Citation
The Florida anthropologist

Material Information

Title:
The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title:
Fla. anthropol.
Creator:
Florida Anthropological Society
Place of Publication:
Gainesville
Publisher:
Florida Anthropological Society.
Frequency:
Quarterly[<Mar. 1975- >]
Two no. a year[ FORMER 1948-]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Edition:
Volume 72 Number 1, March 2019
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 24 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- May 1948-
General Note:
Cumulative index: Vols. 1-24, no. 2, 1948-June 1971. 1 v.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Florida Anthropologist Society, Inc. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
609502567 ( OCLC )
56028409 ( LCCN )
0015-3893 ( ISSN )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
The
Florida
Anthropologist
Published by the Florida Anthropological Society
Volume 72, Number 1
March 2019


The Florida Anthropologist is published by the Florida Anthropological Society, Inc. Subscription is by membership in the Society.
Membership is NOT restricted to residents of the State of Florida nor to the United States of America. Membership may be initiated
at any time during the year and covers the ensuing twelve month period. Dues shall be payable on the anniversary of the initial dues
payment. Members shall receive copies of all publications distributed by the Society during the 12 months of their membership
year. Annual dues are as follows: student $15, individual $30, family $35, institutional $30, sustaining $100 or more, patron $1000
or more, and benefactor $2500. Foreign subscriptions are an additional $25 U.S. to cover added postage and handling costs for
individual, family, or institutional membership categories. Copies of the journal will only be sent to members with current paid
dues. Please contact the Editor for information on recent back issues.
Requests for information on the Society, membership application forms, and notifications of changes of address should be sent to the
Membership Secretary. Donations should be sent to the Treasurer or may be routed through the Editors to facilitate acknowledgment
in subsequent issues of the journal (unless anonymity is requested). Submissions of manuscripts should be sent to the Editor.
Publications for review should be submitted to the Book Review Editor. Authors please follow The Florida Anthropologist style
guide (on-line at www.fasweb.org) in preparing manuscripts for submission to the journal and contact the Editor with specific
questions. The journal is formatted using Adobe In Design. All manuscripts must be submitted via email to the journal Editor in
final form in Microsoft Word format. Address changes should be made AT LEAST 30 DAYS prior to the mailing of the next issue.
The post office will not forward bulk mail nor retain such mail when “temporary hold” orders exist. Such mail is returned to the
Society postage due. The journal is published quarterly in March, June, September, and December of each year.
Officers of the Society
President: Jason Wenzel, Gulf Coast State College, 5230 West Highway 98, Panama City, FL 32401 (president@fasweb.org)
First Vice President: Emily Jane Murray, 8 Mulvey St. Apt. B, St. Augustine, FL 32084 (lvp@fasweb.org)
Second Vice President: Rebecca O’Sullivan, 4202 East Fowler Ave., SOC 110, Tampa FL 33620 (2vp@fasweb.org)
Recording Secretary: John Simon-Suarez, 8 Mulvey St. Apt. B, St. Augustine, FL 32084 (secretary@fasweb.org)
Membership Secretary: Pat Balanzategui, P. O. Box 1135, St. Augustine, FL 32085 (membership@fasweb.org)
Treasurer: Joanne Talley, P.O. Box 788, Hobe Sound, FL 33475 (treasurer@fasweb.org)
Directors at Large: Bob Gross, Jen Knutson, and Nigel Rudolph
Immediate Past President: Theresa M. Schober
Newsletter Editor: Jeff Moates, 4202 East Fowler Ave, SOC 110, Tampa FL 33620 (newsletter@fasweb.org)
Journal Editorial Staff
Editor: George M. Luer, 3222 Old Oak Drive, Sarasota, FL 34239 (flanthropologist@gmail.com)
Assistant Editor: Dorothy Block, 306 NE 1st Avenue #202, Boynton Beach, FL 33435 (editor@fasweb.org)
Technical Editor: Laura Dean, 3020 Cambridge Dr., Sarasota, FL 34232 (laura@runjikproductions.com)
Book Review Editor: Rebecca O’Sullivan, 4202 East Fowler Ave., SOC 110, Tampa FL 33620 (rosulliv@usf.edu)
Printer: Durra-Print, 717 South Woodward Ave., Tallahassee, FL 32304
Editorial Review Board
Albert C. Goodyear,
Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (goodyear@sc.edu)
Jeffrey M. Mitchem,
Arkansas Archeological Survey, P.O. Box 241, Parkin, AR 72373 (jeffmitchem@juno.com)
Nancy Marie White,
Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-8100 (nmw@usf.edu)
Robert J. Austin,
P.O. Box 2818, Riverview, FL 33568-2818 (bob@searchinc.com)
NOTE: In addition to the above Editorial Review Board members, the review comments of others knowledgeable in a
manuscript’s subject matter are solicited as part of our peer review process.
VISIT FAS ON THE WEB: fasweb.org
LIKE AND FOLLOW: facebook.com/FloridaAnthropologicalSociety/


The Florida
Anthropologist
Volume 72, Number 1
March 2019
Table of Contents
From the Editor
Articles
Paleoethnobotanical Analysis of Bulk Sediment and in situ Collections from the North Slope Basin
of Little Salt Spring (8S018), Sarasota County, Florida
Lee A. Newsom and Logan Kistler 1-14
Radiocarbon Dates from Warm Mineral Springs, Little Salt Spring, and Nearby Sites in North Port, Florida
George M. Luer and Dorothy A. Block 15-52
About the Authors
Published by the
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC.
ISSN 0015-3893


FROM THE EDITOR
On behalf of the FAS Board, we are pleased to bring you this issue of The Florida Anthropologist.
We are indebted to many people for its success.
Dorothy Block of Boynton Beach managed production.
Laura Dean of Runjik Productions, in Sarasota, did expert layout.
Bob Austin, of Riverview, assisted with reviews.
See you at the Annual Meeting, this year in Crystal River!
George M. Luer, Ph.D., Editor
and
Dorothy A. Block, M.A., Assistant Editor
Laura Dean, Technical Editor
Recent back issues can be purchased through the FAS website fasweb.org/publication-sales/
The journal digital archive is available through the University of Florida Library http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00217
The Florida Anthropologist Fund is designed
to support production of The Florida
Anthropologist, the scholarly journal,
published by the Florida Anthropological
Society since 1947.
Donations are accepted from individuals,
CORPORATIONS, AND FOUNDATIONS.
Inquiries and gifts can be directed to:
Joanne Talley, FAS Treasurer
P. O. Box 788
Hobe Sound, FL 33475
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY IS A NON-PROFIT
ORGANIZATION UNDER SECTION 501(C)(3) OF THE INTERNAL
REVENUE CODE. CONTRIBUTIONS ARE TAX-DEDUCTIBLE AS
PROVIDED BY SECTION 170 OF THE CODE.
Vol. 72 (1)
The Florida Anthropologist
March 2019


PALEOETHNOBOTANICAL ANALYSIS OF BULK SEDIMENT AND IN SITU COLLECTIONS FROM
THE NORTH SLOPE BASIN OF LITTLE SALT SPRING (8SOI8), SARASOTA COUNTY, FLORIDA
Lee A. Newsom1 and Logan Kistler2
1 Humanities Department, College of Arts and Sciences, Flagler College, St. Augustine, FL 32084 E-mail: lnewsom@flagler.edu
2 Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560 E-mail: KistlerL@si.edu
Introduction Collection of Samples
Underwater deposits at Little Salt Spring (8S018) in North
Port, Florida (Figure 1) have yielded abundant, well-preserved
plant macroremains ranging from seeds and gourd rind to a
variety of wooden artifacts. Previously, we published research
involving bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) (Kistler et al. 2014)
from Operation 14 in the spring basin’s north slope (Figure 2).
The AMS dated gourd rind (FS#1408551A01) from the sand of
Operation 14’s Stratum 6 yielded a 1-sigma conventional age
of 8890 +/- 50 radiocarbon years (Beta-261466) and a 2-sigma
date range of 10,195 to 9,775 calibrated years before present
(cal YBP).1 It represents the earliest record for this plant in
North America, and archaeogenetic analysis revealed a direct
link with African sources. Bottle gourd is believed to have
first arrived on the American continents, including Florida,
via oceanic drift (Kistler et al. 2014). It may be the earliest
cultivated plant in eastern North America, perhaps beginning
with Florida Paleoindian and Archaic period groups. Newsom
also has analyzed a variety of wooden objects and artifacts from
the spring basin, including debarked stakes with purposefully
faceted ends, atlatl shafts and non-returning boomerangs or
“rabbit sticks,” among others, which have been variously
reported (e.g., Clausen et al. 1979; Gifford and Koski 2011). In
addition, wooden items recovered from the 27 m Ledge along
the wall of the solution hole were analyzed by Newsom and
reported in Gifford et al. (2017).
Figure 1. Location and Profile of Little Salt Spring (maps
from Clausen et al. 1975). Profile is not to scale.
Our analyses are based on plant materials from three bulk
sediment samples and ten associated grab samples of in situ
specimens recovered from three underwater excavation units
at Little Salt Spring. These units, named Operations 9, 14, and
15, were among a series of units excavated by project director
Dr. John A. Gifford on the north slope of the spring basin
(Figure 2). The collection of the bulk sediment samples, one
from each of the three excavation units, had a dual purpose:
1) to provide an indication of the extent of plant preservation
among distinct deposits consisting of marl, a shell-rich lens,
and a peat stratum, and 2) to contribute data toward the
paleoecological and paleobotanical interpretation of the site.
The grab samples consist of relatively large plant specimens
(wood, seeds, and gourd rind) exposed by hand fanning during
excavation and collected from in situ contexts without their
surrounding sediments. These latter samples supplement the
bulk sediment samples by adding to the list of taxa present, thus
further enhancing insights into the early to middle Holocene
environment of the site, with implications bearing on regional
floristics patterns and ancient ethnobotanical practices. All
the samples were recovered by Gifford and his team during
underwater excavations at the site from 1992 to 2010, with
support from the Florida Division of Historical Resources and
the University of Miami.
Operation 9 (a 2 x 2 m unit) was excavated in 1994, followed
by Operations 14 and 15, which were undertaken in 2008.
Each was excavated according to the natural stratification.
Operation 14 (another 2 x 2 m unit) was contiguous with and
located immediately down slope of Operation 9. Operation
15 (a 1 x 2 m unit) was the next unit farther down slope of
Operation 14. Thus, the three units effectively formed a trench,
and we emphasize that the bulk sampling locations within
Operations 14 and 15 were only about a meter apart. The grab
samples were recovered exclusively from Operation 9. We
also draw below on data derived from sets of bulk sediment
and grab samples that were taken during the excavation of
Operations 5 and 6, also on the north slope. These samples
have not been completely analyzed, but we illuminate relevant
data from them, where they serve to enhance interpretation of
the present samples.
Samples
Three bulk samples were collected from above the deep
marl-sand interface in three test units dug into the north slope
of the spring basin. One sample came from the marl layer
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
The Florida Anthropologist
1


2
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
Figure 2. Plan View of the Basin at Little Salt Spring. Operation is abbreviated as “Op” followed by its number.
The locations of operations are approximate.
immediately above the sand interface in Operation 9. Two
samples came from peat and freshwater shell deposits overlying
the marl and the deeper sand interface in Operations 14 and
15. They appear to come from Stratum 4 in Operation 14 and
from Stratum 3 in Operation 15. Based on three radiocarbon
dates of peat from a similar stratigraphic position (the Peat III
zone in archaeologist Carl Clausen’s Core A), these two peat
samples may date to ca. 7,600 to 6,000 cal YBP. The marl
sample should be older, but no more than ca. 9,100 to 8,800
cal YBP, based on a radiocarbon date from the sand interface
with Locus 2 in Operation 6 (Koski et al. n.d.:Tables 3 and 4).
Bulk Sample 1 from Operation 14 (FS#14033L01) was
1.9 liters total, removed from the southwest comer of the
unit. The sample derived from a deposit designated Locus
3, described as a predominantly freshwater gastropod “shell
lens” at 8.15 to 8.25 m below the water surface. The sample
consisted of a calcareous matrix of shells and shelly debris,
mainly gastropods, intermixed with well-preserved organic
material.
Bulk Sample 2 from Operation 15 (FS#15094L01) was
the largest of the three bulk samples, with a volume of 2.05
liters. This sample derived from the lower portion of a peat


Newsom and Kistler
Little Salt Spring Paleoethnobotany
3
stratum designated Locus 4, sampled at 8.8 to 8.9 m below
the water surface, from the west wall of the unit’s east half.
The sample consisted of a dense organic matrix comprised
mainly of degraded plant tissues, organs, and disseminules
(seeds, fruits). Observations recorded in project field notes
and accompanying diagrams characterized the Locus 4
peat as having abundant gastropods, specifically rams-hom
(.Planorbella spp.) (Quitmyer 1994), and it was noted to contain
material culture items of the Archaic period. Undiagnostic
cultural materials (e.g., lithics) also were documented from
the underlying sand. This Locus 4 peat probably corresponds
with a peat layer (Locus 3) exposed previously in Operation
6, another 2 x 2 m unit which was Gifford’s original 1992
excavation in this area of the basin, just north of Operation
9. Operation 15’s Locus 4 peat was located approximately 4
to 5 m directly down slope (south) of Operation 6, but it was
stratigraphically approximately 1.5 m lower due to the steep
slope of the deposits (John Gifford, personal communication).
Bulk Sample 3 from Locus 2 of Operation 9 (FS#09L0C2),
was described as compact tan marl (Figure 3). The sample,
totaling 385 milliliters, was collected near the contact with
Locus 1 and consisted mainly of fine clay-sized calcareous
particles with some organics. Locus 2 was overlain by a
peat deposit (Locus 3) that, while not sampled in Operation
9, is likely to be the same organic-rich stratum encountered
in Operations 14 and 15, where it was sampled, as above
described. The Operation 9 Locus 2 marl represents early
inundation of the spring basin, when the water level was high
enough to surmount the top of the solution pipe and to overflow
into the upper basin (John Gifford, personal communication).
The underlying Locus 1 was characterized as white quartz
sand with abundant marine geologic shells.
Figure 3. Compact Tan Marl of Locus 2 (stratum in
central position in upper right quarter of photo). Locus
2 overlies Locus 1 (sand and marine geologic shells) and
underlies Locus 3 (degraded peat and freshwater shells)
in upper right of this underwater photo. Also shown
is a wooden throwing stick (a), an antler “hammer”
(b), and a bi-pointed bone pin (c) in situ in the Locus 1
deposit (photo courtesy John Gifford, project image files:
“28Jun92 LSS9206-0 artifacts in situ 66%”).
Materials and Methods
The sediment samples were partitioned into four size
fractions to facilitate subsampling and analysis. This was
done by gently washing the contents of each sample through
a series of graduated geological sieves, with mesh openings
of 4 mm, 2 mm, 1 mm, and 0.42 mm. After sieving, the 4
mm, 2 mm, and 1 mm fractions were placed in water in glass
petri dishes and completely scanned under low magnification
(4x to 30x). All fruit, seeds, and other potentially identifiable
plant remains, including wood, thorns, tendrils, buds, and
inflorescences, were extracted for further analysis. Other
potentially informative, materials also were removed for
potential study, including algal and fungal spores, fish scales
and bones, gastropods, insect fragments (generally beetle,
Coleóptera), and fine particulate charcoal. The finest sample
fractions (0.42 mm mesh sieve) were subsampled 10% by
volume, then scanned for informative material using the same
procedure described above.
After sorting, plant remains were indentified to the lowest
possible taxonomic level using published seed identification
manuals (Delorit 1970; Martin and Barkley 1961), relevant
floras (Godfrey and Wooten 1979; Godfrey and Wooten 1981;
Radford et al. 1968; Wunderlin 1998; Wunderlin and Hansen
2003; USDA-SCS 1985), online information and databases
(Byrne 2005; USDA-ARS 2018; USDA-NRCS 2008;
Wunderlin et al. 2018), and comparative collections housed
in Newsom’s lab. The floras provide the source data for plant
habits and habitats indicated in the sections and tables that
follow.
This work concentrated on plant propagules (or
disseminules, i.e., seeds and fruit) as sensitive ecological
indicators. Taxonomic assignments for wood specimens
isolated in the 4 mm sieve fractions were deferred for a later
time. Most taxa were assigned to the rank of family, with a
number of these definitively or provisionally identified to the
finer ranks of genus or species. The notation “cf.” preceding
a Latin epithet indicates a provisional or tentative assignment
to the particular taxonomic rank. For example, cf. Quercus
sp. indicates a provisional assignment to the oak genus, and
Quercus cf. virginiana would indicate a definitive assignment
to the genus but with a provisional assignment to the species
live oak. Ten additional seed or fruit morphotypes were
recorded from among the bulk sediment samples (including
nine from the Operation 15 peat) (Newsom and Kistler 2008),
but these are not further addressed here.
Results
Analysis of the three bulk sediment samples resulted
in relatively species-rich assemblages of plant remains.
Altogether, 1420 seeds and other propagules were examined
and categorized, resulting in 23 assigned taxa, with the ten
additional taxa or morphotypes described but not further
assigned. The peat sample from Operation 15 yielded the
greatest number of plant specimens, including 814 propagules
and all 23 identified taxa plus most of the unassigned taxa (19


4
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
specimens total). The sample from the Operation 14 shell-rich
stratum yielded 350 plant propagules, with 13 identified and
one unassigned. Finally, the Operation 9 marl produced 256
propagules and 10 assigned taxa, with two unassigned. When
standardized by volume, the Operation 9 marl sample appears
to demonstrate the greatest concentration of seeds at 691/liter,
compared with 433 seeds/liter for the peat and 198 seeds/liter
for the shell-rich deposit. Analysis of the grab samples from
Operation 9 produced three additional taxa, for a total of 26
taxa assigned in this analysis.
Taxonomic Assignments
The complete list of plant taxa from the bulk sediment
and grab samples is provided in Table 1. Of the 26
identified, nine are arboreal, that is, trees and shrubs. This
includes Sambucas nigra, subspecies canadensis (formerly
S. canadensis) (elderberry), Ilex sp. (holly), cf. Carpinus
Carolina (musclewood), Cornus foemina (swamp dogwood),
Quercus sp. (oak), Magnolia grandiflora (southern magnolia),
Morelia sp. (syn. Myrica), probably M cerífera (wax myrtle),
Zanthoxylum sp. (lime prickly ash or Hercules’ club), and
Ximenia americana (hog plum or tallow wood). The oak and
hog plum came exclusively from the grab samples. The oak
specimens include an aborted acorn and involucre fragments
from mature acorns; none was assignable to species. The hog
plum specimens consist of whole drupes or fragmentary fruit
mesocarp. The whole specimens range from 11.5 to 17.0 mm
high by 7.5 to 13.5 mm diameter.
Lianas and herbaceous climbers are represented by four
taxa (Table 1). Seeds assigned to the grape family, Vitaceae,
are morphologically consistent with two genera, Vitis and/or
Ampelopsis (wild grape, pepper vine), and could not be further
assigned. The passion flower seeds (Table 1) appear to belong
to a single species; however, it is not the common maypop
or purple passion flower (Passiflora incarnata) that ranges
throughout Florida and north into eastern North America. The
seed morphology (Figure 4) conforms to species associated
Figure 4. Highly Magnified Image of a Passion Flower
(Passiflora sp.) Seed from Bulk Sample 1 in Operation 14
(FS#14033LOl). Original image at 34x.
mostly with the central and southern Florida peninsula
(Wunderlin et al. 2018). The corky stem passion flower (P.
suberosa) is widely distributed across the peninsula. Three
species have ranges encompassing south and central Florida:
P coccínea, scarlet passion flower (basically just the Tampa
Bay area), R foetida, fetid passion flower, and R lútea, yellow
passion flower. Five additional passion flowers are restricted to
Florida’s southernmost counties, particularly the southeastern
region.
Creeping cucumber (Melothria péndula) is the third
climber recognized from among the sediment samples. This
plant is a native wild member of the pumpkin/gourd/squash
family, Cucurbitaceae, the same family to which bottle gourd
belongs. To reiterate, bottle gourd originates in Africa; the
AMS-dated specimen from Little Salt Spring came from
Operation 14. Fragmentary bottle gourd rind also was
recovered in three of the grab samples from Operation 9. This
includes a neck section (FS#09030A01) measuring 14 cm long
by about 5 cm diameter, with a wall thickness of 2 mm, plus
six smaller rind fragments (see below), five of which measure
about 1 cm square, and one is 2 x 4 cm. All seven bottle gourd
fragments could have derived from a single gourd. A third
member of the Cucurbitaceae, Cucúrbita sp. (gourd/squash),
also has been identified from archaeological deposits at Little
Salt Spring, but not from those here. We provide more detail
about the presence of bottle gourd and the native Cucúrbita
gourd/squash in the discussion below.
The remaining taxa from the sediment samples represent
terrestrial or aquatic forbs and graminoids. Pokeweed
(Phytolacca americana) is a large herb typically associated
with dry ground, including open or disturbed habitats. The
genus Polygonum (jointweed or October flower) includes
mostly annual herbs or subshrubs. Six Polygonum species
occur in central Florida today, including endemics (Wunderlin
et al. 2018). The consistent achene form found among the
samples suggests they represent a single taxon; however, we
have not assigned it to a lower rank due mainly to lack of
comparative material.
Cladium jamaicense (or C. mariscus, subspecies
jamaicense), Jamaica swamp sawgrass (Table 1) is an obligate
wetland plant, typical of marl wet prairie and sawgrass
marsh habitats (Lodge 2005:25-30). This sedge was noted
as a dominant element of the vegetation fringing the spring
and in the basin marsh in a recent floristic survey of the site
grounds (McConnell and Huegel 2008). Like Cladium,
Amaranthaceae propagules (both utricles and isolated seeds)
were relatively abundant and recorded for all three bulk
sediment samples (see below). Florida Amaranthaceae are
found in a range of habitats, both dry and wetland (Table
1), but the conspicuous presence and its co-occurrence with
sawgrass and the aquatic taxa described below support an
inference that this taxon is associated with wetlands. Thus,
between the propagule morphology and inferred wetland
association, we provisionally have assigned this taxon to
cf. Amaranthus australis, southern amaranth. This taxon is
commonly associated with brackish and freshwater marshes


Table 1. Archaeobotanical I
Assignments from Little Salt Spring Samples from Basin North Slope, Operations 9,14, and 15.
Family
Genus, Species
Vernacular
Habit
Habitat
Specimen,
Condition
Arboreal Taxa
Adoxaceae
Sambucus nigra subsp.
canadensis
elderberry
small tree or shrub
moist to wet open places; swamps, drainages; wet disturbed ground
seeds, whole
Aquifoliaceae
Ilex sp.
holly
deciduous or ever¬
green shrubs, trees
various forest associations
seeds, whole
Betulaceae
cf. Carpinus caroliniana
musclewood,
bluebeech
small tree or shrub
floodplains, bottomland forests
seed, fruit
Comaceae
Cornus foemina
swamp dogwood
small tree or shrub
riparian, pond and lake shores; wet thickets and clearings; floodplain forests, swamps
seeds, whole
Fagaceae
Quercus sp.
oak
trees and shrubs
various forest associations and woodlands
fruit, involucre
Magno liaceae
Magnolia grandiflora
southern magnolia
large evergreen tree
(angiosperm)
upland forests; ravine slopes and bottoms; mesic to hydric hammocks; floodplains
seeds, whole
Myricaceae
Morelia (syn. Myrica) cf. cerífera
wax myrtle
shrub or small tree
fresh to slightly brackish wetlands; pine savannas, flatwoods; cypress-gum ponds; swamps; hydric hammocks; upland
mixed
seeds, whole
Rutaceae
Zanthoxylum sp.
lime prickly ash,
Hercules’ club
trees and shrubs
mesic woodlands; temperate to subtropical/tropical
seeds
Ximeniaceae
Ximenia americana
hog plum
small tree, shrub
mesic woodlands, various
drupes
Vines and Lianas
Cucurbitaceae
Lagenaria siceraria
bottle gourd
climbing annual
vine
open, cultivated ground
rind
Cucurbitaceae
Melothria péndula
wild cucumber
low-climbing,
perennial vine
various dry to moist habitats
seeds, whole
Passifloraceae
Passiflora sp.
passionflowers
perennial herbs and
climbing vines
various dry to moist habitats
seeds, whole
Vitaceae
Vitis/Ampelopsis sp.
grape/pepper vine
lianas
various wooded habitats
seeds
Terrestrial Herbs
Amaranthaceae
cf Amaranthus australis
southern amaranth
herbs various
brackish and freshwater marshes
seeds and fruits, whole
Asteraceae
cf. Cirsium sp.
thistles
herbs, mostly
biennial or perennial
wetlands; pine savannas; marginal thickets; disturbed habitats
seeds, whole
Boraginaceae
cf. Amsinckia
fiddleneck
annual herb
disturbed habitats
seeds, whole
Cyperaceae
Cladium jamaicense
Jamaica swamp
sawgrass
leafy-stemmed
perennial herb
swamps, marshes and shore; freshwater or brackish
seeds and fruits, whole
Cyperaceae/Poaceae
-
graminoids
(sedges/grasses)
annual and perennial
herbs
various habitats
glumes or scales
Phytolaccaceae
Phytolacca americana
pokeweed
coarse, glabrous,
perennial herb
diverse,often disturbed habitats
seeds, whole
Polygonaceae
Polygonum sp.
jo intweed,
October flower
various herbs
damp ground; disturbed areas
achenes, whole
cf. Solanaceae
cf. Solanum sp.
e.g., black
nightshade
herbs, shrubs and
trees
various habitats
seed
cf. Urticaceae
cf. Boehmeria cylindrica
falsenettle, bog
hemp
perennial herb
marshes, swamps, floodplains; stream banks, cypress-gum ponds, depressions
seeds, whole
Aquatic Herbs
Alismataceae
Sagittaria sp.
arrowhead
aquatics, floating or
emersed leaves
floodplains, wet fields, marshes; swamps and swamp margins; disturbed habitats
achenes, whole
Cabombaceae
Brasenia schreberi
watershield
aquatic, floating
leaves
freshwater lakes, ponds, slow streams
seeds, whole
Hydrocharitaceae
(Najadaceae)
Najas sp.
watemymph
submersed aquatics
fresh to brackish water, still or moving
seeds, whole
cf. Ruppiaceae
cf. Ruppia sp.
widgeon grass
submersed aquatic
brackish to saline water, rarely fresh
fruit, whole
Newsom and Kistler Little Salt Spring Paleoethnobotany


6
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
throughout the state (IFAS CAIP 2018). The provisionally
assigned Boehmeria cylindrica (false nettle or bog hemp)
suggests the presence of an additional wetland taxon.
Four aquatic taxa are represented in the assemblage.
Sagittaria (arrowheads) are aquatics with leaves submersed,
floating, or emersed, depending on the species. McConnell
and Huegel (2008) recorded two species (S. gramínea and
S. lancifolia) growing in the wetter portions of the basin
marsh community during their floristic survey of Little Salt
Spring. Brasenia schreberi (watershield) is a floating-leaved
freshwater aquatic plant found in oligotrophic or mesotrophic
ponds, lakes, and sluggish streams (Wiersema 1997) that was
included formerly in the water lily family. Watershield is not
indicated to range as far south as Sarasota County along the
west coast in the modem flora, but it is recorded farther south
in the interior highlands (Wunderlin et al. 2018). Najas sp.
(water nymph) is a genus of submersed aquatic plants; four
species occur today in central and/or south Florida (Wunderlin
et al. 2018). Ruppia marítima (widgeon grass) (Table 1) was
provisionally assigned based on one propagule; this would
indicate the presence of another submersed aquatic. Ruppia
marítima belongs to a cosmopolitan complex of closely
related taxa found along coasts and in some interior wetlands
(Wunderlin et al. 2018).
Three additional provisionally assigned genera include
taxa that variously occur in dry to moist settings, depending
on the species. These assignments include Amsinckia
(fiddleneck), Cirsium (thistle), and Solanum (soda apple or
cockroach berry) (Table 1). One of these, Amsinckia, is not
indicated in the extant flora, currently ranging north and west
of Florida (USDA-ARS 2018). The assignment Cyperaceae/
Poaceae indicates specimens placed to either the sedge or
grass families; poor condition or incompleteness precluded
finer identification.
Table 2. Taxon Counts for Bulk Sediment Samples from Little Salt Spring Basin North Slope Operations 9,14,15 (Op 9,14,15).
Taxa
Op 15, 2008 15094LO1 peat
Op 14, 2008 14033LO1 shelly matrix
Op 9,1994 09LOC2 marl
4, 2, &
1 mm
Fractions
0.42 mm
Fraction
Total
Count
4, 2, &
1 mm
Fractions
0.42 mm
Fraction
Total
Count
4, 2,&
1 mm
Fractions
0.42 mm
Fraction
Total
Count
Arboreal taxa
Adoxaceae, Sambucus
40
40
5
5
20
20
Aquifoliaceae, Ilex sp.
30
30
Betulaceae, cf. Carpinus
2
2
Comaceae, Cornus foemina
7
7
Magnoliaceae, Magnolia sp.
2
2
Myricaceae, Morelia
344
344
90
90
45
45
Rutaceae, Zanthoxylum
3
3
Vines and lianas
Cucurbitaceae, Melothria
23
1
24
1
1
Passifloraceae, Passiflora
1
1
2
2
Vitaceae, Vitis/Ampelopsis
4
4
3
3
Terrestrial herbs
Amaranthaceae, cf.
Amaranthus
5
7
12
27
26
53
1
2
3
Asteraceae, cf. Cirsium
5
5
2
2
Boraginaceae, cf. Amsinckia
2
2
Cyperaceae, Cladium
172
172
71
1
72
139
1
140
Cyperaceae/Poaceae
1
1
2
3
3
Phytolaccaceae, Phytolacca
5
5
2
2
1
1
Polygonaceae, Polygonum
6
1
7
2
2
2
2
cf. Solanaceae, Solanum
2
2
cf. Urticaceae, Boehmeria
6
26
32
3
1
1
1
Aquatic herbs
Alismataceae, Sagittaria
19
1
20
12
12
9
9
Cabombaceae, Brasenia
61
61
29
29
Hydrocharitaceae, Najas
17
17
100
1
101
cf. Ruppiaceae, Ruppia
1
1


Newsom and Kistler
Little Salt Spring Paleoethnobotany
7
Taxon Occurrences
The frequencies and distributions of the various plant
taxa within and among the three bulk samples are indicated in
Table 2. Taxon counts for the 4 mm, 2 mm, and 1 mm sieve
fractions are listed separately from the 0.42 mm fractions
(these were subsampled as indicated above). We assume that
the subsample is an adequate sample based on cursory scans
of the remaining material in that fraction; however, we choose
to show the counts separately.
All the basic life forms (arboreal and non-arboreal taxa:
trees, vines, herbs) are represented in each of the three samples.
Predictably, aquatic and wetland taxa are most frequent. The
peat sample from Operation 15 was the most species-rich of
the three samples, containing arboreal taxa in the greatest
representation, with all seven of those taxa being present
(Table 2). Herbaceous forms of all categories are likewise
well represented in the peat sample. The most abundant taxon
by frequency and percentage of propagules was the shrub wax
myrtle (Morelia; n = 344; 42% of the sample assemblage).
Second in prominence was Jamaica swamp sawgrass (Cladium
sp.; n = 172) (Table 2), comprising 21% of the propagule total
from the sample. The aquatic herb watershield (Brasenia
schreberi) was also relatively conspicuous with 61 specimens
total (7%). The rest of the taxa from the peat sample comprised
5% or less of the sample assemblage.
The most conspicuous taxa found in the adjacent Operation
14 shelly deposit are the aquatic Najas sp. (watemymph, n =
101; 29%), followed by wax myrtle (n = 90; 26%), sawgrass
(n = 72; 20%), and the cf. Amaranthus (n = 51; 15%) (Table 2).
Thus again, aquatic or wetland forms dominate. This is true
also of the marl sample from Operation 9, in which sawgrass
(n = 140; 55%) and wax myrtle (n = 45; 17%) are relatively
abundant, particularly the former, followed by watershield (n
= 29; 11%) (Table 2). The Operation 9 grab samples (Table
3) add oak, hog-plum, and bottle gourd to the taxa in this unit.
However, we are uncertain of their contemporaneity with the
marl sample or any of the bracketing (or other) strata described
above.
Discussion
Bulk Samples
Collectively and very generally, the taxa identified in
the three sediment samples are indicative of the freshwater
marsh and aquatic habitat fringing the spring basin. This is
clearly evident from the high frequency of the aquatic plant
remains, namely arrowhead, watershield, and/or water nymph,
along with the herbaceous emergent Jamaica swamp sawgrass.
Sawgrass comprised 20% to as much as 55% of the identified
taxon counts. This indicates that vegetation typical of wet
prairie (underlain by peat and/or marl) or sparse sawgrass
Table 3. In situ Grab Samples from Little Salt Spring Basin North Slope Operation 9.
Sample #
Material
Count
Taxonomic Assignment
Notes
09011W05
gourd rind
4
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)
Small rind fragments, each <1 cm square
09021W05
gourd rind
2
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)
Small rind fragments; 1 x 1 cm and 2x4 cm;
per John Gifford: 'This is from an artifact."
09030A01
gourd rind
1
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)
Bottleneck gourd fragment, broken into two
pieces during removal. (1) length 14 cm, width
5-2 cm, thickness 2 mm; (2) length 9 cm, width
4-2 cm, thickness 2 mm. No holes or other
obvious indication of human modification.
09033W01
fruit
5
Ximenia americana (hog plum)
Five drupes, one broken open revealing single
seed. (1) 15 x 10.1 mm; (2) 15 x 10 mm; (3)
14 x 10.5 mm; (4) 11.5 x 7.5 mm; (5) 10.5 mm
diameter (broken).
0905 3 W01
fruit
1
Ximenia americana (hog plum)
One whole drupe, 14.5 x 11.5 mm
09053W02
pericarp
2
Ximenia americana (hog plum)
Fragmentary pericarp (fruit wall), small
fragments (also one twig and collapsed
roundwood, both unidentified).
09057W05
acorn
9
Quercus sp. (oak)
One aborted acorn plus 8 fragments of mature nut
involucres
09057W25
pericarp
11
Ximenia americana (hog plum)
Fragmentary pericarp (fruit wall), small
fragments probably all equal one original drupe
09003W03
fruit
1
Ximenia americana (hog plum)
One dried drupe, 7.0 x 5.5 mm
09993W04
fruit
1
Ximenia americana (hog plum)
One drupe, 17.5 x 13.5 mm


8
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
Figure 5. Idealized Compressed Cross-section of Typical
Everglades Plant Communities. Note substrates of marl
and peat. From Lodge (2005:Figure 3.1).
marsh thrived and persisted in the shallow water margin and
immediate environment of the spring when the sediments
formed. Our use of the term “sparse” follows Lodge (2005),
in the sense of a sawgrass marsh with relatively high species
richness and diversity, as opposed to a “dense” marsh, where
spacing of the sawgrass is quite close and tends to crowd out
other marsh species. In our case, this is largely conjectural,
based mainly on the relative abundance of sawgrass propagules
and the species richness that characterizes especially the peat
sample from Operation 15, Bulk Sample 2 (23 taxa assigned)
(Table 2).
A sparse sawgrass marsh is consistent with the “basin
marsh” plant community described by McConnell and Huegel
(2008) in their recent survey of the Little Salt Spring property,
and we note also their mention of wax myrtle occurring as
a transitional species at the outer edge of the marsh as well
as in the hydric hammock or bayhead surrounding the spring
and slough system. Indeed, wax myrtle comprised 17%
to 42% of the propagules identified, the greatest proportion
in the Operation 15 peat sample (Table 2). The Everglades
plant community depicted in Figure 5 may be somewhat
analogous to the pond and wetland vegetation inferred from
the bulk sediment samples, showing sawgrass along with
some of the same aquatic plants, fringing shrubs, and a similar
geological substrate. We assume for the Little Salt Spring
basin somewhat analogous geo-depositional circumstances,
ecosystem processes, and microenvironments. Instead of
isolated tree islands, the surrounding forest community was
likely to have been more expansive, with wax myrtle growing
at the pond edge and grading into hydric hammock, much as
McConnell and Huegel (2008) describe.
The hydric hammock currently surrounding the spring
includes three other genera that are associated with our
samples: swamp dogwood, holly (dahoon holly, Ilex cas sine),
and oak, both laurel oak and live oak ( virginiana, respectively) (McConnell and Huegel 2008). These
tree or shrub taxa also were recorded for drier communities
surrounding the site, as were variously peppervine and wild
grape (McConnell and Huegel 2008). Our data thus suggest the
presence of temperate to sub-tropical moist to wet hardwood
forest in the immediate vicinity of the site, similar but not
identical to the hardwood and mesic pine forest communities
and wetlands found around the spring today. Arboreal taxa
identified among our samples but not recorded by the recent
vegetation survey include musclewood (cf.), elderberry,
southern magnolia, lime prickly ash or Hercules’ club, and
hog plum. Each of these, however, has a modem range that
encompasses the area (Wunderlin et al. 2018).
Studies of Sediment Cores
Three of the genera from the bulk sediment samples
(holly, oak, and wax myrtle) were identified previously by
Brown (1981), Brown and Cohen (1985), Hansen (1990), and
Bernhardt et al. (2010) in their analyses of pollen and plant
fragments from sediment cores taken at Little Salt Spring. Oak
and wax myrtle also were identified in a pollen assemblage
from nearby Warm Mineral Springs (8S019) (Sheldon 1976).
Brown and Cohen (1985:23-24) also analyzed “calcific
mud” that they extracted from gastropod shells found in the
spring basin’s lower portion, near the drop-off about 12 m
below the present water surface, and associated with artifacts
dating to “about 9900 B.P.” or ca. 11,000 to 10,000 cal YBP
(see Appendix B-2 in Luer and Block 2019, this issue). The
gastropod samples were dominated by pollen of wax myrtle,
followed by oak, and then pine. Pollen of the sedge family
(which includes sawgrass) was also relatively conspicuous
among other herbaceous taxa identified. Moreover, this was
the exclusive context in which hickory (Carya sp.) pollen was
relatively abundant. Later Hansen (1990), in her analysis of
10 sediment samples from three of Gifford’s deep cores taken
in 1990 from the bottom of Little Salt Spring (Cores I, IV,
V), drew attention to the presence of hickory in a portion of
Core IV as a stratigraphic/temporal marker, noting its presence
in Brown and Cohen’s (1985) gastropod samples and in view
of its declining presence in early Holocene strata from other
sediment core records in Florida (e.g., Watts and Hansen
1988).
Brown (1981) and Brown and Cohen (1985) also analyzed
a “bayhead” pollen core, General Development Foundation
(GDF) Core 141, which was extracted by geologist Cohen and
archaeologist Clausen from the hammock close to the spring
basin. It also demonstrated a strong relative presence of wax
myrtle pollen at depth, with increasing proportions of oak and
holly pollen moving forward in time. Likewise, this trend
was documented for the forb grouping “cheno-ams” (i.e.,
“Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae”). The earliest portion of
pollen “Zone I” revealed a peak presence for pine (Pinus sp.)
as well as willow (Salix sp.), sedges (Cyperaceae), and ferns
(Polypodiaceae). This interval was generally characterized
as a wet period based mainly on the presence of the willow,
sedges, and ferns, which lasted from “about 8000 to 9000
B.P.” (Brown and Cohen 1985:24-25). When calibrated,
this age range equates to ca. 10,500 to 8,500 cal YBP (see
Appendix B-4 in Luer and Block 2019, this issue). This period
may roughly equate with Operation 9’s Locus 2, which was
analyzed here.
Subsequently, Brown and Cohen (1985:25) interpreted a
drying trend beginning “around 8000 B.P.” that was signaled


Newsom and Kistler
Little Salt Spring Paleoethnobotany
9
by a spike in grass (Poaceae) pollen. Pollen “Zone II” had
radiocarbon ages of “about 6400 to 7600 B.P.” or ca. 8,500
to 7,200 cal YBP (Appendix B-4 in Luer and Block 2019,
this issue). Zone II revealed a much greater presence of wax
myrtle, along with increased oak pollen and spores of the
leather fern (.Achrostichum danaeifolium). They interpreted
this as further evidence of the drying trend. Later, a fibrous
peat formed with red bay {Persea borbonia) and wax myrtle
leaves, as well as dinoflagellates and foraminifera, and this
was interpreted as evidence of rising water levels (Brown and
Cohen 1985:25). This may signal the middle Holocene Warm
Period (NOAANCEI 2018).
The pollen analysis by Bernhardt et al. (2010) derives from
Gifford’s Core IV, from the bottom of Little Salt Spring, that
spans a 7,000-year period, beginning about 13,500 cal YBP
and ending around 6,400 cal YBP (Gregory et al. 2017:Table
1; also see Appendix C-6 in Luer and Block 2019, this issue).
Core IV shows peaks in wax myrtle pollen and low fern spore
concentrations during the Younger Dryas around 11,000 years
ago, along with relatively abundant oak and hickory pollen.
After about 11,000 years ago, wax myrtle fluctuated but always
remained a conspicuous element of the flora, along with ferns.
Holly and oak also were relatively conspicuous. Very high
proportions of wax myrtle pollen near the top of Core IV may
correlate with its peak in the pollen of Zone II in the Brown
and Cohen bayhead core and likewise may correspond with
the notable presence of wax myrtle (42% of the assemblage) in
our Archaic period peat sample from Operation 15.
Proxy Signals
Focusing now on the spring microenvironment and
potential proxy signals for ambient conditions, the presence
and relative frequencies of the three most prominent taxa
noted above (watershield, watemymph, and sawgrass) may
provide further insights. As we noted, these are either aquatic
or emergent plants associated with marshy wetlands. They
potentially serve as useful co-varying signals for water quality
due to their differing salinity tolerances. Watershield is a
strictly freshwater species, while watemymph, depending
on the species, and sawgrass tolerate slightly brackish
conditions (USDA-SCS 1985; Whitney et al. 2004:273;
Wunderlin 1998:67-68, 154). Sawgrass and watershield
occurred in the Locus 4 peat bulk sample from Operation 15
and in the marl bulk sample from Operation 9. Sawgrass was
especially conspicuous in the marl sample, comprising 55%
of the assemblage. Sawgrass comprised 20% of the identified
propagules from the Operation 14 shelly matrix, about the
same as the Operation 15 peat, but watershield was absent
from the Operation 14 sample. Instead, watemymph proved
relatively conspicuous (29% of the assemblage) in the shelly
deposit. In contrast, it comprised about 2% of the peat sample
and was absent from the marl sample. The cf. Amaranthus
also demonstrated a stronger presence in the shelly matrix
(to reiterate, the species A. australis tolerates both fresh and
brackish conditions).
Perhaps the shelly deposit in Operation 14 formed under
brackish or more mineral-charged conditions that were adverse
to watershield, which is strictly freshwater. Even though this
inference is based on negative evidence (taxon absence), it may
correlate with observations by Hansen (1990) on the pollen
spectra and by Quitmyer (1994) concerning taxonomic shifts
in the faunal assemblage from Locus 2 of Operation 6, which
were correlated with different levels of tolerance in water
quality, especially acidity and salinity. Likewise, Alvarez
Zarikian et al. (2005) documented increasingly mineralized
groundwater at Little Salt Spring after approximately 5,700
years ago, in conjunction with the rise in the regional water
table and proximity to the saltwater interface. Depending on
the stratigraphic position and temporal correlations with the
other two bulk sediment samples (the peat and marl), this
would suggest either a seemingly short-lived trend toward
slightly more brackish or chemically altered conditions or the
longer trend in that direction.
Disturbance Dynamics
It is also possible that the shifts in the relative frequency of
taxa, if correct, could relate to hydroperiod and fire frequency
in and around the spring basin. Watemymph is associated
with long hydroperiods and infrequent fire, whereas sawgrass
thrives under moderate to short hydroperiods and moderate to
frequent fire pulses (Whitney et al. 2014:52). Thus, a pulse
equilibrium model (Mitsch and Gosselink 2007; Turner et al.
2003) that was perhaps drought driven, including fire, may
partly explain the shifts in taxa, along with changes in water
volume, water quality, and hydroperiod.
Sawgrass grows best if inundated for 70% to 90% of the
year (Whitney et al. 2014:52). According to Lodge (2005:27),
the average hydroperiod for sawgrass is about ten months,
ranging from less than six months to nearly continuous
flooding, and typical wet-season depths range from 30 to 45
cm. He notes further that deeper water and longer hydroperiod
support taller, denser stands of sawgrass, with the drier
extreme promoting more open, sparse growth, along with
additional plant taxa. Sawgrass has been demonstrated to
thrive in pryogenic ecosystems, requiring periodic fire to bum
away litter and competitors in order to establish its dominance
in littoral or wet prairie environments, such as the Everglades
(Lodge 2005; Uchytil 1992; Whitney et al. 2014:63).
Likewise, a strong signal for wax myrtle among all the
samples may correlate with fire-induced succession in the
immediate setting of the spring basin (Casey and Ewel 2006).
It may not simply reflect drier conditions, as suggested above
as an interpretation of the pollen analysis. Corroborative
evidence for burning (natural wildfires) in the watershed and
vicinity exists in the presence of carbon particulate matter
found in all three bulk sediment samples, which also was
detected in the pollen analyses (Brown 1981:12,17,19-20, 29;
Brown and Cohen 1985:26).
Summary
The plant assemblages discussed above, along with the
depositional sequence revealed by the trench (Operations
9, 14, and 15) suggest a hypothetical time-transgressive


10
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
environmental dynamic spanning the three bulk samples
consisting of the deeper marl and the overlying shelly deposit
and peat. Water already had encroached on the sandy basin
by the beginning of the Operation 9 marl formation, and the
water remained, allowing further deposition of the marl and
colonization of wetland and aquatic plants like sawgrass and
watershield, the latter indicating that the water was relatively
fresh. With time, there was increasing ecological complexity,
as plant succession proceeded and water quality varied. As
additional emergent and aquatic plants became established, so
did attendant communities of microorganisms and invertebrate
and vertebrate fauna, such as rams-hom snails (Planorbella
spp.). Increasing plant biomass, especially sawgrass, resulted
in accelerated accumulation of organic detritus and the eventual
formation of peat deposits. Fallen leaves, woody debris, and
propagules from shrubs, such as wax myrtle and elderberry,
fringing the spring basin would have added to the peat
accumulation. All of this is consistent with Donders’ (2014)
synthesis of multi-proxy data showing a middle Holocene
humidity increase and an overall trend toward significantly
wetter conditions on the Florida peninsula.
Further Discussion
We now briefly consider plant biogeographic patterns and
their potential relevance to broader climate trends. Except for
hog plum, which is pan-tropical in distribution, the arboreal
taxa from the samples are predominantly, though in some
cases not exclusively, associated with temperate climates.
This is not unexpected because of the latitude, such that
central Florida forms a broad ecotone between the major
biomes, where species of both affinities intermix (Myers
2000a, 2000b). For example, Manatee County (just north
of Sarasota County) is the southernmost extent of southern
magnolia, although it occurs slightly farther south in the
central highlands region. Similarly, musclewood, however
provisional, occurs no farther south today than Manatee
and Hardee counties (Wunderlin et al. 2018). The members
of the Vitaceae, grape family, also represent a temperate
floristic element and are especially common constituents of
hardwood forests in Florida and eastern North America in
general. Conversely, the passion flowers (Passiflora spp.) are
prominently associated with tropical and subtropical floras,
including much of the Caribbean.
The fiddleneck herb (cf. Amsinckia sp.) from the Operation
15 peat sample is seemingly inconsistent with the modem
flora, having a range outside the area today. Unfortunately,
the provisional status of the assignment precludes any
definitive conclusion about the range. Nevertheless, the
plant’s possible presence and the patterns just noted for other
taxa make relevant the consideration of “no-analogue” plant
communities for Florida’s early to middle Holocene or Early
to Middle Archaic periods. When compared with the modem
situation, no-analogue communities are characterized by
unique combinations of plant and animal species (Williams
and Jackson 2007; Stafford et al. 1999). This is obvious
c
Figure 6. Field Photo of a Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria sicerarid)
from Little Salt Spring. These fragments came from a whole
bottle gourd (Florida Archives and History tag# 14297)
reportedly with a square hole cut through the rind that was
recovered by Clausen from the spring basin in the 1970s.
enough for the late Pleistocene, with the presence of extinct
fauna like the giant tortoise and the proboscidea, along with
regional pollen and seed records evincing distinct floristics
patterns, including taxa such as spmce (Picea sp.) (Watts
and Hansen 1988; Watts et al. 1992) and American hazelnut
(Corylus americana) (Newsom and Mihlbachler 2006),
neither of which occurs in Florida today. The present data,
along with the pollen taxa noted from Little Salt Spring and
Warm Mineral Springs, may suggest the same can be posited
for the later time frame encompassed by the sediment samples
from the spring basin. Hansen’s (1990) pollen analysis of
samples from Little Salt Spring Cores IV and V included
assignments of hazelnut (Corylus sp.) and birch (Betula sp.).
As we indicated, the former genus no longer occurs in the state
and the sole birch species, river birch (B. nigra), currently
ranges no farther south than Levy County (Wunderlin et al.
2018). Sheldon (1976) also identified Corylus pollen at Warm
Mineral Springs. Differences in dispersal ability, migration
efficiency, and rates of movement as organisms adjust to
climate change account for the non-analogue situation(s).
Quitmyer’s (1994) identification of a geographically
disjunct taxon in the faunal assemblage, the small freshwater
snail Physella bermudezi (low-dome physa), which currently
ranges farther south in the peninsula, may be part of the
same pattern. Also relevant is the archaeological presence
at Little Salt Spring of a third member of the pumpkin-
squash family, briefly alluded above. This is the wild gourd/
squash (Cucúrbita sp.), which we suggest here adds to our
inference of a non-analogue early-middle Holocene floristic
community at the site. Cucúrbita rind, seeds, and a peduncle
were recovered from bulk sediment samples from Operation
5 (Levels 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6) and from Operation 6 (Level 1)
(Newsom, unpublished laboratory data).


Newsom and Kistler
Little Salt Spring Paleoethnobotany
11
Today, the genus Cucúrbita is represented in Florida
by a single native species, the Okeechobee gourd (C.
okeechobeensis), known only from the Lake Okeechobee
basin and the central reaches of the St. Johns River basin
(Wunderlin et al. 2018). Archaeological records for the genus
are widespread across the peninsula, and temporally extend
well into the Pleistocene epoch (Kistler et al. 2015; Newsom
and Mihlbachler 2006; Newsom et al. 1993). Based mainly
on seed morphology, the ancient gourd taxon was previously
assigned to C. pepo, with emphasis on the modem subspecies
ovifera var. ovifera), the ornamental gourds and squashes of
eastern North America. Decker and Newsom (1988) used
statistical numerical analysis to classify seeds from a large
archaeological Cucúrbita assemblage recovered from Hontoon
Island in Volusia County, affirming the association with the C.
pepo lineage and the subspecies ovifera.
Recently, genetic analyses by Kistler et al. (2015) focused
on the undifferentiated plastid genome structure among patchy
wild C. pepo subspecies ovifera in eastern North America
revealed recent (i.e., Holocene) fragmentation of a previously
widespread, continuous population. The range encompassed
by the archaeological Cucúrbita shrank and fragmented during
the early to middle Holocene, leaving no extant populations in
Florida. The research also showed that the Okeechobee gourd
is part of a separate Gulf coastal clade, with populations that
have similarly fragmented and left isolates over time.
Returning briefly to bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria),
in addition to the AMS dated specimen mentioned above
from Operation 14, and the rind fragments from Operation 9
noted above (and see Table 3), we identified 14 rind fragments
from Operation 5 (Levels 1, 2, 5, and 6), and 12 more from
Operation 6 (Newsom, unpublished laboratory data). Among
the latter was the base of a neck with a perforation that may
be a drilled hole. This is reminiscent of a whole bottle gourd
(Figure 6) recovered by Clausen from the spring basin in the
1970s. This gourd was hollow and reportedly had a square
hole deliberately cut through the rind (John Gifford, personal
communication).
Humanistic Implications
Many of the plant taxa represented at Little Salt Spring
were potentially useful to native people. Elderberry, passion
flower, hogplum, creeping cucumber, and wild grape, along
with its relative peppervine, are sources of fresh edible fruit.
These have well documented medicinal and other uses. For
example, elderberry fruits are eaten dry, fresh, or cooked,
and can be fermented into an alcoholic beverage. The bark,
seeds, roots, leaves, and berries have a wide variety of
medicinal applications, especially as purgatives, cathartics,
and febrifuges (to control fevers) (Austin 2004:595; Moerman
2006:511-512). At the early Archaic period Windover site on
the opposite side of the peninsula, an adult female who died
with advanced osteomyeloma had more than 2,000 elderberry
seeds in her lower abdominal cavity (Newsom 2002). The
Seminole reportedly used elderberry as a famine food, to
treat stomach aches, among other health problems, and to
manufacture blowing tubes and toys (Sturtevant in Austin
2004:595). Wild grapes have widely and frequently been used
for food, beverages, and as medicinal components (Austin
2004:709-710; Moerman 2006:598-600). Wild grape remains
were common in human abdominal samples from Windover
(Newsom 2002). One Archaic period burial excavated by
Clausen from the slough at Little Salt Spring, was described
as an adult female and was reportedly covered by layered
“sticks” (later thought to have been remains of interlaced
grape vines) (Purdy 1991:153).
The leaves, bark, and fruits of Zanthoxylum (prickly ash,
Hercules’ club, wild lime) have long been used medicinally,
as a spice, and for dye (Austin 2004:725-728). Similarly,
the leaves, fruits, and bark of several species of holly have
long been used medicinally, especially as purgatives (Austin
2004:363-364; Moerman 2006:273). The berries are toxic, but
young leaves contain caffeine and can be steeped as a beverage.
Notably, the “black drink” of southeastern Indians was based
on native yaupon, Ilex vomitoria (Austin 2004:363-364).
We can add oak acorns as another edible plant; likewise, the
rootstocks of arrowhead (Sagittaria spp.) (Austin 2004:589-
590).
Considering the bottle gourd remains, and the Cucúrbita
in the wider archaeobotanical assemblage from the site, both
gourd taxa have large fruit with relatively thick, hard rinds
that can serve as containers and for a variety of implements.
Oil may be extracted from the seeds. The Cucúrbita gourd
ultimately was domesticated in eastern North America; the
specimens recorded among Florida’s wetsite deposits are the
ancestral form (Kistler et al. 2015).
Conclusions
The plant remains identified, and their relative frequencies
in the spring basin excavation units, provide perspectives
on plant biogeography, biodiversity baselines, and the
paleoecology of Little Salt Spring and environs between ca.
9,000 to 6,000 cal YBP. The data also may suggest broader
links with regional paleoclimatic variation spanning the early
to middle Holocene. Moreover, given that the spring basin
is associated with human occupations beginning as early as
Paleoindian times and continuing into the Archaic period, then
humanistic concerns—paleoethnobotany—are also relevant.
This is especially evident from the wooden artifacts and the
remains of two kinds of hard-shelled gourds.
Note
1. Slightly different values of previously reported
calibrated results are insignificant and reflect the use of
different calibration programs.


12
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
References
Alvarez Zarikian, C. A., P. K. Swart, J. A. Gifford,
and P. L. Blackwelder
2005 Holocene Paleohydrology of Little Salt Spring,
Florida, based on Ostracod Assemblages and Stable
Isotopes. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology,
Palaeoecology 225:134-156.
Austin, Daniel F.
2004 Florida Ethnobotany. CRC Press, Boca Raton,
Florida.
Bernhardt, C., D. Willard, B. Landacre, and J. Gifford
2010 Vegetation changes during the last deglacial and
early Holocene: a record from Little Salt Spring,
Florida. Poster presented at the American
Geophysical Union annual meeting, San Francisco.
Brown, Janice G.
1981 Palynologic and Petrographic Analyses of Bayhead
Hammock and Marsh Peats at Little Salt Spring
Archaeological Site (8S018), Florida. M.A. thesis,
Department of Geology, University of South
Carolina. University Microfilms International,
Ann Arbor.
Brown, J. G., and A. D. Cohen
1985 Palynologic and Petrographic Analyses of Peat
Deposits, Little Salt Spring. National Geographic
Research 1(4):21-31.
Byrne, A. R.
2005 Common vascular plants in the tidal marshes of
the San Francisco Bay estuary. (http://geography.
berkeley.edu/ProjectsResources/SF_Estuary_BayArea_
Seeds, html), accessed August 2008.
Casey, William R, and Katherine C. Ewel
2006 Patterns of Succession in Forested Depressional
Wetlands in North Florida, USA. Wetlands
26(1): 147-160.
Clausen, Carl J., H. K. Brooks, A. B. Wesolowsky
1975 Florida Spring Confirmed as 10,000 Year Old Early
Man Site, edited by Ripley P. Bullen. Florida
Anthropological Society Publication #7, Gainesville.
Clausen, C. J., A. D. Cohen, C. Emiliani, J. A. Holman,
and J. J. Stipp
1979 Little Salt Spring, Florida: a Unique Underwater
Site. Science 203:609-614.
Decker D. S., and L. A. Newsom
1988 Numerical Analysis of Archaeological Cucúrbita
pepo Seeds from Hontoon Island, Florida. Journal
of Ethnobiology 8(l):35-44.
Delorit, Richard J.
1970 Illustrated Taxonomy Manual of Weed Seeds.
Agronomy Publications, River Falls, Wisconsin.
Cited
Donders, T. H.
2014 Middle Holocene Humidity Increases in Florida:
Climate or Sea Level? Quaternary Science
Reviews 103:170-174.
Gifford, J. A., and S. H. Koski
2011 An Incised Antler Artifact from Little Salt Spring
(8S018). The Florida Anthropologist 64(1):47-51.
Gifford, J. A., S. H. Koski, L. Newsom, and L. Milideo
2017 Little Salt Spring: Excavations on the 27 Meter
Ledge, 2008-2011. In The Archaeology of
Underwater Caves, edited by P. B. Campbell, pp.
73-103. Highfield Press, Southampton, United
Kingdom.
Godfrey, Robert K., and Jean W. Wooten
1979 Aquatic and Wetland Plants of the Southeastern
United States, Monocotyledons. University of
Georgia Press, Athens.
1981 Aquatic and Wetland Plants of the Southeastern
United States, Dicotyledons. University of Georgia
Press, Athens.
Gregory, Braden R. B., Eduard G. Reinhardt,
and John A. Gifford
2017 The Influence of Morphology on Sinkhole
Sedimentation at Little Salt Spring, Florida.
Journal of Coastal Research 33(2):359-371.
Hansen, B. S. C.
1990 Pollen Analysis of Little Salt Spring, Florida.
Report to Dr. John Gifford, University of Miami,
dated November.
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS),
University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants
(CAIP)
2018 Amaranthus australis, (http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/
plant-directory/amaranthus-australis/) accessed
December 20, 2018.
Kistler L., A. Montenegro, B. D. Smith, J. A. Gifford,
L. A. Newsom, and B. Shapiro
2014 African Origins and Multi-Regional Domestication
of Bottle Gourds in the Americas. Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences
111(8):2937-2941.
Kistler, L., L. A. Newsom, T. M. Ryan, A. C. Clarke,
B. D. Smith, and G. H. Perry
2015 Gourds and Squashes (Cucúrbita spp.) Adapted
to Megafaunal Extinction and Ecological
Anachronism through Domestication. Proceedings
of the National Academy of Sciences
112(49): 15107-15112.


