Citation
The Florida anthropologist

Material Information

Title:
The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title:
Fla. anthropol.
Creator:
Florida Anthropological Society
Place of Publication:
Gainesville
Publisher:
Florida Anthropological Society.
Frequency:
Quarterly[<Mar. 1975- >]
Two no. a year[ FORMER 1948-]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Edition:
Volume 71 Number 2, May 2019
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 24 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- May 1948-
General Note:
Cumulative index: Vols. 1-24, no. 2, 1948-June 1971. 1 v.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Florida Anthropologist Society, Inc. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
609502567 ( OCLC )
56028409 ( LCCN )
0015-3893 ( ISSN )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
The
Florida
Anthropologist
Published by the
Florida Anthropological Society
Volume 71
Number 2
May 2019


The Florida Anthropologist is published by the Florida Anthropological Society, Inc., P.O. Box 12563, Pensacola, FL 32591
Subscription is by membership in the Society. Membership is NOT restricted to residents of the State of Florida nor to the United
States of America. Membership may be initiated at any time during the year, and covers the ensuing twelve month period. Dues
shall be payable on the anniversary of the initial dues payment. Members shall receive copies of all publications distributed by
the Society during the 12 months of their membership year. Annual dues are as follows: student $15, individual $30, family $35,
institutional $30, sustaining $100 or more, patron $1000 or more, and benefactor $2500. Foreign subscriptions are an additional
$25 U.S. to cover added postage and handling costs for individual, family, or institutional membership categories. Copies of the
journal will only be sent to members with current paid dues. Please contact the Editors for information on recent back issues.
Requests for information on the Society, membership application forms, and notifications of changes of address should be
sent to the Membership Secretary. Donations should be sent to the Treasurer or may be routed through the Editors to facilitate
acknowledgment in subsequent issues of the journal (unless anonymity is requested). Submissions of manuscripts should be
sent to the Editors. Publications for review should be submitted to the Book Review Editor. Authors please follow The Florida
Anthropologist style guide (on-line at www.fasweb.org) in preparing manuscripts for submission to the journal and contact the
Editors with specific questions. The journal is formatted using Adobe InDesign. All manuscripts must be submitted via email to
the journal Editors in final form in Microsoft Word format. Address changes should be made AT LEAST 30 DAYS prior to the
mailing of the next issue. The post office will not forward bulk mail nor retain such mail when “temporary hold” orders exist.
Such mail is returned to the Society postage due. The journal is published quarterly in March, June, September, and December
of each year.
Officers of the Society
President: Emily Jane Murray
First Vice President. Dr. George M. Luer
Second Vice President Becky O’ Sullivan
Recording Secretary: Jon-Simon Suarez
Membership Secretary: Dorothy Block
Treasurer. Joanne Talley
Directors: Maranda Kies, Jen Knutson, Nigel Rudolph
Immediate Past President: Jason Wenzel
Newsletter Editor: Jeff Moates (newsletter@fasweb.org)
Journal Editorial Staff
Editor: Ramie A. Gougeon, University of West Florida, 11000 University Parkway, Pensacola, Florida 32514
(flanthro.editor@gmail.com)
Book Review Editor: Rebecca O’Sullivan, 4202 East Fowler Ave., NEC 116, Tampa FL 33620 (rosulliv@usf.edu)
Editorial Assistant: George M. Luer, 3222 Old Oak Dr., Sarasota, FL 34239-5019 (geoluer@gmail.com)
Printer: Durra-Print, 717 South Woodward Ave., Tallahassee, FL 32304
Bulk Mail: Modern Mailers, Inc., 877 West Orange Ave., Tallahassee, FL 32310
Editorial Review Board
Jeffrey M. Mitchem, Arkansas Archeological Survey, P.O. Box 241, Parkin, AR 72373 (jmitcheml@yahoo.com)
Nancy Marie White, Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-8100 (nmw@usf.edu)
Robert J. Austin, 7224 Alafia Ridge Loop, Riverview, FL 33569 (roc_doc@verizon.net)
NOTE: In addition to the above Editorial Review Board members, the review comments of others knowledgeable in a manuscript’s
subject matter are solicited as part of our peer review process.
VISIT FAS ON THE WEB: www.fasweb.org


The Florida
Anthropologist
Volume 71 Number 2
May 2019
Table of Contents
From The Editor 59
Articles
The Site In-between in the Lower Suwanee: Excavations at Dan May (8LV917), Levy County, Florida 61
Jessica A. Jenkins
Bibliography of Human Skeletal Remains Curated by Florida Atlantic University: Rediscoverd Osteological
Materials and an Updated Accounting of Research 77
Peter J. Ferdinando
Revisiting Stanley Mound (8MA127): A Sand Burial Mound in the Central Peninsular Gulf Coast Interior 95
Kendal Jackson, Thomas J. Pluckhahn, Jeffrey I Moates, and Kassie Kemp
Washington Hall (8LE6292): Reconstructing the History of a Tallahassee Frontier Hotel 111
Paulette S. McFadden
Field School Summaries 127
About the Authors 135
Published by the
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC.
ISSN 0015-3893


:


An Endowment to Support production of The Florida Anthropologist,
the scholarly journal published quarterly by the
Florida Anthropological Society since 1947
Donations are being accepted from individuals, corporations, and foundations.
Inquiries and gifts can be directed to:
Ramie A. Gougeon, Ph.D., RPA
University of West Florida
11000 University Parkway
Pensacola, Florida 32514
The Florida Anthropological Society is a non-profit organization under
section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code.
Contributions are tax-deductible as provided by section 170 of the code.




From the Editor
This second issue of Volume 71 contains a smorgasbord
of anthropological archaeology offerings, including papers
on historic and prehistoric archaeology, bioanthropology, and
archaeological training and education.
Jessica Jenkins brings us a report of investigations of the
Dan May site (8Lv917), excavated in 2014. The Dan May
site is a single component, short-term occupation dating to
the 10th century A.D. Falling at the end of a period of decline
of Middle Woodland ceremonialism, the Dan May site offers
a rare glimpse into an underexplored dispersed settlement
pattern and the relationship of smaller sites to former civic-
ceremonial residential centers.
Peter Ferdinando provides the readership a valuable
bibliography of human remains being curated by Florida
Atlantic University (FAU). As you will read in his introduction,
this collection is the subject of ongoing consultations between
FAU and the Seminole Tribe of Florida as part of FAU’s
compliance with the Native American Graves Protection and
Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Ferdinando notes, this process
is a meaningful dialogue with affiliated and descendant Native
American communities. His bibliography is another example
of the value of reexamining legacy collections, particularly
those falling into the category of “culturally unidentifiable.”
Careful and conscientious analysis of the remains of valued
ancestors is, in my opinion, another means of bridge-building
between archaeologists and Native American communities.
Kendal Jackson and his co-authors, Tom Pluckhahn, Jeff
Moates, and Kassie Kemp, revisit the Stanley Mound, a
greatly disturbed sand burial mound site in Manatee County.
They review past excavations and documentation of the site,
offer an updated cultural context, and provide details of new
fieldwork and LiDAR mapping undertaken in conjunction
with a conservation project being implemented by the Florida
State Parks to protect and preserve this important site.
Paulette McFadden takes the inadvertent discovery of
archaeological materials during a construction project to
illustrate the history of an important civic-ceremonial center
in Tallahassee’s early history: Washington Hall. Washington
Hall was more than a hotel, serving also as a courthouse at
times and as a meeting place for Tallahassee’s business elite.
It was also the epicenter of a fire in 1843 that devastated
the burgeoning business district that was growing around it.
McFadden weaves together historical documents, titles, maps
and figures, and, of course, artifact analyses to tell the tale.
This volume is going to press as students and their faculty
leaders are undertaking a wide variety of archaeological
projects across the state as part of summer field schools. You
can learn about some of the 2018 field school projects in this
issue. These activities are in addition to the annual meeting
of the Florida Anthropological Society, monthly meetings of
FAS chapters, the daily work of CRM professionals, and the
review and oversight activities of our colleagues in local, state,
and federal agencies. In short - archaeology is happening
daily across Florida. All of these activities can result in reports
and articles for your Florida Anthropologist. Please consider
submitting your manuscript to this journal. Manuscripts should
be sent to returning editor, George Luer (flanthropologist@
gmail.com). We welcome questions, comments, and, as ever,
your papers.
Ramie A. Gougeon
flanthro. editor@gmail. com
Vol. 71 (2)
The Florida Anthropologist
May 2019




THE SITE IN-BETWEEN IN THE LOWER SUWANNEE: EXCAVATIONS AT DAN MAY
(8LV917), LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA
Jessica A. Jenkins
Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611
E-mail: jajenkins@ufl. edu
8LV917
8LV75
8LV66A’
At about A.D. 700, settlement of the Lower Suwannee
region of Florida transitioned into dispersed, small-scale
encampments following the abandonment of Woodland
Period civic-ceremonial centers of the northern Gulf Coast.
Places like Garden Patch (8DI4), Shell Mound
(8LV42), and Crystal River (8CL1), were known
for a shared tradition of elaborate monumental
architecture and diagnostic material culture
related to large-scale communal gatherings
and mortuary practices (Pluckhahn et al. 2010;
Sassaman et al. 2016; Wallis et al. 2015). After
the abandonment of civic-ceremonial centers in
the Lower Suwannee region, coastal habitations
were scattered and small in size, leaving behind
only ephemeral archaeological signatures. In the
Lower Suwannee region, these small, dispersed
sites include Butler Island (8DI50) (McFadden
2014), Bird Island (8DI52) (McFadden and
Palmiotto 2012), and the latest component
of Richard’s Island (8LV137) (Sassaman et
al. 2016). Coeval with these and other post¬
abandonment sites is Dan May (8LV917), a
previously undocumented single-component
site dating to the tenth century A.D. (Figure 1).
Described herein are the methods and
results of fieldwork undertaken in March of
2014 at Dan May, which consisted of nine auger
tests, one shovel test pit, and one 1 x 2-m test
unit (Jenkins et al. 2017). The excavation of Dan
May was undertaken in accordance with the
goals of the Lower Suwannee Archaeological
Survey (LSAS), a long-term program designed
to document the full range of variation in the
distribution, timing, and content of archaeological
sites in the Lower Suwannee region of Florida’s
Gulf Coast (Sassaman et al. 2011). The Lower
Suwannee region encompasses the 42-km stretch
of largely undeveloped coastline centered on
the Suwannee River Delta between Horseshoe
Beach to the north and Cedar Key to the south.
This stretch of coastline is a relatively flat, low-
relief landscape that is vulnerable to flooding
with only minor rises in sea-level, compromising
many archaeological sites. In conjunction with
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, research in the
Lower Suwannee has been undertaken by archaeologists at the
University of Florida through the Laboratory of Southeastern
Archaeology (LSA) and the Florida Museum of Natural
History (FLMNH).
• site on record
© site with 14C assay(s)
Q mound center
oyster bioherm
m*S 8DI4
8DI50
8DI52
Gulf of Mexico
Atlantic
Ocean
8LV293
Study
Area
'- N 8LV290 «
8LV122*’*
8LvS^137
} ¿. v. .... /
Gulf of Mexico
0
5
10
1
Kilometers
Figure 1. Location of recorded sites in the Lower Suwannee Research
area with Dan May and coeval sites indicated (adapted from Sassaman
et al. 2016).
Vol. 71 (2)
The Florida Anthropologist
May 2019


