb5ba399ccb
'2012-04-19T04:23:34-04:00'
describe
'34643' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQE' 'sip-files00107.pro'
a1887b0ab74a384571305615f7ca3557
b735a1aff59367ca798e21f22b17b89e2948fdff
describe
'2763224' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQF' 'sip-files00107.tif'
8028a7a0e8f854bf1512ccc4b6159985
e256e4441fdb3943322b06d08be5ab5da1befd78
'2012-04-19T04:10:53-04:00'
describe
'1363' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQG' 'sip-files00107.txt'
30e203117d6ecb6dafb586721f8a0d5e
fcdca0c31b48d520184f681726cd9c7b920b38f8
'2012-04-19T04:18:49-04:00'
describe
'160829' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQH' 'sip-files00108.QC.jpg'
d5e5f946bb9cc380f208b0b753ac6d0e
7182c79620a047db587d7d3ea1be173773b29c7a
describe
'396131' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQI' 'sip-files00108.QC2.jpg'
e6be4f07840e9424df34de945131a0b4
b9144c3d284bd9e0bee842200aabc91c62e00bf5
'2012-04-19T04:23:53-04:00'
describe
'33947' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQJ' 'sip-files00108.pro'
25bac59d5a02fdbc0e93b44f8ba7a8d7
870dcbde5ba5d446f75a8e99c855e500ab8217f0
'2012-04-19T04:17:17-04:00'
describe
'2861100' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQK' 'sip-files00108.tif'
6c12e6b67671c8833b86c1043a3865d4
4477764984e77510acc752e7c86b971fd16588e9
describe
'1359' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQL' 'sip-files00108.txt'
3c86965f1148e59d818008396921b827
36f34f8387b9b31de80de764473945e77ded3d72
describe
'155844' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQM' 'sip-files00109.QC.jpg'
b3d1940ca5427061704ac597c1104d67
862ef2073b3a48d6c5150592d1f74068a0720a8a
'2012-04-19T04:19:35-04:00'
describe
'383093' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQN' 'sip-files00109.QC2.jpg'
5314f032959df552bccdaede2fff198f
7183c90b84c1cdf3a8c02c50365fdc28e9807b44
'2012-04-19T04:23:19-04:00'
describe
'33722' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQO' 'sip-files00109.pro'
570161ba3b192b4bde1fa82bae9f1eac
ba4eaeac3109b67a477be8edd483330647a59e6a
'2012-04-19T04:12:22-04:00'
describe
'2885308' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQP' 'sip-files00109.tif'
5f8e00c0f34ba45f24eed298aaf57f82
26e2fdc89d724191dea883cd4c78c5f62bf656e1
'2012-04-19T04:24:18-04:00'
describe
'1327' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQQ' 'sip-files00109.txt'
de046d07a65a05f07f89badaa065e34b
6d63f86166a0643897d860db9347969e9cd8e31c
describe
'151076' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQR' 'sip-files00110.QC.jpg'
54eaba773564e719078adbb9efb808a2
1575353c4613e88d160e7a8b976ee55fd52b6ec3
'2012-04-19T04:22:50-04:00'
describe
'378525' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQS' 'sip-files00110.QC2.jpg'
87cea0f39c5332232b8be40eec0108d5
41a91832ca951272d31c4b67ced86b6c96c19e63
'2012-04-19T04:10:45-04:00'
describe
'34013' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQT' 'sip-files00110.pro'
38119d87ebfd7e3335ad22f02dd95ef8
98f2f5b1d8dd83ed9ee3791f1d80e70f10fe8dc3
'2012-04-19T04:11:08-04:00'
describe
'2876020' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQU' 'sip-files00110.tif'
fa12186dff9382ec8cb86f2c3a4a6758
4f9ff32b4ee08a6420aad4135bf903109cd40aa5
'2012-04-19T04:17:10-04:00'
describe
'1369' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQV' 'sip-files00110.txt'
c78a9835d07127fe9a25b1d1a188fae9
f6567e1b482df9800c47f22f1f37042709224b53
describe
'155979' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQW' 'sip-files00111.QC.jpg'
d03b3a9e22e500e2c066e98e2e543670
67fb6be03e6c1a6a8e9d663aaeed911930aec05b
describe
'393656' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQX' 'sip-files00111.QC2.jpg'
e6bbfc3dffdb867af4cb535c078b7adc
b7fa3c6b86a9d8b999dfa0a422c8c244ce78ba2d
'2012-04-19T04:17:41-04:00'
describe
'34561' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQY' 'sip-files00111.pro'
aa6bb96af33e9d8aeccb21535b6c55f0
fda143a00eaa4681d13f9cbc5ca3e9ecad635008
'2012-04-19T04:15:51-04:00'
describe
'2847940' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHQZ' 'sip-files00111.tif'
2f486d67e263941c4039bd19d92c4714
8a03ec7227c3be0b4b19e2380f21aab30499070d
'2012-04-19T04:15:22-04:00'
describe
'1360' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRA' 'sip-files00111.txt'
548aae9c161703b9235f14130a1ec9d9
1c9567bbc5738ab5d2fd733a21e7f126465601e6
'2012-04-19T04:10:41-04:00'
describe
'156599' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRB' 'sip-files00112.QC.jpg'
69d6c757cc611e713efed42292c7be48
4d0cc2d73232854ecd12561d4f617e5d97bea39b
'2012-04-19T04:15:23-04:00'
describe
'423891' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRC' 'sip-files00112.QC2.jpg'
a2561c7ad12a059c4a87202c838c4dd6
35e4cff82f45c81b0e03907c51246a4cf7ce3234
describe
'4408' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRD' 'sip-files00112.pro'
5b04915fe9be18887b3a79da1d3b7cdf
2379e8a11cbba3265c487d52342ee8c6159219e4
'2012-04-19T04:19:54-04:00'
describe
'2842088' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRE' 'sip-files00112.tif'
3eae8dc74454968ad1ee35b64c1e183d
b046fce6a7f5bc9f2133971e4295dfb13893301b
describe
'231' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRF' 'sip-files00112.txt'
a1fe227587c3971134850f99d71150de
0b2193836c6c696bb004760a4b6f2b100532f25c
'2012-04-19T04:24:01-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'13162' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRG' 'sip-files00113.pro'
39659523cabfe257be90cee385cd187d
076de9f0a3370d18ee31bf57a7cf2e187596d9a0
describe
'105320' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRH' 'sip-files00113.QC.jpg'
4efffb374d838c6f15c41281eb7c565b
79f8678bd399bd3657f380a03b3cff61d237f1b2
describe
'285509' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRI' 'sip-files00113.QC2.jpg'
50bac0a253853cc6e1990a34fb9f6ed8
33588c66656b16371af86c307f9cfb693b243fbd
'2012-04-19T04:20:12-04:00'
describe
'2877164' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRJ' 'sip-files00113.tif'
07cc81254597511d480410b6edc1fbb6
c728ebd1aa4edadb081c02a2e48fa3b4d444d6bd
'2012-04-19T04:16:53-04:00'
describe
'542' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRK' 'sip-files00113.txt'
2da71b5a37434fcb85e9b833aa694d24
bcbf90ad8d601479353d01d9d99383bcfc3a79dc
describe
'142394' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRL' 'sip-files00114.QC.jpg'
fe9134bc2b31969ddda79a184278c920
a14ef7775ae9e98fa23d2fcd0792bde899695b66
'2012-04-19T04:21:38-04:00'
describe
'361181' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRM' 'sip-files00114.QC2.jpg'
fa8145767d14ef35dda32075f1d39b11
7c846684f510e1cccc456da3dabe46bedae2c21c
'2012-04-19T04:22:20-04:00'
describe
'25151' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRN' 'sip-files00114.pro'
c4f55077e8ee05a3beedc47cfb0c538e
230f1a1f59c07b30deaaac9883b24b2390ccef25
'2012-04-19T04:19:19-04:00'
describe
'2829136' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRO' 'sip-files00114.tif'
9390dd2274c5fe74e8db2e514208a914
cf43902c5204a44188a343b68d1a9437911be368
'2012-04-19T04:24:13-04:00'
describe
'1110' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRP' 'sip-files00114.txt'
309144cb92a58b7c74909d309e93fe57
d6c3490e155d90d5272fda1cc76f1e577095222d
describe
Invalid character
'152723' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRQ' 'sip-files00115.QC.jpg'
a284bd0ab7222c8e9fb72c13909e7dfa
64a115579e56ec0835366fccf67112ebeddb944f
'2012-04-19T04:16:20-04:00'
describe
'379952' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRR' 'sip-files00115.QC2.jpg'
d0d06bde567968d0d19e06d44bf40b24
c4af5c8726a265e6dc0ac661d8dbe49e0f4af7c4
describe
'33086' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRS' 'sip-files00115.pro'
5d61310ff184b9daa34d28d42032f13e
ca2122e0fb8fca5f784078de9857caa05e9b661e
describe
'2818892' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRT' 'sip-files00115.tif'
2d486465eebc5ed128d41f4a27044c11
03474e67e97bcf1312298a12a3734310f24579a7
'2012-04-19T04:10:22-04:00'
describe
'1323' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRU' 'sip-files00115.txt'
562db48d200e80053c7d5e0a01caafc6
0b61c054220940e6f6776765dc78c00fe1c0585d
'2012-04-19T04:21:19-04:00'
describe
'161365' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRV' 'sip-files00116.QC.jpg'
3daecf95b0b9d023ee4b3df7f6be0cdb
9685dc5ce607258e9e715f5419a4ff345aa894d0
'2012-04-19T04:20:18-04:00'
describe
'399458' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRW' 'sip-files00116.QC2.jpg'
5611613b740db04d5a4b23bdc0f79184
c4f97f2598e14b7244ac4e70dd0f68082a891a7c
describe
'35422' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRX' 'sip-files00116.pro'
57f3634e6b1ed42d075b93e30f36157a
a34a5a8b41ff268183c300a2f5b114574499efad
'2012-04-19T04:14:33-04:00'
describe
'2799140' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRY' 'sip-files00116.tif'
e53e1d54c3baf436a6c6e8ca7f40d7b0
d92c9008abfbc52a42ca52b02bf86641d634e00a
'2012-04-19T04:15:24-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHRZ' 'sip-files00116.txt'
2ba38104ba20bd8a86571552b1393d3d
5b4b486f8b9be67e55d11491b6dfa281b24b0b24
'2012-04-19T04:21:36-04:00'
describe
'152980' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSA' 'sip-files00117.QC.jpg'
f013fba354970f646e50631986ce4f47
4b68a3ef71dd46332c28d5b261bcec5457066b88
'2012-04-19T04:19:16-04:00'
describe
'386903' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSB' 'sip-files00117.QC2.jpg'
bddb90f973280011942226a4e5cac327
1e139f8da29996adabcf9e26edf4c0954f9f5874
describe
'33629' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSC' 'sip-files00117.pro'
77fca6a5e27e45493c7b3ddc668f5bf0
a93efbba03d431966821e2083496773eb2dce4e1
describe
'2883332' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSD' 'sip-files00117.tif'
91740f9974b8030a408f7c724b901eb7
2524208de609982160ad1618db29ad3ef5072db7
'2012-04-19T04:13:27-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSE' 'sip-files00117.txt'
a24076b9bfd87f8d823f60466e66c76c
a768abbb304416fe48d10bee91b6504e5bbec725
'2012-04-19T04:18:12-04:00'
describe
'151314' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSF' 'sip-files00118.QC.jpg'
142945b677cb119aa95965fd0f21d6fb
cf0bd476304cf945ee183e373d2cb1570623afa7
'2012-04-19T04:23:30-04:00'
describe
'382948' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSG' 'sip-files00118.QC2.jpg'
58f397860b9dff65eb192f9332fb66f7
a302e31a997fa64e520ed0365bc890532bb9c6fa
describe
'34079' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSH' 'sip-files00118.pro'
f8d875ab105884d10afc91a4d0b6bac8
b8362007eaf2a7cb416b558bb92d772ca324de15
'2012-04-19T04:23:24-04:00'
describe
'2867432' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSI' 'sip-files00118.tif'
a6d3f00b97c25a952bf200da7c648c49
8f137c3e47f77268825e653fe0f14ac8d0fceec1
describe
'1342' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSJ' 'sip-files00118.txt'
368cdee12dabe984d6b2c1ae226b22c4
cef05b1b325a731b5ef9a9c8e187b344d9901faa
'2012-04-19T04:22:08-04:00'
describe
'153053' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSK' 'sip-files00119.QC.jpg'
de5dc1950f1d36ffd6ad4ad14504e279
b8a8cb401812f23c5df08f8280c2e517d7e7eb40
describe
'384785' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSL' 'sip-files00119.QC2.jpg'
6c075506df0ab7d7d4415820b6b818e1
61ce642b72b3793a92e07ec60bb8fadcbfa74bdf
describe
'34142' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSM' 'sip-files00119.pro'
7601f1a8767d99d0c90e42db58747ce6
4143b3028a7d23c999e279c596257da82d166981
'2012-04-19T04:15:42-04:00'
describe
'2828592' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSN' 'sip-files00119.tif'
7d8c563371e2670ecee2afde1b485b5d
218693879d631c945484a2116af16842c8967401
'2012-04-19T04:21:21-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSO' 'sip-files00119.txt'
5f3ea64ec423c3412083794ba133a98e
474592445c94e2f2fc397a20ce408b38cb108bb0
describe
'121165' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSP' 'sip-files00120.QC.jpg'
ef2fec24226e7350d45b6bb64be016c7
392aed50e08c8140a0f638d5c76d38205b83e129
'2012-04-19T04:12:33-04:00'
describe
'321555' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSQ' 'sip-files00120.QC2.jpg'
1c5b4f2ece94bc4d8da2d973b8addb6e
95ad4b61c4262f1bb79a1d7528a80e08481803bc
describe
'21286' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSR' 'sip-files00120.pro'
d3b576e0957fd2f6d45c7926c12bc4f7
1c52cd0c660805bfb385c5be436a9e5ebb42f09f
describe
'2859296' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSS' 'sip-files00120.tif'
63a071c248d09c0dd9f2d90b7622b8e8
f97d5567f11a0cd5b0274e8f808f1e8d66d26899
'2012-04-19T04:08:56-04:00'
describe
'892' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHST' 'sip-files00120.txt'
a231359a847d85b16b1eddee38af4211
6febd4bb8b19d7a68595cc7f12a6518817a6b63d
'2012-04-19T04:15:05-04:00'
describe
'140590' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSU' 'sip-files00121.QC.jpg'
482e57143f599d6fb8326552e993f7c8
ccdc5e2a072e570bad21b453907bad8856a4d07a
describe
'363732' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSV' 'sip-files00121.QC2.jpg'
3cbb1b83d7c34b4737a6cbbfda885605
a1980981fad4630792b0d1a3816d788c5258c0bc
'2012-04-19T04:17:40-04:00'
describe
'25181' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSW' 'sip-files00121.pro'
aa7e33f6ebad98ef3ac3ce8dae1e24cd
d90ffcccf64abf43c31eaae8c81579e0a64eabe9
describe
'2881348' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSX' 'sip-files00121.tif'
d65b6cf9669ef646ab6ddcb304bb7cf1
f16251b3d52377e69dab5365de0e399961c87eb3
'2012-04-19T04:14:58-04:00'
describe
'1032' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSY' 'sip-files00121.txt'
a6ed3f81615f04b1d9126bf32742d0f4
77d7be6d643c8d5b44659f4049b0a5d49603900b
'2012-04-19T04:15:32-04:00'
describe
'155360' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHSZ' 'sip-files00122.QC.jpg'
6e8f9e2ac0081165cdffc27a50e66796
850a038d5d00a70ea374768721bd616de8e28208
'2012-04-19T04:22:57-04:00'
describe
'382930' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTA' 'sip-files00122.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:19:51-04:00'
describe
'35043' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTB' 'sip-files00122.pro'
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describe
'2802824' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTC' 'sip-files00122.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:14:25-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTD' 'sip-files00122.txt'
ae35020fb7d385ecf30aca54fe89ad59
3671e46ec21b1287b0ca6fdca82afbb28365384c
'2012-04-19T04:22:06-04:00'
describe
'156203' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTE' 'sip-files00123.QC.jpg'
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describe
'390396' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTF' 'sip-files00123.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34500' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTG' 'sip-files00123.pro'
dd253b3851991842822e45e6c62e328c
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'2012-04-19T04:20:19-04:00'
describe
'2840116' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTH' 'sip-files00123.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTI' 'sip-files00123.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:24:03-04:00'
describe
'156744' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTJ' 'sip-files00124.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:23:05-04:00'
describe
'383919' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTK' 'sip-files00124.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34920' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTL' 'sip-files00124.pro'
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describe
'2875732' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTM' 'sip-files00124.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:14:49-04:00'
describe
'1372' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTN' 'sip-files00124.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:24:44-04:00'
describe
'155975' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTO' 'sip-files00125.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:20:28-04:00'
describe
'390728' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTP' 'sip-files00125.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:17:12-04:00'
describe
'33849' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTQ' 'sip-files00125.pro'
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'2012-04-19T04:24:27-04:00'
describe
'2855436' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTR' 'sip-files00125.tif'
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describe
'1350' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTS' 'sip-files00125.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:20:21-04:00'
describe
'152955' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTT' 'sip-files00126.QC.jpg'
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describe
'374891' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTU' 'sip-files00126.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:14:02-04:00'
describe
'33427' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTV' 'sip-files00126.pro'
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'2012-04-19T04:10:57-04:00'
describe
'2736708' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTW' 'sip-files00126.tif'
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describe
'1320' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTX' 'sip-files00126.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:24:16-04:00'
describe
'12416' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTY' 'sip-files00127.pro'
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describe
'105530' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHTZ' 'sip-files00127.QC.jpg'
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describe
'285398' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHUA' 'sip-files00127.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:22:51-04:00'
describe
'2857280' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHUB' 'sip-files00127.tif'
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describe
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'2012-04-19T04:14:12-04:00'
describe
'145534' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHUD' 'sip-files00128.QC.jpg'
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describe
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'2012-04-19T04:12:45-04:00'
describe
'24554' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHUF' 'sip-files00128.pro'
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describe
'2803400' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHUG' 'sip-files00128.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:22:21-04:00'
describe
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'2012-04-19T04:12:39-04:00'
describe
'155981' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHUI' 'sip-files00129.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:21:13-04:00'
describe
'385377' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHUJ' 'sip-files00129.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:12:58-04:00'
describe
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'2012-04-19T04:09:17-04:00'
describe
'2831288' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHUL' 'sip-files00129.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:23:10-04:00'
describe
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'2012-04-19T04:24:24-04:00'
describe
'155771' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHUN' 'sip-files00130.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:17:38-04:00'
describe
'384563' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHUO' 'sip-files00130.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'35279' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHUP' 'sip-files00130.pro'
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describe
'2828124' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHUQ' 'sip-files00130.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:16:37-04:00'
describe
'1388' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHUR' 'sip-files00130.txt'
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describe
'156272' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHUS' 'sip-files00131.QC.jpg'
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describe
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describe
'34928' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHUU' 'sip-files00131.pro'
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describe
'2804780' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHUV' 'sip-files00131.tif'
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describe
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'2012-04-19T04:13:00-04:00'
describe
'156136' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHUX' 'sip-files00132.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:13:37-04:00'
describe
'387028' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHUY' 'sip-files00132.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHUZ' 'sip-files00132.pro'
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describe
'2872956' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHVA' 'sip-files00132.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:08:59-04:00'
describe
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'2012-04-19T04:18:35-04:00'
describe
'152176' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHVC' 'sip-files00133.QC.jpg'
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describe
'375479' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHVD' 'sip-files00133.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:16:27-04:00'
describe
'34407' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHVE' 'sip-files00133.pro'
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describe
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHVG' 'sip-files00133.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:23:44-04:00'
describe
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'2012-04-19T04:20:33-04:00'
describe
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'2012-04-19T04:20:01-04:00'
describe
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describe
'2849188' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHVK' 'sip-files00134.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:10:58-04:00'
describe
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'2012-04-19T04:17:23-04:00'
describe
'144085' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHVM' 'sip-files00135.QC.jpg'
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describe
'370126' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHVN' 'sip-files00135.QC2.jpg'
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describe
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describe
'2848900' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHVP' 'sip-files00135.tif'
