Citation
The picture gallery of the nations

Material Information

Title:
The picture gallery of the nations
Creator:
Nicholls, G. P ( Engraver )
Pearson, G ( George ) ( Engraver )
Allen, Walter James, fl. 1859-1891 ( Illustrator )
Religious Tract Society (Great Britain) ( Publisher )
William Clowes and Sons ( Printer )
Butterworth and Heath ( Engraver )
Place of Publication:
London ;
Brighton ;
Manchester
Publisher:
Religious Tract Society
Manufacturer:
William Clowes and Sons
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Edition:
2nd ed.
Physical Description:
254, [10] p. : ill. ; 22 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
National characteristics -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Manners and customs -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1874
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
England -- Brighton
England -- Manchester
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Date of publication from inscription.
General Note:
Some illustrations engraved by Butterworth and Heath, G.P. Nichols, Pearson and drawn by Walter Allen.
Funding:
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026914174 ( ALEPH )
ALH6314 ( NOTIS )
60551846 ( OCLC )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text


Oot et oo



hot}

eee eR a eli oh oe ie ek ea









OF THE





The Baldwin Library

University
Ra x
Florida





| Fz hed ey. ee te ,
ogre Ménal- a ee

AO fey. :











































































SECOND EDITION.

LONDON:

THE -REULLCIOUS= FRAC SO@i PAL,
56, PATERNOSTER Row; 65, St. PAUL’s CHURCHYARD; AND 164, PICCADILLY.

BRIGHTON: 31, WESTERN Roan. MANCHESTER: 100, CORPORATION STREET.

























EONTENES.

gree

To Tarry-at-HomE TRAVELLERS

THE

ENGLISH .
WELSH .
Scorcu
TrisH
FRENCH
—— Bretons
Durtce
BELGIANS
Swiss.
Gurmans—Prussians, Saxons, Aus-
TRIANS, HANOVERIANS, ETC.
Gurmays, Hampurg Women
SPANIARDS .
Portuauuse .
Iranians
‘VENETIANS

Romans .



Danzs

SWEDEs.

PAGE

i |

9
16
21
24
29
34
37
42
45

48
54
58
62
65
69
70

79



Tur NorweEGIANs

Russians.
HunGARrrIANs
Poirs
Lares .
IcELANDERS
GREEKS

Turks

CIRCASSIANS

JEWS.
ARABIANS

PERSIANS.

TAaTARS—TURKOMANS .

NESTORIANS .
Syrians
Hinpoos .

CINGALESE .

Burmese AND Karens .

JAPANESE

CHINESE ,

PAGE

82

85

90

93

95

oo)
101
106
111
115
AD,
125
128
131
136
141
147
151
154
160



CONTENTS.



Tur ALGERINES .

Moors .
ABYSSINIANS
Higyptrans
Matacasy .

Sourn ArFrricans

AMERICA .

Tue Unirep States .

Norta AmericANn INDIANS .

Tur GREENLANDERS

PaTAGONIANS
BrAZILIANS

MEXICANS .

PAGE

165
170
172
177
183
189
195
197
203
207
212
216
220



Tue PErvviAns .

— Avsrran NEGROES

— Maortes

— PoLyNeEsIANs .

— ConvERSION

APPENDIX

Sanpwicu IsLanps .
Frienpiy Istanps
Society IsLanps
Marquesas. .
Samoa, OR Naviea-

tors’ IsLANDS
Fist IsLanps .

oF THE NATIONS.



PAGE

224
228
231
235
235
238
239
240

242
243
247
255





£6 PARRY-AL-ROME LRAVEREERS.

“All travel has its advantages. If you visit better countries, you may learn to
improve your own; if you are carried to worse, you may learn to enjoy your own.’—
Dr. Johnson.

visit foreign lands. They would see with their own eyes the glorious
landscapes of mountains, valleys, and lakes, of which they have heard

or read, and learn the difference in modes and manners of life



which exist between their own people and those of other climes.
In the present day the facilities of travel are great; and tours which a century
ago could only have been undertaken ‘by a privileged few, and at a considerable
outlay of time and money, can now be made by many with ease and economy.
There are numbers, however, especially of the young, who cannot hope to pass, at
least for years to come, beyond their own country, and who must be content to derive

their knowledge of the wide world from the pen, the pencil, and the graver.

For such tarry-at-home travellers the present work is prepared. Its brief
descriptions and pictorial illustrations of the principal peoples of the earth may
instruct and interest, and prepare them to peruse with profit volumes of greater
fulness and higher pretensions.

[A limited portion of the following papers has already appeared in one of the

Society’s periodicals: they are now issucd with three-fourths of new descriptive matter
and numerous additional engravings. |

\







Tee Piensa





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































BUCKINGHAM PALACE—PARK FRONT.

Great Buiraty, the largest island in Europe, consists of three principal divisions—
England, Wales, and Scotland. The greatest extent of England in a direct line from
north to south is 362 miles; its breadth from cast to west is very variable. Its area con-
tains 50,387 square miles. It is divided from Scotland by the River Tweed, the Cheviot
Hills, and Solway Firth. Total population of England in 1871, 21,487,688.



7 ZS HE earliest known name given to England was Albion, or “ white island,”
ys alluding to the appearance of its chalk cliffs. On its invasion by the
Romans it was called by them Britannia, a term which is supposed to
Stax have been derived from a word meaning “ painted, tinted,” from the fact
aes that the early inhabitants painted their bodies. A Roman historian

™ describes it as “a country separated from the rest of the world, and
inhabited by savages.” If there had been given to him a prophet’s eye, he would
B



10 PIOTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

have seen, in the far-distant future, its ships on every sea, and its people colonising
the utmost ends of the earth.

Angle-land, which was, in course of time, changed into England, signifies the
land of the Angles, a German tribe, who conquered the country after the departure
of the Romans.

At the time of the invasion of England by Julius Cesar, the Britons were
divided into several tribes. Their Druids, or priests, worshipped the sun as the
god of fire, on the tops of hills and in consecrated groves. Human sacrifices formed
a part of their religious rites. Prisoners of war and criminals were offered on their
altars. Their victims were shot with arrows, or slain with clubs, and the priests
pretended to foretel events according to the position in which the body fell, or its
appearance when cut open.

In a time of public danger, the people formed of the boughs of trees a large
uncouth image of a man. Then dragging their prisoners at the wheels of war
chariots, they were crowded inside the wicker-work, which was set on fire, while
priests and people frantically sung and shouted around, to drown the cries of the
sufferers. Heathenism is the same in every age. It never improves; it often grows
more vile and wicked. It knows nothing of the true God, whose name is Love, and
who “delighteth in mercy.”

The history of the land before the time of Cesar is very uncertain. That great
Roman general invaded the country fifty-five years before our Saviour was born in
Judea. He came to conquer and to make slaves of the natives. He found the

country in great part uncultivated; large portions were covered with forests and
stagnant marshes.

“Rudely o’erspread with shadowy forests lay

Wide trackless wastes, that never saw the day.

Rich fruitful plains (now waving deep with corn)

Frowned rough and shaggy with the tangled thorn:

Through joyless heaths and valleys dark with wocds =|
Majestic rivers rolled their useless flocds ;

Full oft the hunter checked his ardent chase,

Dreading the hidden bog and green morass ;

While, like a blasting mildew, wide were spread

Blue thickening mists, in stagnant marshes bred.”

In the interior of the land the dwellings were made of rushes, branches, and mud.
The better classes lived by fishiiz and hunting; the poorer on acorns, berries,
and roots. They stained their bodies with the dye of a plant called woad, and



THE ENGLISH, 1
marked themselves with scars to terrify their enemies. The state of the people of
New Zealand, when their country was first discovered, exhibited more nearly than
any other the condition of Britain when the Romans invaded it.* Such it was
without the gospel.

It is said that Christianity was first taught in Britain about the year 64, but for
many years it did not make much progress among the people.

The original stock of the people of this land is now mingled with the Latin,
Saxon, Norman, French, and other races. It has been remarked that “there is no
nation upon the globe, in which more singular and more opposite characters are
to be met with, where liberty moulds the manners of the natives, freedom directs
their mode of thinking and judging, and every man may, if he will, appear as
he really is.”

At home, railroads, canals, bridges, factories, and public buildings show the
energy and skill of the English. Abroad, their extensive and flourishing colonies
and dependencies, and discoveries in remote lands, whose names were unknown to
the old Romans, display their enterprise and love of adventure. These colonies
cover an extent of 8,166,904 square miles, and contain a vast population.

The manufactured articles of the English are in repute all over the world.
There are supplied cotton goods from Manchester ; woollens and cloths from Leeds ;
plated ware and cutlery from Sheffield; machinery and hardware from Birming-
ham; silks from Norwich and Spitalfields; ribbons from Coventry; carpets from
Kidderminster ; lace from the Midland Counties; hosiery from Nottingham ; boots
and shoes from Northampton; and straw-plait from Dunstable.

Then, too, the natural productions of the country promote the welfare of
the people, and aid trade and commerce. Vast quantities of coal are obtained
from the mines of Newcastle; tin and copper from Cornwall; lead from Cumber-
land; iron from Staffordshire; apples from Devon; corn from almost every
county; and fish from more than three thousand miles of sea-coast.

Lonvon, the capital of Great Britain, is the largest, most populous, and
wealthiest city in the world. It is about sixty miles from the sea, but large
ships can come up to its quays. It extends over parts of Middlesex, Surrey,
Kent, and Essex. Inclusive of the suburbs, it covers a hundred square miles, and
has a population of about three millions. While it is the grand centre of the
world’s commerce, visited by the merchants of all nations, it is not less remark-
able for the number of its learned and charitable institutions. Hospitals, asylums;
and charities for the relief of the poor and the reform of the vicious cause an
annual outlay of more than one million and a quarter of pounds sterling. The large

* Sharon Turner’s “ England under the Anglo-Saxons.”

BQ



12 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

increase of schools for the: poor, the formation of ragged schools and other
Christian agencies are to be specially observed.

' Among its great public buildings are St. Paul’s Cathedral, Westminster
Abbey, the British Museum, the Tower of London, the Mint, National Gallery,
Royal Exchange, Guildhall, and particularly the new Houses of Parliament,
where the Queen on state occasions meets her Lords and Commons.











































































































































































TOWER OF LONDON,

But there is a dark side to the picture, which may well cause sorrow and
humility in the hearts of all who love their country. Among the facts to be
deplored are the vice and impiety that prevail among nearly all classes, and
the numbers of the population who are without the most ordinary education.
Happily, great efforts are now being made to remove the reproach caused by
this state of things. Though sin abounds and darkness broods over many a spot



ay

THE ENGLISH. 18























































THE HOUSE oF LORDS.
in the land, it may be affirmed that never were there so many examples of
household piety, and never so much done by the wise and good to remove the
evils that exist, as at the present time. With a free Bible and the preach-



1t

PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

ing of a pure gospel, and a patriotic government, we may hope, re the

blessing of God,

that a country, regarded by other nations as ereat and

enlightened, will become still more worthy of the rank and character it has

attained in the world,

THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

“The population which is daily increasing in the
United States of America is the Anglo-Saxon race,
speaking English. In South Africa, and in New
Holland—with its cloud of islands in the surround-
ing ocean—in. the isles of the west, and in Canada,
to the Arctic Circle, this language is advancing, not
by the imperial authority of princes, but by its own
nature, in the hands of the most enterprising and
intelligent colonists of the earth, Even in India |
it is spoken by the higher classes of natives at the |
seats of government, and is likely “to become the |

language of commerce throughout the seas of the |

east. In proportion as it obtains access to the

_ markets and the schools of those regions, it will

conduct, in its train, that knowledge and truth
which alone can dignify and bless the nations.”—
Dr, Sinith’s Origin and Progress of Language.

“Two hundred and fifty millions of people speak,
or are ruled by those who speak, the English tongue,
and inhabit a third of the habitable globe; but at
the present rate of increase, in sixty years there will
be two hundred and fifty millions speaking English
dwelling in the United States alone.”—Sir C. Dilke’s
Greater Britain, vol. 1.

“Now, gather all our Saxon bards,

Let harps and hearts be strung,

To celebrate the triumphs of
Our own good Saxon tongue ;

For stronger far than hosts that march
With battle-flags unfurled,

It gocs, with FREEDOM, THOUGHT, and TRUTH,
To rouse and rule the world.

“Tt kindles realms so far apart,

That while its praise you sing,

These may be clad with autumn’s fruits,
And those with flowers of spring.

It goes with all that prophets told,
And righteous kings desired,

With all that great apostles taught,
And glorious Greeks admired.

“Mark, as it spreads, how deserts bloom,

And error flees away,

As vanishes the mist of night
Before the star of day!

But grand as are the victories
Whose monuments we see,

These are but as the dawn which speaks
Of noontide yet to be,



THE ENGLISH. : 15

“Take heed, then, heirs of Saxon fam>!

‘ake heed, nor once disgrace,

With deadly pen or spoiling sword,
Our noble tongue and race.

Go forth prepared in every clime
To love and help each other,

And judge that they who counsel strife
Would bid you smite—a brother.



“Go forth, and jointly speed the time,

By good men prayed for long,

When Christian states, grown just and wise,
Will scorn revenge and wrong ;

When earth’s oppressed and savage tribes
Shall cease to pine or roam,

All taught to prize these English words—
Faitn, Freepou, Heaven, and Home!”

J. G. Lyoxs.







































































































































































WINDSOR CASTLE,



Dr:

28H WELSH?

Wats, a principality of Grea’ Britain, lies on the western boundarics of England.
Its length, from north to south, is 180 miles; its breadth, from east to west, is 50
to 80 miles. Population in 1871, 1,216,420.

9) HE principality of Wales is often called Cambria, and its people Cymri,
R%> both words being derived from the term Ocvmmerians, an ancient race of
Western Europe, of whom it is believed the present inhabitants are the
OEE descendants. Originally they dwelt in South Britain; but, on the

wh invasion of that country by the Angles (see page 10), many of the
natives fled to the mountains in the western part of the island, where
they became known as Wiltsemen, or “ strangers,” from whence is obtained
the present name, Welshmen.

The Welsh were under their own princes and laws till the reign of Edward
the First of England, who invaded their land and slew their prince (a.p. 1282).
The better to obtain the confidence of the people, and to secure his conquest, he
called his first-born son Prince of Wales, since which time the eldest son of the
reigning sovereign of England bears that title.

The Welsh language is said to be the oldest spoken language in Europe.
There are poems still preserved in this tongue which are about a thousand years old.

In personal appearance the Welsh are stout and of ruddy countenance: their
round faces are fresh-coloured, even to old age. The gentry dress like the English ;
the farmers wear rough home-made woollen coats, thick stockings, and flannel shirts.
Indeed, flannel, which is largely made in the country, is much worn by men and
women, instead of cotton and linen. In some districts the females wear tall -beaver
hats, but this habit is fast passing away.

The small farms and cottages of the Welsh form very pretty pictures, especially
those on the mountains. The thick walls are generally built of large rounded
stones, with the spaces filled with moss, from which sweet wild flowers spring in
their season. If you step inside, you will find that the light comes through very
small windows, and that a good part of the room lies in shadow. There are often no
grates ; @ fire of peat burns on the hearth, and articles of comfort are all around,

































































































INHHE

i
NH
HHT
Hy
i

rH}
iN















18 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

The ae looks neat wat Ries Most seaees cae a vail let of ae ae a
garden; often some sheep or goats, and a cow. The women occupy much of their
time in knitting stockings and spinning cloth, Even when walking or riding they
busily go on with their knitting.

The people in the country live a retired life in the winter. Snow, frost, and

























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































VALE OF LLANBERIS,

pathless woods are not likely to tempt them far from home. There is also at that
season a great deal of rain. “No matter for the rain,” they say in their tongue,
“we are used to it;’ and hence there may be seen women standing outside their
cottage doors at the wash-tub, or walking leisurely about the village, while the rain
is fast pouring down. The clothing bonne thoroughly wetted, and yet is worn
through the day without any fear, Little children, too, in groups in the rough



THE WELSH. 19



road, go on with their play in the heavy shower, when English cottage children
would be compelled by their parents to find a shelter within doors.

Wales is a land of mountain and valley, and presents many charming land-
scapes, one of which, the Vale of Llanberis, is very much admired by all who pass
through it.

The sabbath is generally kept very devoutly in Wales; and the people have a
- great reverence for God’s Holy Word. A narrative in reference to the latter is
of considerable interest :—

It was late in the year 1802, when a clergyman, the Rev. Thomas Charles, was
walking through the streets of Bala, a small town in Wales. He had not gone far
when he met a little girl whom he knew. He asked her if she could tell him the
text from which he had preached on the last Sunday. Instead of giving a ready
answer to his questions, as she had been in the habit of doing, she hung down her
head in silence. “Can you not tell me the text?” said he. She burst into tears.
At last she replied, “The weather, sir, has been so bad, that I could not get to read
the Bible.” “Could not get to read the Bible! how was that?” He soon learned
the cause: there was no copy of the Word of God to which she could get access,
either at her own home, or among her friends; and she used to travel seven miles,
over the hills, every week, to a place where she could get a Welsh Bible, to read
the chapter from which the minister took his text on the Sunday. But, during that
week, the cold and stormy weather had kept her from her usual journey.

After the girl had gone on her way, Mr. Charles began to reflect how many
were without the Sacred Scriptures. He then inquired among the people in the
town and villages, in how many houses the Bible was to be met with. Great was
his sorrow when he found there was only one copy to about every eighty families!
What was to be done? He was not a rich man, so he could not supply them;
and, even if he could get the money, he well knew they were not to be bought,
as there were very few printed in those days. After he had thought much on the
subject he resolved to go to London, to seek for help in giving the Word of God
to his beloved Welsh people.

A journey from Wales to the great city was then a serious matter: it cost a
considerable sum of money, and took up much time; and, besides, it was winter,
when travelling was not pleasant. But to London he went, and made many
inquiries for Welsh Bibles, and obtained only a small number. He now thought
he would seek for some pious persons who might assist him. He had heard that
several ministers and gentlemen used to meet early in the morning, to consult about
the circulation of tracts, so he resolyed to call on them, hoping that they would
help him,



20 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

Early on the morning of the 7th of December, 1802, the Welsh clergyman
paid a visit to the Committee of the Religious Tract Society, and made known his
errand. They talked together about the state of the people without the Word of
God; and they soon resolved to make an effort to circulate the Bible more largely.
They first consulted how they could procure a supply of Bibles for Wales, when
a minister present said, “A Bible Society for Wales!—why not a Bible Society
for the world?” After-the Committee of. the Tract’ Society had well considered
the matter for several months, these gentlemen, along with some others, formed the
British and Foreign Bible Society, which has sent out millions of copies of God’s
most blessed book to the many nations of the earth. “ Behold, how great a matter
a little fire kindleth !”

















































































THE BRITANNIA TUBULAR BRIDGE, NORTH WALES,



LEE SeOrer:

Scorsanp is the northern and smallest division of Great Britain. Its extent from
south to north is about 270 miles, and from cast to west 150 miles. There are numerous
islands around the coast—the Orkney group consists of 67 islands, and the Shetland group
of upwards of 100. This country is said to have received the Christian faith a.p. 203 ;
was united to England under one crown in 1603, on the accession of its king, James v1.
(James 1. in English history), to the English throne; in 1707 the two kingdoms were
placed under one Parliament, and took the style and title of Great Britain. Population
in 1871, 3,858,000. Chief city, Edinburgh.



y un people of Scotland, called Caledonians by the ancient Romans, are
divided into Ilghlanders and Lowlanders; the former living in the
northern parts, chiefly in the mountains; the latter live in the southern
x Gs country, and in their dwellings, dress, and manners differ very little
oo from the English.
BRL. The Scotch are a hardy, frugal, thoughtful, and industrious race ;
and in personal appearance are tall and robust.

The Highlanders speak a language called Gaelic. Their old national dress
is peculiar. It consists of a kind of cloth known as tartan. This material is
woven into stripes of different colours, which cross each other, forming a chequer-
work of tints. The principal piece of dress made of this tartan is a large
shawl, called by the Highlanders a phelig, but by the Lowlanders a plaid.
This hangs down the back and falls loosely in front nearly to the knees. Next
is a kind of petticoat, or kilt, also made of tartan; while on their legs are
socks of the same pattern as the rest, mostly tied below the knees with garters,
which end as tassels. By the arrangement of colours and stripes in the tartan,
the clans or large families are distinguished one from the other. Shepherds wear
a small black-and-white check, which is called “shepherds’ plaid ;” and a blue
bonnet, or cap, is worn among the clans.

The dress of Highland women consists of a short petticoat and bodice, over
which is thrown a plaid, falling in graceful folds to the feet. A handkerchicf
is neatly tied round the head, though young women have seldom more than a
band of ribbon to secure the hair.



22 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



Instead of wheaten bread, oaten cakes are in common use: hence the country
has been called “the land o’ cakes.”

There is one point which specially deserves attention. As a nation they are
educated beyond most other people. There is a school in every parish, and
several in large parishes, where all, even the poorest, may “obtain an education
sanctified by the lessons of the Bible, imbued with a warm and _ earnest
Christianity, and leading to a measure of intelligence and morality which has



















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































EDINBURGH CASTLE,

seldom been equalled.” Many of the best and wisest men who haye lived in the
land were brought up in parish schools, as not only the poor, but many persons,



THE SCOTCH. 28



even in the higher classes of life, send their children to the common schools to be
educated.

The favourite instrument of music in some parts of the Highlands is the
bagpipes, which, however melodi-
ous to the ears and inspiring to
the heart of a Scotchman, is not
much admired by other people.

Like other countries, Scotland
has made much progress in wealth
and comfort during the past two
hundred years. In 1707 the whole
revenue of the country was only
£110,694; it is now about
£6,000,000. Until the last century,
there was scarcely a proper road
in Scotland. Goods were carried
in sacks and baskets, suspended on
each side of a horse. Where the
distance was great a cart was used,
but such was the wretched state of
the roads that the time taken by
the carriers is almost incredible.
The common carrier from Edin-
burgh to Selkirk, thirty-eight miles
distant, required a fortnight to
travel there and back. In 1678,
a coach with six horses was run we
between Edinburgh and Glasgow, a STIRLING CASTLE.
distance of forty-four miles, and it managed to perform the double journey in
six days!* About a century afterwards Dr. Samuel Johnson found good roads
in Scotland, except in the Highlands.

Scotland is remarkable for its beautiful scenery.







































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































“Land of mountain and of flood,
Land of brown heath and shaggy wood.”

The lochs, or lakes, mountain crags, braes, deep ravines, and other natural
beauties, together with its old castles and ruined abbeys, attract many tourists in
the summer season to this country.

* “ Eneyclopwdia Britannica,” article Sco!land, by P.ofessors Nicol and Balfour,



tee IRese



B

Amone the islands of Europe, in point of size, Ireland ranks next to Great Britain,
from which it is separated by the Irish Sea and St. George’s Channel. Its greatest extent,
from north to south, is about 230 miles, and from east to west 175 miles. Population, in
1871, 5,402,759. Dublin, its capital, is one of the finest cities in Europe. Among
other cities are Belfast, Cork, Limerick, Londonderry, and Waterford. The adminis-
tration of the government is vested in a Lord-Lieutenant and Chicf Secretary of State.



HERE is some uncertainty as to the origin of the name of this country.
Some think it comes from Jerne, “western” land. Others, from a word
used by ancient northern seamen, Ire, which signifies “warm.” And
others, again, say it comes from Evin, that is, “sacred.” The Irish
most commonly adopt the last explanation. By the Romans it was
called Hibernia. As the frequent fall of rain causes a fresh green verdure
to spread over the ground, it is known as the “ Emerald Isle,” and the
national colour is green.

The Irish language is a dialect of the ancient Celtic; that is, it is derived from
a people who dwelt many centuries ago in Central Europe. The English language,
however, is now commonly in use throughout the island. In speaking, the natives
have a “ brogue,” or peculiar burr; and even the English who reside for any length
of time in the country insensibly adopt this tone.

The Irish people have many good qualities. They are generous and hospitable.
A traveller entering one of their “cabins” is heartily welcome to such fare as they
possess, which in some cases is only potatoes and buttermilk. But it is their all, and
they freely give it. They have warm affections and tempers, though these sometimes
break out into violence. They possess strong parental attachments, are brave,
shrewd, and acute, and are great lovers of fun and humour.

They are strong and active, are fair and healthy in complexion, and when
young commonly have flaxen hair and dark blue eyes. Their principal employments
are in connection with agriculture and fisheries, together with the linen and
provision trades.

In some districts, the homes of the peasants are rude huts or cabins.



THE IRISH, 25



From returns made to the Parliament of Great Britain, it appears that these
cabins are fast giving way to an improved class of dwellings. Trade and commerce
are on the increase, and the ground is being brought into a higher state of culti-
vation than in past ages.

Among other distinguished natives
of Ireland are Goldsmith, Moore, and
Wolfe, poets; Harl Rosse and Berke-
ley, men of science; Burke, Curran,
Plunket, and Sheridan, orators;
Bishops Usher, Bedel, and Leslie,
divines; and the Duke of Wellington,
Lord Wellesley, and Lord Palmerston,
statesmen.

Potatoes are the chief food of
large classes of the Irish poor. A
bowl of potatoes, on the top of which
stands a saucer filled with salt, is the
principal meal of the day. Around it %
the family sit; and each one taking a
potato, adroitly turns the peel aside
and dips it in the salt-saucer.

There are few cabins without a
pig; but then it is too often only
reserved for sale, in order to pay the
rent of the “potato patch.” Poor
pig is much cared for. In the day
it lays its body along a heap of straw
and refuse, basking in the sun on the
outside of the hut. When the pig is
taken to market and sold, its master
tenderly bids it good-bye, as if he
were parting with an old and valued friend, whom he would see no more.

Turf, which is used instead of coal, is obtained from bogs extending over
the country for miles. It is the chief fuel—indeed, without it the Ivish could
scarcely exist.

The Irish often spend on a funeral all the money they can scrape together ;
and collections are made by their neighbours to do honour to the memory of the
departed one, Hired female mourners, called keeners, are employed to “wake the
C















































































DUBLIN,



26 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

.
dead,” and their noise is truly frightful. The pay of each keener ig seldom less
than five shillings; and when they have given as much weeping and shouting as





































































IRISH CAR BOY.

they consider is enough for the price, eating and drinking commence among the
relatives and friends. Large numbers of people accompany the body to the graye.



THE IRISH. 27

The greater part of the Irish people are Roman Catholics; and it has been
asserted that much of their poverty and ignorance is to be traced to their
religion. They are held in great bondage by superstition; and “sacred places”

















































































































































































































































































































































IRISH PEASANT GIRL.

are visited by them, in the vain hope of obtaining pardon by the sufferings
they undergo. Making their way around the “place” on their bare knees over
c 2



28 _ PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.





rough stones, they call on the Virgin Mary, or some supposed saint, to intercede
for them, Holy water, penances, relics, and other delusions are their trust,
May the time soon come when they shall know that the only “Name under
heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved,” is that of Jesus Christ,

“Oh! when shall Erin’s lovely isle
In more than nature’s beauty smile:
When to the land’s remotest bound
Shall songs of holy mirth resound ?
When shall her mountain glens rejoice
To hear the Saviour’s gracious voice:
And when her vales, with verdure clad,
List to the gospel and be glad?
That time shall come—nor distant far,
Perhaps, those days of blessings are
When superstition’s sable night
Shall yield to truth’s convincing light.
The Bible, freely spread abroad,
Shall tell the wondrous love of God:
Praise and salvation, hand in hand,
Shall walk the borders of her land:
And sounds of violence no more
Be heard on Erin’s tranquil shore.”



















































































































































































































































































































































































LOWER LAKE OF KILLARNEY.



tee eevee

France is the most westerly, portion of Central Europe, and is separated from England
by the Straits of Dover, a distance of about twenty miles. Its circumference is about 3,100
miles. In 1866 the population was 38,000,000, of whom 2,000,000 were Protestants ; but
the military disasters and the loss of two provinces, consequent on the war with Germany,
have reduced this number considerably more than a million. Capital, Paris, the second city
in size in Europe.

































AP WTO §



good qualities. ‘“ Let us do justice,” says Mr. Laing,* “to the French
character. Their self-command and honesty are yery much to be com-
mended. The hungry beggar respects the fruit on the roadside within
his reach, although there is nobody to protect it. Property is much
respected, and in bringing up children this fidelity towards the property
of others seems much more carefully inculcated by parents in the lowest class, in

* “ Notes of a Traveller.”





30 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



home-education, than with us. This respect for the property of others is closely
connected with that respect for the feelings of our neighbours which constitutes





















































































































































































































































PEASANT GIRL OF THE PYRENEES,

what is called good manners. The young are taught to do what is pleasing and
agreeable, and this is a moral habit of great value.” Hence, too, the humblest



THE FRENCH. Bl



workman is polite even in speaking to others of his own rank of life. In addressing
the poorest woman she expects that you will call her ‘“ Madam.”

The food of the common people is generally a coarse kind of rye bread,
chesnuts, and eggs, with occasionaily a little honey, and on festival days a piece of
dried fish or meat. The higher and middling classes, however, give great atten-
tion to cookery ; and on their tables are the richest soups, pastry, and other kinds
of fancy dishes that can be prepared.

Paris leads the fashion of nearly all Europe. Whatever modes or styles are
adopted these soon become the dress of the fashionables of all the great cities of
England, Belgium, Russia, and other lands. But the dress of French peasants
remains almost unaltered from what it was one hundred years ago. Blouses (a
sort of smock-frock), blue cotton trousers, and woollen caps, are the chief articles of
men’s apparel; while the women wear a jacket and short petticoats, with a clean
cap. This class is seldom seen in bonnets. Formerly the cap was worn very high ;
but since the increase of railways its height has been reduced because of the incon-
venience when travelling.

A lady traveller has furnished a picture—taken from life—of a peasant. girl
of the south of France, whose home was high up in one of the valleys at the foot
of the Pyrenees mountains. She was dressed in the fashion that has for ages
marked this people. The spindle in her hands may show that she is very indus-
trious; and the heavy pot on her head tells us that she has been to a rivulet for a
supply of water. In the distance is one of the highest points of the Pyrenees, called
Pic de Midi. The lady who took her portrait says that, although nineteen years of
age, this young woman was only then learning to read. She belonged to a shep-
herd’s family ; and few of this class possess a single book, or know the value of
the humblest kinds of knowledge.

The rural districts of France are divided into small farms. These farms have few
fences or hedges or trees; the farm buildings do not look so picturesque as those
in England or America. The plough and other agricultural instruments are old-
fashioned, and the ground is badly cultivated. The French farmers have made little
progress since the days of their great-grandfathers. Women attend to much of the
labour in the field, and the rough, rickety waggons are commonly drawn by oxen.

Domestic comfort is not much known in France. Among the middle classes in
cities there is seldom a family table around which parents and children meet to take
their meals together. Those who can afford it dine at an hotel; and the sons, as
they grow up, are allowed one or two francs a day to provide for themselves; and
this money, instead of being spent in obtaining proper food, is too often expended
in cigars or devoted to the theatre at night.



82 PICTURE GALLERY OF. THE NATIONS.

Many of the chateaux, or mansions of the nobility and gentry, are very large
and curious-looking buildings. We give an engraving of one—Chambord, near the
town of Blois. This was the favourite residence of Francis 1., king of France.
What gay trains of splendidly-attired courtiers and fair ladies, in velvet suits, and



























































































































































































































































we
“dy =

all

oil

a

Mo

































































































































































































ieieite itr IP TRie Inte nini in





















































































































































































































CHATEAU DE CHAMBORD,

with jewel-handled whips, have issued forth from its old gates, to hunt in the
woods around! This chateau contains 430 rooms, and 1,800 men were employed
at one time in the erection of the yast pile of building.

The French, like other nations on the continent of Europe, are very unmindful
of the sacred claims of the Lord’s day. A Sunday in a French city has been often
described. Thus a traveller writes :—“ Notwithstanding all I had heard and read
of a continental Sunday, I was not prepared for what I saw. I had expected there



THE FRENCH. 38



would be some signs of the presence of the sabbath and of devout worshippers. I
am bound to say that, although I walked through the very best as well as the
worst streets, I saw nothing to show the slightest change from the ordinary week-
day aspect of a large city. The crowd were in their ordinary attire. In the booths
by the side of the river, and over the bridges, wares of all kinds were exposed for
sale, and the usual cries fell on the ear. Waggons, with jaded-looking horses,
were bearing in all directions heayy loads. Warehouses were open, and workmen
heaving in and out large packages. Bakers were passing with baskets of newly-
baked bread. The shops were all but universally open, and tradesmen standing
at the doors trafficking with customers. Print shops, furniture shops, book
shops, drapers and clothiers, met the eye wherever it turned.”

Since this account was written there has been some slight improvement
in regard to the holy day; but it is still, to a large extent, a time of worldly
gain and sinful pleasure. However greatly sabbath-breaking prevails in Eng-
land, it is not to be compared with the state of a country like France, where
the people from their youth are taught to seek only for amusement during the
hallowed hours. One of the most influential journals of Paris, in commending
the closing of the principal shops of that city on the sabbath, lately said: “ Eng-
land owes much of her energy and character to the religious keeping of Sunday.
Why cannot France follow her, as the sabbath was made for all men, and we
need its blessing ?”

«

























































































































PALACE OF THE TUILERIES, PARIS—BEFORE THE FIRE 1N 1871,



TEER PBRUKONS?

Briirany, the country of the Bretons, is a large province of France, on its north-
west coast. although it has several fine seaports and a few strange old-fashioned cities.

? CONSIDERABLE nuimber of the Bretons are the descendants of Ancient Britons,
iz who were driven by the Saxon invaders of England and Wales to cross
the seas, and settle in this region. The country was formerly called Little
Britain. Their language is very similar to the Welsh, and Welshmen can
hold conversation with them, as a large number of the words in common
use remain nearly the same in both tongues.

The Bretons are known for a love of their homes and country,
and kindness to each other and to strangers. Their vices are avarice and drunkenness.
Travelling in their country is not a pleasant affair. Their public conveyances are
uncleaned, unpainted, creaking, and jolting cars, and full of insect annoyances.

“Some of the Breton towns may give a good idea of the towns of England two
or three centuries ago. The narrow streets, destitute of channel or causeway,
abound with lofty-timbered houses, of curious build, rising tier above tier, like the
stern of a three-decked ship, and approaching so close at top as almost to shut
out the light, with uncouth figures at the angles, and quaint devices on the walls.
Some of the shops are open to the streets, like booths in a fair. . .. . In
Brittany now, as in the middle ages, the market and the fair are the great events.
Rare is the buying and selling that takes place at other times; but when the
market occurs, the country people, from a distance of twenty or thirty miles,
throng the roads, bringing all imaginable articles to exchange for money; for
money is as eagerly sought in Brittany as elsewhere. The Breton works hard, and
with difficulty earns his poor pittance of fifteen sous (about sevenpence) per day,
from which, by wonderful care, he contriyes to reserve one sou, which he carefully
saves.” *

The better classes of the people are dressed as represented in our engraving.
This dress is neat and picturesque. The horses in use are strong and noble
* “ Brittany and the Bible,” by J. Hope.

































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































PEASANTS OF BRITTANY,



386 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

creatures. The e¢ common ere of the ipa however are deeahots as wee ‘and
rude in their manners. The Bretons, says a traveller, dwell in huts generally built
of mud, in which men, children, cows, and pigs live huddled together. Their
habits are wild and savage, and they are mostly in a condition of great poverty.
In some parts the men wear dresses of goat-skins, and look not unlike a number of
Robinson Crusoes. The hairy part of this dress is worn outside ; it is made with
‘long sleeves, which fall nearly below the knees; their long shaggy hair hangs
loosely over their shoulders. On Sundays the men often wear three or four cloth
waistcoats, all of different lengths, so as to let the various colours, red, white, and
blue, with which they are bound, appear one above the other in tiers; a muslin
collar ; full-plaited breeches, tied at the knees by garters of floating ribbon ; white
woollen stockings, with white cloaks; and light yellow shoes.* Many of the women
of the poorer sort wear their dress till it becomes so dirty, patched, and ragged,
that you can scarcely trace what it has originally been. Some Breton females,
however, appear decently dressed in their singular costume, and are of a florid,
healthy look.

In some districts the women wear high muslin caps. Knitting-pins in hand,
they work away at stockings, whether walking, talking, or with a load of butter on
the head. When not at work the knitting-pins are stuck in their hair. When
the great Breton commander, Du Guesclin, was a prisoner to Edward the Black
Prince, and was asked how he could raise the large sum required for his ransom, he
replied, that “the women of Brittany would rather spin for a year, and ransom him
with the work of their distaffs, than that he should remain prisoner.”}

There are large forests of chesnut and oak trees in the land, whose fruit, boiled
in milk, supplies the means of subsistence during the greater part of the year.
The people grovel on from age to age, with little change in their habits. If you
ask a Breton why he does not plant more fruit-trees, he will tell you his father
never did so. If you say, ‘“‘Why not grow more corn, instead of depending so
much on chesnuts and acorns?” he will answer, “I have gathered chesnuts and
acorns from the time when I was a boy; why should I not do so now?” And so
he goes on, without learning wisdom or improving his mode of life. May we not
hope that better times will come to these people ?

* Mis, Palliser’s “ Brittany and its Byways.” + Ibid.





Tan Dever

Hornanp, or the Netherlands, the home of the Dutch, is in West-Central Europe,
and has a population of about 3,652,000, chiefly Protestants. Chief cities, Rotterdam,
Amsterdam, and the Hague. Tho latter place is the residence of the king. The country,
which is of limited extent, is bounded on the north and west by the German Ocean, on the
south by Belgium, and on the cast by Germany.

: 2 HE “Low Countries,” as the land of the Dutchman is also called, have
\ very few hills: almost all is a level plain, except on the sea boundaries,
where banks rise to the height of fifty feet. These are formed by strong
winds, which constantly drive the sand of the ocean towards the
shore. Where these are not thus naturally formed, dykes are built of
wooden piles and clay, to keep out the sea. Thus Holland is pro-
tected from being overwhelmed by the waves. The interior is crossed
at all points by canals, lakes, and rivers. -

Flat as is the country, it is not uninteresting to the eyes of travellers.
Bright, cheerful villages spread over the landscape; farm-houses with their
windows gleaming in the sun; spires of churches peeping over clusters of
willow-trees ; meadows over which roam thousands of fine cattle ; numerous wind-
mills, which are used not only for grinding corn, but for draining the land;
quaint-looking barges slowly passing along the canals, —all help to form a picture
very pleasant to the sight.

The chief out-door amusement of the Dutch in winter is skating, in which
exercise both men and women, from the highest to the lowest ranks, excel.
Indeed, when the roads are bad, this is often the only way in which they can
go to oe to church, or to visit their friends.

All parents are compelled by the laws of the land to send their children to
school, and no one is allowed to be a teacher until proof is given, after
strict examination, that he or she is able to train the young. A Dutch school is a
place of great order. Rows of boys and girls, neatly dressed, and with hands
and faces shining from the scrubbing process they have undergone, are seen at
their lessons, But how quietly they sit—so different to what is behe!d in most



























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE DUTCH, 389



schools. And when it is time to go home, they pass out in the quietest manner
possible. The only noise is from the clatter of their strong wooden shoes.







































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































FLOWER AND FRUIT MARKET, ROTTERDAM,

One of the good points in the character of the Dutch people is that of
cleanliness. In illustration of this, we will visit—

THE CLEANEST VILLAGE IN THE WORLD.

Broek, or Brook, is inhabited, like other places, by the two classes of rich
and poor; but whether they live in mansions or cottages, or whether they be



40 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



retired re or ens in ie ‘field, hag are all iota foe mine aes in
their persons and homes.

There is no horse or cart road through the village of Broek, but there are
pathways, paved with bricks or coloured stones and shells, arranged in patterns,
and lined on each side by neat-looking gardens.

The people go in and out through the back doors of their houses, that. they
may not soil the steps of the front entrances. “I was amused,” says a gentleman,
“to observe the anxiety with which one of the children of ihe house laid down
a wet cloth in order that I might clean my feet upon it, and thus introduce no
dirt into the dwelling.” Before almost every house in the place may be seen a
row of shoes, or wooden sabots, which the people put off at the door, and walk
through the rooms in slippers or stockings. On one occasion Alexander, emperor
of Russia, visited Broek, and on entering one of the houses he complied with the
custom, took off his boots, and put on a pair of slippers. In their efforts to “keep
all tidy,” even a tobacco-pipe—that choice and constant companion of a Dutch-
man—must have over the bowl a thin wire network, to prevent any ashes falling
on the floor.

The houses are frequently painted inside and out, and always appear in their
bright green and white colours. It is said that some of the proprietors of the
largest houses always keep a painter as one of their servants, who finds constant
work in sustaining the mansion in its freshness of appearance. The roofs are
covered with polished tiles, which glitter in the sunshine.

Every house has its “best parlour.” That popular writer, Washington Irving,
in describing his visit to this “paradise of cleanliness,” says of this room: “The
mistress and her confidential maid visit it once a week, for the purpose of
giving it a thorough cleaning, and putting things to rights—though it is hard
to say how they can possibly get wrong—always taking the precaution of leaving
their shoes at the door, and entering devoutly on their stocking feet. After
scrubbing the floor, sprinkling it with fine white sand, which is curiously stroked
into angles, curves, and other devices; after washing the windows, rubbing and
polishing the furniture, and putting a new bunch of evergreens in the fireplace,
the window-shutters are closed to keep out the flies, and the room is then
carefully locked up till sevén days of time bring round the weekly cleaning day.”
What enjoyment is to be had from this locked-up room it is hard to tell.

The little old-fashioned village church has its stones well scrubbed almost
daily, and the pulpit and seats shine from the rubbing they get. Indeed,
throughout Broek, one of the chief ends of life seems to be, to make everything
look bright and eleat, and keep out dirt,



THE DUTCH. 4]



In this village and its neighbourhood large quantities of the little round
cheeses, known all over the world as Dutch cheeses, are made. The cows which
yield the milk of which these are made are kept very clean; and their tails
are neatly tied up, that they may not dangle them in the dirt when they he
down. “I am sure,” says a traveller, “that a large proportion of the poor
people of England, and a still larger number of the Irish, are not so well and
cleanly lodged as the cows in this village.” The pavement of the stables is
covered with Dutch tiles: the walls consist of deal boards, smoothly polished
like an English dining-table; and the whole place is carefully washed and
cleaned.

It is a satisfaction for those who are fond of Dutch cheese to know that
the process of making it is the cleanest imaginable. The finest fresh butter and
richest cream to be tasted in any land may be also had here.

There is much that is very useless, and perhaps rather foolish and absurd,
in the manners of the people of the cleanest village in the world; but yet
we cannot think of them without learning a lesson of cleanliness and diligence,
which may be carried into practice in our daily life.

























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Tee Beneeaws>

Beuerum, in Central Europe, is one of the smallest of kingdoms. It is 195 miles long
and 120 broad. Population in 1870, 5,081,260. It has in succession belonged to Spain,
Austria, France, and Holland, but became independent in 1831, and is now ruled by its own
sovereign, called the King of the Belgians. Chief city, Brussels.



=O) HE Belgians in the northern part of the land partake of the character,

. and have the manners and customs of their neighbours, the Dutch; and
in the south, of the French. In the former the Flemish language is
spoken ; in the latter, as also in all the principal cities, the French is
in use among the upper and middle ranks.

The country has been called “the Garden of Europe,” and large
numbers of the people are engaged in the cultivation of the soil.
England is largely supplied with fruit, vegetables, and eggs from its farms, and
a considerable trade is kept up between the two nations. Neat farm-houses appear
all over the land. They are not large; they might be called “cottage homes.”
The principal room is a clean kitchen, on each side of which are two small
rooms, only large enough to hold a bed; and upstairs in the roof is a sleeping
room for the servants, if the farmer can afford to pay for help. Generally, the
family can attend to all the labour of the farm. ‘The father and song do the
out-of-door work; the daughters look after the cows and pigs; and the mother
spins flax into cloth, which she makes up into dress for the household.

The Belgians are also skilful in the manufacture of lace, silks, iron-ware,
and machinery: several of their large cities, as Antwerp, Ghent, Liege, and Ostend,
have been noted for ages for their thriving industry and commerce. Bruges, with
its wonderful belfry, presents an interesting scene at all times, especially on market
days. The city was in former times crammed with merchants and their wares.
Six canals led into it, which were filled with barges and ships, bearing the
manufactures of the place to all parts of Europe, but it has fallen into decay.
Every quarter of an hour the chimes of the belfry strike out old familiar
tunes, “like a great musical snuff-box up in the sky.”

Brussels, the chief city, is called “Paris in miniature,” which it resembles
in its parks, public buildings, places of amusement, and habits of the people.



, THE BELGIANS. 43

If Belgium is “the garden,” it has been also the ‘“battle-ground of
Europe.” About ten miles distant from Brussels the battle of Waterloo was







THE BELFRY AT LRUGES,



44 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.





fought, where thousands were laid low in death. The spot is generally visited by
travellers; but, as one of them remarks: “May no one return from this sadly
memorable plain without a firm resolve to do something towards the prevention
of war, and of seeking to promote the true brotherhood of man.”

The Belgians are almost entirely Roman Catholics, and are superstitious and
bigoted. They are fond of religious shows and ceremonies, and their churches
are adorned with large dressed dolls, designed to represent “the Child Jesus.”
In the cathedral at Brussels is a pulpit, formed of large carvings in wood,
showing Adam and Eve (the latter with an enormous apple in her hand) as
driven out of Paradise by an angel; around are wooden peacocks strutting at
full length, monkeys jumping among fig-trees, a great boa-constrictor twining
around a trunk of a tree, together with ostriches, eagles, and squirrels, in all
kinds of strange attitudes and places. At the top, as a sort of “ sounding-board,”
the Virgin Mary holds the infant Saviour, whom she is assisting to thrust the
end of a cross into the serpent’s head! And this strange pulpit stands in the midst
of a place designed for Christian worship !

“Tn vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of
men” (Matt. xv. 9). .









































BRUSEELS,

































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































GENEVA.

LEE SWS

“ Beautirun SwitzerLanD” is an inland country of Europe, and is about 200 miles in
length and 160 in breadth. It is a land of mountains, valleys, and lakes; within its
limited borders there are about 2,500 streams. It is divided into twenty-two cantons, or
counties, each of which has an independent government, but the whole are united for
mutual defence. Population about 2,510,000. Chief city, Berne.

”

personal appearance they differ: those who live near to Italy have the
tawny skin and general features of the people of that land; others who
reside in the neighbourhood of the Rhine haye the round and ruddy
face of the.Germans; and those who border.on France have the lively
black eyes and cast of face of the French. So also they differ in
religion, nearly two-thirds being Protestants, and the others chiefly
Roman Catholics. The former are the most thriving, and their cantons are in a
superior state of order and cultivation compared with the latter.





46 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

There are fhtente ies styles of dress among the ents but Seely
the men wear round high hats, open waistcoats, and breeches of coarse linen. Women
are dressed in jackets, often with a profusion of buttons, and short petticoats.
Unmarried females are generally distinguished by their hair being in two plaits, tied
at the ends with ribbons. After marriage the hair is twisted in a bunch on the
crown of the head, and secured with long silver pins.