62
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
The study area is comprised primarily of the Lower
Suwannee and Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuges, along
with a few private inholdings and state and county lands. As
part of the research design of the LSAS, the region was divided
into five research tracts that reflect patterned variation in site
density and type. These five tracts include: the Horseshoe
Beach Tract; the Shired Island Tract; the Suwannee Delta
Tract; the Shell Mound Tract; and the Cedar Key Tract. The
Lower Suwannee is home to 112 documented archaeological
sites ranging from the Archaic to Mississippian periods, nearly
a quarter of which have been dated, surveyed, or excavated as
part of the LSAS to date.
Dan May is among the private inholdings in the LSAS
study area. Before fieldwork was conducted by the Laboratory
of Southeastern Archaeology (LSA) in 2014, no previous
research had been reported for Dan May Island. Dan May
has now been added to the Florida Site Files as site 8LV917.
The initial work at this site contributes important information
concerning a period of time (A.D. 700-1000) that is not well
understood in the research area.
flowing to the west and Dan May Creek to the east (Figure
2). The estuarine habitat provides the ideal conditions for a
diversity of flora and fauna, including a variety of waterbirds,
fish, and shellfish. The island is situated in a way that provides
easy access to the proximate Lone Cabbage, Half Moon, and
Great Suwannee oyster reefs. Located within the Lower
Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge, the broader area consists
of hardwood swamps, natural salt marshes, tidal flats and tidal
creeks, as well as pine forests and scrub ridges. On the island
is a restored 100-year-old 1,700-square-foot cypress log
hunting lodge.
Lower Suwannee Middle and Late Woodland Culture History
Dan May is located relatively distant from Middle
Woodland civic-ceremonial centers in the region, in a portion
of the study area that is otherwise devoid of archaeological
sites, owing, in large measure, to the 10-km stretch of
wetlands that extend southeast of the Suwannee River Delta.
The occupation of Dan May dates to a few centuries after the
initial abandonment of Middle Woodland civic-ceremonial
centers in the region at about A.D. 700. At their height, Middle
Environmental Setting and
Background
Dan May lies between
two survey tracts of the LSAS
(see Sassamanet al. 2011:31).
This “in-between” quality
also applies to ecological
and historical dimensions
of variation. Ecologically,
the site occupies an
ecotone between freshwater
and saltwater biomes.
Historically, the tenth century
A.D. was a time between the
civic-ceremonial centers of
the Middle Woodland period
in the Lower Suwannee and
the cultural and political
influence of Southeastern
Mississippian chiefdoms
of the ensuing centuries. A
pattern that emerges from
these multiple dimensions
of “in-betweenness” is a
heightened level of diversity
in the material culture of Dan
May, particularly pottery.
Environmental Setting
Dan May is a 72-
acre island surrounded by
brackish water. The estuarine
environment surrounding the
island is created by the East Figure 2. Location of Dan May Island in relation to channels that deliver freshwater to the
Pass of the Suwannee River estuarine biome of the Suwannee River Delta (orthnographic image courtesy of NOAA).


Jenkins
The Site In-Between in the Lower Suwanee: Excavation at Dan May (8LV917)
63
Woodland civic-ceremonial centers brought diverse groups of
people and objects together for ritual gatherings, likely tied to
celestial events such as the solstices (Sassaman et al. 2016).
The reason for regional abandonment of these centers
remains unknown, although one possible reason would be the
environmental and cultural effects of the Vandal Minimum.
The Vandal Minimum was a climatic event that occurred
between A.D. 500 and 800 when temperatures were cooler
and sea-level regressed (Marquardt and Walker 2013; Wang et
al. 2011). These environmental changes likely affected local
resources, changing migratory patterns for example. It is also
possible that sea-level regression had cultural impacts as well.
For example, the watery barrier separating Shell Mound from
its mortuary counterpart,
Palmetto Mound (8LV2) on
Hog Island, is very shallow,
and may have disappeared
during the Vandal Minimum,
altering the way people
understood and interacted
with their landscape.
Dan May is one of a
diverse array of sites that were
dispersed across the length
of the Lower Suwannee
research area during the
Late Woodland period (A.D.
700-1000). Many of these
sites are small-scale villages
located away from places of
the dead. During this period
communities reoccupied
earlier sites (i.e., Bird Island,
Butler Island, Deer Island,
Richards Island), while
others settled new locations
(i.e., Dan May), and some
settled to the immediate west
of former civic-ceremonial
centers (i.e., Area I at Garden
Patch). This diversity extends
to the types of sites that date
to this period, some of which
are terraformed (Deer Island and Richard’s Island) others of
which are not. These disparate, diverse communities were
united through shared burial mound practices which included
the interment of elaborate Weeden Island and effigy vessels,
many of which were nonlocal, in caches in burial mounds
(Wallis et al. 2017).
Methods and Results of Field Excavations
As no previous archaeological work has been reported
on the island, field excavations at Dan May began with an
exploratory auger survey. Once the auger survey was complete,
one 1 x 2-m test unit, revealing several pit features and post
holes, and one shovel test were excavated. Soil from excavation
was screened through %-in hardware cloth and all artifacts were
bagged and transported to the LSA for further analysis.
Auger and Shovel Test Pit Survey
Nine three-inch bucket auger holes, placed at discretionary
locations, and one 50 x 50-cm shovel test pit were excavated
to determine the extent and integrity of archaeological
deposits on the island (Figure 3). Materials recovered in
auger tests were collected to assess the variation in the artifact
assemblage across the site in order to determine where the test
unit should be located. The area with the highest density of
cultural material was the central part of the island, to the west
of the hunting lodge (Augers 7-9).
Augers 7 and 8 contained faunal remains, shell, pottery,
and historic artifacts. These augers revealed two lenses of
shell (interpreted in the field as possible middens) separated by
medium brown sand. Auger 9 was placed southeast of Augers 7
and 8 to investigate the extent of possible middens observed in
the previous two augers. The middens did not appear to extend
into this area, although the light brown, dry, loose sand from
20 to 58 centimeters below surface (cmbs) was interpreted as
redeposited fill, likely making Auger 9 a disturbed context.
Given the density of cultural material in this part of
the island, a 50 x 50-cm shovel test pit (STP1) was placed
between Augers 7 and 8, off of the southwest comer of the
lodge. At about 60 cmbs, a utility line was encountered and
testing was halted. A variety of pottery and vertebrate fauna
Figure 3. Topographic map of Dan May Island showing locations of augers, STP1, TUI, and
the lodge (contour interval = 5 ft [1.5 m]). Representations of excavation units not to scale.


64
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
was recovered from the unit, along with modified Merceneria
clam, a limestone abrader, and historic glass.
Test Unit Excavation
Based on the results of auguring, a 1 x 2-m test unit was
sited adjacent to the lodge and proximate to Auger 7. Test Unit
1 (TUI) was excavated in arbitrary 10-cm levels until sterile
soil, with the exception of the first level, Level A, and the last
level, Level F. Level A was excavated to 20 centimeters below
datum (cmbd) as it was likely a disturbed context. Level F was
excavated from 60 to 95 cmbd, as it was mainly comprised
of sterile subsoil into which features extended. There was
no indication of plowing, and four distinct strata (I-IV) and
four features (1-4) were encountered. Profile photographs
and drawings of all four walls of TUI are provided in Figure
4; descriptions of stratigraphic units are provided in Table 1.
Bulk samples were taken from Strata II and III for flotation.
Pottery and vertebrate fauna were encountered in all levels,
and shell was present in all levels except Level F. Levels B
and C (2CM0 cmbd) yielded the densest amount of cultural
material. Several pit features were encountered, emanating
from between 40-55 cmbd into Stratum III.
Features
Three hemispherical pit features (Features 1-3) and one
post hole (Feature 4) were identified in TUI. Feature 1 was
first recorded at 40 cmbd, measured 49 cm in length, 35 cm
in width, and was terminated at 75 cmbd. Feature 2 measured
51 cm in width, 54 cm in length, and extended 77 cmbd.
Feature 3 is visible in the west unit wall profile and extended
into the west wall 12 cm. Feature 4 was 10 cm in diameter
and extended to 68 cmbd. Two other possible post holes were
also identified in the side walls, one in the west profile and
one in the east profile, but were not assigned feature numbers.
While not in a clearly defined pattern, the post holes indicate
the possible presence of a structure. Photographs and drawings
of Features 1 and 2 in plan and profile are provided in Figure 5.
Features 3 and 4 can be seen in profile in Figure 4 in the west
and east unit wall profiles respectively. All three pit features
contained pottery sherds, vertebrate fauna, shell, and charcoal,
and a few lithic flakes were recovered from Features 1 and 3.
Site Chronology
Charcoal recovered from bulk samples taken from the
three pit features was submitted to Beta Analytic, Inc. for
AMS dating. Charcoal from Feature 1 produced an AMS assay
of 1090 ± 30 B.P. (calibrated at two-sigma range of A.D. 890-
1015), charcoal from Feature 2 produced an AMS assay of
1040 ± 30 B.P. (calibrated at a two-sigma range of A.D. 970-
1025), and charcoal from Feature 3 produced an AMS assay
of 1060 ± 30 (calibrated at two-sigma range of A.D. 900-925)
(Table 2). Figure 6 shows the modeled summed probability
distribution of calibrated age estimates as calculated with
OxCal v 4.2.4 (Bronk Ramsey and Lee 2013). Highlighted
in Figure 6 is the highest probability of actual age, which is
970-960 cal B.P. (cal A.D. 980-990).
Occupation at Dan May is contemporaneous with small-
scale dispersed occupations at several other sites in the Lower
Suwannee study area, including a component at Bird Island
dating to 1150 ± 30 B.P. (calibrated at two-sigma range of A.D.
810-980) (McFadden and Palmiotto 2012:94); a component
at Butler Island dating to 1070 ± 30 B.P. (calibrated at two-
sigma range of A.D. 885-1015) (McFadden 2014:80); and
overlaps with the latest dated component at Richard’s Island
dating to 1200 ± 30 B.P. (calibrated at two-sigma range
of A.D. 765-895) (Sassaman et al. 2016:14). Other sites
dating to this period include the earliest dated component at
Raleigh Island (8LV293), an extensively terraformed island
(Terry Barbour, personal communication, 2018), and the
reoccupation of the western portion of Garden Patch (Area I)
after the abandonment of the site as a civic-ceremonial center
(Wallis et al. 2015). Furthermore, during this time there was
intensification of ritual activity at Palmetto Mound, which
included the emplacement of several ritual deposits and an
unusually high number of effigy vessels characteristic of the
Weeden Island Tradition (Donop 2017).
Material Culture
The bulk of the material culture recovered from Dan May
consists of pottery sherds, with a total of 733 sherds weighing
2652.3 g. In Table 3, sherd counts and weights are presented
by temper, surface treatment, and portion represented (rim,
body, base, crumb). By count, over half (n = 401) of the
assemblage consists of “crumb” sherds, or sherds less than
Vi-inch in maximum dimension. Crumb sherds are classified
by temper but not surface treatment, given their small size.
Four temper types and six surface treatments are
represented in the Dan May pottery assemblage. The most
prominent temper is sand, followed by limestone, spicule,
and lastly, “assorted,” which is characterized by the inclusion
of multiple tempering agents (sand, limestone, shell, spicule,
charcoal, or grog) in varying amounts and combinations.
In order of frequency, surface treatments include plain,
stamped, punctated, impressed, and incised. Within these
broad categories, considerable variation is glossed over. For
example, sherds labeled as stamped can be further divided into
check stamped, simple stamped, stamped on the interior and
exterior, dentate stamped, and complicated stamped.
Fifty-eight vessel lots are inferred based on sets of shared
characteristics (e.g., surface treatment and paste) (Table 4)
(Buchanan 2017). Crumb sherds were not considered in the
determination of vessel lots. Sherds from vessel lots were
refitted whenever possible to obtain portions suited to vessel
size and shape characterization. Unfortunately, none of the
vessels portions were sufficiently large enough to determine
vessel form with certainty. Wall thickness of rim sherds was
measured at a point 3 cm below the lip and orifice diameter
was estimated on sherds exceeding five percent of the orifice
circumference. Wall thickness could be measured on sherds
from nine vessel lots, and orifice diameter was estimated for
five of the vessel lots. As a result, orifice diameters range from
10 to 18 cm, and wall thickness ranges from 6.0 to 9.6 mm.