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describe
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'2012-04-19T04:16:41-04:00'
describe
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describe
'384077' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHVS' 'sip-files00136.QC2.jpg'
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describe
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describe
'2887664' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHVU' 'sip-files00136.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:13:57-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHVV' 'sip-files00136.txt'
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describe
'153995' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHVW' 'sip-files00137.QC.jpg'
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describe
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describe
'34563' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHVY' 'sip-files00137.pro'
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describe
'2859988' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHVZ' 'sip-files00137.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWA' 'sip-files00137.txt'
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describe
'164591' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWB' 'sip-files00138.QC.jpg'
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describe
'438694' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWC' 'sip-files00138.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'4343' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWD' 'sip-files00138.pro'
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describe
'2839660' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWE' 'sip-files00138.tif'
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describe
'324' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWF' 'sip-files00138.txt'
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describe
'153682' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWG' 'sip-files00139.QC.jpg'
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describe
'381136' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWH' 'sip-files00139.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:09:55-04:00'
describe
'34999' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWI' 'sip-files00139.pro'
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describe
'2855180' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWJ' 'sip-files00139.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:22:46-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWK' 'sip-files00139.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:20:06-04:00'
describe
'158976' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWL' 'sip-files00140.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:20:02-04:00'
describe
'396376' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWM' 'sip-files00140.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34309' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWN' 'sip-files00140.pro'
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'2012-04-19T04:10:26-04:00'
describe
'2811488' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWO' 'sip-files00140.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:19:53-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWP' 'sip-files00140.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:17:31-04:00'
describe
'34639' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWQ' 'sip-files00141.pro'
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'2012-04-19T04:24:10-04:00'
describe
'152450' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWR' 'sip-files00141.QC.jpg'
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describe
'379224' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWS' 'sip-files00141.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:09:28-04:00'
describe
'2946768' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWT' 'sip-files00141.tif'
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describe
'1361' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWU' 'sip-files00141.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:13:01-04:00'
describe
'141304' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWV' 'sip-files00142.QC.jpg'
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describe
'353024' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWW' 'sip-files00142.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:24:55-04:00'
describe
'27599' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWX' 'sip-files00142.pro'
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describe
'2826960' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWY' 'sip-files00142.tif'
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describe
'1138' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHWZ' 'sip-files00142.txt'
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describe
'138592' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHXA' 'sip-files00143.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:19:27-04:00'
describe
'353772' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHXB' 'sip-files00143.QC2.jpg'
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describe
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describe
'2901352' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHXD' 'sip-files00143.tif'
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describe
'1063' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHXE' 'sip-files00143.txt'
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describe
'155817' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHXF' 'sip-files00144.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:21:00-04:00'
describe
'387209' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHXG' 'sip-files00144.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'36306' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHXH' 'sip-files00144.pro'
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describe
'2917016' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHXI' 'sip-files00144.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:20:59-04:00'
describe
'1458' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHXJ' 'sip-files00144.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:20:00-04:00'
describe
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describe
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describe
'34241' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHXM' 'sip-files00145.pro'
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describe
'2798888' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHXN' 'sip-files00145.tif'
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describe
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describe
'151411' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHXP' 'sip-files00146.QC.jpg'
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describe
'373693' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHXQ' 'sip-files00146.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'35232' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHXR' 'sip-files00146.pro'
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describe
'2888332' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHXS' 'sip-files00146.tif'
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describe
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describe
'157088' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHXU' 'sip-files00147.QC.jpg'
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describe
'389144' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHXV' 'sip-files00147.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34151' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHXW' 'sip-files00147.pro'
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describe
'2818040' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHXX' 'sip-files00147.tif'
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describe
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describe
'156195' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHXZ' 'sip-files00148.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:08:42-04:00'
describe
'385326' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHYA' 'sip-files00148.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34967' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHYB' 'sip-files00148.pro'
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describe
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describe
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describe
'120192' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHYE' 'sip-files00149.QC.jpg'
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describe
'319658' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHYF' 'sip-files00149.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'17172' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHYG' 'sip-files00149.pro'
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describe
'2805832' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHYH' 'sip-files00149.tif'
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describe
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describe
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describe
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'2012-04-19T04:21:48-04:00'
describe
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describe
'2808732' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHYM' 'sip-files00150.tif'
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
'2791560' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHYR' 'sip-files00151.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHYS' 'sip-files00151.txt'
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describe
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describe
'386497' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHYU' 'sip-files00152.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34020' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHYV' 'sip-files00152.pro'
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describe
'2807444' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHYW' 'sip-files00152.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHYX' 'sip-files00152.txt'
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describe
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describe
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describe
'34723' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZA' 'sip-files00153.pro'
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describe
'2919024' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZB' 'sip-files00153.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZC' 'sip-files00153.txt'
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describe
'157581' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZD' 'sip-files00154.QC.jpg'
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describe
'386928' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZE' 'sip-files00154.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34803' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZF' 'sip-files00154.pro'
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describe
'2842956' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZG' 'sip-files00154.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZH' 'sip-files00154.txt'
260820338229d40a455c42fc179c911f
ed29372b7ff98508fae3ef1efb0be6ac58721d08
describe
'2799772' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZI' 'sip-files00159.tif'
0b83c32dc3696545ba687ac26a175520
c1edc06ae8837f24069c530012544ff2041902d1
describe
'156517' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZJ' 'sip-files00155.QC.jpg'
cc0aacdb232e3e2dd3fb1029ec2aecff
9a3ee6886385f13d30dfedf145872fb4209cb57d
'2012-04-19T04:22:03-04:00'
describe
'386712' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZK' 'sip-files00155.QC2.jpg'
620d2ebf67c664b2da7e62fdf1a681a7
ad17982e5dad647a3b1e57cd74383b81af530d7b
'2012-04-19T04:18:09-04:00'
describe
'35159' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZL' 'sip-files00155.pro'
739e87a2a49c17c2c5f2da8855f889f5
b55a62e3c527b353cdcf42bbb5fccede09c647ff
'2012-04-19T04:15:04-04:00'
describe
'2808780' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZM' 'sip-files00155.tif'
1446df7f17420b4f8c03e446a77a8a46
564ca5305206856549c0f178b06beb421518ff60
'2012-04-19T04:16:29-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZN' 'sip-files00155.txt'
9195f8419b62bf0d72d08bb5cde53320
9cd41c89392b3f7e3de69efbdc77d98658431cdb
describe
'141219' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZO' 'sip-files00156.QC.jpg'
3910087cbb09224a326a01c95865e6cc
09e5af790676ffc034a9e01188d4c691c065e0ce
describe
'362349' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZP' 'sip-files00156.QC2.jpg'
ef2df5100b5551c2e49f21846db4350c
7f202b7bcec313ab5cc02f38db830292df32def5
describe
'24867' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZQ' 'sip-files00156.pro'
6b4496e1085089104309c102e7ee8f39
010fe0cc5b0f646d214a670716bc173053873832
describe
'2854952' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZR' 'sip-files00156.tif'
ff89790957e54b8ce7c06dd6cef87c80
63efd72a2f427cc5b5e4116f277f097e7c963239
'2012-04-19T04:12:40-04:00'
describe
'1040' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZS' 'sip-files00156.txt'
da2a610cfb43e88a922875a4a9d6a789
a3a4a80ba4ca8688be1a775174deeb0c09c049ce
describe
Invalid character
'155942' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZT' 'sip-files00157.QC.jpg'
122e3c0e72b72b258a053acc270005d6
f5aaec5fc273b8e4847bac6cb11f514c5be11af3
'2012-04-19T04:09:51-04:00'
describe
'382121' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZU' 'sip-files00157.QC2.jpg'
7a6a8cee0bdcf4efc0a8dc0345fed1c2
e16d006cfe8fd742c828eb4dd41adbb3eac08049
describe
'33639' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZV' 'sip-files00157.pro'
ef2f2202c63346359079a9bacc3a99f9
0051b32c580921e117dfb9664c454966221f82c2
'2012-04-19T04:23:07-04:00'
describe
'2828344' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZW' 'sip-files00157.tif'
c77e3d5f2650990850f50e211f3c6beb
4d6dce6afbc4ea88c24da15d97081e8ad13672a8
describe
'1329' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZX' 'sip-files00157.txt'
2377dafb495b1135813de700ed370934
dac1df9f9642197e70aa8ee059a4a6b0501866fd
describe
'155634' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZY' 'sip-files00158.QC.jpg'
2129c37556bcc4c02893655b427683bf
b26988915d8aec9a027c46a78982c32a5ea002e5
describe
'379785' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABHZZ' 'sip-files00158.QC2.jpg'
783a6109a097c0f001a6370e9d221267
6e99ad5260dc68b61050932d2e300415c50dc8e9
'2012-04-19T04:17:08-04:00'
describe
'33998' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAA' 'sip-files00158.pro'
59d5039cdfb04a61023a55d2e8cd4ae4
5e56c2f15683b02579decaba9a177a053fa09e2b
'2012-04-19T04:11:37-04:00'
describe
'2842184' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAB' 'sip-files00158.tif'
6da61a798c568cbbdee435604f678d93
d85ebf1211a4734060afa0953c596e1b5a245b0a
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAC' 'sip-files00158.txt'
5026d3eaf311996f2ed9f392060494a0
c5448d6cba36f94745587eb97474354c1cdafac8
describe
'158514' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAD' 'sip-files00159.QC.jpg'
c77cd6718637d0ff8c4a0ee41a8085c4
322e8caee595d14f0ec11d52d78149ae386bef29
'2012-04-19T04:23:15-04:00'
describe
'395711' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAE' 'sip-files00159.QC2.jpg'
958822ab938a6a64ff8bdc16c777116f
3f573c9c1fcc6ba9a65ea9ba26c99a9c5fbd5c32
'2012-04-19T04:12:30-04:00'
describe
'34485' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAF' 'sip-files00159.pro'
03838bf95821f6d2450f4095d8cc6e6e
76ef36f0034ba34521bf8a999ba4a0bc9e1e3079
'2012-04-19T04:16:24-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAG' 'sip-files00159.txt'
763cfdccdb4de3d3b98125c184d73cc2
3d2aaabc5484e88a3c2fe045e3f4568c2b4491cd
'2012-04-19T04:11:17-04:00'
describe
'156300' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAH' 'sip-files00160.QC.jpg'
8c2c07e07982e95750d72d5c1055a906
163267868fd8479dcb8f8f0874fc39814952aed6
describe
'389258' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAI' 'sip-files00160.QC2.jpg'
e2f4e81077733ede11b71c44bf2c242b
e134326e4f610ba025245982b71b7593588d57e0
describe
'33964' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAJ' 'sip-files00160.pro'
8807829b8538a284bf87f6ed244e510f
ecd117c7d41a712baa280c74c13c0feca65a1a72
'2012-04-19T04:14:09-04:00'
describe
'2824848' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAK' 'sip-files00160.tif'
5620bbcb6ded58fb6c878088b6833095
df32fec0a480131b52dce892b6255bf153227724
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAL' 'sip-files00160.txt'
fdc16f98c39ab237f5628cdf5070a2b6
7f9e5685a1bc25c8efc397c73d855f617f41ee15
'2012-04-19T04:19:08-04:00'
describe
'139696' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAM' 'sip-files00161.QC.jpg'
dacdfd2f4f335c1db786feedd1e43035
8b05964d4c8c8ea34c65fafea940a4a2028defd0
describe
'357587' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAN' 'sip-files00161.QC2.jpg'
f5bda329749319bb1629cb6d9f032912
46acadb123594df240049e3859b03392af80c0ea
'2012-04-19T04:18:43-04:00'
describe
'28456' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAO' 'sip-files00161.pro'
73cc0150ea9a4e8086b690bf6232c026
0d4fd122fc28df1a32a40691181cc711d0bc77bb
describe
'2777556' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAP' 'sip-files00161.tif'
a82d178fb95cb31467e2dadc0189c15d
9be5628c7daf3f7ae13f33956f5ef4fd69aa2207
'2012-04-19T04:16:17-04:00'
describe
'1180' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAQ' 'sip-files00161.txt'
c7a9fbbd6ae031f5b66d934c72bb93c1
4c0440fed235a1b2c468863aa9f2bf10c8a06a67
describe
Invalid character
'144305' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAR' 'sip-files00162.QC.jpg'
c30b3461f15b969cd8c42c5176b1a8d9
ef9b8a2834eb9dce74d249b604956e14e1350f4c
describe
'363510' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAS' 'sip-files00162.QC2.jpg'
5e74ddbeb001b75e68c6c4cb626bdb3b
47c6bf4d98f781ca67c09121c83dd4ab94ab9b38
'2012-04-19T04:24:04-04:00'
describe
'24224' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAT' 'sip-files00162.pro'
7ef42d11a07badd0a99504e0c0486510
e3ad2db70a5721944f65e1d8ca21582fa9106125
describe
'2783380' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAU' 'sip-files00162.tif'
485eed3570e9aa7a3fad2e1c404dbd60
b9708fbadb7f4dd7f3aa9cf09138df11d1585da9
describe
'1003' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAV' 'sip-files00162.txt'
e7935565c8fe0b868df85ad29d3c99ab
c01c30f943f2ebe7da78f045ec6e27f57d7247aa
'2012-04-19T04:14:55-04:00'
describe
'160559' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAW' 'sip-files00163.QC.jpg'
228c37553a13802ddbc006ea717a669a
edb229218a67874b4ead9348e6daa67d43ef161b
describe
'399672' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAX' 'sip-files00163.QC2.jpg'
82fdaa9c4aa247017a106eca2fd630b4
09151f9b00475cb904504d69c6e8fc7ea2ed95c2
describe
'35072' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAY' 'sip-files00163.pro'
5e2ea3acccb2e280e40713f899f3c1f5
90d5a2673bd57ef6dc0f7c3338df0da7e6e55706
'2012-04-19T04:19:43-04:00'
describe
'2770472' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIAZ' 'sip-files00163.tif'
58add791516099488d9babbc9e343b34
d0ed757d5bff85b41e600767ebba09ec066c75b5
'2012-04-19T04:18:01-04:00'
describe
'1381' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBA' 'sip-files00163.txt'
2c8ef44cd06b5a3c2ee4eebf072c3a70
ab8966839b5fe526f3274f4c1f60dc408f0ea1de
'2012-04-19T04:24:08-04:00'
describe
'160185' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBB' 'sip-files00164.QC.jpg'
fe4d72ed9691d8e578a5ce6dbbf9e560
e68d143eb7620490fc542ae6d140da3537d60a55
'2012-04-19T04:14:34-04:00'
describe
'432330' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBC' 'sip-files00164.QC2.jpg'
dfdad031d142c325ba9139e4b4b8357f
b5e55181a160deb3e27997991bfc76a717c81ddc
'2012-04-19T04:13:33-04:00'
describe
'8450' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBD' 'sip-files00164.pro'
17a6bddf115d8b9feeeac07691e11628
1c558c3e87c192f798206d2a5b8f2cac31d75e9a
'2012-04-19T04:24:48-04:00'
describe
'2793156' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBE' 'sip-files00164.tif'
0f8c3fed4e62f7b6a691b848f035d42d
a5a5e732db357580eb0ad9fc2e95b69b4f5535dd
describe
'499' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBF' 'sip-files00164.txt'
aa7f7c1bc5ed1216e37eca8c0d850831
638b2b99d50136dccbe802c204894ea601996d0b
'2012-04-19T04:21:24-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'158815' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBG' 'sip-files00165.QC.jpg'
bb900774c46268228d9777b5f7e17b7e
97bb3dab5afc67eb81fa8d92207b7a96d85a0307
describe
'396979' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBH' 'sip-files00165.QC2.jpg'
a5f71bbeebd220db1818ebb80eadb0b3
e53d36e477d9c6f734e934ce15b05c79a9826b9e
describe
'34614' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBI' 'sip-files00165.pro'
88c14188ed9a886b178dc507a6bef51b
1177c7ba3e6bea14c20cd611564c12f989bb3849
'2012-04-19T04:09:23-04:00'
describe
'2828388' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBJ' 'sip-files00165.tif'
390b8716a14a4d4ab0e6df1c1bf6852b
a72a954e7912c317c71bf1ac5cefdbc5d18a2772
describe
'1390' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBK' 'sip-files00165.txt'
177ff19fd9f43f452eb5c04dc11abae0
18e4fcc51b5b26cbb432162fc2140d9ecf24ee45
describe
'154953' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBL' 'sip-files00166.QC.jpg'
6222441d37bd7c58cde5cd579f705376
891f909b3815b8138f1f51085b9bd2f5f1a7be79
'2012-04-19T04:22:00-04:00'
describe
'386322' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBM' 'sip-files00166.QC2.jpg'
2a23560766e08aae2eb00323215742d8
8bff83f837d125cc44a0fd4ce13edbcf830b448e
describe
'35598' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBN' 'sip-files00166.pro'
82949dd31a75a8daebfc58c1dd9e4452
db45c078629c333732d81d172491aac400a1739e
describe
'2887216' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBO' 'sip-files00166.tif'
18152bc03f83bfaa355ce61ebb0cbc29
555d504faff92191dccd370de3999e63db60f3c6
'2012-04-19T04:22:45-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBP' 'sip-files00166.txt'
c9fc13da8422d572fd7f15f58f269bde
00cefa29d9fc71aa82c8cbf0fe0ea36bd0f59ec2
describe
'151239' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBQ' 'sip-files00167.QC.jpg'
c37d3fed2aceef56d7413310ec3b94ad
fb9c65f5250d50a3f0012a397817367f545a85da
describe
'375033' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBR' 'sip-files00167.QC2.jpg'
c64f5c434044c594ce2e7243b34aa4e3
c03ec9a393ae1228754a40c867c9ead9c8aa4439