Newsom and Kistler
Little Salt Spring Paleoethnobotany
13
Koski, Steven H., Irvy R. Quitmyer, and John A. Gifford
n.d. Excavations in Little Salt Spring Basin’s West
Edge and North Slope, Sarasota County, Florida.
Ms. in preparation.
Lodge, T. E.
2005 The Everglades Handbook: Understanding the
Ecosystem. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Luer, George M., and Dorothy A. Block
2019 Radiocarbon Dating Warm Mineral Springs, Little
Salt Spring, and Nearby Sites in North Port, Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 72(1).
Martin, Alexander C., and William D. Barkley
1961 Seed Identification Manual. University of
California Press, Berkeley.
McConnell, K. K., and C. N. Huegel
2008 Little Salt Spring: Vegetation Assessment Narrative.
Biological Research Associates, Sarasota. Report
submitted to Rosenstiel School of Marine and
Atmospheric Science, University of Miami.
Mitsch, William J., and James G. Gosselink
2007 Wetlands. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
Moerman, Daniel E.
2006 Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, Inc.
Portland, Oregon.
Myers, R. L.
2000a Physical Setting. In Flora of Florida, Volume 1,
Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, edited by R. P.
Wunderlin and B. F. Hansen, pp. 10-19. University
Press of Florida, Gainesville.
2000b Vegetation of Florida. In Flora of Florida,
Volume 1, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, edited
by R. P. Wunderlin and B. F. Hansen, pp. 20-34.
University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),
National Center for Environmental Information (NCEI)
2018 ncdc.noaa.gov, accessed December 20, 2018.
Newsom, Lee A.
2002 The Paleoethnobotany of the Mortuary Pond. In
Windover: Multidisciplinary Investigations of an
Early Archaic Florida Cemetery, edited by Glen H.
Doran, pp. 191-210. University Press of Florida,
Gainesville.
Newsom, L. A., and L. Kistler
2008 Preliminary Report on Paleobotanical Analyses of
Three Bulk Sediment Samples from Operations
9, 14, and 15, Little Salt Spring (8S018), Sarasota
County, Florida. Report submitted to John Gifford
and University of Miami.
Newsom, L. A., and M. H. Mihlbachler
2006 Mastodon {Mammut americanum) Diet Foraging
Patterns Based on Analysis of Dung Deposits. In
First Floridians and Last Mastodons: The Page-
Ladson Site in the Aucilla River, edited by S. D.
Webb, pp. 263-331. Plenum Press, New York.
Newsom L. A., S. D. Webb, and J. S. Dunbar
1993 History and Geographic Distribution of Cucúrbita
pepo Gourds in Florida. Journal of Ethnobiology
13(l):75-97.
Purdy, Barbara A.
1991 The Art and Archaeology of Florida s Wetlands.
CRC Press, Boca Raton.
Quitmyer, Irvy R.
1994 Descriptive Analysis of Fauna Identified in
Operation Six, Little Salt Spring (8S018), Florida.
Ms on file, Environmental Archaeology Laboratory,
Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville.
Radford, Albert E., Harry E. Ahles, and C. Ritchie Bell
1968 Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas.
University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Sheldon, E. S.
1976 Reconstruction of a Prehistoric Environment and
its Useful Plants: Warm Mineral Springs (8S019),
Florida. Paper presented at the annual meeting of
the Society for Economic Botany, Coral Gables,
Florida.
Stafford, T. W., Jr., H. A. Semken, Jr., R. W. Graham,
W. F. Klippel, A. Markova, N. G. Smirnov, and J. Southon
1999 First Accelerator Mass Spectrometry 14C Dates
Documenting Contemporaneity of Nonanalog
Species in late Pleistocene Mammal Communities.
Geology 27(10):903-906.
Turner, M. G., S. L. Collins, A. L. Lugo, J. J. Magnuson,
T. S. Rupp, and F. J. Swanson
2003 Disturbance Dynamics and Ecological Response:
the Contribution of Long-Term Ecological
Research. Bioscience 53(l):46-56.
Uchytil, Ronald J.
1992 Cladiumjamaicense. In Fire Effects Information
System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest
Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire
Sciences Laboratory.
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA),
Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
2018 National Germplasm Resources Library. Electronic
document, (https ://npgsweb. ars-grin. gov/gringlobal/
taxonomydetail.aspx?id=:3006), accessed
December 14, 2018.


14
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural
Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)
2008 Plants Database. Electronic document, (http://plants.
usda.gov/), accessed September, 2008.
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Soil
Conservation Service (SCS)
1985 26 Ecological Communities of Florida. USDA-
SCS, Fort Worth, Texas.
Watts, W. A., and B. C. S. Hansen
1988 Environments of Florida in the Late Wisconsin and
Holocene. In Wet Site Archaeology, edited by
Barbara Purdy, pp. 307-323. Telford Press, West
Caldwell, New Jersey.
Watts, W. A., B. C. S. Hansen, and E. C. Grimm
1992 Camel Lake: a 40,000 Year Record of Vegetational
and Forest History from Northwest Florida.
Ecology 73(3): 1056-1066.
Whitney, E., D. B. Means, and A. Rudloe
2004 Priceless Florida: Natural Ecosystems and Native
Species. Pineapple Press Inc., Sarasota, Florida.
2014 Floridas Wetlands: Volume 2 of the Three-Volume
Series, Florida s Natural Ecosystems and Native
Species. Pineapple Press Inc., Sarasota, Florida.
Wiersema, J. H.
1997 Cabombaceae. Flora of North America North
of Mexico. Electronic document, (http://www.efloras.
org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id= 1 &taxon_id= 10140),
accessed December 18, 2018.
Williams, J. W., and S. T. Jackson
2007 Novel Climates, No-Analog Communities, and
Ecological Surprises. Frontiers in Ecology and
Environment 5(9):475^I82.
Wunderlin, Richard P.
1998 Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. University
Press of Florida, Gainesville.
Wunderlin, Richard R, and Bruce F. Hansen
2003 Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida, Second
Edition. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
Wunderlin, R. R, B. F. Hansen, A. R. Franck, and F. B. Essig
2018 Atlas of Florida Plants, Institute for Systematic
Botany, University of South Florida. Electronic
document, (http://florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/), accessed
December 30, 2018.


RADIOCARBON DATES FROM WARM MINERAL SPRINGS, LITTLE SALT SPRING, AND NEARBY
SITES IN NORTH PORT, FLORIDA
George M. Luer1 and Dorothy A. Block2
1 The Archaeology Foundation, Inc., 3222 Old Oak Drive, Sarasota, FL 34239 E-mail: geoluer@gmail.com
2 306 NE 1st Ave. Suite 202, Boynton Beach, FL 33435 E-mail: uberfrau33460@gmail.com
Introduction
We identify 201 radiocarbon ages produced by ten laboratories during the last 60 years from locations in the City of North Port,
near the Gulf coast of southern Florida (Figure 1). Most of the ages come from five archaeological sites: Warm Mineral Springs
(8S019), Little Salt Spring (8S018), Little Salt Slough and Midden (8S079), Nona’s Site (8S085D), and the Little Jaw Site
(8S02396). Several ages come from two seasonal marshy ponds of natural origin.
In this article, we compile and calibrate 164 radiocarbon ages from these locations (see Appendices A through D), and we refer
to 37 additional ages from Little Salt Spring’s basin that will be published in the future. Until now, the 164 ages have been scattered
or difficult to obtain, and most of those from Warm Mineral Springs were unpublished.
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
The Florida Anthropologist
15


16
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
Table 1. Radiocarbon Ages from North Port, Florida. Ages and sources are in Appendices; total number of ages is 201.
Location, Researcher
Obtained
No. of Ages
Location(s) Sampled
Data Presented In
Warm Mineral Springs
1. Clark
1959
1
13 Meter Ledge
Appendix A-l
2. Brooks
1962
5
13 Meter Ledge
Appendix A-l
3. Clark
1960
1*
13 Meter Ledge
Text, this article
4. Clausen
1972
9
13 Meter Ledge
Appendix A-2
5. Cockrell
1973
22
13 Meter Ledge
Appendix A-3
6. Straube
1974
6
Spring wall & floor
Appendix A-4
7. Cockrell
1978
1
13 Meter Ledge
Appendix A-3
8. Cockrell
1980s
1*
Basal cone
Text, this article
Little Salt Spring
1. Clausen
1972
7
Basin, Tests 1 and 2
Appendix B-l
2. Clausen
1972-77
6
Basin, lower slope
Appendix B-2
3. Clausen
1975
1
21.3 Meter Ledge
Appendix B-3
4. Clausen
1975-77
4
27 Meter Ledge
Appendix B-3
5. Clausen
1978
6
Core in basin slope
**
6. Brown, Cohen
1978
13
Core GDF-141
Appendix B-4
LSS Slough/Midden
1. Clausen
1977
8
Slough
Appendix B-5
2. Clausen
1977
12
Slough core GDF-129
Appendix B-6
3. Clausen
1980
5
Slough test pit
Appendix B-7
4. Clausen, Hale
1980
5
Midden tests
Appendix B-8
LSS Basin
1. Paabo
1986
1
Operation 4, brain
Appendix C-l
2. Gifford
1986
9
Operation 4, wood
**
3. Gifford
1990
1
Operation 4, twigs
**
4. Gifford
1992
9
Operation 6
**
5. Gifford, Koski
1995-2005
8
Operations 9, 10, near 11
** and Appendix C-2
6. Gifford, Koski
2005-06
3
Basin, east slope
***
7. Gifford, Koski
2009-10
3
Operation 14
** and Appendix C-2
LSS 27 Meter Ledge
1. Gifford
1988
1
South side
Appendix C-3
2. Gifford
1992
2
East side
Appendix C-3
3. Gifford
1992
1
North side
Appendix C-4
4. Gifford, Koski
2008-09
4
South side
Appendix C-3
5. Gifford, Koski
2009-11
10
North side
Appendix C-4
LSS Deep Bottom
1. Gifford
1990
1
Core I
Appendix C-5
2. Gifford
1991
2
Core II
Appendix C-5
3. Gifford
1991
3
CoreV
Appendix C-5
4. Gifford
1990
3
Core VI
Appendix C-5
5. Gifford
1991
2
Core IV
Appendix C-6
6. Gregory et al.
2009
7
Core IV
Appendix C-6
7. Gregory et al.
2013
10
Core IV
Appendix C-l
Nona’s Site
1. McAndrews
1985
1
Core in pond
Appendix D-1
2. Luer
2002
1
Test pit, deer tibia
Appendix D-l
Little Jaw Site
1. Edmund
1988
2
Test pit, deer bone
Appendix D-1
Nineteen Owner Midden
1. Clausen
1977
1
Test 1, Level 2
Appendix D-l
Ponds in North Port
1. Clausen
1977
1
Pond A
Appendix D-2
2. Coleman
1978
4
Pond B
Appendix D-2
* Incompletely reported age, not included in Appendices but cited in text.
** From basin’s north slope (Koski, Quitmyer, and Gifford n.d.).
*** From basin’s lower east slope (Koski, Newsom, and Gifford n.d.).


Luer and Block
Radiocarbon Database
17
Background
Three of the five archaeological sites in North Port (Warm
Mineral Springs, Little Salt Spring, and Little Salt Slough
and Midden) are situated in and close to two large, water-
filled sinkholes (Alvarez Zarikian et al. 2005; Clausen et al.
1975, 1979; Gifford et al. 2017; Gregory et al. 2017; Metz
2016; Rupert 1994). The fourth site, Nona’s Site, is in and
adjacent to another large, watery sinkhole, although it is now
mostly filled with sediment. The fifth site, the Little Jaw site,
is a terrestrial site along a seasonal slough-way, now a large
drainage canal (Luer 2002a).
Many of the investigations at these early Florida sites
were poorly reported and are little known. Thus, we provide
an overview of work at these sites that together date to portions
of the Late Paleoindian (13,500 to 9,500 years before present
[YBP]), Early Archaic (9,500 to 7,000 YBP), Middle Archaic
(7,000 to 4,000 YBP), and Woodland (2,500 to 1,000 YBP)
periods. This time range begins in the Late Pleistocene epoch
(before 11,500 YBP) and continues into the Holocene epoch
(11,500 YBP to present) (Figure 2).
Some of the radiocarbon ages produced by these
investigations are from archaeological contexts, others are
from geological sources. These ages can be compared with
data from other early Florida sites, such as Page-Ladson (Purdy
1991:159-166; Webb and Dunbar 2006), Devil’s Den (Purdy
et al. 2015), Windover (Doran 2002; Doran and Dickel 1988;
Purdy 1991:205-228), Bay West (Beriault et al. 1981; Purdy
1991:54-65), Republic Groves (Purdy 1991:167-178; Wharton
et al. 1981), and Harris Creek/Tick Island (Aten 1999; Purdy
1991:228-232; Quinn et al. 2008) (Figure 3, Table 2).
Radiocarbon Ages
Radiocarbon dating is essential for understanding the
antiquity of archaeological sites. Table 1 lists investigators
and summarizes when, how many, and where the 201
radiocarbon ages from North Port were obtained. Many of
the ages produced dates ranging from approximately 12,000 to
500 calibrated years before present (cal YBP; present = A.D.
1950) (Table 3, Figure 4). Some fossil and geological materials
yield older dates (some being questionable, apparently due to
diagenesis or contamination by geologic carbon).
Radiocarbon Data
In Appendices A, B, C, and D, each radiocarbon age is
presented as a statistical range, expressed at 1-sigma (68%)
and 2-sigma (95%) probability. We provide the raw data of
measured ages and isotopic fractionation values (S13C) for
stable isotopes of carbon (13C and 12C). We also provide
conventional ages that are “corrected” for isotopic fractionation
by normalizing to -25 parts per thousand (o/oo). To do so, we
add years to measured ages when 513C is more positive than
-25 o/oo (e.g., -22 o/oo) and we subtract years from measured
ages when 513C is more negative than -25 o/oo (e.g., -27 o/oo).
In this scale, 1 o/oo has a value of 16.4 radiocarbon years.
The 513C corrections are in our tables, with year corrections
Figure 2. Timeline of Culture Horizons and Periods in
West-Central Florida.
Horizons
Periods
— 150 BP
— 300 BP
Anthropocene
AD 1850
AD 1700
Seminole
Mississippi
— 1000 BP
AD 1000
late Woodland
— 1300 BP
AD 700
middle Woodland
- 2500 BP
early Woodland
500 BC
Terminal Archaic
- 3000 BP
1000 BC
Late Archaic
- 4000 BP
2000 BC
Middle Archaic
- 7000 BP
5000 BC
Early Archaic
— 9500 BP
7500 BC
Paleoindian
-13,500 BP-
-11,500 BO
Sprawl
Muskogee, Mikosuki
Safety Harbor
late Weeden Island
Manasota
Florida Transitional
Orange
Thornhill Lake
Mount Taylor
4000 BC
Newnan
Arredondo, Hamilton
6000 BC
Kirk
Bolen
Dalton
8500 BC
Start of Holocene
9500 BC 11,500 BP
End of Pleistocene,
Suwannee, Simpson, Clovis
rounded to the nearest ten. Measured values of 513C are stated,
which came directly from the radiocarbon laboratory at the
time the sample was analyzed. In cases of the measured value
being unavailable, we had to assume values based on known
values for the kinds of materials dated. The values of 513C
that we assumed include -4 o/oo for marl, -9.5 o/oo for human
bone, -21 or -22 o/oo for terrestrial herbivores (deer, giant
tortoise), and -27 o/oo for wood, dead leaves, and peat from
submerged contexts.
Conventional (corrected) ages are then used for obtaining
calibrated dates (measured ages are not used for calibration).
Conventional ages are calibrated using the IntCal 13 or Marine
13 database. Except for one series,1 all calibrated dates were
provided by Beta Analytic, Inc., based on Talma and Vogel
(1993) and Reimer et al. (2013). For all calibrated dates,
we provide ranges (cal YBP) as well as calendar equivalents
(B.C., A.D.). We present calibrated dates in the text, even if
they were not calibrated by the original researchers (see the
appendices for measured and conventional ages).
All calibrated YBP dates that we report are based on the
intercept method, which has been the traditional method during
the decades when the ages reported here were produced. For


18
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
all the dates we present, we maintain standard 1- and 2-sigma
values (68% and 95% probability) for like comparison of
results. Published and unpublished sources of the radiocarbon
ages are cited in Table 1 and the appendices, and they are listed
in the References Cited section of this article.
Ideally, the process of dating involves obtaining multiple
ages from a given context. Such a process can identify outliers,
build confidence that ages are in statistically consistent ranges,
and produce a sufficient number of ages to furnish a more
secure date range than a single age can provide. A single
radiocarbon age inherently has uncertainty and could be an
outlier. When run two or more times in the laboratory, it is
common for a single sample to yield ages that may vary by
tens or hundreds of years. Obtaining and analyzing multiple
ages is essential for accurate dating.
Thus, some ages that we report can be analyzed further,
such as by testing for similarity and by averaging statistically
similar ages from the same context in order to obtain narrower
age ranges. However, we refrain from doing that here to avoid
adding more ages to what already is a large number of ages
from these sites. Such focused research can attempt to refine
some of these radiocarbon results. We view this article’s
compilation of ages and dates as a source of data for future
research, which includes statistical tests for similarity and
averaging (e.g., see Loger 2014) and further calibration using
the Bayesian highest posterior density (HPD) function.
Materials
We emphasize that most radiocarbon ages from Warm
Mineral Springs and Little Salt Spring are based on wood and
other organic materials (e.g., peat) that were deposited in water
where they were preserved. These materials decay and do not
persist in deposits that dry out, or that are terrestrial deposits
in the humid (non-desert) climate of Florida. It is important
to highlight this aqueous deposition because some previous
interpretations assert that some deposits were originally aerial
and were inundated subsequently (e.g., Cockrell 1990).
The persistence of wood, leaves, and other perishable
materials, even including human brain tissue, shows that they
were deposited in watery sediments where they remained
submerged until their recent excavation and recovery.
Moreover, the existence of freshwater snail shells and bones
of fish, siren, and frogs in these same deposits is consistent
with their aqueous deposition.
In the field, collection of materials for dating from
underwater contexts was often by hand. In such cases,
materials were removed, directly from a stratigraphic profile,
with vertical control and context recorded, and with materials
placed in plastic bags for delivery to the dating laboratory.
However, some materials for dating were obtained from
cores taken on land or under water, which were sampled in
the laboratory. Cores have provided important dates at Little
Salt Spring and Nona’s Site. Still other dated materials were
collected in terrestrial excavation units, at Little Salt Midden
and Slough as well as Nona’s Site and Little Jaw Site.
In general, radiocarbon sample recovery methods have
improved over time. Collection by hand was the initial method
of sample recovery and has continued to the present. Cores
began to be taken in the 1970s and have played an important
role in sample collection. Cores have allowed recovery of
microscopic materials, such as pollen and ostracods, used
in paleo-environmental studies. In the surrounding region,
other cores have helped inform the area’s archaeology and
palynology (e.g., Beriault et al. 1981; Hansen et al. 2001;
Watts 1975).
Table 2. Known Archaic Aquatic Mortuaries in
Peninsular Florida. These sites were discovered by divers
or during land development. Some sites are destroyed.
Site Name
FMSF #
Location
Date and How
Discovered
1. Warm Mineral Springs
8S019
City of North Port
1959, divers
2. Little Salt Spring
8S018
City of North Port
1959, divers
3. Nona’s Site
8S085D
City of North Port
ca. 1960,
dragline
4. Republic Groves
8HR4
6 miles SE of
Zolfo Springs
1968, dragline
5. Bay West Site
8CR200
Naples, E of 1-75,
near Immokalee
Rd. (CR 846)
1980, dragline
6. Windover
8BR246
Windover Farms,
Titusville
1982, dragline
7. Ryder Pond
8LL1850
Bonita Springs,
near Imperial
River
1995, dragline
8. Manasota Off Shore
8S07030
In Gulf near
Manasota Key
Beach
2016, divers
Early Diving
Archaeology was expanded after Jacques Cousteau and
Emile Gagnan developed the aqua lung in the 1940s (Cousteau
and Dumas 1953). In Florida, sport divers using underwater
breathing gear were quick to locate many underwater
archaeological sites in rivers and springs. In the 1950s and
1960s, sport divers dove in Warm Mineral Springs and Little
Salt Springs.2
To the detriment of both sites, many divers3 dug and
displaced sediments to uncover human bones and other
remains (e.g., Brandle 1959; Clark 1969:154-159,167-169;
Purdy 1991; Royal and Burgess 1978; Waller 1983:32). Some
divers even moved remains to different underwater areas,
including deeper ledges, such as in Little Salt Spring (Bob
Pelham, personal communication 1985).4 The most prominent
ledge in Little Salt Spring, at 26 to 27 m (90 ft) below the
surface, reportedly contained many fossil animal bones, some
removed by sport divers (Clark 1969:167; Waller 1983).
Beginning in 1959, renowned archaeologist John Goggin
(1964) dove in Little Salt Spring and Warm Mineral Springs.5
Goggin was a professor at the University of Florida and
pioneered underwater archaeology in Florida. He correctly
tried to discourage digging and destruction by sport divers
and other untrained individuals. Goggin planned further


Luer and Block
Radiocarbon Database
19
Figure 3. Early Sites in Eastern Florida Mentioned in the Text.


20 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST

2019 Vou. 72 (1)



work in Little Salt Spring and Warm Mineral Springs, but was
prevented by his untimely death in 1963 (Goggin 1962; Purdy
1991:202-203; Weisman 2002:129-130).

At that time, neither Goggin nor anyone else understood
the antiquity and nature of human burials in Little Salt Spring.
He wrote of Little Salt Spring:

On the sloping sides of the cenote spring... is a large

deposit of human bones. Preliminary reconnaissance

has yielded the remains of more than 50 individuals with
every indication that many more are present. The bones
are lightly mineralized and lie at random under a thin
layer of shelly detritus with no evidence of articulation.
... It is hoped that a detailed study of the site can be made
in the near future. [Goggin 1960:352]

First Dates: 1959-1965

Radiocarbon dating was invented in 1949 by chemist
Willard Libby, for which he received a Nobel Prize in
Chemistry in 1960 (Libby 1955; Bowman 1990:9-10).
Radiocarbon dating revolutionized archaeology, providing
ages unavailable before. In Florida, the new dating method
shifted archaeological cultures and traditions earlier in time,
as seen in culture-history charts in Goggin (1949) and Willey
(1949) versus those in Milanich and Fairbanks (1980) and
Bense (1994).

In the 1950s and 1960s, a pioneering Florida geologist
and diver who used radiocarbon dating was Harold “Kelly”
Brooks, another professor at the University of Florida. His
work in 1958 through 1962 showed that Warm Mineral Springs
was a deep, hourglass-shaped spring. Brooks studied layers
zones”) on what became known as the 13 Meter Ledge, a
shelf surrounding the spring’s central opening or abyss. He
made detailed descriptions of the sediments, working with
colleagues in Gainesville to identify plant remains (of algae,
ferns, and trees) and remains of freshwater and terrestrial
snail shells in the different zones (Clausen, Brooks, and
Wesolowsky 1975a, 1975b).

Brooks collected five samples of charcoal from Warm
Mineral Spring’s underwater sediments at depths of “37 to 39
feet” (11.3 to 11.9 m), which rested on the 13 Meter Ledge. In
1962, Brooks submitted the five samples to the United States
Geological Survey, obtaining ages that, when calibrated,
produce dates ranging from approximately 12,500 to 8,500 cal
YBP (Appendix A-1).

Another diver was Bill Royal, a layman, who dug without
scientific methods in the sides of Warm Mineral Springs.
Royal found artifacts and human remains (bones of at least
seven individuals as well as brain tissue) on the 13 Meter
Ledge, and he showed the finds to marine biologist Eugenie
Clark. In 1959, she provided a wood sample to Carl Hubbs
and Hans Suess of the La Jolla Laboratory at Scripps Institute
of Oceanography, who obtained a single radiocarbon age
(Hubbs et al. 1960; Royal and Clark 1960). It was derived
from a “charred log” from slightly deeper than Royal’s finds
of human remains, with a 2-sigma result of 12,365 to 10,795
cal YBP (Appendix A-1).

Soon after, Goggin (1962) delivered an insightful paper
about Warm Mineral Springs and Little Salt Spring to the
Southeastern Archaeological Conference. He _ provided
observations about the forms and dimensions of the springs,
their deposits, human bones, and artifacts. Meanwhile, Clark
sought a second radiocarbon date from the 13 Meter Ledge,
sending material to the Centre Scientifique de Monaco, where
an organic fraction of two human bones was dated. The result
was incompletely reported as “7140 to 7580 years old” (Clark
1969:176), so it is not included in Appendix A-1.

Warm Mineral Springs: 1970s-1980s

During the 1960s, sport divers in Warm Mineral
Springs continued to destroy irreplaceable geological and
archaeological deposits. In 1971, the Sarasota County
Historical Commission and residents of Sarasota County
lobbied to bring scientific divers to the site. The State of
Florida sent archaeologist Carl Clausen, who served as state
underwater archaeologist, a position he held since 1964 (e.g.,
Clausen 1965, 1966).

Clausen’s qualifications included his Master’s thesis
focusing on the Florida Archaic period and the Newnan site
(8SAL356) east of Gainesville (Clausen 1964a). Moreover,
Clausen had been a student of Goggin’s when he dove and
worked in Devil’s Den (8LV84), in Williston southwest of
Gainesville, another watery sink hole studied by Goggin,
Brooks, and others (Clausen 1964b; Clausen et al. 1975a:28,
30; Goggin et al. 1961; Martin and Webb 1974:114; Purdy
2015),

In 1971 and 1972, Clausen dove in Warm Mineral Springs
and focused on one of the few areas spared by looters on’ the
13 Meter Ledge. This small area was along the spring’s
northwest wall, where Clausen excavated a 0.5 x 1 m test unit
and conducted a detailed stratigraphic study in early 1972.
He succeeded in collecting samples from intact deposits and
submitted them to Gakushuin University, in Japan (Clausen et
al. 1975a, 1975b). He obtained nine radiocarbon ages, all based
on wood and producing dates ranging from approximately
12,800 to 9,500 cal YBP (Appendix A-2).

Clausen was followed by a new state underwater
archaeologist, Wilburn “Sonny” Cockrell. In February 1973,
Cockrell was joined by archaeologists Ray Ruppe and C. Vance
Haynes, Jr., from Arizona, and Larry Murphy (Marx 1974:50).
They worked on the 13 Meter Ledge to remove several large
boulders, or stalactites, and to uncover more human bones
and artifacts, including a shell atlatl spur with a male human
flexed skeleton, the latter analyzed by Donald Morris (1975)
of Arizona State University. Cockrell continued to work in
the spring in 1974, 1975, and 1976, obtaining pollen samples
analyzed by James King (1975) of Illinois State University,
faunal remains analyzed by Gregory McDonald (1975, 1976),
as well as more radiocarbon ages from Teledyne Isotopes, in
Westwood, New Jersey (Cockrell 1977, 1990; Cockrell and
Murphy 1978; Murphy 1978; Purdy 1991:178-204).

Most of the radiocarbon ages obtained by Cockrell in the
1970s were based on wood and leaves, and several on human



Luer and Block
Radiocarbon Database
21
Calibrated 2-Sigma Date Ranges
o
o
o
o o o o
o o o o
o o o o
o
S»
o
o
o
SO 00 <1
■Jt V»
o o o
o o o
o o o
On
o
®
®
I
in 4^
s*
o o
O O
o o
cal YBP
Clausen HI 14,400-13,445 YBP, LSS 27 m ledge, south side, first wood “stake” (n=l)
Gifford H 14,680-13,750 YBP, LSS 27 m ledge, south side, wood (n=2)
Gifford I 13,155-12,705 YBP, LSS 27 m ledge, north side, wood, charcoal (n=4)
Gifford â–  11,325-10,605 YBP, LSS 27 m ledge, north side, wood (n=5)
Clausen â– â– HHHI 12,835-9,475 YBP, WMS 13 m ledge, wood (n=9)
Cockrell ^HHHHI^I 13,015-8,347 YBP, WMS 13 m ledge, wood, leaves (n=19)
Clausen Hi 11,270-10,300 YBP, LSS lower basin, stakes (n=2)
Gifford, Koski 110,575-10,245 YBP, LSS Op 9, Locus Z, wood (n=l)
Gifford H 10,195-9,775 YBP, LSS Op 14, Stratum 6, gourd (n=l)
Paabo | 7,935-7,513 YBP, LSS west basin, human tissue (n=l)
Clausen Hi 7,505-6,570 YBP, LSS slough, human bone (n=2)
Luer | 6,315-6,210 YBP, Nona’s, deer bone (n=l)
Clausen, Coleman 5,580-4,445 YBP, Ponds A & B, basal muck (n=2)
Clausen, Hale H 5,430-4,806 YBP, LS Midden, marine shell (n=2)
Figure 4. Plot of Radiocarbon Date Ranges (based on Table 3). These are 2-sigma calibrated ranges (YBP) from the
North Port area (LSS = Little Salt Spring; LS = Little Salt; WMS = Warm Mineral Springs). The number of dates (n=)
contributing to these ranges is stated at the end of each line.


22
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
bone. The 23 dates in Appendix A-3 are based on measured
ages on file in Tallahassee (at the Florida Master Site File and
Bureau of Archaeological Research), as compiled by Dasovich
(1996), Tesar (1997), and Dasovich and Doran (2011). They
range from approximately 13,000 to 8,500 cal YBP, with many
around 12,500 to 11,000 cal YBP (Appendix A-3).
In 1974, six more radiocarbon ages from Warm Mineral
Springs were obtained as part of a student course at the
University of Miami, Department of Geology (Appendix A-4).
Three of the ages came from the deep floor at the bottom of the
spring. One age was beyond the range of radiocarbon dating
because it was based on fossil marine shells from near the top
of the spring. Two other ages were based on wood embedded
in stalactites from the wall of the spring (Straube 1974).
In the 1980s, two more dates were reported for Warm
Mineral Springs. First, in 1983, collector and diver Paul
Lien published an amino acid racemization date of 10,500
+/- 1,700 years based on a human pelvis fragment collected
by Royal from the spring (Lien 1983). Second, in 1986,
Cockrell obtained at least one more radiocarbon age. It was
incompletely reported, so it is not included in Appendix A-3.
Based on undetermined material from Feature 86-U-2 at a
depth of 3 m in Warm Mineral Spring’s deep basal sediment
cone, the age was “2550 +/- 60 years B.P.” (Cockrell 1986).
Little Salt Spring: 1970s
In 1971 and 1972, Clausen and a team of scientists began
underwater work in Little Salt Spring (Penton 1972). He was
assisted by University of Florida geologist Kelly Brooks and
Florida State Museum limnologist Edward Deevey. While
Clausen started archaeological investigations, his colleagues
recorded the dimensions and shape of Little Salt Spring using
a sonar-type fathometer, conducted a limnological survey, and
took cores from the bottom of the spring (Anonymous 1972).
Clausen worked first as State Marine Archaeologist and
then for Little Salt Spring’s owner, Miami-based General
Development Corporation (GDC) and its support organization,
General Development Foundation (GDF). To establish
security, they installed a gate and fencing. Eventually, they
created a research compound consisting of several mobile
homes or “trailers” to the west of the spring.6
Spring Basin
In the 1970s, the water surface at the top of Little Salt
Spring was at 5 m (16.4 ft) above mean sea level (AMSL)
(Clausen et al. 1979:609). Forming the spring’s upper portion,
the basin is ringed by an approximately 6 m (20 ft) wide shelf
of peat with aquatic and emergent vegetation.
Below it, the deeper basin was covered with plant detritus
and peat that has been removed in some areas by sport divers
and archaeologists. This deeper basin slope angles downward
at approximately 23 degrees (from horizontal) to reach depths
of 12 to 13 m below the spring’s water surface. There, the
basin ends where the bottom drops away into the gaping
circular orifice, or abyss, of the deep spring shaft.
Figure 5. Oak Mortar from Little Salt Spring Basin’s
Lower Slope. From this mortar, Clausen obtained a
radiocarbon age that yields a date of ca. 11,000 to 9,500
cal YBP (Appendix B-2), or the late Paleoindian period
(image after Clausen and Emiliani 1979).
In 1972, Clausen excavated underwater in the sloping
basin of Little Salt Spring. Apparently on the northeast
slope, Clausen excavated Tests 1 and 2, where he obtained
radiocarbon ages ranging from approximately 13,000 to 500
cal YBP (Appendix B-l). Clausen published a photograph
of a stratigraphic profile of Test 2 located near mid-slope, at
approximately 6.7 to 7.6 m (22 to 25 ft) below the spring’s
water surface (Clausen et al. 1975a:25-26, 28, Figure 12,
1975b:206, 208, Figure 12). In Test 2, samples were collected
and analyzed for microfossils (e.g., ostracods, gastropods,
sponge spicules, rhizopods), but results remain unpublished
(Yezdani and Deevey 1973).
Deeper in the spring basin, Clausen discovered “numerous
crudely pointed wooden stakes” or “pins” embedded in
sediment near the edge of the drop-off, at approximately 12
to 12.4 m (39 to 40.5 ft) below the spring’s water surface
(Clausen etal. 1975a:31, 1975b:210; Clausen etal. 1979:610,
Table 1). Two stakes were radiocarbon dated to 11,270 to
10,300 cal YBP (Appendix B-2). The purpose of these stakes
is undetermined. Their preservation indicates that the lower
basin was wet when the stakes were driven into the sediment,
where very damp or watery conditions preserved them. They
might have anchored burials, now missing, like wooden stakes
did in Early Archaic times at Windover (Doran 2002).
Later in the 1970s, Clausen undertook more underwater
excavations in the northeast and southeast slopes of the spring
basin, but little is reported about that work. It included a find
at 12.5 m (41 ft) below the spring’s water surface of hickory
nuts with a date of 12,005 to 10,875 cal YBP (Appendix B-2).
Slightly higher in the basin, at a depth of 9.9 m (32.5 ft) below
the surface, Clausen found a wooden mortar (Figure 5) with a
date of 11,060 to 9,535 cal YBP and, at 8 to 9 m (26 to 29.5 ft)
below the surface, he recovered human bone that produced a
date of 6,410 to 6,005 cal YBP (Appendix B-2).


Luer and Block
Radiocarbon Database
23
In 1978, Clausen worked on the basin’s north slope at 10
m underwater, where he extracted a short, 1.75 m (5.75 ft)
core. Peat from the core was dated as part of a course by
a University of Miami (UM) geology student, yielding six
radiocarbon dates with 2-sigma ranges spanning 7,660 to
1,535 cal YBP (Koski, Quitmyer, and Gifford n.d.).7 Clausen
also excavated approximately 30% of a child’s skeleton from
underwater near the western, upper edge of the basin (close to
the present-day dock) (Merbs and Clausen 1981; Wentz and
Gifford 2007:331).
27 Meter Ledge
In the 1970s, Clausen did underwater archaeological work
in the deeper spring located below the basin and its drop-off.
He worked on the ledge that rings the sinkhole shaft at depths
of 26 to 27 m (85 to 89 ft) below the spring’s water surface.
The narrow ledge is slightly shallower on the north side than
on the south. It became known as the “26 or 27 Meter Ledge”
and “90 Foot Ledge.” Clausen excavated a portion of the
western side of the ledge, but that work is unreported (Gifford
et al. 2017:75, Figure 4.6).
In 1975, Clausen excavated a 1.5 x 3.5 m trench in the
southern portion of the ledge, where he uncovered fragments
of eroded wood and mineralized (fossil) animal bones.
Paleontologist Alan Holman and Clausen (1984) identified
the fossil bones, including some from partial remains of three
individuals of an extinct kind of giant tortoise. A bone from
the largest tortoise produced a radiocarbon age with a date
range of 16,830 to 15,750 cal YBP, which is questionable due
to diagenesis, or the physical and chemical changes that occur
over time (Appendix B-3).
Clausen et al. (1979) claimed that the largest tortoise was
killed by humans and that some of the pieces of wood were
artifacts (crude “stakes”). However, the bones show no clear
evidence of butchering (Koski 2013), they do not appear to
be burned, and the wood lacked cut marks. Observations in
the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research Conservation
Laboratory in Tallahassee suggest that “black” on some bones
may be a precipitate or possible growth of micro-organisms
(Ryan Wheeler, personal communication 2000).
From the trench, Clausen obtained radiocarbon ages for
two eroded, tapering pieces of wood (his first and second
“stakes”), which yield date ranges spanning 14,400 to 10,685
cal YBP (Appendix B-3). The wood, and a rabbit bone, were
with the tortoise bones among large amounts of rubble from
roof falls, some chunks as large as boulders (see Gifford et
al. 2017, below), that easily could have displaced bones and
pieces of wood as they fell and as deposits formed. Most of
the bones represent animals that lived in, or fell in, the spring
and died.
Core Near Basin
In 1978, Clausen and associates took a core (GDF-141)
from the hammock near the north shore of the spring basin
(Figure 6). The core top was at approximately 5.6 m AMSL,
and it yielded 13 radiocarbon ages (Appendix B-4). Analysis
of the core’s sediments (e.g., pollen, spores, and other plant
remains) revealed a history of vegetation change. About
10,000 to 9,000 cal YBP, the basin’s upper edge (which is
now approximately 128 to 148 cm deep, or 4.32 to 4.12 m
AMSL) was fringed with willows, chain ferns, and sedges.
Approximately 7,500 to 6,000 cal YBP, the basin’s edge (now
approximately 88 to 118 cm deep, or 4.72 to 4.42 m AMSL)
was wet and supported wax myrtle, leather fern, and chain
fern. Overlying sediment accumulated since 6,000 to 5,000
cal YBP, when the bay head hammock community became
established around the basin, persisting to the present (Brown
1981; Brown and Cohen 1985). This core shows that the water
level in the spring basin had risen, by ca. 9,000 cal YBP, to be
close (around 4 m AMSL) to the present-day water surface (5
m AMSL).
Little Salt Slough and Midden
In the 1970s, archaeological deposits were discovered a
short distance northeast of Little Salt Spring in what became
known as the Little Salt Slough and Midden (Figure 6). Both
the slough and midden were investigated by Clausen and others,
but few reports of finds were made (Luer 2002a:21,24, Figures
8 and 9). The slough is a linear depression, approximately 300
m (1,000 ft) long and varying from approximately 30 to 80 m
(100 to 250 ft) wide. It narrows to a point at its northeast end
and widens at its southwest end.
Test Pit in Slough
GDC built Price Boulevard (first named McCarthy
Boulevard) across the slough. While de-mucking the right-
of-way, human burials were discovered. In 1977, Clausen
investigated further by testing an area just north of the road.
He used a backhoe to remove the overlying 1 m of sandy black
muck, reaching the zone containing human burials.
There, Clausen established a test pit of approximately 7
m2, where he and co-workers uncovered two human burials
and obtained eight radiocarbon ages (Luer 2002a:21; Purdy
1991:152-153). Three ages were based on human bone and
a possible wooden artifact (“digging stick”) (Clausen et al.
1979:612, Table 1) that produced 2-sigma dates ranging from
7,950 to 6,570 cal YBP, falling in the late Early Archaic to
early Middle Archaic periods (Appendix B-5).
These cultural materials from the slough were in a 30
cm thick layer of peat under 1 m of sandy black muck (Luer
2002a:21). They might have been interred in an older, water-
saturated, wetland deposit that yielded four ages based on
peat and other plant remains with 2-sigma dates ranging from
10,490 to 8,020 cal YBP. This organic material was underlain
by marl that produced a single radiocarbon age yielding a
2-sigma date range of 17,150 to 15,993 cal YBP (Appendix
B-5).
In 1980, Clausen returned to his test pit in the slough.
The zone containing human burials was still wet, despite the
area’s ditching and artificial drainage work in the 1970s. In


24
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
Table 3. Calibrated Radiocarbon Date Ranges Supporting Figure 4. Sources of these data are in this article’s appendices.
Location
Date Range 2
Sigma (cal YBP)
Material
Dates
(n =)
Epoch or Period,
Researcher
Source
LSS 27 m ledge south
14,400 to 13,445
first wood “stake”
1
Pleistocene, Clausen
Appen. B-3,
row 4
LSS 27 m ledge south
14,680 to 13,750
wood
2
Pleistocene, Gifford
Appen. C-3,
rows 6, 7
LSS 27 m ledge north
13,155 to 12,705
wood, charcoal
4
Pleistocene, Gifford
Appen. C-4,
rows 8-11
LSS 27 m ledge north
11,325 to 10,605
wood
5
Holocene, Gifford
Appen. C-4,
rows 3-7
WMS 13 m ledge
12,835 to 9,475
wood
9
Paleoindian, Clausen
Appen. A-2
WMS 13 m ledge
13,015 to 8,347
wood, leaves
19
Paleoindian, Cockrell
Appen. A-3
LSS lower basin
11,270 to 10,300
wooden stakes
2
Paleoindian, Clausen
Appen. B-2,
rows 2, 3
LSS basin, Op 9, Locus Z
10,575 to 10,245
wood
1
Paleoindian, Gifford
and Koski
Appen. C-2,
row 1
LSS basin, Op 14, Stratum 6
10,195 to 9,775
gourd
1
Paleoindian, Gifford
Appen. C-2,
row 2
LSS upper basin west, Op 4
7,935 to 7,513
human brain
tissue
1
Early/Middle Archaic,
Paabo
Appen. C-l
LSS slough burials
7,505 to 6,570
human bone
2
Early/Middle Archaic,
Clausen
Appen. B-5,
rows 4, 5
Nona’s site
6,315 to 6,210
deer bone
1
Middle Archaic, Luer
Appen. D-l,
row 2
Ponds A and B
5,580 to 4,445
basal muck
2
Holocene, Clausen,
Coleman
Appen. D-2,
rows 4, 5
Little Salt Midden
5,430 to 4,806
marine shells
2
Middle Archaic,
Clausen, Hale
Appen. B-8,
rows 3, 5
the test pit, Clausen excavated more human bones, including a
cranium containing brain material (Merbs and Clausen 1981;
Purdy 1991:154).
From this 1980 work, Clausen secured five radiocarbon
ages that resemble others he obtained previously from the
test pit in the slough. Two of these ages, based on a single
sample, produced dates falling in the late Early Archaic to
early Middle Archaic periods (8,390 to 7,480 cal YBP). The
other three ages may be from underlying deposits (although
we lack provenience data), based on their antiquity (18,680 to
10,770 cal YBP) (Appendix B-7).
Cores in Slough
In the 1970s, Clausen and associates took three cores
(GDF-129, -142, -146) from the slough (Figure 6). From
one of them, GDF-129, they obtained 12 radiocarbon ages
(Appendix B-6). From the other two, and from the test pit,
they analyzed sediments for pollen, spores, and other remains,
revealing changes in vegetation. The tops of the cores were at
approximately 5.1 mAMSL.
Brown and Cohen’s (1985) correlation of portions of the
sediment sequence for Core GDF-142 (its middle and lower
portions) with Core GDF-141, near the spring, is questionable
because the two cores were approximately 160 m apart and no
radiocarbon ages were obtained from Core GDF-142 (although
it was 3 m from Clausen’s test pit). Thus, the age of the lower
(sub-marl) portion is unclear. The marl in the middle portion
may be ca. 12,000 to 20,000 years old, but this also is unclear.
Its age may be skewed by geologic “old” carbon leached from
carbonate marl or limestone in the surrounding ground.
The peat above the marl may be accurately dated to ca.
10,500 to 8,000 cal YBP (indicated by four radiocarbon dates
from the test pit, see above). This peat (“lower Zone III” in
Core GDF-142, at approximately 40 to 110 cm deep, or 4.70 to
4.00 m AMSL) formed in a pond based on remains of willow,
water lily, cattail, and túpelo. Shallower peat in Core GDF-
142 (above a depth of 40 cm) appears to be less than ca. 4,000
to 3,500 years old, based on a single date of “organic muck”
from Core GDF-129. Subsequently, muck has filled the pond,


Luer and Block
Radiocarbon Database
25
Figure 6. Little Salt Area Plan View. County-owned parcels are shaded. Dotted line delimits the slough. “X” in Acadian
Terrace right-of-way marks human burial found by Clausen in 1987. Note trenches in midden (heavy dashed lines), test in
slough, and locations of cores (GDF-129,141, 142,146). Sarasota County School Board owns parcel 0975-00-1004, and the
City of North Port owns the 30-ft drainage ROW. The University of Miami owns the land south of Price Boulevard.
Map modified from Luer (2002a), with trenches based on Sarasota County Survey-Mapping (2005) and parcels based
on Sarasota County Property Appraiser (2019).


26
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
changing it to a sawgrass marsh, which grows in the slough
today (Brown 1981; Brown and Cohen 1985).
Midden
In 1977, state archaeologist Calvin Jones visited Little
Salt Spring and discovered an Archaic midden (Figure 6) in the
upland bordering the slough (Jones et al. 1998:114). In 1978,
Clausen and co-workers conducted limited excavations in the
midden (Clausen andAlmy 1978), including zooarchaeological
identification of vertebrate faunal remains (Fradkin 1978). At
that time, Luer observed one unit with midden remains in dark
sand at 20 to 30 cm below the surface, overlying a thin layer of
limestone that had solution holes and an uneven surface. Soon
after, Clausen cut several long, linear trenches in the midden
using a Barber-Greene trencher machine (Luer 2002a:21).
In 1980, Clausen, zooarchaeology graduate student Steve
Hale, and others excavated many more tests in the midden
(Koski et al. 2007:41), and charcoal, marine shells, and
freshwater shells were dated (Appendix B-8). Two marine
shells yielded dates of approximately 5,400 to 4,800 cal YBP,
falling in the Middle Archaic period. The freshwater shell
ages are unreliable due to the reservoir effect (in Florida, it
is typical for geologic “old” carbon to be incorporated into
freshwater shells).
In 1986 and 1987, Clausen returned to the Little Salt
Midden and did additional testing for the proposed construction
of Acadian Terrace, an unbuilt street crossing the midden. He
found artifacts, faunal remains, and a human burial (Koski et
al. 2006:42). The burial was in the right-of-way of Acadian
Terrace, between Lots 11 and 41 (Clausen 1987; Harring
1987). No radiocarbon ages are reported for this work, which
was Clausen’s last at the site.
University of Miami (UM) Archaeology
In 1982, GDC donated Little Salt Spring and 112
surrounding acres to UM for preservation and research.
Scientific work was resumed by Dr. John A. Gifford, a marine
geologist and archaeologist with UM and the Rosenstiel
School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS). In the
1990s, he was joined by Research Assistant Steve Koski, and
they have worked with archaeobotanist Lee Newsom.
Spring Basin, West Edge
In 1986, exploratory excavations by Gifford and Clausen
in Little Salt Spring revealed an underwater in situ human
burial near the basin’s west edge in Operation 4, which was in
shallow water close to the present-day dock. These remains
represented a young female from which brain tissue was
removed. It yielded a single radiocarbon age (Appendix C-l)
with a 2-sigma date of 7,935 to 7,513 cal YBP, placing it in the
Early Archaic period. The preservation of brain tissue argues
for interment in water, and that the burial has remained wet
since interment.
The brain tissue yielded mitochondrial DNA analyzed
by pioneering Swedish paleogeneticist Svante Paabo. He
reported that it was of a different mitochondrial lineage than
other humans previously known in the New World. It was
interpreted as a third mitochondrial lineage in the New World
and a rare lineage in the Old World (Paabo et al. 1988; Purdy
1991:154-156).
Besides the dated burial, Operation 4 also produced 10
additional radiocarbon ages, mostly based on wood (Gifford
1987; Koski, Quitmyer, and Gifford n.d.). They have date
ranges spanning 9,479 to 8,015 cal YBP, which is older than
the burial but also fall in the Early Archaic period. These dates
show that the substrate, in which the burial was interred, is
older than the burial, which is expected. The preservation of
wood in this substrate again indicates deposition in water, and
that the substrate has remained wet since its deposition. These
dates also are important for showing that the water level in the
spring basin had risen, by ca. 8,500 cal YBP, to be very close
(around 4.45 m AMSL) to the present-day level (5 m AMSL).
The fact that the substrate in Operation 4 has remained wet
since its deposition, 9,500 to 8,000 cal YBP, is strong evidence
against a drop in Little Salt Spring’s water level during the
Middle Archaic, as hypothesized by Clausen et al. (1979) and
incorporated in interpretations of Brown and Cohen (1985).
Such a drop was rejected by Luer (2002a: 17, 20) on the basis
of wood and peat preservation in locations that would have
dried if water levels had dropped, leading to deterioration and
loss of wood and peat.
Spring Basin, North and East Slopes
In 1992, UM started long-term underwater excavations in
Little Salt Spring after Gifford obtained a Special Category
Grant from the Florida Division of Historical Resources. The
focus in 1992 was the basin’s north mid-slope, in Operations
5 and 6. Operation 6, a 2 x 2 m unit, was unprecedented for
its depth, reaching deep into unconsolidated sandy layers.
Zooarchaeolgical remains were recovered (Kozuch 1993;
Quitmyer 1994), and Operation 6 produced nine radiocarbon
ages, many falling in the Paleoindian period (Koski, Quitmyer,
and Gifford n.d.).
During the next approximately dozen years, UM slowly
and carefully excavated more units (Operations 9, 10, 14,
and half of 15) in the basin’s north mid-slope. Combined
with Operation 6, they formed a north-south trench. The
units yielded 11 more radiocarbon ages, almost all falling in
the Paleoindian period (Koski, Quitmyer, and Gifford n.d.).
Two of these ages have been published (Appendix C-2). One
was based on oak wood from close to a notched deer antler
artifact in Operation 9’s Locus Z (Gifford and Koski 2011) and
yielded a 2-sigma date of 10,575 to 10,245 cal YBP. The other
was based on a bottle gourd rind fragment from Operation 14’s
Stratum 6 (Kistler et al. 2014; Newsom and Kistler 2019) and
produced a 2-sigma date of 10,195 to 9,775 cal YBP.
In 2005 and 2006, UM and volunteers did a project to
locate wooden stakes on the basin’s lower east slope. That
work produced three radiocarbon ages. One date of a wooden
stake falls in the Paleoindian period, and two dates of wood


Luer and Block
Radiocarbon Database
27
from composite atlatl artifacts fall in the Early Archaic period
(Koski, Newsom, and Gifford 2010, n.d.).
Two additional UM-related projects did not involve
radiocarbon dating. In 2014, provenance analysis of two
Middle Archaic greenstone pendants from the basin’s lower
east slope indicated sources in the southern Appalachian
Piedmont, supporting long-distance exchange into Florida of
prestige lithic material (Bonomo et al. 2014).
Another study, in 2007, addressed human remains
collected during the previous 50 years from Little Salt Spring,
much of it by sport divers and lacking provenience. Femur
count supported 44 MNI, and stature and femur dimensions
are similar to the Archaic population from Windover (Wentz
and Gifford 2007).
27 Meter Ledge
In 1988, Gifford (2012) radiocarbon dated a sample
(GDC-2137) collected by Clausen in the 1970s from the
south side of Little Salt Spring’s 27 Meter Ledge. The sample
consisted of faunal material and clay from “near Station #12,
Test 1.” The bone portion was dated to obtain a third age from
the same apparent context as Clausen’s giant tortoise remains.
It yielded a 2-sigma date of (Appendix C-3) roughly 5,000
to 4,500 years older than Clausen’s date from tortoise bone
(Appendix B-3).
In 1992, UM divers took a short core from the eastern side
of the 27 Meter Ledge (Gifford et al. 2017:85, Table 4.2). The
core’s two radiocarbon samples yielded 2-sigma dates ranging
from 7,430 to 6,310 cal YBP (Appendix C-3). The divers also
collected a tortoise long bone from the north side of the 27
Meter Ledge, which was radiocarbon dated to 14,075 to 13,725
cal YBP (Appendix C-4), but Gifford et al. (2017:83, 87) do
not give it (and other dates of “any bone samples” from the 27
Meter Ledge) credence due to diagenesis (disappearance of
collagen, mineralization of bone).
In 2008 and 2009, UM divers excavated four and a half 1
x 1 m units in the south side of the 27 Meter Ledge, alongside
Clausen’s “Tortoise Trench” (Gifford et al. 2017:81-86). They
documented five layers (uppermost dark organic sediment
over four labeled strata). The strata included large amounts
of rubble (claystone and limestone roof fall). Considering the
abundant and often sizeable rubble, disturbances and some
mixing of materials occurred naturally as layers formed. In
Stratum 4, they found more pieces of wood and giant tortoise
bones, obtaining two radiocarbon ages based on charcoal
fragments, which produced 2-sigma dates ranging from
14,680 to 13,750 cal YBP (Appendix C-3). These two dates
are similar to one of Clausen’s dates for wood from the same
context (Appendix B-3). Fragments of carbonized wood, like
pieces of unbumed wood, could have fallen and sunken into
the spring.
The UM work on the ledge’s south side also uncovered
mollusk shell ecofacts. They were fragile valves of a kind
of freshwater mussel (Uniomerus sp.) that had grown in the
spring, apparently on the ledge. Two ages based on them
appear to be too old (19,870 to 18,725 cal YBP), probably due
to uptake of geologic “old” carbon when the shells grew and
to diagenesis after deposition (Appendix C-3).
In 2009 through 2011, UM researchers dove to the 27
Meter Ledge’s north side, where they excavated a trench of
five contiguous 1 x 1 m units (Gifford et al. 2017:87-98).
There, they again found wood and additional giant tortoise
bones, obtaining 10 radiocarbon ages based mostly on wood
and charcoal fragments (Appendix C-4). Together, they
yielded 2-sigma dates ranging from 13,155 to 10,605 cal YBP,
with those near the edge being younger than those from among
giant tortoise bones (Gifford et al. 2017:101). Nowhere on
the ledge did UM workers find definite evidence of humans
(no lithic, bone, or shell artifacts, no clearly worked wood, no
hearth, no burned or cut bones, no human bones) (Gifford et
al. 2017:100).
Environmental Studies
In early 1990, Gifford conducted deep vibra-coring in the
bottom of Little Salt Spring, funded by a National Geographic
Society grant (Purdy 1991:143-144). In 1990 and 1991,
Gifford obtained 11 radiocarbon ages from five of these cores
(Cores I, II, IV, V, and VI) (Appendices C-5 and C-6).
In subsequent years, studies of Cores IV and V provided
environmental histories of the spring during the last 12,000
years, focused on paleohydrology (Alvarez Zarikian et al.
2005), palynology (Bernhardt et al. 2010, 2011; Bernhardt et
al. 2012), and sedimentation (Gregory et al. 2017). Core V
yielded 2-sigma date ranges spanning 14,935 to 930 cal YBP
(Appendix C-5). Core IV (with a length of 8.27 m [27 ft])
produced 19 radiocarbon ages with 2-sigma dates ranging
from 13,482 to 2,996 cal YBP (Appendices C-6 and C-7).8
The sedimentation study of Gregory et al. (2017) is
especially important for archaeologists working in Little
Salt Spring. It shows a major change in the character of
deposition, after ca. 8,000 cal YBP, with a shift from sandy
to organic-rich layers. Other recent work has investigated
microorganisms found in some of Little Salt Spring’s harsh
aquatic environments. These studies are from a perspective
of biosignatures and earth evolution (de Beer et al. 2017;
Hamilton et al. 2017; NASA Astrobiology Institute 2012,
2013).
Private-Public Initiatives
In 2002 through 2007, renewed efforts were made to
protect and to study the land surrounding Little Salt Spring,
but this work did not produce radiocarbon dates. Luer (2002a)
called attention to the need to acquire 25 private parcels
comprising Little Salt Midden. This led, in January 2003, to a
terrestrial field school by UM archaeologist Traci Ardren, who
excavated five 1 x 1 m units around the spring, with limited
auger testing. Next, Sarasota County conducted a topographic
survey of the area (Sarasota County Survey-Mapping 2005).
This was followed by a state matching grant to UM to fund an
extensive terrestrial survey around Little Salt Spring (Koski et
al. 2006, 2007). By 2006, citizen, city, and county efforts led


28
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
to the purchase of 23 of 25 parcels encompassing the midden
and a portion of the slough (Florida Anthropological Society
2008:200-201). In 2007, Sarasota County adopted a formal
resolution to preserve the parcels it owns (Sarasota County
Board of County Commissioners 2007).
Today, most of Little Salt Midden is owned by Sarasota
County (Sarasota County Property Appraiser 2019). This
property (Figure 6) consists of the area between Hyder Terrace
and the Acadian Terrace right-of-way (Parcel ID#0970173801)
and the area (Parcel ID#0970173633) bordering the City of
North Port’s 30-ft and 65-ft drainage right-of-way (Parcel
ID#0972001592). The Little Salt Slough falls within the latter
two properties as well as in a parcel owned by the Sarasota
County School Board (Parcel ID#0975001004). Their future
will be shaped by Sarasota County, the City of North Port, and
citizens, such as members of the Warm Mineral Springs/Little
Salt Spring Archaeological Society and Friends of Little Salt
Spring, both based in North Port.
Figure 7. Recent Aerial Image of a Portion of North Port, Florida. Note locations of Little Salt Spring, relic Ponds A and B
that were sampled and radiocarbon dated, and surrounding land development (from Google Earth 2016).