Jenkins
The Site In-Between in the Lower Suwanee: Excavation at Dan May (8LV917)
65
Figure 4. Photographs and scaled drawings of the profiles of all four walls of Test Unit 1, 8LV917. (PH = post hole).


66
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
Table 1. Stratigraphic Units of Test Unit 1, 8LV917.
Stratum
Max Depth
(cmbd)
Munselle Color
Description
I
12
10YR2/2
Very dark brown fine sandy loam with no shell
II
44
10YR2/2
Very dark brown fine sandy loam with whole oyster and marsh clams
III
78
10YR3/1
Very dark gray fine sandy loam with sparse shell
IV
95
10YR7/4
Very pale brown fine to medium sand with no organics
According to Willey’s (1949) pottery typology, the majority of
vessels are indicative of the Weeden Island ceramic tradition.
The most common identifiable type of pottery by vessel
lot in this assemblage is Wakulla Check Stamped (n = 12),
followed by Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped (n = 4), and
Ruskin Dentate (n = 3). Plain vessels include two types: St.
Johns Plain (n = 4), characterized by a spicule-tempered paste,
and Pasco Plain (n = 3), which contains a limestone-tempered
paste. There is one vessel lot each of Carabelle Punctate,
St. Johns Simple-Stamped, and St. Johns Check-Stamped.
Twenty-nine vessels were not assigned a specific culture-
historical type and include sand-tempered plain (n = 11),
burnished (n = 4), simple-stamped (n = 6), check-stamped (n
= 2), limestone-tempered check-stamped (n = 2), cord-marked
(n = 1), punctated (n = 1), and incised (n = 2).
Notable among the site’s pottery assemblage is an advanced
degree of diversity in temper and surface treatment that exists
both within features and the general levels (Figure 7). Late
Woodland pottery assemblages in the greater area are usually
diverse in both residential and mortuary contexts, with an array
of surface treatments and vessel forms classified within the
Weeden Island tradition (e.g., Wallis et al. 2017). At Dan May,
the short-term and spatially discrete nature of the settlement
underscores that the diversity of pottery at the site is not simply
a function of a coarse-grained occupational sequence, but is
rather a real aspect of the site’s pottery assemblage.
Other classes of material culture are sparse and limited
to a small assemblage of chert flakes from TUI (n = 11),
two limestone abraders recovered from STP1, one piece
of quartzite fire-cracked rock (FCR) from TUI, and a few
limestone clasts or pebbles, quartz pebbles (identified as
modem driveway gravel), and mudstone pebbles. No shell or
bone artifacts were recovered.
Faunal Remains
A variety of invertebrate and vertebrate fauna was
recovered from Dan May. The majority of the faunal remains
deposited in the midden and the pit features are from saltwater
or estuarine environments, although some freshwater species
are present. Given the high density of shell in the middens
and pit features at Dan May and other sites in the research
area, the LSA has developed a sampling strategy in which all
gastropods recovered during general excavation are kept and
all bivalves, with the exception of modified or unique shells,
are left at the site as part of the unit backfill. Bulk samples
are collected from shell-rich deposits and features in order to
characterize the invertebrate assemblage without the bias of
selective recovery methods.
Invertebrate Fauna
Carolina marsh clam (Polymesoda caroliniana), a
primarily freshwater species, and Eastern oysters (Crassostrea
virginica) comprise nearly the entire invertebrate assemblage
in bulk samples from Dan May. In addition to Carolina marsh
clam and Eastern oyster, other species of invertebrates present
at Dan May include: crown conch {Melongena corona),
quahog clam {Mercenaria sp.), marsh periwinkle {Littorina
irrorata), lightning whelk {Busycon sinistrum), shark eye
(Neverita duplicate), barnacle (.Balanidae), and unidentifiable
bivalves (Bivalvia) and gastropods (Gastropoda).
All invertebrates were counted and weighed, and further
analysis was conducted on the Carolina marsh clam and Eastern
oyster. The invertebrate fauna discussed below are from six
bulk samples recovered from TU 1: two bulk samples from the
east wall of the unit, one each from two shell-rich deposits
(Strata II and III), and from each of the four features, three
pits (Features 1, 2A, 2C, and 3) and one post hole (Feature 4).
There were no invertebrates recovered from Feature 2B.
Absolute frequencies of shell by taxa for both Carolina
marsh clam and Eastern oyster are provided in Table 5. Shells
were sorted by side (right versus left) when the diagnostic
hinge elements were present, which allowed for determination
of the minimum number of individuals (MNI). The invertebrate
fauna was deposited differentially, with oyster as the dominant
invertebrate species in midden deposits (Strata II and III), and
Carolina marsh clam as the primary species in the pit features
(Features 1-3). Carolina marsh clam is rarely the dominant
species in a given context in the research area. One exception
is the Weeden Island component of Cat Island (cal. A.D.
610-680) where there is a ratio of 3:2 Carolina marsh clams
to oysters in the midden. A second is a shell midden strata at
Little Bradford (8DI32), with a ratio of 2:1 Carolina marsh
clam to oyster (Sassaman et al. 2011). It is likely that the high
amount of Carolina marsh clam at Dan May is, at least in part,
a product of the low salinity waters surrounding the island in
which Carolina marsh clam thrive.
The oyster shells were further analyzed using methods


Jenkins
The Site In-Between in the Lower Suwanee: Excavation at Dan May (8LV917)
67
Figure 5. Plan and profile drawing and photograph of Features 1 and 2 in Test Unit 1, 8LV917.


68
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
Table 2. Radiocarbon Data for Dan May, 8LV917.
Provenience
Material
Beta Lab
Number
Measured
14C Age BP
13C/12C
Ratio
Conventional
14C Age BP
2-sigma Cal
AD
2-sigma Cal
BP
Dan May
TU1-F.1
charcoal
421083
1090±30
25.3 o/oo
1090±30
890-1015
1060-935
Dan May
TU1-F.2C
charcoal
458225
1020±30
23.6 o/oo
1040±30
970-1025
980-925
Dan May
TU1-F.3
charcoal
458226
1070±30
25.6 o/oo
1060±30
900-925
1005-930
outlined in Jenkins (2017) to determine harvesting niche
(intertidal versus subtidal) and to infer maricultural practices.
All oyster shells were separated into left (cupped) and right (flat)
valves. Both left and right valves were counted and weighed,
and all whole left valves were further analyzed for evidence of
resource niche and mariculture (Jenkins 2017). The attributes
that were documented for each shell include: height, length,
height-to-length ratio (HLR), presence or absence of attachment
scar, presence or absence of boring sponge parasitism, and
presence or absence of boring sponge parasitism on attachment
scars (Table 6). The results indicate that most of the oysters
deposited in the midden at Dan May were from intertidal waters
where no mariculture was being practiced.
Intertidal oysters are typically small because they are cut
off from their food supply when exposed at low tide, have
attachment scars and are elongate because they grow together
in tight clusters or burrs, and lack evidence of holes left
behind from boring sponges, which are common on subtidal
oyster shells, as boring sponges cannot live in intertidal
waters. Furthermore, subtidal oyster reefs, including the
Lone Cabbage, Half Moon, and Great Suwannee are located
near Dan May, but watercraft would be necessary to access
and harvest these oysters. In contrast, intertidal oysters and
Carolina marsh clams likely could have been collected at
the water’s edge. Evidence suggests that offshore reefs were
harvested when the scale and intensity of oyster harvesting
in the region heightened during Middle Woodland civic-
ceremonialism, and intertidal oyster harvesting was more
common when the demand for oysters was reduced and food
production was downscaled and localized.
Since it appears that most of the oysters harvested and
deposited at Dan May are intertidal, it is not surprising that
there does not appear to be any evidence of mariculture. The
two maricultural practices that have been inferred attending the
ritual economy at Shell Mound include shelling, or returning
dead shell to oyster reefs to encourage spat attachment and
growth, and culling, or breaking apart oyster burrs and returning
smaller or younger oysters back to the reefs to continue to
grow and live through reproductive cycles. These maricultural
practices are still in use today, and almost exclusively are
used on subtidal reefs where oysters grow larger and faster.
At Shell Mound, the uneven ratio of left to right oyster valves
is a possible indicator that right valves were
being returned to reefs while left valves were
being used in mound construction (Jenkins
2017). Also, a high percentage of oyster shells
at Shell Mound with sponge parasitism on
the attachment scar indicates that culling was
likely being practiced, which would expose
the attachment scar making that part of the
shell more vulnerable to parasites. It is also
possible that other predators or storms could be
responsible for breaking apart oyster clusters.
At Dan May, the ratio of left to right valves
remains close to 50/50, and there are almost
no instances of parasitism on attachment
scars, with the exception of one shell.
Vertebrate Fauna
Meggan Blessing, zooarchaeologist at
the LSA, created a species list of recovered
vertebrate fauna from Dan May (see Jenkins
et al. 2017 for the complete list). The
majority of the vertebrate fauna from TUI
are saltwater and/or estuarine species, and the
OxCal v4.3.2 Bronk Ramsey (2017); r:5 IntCali 3 atmospheric curve (Reimer et al 2013)
Feature 1
j 7
ft
Feature 3
Feature 2C
»»
Sum All Dates
1200 1000 800
Modeled date (cal BP)
Figure 6. Probability distribution of three age estimates from Dan May.
Highlighted is the highest probability of actual age.