“The peculiar feature in the condition of the Swiss—the great charm of
Switzerland—next to its natural
scenery, is the air of well-being,
the neatness, the sense of property
imprinted on the people and their
plots of land. They have a kind
of Robinson Crusoe industry about
their houses and grounds. Some
cottages are adorned with long texts
of Scripture, painted or burnt into
the wood, in front, over the door.”
Others of the chalets, or cottages,
have the pedigree of the builder or
owner on the outside, and are other-
wise singularly carved and orna-
mented. “The little plots of land,
each no bigger than a garden, show
the daily care in fencing, digging,
weeding, and watering. With basket,
hoe, and spade, unassisted by animal
power, all the labour is done by
hand.”* With the money a peasant

pwns, GIRL. earns in the winter by weaving, and
sometimes in summer as a guide to tourists, in addition to the humble produce of
his garden, all his simple wants are supplied. Women spin hemp into a coarse kind
of cloth, with which they make clothes for their families; and the children, in the
long nights of winter, find employment in making wooden toys of animals, birds,
and houses. In the fine season the boys are engaged in taking charge of the cattle
on the mountains, and are commonly seen with great horns, used in calling home
their herds at night.

The highest village in Europe, inhabited all the year round, is the Swiss village



* Laing’s “Notes of a Traveller.” First Series.



THE SWISS. a7
of Mirren. It commands a more glorious prospect than tongue can describe, and
well repays the toil of reaching it.

Switzerland stands closely connected with the Reformation. Erasmus and
Zwingle, at Basle, laboured to over-
turn popery ; Calvin at Geneva, and
Farel at Neufchatel. The English
and Scotch exiles, John Knox and
Miles Coverdale, with others, found
more than a shelter at Zurich—
they secured a welcome and a home.

It was in the latter city that
Zwingle, when he entered on his
ministry in the old cathedral on
New Year’s Day, 1519, began with .
these words :—‘“ It is to Christ that °
I desire to lead you; to Christ, :
the true source of salvation. His
Divine word is the only food that
I wish to set before your hearts
and souls.” Through the teaching
of the Holy Spirit he had learned
that simple faith in the sacrifice
and intercession of the one Mediator
could bring peace to the soul, and
he laboured heartily that his country-
men should rejoice with him in the
same blessing.

In recent times many good men
have preached the gospel in this
land, and there are numbers of the people who truly love our Lord Jesus Christ,
and who labour that others may love him too.



SWISS BOYS.

|





Lae GERMANS:

Germany—Deutschland, as it is called by the natives—is a large division of Midland
Europe, extending 700 miles in breadth and 600 in length. It is divided into North
Germany, consisting of a confederation of states, under the leadership of Prussia, with a
population of 30,000,000; South Germany, with a population of 8,000,000; and German-





























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































ON THE RHINE,



THE GERMANS. 49



speaking natives of the Austrian empire, 10,000,000. The political divisions are Austria
proper, Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria, Wurtemburg, Nassau, Hanover, Brunswick, Baden, Olden-
burg, Mecklenburg, Pomerania, Schleswig-Holstein, Brandenburg, Westphalia, and others.
Though there are minor differences of character and habits among the people, they possess
some general features of nationality, which distinguish them as Germans. The Rhine, the
finest of German rivers, is the home of history and legends. Thousands of vineyards flourish
on the sides of the mountains, and the tops are studded with the remains of baronial castles
of the olden times. Along the banks are fine towns and pretty-looking villages.



2) un Germans are a thrifty, plodding people, who give great atteution to

~~. trade and to the cultivation of the land. Literature and the arts also
flourish among them. They are frank, frugal, industrious, and great
lovers of their country.

Different kinds of dress are worn in the different parts of the land.
That of the peasant, in some parts, consists of a sort of shooting-jacket,
a green waiscoat, and a belt round the waist, breeches of leather,
worsted leggings, and a felt hat, in which is frequently worn a tuft of feathers.
The style of dress of the women is not exactly the same even in two adjoining
villages. Generally they may be seen with a dark boddice, or jacket, with
short coloured petticoat, and a handkerchief tied under the chin.

The Germans are early risers, they dine in the middle of the day, and sup
at seven in the evening. Smoking is a constant habit: from morning to night the
pipe is scarcely out of the mouth of a German.

It is common now, among this people, for the younger branches of the smallest
tradesmen to have a very fair knowledge of French and English. Since the marriage
of the Princess Royal of England into the Prussian royal family, the last-named
language is deemed necessary to the complete education of girls. Artisans, especially
in Prussia, are a superior class of men, owing to a regulation which requires them to
travel and work under different masters for a short term of years.

Peasant life is mostly one of great hardship. The women engage in the
heaviest labours of the field, and their clothing is rough and scanty. Fishermen
on the shores of the Baltic and the North Sea are a more thriving class, and enjoy
many home comforts.

In Germany, Christmas and birthdays are seasons when gifts are exchanged;
even more so than in other lands. The wife saves in her household expenses
that she may buy a present for her husband; and he curtails, even in his
beloved pipe and lager beer, that he may obtain a gift for his wife. Christmas
Eye, or “the Happy Eve,” as they call it, is especially the children’s’ season,



































PIPTETTT TET LG

St tts













te

5

FISHERMAN S HUT ON TIE SHORES OF THE BALT[C,—NET-MAKING



: THE GERMANS. 51

when they receive gifts from those that love them. Their lot is deemed a hard
one who have nothing to give and to receive at such times.

New Year’s Day in Germany is kept as a day of amusement. But in
those families where life is regarded as having higher purposes than mere
business and play, New Year’s Eve is celebrated in a more homely but cer-
tainly not less happy manner. It is spent in social enjoyment, not forgetting
cakes for the young. In many families the voice of thanksgiving is heard for the
mercies of the past year, with prayer for God’s blessing on the new year. When
the watchman on the church-tower sounds his horn, according to German custom,
to proclaim midnight, all wish each other a happy new year, and go to bed.

On the first morning of the new year all is bustle in every town: there
is music on the parade-ground; music at all the inns and hotels; music in every
street; while people are seen running about busily intent on making morning
calls. On these occasions, “the compliments of the season” being over, a whole
string of minor wishes for the coming year follows, and every one desires all
manner of good to all they meet at home and abroad.

But the chief family festivals are the Silver Wedding, which marks the
twenty-fifth anniversary of a wedding day; and the Golden Wedding, which
denotes the fiftieth. Then all the members of a family and neighbours unite in
paying visits, and offering love-tokens to the happy couple whose days have
been so long prolonged in wedded life.

The cultivation of music among the lower classes in Germany seems to have
a softening influence over them. Working men, instead of resorting to the public-
house as a means of recreation after their day’s labour, may be seen sitting on a
bench outside their lodging-house, singing to a guitar or other instrument.

We will now give brief attention to child life in this land, as described by a
German lady, who contributed the account to a popular periodical.* “It is a
custom,” she writes, “to swaddle the babies, which is done in the following
manner:—After the babies are dressed in long clothes, the latter are doubled and
turned up, like the ends of a treacle pudding. A piece of white dimity or
other strong material, bound at top and bottom, made like a long surgical bandage,
only wider, is then wound round the baby, so as to enclose its arms and whole
body. The baby can neither move nor kick: it can only eat, sleep, and grow fat.
German mothers say that their babies seldom cry when they are swaddled, but,
on dressing them in the English way, the babies throw up their arms in wild
despair, until changed again to their own dress.

“The fist object in a German household is to bring the children under proper

* “TVeisure Hour,” 1866,



52 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



discipline. They are not, as in England, kept in a nursery, to be petted and
spoiled during their infancy. When scarcely three or four years old, they are
sent both in the morning and afternoon to places called ‘ children’s-gardens,’ or
‘infant-schools, though learning is not attended to there at first. On the
contrary, the woman who takes charge of these little children tries, by every
means in her power, to amuse them. She induces them to play together, for
which purpose a quantity of toys, including dolls, are kept. The children are
thus happy. The walk to and from school is good for their health, and, as soon
as memory may safely be taxed, they are taught to say their prayers and
learn the alphabet. As they get older they learn to read, sing little songs,
repeat short poems, and are taught to dress their dolls.

“ After passing their early years in acquiring the simplest kinds of knowledge
and religious instruction, young girls of twelve or thirteen are sent to a Nahschule,
or ‘school for sewing,’ where, however, they learn every kind of useful needlework,
beginning with a pocket-handkerchief, and ending with the most difficult piece of
female work. When quite perfect in all that relates to the sewing and cutting-out,
two samplers are made, the first to learn marking by. The second is made of fine
canvas, out of which large square pieces are cut, to be filled in again by beautiful
patterns of ‘darning’ in coloured silk: not stocking-darning, but different
patterns of damask and table-linen, in case any of these articles should want
repairing. German ladies hold stocking-darning in abhorrence. Whenever stock-
ings want mending, they are not darned, but the thrifty housewife knits new heels or
toes into them, which not only gives them a better appearance, but makes them more
comfortable for wear. About a year is spent in learning common needlework, after
which the young girl is sent toa finishing school. Here she learns drawing, French,
English, botany, ornamental needlework, and music.

“The last accomplishment, as far as regards instrumental music, is nowhere
cultivated with greater success than in Germany. It is an all-devouring passion
with young and old, rich and poor. To the rich it is a never-failing source of delight,
and to the poor it is life itself, their services being in constant demand. She is now
considered a young lady (for all girls after the age of about thirteen are so called),
and has to learn cookery in all its branches, which art she has to practise daily for
the benefit of the whole family. Germans have strange ambition to excel in English
‘cookery, principally beef-steak, roast-beef, and plum-pudding. The former, which
they call ‘ beeuf-stiick,’ is made in private families in this way :—The meat, being
cut into thin lean pieces, is put into the frying-pan with pepper and salt, and is then
slowly fried in butter until it looks like a piece of Russian leather. At the hotels,
where they are anxious to please the taste of the English, which they are told inclines



THE GERMANS. 53

towards raw meat, they cut the beef into thick pieces, and, after just turning them in
the pan over a slow fire, they are brought on the table quite raw inside.



mn
o

ren i
ry
Ht Ht i

i
I

Th i :



















FAMILY DINNER PARTY IN GERMANY.

“The ‘rossbif’ is the dish on the preparation of which the Germans pride them-
selves most. In order to make it look quite English, as they think, they commence
by trimming it into the form of a ball, This being done, it is cooked in some strange



54 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.
fashion, scarcely half roasted, and when put upon the table it looks a shining black,
as if it had been japanned all over.”

There is much more to be said about girl life in Germany, but we must note
one or two matters about boy life.

“What is the reason,” says our lady German correspondent, “of a boy-baby
being held everywhere in Germany in greater esteem than a girl? He is petted
from the very first, and crammed with flour and milk made into pap, often to such
an extent that his eyes and nose seem almost buried between his cheeks. This
done, both mamma and nurse pronounce him ‘a charming boy,’ and he is then
carried about in triumph by the latter on a large square feather pillow. The cover
of this is trimmed with beautiful lace, and coloured ribbons for strings on two
opposite sides. The latter being tied together, the little fellow lies inside like a silk-
worm in a cocoon, and calmly surveys the arrangements which are being made for
the increase of his size. These consist in boiling flour-milk and broth, besides feeding
him at short intervals with bread-and-butter and cakes, until the time arrives for
his learning to walk. It will then be found that, owing to his being so very fat, he
cannot be put on his legs with safety, except while being held in leading-strings.

“Very young boys in Germany have a funny appearance, their dress being a small
copy of their papa’s, with the exception of the coat, for which a tight-fitting bodice,
with buttons all round, is substituted. As they grow older they are dressed in a
short tunic and trousers made of cloth, in which they look very well. They are sent to
school at a very early age, where discipline is maintained by a cane. This is used very
generally in the schools, and even by the clergyman who instructs them in religion.”

Turning from the children, we must remark that there is one sad point in the
character of the Germans—the want of reverence for the sabbath, even among those
who are called Protestants. It is the day chosen for travelling, and for concerts,
balls, and the theatre. The chief market of the week in a town is mostly held on the
holy day; and thus the season given by God to men for rest, when the thoughts
may be raised to heaven, is perverted to the love of gain and worldly pleasure.
Time is lost that should be spent in seeking the salvation of the soul, and serving the
Saviour of men,

HAMBURG MARKET-WOMEN.

Tue city of Hamburg, one of the great seaports of Germany, is about eighty
miles up the River Elbe. As we approach it by water, forests of ships’ masts are
seen, and the quays on the banks are covered with goods from almost every land in





















































































































































































































































































































HAMBURG MARKET-WOMAN,



56 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

the world. When we step on shore crowds of people appear to throng the
streets, for the city contains about two hundred thousand people. It is said that
no city of its size in the world is more busy or wealthy. Its merchants are as
princes, and as generous as they are rich.

On entering Hamburg for the first time, you are quite bewildered with the
din around you. People of all nations are talking together, but if you know no
language except English you can manage tolerably well, for almost everybody
speaks English more or less, as a matter of business necessity. When you are
settled a little, and have time to look about you, there is plenty to amuse and
gratify the taste.

The city is very fine, not so much in respect to its public buildings ag its
private streets, and mansions, and squares. The great fire of 1842 (which de-
stroyed sixty streets, and nearly two thousand houses) turned out for the good’ of
Hamburg. It spared the finest streets; and in place of the narrow, dirty rows
of lanes which were destroyed, there are now splendid ranges of wide -streets,
reminding one of the very finest of those of London or Paris. The most re-
markable buildings are St. Michael’s Church, with a steeple of the vast height
of 456 feet, and the Exchange, which, although in the very midst of the great
fire, was saved.

The business at the Exchange is chiefly from one to two o’clock, and no
stranger should neglect to visit it, and listen to the noise of the assembled mer-
chants as they buy and sell, and arrange about the coming and going of ships.

The city abounds with good hotels and coffee-houses, and with large and
well-conducted public hospitals. The poor are well provided for, and hardly a
beggar is to be met with. Schools abound, and nearly all the old monasteries

nd convents are now turned into benevolent institutions of one kind or other.
he religion of four-fifths of the inhabitants is Protestant. There are said to be
seven thousand Jews in the city.

The Binnen Alster is a large lake, in the heart of the town; it is charming
to lounge here in summer evenings, delighting in the pure, cool air and the
fragrance wafted from the baskets of the flower-girls, and listening to the music
of numerous bands. The walks on the tree-planted ramparts inclosing the city
are also very fine, and pleasant trips may be made in the suburbs.

One of the best sights in Hamburg, as in other foreign cities, is to be
found in the great market. Here you may see the country people in their
peculiar dresses, offering for sale the produce of their gardens and farms.
Many of the market-women still dress in the fashion of those of olden times.
Some of them wear strange head-wings on each side of the face, formed of a



THE GERMANS. 57
kind of cloth. From behind they are a large bow, which hangs over the
shoulders. And then a stranger cannot but observe the hat, like a basket turned
upside down, and the finely-worked body-dress, as a breastplate, together with
the deeply-fringed sash, which make her an object of special attention to a
visitor from a foreign land.

Sugar-baking, hat-making, and printing are largely carried on in Hamburg,
and in the latter branch of trade many books and tracts, teaching the great
truths of the gospel, are sent forth every year throughout Germany.

























STREET IN HANOVER.



y

LEE SRANLARDS?

Spain is in the south-western part of Europe. Its greatest length is about 560 miles,
and average breadth 830. Population, 16,641,000. Chief city, Madrid.

_PANIARDS are of a dark, swarthy complexion, with regular features and
> dark eyes. They are grave in manners, dignified and slow in their
walk, and are said to be proud and revengeful in temper. Their dress
varies in different provinces, but the old national dress is a large cloak
or blanket, short braided jacket, and broad crimson or striped sash.
The females dress in dark gowns and bright-coloured shawls. Their
hair is dressed with much care, and at the back of the head a large, high
comb is fixed, to which is fastened a kind of scarf, called a mantilla, hanging very
gracefully over the shoulders. A fashionable comb is a foot long, and is worth two
or three pounds in our money. Sometimes a poor woman will spend all the money
she has to buy an expensive comb. The fans also are very costly. Almost every
gitle girl is seen with a fan in her hand.
The life of a Spaniard has but few changes. His food is scanty, the favourite
repast being a compound of chicken, beef, and pork, with beans and peas. But
this luxurious fare is only for holidays and great feasts, and for the better class
of persons; more commonly, the beans and peas, with garlic and oil, form the
dinner of the tradesman and common people. Chocolate, sugar and water, or weak
wine, is the usual beverage. They are very fond of smoking. Travellers tell us that
in the streets, and at home, in the coffee-house, and on a journey, from morning
to night a cigar is in the mouth of a Spaniard. “ Physicians smoke in visiting their
patients, statesmen when in their councils, judges upon the bench, and prisoners _
at the bar. The only time in the day when tliey cease to smoke is when they take
their mid-day nap, called a séesta—a custom of all classes throughout the land.”
The streets of the cities and country roads swarm with beggars and strolling
musicians. The latter are generally of the gipsy class. They collect money of the
passengers to the sounds of bagpipe, guitar, tambourine, and song.
Great changes have come over Spain during the last three centuries. It was
formerly among the first countries in Europe for commerce; but in the course of a





























ab















60 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.
few ages it had not a single shipyard left. It was once famous for the number and
produce of its looms: these are now few and little esteemed. Its quicksilver mines
supplied the whole world; they are now nearly all closed.

There are some fine palaces and public buildings, built in former times, as the
Royal Palace at Madrid. But, in general, its once famous cities were left for ages
to fall into decay; and the inhabitants lived in a condition of the greatest

< ignorance. It is said that out of a
population of sixteen millions only one-
fourth can read or write. Of late,
however, there has been an increasing
improvement in the people and in the
state of their towns.

In regard to the religion of the
Spaniards much cannot be said that is
favourable. It has been asserted that
people attend the churches chiefly to see
the fine processions, to hear the music,
and perhaps to bow the knee before the
statue of the Virgin Mary. Some of the
_ images are richly adorned with jewels.
The diamonds on one of them are valued

jj, at more than twenty thousand pounds.

J Tens of thousands of Spaniards have

never seen a copy of the Bible; great

numbers do not know that there is such

a book. Instead of looking by faith to
/ SG i ee eS Jesus only as a Mediator and Saviour,
pipe eee “4 .

neh ; they trust to saints and angels as their

rauiis’ welgae aoe advocates before God. But there is a

bright light appearing in the dark cloud, and we hope that a happier day is

dawning upon Spain; when, instead of trusting for salvation in vain religious

rites and on human merits, people shall be brought to receive a pure gospel, and
know the blessed truth, that only the blood of Jesus Christ can take away sin.

Let us give one instance of the good work which has commenced in Spain :—

One sabbath afternoon in 1857, a young man was passing along the principal
walk of Gibraltar. He knew no other religion than that of Romanism; but that
had lost its hold on him. He was a play-writer by profession. As he was one day
walking he was engaged in designing a new drama, when he suddenly heard the bell





THE SPANIAPDS, ; 61



of a Protestant chapel. He was attracted to the place, and entered it. The simple
service very much affected him, accustomed as he was only to the glittering and
showy ceremonies of Popery. The truths, too, which he heard were new to him.
In the sermon the minister made constant reference to the Bible; but Matamoras
had never seen one before. As he passed out of the chapel he asked an attendant
where he could buy a copy of the Scriptures. The attendant told him he should
have a New Testament without money, and gave him one. The play-writer hastened
to his lodgings and gave up the whole night to its study.

_The reading of that New Testa-
ment, together with a tract entitled
“Andrew Dunn,” led Matamoras to
become a Protestant Christian. He
gave up the writing of plays, and de-
voted himself to making known the
gospel among his countrymen. Soon
numbers met together to hear the
word of God, and in many towns there
were companies of converts from Rom-
anism. The priests were alarmed, and
urged the queen who then reigned
in Spain to put down these meetings.
In the town of Malaga a young candi-
date for the priesthood was seen read-
ing a Testament, and it was made
known from whom he had received SPANISH LADY.
it. Matamoras was then arrested,
tried, and condemned to several years’ hard labour in the galleys.

When it became known in England and other countries that a good man was so
severely treated for only reading the Bible, and encouraging others to read it,
protests were sent to the queen from various lands, and after some delay she was
constrained to order him to be set at liberty, on condition that he should be banished
from his native country for life. Matamoras is now dead. He remained faithful
to his Christian profession to the last.

Since his time the Bible has freely gone forth into Spain, Christian books and
tracts have been widely circulated, and numbers of the people, it is hoped, have
received the truth as it is in Jesus, and haye learned the only way in which a sinner
can be saved,







a Yau Porxwucouser

Portueant is the most westerly kingdom of Europe. Its entire population is about
3,500,000; but including the island of Madeira and the Azores, which belong to it, the
inhabitants are 4,400,000. Chief city, Lisbon.

N many respects the Portuguese resemble the Spaniards. They have
black hair and eyes, and swarthy complexions ; their teeth are white, as
only a few smoke, though they are very fond of snuff.

The greater part of this people are poor and ignorant. Their
cities are described as pleasant to view from a distance, but on entering
the walls, dirt and destitution appear through most of the streets.
Travellers also describe the country villages as wretched in the extreme ;
the houses are filthy, and the peasants dejected, idle, and spiritless. Beggars are
very numerous; they infest every town and village, and not only entreat, but
impudently demand your money.

“The dress of the Portuguese women,” says a lady traveller, “would not be
unbecoming, if they had a better notion of personal cleanliness.” On high days
they wear cloaks of black or scarlet colour, and pink, green, or yellow silk shoes,
with which they walk through the most disgusting dirt and mud. “The form of
female dress does not undergo a change once in an age: and fancy dressmakers and
milliners are as much unknown in Lisbon as they were in ancient Sparta.”

Our engraving represents a sailor and a fisherwoman of Oporto, a city on the
sea-coast. The men wear sashes of different colours, in which is commonly seen a
dagger.

The food of the labouring classes is beans and chesnuts, which are ground and
made into bread, or used in soups and stews, and on this fare they will toil in the
summer under a burning sun, half-naked and bareheaded; or, in winter, under
drenching rains, with nothing else to protect them than a straw-thatched hovel.
The better classes enjoy a salted pilchard with a few heads of garlic; and a piece of
salted cod is a dish to adorn a feast.

Among the peculiarities of the Portuguese, the following are to be noticed.
They commonly refuse to carry burthens, which they say is work only suited to

























































































































































































































































































































Zy
Lz 5
CIE

»





































64 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



beasts. Women, when they ride, sit with the left side towards the horse’s head ;
and a postilion rides on the left horse. Tailors sit at their work like shoe-
makers. A tavern is known by a vine-bush; and a house to be let by a piece
of blank paper. The custom of wearing boots and black conical caps is peculiar to
fruit-women.

“The Portuguese are behind almost every nation in Europe in agriculture.
The soil is neither manured nor tilled ag it ought to be; and the plough is merely
three pieces of wood, awkwardly fastened together, and imperfectly aided by wheels.”

In former ages the Portuguese were the boldest adventurers by sea. To them
we owe the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope, Brazil, the coast of Guinea,
and the passage by sea to the East Indies. But the moderns have lost nearly all
the spirit of their forefathers.

Popery is the religion of the land; there are not so many priests and monks
and nuns as there once were; most of the monasteries have been broken up, and
their wealth taken for the use of the State.

An English traveller took a seat, day by day, by the side of a fountain that
stood just outside a city, and talked to the people as they came to draw water.
He spoke to them about the Bible, and found that very few had ever heard of such
a book—hardly one could give an account of its contents. ‘The “water of life” is
kept from the people by the craft of men.





Tan Leaneaws:

Continentan Trany, in the south of Europe, is 700 miles in length, with a variable
breadth of 25 to 350 miles. There are also three large islands inhabited by the Italian
race—Sardinia, Sicily, and Corsica, with several smaller ones, as Elba, Malta, and others.
A few years since Italy was divided into several kingdoms and.states, as Sardinia, Naples,
Tuscany, Parma, Modena, Venetia, and the Papal States; but these have been united under
one crown, and form the kingdom of Italy. Population in 1869, 25,944,915. Capital
city, Rome.

busy, and cheerful race, well used to labour, frugal in their food, and
happy in their cottage homes. But during a long course of ages they
have fallen from their high estate; and, especially under the influence
of the Roman Catholic religion, have become a far inferior race to their
forefathers, whether in their physical condition, manners, or virtues.

Goldsmith, in. his beautiful poem, ‘The Traveller,” after giving a
picture of the loveliness of the country, thus speaks of the people :—



“ But small the bliss that sense alone bestows,
And sensual bliss is all the nation knows ;
In florid beauty groves and fields appear ;
Man seems the only growth that dwindles here.
Contrasted faults through all his manners reign ;
Though poor, luxurious; though submissive, vain ;
Though grave, yet trifling; zealous, yet untrue ;
And even in penance, planning sins anew.”

“In no part of Europe is the education of the humbler classes so neglected
as in Italy, taken as a whole. The instruction of the poor is in the hands of
the priests, and nothing can. be worse conducted. It is a wonder to find a
rustic that can read, and a mechanic in a town that can write his own name
is equally rare.” The Italians are said to be “at once the most refined and
the most superstitious in Europe, the most cultivated and the most immoral.
There is abundance of misery in many an Italian city amidst all the gay out-















































































































ui

CENTRAL ITALY—PEASANTS,



THE ITALIANS. 67

side.” Notwithstanding, the land is the delight of travellers for its scenery, and
for the fine ruins of buildings of former ages.
The people are grave and reserved in manners, though they give themselves









hi
In
i

iit
i





SOUTHERN ITALIANS,
up to pleasures the most childish. In complexion they are dark. The dress of

the peasants is yery rough—a sheep-skin jacket, scant trowsers, and cords binding
rags on their legs instead of stockings; or else their legs are wholly bare. Their



68 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

tall hats are generally ornamented with a peacock’s feather. In some parts the

women secure their hair in folds with a large silver bodkin; in other places they

fold linen on the top of the head, with the ends falling over the side or behind.
A class known in some of the cities as Lazzaroni have scarcely any dwell-

ing-houses, but sleep every night under such shelter as they can find. Such

as have wives and families live in the suburbs in any chamber they can scoop

oe















THE MACCARONI-SELLERS,

out of the mountains. They are known for their laziness: and though it is easy
to earn enough money to buy the light food of the country, they are generally
half-starved.

In the city streets, especially those of Naples, there are different kinds of
“small trades”—as the “sea-fruit” seller, or the dealer in mussels and cockles;



THE ITALIANS. 69



the chesnut-merchant; and especially the maccaroni-cook. Under a temporary
awning there igs a moveable stove; and from the broad copper pan at the top
there usually rise volumes of steam, whose sight and savoury scent are irre-
sistible to an Italian. A porty figure stands by, with a white cap on his jet-
black head, a blue waistcoat, and white apron round his waist. In one hand
he holds yards and yards of smoking maccaroni, which folds and falls as softly
as ribbon into a plate below. He is provoking the eager appetite of a laz-
zaroni, whilst his assistant cook is shrieking forth his invitations to a dinner.

VENETIANS.









































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































BIRD’S-EYE VIEW OF VENICE.

One of the most interesting cities of the present Kingdom of Italy is
Venice. It is called “the Queen of the Adriatic,” “the Lady of Lombardy,”
and “the Bride of the Sea.” Its rise and progress are very remarkable. It
stands at the bottom of the Adriatic Sea, where seventy-two marshy islands
are separated by narrow channels. Here in remote times a few fishermen
dwelt. But in the course of ages a people called Veneti emigrated to this out-
of-the-way region, to escape their enemies, the Huns and the Goths. They laid
the foundation of a city on strong piles of wood, which were driven deep into



"Oi PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



the mud. The situation is indeed very singular, as is described by the poet
Rogers :—
“There is a glorious city in the sea:
The sea is in the broad, the narrow streets,
Ebbing and flowing; and the salt sea-weed
Clings to the marble of her palaces.
No track of men, nor footsteps to and fro,
Lead to her gates. The path lies o’er the sea,
Invisible; and from the land we went,
As to a floating city,—steering in,
And gliding up her streets as in a dream,
So smoothly, silently,—by many a dome,
Mosque-like, and many a stately portico,
The statues ranged along in azure sky—
By many a pile in more than eastern splendour,
Of old the residence of merchant kings.”

The city has many fine palaces. Its bridges, too, are much to be noticed.
One of these is called. “The Bridge of Sighs,” as over it prisoners passed from
-the court where they were sentenced to the prison where they were to die.
All the principal houses are built on the sides of the canals. The canals are the
streets of Venice; and the gondolas are its coaches and omnibuses.

The modern Venetians are a lively, temperate people, and kind and obliging
to friends and strangers. The dress of the principal persons in winter is a
black cloth robe, trimmed with fur, and secured round the waist with a girdle.
In summer their attire is much lighter. A woollen cap instead of a hat is
carried, more under the arm than on the head. The noble ladies wear very
little jewellery or finery; and, except in the first year of their marriage, they
appear abroad in black dress.

ROMANS.

Rome was once the capital of the world: its buildings and its works of
art still make it a place of great interest. The present inhabitants are a very
mixed race, and have little claim to be the descendants of the old Romans.
They are pale, spiritless, and sullen. Rarely are they seen to smile, are resent-
ful, and commonly live an idle and purposeless life. On the other hand, they
have some good qualities: they are generally very sober, are fond of their
children, and are obliging to strangers.

Like other Italians, the men wear very wide cloaks, wrapping round the body ;



THE ITALIANS, 71

pieces of cloth tied with cords about the legs, sandals on their feet, and hats having
crowns like a sugar-loaf. The women of the lower classes commonly wear a scarlet
spencer with sleeves, and for a head-dress a piece of white linen, thickened on the
crown by numerous folds, with the end hanging down behind to the shoulders.
A common vice at Rome is want of
cleanliness. It is the vice of all classes.
The monks have'a disgusting appearance,
and some of the most interesting objects
can scarcely be approached from the ac-
cumulation of filth. A recent visitor
states:—‘“The streets, public places,
houses, and the persons of the bulk of
the population would all be improved by
scrubbing, washing, and combing.”
“There is a drawback,” says Lord
Dudley, “ upon the splendid and interest-
ing objects in Rome, which I own dimi-
nishes their effect, in my eyes at least,
to a wonderful degree. It isthe extreme
filth and shabbiness of the wretched
town that surrounds them. In Rome
you search in vain for cleanliness or
neatness. There is not a single wide
street, and but one handsome square.
Poverty and dirt pursue you to the
gates of every monument, ancient and
modern, public or private. You never
saw any place so nasty or so beggarly.” '
Hight days before Lent there begins
a season of amusement known as the
“Carnival.” The chief scene of it is a
promenade called the Corso; every room,
window, and balcony of this street is
rented, and often at a very high price. The amusements commence in the after-
noon. The Corso is crowded with an immense throng on foot, and with two

long trains of carriages. Many persons of each rank wear masks and personate
different characters.

cc
i



MODERN ROMANS,

“The masks seemed to be without design, unless it were to provoke a laugh.



72 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.





I can scarcely convey to you an idea of them. Perhaps the oddity was more in
the air and manner of the masker than in the dress.”*

“A shower of lime” is one great feature of the Roman carnival; for the
universal privilege is then assumed of throwing lime-made imitations of sugar-
plums, which are made for the express purpose, into the face of every person
that is met. ‘Some persons throw away in a single afternoon two or three
bushels. They who occupy the windows and balconies throw them down on those
who pass beneath. They who move along the street assail not only those they
meet on foot or in carriages, but those who. stand at the windows, and are
firing down upon them from above. Just consider all the vast ten thousands
that crowd through the Corso engaged in this work. Every man that wears a
dark-coloured coat looks like a miller. Every lady, with her gay dress, looks
as though she had just come out of a meal-barrel; and every carriage looks
like a lime-cart. The amusements of each of the eight days of the carnival are
only a repetition of the follies of the preceding day.

“Before the close of each day’s sport, a ery is heard, ‘Clear the way!’
and a company of dragoons, mounted upon spirited steeds and fully armed,
are seen riding, as though upon a race, from the head of the Corso down
through this mass of living beings till the centre of the street is cleared. At
the firing of a second gun, five or six spirited horses are let loose to run
through the whole length of the Corso, each without a rider, urged on not. only
by little bells tied about them and a self-acting spur that strikes constantly
against their sides, but by the shouts of the multitude, through the centre of
whom they dash along with the speed of the wind. This is the closing scene
of each day’s amusement during the carnival.”

On the last day, the same diversions are continued, but with greatly increased
intensity, until the same hour.

“The game of the Moccoletti_the word in the singular meaning a little
lamp or candle-snuff—‘the last gay madness of the carnival,’ now takes place:
The sellers of little tapers, resembling what are called Christmas candles in
England, carry on a busy trade. As day declines, these tapers begin flashing
here and there; in the windows, on the housetops, in the balconies, in the car-
riages, in the hands of the foot-passengers, little by: little, more and more, until
the Corso is one great blaze of fire. Then everybody present has but one
object; that is, to extinguish other people’s candles, and keep his own alight;
and everybody, man, woman, or child, gentleman or lady, prince or peasant, native
or foreigner, yells and screams and roars, ‘Without a light! Without a light!

* “Glimpses of the Old World,” bythe Rey. J, As Clark.



THE ITALIANS. 78



until nothing is heard but a chorus of those words, mingled with peals of
laughter. The amusement goes on until the bells ring from the church steeples,
and the carnival is over in an instant—put out, like a taper, with a breath.’*
A very favourite image, especially with the common people, is “ the most holy
Bambino.” The word “bambino” is simply the Italian for “child,” and is applied
to this particular image of the holy Child Jesus, about which they tell very strange
and absurd tales. It is a small doll made of wood, about two feet in length;
not unlike, except in its dress, the dolls made for the amusement of children.
On its head is a royal crown of gold, studded
with rubies, emeralds, and diamonds. From its
neck to its feet it is wrapped in swaddling
clothes. The two little feet are seen projecting
beneath; so that the face, hands, and feet of
the image are alone visible.j The clothes are
covered with jewels—rubies, emeralds, and dia-
monds, worth several thousand pounds-—in fact,
the Bambino is a blaze of splendour.
The Romans believe that the presence of the Ys












Bambino in the chamber of sickness is of the =
greatest benefit. If any person is so very ill that |
recovery would seem doubtful, its presence, they
think, will settle the question; for it is believed
that recovery or death can always be determined

or flushed on its introduction. Such notions of e
course lead the friends of the sick to send for the \7
Bambino. The monks, however, will not permit ae
its presence unless on the payment of a large SS
-sum;-and thus many a family is made poor by
the monéy they give, and the convent enriched
by what it receives.

But, strange as all this may seem, it is not near so strange as the sight
of the Bambino when going to visit its patients. It is a common saying
among the people of Rome, that “the little doctor” receives more and better fees
from the sick than all the medical men put together. It is certain, at least

* “Rome: its Edifices and its People.”

t The engraving is copied from a picture entitled, “The True Effigy of the Miraculous Bambino
of Ara Cceli, dedicated to the piety and veneration of the devout of the said church.” The pictme
was bought in Rome by an English lady. +

E



74 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.





that it is brought to visit its patients in grander style; for a state coach is
kept for it—a coach quite as fine as that of a cardinal or the pope. In this
coach the Bambino is placed, accompanied by some priests in full dress: and
onward they move, stately and slow, as a rapid movement is thought incon-
sistent with the dignity of the image; and then, as it passes, every head is
uncovered, and every knee is bent, in the streets through which it passes. And
this is the religion of Rome! Oh, when will the people give up their vain
delusions, and believe in the free salvation declared unto them in the Epistle
to the Romans?









































































































ROME.—SHOWING THE ARCH OF TITUS, THE RUINS OF THE COLOSSEUM, ETC.



tee DAWES:

Deymark, the mark or country of the Dances, is now one of the minor kingdoms
of Europe in regard to population, which is about 1,800,000. The land is flat; it has
no large rivers, only a few narrow streams ; but there are many arms of the sea, which
are called fiords. Chief city, Copenhagen.

aes ago the Danes were little better than a race of pirates. They
sailed forth from their bays, and carried fire and sword to the peaceful
shores of other countries. They were the terror of the English, and
we have in history the record of many a sharp battle between the two
peoples, more particularly in the days of king Alfred. One portion
of the Danish population is still known as Angles, and are believed to
be the descendants of an ancient German race, from whom the name

Angle-land, or England, is derived. (See p. 10.)

In person, the Danes have regular features, with yellowish hair, and are
strong, tall, and stout. Their dress is similar to the Germans. Oat cakes and
rye-bread, with fish and cheese, form their chief food. Education is common
even among the poorest; there are very few indeed who cannot read and write.
Parents are bound to send their children to school, and if they are unable to
pay the fees, the education is given at the public expense. The Danes are a
Protestant people.

The chief city is Copenhagen. “I had imagined to find it,” says a traveller,
“a dull, gloomy kind of place, with low wooden houses, few shops, and no fine
buildings, but it was quite otherwise. There are fine houses and splendid shops,
filled with choicest goods. In the best streets there are generally two shops in
each house; the one is entered by descending a few steps beneath the pavement,
the other by ascending an equal number of steps: so that often along a street
there is a double tier of shops, the upper always the best, the lower generally
bakers, grocers, crockery shops, or eating-houses. In the latter, I noticed deep
plates full of thick sour cream, piled one upon another in the windows: this is
a national dish in Denmark, and is taken before dinner as soup. There is a great
deal of bustle in this and the other chief thoroughfares—so many people moving
FQ







77a



































hy baa

=

hy p al
vil

rt a i
a ik A

im
i THT



UIST

ia
Li |









































THE DANES. © 77

about that it is difficult to get along, and we were reminded of the streets of
London and Paris.

“Copenhagen, in proportion to its size, is one of the most thickly populated
cities in Europe; it contains about 140,000 inhabitants. After a visit to the post-
office, we came to the fruit, vegetable, and fish market, and the most picturesque
spot in the city. It is crowded, especially on market days, with women in all
sorts of quaint and varied costumes, and with carts full of fruit and flowers.
This city is rich in collections of arts and curiosities. The collection in the
Palace of Rosenberg is by far the most precious of all; indeed, it is one of
the most wealthy in Europe. It is marvellously rich in jewels, plate, and all
kinds of costly objects. Goblets, drinking-horns, precious caskets were displayed in
rapid succession to our gaze, of which king Christian’s silver horn, a wonderful
piece of workmanship, was the most remarkable; also porcelain of all ages, and from
all countries, in rich profusion of design. The glass is unrivalled, and is of the
finest workmanship. Next comes a room full of royal robes, uniforms, and orders of
Danish sovereigns. The celebrated horse furniture, presented by Christian rv. to
his eldest son on his marriage, in 1644, is a blaze of jewels, on the richest velvet ;
it cost forty thousand pounds. The largest and finest apartment in the castle
is a long room hung with tapestry, representing the warlike deeds of Christian v.
At one end stands a massive silver throne. One room is covered with mirrors—
ceiling, walls, and even floor, except a small space to walk round,”

There are several pleasant walks about the city, especially on the ramparts,
which extend nearly all round the city, and are planted with a double row of
lime-trees, forming shady avenues. Here are twenty-four bastions, on each of
which stands a miller’s house with a windmill on the top of it.

Another agreeable walk, and a great favourite with the people, is that to the ©
Palace of Frederiksberg, a mile or so from the city. We pass through a magnificent
avenue of limes and horse-chesnuts, inclosing a wide road and broad well-kept
paths. This splendid avenue is half a mile long, and on a gentle rise all the
way to the palace; on each side are neat and tasteful villas, inclosed in pretty
gardens; but nearer to Frederiksberg the road is lined with a succession of tea-
gardens (as we should call them), fitted up with merry-go-rounds and almost every
kind of amusement. The extensive park and gardens of Frederiksberg are full
of fine trees, and beautifully laid out in the English style. The palace itself
is situated on an eminence some distance from the entrance to the grounds, From
the terrace before it, the eye ranges over an extensive prospect by land and sea;
the city, with its many towers and windmills, lies beneath, encircled on the land
side by green meadows and waving corn-fields; the shining waters of the “ Sound”



78 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS, ° *

appear dotted with numerous sails, and the horizon is bounded by the long, low

line of the Swedish coast. Taken altogether, a trip to Copenhagen is one of the
most pleasant that can be enjoyed.



















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































PALACE OF FREDERIKSBERG,



Tex Sevepese

Tur country of the Swedes is in the north-western part of Europe, and was
formerly known as a portion of the Scandinavian peninsula. It is united with Norway
under the same crown; and has a population of 4,170,000. Chief city, Stockholm,

HE people of Sweden are divided into four classes: nobility, clergy,
burghers or citizens, and peasants. The first are amongst the oldest of
their class in Europe.

In general, the homes of the Swedes are not very comfortable, and
black bread and salt fish are the common food of the people. In remote
parts of the land they are often forced to grind the bark of trees, which,
mixed with a small portion of rye, is made into cakes.

All classes can read and write. A bookseller’s shop is in every small town, and
the long hours of a winter’s evening are often devoted by the people to books.

There is not much change of fashion among Swedes. Some of their dresses
are very peculiar, and are the same in style as those their great-grandfathers wore.
One thing looks very odd to a stranger: at a wedding the bride and bridegroom
are commonly dressed in black.

A description of one town may apply to nearly all the rest. ‘When I went
out of the hotel on a sunshiny morning,” says Miss Bunbury,* “I went about
and about, and said ‘Where is Upsala? and my companion said, ‘You are in it;’
and I answered, ‘No, Iam in a clean, modern, good-looking town, of new wooden
houses, painted or coloured in all colours, chiefly red; the streets are wide, very
wide indeed; and the whole thing looks as if it had sprung up in a night by the
work of a few carpenters’ hands.’ There is an old orange-coloured castle, partly
in ruins, up there on a great elevation, from whence you see interminably around,
over one vast plain, almost unbroken by a tree, the wildest, barest, most uninteresting
scene I ever beheld. There is an immense brick cathedral, deformed by Swedish
taste in renovation, standing in an open space. There are multitudes of men, young
and middle-aged, walking everywhere about with cigars or pipes in their mouths,
and hideous boys’ caps, of white jean, on their heads, and no other academic



* “Life in Sweden and Norway.”





















































































































——





LLL
LLL

















































































































































































THE SWEDES. 81





dress. Whenever they get together in groups, or set out on their favourite
annual tours, they sing a great deal, make much noise, and generally act rather
rudely. These are the students.”

The established religion of the land is Lutheran ; but it is said by those who
have visited the country that spiritual Christianity has but little hold on the
people. * There has been, however, a revival of true godliness of late years.

As in other northern countries, out-door exercises, especially sledging in winter,
are common among all classes. “In Stockholm innumerable sledges quietly glide
over the snow, and there is heard a constant tinkling of bells on the horses’ harness,
warning the foot-passengers to get out of the way. Butcher boys, instead of carrying
their load in the usual manner, skim over the streets with it on a sledge: pushing it
forward, they mount on the pole behind, and ride as long as the impetus lasts, and
then descend and repeat the motion. Women draw sledges to market; and children
on small sledges are seen enjoying their sport. All kinds of that vehicle are to be
met with, from the beautiful royal one, with its splendid leopard skins, the rudest
sledge engaged in industry and our







































































































Tan Nexuerceans:

Norway, or “the kingdom of gulfs,” as it has been called, in the north of Europe,
was formerly undcr the power of the Danish crown; it is now joined to the kingdom
of Sweden. In the broadest part it is about three hundred miles across, Population,
1,700,000. Capital, Christiania.

iu Norwegians in personal appearance are tall and strong, and in dis-
position are cheerful, honest, kind-hearted, and hospitable. In reference
to the latter quality, it may be stated that a traveller found painted
over the door of one of their country houses, Velkommen, or “ Welcome.”
The family received him, although a stranger, with great kindness and
civility, and well provided for all his wants. They are also very polite
in their manners to each other, and to visitors, and will firmly shake
the hand for the smallest benefit received, even for the payment of what is their
due. The constant use of ardent spirits, however, to which the inhabitants of cold
climates are very prone, renders drunkenness a common vice among the lower classes.

Fishing is the chief employment of many of the people, and fish their
principal food. The riches of the deep make up for the poverty of the soil. The
shortness of the summer for agricultural labour, and the ruggedness of the land,
are against their relying on the produce of their fields.

Peasant life is one of great hardship. The necks and breasts of the villagers
are often exposed to the storm, and only on special occasions will they wear any wrap
around the throat. With snow-shoes and long skates they drive over wild regions
where ice and snow cover the ground nine months in the year; or they climb
steep rocks in search of birds and their eggs, or push out to sea in bold, hazardous
fishing excursions, cheered at times in their night adventures by the light of the
aurora borealis, or startled by meteoric showers.

In all the large towns there are public schools. “ Drawing schools,” as they
are called, are also maintained, chiefly at the public cost, in which artigans and
others may study modelling, drawing, and other useful branches of knowledge.*

The schoolmaster is a person of great importance in country towns and
villages, It chiefly devolves on him to catechise the young after Divine service



* Laing’s “ Residence in Norway.”



THE NORWEGIANS. 83

on Sundays. Our engraving, showing such a scene, is from a painting by a
Norwegian artist, which was exhibited at the Great Exhibition in London, and
which excited much attention. The people are very fond of music, which is
commonly taught in the country by the parish organist. Their long winter

il!

|

|















































































































CATECHISING IN CHURCH ON SUNDAY,

evenings are enlivened with part singing, and as they have generally sweet and
agreeable voices, which they cultivate with much care, the time is made to pass
away very pleasantly,



84 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



Their style of dress varies in different districts. The women are often seen
in leather jackets, and the men ina grey suit with large buttons, a red cap, and
large heavy boots. A bride’s wedding suit is sometimes peculiar. She commonly
wears a crown made of gilt metal, adorned with precious stones, or imitations of
them, a silver chain round the neck, and large silver brooches and bracelets,
silyer rings round the waist, and silver buckles in the shoes, with red gloves and
red stockings! Such certainly was the dress of a farmer’s daughter on her wedding-
day, as seen by a traveller.

The coldness of the climate in winter compels the peasants to resort to strange
devices to protect themselves from its severity. In the day-time bears’ and wolves’
skins are closely drawn around. At night they lie in a sort of crib, or box,
and cover themselves with down plucked from the bodies of eider-ducks.

Lutheranism is the established religion of Norway; but, as with the
Swedes, the mass of the people are not much under the influence of the spirit. of
true godliness. There is, however, “a little flock,” and an increasing one, who
are constrained in love and faith to “give themselves unto Him who loved them,
and who gave Himself for them.”









































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Te :
Se
TTT



Seat
—_

METEORIC SHOWER, AS SEEN IN NORWAY.



LEE RUSSEANS?

Tue empire of Russia spreads in one direction more than 5,000 miles, and consists
of one-seventh of the land of the whole earth. A great part is in Europe, but it extends
into Asia. ‘The people are various, as Tartars, Kalmucks, Finns, Lapps, Cossacks, and
-luscovites, or the true Russians. The entire population is nearly 78,400,000. Chief
cities, St. Petersburg and Moscow.



2) HE sovereign of this vast empire is called the Czar. He is also known
*. as the Emperor of all the Russias ; and the Autocrat, which means “ sole
ruler.”

Let us walk into a Russian small town or village, and look at the
people. We find the men to be stout, strong, and mostly rather tall;
their hair is dark brown or red; they wear thick, bushy beards, and
their faces look grave and yet good-natured. The common people seem
nearly all dressed alike. The men wear a tunic-coat or jacket, fastened about the
waist with a belt, and wide trousers, with the bottoms stuffed into long boots.
A fur cap, without a brim, is on the head, and sometimes wrappers, made of wool,
are about the legs instead of stockings. They need to dress themselves warmly,
as a large portion of the country is-ice-bound for nine months of the year. The
ice on some of the rivers is often three feet and a-half thick, and waggons, heavily
laden, can pass over it with perfect safety.

The women do not in winter go much out of doors, and are, therefore, not so
warmly clad ; in summer their dresses are neat and pretty. The dress of young females
is generally a crimson skirt, a long white apron, bordered with ribbon, and fastened
by a gaily-tasselled cord. In winter they put on a pelisse, which they strangely
call a “soul-warmer.” They are fond of necklaces and head ornaments. Our
picture of a village family is taken from a native Russian print.