describe
'34267' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBS' 'sip-files00167.pro'
f9803bcd0632c7d97197182dfc5a75f5
ce00ee1a7bbdb646d64d277a439b3e6f58915403
'2012-04-19T04:22:01-04:00'
describe
'2906320' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBT' 'sip-files00167.tif'
c17b0d50134f2c6b9ab86eec4312b6d6
828db4349721fff7ce85505a2bbca91bfb6aa261
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBU' 'sip-files00167.txt'
5c98f0e64c9b58da99612dc1a183adf5
249d8d1aa74707c1ac9c0a3c581841607b9593ec
'2012-04-19T04:21:16-04:00'
describe
'153004' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBV' 'sip-files00168.QC.jpg'
c77ef7debf9dc2633a2146316c983ae8
158e1e105ae7ba01aceea4e81922f60ffea7a8b3
describe
'379086' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBW' 'sip-files00168.QC2.jpg'
d6660014f6e178e0ab25edebee6dfd3a
a59f3b8ae2d8e07f627523d691a08b10b7fde0c6
describe
'33572' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBX' 'sip-files00168.pro'
bbd50c2c92bff1e8912f4c4fe995e6be
315a32319e88b672ee3920a5f66dbccec7bfda20
'2012-04-19T04:11:07-04:00'
describe
'2855312' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBY' 'sip-files00168.tif'
f2521c77a8b6179d596ebf2c7a926d34
6a2ce62fa4ef9275f00d9a6ebcc9e216eab6183a
describe
'1325' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIBZ' 'sip-files00168.txt'
b41a2580b5b2edf3580c850e9e0642a3
91781410401385769752cf7116f8c0f2f89999f8
describe
'3016880' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICA' 'sip-files00173.tif'
fe2e86804a1906e4d699d423ba0ed1de
a28a0d17dbd1e1aa30047e250e641728eef6c662
'2012-04-19T04:11:57-04:00'
describe
'146898' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICB' 'sip-files00169.QC.jpg'
577f80f272ea102da6ac1ae816910a71
f6f807a5b164cbb903e5a78d15731c76a057a4fb
'2012-04-19T04:20:54-04:00'
describe
'376775' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICC' 'sip-files00169.QC2.jpg'
c04105138e4de860e8633b7c2c5ffcf8
508c1296bc20f9a676f484cc654e314d69272bcb
'2012-04-19T04:17:14-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICD' 'sip-files00169.pro'
4638dee940ed5a6dccf5968b83b54181
f4b77c8192d5d6e4b7c21d72af259487b851ab6e
'2012-04-19T04:16:45-04:00'
describe
'2853792' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICE' 'sip-files00169.tif'
e4e4879bf13b6de6f1bb18f540e7729a
028a23a3dbcc97270e4c71eaf4ba87cf739578b0
'2012-04-19T04:15:41-04:00'
describe
'990' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICF' 'sip-files00169.txt'
87cf69f385038357c80aa6a0b887d0a1
192792f0a1e663b03d15f858cf04ac9da142299e
describe
'152239' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICG' 'sip-files00170.QC.jpg'
63670128f62188848bce980f8e778cbe
f51a5c6ec3e233f8291e6bb107b9e40a8ac73069
'2012-04-19T04:22:15-04:00'
describe
'383111' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICH' 'sip-files00170.QC2.jpg'
883e2f9c17c4a07f86faf64070786f67
7eb99385f4471977305f713cf7ae43201a6c1bc8
describe
'35220' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICI' 'sip-files00170.pro'
c6b89d43e276b45b57deb2c715479367
82cc88a86d2ad35d9766924582f5eeedff07b1dd
'2012-04-19T04:19:41-04:00'
describe
'2892564' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICJ' 'sip-files00170.tif'
5ae4011413c88f5decc4012302d48aab
5aa1df62811738e46dff30f84eb4e6260d1cb0f1
'2012-04-19T04:24:40-04:00'
describe
'1387' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICK' 'sip-files00170.txt'
8f576403f5a8b525ff3b6817a17d34ce
fbccc4476218507a9686fe40fb40e510977d19da
describe
'147155' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICL' 'sip-files00171.QC.jpg'
9ef033a557e9bc05fd15d323bed874fc
58ff4eb0ace86e04bea8b4cd995452c4622a4cb6
describe
'370067' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICM' 'sip-files00171.QC2.jpg'
70d9ccc6adf2f22e65f05e7309a260f8
b159a22bead088fa7b9b59f834dabd35de8fa9ac
describe
'34004' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICN' 'sip-files00171.pro'
a6a13af9e2541236618bbf94e30494e7
f560166272a7758658c67ad915ad5525bf3ee581
'2012-04-19T04:14:45-04:00'
describe
'2956456' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICO' 'sip-files00171.tif'
204cc97feea7563bdbf8ae733266337e
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICP' 'sip-files00171.txt'
fa27f3e5eb61551e1de89a5b9ae570ca
f2b032e872e379ec9873603376ea8e18f1c02316
describe
'152290' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICQ' 'sip-files00172.QC.jpg'
3d8f257a0c84cf7b65568bb037a38762
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describe
'382788' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICR' 'sip-files00172.QC2.jpg'
c2fd347aae50c0e7bcb5dc3fa3857689
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describe
'34888' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICS' 'sip-files00172.pro'
566671a2c138986422ac4990eb775749
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describe
'2949136' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICT' 'sip-files00172.tif'
12232dae7a0ced2dc6ed25de37d6ba24
546ef952aef570472d322eb59a8f0256c63efe71
'2012-04-19T04:19:12-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICU' 'sip-files00172.txt'
af8c8fa4797811b16ce8e26d73610fa7
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describe
'145486' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICV' 'sip-files00173.QC.jpg'
6a8a95b86105371b648d1d9bc7a6b9f3
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describe
'362111' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICW' 'sip-files00173.QC2.jpg'
f01d64121db68c32f9fd12f71713ecdb
46949f95f7a2a656eb7a3d1ae9bba102f2acd923
'2012-04-19T04:18:10-04:00'
describe
'33381' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICX' 'sip-files00173.pro'
a10dc279cd69c21077661a197cd612ea
c11db20f422d2ee9f5038d5a2cff298583b9c35d
'2012-04-19T04:18:22-04:00'
describe
'1332' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICY' 'sip-files00173.txt'
cca7884d12f32a16619590e63395f42b
b6bfd4a9329ca474f887927e585a6dca462bd6a5
describe
'129522' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABICZ' 'sip-files00174.QC.jpg'
52be03f0a37045e24b18cdd7fd741a78
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describe
'331023' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDA' 'sip-files00174.QC2.jpg'
6a6505464466a0abcbcefaf9c67d1525
8dd7b67ff87b761edf5156fb012164829b37e5af
describe
'26196' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDB' 'sip-files00174.pro'
0bf3bd7ab9059f6ec50b877f06975c88
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describe
'2953916' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDC' 'sip-files00174.tif'
ae862d39955067f8f1379496b180107d
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDD' 'sip-files00174.txt'
4cd00b51d4e2dbd0c248e58e59e9cd36
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describe
'134234' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDE' 'sip-files00175.QC.jpg'
1fe742c071028d8ddbfe9bb58fedbb3b
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describe
'347235' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDF' 'sip-files00175.QC2.jpg'
539bbca0ea327359d48c05e646c3eb65
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describe
'22926' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDG' 'sip-files00175.pro'
d200f9746f4542b22d8d6591ef1499b0
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describe
'2962544' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDH' 'sip-files00175.tif'
d9f3c645ee90c17049ac61d83f587b6b
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describe
'957' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDI' 'sip-files00175.txt'
71c50dab5acbf3ec99c92debada6dab6
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describe
'153092' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDJ' 'sip-files00176.QC.jpg'
0b0c7ac59a09e0de669a3d583d7a37e4
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describe
'378151' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDK' 'sip-files00176.QC2.jpg'
97e8202b5fd13d6400b598972562b371
feccb11ac1a7019f4d51cced20249d921f30062a
'2012-04-19T04:09:34-04:00'
describe
'34860' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDL' 'sip-files00176.pro'
d7302ec88a24687cea0b6920fb0bef68
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describe
'2953304' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDM' 'sip-files00176.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDN' 'sip-files00176.txt'
256d772e0eb2a40708abff488c2e9214
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describe
'148176' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDO' 'sip-files00177.QC.jpg'
4487d7b1f92340c5c0d6b17e68796707
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'2012-04-19T04:17:02-04:00'
describe
'364739' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDP' 'sip-files00177.QC2.jpg'
736e38d6e39df3a333ef9fedcc418d48
00f441b2e7f8afe9d9039e74bc04f4f45d536f16
'2012-04-19T04:09:44-04:00'
describe
'35509' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDQ' 'sip-files00177.pro'
7010b9c250da6814207d59dc78c50245
6e2f7e360e8b04740efd624d54f8dae98b4a33a4
'2012-04-19T04:21:44-04:00'
describe
'2970104' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDR' 'sip-files00177.tif'
a9c313a253d87ca7b8fdbd8e3270f970
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describe
'1426' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDS' 'sip-files00177.txt'
9d87d84f2d53b1618672f10bf4c53a6f
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'2012-04-19T04:10:19-04:00'
describe
'149544' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDT' 'sip-files00178.QC.jpg'
59c1e6da978c7972757bc12c47d3878e
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describe
'373673' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDU' 'sip-files00178.QC2.jpg'
7177eaa00527148b9f8437b4fa3b7ea7
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'2012-04-19T04:17:48-04:00'
describe
'33135' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDV' 'sip-files00178.pro'
5e24d8c7031a47bbf2a5451a70102f7c
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describe
'2901948' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDW' 'sip-files00178.tif'
3b2e11af2c1905b501590ed624e8a0c3
b52ead0f75054a5ddbb1d883d16467407786f4fd
'2012-04-19T04:18:28-04:00'
describe
'1305' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDX' 'sip-files00178.txt'
6200f35ad9ad78aea01f361d72884c9d
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'2012-04-19T04:16:12-04:00'
describe
'143801' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDY' 'sip-files00179.QC.jpg'
a140db88f9883348e5fe6eefe45b6e5d
cf8214e78be28414dc7f10fefd92853e70cb6e85
'2012-04-19T04:16:23-04:00'
describe
'359316' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIDZ' 'sip-files00179.QC2.jpg'
83b316baef03911ac7025623f5c0a09a
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describe
'33585' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEA' 'sip-files00179.pro'
ab153e081edc34972c6c0a0079b46793
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'2012-04-19T04:10:16-04:00'
describe
'2966252' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEB' 'sip-files00179.tif'
e215abb7ba49d45d42139c68e52e2aee
897a5eee9ad11ae00a10e01c382dad0647e2c7d2
'2012-04-19T04:14:01-04:00'
describe
'1345' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEC' 'sip-files00179.txt'
a4d490ec4eced8d9182a13067de42dbc
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'2012-04-19T04:11:28-04:00'
describe
'151287' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIED' 'sip-files00180.QC.jpg'
f44f2861f9cb4568efc0630532f6416c
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'2012-04-19T04:15:56-04:00'
describe
'373816' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEE' 'sip-files00180.QC2.jpg'
c47fc8e9c9171ee98c519fade8a24607
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'2012-04-19T04:14:52-04:00'
describe
'35527' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEF' 'sip-files00180.pro'
c61cabd65fb531e8532fe99b4e445cc7
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describe
'2946752' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEG' 'sip-files00180.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEH' 'sip-files00180.txt'
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describe
'136295' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEI' 'sip-files00181.QC.jpg'
cf616d965326dcec8a53de2f10ed42b9
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describe
'346908' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEJ' 'sip-files00181.QC2.jpg'
a99010cd7ed282f33b5ac2157f4a0164
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describe
'25304' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEK' 'sip-files00181.pro'
1a73f255f70196ea7e0fad8b9eca0f5b
2a3733d377b75a121a01d69a630268398eb619da
'2012-04-19T04:13:58-04:00'
describe
'2959532' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEL' 'sip-files00181.tif'
ba155d5c97e34a53dcf74dc994d6f6ee
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'2012-04-19T04:21:01-04:00'
describe
'1103' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEM' 'sip-files00181.txt'
62eeb94a0170606517594364db72a656
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'2012-04-19T04:14:48-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'153056' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEN' 'sip-files00182.QC.jpg'
ddc2eff9328f8ead67c6c1506fb23a6b
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describe
'386621' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEO' 'sip-files00182.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:21:58-04:00'
describe
'35100' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEP' 'sip-files00182.pro'
0b6128b50b6839b51569c40ba4d5df30
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describe
'2927200' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEQ' 'sip-files00182.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIER' 'sip-files00182.txt'
27035ce83654395ed1b57e9c1e0bfe5a
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describe
'2962640' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIES' 'sip-files00186.tif'
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describe
'148507' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIET' 'sip-files00183.QC.jpg'
d9e24c18422bfb9f4b9a1866f8b435e2
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'2012-04-19T04:18:16-04:00'
describe
'375559' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEU' 'sip-files00183.QC2.jpg'
ec81f2e9f8bc57a2e6d9f1c88d754c80
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describe
'35383' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEV' 'sip-files00183.pro'
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describe
'2994068' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEW' 'sip-files00183.tif'
7f5cb883a1cc8884d10677cd2f9d4590
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'2012-04-19T04:13:46-04:00'
describe
'1416' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEX' 'sip-files00183.txt'
bc233f6efec116467aa1ae7d754170f0
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describe
'151454' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEY' 'sip-files00184.QC.jpg'
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describe
'378576' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIEZ' 'sip-files00184.QC2.jpg'
f2570214936a79d0decf783fe7b2e913
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'2012-04-19T04:16:36-04:00'
describe
'34576' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFA' 'sip-files00184.pro'
38ab7bb35e3f086538e292fe74d93ead
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describe
'2919988' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFB' 'sip-files00184.tif'
6cf3fdc5d0f53a8dce72d9da6446e156
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describe
'1362' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFC' 'sip-files00184.txt'
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describe
'149767' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFD' 'sip-files00184a.QC.jpg'
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describe
'376741' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFE' 'sip-files00184a.QC2.jpg'
d0e9a27991dc2b47fe37895c3a67d09b
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'2012-04-19T04:23:46-04:00'
describe
'34887' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFF' 'sip-files00184a.pro'
6ac1120ba538f0780a09284f46d60748
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'2012-04-19T04:16:11-04:00'
describe
'2838096' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFG' 'sip-files00184a.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFH' 'sip-files00184a.txt'
b3b63a3ba4a09d8580734a6bb3c19cf6
d5f2093f45705f88943ea29fedab87f64be1ef2a
'2012-04-19T04:21:50-04:00'
describe
'154687' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFI' 'sip-files00185.QC.jpg'
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describe
'389058' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFJ' 'sip-files00185.QC2.jpg'
38bd8d447a161fb3878d834eae88ddf6
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'2012-04-19T04:19:11-04:00'
describe
'35071' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFK' 'sip-files00185.pro'
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describe
'2938768' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFL' 'sip-files00185.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:15:58-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFM' 'sip-files00185.txt'
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describe
'137553' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFN' 'sip-files00186.QC.jpg'
d77bf55af581f0605ea6b53ab9a09bce
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'2012-04-19T04:15:33-04:00'
describe
'351609' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFO' 'sip-files00186.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'23745' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFP' 'sip-files00186.pro'
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describe
'987' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFQ' 'sip-files00186.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:23:28-04:00'
describe
'153416' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFR' 'sip-files00187.QC.jpg'
2e5969977eeef26e827ddbc8eb8ace56
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describe
'384366' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFS' 'sip-files00187.QC2.jpg'
b1386feb069587c9b1dca986f2003d83
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'2012-04-19T04:14:20-04:00'
describe
'34510' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFT' 'sip-files00187.pro'
a6f1606226b784f0aea361810b4ebb33
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describe
'2851288' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFU' 'sip-files00187.tif'
a0be58d3a5d6cae5e032005692ad2cac
dad669566448d30e4dc1ac84878d7bef356905a4
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFV' 'sip-files00187.txt'
2d2e2deab24aecd58bdd64b0169ad389
398ce8e3499ff72fad0d15ab379a2a076383e66a
describe
'148660' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFW' 'sip-files00188.QC.jpg'
85af0990198ae8d36b466a69bc2a4611
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describe
'367296' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFX' 'sip-files00188.QC2.jpg'
1ee1c180d2ee9392315b0cc1919cf9b5
1dd16a7e31486a3e49adb619514063f79cf6a9bb
'2012-04-19T04:22:49-04:00'
describe
'33676' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFY' 'sip-files00188.pro'
c38ac25d3dcd8eca33e59a82405220a7
67de392b1b8f7d2199f5c5751b1221826378f198
'2012-04-19T04:13:44-04:00'
describe
'2946344' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIFZ' 'sip-files00188.tif'
41e8648dc726f4a70a24cbd650c1224b
71ff7ad50c9820388256c26ad3745cb995d5ab69
'2012-04-19T04:10:54-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGA' 'sip-files00188.txt'
c71d4b9200cf129694ca76d2b264578e
9a551d46888c4b7fc2c2902a21457a8ff3c90b95
'2012-04-19T04:12:34-04:00'
describe
'159459' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGB' 'sip-files00189.QC.jpg'
8062751b532181ff6c9d7c3b116ff8ec
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describe
'394875' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGC' 'sip-files00189.QC2.jpg'
3f59d4aa1e5171e6d2b5772a94d2a4b2
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describe
'34017' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGD' 'sip-files00189.pro'
d437e92d9c0b62214b5bb0c6d197caf9
6667468f278384e14975a92b74e22c31f8058ea8
describe
'2864992' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGE' 'sip-files00189.tif'
4593decd72a079566443aee2f68d7c72
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describe
'1341' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGF' 'sip-files00189.txt'
698024b64214f384215b17e48c5a007e
659fe782541578a1be1ec5ca80f0c2aa82e1b7fa
'2012-04-19T04:11:09-04:00'
describe
'153562' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGG' 'sip-files00191.QC.jpg'
ba9477e511b98406582dfebf5e7c82a4
dcd80d596c44036da175c6ec5210dff5ce374a4c
describe
'413509' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGH' 'sip-files00191.QC2.jpg'
65469e0b5ea804436c8d66b933141e1d
2ed34f438fac97ffd554a0a3a78e13a37ab6b336
describe
'7195' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGI' 'sip-files00191.pro'
67af2b436b60ae053a4374871a1c69cb
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describe
'2949908' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGJ' 'sip-files00191.tif'
cc9cea9255fd08f976c01b3f6578ba89
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describe
'556' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGK' 'sip-files00191.txt'
0a6895fd6cab0459ca0bb16fb449362f
a7bf519bbc3a72d9f914b21b4b26ba78e1c2d8fd
'2012-04-19T04:18:42-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'145649' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGL' 'sip-files00192.QC.jpg'
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describe
'363691' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGM' 'sip-files00192.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'33007' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGN' 'sip-files00192.pro'
f95f316bd596ee3adbd7ae1fa0572be6
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describe
'2953576' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGO' 'sip-files00192.tif'
3a509fc6d7222848ad52819ba5cc57fa
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'2012-04-19T04:16:01-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGP' 'sip-files00192.txt'
b8671a31e5a1afb1e8d2611053ff2edf
03bd3f64f9eae0fb138a0b10ce6f80f2e4177891
'2012-04-19T04:20:44-04:00'
describe
'122658' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGQ' 'sip-files00192a.QC.jpg'
04ea2811e2e2740d3fb7b50b490489c2