Jenkins
The Site In-Between in the Lower Suwanee: Excavation at Dan May (8LV917)
69
Table 3. Absolute Frequency and Weight (g) of Pottery Sherds from 2014 Excavation of Dan May (8LV917), by Temper
and Surface Treatment.
Plain
Stamped
Punctate
Other
Eroded/UID
Total
Temper ct wt(g)
ct wt(g)
ct wt(g)
ct wt(g)
ct wt(g)
ct wt(g)
Sand
Body
133.0
784.40
49.00
386.60
2.00
12.40
3.00
21.20
2.00
27.60
189.00
1,232.20
Rim
10.00
80.40
11.00
145.00
21.00
225.40
Base
1.00
24.00
1.00
24.00
Crumb
312.00
265.80
Subtotal
143.00
864.80
61.00
555.60
2.00
12.40
3.00
21.20
2.00
27.60
523.00
1,747.40
Limestone
Body
42.00
176.60
30.00
315.60
12.00
29.20
3.00
39.30
1.00
14.00
88.00
574.70
Rim
1.00
3.10
2.00
16.60
3.00
19.70
Crumb
67.00
82.20
Subtotal
43.00
179.70
32.00
333.20
12.00
29.20
3.00
39.30
1.00
14.00
158.00
676.60
Spicule
Body
18.00
113.40
1.00
4.00
19.00
117.40
Rim
1.00
3.70
2.00
29.30
3.00
33.00
Crumb
22.00
14.50
Subtotal
19.00
117.10
3.00
33.30
44.00
164.90
Assorted
Body
7.00
55.10
1.00
8.30
8.00
63.40
Subtotal
7.00
55.10
1.00
8.30
8.00
63.40
Total
212.00
1,216.70
96.00
921.00
14.00
41.60
7.00
68.80
3.00
41.60
733.00
2,652.30
assemblage is dominated by fish. Saltwater and estuarine taxa
include sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus), black
drum (Pogonias cromis), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and
mullet (Mugil sp.), and freshwater taxa include the golden
shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas), freshwater catfish family
(.Ictaluridae), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides),
shellcracker (Lepomis microlophus), other bream species
(Lepomis sp.), river cooter (Pseudemys sp.), softshell turtle
(Apalone ferox) and alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).
The relatively low numbers of elements of freshwater species
present in the assemblage could be a product of sampling,
as those represented tend to be on the smaller side, with
the exception of largemouth bass. Overall, the bone is well
preserved, and there was little-to-no burning. There are two
notable patterns regarding the vertebrate faunal remains: first,
Level B has a greater number of black drum individuals, which
appear to be large, given the size of the otoliths, compared
to the other levels; and second, Feature 1 is dominated by
hardhead catfish, followed by black drum.
Discussion and Conclusion
A unique feature of Dan May Island is its “in-between”
spatial and temporal dimensions. Dan May Island is privately-
owned and located in the wetlands that extend southeast of
the Suwannee River Delta, between saltwater and freshwater
biomes. The island is positioned between two research tracts
of the Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey, some distance
from known civic-ceremonial centers and other sites in the
area. Moreover, Dan May is a single-component site dating


Table 4. Description of Vessel Lots from 2014 Excavation of Dan May (8LV917).
-4
o
Vessel
Lot
Provenience
Surface
Treatment
Temper
Type
Orifice Thickness
Diameter (cm) (mm)
1
Lvl C, D, F; F.3
Simple-Stamped
Sand
Ruskin Dentate
8.4
2
F.2
Dentate
Sand
3
Lvl C, E
Simple-Stamped
Sand
8.4
4
Lvl C, E
Simple-Stamped
Sand
5
F.2
Simple-Stamped
Sand
6
STP1
Simple-Stamped
Sand
7
F.2
Simple-Stamped
Sand
8
F.2
Complicated-Stamped
Sand
Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped
9
F.2
Complicated-Stamped
Sand
Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped
10
STP1
Check-Stamped
Sand
10
11
Lvl B
Check-Stamped
Sand
Wakulla Check-Stamped
12
STP1
Complicated-Stamped
Sand
Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped
13
Lvl C
Check-Stamped
Sand
Wakulla Check-Stamped
14
Lvl C
Check-Stamped
Sand
Wakulla Check-Stamped
15
F.2
Punctate
Limestone
Carabelle Punctate
16
Lvl B
Punctate
Sand
17
Lvl C
Simple-Stamped
Spicule
St. Johns Simple-Stamped
18
Lvl C, F.2
Check-Stamped
Sand
9.2
19
Lvl E; F.2; STP1
Plain
Spicule, Limestone
St. Johns Plain
20
Lvl C, D
Plain
Sand
21
Lvl B
Incised
Sand
Wakulla Check-Stamped
The Florida Anthropologist 2019 71 (2)


Table 4. Description of Vessel Lots from 2014 Excavation of Dan May (8LV917). (cont’d)
Vessel
Lot
Provenience
Surface
Treatment
Temper
22
LvlE
Check-Stamped
Sand
23
Lvl E; F.2
Plain, Scraped Interior
Spicule, Limestone
24
LvlE
Complicated-Stamped
Spicule
25
STP1
Plain
Sand
26
F.l
Plain
Sand
27
Lvl D
Plain
Sand
28
Lvl E; F.2
Cord-Marked
Limestone, Charcoal
29
F.l
Check-Stamped
Limestone
30
Lvl C
Dentate
Limestone
31
STP
Check-Stamped
Limestone
32
Lvl B, C, D
Plain, Burnished
Sand
33
F.2
Check-Stamped
Sand
34
Lvl C
Check-Stamped
Sand
35
Lvl B
Check-Stamped
Spicule
36
F.2
Plain Burnished
Limestone
37
F.3
Plain
Sand
38
Lvl B
Check-Stamped
Sand
39
F.l; F.2
Dentate
Limestone
40
Lvl A, B, C
Check-Stamped
Sand
41
F.l
Plain
Sand
42
Lvl B
Plain
Sand
Type
Orifice Thickness
Diameter (cm) (mm)
Wakulla Check-Stamped
St. Johns Plain
Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped
10 7.9
6.3
18 9.0
Ruskin Dentate
Wakulla Check-Stamped
Wakulla Check-Stamped 18 9.6
St. Johns Check-Stamped 18 9.1
Pasco Plain
6.0
Wakulla Check-Stamped
Ruskin Dentate
Wakulla Check-Stamped 16 7.9
14
â– ~-4
Jenkins The Site In-Between in the Lower Suwanee: Excavation at Dan May (8LV917)


Table 4. Description of Vessel Lots from 2014 Excavation of Dan May (8LV917). (cont’d)
Vessel
Lot
Provenience
Surface
Treatment
Temper
Type
Orifice
Diameter (cm)
Thickness
(mm)
43
Lvl B, C, D
Plain, Incised Rim
Sand
44
Lvl A, C
Check-Stamped
Sand
Wakulla Check-Stamped
45
F.2
Plain
Sand
46
Lvl D; F.2
Plain, Burnished
Sand
47
Lvl D, E
Check-Stamped
Sand
Wakullla Check-Stamped
48
Lvl E
Plain
Limestone
Pasco Plain
49
Lvl B, E; F. 1; F.2
Plain
Spicule, Limestone, Shell
St. Johns Plain
50
Lvl B
Check-Stamped
Sand
Wakulla Check-Stamped
51
Lvl C
Plain, Burnished
Sand
52
Lvl B, D
Check-Stamped
Sand
Wakulla Check-Stamped
53
STP1
Plain, Burnished
Sand
54
Lvl B; F.l
Plain
Sand
55
Lvl B, C, D, E; F.2, STP!
Plain
Limestone
Pasco Plain
56
Lvl A, C: F.l
Plain
Sand
57
Lvl B
Plain
Spicule
St. Johns Plain
58
Lvl F
Plain
Sand
The Florida Anthropologist 2019 71 (2)