The style of the wooden houses in the villages is also to be seen in the engraving.
They are built of rough logs of timber, and their ends are brought out to view.
The inside is not much better finished, the spaces between the logs being filled
with moss or flax, which hangs down in tatters; a great stove, made chiefly of
tiles, stands in the middle of the principal room. Wooden benches are fixed around,

.

































THE RUSSIANS. 8%

which serve as seats, and as couches to rest on at night. On a shelf is a lamp,
which is lighted on holidays, but in houses of rank is always kept burning. Much
cannot be said of the cleanliness or comfort of the house, as dogs, cats, fowls,
and pigeons mingle with the children of the family, and often share the same
sheepskins as a bed to le on.

The Russians are a civil people, and are taught from their early years to behave
with great respect to their superiors, and to regard the emperor as their “great
father.” We cannot speak favourably of their learning and book knowledge, as
they are generally very ignorant, and in some parts of the empire are only half-
civilized.

They have many amusements, and among the common people they are those
which require strength and activity; riding in a sledge is a favourite pastime.
This sledge is often little better than a rough wooden box, without springs, and
filled with hay, to save the rider’s bones from being bruised or hurt. But in the
cities this vehicle is made into many fanciful shapes, as swans or serpents, and is
lined with crimson cloth, and covered with the most costly furs. A fine black
horse, with harness studded with silver, dashes along with the sledge, urged forward
by the constant cry of the driver, “ Faster, faster,’ while the whip is knocked loudly
_ against the foot-board, and seldom laid on the horse’s back. Even the emperor
himself is seen at times driving one of these sledges.

The Russian sledge-driver treats his horse with great kindness, and, gently
embracing it, says: “Now, my pretty pigeon, make use of thy legs.” “Steady,
my sweetheart; take care of that stone.” ‘Come, my little father, what art thou
turning thy head for?” “There, my white pigeon, that is the pace.”

Another amusement is to pile up an artificial hill of ice and snow to a great
height, or build up brick walls, covered with ice and snow, then slide down this
height in a sledge, and with such force as to urge it up an opposite incline.
This sport, known as the “flying mountain,” requires great care, or the heedless
driver will find himself overturned.

Let us now look into a town-bazaar or market. Here are sold all manner
of things; rows of stalls are covered with dresses for men and women, boots and
caps, saddles, silver ware, pictures, furs, rugs, and all kinds of food. This last
is generally sold in a particular quarter of the bazaar. Here a crowd of Russians
may be eating fish, cooked in a special way. No sooner does the dealer catch
the eye of a passer-by, than he plunges one of the slices of fish into a pot of
green oil, sprinkles it from a large salt-stand, and offers it hot and dripping, and
with a polite bow, to his intended ctistomer, The Muscovite can seldom resist the
tempting morsel, and; thrusting his hand into his pocket for a few kopecks (or



88 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



copper coins), buys the well-oiled fish ; then, seating himself on a bench, he devours
the greasy lump, and then another, and another, until his beard shines with the
droppings of the savoury sauce.

Other supplies of food, for the poorer classes, consist of black rye-bread,
cabbages, soup, onions, cucumbers, and sour fruit.











KUSSIAN PEASANTS’ HOME.

As we pass through many of the villages we shall see that they are inhabited by
particular classes. One village consists almost entirely of hatters and cap-makers ; in
another they are all tailors; another, workers of metals; another, makers of tables
and chairs. In one village thread is spun, and in a second it is woven; whilst
in some, farmers and their men take up their abode.



THE RUSSIANS. 89

Russians belong to what is called the Greek Church. In the great cities the
religious services are conducted with much splendour, but in small towns and
villages with great neglect and want of seriousness. Praying to saints and to the
Virgin Mary, fasts, the worship of relics, and other vain superstitions, take the
place, we fear, of that faith in Christ which sanctifies the heart, and regulates
the life according to the will of God.

On the eve of Easter Sunday the streets of the great city of Moscow are
silent, till on a sudden, as the clock strikes twelve at night, the thunder of cannon
and the bells of 250 churches, give a signal; then the streets and church towers
are gaily illuminated, and the people rush one towards another with the cry,
“Christ is risen!” But, sad to tell, multitudes afterwards give themselves up to
revelry. It seems as though their consciences were quite at ease, having just
attended to the rules of their church to fast and keep Lent. There are, however,
faithful men in some parts of the land, who are seeking to lead the people to the
knowledge of a purer faith. May the number be increased of those who are looking
to Jesus as their Saviour, and are learning of him the way of life!







eninge
i ST

QU



MOSCOW.

G



Lex Lowe ars ans,

Huneary, known to the old Romans as Dacia, now forms a part of the Austrian
empire. The boundaries of the kingdom are unsettled, but they are gencrally stated as
about 250 miles from north to south, and 500 from east to west. Population, 14,500,000.
Joint capital, Buda and Pesth.



“ip a

HE people -of this land are of a mixed race. There are Hungarians
proper, or Magyars (who originally came from Central Asia), Sclavonians,
Wallachians, Croats, Servians, and several other distinct tribes. Sixty
thousand gipsies wander about the country, who are often little more
than brigands and robbers.

There is a great contrast in the condition of the natives of Hungary.
Wealth and luxury appear close by the side of the most miserable
poverty. There are scarcely any of middle-class rank, except in some of the cities.

The nobles live in great state, and pass their time in hunting and feasting. One of

high rank is reported to be the owner of thirty-four castles, some of which are

of great strength and magnificence. Families of this class are very hospitable
and fond of display.

But the state of the poor is wretched in the extreme; they are slaves to
the nobility. A broad hat, with coarse jacket and trousers, and a dirty woollen
cloak, form the dress of the peasants, which are worn all days alike, in summer
and winter—when engaged as swineherds or when attending church on the
Sunday. The only change is on feast-days, when flowers and peacock feathers
adorn the hat and dress. Their dwellings of mud are comfortless hovels. The
children of the family, unwashed, and almost undressed, play from morning to
night among the pigs and goats, which stroll about the doorway.

A Hungarian writer says :—‘I confess that it grieves my heart to see nine-
tenths of the people of my beloved country in a condition in which poverty and
contempt reduce the great mass to crawl in the dust; so that they are unable
to raise themselves from their moral and mental degradation to a better state,
worthy the dignity of human nature.”

Buda and Pesth, which form the capital, are built on the opposite banks



THE HUNGARIANS. 91

of the Danube, a noble river, which flows through the land. The first city
stands on vine-clad hills. It is an ancient place, and possesses a fine castle on
the heights, in which the kings of Hungary formerly lived. It is connected























































































































































































































































































BUDA AND PESTH.

with its modern companion, Pesth, by a bridge built on boats. This latter

place is the commercial town.
Hungary was one of the first countries in Europe to welcome the Reforma-
G2



92 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

tion. The Christian religion had been originally introduced into the land towards
the end of the tenth century; but it became debased by the corruptions of Popery.
Yet God did not leave himself without witness, for there appeared from time to
time those who loved the simple gospel, and who made it known to their countrymen
in deep-wooded valleys and mountain recesses. Soon times of persecution arose.
All who refused to receive the Romish superstitions were banished or cast into
dungeons. On one occasion three hundred ministers were sent to the galleys,
and made to labour as slaves. All Protestant schools were closed, the circula-
tion of the Holy Bible and books of piety were prohibited, and the fiercest and
most cruel attempts were made to force the people to abandon the reformed faith.
Protestants, however, made a long and brave struggle for the truth. At length
their enemies triumphed, and for several ages the evangelical doctrines were
repressed by the strong arm of state power. But better times have come, and
the government of Austria has been led to grant more liberty, so that now there
are openings for the gospel again to be spread over the land. The Christian press
is at work, and books and tracts, in the several dialects of the people, are being
translated and freely circulated. Colporteurs, or book-hawkers, carry them to
every place, and an earnest spirit of inquiry is awakened among all classes.





























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Lae Powxse

Potanp, in North-eastern Europe, was for ages a flourishing kingdom; but after long
and severe struggles it was subdued and spoiled by the power of Russia, Austria, and
Prussia. It is now divided among the conquerors, the first possessing the largest share.
In days of prosperity it had a population of 11,000,000, but which is now reduced to about
5,000,000. Its ancient capital was Warsaw.



=e un Poles were formerly noted for their courage and independence, but are
\, now held by their masters in a state of great subjection. In personal
‘ appearance those of rank are tall and of noble bearing. Their counte-
: ve nances are open and generous; and in manners they are polite and lively.
“Je But the poorer classes are generally short in stature, and rude and slovenly
BO in their habits. A scanty supply of food, and the hard service which they

render to their taskmasters, tend to make them a debased and impo-
verished race.

In regard to dress, the English and French style now commonly prevails ;
though there are many who still adhere to the old national fashion—a bright-
coloured and braided waistcoat with sleeves, an upper robe, or cloak, a sash fastened
round the body, leggings of yellow leather, and a fur cap, while a sword hangs at
the side, as a mark of noble birth. The ladies, who are usually fair and graceful in
manner, wear a Polonaise, or pelisse edged with fur.

The working classes seldom use shoes, their clothes are scant and coarse, and
their ragged children run after the carriages of travellers with a piteous cry of
Kleba, kleba, or “ Bread, bread.” On Sunday the female peasantry adorn themselves
in a tawdry patchwork of glowing colours.

There are many Jews in Poland, who are usually the innkeepers of the country,
and wretched and dirty ones they are indeed.

The Poles belong partly to the Romish and partly to the Greek church. Some
efforts are being made to make known to them a purer faith, among which is the
printing of religious tracts in their own tongue.

Farmers are the most thriving class of the common people of the land.





94 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

With them harvest-home, as among other people, is a time of great festivity.
Our engraving, from a Polish print, represents a scene sometimes witnessed on
such occasions.

































































HARVEST-HOME IN POLAND.



LEER LARPS?



Lapiann, the most northerly country of Europe, is about 330 miles in length, and
700 in breadth. It does not possess any towns; the people live in small villages. The
number of the population is unknown.

: 2 un Lapps are among the shortest of the human race. Men rarely exceed
NN? four feet, and are reckoned tall if they reach to five feet. They are
copper-coloured ; their hair is lank and long; and their eyes narrow and
dark.

In their long winter season they clothe themselves in deer and
bearskins, with the hair turned inside, and with collars of fur. A cap
of fur is worn on the head; the hands are wrapped in mittens stuffed
with straw. The feet are bandaged, and on journeys are fastened to very long skates.
In front hang a tobacco-pouch, a large knife, and other articles. For his entire
dress—shoes, coat, trousers, cap, and eloves—he is indebted to the reindeer, that
animal which is the companion of his travels. In the short summer that enlivens
his country, he changes this dress for one made of a kind of cloth. When spoken
to by a stranger he turns his head askance, and whilst he fills a short tobacco-pipe
he looks over the shoulder, slyly peeping, as it were, instead of looking directly at
the face of the person who speaks to him.

There is not much difference in the dress of the women. It is, perhaps, more
ornamented; and, in front, her scissors, pincushion, and other useful articles are
suspended. A mother carries her child in a sort of pouch, lined with wool or moss,
by a strap fastened over the shoulder. Others are carried in a peculiar manner, as
described by Professor Forbes* :—“I saw a young mother,” he says, “ who brought
her infant of four months old out of one of the huts, and seating herself on the
sunny side of it, proceeded to pack up the child for the night in its little wooden
cradle, whilst half-a-dozen of us looked at her all the time. The cradle was cut out
of the solid wood, and covered with leather, flaps of which were so arranged as to
lace across the top with leathern thongs ; the inside and the little pillow were made

* “Tecland: its Volcanoes, Geysers, and Glaciers.”





96 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

soft with reindeer moss, and the infant fitted the space so exactly that it could stir
neither hand nor foot. A hood protected the head, whilst it admitted air freely.
When the packing was finished, the little creature was speedily rocked to sleep.
Children who are rather older are carried as in our print.

The huts of the Lapps are small, and inside are not unlike a baker’s oven in
shape. They are entered by two long passages, through which it is necessary to
crawl to gain admission. These openings are of different widths; through the
smallest the men go forth; but a wife dare not attempt this entry, lest she should
meet with her husband, or any other man, who is about to go forth to hunt, as it
would be deemed a bad sign, and cause him to fail of success.

Professor Forbes gives an agreeable account of his interview with this people.
Starting with some fellow-travellers from a little town, and forcing their way through
a low kind of wood, he says:—‘ We crossed a stream, and the Lapp camp was
before us on a dry and pleasant grassy space, about two and a half English miles
from the sea, Some piles of sticks and mounds, which seemed like no human
habitation, first took our attention. The piles of sticks (as we found) formed a sort
of skeleton shed, which can be incloged in bad weather by a kind of rude covering.
They contain barrels, clothes, and many strange utensils and stores, which, in fine
weather, are exposed, suspended from the bare poles. Two low, round mounds of
turf, overlaid with sticks and branches in a most disorderly fashion, composed the
habitations of a multitude of men, women, and children, who seemed at first sight
to be countless, Their appearance—uncouth, squalid, and small in the extreme—
was, I thought, decidedly unpleasant. But an attentive survey brought out some
more favourable features. The countenance was altogether unlike any I had seen,
but by no means without intelligence, and even a certain sweetness of expression.
Notwithstanding that our party was tolerably numerous, they showed no signs
either of distrust or of shyness; and whilst some of them entered into conversation
with one of the gentlemen who knew a little of their speech, and others went,
attended by several small active dogs, to bring some reindeer from the heights, for
inspection, the greater part remained quietly in their huts, as we had found them,
quite regardless of our presence. On inquiring into their occupation, we were
surprised to find them possessed of some well-printed and well-cared-for books,
particularly a quarto Bible, in the Finnish language. We found some of them also
engaged in writing. This was a matter of surprise, when we had been led to expect
something near to barbarism ; and we soon had a proof that their claims to religious
impressions were not slight; for they quite refused to taste the spirits which were
freely offered to them, though it is well known that excessive and besotting drunken-
ness used to be the great sin of the Lappish tribes, and still is of those who have





























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































98 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

Swedish missionaries who have toiled amongst them. The Lapp hut, inside, is
formed of wood, by means of curved ribs, which unite near the centre in a ring,
which is open, and allows free escape for the smoke, the fire being lighted in the
centre of the floor. The outside is covered with turf. The door is of wood on one
side. The inmates recline on skins on the floor, with their feet towards the fire,
and behind them, on a row of stones near the wall of the hut, are their various
utensils. Their clothing—chiefly of tanned skins and woollen stuffs—looked very
dirty. The whole wealth of the Lapps consists of reindeer. The two families who
frequent this valley possessed about seven hundred reindeer. A few of them were
driven, for our inspection, into a circular enclosure of wooden palings, where they
are habitually milked. One of the men cleverly caught them by the horns with a
lasso, or loose rope. The deer are small, but some of them carry immense branching
horns, the weight of which they seem almost unable to support. They make a low
grunting noise, almost like a pig; the milk is small in quantity, and very rich.”

The affection of the Lapps for the reindeer is very strong. A Russian
gentleman, travelling in Lapland, took back with him to St. Petersburg a young
Lapp girl to be educated, She was lively and intelligent, quick at learning, and
soon acquired many of the habits and accomplishments of civilised life. After
about two years, some of her countrymen came to St. Petersburg, having charge of
a herd of reindeer. She was taken to see them, and was much affected at the sight.
The next morning she was missing, and was never seen in the city more. The
familiar reindeer had brought back the remembrance of her country; it was too
strong for her adopted habits, and she found means to get back to the home and the
wild free life, which, with all their hardships, she loved the best.





Full Text


Oot et oo



hot}

eee eR a eli oh oe ie ek ea









OF THE


The Baldwin Library

University
Ra x
Florida


| Fz hed ey. ee te ,
ogre Ménal- a ee

AO fey. :





































































SECOND EDITION.

LONDON:

THE -REULLCIOUS= FRAC SO@i PAL,
56, PATERNOSTER Row; 65, St. PAUL’s CHURCHYARD; AND 164, PICCADILLY.

BRIGHTON: 31, WESTERN Roan. MANCHESTER: 100, CORPORATION STREET.



















EONTENES.

gree

To Tarry-at-HomE TRAVELLERS

THE

ENGLISH .
WELSH .
Scorcu
TrisH
FRENCH
—— Bretons
Durtce
BELGIANS
Swiss.
Gurmans—Prussians, Saxons, Aus-
TRIANS, HANOVERIANS, ETC.
Gurmays, Hampurg Women
SPANIARDS .
Portuauuse .
Iranians
‘VENETIANS

Romans .



Danzs

SWEDEs.

PAGE

i |

9
16
21
24
29
34
37
42
45

48
54
58
62
65
69
70

79



Tur NorweEGIANs

Russians.
HunGARrrIANs
Poirs
Lares .
IcELANDERS
GREEKS

Turks

CIRCASSIANS

JEWS.
ARABIANS

PERSIANS.

TAaTARS—TURKOMANS .

NESTORIANS .
Syrians
Hinpoos .

CINGALESE .

Burmese AND Karens .

JAPANESE

CHINESE ,

PAGE

82

85

90

93

95

oo)
101
106
111
115
AD,
125
128
131
136
141
147
151
154
160
CONTENTS.



Tur ALGERINES .

Moors .
ABYSSINIANS
Higyptrans
Matacasy .

Sourn ArFrricans

AMERICA .

Tue Unirep States .

Norta AmericANn INDIANS .

Tur GREENLANDERS

PaTAGONIANS
BrAZILIANS

MEXICANS .

PAGE

165
170
172
177
183
189
195
197
203
207
212
216
220



Tue PErvviAns .

— Avsrran NEGROES

— Maortes

— PoLyNeEsIANs .

— ConvERSION

APPENDIX

Sanpwicu IsLanps .
Frienpiy Istanps
Society IsLanps
Marquesas. .
Samoa, OR Naviea-

tors’ IsLANDS
Fist IsLanps .

oF THE NATIONS.



PAGE

224
228
231
235
235
238
239
240

242
243
247
255


£6 PARRY-AL-ROME LRAVEREERS.

“All travel has its advantages. If you visit better countries, you may learn to
improve your own; if you are carried to worse, you may learn to enjoy your own.’—
Dr. Johnson.

visit foreign lands. They would see with their own eyes the glorious
landscapes of mountains, valleys, and lakes, of which they have heard

or read, and learn the difference in modes and manners of life



which exist between their own people and those of other climes.
In the present day the facilities of travel are great; and tours which a century
ago could only have been undertaken ‘by a privileged few, and at a considerable
outlay of time and money, can now be made by many with ease and economy.
There are numbers, however, especially of the young, who cannot hope to pass, at
least for years to come, beyond their own country, and who must be content to derive

their knowledge of the wide world from the pen, the pencil, and the graver.

For such tarry-at-home travellers the present work is prepared. Its brief
descriptions and pictorial illustrations of the principal peoples of the earth may
instruct and interest, and prepare them to peruse with profit volumes of greater
fulness and higher pretensions.

[A limited portion of the following papers has already appeared in one of the

Society’s periodicals: they are now issucd with three-fourths of new descriptive matter
and numerous additional engravings. |

\

Tee Piensa





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































BUCKINGHAM PALACE—PARK FRONT.

Great Buiraty, the largest island in Europe, consists of three principal divisions—
England, Wales, and Scotland. The greatest extent of England in a direct line from
north to south is 362 miles; its breadth from cast to west is very variable. Its area con-
tains 50,387 square miles. It is divided from Scotland by the River Tweed, the Cheviot
Hills, and Solway Firth. Total population of England in 1871, 21,487,688.



7 ZS HE earliest known name given to England was Albion, or “ white island,”
ys alluding to the appearance of its chalk cliffs. On its invasion by the
Romans it was called by them Britannia, a term which is supposed to
Stax have been derived from a word meaning “ painted, tinted,” from the fact
aes that the early inhabitants painted their bodies. A Roman historian

™ describes it as “a country separated from the rest of the world, and
inhabited by savages.” If there had been given to him a prophet’s eye, he would
B
10 PIOTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

have seen, in the far-distant future, its ships on every sea, and its people colonising
the utmost ends of the earth.

Angle-land, which was, in course of time, changed into England, signifies the
land of the Angles, a German tribe, who conquered the country after the departure
of the Romans.

At the time of the invasion of England by Julius Cesar, the Britons were
divided into several tribes. Their Druids, or priests, worshipped the sun as the
god of fire, on the tops of hills and in consecrated groves. Human sacrifices formed
a part of their religious rites. Prisoners of war and criminals were offered on their
altars. Their victims were shot with arrows, or slain with clubs, and the priests
pretended to foretel events according to the position in which the body fell, or its
appearance when cut open.

In a time of public danger, the people formed of the boughs of trees a large
uncouth image of a man. Then dragging their prisoners at the wheels of war
chariots, they were crowded inside the wicker-work, which was set on fire, while
priests and people frantically sung and shouted around, to drown the cries of the
sufferers. Heathenism is the same in every age. It never improves; it often grows
more vile and wicked. It knows nothing of the true God, whose name is Love, and
who “delighteth in mercy.”

The history of the land before the time of Cesar is very uncertain. That great
Roman general invaded the country fifty-five years before our Saviour was born in
Judea. He came to conquer and to make slaves of the natives. He found the

country in great part uncultivated; large portions were covered with forests and
stagnant marshes.

“Rudely o’erspread with shadowy forests lay

Wide trackless wastes, that never saw the day.

Rich fruitful plains (now waving deep with corn)

Frowned rough and shaggy with the tangled thorn:

Through joyless heaths and valleys dark with wocds =|
Majestic rivers rolled their useless flocds ;

Full oft the hunter checked his ardent chase,

Dreading the hidden bog and green morass ;

While, like a blasting mildew, wide were spread

Blue thickening mists, in stagnant marshes bred.”

In the interior of the land the dwellings were made of rushes, branches, and mud.
The better classes lived by fishiiz and hunting; the poorer on acorns, berries,
and roots. They stained their bodies with the dye of a plant called woad, and
THE ENGLISH, 1
marked themselves with scars to terrify their enemies. The state of the people of
New Zealand, when their country was first discovered, exhibited more nearly than
any other the condition of Britain when the Romans invaded it.* Such it was
without the gospel.

It is said that Christianity was first taught in Britain about the year 64, but for
many years it did not make much progress among the people.

The original stock of the people of this land is now mingled with the Latin,
Saxon, Norman, French, and other races. It has been remarked that “there is no
nation upon the globe, in which more singular and more opposite characters are
to be met with, where liberty moulds the manners of the natives, freedom directs
their mode of thinking and judging, and every man may, if he will, appear as
he really is.”

At home, railroads, canals, bridges, factories, and public buildings show the
energy and skill of the English. Abroad, their extensive and flourishing colonies
and dependencies, and discoveries in remote lands, whose names were unknown to
the old Romans, display their enterprise and love of adventure. These colonies
cover an extent of 8,166,904 square miles, and contain a vast population.

The manufactured articles of the English are in repute all over the world.
There are supplied cotton goods from Manchester ; woollens and cloths from Leeds ;
plated ware and cutlery from Sheffield; machinery and hardware from Birming-
ham; silks from Norwich and Spitalfields; ribbons from Coventry; carpets from
Kidderminster ; lace from the Midland Counties; hosiery from Nottingham ; boots
and shoes from Northampton; and straw-plait from Dunstable.

Then, too, the natural productions of the country promote the welfare of
the people, and aid trade and commerce. Vast quantities of coal are obtained
from the mines of Newcastle; tin and copper from Cornwall; lead from Cumber-
land; iron from Staffordshire; apples from Devon; corn from almost every
county; and fish from more than three thousand miles of sea-coast.

Lonvon, the capital of Great Britain, is the largest, most populous, and
wealthiest city in the world. It is about sixty miles from the sea, but large
ships can come up to its quays. It extends over parts of Middlesex, Surrey,
Kent, and Essex. Inclusive of the suburbs, it covers a hundred square miles, and
has a population of about three millions. While it is the grand centre of the
world’s commerce, visited by the merchants of all nations, it is not less remark-
able for the number of its learned and charitable institutions. Hospitals, asylums;
and charities for the relief of the poor and the reform of the vicious cause an
annual outlay of more than one million and a quarter of pounds sterling. The large

* Sharon Turner’s “ England under the Anglo-Saxons.”

BQ
12 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

increase of schools for the: poor, the formation of ragged schools and other
Christian agencies are to be specially observed.

' Among its great public buildings are St. Paul’s Cathedral, Westminster
Abbey, the British Museum, the Tower of London, the Mint, National Gallery,
Royal Exchange, Guildhall, and particularly the new Houses of Parliament,
where the Queen on state occasions meets her Lords and Commons.











































































































































































TOWER OF LONDON,

But there is a dark side to the picture, which may well cause sorrow and
humility in the hearts of all who love their country. Among the facts to be
deplored are the vice and impiety that prevail among nearly all classes, and
the numbers of the population who are without the most ordinary education.
Happily, great efforts are now being made to remove the reproach caused by
this state of things. Though sin abounds and darkness broods over many a spot
ay

THE ENGLISH. 18























































THE HOUSE oF LORDS.
in the land, it may be affirmed that never were there so many examples of
household piety, and never so much done by the wise and good to remove the
evils that exist, as at the present time. With a free Bible and the preach-
1t

PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

ing of a pure gospel, and a patriotic government, we may hope, re the

blessing of God,

that a country, regarded by other nations as ereat and

enlightened, will become still more worthy of the rank and character it has

attained in the world,

THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

“The population which is daily increasing in the
United States of America is the Anglo-Saxon race,
speaking English. In South Africa, and in New
Holland—with its cloud of islands in the surround-
ing ocean—in. the isles of the west, and in Canada,
to the Arctic Circle, this language is advancing, not
by the imperial authority of princes, but by its own
nature, in the hands of the most enterprising and
intelligent colonists of the earth, Even in India |
it is spoken by the higher classes of natives at the |
seats of government, and is likely “to become the |

language of commerce throughout the seas of the |

east. In proportion as it obtains access to the

_ markets and the schools of those regions, it will

conduct, in its train, that knowledge and truth
which alone can dignify and bless the nations.”—
Dr, Sinith’s Origin and Progress of Language.

“Two hundred and fifty millions of people speak,
or are ruled by those who speak, the English tongue,
and inhabit a third of the habitable globe; but at
the present rate of increase, in sixty years there will
be two hundred and fifty millions speaking English
dwelling in the United States alone.”—Sir C. Dilke’s
Greater Britain, vol. 1.

“Now, gather all our Saxon bards,

Let harps and hearts be strung,

To celebrate the triumphs of
Our own good Saxon tongue ;

For stronger far than hosts that march
With battle-flags unfurled,

It gocs, with FREEDOM, THOUGHT, and TRUTH,
To rouse and rule the world.

“Tt kindles realms so far apart,

That while its praise you sing,

These may be clad with autumn’s fruits,
And those with flowers of spring.

It goes with all that prophets told,
And righteous kings desired,

With all that great apostles taught,
And glorious Greeks admired.

“Mark, as it spreads, how deserts bloom,

And error flees away,

As vanishes the mist of night
Before the star of day!

But grand as are the victories
Whose monuments we see,

These are but as the dawn which speaks
Of noontide yet to be,
THE ENGLISH. : 15

“Take heed, then, heirs of Saxon fam>!

‘ake heed, nor once disgrace,

With deadly pen or spoiling sword,
Our noble tongue and race.

Go forth prepared in every clime
To love and help each other,

And judge that they who counsel strife
Would bid you smite—a brother.



“Go forth, and jointly speed the time,

By good men prayed for long,

When Christian states, grown just and wise,
Will scorn revenge and wrong ;

When earth’s oppressed and savage tribes
Shall cease to pine or roam,

All taught to prize these English words—
Faitn, Freepou, Heaven, and Home!”

J. G. Lyoxs.







































































































































































WINDSOR CASTLE,
Dr:

28H WELSH?

Wats, a principality of Grea’ Britain, lies on the western boundarics of England.
Its length, from north to south, is 180 miles; its breadth, from east to west, is 50
to 80 miles. Population in 1871, 1,216,420.

9) HE principality of Wales is often called Cambria, and its people Cymri,
R%> both words being derived from the term Ocvmmerians, an ancient race of
Western Europe, of whom it is believed the present inhabitants are the
OEE descendants. Originally they dwelt in South Britain; but, on the

wh invasion of that country by the Angles (see page 10), many of the
natives fled to the mountains in the western part of the island, where
they became known as Wiltsemen, or “ strangers,” from whence is obtained
the present name, Welshmen.

The Welsh were under their own princes and laws till the reign of Edward
the First of England, who invaded their land and slew their prince (a.p. 1282).
The better to obtain the confidence of the people, and to secure his conquest, he
called his first-born son Prince of Wales, since which time the eldest son of the
reigning sovereign of England bears that title.

The Welsh language is said to be the oldest spoken language in Europe.
There are poems still preserved in this tongue which are about a thousand years old.

In personal appearance the Welsh are stout and of ruddy countenance: their
round faces are fresh-coloured, even to old age. The gentry dress like the English ;
the farmers wear rough home-made woollen coats, thick stockings, and flannel shirts.
Indeed, flannel, which is largely made in the country, is much worn by men and
women, instead of cotton and linen. In some districts the females wear tall -beaver
hats, but this habit is fast passing away.

The small farms and cottages of the Welsh form very pretty pictures, especially
those on the mountains. The thick walls are generally built of large rounded
stones, with the spaces filled with moss, from which sweet wild flowers spring in
their season. If you step inside, you will find that the light comes through very
small windows, and that a good part of the room lies in shadow. There are often no
grates ; @ fire of peat burns on the hearth, and articles of comfort are all around,






























































































INHHE

i
NH
HHT
Hy
i

rH}
iN












18 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

The ae looks neat wat Ries Most seaees cae a vail let of ae ae a
garden; often some sheep or goats, and a cow. The women occupy much of their
time in knitting stockings and spinning cloth, Even when walking or riding they
busily go on with their knitting.

The people in the country live a retired life in the winter. Snow, frost, and

























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































VALE OF LLANBERIS,

pathless woods are not likely to tempt them far from home. There is also at that
season a great deal of rain. “No matter for the rain,” they say in their tongue,
“we are used to it;’ and hence there may be seen women standing outside their
cottage doors at the wash-tub, or walking leisurely about the village, while the rain
is fast pouring down. The clothing bonne thoroughly wetted, and yet is worn
through the day without any fear, Little children, too, in groups in the rough
THE WELSH. 19



road, go on with their play in the heavy shower, when English cottage children
would be compelled by their parents to find a shelter within doors.

Wales is a land of mountain and valley, and presents many charming land-
scapes, one of which, the Vale of Llanberis, is very much admired by all who pass
through it.

The sabbath is generally kept very devoutly in Wales; and the people have a
- great reverence for God’s Holy Word. A narrative in reference to the latter is
of considerable interest :—

It was late in the year 1802, when a clergyman, the Rev. Thomas Charles, was
walking through the streets of Bala, a small town in Wales. He had not gone far
when he met a little girl whom he knew. He asked her if she could tell him the
text from which he had preached on the last Sunday. Instead of giving a ready
answer to his questions, as she had been in the habit of doing, she hung down her
head in silence. “Can you not tell me the text?” said he. She burst into tears.
At last she replied, “The weather, sir, has been so bad, that I could not get to read
the Bible.” “Could not get to read the Bible! how was that?” He soon learned
the cause: there was no copy of the Word of God to which she could get access,
either at her own home, or among her friends; and she used to travel seven miles,
over the hills, every week, to a place where she could get a Welsh Bible, to read
the chapter from which the minister took his text on the Sunday. But, during that
week, the cold and stormy weather had kept her from her usual journey.

After the girl had gone on her way, Mr. Charles began to reflect how many
were without the Sacred Scriptures. He then inquired among the people in the
town and villages, in how many houses the Bible was to be met with. Great was
his sorrow when he found there was only one copy to about every eighty families!
What was to be done? He was not a rich man, so he could not supply them;
and, even if he could get the money, he well knew they were not to be bought,
as there were very few printed in those days. After he had thought much on the
subject he resolved to go to London, to seek for help in giving the Word of God
to his beloved Welsh people.

A journey from Wales to the great city was then a serious matter: it cost a
considerable sum of money, and took up much time; and, besides, it was winter,
when travelling was not pleasant. But to London he went, and made many
inquiries for Welsh Bibles, and obtained only a small number. He now thought
he would seek for some pious persons who might assist him. He had heard that
several ministers and gentlemen used to meet early in the morning, to consult about
the circulation of tracts, so he resolyed to call on them, hoping that they would
help him,
20 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

Early on the morning of the 7th of December, 1802, the Welsh clergyman
paid a visit to the Committee of the Religious Tract Society, and made known his
errand. They talked together about the state of the people without the Word of
God; and they soon resolved to make an effort to circulate the Bible more largely.
They first consulted how they could procure a supply of Bibles for Wales, when
a minister present said, “A Bible Society for Wales!—why not a Bible Society
for the world?” After-the Committee of. the Tract’ Society had well considered
the matter for several months, these gentlemen, along with some others, formed the
British and Foreign Bible Society, which has sent out millions of copies of God’s
most blessed book to the many nations of the earth. “ Behold, how great a matter
a little fire kindleth !”

















































































THE BRITANNIA TUBULAR BRIDGE, NORTH WALES,
LEE SeOrer:

Scorsanp is the northern and smallest division of Great Britain. Its extent from
south to north is about 270 miles, and from cast to west 150 miles. There are numerous
islands around the coast—the Orkney group consists of 67 islands, and the Shetland group
of upwards of 100. This country is said to have received the Christian faith a.p. 203 ;
was united to England under one crown in 1603, on the accession of its king, James v1.
(James 1. in English history), to the English throne; in 1707 the two kingdoms were
placed under one Parliament, and took the style and title of Great Britain. Population
in 1871, 3,858,000. Chief city, Edinburgh.



y un people of Scotland, called Caledonians by the ancient Romans, are
divided into Ilghlanders and Lowlanders; the former living in the
northern parts, chiefly in the mountains; the latter live in the southern
x Gs country, and in their dwellings, dress, and manners differ very little
oo from the English.
BRL. The Scotch are a hardy, frugal, thoughtful, and industrious race ;
and in personal appearance are tall and robust.

The Highlanders speak a language called Gaelic. Their old national dress
is peculiar. It consists of a kind of cloth known as tartan. This material is
woven into stripes of different colours, which cross each other, forming a chequer-
work of tints. The principal piece of dress made of this tartan is a large
shawl, called by the Highlanders a phelig, but by the Lowlanders a plaid.
This hangs down the back and falls loosely in front nearly to the knees. Next
is a kind of petticoat, or kilt, also made of tartan; while on their legs are
socks of the same pattern as the rest, mostly tied below the knees with garters,
which end as tassels. By the arrangement of colours and stripes in the tartan,
the clans or large families are distinguished one from the other. Shepherds wear
a small black-and-white check, which is called “shepherds’ plaid ;” and a blue
bonnet, or cap, is worn among the clans.

The dress of Highland women consists of a short petticoat and bodice, over
which is thrown a plaid, falling in graceful folds to the feet. A handkerchicf
is neatly tied round the head, though young women have seldom more than a
band of ribbon to secure the hair.
22 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



Instead of wheaten bread, oaten cakes are in common use: hence the country
has been called “the land o’ cakes.”

There is one point which specially deserves attention. As a nation they are
educated beyond most other people. There is a school in every parish, and
several in large parishes, where all, even the poorest, may “obtain an education
sanctified by the lessons of the Bible, imbued with a warm and _ earnest
Christianity, and leading to a measure of intelligence and morality which has



















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































EDINBURGH CASTLE,

seldom been equalled.” Many of the best and wisest men who haye lived in the
land were brought up in parish schools, as not only the poor, but many persons,
THE SCOTCH. 28



even in the higher classes of life, send their children to the common schools to be
educated.

The favourite instrument of music in some parts of the Highlands is the
bagpipes, which, however melodi-
ous to the ears and inspiring to
the heart of a Scotchman, is not
much admired by other people.

Like other countries, Scotland
has made much progress in wealth
and comfort during the past two
hundred years. In 1707 the whole
revenue of the country was only
£110,694; it is now about
£6,000,000. Until the last century,
there was scarcely a proper road
in Scotland. Goods were carried
in sacks and baskets, suspended on
each side of a horse. Where the
distance was great a cart was used,
but such was the wretched state of
the roads that the time taken by
the carriers is almost incredible.
The common carrier from Edin-
burgh to Selkirk, thirty-eight miles
distant, required a fortnight to
travel there and back. In 1678,
a coach with six horses was run we
between Edinburgh and Glasgow, a STIRLING CASTLE.
distance of forty-four miles, and it managed to perform the double journey in
six days!* About a century afterwards Dr. Samuel Johnson found good roads
in Scotland, except in the Highlands.

Scotland is remarkable for its beautiful scenery.







































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































“Land of mountain and of flood,
Land of brown heath and shaggy wood.”

The lochs, or lakes, mountain crags, braes, deep ravines, and other natural
beauties, together with its old castles and ruined abbeys, attract many tourists in
the summer season to this country.

* “ Eneyclopwdia Britannica,” article Sco!land, by P.ofessors Nicol and Balfour,
tee IRese



B

Amone the islands of Europe, in point of size, Ireland ranks next to Great Britain,
from which it is separated by the Irish Sea and St. George’s Channel. Its greatest extent,
from north to south, is about 230 miles, and from east to west 175 miles. Population, in
1871, 5,402,759. Dublin, its capital, is one of the finest cities in Europe. Among
other cities are Belfast, Cork, Limerick, Londonderry, and Waterford. The adminis-
tration of the government is vested in a Lord-Lieutenant and Chicf Secretary of State.



HERE is some uncertainty as to the origin of the name of this country.
Some think it comes from Jerne, “western” land. Others, from a word
used by ancient northern seamen, Ire, which signifies “warm.” And
others, again, say it comes from Evin, that is, “sacred.” The Irish
most commonly adopt the last explanation. By the Romans it was
called Hibernia. As the frequent fall of rain causes a fresh green verdure
to spread over the ground, it is known as the “ Emerald Isle,” and the
national colour is green.

The Irish language is a dialect of the ancient Celtic; that is, it is derived from
a people who dwelt many centuries ago in Central Europe. The English language,
however, is now commonly in use throughout the island. In speaking, the natives
have a “ brogue,” or peculiar burr; and even the English who reside for any length
of time in the country insensibly adopt this tone.

The Irish people have many good qualities. They are generous and hospitable.
A traveller entering one of their “cabins” is heartily welcome to such fare as they
possess, which in some cases is only potatoes and buttermilk. But it is their all, and
they freely give it. They have warm affections and tempers, though these sometimes
break out into violence. They possess strong parental attachments, are brave,
shrewd, and acute, and are great lovers of fun and humour.

They are strong and active, are fair and healthy in complexion, and when
young commonly have flaxen hair and dark blue eyes. Their principal employments
are in connection with agriculture and fisheries, together with the linen and
provision trades.

In some districts, the homes of the peasants are rude huts or cabins.
THE IRISH, 25



From returns made to the Parliament of Great Britain, it appears that these
cabins are fast giving way to an improved class of dwellings. Trade and commerce
are on the increase, and the ground is being brought into a higher state of culti-
vation than in past ages.

Among other distinguished natives
of Ireland are Goldsmith, Moore, and
Wolfe, poets; Harl Rosse and Berke-
ley, men of science; Burke, Curran,
Plunket, and Sheridan, orators;
Bishops Usher, Bedel, and Leslie,
divines; and the Duke of Wellington,
Lord Wellesley, and Lord Palmerston,
statesmen.

Potatoes are the chief food of
large classes of the Irish poor. A
bowl of potatoes, on the top of which
stands a saucer filled with salt, is the
principal meal of the day. Around it %
the family sit; and each one taking a
potato, adroitly turns the peel aside
and dips it in the salt-saucer.

There are few cabins without a
pig; but then it is too often only
reserved for sale, in order to pay the
rent of the “potato patch.” Poor
pig is much cared for. In the day
it lays its body along a heap of straw
and refuse, basking in the sun on the
outside of the hut. When the pig is
taken to market and sold, its master
tenderly bids it good-bye, as if he
were parting with an old and valued friend, whom he would see no more.

Turf, which is used instead of coal, is obtained from bogs extending over
the country for miles. It is the chief fuel—indeed, without it the Ivish could
scarcely exist.

The Irish often spend on a funeral all the money they can scrape together ;
and collections are made by their neighbours to do honour to the memory of the
departed one, Hired female mourners, called keeners, are employed to “wake the
C















































































DUBLIN,
26 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

.
dead,” and their noise is truly frightful. The pay of each keener ig seldom less
than five shillings; and when they have given as much weeping and shouting as





































































IRISH CAR BOY.

they consider is enough for the price, eating and drinking commence among the
relatives and friends. Large numbers of people accompany the body to the graye.
THE IRISH. 27

The greater part of the Irish people are Roman Catholics; and it has been
asserted that much of their poverty and ignorance is to be traced to their
religion. They are held in great bondage by superstition; and “sacred places”

















































































































































































































































































































































IRISH PEASANT GIRL.

are visited by them, in the vain hope of obtaining pardon by the sufferings
they undergo. Making their way around the “place” on their bare knees over
c 2
28 _ PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.





rough stones, they call on the Virgin Mary, or some supposed saint, to intercede
for them, Holy water, penances, relics, and other delusions are their trust,
May the time soon come when they shall know that the only “Name under
heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved,” is that of Jesus Christ,

“Oh! when shall Erin’s lovely isle
In more than nature’s beauty smile:
When to the land’s remotest bound
Shall songs of holy mirth resound ?
When shall her mountain glens rejoice
To hear the Saviour’s gracious voice:
And when her vales, with verdure clad,
List to the gospel and be glad?
That time shall come—nor distant far,
Perhaps, those days of blessings are
When superstition’s sable night
Shall yield to truth’s convincing light.
The Bible, freely spread abroad,
Shall tell the wondrous love of God:
Praise and salvation, hand in hand,
Shall walk the borders of her land:
And sounds of violence no more
Be heard on Erin’s tranquil shore.”



















































































































































































































































































































































































LOWER LAKE OF KILLARNEY.
tee eevee

France is the most westerly, portion of Central Europe, and is separated from England
by the Straits of Dover, a distance of about twenty miles. Its circumference is about 3,100
miles. In 1866 the population was 38,000,000, of whom 2,000,000 were Protestants ; but
the military disasters and the loss of two provinces, consequent on the war with Germany,
have reduced this number considerably more than a million. Capital, Paris, the second city
in size in Europe.

































AP WTO §



good qualities. ‘“ Let us do justice,” says Mr. Laing,* “to the French
character. Their self-command and honesty are yery much to be com-
mended. The hungry beggar respects the fruit on the roadside within
his reach, although there is nobody to protect it. Property is much
respected, and in bringing up children this fidelity towards the property
of others seems much more carefully inculcated by parents in the lowest class, in

* “ Notes of a Traveller.”


30 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



home-education, than with us. This respect for the property of others is closely
connected with that respect for the feelings of our neighbours which constitutes





















































































































































































































































PEASANT GIRL OF THE PYRENEES,

what is called good manners. The young are taught to do what is pleasing and
agreeable, and this is a moral habit of great value.” Hence, too, the humblest
THE FRENCH. Bl



workman is polite even in speaking to others of his own rank of life. In addressing
the poorest woman she expects that you will call her ‘“ Madam.”

The food of the common people is generally a coarse kind of rye bread,
chesnuts, and eggs, with occasionaily a little honey, and on festival days a piece of
dried fish or meat. The higher and middling classes, however, give great atten-
tion to cookery ; and on their tables are the richest soups, pastry, and other kinds
of fancy dishes that can be prepared.

Paris leads the fashion of nearly all Europe. Whatever modes or styles are
adopted these soon become the dress of the fashionables of all the great cities of
England, Belgium, Russia, and other lands. But the dress of French peasants
remains almost unaltered from what it was one hundred years ago. Blouses (a
sort of smock-frock), blue cotton trousers, and woollen caps, are the chief articles of
men’s apparel; while the women wear a jacket and short petticoats, with a clean
cap. This class is seldom seen in bonnets. Formerly the cap was worn very high ;
but since the increase of railways its height has been reduced because of the incon-
venience when travelling.

A lady traveller has furnished a picture—taken from life—of a peasant. girl
of the south of France, whose home was high up in one of the valleys at the foot
of the Pyrenees mountains. She was dressed in the fashion that has for ages
marked this people. The spindle in her hands may show that she is very indus-
trious; and the heavy pot on her head tells us that she has been to a rivulet for a
supply of water. In the distance is one of the highest points of the Pyrenees, called
Pic de Midi. The lady who took her portrait says that, although nineteen years of
age, this young woman was only then learning to read. She belonged to a shep-
herd’s family ; and few of this class possess a single book, or know the value of
the humblest kinds of knowledge.

The rural districts of France are divided into small farms. These farms have few
fences or hedges or trees; the farm buildings do not look so picturesque as those
in England or America. The plough and other agricultural instruments are old-
fashioned, and the ground is badly cultivated. The French farmers have made little
progress since the days of their great-grandfathers. Women attend to much of the
labour in the field, and the rough, rickety waggons are commonly drawn by oxen.

Domestic comfort is not much known in France. Among the middle classes in
cities there is seldom a family table around which parents and children meet to take
their meals together. Those who can afford it dine at an hotel; and the sons, as
they grow up, are allowed one or two francs a day to provide for themselves; and
this money, instead of being spent in obtaining proper food, is too often expended
in cigars or devoted to the theatre at night.
82 PICTURE GALLERY OF. THE NATIONS.

Many of the chateaux, or mansions of the nobility and gentry, are very large
and curious-looking buildings. We give an engraving of one—Chambord, near the
town of Blois. This was the favourite residence of Francis 1., king of France.
What gay trains of splendidly-attired courtiers and fair ladies, in velvet suits, and



























































































































































































































































we
“dy =

all

oil

a

Mo

































































































































































































ieieite itr IP TRie Inte nini in





















































































































































































































CHATEAU DE CHAMBORD,

with jewel-handled whips, have issued forth from its old gates, to hunt in the
woods around! This chateau contains 430 rooms, and 1,800 men were employed
at one time in the erection of the yast pile of building.

The French, like other nations on the continent of Europe, are very unmindful
of the sacred claims of the Lord’s day. A Sunday in a French city has been often
described. Thus a traveller writes :—“ Notwithstanding all I had heard and read
of a continental Sunday, I was not prepared for what I saw. I had expected there
THE FRENCH. 38



would be some signs of the presence of the sabbath and of devout worshippers. I
am bound to say that, although I walked through the very best as well as the
worst streets, I saw nothing to show the slightest change from the ordinary week-
day aspect of a large city. The crowd were in their ordinary attire. In the booths
by the side of the river, and over the bridges, wares of all kinds were exposed for
sale, and the usual cries fell on the ear. Waggons, with jaded-looking horses,
were bearing in all directions heayy loads. Warehouses were open, and workmen
heaving in and out large packages. Bakers were passing with baskets of newly-
baked bread. The shops were all but universally open, and tradesmen standing
at the doors trafficking with customers. Print shops, furniture shops, book
shops, drapers and clothiers, met the eye wherever it turned.”

Since this account was written there has been some slight improvement
in regard to the holy day; but it is still, to a large extent, a time of worldly
gain and sinful pleasure. However greatly sabbath-breaking prevails in Eng-
land, it is not to be compared with the state of a country like France, where
the people from their youth are taught to seek only for amusement during the
hallowed hours. One of the most influential journals of Paris, in commending
the closing of the principal shops of that city on the sabbath, lately said: “ Eng-
land owes much of her energy and character to the religious keeping of Sunday.
Why cannot France follow her, as the sabbath was made for all men, and we
need its blessing ?”

«

























































































































PALACE OF THE TUILERIES, PARIS—BEFORE THE FIRE 1N 1871,
TEER PBRUKONS?