Luer and Block
Radiocarbon Database
29
Other Radiocarbon Dates in North Port
In the 1970s and 1980s, more radiocarbon dates were
obtained from five other locations in North Port. Two of
them, Nona’s Site and the Little Jaw Site, need greater
recognition by researchers of the Archaic period, as they are
often overlooked. These sites are threatened by further land
development in North Port.
Nona s Site
Nona’s Site is an important Middle Archaic mortuary
pond located 12 km (7.5 mi) southeast of Little Salt Spring
(Figure 1). Initial investigations at Nona’s Site in 1983 and
1985 are presented by Luer (2002a). The site yielded two
radiocarbon samples dating to the Middle Archaic period,
with 2-sigma ranges of 4,835 to 4,420 and 6,315 to 6,210 cal
YBP (Appendix D-l). One date was based on cultural deer
bone excavated near the pond’s edge in 1983 by archaeologists
David Allerton and George Luer, and the other on organic
sediment from deep in a core taken in the pond in 1985 by
geologist Jock McAndrews of the Royal Ontario Museum
(Luer 2002a:7-15).
At Nona’s Site, the dated deer bone came from Layer 3
in Pit 1, a 50 x 80 cm test pit (Luer 2002a:Figure 5). It was
close to the water’s edge, shown by stippling at the “edge of
drainage ditch” (see Figure 4 in Luer 2002a). The ditch and its
edge had been disturbed by drag-lining in the 1960s, and some
features, in retrospect, might have been redeposited at that
time. Others, such as Features C and D, apparently were intact
and contained disarticulated human bones and freshwater snail
shells.
The extent of human burials at Nona’s Site needs to be
determined by an archaeological survey. The City of North
Port’s on-going maintenance of the drainage way leading
into the pond at Nona’s Site has repeatedly uncovered human
bones (Koski 2015a, 2015b, 2018). Some burials may be deep
(1 m or more), in peat, under sand and muck.
Little Jaw Site
Two more radiocarbon ages in the Middle Archaic period
came from the Little Jaw Site (Appendix D-l). The site was
a “bone midden” discovered by Lelia and Bill Brayfield as
they collected fossils along ditches freshly dug by General
Development Corporation, ca. 1970. The Little Jaw Site was
approximately 140 m (450 ft) north of Interstate 75 (Figure
1), between two branches of Cosmic Waterway (the western,
short branch dredged to drain a possible spring).
In 1984, the site was tested by the Brayfields, Mitchell
Hope of Sebring, Florida, and paleontologists Gordon Edmund
and Kevin Seymour of the Royal Ontario Museum. Edmund
obtained two radiocarbon ages based on deer bone, but they
were only generally and incompletely reported, leaving
precise ages unclear (Appendix D-l). The Brayfields found
bone tools and identified apparent food bones of at least 12
taxa of freshwater and terrestrial animals (Luer 2002a: 18-20).
These taxa add to those identified from other Middle Archaic
inland sites in west-peninsular Florida, such as Little Salt
Midden (above), Bay West (Purdy 1991:57-58), Nona’s Site
(Luer 2002a), and the West Williams (8HI509) and Enclave
C (8PA1269) sites, the latter two sites dating primarily to late
in the Archaic period (ca. 5,000 to 4,000 YBP) (Austin et al.
2009) (Figure 3).
Nineteen Owner Midden
In 1977, Clausen obtained a single radiocarbon age from
a test unit in a terrestrial midden containing pottery sherds and
abundant animal bones. Named the Nineteen Owner Midden
(8S085A), it is located 12 km (7.5 mi) southeast of Little Salt
Spring, close to Nona’s Site (Figure 1). The age produces a
2-sigma date range of 930 to 670 cal YBP, or A.D. 1020 to
1280 (Appendix D-l), placing it in the early Safety Harbor
period.
In 1980, Nineteen Owner Midden was tested by
archaeologist Stephen Hale, who placed collections at
the Florida Museum of Natural History (Zooarchaeology
accession #299). Later, Luer (2002b) visited and researched
the site, including its ceramics and faunal remains (terrestrial
as well as fresh- and saltwater), which he interpreted from
a perspective of foraging. Thus, the site is important for
contributing to our understanding of sizeable middens located
“inland from the shore.”
In 2004, a new house was built on a parcel situated
directly on a portion of Nineteen Owner Midden at 4301 Geary
Terrace. Today, remaining portions of the site are densely
wooded, supporting cabbage palm, live oak, hackberry, and
pignut hickory trees. The pignut hickory may reflect a relic or
holdover presence since the early Holocene, or they may be a
re-introduction by later native people, as a byproduct of their
gathering and consumption of the nuts.9
Ponds A and B
In 1978, Clausen and J. Coleman, the latter with
Environmental Quality Lab, in Port Charlotte, radiocarbon-
dated organic sediments from two marshy ponds near Little
Salt Spring. Called “Ponds A and B,” both have since been
dredged to create small lakes and now are surrounded by
houses and a golf course (Figure 7).
Clausen and Coleman obtained five ages from Ponds A
and B (Appendix D-2) revealing the onset of ponding as the
surrounding upland became wetter, approximately 5,500 to
4,500 cal YBP (Clausen et al. 1979:note 29). This important
trend toward high water tables and ponding in the upland
happened widely in the North Port area, as described by Luer
(2002a: 17-18, Table 3, note 14). Before that time, run-off and
other surface water (as opposed to spring water) apparently
was concentrated in lower-lying ground, such as sloughs and
creeks.


30
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
Figure 8. The Bay West Site in 1973,1985, and 2019. Arrows point to the site, which was destroyed in 1980 and
redeveloped as an artificial lake in the early 2000s in Amberton Townhomes, near Dancing Wind Lane, in Collier County,
southwest Florida. Aerial images based on FDOT (1973,1985) and Google Map Data (2019a).


Luer and Block
Radiocarbon Database
31
Other Sites in Southwest Florida
Additional Archaic mortuary ponds have been discovered
in southwest Florida during land development. In 1980, the
Bay West Site (8CR200) was found when a cypress head was
dredged to create an artificial pond at a plant nursery (Beriault
et al. 1981). Purdy (1991:54, Figures 12A, 12B) shows
photographs of the dredged pond. The Bay West Site and
nursery were located to the northeast of Naples, approximately
0.3 km (1000 ft) north of Immokalee Road (County Road
846) and 4 km (2.5 mi) east of Interstate 75. The site area
was redeveloped in the early 2000s as condominiums, named
Amberton Townhomes, and an artificial lake near Dancing
Wind Lane (Figure 8).
In 1995, Ryder Pond (8LL1850), was destroyed (“de-
mucked”) by land development (Carr 1995; Dickel 1995;
Kelly 1995; Lee 1995a, 1995b, 1995c). Controversy led
to premature reburial of skeletal remains and artifacts from
Ryder Pond, which, according to Dickel (1998), included
Thonotosassa points or blades, deer ulna awls, pointed awls/
pins, and a stone atlatl weight that were reportedly similar
to material from the Gauthier Site (8BR193, Jones 1981),
an Archaic cemetery near Florida’s east coast. The reburial
prevented adequate research, but Dickel (1998) reported that
archaeologist Robert Carr obtained a radiocarbon age, based
on “natural wood,” which together with adjacent bone and
tools supported the site’s assignment to the Middle Archaic
period. The site area is now an artificial lake in the Highland
Woods Golf and Country Club of Bonita Bay, in the City
of Bonita Springs, Lee County, approximately 0.8 km (0.5
mi) north of the Imperial River and 0.7 km (0.4 mi) east of
Highway U.S. 41 (Figure 9).
Figure 9. Ryder Pond in 1979 and 2019. Arrows point to the pond, which was destroyed in 1995 and developed as an
artificial lake in the Highland Woods Golf and Country Club of Bonita Bay in Lee County, southwest Florida. Aerial
images based on FDOT (1979) and Goggle Map Data (2019b).


32
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
Conclusion
We compile 164 radiocarbon ages from sites in North
Port, Florida, and we provide their 2-sigma calibrated date
ranges. Another 37 ages and dates from Little Salt Spring’s
basin will be published in the future. In addition, we cite
two radiocarbon dates (both reported incompletely) in this
article’s text. We emphasize the subaqueous deposition and
preservation of plant remains and freshwater ecofacts in many
of the dated deposits.
Many radiocarbon dates in the Paleoindian period come
from Warm Mineral Springs and Little Salt Spring (see Table
3, Figure 4, and Appendices). Grouped by provenience and
2-sigma ranges, they come from the 13 Meter Ledge in Warm
Mineral Springs (13,255 to 9,475 cal YBP) and from the
basin slope of Little Salt Spring (11,270 to 9,775 cal YBP).
Deeper, on Little Salt Spring’s 27 Meter Ledge, most reliable
radiocarbon ages are based on wood (14,680 to 10,605 cal
YBP) and no definite evidence of humans has been identified.
Fossil animal bones from the ledge have produced diverse,
questionable ages. The ledge’s bones include those of several
giant tortoises (and likely more) that apparently accumulated
naturally and gradually as the animals fell into the spring and
died.
At Little Salt Spring, the lower portion of its basin began
to be inundated by the late Paleoindian period. This is shown
by the preservation of wooden stakes (dated to 11,270 to
10,300 cal YBP) that were driven into the substrate, apparently
in shallow water, and that are now approximately 11 to 12 m
below the spring’s present-day water surface. A core (GDF-
141), taken on land in the hammock close to the spring basin,
shows that the water in the spring basin had risen rapidly to
reach a level approximately 1 m below the spring’s present-
day water surface by ca. 9,000 cal YBP.
This time of rapid water rise in Little Salt Spring (ca.
11,000 to 9,000 cal YBP) was accompanied by slumpage
and sandy, clastic deposition (Gregory et al. 2017). By 8,500
cal YBP, the water in the spring was close to the present-day
level, and has remained around there to the present day. This
is shown by a human burial with brain tissue near the top of
Operation 4, close to the west shore of the basin.
Once the basin in Little Salt Spring was filled or mostly
filled with water, biological production increased and there
was a shift from sandy deposition to the accumulation of
organic-rich deposits (Gregory et al. 2017). This marks a
greater surface area of water in the basin, more sunlight and air
exchange at the surface, and a larger basin perimeter allowing
the growth of emergent vegetation and associated fauna.
At Little Salt Slough, radiocarbon dates show that human
burials were interred in watery peat during the late Early
Archaic and early Middle Archaic periods (ca. 7,900 to 6,500
cal YBP). Close-by, radiocarbon dates indicate that Little Salt
Midden was inhabited during the Middle Archaic period (ca.
5,500 to 4,800 cal YBP).
Dates from Nona’s Site and Little Jaw site also range in
the Middle Archaic period (ca. 6,300 to 4,500 cal YBP). Also
during this time (ca. 5,500 to 4,500 cal YBP), the surrounding
upland became wetter, as indicated by peat that began to form
in natural, shallow depressions that became marshy ponds
dotting the North Port landscape. Finally, a single date from
Nineteen Owner Midden falls in the early Safety Harbor
period (930 to 670 cal YBP, or A.D. 1020 to 1280).
Acknowledgments
Darden Hood of Beta Analytic, Inc., generously calibrated
most of the ages presented in this article, and Ron Hatfield of
Beta Analytic assisted with the rest. Archaeologist Glen Doran
kindly provided unpublished radiocarbon ages from Warm
Mineral Springs. Steve Koski and John Gifford generously
shared information, as did Bill Goetz of North Port, Marion
Almy of Sarasota, and Barbara Purdy of Gainesville.
In North Port, Lawry Reid of the Friends of Little Salt
Spring gave encouragement. Dan Hughes, former Sarasota
County Archaeologist, and Rob Bendus, Manager of Sarasota
County Historical Resources, furnished information. New
College of Florida student Hayley Trejo assisted at the
computer. Matt Woodside of the South Florida Museum, in
Bradenton, kindly provided a photo related to Tallant. Cody
VanderPloeg of the Florida Master Site File found useful data.
TesaNorman and Laura Dean helped create electronic graphics.
Finally, we are grateful to previous researchers, especially
Carl Clausen in the field, Jerry Stipp in the radiocarbon dating
laboratory, and Barbara Purdy for her scholarship.
Notes
1. The exception consists of a series of calibrated dates
in Appendix C-7, in which calibrated YBP dates are from
Gregory et al. (2017:362, Table 1), based on the IntCal 13
database, and the calibrated B.C. dates are based on the OxCal
4.3 radiocarbon calibration program, which uses the Bayesian
highest posterior density (HPD) function. Beta Analytic did
not provide the B.C. calibrated dates due to methodological
reservations about how those ages were produced.
2. In the 1930s or 1940s, collectors apparently dug in
Little Salt Spring. In his artifact catalog, collector Montague
Tallant (n.d.) listed a chipped stone biface (“spear, flint, blue,
3.5 inches”) and 68 other artifacts (“beads, wolf teeth & shell”)
from Little Salt Spring (Tallant catalog numbers A44 through
A113). These might have come from the shallow edge of
the spring basin, where Middle Archaic burials and artifacts
exist in underwater deposits. In 2000,1 was unable to locate
Tallant’s specimens at the South Florida Museum (SFM), in
Bradenton, apparently because they were misplaced, lost, or
stolen many years ago. A fabricated necklace of fresh, crudely
incised canid teeth at SFM (Luer 2000:16) may attempt to
replicate Tallant’s finds for display in a former museum exhibit,
as may another necklace of plastic beads and alligator teeth
(see Luer 2002a:25, Note 7). A photo in the Tallant Gallery at
SFM shows wading men peering into glass-bottomed boxes,
apparently looking for artifacts. The shallowness of the water
(calf-deep) argues against the location as Little Salt Spring,


Luer and Block
Radiocarbon Database
33
where such a shal low depth is occupied by emergent vegetation.
3. Divers in Little Salt Spring included building contractor
Bill Royal and dentist Jarl Malwin of Venice, Ben Waller of
Ocala, photographer Bob Pelham of Sarasota, marine biologist
Eugenie Clark, then of Englewood and Sarasota, Louanna
Petty of Ohio who was a winter visitor to Venice, and many
others. On diver, in Venice, reportedly had “many skulls from
Warm Mineral Springs in his collection” (Royal 1986).
4. At that time, there were no roads near Little Salt Spring.
Pelham’s color slides of the mid-1960s show divers walking
overland and carrying their gear across approximately 2 miles
of open prairie from Warm Mineral Springs to reach Little Salt
Spring. In the summer rainy season, they waded ankle-deep
across the saw palmetto prairie, flooded with shallow water
(Bob Pelham, personal communication 1985). This same area
is now a residential section in the City of North Port.
5. As early as 1959, Goggin dove in Little Salt Spring
and Warm Mineral Springs (Purdy 1991:201-202). According
to Burgess (1976:128 in Gifford et al. 2017:73), Goggin also
dove in Little Salt and Warm Mineral Springs in May, 1961.
6. During these years, sport divers continued to visit the
spring. In December 1971, four divers explored Little Salt
Spring’s deep abyss, reaching a depth of 70 m (225 ft) in
a lateral cave at the bottom of the spring. In March 1975,
three divers explored the same area, reaching a depth of
approximately 75 m (250 ft) (CaveAtlas.com 2017).
7. A 1978 photograph of Clausen and others at the time
of extracting this core appeared in National Airline’s Aloft
in-flight magazine (Gorman 1979:8, top). Also at that time,
archaeologist Marion Almy worked as an assistant to Clausen.
Almy had prior experience diving in Warm Mineral Springs
with Cockrell and Ruppe.
8. Also in 1990, Gifford and archaeologist Robert Carr
extracted a core from a small, muck- and peat-filled sink hole
near Naples, Florida. Destroyed for enlargement of a golf
course in the Pelican Bay subdivision, this was one of several
doomed sink holes in the former Naples Sandhill Scrub, an
important sand pine and rosemary biotic community tragically
erased by land development in the 1980s. Samples from the
core at depths of 24 and 28.5 feet reportedly produced two
radiocarbon ages of 3,320 +/- 50 and 3,540 +/- 60 years (Lee
1990a, 1990b, 1990c, 1990d; Luer 1998:32, Note 3, Figure 1).
9. Hickory grew in the North Port area approximately
10,000 years ago. This evidence comes from underwater Zone
3 on the 13 Meter Ledge in Warm Mineral Springs (Clausen
et al. 1975b: 197) and from underwater excavations in the
lower basin of Little Salt Spring, the latter location yielding
hickory nut shells radiocarbon dated to ca. 10,000 cal YBP by
Clausen (Appendix B-2) and by Gifford (see Koski, Quitmyer,
and Gifford n.d.). Evidence also consists of hickory pollen,
such as in sediment extracted from small freshwater mollusk
shells from Little Salt Spring’s lower basin (Brown and Cohen
1985:23-24) and from deep Core IV (Hansen 1990).
In the last 2,000 years, hickory in the Sarasota County
area might have been spread by humans. Carbonized hickory
nutshell fragments were excavated by archaeologists from
the Shell Ridge Midden at the Palmer Site (8S02), where
they date to Manasota (ca. A.D. 200 to 300) and early Safety
Harbor (ca. A.D. 1100) times (Newsom 1988:210, Table 4).
Pignut hickory also grows close to Wilson Mound A (8SO70)
in Old Miakka and at the Palmetto Lane Midden (8S096) and
elsewhere near Whitaker Bayou (Luer 2011:26, Note 11).
References Cited
Alvarez Zarikian, Carlos A., Peter K. Swart, John A. Gifford,
and Patricia L. Blackwelder
2005 Holocene Paleohydrology of Little Salt Spring,
Florida, Based on Ostracod Assemblages and Stable
Isotopes. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology,
Paleoecology 225:134-156.
Anonymous
1972 General Development Sponsors Archaeological
Research Program: 5,000-Year-Old Remains in
North Port Charlotte Spring. New Vistas
for General Development Corporation Property
Owners (promotional magazine). March issue, pp.
14-19. On file, Sarasota County History Center.
Aten, Lawrence E.
1999 Middle Archaic Ceremonialism at Tick Island,
Florida: Ripley P. Bullen’s 1961 Excavation at the
Harris Creek Site. The Florida Anthropologist
52(3): 131-200.
Austin, Robert J., Lisabeth Carlson, and Richard Estabrook
2009 Archaic Period Faunal Use in the West-Central
Florida Interior. Southeastern Archaeology
28(2):148-164.
Bense, Judith A.
1994 Archaeology of the Southeastern United States:
Paleoindian to World War 1. Academic Press, San
Diego, California.
Beriault, John, Robert Carr, Jerry Stipp, Richard Johnson,
and Jack Meeder
1981 The Archeological Salvage of the Bay West
Site, Collier County, Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 34(2):39-58.
Bernhardt, Christopher E., Debra A. Willard,
and John A. Gifford
2012 Pollen Evidence for a Cool, Dry Younger Dryas
and Warm, Wet Early Holocene in Southeast United
States. Abstract in Japanese Journal of Paly no logy
58(1): 15-16.


34
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
Bernhardt, Christopher E., Debra A. Willard,
Bryan Landacre, and John A. Gifford
2010 Vegetation Changes During the Last Deglacial and
Early Holocene: A Record from Little Salt Spring,
Florida. American Geophysical Union Fall
Meeting A bstracts 2010.
2011 Vegetation Changes During the Last Deglacial and
Early Holocene: A Record from Little Salt Spring,
Florida. Abstract of poster presented by Steve
Koski at 63rd Annual Meeting of the Florida
Anthropological Society, Orlando. The
Florida Anthropologist 64:126.
Bonomo, Michael F., Justin R Lowry, Robert H. Tykot,
and John A. Gifford
2014 An Exploratory Non-Destructive Provenance
Analysis of Two Middle Archaic Greenstone
Pendants from Little Salt Spring, Florida, USA.
Geoarchaeology: An International Journal
29:121-137.
Bowman, Sheridan
1990 Radiocarbon Dating. University of California
Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.
Brandle, Lowell
1959 Fossil Discoveries Amaze Scientists: At Gulf Coast
Spring. Fort Lauderdale News, May 14, p. 3C. On
file, Sarasota County History Center.
Bronk Ramsey, Christopher
2009 Bayesian Analysis of Radiocarbon Dates.
Radiocarbon 51(l):337-360.
Brown, Janice G.
1981 Palynologic and Petrographic Analyses of
Bayhead Hammock and Marsh Peats at Little Salt
Spring Archaeological Site (8S018), Florida.
M.A. Thesis, Department of Geology, University of
South Carolina. University Microfilms
International, Ann Arbor.
Brown, J. G., and A. D. Cohen
1985 Palynologic and Petrographic Analyses of Peat
Deposits, Little Salt Spring. National Geographic
Research 1(4):21-31.
Buckley, James
1978 Letter to Curtiss Peterson, State of Florida
Archaeological Conservator, from Teledyne
Isotopes, Inc., dated July 3. On file, Sarasota
County History Center.
Burgess, Robert F.
1976 The Cave Divers. Dodd, Mead and Company, N.Y.
Calvert, M., Kim Rudolph, and J. J. Stipp
1978 University of Miami Radiocarbon Date XII.
Radiocarbon 20(2):274-282.
Carr, Robert S.
1995 Archaeological Assessment of Human Bones from
Highland Woods. On file with 8LL1850 Site File,
Florida Master Site File, Tallahassee.
CaveAtlas.com
2017 Webpage showing cross-section diagram of Little
Salt Spring, Florida, U.S.A. (www.caveatlas.com)
Clark, Eugenie
1969 The Lady and the Sharks. Harper and Row, N.Y.
Clausen, Carl J.
1964a The A-356 Site and the Florida Archaic. M.A.
Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of
Florida, Gainesville.
1964b Devil’s Den. Paper delivered to the Society of
American Archaeology Meeting, University of
North Carolina.
1965 A 1715 Spanish Treasure Ship. Contributions of the
Florida State Museum, Social Sciences #12,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
1966 The Proton Magnetometer. The Florida
Anthropologist 19(2-3):77-84.
1987 Letter to Alan Mitchell, Operations Manager for
General Development Corporation, dated May 29.
On file, Sarasota County History Center.
Clausen, Carl J., and Marion M. Almy
1978 Small Scale Photogrammetry Enhances
Archaeological Record. Paper presented at 30th
Annual Meeting of the Florida
Anthropological Society, Fort Walton Beach.
Clausen, Carl J., H. K. Brooks, A. B. Wesolowsky
1975a Florida Spring Confirmed as 10,000 Year Old
Early Man Site, edited by Ripley P. Bullen. Florida
Anthropological Society Publication #7, Gainesville.
1975b The Early Man Site at Warm Mineral Springs,
Florida. Journal of Field Archaeology 2:191-213.
Clausen, Carl J., A. D. Cohen, Cesare Emiliani, J. A. Holman,
and J. J. Stipp
1979 Little Salt Spring , Florida: A Unique Underwater
Site. Science 203:609-614.
Clausen, Carl J., and Cesare Emiliani
1979 Little Salt Spring: Preserver of the Past. Sea
Frontiers 25(5):258-265.
Cockrell, Wilburn A.
1977 National Register of Historic Places Inventory -
Nomination Form: Warm Mineral Springs
(8S019), Sarasota County, Florida. On file, Florida
Bureau of Archaeological Research, Tallahassee.


Luer and Block
Radiocarbon Database
35
1986 The Warm Mineral Springs Archaeological Research
Project: Current Research and Technological
Applications. In Diving for Science. ..86, edited by
Charles T. Mitchell, pp. 63-68. Proceedings of
the American Academy of Underwater Sciences
6th Annual Scientific Diving Symposium. Costa
Mesa, California.
1990 Archaeological Research at Warm Mineral Springs,
Florida. In Diving for Science... 1990, edited by
Walter C. Jaap, pp. 69-78. Proceedings of the
American Academy of Underwater Sciences 10th
Annual Scientific Diving Symposium. University of
South Florida, St. Petersburg.
Cockrell, W. A., and Larry Murphy
1978 Pleistocene Man in Florida. Archaeology of Eastern
North America 6:1-13.
Cousteau, Jacques-Yves, and Frédéric Dumas
1953 The Silent World. New York and London.
Crabtree, Sharon
1980 Letter to Carl Clausen from UM Department of
Geology, dated September 8. On file, Sarasota
County History Center.
Crabtree, Sharon, and J. J. Stipp
1981 University of Miami Radiocarbon Dates XXI.
Radiocarbon 23(3):404-409.
Dasovich, Steve
1996 Compilation and Analysis of Florida’s Prehistoric
Radiocarbon Database. M.A. Thesis, Department of
Anthropology, Florida State University, Tallahassee.
Dasovich, Steve J., and Glen H. Doran
2011 The Florida Radiocarbon Database. The Florida
Anthropologist 64(1 ):53-61.
de Beer, Dirk, Miriam Weber, Arjun Chennu,
Trinity Hamilton, Christian Lott, Jennifer Macalady,
and Judith M. Klatt
2017 Oxygenic and Anoxygenic Photosynthesis in
a Microbial Mat from an Anoxic and Sulfidic
Spring. Environmental Microbiology
19(3): 1251-1265.
Dickel, David N.
1995 Update of Field Report. On file with 8LL1850 Site
File, Florida Master Site File, Tallahassee.
1998 Florida Master Site File Form for Ryder Pond
(8LL1850). On file, Florida Master Site File,
Tallahassee.
Doran, Glen H.
2002 The Windover Radiocarbon Chronology. In
Windover: Multidisciplinary Investigations of
an Early Archaic Florida Cemetery, edited by
Glen H. Doran, pp. 59-72. University Press of
Florida, Gainesville.
Doran, Glen H., and David N. Dickel
1988 Radiometric Chronology of the Archaic Windover
Archaeological Site (8-Br-246). The Florida
Anthropologist 41:365-380.
Elliot, Kim
2018 Lab list of current AMS/radiocarbon labs, with
current and retired lab codes (http://radiocarbon.
webhost. uits. arizona. edu/home).
Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT)
1973 Aerial Image showing the Bay West Site, Collier
County, Florida. FDOT catalog #278540-COL1137-
04-24, ca. 1973. Electronic document (https://www.
fdotewp 1 .dot.state.fl.us/AerialPhotoLookUpSystem),
accessed February 26, 2019.
1979 Aerial Image showing Ryder Pond, Lee County,
Florida. FDOT catalog #278553-LEE2393-15-03,
ca. 1979. Electronic document, https://www.
fdotewp Ldot.state.fl.us/AerialPhotoLookUpSystem,
accessed February 26, 2019.
1985 Aerial Image showing the Bay West Site, Collier
County, Florida. FDOT catalog #278522-COL3107-
05-25,1985. Electronic document, (https://www.
fdotewp Ldot.state.fl.us/AerialPhotoLookUpSystem),
accessed February 26, 2019.
Florida Anthropological Society
2008 FAS 2008 Award Recipients. The Florida
Anthropologist 61(3-4): 199-203.
Fradkin, Arlene
1978 Faunal Remains from 8-So-79. Ms on file, acc.
#297, Environmental Archaeology Lab, Florida
Museum of Natural History, Gainesville.
Gifford, John A.
1987 Notes about Radiocarbon Dates from Operation 4
“Mini-Excavation,” Little Salt Spring Basin,
Presented by UM Geology Student Michele
Montague, April 23. On file, Sarasota County
History Center.
1990 The First Floridians: Paleo-Indians of Little
Salt Spring. Historic Preservation Grants-in-
Aid Special Category Application Form. On
file, Florida Department of State, Division of
Historical Resources, Tallahassee.
2012 Working Database of Radiocarbon Dating Results
from Little Salt Spring. On file, with John Gifford
and Steve Koski, North Port, Florida.


36
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
Gifford, John A., and Steven H. Koski
2011 An Incised Antler Artifact from Little Salt Spring
(8S018). The Florida Anthropologist 64:47-51.
Gifford, John A., Steven H. Koski, Lee Ann Newsom,
and Lauren Milideo
2017 Little Salt Spring: Excavations on the 27 Meter
Ledge, 2008-2011. In The Archaeology of
Underwater Caves, edited by Peter B. Campbell, pp.
73-103. Highfield Press, Southampton, U.K.
Goggin, John M.
1949 Cultural Traditions in Florida Prehistory. In The
Florida Indian and His Neighbors, edited by John
W. Griffin, pp. 13-44. Rollins College Inter-
American Center, Winter Park, Florida.
1960 Underwater Archaeology: Its Nature and
Limitations. American Antiquity 25(3):348-354.
1962 Recent Developments in Underwater Archaeology.
Southeastern Archaeological Conference Newsletter
8:77-88.
1964 Indian and Spanish Selected Writings. University of
Miami Press, Coral Gables.
Goggin, John M., William Massey, Clayton Ray,
and H. K. Brooks
1961 Devil’s Den, An Early Underwater Cave. Paper
presented at 1961 Southeastern Archaeological
Conference, Gainesville, Florida.
Google Map Data
2019a Aerial Image of the Bay West Site, Collier County,
Florida. Image centered on the site at UTM
26.275844 m North, -81.704102 m West.
2019b Aerial Image of Ryder Pond, Lee County, Florida.
Image centered on location of former Ryder Pond at
UTM 26.349869 m North, -81.801225 m West.
Gorman, John
1979 The Secrets of the Spring. Sept.-Oct. National
Airlines in-flight magazine. Aloft 11(8):6-13.
Gregory, Braden R. B., Eduard G. Reinhardt,
and John A. Gifford
2017 The Influence of Morphology on Sinkhole
Sedimentation at Little Salt Spring, Florida. Journal
of Coastal Research 33(2):359-371.
Hamilton, T. L., P. V. Welander, H. L. Albrecht, J. M. Fulton,
I. Shaperdoth, L. R. Bird, R. E. Summons, K. H. Freeman,
and J. L. Macalady
2017 Microbial Communities and Organic Biomarkers in
a Proterozoic-analog Sinkhole. Geobiology
15:784-797.
Hansen, Barbara C. S., Eric C. Grimm, and William A. Watts
2001 Palynology of the Peace Creek Site, Polk County,
Florida. Geological Society of America Bulletin
113(6):682-692.
Harring, Valarie G.
1987 Archaic Bones Unearthed. North Port Times, pp.
1A, 12A, June 10. On file, Sarasota County
History Center.
Holman, J. Alan, and Carl J. Clausen
1984 Fossil Vertebrates Associated With Paleo-Indian
Artifact at Little Salt Spring, Florida. Journal of
Vertebrate Paleontology 4(1): 146-154.
Hubbs, Carl L., George S. Bien, and Hans E. Suess
1960 La Jolla Natural Radiocarbon Measurements.
American Journal of Science Radiocarbon
Supplement 2:197-223.
Introne, Douglas S., and J. J. Stipp
1979 University of Miami Radiocarbon Dates XV.
Radiocarbon 21(2):291-297.
Johnson, Richard A., G. E. Treadgold, and J. J. Stipp
1983 University of Miami Radiocarbon Dates XXII.
Radiocarbon 25(1): 137-142.
Jones, B. Calvin
1981 Florida Anthropologist Interview with Calvin
Jones, Part II: Excavations of an Archaic Cemetery
in Cocoa Beach, Florida. Conducted by Robert S.
Carr. The Florida Anthropologist 34(2):81-89.
Jones, B. Calvin, Louis D. Tesar, and Jonathan Lammers
1998 B. Calvin Jones: Comments and Commentary,
Video-tape Interview Excerpts. The Florida
Anthropologist 51(2):79-128.
Kelly, Jim (Editor)
1995 Protests prompt rapid reburial at Ryder Pond.
Florida Antiquity: Newsletter of the Archaeological
and Historical Conservancy\ Inc. 5(3): 1, 3. Davie,
Florida.
King, James E.
1975 Analysis of Pollen from Warm Mineral Springs,
Florida. Unpublished typescript, on file, Sarasota
County History Center.
Kistler L., A. Montenegro, B. D. Smith, J. A. Gifford,
L. A. Newsom, and B. Shapiro
2014 African Origins and Multi-Regional Domestication
of Bottle Gourds in the Americas. Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences 111(8):2937-2941.
Koski, Steven H.
2013 The Tortoise and the Ledge: Interpretation
and Representation at Little Salt Spring. In


Luer and Block
Radiocarbon Database
37
ArtCalusa: Reflections on Representation, edited
by Theresa M. Schober, pp. 17-18. Lee Trust for
Historic Preservation, Fort Myers, Florida.
2015a Field Summary Report Dated March 8: Nona’s Site
Visit, March 5, 2015. On file, Sarasota County
History Center.
2015b Field Summary Report Dated March 18: Nona’s Site
Visit, March 15, 2015. On file, Sarasota County
History Center.
2018 Summary of Site Visit: Nona’s Site, May 15 and 16,
2018. On file, Sarasota County History Center.
Koski, Steven H., Lee A. Newsom, and John A. Gifford
2010 Analysis of Two Middle Archaic Compound
Artifacts from the Lower Basin of Little Salt Spring
(8S018), Sarasota County, Florida. Presentation
at FAS 62nd Annual Meeting, Fort Myers. Abstract
in The Florida Anthropologist 63(2):102.
n.d. Excavations in Little Salt Spring Basin’s Lower East
Slope, Sarasota County, Florida. Ms. in preparation.
Koski, Steven H., Irvy R. Quitmyer, and John A. Gifford
n.d. Excavations in Little Salt Spring Basin’s West
Edge and North Slope, Sarasota County, Florida.
Ms. in preparation.
Koski, Steve, Greg C. Smith, and Leslie E. Raymer
2006 Archaeological Survey at the Little Salt Midden and
Slough Site (8S079) Surrounding the Little
Salt Spring Basin, Sarasota County, Florida.
New South Associates Technical Report #1390,
Stone Mountain, Georgia.
Koski, Steve, Greg C. Smith, Leslie E. Raymer,
and Mason Sheffield
2007 Addendum to: Archaeological Survey at the Little
Salt Midden and Slough Site (8S079) Surrounding
the Little Salt Spring Basin, Sarasota County,
Florida. New South Associates Technical Report
#1521, Stone Mountain, Georgia.
Kozuch, Laura
1993 Little Salt Spring (8S018) - Faunal Analysis.
Unpublished report, on file with John Gifford and
Steve Koski.
Lee, Arthur R. (Editor)
1990a Developer to Destroy Two Sinkholes at Pelican Bay.
Newsletter, Southwest Florida Archaeological
Society 6(4): 1-2. Naples.
1990b Environmentalist Pleads to Save Remaining
Sinkhole: Marjory Stoneman Douglas Asks that
Last Sinkhole be Spared. Newsletter, Southwest
Florida Archaeological Society 6(6):4. Naples.
1990c Sinkholes: 3,500 Years. Newsletter, Southwest
Florida Archaeological Society 6(7):2. Naples.
1990d Westinghouse Says it Will Try to Save Remaining
Sinkhole. Newsletter, Southwest Florida
Archaeological Society 6(8):2. Naples.
1995a Muck at Bonita mixes periods: same pond has
Archaic burials, extinct fauna. Newsletter,
Southwest Florida Archaeological Society
11(2): 1, 3. Naples.
1995b Explanation of basis for reburials sought.
Newsletter, Southwest Florida Archaeological
Society \\(4):4. Naples.
1995c Ryder Pond exhumations, reburials, talk subject:
archaeologist Carr to speak in October. Newsletter,
Southwest Florida Archaeological Society 11(6): 1-2.
Naples.
Levin, Betsy, Patricia C. Ives, Charles L. Oman,
and Meyer Rubin
1965 U.S. Geological Survey Radiocarbon Dates VIII.
Radiocarbon 7:372-398.
Libby, Willard F.
1955 Radiocarbon Dating. University of Chicago Press,
Chicago.
Lien, Paul M.
1983 Amino Acid Racemization Dates From Paleo-Indian
Sites in Florida. The Florida Anthropologist
36( 1 -2): 106-107.
Loger, Michele C.
2014 Averaging Radiocarbon Ages from Big Mound Key.
In Big Mound Key Near Charlotte Harbor,
Florida, edited by George M. Luer, pp. 87-95.
Florida Anthropological Society Publication #17,
Tallahassee.
Luer, George M.
1998 The Naples Canal: A Deep Indian Canoe Canal in
Southwestern Florida. The Florida Anthropologist
51(l):25-36.
2000 Shell and Bone Artifacts in the Tallant Collection,
South Florida Museum, Bradenton, Florida. Report
prepared for Synergy Design Group, Tallahassee,
and the South Florida Museum. On file, South
Florida Museum and Bishop Planetarium, Bradenton.
2002a Three Middle Archaic Sites in North Port. In
Archaeology of Upper Charlotte Harbor, Florida,
edited by George M. Luer, pp. 3-33. Florida
Anthropological Society Publication Number 15,
Tallahassee.


38
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
Luer, George M.
2002b Settlement and Subsistence at a Late Weeden
Island-Safety Harbor Period Inland Midden in
North Port. In Archaeology of Upper Charlotte
Harbor, Florida, edited by George M. Luer, pp. 73-
93. Florida Anthropological Society Publication
Number 15, Tallahassee.
2011The Yellow Bluffs Mound Revisited: A
Manasota Period Burial Mound in Sarasota. The
Florida Anthropologist 64(l):5-32.
Martin, Robert A., and S. David Webb
1974Late Pleistocene Mammals from the Devil’s Den
Fauna, Levy County. In Pleistocene Mammals of
Florida, edited by S. David Webb, pp. 114-145.
University Presses of Florida, Gainesville.
Marx, Robert
1974 America’s 12,000-Year-Old Man. Argosy, March
Issue. Popular Publications, New York.
McDonald, H. Gregory
1975 The Warm Mineral Springs Fauna. Ms on file,
Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research,
Tallahassee.
1976 Additions to the Warm Mineral Springs Fauna.
Ms on file, Florida Bureau of Archaeological
Research, Tallahassee.
1990 Understanding the paleoecology of fossil
vertebrates—Contributions of submerged sites.
In Diving for Science... 1990, edited by Walter C.
Jaap, pp. 69-78. Proceedings of the American
Academy of Underwater Sciences 10th
Annual Scientific Diving Symposium.
University of South Florida, St. Petersburg.
Merbs, Charles F., and Carl J. Clausen
1981 The People of Little Salt Spring. Paper presented
at the 46th Annual Meeting of the Society for
American Archaeology, San Diego.
Metz, Patty A.
2016 Discharge, Water Temperature, and Water Quality
of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County;
Florida: A Retrospective Analysis. U.S. Geological
Survey Open-File Report 2016-1166. Reston,Virginia.
Milanich, Jerald T., and Charles H. Fairbanks
1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic Press, New York.
Morris, Donald H.
1975 Warm Mineral Springs Man. Ms. on file, Florida
Bureau of Archaeological Research, Tallahassee.
Murphy, Larry
1978 8S019: Specialized Methodological, Technological
and Physiological Approaches to Deep Water
Excavation of a Prehistoric Site at Warm Mineral
Springs, Florida. In Beneath the Waters of Time:
The Proceedings of the Ninth Conference on
Underwater Archaeology, edited by J. Barto Arnold
III, Texas Antiquities Committee #6, Austin, Texas.
NASA Astrobiology Institute
2012 Annual Report, (http://nai.nasa.gov/annual-
reports/2012/psu/biosignatures-in-relevant-
microbial-ecosystems/).
2013 Annual Report (http://nai.nasa.gov/annual-
reports/2013/psu/biosignatures-in-relevant-
microbial-ecosystems/).
Newsom, Lee
1998 Archaeobotanical Research at Shell Ridge Midden,
Palmer Site (8S02), Sarasota County, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 51 (4):207-222.
Newsom, Lee A., and Logan Kistler
2019 Paleoethnobotanical Analysis of Bulk Sediment
and In Situ Collections from the North Slope Basin
of Little Salt Spring (8S018), Sarasota County,
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 72(1).
Paabo, Svante, John A. Gifford, and Allen C. Wilson
1988 Mitochondrial DNA Sequences from a 7000-Year-
Old Brain. Nucleic Acid Research 16(20):9775-9787.
Penton, Daniel T.
1972 National Register of Historic Places Inventory -
Nomination Form: Little Salt Spring
(8S018), Sarasota County, Florida. On file, Florida
Bureau of Archaeological Research, Tallahassee.
Purdy, Barbara A.
1991 The Art and Archaeology of Florida s Wetlands.
CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Purdy, Barbara A., Kathryn M. Rohlwing,
and Bruce J. MacFadden
2015 Devil’s Den, Florida: Rare Earth Element Analysis
Indicates Contemporaneity of Humans and Latest
Pleistocene Fauna. PaleoAmerica l(3):266-275.
Quinn, Rhonda L., Bryan D. Tucker, and John Krigbaum
2008 Diet and Mobility in Middle Archaic Florida:
Stable Isotopic and Faunal Evidence from the Harris
Creek Archaeological Site (8V024), Tick Island.
Journal of Archaeological Science 35:2346-2356.


Luer and Block
Radiocarbon Database
39
Quitmyer, Irvy R.
1994 Descriptive Analysis of Fauna Identified in
Operation Six, Little Salt Spring (8S018), Florida.
Ms on file, Environmental Archaeology Laboratory,
Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville.
Reimer, Paula J. (and 29 other authors)
2013 IntCal 13 and Marine 13 Radiocarbon Age
Calibration Curves 0-50,000 years cal BP.
Radiocarbon 55(4): 1869-1887.
Royal, William R.
1986 Letter to Donald H. Morris (Physical
Anthropologist), Department of Anthropology,
Arizona State University, dated October 28. Copy
on file, Sarasota County History Center.
Royal, William R., and R. F. Burgess
1978 The Man Who Rode Sharks. Dodd, Mead, N.Y.
Royal, William R, and Eugenie Clark
1960 Natural Preservation of Human Brain, Warm
Mineral Springs, Florida. American Antiquity
26(2):285-287.
Rupert, Frank R.
1994 The Geology of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota
County; Florida. Open File Report 60, Florida
Geological Survey, Tallahassee.
Sarasota County Board of County Commissioners
2007 Resolution No. 2007-114. Re: Preserving and
protecting of seven environmental lots and 17
archaeological lots owned by Sarasota County, dated
December 7, 2004, all said lots lying within the City
of North Port Municipal Limits. Recorded in Clerk of
Circuit Court, Sarasota County.
Sarasota County Property Appraiser
2019 Website data for parcels encompassing Little Salt
Midden and Slough (Parcel ID#0970173801,
#0970173633, #0972001592, #0975001004).
Electronic document, (https://www.sc-pa.eom//
propertysearch), accessed March 3, 2019.
Sarasota County Survey-Mapping
2005Little Salt Spring Boundary and Topographic Survey.
Two sheets (Parcels A and B). Planning and
Development Services Business Center, Project
#04124. Sarasota.
Straube, M. H.
1974 Radiocarbon Dating in Warm Mineral Springs.
Typescript on file, Sarasota County History Center.
Tallant, Montague
n.d. Artifact catalog of the Montague Tallant Collection.
On file, South Florida Museum, Bradenton.
Talma, A. S., and J. C. Vogel
1993 A Simplified Approach to Calibrating C14 Dates.
Radiocarbon 3 5(2): 317-322.
Tesar, Louis D.
1997 Notes concerning the radiocarbon dates and age
of human remains at Warm Mineral Springs. Survey
#22318. On file, Florida Master Site File, Tallahassee.
Valastro, S., Jr., E. Mott Davis, and Alejandra G. Varela
1977 University of Texas at Austin Radiocarbon Dates XI.
Radiocarbon 19(2):280-325.
1979 University of Texas at Austin Radiocarbon Dates
XIII. Radiocarbon 21(2):257-273.
Valastro, S., Jr., E. Mott Davis, Alejandra G. Varela, and
Susan V. Lisk
1986 University of Texas at Austin Radiocarbon Dates
XV. Radiocarbon 28(3): 1173-1199.
Waller, Ben
1983 Florida Anthropologist Interview by James Dunbar.
The Florida Anthropologist 36(l-2):31-39.
Watts, William A.
1975 A Late Quaternary Record of Vegetation from Lake
Annie, South-Central Florida. Geology 3(6):344-346.
Webb, S. David, and James S. Dunbar
2006 Carbon Dates. In First Floridians and Last
Mastodons: The Page-Ladson Site in the Aucilla
River, edited by S. David Webb, pp. 83-102.
Springer, Dordrecht.
Weisman, Brent R.
2002 Pioneer in Space and Time: John Mann Goggin and
the Development of Florida Archaeology.
University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
Wentz, Rachel K., and John A. Gifford
2007 Florida’s Deep Past: The Bioarchaeology of Little
Salt Spring (8S018) and its Place Among Mortuary
Ponds of the Archaic. Southeastern Archaeology
26(2):330-337.
Wharton, Barry R., George R. Bailo, and Mitchell E. Hope
1981 The Republic Groves Site, Hardy County, Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 34(2):59-80.
Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections 113, Washington, D.C.
Yezdani, G. Habib, and E. S. Deevey, Jr.
1973 A Report on the Microfossils of Little Salt Spring.
Unfinished manuscript. On file, Sarasota County
History Center.


40
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
Appendices
Appendices A, B, C, and D. Radiocarbon Database for North Port, Florida (Warm Mineral Springs, Little Salt Spring,
Nona’s Site, Little Jaw Site, Nineteen Owner Midden, and two natural marshy ponds).
Data are presented in Appendices A-l through A-4, B-l through B-8, C-l through C-7, and D-l and D-2. We compile
164 radiocarbon ages; 37 additional ages from Little Salt Spring’s basin will be reported in the future (see Table 1 and the
text). Two incompletely reported ages are insufficient to include in these Appendices, but they are discussed in the text.
Measured and conventional ages are in radiocarbon years before present (B.P.; present = A.D. 1950). Assumed 5l3C
values, based on known values for the types of materials dated, are applied in this article. Ages and S13C year corrections
are rounded to the nearest ten. Calibrated dates in calendar years B.P. (YBP) and in calendar years B.C. (cal B.C.) were
supplied by Beta Analytic, Inc., based on Talma and Vogel (1993) and Reimer et al. (2013), with the exception of calibrated
dates in Appendix C-7 (see caption of C-7). Table entries use the Intcall3 database. One sigma age ranges have 68%
probability; two sigma dates have 95% probability.
Radiocarbon dating laboratory abbreviations are: Beta Analytic, Miami, Florida (Beta); DirectAMS Radiocarbon
Dating Service (D-AMS); Gakushuin University, Tokyo, Japan (GAK); Teledyne Isotopes, Westwood, New Jersey (I);
IsoTrace Laboratory at the University of Toronto (TO); University of Texas at Austin (Tx); University of Miami Department
of Geology (UM); United States Geological Survey, National Center (W); and University of Waterloo, Canada (WAT). A
tenth laboratory at the Centre Scientifique de Monaco (MC) produced a radiocarbon age in the early 1960s, but it was not
reported formally.
At present (Elliot 2018:22-25), only three of these 10 laboratories (Beta, D-AMS, and TO) continue to operate. The
others have closed, are no longer doing radiocarbon dating, or are operating under another code designation.
Appendix A-l. Early 1960s Radiocarbon Ages from Warm Mineral Springs, 13 Meter Ledge. Table row 1 is based on a
measured age of a sample collected in July 1959 and reported by Royal and Clark (1960:286) and Hubbs et al. (1960:218).
Table rows 2 through 6 are based on measured ages of charcoal samples collected by H. K. Brooks in 1962 (Levin et al.
1965:372-373).
Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
Assumed
613C (o/oo)
and Value
in Years
Corrected/
Conventional,
Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(cal YBP)
Calibrated
Date B.C.,
2 Sigma
(cal B.C.)
1. Charred log, -11.6 meters, LJ-120
10000+/-200
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9970 +/- 200
12365-10795*
10415-8845*
2. Charcoal, top of freshwater marl,
W-1243
8520 +/- 400
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
8490 +/- 400
10505-8450
8555-6500
3. Charcoal, middle zone of freshwater
marl, -37 feet, W-1241
8600 +/- 400
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
8570 +/- 400
10580-8550
8630-6600
4. Charcoal, deeper middle zone of
freshwater marl,** -38 feet, W-1245
9370 +/- 400
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9340 +/- 400
11770-9530
9820-7580
5. Charcoal, mostly freshwater marl zone,
-38.5 feet, W-1242
9500 +/- 400
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9470 +/- 400
12035-9560
10085-7610
6. Charcoal, impure marl and travertine
with much wood and leaves, -39 feet,
W-1153
9870 +/- 370
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9840 +/- 370
12565-10240
10615-8290
*This range includes five narrower ranges.
**The middle zone contained plant remains and terrestrial vertebrate bones, according to Brooks (in Levin et al. 1965:372).


Luer and Block
Radiocarbon Database
41
Appendix A-2. Clausen’s 1972 Radiocarbon Ages from the 13 Meter Ledge in Warm Mineral Springs. All ages are based
on wood from Zone 3 (Clausen et al. 1975a, 1975b; Straube 1974).
Provenience, Depth, Lab ID#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
Assumed
513C (o/oo)
and Value
in Years
Corrected/
Conventional,
Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(cal YBP)
Calibrated
Date B.C.,
2 Sigma
(cal B.C.)
From Leaf Deposit
1. WMS-14503, top of leaf deposit,
GAK-3994
8830+/- 180
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
8800+/- 180
10260-9475
8310-7525
2. WMS-14501, upper leaf deposit,
-12.8 m, GAK-3992
8920+/- 190
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
8890+/- 190
10495-10455,
10440-9525
8545-8505,
8490-7575
3. WMS-14502, middle of leaf deposit,
-13.07 m, GAK-3993
9350+/- 190
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9320+/- 190
11175-10170
9225-8220
4. WMS-14500, 70 cm below leaf
deposit, -13.40 m, GAK-3991
9220+/- 180
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9190+/- 180
11060-11035,
10785-9905
9110-9085,
8835-7955
From Levels
l. WMS-14509, Level 1, -12.7 to -12.8
m, GAK-3995
9420+/- 150
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9390+/- 150
11170-10235
9220-8285
2. WMS-14511, Test 2, Level 2, -12.8 to
-12.9 m, GAK-3996
10020+/- 180
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9990+/- 180
12130-11095
10180-9145
3. WMS-14513 Level 3, -12.9 to -13.0
m, GAK-3997
10630+/-210
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
10600+/-210
12835-11935,
11885-11830
10885-9985,
9935-9880
4. WMS-14515, Level 4, -13.0 to -13.1
m, GAK-3998
10260+/- 190
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
10230 +/- 190
12580-11240
10630-9290
5. WMS-14516, Level 5, -13.1 to -13.2
m, GAK-3999
9880 +/- 230
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9850 +/- 230
12080-10645,
10630-10590
10130-8695,
8680-8640
Appendix A-3. Cockrell’s 1970s Radiocarbon Ages from Warm Mineral Springs, 13 Meter Ledge. Ages are based on
Dasovich (1996), Dasovich and Doran (2011), and Tesar (1997). For rows 19 through 22, the dating laboratory is
undetermined. For row 23, the lab ID# is based on Buckley (1978).
Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
Assumed
S13C (o/oo)
and Value
in Years
Corrected/
Conventional,
Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(cal YBP)
Calibrated
Date B.C.,
2 Sigma
(cal B.C.)
1. Wood, near skull, N side of spring, -45
ft, 1-7203
9125+/-235
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9095 +/- 235
11064-11026,
11003-10967,
10791-9548
9114-9076,
9053-9017,
8841-7598
2. Wood & leaves, beneath skull, Burial
1,-45 ft, 1-7204
8715 +/-590
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
8685 +/- 590
11246-8347
9296-6397
3. Leaf mold, east of skull, Burial 1,
1-7205
9860 +/- 140
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9830 +/- 140
11753-11058,
11035-10784
9803-9108,
9085-8834
4. Leaf mold, beneath skull, -45 ft, 1-7206
10255+/- 145
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
10225 +/- 145
12527-12459,
12438-11310
10577-10509,
10488-9360
5. Leaf mold, west side, Burial 1,1-7207
10285+/- 145
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
10255+/- 145
12545-11340
10595-9390
6. Leaf mold, south side, Burial 1,1-7208
10225+/- 145
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
10195 +/- 145
12516-12495,
12423-11266
10566-10545,
10473-9316
7. Humic debris, over skull & stalactite
near Burial 1,1-7209
10080+/-470
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
10050+/-470
12772-10230
10822-8280


42
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
Appendix A-3 (continued)
Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
Assumed
S13C (o/oo)
and Value
in Years
Corrected/
Conventional,
Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(calYBP)
Calibrated
Date B.C.,
2 Sigma
(cal B.C.)
8. Humic debris, over Burial 1,1-7210
9155+/- 470
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9125+/-470
11690-11680,
11620-9125
9740-9730,
9670-7175
9. Wood, under rock #4 (stalactite),
1-7211
10285 +/- 175
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
10255 +/- 175
12575-11265
10625-9315
10. Wood, under rock #4 (stalactite),
1-7212
8810+/- 130
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
8780+/- 130
10225-9525
8275-7575
11. Wood, under rock #3, west of burial
area, 1-7213
10310+/- 145
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
10280+/- 145
12560-11395
10610-9445
12. Wood, Burial 1 stratum, under rock
#3,-45 ft, 1-7214
9565 +/- 160
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9535 +/- 160
11243-10393,
10312-10304
9293-8443,
8362-8354
13. Leaf mold above and below rock #2,
-45 ft, 1-7215
9700+/- 190
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9670+/- 190
11610-11520,
11510-10505
9660-9570,
9560-8555
14. Wood, Burial 1,1-7216
9945 +/- 145
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9915+/- 145
11965-11091,
10915-10910
10015-9141,
8965-8960
15. Wood, Burial 1,1-7217
10025 +/- 145
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9995 +/- 145
12053-11176
10103-9226
16. Wood, Burial 1,1-7218
10085+/- 145
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
10055+/- 145
12126-11203
10176-9253
17. Wood, west of burial, under rock #4
(stalactite), UM-111
8030 +/- 120
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
8000 +/- 120
9254-9160,
9155-8546
7304-7210,
7205-6596
18. Wood, under rock #4 (stalactite),
Burial 1, UM-112
9950+/- 100
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9920+/- 100
11758-11184
9808-9234
19. Human bone, Burial 1 (no lab #)
10240+/-80
-9.5 (15.5 x
16.4 = 250)
10490+/- 80
12646-12107
10696-10157
20. Human bone, calcaneus, 13 m ledge
(no lab #)
10260+/- 70
-9.5 (15.5 x
16.4 = 250)
10510+/- 70
12646-12364,
12359-12225,
12214-12156
10696-10414,
10409-10275,
10264-10206
21. Bone (finely worked bone pin?) (no
lab#)
10340+/- 70
-21 (4.0 x
16.4 = 70)
10410+/- 70
12549-12036
10599-10086
22. Worked bone? (with split fossil shark
tooth?) (no lab #)
10550+/- 80
-21 (4.0 x
16.4 = 70)
10620+/-80
12707-12412
10757-10462
23. Wood, Feature 30, 14 m depth, C-78-1,
1-10,269
10980+/- 80
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
10950+/- 80
13015-12710
11065-10760


Luer and Block
Radiocarbon Database
43
Appendix A-4. Radiocarbon Ages from 1974, Warm Mineral Springs (Straube 1974).
Material, Depth Below Spring Water
Surface (b.s.), Lab ID#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
Assumed
513C (o/oo)
and Value
in Years
Corrected/
Conventional,
Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(cal YBP)
Calibrated
Date, 2 Sigma
(cal A.D. or
B.C.)
1. Fossil marine shells, 10 ft b.s., UM-266
Greater than
30,250
None
-
Greater than
30,000 B.P.
Greater than
28,000 cal B.C.
2. Wood (root) in stalactite, 20 ft b.s.,
UM-174
8884+/- 121
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
8854+/- 121
10240-9545
8290-7595
cal B.C.
3. Wood (some charred) in stalactite, 40 ft
ledge, UM-268
9301 +/- 127
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9271 +/- 127
10755-10205
8805-8255
cal B.C.
4. Leaves, 130 ft b.s., 12 to 18 inches
deep in floor, UM-275
364 +/- 73
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
334 +/- 73
515-280,
170-150
cal A.D.
1435-1670,
1780-1800
5. Leaves, 130 ft b.s., 56 to 62 inches
deep in floor, UM-267-A
1076+/-66
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
1046+/- 66
1070-895,
875-795
cal A.D.
880-1055,
1075-1155
6. Leaves, 130 ft b.s., 56 to 62 inches
deep in floor, UM-267-B
1234 +/- 87
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
1204 +/- 87
1295-935
cal A.D.
655-1015
Appendix B-l. Radiocarbon Ages from Clausen’s Test 1 and Test 2 in the Basin of Little Salt Spring in 1972. Measured
ages are from Luer (2002a:Appendix III).
Material, Provenience, Lab ID#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
Assumed
813C (o/oo)
and Value
in Years
Corrected/
Conventional,
Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(cal YBP)
Calibrated
Date, 2 Sigma
(cal A.D. or
B.C.)
1. Wood, Test 1, bottom of Zone A,
1-6513
1045+/- 90
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
1015+/- 90
1175-735*
cal A.D.
775-1215*
2. Wood, Test 1, Zone B marl, 1-6549
1805+/- 90
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
1775 +/- 90
1895-1525
cal A.D.
55-425
3. Wood, Test 1, Zone C gray sand below
marl, 1-6512
8955 +/- 145
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
8925 +/- 145
10395-9550
8445-7600
cal B.C.
4. Wood, Test 2, top of Zone A, 1-6510
800 +/- 90
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
770 +/- 90
910-625,
605-555
cal A.D.
1040-1325,
1345-1395
5. Wood (charred), Test 2, brown zone at
base of marl, 1-6511
4075 +/- 250
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
4045 +/- 250
5295-3840
3345-1890
cal B.C.
6. Wood (bark), Test 2, base of Zone B
marl, 1-6458
8455 +/- 140
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
8425 +/- 140
9660-9030
7710-7080
cal B.C.
7. Peat or algal gyttja, Test 2,1-6459
10980+/-210
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
10950+/-210
13215-12540
11,265-10,590
cal B.C.
*This range includes four narrower ranges.