Jenkins
The Site In-Between in the Lower Suwanee: Excavation at Dan May (8LV917)
73
Figure 7. Representative sample of pottery sherds from Dan May.
Limestone-tempered check-stamped (a), sand-tempered check-stamped
(b-c), sand-tempered check-stamped (d), limestone-tempered Ruskin
Dentate (e), sand-tempered Ruskin Dentate (f), sand-tempered simple-
stamped (g, i), St. Johns simple-stamped (h), sand-tempered incised (j,
n), limestone and charcoal tempered cord-marked (k), sand-tempered
punctated (1), Carabella Punctated (m), Pasco Plain (o), St. Johns plain (p),
sand-tempered plain burnished (q).
to the tenth century A.D., a period underrepresented in the
study area and situated between two phases of aggregation and
terraforming in the region.
Small-scale, dispersed settlements characterized the
region after the decline of Middle Woodland civic-ceremonial
centers. Although civic-ceremonial centers, such as Garden
Patch and Shell Mound, were abandoned as residential
centers post-A.D. 700, the sites maintained relevance on
the landscape and likely influenced activities at places like
Dan May. Perhaps the newly dispersed nature of settlement
also influenced activity at the former Middle Woodland
civic-ceremonial centers. For example, Donop (2017:224)
suggests that the intensification of activity and the interment
of extralocal pottery and effigy vessels at Palmetto Mound
during the Weeden Island phase was a reflection of the site’s
deep ancestry and ability to periodically attract dispersed and
diverse persons. Considering the reconfiguration of settlement
patterns after the abandonment of civic-ceremonial centers as
residential centers and the inclusion of extralocal pottery in the
mound, Donop (2017:228) contends that the intensification
of activity at Palmetto Mound may have been the, “material
manifestation of rituals performed by dispersed communities
to renew their social relations with the mound at periodic
gatherings in a time of uncertainty.”
The high diversity of pottery at Dan May is matched, if
not exceeded, by the pottery deposited at Palmetto Mound
during these centuries. Using Willey’s 1949 typology, the
majority of the pottery excavated from Test
Unit 1 is characteristic of the Weeden Island
ceramic tradition. Sherds belonging to one
vessel lot were frequently found across
multiple contexts, including multiple pit
features, confirming their contemporaneity.
While the diversity of pottery types at Dan
May could be viewed as simply a reflection
of the immensely diverse pottery assemblage
attributed to the Weeden Island tradition, it is
remarkable for a small, short-term context,
ruling out both time and ethnicity (multiple
communities) as the causes for diversity.
Little other material culture was recovered,
with the exception of a small assemblage
of chert flakes and two possible limestone
abraders.
The assemblage of vertebrate fauna from
Dan May is typical for the region, with a
variety of mostly estuarine and saltwater
species and some freshwater species.
However, a unique feature of Dan May is the
differential deposition of oyster shells and
Carolina marsh clams, where there is a greater
ratio of oysters in the midden and Carolina
marsh clams in the pit features. Carolina
marsh clams hardly dominate the invertebrate
assemblage of any context at a given site
in the research area, with the exception of
Weeden Island components at Cat Island and
Little Bradford, where Carolina marsh clams
naturally thrive given the low-salinity waters. It is possible
that the dominance of Carolina marsh clam in the pit features
rather than the midden at Dan May represents specific episodes
of collecting and depositing these species.
The results of survey and test excavations reported here
show the potential and need for additional archaeological
investigations at Dan May. Further testing at Dan May would
provide important information concerning a period of time
that is not well understood in the research area. Likewise,
continued identification and testing of contemporaneous sites
in region would ultimately assist the goals of the LSAS to
document the full range of variation in the distribution, timing,
and content of archaeological sites in the study area (Sassaman
et al. 2011). Following these recommendations would help
clarify the post-abandonment period of civic-ceremonial
centers (A.D. 700-1000) in the Lower Suwannee region.
Acknowledgements
I would like to acknowledge the crew from the
Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology who undertook
this fieldwork: Kenneth Sassaman, Ginessa Mahar, Andrea
Palmiotto, Kris Hall, and Micah Monés. I would also like to
acknowledge Kenneth Sassaman for his guidance in writing
this and the initial site report, and Sean Buchannan, and
Meggan Blessing for contributing to the analysis of artifacts


74
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
Table 5. Absolute Frequency, Weight, MNI, and Ratio of Taxa for Oysters and Carolina Marsh Clams by Bulk Sample.
Right Valve
Left Valve
Fragment Total
Oyster
ct
wt(g)
Ct
wt(g)
ct
wt(g)
MNI
MNI/
Liter
Ratio of
Taxa
ii
90
551.9
64
838.2
713.9
2104.0
90
12
12:1
m
53
246.5
59
448.0
538.5
1233.0
59
9
9:1
F.l
28
142.6
35
361.7
316.5
820.8
35
3
1:2
F.2A
4
28.8
3
1.6
40.8
71.2
4
1
1:9
F.2C
16
107.1
15
76.2
145.5
328.8
16
2
1:9
F.3
3
17.1
3
5.5
30.0
52.1
3
<1
0:1
f.4
0
0
0
0
0.2
0.2
0
0
0:1
Total
194
1094.0
179
1730.7
1785.4
4610.1
207
4
1:3
Marsh Clam
ii
3
26.8
3
16.2
21.3
64.3
3
<1
1:12
hi
2
2.9
2
10.8
11.0
24.7
2
<1
1:9
F.l
79
620.3
91
683.2
417.5
1721.0
91
7
2:1
F.2A
9
21.5
3
10.9
49.2
81.6
9
9
9:1
F.2C
151
1178.3
165
1424.0
212.2
2814.5
165
17
9:1
F.3
2
14.1
7
40.3
59.8
114.2
7
1
1:0
F.4
1
8.6
1
5.8
3.7
18.1
1
1
1:0
Total
247
1872.5
272
2191.2
774.7
4838.4
278
6
3:1
Table 6. Summary of Attributes Indicative of Resource Niche and Mariculture.
Sample
n
Right
Left
Mean
Mean
Mean
Scars Parasitism
Parasitism
on Scar
n %
n %
Height
Length
HLR
n
%
n
%
n
%
II
154
90 58
64 42
51.19
32.71
1.58
27
63
i
16
0
0
III
112
53 47
59 53
52.67
32.08
1.61
15
68
14
64
1
5
F.l
63
28 44
35 56
62.94
36.64
1.73
12
67
1
6
0
0
F.2A
7
4 57
3 43
21.64
12.48
1.74
1
50
0
0
0
0
F.2C
31
16 52
15 48
48.36
26.31
1.87
2
67
0
0
0
0
F.3
6
3 50
3 50
Total
373
194 52
179 48
53.20
32.68
1.63
57
65
22
25
1
1


Jenkins
The Site In-Between in the Lower Suwanee: Excavation at Dan May (8LV917)
75
from Dan May. Access to Dan May Island was granted by the
landowner, Mr. Allen Scott. I also acknowledge Joe Hipps, the
island’s caretaker, who provided logistical support for field
investigations and back-filled TUI with heavy equipment.
Funding for the Dan May project was provided by the Hyatt
and Cici Brown Endowment for Florida Archaeology.
References Cited
Bronk Ramsey, Christopher, and Sharen Lee
2013 Recent and Planned Developments in the Program
OxCal. Radiocarbon 55 (2-3):720-730.
Buchannan, Sean M.
2017 Dispersed and Diverse: Accounting for Ceramic
Variation at Dan May (8LV917). Paper presented at the
69th Annual Meeting of the Florida Anthropological
Society, Jacksonville.
Donop, Mark C.
2017 Bundled Ancestor: The Palmetto Mound (8LV2) on the
Florida Gulf Coast. Ph.D. dissertation. Gainesville:
Department of Anthropology, University of Florida.
Jenkins, Jessica A.
2017 Methods for Inferring Oyster Mariculture on
Florida’s Gulf Coast. Journal of Archaeological
Science 80:74-82.
Jenkins, Jessica A., Kenneth E. Sassaman, Sean M. Buchanan,
and Meggan E. Blessing
2017 Archaeological Investigations at Dan May (8LV917),
Levy County, Florida. Technical Report 24.
Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology, Department
of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Marquardt, William H., and Karen J. Walker
2013 The Pineland Site Complex: Theoretical and
Cultural Contexts. In The Archaeology of Pineland:
A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, edited
by William H. Marquardt and Karen J. Walker, pp.
1-22. Monograph 4. Institute of Archaeology and
Paleoenvironmental Studies, University of
Florida, Gainesville.
McFadden, Paulette S., and Andrea Palmiotto
2012 Archaeological Investigations at Bird Island
(8DI52), Dixie County, Florida. Technical Report 14.
Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology, Department
of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.
McFadden, Paulette S.
2014 Archaeological Investigations at Butler Island
Northeast (8DI50), Dixie County, Florida.
Technical Report 20. Laboratory of Southeastern
Archaeology, Department of Anthropology,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
Pluckhahn, Thomas J., Victor D. Thompson, Brent R.Weisman
2010 Toward a New View of History and Process at
Crystal River (8CI1). Southeastern Archaeology
29:164-181.
Sassaman, Kenneth E., Paulette S. McFadden, and Micah P.
Monés
2011 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009-
2010: Investigations at Cat Island, Bird Island, and
Richards Island. Technical Report 10. Laboratory
of Southeastern Archaeology, Department of
Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Sassaman, Kenneth E., Ginessa J. Mahar, Mark C. Donop,
Jessica A. Jenkins, Anthony Boucher, Cristina I. Oliveira,
Joshua M. Goodwin
2015 Lower Suwannee Archaeologica Survey 2013-2014
Shell Mound and Cedar Key Tracts. Technical
Report 23, Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology,
Department of Anthropology, University of Florida.
Sassaman, Kenneth E., Neill J. Wallis, Paulette S. McFadden,
Ginessa J. Mahar, Jessica A. Jenkins, Mark C. Donop, Micah
P. Monés, Andrea Palmiotto, Anthony Boucher, Joshua M.
Goodwin, and Cristinia I. Olieira
2016 Keeping Pace with Rising Sea: The First Six Years
of the Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey,
Gulf Coastal Florida. Journal of Island and Coastal
Archaeology 12(2): 173-199.
Wallis, Neill J., Paulette S. McFadden, and Hayley M.
Singleton
2015 Radiocarbon Dating the Pace of Monument
Construction and Village Aggregation at Garden
Patch: A Ceremonial Center on the Florida Gulf
Coast. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports
2:507-516.
Wallis, Neill J, Ann S. Cordell, Erin Harris-Parks, Mark C.
Donop, and Kristen Hall
2017 Provenance of Weeden Island “Sacred” and
“Prestige” Vessels: Implications for Specialized
Ritual Craft Production. Southeastern Archaeology
36:131-143.
Wang, Ting, Donna Surge, and Karen Jo Walker
2011 Isotopic Evidence for Climate Change during the
Vandal Minimum from Ariopsis felis Otoliths and
Mercenaria campechensis Shells, Southwest Florida,
USA. The Holocene 21 (7): 1081-1091.
Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archaeology of Floridas Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections 113. Smithsonian
Institution, Washington D.C.