Briirany, the country of the Bretons, is a large province of France, on its north-
west coast. although it has several fine seaports and a few strange old-fashioned cities.

? CONSIDERABLE nuimber of the Bretons are the descendants of Ancient Britons,
iz who were driven by the Saxon invaders of England and Wales to cross
the seas, and settle in this region. The country was formerly called Little
Britain. Their language is very similar to the Welsh, and Welshmen can
hold conversation with them, as a large number of the words in common
use remain nearly the same in both tongues.

The Bretons are known for a love of their homes and country,
and kindness to each other and to strangers. Their vices are avarice and drunkenness.
Travelling in their country is not a pleasant affair. Their public conveyances are
uncleaned, unpainted, creaking, and jolting cars, and full of insect annoyances.

“Some of the Breton towns may give a good idea of the towns of England two
or three centuries ago. The narrow streets, destitute of channel or causeway,
abound with lofty-timbered houses, of curious build, rising tier above tier, like the
stern of a three-decked ship, and approaching so close at top as almost to shut
out the light, with uncouth figures at the angles, and quaint devices on the walls.
Some of the shops are open to the streets, like booths in a fair. . .. . In
Brittany now, as in the middle ages, the market and the fair are the great events.
Rare is the buying and selling that takes place at other times; but when the
market occurs, the country people, from a distance of twenty or thirty miles,
throng the roads, bringing all imaginable articles to exchange for money; for
money is as eagerly sought in Brittany as elsewhere. The Breton works hard, and
with difficulty earns his poor pittance of fifteen sous (about sevenpence) per day,
from which, by wonderful care, he contriyes to reserve one sou, which he carefully
saves.” *

The better classes of the people are dressed as represented in our engraving.
This dress is neat and picturesque. The horses in use are strong and noble
* “ Brittany and the Bible,” by J. Hope.






























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































PEASANTS OF BRITTANY,
386 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

creatures. The e¢ common ere of the ipa however are deeahots as wee ‘and
rude in their manners. The Bretons, says a traveller, dwell in huts generally built
of mud, in which men, children, cows, and pigs live huddled together. Their
habits are wild and savage, and they are mostly in a condition of great poverty.
In some parts the men wear dresses of goat-skins, and look not unlike a number of
Robinson Crusoes. The hairy part of this dress is worn outside ; it is made with
‘long sleeves, which fall nearly below the knees; their long shaggy hair hangs
loosely over their shoulders. On Sundays the men often wear three or four cloth
waistcoats, all of different lengths, so as to let the various colours, red, white, and
blue, with which they are bound, appear one above the other in tiers; a muslin
collar ; full-plaited breeches, tied at the knees by garters of floating ribbon ; white
woollen stockings, with white cloaks; and light yellow shoes.* Many of the women
of the poorer sort wear their dress till it becomes so dirty, patched, and ragged,
that you can scarcely trace what it has originally been. Some Breton females,
however, appear decently dressed in their singular costume, and are of a florid,
healthy look.

In some districts the women wear high muslin caps. Knitting-pins in hand,
they work away at stockings, whether walking, talking, or with a load of butter on
the head. When not at work the knitting-pins are stuck in their hair. When
the great Breton commander, Du Guesclin, was a prisoner to Edward the Black
Prince, and was asked how he could raise the large sum required for his ransom, he
replied, that “the women of Brittany would rather spin for a year, and ransom him
with the work of their distaffs, than that he should remain prisoner.”}

There are large forests of chesnut and oak trees in the land, whose fruit, boiled
in milk, supplies the means of subsistence during the greater part of the year.
The people grovel on from age to age, with little change in their habits. If you
ask a Breton why he does not plant more fruit-trees, he will tell you his father
never did so. If you say, ‘“‘Why not grow more corn, instead of depending so
much on chesnuts and acorns?” he will answer, “I have gathered chesnuts and
acorns from the time when I was a boy; why should I not do so now?” And so
he goes on, without learning wisdom or improving his mode of life. May we not
hope that better times will come to these people ?

* Mis, Palliser’s “ Brittany and its Byways.” + Ibid.


Tan Dever

Hornanp, or the Netherlands, the home of the Dutch, is in West-Central Europe,
and has a population of about 3,652,000, chiefly Protestants. Chief cities, Rotterdam,
Amsterdam, and the Hague. Tho latter place is the residence of the king. The country,
which is of limited extent, is bounded on the north and west by the German Ocean, on the
south by Belgium, and on the cast by Germany.

: 2 HE “Low Countries,” as the land of the Dutchman is also called, have
\ very few hills: almost all is a level plain, except on the sea boundaries,
where banks rise to the height of fifty feet. These are formed by strong
winds, which constantly drive the sand of the ocean towards the
shore. Where these are not thus naturally formed, dykes are built of
wooden piles and clay, to keep out the sea. Thus Holland is pro-
tected from being overwhelmed by the waves. The interior is crossed
at all points by canals, lakes, and rivers. -

Flat as is the country, it is not uninteresting to the eyes of travellers.
Bright, cheerful villages spread over the landscape; farm-houses with their
windows gleaming in the sun; spires of churches peeping over clusters of
willow-trees ; meadows over which roam thousands of fine cattle ; numerous wind-
mills, which are used not only for grinding corn, but for draining the land;
quaint-looking barges slowly passing along the canals, —all help to form a picture
very pleasant to the sight.

The chief out-door amusement of the Dutch in winter is skating, in which
exercise both men and women, from the highest to the lowest ranks, excel.
Indeed, when the roads are bad, this is often the only way in which they can
go to oe to church, or to visit their friends.

All parents are compelled by the laws of the land to send their children to
school, and no one is allowed to be a teacher until proof is given, after
strict examination, that he or she is able to train the young. A Dutch school is a
place of great order. Rows of boys and girls, neatly dressed, and with hands
and faces shining from the scrubbing process they have undergone, are seen at
their lessons, But how quietly they sit—so different to what is behe!d in most





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE DUTCH, 389



schools. And when it is time to go home, they pass out in the quietest manner
possible. The only noise is from the clatter of their strong wooden shoes.







































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































FLOWER AND FRUIT MARKET, ROTTERDAM,

One of the good points in the character of the Dutch people is that of
cleanliness. In illustration of this, we will visit—

THE CLEANEST VILLAGE IN THE WORLD.

Broek, or Brook, is inhabited, like other places, by the two classes of rich
and poor; but whether they live in mansions or cottages, or whether they be
40 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



retired re or ens in ie ‘field, hag are all iota foe mine aes in
their persons and homes.

There is no horse or cart road through the village of Broek, but there are
pathways, paved with bricks or coloured stones and shells, arranged in patterns,
and lined on each side by neat-looking gardens.

The people go in and out through the back doors of their houses, that. they
may not soil the steps of the front entrances. “I was amused,” says a gentleman,
“to observe the anxiety with which one of the children of ihe house laid down
a wet cloth in order that I might clean my feet upon it, and thus introduce no
dirt into the dwelling.” Before almost every house in the place may be seen a
row of shoes, or wooden sabots, which the people put off at the door, and walk
through the rooms in slippers or stockings. On one occasion Alexander, emperor
of Russia, visited Broek, and on entering one of the houses he complied with the
custom, took off his boots, and put on a pair of slippers. In their efforts to “keep
all tidy,” even a tobacco-pipe—that choice and constant companion of a Dutch-
man—must have over the bowl a thin wire network, to prevent any ashes falling
on the floor.

The houses are frequently painted inside and out, and always appear in their
bright green and white colours. It is said that some of the proprietors of the
largest houses always keep a painter as one of their servants, who finds constant
work in sustaining the mansion in its freshness of appearance. The roofs are
covered with polished tiles, which glitter in the sunshine.

Every house has its “best parlour.” That popular writer, Washington Irving,
in describing his visit to this “paradise of cleanliness,” says of this room: “The
mistress and her confidential maid visit it once a week, for the purpose of
giving it a thorough cleaning, and putting things to rights—though it is hard
to say how they can possibly get wrong—always taking the precaution of leaving
their shoes at the door, and entering devoutly on their stocking feet. After
scrubbing the floor, sprinkling it with fine white sand, which is curiously stroked
into angles, curves, and other devices; after washing the windows, rubbing and
polishing the furniture, and putting a new bunch of evergreens in the fireplace,
the window-shutters are closed to keep out the flies, and the room is then
carefully locked up till sevén days of time bring round the weekly cleaning day.”
What enjoyment is to be had from this locked-up room it is hard to tell.

The little old-fashioned village church has its stones well scrubbed almost
daily, and the pulpit and seats shine from the rubbing they get. Indeed,
throughout Broek, one of the chief ends of life seems to be, to make everything
look bright and eleat, and keep out dirt,
THE DUTCH. 4]



In this village and its neighbourhood large quantities of the little round
cheeses, known all over the world as Dutch cheeses, are made. The cows which
yield the milk of which these are made are kept very clean; and their tails
are neatly tied up, that they may not dangle them in the dirt when they he
down. “I am sure,” says a traveller, “that a large proportion of the poor
people of England, and a still larger number of the Irish, are not so well and
cleanly lodged as the cows in this village.” The pavement of the stables is
covered with Dutch tiles: the walls consist of deal boards, smoothly polished
like an English dining-table; and the whole place is carefully washed and
cleaned.

It is a satisfaction for those who are fond of Dutch cheese to know that
the process of making it is the cleanest imaginable. The finest fresh butter and
richest cream to be tasted in any land may be also had here.

There is much that is very useless, and perhaps rather foolish and absurd,
in the manners of the people of the cleanest village in the world; but yet
we cannot think of them without learning a lesson of cleanliness and diligence,
which may be carried into practice in our daily life.






















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Tee Beneeaws>

Beuerum, in Central Europe, is one of the smallest of kingdoms. It is 195 miles long
and 120 broad. Population in 1870, 5,081,260. It has in succession belonged to Spain,
Austria, France, and Holland, but became independent in 1831, and is now ruled by its own
sovereign, called the King of the Belgians. Chief city, Brussels.



=O) HE Belgians in the northern part of the land partake of the character,

. and have the manners and customs of their neighbours, the Dutch; and
in the south, of the French. In the former the Flemish language is
spoken ; in the latter, as also in all the principal cities, the French is
in use among the upper and middle ranks.

The country has been called “the Garden of Europe,” and large
numbers of the people are engaged in the cultivation of the soil.
England is largely supplied with fruit, vegetables, and eggs from its farms, and
a considerable trade is kept up between the two nations. Neat farm-houses appear
all over the land. They are not large; they might be called “cottage homes.”
The principal room is a clean kitchen, on each side of which are two small
rooms, only large enough to hold a bed; and upstairs in the roof is a sleeping
room for the servants, if the farmer can afford to pay for help. Generally, the
family can attend to all the labour of the farm. ‘The father and song do the
out-of-door work; the daughters look after the cows and pigs; and the mother
spins flax into cloth, which she makes up into dress for the household.

The Belgians are also skilful in the manufacture of lace, silks, iron-ware,
and machinery: several of their large cities, as Antwerp, Ghent, Liege, and Ostend,
have been noted for ages for their thriving industry and commerce. Bruges, with
its wonderful belfry, presents an interesting scene at all times, especially on market
days. The city was in former times crammed with merchants and their wares.
Six canals led into it, which were filled with barges and ships, bearing the
manufactures of the place to all parts of Europe, but it has fallen into decay.
Every quarter of an hour the chimes of the belfry strike out old familiar
tunes, “like a great musical snuff-box up in the sky.”

Brussels, the chief city, is called “Paris in miniature,” which it resembles
in its parks, public buildings, places of amusement, and habits of the people.
, THE BELGIANS. 43

If Belgium is “the garden,” it has been also the ‘“battle-ground of
Europe.” About ten miles distant from Brussels the battle of Waterloo was







THE BELFRY AT LRUGES,
44 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.





fought, where thousands were laid low in death. The spot is generally visited by
travellers; but, as one of them remarks: “May no one return from this sadly
memorable plain without a firm resolve to do something towards the prevention
of war, and of seeking to promote the true brotherhood of man.”

The Belgians are almost entirely Roman Catholics, and are superstitious and
bigoted. They are fond of religious shows and ceremonies, and their churches
are adorned with large dressed dolls, designed to represent “the Child Jesus.”
In the cathedral at Brussels is a pulpit, formed of large carvings in wood,
showing Adam and Eve (the latter with an enormous apple in her hand) as
driven out of Paradise by an angel; around are wooden peacocks strutting at
full length, monkeys jumping among fig-trees, a great boa-constrictor twining
around a trunk of a tree, together with ostriches, eagles, and squirrels, in all
kinds of strange attitudes and places. At the top, as a sort of “ sounding-board,”
the Virgin Mary holds the infant Saviour, whom she is assisting to thrust the
end of a cross into the serpent’s head! And this strange pulpit stands in the midst
of a place designed for Christian worship !

“Tn vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of
men” (Matt. xv. 9). .









































BRUSEELS,






























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































GENEVA.

LEE SWS

“ Beautirun SwitzerLanD” is an inland country of Europe, and is about 200 miles in
length and 160 in breadth. It is a land of mountains, valleys, and lakes; within its
limited borders there are about 2,500 streams. It is divided into twenty-two cantons, or
counties, each of which has an independent government, but the whole are united for
mutual defence. Population about 2,510,000. Chief city, Berne.

”

personal appearance they differ: those who live near to Italy have the
tawny skin and general features of the people of that land; others who
reside in the neighbourhood of the Rhine haye the round and ruddy
face of the.Germans; and those who border.on France have the lively
black eyes and cast of face of the French. So also they differ in
religion, nearly two-thirds being Protestants, and the others chiefly
Roman Catholics. The former are the most thriving, and their cantons are in a
superior state of order and cultivation compared with the latter.


46 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

There are fhtente ies styles of dress among the ents but Seely
the men wear round high hats, open waistcoats, and breeches of coarse linen. Women
are dressed in jackets, often with a profusion of buttons, and short petticoats.
Unmarried females are generally distinguished by their hair being in two plaits, tied
at the ends with ribbons. After marriage the hair is twisted in a bunch on the
crown of the head, and secured with long silver pins.

“The peculiar feature in the condition of the Swiss—the great charm of
Switzerland—next to its natural
scenery, is the air of well-being,
the neatness, the sense of property
imprinted on the people and their
plots of land. They have a kind
of Robinson Crusoe industry about
their houses and grounds. Some
cottages are adorned with long texts
of Scripture, painted or burnt into
the wood, in front, over the door.”
Others of the chalets, or cottages,
have the pedigree of the builder or
owner on the outside, and are other-
wise singularly carved and orna-
mented. “The little plots of land,
each no bigger than a garden, show
the daily care in fencing, digging,
weeding, and watering. With basket,
hoe, and spade, unassisted by animal
power, all the labour is done by
hand.”* With the money a peasant

pwns, GIRL. earns in the winter by weaving, and
sometimes in summer as a guide to tourists, in addition to the humble produce of
his garden, all his simple wants are supplied. Women spin hemp into a coarse kind
of cloth, with which they make clothes for their families; and the children, in the
long nights of winter, find employment in making wooden toys of animals, birds,
and houses. In the fine season the boys are engaged in taking charge of the cattle
on the mountains, and are commonly seen with great horns, used in calling home
their herds at night.

The highest village in Europe, inhabited all the year round, is the Swiss village



* Laing’s “Notes of a Traveller.” First Series.
THE SWISS. a7
of Mirren. It commands a more glorious prospect than tongue can describe, and
well repays the toil of reaching it.

Switzerland stands closely connected with the Reformation. Erasmus and
Zwingle, at Basle, laboured to over-
turn popery ; Calvin at Geneva, and
Farel at Neufchatel. The English
and Scotch exiles, John Knox and
Miles Coverdale, with others, found
more than a shelter at Zurich—
they secured a welcome and a home.

It was in the latter city that
Zwingle, when he entered on his
ministry in the old cathedral on
New Year’s Day, 1519, began with .
these words :—‘“ It is to Christ that °
I desire to lead you; to Christ, :
the true source of salvation. His
Divine word is the only food that
I wish to set before your hearts
and souls.” Through the teaching
of the Holy Spirit he had learned
that simple faith in the sacrifice
and intercession of the one Mediator
could bring peace to the soul, and
he laboured heartily that his country-
men should rejoice with him in the
same blessing.

In recent times many good men
have preached the gospel in this
land, and there are numbers of the people who truly love our Lord Jesus Christ,
and who labour that others may love him too.



SWISS BOYS.

|


Lae GERMANS:

Germany—Deutschland, as it is called by the natives—is a large division of Midland
Europe, extending 700 miles in breadth and 600 in length. It is divided into North
Germany, consisting of a confederation of states, under the leadership of Prussia, with a
population of 30,000,000; South Germany, with a population of 8,000,000; and German-





























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































ON THE RHINE,
THE GERMANS. 49



speaking natives of the Austrian empire, 10,000,000. The political divisions are Austria
proper, Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria, Wurtemburg, Nassau, Hanover, Brunswick, Baden, Olden-
burg, Mecklenburg, Pomerania, Schleswig-Holstein, Brandenburg, Westphalia, and others.
Though there are minor differences of character and habits among the people, they possess
some general features of nationality, which distinguish them as Germans. The Rhine, the
finest of German rivers, is the home of history and legends. Thousands of vineyards flourish
on the sides of the mountains, and the tops are studded with the remains of baronial castles
of the olden times. Along the banks are fine towns and pretty-looking villages.



2) un Germans are a thrifty, plodding people, who give great atteution to

~~. trade and to the cultivation of the land. Literature and the arts also
flourish among them. They are frank, frugal, industrious, and great
lovers of their country.

Different kinds of dress are worn in the different parts of the land.
That of the peasant, in some parts, consists of a sort of shooting-jacket,
a green waiscoat, and a belt round the waist, breeches of leather,
worsted leggings, and a felt hat, in which is frequently worn a tuft of feathers.
The style of dress of the women is not exactly the same even in two adjoining
villages. Generally they may be seen with a dark boddice, or jacket, with
short coloured petticoat, and a handkerchief tied under the chin.

The Germans are early risers, they dine in the middle of the day, and sup
at seven in the evening. Smoking is a constant habit: from morning to night the
pipe is scarcely out of the mouth of a German.

It is common now, among this people, for the younger branches of the smallest
tradesmen to have a very fair knowledge of French and English. Since the marriage
of the Princess Royal of England into the Prussian royal family, the last-named
language is deemed necessary to the complete education of girls. Artisans, especially
in Prussia, are a superior class of men, owing to a regulation which requires them to
travel and work under different masters for a short term of years.

Peasant life is mostly one of great hardship. The women engage in the
heaviest labours of the field, and their clothing is rough and scanty. Fishermen
on the shores of the Baltic and the North Sea are a more thriving class, and enjoy
many home comforts.

In Germany, Christmas and birthdays are seasons when gifts are exchanged;
even more so than in other lands. The wife saves in her household expenses
that she may buy a present for her husband; and he curtails, even in his
beloved pipe and lager beer, that he may obtain a gift for his wife. Christmas
Eye, or “the Happy Eve,” as they call it, is especially the children’s’ season,
































PIPTETTT TET LG

St tts













te

5

FISHERMAN S HUT ON TIE SHORES OF THE BALT[C,—NET-MAKING
: THE GERMANS. 51

when they receive gifts from those that love them. Their lot is deemed a hard
one who have nothing to give and to receive at such times.

New Year’s Day in Germany is kept as a day of amusement. But in
those families where life is regarded as having higher purposes than mere
business and play, New Year’s Eve is celebrated in a more homely but cer-
tainly not less happy manner. It is spent in social enjoyment, not forgetting
cakes for the young. In many families the voice of thanksgiving is heard for the
mercies of the past year, with prayer for God’s blessing on the new year. When
the watchman on the church-tower sounds his horn, according to German custom,
to proclaim midnight, all wish each other a happy new year, and go to bed.

On the first morning of the new year all is bustle in every town: there
is music on the parade-ground; music at all the inns and hotels; music in every
street; while people are seen running about busily intent on making morning
calls. On these occasions, “the compliments of the season” being over, a whole
string of minor wishes for the coming year follows, and every one desires all
manner of good to all they meet at home and abroad.

But the chief family festivals are the Silver Wedding, which marks the
twenty-fifth anniversary of a wedding day; and the Golden Wedding, which
denotes the fiftieth. Then all the members of a family and neighbours unite in
paying visits, and offering love-tokens to the happy couple whose days have
been so long prolonged in wedded life.

The cultivation of music among the lower classes in Germany seems to have
a softening influence over them. Working men, instead of resorting to the public-
house as a means of recreation after their day’s labour, may be seen sitting on a
bench outside their lodging-house, singing to a guitar or other instrument.

We will now give brief attention to child life in this land, as described by a
German lady, who contributed the account to a popular periodical.* “It is a
custom,” she writes, “to swaddle the babies, which is done in the following
manner:—After the babies are dressed in long clothes, the latter are doubled and
turned up, like the ends of a treacle pudding. A piece of white dimity or
other strong material, bound at top and bottom, made like a long surgical bandage,
only wider, is then wound round the baby, so as to enclose its arms and whole
body. The baby can neither move nor kick: it can only eat, sleep, and grow fat.
German mothers say that their babies seldom cry when they are swaddled, but,
on dressing them in the English way, the babies throw up their arms in wild
despair, until changed again to their own dress.

“The fist object in a German household is to bring the children under proper

* “TVeisure Hour,” 1866,
52 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



discipline. They are not, as in England, kept in a nursery, to be petted and
spoiled during their infancy. When scarcely three or four years old, they are
sent both in the morning and afternoon to places called ‘ children’s-gardens,’ or
‘infant-schools, though learning is not attended to there at first. On the
contrary, the woman who takes charge of these little children tries, by every
means in her power, to amuse them. She induces them to play together, for
which purpose a quantity of toys, including dolls, are kept. The children are
thus happy. The walk to and from school is good for their health, and, as soon
as memory may safely be taxed, they are taught to say their prayers and
learn the alphabet. As they get older they learn to read, sing little songs,
repeat short poems, and are taught to dress their dolls.

“ After passing their early years in acquiring the simplest kinds of knowledge
and religious instruction, young girls of twelve or thirteen are sent to a Nahschule,
or ‘school for sewing,’ where, however, they learn every kind of useful needlework,
beginning with a pocket-handkerchief, and ending with the most difficult piece of
female work. When quite perfect in all that relates to the sewing and cutting-out,
two samplers are made, the first to learn marking by. The second is made of fine
canvas, out of which large square pieces are cut, to be filled in again by beautiful
patterns of ‘darning’ in coloured silk: not stocking-darning, but different
patterns of damask and table-linen, in case any of these articles should want
repairing. German ladies hold stocking-darning in abhorrence. Whenever stock-
ings want mending, they are not darned, but the thrifty housewife knits new heels or
toes into them, which not only gives them a better appearance, but makes them more
comfortable for wear. About a year is spent in learning common needlework, after
which the young girl is sent toa finishing school. Here she learns drawing, French,
English, botany, ornamental needlework, and music.

“The last accomplishment, as far as regards instrumental music, is nowhere
cultivated with greater success than in Germany. It is an all-devouring passion
with young and old, rich and poor. To the rich it is a never-failing source of delight,
and to the poor it is life itself, their services being in constant demand. She is now
considered a young lady (for all girls after the age of about thirteen are so called),
and has to learn cookery in all its branches, which art she has to practise daily for
the benefit of the whole family. Germans have strange ambition to excel in English
‘cookery, principally beef-steak, roast-beef, and plum-pudding. The former, which
they call ‘ beeuf-stiick,’ is made in private families in this way :—The meat, being
cut into thin lean pieces, is put into the frying-pan with pepper and salt, and is then
slowly fried in butter until it looks like a piece of Russian leather. At the hotels,
where they are anxious to please the taste of the English, which they are told inclines
THE GERMANS. 53

towards raw meat, they cut the beef into thick pieces, and, after just turning them in
the pan over a slow fire, they are brought on the table quite raw inside.



mn
o

ren i
ry
Ht Ht i

i
I

Th i :



















FAMILY DINNER PARTY IN GERMANY.

“The ‘rossbif’ is the dish on the preparation of which the Germans pride them-
selves most. In order to make it look quite English, as they think, they commence
by trimming it into the form of a ball, This being done, it is cooked in some strange
54 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.
fashion, scarcely half roasted, and when put upon the table it looks a shining black,
as if it had been japanned all over.”

There is much more to be said about girl life in Germany, but we must note
one or two matters about boy life.

“What is the reason,” says our lady German correspondent, “of a boy-baby
being held everywhere in Germany in greater esteem than a girl? He is petted
from the very first, and crammed with flour and milk made into pap, often to such
an extent that his eyes and nose seem almost buried between his cheeks. This
done, both mamma and nurse pronounce him ‘a charming boy,’ and he is then
carried about in triumph by the latter on a large square feather pillow. The cover
of this is trimmed with beautiful lace, and coloured ribbons for strings on two
opposite sides. The latter being tied together, the little fellow lies inside like a silk-
worm in a cocoon, and calmly surveys the arrangements which are being made for
the increase of his size. These consist in boiling flour-milk and broth, besides feeding
him at short intervals with bread-and-butter and cakes, until the time arrives for
his learning to walk. It will then be found that, owing to his being so very fat, he
cannot be put on his legs with safety, except while being held in leading-strings.

“Very young boys in Germany have a funny appearance, their dress being a small
copy of their papa’s, with the exception of the coat, for which a tight-fitting bodice,
with buttons all round, is substituted. As they grow older they are dressed in a
short tunic and trousers made of cloth, in which they look very well. They are sent to
school at a very early age, where discipline is maintained by a cane. This is used very
generally in the schools, and even by the clergyman who instructs them in religion.”

Turning from the children, we must remark that there is one sad point in the
character of the Germans—the want of reverence for the sabbath, even among those
who are called Protestants. It is the day chosen for travelling, and for concerts,
balls, and the theatre. The chief market of the week in a town is mostly held on the
holy day; and thus the season given by God to men for rest, when the thoughts
may be raised to heaven, is perverted to the love of gain and worldly pleasure.
Time is lost that should be spent in seeking the salvation of the soul, and serving the
Saviour of men,

HAMBURG MARKET-WOMEN.

Tue city of Hamburg, one of the great seaports of Germany, is about eighty
miles up the River Elbe. As we approach it by water, forests of ships’ masts are
seen, and the quays on the banks are covered with goods from almost every land in


















































































































































































































































































































HAMBURG MARKET-WOMAN,
56 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

the world. When we step on shore crowds of people appear to throng the
streets, for the city contains about two hundred thousand people. It is said that
no city of its size in the world is more busy or wealthy. Its merchants are as
princes, and as generous as they are rich.

On entering Hamburg for the first time, you are quite bewildered with the
din around you. People of all nations are talking together, but if you know no
language except English you can manage tolerably well, for almost everybody
speaks English more or less, as a matter of business necessity. When you are
settled a little, and have time to look about you, there is plenty to amuse and
gratify the taste.

The city is very fine, not so much in respect to its public buildings ag its
private streets, and mansions, and squares. The great fire of 1842 (which de-
stroyed sixty streets, and nearly two thousand houses) turned out for the good’ of
Hamburg. It spared the finest streets; and in place of the narrow, dirty rows
of lanes which were destroyed, there are now splendid ranges of wide -streets,
reminding one of the very finest of those of London or Paris. The most re-
markable buildings are St. Michael’s Church, with a steeple of the vast height
of 456 feet, and the Exchange, which, although in the very midst of the great
fire, was saved.

The business at the Exchange is chiefly from one to two o’clock, and no
stranger should neglect to visit it, and listen to the noise of the assembled mer-
chants as they buy and sell, and arrange about the coming and going of ships.

The city abounds with good hotels and coffee-houses, and with large and
well-conducted public hospitals. The poor are well provided for, and hardly a
beggar is to be met with. Schools abound, and nearly all the old monasteries

nd convents are now turned into benevolent institutions of one kind or other.
he religion of four-fifths of the inhabitants is Protestant. There are said to be
seven thousand Jews in the city.

The Binnen Alster is a large lake, in the heart of the town; it is charming
to lounge here in summer evenings, delighting in the pure, cool air and the
fragrance wafted from the baskets of the flower-girls, and listening to the music
of numerous bands. The walks on the tree-planted ramparts inclosing the city
are also very fine, and pleasant trips may be made in the suburbs.

One of the best sights in Hamburg, as in other foreign cities, is to be
found in the great market. Here you may see the country people in their
peculiar dresses, offering for sale the produce of their gardens and farms.
Many of the market-women still dress in the fashion of those of olden times.
Some of them wear strange head-wings on each side of the face, formed of a
THE GERMANS. 57
kind of cloth. From behind they are a large bow, which hangs over the
shoulders. And then a stranger cannot but observe the hat, like a basket turned
upside down, and the finely-worked body-dress, as a breastplate, together with
the deeply-fringed sash, which make her an object of special attention to a
visitor from a foreign land.

Sugar-baking, hat-making, and printing are largely carried on in Hamburg,
and in the latter branch of trade many books and tracts, teaching the great
truths of the gospel, are sent forth every year throughout Germany.

























STREET IN HANOVER.
y

LEE SRANLARDS?

Spain is in the south-western part of Europe. Its greatest length is about 560 miles,
and average breadth 830. Population, 16,641,000. Chief city, Madrid.

_PANIARDS are of a dark, swarthy complexion, with regular features and
> dark eyes. They are grave in manners, dignified and slow in their
walk, and are said to be proud and revengeful in temper. Their dress
varies in different provinces, but the old national dress is a large cloak
or blanket, short braided jacket, and broad crimson or striped sash.
The females dress in dark gowns and bright-coloured shawls. Their
hair is dressed with much care, and at the back of the head a large, high
comb is fixed, to which is fastened a kind of scarf, called a mantilla, hanging very
gracefully over the shoulders. A fashionable comb is a foot long, and is worth two
or three pounds in our money. Sometimes a poor woman will spend all the money
she has to buy an expensive comb. The fans also are very costly. Almost every
gitle girl is seen with a fan in her hand.
The life of a Spaniard has but few changes. His food is scanty, the favourite
repast being a compound of chicken, beef, and pork, with beans and peas. But
this luxurious fare is only for holidays and great feasts, and for the better class
of persons; more commonly, the beans and peas, with garlic and oil, form the
dinner of the tradesman and common people. Chocolate, sugar and water, or weak
wine, is the usual beverage. They are very fond of smoking. Travellers tell us that
in the streets, and at home, in the coffee-house, and on a journey, from morning
to night a cigar is in the mouth of a Spaniard. “ Physicians smoke in visiting their
patients, statesmen when in their councils, judges upon the bench, and prisoners _
at the bar. The only time in the day when tliey cease to smoke is when they take
their mid-day nap, called a séesta—a custom of all classes throughout the land.”
The streets of the cities and country roads swarm with beggars and strolling
musicians. The latter are generally of the gipsy class. They collect money of the
passengers to the sounds of bagpipe, guitar, tambourine, and song.
Great changes have come over Spain during the last three centuries. It was
formerly among the first countries in Europe for commerce; but in the course of a


























ab












60 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.
few ages it had not a single shipyard left. It was once famous for the number and
produce of its looms: these are now few and little esteemed. Its quicksilver mines
supplied the whole world; they are now nearly all closed.

There are some fine palaces and public buildings, built in former times, as the
Royal Palace at Madrid. But, in general, its once famous cities were left for ages
to fall into decay; and the inhabitants lived in a condition of the greatest

< ignorance. It is said that out of a
population of sixteen millions only one-
fourth can read or write. Of late,
however, there has been an increasing
improvement in the people and in the
state of their towns.

In regard to the religion of the
Spaniards much cannot be said that is
favourable. It has been asserted that
people attend the churches chiefly to see
the fine processions, to hear the music,
and perhaps to bow the knee before the
statue of the Virgin Mary. Some of the
_ images are richly adorned with jewels.
The diamonds on one of them are valued

jj, at more than twenty thousand pounds.

J Tens of thousands of Spaniards have

never seen a copy of the Bible; great

numbers do not know that there is such

a book. Instead of looking by faith to
/ SG i ee eS Jesus only as a Mediator and Saviour,
pipe eee “4 .

neh ; they trust to saints and angels as their

rauiis’ welgae aoe advocates before God. But there is a

bright light appearing in the dark cloud, and we hope that a happier day is

dawning upon Spain; when, instead of trusting for salvation in vain religious

rites and on human merits, people shall be brought to receive a pure gospel, and
know the blessed truth, that only the blood of Jesus Christ can take away sin.

Let us give one instance of the good work which has commenced in Spain :—

One sabbath afternoon in 1857, a young man was passing along the principal
walk of Gibraltar. He knew no other religion than that of Romanism; but that
had lost its hold on him. He was a play-writer by profession. As he was one day
walking he was engaged in designing a new drama, when he suddenly heard the bell


THE SPANIAPDS, ; 61



of a Protestant chapel. He was attracted to the place, and entered it. The simple
service very much affected him, accustomed as he was only to the glittering and
showy ceremonies of Popery. The truths, too, which he heard were new to him.
In the sermon the minister made constant reference to the Bible; but Matamoras
had never seen one before. As he passed out of the chapel he asked an attendant
where he could buy a copy of the Scriptures. The attendant told him he should
have a New Testament without money, and gave him one. The play-writer hastened
to his lodgings and gave up the whole night to its study.

_The reading of that New Testa-
ment, together with a tract entitled
“Andrew Dunn,” led Matamoras to
become a Protestant Christian. He
gave up the writing of plays, and de-
voted himself to making known the
gospel among his countrymen. Soon
numbers met together to hear the
word of God, and in many towns there
were companies of converts from Rom-
anism. The priests were alarmed, and
urged the queen who then reigned
in Spain to put down these meetings.
In the town of Malaga a young candi-
date for the priesthood was seen read-
ing a Testament, and it was made
known from whom he had received SPANISH LADY.
it. Matamoras was then arrested,
tried, and condemned to several years’ hard labour in the galleys.

When it became known in England and other countries that a good man was so
severely treated for only reading the Bible, and encouraging others to read it,
protests were sent to the queen from various lands, and after some delay she was
constrained to order him to be set at liberty, on condition that he should be banished
from his native country for life. Matamoras is now dead. He remained faithful
to his Christian profession to the last.

Since his time the Bible has freely gone forth into Spain, Christian books and
tracts have been widely circulated, and numbers of the people, it is hoped, have
received the truth as it is in Jesus, and haye learned the only way in which a sinner
can be saved,




a Yau Porxwucouser

Portueant is the most westerly kingdom of Europe. Its entire population is about
3,500,000; but including the island of Madeira and the Azores, which belong to it, the
inhabitants are 4,400,000. Chief city, Lisbon.

N many respects the Portuguese resemble the Spaniards. They have
black hair and eyes, and swarthy complexions ; their teeth are white, as
only a few smoke, though they are very fond of snuff.

The greater part of this people are poor and ignorant. Their
cities are described as pleasant to view from a distance, but on entering
the walls, dirt and destitution appear through most of the streets.
Travellers also describe the country villages as wretched in the extreme ;
the houses are filthy, and the peasants dejected, idle, and spiritless. Beggars are
very numerous; they infest every town and village, and not only entreat, but
impudently demand your money.

“The dress of the Portuguese women,” says a lady traveller, “would not be
unbecoming, if they had a better notion of personal cleanliness.” On high days
they wear cloaks of black or scarlet colour, and pink, green, or yellow silk shoes,
with which they walk through the most disgusting dirt and mud. “The form of
female dress does not undergo a change once in an age: and fancy dressmakers and
milliners are as much unknown in Lisbon as they were in ancient Sparta.”

Our engraving represents a sailor and a fisherwoman of Oporto, a city on the
sea-coast. The men wear sashes of different colours, in which is commonly seen a
dagger.

The food of the labouring classes is beans and chesnuts, which are ground and
made into bread, or used in soups and stews, and on this fare they will toil in the
summer under a burning sun, half-naked and bareheaded; or, in winter, under
drenching rains, with nothing else to protect them than a straw-thatched hovel.
The better classes enjoy a salted pilchard with a few heads of garlic; and a piece of
salted cod is a dish to adorn a feast.

Among the peculiarities of the Portuguese, the following are to be noticed.
They commonly refuse to carry burthens, which they say is work only suited to






















































































































































































































































































































Zy
Lz 5
CIE

»


































64 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



beasts. Women, when they ride, sit with the left side towards the horse’s head ;
and a postilion rides on the left horse. Tailors sit at their work like shoe-
makers. A tavern is known by a vine-bush; and a house to be let by a piece
of blank paper. The custom of wearing boots and black conical caps is peculiar to
fruit-women.

“The Portuguese are behind almost every nation in Europe in agriculture.
The soil is neither manured nor tilled ag it ought to be; and the plough is merely
three pieces of wood, awkwardly fastened together, and imperfectly aided by wheels.”

In former ages the Portuguese were the boldest adventurers by sea. To them
we owe the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope, Brazil, the coast of Guinea,
and the passage by sea to the East Indies. But the moderns have lost nearly all
the spirit of their forefathers.

Popery is the religion of the land; there are not so many priests and monks
and nuns as there once were; most of the monasteries have been broken up, and
their wealth taken for the use of the State.

An English traveller took a seat, day by day, by the side of a fountain that
stood just outside a city, and talked to the people as they came to draw water.
He spoke to them about the Bible, and found that very few had ever heard of such
a book—hardly one could give an account of its contents. ‘The “water of life” is
kept from the people by the craft of men.


Tan Leaneaws:

Continentan Trany, in the south of Europe, is 700 miles in length, with a variable
breadth of 25 to 350 miles. There are also three large islands inhabited by the Italian
race—Sardinia, Sicily, and Corsica, with several smaller ones, as Elba, Malta, and others.
A few years since Italy was divided into several kingdoms and.states, as Sardinia, Naples,
Tuscany, Parma, Modena, Venetia, and the Papal States; but these have been united under
one crown, and form the kingdom of Italy. Population in 1869, 25,944,915. Capital
city, Rome.

busy, and cheerful race, well used to labour, frugal in their food, and
happy in their cottage homes. But during a long course of ages they
have fallen from their high estate; and, especially under the influence
of the Roman Catholic religion, have become a far inferior race to their
forefathers, whether in their physical condition, manners, or virtues.

Goldsmith, in. his beautiful poem, ‘The Traveller,” after giving a
picture of the loveliness of the country, thus speaks of the people :—



“ But small the bliss that sense alone bestows,
And sensual bliss is all the nation knows ;
In florid beauty groves and fields appear ;
Man seems the only growth that dwindles here.
Contrasted faults through all his manners reign ;
Though poor, luxurious; though submissive, vain ;
Though grave, yet trifling; zealous, yet untrue ;
And even in penance, planning sins anew.”

“In no part of Europe is the education of the humbler classes so neglected
as in Italy, taken as a whole. The instruction of the poor is in the hands of
the priests, and nothing can. be worse conducted. It is a wonder to find a
rustic that can read, and a mechanic in a town that can write his own name
is equally rare.” The Italians are said to be “at once the most refined and
the most superstitious in Europe, the most cultivated and the most immoral.
There is abundance of misery in many an Italian city amidst all the gay out-












































































































ui

CENTRAL ITALY—PEASANTS,
THE ITALIANS. 67

side.” Notwithstanding, the land is the delight of travellers for its scenery, and
for the fine ruins of buildings of former ages.
The people are grave and reserved in manners, though they give themselves









hi
In
i

iit
i





SOUTHERN ITALIANS,
up to pleasures the most childish. In complexion they are dark. The dress of

the peasants is yery rough—a sheep-skin jacket, scant trowsers, and cords binding
rags on their legs instead of stockings; or else their legs are wholly bare. Their
68 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

tall hats are generally ornamented with a peacock’s feather. In some parts the

women secure their hair in folds with a large silver bodkin; in other places they

fold linen on the top of the head, with the ends falling over the side or behind.
A class known in some of the cities as Lazzaroni have scarcely any dwell-

ing-houses, but sleep every night under such shelter as they can find. Such

as have wives and families live in the suburbs in any chamber they can scoop

oe















THE MACCARONI-SELLERS,

out of the mountains. They are known for their laziness: and though it is easy
to earn enough money to buy the light food of the country, they are generally
half-starved.

In the city streets, especially those of Naples, there are different kinds of
“small trades”—as the “sea-fruit” seller, or the dealer in mussels and cockles;
THE ITALIANS. 69



the chesnut-merchant; and especially the maccaroni-cook. Under a temporary
awning there igs a moveable stove; and from the broad copper pan at the top
there usually rise volumes of steam, whose sight and savoury scent are irre-
sistible to an Italian. A porty figure stands by, with a white cap on his jet-
black head, a blue waistcoat, and white apron round his waist. In one hand
he holds yards and yards of smoking maccaroni, which folds and falls as softly
as ribbon into a plate below. He is provoking the eager appetite of a laz-
zaroni, whilst his assistant cook is shrieking forth his invitations to a dinner.

VENETIANS.









































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































BIRD’S-EYE VIEW OF VENICE.

One of the most interesting cities of the present Kingdom of Italy is
Venice. It is called “the Queen of the Adriatic,” “the Lady of Lombardy,”
and “the Bride of the Sea.” Its rise and progress are very remarkable. It
stands at the bottom of the Adriatic Sea, where seventy-two marshy islands
are separated by narrow channels. Here in remote times a few fishermen
dwelt. But in the course of ages a people called Veneti emigrated to this out-
of-the-way region, to escape their enemies, the Huns and the Goths. They laid
the foundation of a city on strong piles of wood, which were driven deep into
"Oi PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



the mud. The situation is indeed very singular, as is described by the poet
Rogers :—
“There is a glorious city in the sea:
The sea is in the broad, the narrow streets,
Ebbing and flowing; and the salt sea-weed
Clings to the marble of her palaces.
No track of men, nor footsteps to and fro,
Lead to her gates. The path lies o’er the sea,
Invisible; and from the land we went,
As to a floating city,—steering in,
And gliding up her streets as in a dream,
So smoothly, silently,—by many a dome,
Mosque-like, and many a stately portico,
The statues ranged along in azure sky—
By many a pile in more than eastern splendour,
Of old the residence of merchant kings.”

The city has many fine palaces. Its bridges, too, are much to be noticed.
One of these is called. “The Bridge of Sighs,” as over it prisoners passed from
-the court where they were sentenced to the prison where they were to die.
All the principal houses are built on the sides of the canals. The canals are the
streets of Venice; and the gondolas are its coaches and omnibuses.

The modern Venetians are a lively, temperate people, and kind and obliging
to friends and strangers. The dress of the principal persons in winter is a
black cloth robe, trimmed with fur, and secured round the waist with a girdle.
In summer their attire is much lighter. A woollen cap instead of a hat is
carried, more under the arm than on the head. The noble ladies wear very
little jewellery or finery; and, except in the first year of their marriage, they
appear abroad in black dress.

ROMANS.

Rome was once the capital of the world: its buildings and its works of
art still make it a place of great interest. The present inhabitants are a very
mixed race, and have little claim to be the descendants of the old Romans.
They are pale, spiritless, and sullen. Rarely are they seen to smile, are resent-
ful, and commonly live an idle and purposeless life. On the other hand, they
have some good qualities: they are generally very sober, are fond of their
children, and are obliging to strangers.

Like other Italians, the men wear very wide cloaks, wrapping round the body ;
THE ITALIANS, 71

pieces of cloth tied with cords about the legs, sandals on their feet, and hats having
crowns like a sugar-loaf. The women of the lower classes commonly wear a scarlet
spencer with sleeves, and for a head-dress a piece of white linen, thickened on the
crown by numerous folds, with the end hanging down behind to the shoulders.
A common vice at Rome is want of
cleanliness. It is the vice of all classes.
The monks have'a disgusting appearance,
and some of the most interesting objects
can scarcely be approached from the ac-
cumulation of filth. A recent visitor
states:—‘“The streets, public places,
houses, and the persons of the bulk of
the population would all be improved by
scrubbing, washing, and combing.”
“There is a drawback,” says Lord
Dudley, “ upon the splendid and interest-
ing objects in Rome, which I own dimi-
nishes their effect, in my eyes at least,
to a wonderful degree. It isthe extreme
filth and shabbiness of the wretched
town that surrounds them. In Rome
you search in vain for cleanliness or
neatness. There is not a single wide
street, and but one handsome square.
Poverty and dirt pursue you to the
gates of every monument, ancient and
modern, public or private. You never
saw any place so nasty or so beggarly.” '
Hight days before Lent there begins
a season of amusement known as the
“Carnival.” The chief scene of it is a
promenade called the Corso; every room,
window, and balcony of this street is
rented, and often at a very high price. The amusements commence in the after-
noon. The Corso is crowded with an immense throng on foot, and with two

long trains of carriages. Many persons of each rank wear masks and personate
different characters.

cc
i



MODERN ROMANS,

“The masks seemed to be without design, unless it were to provoke a laugh.
72 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.





I can scarcely convey to you an idea of them. Perhaps the oddity was more in
the air and manner of the masker than in the dress.”*

“A shower of lime” is one great feature of the Roman carnival; for the
universal privilege is then assumed of throwing lime-made imitations of sugar-
plums, which are made for the express purpose, into the face of every person
that is met. ‘Some persons throw away in a single afternoon two or three
bushels. They who occupy the windows and balconies throw them down on those
who pass beneath. They who move along the street assail not only those they
meet on foot or in carriages, but those who. stand at the windows, and are
firing down upon them from above. Just consider all the vast ten thousands
that crowd through the Corso engaged in this work. Every man that wears a
dark-coloured coat looks like a miller. Every lady, with her gay dress, looks
as though she had just come out of a meal-barrel; and every carriage looks
like a lime-cart. The amusements of each of the eight days of the carnival are
only a repetition of the follies of the preceding day.

“Before the close of each day’s sport, a ery is heard, ‘Clear the way!’
and a company of dragoons, mounted upon spirited steeds and fully armed,
are seen riding, as though upon a race, from the head of the Corso down
through this mass of living beings till the centre of the street is cleared. At
the firing of a second gun, five or six spirited horses are let loose to run
through the whole length of the Corso, each without a rider, urged on not. only
by little bells tied about them and a self-acting spur that strikes constantly
against their sides, but by the shouts of the multitude, through the centre of
whom they dash along with the speed of the wind. This is the closing scene
of each day’s amusement during the carnival.”

On the last day, the same diversions are continued, but with greatly increased
intensity, until the same hour.

“The game of the Moccoletti_the word in the singular meaning a little
lamp or candle-snuff—‘the last gay madness of the carnival,’ now takes place:
The sellers of little tapers, resembling what are called Christmas candles in
England, carry on a busy trade. As day declines, these tapers begin flashing
here and there; in the windows, on the housetops, in the balconies, in the car-
riages, in the hands of the foot-passengers, little by: little, more and more, until
the Corso is one great blaze of fire. Then everybody present has but one
object; that is, to extinguish other people’s candles, and keep his own alight;
and everybody, man, woman, or child, gentleman or lady, prince or peasant, native
or foreigner, yells and screams and roars, ‘Without a light! Without a light!

* “Glimpses of the Old World,” bythe Rey. J, As Clark.
THE ITALIANS. 78



until nothing is heard but a chorus of those words, mingled with peals of
laughter. The amusement goes on until the bells ring from the church steeples,
and the carnival is over in an instant—put out, like a taper, with a breath.’*
A very favourite image, especially with the common people, is “ the most holy
Bambino.” The word “bambino” is simply the Italian for “child,” and is applied
to this particular image of the holy Child Jesus, about which they tell very strange
and absurd tales. It is a small doll made of wood, about two feet in length;
not unlike, except in its dress, the dolls made for the amusement of children.
On its head is a royal crown of gold, studded
with rubies, emeralds, and diamonds. From its
neck to its feet it is wrapped in swaddling
clothes. The two little feet are seen projecting
beneath; so that the face, hands, and feet of
the image are alone visible.j The clothes are
covered with jewels—rubies, emeralds, and dia-
monds, worth several thousand pounds-—in fact,
the Bambino is a blaze of splendour.
The Romans believe that the presence of the Ys












Bambino in the chamber of sickness is of the =
greatest benefit. If any person is so very ill that |
recovery would seem doubtful, its presence, they
think, will settle the question; for it is believed
that recovery or death can always be determined

or flushed on its introduction. Such notions of e
course lead the friends of the sick to send for the \7
Bambino. The monks, however, will not permit ae
its presence unless on the payment of a large SS
-sum;-and thus many a family is made poor by
the monéy they give, and the convent enriched
by what it receives.