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'2012-04-19T04:09:14-04:00'
describe
'319399' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGR' 'sip-files00192a.QC2.jpg'
74936fc18dcd2f528fa15a2f5e1ef26e
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'2012-04-19T04:19:25-04:00'
describe
'21799' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGS' 'sip-files00192a.pro'
2cd080b5e97f42c212390343d0baf8d4
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'2012-04-19T04:20:52-04:00'
describe
'2913736' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGT' 'sip-files00192a.tif'
56e174501a65eed0774dba72d367c8a0
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'2012-04-19T04:24:42-04:00'
describe
'860' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGU' 'sip-files00192a.txt'
3d894b1d1142d9474eaaa1a27506121f
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'2012-04-19T04:18:52-04:00'
describe
'135560' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGV' 'sip-files00193.QC.jpg'
b52782f1c95a49c08c54fea890fd9150
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describe
'347212' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGW' 'sip-files00193.QC2.jpg'
2cf405672243f15dd6a461b3b926e30e
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describe
'25537' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGX' 'sip-files00193.pro'
97722aad69e73c3f14c68a1fd3aea833
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describe
'3002128' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGY' 'sip-files00193.tif'
1387bd23c58d11f5c99b5e7b5cf0ca50
d2fe2c63dad51f10f4b9c9d341405010964bcc5f
'2012-04-19T04:19:55-04:00'
describe
'1095' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIGZ' 'sip-files00193.txt'
12e59dc71e3ef6dc5fed42f305f232e7
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describe
'157416' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHA' 'sip-files00194.QC.jpg'
88794c2006300916ea31ba1d7d4a416a
1199c1c6a690434da19c5afa60ea09e950eef347
'2012-04-19T04:10:25-04:00'
describe
'388178' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHB' 'sip-files00194.QC2.jpg'
a300f4bffd3acf27e782aef6658317a2
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describe
'34550' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHC' 'sip-files00194.pro'
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describe
'2898924' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHD' 'sip-files00194.tif'
9ce13393eb9dc5b37a3f5eec462a8802
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHE' 'sip-files00194.txt'
55f4429fd6e6d9dce4d371dc9e71cfd5
3db532673ec6dce99f06ae048e024dfff1153706
'2012-04-19T04:08:51-04:00'
describe
'145644' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHF' 'sip-files00195.QC.jpg'
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describe
'359926' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHG' 'sip-files00195.QC2.jpg'
3846103dfb7d2a1b5a992d847651103a
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'2012-04-19T04:24:07-04:00'
describe
'33786' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHH' 'sip-files00195.pro'
cc9440046afa7c1438c366edc6ea3af1
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describe
'2915240' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHI' 'sip-files00195.tif'
114a10e3676d2fa3db4e77a8a5d2db77
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'2012-04-19T04:18:51-04:00'
describe
'1358' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHJ' 'sip-files00195.txt'
5ca74999499ed50e23a413d4465cc717
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describe
'2950776' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHK' 'sip-files00200.tif'
0dfc25edc8f2bbe240e54ed457ef380d
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describe
'149727' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHL' 'sip-files00196.QC.jpg'
5377fb88e9d057c07b16485bc7d0408e
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'2012-04-19T04:19:50-04:00'
describe
'375618' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHM' 'sip-files00196.QC2.jpg'
971c37b90d53c2a7e5482ed2956b0a84
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describe
'34083' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHN' 'sip-files00196.pro'
f2aad413c669177b83c33f9c668d2893
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describe
'2868616' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHO' 'sip-files00196.tif'
24a1514f53227231951dfb7c7430a309
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'2012-04-19T04:22:29-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHP' 'sip-files00196.txt'
dfefee5b65c98eee8d619458e13491c7
67a43636aa4ebdbae25089180854f71d0919025b
'2012-04-19T04:13:17-04:00'
describe
'144651' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHQ' 'sip-files00197.QC.jpg'
d4a79dc3be27f191a97b4527b8a45a3b
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describe
'361888' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHR' 'sip-files00197.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'33130' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHS' 'sip-files00197.pro'
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'2012-04-19T04:08:36-04:00'
describe
'2976640' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHT' 'sip-files00197.tif'
a68a19b7ab07dc1e05d6c66a72af5dd5
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'2012-04-19T04:18:20-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHU' 'sip-files00197.txt'
63bf5e7b7599cbac4f8160d207b73e09
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describe
'136731' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHV' 'sip-files00198.QC.jpg'
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describe
'345470' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHW' 'sip-files00198.QC2.jpg'
e7c5ae1a139ea8de0175d64b6420ff86
535ff93d6e9fa73406e8bfe690375be1c607ace4
'2012-04-19T04:21:04-04:00'
describe
'30068' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHX' 'sip-files00198.pro'
28f89bcdca12eb4dcb1bdb3618fda5fd
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describe
'2954628' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHY' 'sip-files00198.tif'
9f8d3d11081fcf345826aed882ed697c
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describe
'1185' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIHZ' 'sip-files00198.txt'
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describe
'131969' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIA' 'sip-files00199.QC.jpg'
4b2d42bdd43744970dc8bf0e9c33ba9c
bb31cde8b3b14114f15ed21ab068fc7d440b7412
'2012-04-19T04:15:25-04:00'
describe
'336965' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIB' 'sip-files00199.QC2.jpg'
3c604113d89ff33b1fecf7bc193e7d12
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'2012-04-19T04:16:50-04:00'
describe
'22472' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIC' 'sip-files00199.pro'
e2ae521eb4c298450c304e0336ad44ba
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describe
'2976160' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIID' 'sip-files00199.tif'
b2cfc9fc12a8ac8774eb71dae85bd3c0
a001b6a80e59847d34bb6320f25e844fe0e8550b
'2012-04-19T04:23:22-04:00'
describe
'931' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIE' 'sip-files00199.txt'
f9929b8315406c2a78b74162d3a45ec8
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'2012-04-19T04:22:02-04:00'
describe
'147503' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIF' 'sip-files00200.QC.jpg'
a62914b752a02f0a8ea5fb1fc5699551
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describe
'369018' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIG' 'sip-files00200.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34664' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIH' 'sip-files00200.pro'
1414fb9bb2db94acc10f69118b7db360
f1537fc09560ff488074a4034d425d796e115e45
'2012-04-19T04:09:11-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIII' 'sip-files00200.txt'
144addd7781b9580975a22e04100b36f
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describe
'145700' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIJ' 'sip-files00201.QC.jpg'
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describe
'365245' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIK' 'sip-files00201.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'33562' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIL' 'sip-files00201.pro'
69acf35e103e7c1a1421b80cdca78b3d
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'2012-04-19T04:14:13-04:00'
describe
'2991160' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIM' 'sip-files00201.tif'
cc4dcc09275b6f7ae0192af2632bc4b7
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIN' 'sip-files00201.txt'
db06de77528515efdf4a562a3f432439
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describe
'150305' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIO' 'sip-files00202.QC.jpg'
ac9fd5260d8cfffa642736f06e6b41c3
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'2012-04-19T04:13:14-04:00'
describe
'378790' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIP' 'sip-files00202.QC2.jpg'
3c584bacbb7bb97600486399a8fed24c
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'2012-04-19T04:09:05-04:00'
describe
'34971' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIQ' 'sip-files00202.pro'
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describe
'3001328' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIR' 'sip-files00202.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIS' 'sip-files00202.txt'
40b9955d52f1e582ffc91c9a6b1b8ef7
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describe
'150988' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIT' 'sip-files00203.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:09:53-04:00'
describe
'373172' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIU' 'sip-files00203.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34929' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIV' 'sip-files00203.pro'
4b1cdf5066c03abb6d483538cfc5bcbd
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'2012-04-19T04:21:07-04:00'
describe
'3026916' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIW' 'sip-files00203.tif'
b03d40ea66c95c06eeef298979c268dd
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describe
'1402' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIX' 'sip-files00203.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:08:37-04:00'
describe
'152141' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIY' 'sip-files00204.QC.jpg'
e6b53645eabedd79dd92a72475ea11b0
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describe
'382273' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIIZ' 'sip-files00204.QC2.jpg'
f3b14f2190c5b33edd23a00239506c74
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'2012-04-19T04:15:19-04:00'
describe
'35368' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJA' 'sip-files00204.pro'
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describe
'3020972' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJB' 'sip-files00204.tif'
65cace32fa710ffc58aa3f64170d1677
c6e3244acd9772ca263aa4dcdfe51fe26db6eef1
'2012-04-19T04:12:03-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJC' 'sip-files00204.txt'
fd23b95f82ca08ba1417afc8e7ad893b
5668d934af36615ae54e7c3ab1eb130432384d56
describe
'98727' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJD' 'sip-files00205.QC.jpg'
65f47408ca885627d3d17aaeaacba089
693a9dde375b3d099b656aaae071a0ca6f74a898
describe
'270750' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJE' 'sip-files00205.QC2.jpg'
10f4152b5c3b2fb67f2770c4abe73ff4
028cebaaf43beac8a0f0cde60dd5c821fdd603ac
describe
'9766' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJF' 'sip-files00205.pro'
1b832c4f8589185a034f4e07ef3ba70c
67ec14a129bcdad98fbb36dff60fcb48b13d6fbe
'2012-04-19T04:15:48-04:00'
describe
'3071916' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJG' 'sip-files00205.tif'
9fb55708d4c398a5c2154b6f2039a54b
6d16d230c4782841c734187fb6ad0ddcadd6d3b6
'2012-04-19T04:21:32-04:00'
describe
'481' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJH' 'sip-files00205.txt'
27c8990cd9bfd90bdf14ddd5aecf68c5
9f0e3623ba67d6d47d06de1048e5fba913d45d6c
'2012-04-19T04:08:38-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'134362' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJI' 'sip-files00206.QC.jpg'
4008fff14a662bf3f933b6aefd19ebe2
212a932fea09a6d4c54cdbd9ae5305b1f8f6d2ad
describe
'347512' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJJ' 'sip-files00206.QC2.jpg'
4ea57f27cf46f7366124770f9cc674fa
4788465c56ecf6483a792019dcf8556325644ea9
describe
'22251' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJK' 'sip-files00206.pro'
304a6be149100462e40fc7e512081662
9e8379049921eae88ec027e24173a0a8eef4ae5c
'2012-04-19T04:20:42-04:00'
describe
'3044948' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJL' 'sip-files00206.tif'
c3fb57664bc0b64422e15e202babd851
89c3d14e9fdfaaefdfcf7d7a7b145e232cb75fbc
'2012-04-19T04:16:09-04:00'
describe
'917' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJM' 'sip-files00206.txt'
9b2c44d323cdd19d1539a2d6c44d8a90
52ca544514940d5bd5b6bcac47c7a24da89d52b7
describe
'153281' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJN' 'sip-files00207.QC.jpg'
da9a9d338746bf74e63d14bdf5eb5479
f5b60822dd7929e4493962dbbef2d1911d518b27
'2012-04-19T04:13:29-04:00'
describe
'374867' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJO' 'sip-files00207.QC2.jpg'
92864e3b2ac947238cfc8c13f9ed404e
5d57a1eaf3217b2f699731d9733deb9de34b6ed3
'2012-04-19T04:11:26-04:00'
describe
'34716' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJP' 'sip-files00207.pro'
dbb311560c0cf618f0c7a8c16f3ce4a2
546818cf059ab223f4592ac6bc556f06493e27a0
'2012-04-19T04:14:24-04:00'
describe
'3081364' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJQ' 'sip-files00207.tif'
608356ba3d43ae6d4d93edefb25940cc
679e707d245d159632f7eca2d470c6d8f1d830df
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJR' 'sip-files00207.txt'
70486b0b1d78effe96ab2adee099f545
6c4fa70fe55581c840b050bdcdee03bb20cdba30
describe
'150878' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJS' 'sip-files00208.QC.jpg'
fbe64f55180be97d5b7461083fe3ba6d
4e6c039549c686a26cd45324f4aef07f5fa0becc
'2012-04-19T04:14:40-04:00'
describe
'382166' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJT' 'sip-files00208.QC2.jpg'
2c2ac8d9edabf49bd2951a855c228f74
852dd4ac2759644b4c7f3cff5c389d0f0f356ed3
describe
'33551' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJU' 'sip-files00208.pro'
3fcfa54f6a8659865bf7287d281b0652
b6b2acd65c6a0b4524b3a0903f509fd655abb6e1
'2012-04-19T04:08:49-04:00'
describe
'3035876' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJV' 'sip-files00208.tif'
c5580dd1425589e0813b23ccacf72b47
0b1c15e287e2838ac3e4e70bbaec4c5bcb514461
describe
'1331' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJW' 'sip-files00208.txt'
2289b35c0b0a6c58dc094641d80d0caa
99ce5884d8d65a5c5e4c033aea3d184350f6368e
describe
'159323' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJX' 'sip-files00209.QC.jpg'
5f439d225078c377d25c2e372ec1e5a5
0ba0f73fe58ae62c3f8ea5309c6bf36b5279da0e
'2012-04-19T04:11:48-04:00'
describe
'396824' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJY' 'sip-files00209.QC2.jpg'
e188b713fdec6cbaee8e2217af7288e1
3a9a374aad967283a3a6723779d27555e1843fe0
'2012-04-19T04:24:39-04:00'
describe
'35915' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIJZ' 'sip-files00209.pro'
595b337aca7d0cea925a1ac42c6e5c4e
0b327b13f643737aa6316162b44c9a936e33571a
describe
'2853152' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKA' 'sip-files00209.tif'
306549e7c2184cdd789cf8334d868d70
bad306a2dfc8c5ddee329e5c6fd006b821f4d61f
'2012-04-19T04:09:46-04:00'
describe
'1443' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKB' 'sip-files00209.txt'
9c6440864ce1ff62e10a5e94ef944909
104861e29fa3492c9f0b422da4e810642c71c468
'2012-04-19T04:20:27-04:00'
describe
'2978664' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKC' 'sip-files00214.tif'
6545b66825c157a6a43468445b27237d
5785062ceca27371b0ea224aeeb1183babfe873d
'2012-04-19T04:15:11-04:00'
describe
'156452' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKD' 'sip-files00210.QC.jpg'
c9c3b5019575ae500eb9c740d1f4ca19
81c47246c9d5254ead54a124952117ad57bcfb41
describe
'394767' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKE' 'sip-files00210.QC2.jpg'
544084761a4e0f7f940674a539d3151d
aa2ce7cb809ec27a169e25af6d2501c40fb12692
'2012-04-19T04:12:18-04:00'
describe
'32832' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKF' 'sip-files00210.pro'
e88ab85f07042133e4ac99a9c6be825c
b89cb0a84736f97ba63957fbda031161e77019c7
describe
'2886000' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKG' 'sip-files00210.tif'
ce5223db95fe044ac457223ac15d6632
aeaa193e56c236960dc3ca2cb6afa0f2c5bd82ae
'2012-04-19T04:08:46-04:00'
describe
'1296' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKH' 'sip-files00210.txt'
ec2fc76a5fb9720eba04e0e0c4a9288f
94c8253906b4643492b41401cc56d134ab374080
describe
'138085' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKI' 'sip-files00211.QC.jpg'
0bbea5b316dc960586ce59778c262f23
a4805ec7aad87b913f0a82ceb1384ab3fad5f20c
describe
'351740' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKJ' 'sip-files00211.QC2.jpg'
75250b4a259d268d0daaaa48e0cbe59c
f6159fb6d8a4f4ace395fd738549b58b25988373
describe
'26672' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKK' 'sip-files00211.pro'
f2235828978aeac9acb35c47792b07c3
4d5d2e6f0eae994a0986e87a9bd959c13b3624be
describe
'3012424' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKL' 'sip-files00211.tif'
65d9f356de5fd28d76be7f8cc904593c
8ee3eaba59fbba1205fce7a8716462479708d6b7
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKM' 'sip-files00211.txt'
a3402bb24d8b48b56de8ef990eb2dea2
5000dc1f09475521644a355366e1483d555354e1
describe
'146760' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKN' 'sip-files00212.QC.jpg'
28dca2a0eb262ce51cd18c7a79f5c5ab
f2483cd7bddfacc5a47eb590a03a2483dc98ea16
describe
'377387' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKO' 'sip-files00212.QC2.jpg'
008ff62b637fb8300768039261fcb8ec
44b9ec399a15dc42343f0a58431757dccc8528d5
describe
'22953' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKP' 'sip-files00212.pro'
533f2341355a65c9b219f2c7f5669caa
941c73748e4d4031f2b5c5ab2bcfddd8058e4cf9
'2012-04-19T04:21:09-04:00'
describe
'2865724' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKQ' 'sip-files00212.tif'
c4420cefa8aabc91e98652711c04f9a7
e14222eaac3d9b09d0c33fcf95a9cca0b6da8d82
'2012-04-19T04:17:53-04:00'
describe
'953' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKR' 'sip-files00212.txt'
195782042e87bd43814f8f10d7e964ea
352311ae3f6cd01df24352f95acb2bdf3518b312
describe
'149929' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKS' 'sip-files00213.QC.jpg'
fc4579daf2391bcb086d289854bc324b
82d1eba2df33570e003cc28fe2c51c41d0cfeabb
'2012-04-19T04:09:20-04:00'
describe
'390535' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKT' 'sip-files00213.QC2.jpg'
ada09cbe3d2a56827b225b92ce6614a9
5ec9510786757153fee4718b200d91e90a6cc6b6
'2012-04-19T04:16:34-04:00'
describe
'3762' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKU' 'sip-files00213.pro'
dc59fe0105616bcce46c6c21c71f7caa
84df8fb5124d863d1fd505be1c561d4cc97d247f
describe
'2961768' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKV' 'sip-files00213.tif'
a4176e0c2e073ac9ae53e88a9d682227
76fe95a7ee88a37b39b9b3145899d3d4e7f8943c
'2012-04-19T04:23:31-04:00'
describe
'297' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKW' 'sip-files00213.txt'
fb7b2b2be776707dd08ea1510f243a62
0e450768617f2755ed59f4a04523a5f5c36cf71a
'2012-04-19T04:14:15-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'151811' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKX' 'sip-files00214.QC.jpg'
1ea4fc18d642fe3039818e795b4e7457
9de5d5d36a5b97cb7efa52fa44fe6ee243303280
'2012-04-19T04:21:35-04:00'
describe
'380417' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKY' 'sip-files00214.QC2.jpg'
3f7f4b9562978576eef406916dd54620
bac2aa56f439f4861d3ec6207b2355470f6db7fd
'2012-04-19T04:09:35-04:00'
describe
'33729' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIKZ' 'sip-files00214.pro'
13463c2423f5374a4aeff06909d5a5ec
b416404fd6e72ba11608965b443625ca615d4f57
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILA' 'sip-files00214.txt'
1876bea012109d8f8beac33e33babf38
97ffba1bbfc31dd13ee895145212f38b5eaf1566
describe
'154178' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILB' 'sip-files00215.QC.jpg'
9187255293b996e3c96ddd419772cb1d
427116c207334b2b2ca877e9d9fcb967d58ae206
describe
'389146' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILC' 'sip-files00215.QC2.jpg'
e5d758645119760773c0072a97a1bac7
2d80553ba4885c8a93820434a86a8dbb6beb758d
describe
'34094' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILD' 'sip-files00215.pro'
0f1566906968720548798b73932f9bea
6503977663d47e6473b8ab68639ef1a87618f357
describe
'2994844' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILE' 'sip-files00215.tif'
a1e8f7d37a5db51a783eb5abd2348e58
c538e0572b8e515d1f091a4770a7924c9c57302a
'2012-04-19T04:09:38-04:00'
describe
'1344' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILF' 'sip-files00215.txt'
1385658ef393433b90ce0bd2d0e0ecc4
98c2f3f9030d0aacedb4bc7627e90cada8181215
'2012-04-19T04:13:03-04:00'
describe
'151559' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILG' 'sip-files00216.QC.jpg'
0b360ab2c748f57864c31a2c3757fadf
0a715a592ab007f5200a9794907929ae172b3296
'2012-04-19T04:15:57-04:00'
describe
'376629' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILH' 'sip-files00216.QC2.jpg'
0eee89cc9f51fa1032365432408e484c
35c68d81eee952e84be02c63d0d30fa421fc5692
describe
'35115' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILI' 'sip-files00216.pro'
090ee6089be049f354037485de8753d5
3af9440ff0a73879afa50cc72100d349ba975fd5
'2012-04-19T04:17:54-04:00'
describe
'2996496' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILJ' 'sip-files00216.tif'
ca01ff3ff92e363a3b71a2bb815f9eea
170b1b6444075e360f83167d6b37fb1e162579f0
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILK' 'sip-files00216.txt'
b1578a38beda3a481d5943f4e559f608
2405decb0a9e2e1331e9af8bf375e01982b04725
'2012-04-19T04:19:28-04:00'
describe
'158446' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILL' 'sip-files00217.QC.jpg'
bab0f6f31490a38f54037e171f8a9837
395d5729bf1a55a55bcad03cc3463c38201c3d6c
'2012-04-19T04:14:43-04:00'
describe
'395117' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILM' 'sip-files00217.QC2.jpg'
79c424142fe2eb304928f398f1cef646
267cd6a994f4212ebda366b25afbd5eb40a24b71
'2012-04-19T04:17:09-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILN' 'sip-files00217.pro'
fcbf2017020aa4b357a7a320cfdf6e1c
474685db7be7d51c5c6e170ea3986de1fe07c591
describe