BIBLIOGRAPHY OF HUMAN SKELETAL REMAINS CURATED BY FLORIDA ATLANTIC
UNIVERSITY: REDISCOVERED OSTEOLOGICAL MATERIALS AND AN UPDATED
ACCOUNTING OF RESEARCH
Peter J. Ferdinando1,2
1 Visiting Lecturer, Department of History, the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd. Charlotte,
NC 28223
2 Curator of Anthropology and Ethnohistory, The Palm Beach Museum of Natural History, 10300 Forest Hill Blvd. Suite 172,
Wellington, FL 33414
E-mail: pferdina@uncc.edu
Consultation Notice and Statement of Identities
Subsequent to the author’s research on Florida Atlantic
University’s human osteological collections detailed in the
below article, the Department of Anthropology at FAU and the
Seminole Tribe of Florida entered into a consultation on Native
American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA)
compliance. They began this currently ongoing consultation in
July 2018 and the Seminole requested and FAU agreed to close
access to these collections during this process (Meredith A. B.
Ellis, personal communication, 2019). In recognition of the
vital importance of open dialogue involving all stakeholders,
this author corresponded with the Seminole Flistorical
Preservation Office and FAU Anthropology concerning the
below paper. All stakeholders came to a successful compromise
that included the inclusion of this consultation notice about the
importance of meaningful dialogue coming out of NAGPRA
and an acknowledgment of the need for cultural sensitivity,
respect, and protection for all ancestors, along with these two
subsequent paragraphs that discuss the multiple identities of
the individuals under discussion in the below article.
The human remains under review in this paper have
several distinct but sometimes overlapping identities. The
Seminole recognize these individuals with an identity as
“valued ancestors” (Domonique deBeaubien, personal
communication, 2019). These individuals also appear currently
on the NAGPRA Culturally Unidentifiable Native American
Inventories Database (NAGPRA Database, 3/4/2019). Such
an unidentified identity may or may not be a permanent
designation, however, with identity fluid both in the past and
present (Colwell-Chanthaphonh and Powell 2012; Kakaliouras
2012). This author, coming from a bioarchaeological
perspective, asserts that the scientific study and re-study of
human remains is a vital avenue to understanding past peoples
and populations (Landau and Steele 1996). This paper thus
uses terminology derived from statistics such as ‘samples’
to refer to the individual collections of human remains from
archaeological sites and ‘populations’ to the overall regional
populaces. Readers should not take such a bioarchaeological
identity wrapped in statistical and scientific terms as an
attempt to obscure the reality that these human remains were/
are individuals and that they belonged/belong to a variety of
kinship networks.
Another identity for these individuals, of course, is as
part of the Florida peninsula’s pre- and post-contact history.
There is disagreement presently, however, over the identity
and trajectory of such individuals, the temporal depth of
tribal affiliations, and cultural extinctions in the post-contact
era. On the one hand, Jerald T. Milanich (1995) and John E.
Worth (2009) both argued that Florida’s original indigenous
inhabitants succumbed in the 1700s largely because of English
Carolina-sponsored and Yamasee- and Creek-led raids for
indigenous slaves. In such an interpretation, the Seminole and
Miccosukee were relative latecomers to Florida and filled the
void left by the extinct peoples like the Calusa and Ais. On the
other hand, Patricia Riles Wickman (1999) argued that a shared
cosmogony across much of the American Southeast means
that historians cannot cut off the peninsula peoples as distinct
Florida Indians who are now extinct, but rather must examine
the region-wide transformation that led to the emergence of
the multicultural Creek, Miccosukee, and Seminole. This
discussion over extinction, survival, and the pre- and post¬
contact Native Americans of Florida and the wider American
Southeast is important, and continued dialogue must include
information from all sources and conversation among all
stakeholders, but it is beyond the scope of this paper.
Introduction
The following bibliography of human skeletal remains
curated by Florida Atlantic University (FAU) is the result of
two distinct threads of research. The first thread highlights
the reality that digging into the backrooms of museums and
universities often is as enlightening as being in the field. The
preparation for a wider bioarchaeological project investigating
the populations of the East Okeechobee and Lake Okeechobee
areas thus led to the discovery of a number of additional
archaeologically-relevant human skeletal samples curated by
FAU’s Department of Anthropology.1 Bioarchaeologists have
not described these osteological collections previously, and
information about them is gathered here for the first time. While
full bioarchaeological investigation of these rediscovered
Vol. 71 (2)
The Florida Anthropologist
May 2019


78
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
Rediscovered Human Remains Curated
by FAU
The following entries inventory the
rediscovered FAU human osteological materials.
They are listed alphabetically by archaeological
site name, and, when available, include the
Florida Master Site File number (FMSF), site
chronology and components, minimum number
of individuals (MNI2) held by FAU and other
organizations, available publications about the
site, and any other pertinent information. A brief
note concerning the archaeological sites in the
Canal Point region precedes the entries covering
the skeletal samples from Canal Point 2 (8PB45)
and Canal Point 3 (8PB46). Additionally,
the samples from the Boca Raton Midden
(8PB12) and Boca Weir (8PB56) are grouped
under the wider village’s name of the Spanish
River Complex, and again a short note about
that aboriginal town precedes these entries.
Figure 1 maps the generalized locations of the
sites covered in this text. Table 1 includes the
chronologies for the Glades, East Okeechobee,
and Lake Okeechobee areas. Table 2 presents
a master list of human skeletal samples
curated by FAU, including those discussed
in Kessel (2001) and in this article. While the
rediscovered osteological samples with a large
minimum number of individuals will be subject
to separate papers, Tables 3 and 4 include brief
osteometric data for those ones that include only
a few individuals.3
Figure 1. Map of Florida with generalized site locations. Map by
the author using ArcGIS and location data in FMSF. The numbers
correspond to the archaeological sites listed in Table 2.
samples must await future publications, this paper inventories
the material and includes some preliminary data.
The second research thread leading to this bibliography
ties into the continued reverberations of NAGPRA. Two of
the ongoing positive effects of NAGPRA include the strong
impetus for federally-funded repository facilities to inventory
and document the osteological materials they curate, and
the development of a defined method for Native Americans
and other stakeholders to consult over the disposition and
repatriation of Native American human remains. In fact, this
dialogue among all stakeholders who want to protect the
history, heritage, and dignity of the peoples of the past remains
a key way to bridge sometimes-divergent views. In Florida,
the former effect also resulted in two previous publications in
The Florida Anthropologist (Kessel 2001; Ferdinando 2007).
Morton Kessel recognized that his bibliography of human
remains curated by FAU would be “an evolving document
that will require regular updates (2001:27).” This paper thus
inventories the FAU osteological samples not included in
Kessel’s original article, and provides an update
on recent research projects using FAU’s human
skeletal collections.
Belle Glade (8PB41), FAU MNI=2 3
The Belle Glade site includes a midden (8PB40) and burial
mound (8PB41), with the course of the now extinct Democrat
River running between the two. Gordon Willey’s (1949) report
on the 1930s excavation at the Belle Glade site included a brief
appraisal of the burial mound’s construction. He indicated
five distinct components: Old Habitation Level, Old Muck
Mound, First Sand Mound, Two Small Habitation Levels,
and Final Sand Mound with possible intrusive contact-era
burials. Because of the paucity of ceramic sherds distributed
throughout the burial mound, Willey (1949:72) was cautious
concerning temporal placement of these mound components
in comparison to the two distinct periods he recorded for the
Belle Glade Midden. Barbara Purdy (1991:79) suggested that
“since many of the wooden objects are similar to the Ft. Center
carvings, a tentative date of AD 200-600 can be suggested for
the First Sand Mound.” Radiocarbon work by Peter Ferdinando
and Micheline Hilpert (2008), however, argued for a later date
for the construction of the First Sand Mound.


Ferdinando
Updated Bibliography of FAU Skeletal Remains
79
Table 1. Southern Florida Chronologies
Glades Area
East Okeechobee Area
Lake Okeechobee Area
Glades IIIc
(A.D. 1513-1763)
East Okeechobee IV
(A.D. 1513-1763)
Belle Glade IV
(A.D. 1200/1400-1700)
Glades IIIb
(A.D. 1400-1513)
East Okeechobee III
(A.D. 1000-1513)
Glades Ilia
(A.D. 1200-1400)
Belle Glade III
(A.D. 600/800-1200/1400)
Glades lie
(A.D. 1100-1200)
Glades lib
(A.D. 900-1100)
East Okeechobee II
(A.D. 800-1000)
Glades Ha
(A.D. 750-900)
Glades I late
(A.D. 500-750)
East Okeechobee I
(750 B.C.-A.D. 800)
Belle Glade II
(A.D. 200-A.D. 600/800)
Glades I early
(500 B.C.-A.D. 500)
Belle Glade I
(450 B.C.-A.D. 200)
For the Glades Area see Wheeler 2004 and compare with Carr 2012; for the East Okeechobee Area see Wheeler 2002; and for
the Lake Okeechobee Area see Sears 1982 and compare with Willey 1949 and Johnson 1996.
There were two main collection periods for human
remains from the Belle Glade mound. During the 1930s,
the Smithsonian sponsored a systematic excavation of the
site as part of a Depression-era work program by the Civil
Works Administration and the Federal Emergency Relief
Program (Willey 1949). The exact number of individuals
recovered during the 1930s is unknown, but Ales Hrdlicka
(1940) published craniometric data for 17 males and 26
females, suggesting at least an MNI=43. Subsequent analysis
of this Smithsonian-held material include a single measured
radiocarbon date of 920 ± 40 BP, with a 2-sigma calibrated
range of 970-890 and 860-800 BP, and a comparative
analysis of age, sex, stature, ancestry, and paleopathology
(Stojanowski and Johnson 2011; Smith 2015). Also of note, in
1973 the Smithsonian deaccessioned part of their Belle Glade
collection and sent it to the Iowa State University Archaeology
Laboratory, with this material moved again in 1994 to the Iowa
Office of the State Archaeologist (IOSA). Robin M. Lillie
and Bryan Ludwig (2004) reported an MNI=35 for the IOSA
collection, based on repeated vertebrae and juvenile remains.
As with Hrdlicka (1940), Lillie and Ludwig (2004) recorded
both males and females. They also noted the presence of
subadults, adults, and older adults. A total MNI for the 1930s
sample currently is unknown, because no one has yet examined
the entirety of this collection.
The second collecting period at the Belle Glade Burial
Mound occurred during the 1970s with several salvage
excavations at the site. Audrey Sublett (1975) led an
excavation in November 1975 during the construction of a
new house. Recovered osteological materials included seven
burials discovered in situ in the Old Muck Mound and First
Sand Mound, along with a large surface scatter of human
bones likely from these same components. The Palm Beach
Museum of Natural History (PBMNH) curates one of the
in situ burials (Ferdinando 2007). The repository for the
remaining six burials is unknown. FAU holds the surface
scatter. Ferdinando and Hilpert (2008) calculated an MNI=23
for the FAU sample using the number of left distal one-third
humeral shafts. Furthermore, their analysis of this material
indicated the presence of both males and females, along with
juveniles and adults. This age and sex distribution thus is
similar to the 1930s sample.
Personnel from the Glades Historical Society, the original
Palm Beach County Archaeological Society (PBCAS),
and the Broward County Archaeological Society (BCAS)
completed another excavation at the Belle Glade site in 1977,
uncovering a commingled human bone layer. The Lawrence
E. Will Museum (LEW) stored this material for a number of
years prior to this collection’s repatriation (FMSF: 8PB40,
8PB41; Smith 2015). Catherine Smith (2015) examined the