But, strange as all this may seem, it is not near so strange as the sight
of the Bambino when going to visit its patients. It is a common saying
among the people of Rome, that “the little doctor” receives more and better fees
from the sick than all the medical men put together. It is certain, at least

* “Rome: its Edifices and its People.”

t The engraving is copied from a picture entitled, “The True Effigy of the Miraculous Bambino
of Ara Cceli, dedicated to the piety and veneration of the devout of the said church.” The pictme
was bought in Rome by an English lady. +

E
74 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.





that it is brought to visit its patients in grander style; for a state coach is
kept for it—a coach quite as fine as that of a cardinal or the pope. In this
coach the Bambino is placed, accompanied by some priests in full dress: and
onward they move, stately and slow, as a rapid movement is thought incon-
sistent with the dignity of the image; and then, as it passes, every head is
uncovered, and every knee is bent, in the streets through which it passes. And
this is the religion of Rome! Oh, when will the people give up their vain
delusions, and believe in the free salvation declared unto them in the Epistle
to the Romans?









































































































ROME.—SHOWING THE ARCH OF TITUS, THE RUINS OF THE COLOSSEUM, ETC.
tee DAWES:

Deymark, the mark or country of the Dances, is now one of the minor kingdoms
of Europe in regard to population, which is about 1,800,000. The land is flat; it has
no large rivers, only a few narrow streams ; but there are many arms of the sea, which
are called fiords. Chief city, Copenhagen.

aes ago the Danes were little better than a race of pirates. They
sailed forth from their bays, and carried fire and sword to the peaceful
shores of other countries. They were the terror of the English, and
we have in history the record of many a sharp battle between the two
peoples, more particularly in the days of king Alfred. One portion
of the Danish population is still known as Angles, and are believed to
be the descendants of an ancient German race, from whom the name

Angle-land, or England, is derived. (See p. 10.)

In person, the Danes have regular features, with yellowish hair, and are
strong, tall, and stout. Their dress is similar to the Germans. Oat cakes and
rye-bread, with fish and cheese, form their chief food. Education is common
even among the poorest; there are very few indeed who cannot read and write.
Parents are bound to send their children to school, and if they are unable to
pay the fees, the education is given at the public expense. The Danes are a
Protestant people.

The chief city is Copenhagen. “I had imagined to find it,” says a traveller,
“a dull, gloomy kind of place, with low wooden houses, few shops, and no fine
buildings, but it was quite otherwise. There are fine houses and splendid shops,
filled with choicest goods. In the best streets there are generally two shops in
each house; the one is entered by descending a few steps beneath the pavement,
the other by ascending an equal number of steps: so that often along a street
there is a double tier of shops, the upper always the best, the lower generally
bakers, grocers, crockery shops, or eating-houses. In the latter, I noticed deep
plates full of thick sour cream, piled one upon another in the windows: this is
a national dish in Denmark, and is taken before dinner as soup. There is a great
deal of bustle in this and the other chief thoroughfares—so many people moving
FQ




77a



































hy baa

=

hy p al
vil

rt a i
a ik A

im
i THT



UIST

ia
Li |






































THE DANES. © 77

about that it is difficult to get along, and we were reminded of the streets of
London and Paris.

“Copenhagen, in proportion to its size, is one of the most thickly populated
cities in Europe; it contains about 140,000 inhabitants. After a visit to the post-
office, we came to the fruit, vegetable, and fish market, and the most picturesque
spot in the city. It is crowded, especially on market days, with women in all
sorts of quaint and varied costumes, and with carts full of fruit and flowers.
This city is rich in collections of arts and curiosities. The collection in the
Palace of Rosenberg is by far the most precious of all; indeed, it is one of
the most wealthy in Europe. It is marvellously rich in jewels, plate, and all
kinds of costly objects. Goblets, drinking-horns, precious caskets were displayed in
rapid succession to our gaze, of which king Christian’s silver horn, a wonderful
piece of workmanship, was the most remarkable; also porcelain of all ages, and from
all countries, in rich profusion of design. The glass is unrivalled, and is of the
finest workmanship. Next comes a room full of royal robes, uniforms, and orders of
Danish sovereigns. The celebrated horse furniture, presented by Christian rv. to
his eldest son on his marriage, in 1644, is a blaze of jewels, on the richest velvet ;
it cost forty thousand pounds. The largest and finest apartment in the castle
is a long room hung with tapestry, representing the warlike deeds of Christian v.
At one end stands a massive silver throne. One room is covered with mirrors—
ceiling, walls, and even floor, except a small space to walk round,”

There are several pleasant walks about the city, especially on the ramparts,
which extend nearly all round the city, and are planted with a double row of
lime-trees, forming shady avenues. Here are twenty-four bastions, on each of
which stands a miller’s house with a windmill on the top of it.

Another agreeable walk, and a great favourite with the people, is that to the ©
Palace of Frederiksberg, a mile or so from the city. We pass through a magnificent
avenue of limes and horse-chesnuts, inclosing a wide road and broad well-kept
paths. This splendid avenue is half a mile long, and on a gentle rise all the
way to the palace; on each side are neat and tasteful villas, inclosed in pretty
gardens; but nearer to Frederiksberg the road is lined with a succession of tea-
gardens (as we should call them), fitted up with merry-go-rounds and almost every
kind of amusement. The extensive park and gardens of Frederiksberg are full
of fine trees, and beautifully laid out in the English style. The palace itself
is situated on an eminence some distance from the entrance to the grounds, From
the terrace before it, the eye ranges over an extensive prospect by land and sea;
the city, with its many towers and windmills, lies beneath, encircled on the land
side by green meadows and waving corn-fields; the shining waters of the “ Sound”
78 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS, ° *

appear dotted with numerous sails, and the horizon is bounded by the long, low

line of the Swedish coast. Taken altogether, a trip to Copenhagen is one of the
most pleasant that can be enjoyed.



















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































PALACE OF FREDERIKSBERG,
Tex Sevepese

Tur country of the Swedes is in the north-western part of Europe, and was
formerly known as a portion of the Scandinavian peninsula. It is united with Norway
under the same crown; and has a population of 4,170,000. Chief city, Stockholm,

HE people of Sweden are divided into four classes: nobility, clergy,
burghers or citizens, and peasants. The first are amongst the oldest of
their class in Europe.

In general, the homes of the Swedes are not very comfortable, and
black bread and salt fish are the common food of the people. In remote
parts of the land they are often forced to grind the bark of trees, which,
mixed with a small portion of rye, is made into cakes.

All classes can read and write. A bookseller’s shop is in every small town, and
the long hours of a winter’s evening are often devoted by the people to books.

There is not much change of fashion among Swedes. Some of their dresses
are very peculiar, and are the same in style as those their great-grandfathers wore.
One thing looks very odd to a stranger: at a wedding the bride and bridegroom
are commonly dressed in black.

A description of one town may apply to nearly all the rest. ‘When I went
out of the hotel on a sunshiny morning,” says Miss Bunbury,* “I went about
and about, and said ‘Where is Upsala? and my companion said, ‘You are in it;’
and I answered, ‘No, Iam in a clean, modern, good-looking town, of new wooden
houses, painted or coloured in all colours, chiefly red; the streets are wide, very
wide indeed; and the whole thing looks as if it had sprung up in a night by the
work of a few carpenters’ hands.’ There is an old orange-coloured castle, partly
in ruins, up there on a great elevation, from whence you see interminably around,
over one vast plain, almost unbroken by a tree, the wildest, barest, most uninteresting
scene I ever beheld. There is an immense brick cathedral, deformed by Swedish
taste in renovation, standing in an open space. There are multitudes of men, young
and middle-aged, walking everywhere about with cigars or pipes in their mouths,
and hideous boys’ caps, of white jean, on their heads, and no other academic



* “Life in Sweden and Norway.”


















































































































——





LLL
LLL














































































































































































THE SWEDES. 81





dress. Whenever they get together in groups, or set out on their favourite
annual tours, they sing a great deal, make much noise, and generally act rather
rudely. These are the students.”

The established religion of the land is Lutheran ; but it is said by those who
have visited the country that spiritual Christianity has but little hold on the
people. * There has been, however, a revival of true godliness of late years.

As in other northern countries, out-door exercises, especially sledging in winter,
are common among all classes. “In Stockholm innumerable sledges quietly glide
over the snow, and there is heard a constant tinkling of bells on the horses’ harness,
warning the foot-passengers to get out of the way. Butcher boys, instead of carrying
their load in the usual manner, skim over the streets with it on a sledge: pushing it
forward, they mount on the pole behind, and ride as long as the impetus lasts, and
then descend and repeat the motion. Women draw sledges to market; and children
on small sledges are seen enjoying their sport. All kinds of that vehicle are to be
met with, from the beautiful royal one, with its splendid leopard skins, the rudest
sledge engaged in industry and our




































































































Tan Nexuerceans:

Norway, or “the kingdom of gulfs,” as it has been called, in the north of Europe,
was formerly undcr the power of the Danish crown; it is now joined to the kingdom
of Sweden. In the broadest part it is about three hundred miles across, Population,
1,700,000. Capital, Christiania.

iu Norwegians in personal appearance are tall and strong, and in dis-
position are cheerful, honest, kind-hearted, and hospitable. In reference
to the latter quality, it may be stated that a traveller found painted
over the door of one of their country houses, Velkommen, or “ Welcome.”
The family received him, although a stranger, with great kindness and
civility, and well provided for all his wants. They are also very polite
in their manners to each other, and to visitors, and will firmly shake
the hand for the smallest benefit received, even for the payment of what is their
due. The constant use of ardent spirits, however, to which the inhabitants of cold
climates are very prone, renders drunkenness a common vice among the lower classes.

Fishing is the chief employment of many of the people, and fish their
principal food. The riches of the deep make up for the poverty of the soil. The
shortness of the summer for agricultural labour, and the ruggedness of the land,
are against their relying on the produce of their fields.

Peasant life is one of great hardship. The necks and breasts of the villagers
are often exposed to the storm, and only on special occasions will they wear any wrap
around the throat. With snow-shoes and long skates they drive over wild regions
where ice and snow cover the ground nine months in the year; or they climb
steep rocks in search of birds and their eggs, or push out to sea in bold, hazardous
fishing excursions, cheered at times in their night adventures by the light of the
aurora borealis, or startled by meteoric showers.

In all the large towns there are public schools. “ Drawing schools,” as they
are called, are also maintained, chiefly at the public cost, in which artigans and
others may study modelling, drawing, and other useful branches of knowledge.*

The schoolmaster is a person of great importance in country towns and
villages, It chiefly devolves on him to catechise the young after Divine service



* Laing’s “ Residence in Norway.”
THE NORWEGIANS. 83

on Sundays. Our engraving, showing such a scene, is from a painting by a
Norwegian artist, which was exhibited at the Great Exhibition in London, and
which excited much attention. The people are very fond of music, which is
commonly taught in the country by the parish organist. Their long winter

il!

|

|















































































































CATECHISING IN CHURCH ON SUNDAY,

evenings are enlivened with part singing, and as they have generally sweet and
agreeable voices, which they cultivate with much care, the time is made to pass
away very pleasantly,
84 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



Their style of dress varies in different districts. The women are often seen
in leather jackets, and the men ina grey suit with large buttons, a red cap, and
large heavy boots. A bride’s wedding suit is sometimes peculiar. She commonly
wears a crown made of gilt metal, adorned with precious stones, or imitations of
them, a silver chain round the neck, and large silver brooches and bracelets,
silyer rings round the waist, and silver buckles in the shoes, with red gloves and
red stockings! Such certainly was the dress of a farmer’s daughter on her wedding-
day, as seen by a traveller.

The coldness of the climate in winter compels the peasants to resort to strange
devices to protect themselves from its severity. In the day-time bears’ and wolves’
skins are closely drawn around. At night they lie in a sort of crib, or box,
and cover themselves with down plucked from the bodies of eider-ducks.

Lutheranism is the established religion of Norway; but, as with the
Swedes, the mass of the people are not much under the influence of the spirit. of
true godliness. There is, however, “a little flock,” and an increasing one, who
are constrained in love and faith to “give themselves unto Him who loved them,
and who gave Himself for them.”









































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Te :
Se
TTT



Seat
—_

METEORIC SHOWER, AS SEEN IN NORWAY.
LEE RUSSEANS?

Tue empire of Russia spreads in one direction more than 5,000 miles, and consists
of one-seventh of the land of the whole earth. A great part is in Europe, but it extends
into Asia. ‘The people are various, as Tartars, Kalmucks, Finns, Lapps, Cossacks, and
-luscovites, or the true Russians. The entire population is nearly 78,400,000. Chief
cities, St. Petersburg and Moscow.



2) HE sovereign of this vast empire is called the Czar. He is also known
*. as the Emperor of all the Russias ; and the Autocrat, which means “ sole
ruler.”

Let us walk into a Russian small town or village, and look at the
people. We find the men to be stout, strong, and mostly rather tall;
their hair is dark brown or red; they wear thick, bushy beards, and
their faces look grave and yet good-natured. The common people seem
nearly all dressed alike. The men wear a tunic-coat or jacket, fastened about the
waist with a belt, and wide trousers, with the bottoms stuffed into long boots.
A fur cap, without a brim, is on the head, and sometimes wrappers, made of wool,
are about the legs instead of stockings. They need to dress themselves warmly,
as a large portion of the country is-ice-bound for nine months of the year. The
ice on some of the rivers is often three feet and a-half thick, and waggons, heavily
laden, can pass over it with perfect safety.

The women do not in winter go much out of doors, and are, therefore, not so
warmly clad ; in summer their dresses are neat and pretty. The dress of young females
is generally a crimson skirt, a long white apron, bordered with ribbon, and fastened
by a gaily-tasselled cord. In winter they put on a pelisse, which they strangely
call a “soul-warmer.” They are fond of necklaces and head ornaments. Our
picture of a village family is taken from a native Russian print.

The style of the wooden houses in the villages is also to be seen in the engraving.
They are built of rough logs of timber, and their ends are brought out to view.
The inside is not much better finished, the spaces between the logs being filled
with moss or flax, which hangs down in tatters; a great stove, made chiefly of
tiles, stands in the middle of the principal room. Wooden benches are fixed around,

.



























THE RUSSIANS. 8%

which serve as seats, and as couches to rest on at night. On a shelf is a lamp,
which is lighted on holidays, but in houses of rank is always kept burning. Much
cannot be said of the cleanliness or comfort of the house, as dogs, cats, fowls,
and pigeons mingle with the children of the family, and often share the same
sheepskins as a bed to le on.

The Russians are a civil people, and are taught from their early years to behave
with great respect to their superiors, and to regard the emperor as their “great
father.” We cannot speak favourably of their learning and book knowledge, as
they are generally very ignorant, and in some parts of the empire are only half-
civilized.

They have many amusements, and among the common people they are those
which require strength and activity; riding in a sledge is a favourite pastime.
This sledge is often little better than a rough wooden box, without springs, and
filled with hay, to save the rider’s bones from being bruised or hurt. But in the
cities this vehicle is made into many fanciful shapes, as swans or serpents, and is
lined with crimson cloth, and covered with the most costly furs. A fine black
horse, with harness studded with silver, dashes along with the sledge, urged forward
by the constant cry of the driver, “ Faster, faster,’ while the whip is knocked loudly
_ against the foot-board, and seldom laid on the horse’s back. Even the emperor
himself is seen at times driving one of these sledges.

The Russian sledge-driver treats his horse with great kindness, and, gently
embracing it, says: “Now, my pretty pigeon, make use of thy legs.” “Steady,
my sweetheart; take care of that stone.” ‘Come, my little father, what art thou
turning thy head for?” “There, my white pigeon, that is the pace.”

Another amusement is to pile up an artificial hill of ice and snow to a great
height, or build up brick walls, covered with ice and snow, then slide down this
height in a sledge, and with such force as to urge it up an opposite incline.
This sport, known as the “flying mountain,” requires great care, or the heedless
driver will find himself overturned.

Let us now look into a town-bazaar or market. Here are sold all manner
of things; rows of stalls are covered with dresses for men and women, boots and
caps, saddles, silver ware, pictures, furs, rugs, and all kinds of food. This last
is generally sold in a particular quarter of the bazaar. Here a crowd of Russians
may be eating fish, cooked in a special way. No sooner does the dealer catch
the eye of a passer-by, than he plunges one of the slices of fish into a pot of
green oil, sprinkles it from a large salt-stand, and offers it hot and dripping, and
with a polite bow, to his intended ctistomer, The Muscovite can seldom resist the
tempting morsel, and; thrusting his hand into his pocket for a few kopecks (or
88 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



copper coins), buys the well-oiled fish ; then, seating himself on a bench, he devours
the greasy lump, and then another, and another, until his beard shines with the
droppings of the savoury sauce.

Other supplies of food, for the poorer classes, consist of black rye-bread,
cabbages, soup, onions, cucumbers, and sour fruit.











KUSSIAN PEASANTS’ HOME.

As we pass through many of the villages we shall see that they are inhabited by
particular classes. One village consists almost entirely of hatters and cap-makers ; in
another they are all tailors; another, workers of metals; another, makers of tables
and chairs. In one village thread is spun, and in a second it is woven; whilst
in some, farmers and their men take up their abode.
THE RUSSIANS. 89

Russians belong to what is called the Greek Church. In the great cities the
religious services are conducted with much splendour, but in small towns and
villages with great neglect and want of seriousness. Praying to saints and to the
Virgin Mary, fasts, the worship of relics, and other vain superstitions, take the
place, we fear, of that faith in Christ which sanctifies the heart, and regulates
the life according to the will of God.

On the eve of Easter Sunday the streets of the great city of Moscow are
silent, till on a sudden, as the clock strikes twelve at night, the thunder of cannon
and the bells of 250 churches, give a signal; then the streets and church towers
are gaily illuminated, and the people rush one towards another with the cry,
“Christ is risen!” But, sad to tell, multitudes afterwards give themselves up to
revelry. It seems as though their consciences were quite at ease, having just
attended to the rules of their church to fast and keep Lent. There are, however,
faithful men in some parts of the land, who are seeking to lead the people to the
knowledge of a purer faith. May the number be increased of those who are looking
to Jesus as their Saviour, and are learning of him the way of life!







eninge
i ST

QU



MOSCOW.

G
Lex Lowe ars ans,

Huneary, known to the old Romans as Dacia, now forms a part of the Austrian
empire. The boundaries of the kingdom are unsettled, but they are gencrally stated as
about 250 miles from north to south, and 500 from east to west. Population, 14,500,000.
Joint capital, Buda and Pesth.



“ip a

HE people -of this land are of a mixed race. There are Hungarians
proper, or Magyars (who originally came from Central Asia), Sclavonians,
Wallachians, Croats, Servians, and several other distinct tribes. Sixty
thousand gipsies wander about the country, who are often little more
than brigands and robbers.

There is a great contrast in the condition of the natives of Hungary.
Wealth and luxury appear close by the side of the most miserable
poverty. There are scarcely any of middle-class rank, except in some of the cities.

The nobles live in great state, and pass their time in hunting and feasting. One of

high rank is reported to be the owner of thirty-four castles, some of which are

of great strength and magnificence. Families of this class are very hospitable
and fond of display.

But the state of the poor is wretched in the extreme; they are slaves to
the nobility. A broad hat, with coarse jacket and trousers, and a dirty woollen
cloak, form the dress of the peasants, which are worn all days alike, in summer
and winter—when engaged as swineherds or when attending church on the
Sunday. The only change is on feast-days, when flowers and peacock feathers
adorn the hat and dress. Their dwellings of mud are comfortless hovels. The
children of the family, unwashed, and almost undressed, play from morning to
night among the pigs and goats, which stroll about the doorway.

A Hungarian writer says :—‘I confess that it grieves my heart to see nine-
tenths of the people of my beloved country in a condition in which poverty and
contempt reduce the great mass to crawl in the dust; so that they are unable
to raise themselves from their moral and mental degradation to a better state,
worthy the dignity of human nature.”

Buda and Pesth, which form the capital, are built on the opposite banks
THE HUNGARIANS. 91

of the Danube, a noble river, which flows through the land. The first city
stands on vine-clad hills. It is an ancient place, and possesses a fine castle on
the heights, in which the kings of Hungary formerly lived. It is connected























































































































































































































































































BUDA AND PESTH.

with its modern companion, Pesth, by a bridge built on boats. This latter

place is the commercial town.
Hungary was one of the first countries in Europe to welcome the Reforma-
G2
92 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

tion. The Christian religion had been originally introduced into the land towards
the end of the tenth century; but it became debased by the corruptions of Popery.
Yet God did not leave himself without witness, for there appeared from time to
time those who loved the simple gospel, and who made it known to their countrymen
in deep-wooded valleys and mountain recesses. Soon times of persecution arose.
All who refused to receive the Romish superstitions were banished or cast into
dungeons. On one occasion three hundred ministers were sent to the galleys,
and made to labour as slaves. All Protestant schools were closed, the circula-
tion of the Holy Bible and books of piety were prohibited, and the fiercest and
most cruel attempts were made to force the people to abandon the reformed faith.
Protestants, however, made a long and brave struggle for the truth. At length
their enemies triumphed, and for several ages the evangelical doctrines were
repressed by the strong arm of state power. But better times have come, and
the government of Austria has been led to grant more liberty, so that now there
are openings for the gospel again to be spread over the land. The Christian press
is at work, and books and tracts, in the several dialects of the people, are being
translated and freely circulated. Colporteurs, or book-hawkers, carry them to
every place, and an earnest spirit of inquiry is awakened among all classes.


























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Lae Powxse

Potanp, in North-eastern Europe, was for ages a flourishing kingdom; but after long
and severe struggles it was subdued and spoiled by the power of Russia, Austria, and
Prussia. It is now divided among the conquerors, the first possessing the largest share.
In days of prosperity it had a population of 11,000,000, but which is now reduced to about
5,000,000. Its ancient capital was Warsaw.



=e un Poles were formerly noted for their courage and independence, but are
\, now held by their masters in a state of great subjection. In personal
‘ appearance those of rank are tall and of noble bearing. Their counte-
: ve nances are open and generous; and in manners they are polite and lively.
“Je But the poorer classes are generally short in stature, and rude and slovenly
BO in their habits. A scanty supply of food, and the hard service which they

render to their taskmasters, tend to make them a debased and impo-
verished race.

In regard to dress, the English and French style now commonly prevails ;
though there are many who still adhere to the old national fashion—a bright-
coloured and braided waistcoat with sleeves, an upper robe, or cloak, a sash fastened
round the body, leggings of yellow leather, and a fur cap, while a sword hangs at
the side, as a mark of noble birth. The ladies, who are usually fair and graceful in
manner, wear a Polonaise, or pelisse edged with fur.

The working classes seldom use shoes, their clothes are scant and coarse, and
their ragged children run after the carriages of travellers with a piteous cry of
Kleba, kleba, or “ Bread, bread.” On Sunday the female peasantry adorn themselves
in a tawdry patchwork of glowing colours.

There are many Jews in Poland, who are usually the innkeepers of the country,
and wretched and dirty ones they are indeed.

The Poles belong partly to the Romish and partly to the Greek church. Some
efforts are being made to make known to them a purer faith, among which is the
printing of religious tracts in their own tongue.

Farmers are the most thriving class of the common people of the land.


94 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

With them harvest-home, as among other people, is a time of great festivity.
Our engraving, from a Polish print, represents a scene sometimes witnessed on
such occasions.

































































HARVEST-HOME IN POLAND.
LEER LARPS?



Lapiann, the most northerly country of Europe, is about 330 miles in length, and
700 in breadth. It does not possess any towns; the people live in small villages. The
number of the population is unknown.

: 2 un Lapps are among the shortest of the human race. Men rarely exceed
NN? four feet, and are reckoned tall if they reach to five feet. They are
copper-coloured ; their hair is lank and long; and their eyes narrow and
dark.

In their long winter season they clothe themselves in deer and
bearskins, with the hair turned inside, and with collars of fur. A cap
of fur is worn on the head; the hands are wrapped in mittens stuffed
with straw. The feet are bandaged, and on journeys are fastened to very long skates.
In front hang a tobacco-pouch, a large knife, and other articles. For his entire
dress—shoes, coat, trousers, cap, and eloves—he is indebted to the reindeer, that
animal which is the companion of his travels. In the short summer that enlivens
his country, he changes this dress for one made of a kind of cloth. When spoken
to by a stranger he turns his head askance, and whilst he fills a short tobacco-pipe
he looks over the shoulder, slyly peeping, as it were, instead of looking directly at
the face of the person who speaks to him.

There is not much difference in the dress of the women. It is, perhaps, more
ornamented; and, in front, her scissors, pincushion, and other useful articles are
suspended. A mother carries her child in a sort of pouch, lined with wool or moss,
by a strap fastened over the shoulder. Others are carried in a peculiar manner, as
described by Professor Forbes* :—“I saw a young mother,” he says, “ who brought
her infant of four months old out of one of the huts, and seating herself on the
sunny side of it, proceeded to pack up the child for the night in its little wooden
cradle, whilst half-a-dozen of us looked at her all the time. The cradle was cut out
of the solid wood, and covered with leather, flaps of which were so arranged as to
lace across the top with leathern thongs ; the inside and the little pillow were made

* “Tecland: its Volcanoes, Geysers, and Glaciers.”


96 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

soft with reindeer moss, and the infant fitted the space so exactly that it could stir
neither hand nor foot. A hood protected the head, whilst it admitted air freely.
When the packing was finished, the little creature was speedily rocked to sleep.
Children who are rather older are carried as in our print.

The huts of the Lapps are small, and inside are not unlike a baker’s oven in
shape. They are entered by two long passages, through which it is necessary to
crawl to gain admission. These openings are of different widths; through the
smallest the men go forth; but a wife dare not attempt this entry, lest she should
meet with her husband, or any other man, who is about to go forth to hunt, as it
would be deemed a bad sign, and cause him to fail of success.

Professor Forbes gives an agreeable account of his interview with this people.
Starting with some fellow-travellers from a little town, and forcing their way through
a low kind of wood, he says:—‘ We crossed a stream, and the Lapp camp was
before us on a dry and pleasant grassy space, about two and a half English miles
from the sea, Some piles of sticks and mounds, which seemed like no human
habitation, first took our attention. The piles of sticks (as we found) formed a sort
of skeleton shed, which can be incloged in bad weather by a kind of rude covering.
They contain barrels, clothes, and many strange utensils and stores, which, in fine
weather, are exposed, suspended from the bare poles. Two low, round mounds of
turf, overlaid with sticks and branches in a most disorderly fashion, composed the
habitations of a multitude of men, women, and children, who seemed at first sight
to be countless, Their appearance—uncouth, squalid, and small in the extreme—
was, I thought, decidedly unpleasant. But an attentive survey brought out some
more favourable features. The countenance was altogether unlike any I had seen,
but by no means without intelligence, and even a certain sweetness of expression.
Notwithstanding that our party was tolerably numerous, they showed no signs
either of distrust or of shyness; and whilst some of them entered into conversation
with one of the gentlemen who knew a little of their speech, and others went,
attended by several small active dogs, to bring some reindeer from the heights, for
inspection, the greater part remained quietly in their huts, as we had found them,
quite regardless of our presence. On inquiring into their occupation, we were
surprised to find them possessed of some well-printed and well-cared-for books,
particularly a quarto Bible, in the Finnish language. We found some of them also
engaged in writing. This was a matter of surprise, when we had been led to expect
something near to barbarism ; and we soon had a proof that their claims to religious
impressions were not slight; for they quite refused to taste the spirits which were
freely offered to them, though it is well known that excessive and besotting drunken-
ness used to be the great sin of the Lappish tribes, and still is of those who have























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































98 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

Swedish missionaries who have toiled amongst them. The Lapp hut, inside, is
formed of wood, by means of curved ribs, which unite near the centre in a ring,
which is open, and allows free escape for the smoke, the fire being lighted in the
centre of the floor. The outside is covered with turf. The door is of wood on one
side. The inmates recline on skins on the floor, with their feet towards the fire,
and behind them, on a row of stones near the wall of the hut, are their various
utensils. Their clothing—chiefly of tanned skins and woollen stuffs—looked very
dirty. The whole wealth of the Lapps consists of reindeer. The two families who
frequent this valley possessed about seven hundred reindeer. A few of them were
driven, for our inspection, into a circular enclosure of wooden palings, where they
are habitually milked. One of the men cleverly caught them by the horns with a
lasso, or loose rope. The deer are small, but some of them carry immense branching
horns, the weight of which they seem almost unable to support. They make a low
grunting noise, almost like a pig; the milk is small in quantity, and very rich.”

The affection of the Lapps for the reindeer is very strong. A Russian
gentleman, travelling in Lapland, took back with him to St. Petersburg a young
Lapp girl to be educated, She was lively and intelligent, quick at learning, and
soon acquired many of the habits and accomplishments of civilised life. After
about two years, some of her countrymen came to St. Petersburg, having charge of
a herd of reindeer. She was taken to see them, and was much affected at the sight.
The next morning she was missing, and was never seen in the city more. The
familiar reindeer had brought back the remembrance of her country; it was too
strong for her adopted habits, and she found means to get back to the home and the
wild free life, which, with all their hardships, she loved the best.


Tau LERRANDERS?

Tcrnanp is a large island in the north of Europe, lying between Norway and Greenland.
It is 280 miles broad, and 190 long, from north to south. It was discovered in the year
860 by a Norwegian pirate, who was driven by a tempest on its coast. It belongs to the
crown of Denmark. Population, only 60,000. q

HERE are no large trees in Iceland; a few low bushes and stunted pines
alone adorn the ground. Corn will not ripen in its short summer, nor on
its sterile soil. It is a land
of yast snow plains and
icebergs. In the latter,
ships often get frozen up
for the long winter of
these regions. The people live chiefly
on butter, milk, fish, and porridge
made of Iceland moss, with a little
fresh meat occasionally, but the latter
and rye bread are considered holiday
fare. Yet they are very happy and
contented; and they will tell you that
“Teeland is the best country that the
sun shines on.”

One day a traveller was ram-
bling among the rocks, admiring the
wild scenery before him, when he
heard some children singing. He
turned and saw a little party with
baskets on their arms. They were
gathering the moss which grows
among the rocks and hardened lava.
These sentiments were the burden of
their song :—


‘100 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

“Over slippery rocks we climb,
Or through lonely valleys go;
These have beds of flowery thyme,
Those of chill and frozen snow;
Both alike with joy we tread,
While bright the sky is overhead.

“No lonely birds need guard their nest,
When our hasty step they hear ;
Be still the rabbit’s panting breast,
For search like ours ye need not fear;
The mossy rock can well supply,
The guiltless feast we fain would try.

“Steep the rock and straight the path ;
Sure the death that waits below ;
Yet we climb with cheerful step,
For the power of God we know;
Naught can harm a single hair
While He keeps us in His care.”

Those who dwell on the coast are employed in fishing, while the country
people in summer guide their flocks and range over the hills in search of moss,
repair the little huts, get in turf for fuel, pull the wool from the sheep, dry
meat and fish for winter food, gather down from the nests of the eider-ducks, and
prepare articles for export to Denmark.

Mount Hecla, in Iceland, is celebrated on account of its frequent eruptions; but
another mount, Skaptar Jokul, is more fearful and destructive. In 1783, three
fire-spouts broke out on this mountain, which rose a considerable height,
and sent forth a torrent of red-hot lava, which flowed for six weeks, and dried up
rivers, destroyed valleys, villages, cattle, and more than 200 people. This
terrible eruption was followed by a famine and pestilence which lasted for
two years.

Well may the Icelander pray to an Almighty Protector! Though the
ice mountains lift their glittering points one above another, he knows that
beneath many of them secret fires are burning, and that they may some day
pour forth fiery lava and destroy the fields and villages and bury him beneath.
But he has the Bible, which teaches him that the winds are God’s mes-
sengers, and the flames of fire his servants, and that it is well with those, living
or dying, who trust in the Lord.
Lae GREEKS»

GreEEcE consists of two distinct portions, the mainland and the islands. Continental
Greece is about 180 miles long, and 160 broad, The islands are numerous. ‘The entire
population is 1,848,500. Chief city, Athens.




oe Pin people of Greece have been known to history for more than two

thousand years; and the memory of their orators, poets, and lawgivers
will be cherished as long as the world remains. But the country, once
most powerful under Alexander the Great and his successors, is now
reduced in strength, wealth, and influence to one of the least among the
countries of Europe. Its rise and decline form a most important chapter
in the history of the world.

In person the Greek is well-formed, and is of fine, upright bearing. He is
active, and of graceful manners. In the towns he dresses very much like the English ;
but in the country parts his national holiday dress generally consists of a bright-
coloured velvet or silk jacket, tastefully braided; a white kilt or apron hangs from
his waist; leggings match the tint of the jacket; a sash or leather belt hangs loosely
down, in which are two or three pistols and a knife; a broad white collar is neatly
turned down on his neck; and over all is a richly-braided cloak. A red cap with
blue tassel adorns his head; while his flowing hair falls gracefully over his shoulders.
Generally male Greeks wear a moustache or tufts of hair on their upper lip.

The women have black eyes, and their dark eyebrows are made, if possible, still
darker by the rubbing in of lead ore. When young they are of handsome counte-
nance; but their beauty declines so rapidly, that at about twenty-five years of age
they look old, and become very plain. Greek females are no better than servants
in a household, and wives do not take their place as the equals of their husbands.
They engage in weaving nearly all the day long; and in the evening, like their
mothers in olden times, they go forth with their pitchers to the well.

In families of humble position, the cap of a young girl is adorned with gold
and silver coins, which are to form the principal part of her marriage portion ;
and it is her effort to increase her value by adding to it all the money that she can
obtain by gift or by labour. This appears to us a strange custom, but, no doubt,
many of our customs seem equally odd to the women of Greece.


















































































































Z







ye



































io





































































Cn

J
y

i)








THE GREEKS. 5 103

Greek ants recelve little or no etalon but that of ove is now carefully
attended to, as it was in former times. One of their early poets has given us
a description of the school as it was even before his time:—

“Now will I sketch the ancient plan of training,
When justice was in vogue, and wisdom flourish’d.
First, modesty restrained the youthful voice,

So that no brawl was heard. In order ranged,
The boys from all the neighbourhood appeared,
Marching to school, ill-cloth’d, though down the sky
Tumbled the flaky snow, like flour from sieve.
Arrived, and seated wide apart, the master
First taught them how to chant Athena’s praise,
‘Pallas unconquered, ‘Stormer of cities,’ or
‘Shout far resounding, in the self-same notes
Their fathers learned. And if through mere conceit
Some innovation-hunter strained his throat,

Quickly the scourge
Bynet on his shoulders blows like hail, as one
Plotting the Muses’ downfall. In the Palestra
Custom required them decently to sit,
Decently to rise, smoothing the sanded floor,
Lest any traces of their forms should linger

" Unsightly .on the dust. When in the bath,

Grave was their manner; their behaviour chaste
At table, too: no stimulating dishes,

Snatched from their elders, such as fish or anise,
Parsley, or radishes, or thrushes.”

The houses of the poorer classes are of rough stones, or of a mixture of straw
and mud. The inside is generally only one room, with raised benches at the side
for sleeping berths; and they contain few articles of furniture. There are few glass
windows, but in a warm and dry country this want is of no great consequence, as
the people can sleep out of doors for more than six months in the year. In every
Greek house there is a picture of a saint, or martyr, on the wall, with a small lamp
burning before it; and in front of this the family say their daily prayers.

A crust of bread, a cup of cold water, and a few olives, are all their repast on
a fast-day; and as there are two or three fast-days in a week, the expense of living
is very small. Even the higher ranks, in general, have animal food only once
104 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

a week. Greeks are a sober people, and the vice of drunkenness is hardly known
among them. They are very quick and clever; and a lad will learn a difficult
trade in a few months. It is not uncommon for a young man to acquire five or
six languages with great ease.

It is very unsafe travelling in Greece, especially in the mountains, as there
are many brigands, or robbers, who lie in ambush in the roads.

These people are the adherents of
what is known as the Greek church.
They reject the authority of the Pope
of Rome, abhor the worship of images,
though the walls of their churches are
covered with pictures of saints. They
are a very superstitious race, and re-
sort, as did their forefathers, to sacred
groves and wells for purposes of de-
votion. But the Bible is permitted to
be freely circulated, and a love of
knowledge is displayed by the young.
Many good Christian books have been
translated into Greek; and the Reli-
' gious Tract Society has aided in giving
the children, in their own tongue, such
works as Watts’s “ Divine Songs,” and
“Hymns for Infant Minds,” whilst
their elders have received “ Baxter’s
Saints’ Everlasting Rest,” and the
“ Pilgrim’s Progress.”

In many parts the country is
covered with the ruins of once~popu-
lous cities and famous temples. The
traveller as he passes through places
now fallen into decay, as Corinth and other cities celebrated in sacred history,
is painfully reminded of the times when Greece was in the height of its glory,
and when the apostles of Christ preached in its streets.

But of all places in Greece the city of Athens specially claims our notice. It
was in ancient times renowned for its splendid temples, and for the numerous gods
that were there worshipped. When St. Paul visited the city he beheld it full of
idols, and “his spirit was stirred within him.” In passing along the public way,























































































































ATHENS.—MAR’S HILL AND THE ACROPOLIS.
THE GREEKS. 105

he saw an altar inscribed, “To tax Unknown Gop”—a sad acknowledgment of the
ignorance of the people. The only true God was the only God to them unknown.
Moved by a sight of their folly and sin, he preached to them daily in the synagogues
and market-places. But certain of the philosophers said, ‘“ What will this babbler
say >” and others, “He seemeth to be a setter forth of strange gods.” They then
led him to the top of Mars’ Hill, where the whole city was spread out to his view.
And there he preached to them “ Jesus and the resurrection,” and of the day when
God will by Jesus Christ “judge the world in righteousness.” | When the wise
men heard of the “yresurrection of the dead, some mocked: others said, We will
hear thee again of this matter. Howbeit certain men and women clave unto
him, and believed.” And so it is now: while many reject the gospel, there are
some who receive its truths into their hearts, and find eternal life.



&



ATHENS. —THE PARTHENON, AS IT WAS.
Tae XKORRS>

Tur Turkish empire is also known as the Ottoman empire, from its founder Othman,
or Ottoman, who flourished between the years 1289 and 1326. The people claim to be
descended from a man named Turk, who, they assert, was grandson of Japhet; but this is
a mere legend. The sovereign is sometimes styled Grand Seignor, but more commonly Sultan.
The empire is partly in Europe and partly in Asia. It contains a population of about
38,000,000, independently of about 9,000,000 belonging to dependent African states. Chief
city, Constantinople.

=) uz true Turk is of middling stature. He is not a man of many words;
‘ gaunters with slow and dignified step; and delights on sunny days to
recline out of doors in the shade, where he smokes his pipe and sips
his coffee.

“The Ottomans,” says Sir Charles Fellows,* who travelled among
them, “are given to hospitality. It was offered to me by all ranks—
from the pasha in his palace to the peasant in his mountain tent, and
as a thing of course, without a thought of any return being made. No question
was asked; distinction of nation or religion, of rich or poor, was not thought of ;
but ‘Feed the stranger’ was the common law. Their honesty next strikes the
traveller. It was my constant habit to leave on the outside of my tent the
saddle, bridle, cooking utensils, and everything not required within, where I and
my servant slept, without the fear of losing any article, although persons were
passing by, and with curiosity looked at the property. I never lost even a piece
of string. The law, ‘Thou shalt not steal,’ is strictly obeyed by them, Truth,
the twin-sister of honesty, is also equally regarded.”

At the outbreak of the war with Russia, Ottoman honesty was amusingly
illustrated by the troops stationed in Bosnia. Bakers from Austria were in the
habit of crossing the river to sell white bread in the camp. The quantity of
these loaves being always limited, there was generally a scramble for them. The
bakers, soon finding that every one of the men who had thus got a loaf came
forward cheerfully to pay for it, adopted the practice of leaving them to arrange
the matter among themselves, and of throwing down the bread to be shared as
they liked. A woman, however, who had come over for the first time on this

* “ Fixcursions in Asia Minor,”








































































































if
i i
i i oy ) |
NH ! ,
i



































































































































































i
i ol





























































































































a
I iy

































































Li
Me
ih
]

ie

‘ |
ee i
i

a i

\t) h

Ly, HA
i) i

vi i
i




108 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



errand, took fright when the Turkish soldiers began snatching the loaves, although
they did so with perfect good-humour, and she ran away, giving up her bread
for lost, and never stopping until she reached her boat, when she recrossed the
river. The Turks collected among themselves the whole amount due to her, and
took it to the captain of their company, telling him what had taken place. He
laid the case before the chief officer, who sent him across the frontier with the
money. It happened to be a market-day in the Austrian town, and the arrival
of a Turkish officer created a great sensation; but when he inquired for the
woman, and handed to her the price of the bread, the whole affair was under-
stood. The officer was repeatedly cheered by the people in the streets, who
shouted, “Long live the Turks!” and he returned to the camp with a great
many of them, who accompanied him to express their thanks for the conduct of
the troops towards their countrywoman. This anecdote of honesty, given on the
best authority, is in strong contrast with the licence common to the armies of
Christian powers in time of war.*

Humanity to animals is much regarded by the Turks. Instruments of punish-
ment for beasts of burden are scarcely known. Horses and camels are loaded
lightly and treated with great kindness. Storks are privileged to walk and fly
about the streets, building on the mosques and houses, without being molested.
It is very common with wealthy Turks to buy captive birds of the bird-catchers,
in order to give them their liberty, or purchase scraps of liver to feed the
animals in the streets. The absence of the fear of man in all beasts and birds
is very striking to Europeans.

Not less prominent is the mutual affection of mother and children in a
Turkish family—tender in the one, respectful in the other. There are other
qualities, however, in which they do not appear in so favourable a light.

The law of their religion prevents their use of intoxicating drinks; but they
are devoted to their long pipes and Mocha coffee. These, however, have to be
given up from sunrise to sunset during the feast of Ramadan, which lasts
thirty days, and which falls in the hottest part of the year. Not a drop of any
kind of drink, or a single whiff of tobacco, must be enjoyed until sundown at the
end of this term, when there is a rush to the coffee-houses, and a scuffle takes
place in their eagerness to resume their beloved pipe. Travellers have described
the amusing scene.

The old national costume is still kept up by the women, such as wide trousers,
of a bright colour, a jacket reaching to the waist, under which isa shirt falling
below the knees, and on their feet are little pointed .slippers. Others dress in

* “The Ottoman Empire: the Sultans, the Territory, and the People.”
109

THE TURKS.



a flowing robe, as in our engraving. Out of doors they wear a veil, without

which they are never allowed to leave the house.





















































































































































































When the Princess of Wales visited Constantinople, she made an evening

The latter was not allowed to speak in

call on the Sultan’s mother and wife.
110 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



the presence of the former. They were surrounded with slave-girls, all of whom
had their hair profusely adorned with diamonds. The most singular part of the
evening’s interview was the sudden appearance of the Sultan’s son, aged ten, and
daughter, aged nine, who came marching in, followed by slaves; he, dressed in full
uniform, with a large diamond star and ribbon; she, dressed in a very smart
pink satin dress, with a train quite two yards long, all covered with lace, a very
high diamond head-piece, which nearly crushed her, and heavy though splendid
necklaces and ear-rings; while, to complete the whole costume, she had a pair
of crimson gloves, with a very large diamond on one finger outside the glove.
The poor thing could hardly move under all the lace and finery she was covered
with. It was amusing to see them place themselves, in the most dignified manner
possible, in large arm-chairs, the little princess doing nothing but slip down hers,
when a slave helped her up again. On this occasion they attempted the Euro-
pean style of dress and manners, though not with much success.*

Constantinople is remarkable for the fine domes of its mosques, splendid
baths and fountains, fragrant gardens outside the walls, and bazaars filled with
shops, roofed over to shelter the people from the heat of the sun. In these
last, shopkeepers sit cross-legged on the counter, and with pipe in mouth strike
bargains over a cup of coffee. The city appears in much splendour when viewed
from the Bosphorus, on which it is built; but the charm is gone on entering its
narrow, dirty streets.

The Turks are strict followers of the false prophet Mohammed. They repeat
their prayers five times a day. At daybreak the muezzin, an officer of the
mosque, ascends to the minaret, or sort of belfry to the mosque, from which
his voice comes clearly and solemnly, calling the people to prayer. The same
sounds are heard at other times, and whether the Turk is in his shop, or
travelling by land or water, he at once falls on his knees to offer up his devo-
tion. May we not learn a lesson from this follower of a corrupt faith? He
is never ashamed to be seen at prayer. He never neglects the appointed season
of devotion. He never allows his eyes to stray, or carelessly runs on with the
words, whilst his attention is given to the objects that stand around. Are we
equally mindful of the service in which we profess to engage? If we have
been trained in a purer religion, and believe that our prayers ascend to God
through the mediation of a loving Saviour, let us not be less devout than the
follower of a man who established his faith by fire and sword.

* Hon, Mrs. Grey’s “ Visit to the East of the Prince and Princess of Wales.”
TER CsRCASSZANS?

CrrcasstaA is a border-land between Europe and Asia, bounded by the Black and
Caspian Seas. It is a region of mountains, many of them snow-capped nearly all the
year round; and in many districts it is wholly destitute of trees. The valleys between
the mountains are fruitful. There are no cities or towns; the people dwell in villages
or encampments, which are often broken up and moved from place to place. A village
consists of a number of huts, formed of canvas and plaited osicrs, covered with straw
at the top. Number of population, uncertain.




tS y HE Circassians are of Tartar origin, and retain the wandering, warlike,
St eNe robber-like character of their forefathers. Indeed, the original meaning
of their name. is “brigands,” or “highwaymen,” but they proudly call
themselves Adighé, or “the noble.”

: They are divided and subdivided into tribes, clans, and families.
They have fine features, and in their habits are lively, active, and
bold. The dress of the humbler classes is simply a goat-skin cloak,
with the hair outside; and their weapon is a short iron-pointed staff, which
they throw with great skill. The chiefs present a most martial appearance on
horseback, when coated with mail, with helmet on head, and armed with muskets,
bows and arrows, and short swords. They are excellent horsemen.

The women have bright, delicate complexions, and sweet expression of
countenance. They are regarded as among the most beautiful specimens of
the human race; but, sad to tell, their very beauty leads to their being
sold into slavery to the Turks. Even parents sell their young daughters.
The female dress is a cap drawn up at top into a sort of crown, under
which their hair is turned into a bunch. In person and in domestic habits they
are very cleanly.

The Circassians are bad husbandmen; they grow chiefly millet, of which
they make their bread. Their principal care is the rearing of horses, in which
they take much pride.

They have several customs which remind us of Bible times. Old men sit



























































THE CIRCASSIANS. 113



at the entrances of their villages as judges, to settle disputes; and their decision
is heard without a murmur.

Hospitality to strangers is held as a strict duty. Whatever be the rank
in life of the stranger, all the members of the family rise to receive him, and
conduct him into the house, and as long as he remains their guest they will
defend him at all cost and danger from those who seek to injure him.

Such is their respect for age, that the younger brother rises from his seat
when his elder brother enters a room, and is silent when he speaks. To the old
their respect is most devoted and humble.