44
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
Appendix B-2. Radiocarbon Ages from the Basin’s Lower Slope, Little Salt Spring. Measured ages are from Clausen et al.
(1979) and Valastro et al. (1979:269-270).
Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
Assumed
813C (o/oo)
and Value
in Years
Corrected/
Conventional,
Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(cal YBP)
Calibrated
Date B.C.,
2 Sigma
(cal B.C.)
1. Human bone (collagen), NE slope, 8 to
9 m below spring water surface,
GAK-3548
5220 +/- 90
-9.5 (15.5 x
16.4 = 250)
5470 +/- 90
6410-6095,
6085-6005
4460-4145,
4135^1055
2. Wooden stake, peeled, edge of drop off,
1-6460
9645+/- 160
-28 (3.0 x
16.4 = 50)
9595 +/- 160
11270-10495,
10450-10445
9320-8545,
8500-8495
3. Wooden stake, split pine, at drop off,
SW end of Trench 2, Tx-2460
9500+/- 120
-28 (3.0 x
16.4 = 50)
9450+/- 120
11170-10385,
10315-10300
9220-8435,
8365-8350
4. Hickory nuts, in shelly calcitic mud at
drop off, SW end of Trench 2, Tx-2461
9920+/- 160
-25 (0.0 x
16.4 = 0)
9920+/- 160
12005-11075,
10945-10875
10055-9125,
8995-8925
5. Oak mortar, south slope, on grey sand
near “informal hearth,” Tx-2594
9080 +/- 250
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9050 +/- 250
11060-11035,
10785-9535
9110-9085,
8835-7585
6. Charcoal (small sample), south slope,
“informal hearth” on grey sand, Tx-2595
10,190+/-
1450
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
10,160+/-
1450
15680-8035
13730-6085
Appendix B-3. Radiocarbon Ages by Clausen from the 21.3 Meter Ledge (70 Foot Ledge) and the 27 Meter Ledge (90
Foot Ledge), Little Salt Spring. Age in row 1 is from the shallower ledge. Ages in rows 2 through 5 are from the 27 Meter
Ledge. Ages in rows 3 through 5 are from excavations in the south side of the ledge, obtained by Clausen in the mid-1970s
(Clausen et al. 1979:Table 1; Gifford et al. 2017:79; Valastro et al. 1977:315-316; Valastro et al. 1986:1189-1190).
Material, Provenience, Lab ID#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
813C (o/oo)
and Value
in Years
Corrected/
Conventional,
Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(cal YBP)
Calibrated
Date B.C.,
2 Sigma
(cal B.C.)
1. Wood fragments, East 21.3 Meter
Ledge, Station #8, GDC-2119, Tx-2337
Modern
-
Modem
-
-
2. Stick, partially burned, from upper
loose sediment, GDC-2109, Tx-2336
Modern
-
Modem
-
-
3. Giant tortoise bone, GDC-2120,
Tx-2335
13450+/- 190
-22 (3.0 x
16.4 = 50)*
13500+/- 190
16830-15750
14880-13800
4. First pointed branch or wooden
“stake,” GDF-025, Tx-2636
12030+/-200
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)**
12000+/-200
14400-13445
12450-11495
5. Second eroded branch or wooden
“stake,” GDF-107, UM-1329
9865 +/-
200***
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)**
9835 +/-
200***
12000-10685
10050-8735
* Assumed value for plant-eating terrestrial animal.
**Assumed value for wood.
***Assumed 1-sigma value; age incompletely recorded.


Luer and Block
Radiocarbon Database
45
Appendix B-4. Radiocarbon Ages from 1978 near the Shore of the Basin, Little Salt Spring. These ages are from Core
GDF-141, the top of which was at 5.6 m AMSL (Brown and Cohen 1985:24), and are based on Introne and Stipp (1979)
and Johnson et al. (1983). Also see Luer (2002a:Figure 9, Appendix IV).
Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
613C (o/oo)
and Value
in Years
Corrected/
Convention-
al, Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(cal YBP)
Calibrated Date
B.C.,
2 Sigma
(calA.D. or B.C.)
1. Dark brown peat, 7.4-15 cm, UM-2159
Modem
-
Modem
-
-
2. Dark brown peat, 37-44 cm, UM-2160
1430 +/- 70
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)*
1400+/-70
1409-1230,
1209-1183
calA.D. 541-720,
741-767
3. Red-brown peat, 59-66 cm, UM-2172
1380+/-70
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)*
1350+/- 70
1374-1176
calA.D. 576-774
4. Peat, 66-74 cm, UM-1508
1450+/-60
-27.38 (2.38
x 16.4 = 40)
1410+/- 60
1406-1263
calA.D. 544-687
5. Brown peat, 81-88 cm, UM-2164
2790 +/- 60
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)*
2760 +/- 60
2997-2754
1047-804
cal B.C.
6. Brown peat, 88-96 cm, UM-2161
5330 +/- 80
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)*
5300 +/- 80
6283-5911
4333-3961
cal B.C.
7. Peat, 103-110 cm, UM-1509
6490 +/- 80
-27.27 (2.27
x 16.4 = 40)
6450 +/- 80
7497-7249
5547-5299
cal B.C.
8. Brown peat, 110-118 cm, UM-2162
6430 +/- 90
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)*
6400 +/- 90
7470-7163
5520-5213
cal B.C.
9. Brown grainy peat, 128-132 cm,
UM-2163
7650+/- 160
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)*
7620+/- 160
8766-8159,
8085-8068
6816-6209,
6135-6118
cal B.C.
10. Peat, 138-143 cm, UM-1510
9190+/- 120
-27.00 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9160+/- 120
10650-10624,
10598-10158
8700-8674,
8648-8208
cal B.C.
11. Peat, 139-143 cm, UM-1511
8670+/- 120
-24.63 (0.37
x 16.4= 10)
8680+/- 120
10158-9474
8208-7524
cal B.C.
12. Peat above marl, 143-148 cm,
UM-1512
8550+/-210
-27.88 (2.88
x 16.4 = 50)
8500+/-210
10158-9009
8208-7059
cal B.C.
13. Wood from marl layer, 296 cm,
8040+/- 160
-25.99 (0.99
8020+/- 160
9404-9339,
7454-7389,
UM-1513
'
x 16.4 = 20)
9332-8453
7382-6503
cal B.C.
*Assumed.


46
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
Appendix B-5. Radiocarbon Ages from Clausen’s 1977 Test Pit in the Slough (8S079) near Little Salt Spring. Based on
Calvert et al. (1978:280-281). Also see Luer (2002a:Figure 9, Appendix V).
Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
513C (o/oo)
and Value in
Years
Corrected/
Conventional,
Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(cal YBP)
Calibrated
Date B.C.,
2 Sigma
(cal B.C.)
1. Cf. wax myrtle branch, test unit, with
Burial 1, UM-1099
7465 +/- 100
-27 (2.0x16.4
= 30)*
7435 +/- 100
8415-8020
6465-6070
2. Wood & cf. peat, test unit, Burial 2, 120
cm below surface, UM-1100
8145+/- 115
-27 (2.0 x 16.4
= 30)*
8115+/- 115
9405-8640
7455-6690
3. Peat, test unit, from marl under burials,
UM-1101
9100+/- 95
-27 (2.0x16.4
= 30)*
9070 +/- 95
10490-
9930**
8540-7980**
4. Human bone carbonate from burial, test
unit, UM-1102
6180+/-95
-9.5 (15.5 x
16.4 = 250)
6430 +/- 95
7505-7165
5555-5215
5. Human bone organic fraction (same as
prior sample), test unit, UM-1103
5850 +/- 70
-20 (5.0 x 16.4
= 80)
5930 +/- 70
6940-6635,
6580-6570
4990-4685,
4630-4620
6. Peat (re-analysis of sample dated by
UM-1101), UM-1156
8820+/- 120
-27 (2.0 x 16.4
= 30)*
8790+/- 120
10220-9535
8270-7585
7. Wood (oak tool “digging stick” with
burials), UM-1157
6830+/- 155
-27 (2.0 x 16.4
= 30)*
6800+/- 155
7950-7425
6000-5475
8. Marl, under Burials 1 & 2, UM-1158
13360+/-205
-4 (21.0 x 16.4
= 340)*
13700+/-205
17150-15993
15200-14043
*Assumed 5I3C values.
**This range includes four narrower ranges.
Appendix B-6. Radiocarbon Ages from Core GDF-129 in the Slough (8S079) in 1977, near Little Salt Spring. Measured
ages in rows 3 and 5 are based on Clausen et al. (1979:Table 1, Figure 1); other measured ages are based on Gifford (2012).
Also see Luer (2002a:Figure 9, Appendix V).
Material, Provenience, Lab ID#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
Assumed
513C (o/oo)
and Value
in Years
Corrected/
Conventional,
Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(cal YBP)
Calibrated
Date B.C.,
2 Sigma
(cal B.C.)
1. GDF-129-01, UM-1410
Modem
-
Modem
-
-
2. GDF-129-06, UM-1411
2295 +/- 85*
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
2265 +/- 85*
2465-2060
515-110
3. Organic muck, 4.4 m above MSL,
UM-1412
3520 +/- 90
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
3490 +/- 90
3980-3560
2030-1610
4. GDF-129-08, UM-1413
4410+/- 85*
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
4380 +/- 85*
5300^1825
3350-2875
5. Organic muck, 4.1 m above MSL,
UM-1414
5390 +/- 85
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
5360 +/- 85
6305-5930
4355-3980
6. GDF-129-17, UM-1415
8745 +/- 130
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
8715+/- 130
10185-9480
8235-7530
7. GDF-129-18, UM-1416
11730+/-200
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
11700+/-200
13990-13130
12040-11180
8. GDF-129-19, UM-1418
17230+/-300
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
17200+/-300
21565-20030
19615-18080


LUER AND BLOCK RADIOCARBON DATABASE 47



Appendix B-6 (continued)
























Material, Provenience, Lab ID# Measured, Assumed Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated

Uncorrected dC (0/00) | Conventional, | Date B.P., Date B.C.,
Age B.P., and Value | Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma
1 Sigma in Years 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal B.C.)



9. GDF-129-19 duplicate (re-run), 19790 +/- 300* | -27 (2.0 x | 19760 +/- 300* | 24440-23045 | 22490-21095

UM-1419 16.4 = 30)

10. GDF-129-35, UM-1420 8720 +/- 200* | -27 (2.0 x | 8690 +/-200* | 10235-9295 8785-7345
16.4 = 30)




11. GDF-129-36 duplicate (re-run), 9070 +/-250 | -27.@0 % 19040 -7-250 | 177059580) se 7nsasc0

UM-1421 16.4 = 30)

12. GDF-129-39, UM-1422 8475 +/-200* | -27 (2.0 x | 8445 +/-200* | 9910-9000 7960-7050
16.4 = 30)

* Assumed | sigma values.

Appendix B-7. Radiocarbon Ages from 1980 for Clausen’s Test Pit in the Slough (8SO79) near Little Salt Spring. Ages are
based on Crabtree (1980) and Gifford (2012).























Material, Provenience, Lab ID# Measured, dC (0/00) | Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated
Uncorrected | and Value | Conventional, | Date B.P., Date B.C.,
Age B.P., in Years Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma
1 Sigma 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal B.C.)

1. LSS 800 503-224, UM-2109 7455 +/-90 | -28.9 (3.9 x | 7395 +/- 90 8390-8015 6440-6065
16.4 = 60)

2. LSS 800 503-224, UM-2109 (re-run) 7020 4 185 | 280 ox | ae 4 ss Feel oe c0 6220-5530
16.4 = 60)

3. Peat, LSS 800 503-225, UM-2110 12800 +/- 270 | -22.1 (2.9 x | 12850+/-270 | 16115-14195 | 14165-12245
16.4 =50)





4. Shelly peat, LSS 800 503-226, UM-2111 | 15060 +/- 145 | -22.2 (2.8 x | 15110 +/- 145 | 18680-18005 | 16730-16055
16.4 = 50)

5. LSS 800 503-227, UM-2112 11245 47-190 1-26 (i. x | 11225 +4 190) “\i4e50rmo asa ie ae
16.4 = 20)

Appendix B-8. Radiocarbon Ages from 1980 for the Midden (8SO79) near Little Salt Spring. Ages are based on Crabtree
and Stipp (1981). Also see Luer (2002a:Figure 9, Appendix VI). Marine 13 database used for calibration in rows 3 and 5.

Material, Provenience, Lab ID# Measured, 56°C (0/00) Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated
Uncorrected | and Value in | Conventional, | Date B.P., Date B.C.,
Age B.P., Years Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma
1 Sigma 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal B.C.)

1. Freshwater clam shell,* LSS 800 604- 7480 +/-290 | -8.6(16.4x | 7750+4/-290 | 9401-9344, 7451-7394

351, UM-2211 16.4 = 270) 9326-7976 7376-6026

2. “Charcoal,” LSS 800 609-349, UM-2213 | 8570 +/-820 | -25(0x 16.4 | $570-4/-820 -| W970-7747 4) laevee
Se 5797

3. Marine clam shell,** LSS 800 609-348, | 4470+/- 80 | -0.04 (24.96 x | 4880 +/- 80 5430-4951 3480-3001

UM-2214 16.4 = 410)



4. Freshwater snail shell,*** LSS 800 603- | 5620 +/- 120 | -12.3 (12.7x | 5830 +/- 120 6939-6397 4989-4447,
347, UM-2215 16.4 = 210) 6363-6354 4413-4404

5. Left-handed whelk shell,**** LSS 800 4370 +/- 100 | -0.76 (24.24 x | 4770 +/- 100 5301-4806 3351-2856
624-346, UM-2216 16.4 = 400)

*(Elliptio buckleyi). **(Mercenaria campechiensis). ***(Pomacea paludosa). ****(Busycon contrarium). ***** Assumed.



48
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
Appendix C-l. Radiocarbon Age from Human Burial Sampled by UM in 1986. This is Burial 1 in Operation 4, near the
west edge of the spring basin, which provided brain tissue yielding mitochondrial DNA (Paabo et al. 1988; Wentz and
Gifford 2007:331). The corrected age is based on published sources; the measured age is based on an assumed 513C value
of -9.5 o/oo.
Material, Provenience, Lab ID#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
Assumed
613C (o/oo)
and Value
in Years
Corrected/
Conventional,
Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(cal YBP)
Calibrated
Date B.C.,
2 Sigma
(cal B.C.)
1. Human brain tissue, Burial 1, Operation
4, Beta-17208
6610+/- 110
-9.5 (15.5 x
16.4 = 250)
6860+/- 110
7935-7560,
7539-7513
5985-5610,
5589-5563
Appendix C-2. Radiocarbon Ages from Operations 9 and 14 in the Basin’s North Slope, Little Salt Spring. Row 1 is based
on Gifford and Koski (2011). Row 2 is based on Newsom and Kistler (2019).
Material, Provenience, Lab ID#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
513C (o/oo)
and Value
in Years
Corrected/
Conventional,
Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(cal YBP)
Calibrated
Date B.C.,
2 Sigma
(cal B.C.)
1. Oak wood (0910ZW10), 20 cm west of
deer antler with 27 notches, Op. 9, Locus
Z, Beta-195280
9300 +/- 60
-28.4 (3.4 x
16.4 = 60)
9240 +/- 60
10575-10245
8625-8295
2. Bottle gourd fragment (1408551A01),
Operation 14, Beta-261466
8920 +/- 50
-26.7 (1.7 x
16.4 = 30)
8890 +/- 50
10195-9775
8245-7825
Appendix C-3. Radiocarbon Ages by UM from the South and East Sides of the 27 Meter Ledge, Little Salt Spring. Row
1 lists an age obtained in 1988 by Gifford (2012) based on a sample collected by Clausen in the 1970s from the south side
of the ledge (near Station #12, Test 1). Rows 2 and 3 list ages obtained in 1992 from a shallow core in the east side of the
ledge, based on Gifford (2012) and Gifford et al. (2017:85, Table 4.2). Rows 4 through 7 list ages from excavations in
the south side of the ledge, obtained by UM in 2008 through 2010, based on measured ages and 513C values from Gifford
(2012) and conventional ages from Gifford et al. (2017:Table 4.5).
Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
513C (o/oo)
and Value
in Years
Corrected/
Conventional,
Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(cal YBP)
Calibrated
Date B.C.,
2 Sigma
(cal B.C.)
1. Bone, GDC-2137, Beta-25430
17340+/-310
-25.1 (0.1 x
16.4 = 0)
17340 +/-310
21796-20153
19846-18203
2. Organic mousse, 0-20 cm, Beta-59087
5370+/- 110
-27.5 (2.5 x
16.4 = 40)
5330+/- 110
6310-5905
4360-3955
3. Organic mousse, 20-40 cm, Beta-59088
6330+/- 110
-27.7 (2.7 x
16.4 = 40)
6290+/- 110
7430-6940
5480-4990
4. Mussel shell,* 2717A038a,
Beta-249833
15320+/- 90
-6.3 (18.7 x
16.4 = 310)
15630+/-90
19035-18725
17085-16775
5. Mussel shell,* 2717A091a,
Beta-249834
16060+/-90
-12.3 (12.7
x 16.4 =
210)
16270+/-90
19870-19455
17920-17505
6. Wood & charcoal fragments,
2717B044, Beta-286861**
12020+/-50
-25.5 (0.5 x
16.4= 10)
12010+/-50
14000-13750
12050-11800
7. Cabbage palm charcoal, 2717B020,
Beta-255235
12330+/- 70
-25.4 (0.4 x
16.4= 10)
12320+/-70
14680-14075
12730-12125
* Sample consisted of a valve of a freshwater mussel (Uniomerus sp.).
** Gifford et al. (2017:Table 4.5) mistakenly list this laboratory number as “309476.”


Luer and Block
Radiocarbon Database
49
Appendix C-4. Radiocarbon Ages by UM from the North Side of the 27 Meter Ledge, Little Salt Spring. Row 1 is an age
from 1992, in Gifford et al. (2017:87). Rows 2 through 11 are from excavations in 2009 to 2011. For the latter, measured
ages and 613C values are from Gifford (2012) and conventional ages are from Gifford et al. (2017:Table 4.5). Some samples
are shown in an in situ diagram (Gifford et al. 2017:Figure 4.23); images of some are presented (Gifford et al. 2017).
Material, Provenience, Lab ID#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
013C (o/oo)
and Value
in Years
Corrected/
Conventional,
Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(cal YBP)
Calibrated
Date B.C.,
2 Sigma
(cal B.C.)
1. Tortoise bone, LSS26T02A,
Beta-59089
11970+/- 80
-22 (3.0 x
16.4 = 50)*
12020 +/- 80
14075-13725
12125-11775
2. Organic mousse,** Sq. 2734B040a,
Beta-283587
10120+/-80
-28.2 (3.2 x
16.4 = 50)
10070+/- 80
11990-11270
10040-9320
3. Wood & charcoal fragments (> 1
mm),** Sq. 2734B040b, Beta-283866
9700 +/- 40
-26.2 (1.2 x
16.4 = 20)
9680 +/- 40
11200-11075,
10945-10875
9250-9125,
8995-8925
4. Sharp wooden “stake,” 2734B001,
Beta-262916
9540 +/- 50
-27.0 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
9510+/- 50***
11080-10930,
10880-10655,
10620-10605
9130-8980,
8930-8705,
8670-8655
5. Sharp wooden object, 2734C011,
Beta-309472****
9630 +/- 40
-27.9 (2.9 x
16.4 = 50)
9580 +/- 40
11135-10740
9185-8790
6. Pear-shaped wood object, 2734B029,
Beta-286862
9850 +/- 50
-27.4 (2.4 x
16.4 = 40)
9810+/-50
11270-11180
9320-9230
7. Straight wooden branch, 2734B011,
Beta-283586
9900 +/- 70
-30.5 (5.5 x
16.4 = 90)
9810+/-70
11325-11145
9375-9195
8. Small wooden branch, 2735A024,
Beta-262917
10890+/- 50
-25.7 (0.7 x
16.4 = 10)
10880+/-
50***
12805-12705
10855-10755
9. Flat rectangular wood, 2735A063,
Beta-309476****
11060+/-50
-27.5 (2.5 x
16.4 = 40)
11020+/- 50
13030-12745
11080-10795
10. Charcoal fragments, 2735A049,
Beta-309473****
11060+/-50
-24.7 (0.3 x
16.4 = 0)
11060+/-50
13060-12790
11110-10840
11. Charcoal, 2735A055,
Beta-309474****
11250+/- 50
-26.4 (1.4 x
16.4 =20)
11230+/-50
13155-13040
11205-11090
*Assumed value.
**Results in these two table rows are based on portions of the same sample.
***Gifford et al. (2017:Table 4.5) mistakenly list the measured age in their table.
****Gifford et al. (2017:Table 4.5) mistakenly list all four of these laboratory numbers as “309476” but only one of them (sample 2735A063,
this table’s row 9), is correctly identified by that number.
Appendix C-5. Radiocarbon Ages from Cores I, II, V, and VI by UM in 1990 from the bottom of Little Salt Spring. These
ages are based on Alvarez Zarikian et al. (2005) and Gifford (2012). Ages in Rows 7, 8, and 9 are based on the same large
piece of wood that reportedly had tool marks.
Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
513C (o/oo)
and Value
in Years
Corrected/
Conventional,
Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(cal YBP)
Calibrated
Date, 2
Sigma (cal
A.D. or B.C.)
1. Oak wood, Core I, LSS DCI-1075,
Beta-36591
9700+/- 160
-27.6 (2.6 x
16.4 = 40)
9660+/- 160
11390.-10565
9440-8615
cal B.C.
2. Live oak wood, Core II, 04C035,
Beta-42289
9960 +/- 90
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)*
9930 +/- 90
11755-11200
9805-9250
cal B.C.
3. Wood, Core II, 04C045, Beta-42290
9710+/- 130
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)*
9680 +/- 130
11315-10660
9365-8710
cal B.C.


50
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
Appendix C-5 (continued)
Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
813C (o/oo)
and Value
in Years
Corrected/
Conventional,
Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(calYBP)
Calibrated
Date, 2
Sigma (cal
A.D. or B.C.)
4. Wood, Core V, 1.12 m, Beta-41354
1160+/-60
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)*
1130+/- 60
1225-1210,
1180-930
cal A.D.
725-740,
770-1020
5. Wood, Core V, 3.16 m, Beta-42293
5000 +/- 90
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)*
4970 +/- 90
5915-5585,
5500-5490
3965-3635,
3550-3540
cal B.C.
6. Wood, Core V, 11.0 m, Beta-42294
12210+/- 190
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)*
12180+/- 190
14935-13585
12985-11635
cal B.C.
7. Live oak wood, Core VI, 05C043,
Beta-41358
10030+/- 110
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)*
10000+/- 110
11980-11210
10030-9260
cal B.C.
8. Live oak wood, Core VI, 06C006,
Beta-41593
10150+/- 120
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)*
10120+/- 120
12145-11250
10195-9300
cal B.C.
9. Live oak wood, Core VI, 06C006,
Beta-41594
10390+/-90
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)*
10360+/-90
12545-11935,
11885-11830
10595-9985,
9935-9880
cal B.C.
*Assumed values.
Appendix C-6. Radiocarbon Ages from Core IV by UM in 1990 from the bottom of Little Salt Spring. These ages were
obtained in 1990 and 2009 and are based on Gregory et al. (2017:Table 1).
Material, Depth, Lab ID#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
813C (o/oo)
and Value
in Years
Corrected/
Conventional,
Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(cal YBP)
Calibrated
Date B.C.,
2 Sigma
(cal B.C.)
1. Wood (twig), 82.5 cm, Beta-254412
5770 +/- 40
-27.9 (2.9 x
16.4 = 50)
5720 +/- 40
6636-6409
4686-4459
2. Wood (twig), 181 cm, Beta-254413
6251 +/- 40
-28.4 (3.4 x
16.4 = 60)
6191 +/-40
7240-7215,
7178-6978
5290-5265,
5228-5028
3. Wood (twig), 268 cm, Beta-254414
7420 +/- 40
-28.4 (3.4 x
16.4 = 60)
7360 +/- 40
8302-8048**
6352-6098**
4. Wood (twig), 530 cm, Beta-254415
9600 +/- 50
-24.7 (0.3 x
16.4 = 0)
9600 +/- 50
11174-10738
9224-8788
5. Walnut, 637 cm, Beta-254416
10020+/- 50
-27.5 (2.5 x
16.4 = 40)
9980 +/- 50
11701-11669,
11643-11250
9751-9719,
9693-9300
6. Wood, 667 cm, Beta-42291
10240+/- 130
-25 (0 x
16.4 = 0)*
10240+/- 130
12522-
11366***
10572-
9415***
7. Charred wood, 707 cm, Beta-254417
10570+/- 50
-28.2 (3.2 x
16.4 = 50)
10520+/-50
12600-12390
10650-10440
8. Charcoal, 735 cm, Beta-42292
10210+/-80
-25 (0 x
16.4 = 0)*
10210+/- 80
12364-
11510****
10414-
9560****
9. Plant fragments, 817 cm, Beta-254418
11570+/-60
-25 (0 x
16.4 = 0)*
11570+/- 60
13482-13290
11532-11340
* Assumed values.
**This range includes five narrower ranges.
***This range includes three narrower ranges.
****This range includes four narrower ranges.


Luer and Block
Radiocarbon Database
51
Appendix C-7. Radiocarbon Ages from Core IV by UM in 1990 from the bottom of Little Salt Spring. These ages and
calibrated YBP dates were obtained in 2013 and are based on Gregory et al. (2017). Calibrated B.C. dates are based on
OxCal 4.3, using IntCal 13 (Bronk Ramsey 2009).
Material, Depth, D-AMS#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
613C (o/oo)
and Value in
Years
Corrected/
Conventional,
Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(cal YBP)
Calibrated
Date B.C.,
2 Sigma
(cal B.C.)
1. Wood, 9 cm, 005598
2945 +/- 28
-25.4 (0.4 x
16.4= 10)
2935 +/- 28
3171-2996
1224-1038
2. Fossils, 45 cm, 005599
6841 +/- 36
-27.0 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
6811 +/- 36
7691-7587
5745-5636
3. Fossils, 127 cm, 005600
5877+/- 34
-33.2 (8.2 x
16.4= 130)
5747 +/_ 34
6459-6453
4690-4503
4. Fossils, 239 cm, 005601
6098 +/- 34
-27.2 (2.2 x
16.4 = 40)
6058 +/- 34
7000-6829
5051-4848
5. Fossils, 307 cm, 005607
6486 +/- 36
-35.6 (10.6 x
16.4= 107)
6379 +/- 36
7341-7256
5469-5306
6. Fossils, 357 cm, 005602
6800+/-41
-31.4 (6.4 x
16.4= 100)
6700 +/- 41
7624-7491
5706-5683,
5676-5541
7. Fossils, 407 cm, 005603
6893 +/- 32
-25.9 (0.9 x
16.4= 10)
6883 +/- 32
7791-7662
5844-5710
8. Wood, 453 cm, 005604
7114+/-33
-29.5 (4.5 x
16.4 = 70)
7044 +/- 33
7950-7824
6002-5873,
5861-5847
9. Wood, 479 cm, 005605
7417+/-34
-25.7 (0.7 x
16.4= 10)
7407 +/- 34
8327-8175
6379-6225
10. Fossils, 567 cm, 005606
9661 +/- 37
-26.6 (1.6 x
16.4 = 30)
9631 +/- 37
10974-10787
9229-9112,
9084-9037,
9030-8837


52
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 Vol. 72 (1)
Appendix D-l. Radiocarbon Ages from Nona’s Site (8S085D), Little Jaw Site (8S02396), and Nineteen Owner Midden
(8S085A). All three sites are to the east of Little Salt Spring. Rows 1 and 2 for Nona’s Site are based on Luer (2002a:15,
Table 3). Rows 3 and 4 for the Little Jaw Site (8S02396) are based on Luer (2002a: 19-20). The ages from the Little
Jaw Site were only generally and incompletely reported. Row 5 for Nineteen Owner Midden is based on Valastro et al.
(1986:1190).
Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
S13C (o/oo)
and Value
in Years
Corrected/
Conventional,
Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(cal YBP)
Calibrated
Date B.C.,
2 Sigma
(cal A.D. or
B.C.)
1. Organic sediment, 77.5 to 78 ft depth in
core, WAT-1333
4130+/-70
-26.6 (1.6 x
16.4 = 30)
4100+/-70
4835-4420
2885-2470
cal B.C.
2. Deer tibia, FS#14, Pit 1, Layer 3,
Beta-1483 80
5430 +/- 40
-21.9 (3.1 x
16.4 = 50)
5480 +/- 40
6315-6265,
6250-6210
4365^1315,
4300-4260
cal B.C.
3. Deer bone, TO-821
ca. 4000
-22?
ca. 4000
ca. 4500
ca. 2700
cal B.C.
4. Deer bone, TO-822
ca. 5500
-22?
ca. 5500
ca. 6300
ca. 4300
cal B.C.
5. Animal bone, Test 1, Level 2, 10-20 cm
b.s., Tx-2637
810+/-70
-22 (3.0 x
16.4 = 50)*
860 +/- 70
930-670
cal A.D.
1020-1280
* Bone assumed to be deer.
Appendix D-2. Radiocarbon Ages from Two Seasonal Ponds to the southeast of Little Salt Spring (see Figure 7). Rows
1 through 4 are for Pond B, based on Introne and Stipp (1979:293). Row 5 is for Pond A, based on Clausen et al.
(1979:Table 1, Note 29). Also see Luer (2002a:Table 3).
Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID#
Measured,
Uncorrected
Age B.P.,
1 Sigma
813C (o/oo)
and Value
in Years
Corrected/
Conventional,
Age, B.P.,
1 Sigma
Calibrated
Date B.P.,
2 Sigma
(cal YBP)
Calibrated
Date, 2 Sigma
(cal A.D. or
B.C.)
1. Organic sediment, Pond B, 30 cm,
UM-1497
990 +/- 70
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
960 +/- 70
980-730
cal A.D.
970-1220
2. Organic sediment, Pond B, 50 cm,
UM-1496
2390+/- 100
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
2360+/- 100
2735-2150
785-200
cal B.C.
3. Organic sediment, Pond B, 70 cm,
UM-1495
2720 +/- 90
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
2690 +/- 90
2970-2710
1020-760
cal B.C.
4. Basal organic sediment, Pond B, ca. 80
cm, UM-1494
4570+/- 120
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
4540+/- 120
5580-5505,
5485-4855
3630-3555,
3535-2905
cal B.C.
5. Basal mucky organic deposit, Pond A,
UM-1330
4230 +/- 95
-27 (2.0 x
16.4 = 30)
4200 +/- 95
4965-4515,
4485-4445
3015-2565,
2535-2495
cal B.C.


ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Lee Newsom is an environmental archaeologist with an emphasis on paleoethnobotany and wood anatomy.
Her research is based primarily in Florida and the Caribbean Islands. After serving on the Anthropology
faculty at Pennsylvania State University for 15 years, she left to take a new position at Flagler College in St.
Augustine, where she is currently Professor of Anthropology.
Logan Kistler received his Ph.D., in Anthropology from the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) in 2012.
He held a post-doctoral position in the Archaeogenetics Laboratory, Department of Biology, at PSU from
2012 to 2014, followed by a post-doc with the Department of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry,
UK, from 2014 to .2017. In 2017, Dr. Kistler accepted a permanent position at the Smithsonian Institution’s
National Museum of Natural History, where he is currently Curator of Archaeobotany and Archaeogenetics in
the Department of Anthropology.
George Luer is a former FAS President and recipient of the Lazarus and Bullen Awards. He has assisted The
Florida Anthropologist for 41 years and assembled issues and monographs. In west-central Florida, George
has studied the Manasota, Weeden Island, and Safety Harbor cultures. In south Florida, he has researched
shell mounds, canoe canals, and postcontact metal artifacts. George has helped to preserve a number of sites
and natural areas. He is known by co-workers for generosity, hard work, and support of their efforts to publish
their findings.
Dorothy Block earned M.A. and B.A. degrees in Anthropology and a B.A. degree in English and American
Literature from Florida Atlantic University. She is the founder of the Palm Beach County Archaeological
Society and the former Director of the Lawrence E. Will Museum of the Glades, in Belle Glade. Dorothy has
taught archaeology and general anthropology at Broward College and Palm Beach State. She has worked for
over a decade as an archaeologist in Cultural Resources Management. She is a native of Florida and a grass
roots activist.
Vol. 72 (1)
The Florida Anthropologist
March 2019


FAS CHAPTERS
Archaeological Society of Southern Florida
fasweb.org/assf/
Central Florida Anthropological Society
fasweb.org/cfas/
Central Gulf Coast Archaeology Society
fas web. org/cgcas/
Emerald Coast Archaeology Society
fasweb.org/ecas/
Gold Coast Anthropological Society
fasweb.org/gcas/
Indian River Anthropological Society
fasweb.org/iras/
Kissimmee Valley Archaeological and Historical Conservancy
fas web. org/kvahc/
Palm Beach County Archaeological Society
fasweb. org/pbcas/
Panhandle Archaeological Society at Tallahassee
fasweb.org/past/
Pensacola Archaeological Society
fasweb.org/pas/
II.Southeast Florida Archaeological Society
fasweb. org/sefas/
12.Southwest Florida Archaeological Society
fasweb. org/s wfas/
13.St. Augustine Archaeological Association
fasweb.org/saaa/
14. Time Sifters Archaeology Society
fasweb.org/tsas/
15. Warm Mineral Springs/Little Salt Spring Archaeological Society
fasweb.org/wmslssas/


JOIN THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Membership in FAS supports education initiatives statewide, including an annual conference,
student grants, Florida Archaeology Month, and more. Join today and you will receive our quarterly
newsletter and The Florida Anthropologist. Membership is open to all interested individuals who are
willing to abide by the FAS Statement of Ethics (available at fasweb.org/membership/).
Membership categories and rates:
Student: $15
Regular: $30
Family $35
Institutional: $30
Sustaining: $100
Patron: $1000
Benefactor: $2500
• Student membership is open to graduate, undergraduate, and high school students. A photocopy of
your current student ID must accompany payment
• Add $25 for foreign address
• Membership forms are also available at fasweb.org/membership/
• The Society publishes the journal The Florida Anthropologist and newsletters, normally quarterly and
sponsors an annual meeting hosted by a local chapter
Name
Address
City
State
Zip
Telephone
Email
FAS Chapter
I agree to abide by the Code of Ethics of the Florida Anthropological Society
Mail to:
Florida Anthropological Society
c/o Pat Balanzategui, FAS Membership Secretary
P. O. Box 1135, St. Augustine, FL 32085










Florida Anthropological Society, Inc.
George M. Luer, Ph.D.
3222 Old Oak Drive
Sarasota, FL 34239
NON-PROFIT
U.S. POSTAGE
PAID
TALLAHASSEE, FL
PERMIT NO. 801
RETURN SERVICE REQUESTED
Table of Contents
From the Editor
Articles
Paleoethnobotanical Analysis of Bulk Sediment and in situ Collections from the North Slope Basin
of Little Salt Spring (8S018), Sarasota County, Florida
Lee A. Newsom and Logan Kistler 1-14
Radiocarbon Dates from Warm Mineral Springs, Little Salt Spring, and Nearby Sites in North Port, Florida
George M. Luer and Dorothy A. Block 15-52
About the Authors
Cover:
Aerial views of Warm Mineral Springs, Little Salt Spring, and Nona’s Site in North Port, Florida. Image of Warm Mineral Springs from www.wmslss.org/the-springs/.
Image of Little Salt Spring from www.rsmas.miami.edu/research/resources/little-salt-spring/index.html. Image of Nona’s Site from Google Earth 2019.
Copyright 2019 by the
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC.
ISSN 0015-3893


Full Text



PAGE 1

The Florida Anthropologist PUBLISHED BY THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY Volume 72, Number 1 March 2019

PAGE 2

The Florida Anthropologist is published by the Florida Anthropological Society, Inc. Subscription is by membership in the Society. Membership is NOT restricted to residents of the State of Florida nor to the United States of America. Membership may be initiated at any time during the year and covers the ensuing twelve month period. Dues shall be payable on the anniversary of the initial dues payment. Members shall receive copies of all publications distributed by the Society during the 12 months of their membership year. Annual dues are as follows: student $15, individual $30, family $35, institutional $30, sustaining $100 or more, patron $1000 or more, and benefactor $2500. Foreign subscriptions are an additional $25 U.S. to cover added postage and handling costs for individual, family, or institutional membership categories. Copies of the journal will only be sent to members with current paid dues. Please contact the Editor for information on recent back issues. Requests for information on the Society, membership application forms, and notifications of changes of address should be sent to the Membership Secretary. Donations should be sent to the Treasurer or may be routed through the Editors to facilitate acknowledgment in subsequent issues of the journal (unless anonymity is requested). Submissions of manuscripts should be sent to the Editor. Publications for review should be submitted to the Book Review Editor. Authors please follow The Florida Anthropologist style guide (on-line at www.fasweb.org) in preparing manuscripts for submission to the journal and contact the Editor with specific questions. The journal is formatted using Adobe In Design. All manuscripts must be submitted via email to the journal Editor in final form in Microsoft Word format. Address changes should be made AT LEAST 30 DAYS prior to the mailing of the next issue. The post office will not forward bulk mail nor retain such mail when "temporary hold" orders exist. Such mail is returned to the Society postage due. The journal is published quarterly in March, June, September, and December of each year. OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY President: Jason Wenzel, Gulf Coast State College, 5230 West Highway 98, Panama City, FL 32401(president@fasweb.org) First Vice President: Emily Jane Murray, 8 Mulvey St. Apt. B, St. Augustine, FL 32084 (1 vp@fasweb.org) Second Vice President : Rebecca O'Sullivan, 4202 East Fowler Ave., SOC 110, Tampa FL 33620 (2vp@fasweb.org) Recording Secretary: John Simon-Suarez, 8 Mulvey St. Apt. B, St. Augustine, FL 32084 (secretary@fasweb.org) Membership Secretary: Pat Balanzategui, P. 0. Box 1135, St. Augustine, FL 32085 (membership@fasweb.org) Treasurer: Joanne Talley, P.O. Box 788, Robe Sound, FL 33475 (treasurer@fasweb.org) Directors at Large: Bob Gross, Jen Knutson, and Nigel Rudolph Immediate Past President: Theresa M. Schober Newsletter Editor: Jeff Moates, 4202 East Fowler Ave, SOC 110, Tampa FL 33620 (newsletter@fasweb.org) JoURNAL EDITORJAL STAFF Editor: George M. Luer, 3222 Old Oak Drive, Sarasota, FL 34239 (flanthropologist@gmail.com) Assistant Editor: Dorothy Block, 306 NE 1st Avenue #202, Boynton Beach, FL 33435 ( editor@fasweb.org) Technical Editor: Laura Dean, 3020 Cambridge Dr., Sarasota, FL 34232 (laura@runjikproductions.com) Book Review Editor: Rebecca O'Sullivan, 4202 East Fowler Ave., SOC 110, Tampa FL 33620 (rosulliv@usf.edu) Printer: Durra-Print, 717 South Woodward Ave., Tallahassee, FL 32304 EDITORIAL REVIEW BOARD Albert C. Goodyear, Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (goodyear@sc.edu) Jeffrey M. Mitchem, Arkansas Archeological Survey, P.O. Box 241, Parkin, AR 72373 (jeffinitchem@juno.com) Nancy Marie White, Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-8100 (nmw@usf.edu) Robert J. Austin, P.O. Box 2818, Riverview, FL 33568-2818 (bob@searchinc.com) NOTE: In addition to the above Editorial Review Board members, the review comments of others knowledgeable in a manuscript's subject matter are solicited as part of our peer review process. VISIT FAS ON THE WEB: fasweb.org LIKE AND FOLLOW: facebook.com/FloridaAnthropologicalSociety/

PAGE 3

THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST Volume 72, Number 1 March 2019 FROM THE EDITOR ARTICLES TABLE OF CONTENTS PALEOETHNOBOTANICAL ANALYSIS OF BULK SEDIMENT AND IN SITU COLLECTIONS FROM THE NORTH SLOPE BASIN OF LITTLE SALT SPRING (8S018), SARASOTA COUNTY, FLORIDA LEE A. NEWSOM AND LOGAN KISTLER 1-14 RADIOCARBON DATES FROM WARM MINERAL SPRINGS, LITTLE SALT SPRING, AND NEARBY SITES IN NORTH PORT, FLORIDA GEORGE M LUER AND DOROTHY A. BLOCK 15-52 ABOUT THE AUTHORS Published by the FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC. ISSN 0015-3893

PAGE 4

FROM THE EDITOR On behalf of the FAS Board, we are pleased to bring you this issue of The Florida Anthropologist. We are indebted to many people for its success. Dorothy Block of Boynton Beach managed production. Laura Dean of Runjik Productions, in Sarasota, did expert layout. Bob Austin, of Riverview, assisted with reviews. See you at the Annual Meeting, this year in Crystal River! George M. Luer, Ph.D., Editor and Dorothy A. Block, M.A., Assistant Editor Laura Dean, Technical Editor Recent back issues can be purchased through the FAS website fasweb.org/publication-sales/ The journal digital archive is available through the University of Florida Library http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00217 VOL. 72 (1) The Florida Anthropologist Fund is designed to support production of The Florida Anthropologist, the scholarly journal, published by the Florida Anthropological Society since 1947. DONATIONS ARE ACCEPTED FROM INDIVIDUALS, CORPORATIONS, AND FOUNDATIONS. Inquiries and gifts can be directed to: Joanne Talley, FAS Treasurer P. 0. Box 788 Hobe Sound, FL 33475 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY IS A NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION UNDER SECTION 50l(C)(3) OF THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE. CONTRIBUTIONS ARE TAX-DEDUCTIBLE AS PROVIDED BY SECTION 170 OF THE CODE . THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST MARCH 2019

PAGE 5

PALEOETHNOBOTANICALANALYSIS OF BULK SEDIMENT AND IN SITU COLLECTIONS FROM THE NORTH SLOPE BASIN OF LITTLE SALT SPRING (8SO18), SARASOTA COUNTY, FLORIDA LEE A. NEWSOM1 AND LOGAN KlSTLER2 1 Humanities Department, College of Arts and Sciences, Flagler College, St. Augustine, FL 32084 E-mail: lnewsom@fiagler.edu 2 Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560 E-mail: KistlerL@si.edu Introduction Underwater deposits at Little Salt Spring (8SO 18) in North Port, Florida (Figure I) have yielded abundant, well-preserved plant macroremains ranging from seeds and gourd rind to a variety of wooden artifacts. Previously, we published research involving bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) (Kistler et al. 2014) from Operation 14 in the spring basin's north slope (Figure 2). The AMS dated gourd rind (FS# 1408551 AO 1) from the sand of Operation 14 's Stratum 6 yielded a 1-sigma conventional age of 8890 +/-50 radiocarbon years (Beta-261466) and a 2-sigma date range of 10,195 to 9,775 calibrated years before present ( cal YBP). 1 It represents the earliest record for this plant in North America, and archaeogenetic analysis revealed a direct link with African sources. Bottle gourd is believed to have first arrived on the American continents, including Florida, via oceanic drift (Kistler et al. 2014). It may be the earliest cultivated plant in eastern North America, perhaps beginning with Florida Paleoindian and Archaic period groups. Newsom also has analyzed a variety of wooden objects and artifacts from the spring basin, including debarked stakes with purposefully faceted ends, atlatl shafts and non-returning boomerangs or "rabbit sticks," among others, which have been variously reported ( e.g., Clausen et al. 1979; Gifford and Koski 2011 ). In addition, wooden items recovered from the 27 m Ledge along the wall of the solution hole were analyzed by Newsom and reported in Gifford et al. (2017). r Site Location N Figure 1. Location and Profile of Little Salt Spring (maps from Clausen et al. 1975). Profile is not to scale. Collection of Samples Our analyses are based on plant materials from three bulk sediment samples and ten associated grab samples of in situ specimens recovered from three underwater excavation units at Little Salt Spring. These units, named Operations 9, 14, and 15, were among a series of units excavated by project director Dr. John A. Gifford on the north slope of the spring basin (Figure 2). The collection of the bulk sediment samples, one from each of the three excavation units, had a dual purpose: 1) to provide an indication of the extent of plant preservation among distinct deposits consisting of marl, a shell-rich lens, and a peat stratum, and 2) to contribute data toward the paleoecological and paleobotanical interpretation of the site. The grab samples consist of relatively large plant specimens (wood, seeds, and gourd rind) exposed by hand fanning during excavation and collected from in situ contexts without their surrounding sediments. These latter samples supplement the bulk sediment samples by adding to the list of taxa present, thus further enhancing insights into the early to middle Holocene environment of the site, with implications bearing on regional floristics patterns and ancient ethnobotanical practices. All the samples were recovered by Gifford and his team during underwater excavations at the site from 1992 to 2010, with support from the Florida Division of Historical Resources and the University of Miami. Operation 9(a2x2m unit)wasexcavated in 1994, followed by Operations 14 and 15, which were undertaken in 2008. Each was excavated according to the natural stratification. Operation 14 (another 2 x 2 m unit) was contiguous with and located immediately down slope of Operation 9. Operation 15 (a 1 x 2 m unit) was the next unit farther down slope of Operation 14. Thus, the three units effectively formed a trench, and we emphasize that the bulk sampling locations within Operations 14 and 15 were only about a meter apart. The grab samples were recovered exclusively from Operation 9. We also draw below on data derived from sets of bulk sediment and grab samples that were taken during the excavation of Operations 5 and 6, also on the north slope. These samples have not been completely analyzed, but we illuminate relevant data from them, where they serve to enhance interpretation of the present samples. Samples Three bulk samples were collected from above the deep marl-sand interface in three test units dug into the north slope of the spring basin. One sample came from the marl layer 2019 VOL. 72 (1) THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1

PAGE 6

2 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VoL. 72 (1) North Pole 140E/137N fixed dock old dock pilings Op5 North hydric hammock open water ' approx. "-. drop-off sawgrass/tree canopy edge Mag N South Pole 140E/60N 0 12 Ill 0 40 ft Figure 2. Plan View of the Basin at Little Salt Spring. Operation is abbreviated as "Op" followed by its number. The locations of operations are approximate. immediately above the sand interface in Operation 9. Two samples came from peat and freshwater shell deposits overlying the marl and the deeper sand interface in Operations 14 and 15. They appear to come from Stratum 4 in Operation 14 and from Stratum 3 in Operation 15. Based on three radiocarbon dates of peat from a similar stratigraphic position ( the Peat III zone in archaeologist Carl Clausen's Core A), these two peat samples may date to ca. 7,600 to 6,000 cal YBP. The marl sample should be older, but no more than ca. 9,100 to 8,800 cal YBP, based on a radiocarbon date from the sand interface with Locus 2 in Operation 6 (Koski et al. n.d.:Tables 3 and 4). Bulk Sample 1 from Operation 14 (FS#l4033L01) was 1.9 liters total, removed from the southwest comer of the unit. The sample derived from a deposit designated Locus 3, described as a predominantly freshwater gastropod "shell lens" at 8.15 to 8.25 m below the water surface. The sample consisted of a calcareous matrix of shells and shelly debris, mainly gastropods, intermixed with well-preserved organic material. Bulk Sample 2 from Operation 15 (FS#l5094L01) was the largest of the three bulk samples, with a volume of 2.05 liters. This sample derived from the lower portion of a peat

PAGE 7

NEWSOM AND KISTLER LITTLE SALT SPRING PALEOETHNOBOTANY 3 stratum designated Locus 4, sampled at 8.8 to 8.9 m below the water surface, from the west wall of the unit's east half. The sample consisted of a dense organic matrix comprised mainly of degraded plant tissues, organs, and disseminules (seeds, fruits). Observations recorded in project field notes and accompanying diagrams characterized the Locus 4 peat as having abundant gastropods, specifically rams-horn (Planorbella spp.) (Quitmyer 1994), and it was noted to contain material culture items of the Archaic period. Undiagnostic cultural materials (e.g., lithics) also were documented from the underlying sand. This Locus 4 peat probably corresponds with a peat layer (Locus 3) exposed previously in Operation 6, another 2 x 2 m unit which was Gifford's original 1992 excavation in this area of the basin, just north of Operation 9. Operation 15's Locus 4 peat was located approximately 4 to 5 m directly down slope (south) of Operation 6, but it was stratigraphically approximately 1.5 m lower due to the steep slope of the deposits (John Gifford, personal communication). Bulk Sample 3 from Locus 2 of Operation 9 (FS#09L0C2), was described as compact tan marl (Figure 3). The sample, totaling 385 milliliters, was collected near the contact with Locus 1 and consisted mainly of fine clay-sized calcareous particles with some organics. Locus 2 was overlain by a peat deposit (Locus 3) that, while not sampled in Operation 9, is likely to be the same organic-rich stratum encountered in Operations 14 and 15, where it was sampled, as above described. The Operation 9 Locus 2 marl represents early inundation of the spring basin, when the water level was high enough to surmount the top of the solution pipe and to overflow into the upper basin (John Gifford, personal communication). The underlying Locus 1 was characterized as white quartz sand with abundant marine geologic shells. Figure 3. Compact Tan Marl of Locus 2 (stratum in central position in upper right quarter of photo). Locus 2 overlies Locus 1 (sand and marine geologic shells) and underlies Locus 3 (degraded peat and freshwater shells) in upper right of this underwater photo. Also shown is a wooden throwing stick (a), an antler "hammer" (b), and a bi-pointed bone pin (c) in situ in the Locus 1 deposit (photo courtesy John Gifford, project image files: "28Jun92 LSS9206-0 artifacts in situ 66%"). Materials and Methods The sediment samples were partitioned into four size fractions to facilitate subsampling and analysis. This was done by gently washing the contents of each sample through a series of graduated geological sieves, with mesh openings of 4 mm, 2 mm, 1 mm, and 0.42 mm. After sieving, the 4 mm, 2 mm, and 1 mm fractions were placed in water in glass petri dishes and completely scanned under low magnification ( 4x to 30x). All fruit, seeds, and other potentially identifiable plant remains, including wood, thorns, tendrils, buds, and inflorescences, were extracted for further analysis. Other potentially informative. materials also were removed for potential study, including algal and fungal spores, fish scales and bones, gastropods, insect fragments (generally beetle, Coleoptera), and fine particulate charcoal. The finest sample fractions (0.42 mm mesh sieve) were subsampled 10% by volume, then scanned for informative material using the same procedure described above. After sorting, plant remains were indentified to the lowest possible taxonomic level using published seed identification manuals (Delorit 1970; Martin and Barkley 1961), relevant floras (Godfrey and Wooten 1979; Godfrey and Wooten 1981; Radford et al. 1968; Wunderlin 1998; Wunderlin and Hansen 2003; USDA-SCS 1985), online information and databases (Byrne 2005; USDA-ARS 2018; USDA-NRCS 2008; Wunderlin et al. 2018), and comparative collections housed in Newsom's lab. The floras provide the source data for plant habits and habitats indicated in the sections and tables that follow. This work concentrated on plant propagules ( or disseminules, i.e., seeds and fruit) as sensitive ecological indicators. Taxonomic assignments for wood specimens isolated in the 4 mm sieve fractions were deferred for a later time. Most taxa were assigned to the rank of family, with a number of these definitively or provisionally identified to the finer ranks of genus or species. The notation "cf." preceding a Latin epithet indicates a provisional or tentative assignment to the particular taxonomic rank. For example, cf. Quercus sp. indicates a provisional assignment to the oak genus, and Quercus cf. virginiana would indicate a definitive assignment to the genus but with a provisional assignment to the species live oak. Ten additional seed or fruit morphotypes were recorded from among the bulk sediment samples (including nine from the Operation 15 peat) (Newsom and Kistler 2008), but these are not further addressed here. Results Analysis of the three bulk sediment samples resulted in relatively species-rich assemblages of plant remains. Altogether, 1420 seeds and other propagules were examined and categorized, resulting in 23 assigned taxa, with the ten additional taxa or morphotypes described but not further assigned. The peat sample from Operation 15 yielded the greatest number of plant specimens, including 814 propagules and all 23 identified taxa plus most of the unassigned taxa (19

PAGE 8

4 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VoL. 72 (1) specimens total). The sample from the Operation 14 shell-rich stratum yielded 350 plant propagules, with 13 identified and one unassigned. Finally, the Operation 9 marl produced 256 propagules and 10 assigned taxa, with two unassigned. When standardized by volume, the Operation 9 marl sample appears to demonstrate the greatest concentration of seeds at 691/liter, compared with 433 seeds/liter for the peat and 198 seeds/liter for the shell-rich deposit. Analysis of the grab samples from Operation 9 produced three additional taxa, for a total of 26 taxa assigned in this analysis. Taxonomic Assignments The complete list of plant taxa from the bulk sediment and grab samples is provided in Table 1. Of the 26 identified, nine are arboreal, that is, trees and shrubs. This includes Sambucus nigra, subspecies canadensis (formerly S. canadensis) (elderberry), Ilex sp. (holly), cf. Carpinus carolina (musclewood), Cornus foemina (swamp dogwood), Quercus sp. (oak), Magnolia grandifiora (southern magnolia), Morella sp. (syn. Myrica), probably M cerifera (wax myrtle), Zanthoxylum sp. (lime prickly ash or Hercules' club), and Ximenia americana (hog plum or tallow wood). The oak and hog plum came exclusively from the grab samples. The oak specimens include an aborted acorn and involucre fragments from mature acorns; none was assignable to species. The hog plum specimens consist of whole drupes or fragmentary fruit mesocarp. The whole specimens range from 11.5 to 17.0 mm high by 7.5 to 13.5 mm diameter. Lianas and herbaceous climbers are represented by four taxa (Table 1 ). Seeds assigned to the grape family, Vitaceae, are morphologically consistent with two genera, Vitis and/or Ampelopsis (wild grape, pepper vine), and could not be further assigned. The passion flower seeds (Table 1) appear to belong to a single species; however, it is not the common maypop or purple passion flower (Passi.flora incarnata) that ranges throughout Florida and north into eastern North America. The seed morphology (Figure 4) conforms to species associated Figure 4. Highly Magnified Image of a Passion Flower (Passif/,ora sp.) Seed from Bulk Sample 1 in Operation 14 (FS#14033LO1). Original image at 34x. mostly with the central and southern Florida peninsula (Wunderlin et al. 2018). The corky stem passion flower (P suberosa) is widely distributed across the peninsula. Three species have ranges encompassing south and central Florida: P coccinea, scarlet passion flower (basically just the Tampa Bay area), Pfoetida, fetid passion flower, and P lutea, yellow passion flower. Five additional passion flowers are restricted to Florida's southernmost counties, particularly the southeastern region. Creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula) is the third climber recognized from among the sediment samples. This plant is a native wild member of the pumpkin/gourd/squash family, Cucurbitaceae, the same family to which bottle gourd belongs. To reiterate, bottle gourd originates in Africa; the AMS-dated specimen from Little Salt Spring came from Operation 14. Fragmentary bottle gourd rind also was recovered in three of the grab samples from Operation 9. This includes a neck section (FS#09030A0 1) measuring 14 cm long by about 5 cm diameter, with a wall thickness of 2 mm, plus six smaller rind fragments (see below), five of which measure about 1 cm square, and one is 2 x 4 cm. All seven bottle gourd fragments could have derived from a single gourd. A third member of the Cucurbitaceae, Cucurbita sp. (gourd/squash), also has been identified from archaeological deposits at Little Salt Spring, but not from those here. We provide more detail about the presence of bottle gourd and the native Cucurbita gourd/squash in the discussion below. The remaining taxa from the sediment samples represent terrestrial or aquatic forbs and graminoids. Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) is a large herb typically associated with dry ground, including open or disturbed habitats. The genus Polygonum (jointweed or October flower) includes mostly annual herbs or subshrubs. Six Polygonum species occur in central Florida today, including endemics (Wunderlin et al. 2018). The consistent achene form found among the samples suggests they represent a single taxon; however, we have not assigned it to a lower rank due mainly to lack of comparative material. Cladium jamaicense ( or C. mariscus, subspecies jamaicense), Jamaica swamp sawgrass (Table 1) is an obligate wetland plant, typical of marl wet prairie and sawgrass marsh habitats (Lodge 2005:25-30). This sedge was noted as a dominant element of the vegetation fringing the spring and in the basin marsh in a recent floristic survey of the site grounds (McConnell and Huegel 2008). Like Cladium, Amaranthaceae propagules (both utricles and isolated seeds) were relatively abundant and recorded for all three bulk sediment samples (see below). Florida Amaranthaceae are found in a range of habitats, both dry and wetland (Table 1 ), but the conspicuous presence and its co-occurrence with sawgrass and the aquatic taxa described below support an inference that this taxon is associated with wetlands. Thus, between the propagule morphology and inferred wetland association, we provisionally have assigned this taxon to cf. Amaranthus australis, southern amaranth. This taxon is commonly associated with brackish and freshwater marshes