80
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
Table 2. Human skeletal remains curated by FAU.
Site Name
Smithsonian Trinomial
MNI
Reference
1
Belle Glade Mound
8PB41
23
PF
2
Boynton Multiple Mounds
8PB100
17
MK/PF
3
Briarwoods Site
8PA66
67
MK/PF/DP
4
Brickell Bluff
8DA1082
4
MK
5
Canal Point 2
8PB45
20
PF
6
Canal Point 3
8PB46
19
PF
7
Emerald Towers
8BD57
1
PF
8
Flagami South
8DA1053
16
MK
9
House of Refuge Midden
8MT354
2
PF
10
Jose Marti
8DA3220
1
PF
11
Joseph Reed Shell Ring
8MT13
1
PF
12
Kendall-John Site
8DA1081
1
PF
13
Margate Blount
8BD41
12
MK/PF
14
Mound Crossing
8CR86
8
PF
15
Nebot
8PB219
2
MK
16
Patrician
8PB99
8
MK/PF
17
Republic Groves
8HR4
37
MK
18
Riviera Site
8PB30
1
PF
19
Santa Maria
8DA2132
5
MK
20
Spanish River Complex
Boca Raton Midden
8PB12
2
PF
Boca Weir
8PB56
2
PF
Highland Beach Mound
8PB11
216
MK/PF/CH
21
Waldron
8PB554
1
PF
22
Williamson Mound 1
8CR703
1
PF
Total Minimum Number of Individuals
467
MK: Morton Kessel 2001 Article; PF: Peter Ferdinando this article; DP: Deborah Pinto 2004 Thesis; CH: Christopher Hennessey
2015 Thesis


Ferdinando
Updated Bibliography of FAU Skeletal Remains
81
Table 3. Cranial measurements.
Site
Bone
Measurement
Result
Belle Glade
See Smithsonian: Hrdlicka 1940
Canal Point 2
See Smithsonian: Hrdlicka 1940; FAU: Ferdinando Database
Canal Point 3
See Smithsonian: Hrdlicka 1940
Emerald Towers
N/A
House of Refugee
N/A
Jose Marti
N/A
Joseph Reed
N/A
Kendall Site
N/A
Mound Crossing
N/A
Riviera Site
Chord
104.58 mm
Spanish River Complex:
See FA UBoca Weir/Boca Raton Midden: Furey 1972; PBMNHBoca Weir: Ferdinando Database;
FA UHighland Beach Burial Mound: Winland 1993, 2002, Hennessey 2015, Ferdinando Database
Lt Parietal
Thickness
6.5 mm
116 mm
25 mm
12 mm
37 mm
45 mm
97 mm
32.86 mm
14.67 mm
34.35 mm
Boca Weir
Frontal
Chord
Lt
Mandible
Waldron
I§can 1989
Williamson Mound #1
Rt Mandible
Lg Lt Temporal
Height
Breadth
Mastoid Height
Height
Breadth
Min Ramus Breath
Max Ramus Height
Mandible Length
Lt=left, Rt=right, Lg=large/robust, Min=minimum, Max=maximum. All measurements in italics are estimated based on the re¬
maining bone.


82
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
Table 4. Post-cranial measurements.
Site
Bone
Measurement
Result
Belle Glade
See IOSA: Lillie & Ludwig 2004; FAU: Ferdinando Database
Canal Point 2
See FA U: Ferdinando Database
Canal Point 3
N/A
Emerald Towers
Rt Tibia
Reconstructed Length
33.27+/-1.09 cm
V; â–  - : - m
Stature
154.28+/-6.48 cm
House of Refuge
Rt Humerus
Reconstructed Length
28.73+/-1.18 cm
Jose Marti
N/A
Joseph Reed
N/A
Kendall Site
N/A
Mound Crossing
N/A
Riviera Site
Lt Femur
Midshaft Circ
75 mm
Reconstructed Length
40.22+/-1.02 cm
Stature
153.91+/-6.46 cm
Spanish River Complex:
See FAU Boca Weir/Boca Raton Midden: Furey 1972; PBMNH Boca Weir: Ferdinando
Database; FAU Highland Beach Burial Mound: Winland 1993, 2002, Hennessey 2015,
Ferdinando Database
Waldron
I§can 1989
Williamson Mound #1
Sm Lt Femur Head
Head Dia
39.29 mm
Sm Rt Femur Head
Head Dia
39.03 mm
Reconstructed Length
42.27+/-1.23 cm
â– * -. * -
Stature
159.22+/-7.00 cm
Lg Femur Head
Head Dia
44.41 mm
Rt Femur Shaft
AP Subtroc Dia
25.50 mm
. :
ML Subtroc Dia
28.91 mm
AP Midshaft Dia
26.15 mm
ML Midshaft Dia
24.89 mm
â– 
Midshaft Circ
77 mm
Reconstructed Length
39.86+/-1.02 cm
• ■ ; .
Stature
152.98+/-6.46 cm
H H
Lg Femur Shaft
Midshaft Circ
92 mm
.... . . â– 
Rt Tibia Shaft
Circ nutrient foramen
99 mm
j
Rt Ulna shaft
AP Dia
18.01 mm
Lt=left, Rt=right, Sm=small/gracile, Lg=large/robust, Circ=circumference, Dia=diameter, AP=anterior-posterior, ML=medial-
lateral, Subtroc=subtrochanter. All measurements in italics are estimated based on the remaining bone.


Ferdinando
Updated Bibliography of FAU Skeletal Remains
83
LEW collection, calculated an MNI=10 to 12, and completed
comparative analysis with some of the above Belle Glade
collections. Of particular importance, she argued against the
idea that the area inhabited by the Belle Glade culture was a
region of low population, a thesis that further testing using all
the various Belle Glade skeletal collections could examine.
The Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH)
curates a small collection from Belle Glade with an MNI=3
(NAGPRA Database, 11/22/2017). To determine whether this
material comes from the 1930s, 1970s, or another excavation
will require more research.
A Note about Canal Point Archaeological Sites
There are a cluster of archaeological sites close to the
modern-day community of Canal Point, including Canal Point
1 (8PB44), Canal Point 2 (8PB45), Canal Point 3 (8PB46),
Canal Point 4 (8PB47), Canal Point Ridge 1 (8PB6227), Canal
Point Ridge 2 (8PB6228), Kreamer Island (8PB43), Kreamer
Island Mound (8PB93), and Ritta Island (8PB92). These sites
are in the vicinity of a former beach ridge that roughly parallels
the present Lake Okeechobee shoreline (Kennedy et al. 1991).
Kreamer Island and Ritta Island both played an important
role in the pre-contact exchange networks of Florida (Mount
2009). The integration of the various Canal Point sites with the
regional exchange networks, however, needs more research.
Excavations at Canal Point 2 and 3, Kreamer Island,
and Ritta Island produced human remains (FMSF: 8PB43,
8PB45, 8PB46, 8PB92). Unfortunately, the combination
of the impact of agricultural development, and a lack of
differentiation between the sites, their various components,
and their chronologies renders much about the Canal Point
osteological samples unclear. Hrdlicka’s (1940) publication of
craniometric data for three male and five female skulls from
Canal Point highlights such issues. He did not distinguish
whether these samples came from Canal Point 2 and 3
(FMSF: 8PB45). While Hrdlicka did not indicate specific
sites for these Smithsonian-curated crania, information in
T. Dale Stewart (1939:462) noted that some of the skulls
were “shell encrusted” and came from a shell mound. Using
Stewart’s map, and information in the FMSF (8PB46) noting
Canal Point 3 as a shell and muck mound, it is likely that
at least some of the Smithsonian-held collection came from
that mound site. Although a date for this mound is unknown,
the earliest appearance of other burials mounds in southern
Florida was approximately A.D. 500 (Widmer 1988:78). A
later FAU-led excavation at Canal Point 3, or as they called it
the Bryant Site, did not record the presence of a mound and
the recovered ceramics primarily suggests a transitional date
(ca. 1000 B.C.-A.D. 500) (Hoffman 1966). This chronological
discontinuity may be the result of distinct components at a
single site, or suggest the labeling of several separate sites as
Canal Point 3. More work in the Canal Point area is required
to clarify such issues.
Canal Point 2 (8PB45), FAUMNI=20
FAU curates a collection from the Canal Point 2 site,
which is located near Pelican Lake. According to a couple of
notes on the collection’s boxes, archaeologists collected this
osteological sample in the 1980s following a report of human
remains to the local police. The university holds no other
artifacts from the site, and without any means of relative dating
the age of the material currently is unknown. Bioarchaeological
work on this sample by the author indicated the presence of
males and females, along with several juveniles. An MNI=20
was calculated from the right temporal bones.
Canal Point 3 (8PB46) FA U MNI=19
As discussed above, the Smithsonian- and FAU-curated
samples from Canal Point 3 are either from two distinct
components of the same site, or from two separate sites in
close geographical proximity. In 1930, the Southern Sugar
Company recovered skeletal materials from the upper 1 m of
the shell mound and sent them to the Smithsonian. Stewart
(1939) found evidence of obelionic cranial deformation in
that sample. Additionally, Hrdlicka (1940) measured some
of the skulls from this same collection, but again he did not
differentiate between the different Canal Point sites.
FAU acquired their Canal Point 3 skeletal sample three
decades later, again owing to the activities of sugar growers. In
1965, during construction of ponds for wastewater, employees
of the Untied States Sugar Company found artifacts and a
human burial located several meters beneath the surface.
Archaeologists from FAU conducted limited fieldwork and
recovered a partial skeleton of a young adult male, along
with some other artifacts. The presence of St. Johns Incised
suggests a possible Late Archaic-Glades I date (ca. 1000 B.C.-
A.D. 500). The next year, FAU personnel followed up with
another small excavation at the site, recovering the remaining
osteological material that constitutes the Canal Point 3 sample
at the university (Hoffman 1966).
Preliminary bioarchaeological work on this sample by
the author calculated an MNU19 from repeated mandibular
mental spines. Additionally, morphological markers, along
with the size and development of the bones, suggest the
presence of males and females. The collection also includes at
least two juveniles, evident from long bone fragments without
fused epiphyses.
Emerald Towers (8BD57) FAUMNI=1
This shell midden site is located on a Broward County
coastal barrier island. It was discovered during construction of
the Emerald Towers high-rise condominiums and it includes
both habitation and mortuary components. A team from FAU
undertook the initial salvage at the site in early September
1971, and the BCAS accomplished additional work there later
the same month (Furey and Steinen 1971; Mowers 1974). Both
groups uncovered typical midden materials, including faunal
bones and pottery sherds, along with human skeletal remains.
The combined ceramic data from these excavations included
51 sherds of sand-tempered plain, and 8 sherds of Belle Glade
Plain, suggestive of a date between Glades I and II (ca. 500
B.C.-A.D. 1000). Robert S. Carr et al.’s (1993) Broward County
archaeological survey indicated that Emerald Towers might
have been a component of the Pompano Beach Midden (8BD6).