Any one who slays a person, whether by accident or design, is at once
pursued by the members of the family of the dead. But there are places of
refuge into which the slayer may flee and be safe. A man closely followed by
his enemies, if he can reach a dwelling where there is a woman, and touch her
hand, is protected as long as he remains under that roof; but if he leave it he
is exposed to the wrath of his pursuers.

One or two other singular customs may be noticed. A murderer may
secure his safety if he can manage to carry from the house of his enemy a
newly-born child, and bring it up as his own, restoring it to its parents in good
health when it is grown up.

They have also a strange practice for a man to buy a wife with the price of
a number of sheep or oxen, and then for him to go, with his friends, to the
bride’s home and carry her off by force.

There are other rough usages, which show that as a people they cannot take
rank among the more advanced nations of the earth. The tribes are often at
war with each other; they are the enemies of travellers, whom they often plunder ;
prisoners are made slaves; and their hatred to the Russians, who are their
neighbours, is of the fiercest kind. Russian officers of rank have been seized,
and not allowed their liberty without a heavy ransom. These latter have for
ages sought to become entire masters of Circassia, and with increasing success.

The Circassians have no books—in fact, no written language; their only
way of preserving the knowledge of past events is by poetry, which is repeated
from father to son. Hunting, riding, fencing, and other bodily exercises, are the
only education of the young. The greater part of these people are the followers
of Mohammed; and some are pagans, who worship the gods of war, thunder,
fire, and the winds. A few are professing Christians.

Their morality is of a very low order. They do not consider it wrong to
thieve; the only disgrace is for the thief to allow himself to be caught, in
which case he has to stand up before the whole of his tribe, and restore the
114 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



stolen goods, amidst the jeers and mockery of all the people, because he was so
clumsy as to permit himself to be found out.

Among the Circassians who profess the Mohammedan faith, it is a point
of great importance to bury the dead with the face towards their sacred city,
Mecca, in Arabia Felix. The moolah, or priest, reads sentences from the Koran
over the body, and his fee for the service is the best horse of the deceased.
They believe that the spirits of those who die in battle are immediately received
into Paradise, especially if they have fallen in conflict with the Russians.


TEE SRVTSs



Yun Jews are a nation in the midst of the nations. No quarter of the
earth can now exclusively claim them as their own. Their forefathers
lived in a land which God had given to them by promise. It was a
“delightsome land,’ a land “flowing with milk and honey.” But
now, “scattered and peeled,” they seek a home among strangers all
over the wide world.

When the first English travellers had passed the great desert of
Africa, they found that the outcast and wandering Jew had crossed the desert
before them. When the early settlers went to India, they learned that the
children of Abraham had been already there many long ages. In every country
they are now to be met with; but in all they live like children away from their.
own beloved land.

No pen can write, and no tongue can tell, the sufferings through which they
have passed since—eighteen hundred years ago—they were driven from Judea.
Their houses have been broken down and their goods taken away. They have been
“bereaved of their children,” and have been carried into slavery. They have been
crucified, burned, and drowned by thousands. And though in our days they
receive more kindness and toleration, yet in many places they are still exposed
to persecution. Wherever Mohammedanism prevails they are commonly the helpless
victims of studied insult and wrong; and even those who are called Christians
have been their-bitter foes. So late as the year 1846 a tax was levied on them
in Russia for wearing beards. A gentleman, on a visit to that land, when walk-
ing one evening in the public gardens of one of the towns, saw a notice over
the entrance, “Beggars, dogs, and Jews are not admitted here.” In some cities
of Persia they are locked up at night in the quarter where they live; and in the
daytime, when a stranger passes along the street, they stretch out their hands
and cry with a doleful voice, “Give only one pool” (a penny); “only one pool. I
am a poor Israale; I am a poor Israale.” The mother, with her half-starved
babe in her arms, sits on the ground and cries, “Only one pool, for a poor, poor
Israale.”
116 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



But according to the purpose and promise of God they are yet a people.
Seven millions of the race are now in the world. They flourish and increase
after all their miseries, and all the attempts made to destroy them. In many
places, where a kind toleration is shown, they thrive and grow wealthy. Some
of the richest bankers in London and Paris, and other capitals of Europe, are

im











Ra TT













































ML
w

NTA


























































































































































































= = mm

Ss tl
TT ATTN

MODERN JEWISH SYNAGOGUE.

Tims



Jews. Many live in the most fashionable parts of the cities, and are known
for their intelligence, charity, and honourable conduct. Their synagogues are
no longer hidden in obscure corners, but, richly adorned, they stand out to
public view.

We can only notice a few facts connected with the present state of the Jews.
THE JEWS. W7

First, they are expected to rise early. The rabbis say, “Every man should
awake the day, and not wait till the day awakes him.”

As a class they are busy and industrious. Every Jew boy is set by his
parents-—indeed, his own instinct prompts him—to make money, in some way or
other, as soon as he knows addition and the multiplication table. No Jew will
apprentice his son to any trade, unless thereafter he can set him up as a master.
The reason for this is found in hig religious customs. The Jewish sabbath
commences, for instance, before the sun goes down on Friday, and continues
during the Saturday. There are also many
festivals which are, to Jews, days of rest ;
minor holidays; and stated times for morn-
ing and evening service. A journeyman
of the Jewish persuasion would thus lose,
at least, a hundred and fifty days’ labour
in one year; he must, therefore, be master
of his own time.

Every Jew is required constantly to
read, or repeat, his morning prayers, at-
tired in a peculiar garment. It is made
of two square pieces, with two long strap-
like slips joined to them, and the directions
given for its preparation and use are very
minute. At the four corners fringes are
fastened. This garment is called the small
tallith, or veil, and the fringes of it are taken
in the hands when the morning prayer is
said. It is specially prepared of lamb’s wool. — snwisn prrmsr aT PRAYERS WEARING THE

The great»tallith, or veil, is a large paynacrery ror THE HEAD, AND THE VETL.
square cloth, almost sufficient to cover a
man. It is generally made of white lamb’s wool, which must not have been in
any way torn from the animal, but merely shorn off. It must be spun by Jewesses,
who are to utter certain words when they begin making one of these articles.
The two corners of this veil meet at each side, and hang down over the shoulders
before the breast.

Phylacteries for the head and arm are also worn in public and private worship.
The outsides are made of parchment, which covers a very small square box of
wood; in this are inclosed written texts from the law of Moses.

The Jews regularly observe various festivals, among which is the feast of


118 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

the Passover. There is great preparation for it, and on the evening when it is
celebrated, all the family stand around the Passover dishes, which contain portions
of a lamb and bitter herbs. The youngest child in the company then asks,
“What meaneth this? Why do you observe this night above all nights?” to
which the father replies, “Because we were slaves unto Pharaoh in Egypt, and
the Lord our God brought us out from thence, with a mighty hand and an
outstretched arm.” The mighty acts of God’s deliverance of their fathers
are then rehearsed, the head of the household reading, the rest making
responses. The unleavened bread is shown to all, and a portion of it is re-
ceived by each. Bitter herbs are also eaten, and supper is then placed on the
table, and ig made a meal of social rejoicing.

A spirit of inquiry in reference to the
Messiahship of Christ is now abroad among the
Jewish people. There are many who are seeking
for the truth in an earnest and sincere spirit.
They have much to endure from their own
people. When a Jew begins to show a concern
about the Christian religion, he is insulted by
his companions. And should he declare his
belief in it, even his own parents disown him,
his brothers and sisters spit upon him, and the
whole family put on mourning as for one who
is dead.

The conversion of the Jews is now a work
of interest to the church. Fifty years ago there
was only one converted Jew who was a Christian
minister or missionary; now there are known
to be fifty or sixty. Several thousands of Jews
have become Christians within the last twenty
years. This is as the first sheaf of a great harvest which shall certainly be
gathered of the children of Abraham.

Let us not, then, forget to pray that the time may soon come when they
shall receive Jesus Christ as the true Passover, and behold him as “the Lamb
of God which taketh away the sin of the world.” Then shall the voice of Jewish
children be everywhere heard singing the old song, “ Hosanna to the Son of
David. Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the
highest.”



PHYLACTERIES FOR THE HEAD AND ARM.
Tun Axara?

Arastia, or “the desert,” is called in Scripture “the east country,” and its people
“the children of the east.” It extends from the mouth of the Nile, in Lower Egypt,
to the Euphrates and Persian Gulf, a distance of 1,000 miles, and is about 1,800 miles from
north to south. It is divided into Arabia Deserta, Arabia Petreea, or “Rocky,” and Arabia
Felix, or “the Happy.” In early Bible times it was the country of the Hdomites,
Moabites, Amalekites, Ishmaelites, Midianites, and Ammonites. In later ages the
descendants of these people were known under the general name of Saracens.

3) HE pure Arabians profess to trace their descent to Joktan, son of Heber, of
the posterity of Noah. One of this class proudly calls himself “ An Arab
of the Arabs.” Others claim to be the offspring of Esau, and others
of Ishmael. They now divide themselves into two great classes :—

Arab-el-mader, or “dwellers in clay,” who chiefly reside in
towns and villages; and Bedouins, or “dwellers in the desert.”
Between them there is a great difference in character and habits.
The latter class live in tents made of camels’-hair cloth; their wealth is in their
flocks, and to a large degree they still maintain the prophetical declaration: “He
will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man’s hand
against him” (Gen. xvi. 12).

The Arabians are a strong and active people. Their eyes and hair are
dark and their complexion brown. In youth the countenance is mild and
expressive; in old age it is venerable. Living as they do in the open air, their
senses are very acute. They can discern distant objects in their vast plains
which could not be seen by less practised eyes. Sounds are also caught with
great ease and certainty.

Another singular power of the Arab is that of telling by the footprints on
the sand whether they were made by one of his own or of another tribe. He
also generally knows whether the person passed on that day or several days before,
and whether he carried a load or not, by the faintness or depth of the impression.
Should he be in pursuit, and find the track of the person sought, he judges by
the intervals between the steps whether he is fatigued or not, and consequently






































































































































































































































































































































































































































NATIVE OF ARABIA DESERTA.
THE ARABIANS. HL



of the likelihood of overtaking him, He is equally clever as to the feet of
camels, and his tact is useful in recovering those that have been stolen or have
strayed.

From the earliest ages these people have been ruled by a number of petty
lords, known as sheikhs; the chief of whom is distinguished as the “sheikh cf
sheikhs.”

Tents are the homes of the larger portion of the Arabs. Each is divided
into two parts—one for the men, and the other for the women. The furniture
consists of pack and riding
saddles, -water-bags made of
tanned camel-skins, goat-skins
for milk and butter, a leathern
bucket for drawing up water
from deep wells, a handmill, a
mortar, wooden dishes, and a
few other domestic vessels.

The dress of the people
varies in different tribes. ‘Those
who live in the district known
as Yemen, or Happy Arabia,
are clothed very much in the
same style as the Turks; but the
common dress of the Bedouins
consists of a rough cotton shirt,
over which is worn a light white
woollen mantle, or sometimes
one of a coarser kind, striped
with brown. The wealthy wear,
instead of this, a long gown. of
silk or cotton stuff. The A SHEIKH.
mantles worn by the sheikhs
are interwoven with gold; the head-dress varies greatly, and is often expensive.
Sometimes several caps are worn; these are made of linen, cotton, or thick
cloth. They are used when an Arab wishes to be very gay; and then the
one that covers the whole is richly embroidered with gold, and inwrought
with texts and passages from the Koran. Over all these is wrapped a sash or large
piece of muslin, with the ends ornamented with silk or gold fringes hanging down.

The dress of the women consists of a wide cotton gown of a dark colour, blue,

I


122 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



brown, or black, and a kerchief for the head. They go barefooted at all seasons.
They are very fond of personal ornaments. Silver rings are much worn in their
ears and noses. All puncture. their lips, and dye them blue. They paint their
eyelids and eyelashes black with lead ore. The Arabs seldom allow their women
to be seen. When a stranger is introduced, the cry of “Tarik!” which means
* Retire!” warns them at once to disappear. These poor drudges have the chief
part of the work to perform; all burdens are laid upon their shoulders to carry.
A Bedouin will put on his wife’s head a package almost as large as himself,
and then, with folded arms, watch her trudge off under the weight. The service
which we think the most important of all occupies least of her concern; namely,
the care of the children, who are left in a sad state of dirt and neglect, rather
from utter ignorance than any want of love.

Rude in manners, and fierce in general character, the Arabs are not with-
out courtesy. Not that, in the desert, there is the studied and forced politeness
of towns. ‘Welcome! a thousand times welcome! You are the guest of the
city. My whole property is at your disposal!” is the language of the shop-
keeper of Mecca to his foreign customer; but the usual salutation of the Bedouin
is the primitive one of, “ Peace be with you.”

One bad feature in their character is their dishonesty. An Arab considers
plunder as his right. He does not say “I robbed,” but “I gained.” The
defenceless traveller is waylaid, seized, and stripped of everything; but, unless
he resist, or shed the blood of a Bedouin, his life is safe. They spring behind
the horseman, seize him with one hand, and with the other rifle him of his
money. Even while the French officers in Egypt were sleeping they stole their
swords from their sides, and their clothes and other valuable articles placed
beneath their heads.

The wandering Arabs grow no corn; their habits would not allow them to
wait till the harvest was ripe; nor indeed would their sandy deserts produce
the precious grain. Dates supply the want of bread. The date-palm is the chief
support of the Bedouin. The fruit is dressed in many ways, and there is a
saying among the people that “a good housewife may furnish her husband every
day for a month with a dish of dates differently prepared.”

Araks are very fond of their horses, and teach their children to regard then
with great affection. They use the most endearing names when speaking to
them or of them; and it is not until they are reduced to the lowest state of
want that they will agree to sell them. .

The Arabians are followers of the false prophet Mohammed, though not
of the strictest sort, as indeed they are generally ignorant of his doctrines. The
THE ARABIANS. 123



means of education among them are very limited, and of a humble kind. Let
us look in at a village school for Arab boys—for there is no school for the girls,
excepting those which belong to Christian missions among them. “A pile of
old, strange-looking shoes are at the door,” says a missionary. “They are needed
to protect the feet of the children as they tread on the rough stones of the path
to the school; but their bare-legged
owners squat on the earthen floor.

“The noise has stopped a little,
and eyes that should be on their
books are gazing on your English
dress. But see, the teacher. is
putting a speedy end to the brief
moment of silence. He will never
allow that; he must show off to
better advantage before the gen-
tleman; so, whip in hand, each
blow increases the din. The idlers
make amends in clamour for what
they have lost in time; those read-
ing aloud read louder, and those
who have no book to read, bawl
with all their might in imitation
of their neighbours. I have seen
a teacher give a dose of the korbaj
(whip) to all, good or bad, dealing
a blow and a scold to each, and
then sit down, quite vain of such
a display of his superior excellence
as a teacher. The noisy mob
before you is really as confused
as it seems to be. Classes are
things unheard of here. No two
boys have the same lesson, few the
same book; many only part of a book, and some none at all. Each one recites
alone when he does recite, and the teacher gives just so much attention to the
lesson as he can spare from the oversight of the noisy throng before him. So
it often happens that the scholar repeats his lesson by rote; he has gone over
it so often that he has got it by heart. He will read a psalm with ease in his

Tad
















































































































124 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

own book: give him another with the same psalm on an opposite page, and he
cannot find the place. Try him in the alphabet, and he cannot make out one
letter from another. Or what would you say to an old man looking through his
spectacles on the page a boy is reading, while his hand is poking at random
among the crowd a cane that reaches half across the room? You may smile,
but I have seen the idle watch the strange movements of the long rod, and
shun the stroke; while the poor fellow, so intent on his book that he did not
see it, got a blow for his pains, Such is an Arab school.”

But little has been done for the spiritual good of this people. Their mode
of desert life stands in the way, and nothing less than Divine power can overturn
those habits which have come dowr to them unchanged through nearly two
thousand years of time, Pe




Perse LAWS?

Mopern Persia, a country of Western Asia, is in extent 700 miles from north to
south, and 850 from east to west. Its population is about 9,500,000. Capital, Teheran.

These are the Persians
proper, forming a fixed
class, chiefly dwelling in
cities and towns. ‘They
are admirable horsemen, excel in the
production of jewellery, sword-blades,
pottery, gold and silver brocade, shawls,
carpets, and silks, The art of printing
being almost unknown, writing is highly
valued and carefully taught, no people
probably possessing finer specimens of
penmanship. In their general charac-
ter they are gay, polite, and sociable,
but untruthful, treacherous, and cruel.
The remaining 2,500,000 are wander-
ing tribes of various origin, who live
in the heart of the community, and
yet are separate from it, forming
almost distinct classes by the nature of
their habits and their modes of live-
lihood. They are brave and hospitable,
but rude and quarrelsome, being the
strength of the government when
friendly, its plague and terror when
hostile.



Pitevent in vaca customs, and Hahah
Of these 7,000,000 are detesadel from the old natives of the soil.









PERSIAN WOMAN (UPPER cLAss). (From a Persian
drawing.)

Mohammedanism is the prevailing religion, but there are also families of
126 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



fire-worshippers, the disciples of Zoroaster, who fall down in devotion before
the sun.

The dress of men of good rank is a shirt of silk, striped with blue, which
is seldom put aside till it is worn out; a close-fitting waistcoat, a loose robe,
and wide trousers. The women dress in silk and velvet jacket and trousers, over
which is a Cashmere shawl.

The sovereign of the empire is known to us by the name Shah; but he
is called by his subjects Shah-in-shah, which signifies “king of kings.”

We give a portrait of Futteh
Ali Shah, to whom Sir John Mal-
colm was presented in 1800. ‘“ His
dress,” says Sir John, “ baffles all
description. The ground of his robes
was white; but he was so covered
with jewels of an extraordinary size,
and their splendour, from his being
seated where the rays of the sun
played upon them, was so dazzling,
that it was impossible to distinguish
the minute parts which combined to
give such amazing brilliancy to his
whole figure.”*

The houses of the higher ranks
in Persia present rather a blank ap-
pearance on the outside, but the best
chambers are lined with mirrors, or
are richly gilded and painted, and
the floors are covered with beautiful
carpets. The homes of the poorer
classes are formed of mud and
chopped hay, and the floors covered
with felt; they possess but few
articles of furniture. These are thought to be similar to “the houses of clay”
of which Job speaks.

The marriage ceremony in Persia is very simple; the family of the bride-
groom, with a mollah, or priest, assemble at the bride’s house; behind a curtain
are the female relations, with the bride. The mollah asks her if she is willing to

* “Court and People of Persia,’ by Dr. Kitto.



























FUTTEH ALI SHAH.
THE PERSIANS. 127



marry the bridegroom-elect; and after a long delay (which is a point of honour)
she whispers, “ Yes.” The contract is then signed and registered, and sweetmeats
are sent to the bride. In the evening she is conducted in procession, with pipes
and drums and all her worldly goods, to her husband’s house.*

“The Persians are great lovers of poetry: the meanest artisaus can repeat
the finest passages of their most admired writers. Sir John Malcolm says that
he was surprised to hear a common tailor, who was repairing a tent, entertain-
ing his companions with some of the finest odes of Hafiz, the greatest of
Persian poets.” And this, too, in a land where there are but few printed books,

The name of Henry Martyn will ever stand connected with the efforts to
spread the gospel among the Persians. He translated the New Testament and
the Psalms into their language, and devoted the closing years of his life to make
known among them “the unsearchable riches of Christ.”

* “Glimpses of Life and Manners in Persia,’ by Lady Sheil.



























PERSIAN MOLLAH, OR PRIEST. (J’rom a Persian drawing.)
Lax LAxrars—T vRKOMmaAws?

InpEvENDENT TatTary, or, as it is now generally called, Turkestan, is a vast region
of Central Asia, extending from the Caspian Sea, on the west, to the Chincse empire
on the east; and from Asiatic Russia, on the north, to Persia on the south. It is
upwards of 1,200 miles in length, and 1,300 miles in breadth. Various branches of the
great Turkish family compose the population, which is estimated at 5,000,000. Chief
city, Bokhara.

=» ux people of this immense tract of country are in general known under
> the name Tatars, or Tartars, or Tahtars; but as this word signifies
“robbers,” they abhor it, and claim to be called Turkomans; and their
country Turkestan, which means “the country of the Turks.” In the
middle of the tenth century they were divided into three great divisions,
and known as the White, the Black, and the Wild Tatars. They are
now separated into large tribes, the chief of which form the kingdom of
Bokhara. There are also the Tatars of the Crimea, the Uzbeck Tatars, and the
Calmuc Tatars. One-fifth of the inhabitants of Persia are of the Tatar family.

Our engraving represents a group of the Kinghlis Tatars, a numerous and
powerful tribe of Turkestan, removing their encampment.

Each Tatar tribe igs under its own khan or chief. Over all is a great chief,
or, according to the lofty title he assumes, “the king of kings.”

The chiefs are bold, warlike, and revengeful, but at the same time hospitable,
generous, and frank. As a tribe does not live altogether or in one place, on account
of the want of pasturage for their cattle, they divide into several branches.
A chief governs the whole tribe, and each of its branches has over it “an elder,”
who has very great authority among the people.

In order to keep peace in a tribe, the chief always tries to persuade the person
who is wronged to make up the difference for a sum of money or a number of horses,
without shedding the blood of the criminal, because the Tatars have generally no
rest till they have taken away life in return. If life is taken, the other party
considers itself bound to avenge the murder, and thus families often go on killing
one another for seventy or a hundred years.
































































































































= SNS
SMS

Sy

=X





?
7é




130 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



Under these circumstances, the Tatars are not without a kind of refuge. In
fact, there is scarcely any nation of the East which has not some asylum to which
those who are guilty of a crime may not flee for shelter, if they choose to do
so, or if they are near enough to avail themselves of it. The “place of refuge”
among the Tatars is the stable of any one of the chiefs; or, rather, the stall of
the horse which the king or chief is wont to ride, wherever that horse may
be. The person of any one who can get to the horse’s head, and lay hold of his
halter or bridle, is safe, whatever crime he may have committed. The tribes have
always regarded this asylum with the most superstitious reverence. Nor is this
refuge merely to avoid the first outbreak of wrath or vengeance, else a man might
be soon drawn forth by the denial of food. The king or chief at whose stable a
criminal takes refuge must feed him as long as he stays there; while there, even
a slave who has murdered his master cannot be touched.*

The wealth of the people consists in their flocks and herds, which they lead
about the plains in search of pasturage. When they find a fertile spot, they pitch
their tents; and when all the grass is consumed, they remove in search of a fresh
supply. They are very unwilling to engage in labour, and seldom sow or plant.
One of the greatest curses they bestow upon an enemy is, “May he have a fixed
abode, and work like a Russian.” The Russians, with whom they are often in
conflict, are the objects of their constant hate.

The Tatars are excellent riders, are fond of hunting, and are as much on their
saddles as on their feet. They excel in the use of the bow, and direct their arrows
when in full speed with an unerring aim.

Respect and obedience to fathers are considered to be highly virtuous; but
children treat their mothers with very little attention. They lament a father’s death
for many days; a mother’s occasions but little sorrow.

The tribes living near to civilised countries adopt, to some extent, the religions
of their neighbours; hence some belong to the Roman or Greek church; others
are Mohammedans; and many are pagans, sunk into a state of gross superstition.
But little has been done to bring them to a true knowledge of Christ.

* “The Tahtar Tribes,” by Dr. Kitto,


Tae Nesrorsanse

are a remarkable people, who, until lately, were little known to Kurope.
They are found in the north of Persia, and in the mountains of
Kurdistan, regions but seldom visited by western travellers. Their
number is probably about a hundred and fifty thousand, but the in-
terest that attaches to them must be estimated, not by their number,
but by their ancient history, their long and heavy persecutions, their
present oppressed state, and the influence they may yet have on the progress of
the gospel-in the East. They are chiefly under the power of Persia.

Mr. Layard, whose discoveries in Nineveh are well known, sought to trace
the origin of this people. He affirms that they are the descendants of the old
Assyrians. After the greater part of that race had fallen by the swords of the
Persians, of the Greeks, and of the Romans, there was a remnant left who still
found a home in some of the villages of the land: these, he considers, were
the forefathers of the present families of Nestorians.

They are called after Nestorius, a priest in the church of Antioch in the
fifth century, who has been charged by his enemies as holding great errors in
doctrine. But this people object to being regarded as his followers. They
tell us that the apostle Thomas travelled into their country, and that by
his preaching their forefathers were converted to Christ. They are known to
each other as Chaldani (Chaldeans, or Assyrians); also, they take to themselves
the title of “Christians of the East.” Image worship is rejected by them,
together with most of the errors and superstitions of the Romish and Greek
churches. They piously regard “the Holy Scriptures as of supreme authority, and
that no doctrine or practice is essential to salvation which is not found therein or
can be proved therefrom.”

A very high value is set by them on old manuscript copies of the New Testa-
ment which they possess; and by constant holding to the Holy Word, they have
been able to withstand many attempts of Romanists to draw them from the faith
of their fathers. It is true that ignorance has led to the neglect of much that is
correct in doctrine; but it has been said that, on the whole, it is a cause for


132 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

wonder that, after the lapse of about seventeen centuries, they should be what
they are.



The plain on which the Nestorians chiefly dwell has been thus described :—
“The mountains of Kurdistan sweep down to the shores of a grassy lake, and
the vale is covered all over with such richness and variety of verdure as is
THE NESTORIANS. 133



rarely to be seen in those parts of the world most celebrated by the visitor in
search of the beautiful. Standing on a mountain on the eastern side of this
valley, the spectator sees a plain, fifty miles long and twenty broad, with more
than three hundred villages scattered upon its surface in the midst of vineyards,
orchards, and cultivated fields.”

The houses of these villages are not built in a group, but each stands in the
centre of the land belonging to its owner. The ground floor contains two or
three rooms, occupied, during the cold winter months, by the family and their
cattle. As glass is a luxury yet unknown to the Nestorians, light is admitted
by the door and by small holes in the wall. Above the ground floor is a large
upper room, built partly of stone and partly of wood, nearly the whole side
facing the south being open. This serves as a guest-chamber. During July
and August, stages of boughs and grass are erected upon the roofs of their
houses, resting upon poles, to which they gain access by rude ladders, and here
in the warm weather they sleep, to enjoy the cool breeze.

They are a peace-loving people. Though surrounded by the Kurds, a war-
like and savage race, who frequently attack and plunder them, they strive by all
means to lead quiet and peaceable lives.

The women are modest and frugal, and dress in a simple style. The food
of the people consists of meat, fowls, rice, fruits, and millet-bread. When seated
on the floor the skin of a wild goat is spread before them, with the hair side
downwards; bread and a large wooden spoon are then placed round the edge of
it, for each one of the party, and they help themselves out of the common dish,
which is generally a large wooden bowl placed in the centre of the skin. The
crumbs of the repast are carefully gathered up, in obedience, they tell us, to our
Saviour’s words—“ Gather up the fragments, that nothing be lost.”

In mourning, the Nestorians often cast dust upon their heads, rend their
garments, clothe themselves in sackcloth, and sit in ashes, or go to the grave to
weep there. It is very interesting to observe their mode of salutation. Even
boys, when they meet their teacher, will salute him with such words as these—
“May God give you strength!’ When adults meet by the way, one says to
the other, “Peace be with you!” the second replies, “ With you also be peace!”

When one enters the house of another, he says, “ May God grant you
increase; may your days be prosperous!” and the other replies, “May God be
with you!” If you show a Nestorian a kindness, or wish him prosperity, he
piously says, “May God give you the kingdom of heaven!’ The same kind of
speech runs through all their daily intercourse. When a man enters on a piece
of work, he repeats, “If the Lord will, I shall accomplish it.” When a boy
134 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



or a man begins to study a book, he writes upon the margin of the first
page, “By the strength of the Lord I shall learn this book.” When even a





















HOUSES OF NESTORIANS.—KURDISH SOLDIERS IN FOREGROUND,

young child commits the letters of its alphabet to memory, as often as he repeats
them through, he is taught to say at the close, “Glory to’Christ our King.”
THE NESTORIANS. 135



“ Scores of girls,” says Dr. Perkins,* “come into our yard regularly, morning,
noon, and night, and carry water from our reservoir, with ‘Rebecca’s pitchers’
upon their shoulders. The vessel which they use is, however, an earthen jug,
rather than a pitcher. The jug, which holds from two to five gallons, has
a handle, through which a rope is passed, and held by the hands, and it is
thus conveniently carried. Innumerable incidents of a most common nature
are constantly occurring before our eyes in the East, that forcibly illustrate
Scripture allusions. As an instance, the girls who flock around our fountain
to fill their pitchers often crowd and jostle each other, and the jug of some
one of them falls upon the pavement and is dashed to pieces; and there is
‘the pitcher broken at the fountain,’ its value and usefulness at an end, the
striking emblem used in Scripture of old age and the end of life.”

There is also a large body of Nestorians existing in India, who are known as
Syrian Christians. About 100,000 are found in the district of Travancore; they
are also numerous in other parts of that land,

Dr. Grant, a physician, and Dr. Perkins, and other American missionaries,
have resided among the Persian Nestorians, and have given us most interesting
accounts of their domestic life and religious belief. Their object has been to foster
what is right among them, and to lead them to a further knowledge of the
truths of God’s word. Great success has resulted from their efforts: may even
greater yet appear !

* “The Nestorians of Persia,”












TRE SLRPAWS?

Syria, including Palestine, skirts the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, and
extends from thence towards the River Euphrates. Palestine was so called from its early
inhabitants, the Philistines. It was also known as the Holy Land, and was the home
of the Jews, whose chief city was Jerusalem. The total of the present population is uncer-
tain: probably about 3,000,000.



=) wis country is, to the Christian, the most interesting land of the earth.
Here Abraham and the patriarchs lived, and a particular portion of it
was pronounced by God himself as an “exceeding good land,” and
“a land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and pomegranates.” | But it
is ever memorable as the birthplace of the Saviour of the world.
There are few changes from the olden times in the manners and
customs of the inhabitants of Syria and the Holy Land. Travellers
tell us that this preservation of the old ways is very striking; and will surprise
us the more when we know that the inhabitants of the land have passed through
all stages of prosperity and adversity ; at one time free, and then in bondage to
foreign powers of different usages and faith. In succession, they have been under
the power of the Assyrians, Chaldeans, Persians, Greeks, Romans, and Turks ;
and yet they have retained their own modes and fashions till the present time.
They have kept up the custom of dressing their favourite children with coats
of many colours, like unto the one given by Jacob to Joseph; of sitting at the
tent door in the cool of the evening, like Abraham; of women going to the
fountain for water; to this day they “take butter, and milk, and the calf
which they have dressed,” and set it before the stranger. The bridegroom still
sends to his bride the bracelets and ear-rings, as did Isaac to his beloved
Rebekah; the bridesmaids, with torches, still await the bridegroom’s voice
towards midnight, and the wedding garment is required to be worn by every
guest. White asses are as great favourites at this day as in the time of the
judges; inkhorns are carried at the side, as in the times of Ezekiel; and
locusts and wild honey are the food of numbers, as they were of John the
Baptist. Until this very day the salutation used by our blessed Lord, “Salem,”
or “Peace,” is in common use. The shepherd continues to go before his flock,

























































































































138 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



the sheep know his voice, and will not follow strangers, and he calls them by
their names. Two women are commonly seen grinding ata mill; they use leathern
bottles; they recline at table; they kiss the hem of the garment; they
put off their shoes on entering a sacred place; and the aged men sit in dignity
at the gates of the city. “The founder of the race might come to the earth, and
he would recognise, without effort, his own people and his own land.” “The
country of Syria is now one vast living commentary on the word of God, spread out
for the perusal of every age, and the conversion of every sceptic.”*

When Mr. Farren, the English Consul-General, visited Bethlehem, the
natives, who regarded him as a great favourite, from the interest he had taken
in their welfare, came out to meet him. Did they take off their turbans? Did
they salute him with the shaking of hands? No; they took of their garments,
and strewed them in the way, and cut down branches from the trees, to carry
before him, proclaiming his praise; the same as their forefathers did to the Divine
Redeemer eighteen hundred years ago.

However fixed some of their customs are, it would appear that some innova-
tions have been introduced. The Syrians are fond of smoking their long pipes,—
over which they idle away several hours of every day,—a practice probably unknown
in the days of old. Our engraving represents women of Nazareth and a man of
Bethlehem, as they were drawn on the spot.

As with the people, so with their habitations. The fashion of the Syrian
houses and the arrangement of the towns are probably as they were in former
ages. Bethlehem is one of the “three holy places” in Palestine. The name
signifies “the house of bread,” probably from its fertile corn-fields on the hill-
sides. In very early times it was called Ephrath, “the place of fruit,” from
the neighbouring vines and olive-trees. It stands on the ridge of a high hill,
about six miles from Jerusalem. “On entering the gate at the west,” says Dr.
March,t “we climb the same ascent up which Joseph and Mary toiled, weary
and belated, on that memorable night when a new history for all mankind had
its commencement. Eighteen centuries haye wrought but little change upon the
stone-built town. The arched gateway of the wall; the narrow, broken foot-path
of the main street; the white tomb-like houses, presenting windowless walls to
the street, and sometimes so near each other as to touch at the top; the still
narrower lines running off right and left, leading to stone huts and stables in
the rocks, all equally the homes of man and beast ;—these are to-day substan-
tially the same that they were on that night when the weary strangers from
Nazareth groped their way to the stable of the khan, or house for travellers,

* “ Voices from Lebanon ;” and Hardy’s “ Notices of the Holy Land.” —¢_ “ Walks and Homes of Jesus.”
THE SYRIANS, 139



at the eastern end of the town. But there was ‘no room’ for these late comers
in ‘the inn. They were obliged to seek shelter outside the inner wall, the
stable, the place where the cattle were crowded together. Here the Redeemer
of the world was born. In the manger, as frail and helpless as those he came













































































































































































































































































































toa

<

NAZARETH.

to gave, he was laid. Oh, the wondrous love, that led him thus to humble
himself that he might raise us to heaven.”

Nazareth, a second of the “three holy places” (Jerusalem being the third),
is to be remembered as the town in which the “child Jesus grew, and waxed

strong in spirit, and increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God
K 2
140 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

and man.” The town was much like other places in appearance, but the people
had a bad reputation, even among the rudest of the land. And yet for thirty
years the Son of God, in our nature, consented to live among them. It would
have been vast condescension if he had dwelt for a single year in the holiest
place of earth; or to have maintained the state of a king in the richest of its
palaces ; but see him among the depraved Nazarenes, from infancy to manhood,
living in a home just like one of those plain, comfortless, white stone houses
which are now to be seen in the present town. In Nazareth he began his
public ministry ; in its humble synagogue he read from the prophet Isaiah, and
pointed out the fulfilment in himself; from the brow of the hill on which the
place stands they sought to cast him down headlong. Again he came to them
in the following winter, and for the last time, when the fame of his miracles
had filled the whole land; but it was only once more to be rejected of them.
Oh, how solemn the deed, to reject Jesus, the only Saviour! May we not turn
from him, but receive him into our hearts as our Lord and Redeemer !

Mi








“4 J

KN
i

Pu































‘a i
ae
A hy
2 on



WY : i
= = ee ae
VEE g

ee

SYRIAN LETTER-WRITER.
ex EHswmoos:



Hinpoostay, in the Persian language, means “the country of the blacks,” the natives
being of a dark colour. This part of the world is now more commonly called India, or the
East Indies. Its length is nearly 1,900 miles, and its breadth about 1,800. In extent
it is ten times larger than England, Scotland, and Ireland together. The sea washes
its shores for more than 3,000 miles. Population, 150,000,000. Chief city, Calcutta.

to consist of four castes. From his mouth came the Brahmins, or
chief class. These are reckoned the highest and noblest Bee on
earth. They are taught from their infancy to regard all other classes
of men with contempt. The highest honours are paid to them.
Like the Pharisees of old, they stand at the corners of the streets, and
receive the homage of the people.

From Brahma’s arm proceeded the second, or military caste. From his
breast came the third, consisting of merchants and farmers. Of his feet were
born the Soodras, or common people. Beneath these are the Pariahs, or outcasts,
who are held in the utmost abhorrence.

The Brahmins teach that there is one supreme being, whom they call Brahm ;
but he is never worshipped. He is reported to be generally fast asleep. In the
place of Brahm, they worship many gods, whose number is said to be three
hundred and thirty millions. They are gods of all colours, black, white, blue,
yellow, red—gods of all shapes, some being in the form of beasts, others in the
shape of men; some part beasts and part men, having four, or ten, or a
hundred, or a thousand eyes, heads, and hands. They are of all sizes, from a
few inches to twenty or thirty feet in height. They are described as riding
through the air on elephants, buffaloes, lions, sheep, deer, goats, peacocks, vul-
tures, geese, serpents, and rats. These gods are said to fight and quarrel with
one another. ‘They lie, steal, commit murder, and other crimes. They pour


142 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

out their curses when they cannot succeed in their wicked plots, and invent all
kinds of lying tales to hide their evil deeds.

Of this immense number there are three principal gods: Brahma, whom
they call the creator of the world, Vishnoo the preserver, and Siva the destroyer.







4 it Y | |
Li i} \\ \ i































—









A BRAHMIN RECEIVING RELIGIOUS HOMAGE.

The religious processions of the Hindoos are numerous.
temple there is, at least, yearly one great procession.

At every large
e th The idol is brought out
from its inclosure, and placed on a great car, often forty feet high.

On the day of the procession, it is adorned with painted cloth, garlands of
THE HINDOOS. 143



flowers, green shrubs, and precious articles. The idol is placed in the centre,
loaded with jewels, to attract the attention of the people. Having fastened ropes
to this enormous car, eight hundred or a thousand people catch hold of the
ropes, and slowly drag it along, accompanied with the awful roaring of their
voices. At certain periods they stop; when the immense crowds, collected from
all parts of the country, set up one universal shout.

Formerly, when the cars were drawn, people threw themselves under the
wheels, and were crushed to death. ‘This
occurred at the drawing of the car of Jugger-
naut, or “lord of the world.” Dreadful acci-
dents and loss of life also took place at these
times.

One of their deities is named Krishna. —
He is sometimes represented entwined by a
large serpent, which is fixing its poisoned fangs
in the heel. At other times the image repre-
sents him as crushing the head of the serpent.
We may here trace the great promise given
to our first parents in Eden, the memory of
which seems not to be utterly lost among the
heathen.

We might proceed to describe the worship
of the river Gunga, or Ganges, and the sacrifices
of mothers in casting their children into the
stream, as a religious offering; and speak of
Durga, Kalee, and other gods; of the self-
tortures, and superstitions, and cruelties, and
numerous other matters connected with Hindoo idolatry, but we must refer to other
books for fuller information.* Happily, too, some of these practices have been
suppressed by the British rulers of India.

The dress of the Hindoos is very simple. A single piece of cloth, uncut,
about three yards in length and one in width, wrapped round the loins, and a
shawl thrown over the shoulders, form their usual equipment. These garments
are often fringed with red silk and gold.
~ he marriage ceremonies of the people are very singular. For instance, if
the father of a young girl is a rich and liberal Brahmin, he will frequently bear



KRISHNA.

* A gmall book for the young, “Pictures of Hindoo Life,” published by the Religious Tract
Society, contains much interesting information about this people,
144 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

all the expenses of the marriage of his daughter. But to present a daughter
in marriage is about the same thing as to sell her. Almost every parent re-
fuses to give up his daughter until the sum of money for which he consented

















SSS

HINDOO LADIES.

to let her go is paid. Thus, persons to be married have nothing to do in the
choice of each other.

The marriage ceremony lasts five days. At the close, the bridegroom conducts
the bride to her new house. This commonly takes place in the night, by torchlight,
accompanied with fireworks.

Females belonging to the best classes of Hindoos are exceedingly fond of
jewellery. They wear rings on their noses, and rings on their toes, as well as
THE HINDOOS. 145



in their ears and on their fingers. Large rows of diamonds, pearls, and rubies
are around the neck ; several bracelets are on the wrists, and anklets, or “ tinkling
ornaments,” on the feet, The poor, who cannot afford such costly articles, have
similar adornments made of different-coloured glass.

Dr. Seudder,* of Madras, describes a little girl who came to him loaded
with trinkets, “On the 17th, a little dancing girl came to see us. She was
adorned with many jewels, some of which were very beautiful, The jewel in
the top of the ear was a circle, nearly the size of a five-shilling piece. It was
set with rubies. Nine pearls were suspended from it. In the middle of the
ear was a jewel of a diamond shape, set with rubies and pearls. The lowest
jewel in the ear was shaped like a bell. It was set with rubies, and from it
hung a row of pearls. Close by the ear, suspended from the hair, was a jewel
which reached below her ear. It consisted of six bells of gold, one above the
other. Around each was a small row of pearls, which reached nearly to the
bell below, thus forming a jewel resembling very many drops of pearls. It was
the most beautiful jewel that I ever saw. In the right side of her nose was a
white stone, set with gold, in the shape of a star, From it hung a large pearl.
There was a hole bored in the partition between the nostrils, This hole had a
jewel in it, about an inch in length, in the middle of which was a white stone,
with a ruby on each side. It also had a ruby on the top. From the white
stone hung another of a similar colour, attached to it by a piece of gold. In
the left side of the nose was a jewel about three inches round. It was somewhat
in the shape of a half-moon, and was set with rubies, pearls, and emeralds.
This jewel hung below her mouth. On the back of her head was a large,
round gold piece. Another large piece hung below this. Her hair was braided
in one braid, and hung down her back. At the bottom of this were three large
tassels of silk, mounted with gold. Her eyebrows and eyelashes were painted
with black. Her neck was covered with jewels of such beauty, and of such
a variety, that I cannot describe them. Around her ankles were large rings,
which looked like braided silver. To these were attached very many little bells,
which rung as she walked.”

It was in the reign of Queen Elizabeth that English ships were sent
to open a trade with the Hindoos. The chief articles that were then sought
were spices and silks. The annual value of the trade at the present time
amounts to many millions of pounds. India is now a part of the empire of
Queen Victoria.

For more than one hundred years Protestant missionaries have laboured in

* “Tales of the Heathen,” by Dr. Scudder.
146 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



India. The results have been very blessed. .A land once covered with moral
darkness has now in it many a bright spot. Thousands of the heathen have
forsaken their idols, and have become believers in Jesus. In their hearts the
same faith, love, peace, and hope are felt, and in their lives the same zeal,
devotedness, and consistency are seen, as are manifested by believers in our own
land. When the Holy Spirit converts the heathen, they are brought to trust in
the same God, to love the same Saviour, to show the same Christian graces and
tempers, and to enjoy the same hope in death, as those do who were born into
a more privileged condition.

There are more than seven hundred Protestant clergymen and ministers now
labouring in India. Their work is chiefly missionary, Besides these, there are
thousands of native catechists, schoolmasters, and other assistants, raised up from
among the converts; and native Christian churches and schoolhouses now stand
on spots once wholly given up to idolatry.



















































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE DYING LEFT TO PERISH ON THE GANGES,
Tee CrNecALRSRe

Cryton is a large island in the Indian Ocean, 270 miles long and 140 broad. It
forms a part of the British possessions in the East. Population about 1,700,000. Chief
cities, Colombo and Candy.

nis island is populated by the Crncaness, who occupy the coasts; the
Maxapars, who are scattered all over the country; the Canprans, who
chiefly reside in the centre; and the Veppaus, a savage race, who are
supposed to be the descendants of the original inhabitants, and who
live in the mountain recesses. These last are destitute of houses,
sleep in the boughs of trees or on the ground, and at the least
alarm flee like monkeys in a forest.

The Cingalese are divided into nineteen classes, the highest being the farmers
of the soil, and the lowest a tribe in a very degraded condition, who devour
any offal they can find. In general, the natives of Ceylon are strong, hardy,
active, but mild, timid, and unwarlike in their habits. The lower classes wear
very little clothing, in contrast with the rich, who adorn themselves in fine
muslins and handsome attire.

Education is to some extent enjoyed by the higher ranks, but only by males.
It is computed that only one girl in five hundred has any kind of book instruction
given to her.

Whatever be the low state of the people of Ceylon at the present time, it
is certain that the inhabitants of this island, in ages long since passed away,
were in a condition of higher civilization than at present. There are vast ruins
of tanks and reservoirs in which rain was formerly collected for watering the
rice-fields. In districts now solitary their number and extent are surprising.
Some are fifteen miles in length and five in breadth. Sir J. E. Tennant,
formerly English governor of Ceylon, thus describes one of these reservoirs: “It
is a prodigious work, nearly seven miles in length, three hundred feet broad at
the base, upwards of sixty feet high, and faced throughout its whole extent
with hewn stone. There are vast sluices and vents to regulate the escape of the
water. The ends of the stones are carved with elephants’ heads and other devices.”







































































































































































































THE CINGALESE. 149



Pearl-fishing is one of the chief employments of the Cingalese. It is an
enterprise of great hazard. The divers prepare for their descent with the
first bright streak of the morn. A kind of open scaffolding formed of oars
projects from each side of the boat, and from it the diving tackle is suspended.

\ \\

Ni

\

































































































































































































































































































































































































PEARL-DIVERS.

A diving-stone, of about twenty-five pounds weight, hangs from an oar by
a rope, and sinks about five feet in the sea. One of the divers, with only a
strip of calico about his loins, descends into the water, takes hold of the rope,
and puts one foot into a loop or stirrup which is formed above the top of
the stone. A basket made of a wooden hoop and network, and suspended by
150 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



a second rope, is thrown into the water, in which he places his other foot. He
holds the rope of the stone and the rope attached to the basket in one hand,
and grasps his nostrils with the other, to prevent the water rushing in, and then
swiftly descends.

As soon as he touches the bottom, he throws himself as much as possible
on his face, rapidly collects the pearl oysters into the basket, perhaps to the
number of about one hundred and fifty. Then letting go the rope, he springs
upward, and in about a minute and a half from the moment of his descent he
is again above water, leaving the people in the boat to pull up the basket with
its treasure. He does not return into the boat, but prepares for another descent,
and so continues for about six hours at his work without apparent weariness.
A crowd on the shore awaits the arrival of the fishing-boats, and in a short,
time the pearls are taken from the oyster-shells, and arranged on strings, ready
for sale.

These “spoils of the sea” are much valued in the East, and those of the
finest kind obtain high prices, as was also the case in ancient times. It is stated
that the pearl ear-rings of the famous Cleopatra of Egypt were of the value of
£161,458 of our money. Julius Cesar presented his mother with a single peazl,
for which he paid equal to £48,547. Such facts remind us of the words of our
Lord: “The kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchantman seeking goodly
pearls; who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that
he had, and bought it.” Thus He, “who spake as never man spake,” teaches
us the value of spiritual blessings, and the wisdom of our making every sacrifice
that we may possess them.




Tar Buewrse ano Kagense

Burman is in the south-east of Asia; it is 540 miles in length and 420 in breadth
and has a population of 8,000,000. Chief city, Ava.

tee ne Burmese, or Birmans, are a short, stout, and active people, of a
(X%> dark-brown complexion, with black and coarse hair, which is “so cut
as to appear like hogs’
bristles.” They live in
thatched huts, generally
on the sides of rivers.
These rivers are over-
flowed for about six months of
the year,. which is favourable to
the cultivation of rice, their prin-
cipal article of food. “They cast
their bread (or rice-seed) on the
waters, and find it after many
days.” In gome districts their
houses are raised on high poles,
as a protection against floods and
the attacks of wild beasts.

These people are divided into
six classes, which are distinct in
their usages and privileges. These
are the royal family, the priests,
public officers, rich men and mer-
chants, labourers, and slaves and
outcasts. The title of the king is
Boa, which signifies “ emperor.”