'2914360' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILO' 'sip-files00217.tif'
49c5b0824cf7e09250a30683425a09d4
7eb0180e85548077ec7caeb68fe69e004e3c985d
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILP' 'sip-files00217.txt'
d37e0b47ea5eae157e16f2eeba338207
6f8c008e06a9ee38dfdacbec11ade6bc3f05de97
describe
'111251' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILQ' 'sip-files00218.QC.jpg'
533a4c1e4e575eb2b6e0e1cad46098b5
33e7a46bb9d0525fd9d90917ba5e87459f818d2b
'2012-04-19T04:19:47-04:00'
describe
'306960' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILR' 'sip-files00218.QC2.jpg'
8a3196596b6eb7c850d9d37b828633df
d31b7a8e8eb3868a58303c83a96965cdf604ea1e
describe
'16710' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILS' 'sip-files00218.pro'
c23abc31f3a579a60c3f7dd0595c986e
b6c8d30ba504ed509e2108cd4b55dda45f6b53f9
'2012-04-19T04:20:26-04:00'
describe
'3010820' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILT' 'sip-files00218.tif'
a29f7fe1d04c7ccb47317eedd63f7c3e
63834d9d49a438aa4de187363f0d9318a9c00dbf
describe
'688' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILU' 'sip-files00218.txt'
c03f982301bc96de567d447ced3ca299
a42abb9e92ae3078eb1fe2e57effcb46011ca6b9
'2012-04-19T04:15:30-04:00'
describe
'145500' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILV' 'sip-files00219.QC.jpg'
9e9d54adc039577550f5d4ad88ce284b
2bea95647418174fb37d43ee468a4217cf9eb6bd
describe
'369215' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILW' 'sip-files00219.QC2.jpg'
fa5e8d9e7a34ffe5e56951fe2eb9ce0e
e48edf502cf72447dd63a8c3a679dbbfa402dafb
describe
'24234' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILX' 'sip-files00219.pro'
040ef0848cd0b86a302b6814cec17091
85bc61c4517cdcca2fcb47b603b98a7d88629d42
describe
'2961532' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILY' 'sip-files00219.tif'
5fcd6d997bbd8fa0c3d72f2eb677e006
048ac23ffa3888865249b8b8c84ab5e0bdffa273
'2012-04-19T04:16:38-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABILZ' 'sip-files00219.txt'
d2d792441b8e8beedf7e71c16daa7775
a1cf540f4bff17f469cccff86b719c64a7e67ce4
describe
'155662' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMA' 'sip-files00220.QC.jpg'
c480a2bcbd8470305b06c53d1ca90a21
d37090fa72ea7b0e992a32416504dcbc160bd304
describe
'385259' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMB' 'sip-files00220.QC2.jpg'
9048637f4b118df1eb2c33c0c9ce7e97
b003a2e010e7e3c26b418e41e9089b2945e8d822
describe
'34785' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMC' 'sip-files00220.pro'
d3599533393670e0c0df4024184cb4cd
6bbfdab127865c2c748f2edffc77fc4078b389a6
describe
'3028708' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMD' 'sip-files00220.tif'
80472f60cd3f4da55adcb51d1f7b7634
d0820b9da387714bd775f397e9fef4954e802204
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIME' 'sip-files00220.txt'
3c702b1cc4717df0f7aef40c43610447
dc5e6c9cb32675800e19eb0108c8dc330298203b
describe
'154098' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMF' 'sip-files00221.QC.jpg'
8c94c179652e4ffeed9515ba45ca0bcc
56dc447514e435a82ee4b9c338ea837308331cdc
describe
'384582' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMG' 'sip-files00221.QC2.jpg'
dc521969d0278e87dd2d8430c23a6de3
ed2a2be7f26c813ea24f9c60027405d8e3402fa9
describe
'33686' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMH' 'sip-files00221.pro'
6c4ec245c81b7a871dafcdcbcc311efd
3a59140a0027c873d9fe16b9a25cf4c006f61cac
describe
'2989008' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMI' 'sip-files00221.tif'
6244545dff44eaff321642e2d8821e54
81c3f16db50c6003fbef8592b6a4eac59f8c422a
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMJ' 'sip-files00221.txt'
018a5c56f4d4dbbd49824713e1510b32
371b9ef7c344bd4a34de940001c1bbb6d7af8b7a
'2012-04-19T04:10:33-04:00'
describe
'154564' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMK' 'sip-files00222.QC.jpg'
eb323d7c795a6494cc82dddf3410d464
836d5fe11c703a401438bf30589e23be4a87a1d2
describe
'384936' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIML' 'sip-files00222.QC2.jpg'
a5b01ef9c6677013f222d0af2fb70ba7
56ff58e83176395edc678addb1fcfc0ebe345c26
'2012-04-19T04:12:56-04:00'
describe
'34575' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMM' 'sip-files00222.pro'
0bb97d254c0863f3f8b4cb57ff27d881
7685d9b834bc07d76ce6ec4db34e4f02a817e93b
describe
'2999896' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMN' 'sip-files00222.tif'
90fc153d4d3128f7393a8722f4128c72
af4210d4a837d5f32348e928467e39cbf387656f
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMO' 'sip-files00222.txt'
29ed2dd16bf9938acd946c3bbfee7dba
d3fed60d1a1fcb69db981daf6a3e59758e4ad0f8
describe
'152599' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMP' 'sip-files00223.QC.jpg'
73c90dc87c70bd3d5181714e9403611f
6ce4e2259319d5aeeab4fb94657ce0a9c4b919c8
describe
'383474' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMQ' 'sip-files00223.QC2.jpg'
b2d41d1f8d4272f98d061129b5827779
29ac706e275fe3bb66dee04cf2bdd7948eeb2f7e
'2012-04-19T04:11:11-04:00'
describe
'33855' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMR' 'sip-files00223.pro'
db4e4f1f90cf963bcde54eeb77c4d80c
89fcbfc930ef5373126c9440b6b916e0149436c0
describe
'2965700' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMS' 'sip-files00223.tif'
e40dcc7ee5b370dbc27b0d85c9b81598
b8c0638319d259b139feb94887ebddb927c13919
'2012-04-19T04:24:36-04:00'
describe
'1333' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMT' 'sip-files00223.txt'
0d80f4b46f0e19d4c5a1c9a64577d94b
5e4b8fa2f04abfa8cd809e1791e670f76a383ccd
'2012-04-19T04:12:59-04:00'
describe
'3002032' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMU' 'sip-files00225.tif'
6473d047d75d54dd6972225079524bda
d9d37afcd875532b23d7d83aef63286cf37b5121
'2012-04-19T04:24:50-04:00'
describe
'157856' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMV' 'sip-files00224.QC.jpg'
3ac1a4ab21a191e92c684a306a6989b3
fe76bc2bc5844099963856ea8d62c339a193a5c1
'2012-04-19T04:12:49-04:00'
describe
'391999' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMW' 'sip-files00224.QC2.jpg'
42e83c080cc074abe3642af1c33b6715
aa8aae35c4853d0a3b1c17fc06e91c78f2bd5187
'2012-04-19T04:15:17-04:00'
describe
'34833' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMX' 'sip-files00224.pro'
0c7973826111133884e333ccb001497b
bc4691a5dba38b732e2b7ab90ca274306fe375ba
'2012-04-19T04:23:26-04:00'
describe
'2942896' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMY' 'sip-files00224.tif'
a9d8fdf8177d2fe74a9ca362820789ec
8de7e6c61875b8528594b141e33e6bba4690b90a
'2012-04-19T04:14:05-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIMZ' 'sip-files00224.txt'
abdadd18342974dcd6ce5d1d0a478414
8f8c9f631420149aea49722074fad9f5f4c257ec
describe
'141518' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINA' 'sip-files00225.QC.jpg'
bb07ae75c7144e2dcc1ed6ec789f8eaf
b4f8f1f591e9ed20f1061f1e28ae2ffc817d30a4
describe
'360952' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINB' 'sip-files00225.QC2.jpg'
2d5edef82b2d42bade1f3d3df5cef51f
e3afab0ab6aee82f0827cf4ac8ef250af69bf40d
describe
'29278' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINC' 'sip-files00225.pro'
d35d881a40de1f1acd3ff1db52cc6d8a
fb414e61f1603d9c7da9cb4054cdf9755d5919ae
describe
'1151' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIND' 'sip-files00225.txt'
a01ba94f97b259199f81f5c3a019b2ed
b4fcbeef2a84edc1688f78019c66cee5fb2c9ccb
'2012-04-19T04:19:15-04:00'
describe
'141914' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINE' 'sip-files00226.QC.jpg'
1576c78d3163bd24d1295422773b3bef
3a99e3419f8e8a59125dc584340cdd19b0bd8b64
describe
'364084' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINF' 'sip-files00226.QC2.jpg'
89ba1fca5e446d3d1adfd9dedd4a397b
a5838eab5ba0d6f1ed82cce6a0a962861503bceb
'2012-04-19T04:10:21-04:00'
describe
'24087' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABING' 'sip-files00226.pro'
5ecf76c0191c1002819507aedb6ba7f2
ac959f988b7f06072c6bb98bb006186ca48f2ad0
describe
'2955316' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINH' 'sip-files00226.tif'
0cd5220d73da1e571bf324c5b89b2059
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describe
'1004' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINI' 'sip-files00226.txt'
cadb8ca5b5190a92ad2732ea6ed9e2e6
f958e6f595c2fcd0823dc3bb0af85236c46dca7e
describe
'157082' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINJ' 'sip-files00227.QC.jpg'
679a4f6a57104baa8f25cdc75d025afb
3cb2bdf51bf888106caa37658821b330cb405d69
describe
'384766' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINK' 'sip-files00227.QC2.jpg'
0a70017761121bf2d911acb522746266
4380efcae72afeef8e6342a0c8ef5bca08cc2362
'2012-04-19T04:19:00-04:00'
describe
'34346' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINL' 'sip-files00227.pro'
1ae8a0d9fe0771ab76a32bc79b7d1cb5
ba5b453ff80359416f6d3b7b6b2ff09738beda30
'2012-04-19T04:12:57-04:00'
describe
'2934960' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINM' 'sip-files00227.tif'
136702569c33454141f43671e0543495
92306f3d7ef71029a23a6a923a22c2326f7bb81f
'2012-04-19T04:23:20-04:00'
describe
'1616' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINN' 'sip-files00227.txt'
ffbf4e7a9a383abf9cb14bd99d9cdd3e
b726030a37fb9ca21f179587fa70fd6d1ca51ed5
'2012-04-19T04:10:17-04:00'
describe
'155217' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINO' 'sip-files00228.QC.jpg'
6a6fa7ef68c88b275cfc370053b75b09
276003a4e6a3943e210d42181d789b1bd9b95a22
'2012-04-19T04:23:13-04:00'
describe
'384314' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINP' 'sip-files00228.QC2.jpg'
b0a6cb3e363a27b820ebfe7599c0a89c
8a0614705a5957971084e7c7d1a239a8f17b4f00
'2012-04-19T04:14:44-04:00'
describe
'35096' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINQ' 'sip-files00228.pro'
0b6cec01425c08cf7bde21edcecd6c2e
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describe
'2975576' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINR' 'sip-files00228.tif'
3dd2b07fd2b97c25b2a7f7c4aad0236e
49b4a9ed668aad181f97603dca5d734e6b64f1a7
'2012-04-19T04:09:57-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINS' 'sip-files00228.txt'
47e6d27df27a5be37aa19d22a25339b0
bb5736b1d77e8a10dfa5c32ab17a89633b437950
'2012-04-19T04:22:38-04:00'
describe
'151666' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINT' 'sip-files00229.QC.jpg'
eb53d0040e293138c3694072b44f5184
90af6bf314feaff9b32feeed011f32af74d9fb09
describe
'380204' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINU' 'sip-files00229.QC2.jpg'
c78a1d60e9a7dd3a6d0ec3fadbff9cf3
094b64ab8b8b7a3417ff6f76086ca400e38b2f16
'2012-04-19T04:18:07-04:00'
describe
'33791' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINV' 'sip-files00229.pro'
f55b28e69b22363af0ac7bc597c81a9a
5ee4cab8d15bfc3d5de8c3eb058110c9400afba5
describe
'2954260' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINW' 'sip-files00229.tif'
40800d5b62e7c594c3bcb6a665dd44b2
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINX' 'sip-files00229.txt'
d5604a160b5d812402ae59b1dc9f470b
6a2316811dcc4f8a9fdbd51104e9d5659243fd98
describe
'150565' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINY' 'sip-files00230.QC.jpg'
9438b60c4d80ab6b5c39ec4ea023dbec
5a7d469efc172814fcb990f17279560b632746dd
describe
'372781' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABINZ' 'sip-files00230.QC2.jpg'
3e352a0d0208a0c296d6dc43d36ad4a3
763afdd8de88207cb8939cebdc7d0dfae1cc0503
'2012-04-19T04:09:24-04:00'
describe
'34127' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOA' 'sip-files00230.pro'
819fa4db84b0ad41f82c2a2bb48c115c
2151ad1228316d1e90cb949589a228c59bf706fd
'2012-04-19T04:21:34-04:00'
describe
'3062216' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOB' 'sip-files00230.tif'
27188e91966c9991add8cd9273c4c7c7
b79211a84bc621849ee6d9c17f89dbc460ae7bac
'2012-04-19T04:13:36-04:00'
describe
'1365' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOC' 'sip-files00230.txt'
38ee3a6d45afaa9cb7e10c8c36967709
c0b1d05db26234af9f1d13de182ebfd28e709f5b
describe
'140828' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOD' 'sip-files00231.QC.jpg'
d5c1c1c8c1966619cd7b57f2fb80ca87
7ca165144f5cdca904a3d341c8ac8b41798ab6a6
'2012-04-19T04:15:18-04:00'
describe
'360869' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOE' 'sip-files00231.QC2.jpg'
46bb671db1d334ff18288b73c0ca1cc8
ca11f3efe96fae659cadd67c220fa98dc7220616
describe
'25078' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOF' 'sip-files00231.pro'
ddba971d0193b94320b41aebadc68bf9
c5068c2de367a92c9a8b18995b564da44a598af4
'2012-04-19T04:13:42-04:00'
describe
'2844120' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOG' 'sip-files00231.tif'
76c6ff5f73ccae6cab514833dc5da084
15f2803d883e7fcb66ed34c02152904a54a41580
'2012-04-19T04:21:57-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOH' 'sip-files00231.txt'
69cf879d1ef46ffcbd2796094177dc6c
93232f5755673e65ce8dfd3cacd1b07191db2aee
'2012-04-19T04:19:46-04:00'
describe
'142488' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOI' 'sip-files00232.QC.jpg'
97295ad4155da802dcbdf3d2c5dce3bf
97251d7858d9d041cd7fe8ccf1c36f463d4d9dd6
describe
'360198' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOJ' 'sip-files00232.QC2.jpg'
967057e27325705483d04780ac040355
ed95315dd6164361fb1ec20403eb2ebfdbe73955
describe
'23749' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOK' 'sip-files00232.pro'
f58fb9f2e5f951a6f555b6e67aa2292b
09a5070f53303c5266c8ecc3df3d42fcb334f539
describe
'2948596' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOL' 'sip-files00232.tif'
a7af3038d72c38915f5e02ba2dc7079f
0cdaaa993611bbb871b708d02d1d2b97ca953298
'2012-04-19T04:11:30-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOM' 'sip-files00232.txt'
3e0aa1a61e4477ab10fe15c1e883170e
c3801d2062b61a02cc0d6bf6231c0b0e71efefee
'2012-04-19T04:21:23-04:00'
describe
'155716' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABION' 'sip-files00233.QC.jpg'
adc79dffd340a11db0cff1ce2c60a7ab
37d539339ba6c0726a4f6077a2c19619edc91627
describe
'386321' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOO' 'sip-files00233.QC2.jpg'
739658676f60874c6e6d37dc8b739223
4b3ca24d25dccabe6533c8f701188e64998aa8b8
'2012-04-19T04:22:26-04:00'
describe
'34743' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOP' 'sip-files00233.pro'
13ddf8f835488a2491e6f89b03fa3e24
e1a1cb4fb64ca408d8f8c709d5b9bcc3818548d0
'2012-04-19T04:08:55-04:00'
describe
'2934116' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOQ' 'sip-files00233.tif'
d24fdb7625e70501a9c3dd69ed1478e3
c616a5a42cff7a0cafb005ef947287e2d4a74c77
'2012-04-19T04:18:38-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOR' 'sip-files00233.txt'
723b6e396baf993b509a339e7900600a
f51354553ddd8c6446f2d98338502c7a9d705c29
describe
'152229' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOS' 'sip-files00234.QC.jpg'
ac86e2cb56fe00eceed6960938877733
6d9faf450d893fb0d5813a49d2f544ada6bb35f2
'2012-04-19T04:22:10-04:00'
describe
'382217' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOT' 'sip-files00234.QC2.jpg'
137e1f4081759280039bdd10a8a8d0ee
2304f13f1ca74e15e2018c59f95d46cda62318dd
describe
'34955' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOU' 'sip-files00234.pro'
dc48a6bc4581a5e269e36b9f601fa389
98c5e0ea8abdc87ceb8ba71a249b38e2db04e475
describe
'2960224' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOV' 'sip-files00234.tif'
84ba2934dd9dfcef0f4e765b08aabc49
108cba843fe53f8f8130e6fc0bcbe9113b87590c
'2012-04-19T04:13:54-04:00'
describe
'1404' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOW' 'sip-files00234.txt'
3d7a941976ac67edf6d7f139f385b103
2f73b803f399db91dbfb2e96b8a7ac4bab61ff48
'2012-04-19T04:21:54-04:00'
describe
'157965' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOX' 'sip-files00235.QC.jpg'
dfc77e864ec89aa889f07f632dfda6b9
783cd1884cc968c9e273e73203311a0c98205b2c
describe
'389424' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOY' 'sip-files00235.QC2.jpg'
d079f01cebc41e968126d288041e3a57
f04154d5ddfa0f675bedcc032cf4ecc9b919abc6
describe
'35365' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIOZ' 'sip-files00235.pro'
24a784480746903dc4e0738e903982c7
6a6fd25469d5bceb373c0d29f8c47bdebe1dacfe
'2012-04-19T04:22:59-04:00'
describe
'2927144' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPA' 'sip-files00235.tif'
028edd6e67f595533f4132095cc3fcb8
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPB' 'sip-files00235.txt'
a6bc20a080008739e3ba35a6340bdd3a
b52d9bd096d3a27c486b8b9bd4dcafa4f1255901
describe
'153369' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPC' 'sip-files00236.QC.jpg'
c8ce545154a4f133d79839ab28b50e2e
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describe
'376982' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPD' 'sip-files00236.QC2.jpg'
2adbf3478307a8526abe87aaed845f3e
ad73a9ae329d68bb2b4cdcb0b8f36174b83bc182
'2012-04-19T04:19:42-04:00'
describe
'34165' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPE' 'sip-files00236.pro'
0dc247fd250789e1309b4df222a52d16
3f23406a74bc5d2c9575c4be99704793ab01a5a4
'2012-04-19T04:22:14-04:00'
describe
'2957376' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPF' 'sip-files00236.tif'
d7fab2760eb9107bf9276af104f72050
b96973ac0ed6daa3e2fddfd8fac36dd0389d7ae7
describe
'1537' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPG' 'sip-files00236.txt'
eb53f0e662d7db3ef3fe6fb57b94bcfe
1b68dbc5b02aaa59b299d7d377ce728503f4cbc2
describe
'131166' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPH' 'sip-files00237.QC.jpg'
f88358443ea957ff4e24a289452ba59c
61d56b4cf1524091129cebd55cb265da7d4f1ce4
'2012-04-19T04:23:06-04:00'
describe
'342671' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPI' 'sip-files00237.QC2.jpg'
168d82510475c181de8fc469365a0308
565a1f8d0b976cd24b43f9dc21e8544f0fdd5286
describe
'22961' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPJ' 'sip-files00237.pro'
cbe3a65a41f6b990c7223c6dc802f33a
8c80577874a3712e1c906e84331807d4f63f3069
describe
'2875940' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPK' 'sip-files00237.tif'
49a1b7cf20bb025fd3d1025b0cd43672
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describe
'932' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPL' 'sip-files00237.txt'
977f428a8b5a3e235721ba818b525b2d
71aa5d1601ed2146eb8a341e26833edb8514502a
describe
Invalid character
'2979452' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPM' 'sip-files00239.tif'
d06f52fe516dd263db28562295a6b5c1
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describe
'138203' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPN' 'sip-files00238.QC.jpg'
1a39c0f8506add89614e4de97b9b66f2
ca5f3d679d3ce43f1dc2aa60bcac871a45d5c604
describe
'351938' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPO' 'sip-files00238.QC2.jpg'
5a75af715ebe63b41742cf1514e992fa
73029757e05f50ede5109719e33a1ca0bd3df2f5
'2012-04-19T04:15:54-04:00'
describe
'23881' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPP' 'sip-files00238.pro'
28306cf17d5962f98dc4a3416c7c6cdf
188e6168a357332bbfe69f4b5551934cecc70264
describe
'3034876' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPQ' 'sip-files00238.tif'
7f4c588faf2f6790614cf06117d62208
3ee60713f67eb305733f14faf6a20d06f274336c
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPR' 'sip-files00238.txt'
38115e6b7d5219562eaf73613bf438df
093753941a7256652a54eac0ace31fa6bcdad888
describe
'159005' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPS' 'sip-files00239.QC.jpg'
07994233c3d681fdfd2ae7ee4369444a
1328936aadc4d5356419f15321d7d2180f08f6cd
describe
'389997' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPT' 'sip-files00239.QC2.jpg'
4b2ac23b41a9f1af8ffbbc50472ce3ae
9a4676be595aac3b5077ba9d754c58be5946cb5b
describe
'36688' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPU' 'sip-files00239.pro'
9349750411441acfd3a1cd1b2ae30efc
ae476a47ed8a5761c8f46173d1ec4ff74687293b
describe
'1437' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPV' 'sip-files00239.txt'
621db5fba197b716a965189ab74ff0e9
b7c8df367327bf5ad31aa5461a43bf7369ed4910
'2012-04-19T04:24:52-04:00'
describe
'156323' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPW' 'sip-files00240.QC.jpg'
bdde120397c5938ccabefbf87443585c
c146171f41467b1b2023c3820584ac71dc5a2c42
'2012-04-19T04:12:08-04:00'
describe
'385978' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPX' 'sip-files00240.QC2.jpg'
70995fb44ef2b47365dafed4697bdba2
8115c08e0ed8677f492c8851f8a5d7f2776da055
describe
'35241' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPY' 'sip-files00240.pro'
14390be185e87185044ede527b6430e7
7af9775c1396d22450fc9dd35309c3f230ca6e93
'2012-04-19T04:19:14-04:00'
describe
'2925220' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIPZ' 'sip-files00240.tif'
dd01775764515dabc8e2239085f9ad65
c35fb87274553dff9534348deb6ccd6962a563dd
'2012-04-19T04:09:04-04:00'
describe
'1577' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQA' 'sip-files00240.txt'
feb1c6ecb5a341e3da0f9355ee2cf87b
8fe3a7744c6f766c35df46170a0fc1102e19e9c2
describe
'156699' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQB' 'sip-files00241.QC.jpg'
751d0aaf028004cb70f5c5ef5ee01656
d5aa4021fb1ed416884a573e3fc3327ed0a7c2a0
describe
'389314' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQC' 'sip-files00241.QC2.jpg'
5aee16a4472a592bcabe012bf90a0868
cfb9b0aa2f0c397936220c5ef9ec5e1e544c0fdd
describe
'34937' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQD' 'sip-files00241.pro'
453687d20d92319695a54b449ec23023
ecc1927c8181801e7518997d5fa711ed49ba3fda
describe
'2910460' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQE' 'sip-files00241.tif'
247b8c1dc88fc987fe21453cda49dad7
0fde75cd0bd8db4181baf2a16fa99b00fa032bda
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQF' 'sip-files00241.txt'
77fd30cc3aa314c333afea8e5a330315
45951a1930f83c02838d13dc83a195d827f535e2
describe
'165834' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQG' 'sip-files00242.QC.jpg'
2060fc301e8b5af76c986a53a6143cd8
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describe
'450088' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQH' 'sip-files00242.QC2.jpg'
627052c084ca38ffeb18b403e631602e
ed8f89f814eb41c205435f270920d812b1dd10d6
describe
'6373' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQI' 'sip-files00242.pro'
771f13cb0db8920bf8fd2626f14c6027
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describe
'2854712' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQJ' 'sip-files00242.tif'
725d0e87df3773eef0142362d2ca6398
a5389224fe78ed6b40f8288a74085172aa606858
describe
'553' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQK' 'sip-files00242.txt'
f264ae0ffe296465d8266758872ba93e
53f27034126066144cb16c4ac7ab97d83c12ce14
'2012-04-19T04:18:34-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'154360' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQL' 'sip-files00243.QC.jpg'
8573087d81244da2286a858218ec3905
c237afa42d8634e86ba73bcbc1c6aa23de65d33c
describe
'388709' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQM' 'sip-files00243.QC2.jpg'
9f6fea3919e14217e077e746a1674d67