PAGE 9

Table 1. Archaeobotanical Assignm e nts from Little Salt Spring Samples from Basin North Slope, Operations 9 , 14, and 15. Family Genus, Species Vernacular Habit Habitat Specimen, Condition Arboreal Taxa Adoxaceae Sambu c us ni g ra subsp elderberry s mall tree or shrub moist to wet op e n places ; s wamps , drainages; wet disturbed ground s eeds, w hol e cana d e n s i s Aquifoliaceae flex Sp. holly deciduous or ever-various forest associations seeds , who l e gre e n shrub s , trees Betulaceae cf C arpinus caro linian a muscle wood , small tree or shrub floodplains, bottomland forest s seed, fruit blu ebee ch Cornaceae Cornus foemina swamp dogwood small tree or shrub riparian, pond and lake shor e s ; wet thickets and clearings; floodplain forests, swamps s eeds , whol e Fagaceae Qu e rrn s sp. oak trees and shrubs various forest associations and woodlands fruit, involucre Magnoliaceae Magnolia grandiflor a s outhern magnolia large evergreen tree upland for e sts; ra v ine slopes and bottoms; mesic to hydric hammocks; floodplain s seeds, whol e (angiosperm) Myricaceae Mor e lla (syn. Myri c a) cf. cerife ra wax myrtle shrub or small tree fresh to s lightly brackish wetlands ; pine savannas , flatwoods; cypress-gum ponds ; swamps; hydric hammocks; upland see ds, whole mixed Rutaceae Z anthox y lum sp. lim e prickly ash , tree s and shrubs mesic woodlands; temperate to subtropical/tropical seeds Hercules' club X imeniaceae Xirnenia am e ricana hog plum small tre e , shrub mesic woodlands, variou s drupes Vines and Lianas Cucurbitaceae Lagenaria siceraria bottle gourd climbing annual op e n , cultivated ground rind vine Cucurbitaceae Melothria pendula wild cucumb e r low-climbing , various dry to moist habitats seeds, who le perennial vine Pas s ifloraceae Passiflora sp. pas s ionflower s perennial herbs and various dry to moist habitats seeds, who le climbing vine s Vitaceae Vitis!Ampe l o p s i s sp. grape / pepper v ine liana s various wooded habitats seeds Terrestrial Herbs Amaranthaceae cf. Amaranthu s australi s s outhern amaranth herbs various brackish and freshwater marshes seeds and fruits , whole A s teraceae cf. Cirsium s p. thi s tles herbs, mos tly wetlands; pine savannas ; marginal thickets; disturbed habitats s eeds, whole biennial or perennial Boraginaceae cf Ams in c kia fiddleneck annual herb disturbed habitats seeds, whole Cyperaceae Cladium jamaicense Jamaica swamp leafy-stemmed swamps, marsh e s and shore; freshwater or brackish seeds and fruits , whole sawgrass per e nnial herb Cyperaceae / Poac e ae graminoids annual and perennial various habitats glumes or scales (s e dges / grasses) herbs Phyto laccaceae Phytola cc a ameri ca na pokeweed coarse, glabrous, diverse , often disturbed habitats seeds, whole per e nnial herb Polygonaceae Polygonum sp. joint weed , various herbs damp ground; disturbed areas achenes, whole October flower cf. Solanaceae cf So/anum sp. e.g. , black herbs , s hrubs and various habitat s seed nightshade trees cf. Urticacea e cf Bo e hmeria cylindric a fal s en e ttle, bog perennial herb marshes , swamps , floodplains; stream banks, cypress-gum ponds , depressions seeds , whole h emp Aquatic Herbs Alismataceae Sagittaria sp. arrowh e ad aquatic s , floating or floodplains , wet fields , marshes; swamps and swamp margins ; disturbed habitats achen es, whol e emersed leaves Cabombaceae Brasenia schr e beri watershield aquatic , floating fre s hwater lakes, ponds , s low streams s eeds, who le leaves H ydrocharitaceae N aja s sp. waternymph subm e rsed aquatics fresh to brackish water , still or moving s ee ds , who le (Najadaceae) cf. Ruppiaceae cf Ruppia sp. widgeon grass submer s ed aquatic brackish to s aline water , rarely fresh fruit , whol e Ul

PAGE 10

6 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VoL. 72 (1) throughout the state (IFAS CAIP 2018). The provisionally assigned Boehmeria cylindrica (false nettle or bog hemp) suggests the presence of an additional wetland taxon. Four aquatic taxa are represented in the assemblage. Sagittaria (arrowheads) are aquatics with leaves submersed, floating, or emersed, depending on the species. McConnell and Huegel (2008) recorded two species (S. graminea and S. lancifolia) growing in the wetter portions of the basin marsh community during their floristic survey of Little Salt Spring. Brasenia schreberi (watershield) is a floating-leaved freshwater aquatic plant found in oligotrophic or mesotrophic ponds, lakes, and sluggish streams (Wiersema 1997) that was included formerly in the water lily family. Watershield is not indicated to range as far south as Sarasota County along the west coast in the modem flora, but it is recorded farther south in the interior highlands (Wunderlin et al. 2018). Najas sp. (water nymph) is a genus of submersed aquatic plants; four species occur today in central and/or south Florida (Wunderlin et al. 2018). Ruppia maritima (widgeon grass) (Table 1) was provisionally assigned based on one propagule; this would indicate the presence of another submersed aquatic. Ruppia maritima belongs to a cosmopolitan complex of closely related taxa found along coasts and in some interior wetlands (Wunderlin et al. 2018). Three additional provisionally assigned genera include taxa that variously occur in dry to moist settings, depending on the species. These assignments include Amsinckia (fiddleneck), Cirsium (thistle), and Solanum (soda apple or cockroach berry) (Table 1). One of these, Amsinckia, is not indicated in the extant flora, currently ranging north and west of Florida (USDA-ARS 2018). The assignment Cyperaceae/ Poaceae indicates specimens placed to either the sedge or grass families; poor condition or incompleteness precluded finer identification. Table 2. Taxon Counts for Bulk Sediment Samples from Little Salt Spring Basin North Slope Operations 9, 14, 15 (Op 9, 14, 15). Op 15, 2008 15094LO1 peat Op 14, 2008 14033LO1 shelly matrix Op 9, 1994 09LOC2 marl 4,2,& 0.42 mm Total 4, 2, & 0.42 mm Total 4,2,& 0.42 mm Total 1mm Fraction Count Imm Fraction Count Imm Fraction Count Taxa Fractions Fractions Fractions Arboreal taxa Adoxaceae, Sambucus 40 40 5 5 20 20 Aquifoliaceae, flex sp. 30 30 Betulaceae, cf. Carpinus 2 2 Cornaceae, Cornus foemina 7 7 Magnoliaceae, Magnolia sp. 2 2 Myricaceae, Morella 344 344 90 90 45 45 Rutaceae, Zanthoxylum 3 3 Vines and lianas Cucurbitaceae, Melothria 23 1 24 1 1 Passifloraceae, Passif!.ora 1 1 2 2 Vitaceae, Vitis/Ampelopsis 4 4 3 3 Terrestrial herbs Amaranthaceae, cf. Amaranthus 5 7 12 27 26 53 1 2 3 Asteraceae, cf. Cirsium 5 5 2 2 Boraginaceae, cf. Amsinckia 2 2 Cyperaceae, Cladium 172 172 71 I 72 139 I 140 Cyperaceae/Poaceae 1 1 2 3 3 Phytolaccaceae, Phytolacca 5 5 2 2 1 1 Polygonaceae, Polygonum 6 1 7 2 2 2 2 cf. Solanaceae, Solanum 2 2 cf. Urticaceae, Boehmeria 6 26 32 3 1 I 1 Aquatic herbs Alismataceae, Sagittaria 19 1 20 12 12 9 9 Cabombaceae, Brasenia 61 61 29 29 Hydrocharitaceae, Najas 17 17 100 1 101 cf. Ruppiaceae, Ruppia 1 1

PAGE 11

NEWSOM AND KISTLER LITTLE SALT SPRING PALEOETHNOBOTANY 7 Taxon Occurrences The frequencies and distributions of the various plant taxa within and among the three bulk samples are indicated in Table 2. Taxon counts for the 4 mm, 2 mm, and 1 mm sieve fractions are listed separately from the 0.42 mm fractions (these were subsampled as indicated above). We assume that the subsample is an adequate sample based on cursory scans of the remaining material in that fraction; however, we choose to show the counts separately. All the basic life forms (arboreal and non-arboreal taxa: trees, vines, herbs) are represented in each of the three samples. Predictably, aquatic and wetland taxa are most frequent. The peat sample from Operation 15 was the most species-rich of the three samples, containing arboreal taxa in the greatest representation, with all seven of those taxa being present (Table 2). Herbaceous forms of all categories are likewise well represented in the peat sample. The most abundant taxon by frequency and percentage ofpropagules was the shrub wax myrtle (Morella; n = 344; 42% of the sample assemblage). Second in prominence was Jamaica swamp saw grass ( Cladium sp.; n = 172) (Table 2), comprising 21 % of the propagule total from the sample. The aquatic herb watershield (Brasenia schreberi) was also relatively conspicuous with 61 specimens total (7% ). The rest of the taxa from the peat sample comprised 5% or less of the sample assemblage. The most conspicuous taxa found in the adjacent Operation 14 shelly deposit are the aquatic Najas sp. (waternymph, n = 101; 29%), followed by wax myrtle (n = 90; 26%), sawgrass ( n = 72; 20% ), and the cf. Amaranthus (n = 51; 15%) (Table 2). Thus again, aquatic or wetland forms dominate. This is true also of the marl sample from Operation 9, in which sawgrass (n = 140; 55%) and wax myrtle (n = 45; 17%) are relatively abundant, particularly the former, followed by watershield (n = 29; 11 %) (Table 2). The Operation 9 grab samples (Table 3) add oak, hog-plum, and bottle gourd to the taxa in this unit. However, we are uncertain of their contemporaneity with the marl sample or any of the bracketing (or other) strata described above. Discussion Bulk Samples Collectively and very generally, the taxa identified in the three sediment samples are indicative of the freshwater marsh and aquatic habitat fringing the spring basin. This is clearly evident from the high frequency of the aquatic plant remains, namely arrowhead, watershield, and/or water nymph, along with the herbaceous emergent Jamaica swamp sawgrass. Sawgrass comprised 20% to as much as 55% of the identified taxon counts. This indicates that vegetation typical of wet prairie (underlain by peat and/or marl) or sparse sawgrass Table 3. In situ Grab Samples from Little Salt Spring Basin North Slope Operation 9. Sample# Material Count Taxonomic Assignment Notes 09011 W05 gourd rind 4 Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) Small rind fragments, each
PAGE 12

8 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VoL. 72 (1) WetPrairie (mart) saw9rass Marsh sparse dense 1wet Prairie I Slough I Alligator I Tree Is. I (peat) I I Hote I I I I I ' I I I ' I I I Figure 5. Idealized Compressed Cross-section of Typical Everglades Plant Communities. Note substrates of marl and peat. From Lodge (2005:Figure 3.1). marsh thrived and persisted in the shallow water margin and immediate environment of the spring when the sediments formed. Our use of the term "sparse" follows Lodge (2005), in the sense of a sawgrass marsh with relatively high species richness and diversity, as opposed to a "dense" marsh, where spacing of the sawgrass is quite close and tends to crowd out other marsh species. In our case, this is largely conjectural, based mainly on the relative abundance of sawgrass propagules and the species richness that characterizes especially the peat sample from Operation 15, Bulk Sample 2 (23 taxa assigned) (Table 2). A sparse sawgrass marsh is consistent with the "basin marsh" plant community described by McConnell and Huegel (2008) in their recent survey of the Little Salt Spring property, and we note also their mention of wax myrtle occurring as a transitional species at the outer edge of the marsh as well as in the hydric hammock or bayhead surrounding the spring and slough system. Indeed, wax myrtle comprised 1 7% to 42% of the propagules identified, the greatest proportion in the Operation 15 peat sample (Table 2). The Everglades plant community depicted in Figure 5 may be somewhat analogous to the pond and wetland vegetation inferred from the bulk sediment samples, showing sawgrass along with some of the same aquatic plants, fringing shrubs, and a similar geological substrate. We assume for the Little Salt Spring basin somewhat analogous geo-depositional circumstances, ecosystem processes, and microenvironments. Instead of isolated tree islands, the surrounding forest community was likely to have been more expansive, with wax myrtle growing at the pond edge and grading into hydric hammock, much as McConnell and Huegel (2008) describe. The hydric hammock currently surrounding the spring includes three other genera that are associated with our samples: swamp dogwood, holly (dahoon holly, Jlex cassine), and oak, both laurel oak and live oak (Quercus laurifolia, Q. virginiana, respectively) (McConnell and Huegel 2008). These tree or shrub taxa also were recorded for drier communities surrounding the site, as were variously peppervine and wild grape (McConnell and Huegel 2008). Our data thus suggest the presence of temperate to sub-tropical moist to wet hardwood forest in the immediate vicinity of the site, similar but not identical to the hardwood and mesic pine forest communities and wetlands found around the spring today. Arboreal taxa identified among our samples but not recorded by the recent vegetation survey include musclewood (cf.), elderberry, southern magnolia, lime prickly ash or Hercules' club, and hog plum. Each of these, however, has a modem range that encompasses the area (Wunderlin et al. 2018). Studies of Sediment Cores Three of the genera from the bulk sediment samples (holly, oak, and wax myrtle) were identified previously by Brown (1981), Brown and Cohen (1985), Hansen (1990), and Bernhardt et al. (2010) in their analyses of pollen and plant fragments from sediment cores taken at Little Salt Spring. Oak and wax myrtle also were identified in a pollen assemblage from nearby Warm Mineral Springs (8SO19) (Sheldon 1976). Brown and Cohen (1985:23-24) also analyzed "calcitic mud" that they extracted from gastropod shells found in the spring basin's lower portion, near the drop-off about 12 m below the present water surface, and associated with artifacts dating to "about 9900 B.P." or ca. 11,000 to 10,000 cal YBP (see Appendix B-2 in Luer and Block 2019, this issue). The gastropod samples were dominated by pollen of wax myrtle, followed by oak, and then pine. Pollen of the sedge family (which includes sawgrass) was also relatively conspicuous among other herbaceous taxa identified. Moreover, this was the exclusive context in which hickory (Carya sp.) pollen was relatively abundant. Later Hansen (1990), in her analysis of 10 sediment samples from three of Gifford's deep cores taken in 1990 from the bottom of Little Salt Spring (Cores I, IV, V), drew attention to the presence of hickory in a portion of Core IV as a stratigraphic/temporal marker, noting its presence in Brown and Cohen's (1985) gastropod samples and in view of its declining presence in early Holocene strata from other sediment core records in Florida (e.g., Watts and Hansen 1988). Brown (1981) and Brown and Cohen (1985) also analyzed a "bayhead" pollen core, General Development Foundation (GDF) Core 141, which was extracted by geologist Cohen and archaeologist Clausen from the hammock close to the spring basin. It also demonstrated a strong relative presence of wax myrtle pollen at depth, with increasing proportions of oak and holly pollen moving forward in time. Likewise, this trend was documented for the forb grouping "cheno-ams" (i.e., "Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae"). The earliest portion of pollen "Zone I" revealed a peak presence for pine (Pinus sp.) as well as willow (Salix sp.), sedges (Cyperaceae), and fems (Polypodiaceae ). This interval was generally characterized as a wet period based mainly on the presence of the willow, sedges, and fems, which lasted from "about 8000 to 9000 B.P." (Brown and Cohen 1985:24-25). When calibrated, this age range equates to ca. 10,500 to 8,500 cal YBP (see Appendix B-4 in Luer and Block 2019, this issue). This period may roughly equate with Operation 9's Locus 2, which was analyzed here. Subsequently, Brown and Cohen (1985:25) interpreted a drying trend beginning "around 8000 B.P." that was signaled

PAGE 13

NEWSOM AND KISTLER LITTLE SALT SPRING PALEOETHNOBOTANY 9 by a spike in grass (Poaceae) pollen. Pollen "Zone II" had radiocarbon ages of "about 6400 to 7600 B.P." or ca. 8,500 to 7 , 200 cal YBP (Appendix B-4 in Luer and Block 2019, this issue). Zone II revealed a much greater presence of wax myrtle, along with increased oak pollen and spores of the leather fern (Achrostichum danaeifolium ). They interpreted this as further evidence of the drying trend. Later, a fibrous peat formed with red bay (Persea borbonia) and wax myrtle leaves, as well as dinoflagellates and foraminifera, and this was interpreted as evidence of rising water levels (Brown and Cohen 1985:25). This may signal the middle Holocene Warm Period (NOAANCEI 2018). The pollen analysis by Bernhardt et al.(2010) derives from Gifford's Core IV, from the bottom of Little Salt Spring, that spans a 7,000-year period, beginning about 13,500 cal YBP and ending around 6,400 cal YBP (Gregory et al. 2017:Table 1; also see Appendix C-6 in Luer and Block 2019, this issue). Core IV shows peaks in wax myrtle pollen and low fem spore concentrations during the Younger Dryas around 11,000 years ago, along with relatively abundant oak and hickory pollen. After about 11,000 years ago, wax myrtle fluctuated but always remained a conspicuous element of the flora, along with ferns . Holly and oak also were relatively conspicuous. Very high proportions of wax myrtle pollen near the top of Core IV may correlate with its peak in the pollen of Zone II in the Brown and Cohen bayhead core and likewise may correspond with the notable presence of wax myrtle (42% of the assemblage) in our Archaic period peat sample from Operation 15. Proxy Signals Focusing now on the spring microenvironment and potential proxy signals for ambient conditions, the presence and relative frequencies of the three most prominent taxa noted above (watershield, waternymph, and sawgrass) may provide further insights. As we noted, these are either aquatic or emergent plants associated with marshy wetlands. They potentially serve as useful co-varying signals for water quality due to their differing salinity tolerances. Watershield is a strictly freshwater species, while waternymph, depending on the species, and sawgrass tolerate slightly brackish conditions (USDA-SCS 1985; Whitney et al. 2004:273; Wunderlin 1998:67-68, 154). Sawgrass and watershield occurred in the Locus 4 peat bulk sample from Operation 15 and in the marl bulk sample from Operation 9. Sawgrass was especially conspicuous in the marl sample, comprising 55% of the assemblage. Sawgrass comprised 20% of the identified propagules from the Operation 14 shelly matrix, about the same as the Operation 15 peat, but watershield was absent from the Operation 14 sample. Instead, waternymph proved relatively conspicuous (29% of the assemblage) in the shelly deposit. In contrast, it comprised about 2% of the peat sample and was absent from the marl sample. The cf. Amaranthus also demonstrated a stronger presence in the shelly matrix (to reiterate, the species A. australis tolerates both fresh and brackish conditions). Perhaps the shelly deposit in Operation 14 formed under brackish or more mineral-charged conditions that were adverse to watershield, which is strictly freshwater. Even though this inference is based on negative evidence (taxon absence), it may correlate with observations by Hansen ( 1990) on the pollen spectra and by Quitmyer (1994) concerning taxonomic shifts in the faunal assemblage from Locus 2 of Operation 6, which were correlated with different levels of tolerance in water quality, especially acidity and salinity. Likewise, Alvarez Zarikian et al. (2005) documented increasingly mineralized groundwater at Little Salt Spring after approximately 5,700 years ago, in conjunction with the rise in the regional water table and proximity to the saltwater interface. Depending on the stratigraphic position and temporal correlations with the other two bulk sediment samples (the peat and marl), this would suggest either a seemingly short-lived trend toward slightly more brackish or chemically altered conditions or the longer trend in that direction. Disturbance Dynamics It is also possible that the shifts in the relative frequency of taxa, if correct, could relate to hydroperiod and fire frequency in and around the spring basin. Waternymph is associated with long hydroperiods and infrequent fire, whereas sawgrass thrives under moderate to short hydroperiods and moderate to frequent fire pulses (Whitney et al. 2014:52). Thus, a pulse equilibrium model (Mitsch and Gosselink 2007; Turner et al. 2003) that was perhaps drought driven, including fire, may partly explain the shifts in taxa, along with changes in water volume, water quality, and hydroperiod. Sawgrass grows best if inundated for 70% to 90% of the year (Whitney et al. 2014:52). According to Lodge (2005:27), the average hydroperiod for sawgrass is about ten months, ranging from less than six months to nearly continuous flooding, and typical wet-season depths range from 30 to 45 cm. He notes further that deeper water and longer hydroperiod support taller, denser stands of sawgrass, with the drier extreme promoting more open, sparse growth, along with additional plant taxa. Sawgrass has been demonstrated to thrive in pryogenic ecosystems, requiring periodic fire to bum away litter and competitors in order to establish its dominance in littoral or wet prairie environments, such as the Everglades (Lodge 2005; Uchytil 1992; Whitney et al. 2014:63). Likewise, a strong signal for wax myrtle among all the samples may correlate with fire-induced succession in the immediate setting of the spring basin (Casey and Ewe! 2006). It may not simply reflect drier conditions, as suggested above as an interpretation of the pollen analysis. Corroborative evidence for burning (natural wildfires) in the watershed and vicinity exists in the presence of carbon particulate matter found in all three bulk sediment samples, which also was detected in the pollen analyses (Brown 1981: 12,17,19-20, 29; Brown and Cohen 1985 :26). Summary The plant assemblages discussed above, along with the depositional sequence revealed by the trench (Operations 9, 14, and 15) suggest a hypothetical time-transgressive

PAGE 14

THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VOL. 72 (1) environmental dynamic spanning the three bulk samples consisting of the deeper marl and the overlying shelly deposit and peat. Water already had encroached on the sandy basin by the beginning of the Operation 9 marl formation, and the water remained, allowing further deposition of the marl and colonization of wetland and aquatic plants like sawgrass and watershield, the latter indicating that the water was relatively fresh. With time, there was increasing ecological complexity, as plant succession proceeded and water quality varied. As additional emergent and aquatic plants became established, so did attendant communities of microorganisms and invertebrate and vertebrate fauna, such as rams-horn snails (Planorbella spp.). Increasing plant biomass, especially sawgrass, resulted in accelerated accumulation of organic detritus and the eventual formation of peat deposits. Fallen leaves, woody debris, and propagules from shrubs, such as wax myrtle and elderberry, fringing the spring basin would have added to the peat accumulation. All of this is consistent with Donders' (2014) synthesis of multi-proxy data showing a middle Holocene humidity increase and an overall . trend toward significantly wetter conditions on the Florida peninsula. Further Discussion We now briefly consider plant biogeographic patterns and their potential relevance to broader climate trends. Except for hog plum, which is pan-tropical in distribution, the arboreal taxa from the samples are predominantly, though in some cases not exclusively, associated with temperate climates. This is not unexpected because of the latitude, such that central Florida forms a broad ecotone between the major biomes, where species of both affinities intermix (Myers 2000a, 2000b ). For example, Manatee County (just north of Sarasota County) is the southernmost extent of southern magnolia, although it occurs slightly farther south in the central highlands region. Similarly, musclewood, however provisional, occurs no farther south today than Manatee and Hardee counties (Wunderlin et al. 2018). The members of the Vitaceae, grape family, also represent a temperate floristic element and are especially common constituents of hardwood forests in Florida and eastern North America in general. Conversely, the passion flowers (Passifl,ora spp.) are prominently associated with tropical and subtropical floras, including much of the Caribbean. The fiddleneck herb ( cf. Amsinckia sp.) from the Operation 15 peat sample is seemingly inconsistent with the modem flora, having a range outside the area today. Unfortunately, the provisional status of the assignment precludes any definitive conclusion about the range. Nevertheless, the plant's possible presence and the patterns just noted for other taxa make relevant the consideration of "no-analogue" plant communities for Florida's early to middle Holocene or Early to Middle Archaic periods. When compared with the modem situation, no-analogue communities are characterized by unique combinations of plant and animal species (Williams and Jackson 2007; Stafford et al. 1999). This is obvious Figure 6. Field Photo of a Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) from Little Salt Spring. These fragments came from a whole bottle gourd (Florida Archives and History tag# 14297) reportedly with a square hole cut through the rind that was recovered by Clausen from the spring basin in the 1970s. enough for the late Pleistocene, with the presence of extinct fauna like the giant tortoise and the proboscidea, along with regional pollen and seed records evincing distinct floristics patterns, including taxa such as spruce (Picea sp.) (Watts and Hansen 1988; Watts et al. 1992) and American hazelnut (Corylus americana) (Newsom and Mihlbachler 2006), neither of which occurs in Florida today. The present data, along with the pollen taxa noted from Little Salt Spring and Warm Mineral Springs, may suggest the same can be posited for the later time frame encompassed by the sediment samples from the spring basin. Hansen's (1990) pollen analysis of samples from Little Salt Spring Cores IV and V included assignments of hazelnut (Corylus sp.) and birch (Betula sp.). As we indicated, the former genus no longer occurs in the state and the sole birch species, river birch (B. nigra), currently ranges no farther south than Levy County (Wunderlin et al. 2018). Sheldon (1976) also identified Corylus pollen at Warm Mineral Springs. Differences in dispersal ability, migration efficiency, and rates of movement as organisms adjust to climate change account for the non-analogue situation(s). Quitmyer's (1994) identification of a geographically disjunct taxon in the faunal assemblage, the small freshwater snail Physella bermudezi (low-dome physa), which currently ranges farther south in the peninsula, may be part of the same pattern. Also relevant is the archaeological presence at Little Salt Spring of a third member of the pumpkin squash family, briefly alluded above. This is the wild gourd/ squash (Cucurbita sp.), which we suggest here adds to our inference of a non-analogue early-middle Holocene floristic community at the site. Cucurbita rind, seeds, and a peduncle were recovered from bulk sediment samples from Operation 5 (Levels 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6) and from Operation 6 (Level 1) (Newsom, unpublished laboratory data).

PAGE 15

NEWSOM AND KISTLER LITTLE SALT SPRING PALEOETHNOBOTANY 11 Today, the genus Cucurbita is represented in Florida by a single native species, the Okeechobee gourd ( C. okeechobeensis), known only from the Lake Okeechobee basin and the central reaches of the St. Johns River basin (Wunderlin et al. 2018). Archaeological records for the genus are widespread across the peninsula, and temporally extend well into the Pleistocene epoch (Kistler et al. 2015; Newsom and Mihlbachler 2006; Newsom et al. 1993). Based mainly on seed morphology, the ancient gourd taxon was previously assigned to C. pepo, with emphasis on the modem subspecies ovifera var. ovifera), the ornamental gourds and squashes of eastern North America. Decker and Newsom (1988) used statistical numerical analysis to classify seeds from a large archaeological Cucurbita assemblage recovered from Hontoon Island in Volusia County, affirming the association with the C. pepo lineage and the subspecies ovifera. Recently, genetic analyses by Kistler et al. (2015) focused on the undifferentiated plastid genome structure among patchy wild C. pepo subspecies ovifera in eastern North America revealed recent (i.e., Holocene) fragmentation of a previously widespread, continuous population. The range encompassed by the archaeological Cucurbita shrank and fragmented during the early to middle Holocene, leaving no extant populations in Florida. The research also showed that the Okeechobee gourd is part of a separate Gulf coastal clade, with populations that have similarly fragmented and left isolates over time. Returning briefly to bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), in addition to the AMS dated specimen mentioned above from Operation 14, and the rind fragments from Operation 9 noted above (and see Table 3), we identified 14 rind fragments from Operation 5 (Levels 1, 2, 5, and 6), and 12 more from Operation 6 (Newsom, unpublished laboratory data). Among the latter was the base of a neck with a perforation that may be a drilled hole. This is reminiscent of a whole bottle gourd (Figure 6) recovered by Clausen from the spring basin in the 1970s. This gourd was hollow and reportedly had a square hole deliberately cut through the rind (John Gifford, personal communication). Humanistic Implications Many of the plant taxa represented at Little Salt Spring were potentially useful to native people. Elderberry, passion flower, hogplum, creeping cucumber, and wild grape, along with its relative peppervine, are sources of fresh edible fruit. These have well documented medicinal and other uses. For example, elderberry fruits are eaten dry, fresh, or cooked, and can be fermented into an alcoholic beverage. The bark, seeds, roots, leaves, and berries have a wide variety of medicinal applications, especially as purgatives, cathartics, and febrifuges (to control fevers) (Austin 2004:595; Moerman 2006:511-512). At the early Archaic period Windover site on the opposite side of the peninsula, an adult female who died with advanced osteomyeloma had more than 2,000 elderberry seeds in her lower abdominal cavity (Newsom 2002). The Seminole reportedly used elderberry as a famine food, to treat stomach aches, among other health problems, and to manufacture blowing tubes and toys (Sturtevant in Austin 2004:595). Wild grapes have widely and frequently been used for food, beverages, and as medicinal components (Austin 2004:709-710; Moerman 2006:598-600). Wild grape remains were common in human abdominal samples from Windover (Newsom 2002). One Archaic period burial excavated by Clausen from the slough at Little Salt Spring, was described as an adult female and was reportedly covered by layered "sticks" (later thought to have been remains of interlaced grape vines) (Purdy 1991:153). The leaves, bark, and fruits of Zanthoxylum (prickly ash, Hercules' club, wild lime) have long been used medicinally, as a spice, and for dye (Austin 2004:725728). Similarly, the leaves, fruits, and bark of several species of holly have long been used medicinally, especially as purgatives (Austin 2004:363-364; Moerman 2006:273). The berries are toxic, but young leaves contain caffeine and can be steeped as a beverage. Notably, the "black drink" of southeastern Indians was based on native yaupon, Ilex vomitoria (Austin 2004:363-364). We can add oak acorns as another edible plant; likewise, the rootstocks of arrowhead (Sagittaria spp.) (Austin 2004:589590). Considering the bottle gourd remains, and the Cucurbita in the wider archaeobotanical assemblage from the site, both gourd taxa have large fruit with relatively thick, hard rinds that can serve as containers and for a variety of implements. Oil may be extracted from the seeds. The Cucurbita gourd ultimately was domesticated in eastern North America; the specimens recorded among Florida's wetsite deposits are the ancestral form (Kistler et al. 2015). Conclusions The plant remains identified, and their relative frequencies in the spring basin excavation units, provide perspectives on plant biogeography, biodiversity baselines, and the paleoecology of Little Salt Spring and environs between ca. 9,000 to 6,000 cal YBP. The data also may suggest broader links with regional paleoclimatic variation spanning the early to middle Holocene. Moreover, given that the spring basin is associated with human occupations beginning as early as Paleoindian times and continuing into the Archaic period, then humanistic concerns-paleoethnobotany-are also relevant. This is especially evident from the wooden artifacts and the remains of two kinds of hard-shelled gourds. Note 1. Slightly different values of previously reported calibrated results are insignificant and reflect the use of different calibration programs.

PAGE 16

12 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VoL. 72 (1) Alvarez Zarikian, C. A., P. K. Swart, J. A. Gifford, and P. L. Blackwelder References Cited Donders, T. H. 2005 Holocene Paleohydrology of Little Salt Spring, Florida, based on Ostracod Assemblages and Stable Isotopes. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Palaeoecology 225: 134-156. Austin, Daniel F. 2004 Florida Ethnobotany. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. Bernhardt, C., D. Willard, B. Landacre, and J. Gifford 2010 Vegetation changes during the last deglacial and early Holocene: a record from Little Salt Spring, Florida. Poster presented at the American Geophysical Union annual meeting, San Francisco. Brown, Janice G. 1981 Palynologic and Petrographic Analyses of Bayhead Hammock and Marsh Peats at Little Salt Spring Archaeological Site (8SO18), Florida. M.A. thesis, Department of Geology, University of South Carolina. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor. Brown, J. G., and A. D. Cohen 1985 Palynologic and Petrographic Analyses of Peat Deposits, Little Salt Spring. National Geographic Research 1(4):21-31. Byrne,A. R. 2005 Common vascular plants in the tidal marshes of the San Francisco Bay estuary. (http:/ / geography. berkeley.edu/ProjectsResources/SF _Estuary_ Bay Area_ Seeds . html), accessed August 2008. Casey, William P., and Katherine C. Ewel 2006 Patterns of Succession in Forested Depressional Wetlands in North Florida, USA. Wetlands 26(1):147-160. Clausen, Carl J., H. K. Brooks, A. B. Wesolowsky 1975 Florida Spring Confirmed as 10,000 Year Old Early Man Site, edited by Ripley P. Bullen. Florida Anthropological Society Publication #7, Gainesville. Clausen, C. J., A. D. Cohen, C. Emiliani, J. A. Holman, and J. J. Stipp 1979 Little Salt Spring, Florida: a Unique Underwater Site. Science 203:609-614. Decker D.S., and L.A. Newsom 1988 Numerical Analysis of Archaeological Cucurbita pepo Seeds from Hontoon Island, Florida. Journal of Ethnobiology 8(1):35-44. Delorit, Richard J. 1970 Illustrated Taxonomy Manual of Weed Seeds. Agronomy Publications, River Falls, Wisconsin. 2014 Middle Holocene Humidity Increases in Florida: Climate or Sea Level? Quaternary Science Reviews 103: 170-17 4. Gifford, J. A., and S. H. Koski 2011 An Incised Antler Artifact from Little Salt Spring (8SO18). The Florida Anthropologist 64(1):47-51. Gifford, J. A., S. H. Koski, L. Newsom, and L. Milideo 2017 Little Salt Spring: Excavations on the 27 Meter Ledge, 2008-2011. In The Archaeology of Underwater Caves, edited by P. B. Campbell, pp. 73-103. Highfield Press, Southampton, United Kingdom. Godfrey, Robert K., and Jean W. Wooten 1979 Aquatic and Wetland Plants of the Southeastern United States, Monocotyledons. University of Georgia Press, Athens. 1981 Aquatic and Wetland Plants of the Southeastern United States, Dicotyledons. University of Georgia Press, Athens. Gregory, Braden R. B., Eduard G. Reinhardt, and John A. Gifford 2017 The Influence of Morphology on Sinkhole Sedimentation at Little Salt Spring, Florida. Journal of Coastal Research 33(2):359-371. Hansen, B. S. C. 1990 Pollen Analysis of Little Salt Spring, Florida. Report to Dr. John Gifford, University of Miami, dated November. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (CAIP) 2018 Amaranthus austral is. (http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/ p !ant-directory/ amaranthus-australis/) accessed December 20, 2018. Kistler L., A. Montenegro, B. D. Smith, J . A. Gifford, L.A. Newsom, and B. Shapiro 2014 African Origins and Multi-Regional Domestication of Bottle Gourds in the Americas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111(8):2937-2941. Kistler, L., L.A. Newsom, T. M. Ryan, A. C . Clarke, B. D. Smith, and G. H. Perry 2015 Gourds and Squashes (Cucurbita spp.) Adapted to Megafaunal Extinction and Ecological Anachronism through Domestication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(49): 15107-15112.

PAGE 17

NEWSOM AND KISTLER LlTTLE SALT SPRING PALEOETHNOBOTANY 13 Koski, Steven H., lrvy R. Quitmyer, and John A. Gifford n .d. Excavations in Little Salt Spring Basin's West Edge and North Slope, Sarasota County, Florida. Ms. in preparation. Lodge, T. E. 2005 The Everglades Handbook: Understanding the Ecosystem. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. Luer, George M., and Dorothy A. Block 2019 Radiocarbon Dating Warm Mineral Springs, Little Salt Spring, and Nearby Sites in North Port, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 72(1 ). Martin, Alexander C., and William D. Barkley 1961 Seed Identification Manual. University of California Press, Berkeley. McConnell, K. K., and C. N. Huegel 2008 Little Salt Spring: Vegetation Assessment Narrative. Biological Research Associates, Sarasota. Report submitted to Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami. Mitsch, William J., and James G. Gosselink 2007 Wetlands. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. Moerman, Daniel E. 2006 Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, Inc. Portland, Oregon. Myers, R. L. 2000a Physical Setting. In Flora of Florida, Volume I, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, edited by R. P. Wunderlin and B. F. Hansen, pp. 10-19. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. 2000b Vegetation of Florida. In Flora of Florida, Volume I, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, edited by R. P. Wunderlin and B. F. Hansen, pp. 20-34. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Center for Environmental Information (NCEI) 2018 ncdc.noaa.gov, accessed December 20, 2018. Newsom, Lee A. 2002 The Paleoethnobotany of the Mortuary Pond. In Windover: Multidisciplinary Investigations of an Early Archaic Florida Cemetery, edited by Glen H. Doran, pp. 191-210. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. Newsom, L.A., and L. Kistler 2008 Preliminary Report on Paleobotanical Analyses of Three Bulk Sediment Samples from Operations 9, 14, and 15, Little Salt Spring (8SO18), Sarasota County, Florida. Report submitted to John Gifford and University of Miami. Newsom, L.A., and M. H. Mihlbachler 2006 Mastodon (Mammut americanum) Diet Foraging Patterns Based on Analysis of Dung Deposits. In First Floridians and Last Mastodons: The Page Ladson Site in the Aucilla River, edited by S. D. Webb, pp. 263-331. Plenum Press, New York. Newsom L.A., S. D. Webb, and J. S. Dunbar 1993 History and Geographic Distribution of Cucurbita pepo Gourds in Florida. Journal of Ethnobiology 13(1):75-97. Purdy, Barbara A. 1991 The Art and Archaeology of Florida s Wetlands. CRC Press, Boca Raton. Quitmyer, lrvy R. 1994 Descriptive Analysis of Fauna Identified in Operation Six, Little Salt Spring (8SO18), Florida. Ms on file, Environmental Archaeology Laboratory, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville. Radford, Albert E., Harry E. Ahles, and C. Ritchie Bell 1968 Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. Sheldon, E. S. 197 6 Reconstruction of a Prehistoric Environment and its Useful Plants: Warm Mineral Springs (8SO19), Florida. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Economic Botany, Coral Gables, Florida. Stafford, T. W., Jr., H. A. Semken, Jr., R. W. Graham, W. F. Klippel, A. Markova, N. G. Smirnov, and J. Southon 1999 First Accelerator Mass Spectrometry 14C Dates Documenting Contemporaneity ofNonanalog Species in late Pleistocene Mammal Communities. Geology 27(10):903-906. Turner, M. G., S. L. Collins, A. L. Lugo, J. J. Magnuson, T. S. Rupp, and F. J. Swanson 2003 Disturbance Dynamics and Ecological Response: the Contribution of Long-Term Ecological Research. Bioscience 53(1):46-56. Uchytil, Ronald J. 1992 Cladium jamaicense. In Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS) 2018 National Germplasm Resources Library. Electronic document, (https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/ taxonomydetail.aspx?id=3006), accessed December 14, 2018.

PAGE 18

14 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VOL. 72 (1) United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) 2008 Plants Database. Electronic document, (http://plants. usda.gov/), accessed September, 2008. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Soil Conservation Service (SCS) 1985 26 Ecological Communities of Florida. USDA SCS, Fort Worth, Texas. Watts, W. A., and B. C. S. Hansen 1988 Environments of Florida in the Late Wisconsin and Holocene. In Wet Site Archaeology, edited by Barbara Purdy, pp. 307-323. Telford Press, West Caldwell, New Jersey. Watts, W. A., B. C. S. Hansen, and E. C. Grimm 1992 Camel Lake: a 40,000 Year Record ofVegetational and Forest History from Northwest Florida. Ecology 73(3):1056-1066. Whitney, E., D. B. Means, and A. Rudloe 2004 Priceless Florida: Natural Ecosystems and Native Species. Pineapple Press Inc., Sarasota, Florida. 2014 Florida's Wetlands: Volume 2 of the Three-Volume Series, Florida's Natural Ecosystems and Native Species. Pineapple Press Inc., Sarasota, Florida. Wiersema, J. H. 1997 Cabombaceae. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Electronic document, (http://www.efloras. org/florataxon.aspx?flora _id= l &taxon _id= 10140), accessed December 18, 2018. Williams, J. W., and S. T. Jackson 2007 Novel Climates, No-Analog Communities, and Ecological Surprises. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 5(9):475-482. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1998 Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. Wunderlin, Richard P., and Bruce F. Hansen 2003 Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida, Second Edition. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. Wunderlin, R. P., B. F. Hansen, A. R. Franck, and F. B. Essig 2018 Atlas of Florida Plants, Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida. Electronic document, (http://florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/), accessed December 30, 2018.

PAGE 19

RADIOCARBON DATES FROM WARM MINERAL SPRINGS, LITTLE SALT SPRING, AND NEARBY SITES IN NORTH PORT, FLORIDA GEORGE M. LuER1 AND DOROTHY A. BLocK2 1 The Archaeology Foundation, Inc . , 3222 Old Oak Drive , Sarasota , FL 34239 E-mail: geoluer@gmail.com 2 306 NE 1st Ave. Suite 202 , Boynton Beach, FL 33435 E-mail: uberfrau33460@gmail.com Introduction We identify 201 radiocarbon ages produced by ten laboratories during the last 60 years from locations in the City of North Port, near the Gulf coast of southern Florida (Figure 1 ). Most of the ages come from five archaeological sites: Warm Mineral Springs (8SO19), Little Salt Spring (8SO18), Little Salt Slough and Midden (8SO79), Nona's Site (8SO85D), and the Little Jaw Site (8SO2396) . Several ages come from two seasonal marshy ponds of natural origin. In this article , we compile and calibrate 164 radiocarbon ages from these locations (see Appendices A through D), and we refer to 3 7 additional ages from Little Salt Spring's basin that will be published in the future. Until now, the 164 ages have been scattered or difficult to obtain, and most of those from Warm Mineral Springs were unpublished. 2019 VoL. 72 (1) Little Salt Spring • • Little Jaw Nona's Site • 5km --------CHARLOTTE CO. SARASOTA CO. Figure 1. Location of Sites in North Port, Florida. THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST N l 15

PAGE 20

16 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VOL. 72 (1) Table 1. Radiocarbon Ages from North Port, Florida. Ages and sources are in Appendices; total number of ages is 201. Location, Researcher Obtained No. of Ages Location(s) Sampled Warm Mineral Springs 1 . Clark 1959 1 13 Meter Ledge 2. Brooks 1962 5 13 Meter Ledge 3. Clark 1960 l* 13 Meter Ledge 4 . Clausen 1972 9 13 Meter Ledge 5. Cockrell 1973 22 13 Meter Ledge 6. Straube 1974 6 Spring wall & floor 7 . Cockrell 1978 1 13 Meter Ledge 8. Cockrell 1980s l* Basal cone Little Salt Spring 1. Clausen 1972 7 Basin , Tests 1 and 2 2. Clausen 1972-77 6 Basin , lower slope 3 . Clausen 1975 1 21.3 Meter Ledge 4 . Clausen 1975-77 4 27 Meter Ledge 5 . Clausen 1978 6 Core in basin slope 6. Brown, Cohen 1978 13 Core GDF-141 LSS Slough/Midden 1 . Clausen 1977 8 Slough 2 . Clausen 1977 12 Slough core GDF-129 3. Clausen 1980 5 Slough test pit 4 . Clausen, Hale 1980 5 Midden tests LSS Basin 1 . Paabo 1986 1 Operation 4, brain 2. Gifford 1986 9 Operation 4, wood 3 . Gifford 1990 1 Operation 4, twigs 4. Gifford 1992 9 Operation 6 5 . Gifford , Koski 1995-2005 8 Operations 9, 10, near 11 6. Gifford , Koski 2005-06 3 Basin , east slope 7 . Gifford , Koski 2009-10 3 Operation 14 LSS 27 Meter Ledge 1. Gifford 1988 1 South side 2. Gifford 1992 2 East side 3. Gifford 1992 1 North side 4. Gifford, Koski 2008-09 4 South side 5 . Gifford, Koski 2009-11 10 North side LSS Deep Bottom 1. Gifford 1990 1 Core I 2 . Gifford 1991 2 Core II 3 . Gifford 1991 3 CoreV 4. Gifford 1990 3 Core VI 5. Gifford 1991 2 Core IV 6 . Gregory et al. 2009 7 Core IV 7 . Gregory et al. 2013 10 Core IV Nona's Site 1 . McAndrews 1985 1 Core in pond 2. Luer 2002 1 Test pit , deer tibia Little Jaw Site 1. Edmund 1988 2 Test pit , deer bone Nineteen Owner Midden 1. Clausen 1977 1 Test 1, Level 2 Ponds in North Port 1. Clausen 1977 1 PondA 2. Coleman 1978 4 PondB * Incompletely reported age, not included in Appendices but cited in text. ** From basin's north slope (Koski, Quitmyer, and Gifford n.d.). *** From basin's lower east slope (Koski, Newsom, and Gifford n.d .). Data Presented In Appendix A-1 Appendix A-1 Text, this article Appendix A-2 Appendix A-3 Appendix A-4 Appendix A-3 Text, this article Appendix B-1 Appendix B-2 Appendix B-3 Appendix B-3 ** Appendix B-4 Appendix B-5 Appendix B-6 Appendix B7 Appendix B-8 Appendix C-1 ** ** ** ** and Appendix C-2 *** ** and Appendix C-2 Appendix C-3 Appendix C-3 Appendix C-4 Appendix C-3 Appendix C-4 Appendix C-5 Appendix C-5 Appendix C-5 Appendix C-5 Appendix C-6 Appendix C-6 Appendix C7 Appendix D-1 Appendix D-1 Appendix D-1 Appendix D-1 Appendix D-2 Appendix D-2

PAGE 21

LUER AND BLOCK RADIOCARBON DATABASE 17 Background Three of the five archaeological sites in North Port (Warm Mineral Springs, Little Salt Spring, and Little Salt Slough and Midden) are situated in and close to two large, water filled sinkholes (Alvarez Zarikian et al. 2005; Clausen et al. 1975, 1979; Gifford et al. 2017; Gregory et al. 2017; Metz 2016; Rupert 1994). The fourth site, Nona's Site, is in and adjacent to another large, watery sinkhole, although it is now mostly filled with sediment. The fifth site, the Little Jaw site, is a terrestrial site along a seasonal slough-way, now a large drainage canal (Luer 2002a). Many of the investigations at these early Florida sites were poorly reported and are little known. Thus, we provide an overview of work at these sites that together date to portions of the Late Paleoindian (13,500 to 9,500 years before present [YBP]), Early Archaic (9,500 to 7,000 YBP), Middle Archaic (7,000 to 4,000 YBP), and Woodland (2,500 to 1,000 YBP) periods. This time range begins in the Late Pleistocene epoch (before 11,500 YBP) and continues into the Holocene epoch (11,500 YBP to present) (Figure 2). Some of the radiocarbon ages produced by these investigations are from archaeological contexts, others are from geological sources. These ages can be compared with data from other early Florida sites, such as Page-Ladson (Purdy 1991:159-166; Webb and Dunbar 2006), Devil's Den (Purdy et al. 2015), Windover (Doran 2002; Doran and Dickel 1988; Purdy 1991 :205-228), Bay West (Beriault et al. 1981; Purdy 1991 :54-65), Republic Groves (Purdy 1991: 167-178; Wharton et al. 1981 ), and Harris Creek/Tick Island (Aten 1999; Purdy 1991:228-232; Quinn et al. 2008) (Figure 3, Table 2). Radiocarbon Ages Radiocarbon dating is essential for understanding the antiquity of archaeological sites. Table I lists investigators and summarizes when, how many, and where the 20 I radiocarbon ages from North Port were obtained. Many of the ages produced dates ranging from approximately 12,000 to 500 calibrated years before present (cal YBP; present= A.D. 1950) (Table 3, Figure 4). Some fossil and geological materials yield older dates (some being questionable, apparently due to diagenesis or contamination by geologic carbon). Radiocarbon Data In Appendices A, B, C, and D, each radiocarbon age is presented as a statistical range, expressed at I-sigma ( 68%) and 2-sigma (95%) probability. We provide the raw data of measured ages and isotopic fractionation values (o13C) for stable isotopes of carbon (13C and 12C). We also provide conventional ages that are "corrected" for isotopic fractionation by normalizing to -25 parts per thousand (o/oo). To do so, we add years to measured ages when o13C is more positive than -25 oloo (e.g., -22 0/00) and we subtract years from measured ages when o13C is more negative than -25 o/oo (e.g., -27 0/00). In this scale, I o/oo has a value of 16.4 radiocarbon years. The o13C corrections are in our tables, with year corrections Figure 2. Timeline of Culture Horizons and Periods in West-Central Florida. Horizons Periods Anthropocene Sprawl -150 BP AD 1850 Seminole Muskogee, Mikosuki -300BP AD 1700 Mississippi Safety Harbor 1000 BP AD 1000 late Woodland late Weeden Island -1300BP AD700 middle Woodland Manasota early Woodland 2500 BP 500BC Terminal Archaic Florida Transitional -3000BP lOOOBC Late Archaic Orange 4000 BP 2000BC Thornhill Lake Middle Archaic Mount Taylor 4000BC Newnan -7000BP 5000 BC Arredondo, Hamilton 6000 BC Early Archaic Kirk Bolen 9500 BP 7500BC Dalton 8500 BC Start of Holocene Paleoindian 9500 BC 11,500 BP End of Pleistocene, Suwannee, Simpson, Clovis .,_13,500 BP 11,500 BC rounded to the nearest ten. Measured values of o13C are stated, which came directly from the radiocarbon laboratory at the time the sample was analyzed. In cases of the measured value being unavailable, we had to assume values based on known values for the kinds of materials dated. The values of o13C that we assumed include -4 o/oo for marl, -9.5 o/oo for human bone, -21 or -22 o/ oo for terrestrial herbivores ( deer, giant tortoise), and -27 o/oo for wood, dead leaves, and peat from submerged contexts. Conventional ( corrected) ages are then used for obtaining calibrated dates (measured ages are not used for calibration). Conventional ages are calibrated using the IntCal 13 or Marine 13 database. Except for one series, 1 all calibrated dates were provided by Beta Analytic, Inc., based on Talma and Vogel (1993) and Reimer et al. (2013). For all calibrated dates, we provide ranges ( cal YBP) as well as calendar equivalents (B.C., A.D.). We present calibrated dates in the text, even if they were not calibrated by the original researchers ( see the appendices for measured and conventional ages). All calibrated YBP dates that we report are based on the intercept method, which has been the traditional method during the decades when the ages reported here were produced. For

PAGE 22

18 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VOL. 72 (1) all the dates we present, we maintain standard 1-and 2-sigma values (68% and 95% probability) for like comparison of results. Published and unpublished sources of the radiocarbon ages are cited in Table 1 and the appendices, and they are listed in the References Cited section of this article. Ideally, the process of dating involves obtaining multiple ages from a given context. Such a process can identify outliers, build confidence that ages are in statistically consistent ranges, and produce a sufficient number of ages to furnish a more secure date range than a single age can provide. A single radiocarbon age inherently has uncertainty and could be an outlier. When run two or more times in the laboratory, it is common for a single sample to yield ages that may vary by tens or hundreds of years. Obtaining and analyzing multiple ages is essential for accurate dating. Thus, some ages that we report can be analyzed further, such as by testing for similarity and by averaging statistically similar ages from the same context in order to obtain narrower age ranges. However, we refrain from doing that here to avoid adding more ages to what already is a large number of ages from these sites. Such focused research can attempt to refine some of these radiocarbon results. We view this article's compilation of ages and dates as a source of data for future research, which includes statistical tests for similarity and averaging (e.g., see Loger 2014) and further calibration using the Bayesian highest posterior density (HPD) function. Materials We emphasize that most radiocarbon ages from Warm Mineral Springs and Little Salt Spring are based on wood and other organic materials ( e.g., peat) that were deposited in water where they were preserved. These materials decay and do not persist in deposits that dry out, or that are terrestrial deposits in the humid (non-desert) climate of Florida. It is important to highlight this aqueous deposition because some previous interpretations assert that some deposits were originally aerial and were inundated subsequently ( e.g., Cockrell 1990). The persistence of wood, leaves, and other perishable materials, even including human brain tissue, shows that they were deposited in watery sediments where they remained submerged until their recent excavation and recovery. Moreover, the existence of freshwater snail shells and bones of fish, siren, and frogs in these same deposits is consistent with their aqueous deposition. In the field, collection of materials for dating from underwater contexts was often by hand. In such cases, materials were removed, directly from a stratigraphic profile, with vertical control and context recorded, and with materials placed in plastic bags for delivery to the dating laboratory. However, some materials for dating were obtained from cores taken on land or under water, which were sampled in the laboratory. Cores have provided important dates at Little Salt Spring and Nona's Site. Still other dated materials were collected in terrestrial excavation units, at Little Salt Midden and Slough as well as Nona's Site and Little Jaw Site. In general, radiocarbon sample recovery methods have improved over time. Collection by hand was the initial method of sample recovery and has continued to the present. Cores began to be taken in the 1970s and have played an important role in sample collection. Cores have allowed recovery of microscopic materials, such as pollen and ostracods, used in paleo-environmental studies. In the surrounding region, other cores have helped inform the area's archaeology and palynology ( e.g., Beriault et al. 1981; Hansen et al. 2001; Watts 1975). Table 2. Known Archaic Aquatic Mortuaries in Peninsular Florida. These sites were discovered by divers or during land development. Some sites are destroyed. Site Name FMSF# Location Date and How Discovered I. Warm Mineral Springs 8SO19 City of North Port 1959, divers 2. Little Salt Spring 8SO18 City ofNorth Port 1959 , divers 3. Nona's Site 8SO85D City ofNorth Port ca. 1960, dragline 4. Republic Groves 8HR4 6 miles SE of 1968, dragline Zolfo Springs 5. Bay West Site 8CR200 Naples, E ofl-75, 1980, dragline near Immokalee Rd. (CR 846) 6 . Windover 8BR246 Windover Farms, 1982, dragline Titusville 7. Ryder Pond 8LL1850 Bonita Springs, 1995 , dragline near Imperial River 8. Manasota Off Shore 8SO7030 In Gulf near 2016 , divers Manasota Key Beach Early Diving Archaeology was expanded after Jacques Cousteau and Emile Gagnan developed the aqua lung in the 1940s (Cousteau and Dumas 1953). In Florida, sport divers using underwater breathing gear were quick to locate many underwater archaeological sites in rivers and springs. In the 1950s and 1960s, sport divers dove in Warm Mineral Springs and Little Salt Springs.2 To the detriment of both sites, many divers3 dug and displaced sediments to uncover human bones and other remains (e.g., Brandle 1959; Clark 1969:154-159,167-169; Purdy 1991; Royal and Burgess 1978; Waller 1983:32). Some divers even moved remains to different underwater areas, including deeper ledges, such as in Little Salt Spring (Bob Pelham, personal communication 1985).4 The most prominent ledge in Little Salt Spring, at 26 to 27 m (90 ft) below the surface, reportedly contained many fossil animal bones, some removed by sport divers (Clark 1969:167; Waller 1983). Beginning in 1959, renowned archaeologist John Goggin (1964) dove in Little Salt Spring and Warm Mineral Springs.5 Goggin was a professor at the University of Florida and pioneered underwater archaeology in Florida. He correctly tried to discourage digging and destruction by sport divers and other untrained individuals. Goggin planned further

PAGE 23

LUER AND BLOCK RADIOCARBON DATABASE Figure 3. Early Sites in Eastern Florida Mentioned in the Text. (~,,, ~effenJ-----,_ <. Nassau _ '!I J . ? \ Hamilton r 1 \ / ,11 I ) Madison y--~~ ) L~ )<,< Tay~nnele~~mf:bia I . B?.laker ~uva~'?--[ \ " ,, Umon C ! & . t Newnan La,ayette 'l., , -'B radford Clay < ~aint Page-Ladson . 1r f , '""'\j . ',.! 8AL356 "-.. J > T Alachua v: , t>'i 1 Dixie • Putnam,r 1 r-' Lev I .' ~-~ gle, Devil's Den ~ j Madon )~ • ~~"'-, ___ .___,r • Volusia ?. ?i Harris Creek Tick Island Citrus 1...----i..'l, \ if He:and:umter 0 :l:~t.. Windover Lake Orange Enclave C . Pa~co I ,.....,_ (& Osceola -\\\'\\ Gauthier Pmellast ~~rough ~..., \ West Williams~~~sl t) ((t) Polk ~\ Brevar~-\ J -----,------.-----) lntan River Manatee Ha~~ ( OkeechobJ ~\ Republic Groves ---f"" -V Saint Luci ~ r• Highlands . :\' Little Salt Spring \Sarasota DeSoto _f . . -Warm Mineral Springs ~• J //0 Martin Manasota Off S~':,',:';;;:::::. ' ~ Charlotte Glade s (_ I ~ee J Hendry I Palm Beach l Ryder Pond ~ 7 -----1----~ Bay West --1 Colli~r I Broward J r-----"-r ) ... Miami-Dade d "'~onroe I ,;s (r ?.h-<, (\s~ ~I \ --'. ;;,d'i; J t>"~o " o•"' D 19

PAGE 24

20 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VOL. 72 (1) work in Little Salt Spring and Warm Mineral Springs, but was prevented by his untimely death in 1963 (Goggin 1962; Purdy 1991:202-203; Weisman 2002:129-130). At that time, neither Goggin nor anyone else understood the antiquity and nature of human burials in Little Salt Spring. He wrote of Little Salt Spring: On the sloping sides of the cenote spring ... is a large deposit of human bones. Preliminary reconnaissance has yielded the remains of more than 50 individuals with every indication that many more are present. The bones are lightly mineralized and lie at random under a thin layer of shelly detritus with no evidence of articulation. ... It is hoped that a detailed study of the site can be made in the near future. [Goggin 1960:352] First Dates: 1959-1965 Radiocarbon dating was invented in 1949 by chemist Willard Libby, for which he received a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1960 (Libby 1955; Bowman 1990:9-10). Radiocarbon dating revolutionized archaeology, providing ages unavailable before. In Florida, the new dating method shifted archaeological cultures and traditions earlier in time, as seen in culture-history charts in Goggin (1949) and Willey (1949) versus those in Milanich and Fairbanks (1980) and Bense (1994). In the 1950s and 1960s, a pioneering Florida geologist and diver who used radiocarbon dating was Harold "Kelly" Brooks, another professor at the University of Florida. His work in 1958 through 1962 showed that Warm Mineral Springs was a deep, hourglass-shaped spring. Brooks studied layers ("zones") on what became known as the 13 Meter Ledge, a shelf surrounding the spring's central opening or abyss. He made detailed descriptions of the sediments, working with colleagues in Gainesville to identify plant remains ( of algae, ferns, and trees) and remains of freshwater and terrestrial snail shells in the different zones (Clausen, Brooks, and Wesolowsky 1975a, 1975b). Brooks collected five samples of charcoal from Warm Mineral Spring's underwater sediments at depths of "3 7 to 39 feet" (11.3 to 11.9 m), which rested on the 13 Meter Ledge. In 1962, Brooks submitted the five samples to the United States Geological Survey, obtaining ages that, when calibrated, produce dates ranging from approximately 12,500 to 8,500 cal YBP (Appendix A-I). Another diver was Bill Royal, a layman, who dug without scientific methods in the sides of Warm Mineral Springs. Royal found artifacts and human remains (bones of at least seven individuals as well as brain tissue) on the 13 Meter Ledge, and he showed the finds to marine biologist Eugenie Clark. In 1959, she provided a wood sample to Carl Hubbs and Hans Suess of the La Jolla Laboratory at Scripps Institute of Oceanography, who obtained a single radiocarbon age (Hubbs et al. 1960; Royal and Clark 1960). It was derived from a "charred log" from slightly deeper than Royal's finds of human remains, with a 2-sigma result of 12,365 to 10,795 cal YBP (AppendixA-1). Soon after, Goggin (1962) delivered an insightful paper about Warm Mineral Springs and Little Salt Spring to the Southeastern Archaeological Conference. He provided observations about the forms and dimensions of the springs, their deposits, human bones, and artifacts. Meanwhile, Clark sought a second radiocarbon date from the 13 Meter Ledge, sending material to the Centre Scientifique de Monaco, where an organic fraction of two human bones was dated. The result was incompletely reported as "7140 to 7580 years old" (Clark 1969: 176), so it is not included in Appendix A-1. Warm Mineral Springs: 1970s-1980s During the 1960s, sport divers in Warm Mineral Springs continued to destroy irreplaceable geological and archaeological deposits. In 1971, the Sarasota County Historical Commission and residents of Sarasota County lobbied to bring scientific divers to the site. The State of Florida sent archaeologist Carl Clausen, who served as state underwater archaeologist, a position he held since 1964 (e.g., Clausen 1965, 1966). Clausen's qualifications included his Master's thesis focusing on the Florida Archaic period and the Newnan site (8AL356) east of Gainesville (Clausen 1964a). Moreover, Clausen had been a student of Goggin's when he dove and worked in Devil's Den (8LV84), in Williston southwest of Gainesville, another watery sink hole studied by Goggin, Brooks, and others (Clausen 1964b; Clausen et al. 1975a:28, 30; Goggin et al. 1961; Martin and Webb 1974:114; Purdy 2015). In 1971 and 1972, Clausen dove in Warm Mineral Springs and focused on one of the few areas spared by looters on' the 13 Meter Ledge. This small area was along the spring's northwest wall, where Clausen excavated a 0.5 x 1 m test unit and conducted a detailed stratigraphic study in early 1972. He succeeded in collecting samples from intact deposits and submitted them to Gakushuin University, in Japan (Clausen et al. 197 5a, 197 5b ). He obtained nine radiocarbon ages, all based on wood and producing dates ranging from approximately 12,800 to 9,500 cal YBP (Appendix A-2). Clausen was followed by a new state underwater archaeologist, Wilburn "Sonny" Cockrell. In February 1973, Cockrell was joined by archaeologists Ray Ruppe and C. Vance Haynes, Jr., from Arizona, and Larry Murphy (Marx 1974:50). They worked on the 13 Meter Ledge to remove several large boulders, or stalactites, and to uncover more human bones and artifacts, including a shell atlatl spur with a male human flexed skeleton, the latter analyzed by Donald Morris (1975) of Arizona State University. Cockrell continued to work in the spring in 1974, 1975, and 1976, obtaining pollen samples analyzed by James King ( 1975) of Illinois State University, faunal remains analyzed by Gregory McDonald (1975, 1976), as well as more radiocarbon ages from Teledyne Isotopes, in Westwood, New Jersey (Cockrell 1977, 1990; Cockrell and Murphy 1978; Murphy 1978; Purdy 1991:178-204). Most of the radiocarbon ages obtained by Cockrell in the 1970s were based on wood and leaves, and several on human

PAGE 25

LUER AND BLOCK RADIOCARBON DATABASE Calibrated 2-Sigma Date Ranges '"""' '"""' '"""' '"""' '"""' '"""' UI .i. N '"""' 0 \0 00 -....l O", UI .i. b b b 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 cal YBP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Clausen .. 14,400-13,445 YBP, LSS 27 m ledge, south side, first wood "stake" (n=l) Gifford-14,680-13,750 YBP, LSS 27 m ledge, south side, wood (n=2) 13,155-12,705 YBP, LSS 27 m ledge, north side, wood, charcoal (n=4) Gifford. 11,325-10,605 YBP, LSS 27 m ledge, north side, wood (n=5) Clausen Cockrell 12,835-9,475 YBP, WMS 13 m ledge, wood (n=9) 13,015-8,347 YBP, WMS 13 m ledge, wood, leaves (n=19) Clausen 11,270-10,300 YBP, LSS lower basin, stakes (n=2) Gifford, 10,575-10,245 YBP, LSS Op 9, Locus Z, wood (n=l) 10,195-9,775 YBP, LSS Op 14, Stratum 6, gourd (n=l) Paabo I 7,935-7,513 YBP, LSS west basin, human tissue (n=l) Clausen 7 ,505-6,570 YBP, LSS slough, human bone (n=2) Luer I 6,315-6,210 YBP, Nona's, deer bone (n=l) Clausen, Coleman 5,580-4,445 YBP, Ponds A & B, basal muck (n=2) Clausen, Hale 5,430-4 ,806 YBP, LS Midden, marine shell (n=2) 21 Figure 4. Plot of Radiocarbon Date Ranges (based on Table 3). These are 2-sigma calibrated ranges (YBP) from the North Port area (LSS = Little Salt Spring; LS= Little Salt; WMS= Warm Mineral Springs). The number of dates (n=) contributing to these ranges is stated at the end of each line.