Debtors who are unable to
pay their creditors are sold as
slaves, and reduced to the lowest class until their debts are paid. Among the
outcasts are lepers, who are forced to live apart from their families.

!
SX




















































































































































































































152 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



The Burmese derived their religion from the Hindoos. Their priests are a
kind of monks, and wear a yellow dress. They will not cook their own food, nor























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































BURMESE ‘TEMPLE,

perform any kind of labour, but live on charity. A white elephant is always
kept by them in great state, in a palace especially built for it, and is considered
THE BURMESE AND KARENS. 153



next to the king in rank. Considerable estates are given to it, and it has a large
staff of officers, and about a thousand guards in constant attendance on “his
highness.” It is regarded as a great honour and a work of merit to be
permitted to feed it.

Gaudama, or Buddha, is the chief idol of the Burmese. He is often represented
as thirty feet high, sitting cross-legged, has long
ears, large eyes, and his hands and feet are painted
with various devices. The people are taught, that “if
a person were to kill his father, and mother, and
children, and do all manner of wickedness, yet if he
paid homage to a priest of this idol, he should be
born into the world of gods, even though he did not :
repent of sin.”

The pagodas, or temples, devoted to the wor- jf
ship of Gaudama are very numerous; they appear
in every part of the land. Large, richly carved, |
profusely ornamented, and covered with bright gold,
they are striking objects in a landscape. There is Enis.
commonly before the entrance of each pagoda a
large mast of teak-wood called a henza pole, nearly on the top of which is a
carving of the “sacred bird.”



A distinct race, the Karens, occupy all the mountainous districts of Burmah.
They are a most interesting people; and many of their religious teachings and
traditions are probably derived from the Holy Scriptures; such as, there is one
God, who is eternal, omnipotent, omnipresent, and the Creator of all things ;
also, as to the place of the first man and woman in a garden, with a charge
not to eat of a particular tree; the temptation, the fall, and the curse; angels,
Satan, the deluge, the dispersion of mankind, and the resurrection.”*

Dr. Judson and other American missionaries laboured for years in Burmah
with great zeal, and often amidst much persecution. Their success among the
Karens was most remarkable. Large numbers of this people “received the word
with all readiness of mind,” and proved their faith in Christ as the Saviour of

their souls. 3
* See Mason's “ Karen Apostle; or, Memoir of Ko-Thah-Byu.”
EE Sb APANESE?



Ey

JAPAN is an extensive empire at the eastern extremity of Asia, with a population of
35,000,000, governed by a large number of petty princes called Daimios, over whom is the
Tycoon, or chief sovereign. Chief city, Jeddo.






oe 1 c
Cee %> un earliest knowledge of Japan was brought to Europe by a traveller

named Marco Polo, about six hundred years ago. Since his days we
have become better acquainted with the hundreds of islands forming
this kingdom, which is often called “the sealed empire.” Many of
these islands are to this day unvisited by Europeans or Americans.
Some are said to be lovely and fruitful; others are bleak and barren,

= and can only be approached through narrow channels, beset with rocks
and whirlpools. Of late years attempts have been made to become friends and —
traders with the Japanese, and with varying success.

Jeddo is described as “one of the finest cities of the world.” The houses of
the nobles are palaces; and we may imagine the size of one of these when we
learn that it will contain several thousand followers. Everything inside is in good
order, rich in value, and very clean. In the villages, the cottage-homes of the
poor have neatly-clipped hedges, and have a comfortable look about them.

A few years since, several American men-of-war went on a visit to Japan.
The peeple were at first very shy, but soon became familiar, and went on board
the vessels, showing great curiosity to learn about the different objects they saw.
They followed the officers and men about the ship, and whenever they could do
so, they began to examine every part of their dress. The gold-laced caps, boots,
swords, and tailed coats of the officers, and the jackets and trowsers of the sailors,
called forth expressions of surprise. They fingered the broadcloth, smoothed down
the nap with their hands, pulled a lappet here, adjusted a collar there, and thrust
their fingers into the pockets, pulling out to view what was therein. But the articles
which very much took their fancy were buttons. Their chief request was to have
a button, and when presented with such a cheap gift, they carried it away as if it
THE JAPANESE, 155

were of the greatest value. A button is almost unknown in their dress, which
is kept together by strincs and sashes.

When visiting the ships they were never at rest, but went about peeping into
every nook and corner, peering into the muzzles of the guns, handling the ropes,
and touching and measuring almost everything on board.*

The American officers, who had special opportunities of seeing the people, went
on a visit to a mayor or prefect of one of the towns. They were welcomed with
great cordiality, and hospitably entertained. In the interior of the mayor’s house





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































JAPANESE ROYAL BARGE.

was a large room, spread with soft mats, with oiled paper windows, and furnished
with red-coloured benches. The wife and sister of the magistrate entered with
refreshments, and smiled a timid welcome to the guests. The ladies were bare-
footed, and were dressed very nearly alike, in dark-coloured robes, secured by a
broad band passing round the waist. Their faces were not wanting in expression,
for which they were chiefly indebted to their bright eyes, which were black, as

* “ American Expedition to Japan in 1852-54.”

Ted,
156 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



well as their hair: this was drawn up at the top of the head into the form of a
“chignon,” and fastened with large skewer-like pins.









JAPANESE WOMAN AND GIRL.

Their lips were red, and when smiling they displayed a row of black teeth. Only
the married women of Japan have the privilege of dyeing their teeth of a black colour.
THE JAPANESE. 157



The mayor gave to his guests tea and confectionery. He was very active in
dispensing these offerings, and was ably seconded by his wife and sister, who always











JAPANESE PRIEST, IN FULL DRESS,

remained on their knees in presence of the strangers. This awkward position of
the women did not seem to interfere with their activity, for they kept moving about
158 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

very backly on Sie ‘Totes, filled with a “strong is ealed one ae nee
services, from the smallness of the cups, were in constant requisition. The two
ladies were unceasingly courteous, and kept bowing their heads like a bobbing toy
mandarin.

The mayoress was so good-natured as to bring in her baby, which her guests
felt bound to make the most of, though its dirty face and general untidy appearance
made it a painful effort to caress it. A bit of sweetmeat being presented to the
infant, it was directed to bow its shaven head, which it did with a degree of
politeness that called forth the greatest admiration on the part of its mother and
all the ladies present.

In rainy weather the Japanese wear a covering made of straw, which being
fastened together at top, is suspended from the neck, and falls over the shoulders
and person like a thatched roof. Some of the higher classes cover their robes
with an oiled paper cloak, which is proof against wet. The umbrella is almost
a constant companion, and serves both to shade from the sun and keep off a shower.
Men are never seen out of doors without a fan stuck in their girdles.

The children of Japan have similar games of play to those found in our country,
as kites, hoops, tops, dolls, marbles, pitch-in-the-hole, and blind-man’s-buff. Their
books are illustrated with pictures, though in a style which would only awaken in
us the loudest mirth.

The dress of a girl is very full at the back, and is well secured round the
waist. A mother will call her young daughter from her play, and place the baby
of the family in this sort of pouch at the back, and tying the strings safely round
the neck and waist, will send the girl again to her sports, with her little burden
as in a huge back pocket, whilst she moves about as if she were at full liberty.
This is their way of “minding the baby.”

The Japanese are great eaters, though they are temperate in drink. A dinner-
party will occupy three or four hours, but they stop every now and then to engage
in smoking their pipes, and then return with a new appetite to the abundant bill
of fare.

Among the dishes at a feast appears to be something like pig: possibly it is so;
though it may be a young puppy. Other dishes consist of sliced boiled eggs dyed
crimson, fish made into rolls and boiled in fat, pieces of cold baked fish, slices of
hog’s liver, sugar-candy, cucumbers, salted radish- -tops, and fragments of lean pork
fried. The first course often consists of balls of meat in dough; then come seven or
eight courses of different kinds of soup, to be followed by gingerbread, salad made
of bean-sprouts and young onion-tops, a basket of what appears to be some dark
red fruit, but which proves to be artificial balls composed of a thin rind covering
THE JAPANESE. 159

a sugary ate: and a fchoour mixture sereponnled of beaten eggs and a slender
white root with an aromatic taste.

The Japanese profess the Buddhist religion, and have numerous
temples, in which are idols of wood, clay, and stone. The priests are
dressed in rich embroidered and figured silks, and wear strange-looking
head-dresses. These men live in monasteries, to which are given
fanciful titles, as “ great-peace,” “source of knowledge,” “fountain of
happiness,” “continual joy,” “source of reason,” and “long life”
monasteries.

Near to some of these religious houses are praying machines.
One of these singular contrivances consists of a square post, on which
inscriptions about their idol Buddha are cut. It is eight feet in
height, and about a third of the way upwards is a small wheel.
Every person who, in passing, turns it round, is said to obtain credit
in heaven, according to the number of the turns he gives to it. A
traveller once saw one of these wheels turned by water power; and
it has been scornfully said that they should use steam, and then .
their prayers could be multiplied to any extent. But, oh, this is
very sad. In their ignorance, priests and people know nothing of
true communion with God, through the mediation of our Lord Jesus
Christ. They are in darkness as to the only way of salvation through
faith ; they have never heard the gospel invitation, “ Behold the Lamb of God,
Seok taketh away the sin of the world;” and, in their blindness of mind, ier
satisfy themselves with the wretched delusion of the “ praying-mill !”








Tee CReLIEsEe

Cutna forms the south-castern part of Asia, and includes an extent of country
exceeding in size the continent of Europe, and is one-tenth of the whole habitable globe.
Population about 470,000,000. Capital city, Pekin.

=e) 1u Chinese are one of the oldest races of people on the earth, ag they

are also one of the most singular in their manners and customs. What
they are now, so were their forefathers hundreds of years ago. They
plant their tea, tend their silkworms, build their junks, erect their
houses, and dress their persons, after the fashion of ages long since past.

In appearance they have darkish-yellow complexion, small eyes,
which appear aslant, high cheek-bones, and thick lips.

There are some points in the character of the Chinese which claim our respect.
They are industrious, peaceful, respectful to the aged, and affectionate to their
kindred, But, on the other hand, they are insincere, untruthful, and proudly regard
other nations with contempt. They are very fond of gambling, and are great
consumers of opium, which produces an intoxicating effect and ruins the health.

They are an ingenious and clever people, and have the merit of making
several important discoveries. There is no doubt that nearly three thousand years
ago they had an instrument similar to that known to us as the mariner’s compass,
which they used in steering their vessels and in travelling over deserts. Printing
was an art familiar to them for five hundred years before it was invented in the
western part of the world. A French writer has recently asserted that a kind of
gas, conducted through bamboo pipes, was employed in some parts of China long,
long ago.

As in other countries where the gospel is unknown, women are treated in a
degrading manner. Girls are scarcely thought of any value in a family; and when
a female infant is born, the house is filled with regrets and weeping, because “a
useless being is come into the world.” The lives of young girls and married
women are those of constant hardship and sorrow. Travellers have stated that


THE CHINESE. 161



hundreds and thousands of infant girls are murdered every year in China, to escape
29%

what is called the “dishonour and trouble of bringing them up.



il WW Az CS Se

re









} ll

|
a









































On approaching a town there is frequently seen a number of boots and shoes,
* Sir John Barrow’s “ Travels in China,”
162 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



dusty and tumbling in pieces, hanging against the principal gate. These have been
presentations of honour; as it is customary to offer boots made of satin to any
mandarin who has obtained a character for good government. After his death,
these are hung up at the gate, and are regarded as among the glories of the place.

A Chinawoman dresses much like a Chinaman. If she be a lady, she paints
her face, eyebrows, and teeth. Her feet are only a few inches long, as, from
earliest childhood, they are compressed by bending the toes under the feet. This
habit is chiefly found among the higher classes.

Mandarins are noblemen and magistrates. They are of different classes or
degrees, and are known, for the most part, by the buttons they wear in front or
on the top of their caps. The first class wear a ruby button; the second one made
of coral; the third of sapphire; the fourth of torquoise; the fifth of crystal; the
sixth of pearl; the seventh of ornamented gold; the eighth of plain gold; and
the ninth of silver. The dress of the mandarins is of the richest silk, embroidered
in the most elegant style.

Soldiers are called “tigers of war” and “braves.” Their dress is very singular,
and the banners which they carry are large, and
are supposed to be so terrible as to frighten the
enemy at the first onslaught of battle.

There are many practices in China which
appear to us singular. The males shave their
heads, leaving only one lock on the crown,
which is allowed to grow until it becomes a
long tail, This fashion requires a good many
barbers in the land. It is said that there are
seven thousand of this trade in the city of
Canton. They commonly perform their office in
the streets.

The Chinese put on white, and not black,
when they mourn for the dead. A man of
position wears two watches; as a Chinaman said
to an Englishman, when asked the reason for
the practice, “If one watch-ee be sick-ee, the
other can talk-ee.” The Chinese mariner’s compass points to the south, and not
to the north, as with us. English boys amuse themselves with kites; in China it
is one of the chief pleasures of old men.

On entering a school another novelty is to be seen. The master is seated at
a table, while a boy repeats his lesson. A strange singing noise is heard as the


THE CHINESE. 163

little fellow rocks from side to side. His back is turned on the master,—a clever
plan, the teacher thinks, to keep the scholar from peeping over the book and
helping himself out in a badly-learned lesson.

Articles of food are very scarce in China
in comparison with the population to be
supplied. The people are glad to eat not
only dogs, but cats, stewed owls, grasshoppers,
snakes, birds’ nests, and rats. Whole rows
of the latter may be seen neatly skinned |
and skewered in the Canton market, just as ||
a poulterer in England displays his pigeons |
or chickens.
dining in a Chinese house, and ate very
heartily of what seemed a piece of duck set
before him. Having, at last, some doubts
as to the nature of the dish, he pointed it
out to the servant that came round; and 2
being unable to speak Chinese, said, “ Quack, 2
quack, quack,” imitating the noise of a duck,
as much as to say, “That is duck I have
been eating, is it not?” The servant seemed to understand his meaning, for
he pointed to the dish also, shook his head, and- said, “Bow, wow, wow,”
barking like a dog, and leaving the gentleman to finish his dinner the best
way he could after that information.

The government junks have always an eye painted on them, and the natives
believe that if they were smuggling, these eyes would see them. A captain of one
of them was asked what he meant by always putting this eye on the vessel. He
replied, in his broken English, “If it have eye, it can see; if can see, can savez”
(that is, can know what is going on); “if no eye, no see; if no see, no savez.”
This was a very foolish notion; but are our sailors at all wiser when they nail a
horse-shoe to the mast for good luck, or whistle for a fair wind ?

There was a time, though ages and ages have rolled away since then, when
the Chinese honoured God under the name of Tien; but gross darkness by
degrees came upon them, and, like the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, they made
to themselves gods of wood and stone, and worshipped the sun, the moon, and
the stars.

As the clouds in the heavens often hide the glorious sun from our sight, so
do the shadows of superstition hide from the Chinese the Sun of righteousness.








164 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



Some of the people believe one thing, and some another; but all of them worship
the spirits of the dead.

They hope to gain happiness in a future state in different ways. One is a
follower of Taou, or reason; and

WP he hopes, by adhering to his faith,

YY .

oe We and by often repeating over the
AY) IZ name of its founder, to obtain life
Sl and immortality. Another is a
A Buddhist, a follower of Fo. He

worships the three divine ones—the
past, the present, and the future ;
while another follows the opinions of
Confucius, an ancient philosopher.
The Chinese adore the queen of
heaven, which is the moon; the
gods of war, fortune, and rain;
the earth, the spirits of pleasure,
and spirits of the air; with the
flying dragon, the tiger with nine
human heads, the six-headed cro-
codile, and hundreds more of this
kind.

Many devoted efforts have
been made to spread abroad the
gospel among the Chinese. It has
been preached, the Holy Scriptures
have been translated into their
language, and Christian books
have been freely circulated. That
these efforts have produced an



Wee.

z= Ww 4 eee i

xy Sy wi ee Coe Weta Sty Sos effect cannot be doubted. It is
SBS NT Wipes SA, SOI ey - :
ype, ANS NR oes! now the season when the seed is

being sown; we may feel confi-
dent that the time of reaping
shall follow, and China, with her millions, shall know Jesus Christ, and ascribe
to him the praise of their salvation.

NATIVE CHINESE DRAWING.
Tan AneeRrese

Tur councry of Algiers, or Algeria, is in Northern Africa, and is called by the natives
Moghreb-el-Ausat, or “the middle west.” Several races inhabit it, the chief of them being
Kabyles (in the mountains) and Arabs (in the plains). There are also numerous Moors.
The population is 2,000,000. Chief city, Algiers.









































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































ALGIERS.
166 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



side of a town more than twenty thousand feet occupied with orange
trees of full age; more than twelve thousand trees newly planted; two
thousand covered with leaves, and about thirty-five thousand of young
orange shoots. There are also millions of olive-trees in the country.

The Algerines in general are of a middle stature, and robust,
and of a dark olive colour, though many of the females are nearly
as fair as Europeans. The dress of the males consists of a jacket and waistcoat,
plentifully adorned with buttons; loose trowsers; a broad sash, which serves for
pocket and purse; a red cap or turban on the head; and yellow slippers on the
feet.

It is the usual custom to shave the head. Even little boys have all their
hair shorn off, with the exception of a tuft at the top, which grows into a pig-
tail. A barber’s shop presents a very amusing sight. In the middle sits a victim
wrapped up in a white sheet, while the barber operates upon him; and, on divans
and mats all round the interior of the shop, Arabs sit patiently smoking, sipping
coffee, or sleeping, till their turn to be shaved comes.

' The females wear a large piece of white silk or cotton, called a hayk, six
yards in length, which they wrap closely around them. The lower part of their
face is veiled; their eyebrows are painted, generally with a red colour; and
bracelets, rings, and other jewellery are largely worn. The higher class of women
are closely confined to their houses, where they have few cares and few pleasures.
They are shut out from nearly all society. Books, to them, are almost unknown,
and they remain all their lives nearly as ignorant as little children; and as they
are commonly regarded by their husbands as not haying souls, they are deprived
of all religious instruction.

The native population of Algiers numbers seventy thousand, and perhaps
there are few cities on the face of the earth where there are more varieties in
character and in race. The greater part of the lower orders pass most of their
time out of doors. The scene in the chief lounge of that city is thus de-
scribed :—

“Here,” says the Rev. E. Davies, “may be seen grand Turks, whose heads
are surmounted by turbans as broad as their shoulders; muftis, or Mohammedan
judges, buried in the endless folds of their white head-gear, which resembles a
mighty cotton ball wrought and wound in Manchester; the Algerine Jew, in his
purple-and-gold suit, with patent leather high-heeled shoes, white stockings to the



























































































































168 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



knee, and an amber-headed cane in his hand—of all coxcombs the greatest ;
princes of the land, with hewers of wood and drawers of water; French ladies,
in the last full fashion of the Parisian season; negresses, in a cotton wrap of
scrimpy dimensions, with unclad picaninnies, or babes, slung and pouched like
young opossums at their back; and, lastly, fair Mauresques, enveloped in snowy
attire, who, were it not for their beautiful eyes, whose sparkle cannot be veiled,
might be mistaken for ghosts passing to and fro silently among the human crowd,
but taking no part in its affairs.

“The Arab of the desert and the Kabyle of the mountains are lying at full
length on the ground within a few yards of you, and each displays a set of limbs
worthy of Hercules. Suddenly a sound strikes on the ear, which attracts their
earnest attention, The Arab and the Kabyle spring to their legs, and the Moor,
lowering his pipe, blows out the last whiff in deference to the call. It is the
cry of the muezzin, summoning the faithful to prayer; and if ever a Mussulman
is roused from his habitual idleness, it is to obey the law of his prophet; he
washes in haste and hurries to the mosque. Five times during the night and day
the muezzin mounts the minarets, and, in a loud, sonorous tone, proclaims the hour
of prayer. Men of strong lungs are selected for the office, and far and wide over
the city the sound is heard, like that of a tenor bell,

‘Swinging low, with solemn roar,
Over some wide-watered shore.’

In the stillness of night the invitation to worship God falls on the stranger’s
ear with most impressive effect, for the sound, if it awaken the sleeper, will
awaken his conscience as well, He hears the Mussulman pattering in the dark
street, on his way to the mosque, and then his thoughts turn inwards, ‘How
do I serve God? The comparison, if it do not make him a better man, will
only add to his condemnation; the inhabitants of Tyre and Sidon will appear in
judgment against him on the last great day; ‘for unto whomsoever much is
given, of him shall much be required.’”

“A cattle market,” says a traveller, “presents one of the strangest scenes
TI ever beheld. It is a large open space, just within the walls, and towards
afternoon it was so filled with Arabs and their sheep, that it looked like one
moving mass of white drapery and wool. The natives, all dressed in their long
white flowing robes and turbans, with their white scarfs bound to their headg
with cords of camel’s hair, were busy arranging their sheep and cattle for the
morrow, or making their bargains. I saw several sitting up against a wall,
counting over with much glee whole handfuls of bright silver pieces of money.
THE ALGERINES. 169
Their sheep and goats were tied together in fours, by their horns or heads; the
poor camels, who looked very savage, and raised sounds something between a
scream and a roar, with their fore legs tied up to their thighs, to prevent them
from moving, had a most pitiable appearance. The noise made by these quarrelling
Arabs, in the harsh guttural tones of their voices, was deafening. Most of them,
when they had concluded their bargains, lay quietly down to sleep on the ground.
A sheep, I was told, fetched from thirteen to seventeen francs, which, as they are
fine animals, seemed cheap enough. These Arabs are terrible misers, and their
great aim is to get money, which they do not spend, but either hide or bury.”

A favourite sport among the higher classes is the chase of the ostrich. The
ostrich is hunted by Arab steeds, which run him down by mere fleetness of foot; they
must, however, be well trained and in high condition to do this, or the bird will
distance them in the race, and leave them out of sight. When the bird is run
down in the chase, the hunter taps him on the head with a stick, and he is dead.
The feathers are a valuable prize, and are exchanged by the hunters of the desert
for corn. The flesh from the bird’s breast is cooked in cutlets, and is accounted
a dish fit for royalty.

A great change has, during the last few years, come over this country, which
is now a colony of France, and called Algeria. Its history under the deys, or
sovereigns, is a series of lawless outrage, murder, and piracy. The merchant
ships of all countries were their prey, the crews being sold into the most wretched
kind of slavery. At length Algiers was bombarded, and nearly destroyed, by
the English, and afterwards taken by the French, by whom it is now held as a
conquered region.









M
ee Mess:

Morocco is the most westerly State of Northern Africa, and bears the Arab name of
Mogreb-el-Aksa, or “the far west.’ Population, 8,500,000, consisting of several races,
of which by far the most numerous are the Moors. Chief cities, Morocco and Tangiers.































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































bo

G7















cc





















1.

‘i

SSS)

















TANGIERS.
THE MOORS. 171





s) HE Moors who inhabit Morocco are described by all travellers as among
“~ the most morose, indolent, proud, and cruel people on the face of the
globe. They are strict observers of the Mohammedan religion, the
withering influence of which reigns undisturbed among them. They
y express the greatest hatred and scorn for all Christians, and the
Jews are treated by them with stern oppression. They compel the
latter to live in particular quarters in their cities, to wear a special
dress, and to endure insult without pity. :

The costume of the Moors consists of a coat, bound with a sash, drawers, a
red cap or turban, and yellow slippers. In walking abroad they commonly wear
on their heads a piece of silk or cotton, six yards in length, which serves as a
hood, the ends hanging loosely over their shoulders.

On approaching a gate of a city, the first thing that strikes a traveller is
the old Moorish archway, where, as in times of old, the judge sits to dispense
justice and settle disputes.

The houses have generally white-
washed walls pierced by grated
windows. The doorway does not at
once lead into the interior, but into
an enclosed courtyard, which acts
as a ventilator for the whole house.
Balconies run entirely round the
court, which is paved with tiles and
ornamented with shrubs and flower-
ing plants. In the residences of the
wealthier classes a- fountain stands
in the centre, throwing forth its
never-failing showers of crystal
water, the cooling and quieting
effects of which can only be felt by
those. who have lived in hot countries. The interiors are fitted up with comfort
and elegance, and in many cases with magnificence. Some of the houses of
the richer Moors haye more or less of that gorgeous style of decoration which
we see brought to perfection in the Alhambra. The tops of the houses, which
are flat, are a general place of resort in the cool of the evening, when, after the
sun has set, they become a delightful retreat.











mM 2


ran Apyssrwranse

Axyssinia, or Upper Hthiopia, is a kingdom of Hast Africa, about 500 miles long,
and 200 in breadth. It is bounded on the east by the Red Sea, and on the south by the
Galla country. It consists of 27,000 square miles, and is supposed to have a population
of about 4,500,000. Chief commercial city, Massowah.

nD
eS
Mf

HE Abyssinians are divided into several tribes. Mr. Bruce, a famous
traveller in this land, describes the complexion of a greater part as
of the colour of pale ink. Others are stated to be olive brown, others
bronze, some quite black, and many almost as fair as Europeans.

The men are rough, idle, and dirty. They are famous horse-riders.

Their wives and daughters are held in low esteem. No man of

position will feed himself, and two females of his household sit beside

him, whose duty it is to thrust large pieces of meat into his mouth. The meat

is very slightly cooked, and is often devoured quite raw. When he is well
satisfied, his wife and daughters are at liberty to feed on what is left.

The houses are covered with thatch, and are small, uncomfortable, and filthy.
The manners and customs of the Abyssinians are rude, and often those of savage
life. In times of sickness they resort to many superstitious practices. Gathering
together the best dress of the sick person, and any jewels or gold belonging to
him, or that they can borrow, they spread them out to view, in the belief that
they shall. thus move the pity of the spirit that troubles him. They then make
a fearful noise with shouts, shrieks, trumpets, and drums, that they may drive
out the evil spirit. And no sooner does the man die, than the most frantic cries
are heard. The mourners cast themselves on the ground, tear their heads, and
wound their bodies till the blood freely flows. The dead body is now washed,
and sewn up in the clothes worn in lifetime, and carried to the graye. Hired
mourners join their lamentations; after which the whole party returns home, to
hold a feast in honour of the departed.

Abyssinia has of late years become well known to the English by the war
there carried on against king Theodore. This man, who in early life was a
robber chief, gained great power, raised large armies, and overcame all who opposed



















































































































































































174 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

him, and reigned as king. For some time he permitted missionaries from England
to carry on their work among his people; but at length, in the belief that he
had not been treated with respect by the English government, he cast them, and
some English officers, into a prison.

At first the captives were treated with some kindness. But afterwards, not
only irons of great weight were placed on them, there was an additional chain



=——_
a

MOG ES

=



INTERIOR OF HUT,

put on the hand; and when the king was in a bad temper, some new hardship
was laid, not only upon those persons who were the cause, but upon all with-
out exception.

The houses of mud and reeds which formed the prison were locked up during
the night; but as soon as the sun rose they were opened, and every one who
had been able to build a hut for himself without the enclosure could there spend

the day. All the huts were overlooked by a hill, where the warders were placed,

keeping a strict look-out. For every ten prisoners, a soldier was appointed to
THE ABYSSINIANS. 175



watch. He was put in irons himself if one of them escaped, which, however,
was very difficult indeed to accomplish.

When on guard, the soldiers would sometimes lay their arms on the ground
and unwind their girdle, a piece of cotton cloth half a yard broad by ten yards
long, which was twisted round and round their bodies. “I must stop short,”
says one of the missionaries, in an account he wrote of his trials, “to say a
few words about this article of dress. Barbarous as it appears, the girdle is of
great value to the Abyssinian. It supports him in his work, and in his many
walks over mountains and through deep valleys; and he would live all his life
on the poorest fare rather than be deprived of it. I have many times thought
that the girdles which were worn in Palestine must have been something similar.
If so, what a beautiful metaphor is that which the apostle employs in speaking
to the Ephesians: ‘Having your loins girt about with truth, that you faint not
in your ascents and descents and wanderings through life. Practise every self-
denial rather than be for a moment without this treasure—truth.”

At last the prisoners were treated worse than the lowest criminals. While
the latter had a small space assigned to them in one of the houses wherein to
seek shelter from the sun by day, and the cold at night, the former were left in
the open air to shift for themselves as best they could, not the least consideration
being taken of a lady and a young child; and it was only after the lapse of
some days that they were allowed to pitch a tent or fasten a piece of cloth
under the awning of the roof, wherein they dwelt for the next fifteen months.
Seven months they were here in foot-chains, and in the eighth a hand-chain was
added. During the day they were stared at by the curious like so many wild
beasts in our Zoological Gardens; but, while the latter are generally admired on
account of their strength, size, or beauty, they were ridiculed, as having “ hair
like monkeys, eyes like cats, complexion like milk,” etc.; and it was ouly after
several of them began to speak in a tongue they knew, that the remark was
made—“ Although they do not resemble, yet they are human beings indeed!”

It is unnecessary to repeat here the account how the British troops invaded
the country of king Theodore, and slew him, took his strong city, and set the
prisoners at liberty.

The wife of Theodore appears to have been a woman who had a better
knowledge of the gospel than most of the people of the land. She did not live
long after the king. Before she died, she put her little son into the hands of
the English general. “Keep him,” she said, “and give him a Christian educa-
tion, then he can come back, if God spare his life, and do good to this poor
people.”
176 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



The general brought the little prince, Allu-Mayu, to England. One day after
his arrival a minister spoke to him about the love of God in giving his Son
Christ Jesus to die on the cross to save us from our sins. Allu-Mayu could not
understand our language; but Captain Speedy, the gentleman who had charge of
him, told him what was said. The little Abyssinian boy paid strict attention, and
tears soon filled in his eyes. When the minister was done speaking, Allu-Mayu
turned to his guardian, and said, “Will you tell this kind gentleman that I
thank him very much? I am very glad to hear all this, for it is just what
my mother used to say to me. She often told me how Jesus loved me, and that
if I loved him and prayed to him, he would make me a good child, and take
me to himself, to live with him for ever when I die.”



























































































































































VIEW IN ABYSSINIA.
TERE BEVPLLAWS?

Eeypt, a country of North-eastern Africa, is remarkable for its ancient and sacred
associations, its wonderful monuments of human skill and power, and for the striking fulfil-
ment of prophecy, as seen in its past history and present state. It extends 600 miles from
east to west, and is of various breadth. Present population, about 2,500,000. Chief cities,
Cairo and Alexandria. The renowned river, the Nile, flows from one end of the land to the
other, without receiving the waters of any tributary stream. The country is reckoned a
part of the Turkish empire, but is, to a great extent, independent, under a Khédive, or
Viceroy.

j- un people of this land are divided into Mohammedan Egyptians, the
‘NS , Copts, or Christian Egyptians, the Turks, Syrians, Greeks, Jews, and
g a large number of black slaves. There are also wandering Arabs in
the desert parts of the kingdom, who are not counted in the total of
"% the population.
ey The Copts are supposed to be the descendants of the ancient
Egyptians. They have flat foreheads, high cheek-bones, short noses,
thick lips, and small dark eyes. They are held in subjection by the Turks, and
were formerly compelled to wear a black turban as a mark of inferiority. Other
classes wear white and red turbans; a green one is a mark of high honour.

The peasants are called fellahs: they are a tame and ignorant class, and so
despised that the Arabs will not give them their daughters in marriage. They
are employed in cultivating wheat, rice, indigo, and cotton.

The cotton harvest is a time of joy to the field labourers. In this work
large numbers of young Arab girls find employment. Early in the morning, and
again a little before sunset, troops of these young females, in a line, are seen
coming from the fields, with baskets full of cotton on their heads; and, as they
move along, they sing some plaintive Arab ditty, with a chorus, in which they
all unite.

An English lady, Miss Whately, daughter of the late Archbishop Whately,
went to Cairo to establish a ragged school for girls in that city. In a little
yolume* she sketches the ways and manners of the lower classes. Dwelling among
the poor, she learned from visitation and daily observation their mode of life.




* « Ragged Life in Egypt.”
178 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



Her book furnishes many illustrations of Scripture texts which, to those
ignorant of Eastern life, now seem strange or fanciful, but which are beautiful
when taken in their original meaning.















































































































































































IZA RK =
COTTON HARVEST IN EGYPT.

“The roofs of the houses,” says Miss Whately, “are usually in a state of
litter, and were it not that an occasional clearance is made, they would give way
under the accumulation of rubbish. One thing seems never cleared away, however,
and that is the heap of old broken pitchers, sherds, and pots that are piled up
in some corner; and here there is a curious remark to be made. A little before
























































































































































UA

Ld

i
i il B

i" An

win

i
ANA

UU AN
my ri

TNA 2
le cf

Aidit nae
Leg,

ey


ee |














































































































































































180 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.





sunset, numbers of pigeons suddenly emerge from behind the pitchers and other
rubbish, where they have been sleeping in the heat of the day, or pecking about
to find food. They dart upward, and career through the air in large circles,
their outspread wings catching the bright glow of the sun’s slanting rays, so
that they really resemble: shining ‘yellow gold.’ Then, as they wheel round, and
are seen against the light, they appear as if turned into molten silver, most of
them being pure white, or else very light-coloured. This may seem fanciful,
but the effect of light in these regions can hardly be described to those who
have not seen it. Evening after evening we watched the circling flight of the
doves, and always observed the same
appearance. ‘Though ye have lien
among the spots, yet shall ye be as the
wings of a dove covered with silver,
and her feathers with yellow gold’
(Psa. Ixviii. 13).

“It was beautiful to see these
birds rising, clean and unsoiled, as
doves always do, from the dust and
dirt in which they had been hidden,
and soaring aloft in the sky till nearly
out of sight among the bright sunset
clouds. Thus.a believer, who leaves
behind him the corruptions of the
world, and is rendered bright by the
Sun of righteousness shining upon
his soul, rises higher and higher, and
nearer and nearer to the light, until,
lost to the view of those who stay behind, he has passed into the unknown
brightness above.”

With reference to the “street cries,” Miss Whately writes, “Perhaps no cry
is more striking, after all, than the short, simple cry of the water-carrier: ‘The
gift of God,’ he says, as he goes along with his water-skin on his shoulder. It
is impossible to hear this cry without thinking of the Lord’s words to the woman
of Samaria: ‘If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that saith to thee,
Give me to drink, thou wouldest have asked of him, and he would have given
thee living water’ (John iv. 10). It is very likely that water, so invaluable
and often scarce in hot countries, was then, as now, spoken of as ‘the gift of
God.’ If so, the expression would be forcible to the woman, and full of meaning.



fi

Ne fp
| | ‘

WATER-SELLER,.
THE EGYPTIANS. 181











A CLIMB UP A PYRAMID.

and make the Christian wish and pray for the time when the sonorous cry of
Za-aatee Allah! shall be a type of the cry of one bringing the living water of the
gospel to the poor Moslems, and saying, ‘Behold the gift of God!’”
182 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



Travellers who visit Cairo are led to take a journey of ten miles, to visit
the celebrated pyramids, on the edge of the desert. One of these, the Great
Pyramid of Cheops, is four hundred and sixty-one feet high, covers eleven acres
of ground, and is supposed to contain six millions of feet of bricks and stones.
One hundred and twenty thousand men are said ‘to have been employed in its
erection for twenty years. Some have thought that this work was done by the
Israelites during their captivity; but on this point there is much uncertainty,
As each stone is of vast size and great weight, we are led to ask what kind of
cranes, pulleys, and ropes they must have had to raise the mighty blocks to the
great height where they now. stand.

The pyramids are said, by some writers, to have been built as tombs of the
Pharaohs. They are entered by passages, formerly closed with great secrecy;
but they are now partly cleared from the dust of ages. These lead into several
chambers, one being larger than the rest. In the large chamber of the pyramid
Cheops, a splendid marble coffin was found, but it was empty. The riches that
were buried with the body had proved a temptation to plunder, and the remains
of the monarch had been cast out, whilst the wealth was carried off by robbers.

A climb to the top of the pyramids is the ambition of all travellers to this
land. As there are two hundred and six tiers of stone, from four feet to one foot
in height, tapering up to the top, it is not an easy effort. Half-naked men,
women, and children are ready to offer themselves as guides, and by their help
‘the visitor may reach the top in about half an hour. But he is annoyed by the
constant cry of his attendants for “ Bucksheech! bucksheech!” which means,
“Money! money!” and when they get the traveller to the top, they pretend they
will leave him there, unless he meets their appeal for more “bucksheech!” It ig
no very pleasant prospect to be left alone on the top of one of these mighty piles.

The religion of the Copts resembles the Roman Catholic in many respects.
During the last twenty years, numerous Coptic females have been instructed
in a Christian lady’s school—the first ever opened in this country for the
instruction of females; and many more are being gathered into the schools of
the American missionaries, where a number of Copt girls are receiving Vuristian
instruction.




{He Manncase,

Mapacascar lics to the south-east of the African Saubnent and is as large as England,
Scotland, and Ireland united. From north to south it is about 950 miles, and an average
of 300 miles from east to west. It was first visited by Europeans about 360 years ago,
though it had been known for centuries before to the Moors and Arabs, which people
carried on with it a considerable trade.

=<) HE Malagasy consist of several tribes, but are now blended into one
~~ nation. There are two principal races—one of a black colour, with
almost negro features; the other of a brown tint, with a Malay cast of
visage. Of the latter are the Hovahs, who are a superior class, and the
rulers of the land.

A civilised race are the Malagasy: their natural politeness is much
commended by travellers. “They are a most courteous people,” says
one who lived among them, “and have often a marked dignity and ease of manner
not at all common in other lands. In journeying, as a passer-by sees an
acquaintance at the door of his house, it would be rude to proceed without
saying, ‘Allow me to pass, sir;’ to which the reply is given, ‘Pray proceed, sir.’
Then generally follow, ‘How are you?’ ‘How is it with you?’ ‘May you
live, and reach old age!’ If it be a person of rank who is at his door, the address
is, ‘Is it well, sir?’ and the common reply is, ‘ Well indeed.’” Travelling to
distant parts is commonly performed in a sort of palanquin.

The Malagasy are generally temperate in their habits, and do not indulge
in a great variety of food. A meal in the forenoon, and another at sunset—rice
being the chief article on the table—are the usual daily allowance.

The dress of the Malagasy is very simple. The general warmth of the climate
makes a European style of clothing, with its tight and close fit, very unsuitable,
and the native dress is scanty, loose, and flowing. In the army or government
service a straw hat is worn, but in the casé of others no head-covering is allowed;
and the hair is kept long and plaited, or curled all over the head.

Shoes and stockings are not much worn, except by the higher and more
wealthy people, and even they frequently go without them, preferring the freedom


184 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



of an unconfined foot. Those above the lowest class generally wear a shirt, and
sometimes trowsers of calico or printed stuff, and a sort of cloak or lamba of fine
calico, This is occasionally edged with a border of five stripes of coloured
cloth; a distinction which seems to be confined to the Hovah tribes.













































































































































































































Sas:
nnn’ ~



VILLAGE IN MADAGASCAR.

Women of the poorer class wear a long piece of cloth round the waist, often
reaching to their heels, All, except the very poor, wear in addition a long dress
of light print of small neat pattern, Malagasy women do not wear a bonnet
or any protection for the head, nor do they seem to feel the need of anything




















































































































































































































MALAGASY.

N
186 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



of the sort, except that in the hottest part of the year they carry a parasol or
sunshade.

Children are carried sometimes upon the hip, but more frequently on the
back. When young people have grown up, they occasionally present a piece of
money to their mother, called “fragrance of the back,” as a grateful remembrance
of the time when they were carefully nursed and carried in the folds of their
parent’s cloak.

Malagasy children are very fond of a game which consists in throwing up
several pebbles, receiving them alternately on the back and the palm of the



q
Â¥
—

YOUNG WOMEN AT A WELL.

hands, without dropping, for a number of times. Kites are used to some extent,
and battledore-and-shuttlecock. Games with a ball, either for throwing or kicking,
are also much enjoyed. A kind of game resembling draughts is played with
pebbles or beans on a board or piece of smooth stone or earth, having thirty-two
divisions or holes, much in the same way as the game of fox-and-goose,

Almost all the women, from the queen downwards, can spin and weave.
They make cloth of hemp and banana fibre, also cotton and silk, and are very
THE MALAGABSY. 187



expert in producing both strong and neat fabrics. It is an important part of the
labour of female servants to bring water from the tank, which they carry in
large hollow bamboos.

These people are skilful workers in metal; and in weaving cloths of silk and
cotton they show much taste; also in making fine silver chains, and gold work
and articles of jewellery. In straw basket-work they are very clever and ingenious,
Houses, canoes, clubs, and other implements are carved in a very superior manner ;
and such is their power of imitation, that of late they have manufactured
harmoniums of good quality, and have learned to play the violin, accordion, and
the different instruments used by a brass band, which they handle with ease and
correctness. Taken altogether, they are a most interesting race of people.

Until about forty or fifty years ago they were all idolaters, but during the
reign of king Radama—who died in 1828—missionaries were allowed to labour
among the people, Christian books were freely circulated, and schools were
opened for the children. At the end of eight years, his widow, who succeeded
as sovereign, put a stop to the good work, and a long course of persecution was
entered on. Many of the native Christians were deprived of their goods and
homes; others were put in heavy chains, and sent to prison, or made slaves for
life ; and numbers were speared to death or poisoned.

Rasalama, or, as her name means, “ Peace,’ received the good word of life,
and. professed herself a disciple of Jesus. The queen sent to seize this Christian.
When the officers laid hold on her, she said, “I am not afraid, but rather rejoice
that I am counted worthy to suffer affliction for believing in Jesus; I have hope
of the life in heaven.” They put her in strong irons, and beat her, but she
continued to sing hymns. Next, they bound her with rings and bars in a way to
pain her body, by forcing her head and feet together. Still she would not deny
her Saviour. They now led her to the place of execution: as she went she sang
hymns, and in passing the chapel where the missionaries used to preach, she told
the soldiers, “There I heard the words of the Saviour!” When she came to the
place where she was to die, she knelt down and prayed. As she was committing
her spirit into the hands of the Redeemer, three or four men rushed upon her with
spears, and drove them through her back into the heart.

A young man, named Rafaralahy, had seen Rasalama die. He was one of
those who “loved Jehovah-Jesus, who mind a sabbath, make prayers, and keep
the book,” or the Bible; for in this way the Christians were described by the
queen. When the disciples were sought after, he removed to a private spot, and
built a high wall around the house, and a gate, that no one might get in and take
them by surprise. Here they used to meet for prayer, and to encourage one

nw 2
188 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.
another, while their teachers were driven away from them. A man, for the
sake of reward, went and told the officers of the queen of this meeting, and
Rafaralahy was seized and put in irons. They tried to force him to give the names
of those who met in his house, but he said, “ Here am I; let the queen do what
she pleases with me; I will not accuse my friends.” As they took him to the
place of execution, he spoke to the soldiers of Jesus Christ, and told them how
happy he felt at the thought of soon seeing Him who had loved him, and had died
a painful death for him. He asked for a few moments to commit his soul to
the Saviour; after he had done this, he prayed for
his brethren and his unhappy country. Then he
arose from his knees, and the executioners were about
to throw him down on the ground, but he told
them there was no need for that, as he was now
ready to die; and, calmly laying himself down, he
was speared to death.

After a long season of persecution, during which
many others endured martyrdom, happier times have
come to Madagascar. Missionaries were permitted
to return to the island; the present queen, with her
chief nobles, and a greater part of the people, have
renounced heathenism, destroyed their idols and idol-
houses, erected places of Protestant worship, and made an open profession of
their faith in Jesus as the only Saviour of men. The Christian press is again
busy at work, the Bible Society has printed large editions of the Sacred Scriptures,
and the Religious Tract Society has prepared and sent out many thousand copies of a
new hymn-book; and at this. present hour thousands of young and old are singing
such hymns as “ Rock of Ages,” “ How sweet the name of Jesus sounds,” “ Around
the throne of God,” translated into their own native tongue. May the blessed
Spirit of God speed the good work ! *









* Many of the particulars of the above article are taken from a most interesting work, entitled,
“Madagascar and its People,” by James Sibree, jun. The author was a resident in the island, and the
architect of the Memorial Churches recently erected, under the patronage of the queen of Madagascar.
LEE Sour Arercanse

land, over the rugged
ground and across the
streams, with waggons,
native drivers, oxen, and
sheep, we should in the
course of our travels
meet with the following either within
the colony of the Cape of Good Hope,
or on its borders.

1. The Carrres, or Kartrs, is a
name often loosely given to all the
natives on the eastern side of the Cape
of Good Hope. The word Kafir is
of Arabic origin, and means “ infidel.”
It was given to them by the first
visitors to this part of the world,
and was afterwards adopted by the
Dutch settlers. A large portion of
them are now under British sove-
reignty; the others are an inde-



pendent and wandering race. They !
are strong and active, and, like other 2

savage races, are crafty and cruel,

are fond of war, carrying death and |

devastation into the country of other
tribes. It is said, however, that they
are faithful when trusted, and grate-
ful for kindness shown to them. The

true Caffres are quite black, and have woolly hair.



ERE we to take a journey in South Africa, in the ordinary fashion of the

A cloak of the skin of a

sheep or buffalo is commonly all the dress: that covers them; but those who
190 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



live under British rule are becoming more civilised. They have little sense of
religion; but the labours of missionaries among them are exerting a most beneficial
influence on their habits and general welfare.

2. Horrentots. These people are of full growth and good proportion of limb,
tall and erect, with strongly marked features. They have broad foreheads, high cheek-
bones, and oblique eyes, and are considered to be of quite a different race from
the other African tribes. They are dull in intellect, are meek and peaceful,
and make honest and trustworthy servants: Much; however, cannot be said of
their industry. Wrapped in their sheep-skins, they sleep away the greater part
of the day, and when awake they are not very active. If any one will hunt
for them, they will prove themselves to have a most excellent appetite, a quarter
of a small sheep being about enough dinner for a single person.

Much praise cannot be given to them for their cleanliness. A coat of grease,
mixed with charcoal soot, is thickly spread over their bodies. As this coat is
never washed off, it becomes at length most loathsome. On their arms and necks
are long, thick rows of glass beads; around their loins and in their hair are
shells, feathers, and any common trinket they can obtain. Such, at least, were
their appearance and habits not long since; but-missionaries have also been among
them, and they, in common with other South Africans, have been to a good
degree raised from their degraded state, and have found that the gospel leads
not only to heaven, but on earth it refines and elevates all those who are
brought under its blessed influence. One of the neatest villages in South Africa,
haying well-cultivated gardens, belongs to these people, who are chiefly under the
instruction and guidance of Moravian missionaries.

3. Bossesmen, or BusHMEN, are a tribe of wild Hottentots, who live beyond
the colony of the Cape. They are small in size. They build no houses, and have
no homes, but live in caves or holes, Fuilthily dirty in their persons, they never
think of washing. They keep no flocks and herds of their own, but steal from
the farmers or from travellers. As they do not cultivate the ground, they can
only eat what grows naturally, wild roots and berries, with lizards, locusts, cater-
pillars, and serpents.

These people, when they have eaten up all that is to be found in one place,
wander off elsewhere; and it is because they move about so constantly that it
is so difficult to improve them. Where the missionaries have succeeded in
making them remain in one place, and there build houses, sow corn, and keep
goats or cows, they have been able to teach the Bushmen, and lead many to
the knowledge of the Saviour.

4. The Bucuvanas are sociable, and not so ferocious as the neighbouring
THE SOUTH AFRICANS. 191



tribes; but still they see no harm in robbing, lying, or murdering. They despise
the Bushmen, and think themselves much superior to the Hottentots.

Witchcraft and other superstitions. are much followed; and there are im-
postors known as witch-doctors, who pretend to discover anything that has been
stolen, to heal diseases, and to procure rain. They go about the country, and obtain
much gain by their delusions.