4120675976d1dd6038d5bbcf845482013bc47050
'2012-04-19T04:09:25-04:00'
describe
'33307' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQN' 'sip-files00243.pro'
63b7d9c00e6358703a8cda790bbce8d6
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describe
'2953708' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQO' 'sip-files00243.tif'
895cf3b93673e2c5667c8afc0ff36d81
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQP' 'sip-files00243.txt'
0a99fc35f97859eba8677d662c147942
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describe
'123303' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQQ' 'sip-files00244.QC.jpg'
4261fa76a3113aa08b17af89a1adc432
0f14b22fa6c1791b3f1638fcb36c4c19a1ce650d
describe
'329495' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQR' 'sip-files00244.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'16517' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQS' 'sip-files00244.pro'
181885ffc416906a61d094da25c3b5bf
9c019de60e7f0fd1b106897bdf09320f11e89f55
'2012-04-19T04:24:02-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQT' 'sip-files00244.tif'
78a739ff61c48b72227d898309f7ffc1
3dcaff67dd2061e9da5fa6e8e4f68ad8ce0d8cc9
'2012-04-19T04:20:43-04:00'
describe
'694' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQU' 'sip-files00244.txt'
6f65a24693c3fe4d5dc683fa08ad4203
981146d6c79479b0c550429a907195a87db8c14b
describe
'143589' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQV' 'sip-files00245.QC.jpg'
cd0b5ea8915414507a9482b1448fd83e
c5102c1dcc26bbe1b636157d585cd195643621e8
describe
'369221' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQW' 'sip-files00245.QC2.jpg'
1607b7bbe5c2f084c1d4d8fb60d2fafd
2fca22b4efeba7439e348a152ce8012b5a3ade1f
describe
'23512' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQX' 'sip-files00245.pro'
b2afacc3b48f910b6cfe2d5a4bcfdfa4
1cb6f0f0f185a66a3474faa2b11244d470b4914c
'2012-04-19T04:17:46-04:00'
describe
'2935984' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQY' 'sip-files00245.tif'
9e9f2a56325e5917080de4654b8e4654
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describe
'978' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIQZ' 'sip-files00245.txt'
fcb0c31a99176bded939ab700ff70090
b408d7da0846ddd4c66b514b5436993d04566b25
'2012-04-19T04:18:48-04:00'
describe
'153507' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRA' 'sip-files00246.QC.jpg'
410588705e479e64213798ead568655a
f068270ebe12adbf1d38fe8021edc6ca8e800429
describe
'389713' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRB' 'sip-files00246.QC2.jpg'
78c563d4ef932d3c2c9627f79a72cb69
840014f98dcf388bc77fa421c47f565584d9e1c5
'2012-04-19T04:16:42-04:00'
describe
'34069' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRC' 'sip-files00246.pro'
b4b803071f88bd44fefb60408144c088
8ba7b894aca6fc55e850d61e1cd607a1c3de0576
describe
'2901300' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRD' 'sip-files00246.tif'
69518f4811ccde182795184963ba15fe
39c0333adc21c4bcb209c040c3dddea50064bfdc
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRE' 'sip-files00246.txt'
89a0742e9b7c996e8d39e4a913ade50a
b78ff03a8a6be39b66a3304ad51a7f307c4c5703
describe
'152336' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRF' 'sip-files00247.QC.jpg'
96113e111cb9c410dec8da7a11e19e59
2e1ae281b13cb466ce71e8b4f2f2c0ed05646c5a
describe
'385226' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRG' 'sip-files00247.QC2.jpg'
53288985f09c8161c80055e2e80c29bc
c67735f157ce425644ebea59d9dd87b1388a815f
'2012-04-19T04:19:32-04:00'
describe
'33141' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRH' 'sip-files00247.pro'
91ce900fb025c8ade6bc63b61daec932
1d2d43fcf57bc7ec12cb0ace1cfe8d62a1d0f330
'2012-04-19T04:08:45-04:00'
describe
'2915904' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRI' 'sip-files00247.tif'
f077815e764f69a35889b1c6ec6f3d4f
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRJ' 'sip-files00247.txt'
7595e8bc7fe99e32ab40a1bc58b11665
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describe
'158287' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRK' 'sip-files00248.QC.jpg'
ef3974e16a9ad3c484ba8d95d244e4e2
694f43dc18e34bbaf189bab482be24455cc4374e
describe
'392407' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRL' 'sip-files00248.QC2.jpg'
407f111181998a9cf469c5c8134ff9ad
82f7258673d20f7f35dd831180e57bc03a45378a
describe
'35332' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRM' 'sip-files00248.pro'
f22b73fb3866fc244231efd963950d63
f7db1bbd809bbd97513ccbd59d20e6ebff7923eb
'2012-04-19T04:17:39-04:00'
describe
'2956004' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRN' 'sip-files00248.tif'
c108abb012db4fa59ded394df6ad70c7
492a5af057d27367386f82ae196f5a43dbdcf12c
'2012-04-19T04:14:00-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRO' 'sip-files00248.txt'
830f338bcc5c2f34ff6ad6c3d485d313
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describe
'154610' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRP' 'sip-files00249.QC.jpg'
a808191614b3e4a5b4f401e51e4d72b7
5a6bcda83080e76fc08969c06a66ade9736bc2d5
'2012-04-19T04:23:27-04:00'
describe
'383557' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRQ' 'sip-files00249.QC2.jpg'
b5c445ab30e05a1f561e5ceda3b05650
6ead2eeb69d07ee04c4cbadfb26b14f82ad15135
describe
'34289' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRR' 'sip-files00249.pro'
bdd1ec07f1657c4da0d9fadcfcece37b
296b79f934b2b3b358cc810a3a4cbc1a03425d6d
describe
'2910696' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRS' 'sip-files00249.tif'
2f9054edf1e55a6e9dd40298213331d6
3a02488ed35c88d13b16f351f0694d95b3361149
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRT' 'sip-files00249.txt'
7a9452fde5e83f871eafa3bf066acac2
dc572bbd58123b16e6770b6aeb1f9d22a4480111
'2012-04-19T04:09:07-04:00'
describe
'131838' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRU' 'sip-files00250.QC.jpg'
979945d4a8ef5276d1006346b5a13172
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describe
'348467' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRV' 'sip-files00250.QC2.jpg'
16bb41571209a0440c43826bff4fc034
4b7c308be659fd7831521e432adecb849193b5f8
'2012-04-19T04:23:09-04:00'
describe
'23613' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRW' 'sip-files00250.pro'
baefc9008f13a7b3fc6f7d5631c6edec
293fc1b5a70b069840123b8cbbb33f44fa575298
describe
'2979504' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRX' 'sip-files00250.tif'
3166c38cde0e33f7a58aefb2b2072486
559bbd371c67300a7ebd54e3ae5a53b40ed1fa91
describe
'965' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRY' 'sip-files00250.txt'
3298fec8b80407c5d77cc46eb904903a
f02f00982f386591bb875ecd8a666764600fec3e
describe
'140575' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIRZ' 'sip-files00251.QC.jpg'
871c6ece25652372343aa2cde340ee39
82aff1da169143fa530462c519c551450c6df44d
describe
'366668' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISA' 'sip-files00251.QC2.jpg'
6b8a543665fe5686e4fa6c0dc0d08c25
c00118ed5dc419866010733fbda6c2ab11a4de50
'2012-04-19T04:08:34-04:00'
describe
'23777' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISB' 'sip-files00251.pro'
ce916e34c372fbdecc186400566cd11d
98460f2febce2f55b868174e4c614e07a33732b2
describe
'2958060' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISC' 'sip-files00251.tif'
1c074e46baacb41debff7fc16a1ffb5b
d16c84bb96463f92d0095dd4ef8a93974aaa6922
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISD' 'sip-files00251.txt'
dbb9d46659bb00322cbeb7eeaff93681
6658e3c4b975554dd6a70ead093202dd74ec5f7b
describe
'2934572' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISE' 'sip-files00253.tif'
8f15cc3da8583ed692afa04da469dc26
c414592951ea10e2b844535a1ee3db347bb6857b
describe
'156249' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISF' 'sip-files00252.QC.jpg'
aaffe67012aac1e2d1604865dd9d2756
cd6bdb7f618a7ac9d5892e7579f67181f5b18cdf
describe
'393234' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISG' 'sip-files00252.QC2.jpg'
02f23be88ae3a140f23242754315a950
e21bff05288973327ed508ae2f109d9b9ea1b0ca
'2012-04-19T04:17:00-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISH' 'sip-files00252.pro'
48764e6271d9e51d1d3e22c6650ffabd
03e291ab3445cda505eaf8c2ffd0b5ba8fabaee3
describe
'2951840' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISI' 'sip-files00252.tif'
4ce5370b78408c560db113b32dfa6a89
a413656d1982bfcbf1629cdc0e4b66ee0e674e52
'2012-04-19T04:11:36-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISJ' 'sip-files00252.txt'
dede6bbc85e2ae5c4d6f1463aa585dc1
1b125d29b688f859b24202d8b457c9250c3fbebd
describe
'158330' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISK' 'sip-files00253.QC.jpg'
615eb185a6279601106169c39fc83590
9546128229b82bf2a7059e137c2ada72902cea4b
describe
'396025' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISL' 'sip-files00253.QC2.jpg'
dc464bd9ebad5cac6e0727c235d76d3b
40d1b0183473b00a919c3af7c64741fe3d1711c7
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISM' 'sip-files00253.pro'
c3f68a51af868c5bf2d7b7f2c2986615
665258d36f0429192f9ca761ba1ae73a617a4b56
'2012-04-19T04:21:25-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISN' 'sip-files00253.txt'
d213c903bb79dd9a78e3295b55ea3526
9fd5b5eeb7c366f4731f0a1b5e587df10d32c004
'2012-04-19T04:23:43-04:00'
describe
'150231' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISO' 'sip-files00254.QC.jpg'
9ddef2e9adaf0c38c0e302f37a0ad14d
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describe
'381393' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISP' 'sip-files00254.QC2.jpg'
2ccd2e69d0f04855bbcaafc66f6117d0
add5eae3774acaf213288603918f565db847c347
describe
'32813' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISQ' 'sip-files00254.pro'
7c567e97a156855737c14d1f1c9c3a50
066a8881f52e27d8a4c826e2df83efa96da02868
'2012-04-19T04:21:47-04:00'
describe
'2939732' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISR' 'sip-files00254.tif'
fb12123cd3ac1fd5ce2a210c4d9fc122
6b043c743293b3c114c3d063060be0b9a8a9f4f7
'2012-04-19T04:22:35-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISS' 'sip-files00254.txt'
8127c904fb364f342b2b4e1ced979ce4
d73bb291105dd465bb2d62c282aaef01de4ea5a8
describe
'155565' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIST' 'sip-files00255.QC.jpg'
2a30bba293005a3d050369cbf951ab22
44ee5af77255dacadfeb4a924db802805accd767
describe
'387286' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISU' 'sip-files00255.QC2.jpg'
ae05471167d260da454532693d8b7db3
61c319941dac27393f0b8e58f4fbca18cb9193ef
describe
'35596' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISV' 'sip-files00255.pro'
484d3bf9d5d81f163bcad7fac8208ac5
07cc00bb0fcc6e939bffcb06f673a5eccd5d9c41
'2012-04-19T04:23:38-04:00'
describe
'2995032' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISW' 'sip-files00255.tif'
05f2b1259bdc36f03ecf0c2e8da6f9e5
55921ca30d50671dcafdae41daf6630eb2e205c0
'2012-04-19T04:10:23-04:00'
describe
'1529' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISX' 'sip-files00255.txt'
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describe
'108714' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISY' 'sip-files00256.QC.jpg'
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describe
'297504' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABISZ' 'sip-files00256.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'10979' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITA' 'sip-files00256.pro'
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describe
'2946728' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITB' 'sip-files00256.tif'
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540d70870c71f70ce3eaac9caf3be62a1ae7eb0f
'2012-04-19T04:22:31-04:00'
describe
'439' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITC' 'sip-files00256.txt'
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describe
'144864' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITD' 'sip-files00257.QC.jpg'
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describe
'365770' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITE' 'sip-files00257.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'25130' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITF' 'sip-files00257.pro'
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describe
'2964392' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITG' 'sip-files00257.tif'
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describe
'1028' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITH' 'sip-files00257.txt'
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e136b2f79a2651cbb8b62d4264a0bdd6bfce66fe
'2012-04-19T04:18:32-04:00'
describe
'159036' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITI' 'sip-files00258.QC.jpg'
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describe
'397434' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITJ' 'sip-files00258.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITK' 'sip-files00258.pro'
bd8ccbd4d087f3a4fa5d16806e738fcc
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describe
'2985376' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITL' 'sip-files00258.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITM' 'sip-files00258.txt'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITN' 'sip-files00259.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:20:17-04:00'
describe
'383984' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITO' 'sip-files00259.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34709' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITP' 'sip-files00259.pro'
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describe
'3028980' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITQ' 'sip-files00259.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITR' 'sip-files00259.txt'
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describe
'165162' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITS' 'sip-files00260.QC.jpg'
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describe
'404883' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITT' 'sip-files00260.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'35155' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITU' 'sip-files00260.pro'
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describe
'2885300' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITV' 'sip-files00260.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITW' 'sip-files00260.txt'
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describe
'156378' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITX' 'sip-files00261.QC.jpg'
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describe
'384272' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITY' 'sip-files00261.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34139' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABITZ' 'sip-files00261.pro'
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describe
'2966880' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUA' 'sip-files00261.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUB' 'sip-files00261.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:23:12-04:00'
describe
'135724' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUC' 'sip-files00262.QC.jpg'
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describe
'356198' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUD' 'sip-files00262.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:19:20-04:00'
describe
'24325' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUE' 'sip-files00262.pro'
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describe
'2912804' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUF' 'sip-files00262.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:14:57-04:00'
describe
'959' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUG' 'sip-files00262.txt'
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describe
'142285' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUH' 'sip-files00263.QC.jpg'
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describe
'370097' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUI' 'sip-files00263.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'23665' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUJ' 'sip-files00263.pro'
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describe
'2995472' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUK' 'sip-files00263.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:17:43-04:00'
describe
'973' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUL' 'sip-files00263.txt'
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describe
'158305' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUM' 'sip-files00264.QC.jpg'
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describe
'391354' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUN' 'sip-files00264.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34189' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUO' 'sip-files00264.pro'
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describe
'2908488' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUP' 'sip-files00264.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:20:16-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUQ' 'sip-files00264.txt'
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describe
'154308' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUR' 'sip-files00265.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:08:47-04:00'
describe
'385160' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUS' 'sip-files00265.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'33097' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUT' 'sip-files00265.pro'
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describe
'2972464' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUU' 'sip-files00265.tif'
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describe
'1319' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUV' 'sip-files00265.txt'
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describe
'2800988' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUW' 'sip-files00267.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:13:51-04:00'
describe
'163192' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUX' 'sip-files00266.QC.jpg'
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describe
'412391' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUY' 'sip-files00266.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34302' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIUZ' 'sip-files00266.pro'
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'2012-04-19T04:13:31-04:00'
describe
'2821032' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVA' 'sip-files00266.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVB' 'sip-files00266.txt'
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describe
'164156' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVC' 'sip-files00267.QC.jpg'
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describe
'419792' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVD' 'sip-files00267.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'33103' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVE' 'sip-files00267.pro'
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'2012-04-19T04:10:06-04:00'
describe
'1336' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVF' 'sip-files00267.txt'
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describe
'156432' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVG' 'sip-files00268.QC.jpg'
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describe
'398452' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVH' 'sip-files00268.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:09:16-04:00'
describe
'30385' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVI' 'sip-files00268.pro'
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describe
'2778264' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVJ' 'sip-files00268.tif'
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describe
'1199' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVK' 'sip-files00268.txt'
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describe
'159687' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVL' 'sip-files00269.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:20:32-04:00'
describe
'434749' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVM' 'sip-files00269.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'2125' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVN' 'sip-files00269.pro'
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describe
'2809808' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVO' 'sip-files00269.tif'
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describe
'181' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVP' 'sip-files00269.txt'
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describe
'151518' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVQ' 'sip-files00270.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:24:25-04:00'
describe
'394700' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVR' 'sip-files00270.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:23:39-04:00'
describe
'22758' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVS' 'sip-files00270.pro'
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describe
'2806536' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVT' 'sip-files00270.tif'
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describe
'952' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVU' 'sip-files00270.txt'
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describe
'162179' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVV' 'sip-files00271.QC.jpg'
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describe
'409475' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVW' 'sip-files00271.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'32555' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVX' 'sip-files00271.pro'
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describe
'2849240' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVY' 'sip-files00271.tif'
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describe
'1285' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIVZ' 'sip-files00271.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:16:39-04:00'
describe
'160626' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWA' 'sip-files00272.QC.jpg'
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describe
'411113' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWB' 'sip-files00272.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:22:43-04:00'
describe
'32775' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWC' 'sip-files00272.pro'
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describe