PAGE 26

22 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VOL. 72 (1) bone. The 23 dates in Appendix A-3 are based on measured ages on file in Tallahassee (at the Florida Master Site File and Bureau of Archaeological Research), as compiled by Dasovich (1996), Tesar (1997), and Dasovich and Doran (2011 ). They range from approximately 13,000 to 8,500 cal YBP, with many around 12,500 to 11,000 cal YBP (AppendixA-3). In 1974, six more radiocarbon ages from Warm Mineral Springs were obtained as part of a student course at the University ofMiami, Department of Geology (AppendixA-4). Three of the ages came from the deep floor at the bottom of the spring. One age was beyond the range of radiocarbon dating because it was based on fossil marine shells from near the top of the spring. Two other ages were based on wood embedded in stalactites from the wall of the spring (Straube 1974). In the 1980s, two more dates were reported for Warm Mineral Springs. First, in 1983, collector and diver Paul Lien published an amino acid racemization date of 10,500 +/1,700 years based on a human pelvis fragment collected by Royal from the spring (Lien 1983). Second, in 1986, Cockrell obtained at least one more radiocarbon age. It was incompletely reported, so it is not included in Appendix A-3. Based on undetermined material from Feature 86-U-2 at a depth of 3 min Warm Mineral Spring's deep basal sediment cone, the age was "2550 +/60 years B.P." (Cockrell 1986). Little Salt Spring: 1970s In 1971 and 1972, Clausen and a team of scientists began underwater work in Little Salt Spring (Penton 1972). He was assisted by University of Florida geologist Kelly Brooks and Florida State Museum limnologist Edward Deevey. While Clausen started archaeological investigations, his colleagues recorded the dimensions and shape of Little Salt Spring using a sonar-type fathometer, conducted a limnological survey, and took cores from the bottom of the spring (Anonymous 1972). Clausen worked first as State Marine Archaeologist and then for Little Salt Spring's owner, Miami-based General Development Corporation (GDC) and its support organization, General Development Foundation (GDF). To establish security, they installed a gate and fencing. Eventually, they created a research compound consisting of several mobile homes or "trailers" to the west of the spring. 6 Spring Basin In the 1970s, the water surface at the top of Little Salt Spring was at 5 m (16.4 ft) above mean sea level (AMSL) (Clausen et al. 1979:609). Forming the spring's upper portion, the basin is ringed by an approximately 6 m (20 ft) wide shelf of peat with aquatic and emergent vegetation. Below it, the deeper basin was covered with plant detritus and peat that has been removed in some areas by sport divers and archaeologists. This deeper basin slope angles downward at approximately 23 degrees (from horizontal) to reach depths of 12 to 13 m below the spring's water surface. There, the basin ends where the bottom drops away into the gaping circular orifice, or abyss, of the deep spring shaft. Figure 5. Oak Mortar from Little Salt Spring Basin's Lower Slope. From this mortar, Clausen obtained a radiocarbon age that yields a date of ca. 11,000 to 9,500 cal YBP (Appendix B-2), or the late Paleoindian period (image after Clausen and Emiliani 1979). In 1972, Clausen excavated underwater in the sloping basin of Little Salt Spring. Apparently on the northeast slope, Clausen excavated Tests 1 and 2, where he obtained radiocarbon ages ranging from approximately 13,000 to 500 cal YBP (Appendix B-1). Clausen published a photograph of a stratigraphic profile of Test 2 located near mid-slope, at approximately 6.7 to 7.6 m (22 to 25 ft) below the spring's water surface (Clausen et al. 1975a:25-26, 28, F!gure 12, l 975b:206, 208, Figure 12). In Test 2, samples were collected and analyzed for microfossils (e.g., ostracods, gastropods, sponge spicules, rhizopods ), but results remain unpublished (Yezdani and Deevey 1973). Deeper in the spring basin, Clausen discovered "numerous crudely pointed wooden stakes" or "pins" embedded in sediment near the edge of the drop-off, at approximately 12 to 12.4 m (39 to 40.5 ft) below the spring's water surface (Clausen et al. 1975a:31, 1975b:210; Clausen et al. 1979:610, Table I). Two stakes were radiocarbon dated to 11,270 to 10,300 cal YBP (Appendix B-2). The purpose of these stakes is undetermined. Their preservation indicates that the lower basin was wet when the stakes were driven into the sediment, where very damp or watery conditions preserved them. They might have anchored burials, now missing, like wooden stakes did in Early Archaic times at Windover (Doran 2002). Later in the 1970s, Clausen undertook more underwater excavations in the northeast and southeast slopes of the spring basin, but little is reported about that work. It included a find at 12.5 m (41 ft) below the spring's water surface of hickory nuts with a date of 12,005 to 10,875 cal YBP (Appendix B-2). Slightly higher in the basin, at a depth of 9.9 m (32.5 ft) below the surface, Clausen found a wooden mortar (Figure 5) with a date of 11,060 to 9,535 cal YBP and, at 8 to 9 m (26 to 29.5 ft) below the surface, he recovered human bone that produced a date of 6,410 to 6,005 cal YBP (Appendix B-2).

PAGE 27

LUER AND BLOCK RADIOCARBON DATABASE 23 In 1978, Clausen worked on the basin's north slope at J 0 m underwater, where he extracted a short, J.75 m (5.75 ft) core. Peat from the core was dated as part of a course by a University of Miami (UM) geology student, yielding six radiocarbon dates with 2-sigma ranges spanning 7,660 to 1,535 cal YBP (Koski, Quitmyer, and Gifford n.d.).7 Clausen also excavated approximately 30% of a child's skeleton from underwater near the western, upper edge of the basin ( close to the present-day dock) (Merbs and Clausen 1981; Wentz and Gifford 2007:331). 27 Meter Ledge In the 1970s, Clausen did underwater archaeological work in the deeper spring located below the basin and its drop-off. He worked on the ledge that rings the sinkhole shaft at depths of 26 to 27 m (85 to 89 ft) below the spring's water surface. The narrow ledge is slightly shallower on the north side than on the south. It became known as the "26 or 27 Meter Ledge" and "90 Foot Ledge." Clausen excavated a portion of the western side of the ledge, but that work is unreported (Gifford et al.2017:75, Figure 4.6). In 1975, Clausen excavated a 1.5 x 3.5 m trench in the southern portion of the ledge, where he uncovered fragments of eroded wood and mineralized (fossil) animal bones. Paleontologist Alan Holman and Clausen (1984) identified the fossil bones, including some from partial remains of three individuals of an extinct kind of giant tortoise. A bone from the largest tortoise produced a radiocarbon age with a date range of 16,830 to 15,750 cal YBP, which is questionable due to diagenesis, or the physical and chemical changes that occur over time (Appendix B-3). Clausen et al. ( 1979) claimed that the largest tortoise was killed by humans and that some of the pieces of wood were artifacts (crude "stakes"). However, the bones show no clear evidence of butchering (Koski 2013), they do not appear to be burned, and the wood lacked cut marks. Observations in the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research Conservation Laboratory in Tallahassee suggest that "black" on some bones may be a precipitate or possible growth of micro-organisms (Ryan Wheeler, personal communication 2000). From the trench, Clausen obtained radiocarbon ages for two eroded, tapering pieces of wood (his first and second "stakes"), which yield date ranges spanning 14,400 to I 0,685 cal YBP (Appendix B-3). The wood, and a rabbit bone, were with the tortoise bones among large amounts of rubble from roof falls, some chunks as large as boulders (see Gifford et al. 2017, below), that easily could have displaced bones and pieces of wood as they fell and as deposits formed. Most of the bones represent animals that lived in, or fell in, the spring and died. Core Near Basin In 1978, Clausen and associates took a core (GDF-141) from the hammock near the north shore of the spring basin (Figure 6). The core top was at approximately 5.6 m AMSL, and it yielded 13 radiocarbon ages (Appendix B-4). Analysis of the core's sediments (e.g., pollen, spores, and other plant remains) revealed a history of vegetation change. About 10,000 to 9,000 cal YBP, the basin's upper edge (which is now approximately 128 to 148 cm deep, or 4.32 to 4.12 m AMSL) was fringed with willows, chain ferns, and sedges. Approximately 7,500 to 6,000 cal YBP, the basin's edge (now approximately 88 to 118 cm deep, or 4.72 to 4.42 m AMSL) was wet and supported wax myrtle, leather fern, and chain fern. Overlying sediment accumulated since 6,000 to 5,000 cal YBP, when the bayhead hammock community became established around the basin, persisting to the present (Brown 1981; Brown and Cohen 1985). This core shows that the water level in the spring basin had risen, by ca. 9,000 cal YBP, to be close (around 4 m AMSL) to the present-day water surface (5 mAMSL). Little Salt Slough and Midden In the 1970s, archaeological deposits were discovered a short distance northeast of Little Salt Spring in what became known as the Little Salt Slough and Midden (Figure 6). Both the slough and midden were investigated by Clausen and others, but few reports offinds were made (Luer 2002a:21, 24, Figures 8 and 9). The slough is a linear depression, approximately 300 m (1,000 ft) long and varying from approximately 30 to 80 m ( 100 to 250 ft) wide. It narrows to a point at its northeast end and widens at its southwest end. Test Pit in Slough GDC built Price Boulevard (first named McCarthy Boulevard) across the slough. While de-mucking the right of-way, human burials were discovered. In 1977, Clausen investigated further by testing an area just north of the road. He used a backhoe to remove the overlying 1 m of sandy black muck, reaching the zone containing human burials. There, Clausen established a test pit of approximately 7 1112 , where he and co-workers uncovered two human burials and obtained eight radiocarbon ages (Luer 2002a:21; Purdy 1991: 152-153). Three ages were based on human bone and a possible wooden artifact ("digging stick") (Clausen et al. 1979:612, Table 1) that produced 2-sigma dates ranging from 7,950 to 6,570 cal YBP, falling in the late Early Archaic to early Middle Archaic periods (Appendix B-5). These cultural materials from the slough were in a 30 cm thick layer of peat under 1 m of sandy black muck (Luer 2002a:21). They might have been interred in an older, water saturated, wetland deposit that yielded four ages based on peat and other plant remains with 2-sigma dates ranging from 10,490 to 8,020 cal YBP. This organic material was underlain by marl that produced a single radiocarbon age yielding a 2-sigma date range of 17,150 to 15,993 cal YBP (Appendix B-5). In 1980, Clausen returned to his test pit in the slough. The zone containing human burials was still wet, despite the area's ditching and artificial drainage work in the 1970s. In

PAGE 28

24 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VOL. 72 (1) Table 3. Calibrated Radiocarbon Date Ranges Supporting Figure 4. Sources of these data are in this article's appendices. Location Date Range 2 Material Dates Epoch or Period, Source Sigma ( cal YBP) (n =) Researcher LSS 27 m ledge south 14,400 to 13,445 first wood "stake" 1 Pleistocene, Clausen Appen. B-3, row4 LSS 27 m ledge south . 14,680 to 13,750 wood 2 Pleistocene, Gifford Appen. C-3, rows 6, 7 LSS 27 m ledge north 13,155 to 12,705 wood, charcoal 4 Pleistocene, Gifford Appen. C-4, rows 8-11 LSS 27 m ledge north 11,325 to 10,605 wood 5 Holocene, Gifford Appen. C-4, rows 3-7 WMS 13 m ledge 12,835 to 9,475 wood 9 Paleoindian, Clausen Appen. A-2 WMS 13 m ledge 13,015 to 8,347 wood, leaves 19 Paleoindian, Cockrell Appen. A-3 LSS lower basin 11,270 to 10,300 wooden stakes 2 Paleoindian, Clausen Appen. B-2, rows 2, 3 LSS basin, Op 9, Locus Z 10,575 to 10,245 wood 1 Paleoindian, Gifford Appen. C-2, and Koski row 1 LSS basin, Op 14, Stratum 6 10,195 to 9,775 gourd 1 Paleoindian, Gifford Appen. C-2, row2 LSS upper basin west, Op 4 7,935 to 7,513 human brain 1 Early/Middle Archaic, Appen. C-1 tissue Paabo LSS slough burials 7,505 to 6,570 human bone 2 Early/Middle Archaic, Appen. B-5, Clausen rows 4, 5 Nona's site 6,315 to 6,210 deer bone 1 Middle Archaic, Luer Appen. D-1, row2 PondsAandB 5,580 to 4,445 basal muck 2 Holocene, Clausen, Appen. D-2, Coleman rows 4, 5 Little Salt Midden 5,430 to 4,806 marine shells 2 Middle Archaic, Appen. B-8, Clausen, Hale rows 3, 5 the test pit, Clausen excavated more human bones, including a cranium containing brain material (Merbs and Clausen 1981; Purdy 1991:154). From this 1980 work, Clausen secured five radiocarbon ages that resemble others he obtained previously from the test pit in the slough. Two of these ages, based on a single sample, produced dates falling in the late Early Archaic to early Middle Archaic periods (8,390 to 7,480 cal YBP). The other three ages may be from underlying deposits ( although we lack provenience data), based on their antiquity (18,680 to 10,770 cal YBP) (Appendix B-7). Cores in Slough In the 1970s, Clausen and associates took three cores (GDF-129, -142, -146) from the slough (Figure 6). From one of them, GDF-129, they obtained 12 radiocarbon ages (Appendix B-6). From the other two, and from the test pit, they analyzed sediments for pollen, spores, and other remains, revealing changes in vegetation. The tops of the cores were at approximately 5.1 m AMSL. Brown and Cohen's (1985) correlation of portions of the sediment sequence for Core GDF-142 (its middle and lower portions) with Core GDF-141, near the spring, is questionable because the two cores were approximately 160 m apart and no radiocarbon ages were obtained from Core GDF-142 ( although it was 3 m from Clausen's test pit). Thus, the age of the lower (sub-marl) portion is unclear. The marl in the middle portion may be ca. 12,000 to 20,000 years old, but this also is unclear. Its age may be skewed by geologic "old" carbon leached from carbonate marl or limestone in the surrounding ground. The peat above the marl may be accurately dated to ca. 10,500 to 8,000 cal YBP (indicated by four radiocarbon dates from the test pit, see above). This peat ("lower Zone III" in Core GDF-142, at approximately 40 to 110 cm deep, or 4. 70 to 4.00 m AMSL) formed in a pond based on remains of willow, water lily, cattail, and tupelo. Shallower peat in Core GDF142 (above a depth of 40 cm) appears to be less than ca. 4,000 to 3,500 years old, based on a single date of "organic muck" from Core GDF-129. Subsequently, muck has filled the pond,

PAGE 29

LUER AND BLOCK N research compound RADIOCARBON DATABASE . . . . . . . . • • • • 141 • • • 146 •• • •• . . .. • • . . . . . . . . . . .. Little Salt Spring • • • . • • . . . 60m 25 Figure 6. Little Salt Area Plan View. County-owned parcels are shaded. Dotted line delimits the slough. "X" in Acadian Terrace right-of-way marks human burial found by Clausen in 1987. Note trenches in midden (heavy dashed lines), test in slough, and locations of cores (GDF-129, 141, 142, 146). Sarasota County School Board owns parcel 0975-00-1004, and the City of North Port owns the 30-ft drainage ROW. The University of Miami owns the land south of Price Boulevard. Map modified from Luer (2002a), with trenches based on Sarasota County Survey-Mapping (2005) and parcels based on Sarasota County Property Appraiser (2019).

PAGE 30

26 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VoL. 72 (1) changing it to a sawgrass marsh, which grows in the slough today (Brown 1981; Brown and Cohen 1985). Midden In 1977, state archaeologist Calvin Jones visited Little Salt Spring and discovered an Archaic midden (Figure 6) in the upland bordering the slough (Jones et al. 1998:114). In 1978, Clausen and co-workers conducted limited excavations in the midden (Clausen and Almy 1978), including zooarchaeological identification of vertebrate fauna] remains (Fradkin 1978). At that time, Luer observed one unit with midden remains in dark sand at 20 to 30 cm below the surface, overlying a thin layer of limestone that had solution holes and an uneven surface. Soon after, Clausen cut several long, linear trenches in the midden using a Barber-Greene trencher machine (Luer 2002a:21). In 1980, Clausen, zooarchaeology graduate student Steve Hale, and others excavated many more tests in the midden (Koski et al. 2007:41), and charcoal, marine shells, and freshwater shells were dated (Appendix B-8). Two marine shells yielded dates of approximately 5,400 to 4,800 cal YBP, falling in the Middle Archaic period. The freshwater shell ages are unreliable due to the reservoir effect (in Florida, it is typical for geologic "old" carbon to be incorporated into freshwater shells). In 1986 and 1987, Clausen returned to the Little Salt Midden and did additional testing for the proposed construction of Acadian Terrace, an unbuilt street crossing the midden. He found artifacts, faunal remains, and a human burial (Koski et al. 2006:42). The burial was in the right-of-way of Acadian Terrace, between Lots 11 and 41 (Clausen 1987; Harring 1987). No radiocarbon ages are reported for this work, which was Clausen's last at the site. University of Miami (UM) Archaeology In 1982, GDC donated Little Salt Spring and 112 surrounding acres to UM for preservation and research. Scientific work was resumed by Dr. John A. Gifford, a marine geologist and archaeologist with UM and the Rosenstiel School ofMarine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS). In the 1990s, he was joined by Research Assistant Steve Koski, and they have worked with archaeobotanist Lee Newsom. Spring Basin, West Edge In 1986, exploratory excavations by Gifford and Clausen in Little Salt Spring revealed an underwater in situ human burial near the basin's west edge in Operation 4, which was in shallow water close to the present-day dock. These remains represented a young female from which brain tissue was removed. It yielded a single radiocarbon age (Appendix C-1) with a 2-sigma date of7,935 to 7,513 cal YBP, placing it in the Early Archaic period. The preservation of brain tissue argues for interment in water, and that the burial has remained wet since interment. The brain tissue yielded mitochondrial DNA analyzed by pioneering Swedish paleogeneticist Svante Paabo. He reported that it was of a different mitochondrial lineage than other humans previously known in the New World. It was interpreted as a third mitochondrial lineage in the New World and a rare lineage in the Old World (Paabo et al. 1988; Purdy 1991:154-156). Besides the dated burial, Operation 4 also produced 10 additional radiocarbon ages, mostly based on wood (Gifford 1987; Koski, Quitmyer, and Gifford n.d.). They have date ranges spanning 9,479 to 8,015 cal YBP, which is older than the burial but also fall in the Early Archaic period. These dates show that the substrate, in which the burial was interred, is older than the burial, which is expected. The preservation of wood in this substrate again indicates deposition in water, and that the substrate has remained wet since its deposition. These dates also are important for showing that the water level in the spring basin had risen, by ca. 8,500 cal YBP, to be very close (around 4.45 m AMSL) to the present-day level (5 m AMSL). The fact that the substrate in Operation 4 has remained wet since its deposition, 9,500 to 8,000 cal YBP, is strong evidence against a drop in Little Salt Spring's water level during the Middle Archaic, as hypothesized by Clausen et al. (1979) and incorporated in interpretations of Brown and Cohen (1985). Such a drop was rejected by Luer (2002a: 17, 20) on the basis of wood and peat preservation in locations that would have dried if water levels had dropped, leading to deterioration and loss of wood and peat. Spring Basin, North and East Slopes In 1992, UM started long-term underwater excavations in Little Salt Spring after Gifford obtained a Special Category Grant from the Florida Division of Historical Resources. The focus in 1992 was the basin's north mid-slope, in Operations 5 and 6. Operation 6, a 2 x 2 m unit, was unprecedented for its depth, reaching deep into unconsolidated sandy layers. Zooarchaeolgical remains were recovered (Kozuch 1993; Quitmyer 1994), and Operation 6 produced nine radiocarbon ages, many falling in the Paleoindian period (Koski, Quitmyer, and Gifford n.d.). During the next approximately dozen years, UM slowly and carefully excavated more units (Operations 9, 10, 14, and half of 15) in the basin's north mid-slope. Combined with Operation 6, they formed a north-south trench. The units yielded 11 more radiocarbon ages, almost all falling in the Paleoindian period (Koski, Quitmyer, and Gifford n.d.). Two of these ages have been published (Appendix C-2). One was based on oak wood from close to a notched deer antler artifact in Operation 9's Locus Z (Gifford and Koski 2011) and yielded a 2-sigma date of 10,575 to 10,245 cal YBP. The other was based on a bottle gourd rind fragment from Operation 14 's Stratum 6 (Kistler et al. 2014; Newsom and Kistler 2019) and produced a 2-sigma date of 10,195 to 9,775 cal YBP. In 2005 and 2006, UM and volunteers did a project to locate wooden stakes on the basin's lower east slope. That work produced three radiocarbon ages. One date of a wooden stake falls in the Paleoindian period, and two dates of wood

PAGE 31

LUER AND BLOCK RADIOCARBON DATABASE 27 from composite atlatl artifacts fall in the Early Archaic period (Koski, Newsom, and Gifford 2010, n.d.). Two additional UM-related projects did not involve radiocarbon dating. In 2014, provenance analysis of two Middle Archaic greenstone pendants from the basin's lower east slope indicated sources in the southern Appalachian Piedmont, supporting long-distance exchange into Florida of prestige lithic material (Bonomo et al. 2014 ). Another study, in 2007, addressed human remains collected during the previous 50 years from Little Salt Spring, much of it by sport divers and lacking provenience. Femur count supported 44 MNI, and stature and femur dimensions are similar to the Archaic population from Windover (Wentz and Gifford 2007). 2 7 Meter Ledge In 1988, Gifford (2012) radiocarbon dated a sample (GDC-2137) collected by Clausen in the 1970s from the south side of Little Salt Spring's 27 Meter Ledge. The sample consisted of fauna! material and clay from "near Station #12, Test l." The bone portion was dated to obtain a third age from the same apparent context as Clausen's giant tortoise remains. It yielded a 2-sigma date of (Appendix C-3) roughly 5,000 to 4,500 years older than Clausen's date from tortoise bone (Appendix B-3). In 1992, UM divers took a short core from the eastern side of the 27 Meter Ledge (Gifford et al. 2017:85, Table 4.2). The core's two radiocarbon samples yielded 2-sigma dates ranging from 7,430 to 6,310 cal YBP (Appendix C-3). The divers also collected a tortoise long bone from the north side of the 27 Meter Ledge, which was radiocarbon dated to 14,075 to 13,725 cal YBP (Appendix C-4), but Gifford et al. (2017:83, 87) do not give it (and other dates of "any bone samples" from the 27 Meter Ledge) credence due to diagenesis ( disappearance of collagen, mineralization of bone). In 2008 and 2009, UM divers excavated four and a half 1 x l m units in the south side of the 27 Meter Ledge, alongside Clausen's "Tortoise Trench" (Gifford et al. 2017:81-86). They documented five layers (uppermost dark organic sediment over four labeled strata). The strata included large amounts of rubble ( claystone and limestone roof fall). Considering the abundant and often sizeable rubble, disturbances and some mixing of materials occurred naturally as layers formed. In Stratum 4, they found more pieces of wood and giant tortoise bones, obtaining two radiocarbon ages based on charcoal fragments, which produced 2-sigma dates ranging from 14,680 to 13,750 cal YBP (Appendix C-3). These two dates are similar to one of Clausen's dates for wood from the same context (Appendix B-3). Fragments of carbonized wood, like pieces of unburned wood, could have fallen and sunken into the spring. The UM work on the ledge's south side also uncovered mollusk shell ecofacts. They were fragile valves of a kind of freshwater mussel (Uniomerus sp.) that had grown in the spring, apparently on the ledge. Two ages based on them appear to be too old (19,870 to 18,725 cal YBP), probably due to uptake of geologic "old" carbon when the shells grew and to diagenesis after deposition (Appendix C-3). In 2009 through 2011, UM researchers dove to the 27 Meter Ledge's north side, where they excavated a trench of five contiguous 1 x 1 m units (Gifford et al. 2017:87-98). There, they again found wood and additional giant tortoise bones, obtaining 10 radiocarbon ages based mostly on wood and charcoal fragments (Appendix C-4). Together, they yielded 2-sigma dates ranging from 13,155 to 10,605 cal YBP, with those near the edge being younger than those from among giant tortoise bones (Gifford et al. 2017:101). Nowhere on the ledge did UM workers find definite evidence of humans (no lithic, bone, or shell artifacts, no clearly worked wood, no hearth, no burned or cut bones, no human bones) (Gifford et al. 2017:100). Environmental Studies In early 1990, Gifford conducted deep vibra-coring in the bottom of Little Salt Spring, funded by a National Geographic Society grant (Purdy 1991:143-144). In 1990 and 1991, Gifford obtained 11 radiocarbon ages from five of these cores (Cores I, II, IV, V, and VI) (Appendices C-5 and C-6). In subsequent years, studies of Cores IV and V provided environmental histories of the spring during the last 12,000 years, focused on paleohydrology (Alvarez Zarikian et al. 2005), palynology (Bernhardt et al. 2010, 2011; Bernhardt et al. 2012), and sedimentation (Gregory et al. 2017). Core V yielded 2-sigma date ranges spanning 14,935 to 930 cal YBP (Appendix C-5). Core IV (with a length of 8.27 m [27 ft]) produced 19 radiocarbon ages with 2-sigma dates ranging from 13,482 to 2,996 cal YBP (Appendices C-6 and C7). 8 The sedimentation study of Gregory et al. (2017) is especially important for archaeologists working in Little Salt Spring. It shows a major change in the character of deposition, after ca. 8,000 cal YBP, with a shift from sandy to organic-rich layers. Other recent work has investigated microorganisms found in some of Little Salt Spring's harsh aquatic environments. These studies are from a perspective of biosignatures and earth evolution (de Beer et al. 2017; Hamilton et al. 2017; NASA Astrobiology Institute 2012, 2013). Private-Public Initiatives In 2002 through 2007, renewed efforts were made to protect and to study the land surrounding Little Salt Spring, but this work did not produce radiocarbon dates. Luer (2002a) called attention to the need to acquire 25 private parcels comprising Little Salt Midden. This led, in January 2003, to a terrestrial field school by UM archaeologist Traci Ardren, who excavated five 1 x 1 m units around the spring, with limited auger testing. Next, Sarasota County conducted a topographic survey of the area (Sarasota County Survey-Mapping 2005). This was followed by a state matching grant to UM to fund an extensive terrestrial survey around Little Salt Spring (Koski et al. 2006, 2007). By 2006, citizen, city, and county efforts led

PAGE 32

28 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VoL. 72 (1) to the purchase of 23 of 25 parcels encompassing the midden and a portion of the slough (Florida Anthropological Society 2008:200-201). In 2007, Sarasota County adopted a formal resolution to preserve the parcels it owns (Sarasota County Board of County Commissioners 2007). Today, most of Little Salt Midden is owned by Sarasota County (Sarasota County Property Appraiser 2019). This property (Figure 6) consists of the area between Hyder Terrace and the Acadian Terrace right-of-way (Parcel ID#0970173801) and the area (Parcel ID#0970173633) bordering the City of North Port's 30-ft and 65-ft drainage right-of-way (Parcel ID#0972001592). The Little Salt Slough falls within the latter two properties as well as in a parcel owned by the Sarasota County School Board (Parcel ID#0975001004 ). Their future will be shaped by Sarasota County, the City of North Port, and citizens, such as members of the Warm Mineral Springs/Little Salt Spring Archaeological Society and Friends of Little Salt Spring, both based in North Port. Figure 7. Recent Aerial Image of a Portion of North Port, Florida. Note locations of Little Salt Spring, relic Ponds A and B that were sampled and radiocarbon dated, and surrounding land development (from Google Earth 2016).

PAGE 33

LUER AND BLOCK RADIOCARBON DATABASE 29 Other Radiocarbon Dates in North Port In the 1970s and 1980s, more radiocarbon dates were obtained from five other locations in North Port. Two of them, Nona's Site and the Little Jaw Site, need greater recognition by researchers of the Archaic period, as they are often overlooked. These sites are threatened by further land development in North Port. Nanas Site Nona's Site is an important Middle Archaic mortuary pond located 12 km (7.5 mi) southeast of Little Salt Spring (Figure 1 ). Initial investigations at Nona's Site in 1983 and 1985 are presented by Luer (2002a). The site yielded two radiocarbon samples dating to the Middle Archaic period, with 2-sigma ranges of 4,835 to 4,420 and 6,315 to 6,210 cal YBP (Appendix D-1 ). One date was based on cultural deer bone excavated near the pond's edge in 1983 by archaeologists David Allerton and George Luer, and the other on organic sediment from deep in a core taken in the pond in 1985 by geologist Jock McAndrews of the Royal Ontario Museum (Luer 2002a:7l 5). At Nona's Site, the dated deer bone came from Layer 3 in Pit 1, a 50 x 80 cm test pit (Luer 2002a:Figure 5). It was close to the water's edge, shown by stippling at the "edge of drainage ditch" (see Figure 4 in Luer 2002a). The ditch and its edge had been disturbed by drag-lining in the 1960s, and some features, in retrospect, might have been redeposited at that time. Others, such as Features C and D, apparently were intact and contained disarticulated human bones and freshwater snail shells. The extent of human burials at Nona's Site needs to be determined by an archaeological survey. The City of North Port's on-going maintenance of the drainage way leading into the pond at Nona's Site has repeatedly uncovered human bones (Koski 2015a, 2015b, 2018). Some burials may be deep (1 m or more), in peat, under sand and muck. Little Jaw Site Two more radiocarbon ages in the Middle Archaic period came from the Little Jaw Site (Appendix D-1 ). The site was a "bone midden" discovered by Lelia and Bill Brayfield as they collected fossils along ditches freshly dug by General Development Corporation, ca. 1970. The Little Jaw Site was approximately 140 m (450 ft) north of Interstate 75 (Figure 1), between two branches of Cosmic Waterway (the western, short branch dredged to drain a possible spring). In 1984, the site was tested by the Brayfields, Mitchell Hope of Sebring, Florida, and paleontologists Gordon Edmund and Kevin Seymour of the Royal Ontario Museum. Edmund obtained two radiocarbon ages based on deer bone, but they were only generally and incompletely reported, leaving precise ages unclear (Appendix D-1). The Brayfields found bone tools and identified apparent food bones of at least 12 taxa of freshwater and terrestrial animals (Luer 2002a:18-20). These taxa add to those identified from other Middle Archaic inland sites in west-peninsular Florida, such as Little Salt Midden (above), Bay West (Purdy 1991:57-58), Nona's Site (Luer 2002a), and the West Williams (8Hl509) and Enclave C (8PA1269) sites, the latter two sites dating primarily to late in the Archaic period (ca. 5,000 to 4,000 YBP) (Austin et al. 2009) (Figure 3). Nineteen Owner Midden In 1977, Clausen obtained a single radiocarbon age from a test unit in a terrestrial midden containing pottery sherds and abundant animal bones. Named the Nineteen Owner Midden (8SO85A), it is located 12 km (7.5 mi) southeast of Little Salt Spring, close to Nona's Site (Figure 1). The age produces a 2-sigma date range of 930 to 670 cal YBP, or A.D. 1020 to 1280 (Appendix D-1 ), placing it in the early Safety Harbor period. In 1980, Nineteen Owner Midden was tested by archaeologist Stephen Hale, who placed collections at the Florida Museum of Natural History (Zooarchaeology accession #299). Later, Luer (2002b) visited and researched the site, including its ceramics and faunal remains (terrestrial as well as freshand saltwater), which he interpreted from a perspective of foraging. Thus, the site is important for contributing to our understanding of sizeable middens located "inland from the shore." In 2004, a new house was built on a parcel situated directly on a portion of Nineteen Owner Midden at 4301 Geary Terrace. Today, remaining portions of the site are densely wooded, supporting cabbage palm, live oak, hackberry, and pignut hickory trees. The pignut hickory may reflect a relic or holdover presence since the early Holocene, or they may be a re-introduction by later native people, as a byproduct of their gathering and consumption of the nuts.9 Ponds A andB In 1978, Clausen and J. Coleman, the latter with Environmental Quality Lab, in Port Charlotte, radiocarbon dated organic sediments from two marshy ponds near Little Salt Spring. Called "Ponds A and B," both have since been dredged to create small lakes and now are surrounded by houses and a golf course (Figure 7). Clausen and Coleman obtained five ages from Ponds A and B (Appendix D-2) revealing the onset of ponding as the surrounding upland became wetter, approximately 5,500 to 4,500 cal YBP (Clausen et al. 1979:note 29). This important trend toward high water tables and ponding in the upland happened widely in the North Port area, as described by Luer (2002a:17-18, Table 3, note 14). Before that time, run-off and other surface water (as opposed to spring water) apparently was concentrated in lower-lying ground, such as sloughs and creeks.

PAGE 34

30 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VoL. 72 (1) Figure 8. The Bay West Site in 1973, 1985, and 2019. Arrows point to the site, which was destroyed in 1980 and redeveloped as an artificial lake in the early 2000s in Amberton Townhomes, near Dancing Wind Lane, in Collier County, southwest Florida. Aerial images based on FOOT (1973, 1985) and Google Map Data (2019a).

PAGE 35

LUER AND BLOCK RADIOCARBON DATABASE 31 Other Sites in Southwest Florida Additional Archaic mortuary ponds have been discovered in southwest Florida during land development. In 1980, the Bay West Site (8CR200) was found when a cypress head was dredged to create an artificial pond at a plant nursery (Beriault et al. 1981). Purdy (1991:54, Figures 12A, 12B) shows photographs of the dredged pond. The Bay West Site and nursery were located to the northeast of Naples, approximately 0.3 km (1000 ft) north of Immokalee Road (County Road 846) and 4 km (2.5 mi) east of Interstate 75. The site area was redeveloped in the early 2000s as condominiums, named Amberton Townhomes, and an artificial lake near Dancing Wind Lane (Figure 8). In 1995, Ryder Pond (8LL1850), was destroyed ("de mucked") by land development (Carr 1995; Dickel 1995; Kelly 1995; Lee 1995a, 1995b, 1995c). Controversy led to premature reburial of skeletal remains and artifacts from Ryder Pond, which, according to Dickel (1998), included Thonotosassa points or blades, deer ulna awls, pointed awls/ pins, and a stone atlatl weight that were reportedly similar to material from the Gauthier Site (8BR193, Jones 1981), an Archaic cemetery near Florida's east coast. The reburial prevented adequate research, but Dickel (1998) reported that archaeologist Robert Carr obtained a radiocarbon age, based on "natural wood," which together with adjacent bone and tools supported the site's assignment to the Middle Archaic period. The site area is now an artificial lake in the Highland Woods Golf and Country Club of Bonita Bay, in the City of Bonita Springs, Lee County, approximately 0.8 km (0.5 mi) north of the Imperial River and 0.7 km (0.4 mi) east of Highway U.S. 41 (Figure 9). Figure 9. Ryder Pond in 1979 and 2019. Arrows point to the pond, which was destroyed in 1995 and developed as an artificial lake in the Highland Woods Golf and Country Club of Bonita Bay in Lee County, southwest Florida. Aerial images based on FOOT (1979) and Goggle Map Data (2019b).

PAGE 36

32 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VoL. 72 (1) Conclusion We compile 164 radiocarbon ages from sites in North Port, Florida, and we provide their 2-sigma calibrated date ranges. Another 37 ages and dates from Little Salt Spring's basin will be published in the future. In addition, we cite two radiocarbon dates (both reported incompletely) in this article's text. We emphasize the subaqueous deposition and preservation of plant remains and freshwater ecofacts in many of the dated deposits. Many radiocarbon dates in the Paleoindian period come from Warm Mineral Springs and Little Salt Spring (see Table 3, Figure 4, and Appendices). Grouped by provenience and 2-sigma ranges, they come from the 13 Meter Ledge in Warm Mineral Springs (13,255 to 9,475 cal YBP) and from the basin slope of Little Salt Spring (11,270 to 9,775 cal YBP). Deeper, on Little Salt Spring's 27 Meter Ledge, most reliable radiocarbon ages are based on wood (14,680 to 10,605 cal YBP) and no definite evidence of humans has been identified. Fossil animal bones from the ledge have produced diverse, questionable ages. The ledge's bones include those of several giant tortoises (and likely more) that apparently accumulated naturally and gradually as the animals fell into the spring and died. At Little Salt Spring, the lower portion of its basin began to be inundated by the late Paleoindian period. This is shown by the preservation of wooden stakes ( dated to 11,270 to 10,300 cal YBP) that were driven into the substrate, apparently in shallow water, and that are now approximately 11 to 12 m below the spring's present-day water surface. A core (GDF-141 ), taken on land in the hammock close to the spring basin, shows that the water in the spring basin had risen rapidly to reach a level approximately 1 m below the spring's present day water surface by ca. 9,000 cal YBP. This time of rapid water rise in Little Salt Spring ( ca. 11,000 to 9,000 cal YBP) was accompanied by slumpage and sandy, elastic deposition (Gregory et al. 2017). By 8,500 cal YBP, the water in the spring was close to the present-day level, and has remained around there to the present day. This is shown by a human burial with brain tissue near the top of Operation 4, close to the west shore of the basin. Once the basin in Little Salt Spring was filled or mostly filled with water, biological production increased and there was a shift from sandy deposition to the accumulation of organic-rich deposits (Gregory et al. 2017). This marks a greater surface area of water in the basin, more sunlight and air exchange at the surface, and a larger basin perimeter allowing the growth of emergent vegetation and associated fauna. At Little Salt Slough, radiocarbon dates show that human burials were interred in watery peat during the late Early Archaic and early Middle Archaic periods ( ca. 7,900 to 6,500 cal YBP). Close-by, radiocarbon dates indicate that Little Salt Midden was inhabited during the Middle Archaic period ( ca. 5,500 to 4,800 cal YBP). Dates from Nona's Site and Little Jaw site also range in the Middle Archaic period (ca. 6,300 to 4,500 cal YBP). Also during this time (ca. 5,500 to 4,500 cal YBP), the surrounding upland became wetter, as indicated by peat that began to form in natural, shallow depressions that became marshy ponds dotting the North Port landscape. Finally, a single date from Nineteen Owner Midden falls in the early Safety Harbor period (930 to 670 cal YBP, or A.D. 1020 to 1280). Acknowledgments Darden Hood of Beta Analytic, Inc., generously calibrated most of the ages presented in this article, and Ron Hatfield of Beta Analytic assisted with the rest. Archaeologist Glen Doran kindly provided unpublished radiocarbon ages from Warm Mineral Springs. Steve Koski and John Gifford generously shared information, as did Bill Goetz of North Port, Marion Almy of Sarasota, and Barbara Purdy of Gainesville. In North Port, Lawry Reid of the Friends of Little Salt Spring gave encouragement. Dan Hughes, former Sarasota County Archaeologist, and Rob Bendus, Manager of Sarasota County Historical Resources, furnished information. New College of Florida student Hayley Trejo assisted at the computer. Matt Woodside of the South Florida Museum, in Bradenton, kindly provided a photo related to Tallant. Cody VanderPloeg of the Florida Master Site File found useful data. Tesa Norman and Laura Dean helped create electronic graphics. Finally, we are grateful to previous researchers, especially Carl Clausen in the field, Jerry Stipp in the radiocarbon dating laboratory, and Barbara Purdy for her scholarship. Notes 1. The exception consists of a series of calibrated dates in Appendix C-7, in which calibrated YBP dates are from Gregory et al. (2017:362, Table 1 ), based on the IntCal 13 database, and the calibrated B.C. dates are based on the OxCal 4.3 radiocarbon calibration program, which uses the Bayesian highest posterior density (HPD) function. Beta Analytic did not provide the B.C. calibrated dates due to methodological reservations about how those ages were produced. 2. In the 1930s or 1940s, collectors apparently dug in Little Salt Spring. In his artifact catalog, collector Montague Tallant (n.d.) listed a chipped stone biface ("spear, flint, blue, 3.5 inches") and 68 other artifacts ("beads, wolf teeth & shell") from Little Salt Spring (Tallant catalog numbers A44 through Al 13). These might have come from the shallow edge of the spring basin, where Middle Archaic burials and artifacts exist in underwater deposits. In 2000, I was unable to locate Tallant's specimens at the South Florida Museum (SFM), in Bradenton, apparently because they were misplaced, lost, or stolen many years ago. A fabricated necklace of fresh, crudely incised canid teeth at SFM (Luer 2000: 16) may attempt to replicate Tallant's finds for display in a former museum exhibit, as may another necklace of plastic beads and alligator teeth (see Luer 2002a:25, Note 7). A photo in the Tallant Gallery at SFM shows wading men peering into glass-bottomed boxes, apparently looking for artifacts. The shallowness of the water (calf-deep) argues against the location as Little Salt Spring,

PAGE 37

LUER AND BLOCK RADIOCARBON DATABASE 33 where such a shallow depth is occupied by emergent vegetation. 3. Divers in Little Salt Spring included building contractor Bill Royal and dentist Jarl Malwin of Venice, Ben Waller of Ocala, photographer Bob Pelham of Sarasota, marine biologist Eugenie Clark, then of Englewood and Sarasota, Louanna Petty of Ohio who was a winter visitor to Venice, and many others. On diver, in Venice, reportedly had "many skulls from Warm Mineral Springs in his collection" (Royal 1986). 4. At that time, there were no roads near Little Salt Spring. Pelham's color slides of the midl 960s show divers walking overland and carrying their gear across approximately 2 miles of open prairie from Warm Mineral Springs to reach Little Salt Spring. In the summer rainy season, they waded ankle-deep across the saw palmetto prairie, flooded with shallow water (Bob Pelham, personal communication 1985). This same area is now a residential section in the City of North Port. 5. As early as 1959, Goggin dove in Little Salt Spring and Warm Mineral Springs (Purdy 1991:201-202). According to Burgess (1976: 128 in Gifford et al. 2017:73), Goggin also dove in Little Salt and Warm Mineral Springs in May, 1961. 6. During these years, sport divers continued to visit the spring. In December 1971, four divers explored Little Salt Spring's deep abyss, reaching a depth of 70 m (225 ft) in a lateral cave at the bottom of the spring. In March 1975, three divers explored the same area, reaching a depth of approximately 75 m (250 ft) (CaveAtlas.com 2017). 7. A 1978 photograph of Clausen and others at the time of extracting this core appeared in National Airline's Aloft in-flight magazine (Gorman 1979:8, top). Also at that time, archaeologist Marion Almy worked as an assistant to Clausen. Almy had prior experience diving in Warm Mineral Springs with Cockrell and Ruppe. 8. Also in 1990, Gifford and archaeologist Robert Carr extracted a core from a small, muckand peat-filled sink hole near Naples, Florida. Destroyed for enlargement of a golf course in the Pelican Bay subdivision, this was one of several doomed sink holes in the former Naples Sandhill Scrub, an important sand pine and rosemary biotic community tragically erased by land development in the 1980s. Samples from the core at depths of 24 and 28.5 feet reportedly produced two radiocarbon ages of 3,320 +/50 and 3,540 +/60 years (Lee 1990a, 1990b, 1990c, 1990d; Luer 1998:32, Note 3, Figure 1). 9. Hickory grew in the North Port area approximately 10,000 years ago. This evidence comes from underwater Zone 3 on the 13 Meter Ledge in Warm Mineral Springs (Clausen et al. 1975b: 197) and from underwater excavations in the lower basin of Little Salt Spring, the latter location yielding hickory nut shells radiocarbon dated to ca. 10,000 cal YBP by Clausen (Appendix B-2) and by Gifford (see Koski, Quitmyer, and Gifford n.d.). Evidence also consists of hickory pollen, such as in sediment extracted from small freshwater mollusk shells from Little Salt Spring's lower basin (Brown and Cohen 1985:23-24) and from deep Core IV (Hansen 1990). In the last 2,000 years, hickory in the Sarasota County area might have been spread by humans. Carbonized hickory nutshell fragments were excavated by archaeologists from the Shell Ridge Midden at the Palmer Site (8SO2), where they date to Manasota (ca. A.D. 200 to 300) and early Safety Harbor (ca. A.D. 1100) times (Newsom 1988:210, Table 4). Pignut hickory also grows close to Wilson Mound A (8SO70) in Old Miakka and at the Palmetto Lane Midden (8SO96) and elsewhere near Whitaker Bayou (Luer 2011 :26, Note 11). References Cited Alvarez Zarikian, Carlos A., Peter K. Swart, John A. Gifford, and Patricia L. Blackwelder 2005 Holocene Paleohydrology of Little Salt Spring, Florida, Based on Ostracod Assemblages and Stable Isotopes. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 225:134-156. Anonymous 1972 General Development Sponsors Archaeological Research Program: 5,000-Year-Old Remains in North Port Charlotte Spring. New Vistas for General Development Corporation Property Owners (promotional magazine). March issue, pp. 14-19. On file, Sarasota County History Center. Aten, Lawrence E. 1999 Middle Archaic Ceremonialism at Tick Island, Florida: Ripley P. Bullen's 1961 Excavation at the Harris Creek Site. The Florida Anthropologist 52(3): 131-200. Austin, Robert J., Lisabeth Carlson, and Richard Estabrook 2009 Archaic Period Fauna! Use in the West-Central Florida Interior. Southeastern Archaeology 28(2): 148-164. Bense, Ju.dith A. 1994 Archaeology of the Southeastern United States: Paleoindian to World War 1. Academic Press, San . Diego, California. Beriault, John, Robert Carr, Jerry Stipp, Richard Johnson, and Jack Meeder 1981 The Archeological Salvage of the Bay West Site, Collier County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 34(2):39-58. Bernhardt, Christopher E., Debra A. Willard, and John A. Gifford 2012 Pollen Evidence for a Cool, Dry Younger Dryas and Warm, Wet Early Holocene in Southeast United States. Abstract in Japanese Journal of Palynology 58(1):15-16.

PAGE 38

34 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VoL. 72 (1) Bernhardt, Christopher E., Debra A. Willard, Bryan Landacre, and John A. Gifford 2010 Vegetation Changes During the Last De glacial and Early Holocene: A Record from Little Salt Spring, Florida. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting Abstracts 2010. 2011 Vegetation Changes During the Last De glacial and Early Holocene: A Record from Little Salt Spring, Florida. Abstract of poster presented by Steve Koski at 63rd Annual Meeting of the Florida Anthropological Society, Orlando. The Florida Anthropologist 64: 126. Bonomo, Michael F., Justin P. Lowry, Robert H. Tykot, and John A. Gifford 2014 An Exploratory Non-Destructive Provenance Analysis of Two Middle Archaic Greenstone Pendants from Little Salt Spring, Florida, USA. Geoarchaeology: An International Journal 29:121-137. Bowman, Sheridan 1990 Radiocarbon Dating. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. Brandle, Lowell 1959 Fossil Discoveries Amaze Scientists: At Gulf Coast Spring. Fort Lauderdale News, May 14, p. 3C. On file, Sarasota County History Center. Bronk Ramsey, Christopher 2009 Bayesian Analysis of Radiocarbon Dates. Radiocarbon 51(1):337-360. Brown, Janice G. 1981 Palynologic and Petrographic Analyses of Bayhead Hammock and Marsh Peats at Little Salt Spring Archaeological Site (8SO18), Florida. M.A. Thesis, Department of Geology, University of South Carolina. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor. Brown, J. G., and A. D. Cohen 1985 Palynologic and Petrographic Analyses of Peat Deposits, Little Salt Spring. National Geographic Research 1(4):21-31. Buckley, James 1978 Letter to Curtiss Peterson, State of Florida Archaeological Conservator, from Teledyne Isotopes, Inc., dated July 3. On file, Sarasota County History Center. Burgess, Robert F. 1976 The Cave Divers. Dodd, Mead and Company, N.Y. Calvert, M., Kim Rudolph, and J. J. Stipp 1978 University of Miami Radiocarbon Date XII. Radiocarbon 20(2):274-282. Carr, Robert S. 1995 Archaeological Assessment of Human Bones from Highland Woods. On file with 8LL 1850 Site File, Florida Master Site File, Tallahassee . CaveAtlas.com 2017 Webpage showing cross-section diagram of Little Salt Spring, Florida, U.S.A. (www.caveatlas.com) Clark, Eugenie 1969 The Lady and the Sharks. Harper and Row, N.Y. Clausen, Carl J. 1964a The A-356 Site and the Florida Archaic. M.A. Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville. 1964b Devil's Den. Paper delivered to the Society of American Archaeology Meeting, University of North Carolina. 1965 A 1715 Spanish Treasure Ship. Contributions of the Florida State Museum, Social Sciences #12, University of Florida, Gainesville. 1966 The Proton Magnetometer. The Florida Anthropologist 19(2-3):77-84. 1987 Letter to Alan Mitchell, Operations Manager for General Development Corporation, dated May 29. On file, Sarasota County History Center. Clausen, Carl J., and Marion M. Almy 1978 Small Scale Photogrammetry Enhances Archaeological Record. Paper presented at 30th Annual Meeting of the Florida Anthropological Society, Fort Walton Beach. Clausen, Carl J., H. K. Brooks, A. B. Wesolowsky 1975a Florida Spring Confirmed as 10,000 Year Old Early Man Site, edited by Ripley P. Bullen. Florida Anthropological Society Publication #7, Gainesville. 1975b The Early Man Site at Warm Mineral Springs, Florida. Journal of Field Archaeology 2:191-213. Clausen, Carl J., A. D. Cohen, Cesare Emiliani, J. A. Holman, and J. J. Stipp 1979 Little Salt Spring , Florida: A Unique Underwater Site. Science 203:609-614. Clausen, Carl J., and Cesare Emiliani 1979 Little Salt Spring: Preserver of the Past. Sea Frontiers 25(5):258-265. Cockrell, Wilburn A. 1977 National Register of Historic Places InventoryNomination Form: Warm Mineral Springs (8SO19), Sarasota County, Florida. On file, Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research, Tallahassee.