\

i















































































\

\)}

]













































































A WITCH-DOCTOR, OR RAIN-MAKER,

The Bechuanas employ their time in war or hunting; or, when at home, they
will watch the cows, milk them, or prepare fur and skins for cloaks. The
women dig the ground, sow the grain, and reap the harvest. They build the
houses, make the fences, and fetch wood and water. Thus the hard work ig
192 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



left for the women, and the men like to have many wives, because the more
women there are to do the work, the more idle the men can be.

A man will quietly lie down under the shade of a tree, and watch his
wives at a distance building him a new house, or dragging large pieces of wood
to the spot at which his hut is to be built. The day may be very hot, or they
may be very tired or infirm; he sees
no reason in all that why he should
not enjoy himself under the tree in-
stead of helping them.

5. The Namacquas are a wild,
feeble, and timid people. ‘Their
country borders on a great desert;
and the part of Namacqua-land on
which the first missionaries settled
seems to be very desert-like indeed.
There are river-channels with no
water flowing down them; plenty of
stones and sand; “plains and_ hills
roasted like a burnt loaf;” few peo-
ple, and those always wanting water
so much, that, on account of the rain
which generally falls at such times,
a thunder-storm is a thing they long
for, though the lightnings play and
the thunders roar almost without
stopping while the storm lasts. The
manners and customs of the Na-
macquas are similar to those of the
Bechuanas.

In this desert country there lived,
at the time the first missionaries went
there, a chief called Africaner, famed
all the country round for his fierce
wickedness. He attacked the villages
of the natives, burned the farmhouses of the Dutch settlers, and carried away
their cattle. He was a man of great strength, sure in his aim with either spear
or musket, and skilful in all the artifices of savage warfare. Among other of his
daring deeds, he attacked a missionary station, burned the chapel, took away


THE SOUTH AFRICANS. 193



the oxen, and drove the people into the desert, to live on wild berries and roots.
The whole country was often in a state of alarm, fearing his attacks; and as he
continued to set every one at defiance, one thousand dollars were offered to any
one who would shoot him.

Through the blessing of God on the labours of missionaries, this ‘“ wild lion
of the desert,” as he was called, was tamed. He then laid aside his weapons of
war, and became a pious, useful, and peaceful man. “I am glad that I am
delivered,” he once remarked; “I have long enough engaged in the service of
the devil; but now I am free from his bondage. Jesus has delivered me; him
will I serve, and with him will I abide.”

When a missionary was on a journey with Africaner, they came to a Dutch
farm-house. The missionary told the farmer that Africaner was now “a truly good
man.” ‘The farmer replied, “I can believe almost anything you say; but that I
cannot credit. There are seven wonders in the world; that would be the eighth.
I have one wish, and that is, that I may see him before I die.” Africaner was then
pointed out to the farmer. Seeing him now reclining meekly before him, he started
back, and exclaimed, “O God, what a miracle of thy power! what cannot thy
grace accomplish!” Africaner, when dying, exhorted his people to live in peace ;
and added, “ My former life was stained with blood; but Jesus Christ has pardoned
me, and I am going to heaven.” :

6. The Maxototo are spread over the country along the Zambesi River and
the Victoria Falls. They were visited by Dr. Livingstone, who has given an interest-
ing account of their manners and customs. They are of a brownish-yellow colour,
and present a sickly hue. It is their delight to have the whole body shine with
butter, with which they are careful constantly to rub it. The women are treated
with more consideration than among other African tribes. They cut their woolly
hair quite close, and adorn themselves with rows of green and pink beads. Also
they covet large brass anklets, which are often so large and heavy as to cause most
painful blisters; “but it is the fashion,” says Dr. Livingstone, “and is borne as
bravely as tight lacing and tight shoes among the ladies of Europe.”

“The women have an idea of comeliness,” says the missionary just quoted:
“They came frequently to me and asked for a looking-glass; and the remarks
they made while I was engaged in reading, and apparently not attending to them,
were amusingly ridiculous. ‘Is that me?’ ‘What a big mouth I have!’ ‘My
ears are as large as pumpkin-leaves!’ ‘I have no chin at all!’ ‘I would have
been pretty, but am spoiled by these high cheek-bones !’ ‘See how my head
stands up in the middle! ’—laughing most heartily all the time at their own
jokes. They readily detect any defect in each other, and give nicknames accord-
194 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.
ingly. One man came alone to havea look at his own features when he thought
I was asleep. After twisting his mouth about in various strange ways, he said to
himself, ‘People say I am ugly, and how very ugly I am!’”*



eel

TI Ei RanATTIAIAWON NTN
=





In addition to the tribes already mentioned, there are Griquas, Zulus, Maro-
longs, Bootshuanas, and several others. They are similar in their general character
and condition to those described.

Missionaries have laboured among the South African tribes, and many a wild
native has been brought by the grace of the Holy Spirit to a knowledge of his
heavenly Father and his Saviour Christ.

* Dr. Livingstone’s ‘Travels and Researches in South Africa.”

TORDE
AMERICA?

navigator, who was one of the
discoverers of the shores of
South America. Inclusive
of its islands, it is four times
as large as Europe, and con-
stitutes about three-tenths
of the dry land of the globe.

It is generally considered that the
first portion of America discovered
was its high northern latitudes, by
the Northmen, a class of bold adven-
turers from the Baltic. Many ages
passed away, and nothing more was
done in the way of discovery. At
length Columbus was sent out on a
voyage of discovery, by Ferdinand
and Isabella of Spain. His whole
command consisted of ninety men in
three small vessels. In 1492 he
discovered the Bahama group of
islands, and afterwards Hayti and
Cuba. In a subsequent voyage he
reached the shores of the continent
of South America.

John Cabot, in’ the service of
Henry vu. of England, was the first
to find the shores of North America.
The earliest British settlement made
in the northern part of this continent









COLUMBUS RELATING HIS DISCOVERIES TO FERDINAND
AND ISABELLA.

was in 1607, on the banks of James River, in Virginia. In 1620 the “ Pilgrim
Fathers,” who fled from religious persecution in England, embarked in the little
196 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



ship, “The Mayflower,” and landed in the middle of November on a bleak rock,
now known as Plymouth Point. Their first sabbaths were spent in a pine forest,
the ground being covered with snow. The day on which they landed is now
commemorated in North America as “ Forefathers’ Day.”

On July 4th, 1776, thirteen colonies united and declared themselves free of

the English crown, which independence was acknowledged by the British parliament
November 30th, 1783.



THE PILGRIM FATHERS KEEPING SABBATH IN A PINE FOREST.
tou Uneren Srares

Tue vast extent of country subject to the United States Government is estimated at
upwards of 3,500,000 square miles. The number of States proper is thirty-eight; in
addition to which there are nine territories,—as Alaska, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, etc.,
and one distuict, called Columbia, in which is the chief city of the Federation,
Washington.

Several of the States are named after American rivers,—as Connecticut, Delaware,
Kentucky, Alabama, Mississippi, Missouri, Arkansas, Tennessee, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan,
Iowa, and Wisconsin. Others have been derived from persons,—as Virginia, from
the virgin Queen Elizabeth; Maryland, from Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles 1.; the
Carolinas, from Charles u.; Louisiana, from Louis x1v.; Pennsylvania, from the cele-
brated colonist. Penn, and sylva, a wood; Georgia, from George 1. Vermont has been
named after its verdant hills, from verd, green, and mont, hill; and Florida after Palm
Sunday (Pasqua Florida), the day of its discovery.

Population at the last census (1870), 38,928,210; the coloured population is 4,886,187 ;
Indian, 883,711; Chinese, 63,254.

N eminent American author, J. Fenimore Cooper, has drawn a com-
parison of the scenery of his own land and that of Europe. He
says :—

“The great distinction between American and European scenery, as

a whole, is to be found in the greater want of finish in the former than

in the latter, and in the greater abundance of works of art in the old

world than in the new. Nature has certainly made some differences,

though there are large portions of continental Europe that, without their artificial
accessories, might well pass for districts in America.

“The natural freedom that exists in an ordinary American landscape, and
the abundance of detached fragments of wood, often render the views of that
country strikingly beautiful, when they are of sufficient extent to conceal the want
of finish in the details, which requires time and long-continued labour to accomplish.
In this particular the older portions of the United States offer to the eye a general
outline of view that may well claim to be even of a higher cast than most of the
scenery of the old world. 3

“We, however, concede to Europe much the noblest scenery in its Alps


198 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



Pyrenees, and Apennines; in its objects of art, asa matter of course; in all those
effects which depend on time and association, in its monuments, and in the impress
of the past which may be said to be reflected in its countenance; while we claim
for America the freshness of a most promising youth, and a species of natural













































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE CAPITOL, WASHINGTON.

radiance which carries the mind with reverence to the Source of all that is glorious
around it.”

The people of the United States are of mixed origin. By far the larger portion
are descendants of the English; but there is a considerable German population in
Pennsylyania; Dutch in New York; Spanish in Florida; French in Louisiana;
THE UNITED STATES. 199



Norwegian in Wisconsin; Chinese in California; and Irish in almost every State.
“ America is becoming not English merely, but world-embracing in the variety
of its type; and as the English element has given language and history to that
land, America offers the English race the moral dictatorship of the globe, by ruling
mankind through Saxon institutions and the English tongue. Through America,
England is speaking to the world.” *

“When we consider that this civilised and industrious multitude exists in a
region which, only about two centuries and a half ago, supported but a few hundred
thousands of half-clad and half-fed savages, and look at the rapid and steady
increase which has marked its progress, we see a new and most wonderful fact in
the history of the human race. . . . . The United States will, before the end
of the present century, form the most numerous Christian community speaking one
language in the world.” +

In general the Americans are tall and strong, partly from a bracing climate,
and partly from most of their pursuits being carried on in the open air. They are
vigorous and active, from a plentiful supply of nourishing food; and are shrewd,
intelligent, striving, and a “ go-a-head” people; they show unflagging energy, and
are successful in their labour, whether in town or country life. American travellers
are often setting out on journeys of two or three thousand miles, in steamers, on
horseback, or on foot. Their marine captains are among the ablest seamen of the
world. Mankind are indebted to the natives of the States for many valuable in-
ventions; among others we may mention the sewing-machine, the reaping-machine,
printing-machines of great power and speed, and the cotton-gin for separating the
seeds from the fibre.

The Americans are remarkable for the energy with which they push oe
their homes into parts of the land which previously had been only forest or
prairie. In a short time villages and towns appear, with gardens well supplied
with pumpkins, squashes, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, and other vegetables, together
with peach orchards, apple orchards, graperies, and immense fields of corn. But a
traveller from England will regret the absence of green hedges, sweet with climbing
wild roses and the hawthorn, alive with singing birds.

Washington, the States’ capital, is situated on the left bank of the Potomac
River. It was founded in 1791, and became the seat of government in 1800.
The Capitol, containing the Halls of the Senate and House of Representatives,
the Library of Congress, and other State offices, is a noble building on a com-
manding site, with a massive dome in the centre.

* Sir C. Dilke’s “Greater Britain.”
- + Dr. Fisher’s “ Progress of the United States of America.”


























































































































































































































































































































































































































Pi
TACT



= SSS SSS ==>







THE COURT-HOUSE, PHILADELPHIA,

In which the Declaration of Independence was signed.
THE UNITED STATES. 201

New York, the commercial capital, and the largest city of America, is on
the island of Manhattan, at the mouth of the Hudson and the East Rivers.
The islands and coast around form a land-locked harbour, in which the largest
fleets may securely ride. The Americans call it the “ Empire City.”

The government of the United States is a republic. Hach State is indepen-
dent in the control of its own affairs, but for defence and general commerce
they are closely united. The vast territories yet uncultivated, their fertility and
mineral wealth, the magnificent rivers and highways, the rapidly increasing popu-
lation, the freedom enjoyed, the general intelligence and religious feeling that
prevail among all classes, may lead us to anticipate that there is yet a glorious
future for the United States of North America.

May prosperity be their portion, and may peace be lastingly established
between them and Great Britain—the mother country!

One people in our early prime,
One in our stormy youth;

Drinking one stream of human thought,
One spring of heavenly truth ;

One language at our mother’s knee,
One in our Saviour’s prayer,—
One glorious heritage is ours;
One future let us share.

The heroes of our days of old
Are yours, not ours alone ;
Your Christian heroes of to-day,
We love them as our own.

There are too many homeless lands,
Far in the wild free West,

To be subdued for God and man,
Replenished and possessed ;—

There are too many fallen men,
Far in the ancient East,

To be won back to truth and God,
From cramping bonds released ;—

There is too much good work to do,
And wrong to be undone;

Too many strongholds from the foe
That must be forced and won—
202

{

\ud

cs

pleunl ly

i\\\)

Vv

i)

PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

That we whom God hath set to be
The vanguard of the fight,

To bear the standard of his truth,
And to defend the right,

Should leave the mission of our race,
So high, and wide, and great,

On worldly points of policy
To wrangle and debate.

Nay, side by side, in east and west,
In wild or heathen lands,

One prayer upon our hearts and lips,
One Bible in our hands;

One in our earliest home on earth,
One in cur heavenly home,

We'll fight the battles of our Lord,
Until his kingdom come.*

* By the Author of “The Three Wakings.”



i) i li























SIGNING OF THE AMERICAN ACT OF INDEPENDENCE,
Norza American Inyoransy



£5 ue wild country inhabited by the Indians of the present century was,
ages long past, the abode of another race of people. There have
been discovered in various parts of North America monuments and
ruins of ancient towns, with thousands of inclosures and fortifications.
Articles, too, of pottery, sculpture, glass, and copper have been found at
times, sixty or eighty feet under the ground, and in some instances
with forests growing over them, so that they must have been very
ancient; and the people to whom they belonged were to a considerable degree
cultivated. Who these people were, no one can tell with certainty. But, even
if we did know who they were, how could we account for the present race of
Red Indians in North America being barbarous, when their ancestors were so
highly civilised? These are difficulties which have puzzled some of the wisest
men.

The Red Indians are divided into tribes bearing distinctive names. Of these
the Crows, the Blackfeet, the Sioux, the Chippeways, and the Creeks are the
most numerous. ‘Their forefathers possessed the vast prairies, or grass plains,
together with the extensive lakes and forests which spread out north and south
from Baffin’s Bay to the Gulf of Mexico. They are now, as a people, very much
reduced in numbers, and their domains are being constantly brought into narrow
and more narrow limits.

As a race, they are very warlike. In times of peace their occupation is
hunting. The furs and skins they obtain are bartered with the Europeans and
Americans—too often for gunpowder and ardent spirits. From the use of the
latter, known to them as “ fire-water,” and of which they are very fond, the
most distressing results follow.

The chiefs are known by strange names, which they have assumed—as Stu-
mick-o-sucks, which means, “the back fat of the buffalo;” Peh-td-pe kiss, or “ the
ribs of the eagle;” Kee-o-kuk, “the running fox ;” Ma-ha-tai-me-she-kia-hidk,
which long word signifies “black hawk;’ Pash-ce-pa-hd, “the little stabbing

0 2


204 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



chief,” which may denote his warlike character; and Kay-ée-qua-da-kum-ée-gish-
cum, “he who tries the ground with his foot,” which may express his crafti-
ness and caution in pursuing his foe through the forest.

The dress of a chief is very imposing. His robe is of the soft skin of a
young buffalo; the skin leggings are tightly fitted, and are ornamented with



FUR TRADERS AND NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS.

different devices, as are also his moccasins, or buckskin shoes. The head-dress
is of eagle’s feathers, beads, and poreupine quills. To his spear, shield, and
arrow-case are affixed the long black locks which he has scalped from the heads
of those he has slain, and which are trophies obtaining for him renown.
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. 205



The dances among the Indians are very numerous: there are the buffalo
dance, the bear dance, the dog dance, the eagle dance, the ball-play dance, the
beggars’ dance, the snow-shoe dance, the war
dance, the pipe-of-peace dance, the scalp-dance,
and many others.

The buffalo dance is a kind of homage paid
to the Great Spirit, that he may take pity on
them, and send them supplies of these animals.
Each of the dancers wears a mask, with horns
and long tail, and carries in his hand a lance,
or bow and arrows.*

Every Indian has his medicine or mystery
bag, which he regards with reverence. He looks
upon it as a kind of charm that is to keep
him from evil. The medicine bag is usually
the skin of some animal, or bird, or reptile, and
is stuffed with anything the owner chooses to
put into it, and it is ornamented in a curious
manner.

Most of the Red Indians believe in a “ Great
Spirit,” and that if they are expert in the chase, and bold in battle, they shall
live for ever in beautiful hunting-grounds, enjoying the pleasures of the chase
continually. y

“The Indians, however, are not all F
red,” says Sir C. Dilke.t “A tribe of
them had come into the town of Den-
ver to be painted, as English ladies go
to London to shop; and we saw more
than one of them engaged, within a short
time after their coming, in daubing their
cheeks with vermilion and blue, and re-
ferring to glasses which the squaws
(wives) admiringly held. Still, when
we met them with paintless cheeks, we
had seen that their colour was brown,
dirt, or anything you please, except ae
copper.” “They were low in stature, yellow-skinned, small-eyed, and Tartar-

* Catlin’s “ Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians,” + “Greater Britain,” vol. i.






































206 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.



warriors of the Eastern States.”

The first known Christian missionary who devoted himself, nearly two hundred
years ago, to make known the gospel
to the American Indians, was John
Eliot. It was no light service that he
undertook. At that time they were
living in idleness, and under the in-
fluence of cruel and superstitious prac-
tices. He sought to instruct them in
useful arts, as well as in the know-
_ ledge of Christ. The first object was
* to learn their languages, not an easy
* lesson when such words as these formed
a large part of their speech—Noorro-
mantammoonkanunonnash, meaning “ our

BEAR DANCE.’ loves,” and kummogokdonattoottammocti-
teaongannunnonash, “ our questions.”

For days together he travelled from place to place, wet to the skin, wringing
the wet from his stockings at night. Sometimes he was treated cruelly by the
principal chiefs and mystery men; but though they threatened his life, he held

on his course, telling them that he was
in the service of the Great God, and
feared them not. He translated books
into their language, and at the close of
a grammar, published by him, he wrote
the words, “ Prayers and pains, through
faith in Christ Jesus, will do anything.”

There were many devoted men after
Eliot’s death who trod in his steps,
* among whom was David Brainerd.

Missionaries are still at work among
these people with some degree of suc-
cess; and though, from the remoteness

CHIEFS OF DIFFERENT TRIBES. of many of the tribes, and their strong

attachment to the superstitions of their

forefathers, the progress of Christianity is slow, we are sure that it will at last
prevail.




Tau GRLENLANDERS?

GREENLAND is situated between Iceland and the continent of America, and was
formerly considered to be a part of that continent. It is 1,200 miles in length, and has
a scanty population of about 7,000. The whole country is one vast mass of rocks,
bound together by ice.

e >’ REENLAND is a strange name to be given to a country whose soil for nine
\. months in the year is covered with snow several feet thick; whose trees,
even in summer, are only stunted shrubs; and whose chief plants are
dwarfish ferns and mosses. Its name, it is said, came about in this
manner. Nearly a thousand years ago, a native chief of Iceland, named
Eric the Red, having killed another chief, fled in search of a refuge.
He made his way northward, and came to this land. After awhile he
returned, and gave a false account of the country, declaring that it was covered
with a fresh and beautiful green verdure. This led many of the people of Iceland
to settle on the shores of this vast region.

The whole of Greenland was long supposed to be part of the continent of
America, until Captain Parry and other navigators proved that it was an immense
island, or a collection of small islands. This land is, of all others, least valuable
to man, as it produces scarcely anything suited to his comfort, or to meet his wants.
The people reside along the coasts; in the inner part no one fixes his abode ; it
is only visited for deer hunting in the very brief season of summer.

Winter is called of¢pok, or the season of “ fast ice.” Everything then is
almost as hard as a rock. Summer is termed aosak, or “no ice,’ though the
country all the year round is not entirely without ice. Even in the warmest
months, the power of the sun cannot wholly melt the vast snow-banks which
are formed in the cold season.

The winter huts are made of blocks of solid ice and snow, frozen together,
and are lined with turf and moss. Old skins, which have already served for
covering to their boats, are hung around the sides. They are low structures, and
have rounded roofs. The windows are made of the entrails of seals; when open,
they serve also for chimneys. They let in a little light, and let out a great deel

























































































THE GREENLANDERS. 209
of smoke. The fire for cooking is placed in the centre, and over it hangs a great
kettle, in which the food is cooked. From the roof there swings a lamp, well
supplied with oil. This lamp is often only the shoulder-blade of a walrus, with a
wick of moss, nourished by thick blubber, or the fat of seals and whales.

An entrance to the house is obtained through so low a door as to require
that it should be entered on the hands and knees. Slung inside is the kajak, a
small wooden canoe, covered with seal skins, except a round hole in the centre,
at the top, into which the Greenlander slips when going forth to sea. This little
vessel he guides with one paddle in the midst of the roughest waves.

In the summer, Greenlanders dwell in tents made of skins, stretched on long
poles. These tents resemble sugar-loaves, and are called tupics. As to the dress of
_ this people, let us look at one of their little girls. As no one knits in the frozen
land, there are no warm woollen socks for her to wear; the covering of her feet
is made of eider-duck skins, with the soft downy feathers on the inside. She has
leggings of reindeer fur; her jacket has a hood for her head, and is commonly
made of fox skin. At first sight, a stranger would take this little girl for a
stray cub of a white bear.

Greenlanders chiefly employ themselves in hunting and fishing. On shore
they pursue the reindeer and the bear, and at sea, whales, seals, and sea-cows.
The men think it is degrading to do any work at home, and do not act quite
fairly with the women, who are made to build and repair the house and perform
all other hard work.

The people are short in stature, and do not live to a great age. Large
numbers die in infancy and childhood. They are quite ignorant of the use of
medicine, and attempt to supply this loss by going to angekoks, a sort of priests,
who mutter certain senseless words over the sick, by which it is hoped they will
get well. Their superstitions are very great, and they pretend to have friendly
intercourse with unseen spirits ;, but, through the labours of devoted men of God,
many have become Christians.

It is now more than a hundred years ago since a Christian minister left
his own land to carry the glad tidings of salvation to Greenland. His first
object was to learn the language of the natives, and then to teach the young
people to read. For a short time the youthful Greenlanders seemed very willing
to attend the school. To encourage them to get forward, he gave every child a
fish-hook, or some little present, for each letter that was learned; when, however,
these. rewards were stopped, they soon grew tired, and plainly told their teacher
that they did not see the good of sitting all day staring at a book, crying a, b, c!
a, b, e! and that instead of scratching with a feather on a piece of paper,
210 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

it was much better to hunt seals, shoot birds, and get plenty of reindeer flesh
to eat.

The elder Greenlanders, so long as they were told any kind of news, would
listen with pleasure; and sometimes they were inclined to attend to little histories
out of the Bible; but when they were told they were sinners, and that Jesus Christ
came into the world to die on the cross that sin might be pardoned, they walked
away, and refused to listen to the teachers.

The missionaries did not labour entirely without success, as the following
pleasing incident will show. Among the Greenlanders it was deemed a sacred
duty to revenge, sooner or later, the murder of a father. A son, about fourteen
years of age, was present when his father was killed. He grew up to manhood,
and became an active fisherman ; and after a few years had passed away, he resolved
to seek the life of the person who had slain his father. To secure his object he
journeyed a long distance, and came to where the missionaries lived. As he
listened to their preaching, a desire arose in his mind to know more about the Lord
of heaven and earth. In the course of their instruction, they told him it was the
command of God that he should do no murder. He looked at them in silence,
and left in anger, and for several days kept away from their house, while he was
planning with his friends the best way to effect the intended act of revenge. He
was seen walking up and down the shore, as though in great distress of mind, when
he again came to the mission-house, saying, “I never felt so before. I will forgive
him, and I will not forgive him: I have no ears when they want I shall revenge
myself, and yet I have ears.” He was told of the Saviour, who forgave his enemies
as he hung on the cross. “But he was better than we are,” was the reply of the
Greenlander. The death of Stephen was then read to him, when he replied, “ Good
teacher, my heart is so moved. I will—but give me still a little time; when I
have brought the other heart to silence, and am quite changed, I will come again.”
He did come again; it was with a peaceful look. “Now I am happy,” he said;
“T hate no more; I have forgiven.”

On this occasion a great many people stood around; before them all he declared
his faith in Christ, and turning to the Christians, said, “Receive me now as a
believer.” He then sent to his enemy this message, “I am now becomea believer,
and you have nothing to fear.” He even invited him to his abode, received him
in a friendly manner, and sent him home in safety.

The convert was invited to return the visit. He went alone and unarmed.
On his return, he had not gone far when he saw water in his kajak or boat. He
paddled quickly to the shore, and found that his enemy had cut a hole in the bottom.
When he related this to the missionaries, he said, with a smile, “He is still afraid
THE GREENLANDERS. . 211

I shall slay him for my father’s death, and has done this for that reason; but
I will not harm him.” What a noble proof of the power of religion in overcoming
the spirit of revenge !

Great attention is now given to the instruction of the young; and groups
of the boys and girls of the frozen regions may be seen, on Sunday and other
days, under the care of earnest and self-denying Christian men and women, who
have left the comforts of their native homes for the cheerless shores of Greenland.










































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Tae PATAGCONLANS?

Patagonia is an extensive wild country at the southern end of the continent of
America. In extent it is equal to about four times that of Great Britain; but for 800
miles it is a desert of stone and shingle, with only here and there tufts of coarse grass
and thorn bushes. Number of population uncertain.

yy HE Patagonians were known to old navigators as Zhe Giants. _Though
» their description of them is not correct, yet these people are, without
doubt, the tallest race in the world. The common height is six feet
and a half, though some rise to seven feet and upwards, with a body
stout in proportion.

They lead a wandering life their dress of skins is rudely sewn
together, with the hairy side ined Their wealth consists chiefly
of horses, whose flesh is their principal food. They engage in the chase of the
ostrich, the cassowary, and a wild animal called guanaco, or llama. Their only
weapon is a bolas, which consists of
two round stones, each about a pound
weight, and fastened at the ends of a
stout cord about eight feet long. When
this is used, one stone is held in the
right hand, and the other is whirled
rapidly round the head, and is then
cast at the object in pursuit. So ex-
pert are they in the use of the bolas,
that they will hit a mark at a great
distance, or entwine it round the legs
e of a bird or animal when in full chase,

THE LLAMA. so as to entangle it, and make it an
easy prey.

Mr. Bourne, a native of North America, was for some months a prisoner
among these people. He has given us an account of his first day in captivity.*

* “Tite among the Giants.”




THE PATAGONIANS. 213

“When I first entered a Patagonian hut, I felt as bacon, if conscious, might be
supposed to feel in the process of curing. I could not reconcile my eyes, nostrils,
or lungs to the nuisance. I was more than half strangled by the smoke, and
compelled to lie with my face to the ground as the only endurable position.
The chief and his family, however, seemed to enjoy great satisfaction, and
jabbered and grunted and played their antics, quite happy in their smoky home.

“My meditations on what I saw were soon interrupted by preparations for
a meal. My fancy began to conjure up visions of the beef, fowls, and eggs, the
promise of which had lured my men from the boat, and had made me a prisoner,
But these dainties, if they were to be found in the land, were not now to be
seen. An old hag of a woman threw down from the top of one of the stakes
that supported the tent the quarter of some animal, whether dog, or guanaco, or
whatever, was past my imagining. She slashed right and left, might and main,
with an old copper knife, till the meat was divided into several pieces. Then
taking a number of crotched sticks about two feet long, and sharpened at all
their points, she inserted the forked ends into pieces of the meat, and drove the
opposite points into the ground near the fire; which, though sufficient to smoke
and warm the mess, was too feeble to roast it. At all events, time seemed too
precious, or their appetites were too craving, to wait for such an operation; and
the raw morsels were quickly snatched from the smoke, torn into bits by her
dirty hands, and thrown upon the ground before us. The Indians seized them
with greediness, and tossed a bit to me; but what could I do with it? I should
have had no appetite for the dinner of an alderman at such a time and place ;
but as to tasting meat that came in such a questionable shape, there was no
bringing my teeth and resolution to it. The old chief remarked the slight I
was putting upon his hospitality, and broke in upon me with a fierce speech in
his broken Spanish to this effect:—‘Why don’t you eat your meat? This meat
very good to eat—very good! Eat, man—eat!’

“Seeing him so much excited, and not knowing what deeds might follow his
words if I refused, I thought it expedient to try to eat. I forced a morsel into
my mouth. Its taste was by no means as offensive as its appearance had been
unpromising, and I managed to save appearances with less disgust than I had
feared. The eating being over, a large horn that had once adorned the head. of
a Spanish bullock was dipped into a leathern bucket, and passed from one to
another. Between the bucket and the horn, the water had gained a sickening
taste ; however, it seemed expedient to conquer my prejudices so far as to drink
with the other guests; and the ceremonies of dinner were over, for which I felt
very thankful. Soon after, my painful thoughts were interrupted by an order to







































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE PATAGONIANS. 215

prepare for the night’s repose. An old skin, about two and a half feet square,
was thrown down upon the cold ground in the back part of our rookery, and assigned
for my couch. I took possession, and the whole family bestowed themselves in
a row near me. The stifling atmosphere was soon vocal with their snoring.”

After this first day among the savages, Mr. Bourne’s misery daily increased,
and his life was constantly in danger, while all attempts to escape proved for a
long time in vain. However, he at length succeeded, after an exciting race,
pursued by the natives, in reaching the seashore; and, plunging into the waves,
he reached a boat that had been sent for his rescue.

Efforts have been made to establish Christian missions among the Patagonians.
The first attempt was that of Captain Allen Gardiner and a band of pious men,
who went forth strong in faith and love. But it pleased the Lord to disappoint
their hopes; they all died on the cold, dreary shores of Patagonia. Other devoted
persons have since taken up the work, which we devoutly trust will go forward,
until all the people shall be brought to know and love Christ.


































































Leen Beavenrawer

Brazit occupies nearly the whole of the eastern part of South America, and is by
far the largest of all its States. It is nearly thirty-five times the size of Great Britain.
It was formerly a colony of Portugal, but became an independent empire in 1822. Popu-
lation about 6,000,000. Chief city, Rio Janeiro, or January River, so named from the
month in which it was discovered, in the year 1500.





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































SS SSC ZS = FIX S

BAY OF RIO DE JANEIRO.

Brazit1an house is not very attractive. The ground floor is occupied
by the wash-house and stable, closed by large gates, locked and barred
like the door of a prison. The walls are built, in a rough way, of
flints and stones. On the first floor is the kitchen, and next door to
it the parlour and the dining-room. Over the gates is the great
feature of the Brazilian mansion, the balcony. From this, in most
houses in Rio, owing to the varied nature of the ground on which the city


THE BRAZILIANS. 217



stands, beautiful views of the bay and the singular mountains that skirt it can
be obtained. There the ladies of the family enjoy the fresh air, and gossip with
their neighbours on the adjoining houses.

“ Politeness,” says Mr. Edwards, “is one of the cardinal virtues in Brazil;
and high or low, whites, blacks, or Indians, are equally under its influence.
One never passes another without a touch of the hat and a salutation, either
‘good morning,’ or ‘afternoon; or, more likely still, ‘viva, senhor,’ ‘long life,
RIP.

Brazilian hospitality is not hospitality only in name, it is the outflowing of
a noble and generous warm-heartedness that would redeem a thousand minor
failings.

The family feeling is strong among the Brazilians. All birthdays are most
joyfully observed. They are indeed an affectionate and thoroughly domestic race.

The training of the young in Brazil is generally hurtful to health and
morals. They are greatly humoured and indulged. The meninas and mendnos
(“little girls” and “little boys”) always get what they cry for. Papa’s heart
and pocket are easily reached.

The menina’s future life is not a very lively prospect to English fancies.
She learns to play the piano, and to sing in first-rate style. She acquires the
Brazilian lady’s tone of voice—a high scream, from scolding her mother’s black
maids and footmen. At nine or ten years of age she is sent to a fashion-
able school kept by a foreigner, and at thirteen or fourteen she is taken home
with her education finished. For a year or two she stores her mind with
the novel-sheets of the newspapers, and gossips and lounges away her time.
If at all of the superior ranks of society, she is spared the trouble of deciding
on her future partner for life. Some day the father walks into the drawing-room,
accompanied by a stranger gentleman, elderly or otherwise. “My child,” he
remarks, “this is your future husband.” The young lady’s mind is at the same
time set at ease as regards the dowry the gentleman is prepared to pay for her;
and in due time she obediently becomes a wife.

Brazilians of the upper classes do not deal in sentiment, and the popular
expression is, ‘So-and-so’s daughter will cost so much money.” “Happy
fellow!” says a man to hig friend, “that is a very superior article you have
bought.”

To and from mass is the show promenade of the Brazilian young lady.
Followed by her mother, and escorted by father or uncle, she and her sisters
go through the streets, dressed in black silk, with neck and arms bare, and
apparently unaffected by the rays of a tropical sun, for she never uses a parasol.

P
218 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS,

The young matron then proceeds to walk in the ways of her mother: she
never takes any exercise to speak of; and her slender form rapidly fills out.
Her days have a great sameness. Every one rises at dawn, and by nine all
the household work is over; then she takes to the balcony, perhaps looking over
the lovely bay, with the Gloria Hill in the distance. Here one or two hours are
spent in gossip.











































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Wy



Dal
ee

- eee
oh “ft in











ip



gp
ea
= eset tl i iW $i valle









THE GLORIA HILL, RIO,

On her return home there comes the delight of the lady’s heart, the pedlar.
The sound of his covado (measuring-stick), as he uses it for a walking-cane, is
hailed with rapture; one or more sturdy negroes follow him with the tin cases
of silks and laces on their heads. He walks in unannounced, sure of a welcome:
the negroes deposit the boxes, and depart to their brethren below. Then begins
the polite battle between the sharp Portuguese, anxious to sell, and the lady
and her daughters, anxious yet afraid to buy. She never goes shopping, but
has the luxury brought to her own doors.

And now for the menino. At the same time his little sister is sent to
school he goes to collegio, where he boards and lives, hardly ever seeing his
family, though they may live only a street or two off. He seldom plays; he
THE BRAZILIANS. 219

never runs; and the exercises of strength and skill which boys in other lands
enjoy have no charms for him.

The great feature of each year at school is the examination. In the pre-
sence of an admiring circle of papas and mammas, the young gentlemen, curled
and oiled, and dressed with extra stiffness, recite and act, while, in the intervals,
the professors deliver with much unction divers self-laudatory harangues.

School days over, the young Brazilian, who generally holds trade and commerce
in contempt, leads an indolent and useless life. He lounges about the fashionable
part of the town smoking his cigar, and listlessly passes away the hours.

Such are the habits of the richer classes. The poorer live in mud cottages:
hammocks supply the place of beds; and at meal time the family squat upon a
mat, eating with their fingers out of bowls or
gourds, knives and forks being unknown. In
the mining districts, where riches are supposed
to abound, the most abject poverty prevails.
The dwellings are wretched hovels, with a hole
for a window, and the walls are full of cracks,
that are seldom repaired.

There are places called punishment houses,
where slaves and others are sent. The usual
punishments are the log, the iron collar, and
for drunkards the tin mask.

“Morality,” says Madame Pfeiffer, “ unfor-
tunately, is not very general in the Brazils; one
cause of this may be traced to the manner in
which children are first brought up. The
second cause is, without doubt, the want of re-
ligion. The Brazilians are Roman Catholics, but
of an easy-going sort. Almost every day there
is some procession, service, or church festival; but these are attended merely for
the sake of amusement, while the true religious feeling is entirely wanting.”

Some efforts have been made for the spiritual benefit of Brazil, chiefly
through the Christian press. There have been servants of God who have worked
in faith and patience from love to Him who has loved them, and are looking
forward with hope to the time when a pure gospel shall be known through
the length and breadth of this extensive country.* »



MODES OF PUNISHMENT.

* Kidder and Fletcher’s “ Brazil and the Brazilians;” Fletcher’s “ Voyage up the Amazon ;’ Madame
Pfeiffer’s “ A Woman's Journey Round the World.”

vp 2
Tear Mexmscans:

Mexico is in North America, lying to the south of the United States. It was once
a Spanish colony, but is now a republic, is divided into twenty-two States, and has a
scattered population of more than 8,200,000. The people are partly descendants of the old
Mexican race, and partly of the Spanish colonists. The former are mostly the servants,
the latter are the masters. The chief city is also called Mexico.

ev us first look at some of the Mexican houses. How large and desolate-
looking they are! They are entered by huge wooden doors, such as in
England would serve for large barns, and which lead into a courtyard,
rarely well paved. Windows are pierced in walls of great thickness,
and made still more prison-like by being strongly barred with iron. The
whole structure seldom exceeds one story in height. The flat roofs and
many of the courtyards are filled with flowers, so that the whole space
seems to be thickly carpeted with their blossoms, amongst which rise numerous
spires, “churches with domes of yellow and blue tiling, houses with walls stained
of various colours, and balconies hung with a kind of striped cotton, which gives
them a trim and jaunty appearance.”

In many parts of a city a nearer sight greatly changes the effect of this
bird’s-eye view, and the suburbs are the abode of a great number of robbers and
beggars, who daily commit every kind of outrage. These beggars are mostly
afflicted with leprosy. Whole streets narrow, dirty, and unpaved; the blackened
houses full of rents and cracks in all directions; swarms of fellows clad in dirty
cotton rags or a torn woollen blanket; women dressed in tatters, and children
without any dress at all—are features which compose a painful picture.

Others, however, of the better classes, are dressed in cleaner and more gay
attire: the women with their mantillas and ornamented short gowns, and the
men with slashed braided trousers, crimson sash, and bread straw hats.

The upper ranks spend much of their time in idleness, or in receiving morning
calls. These calls are made in much form. When a lady visits she is warmly
embraced by the mistress of the house, and, if she be a person of consequence,
is led to a seat on the right side of the sofa, when the following dialogue ensues:
“How are you? Are you well?” “At your service; and you?” “ Without novelty,
at your service.” “Tam rejoiced; and howare you?” “At your disposal ; and you ?”
“A thousand thanks ; and the senor (husband) ?” “ At your service, without novelty.”
This exchange of small talk is kept up with slight changes, and applied to other















































































































































222 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

Feibors of the frail Pole. taking a seat there will be anathier contest t of polite-
ness. “Pray be seated.” ‘“ Nay, you pass first.” ‘No, madam, pray go first.”
“Well, to oblige you, without further ceremony. I dislike form and compliments.”

If it be in the morning, it is added: “ How. have you. passed the night?”
with the usual reply, “ At your service.”

The visit over, the lady accompanies her friend to the top of the stairs;
another embrace follows, and—“ Madam, you know that my house is at your
disposal.” “A thousand thanks, madam. Mine is at yours, and though useless,
know me for your servant, and command me in everything you may desire.”
“ Adieu! I hope you may pass a good night.” When the first landing-place 1s
reached, the visitor turns round and goes through a repetition of the adieus.

Even this observance of compliment is carried into a sick room. The physi-
cian, as he rises to take his leave, says at the bedside, “Madam, I am at your
service.” “Many thanks, sir.” ‘“ Madam” (this at the foot of the bed), “know
me for your most humble servant.” “Good morning, sir.” ‘‘Madam” (here he
stops beside a table), “I kiss your feet.” “Sir, I kiss your hand.” ‘“ Madam”
(this near the door), ‘my poor house, and all in it, myself, though useless, in-
cluded, all I have is yours.” ‘“ Many thanks, sir.’ He turns round and opens
the door, again turning round as he does so. “Adieu, madam, your servant.”
“Adieu, sir.” He goes out, partly reopens the door, and puts in his head—
“Good morning, madam.”

Education is in a low state in Mexico. Little boys and girls are sometimes
sent to a day-school held in a large room. The mistress marches up and down
in avery untidy dress, her long hair trailing behind her back, brought round
with a good smart switch every time she turns. ‘The little ones gather from
the lesson as much as they can, or as much as they please, and no more. At
times the father gives a lesson to his children, but very little good is effected
on such a plan. Many of the young ladies can read and write, and manage
a little music and sewing; but the greater number are deficient in these accom-
plishments, and very few know how to spell. They seem to have no desire to
learn; the warm climate disposes them to be idle; and since other girls know
no more they are content. They leave off all lessons at an early age. One
lady, on being asked if her daughter went to school, replied, quite shocked,
“Oh dear no! she is past eleven years old.” After this age, there are very few
girls that read a book through from one year’s end to another.

Travelling in Mexico is not so pleasant an affair as in many other countries.
You arrive at a country house and inquire for the master. There he lies half
asleep in a hammock that swings under a tree. He rises to receive you, clad
THE MEXICANS. 223



in nothing but a loose white gown. The women are at work among the corn,
or baking cakes in the kitchen: at either work they have very little more than
a loose petticoat that extends from the waist to the knees.. Children run about
without clothing, and if a frock be thrown over them on account of a stranger’s
presence, in a few minutes they are to be seen wearing it folded on their heads
or under their arms. These are said not to be the manners of poor Indians,
but of country gentlemen and their families.

Yet when they appear in public they dress in a most gay and showy manner,
adorned with the brightest jewels. The broad hats of the men are trimmed with
belts of goid, and their loose trowsers and jackets are braided in the richest style.

The roads are bad, and an inn is quite in keeping with the roads. The
building generally surrounds a courtyard, where are the horses and mules. It
contains a number of rooms, filthily dirty, and without windows or furniture.
The courtyard itself, save in the dry season, is deep in mud: and the house is
quite unprovided with refreshment for travellers.

The notion that it is his business and interest to be civil and obliging
never seems to enter into the head of the keeper of an inn. On entering you
shout for the landlord, who appears. with the key of the granary, and serves out
the fodder required for the mules: the traveller is shown into a room with a
clay floor, and a raised platform of stone in one corner for a bed.

In a tavern at which the diligence or public coach stops, you may, perhaps,
fare a little better. The conversation with the landlord may take some such form
as this: “ What is there to eat?” it is asked. Landlord: “Ah! my lord, there is
nothing here.” “Why! what a country have we come to!” cries the traveller.
Landlord: “It is true, my lord, it is a very poor country.” “But what are we to
do—we are dying with hunger?” inquires the traveller. “Well,” adds the landlord,
“if your worships like it, you can have a fowl, red peppers, and cakes.” But the
traveller must not venture to beg for too much. An Englishman had the courage
to ask for some water to wash his hands in, and was brought a small quantity in a
common saucer: but when he requested a towel, and tried to explain his wishes,
“Oh, whata madman is this—water, towel, napkin, handkerchief—what on earth
does he want? Yes, I see, the poor fellow is half-witted, he wants everything.”*

This country swarms with priests, monks, and nuns, who keep the people in
great ignorance. All the worst superstitions of the church of Rome here flourish.
Attempts are made to send the Holy Bible to the people, but there are many
difficulties in the way.

* “Mexico: the Country, History, and People,’ 1863,
Perv is on the western side of South America, and extends about 1,500 miles
along the shores of the Pacific Ocean, with an average breadth of 450 miles, On one
side are barren sandy shores, and on the interior border are immense grass-covered
plains, drenched with almost constant showers. Population, 1,700,000. Chief city, Lima.



2) HE modern Peruvians are a mixed people. About half are Indians; the
whites do not exceed one-seventh part of the whole. The former are
the descendants of races who had reached a high degree of civilization
before their country was discovered by Europeans. When Pizarro, the
Rach Spanish commander, arrived in Peru, in 1532, he found the people
xs" under the dominion of Incas, who had ruled in the land for about
four hundred years. Gold was said to be so abundant among their
people generally that they made of it their common cooking vessels and pots.
The remains to this day of watercourses, temples, palaces, and other public
buildings show a state of prosperity and advancement in the arts of life which
once existed in the land.

After the conquest of Peru by its first invaders, it was held as a colony to
Spain for nearly three hundred years; but in the year 1821 it revolted, and
obtained its independence.

In the present day the inhabitants of Peru are strong, but commonly of
low stature. Their deep black hair is worn loose. The females wear theirs in
long plaits, tied with ribbons. It is said that the greatest insult that can be
offered either to male or female Peruvians is to cut off their hair; and when
this is done as a punishment they never forget the disgrace that has been cast
upon them. A dark linen frock or blouse, with a serge cloak, serves for dress
day and night.

The higher classes are very garish in their use of silver ornaments, both
on their own persons and on their horses. The horseman’s saddle-cloth is a
dyed alpsca skin, with the long silky wool twisted into a fringe of numerous
tassels. Upon the saddle another skin is often laid, and the saddle-bow is
THE PERUVIANS. 225

beautifully ornamented with devices worked in silver. From a silver ring on









: rie ot



ee to

DISCOVERY OF SILVER VEINS.

each side hang the stirrups, and another silver ring receives the twisted straps
226 PICTURE GALLERY OF THE NATIONS.

by which they are suspended. The stirrups are often finely carved, and inlaid
with silver on three sides, the other being hollowed out to receive the foot.
The bridle is profusely ornamented with silver buckles and stained leather fringes,
and the reins sometimes consist of one continued chain of silver links. The
spurs are of great length, and are frequently of solid silver, richly ornamented.
Some idea may thus be formed of the glittering splendour with which the
dandy horseman of Lima shines among the more humble equipments of the
poorer classes; whilst his own person is enveloped in a brilliantly coloured
cloak, and his sallow face is surmounted by a grass hat of great fineness, often
worth forty or fifty dollars.

In the mountains the same love of show prevails as on the coast, and the
Indian miner delights in nothing better than to deck himself in costly silks and
tawdry ornaments; whilst the women vie with each other in the splendour of
their jewels and the rich colours of their ribbons, and leave their half-naked
children wallowing in the filth that lies undisturbed in the miserable, dirty
houses, which no Englishman can enter without a sickening feeling of disgust.

The natives of Spanish descent are known as Creoles. The Mestizoes, a mixed
race, are robust and active, and taller than the other inhabitants of the country.

The name Peru calls up thoughts of precious metals. Silver is its prin-
cipal production; and for many ages it yielded stores of wealth to Spain in its
supplies of silver and gold.

More than two centuries ago there lived on the borders of a mountain lake,
Lauricocha, a Spaniard named Don Jose Ugarto. His wealth consisted in his
flocks of sheep and llamas, which were under the care of Indian shepherds.
The scarcity of pasture often led the flocks far from the shepherds’ huts; and
then, as now, it was common for the Indians to wander with their woolly
charge amongst the mountains for many days together. On one of these occa-
sions an Indian of the name of Huari Capcha rested in the hollow of a great
rocky basin, and having seen to the safety of his flocks, lighted a fire of
withered cactus leaves, and then laid down to sleep beside it. When he awoke
in the morning the fire had burned out, and the stone beneath it, melted by
the heat, was transformed into a lump of solid silver. The Indian hurried
home to report the event to his master. A slight inspection of the spot dis-
closed the fact that rich veins of silver ran through the mountains. In a short
time throngs of adventurers hastened to the place, eager to share in the new
source of wealth so suddenly opened up to them. In the course of time there
arose on this once desert mountain a city, which has been called “the Treasury
of Peru,” and which stands on a higher site than any other city in the world.
THE PERUVIANS. 227

But the modern source of Peruvian wealth is now found in that won-
derful fertilising bird-manure called guano. It is found chiefly on rocky
islands lying near the coast. Sometimes it is fifty to sixty feet in thickness,
the accumulation of many long ages. Close to the face of the rock the water
is deep enough to float the largest merchant ships. To the rock they are
fastened with chains, and the guano is poured from above into the ships’ holds
beneath. When laden, they return home with their precious cargo, to render
fertile the cornfields of Europe and America, and to aid in giving cheap bread
to the people. It has been shown, by a return to Parliament, that the farmers
of Great Britain paid for guano in eleven years more than eleven millions
of money. Who will say that gold mines are more valuable than guano islands?