'2863268' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWD' 'sip-files00272.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWE' 'sip-files00272.txt'
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describe
'163247' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWF' 'sip-files00273.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:23:25-04:00'
describe
'403391' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWG' 'sip-files00273.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34504' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWH' 'sip-files00273.pro'
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ce1d08ec396eea19ca23f4590ead20026941304f
'2012-04-19T04:21:51-04:00'
describe
'2829072' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWI' 'sip-files00273.tif'
5ca540f9a7c2fa18c52b7bef424c3636
a1c654b897f68829aa317e942001bb0ddc6a8a4c
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWJ' 'sip-files00273.txt'
211bd771adba0253de44e10b3f722455
1f94fbb38969b882a9d965a46e1851bc52848393
describe
'159119' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWK' 'sip-files00274.QC.jpg'
95e698376cec0f9a1b66540d11f824f3
20f7f6509a302505766da990f87740483e88e1c4
describe
'404696' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWL' 'sip-files00274.QC2.jpg'
1466f12a63a18776cd929c45513f6ae4
cf14827b02f3871cf28aa4bf4764ea02b951d593
describe
'33625' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWM' 'sip-files00274.pro'
93ea36ec68ce00684c81c6996ef6b0a4
acd3c3c1ff6a3baf44d663b57402d5339d0877a3
'2012-04-19T04:17:50-04:00'
describe
'2865320' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWN' 'sip-files00274.tif'
4325bce8d803f6d42a500a9aa4d4cd90
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describe
'1351' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWO' 'sip-files00274.txt'
42e91b61b1fc65766f3712e50c75637b
ab5d16dac412be56bc4b9ff762d1f088a2fdc123
'2012-04-19T04:16:28-04:00'
describe
'122217' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWP' 'sip-files00275.QC.jpg'
80b8bcbd14fc043c8fb9ea8b129677a2
dd92015a11d330b80e3f15ed0b383ec115c98db5
describe
'343710' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWQ' 'sip-files00275.QC2.jpg'
2b40061c970798c09d66bfb84fa4805b
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describe
'13286' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWR' 'sip-files00275.pro'
844b7ffba7667456196cba73a4171ca7
90a3aca03b05c476b86473f7836d82262cf72bda
'2012-04-19T04:12:02-04:00'
describe
'2843356' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWS' 'sip-files00275.tif'
f172af5ba3cf56bde55d813da843ba63
f8a7329de319edb67be248113c403d906174ffba
'2012-04-19T04:11:34-04:00'
describe
'559' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWT' 'sip-files00275.txt'
438743ff437d6ac23bc9dab9d5d28372
89b73d7ccff6e17b3aba754538359eee2b55ab0f
describe
'152496' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWU' 'sip-files00276.QC.jpg'
99a07d80c6b7b7f78d81469b28298c05
4603b515d8af5511adb30107dd1d242edac33d76
'2012-04-19T04:20:13-04:00'
describe
'400093' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWV' 'sip-files00276.QC2.jpg'
10be40215b44af28f4f55de6d88c7222
45e5a1b0934903c75653cc6693248f36f949e060
describe
'24298' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWW' 'sip-files00276.pro'
0bc124a59d103749b248a2d545dc5a5f
d3e7fadbfeec2c3f4832b749277eb8cf7b783976
describe
'2808952' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWX' 'sip-files00276.tif'
8d721a66ffba556ed55bda01500b85fe
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describe
'1019' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWY' 'sip-files00276.txt'
30c6d2428c48ac2ea97245c990804b04
ec9c46b9a435485b6f9cd7c94f00ef40711ed82a
describe
'167054' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIWZ' 'sip-files00277.QC.jpg'
25cf47ed62e8bdebdd46cfd2c90839d6
752d80cdeb102dde3211ae38bf2f74f76e28e18e
describe
'424230' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXA' 'sip-files00277.QC2.jpg'
c3da6a9085afac3b78a3d77a8906e426
1b9a5d6a2c4041f889968b059d5ed6ee3ed2cc98
describe
'34934' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXB' 'sip-files00277.pro'
bed91ff296a4b2691268c41786a542d1
e7a562433b76bb75f2e83236b1815d03b2734094
'2012-04-19T04:24:05-04:00'
describe
'2790216' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXC' 'sip-files00277.tif'
49e8e44759ada14fde26aa5f8a5362a4
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXD' 'sip-files00277.txt'
afaa57cce0872b2eb5038ab61c57efc5
f09d5aebb67424888032a9ef32a4defe569b5814
'2012-04-19T04:13:16-04:00'
describe
'167215' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXE' 'sip-files00278.QC.jpg'
51331dba0c7f93ff64a123ae1cb22b11
6a1a775d6a5e9b43dd2935e9da2bafe68114a891
'2012-04-19T04:18:44-04:00'
describe
'426735' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXF' 'sip-files00278.QC2.jpg'
6fcabbe319f59c09912fb6bac1faaa00
d7e69e9a43006dcf77d20409770e347d9020bfe3
describe
'34303' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXG' 'sip-files00278.pro'
050c61b093490239545e8c8453909baa
1d729d87277a89fcacb9cbd3d7c19271e1e698d0
describe
'2714688' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXH' 'sip-files00278.tif'
6179b0e5de5295f820bcd35a3706c31e
3673210b9feab37086c41bf63d33ff51e3b9e3aa
'2012-04-19T04:20:35-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXI' 'sip-files00278.txt'
afdf4fadd4074d3860011e1cff59ba54
696d0db4a6ea13f03c045c9832a9836726b63a84
describe
'169548' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXJ' 'sip-files00279.QC.jpg'
1d200acdc59c3697e220e515ff4e92d2
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describe
'425679' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXK' 'sip-files00279.QC2.jpg'
9a5ed5da5ce9c5ffe2ea3ae0d2bbe101
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describe
'34651' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXL' 'sip-files00279.pro'
62da9f792a42d97e3a6ed50210096c05
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describe
'2705852' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXM' 'sip-files00279.tif'
3e54302a5bd33c2b99e0eb7dba481104
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describe
'1370' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXN' 'sip-files00279.txt'
eba3566029c365d5faa53132a08f35a2
76e44fb4bddb9eedc24d26cd30713a19f561338e
'2012-04-19T04:08:52-04:00'
describe
'2814544' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXO' 'sip-files00281.tif'
4a2e0168a9595dece6bb85596bd2b016
1038b4d819a95baa84e72f5235cb579fff3432aa
'2012-04-19T04:14:59-04:00'
describe
'166231' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXP' 'sip-files00280.QC.jpg'
e985a191b7b9d7af249534cca69cace0
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describe
'418033' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXQ' 'sip-files00280.QC2.jpg'
4fc8586b5985726af7fd3993ba34342e
6dd42a6fd4f58a81c1f6458385217a0108cce47f
describe
'35001' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXR' 'sip-files00280.pro'
48329b5afabd29c56c3eb211198379e8
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describe
'2788496' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXS' 'sip-files00280.tif'
7035b99b9044eda4202d8e4b26e63d07
20e90b3bca32455f161af539da2390b2a1d51f01
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXT' 'sip-files00280.txt'
5b057b6f03642c712588ec2365e8daa7
f1dc2fab82cc1c248bd11be0a4a02404112b1adc
'2012-04-19T04:14:06-04:00'
describe
'159550' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXU' 'sip-files00281.QC.jpg'
6b98fdf66b0861e419226f101a000425
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describe
'405092' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXV' 'sip-files00281.QC2.jpg'
422874f35f76fc53c8f16b1fd0a9966e
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describe
'31826' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXW' 'sip-files00281.pro'
b3c8f8b2aea5c4d5fdda9c67289bf947
648101d10054b56d1e31558ebed42aa2d9c09d6c
describe
'1253' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXX' 'sip-files00281.txt'
7f942911471cf065f460df411019627b
421ab87cc402b072f1301bb957773ba1f0673bde
describe
'149881' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXY' 'sip-files00282.QC.jpg'
7e1c8bc14083f1b99a6553c543562c50
1037d9ca561afda130872ba4a9f6436bf2f352d5
'2012-04-19T04:15:59-04:00'
describe
'399956' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIXZ' 'sip-files00282.QC2.jpg'
ffb78f1fbbbec8e731c42f8020ff9c6d
aadc17b8a4b2d2f5b469015ffb1d7b94cb5cd0ae
describe
'22992' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYA' 'sip-files00282.pro'
6ffd74e33219e506a964b87ac4bbf275
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYB' 'sip-files00282.tif'
300dfdfa013fa4b6023cff9051907a8f
7e53fe654206296d585e5ab82bc6a30298debf22
'2012-04-19T04:21:05-04:00'
describe
'950' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYC' 'sip-files00282.txt'
3448bf617d08267edcbce99ed8e57ebf
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describe
'167037' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYD' 'sip-files00283.QC.jpg'
3a362501448a3606eb45ab2e5b2b44c4
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describe
'419008' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYE' 'sip-files00283.QC2.jpg'
b494b965ada33b566815dbfcb46e8d53
f0c22f11660684fb1597f7cc5cf2526438f8439e
'2012-04-19T04:09:09-04:00'
describe
'35852' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYF' 'sip-files00283.pro'
f38d120b072c127652fbef8b58d08e3b
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describe
'2810764' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYG' 'sip-files00283.tif'
4df902c457b1324f7bd80514a186fe52
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describe
'1409' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYH' 'sip-files00283.txt'
db3d011e8fc8b58966fc48a34e8c9cb5
9e4198ff79f833efa32d0e14a6b2c5914564f9ef
'2012-04-19T04:24:28-04:00'
describe
'168111' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYI' 'sip-files00284.QC.jpg'
e7f586fb87f1b5ef28a6a7f5f4c9d8ee
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describe
'421260' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYJ' 'sip-files00284.QC2.jpg'
090e81fe1d98fdcf4f60413329552b07
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describe
'35005' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYK' 'sip-files00284.pro'
8011dd7902ea2b0876e1a3f48edb279c
1af91ab3d755fbdff765985a8bee10475a9a2b55
describe
'2800632' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYL' 'sip-files00284.tif'
deb5dab3534ca1522d65789f625c8c48
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describe
'1399' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYM' 'sip-files00284.txt'
aef2afbc0527efde1adee0b71a71341f
e0cca44caad0178d06b7b0f5b2d876f1316f8cb7
'2012-04-19T04:22:30-04:00'
describe
'165181' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYN' 'sip-files00285.QC.jpg'
c0dc225c9deaff23224c96fd0691d667
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describe
'417670' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYO' 'sip-files00285.QC2.jpg'
ffbae90f4650d36992f285c69eebc5da
4e4c1d914db77910bdb73acf73cc16456bbdaac6
describe
'34724' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYP' 'sip-files00285.pro'
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describe
'2826692' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYQ' 'sip-files00285.tif'
0622db4441dcc26093cb146153eaf5b9
c073e3a9a6019f873eb4313098e5810a5b9618ee
'2012-04-19T04:10:14-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYR' 'sip-files00285.txt'
8e94904712452de1e9767165bebe1e0e
7a6aa8b9e283ef2c651dea55faaf22cde17c49fd
'2012-04-19T04:18:11-04:00'
describe
'164779' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYS' 'sip-files00286.QC.jpg'
e77782e3f28e1e48fa184f1c9af0898b
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describe
'417653' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYT' 'sip-files00286.QC2.jpg'
ff86a34d6e311a92e8d4a1e5ced421b7
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describe
'34147' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYU' 'sip-files00286.pro'
c73b68596cbf7035b7c01f207dd72ffd
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describe
'2844912' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYV' 'sip-files00286.tif'
6e9b67f791e563c9be6c56f294094c53
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYW' 'sip-files00286.txt'
ff76e5a4abfe570bc5a3ae6d6f321b6f
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describe
'164436' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYX' 'sip-files00287.QC.jpg'
7b6714c668c11e734bc7053abfd1fab4
6f6a37338d7e4ceae013e3672dc64249688cde1d
'2012-04-19T04:11:56-04:00'
describe
'412202' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYY' 'sip-files00287.QC2.jpg'
46ee113e4f69ab841d78f162d1e976d8
a6d41188557c103a59cdbbabcde83e64533759b2
'2012-04-19T04:10:12-04:00'
describe
'35116' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIYZ' 'sip-files00287.pro'
518d06e63e57beac48255d9f57c1287d
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describe
'2826628' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZA' 'sip-files00287.tif'
33617eb1a208f1699c53ac66122b4102
73e24e1e7bfee4a8169f30955b18f982808ac86d
'2012-04-19T04:16:30-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZB' 'sip-files00287.txt'
f6020602ed5de6a7f6c9f948dde8b0f6
f0a82169e536770bc59a98ff5f7eea4185ee9e8b
describe
'125554' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZC' 'sip-files00288.QC.jpg'
eb3d94888e4ae325b3898a3f6a907ad7
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describe
'345860' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZD' 'sip-files00288.QC2.jpg'
896e05fba6a92eba070f60c32fcdf642
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describe
'17339' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZE' 'sip-files00288.pro'
79bdd39ceff0611febdd42f3c2d70e49
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describe
'2854936' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZF' 'sip-files00288.tif'
d44120d9adf1122b983c10532bf40fc2
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describe
'731' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZG' 'sip-files00288.txt'
316b0957a8df068cf906198d6c195b32
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describe
'150657' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZH' 'sip-files00289.QC.jpg'
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describe
'393951' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZI' 'sip-files00289.QC2.jpg'
07dbefd5dd03bfdcc6e1b804858e921e
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describe
'23903' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZJ' 'sip-files00289.pro'
430f4ea8b7fad5260b4a7e926b2994db
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describe
'2843988' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZK' 'sip-files00289.tif'
badecd9fe0456afa3ec5745fc8fb2a22
52a8f90f6387530af71f64b1b4478b4af4f4c449
'2012-04-19T04:11:03-04:00'
describe
'1044' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZL' 'sip-files00289.txt'
b5661fc7ea20cbc49d388dbdac1551a6
43ba63742398eb1c2e7bac3d39106c1f432c8112
'2012-04-19T04:13:04-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'163371' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZM' 'sip-files00290.QC.jpg'
d87e9f354ceac0b6e7da26dc0b68d5f4
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describe
'415557' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZN' 'sip-files00290.QC2.jpg'
522c8fca6c4f22989f9a25f699799a5d
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describe
'33706' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZO' 'sip-files00290.pro'
2da18ec96ff5aa2cafd891e2eddf3854
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'2012-04-19T04:24:35-04:00'
describe
'2795408' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZP' 'sip-files00290.tif'
6487dffe51dfc25e8fc6f438e8544e08
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describe
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describe
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describe
'412794' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZS' 'sip-files00291.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'33644' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZT' 'sip-files00291.pro'
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describe
'2778616' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZU' 'sip-files00291.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZV' 'sip-files00291.txt'
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describe
'160997' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZW' 'sip-files00292.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:23:08-04:00'
describe
'413152' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZX' 'sip-files00292.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34201' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZY' 'sip-files00292.pro'
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describe
'2835460' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABIZZ' 'sip-files00292.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:20:25-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJAA' 'sip-files00292.txt'
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describe
'167180' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJAB' 'sip-files00293.QC.jpg'
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describe
'417729' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJAC' 'sip-files00293.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'35807' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJAD' 'sip-files00293.pro'
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describe
'2800728' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJAE' 'sip-files00293.tif'
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describe
'1422' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJAF' 'sip-files00293.txt'
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describe
'2793904' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJAG' 'sip-files00295.tif'
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describe
'164641' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJAH' 'sip-files00294.QC.jpg'
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describe
'413846' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJAI' 'sip-files00294.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34344' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJAJ' 'sip-files00294.pro'
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describe
'2797036' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJAK' 'sip-files00294.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJAL' 'sip-files00294.txt'
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describe
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describe
'355723' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJAN' 'sip-files00295.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'16084' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJAO' 'sip-files00295.pro'
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describe
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describe
'149361' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJAQ' 'sip-files00296.QC.jpg'
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJAZ' 'sip-files00297.txt'
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describe
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describe
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describe
'34760' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJBC' 'sip-files00298.pro'
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describe
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJBE' 'sip-files00298.txt'
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describe
'164882' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJBF' 'sip-files00299.QC.jpg'
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describe
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'2012-04-19T04:14:29-04:00'
describe
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describe
'2798208' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJBI' 'sip-files00299.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJBJ' 'sip-files00299.txt'
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJBO' 'sip-files00300.txt'
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describe
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describe
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describe
'19054' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJBR' 'sip-files00301.pro'
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describe
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describe
'838' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJBT' 'sip-files00301.txt'
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describe
'152641' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJBU' 'sip-files00302.QC.jpg'
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJCD' 'sip-files00303.txt'
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJCI' 'sip-files00304.txt'
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJCN' 'sip-files00305.txt'
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJCS' 'sip-files00306.txt'
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJCX' 'sip-files00307.txt'
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describe
'2759760' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJCY' 'sip-files00309.tif'
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describe
'148540' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJCZ' 'sip-files00308.QC.jpg'
4849f23f5e72ad43d2bba109f9d04ed9
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'2012-04-19T04:17:36-04:00'
describe
'392078' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDA' 'sip-files00308.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:11:38-04:00'
describe
'24741' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDB' 'sip-files00308.pro'
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describe
'2831084' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDC' 'sip-files00308.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDD' 'sip-files00308.txt'
000f97e314a1b80dd5e6482813236d30
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describe
'169929' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDE' 'sip-files00309.QC.jpg'
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describe
'427627' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDF' 'sip-files00309.QC2.jpg'
e9351437a1c48c743b7a90efb08e89c7
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'2012-04-19T04:12:20-04:00'
describe
'35395' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDG' 'sip-files00309.pro'
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describe