PAGE 39

LUER AND BLOCK RADIOCARBON DATABASE 35 1986 The Warm Mineral Springs Archaeological Research Project: Current Research and Technological Applications. In Diving for Science ... 86, edited by Charles T. Mitchell, pp. 63-68. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences 6th Annual Scientific Diving Symposium. Costa Mesa, California. 1990 Archaeological Research at Warm Mineral Springs, Florida. In Diving for Science .. . 1990, edited by Walter C. Jaap, pp. 6978. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences 10th Annual Scientific Diving Symposium. University of South Florida, St. Petersburg. Cockrell, W. A., and Larry Murphy 1978 Pleistocene Man in Florida. Archaeology of Eastern North America 6:1-13. Cousteau, Jacques-Yves, and Frederic Dumas 1953 The Silent World. New York and London. Crabtree, Sharon 1980 Letter to Carl Clausen from UM Department of Geology, dated September 8. On file, Sarasota County History Center. Crabtree, Sharon, and J. J. Stipp 1981 University of Miami Radiocarbon Dates XXL Radiocarbon 23(3):404-409. Dasovich, Steve 1996 Compilation and Analysis of Florida's Prehistoric Radiocarbon Database. M.A. Thesis, Department of Anthropology, Florida State University, Tallahassee. Dasovich, Steve J., and Glen H. Doran 2011 The Florida Radiocarbon Database. The Florida Anthropologist 64(1):53-61. de Beer, Dirk, Miriam Weber, Arjun Chennu, Trinity Hamilton, Christian Lott, Jennifer Macalady, and Judith M. Klatt 2017 Oxygenic and Anoxygenic Photosynthesis in a Microbial Mat from an Anoxic and Sulfidic Spring. Environmental Microbiology 19(3): 1251-1265. Dickel, David N. 1995 Update ofField Report. On file with 8LL1850 Site File, Florida Master Site File, Tallahassee. 1998 Florida Master Site File Form for Ryder Pond (8LL1850). On file, Florida Master Site File, Tallahassee. Doran, Glen H. 2002 The Windover Radiocarbon Chronology. In Windover: Multidisciplinary Investigations of an Early Archaic Florida Cemetery, edited by Glen H. Doran, pp. 5972. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. Doran, Glen H., and David N. Dickel 1988 Radiometric Chronology of the Archaic Windover Archaeological Site (8-Br-246). The Florida Anthropologist 41 :365-380. Elliot, Kim 2018 Lab list of current AMS/radiocarbon labs, with current and retired lab codes (http://radiocarbon. webhost. uits.arizona.edu/home ). Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) 1973 Aerial Image showing the Bay West Site, Collier County, Florida. FDOT catalog #278540-COL 113 704-24, ca. 1973. Electronic document (https://www. fdotewp I .dot.state.fl. us/ AerialPhotoLookUpSystem ), accessed February 26, 2019. 1979 Aerial Image showing Ryder Pond, Lee County, Florida. FDOT catalog #278553-LEE2393-15-03, ca. 1979. Electronic document, https://www. fdotewp I .dot.state.fl. us/ AerialPhotoLookUpSystem, accessed February 26, 2019. 1985 Aerial Image showing the Bay West Site, Collier County, Florida. FDOT catalog #278522-COL3 l 07-05-25, 1985. Electronic document, (https://www . fdotewp I .dot.state . fl.us/ AerialPhotoLookUpSystem), accessed February 26, 2019. Florida Anthropological Society 2008 FAS 2008 Award Recipients. The Florida Anthropologist 61(3-4):199-203. Fradkin, Arlene 1978 Fauna! Remains from 8-So-79. Ms on file, acc. #297, Environmental Archaeology Lab, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville. Gifford, John A. 1987 Notes about Radiocarbon Dates from Operation 4 "Mini-Excavation," Little Salt Spring Basin, Presented by UM Geology Student Michele Montague, April 23. On file, Sarasota County History Center. 1990 The First Floridians: Paleo-Indians of Little Salt Spring. Historic Preservation Grants-inAid Special Category Application Form. On file, Florida Department of State, Division of Historical Resources, Tallahassee. 2012 Working Database of Radiocarbon Dating Results from Little Salt Spring. On file, with John Gifford and Steve Koski, North Port, Florida.

PAGE 40

36 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VoL. 72 (1) Gifford, John A., and Steven H. Koski 2011 An Incised Antler Artifact from Little Salt Spring (8SO18). The Florida Anthropologist 64:47-51. Gifford, John A., Steven H. Koski, Lee Ann Newsom, and Lauren Milideo 2017 Little Salt Spring: Excavations on the 27 Meter Ledge, 2008-2011. In The Archaeology of Underwater Caves, edited by Peter B. Campbell, pp. 73-103. Highfield Press, Southampton, U.K. Goggin, John M. 1949 Cultural Traditions in Florida Prehistory. In The Florida Indian and His Neighbors, edited by John W. Griffin, pp. 13-44. Rollins College Inter American Center, Winter Park, Florida. 1960 Underwater Archaeology: Its Nature and Limitations. American Antiquity 25(3):348-354. 1962 Recent Developments in Underwater Archaeology. Southeastern Archaeological Conference Newsletter 8:77-88. 1964 Indian and Spanish Selected Writings. University of Miami Press, Coral Gables. Goggin, John M., William Massey, Clayton Ray, and H. K. Brooks 1961 Devil's Den, An Early Underwater Cave. Paper presented at 1961 Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Gainesville, Florida. Google Map Data 2019a Aerial Image of the Bay West Site, Collier County, Florida. Image centered on the site at UTM 26.275844 m North, -81.704102 m West. 2019b Aerial Image of Ryder Pond, Lee County, Florida. Image centered on location of former Ryder Pond at UTM 26.349869 m North, -81.801225 m West. Gorman, John 1979 The Secrets of the Spring. Sept.-Oct. National Airlines in-flight magazine. Aloft 11(8):6-13. Gregory, Braden R. B., Eduard G. Reinhardt, and John A. Gifford 2017 The Influence of Morphology on Sinkhole Sedimentation at Little Salt Spring, Florida. Journal of Coastal Research 33(2):359-371. Hamilton, T. L., P. V. Welander, H. L. Albrecht, J. M. Fulton, I. Shaperdoth, L. R. Bird, R. E. Summons, K. H. Freeman, and J. L. Macalady 2017 Microbial Communities and Organic Biomarkers in a Proterozoic-analog Sinkhole. Geobiology 15:784-797. Hansen, Barbara C. S., Eric C. Grimm, and William A. Watts 2001 Palynology of the Peace Creek Site, Polk County, Florida. Geological Society of America Bulletin 113(6):682-692. Harring, Valarie G. 1987 Archaic Bones Unearthed. North Port Times, pp. IA, 12A, June 10. On file, Sarasota County History Center. Holman, J. Alan, and Carl J. Clausen 1984 Fossil Vertebrates Associated With Paleo-Indian Artifact at Little Salt Spring, Florida. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 4( 1 ): 146-154. Hubbs, Carl L., George S. Bien, and Hans E. Suess 1960 La Jolla Natural Radiocarbon Measurements. American Journal of Science Radiocarbon Supplement 2:197-223. Introne, Douglas S., and J. J. Stipp 1979 University of Miami Radiocarbon Dates XV. Radiocarbon 21(2):291-297. Johnson, Richard A., G. E. Treadgold, and J. J. Stipp 1983 University of Miami Radiocarbon Dates XXII. Radiocarbon 25(1):137-142. Jones, B. Calvin 1981 Florida Anthropologist Interview with Calvin Jones, Part II: Excavations of an Archaic Cemetery in Cocoa Beach, Florida. Conducted by Robert S. Carr. The Florida Anthropologist 34(2):81-89. Jones, B. Calvin, Louis D. Tesar, and Jonathan Lammers 1998 B. Calvin Jones: Comments and Commentary, Video-tape Interview Excerpts. The Florida Anthropologist 51(2):79-128. Kelly, Jim (Editor) 1995 Protests prompt rapid reburial at Ryder Pond. Florida Antiquity: Newsletter of the Archaeological and Historical Conservancy, Inc. 5(3):1, 3. Davie, Florida. King, James E. 1975 Analysis of Pollen from Warm Mineral Springs, Florida. Unpublished typescript, on file, Sarasota County History Center. Kistler L., A. Montenegro, B. D. Smith, J. A. Gifford, L.A. Newsom, and B. Shapiro 2014 African Origins and Multi-Regional Domestication of Bottle Gourds in the Americas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences l 11(8):2937-2941 . Koski, Steven H. 2013 The Tortoise and the Ledge: Interpretation and Representation at Little Salt Spring. In

PAGE 41

LUER AND BLOCK RADIOCARBON DATABASE 37 ArtCalusa: Reflections on Representation, edited by Theresa M. Schober, pp. 17-18. Lee Trust for Historic Preservation, Fort Myers, Florida. 2015a Field Summary Report Dated March 8: Nona's Site Visit, March 5, 2015. On file, Sarasota County History Center. 2015b Field Summary Report Dated March 18: Nona's Site Visit, March 15, 2015. On file, Sarasota County History Center. 2018 Summary of Site Visit: Nona's Site, May 15 and 16, 2018. On file, Sarasota County History Center. Koski, Steven H., Lee A. Newsom, and John A. Gifford 2010 Analysis of Two Middle Archaic Compound Artifacts from the Lower Basin of Little Salt Spring (8SO18), Sarasota County, Florida. Presentation n.d. at FAS 62nd Annual Meeting, Fort Myers. Abstract in The Florida Anthropologist 63(2): 102. Excavations in Little Salt Spring Basin's Lower East Slope, Sarasota County, Florida. Ms. in preparation. Koski, Steven H., Irvy R. Quitmyer, and John A. Gifford n.d. Excavations in Little Salt Spring Basin's West Edge and North Slope, Sarasota County, Florida. Ms. in preparation. Koski, Steve, Greg C. Smith, and Leslie E. Raymer 2006 Archaeological Survey at the Little Salt Midden and Slough Site (8S079) Surrounding the Little Salt Spring Basin, Sarasota County, Florida. New South Associates Technical Report #1390, Stone Mountain, Georgia. Koski, Steve, Greg C. Smith, Leslie E. Raymer, and Mason Sheffield 2007 Addendum to: Archaeological Survey at the Little Salt Midden and Slough Site (8S079) Surrounding the Little Salt Spring Basin, Sarasota County, Florida. New South Associates Technical Report #1521, Stone Mountain, Georgia. Kozuch, Laura 1993 Little Salt Spring (8SO 18) Fauna] Analysis. Unpublished report, on file with John Gifford and Steve Koski. Lee, Arthur R. (Editor) 1990a Developer to Destroy Two Sinkholes at Pelican Bay. Newsletter, Southwest Florida Archaeological Society 6(4):1-2. Naples. 1990b Environmentalist Pleads to Save Remaining Sinkhole: Marjory Stoneman Douglas Asks that Last Sinkhole be Spared. Newsletter, Southwest Florida Archaeological Society 6(6):4. Naples. 1990c Sinkholes: 3,500 Years. Newsletter, Southwest Florida Archaeological Society 6(7):2. Naples. 1990d Westinghouse Says it Will Try to Save Remaining Sinkhole. Newsletter, Southwest Florida Archaeological Society 6(8):2. Naples. 1995a Muck at Bonita mixes periods: same pond has Archaic burials, extinct fauna. Newsletter, Southwest Florida Archaeological Society 11(2):1, 3. Naples. 1995b Explanation of basis for reburials sought. Newsletter, Southwest Florida Archaeological Society 11(4):4. Naples. 1995c Ryder Pond exhumations, reburials, talk subject: archaeologist Carr to speak in October. Newsletter, Southwest Florida Archaeological Society 11 ( 6): 1-2. Naples. Levin, Betsy, Patricia C. Ives, Charles L. Oman, and Meyer Rubin 1965 U.S. Geological Survey Radiocarbon Dates VIII. Radiocarbon 7:372-398. Libby, Willard F. 1955 Radiocarbon Dating. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Lien, Paul M. 1983 Amino Acid Racemization Dates From Paleo-Indian Sites in Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 36(1-2): 106-107. Loger, Michele C. 2014 Averaging Radiocarbon Ages from Big Mound Key. In Big Mound Key Near Charlotte Harbor, Florida, edited by George M. Luer, pp. 87-95. Florida Anthropological Society Publication# 17, Tallahassee. Luer, George M. 1998 The Naples Canal: A Deep Indian Canoe Canal in Southwestern Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 51(1):25-36. 2000 Shell and Bone Artifacts in the Tallant Collection, South Florida Museum, Bradenton, Florida. Report prepared for Synergy Design Group, Tallahassee, and the South Florida Museum. On file, South Florida Museum and Bishop Planetarium, Bradenton. 2002a Three Middle Archaic Sites in North Port. In Archaeology of Upper Charlotte Harbor, Florida, edited by George M. Luer, pp. 3-33. Florida Anthropological Society Publication Number 15, Tallahassee.

PAGE 42

38 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VOL. 72 (1) Luer, George M. 2002b Settlement and Subsistence at a Late Weeden Island-Safety Harbor Period Inland Midden in North Port. In Archaeology of Upper Charlotte Harbor, Florida, edited by George M. Luer, pp. 7393. Florida Anthropological Society Publication Number 15, Tallahassee. 2011 The Yellow Bluffs Mound Revisited: A Manasota Period Burial Mound in Sarasota. The Florida Anthropologist 64( 1 ):5-32. Martin, Robert A., and S. David Webb 1974 Late Pleistocene Mammals from the Devil's Den Fauna, Levy County. In Pleistocene Mammals of Florida, edited by S. David Webb, pp. 114-145. University Presses of Florida, Gainesville. Marx, Robert 1974 America's 12,000-Year-Old Man. Argosy, March Issue. Popular Publications, New York. McDonald, H. Gregory 1975 The Warm Mineral Springs Fauna. Ms on file, Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research, Tallahassee. 1976 Additions to the Warm Mineral Springs Fauna. Ms on file, Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research, Tallahassee . 1990 Understanding the paleoecology of fossil vertebrates-Contributions of submerged sites. In Diving for Science ... 1990, edited by Walter C. Jaap, pp. 69-78. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences 10th Annual Scientific Diving Symposium. University of South Florida, St. Petersburg. Merbs, Charles F., and Carl J. Clausen 1981 The People of Little Salt Spring. Paper presented at the 46th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, San Diego. Metz, Patty A. 2016 Discharge, Water Temperature, and Water Quality of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A Retrospective Analysis. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2016-1166. Reston,Virginia. Milanich, Jerald T., and Charles H. Fairbanks 1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic Press, New York. Morris, Donald H. 1975 Warm Mineral Springs Man. Ms. on file, Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research, Tallahassee. Murphy, Larry 1978 8SO 19: Specialized Methodological, Technological and Physiological Approaches to Deep Water Excavation of a Prehistoric Site at Warm Mineral Springs, Florida. In Beneath the Waters of Time: The Proceedings of the Ninth Conference on Underwater Archaeology, edited by J. Barto Arnold III, Texas Antiquities Committee #6, Austin, Texas. NASA Astrobiology Institute 2012 Annual Report, (http://nai.nasa.gov/annual reports/2012/psu/biosignaturesin-relevantmicro bial-ecosystems/). 2013 Annual Report (http://nai.nasa.gov/annual reports/2013/psu/biosignatures-in-relevant microbial-ecosystems/). Newsom, Lee 1998 Archaeobotanical Research at Shell Ridge Midden, Palmer Site (8SO2), Sarasota County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 51 ( 4 ):207-222. Newsom, Lee A., and Logan Kistler 2019 Paleoethnobotanical Analysis of Bulk Sediment and In Situ Collections from the North Slope Basin of Little Salt Spring (8SO18), Sarasota County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 72(1 ). Paabo, Svante, John A. Gifford, and Allen C. Wilson 1988 Mitochondrial DNA Sequences from a 7000-Year Old Brain. Nucleic Acid Research 16(20):9775-9787. Penton, Daniel T. 1972 National Register of Historic Places InventoryNomination Form: Little Salt Spring (8SO 18), Sarasota County, Florida. On file, Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research, Tallahassee. Purdy, Barbara A. 1991 The Art and Archaeology of Florida s Wetlands. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. Purdy, Barbara A., Kathryn M. Rohlwing, and Bruce J. MacFadden 2015 Devil's Den, Florida: Rare Earth Element Analysis Indicates Contemporaneity of Humans and Latest Pleistocene Fauna. PaleoAmerica 1(3):266-275. Quinn, Rhonda L., Bryan D. Tucker, and John Krigbaum 2008 Diet and Mobility in Middle Archaic Florida: Stable Isotopic and Fauna! Evidence from the Harris Creek Archaeological Site (8VO24), Tick Island. Journal of Archaeological Science 35:2346-2356.

PAGE 43

LUER AND BLOCK RADIOCARBON DATABASE 39 Quitmyer, Irvy R . 1994 Descriptive Analysis of Fauna Identified in Operation Six , Little Salt Spring (8SO18) , Florida . Ms on file, Environmental Archaeology Laboratory, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville. Reimer, Paula J . (and 29 other authors) 2013 IntCal 13 and Marine 13 Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves 0-50, 000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55(4):1869-1887. Royal, William R. 1986 Letter to Donald H. Morris (Physical Anthropologist) , Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, dated October 28. Copy on file , Sarasota County History Center. Royal, William R., and R . F. Burgess 1978 The Man Who Rode Sharks . Dodd, Mead, N .Y. Royal, William R , and Eugenie Clark 1960 Natural Preservation of Human Brain, Warm Mineral Springs, Florida . American Antiquity 26(2):285-287. Rupert, Frank R . 1994 The Geology of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida. Open File Report 60 , Florida Geological Survey , Tallahassee . Sarasota County Board of County Commissioners 2007 Resolution No. 2007-114 . Re : Preserving and protecting of seven environmental lots and 1 7 archaeological lots owned by Sarasota County, dated December 7 , 2004 , all said lots lying within the City of North Port Municipal Limits. Recorded in Clerk of Circuit Court, Saras o ta County . Sarasota County Property Appraiser 2019 Website data for parcels encompassing Little Salt Midden and Slough (Parcel ID# 0970173801 , #0970173633,#0972001592,#0975001004) . Electronic document , (https ://www. sc-pa.com/ / propertysearch) , accessed March 3 , 2019. Sarasota County Survey-Mapping 2005 Little Salt Spring Boundary and Topographic Survey . Two sheets (Parcels A and B). Planning and Development Services Business Center , Project # 04124 . Sarasota . Straube, M. H. 1974 Radiocarbon Dating in Warm Mineral Springs. Typescript on file, Sarasota County History Center. Tallant , Montague n .d. Artifact catalog of the Montague Tallant Collection. On file , South Florida Museum, Bradenton. Talma, A. S., and J.C. Vogel 1993 A Simplified Approach to Calibrating C 14 Dates. Radiocarbon 35(2):317-322. Tesar, Louis D. 1997 Notes concerning the radiocarbon dates and age of human remains at Warm Mineral Springs. Survey #22318. On file, Florida Master Site File, Tallahassee . Valastro, S., Jr., E. Mott Davis, and Alejandra G. Varela 1977 University of Texas at Austin Radiocarbon Dates XI. Radiocarbon 19(2):280-325. 1979 University of Texas at Austin Radiocarbon Dates XIII. Radiocarbon 21(2):257-273. Valastro, S., Jr., E. Mott Davis, Alejandra G. Varela, and Susan V. Lisk 1986 University of Texas at Austin Radiocarbon Dates XV. Radiocarbon 28(3) : 1173-1199. Waller, Ben 1983 Florida Anthropologist Interview by James Dunbar. The Florida Anthropologist 36(1-2):31-39. Watts, William A. 197 5 A Late Quaternary Record of Vegetation from Lake Annie, South-Central Florida . Geology 3(6):344-346 . Webb, S. David, and James S. Dunbar 2006 Carbon Dates. In First Floridians and Last Mastodons: The Page-Ladson Site in the Aucilla River, edited by S. David Webb, pp. 83-102. Springer, Dordrecht. Weisman , Brent R. 2002 Pioneer in Space and Time : John Mann Goggin and the Development of Florida Archaeology . University Press of Florida, Gainesville. Wentz , Rachel K., and John A . Gifford 2007 Florida's Deep Past: The Bioarchaeology of Little Salt Spring (8SO 18) and its Place Among Mortuary Ponds of the Archaic . Southeastern Archaeology 26(2):330-337. Wharton, Barry R., George R. Ballo, and Mitchell E . Hope 1981 The Republic Groves Site, Hardy County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 34(2) : 59-80 . Willey, Gordon R. 1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 113, Washington, D.C. Yezdani , G . Habib, and E . S . Deevey, Jr. 1973 A Report on the Microfossils of Little Salt Spring. Unfinished manuscript. On file, Sarasota County History Center.

PAGE 44

40 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VoL. 72 (1) Appendices Appendices A, B, C, and D. Radiocarbon Database for North Port, Florida (Warm Mineral Springs, Little Salt Spring, Nona's Site, Little Jaw Site, Nineteen Owner Midden, and two natural marshy ponds). Data are presented in Appendices A-1 through A-4, B-1 through B-8, C-1 through C-7, and D-1 and D-2. We compile 164 radiocarbon ages; 37 additional ages from Little Salt Spring's basin will be reported in the future (see Table 1 and the text). Two incompletely reported ages are insufficient to include in these Appendices, but they are discussed in the text. Measured and conventional ages are in radiocarbon years before present (B.P.; present = A.D. 1950). Assumed o13C values, based on known values for the types of materials dated, are applied in this article. Ages and o13C year corrections are rounded to the nearest ten. Calibrated dates in calendar years B.P. (YBP) and in calendar years B.C. (cal B.C.) were supplied by Beta Analytic, Inc., based on Talma and Vogel (1993) and Reimer et al. (2013), with the exception of calibrated dates in Appendix C-7 (see caption of C-7). Table entries use the Intcal13 database. One sigma age ranges have 68% probability; two sigma dates have 95% probability. Radiocarbon dating laboratory abbreviations are: Beta Analytic, Miami, Florida (Beta); DirectAMS Radiocarbon Dating Service (D-AMS); Gakushuin University, Tokyo, Japan (GAK); Teledyne Isotopes, Westwood, New Jersey (I); IsoTrace Laboratory at the University of Toronto {TO); University of Texas at Austin (Tx); University of Miami Department of Geology (UM); United States Geological Survey, National Center (W); and University of Waterloo, Canada (WAT). A tenth laboratory at the Centre Scientifique de Monaco (MC) produced a radiocarbon age in the early 1960s, but it was not reported formally. At present (Elliot 2018:22-25), only three of these 10 laboratories (Beta, D-AMS, and TO) continue to operate. The others have closed, are no longer doing radiocarbon dating, or are operating under another code designation. Appendix A-1. Early 1960s Radiocarbon Ages from Warm Mineral Springs, 13 Meter Ledge. Table row 1 is based on a measured age of a sample collected in July 1959 and reported by Royal and Clark (1960:286) and Hubbs et al. (1960:218). Table rows 2 through 6 are based on measured ages of charcoal samples collected by H. K. Brooks in 1962 (Levin et al. 1965:372-373). Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID# Measured, Assumed Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Uncorrected o13C (o/oo) Conventional, Date B.P., DateB.C., Age B.P., and Value Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma 1 Sigma in Years 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal B.C.) 1. Charred log , -11.6 meters, LJ-120 10000 +/ 200 -27 (2.0 X 99 7 0 +/ 200 12365 10795 * 10415 8845* 16.4 = 30) 2. Charcoal , top of freshwat e r marl , 8520 +/ 400 -27 (2. 0 X 8490 +/ 400 10505 8450 8555 6500 W-1243 16.4 = 30) 3 . Charcoal , middle zone of freshwat e r 8600 +/ 400 27 (2.0 X 8570 +/ 400 10580 8550 8630 6600 marl , -37 feet , W-1241 16.4 = 30) 4 . Charcoal, deeper middle z one of 9370 +/ 400 -27 (2. 0 X 9340 +/ 400 11770 9530 9820-7580 freshwater marl,** 38 feet , W 1245 16.4 = 30) 5 . Charcoal , mostly freshwater marl z one, 9500 +/400 -27 (2 . 0 X 9470 +/ 400 12035 9560 10085 7610 -38.5 feet , W-1242 16.4 = 30) 6 . Charcoal , impure m a rl a nd travertine 98 7 0 +/ 370 -27 (2. 0 X 9840 +/ 370 12565 10240 10615 8290 with much wood and leaves , -39 feet , 16.4 = 30) W-1153 * This range i nclude s five narrower ranges . **The middle z one conta i ned plant remains and t errestrial vertebrate bones, according to Brooks (in Levin et al. 1965:372).

PAGE 45

LUER AND BLOCK RADIOCARBON DATABASE 41 Appendix A-2. Clausen's 1972 Radiocarbon Ages from the 13 Meter Ledge in Warm Mineral Springs. All ages are based on wood from Zone 3 (Clausen et al. 1975a, 1975b; Straube 1974). Provenience, Depth, Lab ID# Measured, Assumed Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Uncorrected o13C ( o/oo) Conventional, Date B.P., Date B.C., AgeB.P., and Value Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma 1 Sigma in Years 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal B.C.) From Leaf Deposit 1. WMS-14503, top ofleaf deposit, 8830 +/180 -27 (2.0 X 8800 +/180 10260-9475 8310-7525 GAK-3994 16.4=30) 2. WMS-14501, upper leaf deposit, 8920 +/190 -27 (2.0 X 8890 +/190 10495-10455, 8545-8505, -12.8 m, GAK-3992 16.4 = 30) 10440-9525 8490-7575 3. WMS-14502, middle of leaf deposit, 9350 +/190 -27 (2.0 X 9320 +/190 11175-10170 9225-8220 -13.07 m, GAK-3993 16.4 = 30) 4. WMS-14500, 70 cm below leaf 9220+/-180 -27 (2.0 X 9190 +/180 11060-11035, 9110-9085, deposit, -13.40 m, GAK-3991 16.4 = 30) 10785-9905 8835-7955 From Levels 1. WMS-14509, Level 1, -12.7 to -12.8 9420 +/150 -27 (2.0 X 9390 +/150 11170-10235 9220-8285 m, GAK-3995 16.4 = 30) 2. WMS-14511, Test 2, Level 2, -12.8 to 10020 +/180 -27 (2.0 X 9990 +/180 12130-11095 10180-9145 -12.9 m, GAK-3996 16.4 = 30) 3. WMS-14513 Level 3, -12.9 to -13.0 10630 +/210 -27 (2.0 X 10600 +/210 12835-11935, 10885-9985, m, GAK-3997 16.4=30) 11885-11830 9935-9880 4. WMS-14515, Level 4, -13.0 to -13.1 10260 +/190 -27 (2.0 X 10230 +/190 12580-11240 10630-9290 m, GAK-3998 16.4 = 30) 5. WMS-14516, Level 5, -13.1 to -13.2 9880 +/230 -27 (2.0 X 9850 +/230 12080-10645, 10130-8695, m, GAK-3999 16.4 = 30) 10630-10590 8680-8640 Appendix A-3. Cockrell's 1970s Radiocarbon Ages from Warm Mineral Springs, 13 Meter Ledge. Ages are based on Dasovich (1996), Dasovich and Doran (2011), and Tesar (1997). For rows 19 through 22, the dating laboratory is undetermined. For row 23, the lab ID# is based on Buckley (1978). Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID# Measured, Assumed Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Uncorrected o13C (o/oo) Conventional, Date B.P., Date B.C., Age B.P., and Value Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma 1 Sigma in Years 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal B.C.) 1. Wood, near skull, N side of spring, -45 9125 +/235 -27 (2.0 X 9095 +/235 11064-11026, 9114-9076, ft, I7203 16.4 = 30) 11003-10967, 9053-9017, 10791-9548 8841-7598 2. Wood & leaves, beneath skull, Burial 8715 +/590 -27 (2.0 X 8685 +/590 11246-8347 9296-6397 1, -45 ft, 1-7204 16.4 = 30) 3. Leaf mold, east of skull, Burial 1, 9860 +/140 -27 (2.0 X 9830 +/140 11753-11058, 9803-9108, 1-7205 16.4 = 30) 11035-10784 9085-8834 4. Leaf mold, beneath skull, -45 ft, I7206 10255 +/145 -27 (2.0 X 10225 +/145 12527-12459, 10577~10509, 16.4 = 30) 12438-11310 10488-9360 5. Leaf mold, west side, Burial 1, I7207 10285 +/145 -27 (2.0 X 10255 +/145 12545-11340 10595-9390 16.4 = 30) 6. Leaf mold, south side, Burial 1, I7208 10225 +/145 -27 (2.0 X 10195 +/145 12516-12495, 10566-10545, 16.4 = 30) 12423-11266 10473-9316 7. Humic debris, over skull & stalactite 10080 +/-470 -27 (2.0 X 10050 +/-470 12772-10230 10822-8280 near Burial 1, I7209 16.4 = 30)

PAGE 46

42 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VOL. 72 (1) Appendix A-3 ( continued) Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID# Measured, Assumed Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Uncorrected o13C ( o/oo) Conventional, Date B.P., Date B.C., Age B.P., and Value Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma 1 Sigma in Years 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal B.C.) 8. Humic debris, over Burial 1 , I7210 9155 +/-470 -27 (2.0 X 9125 + /-470 11690-11680, 9740-9730, 16.4 = 30) 11620 9125 9670 7175 9. Wood, under rock #4 (stalactite), 10285 +/175 -27 (2 . 0 X 10255 +/175 12575-11265 10625-9315 I7211 16.4 = 30) 10 . Wood, under rock #4 (stalactite), 8810 + / 130 -27 (2.0 X 8780 +/130 10225 9525 8275 7575 1-7212 16.4 = 30) I 1. Wood, under rock #3, west of burial 10310 + / 145 -27 (2 . 0 X 10280 +/145 12560-11395 10610 9445 area, I 7213 16.4 = 30) 12. Wood, Burial 1 stratum , under rock 9565 +/160 -27 (2 . 0 X 9535 +/160 11243 10393, 9293 8443, #3, -45 ft, 1-7214 16.4 = 30) 10312-10304 8362-8354 13. Leaf mold above and below rock #2 , 9700 +/190 -27 (2 . 0 X 9670 +/190 11610 11520, 9660-9570, -45 ft, 1-7215 16.4 = 30) 11510 10505 9560-8555 14. Wood, Burial 1, I-7216 9945 + / 145 -27 (2.0 X 9915 +/145 11965-11091, 10015-9141 , 16.4 = 30) 10915 10910 8965-8960 15. Wood, Burial 1, I7217 10025 +/145 -27 (2 . 0 X 9995 + / 145 12053 11176 10103-9226 16.4 = 30) 16. Wood, Burial 1, 1-7218 10085 +/145 -27 (2 . 0 X 10055 +/145 12126 11203 10176-9253 16.4 = 30) 17. Wood, west of burial, under rock #4 8030 + / 120 -27 (2 . 0 X 8000 +/120 9254 9160, 7304-7210, (stalactite), UM-111 16.4 = 30) 9155-8546 7205-6596 18 . Wood , under rock # 4 (stalactite) , 9950+/-I00 -27 (2 . 0 X 9920 +/100 1175 8 11184 9808 9234 Burial 1, UM-112 16.4 = 30) 19 . Human bone, Burial I (no lab#) 10240 + / 80 -9.5 (15.5 X 10490 + / 80 12646-12107 10696-10157 16.4 = 250) 20. Human bone, calcaneus , 13 m ledge 10260 +/70 -9.5 (15 . 5 X 10510 +/70 12646 12364, 10696 10414, (no lab#) 16.4 = 250) 12359 12225, 10409-10275, 12214-12156 10264-10206 21. Bone (finely worked bone pin?) (no 10340 +/-70 -21 (4.0 X 10410 + / -70 12549 12036 10599 10086 lab#) 16.4 = 70) 22 . Worked bone? (with split fossil shark 10550 +/80 -21 (4.0 X 10620 +/80 12707 12412 10757-10462 tooth?) (no lab # ) 16.4 = 70) 23. Wood, Feature 30 , 14 m depth , C-78-1 , 10980 +/80 -27 (2 . 0 X 10950 +/80 13015 12710 11065 10760 1-10 , 269 16.4 = 30)

PAGE 47

LUER AND BLOCK RADIOCARBON DATABASE 43 Appendix A-4. Radiocarbon Ages from 1974, Warm Mineral Springs (Straube 1974). Material, Depth Below Spring Water Measured, Assumed Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Surface (b.s.), Lab ID# Uncorrected o13C (o/oo) Conventional, Date B.P., Date, 2 Sigma Age B.P., and Value Age, B.P., 2 Sigma (calA.D. or 1 Sigma in Years 1 Sigma (cal YBP) B.C.) 1. Fossil marine shells, 10 ft b.s., UM-266 Greater than None -Greater than Greater than 30,250 30,000 B.P. 28,000 cal B.C. 2. Wood (root) in stalactite, 20 ft b.s., 8884 +/-121 -27 (2.0 X 8854 +/121 10240-9545 8290-7595 UM-174 16.4 = 30) cal B.C. 3. Wood (some charred) in stalactite, 40 ft 9301 +/127 -27 (2.0 X 9271 +/127 10755-10205 8805-8255 ledge, UM-268 16.4 = 30) cal B.C. 4. Leaves, 130 ft b.s., 12 to 18 inches 364 +/73 -27 (2.0 X 334 +/73 515-280, calA.D. deep in floor, UM-275 16.4 = 30) 170-150 1435-1670, 1780-1800 5. Leaves, 130 ft b.s., 56 to 62 inches 1076 +/66 -27 (2.0 X 1046 +/66 1070-895, cal A.D. deep in floor, UM-267-A 16.4 = 30) 875-795 880-1055, 1075-1155 6. Leaves, 130 ft b.s., 56 to 62 inches 1234 +/87 -27 (2.0 X 1204 +/87 1295-935 calA.D. deep in floor, UM-267-B 16.4 = 30) 655-1015 Appendix B-1. Radiocarbon Ages from Clausen's Test 1 and Test 2 in the Basin of Little Salt Spring in 1972. Measured ages are from Luer (2002a:Appendix III). Material, Provenience, Lab ID# Measured, Assumed Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Uncorrected o13C (o/oo) Conventional, Date B.P., Date, 2 Sigma Age B.P., and Value Age, B.P., 2 Sigma (calA.D. or 1 Sigma in Years 1 Sigma (cal YBP) B.C.) 1. Wood, Test 1, bottom of Zone A, 1045 +/-90 -27 (2.0 X 1015 +/90 1175-735* calA.D. 1-6513 16.4 = 30) 775-1215* 2. Wood, Test 1, Zone B marl, 1-6549 1805 +/90 -27 (2.0 X 1775 +/90 1895-1525 calA.D. 16.4 = 30) 55-425 3. Wood, Test 1, Zone C gray sand below 8955 +/145 -27 (2.0 X 8925 +/145 10395-9550 8445-7600 marl, 1-6512 16.4 = 30) cal B.C. 4. Wood, Test 2, top of Zone A, 1-6510 800 +/-90 -27 (2.0 X 770 +/90 910-625, calA.D. 16.4 = 30) 605-555 1040-1325, 1345-1395 5. Wood (charred), Test 2, brown zone at 4075 +/-250 -27 (2.0 X 4045 +/250 5295-3840 3345-1890 base of marl, I-6511 16.4 = 30) cal B.C. 6. Wood (bark), Test 2, base of Zone B 8455 +/140 -27 (2.0 X 8425 +/140 9660 9030 7710-7080 marl, 1-6458 16.4 = 30) cal B.C. 7. Peat or algal gyttja, Test 2, 1-6459 10980 +/-210 -27 (2.0 X 10950 +/210 13215-12540 11,265-10,590 16.4 = 30) cal B.C. *This range includes four narrower ranges.

PAGE 48

44 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VOL. 72 (1) Appendix B-2. Radiocarbon Ages from the Basin's Lower Slope, Little Salt Spring. Measured ages are from Clausen et al. (1979) and Valastro et al. (1979:269-270). Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID# Measured, Assumed Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Uncorrected o13C (o/oo) Conventional, Date B.P., Date B.C., Age B.P., and Value Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma 1 Sigma in Years 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal B.C.) I. Human bone (collagen), NE slope, 8 to 5220 +/ 90 -9 . 5 (15.5 X 5470 +/ 90 6410 6095 , 4460--4145 , 9 m below spring water surface, 16.4 = 250) 6085 6005 4135--4055 GAK-3548 2. Wooden stake , peeled, edge of drop off, 9645 +/160 -28 (3. 0 X 9595 +/160 11270 10495, 9320 8545 , 1-6460 16.4 = 50) 10450 10445 8500 8495 3. Wooden stake, split pine, at drop off, 9500 + / 120 -28 (3.0 X 9450 +/ 120 11170 10385, 9220-8435 , SW end of Trench 2, Tx2460 16.4 = 50) 10315 10300 8365 8350 4. Hickory nuts, in shelly calcitic mud at 9920 +/160 -25 (0 . 0 X 9920 +/ 160 12005 11075, 10055 9125, drop off, SW end of Trench 2, Tx-2461 16.4 = 0) 10945 10875 8995 8925 5. Oak mortar, south slope , on grey sand 9080 +/250 -27 (2.0 X 9050 +/250 11060 11035, 9110 9085, near "informal hearth , " Tx-2594 16.4 = 30) 10785 9535 8835 7585 6. Charcoal (small sample), south slope, 10,190 +/27 (2.0 X 10,160 +/ 15680 8035 13730 6085 "informal hearth" on grey sand , Tx-2595 1450 16.4 = 30) 1450 Appendix B-3. Radiocarbon Ages by Clausen from the 21.3 Meter Ledge (70 Foot Ledge) and the 27 Meter Ledge (90 Foot Ledge), Little Salt Spring. Age in row 1 is from the shallower ledge. Ages in rows 2 through 5 are from the 27 Meter Ledge. Ages in rows 3 through 5 are from excavations in the south side of the ledge, obtained by Clausen in the mid-1970s {Clausen et al. 1979:Table 1; Gifford et al. 2017:79; Valastro et al. 1977:315-316; Valastro et al. 1986:1189-1190). Material, Provenience, Lab ID# 1. Wood fragments , East 21.3 Meter Ledge, Station #8, GDC-2119, Tx-2337 2. Stick, partially burned , from upper loose sediment, GDC 2109 , Tx-2336 3 . Giant tortoise bone, GDC-2120 , Tx-2335 4. First pointed branch or wooden "stake," GDF-025 , Tx-2636 5 . Second eroded branch or wooden "stake," GDF-107, UM-1329 * Assumed value for plant-eating terrestrial animal. '** Assumed value for wood. Measured, Uncorrected Age B.P . , 1 Sigma Modem Modern 13450+/-190 12030 +/200 9865 + / 200*** *** Assumed I-sigma value; age incompletely recorded. o13C ( o/oo) and Value in Years --22 (3.0 X 16.4 = 50)* -27 (2 . 0 X 16.4 = 30)* * -27 (2.0 X 16.4 = 30)** Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Conventional, Date B.P., Date B.C., Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal B.C . ) Modem -Modern --13500 +/ 190 16830 15750 148 80-13 800 12000 +/200 14400 13445 12450 11495 9835 +/12000 10685 10050 8735 200* **

PAGE 49

LUER AND BLOCK RADIOCARBON DATABASE 45 Appendix B-4. Radiocarbon Ages from 1978 near the Shore of the Basin, Little Salt Spring. These ages are from Core GDF-141, the top of which was at 5.6 m AMSL (Brown and Cohen 1985:24), and are based on Introne and Stipp (1979) and Johnson et al. (1983). Also see Luer (2002a:Figure 9, Appendix IV). Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID# Measured, o13C (o/oo) Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Date Uncorrected and Value ConventionDate B.P., B.C., Age B.P., in Years al, Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma 1 Sigma 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal A.D. or B.C.) 1. Dark brown peat, 7.4-15 cm, UM-2159 Modem -Modern -2. Dark brown peat, 37-44 cm, UM-2160 1430 +/70 -27 (2.0 X 1400 +/70 1409-1230, cal A.D. 541-720, 16.4 = 30)* 1209-1183 741-767 3. Red-brown peat, 59-66 cm, UM-2172 1380+/-70 -27 (2.0 X 1350 +/70 1374-1176 cal A.D. 576-774 16.4 = 30)* 4. Peat, 66-74 cm, UM-1508 1450 +/60 -27.38 (2.38 1410 +/60 1406-1263 calA.D. 544-687 X 16.4 = 40) 5. Brown peat, 81-88 cm, UM-2164 2790 +/60 -27 (2.0 X 2760 +/60 2997-2754 1047-804 16.4 = 30)* cal B.C. 6. Brown peat, 88-96 cm, UM-2161 5330 +/-80 -27 (2.0 X 5300 +/80 6283-5911 4333-3961 16.4 = 30)* cal B.C. 7. Peat, 103-110 cm, UM-1509 6490 +/80 -27.27 (2.27 6450 +/80 7497-7249 5547-5299 X 16.4 = 40) cal B.C. 8. Brown peat, 110-118 cm, UM-2162 6430 +/90 -27 (2.0 X 6400 +/90 7470-7163 5520-5213 16.4 = 30)* cal B.C. 9. Brown grainy peat, 128-132 cm, 7650 +/160 -27 (2.0 X 7620 +/160 8766-8159, 6816-6209, UM-2163 16.4 = 30)* 8085-8068 6135-6118 cal B.C. 10. Peat, 138-143 cm, UM-1510 9190 +/120 -27.00 (2.0 X 9160 +/120 10650-10624, 8700-8674, 16.4 = 30) 10598-10158 8648-8208 cal B.C. 11. Peat, 139-143 cm, UM-1511 8670 +/120 -24.63 (0.37 8680 +/120 10158-9474 8208-7524 X 16.4 = 10) cal B.C. 12. Peat above marl, 143-148 cm, 8550 +/210 -27.88 (2.88 8500 +/210 10158-9009 8208-7059 UM-1512 X 16.4 = 50) cal B.C. 13. Wood from marl layer, 296 cm, 8040 +/160 -25.99 (0.99 8020 +/160 9404-9339, 7454-7389, UM-1513 X 16.4 = 20) 9332-8453 7382-6503 cal B.C. *Assumed.

PAGE 50

46 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VOL. 72 (1) Appendix B-5. Radiocarbon Ages from Clausen's 1977 Test Pit in the Slough (8SO79) near Little Salt Spring. Based on Calvert et al. (1978:280-281). Also see Luer (2002a:Figure 9, Appendix V). Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID# Measured, o13C ( o/oo) Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Uncorrected and Value in Conventional, Date B.P., Date B.C., Age B.P., Years Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma 1 Sigma 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal B.C.) 1. Cf. wax myrtle branch, test unit, with 7465 +/ 100 -27 (2.0 X 16.4 7435 +/100 8415-8020 6465-6070 Burial 1, UM-I 099 = 30)* 2. Wood & cf. peat, test unit, Burial 2, 120 8145 +/ -115 -27 (2.0 X 16.4 8115 + / -115 9405 8640 7455 6690 cm below surface , UM-1100 = 30)* 3 . Peat, test unit, from marl under burials , 9100 +/-95 -27 (2 . 0 X 16.4 9070 + / -95 10490 8540 7980** UM-1101 = 30)* 9930** 4. Human bone carbonate from burial , test 6180 + / -95 -9.5 (15.5 X 6430 +/ -95 7505-7165 5555-5215 unit, UM-1102 16.4 = 250) 5 . Human bone organic fraction (same as 5850 + / 70 -20(5.0x 16.4 5930 + / 70 6940 6635, 4990-4685, prior sample), test unit, UM-1103 = 80) 6580 6570 4630-4620 6. Peat (re-analysis of sample dated by 8820 +/120 -27 (2.0 X 16.4 8790 + /120 10220 9535 8270-7585 UM-1101), UM-1156 = 30)* 7 . Wood (oak tool "digging stick" with 6830 +/155 -27 (2.0 X 16.4 6800+/155 7950 7425 6000-5475 burials), UM-1157 = 30)* 8. Marl, under Burials 1 & 2, UM-115 8 13360 +/205 -4 (21.0 X 16.4 13700 +/ 205 17150 15993 15200 14043 = 340)* * Assumed 813C values. **This range includes four narrower ranges . Appendix B-6. Radiocarbon Ages from Core GDF-129 in the Slough (8S079) in 1977, near Little Salt Spring. Measured ages in rows 3 and 5 are based on Clausen et al. (1979:Table 1, Figure l); other measured ages are based on Gifford (2012). Also see Luer (2002a:Figure 9, Appendix V). Material, Provenience, Lab ID# Measured, Assumed Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Uncorrected o13C ( o/oo) Conventional, Date B.P., Date B.C., Age B.P., and Value Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma 1 Sigma in Years 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal B . C.) 1. GDF-129-01, UM-1410 Modem -Modem -2. GDF-129-06, UM-1411 2295 + / 85* -27 (2 . 0 X 2265 +/85* 2465 2060 515 110 16.4 = 30) 3. Organic muck, 4.4 m above MSL, 3520 + / 90 -27 (2.0 X 3490 + / 90 3980-3560 2030 1610 UM-1412 16.4 = 30) 4. GDF-129-08, UM-1413 4410 + /85* -27 (2.0 X 4380 + / 85* 5300-4825 3350 2875 16.4 = 30) 5. Organic muck, 4.1 m above MSL, 5390 + / -85 -27 (2 . 0 X 5360 + / -85 6305 5930 4355-3980 UM-1414 16.4 = 30) 6. GDF-129-17, UM-1415 8745 + / 130 -27 (2.0 X 8715 + / 130 10185 9480 8235-7530 16.4 = 30) 7. GDF-129-18, UM-1416 11730 + / 200 -27 (2.0 X 11700 +/200 13990 13130 12040 11180 16.4 = 30) 8 . GDF-129-19, UM-1418 17230 +/300 -27 (2.0 X 17200 +/300 21565-20030 19615-18080 16.4 = 30)

PAGE 51

LUE R AND BLOCK RADIOCARBON DATABASE 47 Appendix B-6 (continued) Material, Provenience, Lab ID# Measured, Assumed Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Uncorrected o13C (o/oo) Conventional, Date B.P. , Date B.C., Age B.P., and Value Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma 1 Sigma in Years 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal B.C.) 9. GDF-129-19 duplicate (re-run), 19790 + /300* -27 (2.0 X 19760 +/300* 24440-23045 22490 21095 UM-1419 16.4 = 30) 10. GDF-129-35, UM-1420 8720 + / 200* -27 (2.0 X 8690 +/200* 10235 9295 8285 7345 16.4 = 30) 11. GDF-129-36 duplicate (re-run) , 9070 + / 250 -27 (2.0 X 9040 +/250 10770 9530 8820 7580 UM-1421 16.4 = 30) 12. GDF-129-39, UM-1422 8475 +/200* -27 (2.0 X 8445 +/ 200* 9910 9000 7960 7050 16.4=30) * As s umed 1 sigma values. Appendix B-7. Radiocarbon Ages from 1980 for Clausen's Test Pit in the Slough (8SO79) near Little Salt Spring. Ages are based on Crabtree (1980) and Gifford (2012). Material, Provenience, Lab ID# Measured, o13C ( o/oo) Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Uncorrected and Value Conventional, Date B.P., Date B.C., Age B.P., in Years Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma 1 Sigma 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal B.C.) 1. LSS 800 503-224 , UM-2109 7455 +/ 90 -28.9 (3.9 X 7395 +/ 90 8390 8015 6440 6065 16.4 = 60) 2. LSS 800 503-224 , UM-2109 (re-run) 7020 + / -185 -28 . 9 (3.9 X 6960 +/ -185 8170-7480 6220 5530 16.4 = 60) 3 . Peat , LSS 800 503-225, UM-2110 12800 +/ 270 -22 . 1 (2.9 X 12850 +/ 270 16115 14195 14165-12245 16.4 = 50) 4 . Shelly peat , LSS 800 503-226 , UM-2111 15060 +/ -145 -22 . 2 (2. 8 X 15110 +/ -145 18680-18005 16730 16055 16.4 = 50) 5 . LSS 800 503-227 , UM-2112 11245 +/ 190 -26 (1 X 11225 +/ 190 11495 10770 13445 12720 16.4 = 20) Appendix B-8. Radiocarbon Ages from 1980 for the Midden (8SO79) near Little Salt Spring. Ages are based on Crabtree and Stipp (1981). Also see Luer (2002a:Figure 9, Appendix VI). Marine 13 database used for calibration in rows 3 and 5. Material, Provenience, Lab ID # Measured, o13C (o/oo) Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Uncorrected and Value in Conventional, Date B.P., Date B.C., Age B.P., Years Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma 1 Sigma 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal B.C.) 1 . Freshwater clam shell , * LSS 800 6047480 +/ 290 -8.6 (16.4 X 7750 +/ 290 9401 9344 , 7451 7394 351, UM-2211 16.4 = 270) 9326 7976 7376 6026 2 . " Charcoal ," LSS 800 609-349 , UM-2213 8570 +/ 820 -25 (0 X 16.4 8570 +/ 820 11970 7747 10020 = 0)***** 5797 3 . Marine clam shell ,** LSS 800 609-348 , 4470 +/ -80 -0.04 (24 . 96 X 4880 +/ 80 5430-4951 3480 3001 UM 2214 16.4 = 410) 4 . Freshwater snail shell,*** LSS 800 603 5620 +/ 120 -12.3 (12.7 X 5830 +/ 120 6939 6397 , 4989-4447 , 347, U M-2215 16.4 = 210) 6363 6354 4413-4404 5. Left-handed whelk shell , **** LSS 800 4370 +/ 100 -0.76 (24 . 24 X 4770 +/-100 5301-4806 3351-2856 624-346 , UM-2216 16.4 = 400) *( E lliptio bu c kleyi) . **(Mercenaria c amp e chiensis) . ***(Poma c ea paludosa) . ****(Bu s y c on c ontrarium). ***** Assumed .

PAGE 52

48 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VoL. 72 (1) Appendix C-1. Radiocarbon Age from Human Burial Sampled by UM in 1986. This is Burial 1 in Operation 4, near the west edge of the spring basin, which provided brain tissue yielding mitochondrial DNA (Paabo et al. 1988; Wentz and Gifford 2007:331). The corrected age is based on published sources; the measured age is based on an assumed o13C value of -9.5 0/00. Material, Provenience, Lab ID # Measured, Assumed Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Uncorrected o13C (o/oo) Conventional, Date B.P., Date B.C. , Age B.P., and Value Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma 1 Sigma in Years 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal B.C.) 1 . Human brain tissue , Burial 1 , Operation 6610 +/ 110 -9 . 5 (15 . 5 X 6860 + / 110 7935 7560 , 5985 5610, 4 , BetaI 7208 16.4 = 250) 7539 7513 5589 5563 Appendix C-2. Radiocarbon Ages from Operations 9 and 14 in the Basin's North Slope, Little Salt Spring. Row 1 is based on Gifford and Koski (2011). Row 2 is based on Newsom and Kistler (2019). Material, Provenience, Lab ID# Measured, o13C (o/oo) Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Uncorrected and Value Conventional, Date B.P . , Date B.C., Age B.P., in Years Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma 1 Sigma 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal B.C . ) 1. Oak wood (0910ZW10), 20 cm west of 9300 + / 60 -28.4 (3.4 X 9240 +/ 60 10575 10245 8625 8295 deer antler with 27 notches , Op . 9 , Locus 16.4 = 60) Z , Beta-195280 2 . Bottle gourd fragment (1408551A01) , 8920 + / 50 -26 .7 (1.7 X 8890 +/50 10195 9775 8245 7825 Operation 14, Beta-261466 16.4 = 30) Appendix C-3. Radiocarbon Ages by UM from the South and East Sides of the 27 Meter Ledge, Little Salt Spring. Row 1 lists an age obtained in 1988 by Gifford (2012) based on a sample collected by Clausen in the 1970s from the south side of the ledge (near Station #12, Test 1 ). Rows 2 and 3 list ages obtained in 1992 from a shallow core in the east side of the ledge, based on Gifford (2012) and Gifford et al. (2017:85, Table 4.2). Rows 4 through 7 list ages from excavations in the south side of the ledge, obtained by UM in 2008 through 2010, based on measured ages and o13C values from Gifford (2012) and conventional ages from Gifford et al. (2017:Table 4.5). Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID # Measured, o13C ( o/oo) Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Uncorrected and Value Conventional, Date B.P., Date B.C., Age B.P., in Years Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma 1 Sigma 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal B.C . ) 1. Bone, GDC-2137, Beta-25430 17340 +/310 -25.1 (0 . 1 X 17340 +/310 21796 20153 19846 18203 16.4 = 0) 2 . Organic mousse , 0-20 cm, Beta-59087 5370 + / 110 -27.5 (2.5 X 5330 +/110 6310 5905 4360 3955 16.4 = 40) 3. Organic mousse , 20-40 cm, Beta-59088 6330 +/ 110 -27.7 (2.7 X 6290 +/110 7430 6940 5480-4990 16.4 = 40) 4. Mussel shell , * 2717A038a, 15320 +/ 90 -6.3 (18 .7 X 15630 +/ 90 19035 18725 17085 16775 Beta 249833 16.4 = 310) 5 . Mussel shell,* 2717 A091a, 16060 + / 90 -12.3 (12 .7 16270 +/90 19870 19455 17920 17505 Beta-249834 X 16.4 = 210) 6 . Wood & charcoal fragments, 12020 +/50 -25.5 (0.5 X 12010 +/50 14000 13750 12050 11800 2717B044 , Beta-286861 ** 16.4 = 10) 7. Cabbage palm charcoal , 2717B020 , 12330 +/70 -25.4 (0.4 X 12320 +/70 14680 14075 12730-12125 Beta-255235 16.4 = 10) * Sample consisted of a valve of a freshwater mussel (Uniomerus sp.). ** Gifford et al. (2017:Table 4.5) mistakenly list this laboratory number as "309476."

PAGE 53

LUER AND BLOCK RADIOCARBON DATABASE 49 Appendix C-4. Radiocarbon Ages by UM from the North Side of the 27 Meter Ledge, Little Salt Spring. Row 1 is an age from 1992, in Gifford et al. (2017:87). Rows 2 through 11 are from excavations in 2009 to 2011. For the latter, measured ages and o13C values are from Gifford (2012) and conventional ages are from Gifford et al. (2017:Table 4.5). Some samples are shown in an in situ diagram (Gifford et al. 2017:Figure 4.23); images of some are presented (Gifford et al. 2017). Material, Provenience, Lab ID# Measured, o13C (o/oo) Uncorrected and Value Age B.P., in Years 1 Sigma 1. Tortoise bone , LSS26TO2A, 11970 + / 80 -22 (3.0 X Beta-59089 16.4 = 50)* 2. Organic mousse,** Sq . 2734B040a, 10120 +/80 -28.2 (3.2 X Beta-283587 16.4=50) 3. Wood & charcoal fragments(> 1 9700 +/-40 -26.2 (1.2 X mm),** Sq. 2734B040b, Beta-283866 16.4 = 20) 4 . Sharp wooden "stake," 2734B00 1, 9540 +/50 -27.0 (2.0 X Beta-262916 16.4 = 30) 5. Sharp wooden object, 2734C011 , 9630 +/-40 -27.9 (2.9 X Beta-309472**** 16.4 = 50) 6. Pear-shaped wood object, 2734B029, 9850 +/50 -27.4 (2.4 X Beta-286862 16.4 = 40) 7. Straight wooden branch, 2734B011, 9900 + / 70 -30.5 (5.5 X Beta-283586 16.4 = 90) 8 . Small wooden branch, 2735A024, 10890 + / 50 -25.7 (0.7 X Beta-262917 16.4 = 10) 9. Flat rectangular wood, 2735A063, 11060 + / 50 -27 . 5 (2.5 X Beta-309476**** 16.4 = 40) 10. Charcoal fragments, 2735A049, 11060+/-50 -24.7 (0.3 X Beta-3094 73 * * * * 16.4 = 0) 11. Charcoal , 2735A055 , 11250 + / 50 -26.4 (1.4 X Beta-309474**** 16.4 = 20) * Assumed value. **Results in these two table rows are based on portions of the same sample . ***Gifford et al. (2017:Table 4 .5) mistakenly list the measured age in their table. Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Conventional, Date B.P., Date B.C., Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal B.C.) 12020 +/80 14075-13725 12125-11775 10070 +/80 11990 11270 10040-9320 9680 +/-40 11200-11075, 9250-9125, 10945-10875 8995-8925 9510 +/50*** 11080-10930, 9130-8980, 10880-10655, 8930-8705, 10620-10605 8670-8655 9580 +/-40 11135-10740 9185 8790 9810 +/50 11270-11180 9320-9230 9810 +/70 11325 11145 9375 9195 10880 + / -12805-12705 10855-10755 50*** 11020 +/50 13030 12745 11080-10795 11060 + / 50 13060 12790 11110-10840 11230 + / 50 13155 13040 11205-11090 ****Gifford et al. (2017:Table 4 . 5) mistakenly list all four of these laboratory numbers as "309476" but only one of them (sample 2735A063, this table's row 9) , is correctly identified by that number. Appendix C-5. Radiocarbon Ages from Cores I, II, V, and VI by UM in 1990 from the bottom of Little Salt Spring. These ages are based on Alvarez Zarikian et al. (2005) and Gifford (2012). Ages in Rows 7, 8, and 9 are based on the same large piece of wood that reportedly had tool marks. Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID# Measured, 013C (o/oo) Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Uncorrected and Value Conventional, Date B.P., Date, 2 Age B.P., in Years Age, B.P., 2 Sigma Sigma (cal 1 Sigma 1 Sigma (cal YBP) A.D. orB.C.) 1. Oak wood, Core I, LSS DCI-1075, 9700+/-160 -27 . 6 (2.6 X 9660 +/160 11390 ;10565 9440-8615 Beta-36591 16.4 = 40) cal B.C. 2 . Live oak wood, Core II, 04C035, 9960 +/90 -27 (2.0 X 9930 +/-90 11755-11200 9805 -9250 Beta-42289 16.4 = 30)* cal B.C. 3. Wood, Core II, 04C045, Beta-42290 9710 + /130 -27 (2.0 X 9680 +/130 11315 10660 9365 8710 16.4 = 30)* cal B.C.