'1435' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDH' 'sip-files00309.txt'
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describe
'163252' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDI' 'sip-files00310.QC.jpg'
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describe
'411831' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDJ' 'sip-files00310.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34424' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDK' 'sip-files00310.pro'
c1a9c3eeea7c1f6e658de1466941cdf0
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describe
'2805656' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDL' 'sip-files00310.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:08:48-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDM' 'sip-files00310.txt'
35fc4b7be50ab16191680131b406e140
606d4b62977eeffb8a7c1b98478401521073239e
'2012-04-19T04:16:03-04:00'
describe
'165473' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDN' 'sip-files00311.QC.jpg'
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describe
'418482' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDO' 'sip-files00311.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'33890' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDP' 'sip-files00311.pro'
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describe
'2775580' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDQ' 'sip-files00311.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDR' 'sip-files00311.txt'
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describe
'160809' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDS' 'sip-files00312.QC.jpg'
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describe
'411440' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDT' 'sip-files00312.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'33784' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDU' 'sip-files00312.pro'
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describe
'2812412' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDV' 'sip-files00312.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDW' 'sip-files00312.txt'
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describe
'161398' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDX' 'sip-files00313.QC.jpg'
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describe
'414190' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDY' 'sip-files00313.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'32357' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJDZ' 'sip-files00313.pro'
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describe
'2768204' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEA' 'sip-files00313.tif'
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describe
'1302' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEB' 'sip-files00313.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:18:45-04:00'
describe
'150431' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEC' 'sip-files00314.QC.jpg'
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describe
'393294' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJED' 'sip-files00314.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'22614' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEE' 'sip-files00314.pro'
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describe
'2791476' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEF' 'sip-files00314.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:09:52-04:00'
describe
'946' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEG' 'sip-files00314.txt'
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describe
'165068' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEH' 'sip-files00315.QC.jpg'
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describe
'443485' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEI' 'sip-files00315.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'4016' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEJ' 'sip-files00315.pro'
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describe
'2790100' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEK' 'sip-files00315.tif'
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describe
'334' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEL' 'sip-files00315.txt'
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describe
'163602' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEM' 'sip-files00316.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:21:37-04:00'
describe
'414494' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEN' 'sip-files00316.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:19:58-04:00'
describe
'32648' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEO' 'sip-files00316.pro'
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describe
'2800460' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEP' 'sip-files00316.tif'
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describe
'1317' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEQ' 'sip-files00316.txt'
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describe
'160021' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJER' 'sip-files00317.QC.jpg'
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describe
'412020' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJES' 'sip-files00317.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'32940' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJET' 'sip-files00317.pro'
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describe
'2818708' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEU' 'sip-files00317.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:15:21-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEV' 'sip-files00317.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:20:34-04:00'
describe
'162811' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEW' 'sip-files00318.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:10:09-04:00'
describe
'412642' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEX' 'sip-files00318.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'33985' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEY' 'sip-files00318.pro'
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'2012-04-19T04:15:40-04:00'
describe
'2867088' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJEZ' 'sip-files00318.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFA' 'sip-files00318.txt'
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describe
'158387' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFB' 'sip-files00319.QC.jpg'
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describe
'398974' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFC' 'sip-files00319.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:24:17-04:00'
describe
'33377' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFD' 'sip-files00319.pro'
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describe
'2805900' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFE' 'sip-files00319.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFF' 'sip-files00319.txt'
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describe
'107224' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFG' 'sip-files00320.QC.jpg'
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describe
'308057' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFH' 'sip-files00320.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'9989' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFI' 'sip-files00320.pro'
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'2012-04-19T04:10:01-04:00'
describe
'2793460' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFJ' 'sip-files00320.tif'
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describe
'423' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFK' 'sip-files00320.txt'
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describe
'147458' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFL' 'sip-files00321.QC.jpg'
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describe
'389545' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFM' 'sip-files00321.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'23387' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFN' 'sip-files00321.pro'
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'2012-04-19T04:22:25-04:00'
describe
'2815740' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFO' 'sip-files00321.tif'
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describe
'967' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFP' 'sip-files00321.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:23:47-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'2832288' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFQ' 'sip-files00323.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:18:59-04:00'
describe
'166041' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFR' 'sip-files00322.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:16:52-04:00'
describe
'422572' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFS' 'sip-files00322.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34060' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFT' 'sip-files00322.pro'
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describe
'2781404' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFU' 'sip-files00322.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFV' 'sip-files00322.txt'
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describe
'162288' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFW' 'sip-files00323.QC.jpg'
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describe
'411921' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFX' 'sip-files00323.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:22:04-04:00'
describe
'34408' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFY' 'sip-files00323.pro'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJFZ' 'sip-files00323.txt'
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describe
'162296' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGA' 'sip-files00324.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:13:43-04:00'
describe
'411236' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGB' 'sip-files00324.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'33530' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGC' 'sip-files00324.pro'
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describe
'2803200' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGD' 'sip-files00324.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGE' 'sip-files00324.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:09:43-04:00'
describe
'163906' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGF' 'sip-files00325.QC.jpg'
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describe
'417119' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGG' 'sip-files00325.QC2.jpg'
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describe
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describe
'2794588' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGI' 'sip-files00325.tif'
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describe
'1348' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGJ' 'sip-files00325.txt'
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describe
'163080' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGK' 'sip-files00326.QC.jpg'
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describe
'418349' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGL' 'sip-files00326.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'33198' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGM' 'sip-files00326.pro'
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describe
'2807080' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGN' 'sip-files00326.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGO' 'sip-files00326.txt'
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describe
'151077' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGP' 'sip-files00327.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:19:10-04:00'
describe
'393667' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGQ' 'sip-files00327.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:12:46-04:00'
describe
'24265' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGR' 'sip-files00327.pro'
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describe
'2826940' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGS' 'sip-files00327.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:14:47-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGT' 'sip-files00327.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:17:56-04:00'
describe
'161991' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGU' 'sip-files00328.QC.jpg'
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describe
'412518' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGV' 'sip-files00328.QC2.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:14:22-04:00'
describe
'34022' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGW' 'sip-files00328.pro'
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describe
'2847992' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGX' 'sip-files00328.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGY' 'sip-files00328.txt'
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describe
'164349' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJGZ' 'sip-files00329.QC.jpg'
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describe
'416161' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHA' 'sip-files00329.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34233' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHB' 'sip-files00329.pro'
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'2012-04-19T04:10:30-04:00'
describe
'2861384' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHC' 'sip-files00329.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHD' 'sip-files00329.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:23:57-04:00'
describe
'164928' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHE' 'sip-files00330.QC.jpg'
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describe
'418878' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHF' 'sip-files00330.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34829' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHG' 'sip-files00330.pro'
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describe
'2834432' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHH' 'sip-files00330.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:22:28-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHI' 'sip-files00330.txt'
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describe
'158668' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHJ' 'sip-files00331.QC.jpg'
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describe
'403675' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHK' 'sip-files00331.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'34556' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHL' 'sip-files00331.pro'
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describe
'2868288' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHM' 'sip-files00331.tif'
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'2012-04-19T04:12:44-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHN' 'sip-files00331.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:10:15-04:00'
describe
'149179' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHO' 'sip-files00332.QC.jpg'
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describe
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describe
'29466' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHQ' 'sip-files00332.pro'
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describe
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describe
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describe
'147569' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHT' 'sip-files00333.QC.jpg'
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describe
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describe
'24691' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHV' 'sip-files00333.pro'
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describe
'2834776' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHW' 'sip-files00333.tif'
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describe
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describe
'164387' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHY' 'sip-files00334.QC.jpg'
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describe
'417608' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJHZ' 'sip-files00334.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'35718' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIA' 'sip-files00334.pro'
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describe
'2840000' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIB' 'sip-files00334.tif'
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describe
'1427' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIC' 'sip-files00334.txt'
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describe
'162413' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJID' 'sip-files00335.QC.jpg'
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describe
'406973' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIE' 'sip-files00335.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIF' 'sip-files00335.pro'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIG' 'sip-files00335.tif'
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describe
'1454' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIH' 'sip-files00335.txt'
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describe
'2827300' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJII' 'sip-files00337.tif'
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describe
'160487' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIJ' 'sip-files00336.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:10:40-04:00'
describe
'408001' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIK' 'sip-files00336.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIL' 'sip-files00336.pro'
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describe
'2879472' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIM' 'sip-files00336.tif'
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describe
'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIN' 'sip-files00336.txt'
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describe
'152716' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIO' 'sip-files00337.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-19T04:13:22-04:00'
describe
'394930' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIP' 'sip-files00337.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'30735' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIQ' 'sip-files00337.pro'
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describe
'1231' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIR' 'sip-files00337.txt'
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describe
'151539' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIS' 'sip-files00338.QC.jpg'
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describe
'410824' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIT' 'sip-files00338.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'19241' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIU' 'sip-files00338.pro'
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describe
'2851412' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIV' 'sip-files00338.tif'
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describe
'861' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIW' 'sip-files00338.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:16:04-04:00'
describe
'149352' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIX' 'sip-files00339.QC.jpg'
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describe
'393426' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIY' 'sip-files00339.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'49266' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJIZ' 'sip-files00339.pro'
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describe
'2831900' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJJA' 'sip-files00339.tif'
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describe
'2027' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJJB' 'sip-files00339.txt'
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'2012-04-19T04:17:55-04:00'
describe
'144003' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJJC' 'sip-files00340.QC.jpg'
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describe
'384509' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJJD' 'sip-files00340.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'37053' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJJE' 'sip-files00340.pro'
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describe
'2840356' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJJF' 'sip-files00340.tif'
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describe
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describe
'152361' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJJH' 'sip-files00341.QC.jpg'
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describe
'428440' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJJI' 'sip-files00341.QC2.jpg'
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describe
'77847' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJJJ' 'sip-files00341.pro'
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describe
'2836960' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJJK' 'sip-files00341.tif'
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describe
'3233' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJJL' 'sip-files00341.txt'
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describe
'153090' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJJM' 'sip-files00342.QC.jpg'
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describe
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describe
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describe
'2714756' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJJP' 'sip-files00342.tif'
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describe
'2828' 'info:fdaE20091111_AAAAAJfileF20091111_AABJJQ' 'sip-files00342.txt'
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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describe
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