PAGE 54

50 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VOL. 72 (1) Appendix C-5 (continued) Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID# Measured, o13C (o/oo) Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Uncorrected and Value Conventional, Date B.P., Date, 2 AgeB.P., in Years Age, B.P., 2 Sigma Sigma (cal 1 Sigma 1 Sigma (cal YBP) A.D. orB.C.) 4 . Wood, Core V, 1.12 m , Beta-41354 1160 + / 60 -27 (2 . 0 X 1130 + /60 1225 1210, calA.D. 16.4 = 30)* 1180 930 725 740, 770 1020 5. Wood , Core V, 3.16 m, Beta-42293 5000 +/90 -27 (2 . 0 X 4970 +/90 5915 5585, 3965 3635 , 16.4 = 30)* 5500 5490 3550 3540 cal B .C. 6. Wood , Core V, 11.0 m, Beta-42294 12210 + /190 -27 (2.0 X 12180 +/190 14935 13585 12985 11635 16.4 = 30)* cal B.C. 7. Live oak wood , Core VI , 05C043, 10030 +/-110 -27 (2 . 0 X 10000 + / 110 11980 11210 10030 9260 Beta-41358 16.4 = 30)* cal B.C. 8 . Live oak wood, Core VI , 06C006 , 10150 +/ 120 -27 (2 . 0 X 10120 +/120 12145 11250 10195 9300 Beta-41593 16.4 = 30)* cal B . C . 9. Live oak wood, Core VI, 06C006, 10390 + / 90 -27 (2 . 0 X 10360 +/90 12545 11935, 10595 9985, Beta-41594 16.4 = 30)* 11885 11830 9935 9880 cal B . C . * Assumed values . Appendix C-6. Radiocarbon Ages from Core IV by UM in 1990 from the bottom of Little Salt Spring. These ages were obtained in 1990 and 2009 and are based on Gregory et al. (2017:Table 1). Material, Depth, Lab ID # 1. Wood (twig) , 82.5 cm , Beta-254412 2 . Wood (twig), 181 cm, Beta-254413 3. Wood (twig) , 268 cm, Beta-254414 4 . Wood (twig), 530 cm, Beta-254415 5 . Walnut, 637 cm, Beta-254416 6. Wood, 667 cm, Beta-42291 7. Charred wood , 707 cm, Beta-254417 8. Charcoal, 735 cm , Beta-42292 9. Plant fragments, 817 cm, Beta-254418 * Assumed values. **This range includes five narrower ranges. ***This range includes three narrower ranges. ****This range includes four narrower ranges . Measured, o13C (o/oo) Uncorrected and Value Age B.P., in Years 1 Sigma 5770 +/40 -27 . 9 (2 . 9 X 16.4 = 50) 6251 +/40 -28.4 (3.4 X 16.4 = 60) 7420 +/ 40 28.4 (3.4 X 16.4 = 60) 9600 +!-50 -24.7 (0 . 3 X 16.4 = 0) 10020 +/ 50 -27 . 5 (2.5 X 16.4 = 40) 10240 +/ 130 -25 (0 X 16.4 = 0)* 10570 +/ 50 -28 . 2 (3. 2 X 16.4 = 50) 10210 + / 80 -25 (0 X 16.4 = 0)* 11570 + /60 -25 (0 X 16.4 = 0)* Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Conventional, Date B.P., Date B.C., Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal B.C.) 5720 + /40 6636 6409 4686-4459 6191 +/40 7240 7215, 5290 5265, 7178 6978 5228 5028 7360 +/ 40 8302 8048** 6352 6098** 9600 +!-50 11174 10738 9224-8788 9980 +/ 50 11701-11669 , 9751 9719, 11643 11250 9693 9300 10240 + / 130 12522 10572 11366*** 9416*** 10520 + / 50 12600 12390 10650 10440 10210 +/80 12364-10414-11510**** 9560**** 11570 +/ 60 13482 13290 11532-11340

PAGE 55

LUER AND BLOCK RADIOCARBON DATABASE Appendix C-7. Radiocarbon Ages from Core IV by UM in 1990 from the bottom of Little Salt Spring. These ages and calibrated YBP dates were obtained in 2013 and are based on Gregory et al. (2017). Calibrated B.C. dates are based on OxCal 4.3, using IntCal 13 (Bronk Ramsey 2009). Material, Depth, D-AMS# Measured, o13C ( o/oo) Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Uncorrected and Value in Conventional, Date B.P., Date B.C., Age B.P., Years Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma 1 Sigma 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (cal B.C.) 1. Wood , 9 cm , 005598 2945 +/ 28 -25.4 (0.4 X 2935 +/ 28 3171 2996 1224 1038 16.4 = 10) 2. Fossils , 45 cm, 005599 6841 +/36 -27.0 (2 . 0 X 6811 +/36 7691 7587 5745 5636 16.4 = 30) 3 . Fossils, 1 27 cm , 005600 5877 +/ 34 -33.2 (8.2 X 5747 +/34 6459-6453 4690--4503 16.4 = 130) 4. Fossils , 239 cm , 005601 6098 +/ 34 -27.2 (2 . 2 X 6058 +/34 7000 6829 5051--4848 16.4 = 40) 5 . Fossils, 307 cm , 005607 6486 + / 36 -35 . 6 (10.6 X 6379 + /36 7341 7256 5469 5306 16.4 = 107) 6 . Fossils, 357 cm , 005602 6800 +/ -41 -31.4 (6.4 X 6700 + / -41 7624 7491 5706-5683, 16.4 = 100) 5676 5541 7. Fossils , 407 cm , 005603 6893 + / 32 25.9 (0 . 9 X 6883 + / 32 7791 7662 5844-5710 16.4 = 10) 8 . Wood, 453 cm , 005604 7114+/-33 -29.5 (4.5 X 7044 +/ -33 7950 7824 6002 5873 , 16.4 = 70) 5861 5847 9 . Wood , 479 cm , 005605 74 1 7 +/ 34 25 . 7 (0 . 7 X 7407 + / 34 8327 8175 6379 6225 16.4 = 10) 10. Fossils, 567 cm , 005606 9661 +/37 -26 . 6 (1.6 X 9631 +/ 37 10974 10787 9229 9112, 16.4 = 30) 9084-9037 , 9030-8837 51

PAGE 56

52 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 2019 VoL. 72 (1) Appendix D-1. Radiocarbon Ages from Nona's Site (8SO85D), Little Jaw Site (8SO2396), and Nineteen Owner Midden (8SO85A). All three sites are to the east of Little Salt Spring. Rows 1 and 2 for Nona's Site are based on Luer (2002a:15, Table 3). Rows 3 and 4 for the Little Jaw Site (8SO2396) are based on Luer (2002a:19-20). The ages from the Little Jaw Site were only generally and incompletely reported. Row 5 for Nineteen Owner Midden is based on Valastro et al. (1986:1190). Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID# Measured, o13C ( o/oo) Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Uncorrected and Value Conventional, Date B.P., Date B.C., Age B.P., in Years Age, B.P., 2 Sigma 2 Sigma 1 Sigma 1 Sigma (cal YBP) (calA.D. or B.C.) 1. Organic sediment, 77.5 to 78 ft depth in 4130 +/70 -26.6 (1.6 X 4100 +/70 4835--4420 2885-2470 core, WAT-1333 16.4 = 30) cal B.C. 2. Deer tibia, FS#14, Pit 1, Layer 3, 5430 +/40 -21.9 (3.1 X 5480 +/40 6315-6265, 4365--4315, Beta-148380 16.4 = 50) 6250--6210 4300--4260 cal B.C. 3. Deer bone, TO-821 ca.4000 -22? ca.4000 ca.4500 ca.2700 cal B.C. 4. Deer bone, TO-822 ca. 5500 -22? ca. 5500 ca. 6300 ca.4300 cal B.C. 5. Animal bone, Test 1, Level 2, 10-20 cm 810 +/70 -22 (3.0 X 860 +/70 930--670 calA.D. b.s., Tx-2637 16.4 = 50)* 1020-1280 * Bone assumed to be deer. Appendix D-2. Radiocarbon Ages from Two Seasonal Ponds to the southeast of Little Salt Spring (see Figure 7). Rows 1 through 4 are for Pond B, based on Introne and Stipp (1979:293). Row 5 is for Pond A, based on Clausen et al. (1979:Table 1, Note 29). Also see Luer (2002a:Table 3). Material, Provenience, Depth, Lab ID# Measured, 013C ( o/oo) Corrected/ Calibrated Calibrated Uncorrected and Value Conventional, Date B.P., Date, 2 Sigma Age B.P., in Years Age, B.P., 2 Sigma (calA.D. or 1 Sigma 1 Sigma (cal YBP) B.C.) I. Organic sediment, Pond B, 30 cm, 990 +/70 -27 (2.0 X 960 +/70 980-730 calA.D. UM-1497 16.4 = 30) 970-1220 2. Organic sediment, Pond B, 50 cm, 2390 +/100 -27 (2.0 X 2360 +/100 2735-2150 785-200 UM-1496 16.4=30) cal B.C. 3. Organic sediment, Pond B, 70 cm, 2720 +/90 -27 (2.0 X 2690 +/90 2970-2710 1020-760 UM-1495 16.4 = 30) cal B.C. 4. Basal organic sediment, Pond B, ca. 80 4570 +/120 -27 (2.0 X 4540 +/120 5580-5505, 3630--3555, cm, UM-1494 16.4 = 30) 5485--4855 3535-2905 cal B.C. 5. Basal mucky organic deposit, Pond A, 4230 +/95 -27 (2.0 X 4200 +/95 4965--4515, 3015-2565, UM-1330 16.4 = 30) 4485--4445 2535-2495 cal B.C.

PAGE 57

ABOUT THE AUTHORS Lee Newsom is an environmental archaeologist with an emphasis on paleoethnobotany and wood anatomy. Her research is based primarily in Florida and the Caribbean Islands. After serving on the Anthropology faculty at Pennsylvania State University for 15 years, she left to take a new position at Flagler College in St. Augustine, where she is currently Professor of Anthropology. Logan Kistler received his Ph.D., in Anthropology from the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) in 2012. He held a post-doctoral position in the Archaeogenetics Laboratory, Department of Biology, at PSU from 2012 to 2014, followed by a post-doc with the Department of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK, from 2014 to .2017. In 2017, Dr. Kistler accepted a permanent position at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, where he is currently Curator of Archaeobotany and Archaeogenetics in the Department of Anthropology. George Luer is a former FAS President and recipient of the Lazarus and Bullen Awards. He has assisted The Florida Anthropologist for 41 years and assembled issues and monographs. In west-central Florida, George has studied the Manasota, Weeden Island, and Safety Harbor cultures. In south Florida, he has researched shell mounds, canoe canals, and postcontact metal artifacts. George has helped to preserve a number of sites and natural areas. He is known by co-workers for generosity, hard work, and support of their efforts to publish their findings. Dorothy Block earned M.A. and B.A. degrees in Anthropology and a B.A. degree in English and American Literature from Florida Atlantic University. She is the founder of the Palm Beach County Archaeological Society and the former Director of the Lawrence E. Will Museum of the Glades, in Belle Glade. Dorothy has taught archaeology and general anthropology at Broward College and Palm Beach State. She has worked for over a decade as an archaeologist in Cultural Resources Management. She is a native of Florida and a grass roots activist. VOL. 72 (1) THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST MARCH 2019

PAGE 58

FAS CHAPTERS 1. Archaeological Society of Southern Florida fasweb.org/assf/ 2. Central Florida Anthropological Society fasweb.org/cfas/ 3. Central Gulf Coast Archaeology Society fasweb.org/cgcas/ 4. Emerald Coast Archaeology Society fasweb.org/ecas/ 5. Gold Coast Anthropological Society fasweb.org/gcas/ 6. Indian River Anthropological Society fasweb.org/iras/ 7. Kissimmee Valley Archaeological and Historical Conservancy fasweb.org/kvahc/ 8. Palm Beach County Archaeological Society fasweb.org/pbcas/ 9. Panhandle Archaeological Society at Tallahassee fasweb.org/past/ 10. Pensacola Archaeological Society fasweb.org/pas/ 11. Southeast Florida Archaeological Society ..>-..it ,-fasweb.org/sefas/ 12. Southwest Flotida Archaeological Society fasweb.org/swfas/ 13. St. Augustine Archaeological Association fasweb.org/saaa/ 14. Time Sifters Archaeology Society fasweb.org/tsas/ 15. Warm Mineral Springs/Little Salt Spring Archaeological Society fasweb.org/wmslssas/ J~

PAGE 59

JOIN THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY Membership in FAS supports education initiatives statewide, including an annual conference, student grants, Florida Archaeology Month, and more. Join today and you will receive our quarterly newsletter and The Florida Anthropologist. Membership is open to all interested individuals who are willing to abide by the FAS Statement of Ethics (available at fasweb.org/membership/). Membership categories and rates: Student: Regular: Family Institutional: Sustaining: Patron: Benefactor: $15 $30 $35 $30 $100 $1000 $2500 • Student membership is open to graduate, undergraduate, and high school students. A photocopy of your current student ID must accompany payment • Add $25 for foreign address • Membership forms are also available at fasweb.org/membership/ • The Society publishes the journal The Florida Anthropologist and newsletters, normally quarterly and sponsors an annual meeting hosted by a local chapter ........................................................................................ Name Address Ci State Zi Tele hone Email FAS Cha ter __ I agree to abide by the Code of Ethics of the Florida Anthropological Society Mail to: Florida Anthropological Society c / o Pat Balanzategui, FAS Membership Secretary P. 0. Box 1135, St. Augustine, FL 32085

PAGE 64

FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC. GEORGE M. LUER, PH.D. 3222 OLD OAK DRIVE SARASOTA, FL 34239 NON-PROFIT U.S. POSTAGE PAID TALLAHASSEE, FL PERMIT NO. 801 RETURN SERVICE REQUESTED TABLE OF CONTENTS FROM THE EDITOR ARTICLES p ALEOETHNOBOTANICAL ANALYSIS OF BULK SEDIMENT AND IN SITU COLLECTIONS FROM THE NORTH SLOPE BASIN OF LITTLE SALT SPRING (8SO18), SARASOTA COUNTY, FLORIDA LEE A . NEWSOM AND LOGAN KISTLER RADIOCARBON DATES FROM w ARM MINERAL SPRINGS, LITTLE SALT SPRING, AND NEARBY SITES [N NORTH PORT, FLORIDA GEORGE M LUER AND DOROTHY A . BLOCK ABOUT THE AUTHORS Cover: 1-14 15-52 Aerial views of Warm Mineral Springs, Little Salt Spring, and Nona's Site in North Port, Florida. Image of Warm Mineral Springs from www.wmslss.org/the-springs/ . Image of Little Salt Spring from www.rsmas . miami.edu/research/resources / little-salt-spring/index.html. Image ofNona's Site from Google Earth 2019. Copyright 2019 by the FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC. ISSN 0015-3893


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
fcla fda yes
!-- Florida anthropologist ( Serial ) --
METS:mets OBJID UF00027829_00245
xmlns:METS http:www.loc.govMETS
xmlns:xlink http:www.w3.org1999xlink
xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance
xmlns:daitss http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss
xmlns:mods http:www.loc.govmodsv3
xmlns:sobekcm http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcm
xmlns:lom http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcm_lom
xsi:schemaLocation
http:www.loc.govstandardsmetsmets.xsd
http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitss.xsd
http:www.loc.govmodsv3mods-3-4.xsd
http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcmsobekcm.xsd
METS:metsHdr CREATEDATE 2021-02-24T17:12:28Z ID LASTMODDATE 2021-02-24T12:10:43Z RECORDSTATUS COMPLETE
METS:agent ROLE CREATOR TYPE ORGANIZATION
METS:name UF,University of Florida
OTHERTYPE SOFTWARE OTHER
Go UFDC - FDA Preparation Tool
INDIVIDUAL
UFAD\renner
METS:dmdSec DMD1
METS:mdWrap MDTYPE MODS MIMETYPE textxml LABEL Metadata
METS:xmlData
mods:mods
mods:abstract type summary displayLabel Summary Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
mods:accessCondition Copyright Florida Anthropologist Society, Inc. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
mods:genre authority sobekcm serial
marcgt periodical
mods:identifier OCLC 609502567
LCCN 56028409
ISSN 0015-3893
mods:language
mods:languageTerm text English
code iso639-2b eng
mods:location
mods:physicalLocation Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
UFSPEC
mods:url access object in context https://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00245
mods:name corporate
mods:namePart Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
mods:note dates or sequential designation v. 1- May 1948-
Cumulative index: Vols. 1-24, no. 2, 1948-June 1971. 1 v.
mods:originInfo
mods:publisher Florida Anthropological Society.
mods:place
mods:placeTerm marccountry flu
mods:dateIssued marc point start 1948
end 9999
mods:edition Volume 72 Number 1, March 2019
mods:frequency Quarterly[]
Two no. a year[ FORMER 1948-]
marcfrequency quarterly
regular
mods:recordInfo
mods:recordIdentifier source UF00027829_00245
mods:recordCreationDate 750824
mods:recordOrigin Imported from (OCLC)01569447
mods:recordContentSource University of Florida
marcorg MUL
YUS
NSD
DLC
OCL
NST
EBZ
SYS
WAU
OCLCQ
mods:languageOfCataloging
English
eng
mods:relatedItem original
mods:physicalDescription
mods:extent v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
series
mods:part
mods:detail Enum1
mods:caption Volume 72 (2019)
mods:number 72
Enum2
Number 1 (March)
1
mods:subject SUBJ650_1 lcsh
mods:topic Indians of North America
Antiquities
mods:geographic Florida
Periodicals
SUBJ651_2
Antiquities
Florida
Periodicals
mods:titleInfo
mods:nonSort The
mods:title Florida anthropologist
abbreviated
Fla. anthropol.
mods:typeOfResource text
DMD2
OTHERMDTYPE SOBEKCM SobekCM Custom
sobekcm:procParam
sobekcm:Aggregation ALL
HISTORY
FHPC
UFIR
FLANT
IUF
IUFSPEC
sobekcm:MainThumbnail 00001thm.jpg
sobekcm:Wordmark FLANT
UF
UFIR
sobekcm:bibDesc
sobekcm:BibID UF00027829
sobekcm:VID 00245
sobekcm:EncodingLevel #
sobekcm:Publisher
sobekcm:Name Florida Anthropological Society.
sobekcm:PlaceTerm Gainesville
sobekcm:Source
sobekcm:statement UF University of Florida
sobekcm:SortDate 711126
sobekcm:serial
sobekcm:SerialHierarchy level 1 order 72 Volume 72 (2019)
2 Number 1 (March)
METS:amdSec
METS:digiprovMD DIGIPROV1
DAITSS Archiving Information
daitss:daitss
daitss:AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT PROJECT UFDC
METS:techMD TECH1
File Technical Details
sobekcm:FileInfo
sobekcm:File fileid JP21 width 5285 height 6894
JPEG1 630 822
JPEG2 855
JP22 5081
JPEG3
JP23
JPEG4
JP24
JPEG5
JP25
JPEG6
JP26
JPEG7
JP27
JPEG8
JP28
JPEG9 464
JP29
JPEG10
JP210
JPEG11
JP211
JPEG12
JP212
JPEG13
JP213
JPEG14
JP214
JPEG15
JP215
JPEG16
JP216
JPEG17
JP217
JPEG18
JP218
JPEG19
JP219
JPEG20
JP220
JPEG21
JP221
JPEG22
JP222
JPEG23
JP223
JPEG24
JP224
JPEG25
JP225
JPEG26
JP226
JPEG27
JP227
JPEG28
JP228
JPEG29
JP229
JPEG30
JP230
JPEG31
JP231
JPEG32
JP232
JPEG33
JP233
JPEG34
JP234
JPEG35
JP235
JPEG36
JP236
JPEG37
JP237
JPEG38
JP238
JPEG39
JP239
JPEG40
JP240
JPEG41
JP241
JPEG42
JP242
JPEG43
JP243
JPEG44
JP244
JPEG45
JP245
JPEG46
JP246
JPEG47
JP247
JPEG48
JP248
JPEG49
JP249
JPEG50
JP250
JPEG51
JP251
JPEG52
JP252
JPEG53
JP253
JPEG54
JP254
JPEG55
JP255
JPEG56
JP256
JPEG57
JP257
JPEG58
JP258
JPEG59
JP259
JPEG60
JP260
JPEG61
JP261
JPEG62
JP262
JPEG63
JP263
JP264 5358 6987
JPEG64
METS:fileSec
METS:fileGrp USE archive
METS:file GROUPID G1 TIF1 imagetiff CHECKSUM 9bbb979d337553564ef413f5acca1569 CHECKSUMTYPE MD5 SIZE 109328600
METS:FLocat LOCTYPE OTHERLOCTYPE SYSTEM xlink:href 00001.tif
G2 TIF2 e10781d0fa0ee7a8923b4c588656aab5 105108000
00002.tif
G3 TIF3 ee70e96ec5d3785628e8d79ac73ecc17 105105452
00003.tif
G4 TIF4 cacfbad70add1bfb2c26a9b597b1de81 105106956
00004.tif
G5 TIF5 07f7ded46139a6f46726d691196807ad 105108568
00005.tif
G6 TIF6 5278a7c80f7be2b53b9ea19c47b16fcc 105108104
00006.tif
G7 TIF7 dcbc6b8a94749f501d4ec5ba247f8056 105109072
00007.tif
G8 TIF8 49d8c3063274b45b6301f4bfdf8732e8 105108600
00008.tif
G9 TIF9 b0d0e0d52b589199aeda5d340b034207 105106576
00009.tif
G10 TIF10 ebf3cd7e9080b478436d7cf56fcc3532
00010.tif
G11 TIF11 a283ab7cc2087f4b71c0ccfa0d1fffe0 105107728
00011.tif
G12 TIF12 0e49a07fa2ca5adae29f81d8097d121b 105109348
00012.tif
G13 TIF13 e7f3f02044ff0ff6f6633e7db85e977a 105108596
00013.tif
G14 TIF14 2e721d1555c66b4488f37c6c7977ab3b 105108924
00014.tif
G15 TIF15 0c7a56b07e165f24ced8f5d9378062f6 105108320
00015.tif
G16 TIF16 1a969b56e21c03f40d46b1cb11718996 105107856
00016.tif
G17 TIF17 02cbf5c7f7aac7424069d6609b4d0672 105107768
00017.tif
G18 TIF18 be47f04caf8cf36f521ddef6e8f96909 105105680
00018.tif
G19 TIF19 05488f2b2680c4fa7cd2a2a227c4cc73 105107340
00019.tif
G20 TIF20 92d85e6ac05524661d7f675383871a49 105107520
00020.tif
G21 TIF21 5de0e0d3b93dbe88ad84d510f3491096 105108268
00021.tif
G22 TIF22 e6e77dc181ce18e2be88dd99a3134c6d 105108880
00022.tif
G23 TIF23 c8fa1b447a78bbd66d94f32d2a208dcf 105106892
00023.tif
G24 TIF24 d3e00da033338a4ea5d0dcb90172088d 105108800
00024.tif
G25 TIF25 1a620e7ea201bceacf97e905630a9748 105106876
00025.tif
G26 TIF26 8ee7aaab201ebfa58659861fc0798fed 105108920
00026.tif
G27 TIF27 0d36276030a403e841ba8fbb5c644e9f 105108120
00027.tif
G28 TIF28 6a90d82108e85f26a46392f3a0524499 105108084
00028.tif
G29 TIF29 7c98f2c066625f2fef8679793c111277 105108292
00029.tif
G30 TIF30 94a1939aa7508a6797c3edb5e7c88527 105108796
00030.tif
G31 TIF31 af62ce060a9c5434b6af23ed5300ab00
00031.tif
G32 TIF32 3bf6ce0249073e62d849d73c12cc0fc1 105108828
00032.tif
G33 TIF33 8ed6416d38cd16ba52eb48d0587e61b6 105108704
00033.tif
G34 TIF34 a858f816f6222a9664dfb5645da6ea9b 105107720
00034.tif
G35 TIF35 1a01c217abfd3af7f0c50a8059695c18 105108256
00035.tif
G36 TIF36 50a50762836a4f9271c461e0a0ea40e6 105109028
00036.tif
G37 TIF37 f1b8e59059b5cd97310a144b83a3176e 105107808
00037.tif
G38 TIF38 d7504f48d5588f421f740897fd69baf2 105108400
00038.tif
G39 TIF39 62eb3c0fd32c32373fc33d7a86eabc36 105107884
00039.tif
G40 TIF40 0820e5156090c394282832fe009f0ce3 105107700
00040.tif
G41 TIF41 eaa6276ee90ce798ddbed6335161084f 105107512
00041.tif
G42 TIF42 ff1058fbd49c75b6022260768202b57e 105107548
00042.tif
G43 TIF43 c5a073fc34b58c09712283fac9c0df02 105107800
00043.tif
G44 TIF44 a6c9867dabc3fd28cb821acb6fbbbb37 105108192
00044.tif
G45 TIF45 7b7f290d265111ac65e6bf5b581b7372 105107832
00045.tif
G46 TIF46 b67a121889190a2605392b26b853932a 105107332
00046.tif
G47 TIF47 5f19c0e5529325bbeb9151b45fbeddae 105107572
00047.tif
G48 TIF48 a6174aeea456ed79a070e176d5e972c3 105107468
00048.tif
G49 TIF49 37d065d14bd3b071976be34979aece68 105106816
00049.tif
G50 TIF50 e0488ceef2c8c861bcfaee53b545d8ec 105108052
00050.tif
G51 TIF51 99e0619797d84f2ef3e6749cf1715208
00051.tif
G52 TIF52 0f75586c515c1e211ad2024b9fc0931d 105108428
00052.tif
G53 TIF53 e7dacc50e317b95f540122e6319173ed 105108156
00053.tif
G54 TIF54 f212c739e43d72cfdedfe65c4bab4d05 105108096
00054.tif
G55 TIF55 01d5a92439ea2bb817354cf97863945d 105106232
00055.tif
G56 TIF56 a3e0aa3c41f955d041e037ec5604d6f9 105107500
00056.tif
G57 TIF57 593f03fb63c34b6a5558c0f21e40f8b1 105106944
00057.tif
G58 TIF58 3e1adad81a2d4e669d53a3e926cc0f75 105107464
00058.tif
G59 TIF59 37dd12b05c033d45f81d6d238d8dd743 105106692
00059.tif
G60 TIF60 777c47826180d828157bc76e134d8a1c 105103688
00060.tif
G61 TIF61 9469979a9789250fc74aa921b54127d2 105103680
00061.tif
G62 TIF62 292fa60f0ce6c85ad226cf53b82c053d
00062.tif
G63 TIF63 fd04a390d774e1d0a3c56d8fa039e9ad
00063.tif
G64 TIF64 7d1a1e65cff56568c23310e7d95a1192 112329600
00064.tif
reference
imagejp2 aab8692275d6e3e6495c8c2ee9e6efc7 4554413
00001.jp2
c3b0cfceb08e2aaf090743a2c52f4004 4378662
00002.jp2
1c785e35fee2b2bb43bb14bce6cb2355 4378651
00003.jp2
1dc6f7ea17edb9e757dae3056ea31d25 4378470
00004.jp2
907e0092adde598a08d2356d2faf3aef 4378653
00005.jp2
61419c3c8c061f36a6376eac27e27e89 4378656
00006.jp2
95c5dbf4dd0cf039cd67b4c49c6974fc 4378659
00007.jp2
7ed18b33f68cc58750d3f381c0c7b29a 4378660
00008.jp2
c4e368c1ce0de86237dc0f88bf5199b1 4378658
00009.jp2
fd425440857cbb547f02d26b2d4e7044 4378584
00010.jp2
63f1b9618144ca94e96abd2ea1b9499b
00011.jp2
e52c7c6ffd381913b0e9dc7c41d8d991
00012.jp2
252d45a343bd98d90b36caeff484bdbe
00013.jp2
d4386e940b5a703fa827a52305b180b0 4378661
00014.jp2
e892f63e2853f30ae935ca4acc021cc5
00015.jp2
f381afa45514b2fd2c2d3dce0bd24355
00016.jp2
804207389fc4bc47770aeab65b72bc2d 4378606
00017.jp2
9b759d28796900eccec9bbca6729f04b
00018.jp2
492dccb10003dc171633db4f80eb67ff
00019.jp2
e1cbd46b874075ac352552b19f63eb63
00020.jp2
e21241bc48d19620aa1d33bb3c764ce3 4378652
00021.jp2
cc4bd77cf8f2a244d002a8efde48c820 4378648
00022.jp2
5f7b373e7aef487cbf0e7fb9b82eb290
00023.jp2
9c28068d9405fe09507cf9851bf4aed3 4378655
00024.jp2
91dbb229a9ce27fe5e8e053a49ed46fb
00025.jp2
84453320c99e33f650dc0db62da5e720
00026.jp2
c3dbe123e4e87754068024a8a6caf6ba 4378644
00027.jp2
c586e3d82f98946227484a5c74f450d4
00028.jp2
126ed9201d0beef30b8ffc00d3314e83
00029.jp2
effef8ace9502f47f2f00e608bc6ea51 4378657
00030.jp2
f678dacb5d7b4b23237bd970ac978527
00031.jp2
332814da0d06a65af685c4c0071f0a15 4378528
00032.jp2
1373d060f334a26ee7edbac0232d8358
00033.jp2
7b6da983ce4c92645d9f2fe15003698d 4378610
00034.jp2
0f2a437ee7f02586a3252533e14ab0d6 4378654
00035.jp2
1da3cf47c9be3a63c0c1342906df7562
00036.jp2
98c4f6b8188e55a76b911d45be538dc4
00037.jp2
84b2b0abcb209331fd505a21072c84a1 4378473
00038.jp2
858df3f620b23413cf6269588ef96d5f 4378649
00039.jp2
11934d92b2a6adb30e24f1c8e58d4036
00040.jp2
19b93c987507e196ff67256fabdcc27e
00041.jp2
fc20efa475e0409dbf1c185e82a989bb 4378518
00042.jp2
6d6a20b6006326dab77d0a5e6f636269
00043.jp2
0691bca99eed6bffa039b28e78cd453a 4378496
00044.jp2
c47d040db9d643117dbe010a52134e6b
00045.jp2
d5b8b80e942f059a211cc469541a5ab0 4378583
00046.jp2
e3c67400985698ddf50de35bb69767d4
00047.jp2
1bb38f88db6090e7b696855a5f875050
00048.jp2
925846631264ce3ce1c91550950488d9 4378645
00049.jp2
31f8188ee4c3575b14198a2a0c5df38b
00050.jp2
8b54decfb2751894847b057cc2b17ee2
00051.jp2
31e2b2d749fe22ce705346c3fc0a9cf8
00052.jp2
af5843c885269af24f77ecb0b8fd5260
00053.jp2
5172cf25b8087be505813cd23e7a5a79
00054.jp2
5294e489675e65529fb5c770340a371d
00055.jp2
910b403158588efbc9680d3c863c980f
00056.jp2
d2c1968e53e34d5f94cb3c9a536fc7a8 4378638
00057.jp2
73b3f9fbb5511785af3a15101ce18c9a
00058.jp2
19741a3463e122f2de0a3f9ab59d6238
00059.jp2
7f853c0da46492e52a3441c193c94bfa
00060.jp2
c4566ecb0f57f53125d36111f7605fad 3604432
00061.jp2
f8929ed64b5d6b9879524312d018c156
00062.jp2
e11ecbf3bfd6036f77e79ad3535cfef8 3023021
00063.jp2
6a64874277b509b2c5020c8b0c3037ef 4679647
00064.jp2
imagejpeg b4c7303d367b812ece6579b3806a7046 180221
00001.jpg
JPEG1.2 a0347157bb8430546926b8e6509b4255 69061
00001.QC.jpg
b39f97bd7fc87f65d958ea59cacc20b3 203382
00002.jpg
JPEG2.2 72bed6619ea7ef1362eb30960bcb3336 66808
00002.QC.jpg
95121056f52495690744e6141c3cf445 81711
00003.jpg
JPEG3.2 40c569b01f565402724c3bbddd682a1e 37621
00003.QC.jpg
445480610c773c6aa71c7acfcbe07226 129431
00004.jpg
JPEG4.2 abcfd821a60b0d66e31ba7c51c4961aa 51264
00004.QC.jpg
0ad5b4c3e0e5aac2f833aa7e620047b6 242498
00005.jpg
JPEG5.2 9d377e345355ba61fbac1b223ede85e5 75815
00005.QC.jpg
85a50f6ec5a775b65a3bc5e5e46f9290 153694
00006.jpg
JPEG6.2 95f1f8b518c81ffa93537de6000a87f8 60578
00006.QC.jpg
dd50f7e53126152d8a1838d7058266ef 268368
00007.jpg
JPEG7.2 30efb3ab5bd8eef3ec51b06753606e2a 81693
00007.QC.jpg
95248d8923f1d3bf16eb81f162485623 250180
00008.jpg
JPEG8.2 6d17fcce65d8878b3ca393ed6139492f 76333
00008.QC.jpg
1b006a9d93ac83a19b967895241d7eb3 93668
00009.jpg
JPEG9.2 b44caca9bbb272b50d567df24d243ac7 40542
00009.QC.jpg
6e4809c07b333de4fa67ffd8dbc1088d 207780
00010.jpg
JPEG10.2 64fd2f6df80751b1f63c04e7a48aaa98 70113
00010.QC.jpg
9571c45f4bade07f89acfa17338504eb 211727
00011.jpg
JPEG11.2 dcbad89e2aa51a75f9cc3bb58ebdb3cc 68662
00011.QC.jpg
c8b3997372b10e5c994172c6ef8a9a8c 272248
00012.jpg
JPEG12.2 1ac8b05e05649f675d3404d50fd134f1 82654
00012.QC.jpg
7fbb48dae4a588f90053209c751212d5 265179
00013.jpg
JPEG13.2 3009d654047aa23ee6b13a7d5fcadd2a 79027
00013.QC.jpg
61fd557c9467fb51ad9cf45100e389f1 259076
00014.jpg
JPEG14.2 30916c70a0e5cf0a33f1d019dc67bd61 78196
00014.QC.jpg
dc3f862d5cf8905d0d2b605410e23f94 251860
00015.jpg
JPEG15.2 9d280fc0b658c37b8e7fe574f0de13c8 76438
00015.QC.jpg
c91a7acf49f6d176bf1b2e4a273c8b12 194864
00016.jpg
JPEG16.2 6e3764bc2058dbf2e4e3a650fb4a668c 66102
00016.QC.jpg
1dd55dae2d47e12d189d608d96e456bb 197689
00017.jpg
JPEG17.2 5393bb593d6911c78660978f708170b4 66289
00017.QC.jpg
491096460ff4dacbfcc50e000d5bfcb4 121030
00018.jpg
JPEG18.2 0f71ce3f86b1d2d4d2629c8fec077b09 45339
00018.QC.jpg
a5bc2b0a2635a77540ec2380da7e9530 137810
00019.jpg
JPEG19.2 9b04599826a00a68f25789112a8f46d9 54789
00019.QC.jpg
85f7888051e7c23f00d9fff423b0e909 183230
00020.jpg
JPEG20.2 b5aeb4bb862ebc800d64ffa2c019cc9c 64293
00020.QC.jpg
a66c99750694b5583c2b4d6e18d2a84a 227636
00021.jpg
JPEG21.2 b0a66c3ce598b2b203c5ed93707023a4 73458
00021.QC.jpg
3e59e64aca9fc5645697e4043a5caeb5 258243
00022.jpg
JPEG22.2 56d7457c3b62fbffea41448d587193d6 79562
00022.QC.jpg
452c72eec66bbe3bd55cc66d304bdb7e 120076
00023.jpg
JPEG23.2 c567e4e1129d07e01da3aebc46f7260a 51616
00023.QC.jpg
ca2b18e2fa9aa6794428e91bfcc2b4f0 264094
00024.jpg
JPEG24.2 2d315ec5f42035a058a138afd32eeba0 79929
00024.QC.jpg
b3d54f68bc20974849d5edd2057e4ce0 127230
00025.jpg
JPEG25.2 ced98361b204f7912b1e9b68edb2d7c8 53717
00025.QC.jpg
91e5bcf7fe70bb377142afb6adcbf444 256735
00026.jpg
JPEG26.2 a17d36b6d6a1de4c63823318bce4dfe4 78864
00026.QC.jpg
e42ec14ca857d14edc44f85cf73388aa 248261
00027.jpg
JPEG27.2 b1fff52006492a333be96ecfa1c6ddea 74936
00027.QC.jpg
b540c1026c079135e1f7968081b8cd18 205383
00028.jpg
JPEG28.2 c47e2107c249594c3093f7f46244d232 71755
00028.QC.jpg
1d2fc4dc5749d82cbf14f69171eb0b8f 154887
00029.jpg
JPEG29.2 0d5cb6f39ccb9dd5ced5da8e0043d849 63738
00029.QC.jpg
4266e050d9d8bcbad15c5ca4325f22dc 266292
00030.jpg
JPEG30.2 29c01a38c2ffa1cde8a74460207521a2 80403
00030.QC.jpg
9537d400fe80610cd47973acd5c784f1 265346
00031.jpg
JPEG31.2 a7669ab4a778ecde982875761f1afb8a 80326
00031.QC.jpg
601df20c9b031679d1e076ef4c948fc7 218645
00032.jpg
JPEG32.2 31fe4565258a5020c342e548ea62546f 76602
00032.QC.jpg
c9629ee4f5d1d80688a3b12b33973f01 247964
00033.jpg
JPEG33.2 3b4207ac346faaa830bc1ed2740847d4 76841
00033.QC.jpg
04a6e09bbb6676fdf44efd200fb1e78e 172221
00034.jpg
JPEG34.2 bca331a3707062ad094dcb2983d18eba 62327
00034.QC.jpg
9f877945ae93aad3432ff05f71012b5c 210477
00035.jpg
JPEG35.2 aa4531834d180e3e3db5fac27121aeea 69745
00035.QC.jpg
0eeae65f6d0a9400475caf2c3e7abd2e 267828
00036.jpg
JPEG36.2 3aa07508f318d89babbe929f94d4467b 81202
00036.QC.jpg
00f5daf0f2cc259f0e5e91bad458f509 227153
00037.jpg
JPEG37.2 38d1ac3cb1887a533de5783e19c7b3cc 71857
00037.QC.jpg
27cd744991234c5dc1d759cb259de538 206611
00038.jpg
JPEG38.2 c44f0aabd388f1da82993876842ebfb6 70492
00038.QC.jpg
e82cf51ff31195ae7d9764abdff4db66 198774
00039.jpg
JPEG39.2 fbcf1e30ddcf6e24e2400608f34d3b6a 67298
00039.QC.jpg
388d1bfe8db9a53af2dfb4bb48f63e52 193471
00040.jpg
JPEG40.2 29a225cd2fb7a288dfa28cab779b68d8 65868
00040.QC.jpg
c85d7668666a63d84e353980145b280e 190363
00041.jpg
JPEG41.2 6482370e31e2a91f96eddbd0c07fa5dd 64814
00041.QC.jpg
cd62c3587be577e56f6705b2a3a4eeba 188761
00042.jpg
JPEG42.2 66c21a905d31a8b4a166173cf86f2dbe 63905
00042.QC.jpg
846046b3985ab086ff6bc9e671dbf1a7 193633
00043.jpg
JPEG43.2 86f792d2318ac1607aa61fe25e662fca 65999
00043.QC.jpg
94ed8cc6d098a8ec2a8e72d0f41930e6 204192
00044.jpg
JPEG44.2 ebd009148d9ceff47982b88ea1666afd 70083
00044.QC.jpg
bd5d69f44c3844f01c8d4ab554dd3e16 196946
00045.jpg
JPEG45.2 cc0fbbd20e75892d7958c0182c044c66 69581
00045.QC.jpg
02e74d603aa4133a7a44a1192d938f18 166582
00046.jpg
JPEG46.2 221b9aeb4800defabceece40a1d40b23 62229
00046.QC.jpg
d3045495ac65069235af3951edb2060d 168752
00047.jpg
JPEG47.2 832f148a88a57cc2a637a2eae21faebe 64304
00047.QC.jpg
54d755570c904c17ecdc1ee70816d9c7 173129
00048.jpg
JPEG48.2 233b56a7884e7e30145df505c2e5381a 63031
00048.QC.jpg
d2ffaf068ec4a28207d6594411a9951f 147623
00049.jpg
JPEG49.2 7f261b0e5719e085973f8463fe95f46e 56701
00049.QC.jpg
c910283f6c5be79d645efe847d662f57 188463
00050.jpg
JPEG50.2 5476bb2766706b5477cfd59814d678a0 69476
00050.QC.jpg
a4a8e0fce0ea15cca1b0bf16b18c934e 191193
00051.jpg
JPEG51.2 fd7cfbb804b51d7f8ecbfacd48c1a02e 71279
00051.QC.jpg
af3f2efc7632d3b0c1fba2cdf9d479aa 202130
00052.jpg
JPEG52.2 8a77fab2301e6ba522631453dbbd55fb 72708
00052.QC.jpg
3dcc6494a31a1118dd458fe19bfde7ba 197529
00053.jpg
JPEG53.2 ff5eab928e649ef5e8f9c49989aea566 70895
00053.QC.jpg
b08b6ee325f281c08cec04e577217bbb 178141
00054.jpg
JPEG54.2 827d570da5b4164da1e4fe87e376ef11 67694
00054.QC.jpg
622ce31938e269b017ccdd2d93f662e7 121969
00055.jpg
JPEG55.2 2771fe992bc2708a15f7715a78663653 49351
00055.QC.jpg
1ddd6cdba1adc2a64175c8d287e6f92f 170351
00056.jpg
JPEG56.2 342314d740077e6d9bb5dbce688e463a 63427
00056.QC.jpg
09516a448e47878698d55e4cc0ecb542 151245
00057.jpg
JPEG57.2 9d54d823e4a4d2b4bacc60372dd59bb6 55760
00057.QC.jpg
4d6d7e06b0b6f511739a4ad418c8cb5a 137530
00058.jpg
JPEG58.2 1c54c1c704c7e3d56197163651c8d206 56764
00058.QC.jpg
b102d94334a2d65fe1bc67d3f776fd45 126724
00059.jpg
JPEG59.2 ec9e687b30a735f1cda3459e550fd615 50031
00059.QC.jpg
d4cabb211ce5950c4238f2e53c7e5f8d 43398
00060.jpg
JPEG60.2 20d37fd3e6c7f883d4359be4369e9150 23422
00060.QC.jpg
9db07f1855fbf6edfadc73d9cc07c21a 37100
00061.jpg
JPEG61.2 1c0ccdc09325824b7a1d915197511e3b 22148
00061.QC.jpg
9a24c67395ed405a167978b9a47af048 44286
00062.jpg
JPEG62.2 e2baa3f00fd078158344c4632c3a97c8 23556
00062.QC.jpg
e995d873d69c4d26446339c04c17b383 29301
00063.jpg
JPEG63.2 ecd0dece62cb42b417a8619e2ad97831 21052
00063.QC.jpg
7a4477599a1a988a00bd756b5620db5c 92358
00064.jpg
JPEG64.2 a16418c9f750c5a6bddec8d9a2af61db 40632
00064.QC.jpg
THUMB1 imagejpeg-thumbnails 9cfb73a2c0b69d57a1c4f5d2fc25efe8 35541
00001thm.jpg
THUMB2 978ae25f9755eda8b354b548d8958274 32406
00002thm.jpg
THUMB3 b22a2723a64c7e951ee3b618df916b10 24706
00003thm.jpg
THUMB4 6bbdf2fdd89d07ed267e42aeb8415ef2 29545
00004thm.jpg
THUMB5 950d55344a87ed7741c25b09001144bc 34545
00005thm.jpg
THUMB6 a42ba41f643770579fac73c1b6c3e8a2 32431
00006thm.jpg
THUMB7 b6b0aaae9bd1d797e8a4a615a8794ef7 35977
00007thm.jpg
THUMB8 dc93dada183718741a356fef265c0a0b 34559
00008thm.jpg
THUMB9 010dab79fe680c8abc2b58d4b5fbf49c 25414
00009thm.jpg
THUMB10 894344ef22c59a2395feedf4ab92bdd8 33139
00010thm.jpg
THUMB11 76815abeca2a092b7b6f80032b80f3ad 32426
00011thm.jpg
THUMB12 fd7bc915e60d701998ace4145d60d5c3 36259
00012thm.jpg
THUMB13 1fdc805ef73db1f4ed305832998ddc21 34521
00013thm.jpg
THUMB14 4345a12e97311f7b1e98a51db3d4f81c 35413
00014thm.jpg
THUMB15 ff4e34fb35c92315ea630e94d7f9c778 33862
00015thm.jpg
THUMB16 a22aa3673151cf27d0d16db73f98d1cd 32519
00016thm.jpg
THUMB17 fa62f5aac853fd872d4ce7108ccdfae3 32367
00017thm.jpg
THUMB18 ce734e09838fccc738e89ac10c7300c8 25984
00018thm.jpg
THUMB19 db7d2f26244a7d43618e3f492bfbbec0 30072
00019thm.jpg
THUMB20 e81ea6a86940624671c30535978fe737 31209
00020thm.jpg
THUMB21 592bb6b215c9b6ff80cf9fc1a23bdf03 33846
00021thm.jpg
THUMB22 9939eee366823b97427406a2f8fcc4fb 35689
00022thm.jpg
THUMB23 7ffa5a71d7654c79e603b5cd3bccb3db 29225
00023thm.jpg
THUMB24 caaa876469706b035aca5d1bdbe9c623 35235
00024thm.jpg
THUMB25 b7485e75d0678f229b0a0647276bcc50 29275
00025thm.jpg
THUMB26 a29187097282a5bfdd5a46e9d61fa444 35550
00026thm.jpg
THUMB27 88d33cb4112550e88f35cd2b2d061852 33410
00027thm.jpg
THUMB28 024fa1389337e2f0252a82d1b50706ac 33597
00028thm.jpg
THUMB29 a61e0f4dbfbfd7139eeade7941700347 33063
00029thm.jpg
THUMB30 5878c7b732e3a9c57dd4525975d55331 35258
00030thm.jpg
THUMB31 f6f06e29175b5492b66a2d6a9a44c7ce 35165
00031thm.jpg
THUMB32 75808961df63fa3412a85ca7d3ebfed3 35438
00032thm.jpg
THUMB33 c3c743cb49c76c3f018e9dcf5d3e6972 34700
00033thm.jpg
THUMB34 2173bd93b7361bd6b428b8a7d8a7868f 32253
00034thm.jpg
THUMB35 c20882a08efb2514b9309164851ba854 33784
00035thm.jpg
THUMB36 0c807f65388987c5267e362325b55f45 35638
00036thm.jpg
THUMB37 f5139aa615964bf0b985b5f7186d637d 32991
00037thm.jpg
THUMB38 db076a6067cfa5f4d914df8c595b33ff 33887
00038thm.jpg
THUMB39 7730891bd42603d7fa1d33c8f8d493bf 32620
00039thm.jpg
THUMB40 457755a4c60947660ccff0fc396ec7d7 32089
00040thm.jpg
THUMB41 9199475827bd7c3271d91c421dbab32c 31728
00041thm.jpg
THUMB42 260989691fa52c53fab271e5d987f72f 31884
00042thm.jpg
THUMB43 827a2b75ce6ce5e87f18c13822312825 32409
00043thm.jpg
THUMB44 7c9bf0ac997d7ee04822d5992fc05086 33343
00044thm.jpg
THUMB45 67a4fa9775001596bea9fe657816eb7a 32997
00045thm.jpg
THUMB46 8f72bd6865ad5b2d6a1520c32ecc11b4 30959
00046thm.jpg
THUMB47 0b4c390e7c0cb8241e24b9bb502d250d 31954
00047thm.jpg
THUMB48 1e6b17f3bdf65f8f8719936a67598735 31525
00048thm.jpg
THUMB49 41d9642f571c6952413c85d2a5bfbeba 29598
00049thm.jpg
THUMB50 5ea07a39027908b2bbdb9e3e2fadb48a 33431
00050thm.jpg
THUMB51 6a9703e34b849b49f28ce264d768280c 33849
00051thm.jpg
THUMB52 68df9973c9b2ad1c7cc46219070935df 34516
00052thm.jpg
THUMB53 7322f7766c6ef9e6e3a559f4b1663a1b 33827
00053thm.jpg
THUMB54 ecb18ddb27deb1e166bde506d8502156 33215
00054thm.jpg
THUMB55 a67ea62763afe373ca10c5f1ae351c87 27677
00055thm.jpg
THUMB56 3d2246ce9650ebc1a59ea88c324ec539 32044
00056thm.jpg
THUMB57 28d31e927dbb15e094bebbe55a3a8be4 29042
00057thm.jpg
THUMB58 f6de1c304e3f2dcf7f84e0be92f4fee4 31111
00058thm.jpg
THUMB59 55244d7767b92bccc4155cbe6a498a57 28271
00059thm.jpg
THUMB60 bcc828fb80c2d372192c9a7b4a478419 19271
00060thm.jpg
THUMB61 92e776ab55d9148e42931a103bbfecbe 19093
00061thm.jpg
THUMB62 7cd6805d2adb32de3a0c17c2057c10f6 19290
00062thm.jpg
THUMB63 5b9603421101401d21a2222dd6f00624 19001
00063thm.jpg
THUMB64 94120cf71651b2b6eaf41c7069802840 25755
00064thm.jpg
TXT1 textplain d331982521da716f75eb8f200b2fd340 228
00001.txt
TXT2 27a85c970c3fdbe8026c87972fef9122 8476
00002.txt
TXT3 f8fc8519d78dd9584d964c853f8ae50b 1086
00003.txt
TXT4 2a4cbaddea6dfc17f55459af1a7bee61 2664
00004.txt
TXT5 c8a1f2b153bb6217efd0355001cd4c1d 9512
00005.txt
TXT6 a90adc704df2fbe5d71431ee60a1b6b0 2972
00006.txt
TXT7 1f16cb51708c5b1125a9dbca761b58d8 11034
00007.txt
TXT8 2dbb0d88d1c679fc150e03c3b18b3939 11024
00008.txt
TXT9 0ace647428f0ba7256fc450152246ee3 7650
00009.txt
TXT10 376715bc9541da21c22ef7b5b591be04 6830
00010.txt
TXT11 f58a789b8682d3feb3d195fcf116a183 8706
00011.txt
TXT12 ead5d6e0fcb89bc873579b25bde55b46 11632
00012.txt
TXT13 55e6a850389c1c479dfdf333d76e6668 12826
00013.txt
TXT14 d27b2af90b0c90f43cf776e325c3b23a 10968
00014.txt
TXT15 ca766efcb4e9ae0c721c8a782c84c91c 11692
00015.txt
TXT16 9b77c0dabc39340ad01f35cac020355b 8060
00016.txt
TXT17 c4f30135e591cf976f884efcfd86f1ec 8444
00017.txt
TXT18 e50f3a5a4416bf91aff9db7f468583de 3908
00018.txt
TXT19 47a6119dc1673d80d46369acf6543a15 2424
00019.txt
TXT20 8752b9917583ff3244e08a8226c646d2 5714
00020.txt
TXT21 8703a7098f383cf1cf4ff99cb053d326 10232
00021.txt
TXT22 dc4a45170a0d9f5dbcf7c41284835a07 11802
00022.txt
TXT23 83ddbd4eddd0722c36379514e5d5a959 216
00023.txt
TXT24 60d3f6341d89316ed658bbd58a5eaa8a 12318
00024.txt
TXT25 147cdbabbbb5bd396949becf66ad475c 2868
00025.txt
TXT26 0ec2f9dd1639783d29aab8958284300f 10750
00026.txt
TXT27 2ff4ea34721a7b0ec8bacccc9e05d323 11906
00027.txt
TXT28 5194feffa49f05975e65b72448c0b2a0 7604
00028.txt
TXT29 9722d8e02ca867e922ae901665b84a2e 1350
00029.txt
TXT30 2c2906867f95cf3dba13f2b9fa051a88 12158
00030.txt
TXT31 a9dfdf98d8bab680403d1701acb8ded5 12218
00031.txt
TXT32 cbfa8c7daadaed9ffd1bb795c7368609 2642
00032.txt
TXT33 2b7c7d9f56e5ab15e14acb1b3cdb186d 11158
00033.txt
TXT34 6ce582edc1c9c01796d11defd76f70be 742
00034.txt
TXT35 8ff7203de1e561b427d95855f3062bda 4142
00035.txt
TXT36 d3bf0f5fd370732d40437da1df965248 12564
00036.txt
TXT37 76c26e12e12e63fa4d75c86acb384de8 10442
00037.txt
TXT38 25cda8fe8f81eeab22d0131968e61104 7988
00038.txt
TXT39 1a6ae164a224399d5233dc3e5b9fe3c4 8056
00039.txt
TXT40 b0d11af56e017a2ac860bcc05e9be6a3 8068
00040.txt
TXT41 873d0816b7281c95a166de5b3276264c 8100
00041.txt
TXT42 2d394cbf041d24ada61a3d9beb8e4d3f 7888
00042.txt
TXT43 516977f640236dc6362fb2f5b155ea54 7980
00043.txt
TXT44 72a3cf68f8a9d0461d36c7bb6f6541f9 7476
00044.txt
TXT45 400219febb31d9f427ee489c0f7fe803 6694
00045.txt
TXT46 23c67bcfebef725c792a05f569fb8a64 4982
00046.txt
TXT47 7aa52d14931887caf23321a3e85dd0b2 5394
00047.txt
TXT48 17980fea0583a4f5e596e6072e439564 5956
00048.txt
TXT49 e0da163fa85c5d14e8c2843f225d0aa8 4414
00049.txt
TXT50 d9e6284ba65ac29f1390a99a4f8a6652 5952
00050.txt
TXT51 9863056c331cefc20a89e90f546127c6 6146
00051.txt
TXT52 613d5d601771fa7a1a5f158e808b8082 7022
00052.txt
TXT53 860613e8eb2b9c091279cc6ba164f06a 7148
00053.txt
TXT54 a0b991a314875c185d6b89d715e21644 5686
00054.txt
TXT55 cc30649c07d6cc7b55e142a66b387e31 3228
00055.txt
TXT56 ff1647b238b48a06a9fd876d5faa643e 5312
00056.txt
TXT57 f4119439d646cc2bd8395be0dde455bb 4250
00057.txt
TXT58 8128b0b5dbd08fc5d1012f4033caca58 1922
00058.txt
TXT59 9a3634a1e2bc575fff882c0a06d8b4e6 2494
00059.txt
TXT60 f3b25701fe362ec84616a93a45ce9998
00060.txt
TXT61
00061.txt
TXT62
00062.txt
TXT63
00063.txt
TXT64 73c561a8f4c6a511bcfb0d496f2830c3 1998
00064.txt
TXT1.2
TXT2.2
TXT3.2
TXT4.2
TXT5.2
TXT6.2
TXT7.2
TXT8.2
TXT9.2
TXT10.2
TXT11.2
TXT12.2
TXT13.2
TXT14.2
TXT15.2
TXT16.2
TXT17.2
TXT18.2
TXT19.2
TXT20.2
TXT21.2
TXT22.2
TXT23.2 c12dabe2e6e0d976913d2d0ce04a014b 415254
UF00027829_00245_pdf.txt
TXT24.2
TXT25.2
TXT26.2
TXT27.2
TXT28.2
TXT29.2
TXT30.2
TXT31.2
TXT32.2
TXT33.2
TXT34.2
TXT35.2
TXT36.2
TXT37.2
TXT38.2
TXT39.2
TXT40.2
TXT41.2
TXT42.2
TXT43.2
TXT44.2
TXT45.2
TXT46.2
TXT47.2
TXT48.2
TXT49.2
TXT50.2
TXT51.2
TXT52.2
TXT53.2
TXT54.2
TXT55.2
TXT56.2
TXT57.2
TXT58.2
TXT59.2
TXT60.2
TXT61.2
TXT63.2
TXT64.2
G65 TXT65
G66 TXT66
PDF62 applicationpdf f77a624a37acbc8b1faa877628f6916f 100821596
UF00027829_00245.pdf
METS62 unknownx-mets 607f3d7b284e43f0cf358297a3c98a97 85873
UF00027829_00245.mets
METS:structMap STRUCT1 physical
METS:div DMDID ADMID The ORDER 0 main
PDIV1 Front Cover
PAGE1 Page
METS:fptr FILEID
PAGE2
PDIV2 Table of Contents
PAGE3 i
PDIV3 From the Editor 3 Chapter
PAGE4 ii
PDIV4 Paleoethnobotanical Analysis Bulk Sediment and situ Collections from North Slope Basin Little Salt Spring (8S018), Sarasota County, 4
PAGE5
PAGE6
PAGE7
PAGE8
PAGE9 5
PAGE10 6
PAGE11 7
PAGE12 8
PAGE13 9
PAGE14 10
PAGE15 11
PAGE16 12
PAGE17 13
PAGE18 14
PDIV5 Radiocarbon Dates Warm Mineral Springs, Spring, Nearby Sites Port,
PAGE19 15
PAGE20 16
PAGE21 17
PAGE22 18
PAGE23 19
PAGE24 20
PAGE25 21
PAGE26 22
PAGE27 23
PAGE28 24
PAGE29 25
PAGE30 26
PAGE31 27
PAGE32 28
PAGE33 29
PAGE34 30
PAGE35 31
PAGE36 32
PAGE37 33
PAGE38 34
PAGE39 35
PAGE40 36
PAGE41 37
PAGE42 38
PAGE43 39
PAGE44 40
PAGE45 41
PAGE46 42
PAGE47 43
PAGE48 44
PAGE49 45
PAGE50 46
PAGE51 47
PAGE52 48
PAGE53 49
PAGE54 50
PAGE55 51
PAGE56 52
PDIV6 About Authors
PAGE57 53
PDIV7 FAS Chapters
PAGE58 54
PDIV8 Back Matter
PAGE59 55
PAGE60 56
PAGE61 57
PAGE62 58
PDIV9
PAGE63
PAGE64
STRUCT2 other
ODIV1 Main
FILES1
FILES2
FILES3
FILES4
FILES5
FILES6
FILES7
FILES8
FILES9
FILES10
FILES11
FILES12
FILES13
FILES14
FILES15
FILES16
FILES17
FILES18
FILES19
FILES20
FILES21
FILES22
FILES23
FILES24
FILES25
FILES26
FILES27
FILES28
FILES29
FILES30
FILES31
FILES32
FILES33
FILES34
FILES35
FILES36
FILES37
FILES38
FILES39
FILES40
FILES41
FILES42
FILES43
FILES44
FILES45
FILES46
FILES47
FILES48
FILES49
FILES50
FILES51
FILES52
FILES53
FILES54
FILES55
FILES56
FILES57
FILES58
FILES59 59
FILES60 60
FILES61 61
FILES62 62
FILES63 63
FILES64 64
FILES65 65
FILES66 66