84
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
The FAU collection includes 26 bone fragments and no
teeth. The remains are of at least one adult female, based
on the fused epiphysis of a gracile distal tibial fragment and
the wide sciatic notch of the pelvis, respectively. The rest
of the associated fragments also are quite lightly built and
could represent the same individual. This material should be
compared to the Emerald Towers skeletal remains held by the
PBMNH (MNT=1) to determine if they potentially represent
parts of the same individual (Ferdinando 2007).
House of Refuge Midden (8MT354) FAU MNI=2
According to Carr et al.’s (1995) Martin County
archaeological survey, this shell midden is under the House
of Refuge structure on Gilbert’s Bar located on Hutchinson
Island. A thin East Okeechobee IV (A.D. 1513-1763) contact-
era component, including some olive jar fragments, overlies
a more extensive East Okeechobee I (750 B.C.-A.D. 800)
shell midden with sherds of sand-tempered plain pottery. The
FAU-held material originates from a 1967 surface collection
by unknown individuals. Associated artifacts include shell
fragments and sand-tempered plain pottery sherds. The
absence of any decorated Glades sherds and the lack of
contact-era goods in association with the burials strongly
suggests that the skeletal remains should be assigned to the
earlier East Okeechobee I component of the site.
The House of Refuge skeletal sample includes 66 fragments
of human bone and no teeth. Most of the bone pieces are quite
small, and many appear to have extensive surface wear. There
are at least two individuals in this collection based on two
overlapping segments of frontal bone. Three non-contiguous
femur fragments of differing size and development, however,
hint at the presence of more individuals. Furthermore, all of
the remains are adults, as indicated by fused epiphyses and the
size of the bones. The collection also includes both sexes, due
to the thickness of the eye orbit and prominence of the glabella
on one frontal, and the diminutive size of a left talus.
Jose Marti (8DA3220) FAUMNI=1
The Jose Marti site is a shallow black dirt midden on the
southern bank of the Miami River. According to information in
the FMSF (8DA3220), archaeologists monitored construction
at Jose Marti Park in 1983, leading to the recovery faunal
bone and shell, pottery sherds, and worked bone, shell, and
stone. According to a letter by Carr in the site’s FMSF, the
archaeologists also uncovered a single human skull, and
charcoal associated with the skull rendered “a date of ca. 200
A.D.-500 A.D.”
The osteological collection curated by FAU from this
site includes five bags of very small and quite worn human
bone fragments. Notes on the bags indicate that the material
was excavated in 1983, suggesting it may be from the same
excavation referenced above. Of the few recognizable bone
elements, long bone fragments and a mandible piece are
present. Several adult teeth are included, all of which are
very worn. Sex determination was not possible due to the
fragmentary nature of the sample. It is unclear how these
fragments relate with the noted cranium.
Joseph Reed Shell Ring (8MT13) FAU MNI=1
The Joseph Reed Shell Ring is an intriguing Late Archaic
(ca. 3300 B.P.) site with extremely early dated St. Johns Plain
pottery sherds. It is located on Jupiter Island, adjacent to the
beach, and is a low incomplete circle of shell midden material
about 250 m across (Russo and Heide 2002; Wheeler et al.
2002). While Michael Russo and Gregory Heide’s (2002)
investigation helped clarify some of the details concerning
this important site, preliminary work for an ultimately aborted
excavation by FAU also recorded vital information. In 1965,
William Sears and Charles Hoffman visited the site in the
company of Nat Reed, then the site owner, and they recovered
three sherds of St. Johns Plain and one sherd of sand-tempered
plain. Sears, realizing the importance of the site, wanted it to
be fully mapped and partially excavated. He was unable to
complete this project, however, because of legal complexities
relating to the property’s title transfer from the Reed family to
the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (Carr et al. 1995;
Sears Correspondence; FMSF: 8MT13).
FAU curates the right side of a human skull, partially
encrusted in matrix. Considering the size of the mastoid,
this individual probably was male. Additionally, the size and
development of the skull indicates that the remains were those
of an adult. According to correspondence on file at FAU,
Ranger Charles Bacheller sent this skull to the university
in 1966 at the direction of the aforementioned Reed. Russo
and Heide (2002) briefly discussed the possibility of human
remains from the Joseph Reed Shell Ring, but concluded that
the recovery context is not clear and that human remains found
at other shell rings have been later intrusive burials. Reviewing
Sears’ correspondence about the site, however, there seems
a clear case that this skull came from the Joseph Reed Shell
Ring, but it could very well be intrusive. Also of interest, Carr
et al. (1995) discussed a newspaper report from 1962 that
indicated the possible presence of additional human remains
at the site. In that year, a severe storm impacted the site locale,
and scattered human remains were noted in the aftermath.
Kendall-John Site (8DA1081) FAUMNI=1
The Kendall-John site, also known as the West Kendall
site, is a black dirt midden on the northern end of an
Everglades tree island. The site is 15 m in diameter and has
a relative elevation of 75-100 cm. The recovered ceramic
assemblage indicated a Glades I to Glades III occupation (ca.
500 B.C.-A.D. 1513). The Peninsular Archaeological Society
excavated there in 1972. John Reiger then collected artifacts
at this location from 1978 through 1980. Carr and a team of
volunteers followed up in 1983, and recovered fragmentary
human remains. They then sent these pieces to Mehmet Ya§ar
I§can at FAU’s Department of Anthropology for identification.
Archaeologists also uncovered additional human remains
during a later excavation (Carr 1981; Franklin et al. 2008;
FMSF: 8DA1081).
The FAU collection from the Kendall-John site includes
fragmentary limb and cranial bones, along with other
smaller, largely unidentifiable, elements, and some faunal
bones. This material appears to be from the 1983 excavation


Ferdinando
Updated Bibliography of FAU Skeletal Remains
85
originally sent to I§can. All of the bones are quite worn and
fragmentary. No duplicate bones were noted, suggesting an
MNI=1. Given the presence of permanent teeth and noting
the general size and development of several of the bones,
this individual was an adult. The sex of the individual
remains indeterminate. The reasonably robust mandibular
mental eminence and blunt eye orbits suggest a male, but the
humerus is relatively gracile. Consequently, the presence of
more than one individual is a possibility.
HistoryMiami also curates a small osteological
collection from this site, with an MNIA2 (NAGPRA database,
11/22/2017). Ryan Franklin et al. (2008) record seven bones
and teeth from a 2008 excavation at the site, with an MNI=2.
They noted that this material again was quite fragmentary and
that it was later reinterred.
Mound Crossing (8CR86) FAUMNI=8
The Mound Crossing site is a constructed sand mound
located in Collier County. The FMSF (8CR86) lists very little
data about this site so much of the following is speculative.
According to Randolph J. Widmer (1988:78), Native
Americans did not construct burial mounds in southern
Florida before A.D. 500, suggesting that the Mound Crossing
human remains should date from that time or later. If the box
associated with the human remains is the original container,
the Miami-West Indies Archaeological Society mailed this
material to FAU in 1971. Furthermore, related information
indicates that a report was completed, but it could not be
located prior to the publication of this article.
In total, this collection includes 26 bones and 52 teeth.
The duplication of mandibular mental spines indicates an
MNI=8. The size of the bones and patterns of tooth eruption
and wear indicates that these eight individuals were adults.
The presence of two permanent teeth without fully-formed
roots and no surface wear, however, suggests the existence
of a ninth individual. These latter teeth, a canine and a first
molar, indicate that this juvenile was approximately 6-8 years
of age. Both sexes are present, as indicated by morphological
characteristics, along with the general size and development of
the bones. A frontal has evident cribra orbitalia, several of the
teeth have enamel hypoplasias, and one tooth has a cavity.
Riviera Site (8PB30) FAUMNI=1
The Riviera Complex includes three sites: the Palm Beach
Inlet Midden (8PB28), the Palm Beach Inlet Mound (8PB29),
and the Riviera Site (8PB30). The original PBCAS excavated
at the Rivera site from 1978-1980. Ryan J. Wheeler (1992) later
synthesized and published data about this excavation using the
society’s notes. The Rivera site is located on a transverse beach
dune to the west of the modern-day intracoastal. The site is
primarily a midden, with a mound located towards the center
of the dune. The midden was inhabited during Glades III (A.D.
1200-1763) and probably is the site of the post-European
contact village of Jeaga (Wheeler 1992; Wheeler et al. 2002).
There are a total of three osteological pieces from the
Riviera Site curated by FAU. These items are an almost
complete left parietal, a left femur shaft missing both ends,
and a human tooth. The circumference of the femur midshaft
suggests that this individual was female, an interpretation
that is further substantiated by the gracility of both this bone
and the parietal. The parietal has evidence of healed porotic
hyperostosis, and the femur has periostitis along much of the
shaft. Although the FAU catalog lists at least three human
teeth originating from this site, only one was located, which
was a second molar. While scant, this material demonstrates
the presence of human skeletal material from the Riviera Site.
A Note about the Spanish River Complex
The Spanish River Complex is a large aboriginal
village that includes a number of sites: the Highland Beach
Burial Mound (8PB11), the Boca Raton Midden (8PB12),
the Boca Raton Burial Mound (aka the Barnhill Mound)
(8PB13), Boca Beekman (8PB55), Boca Weir (8PB56), Boca
Aylward (8PB57), and Boca Snead (8PB103). What makes
this complex so important for bioarchaeological study is the
presence of human skeletal samples from several distinct time
periods and locales within a single village, along with the
seminal work of Ripley P. Bullen (1957) at the Boca Raton
Burial Mound, which includes one of the best descriptions
of mortuary practices in the East Okeechobee Area. Bullen’s
article, coupled with the osteological material from Boca Weir
(Ferdinando 2007) and the extensively studied human remains
from the Highland Beach Burial Mound (Winland 1993, 2002;
Hennessey, 2015), provides a foundation for a larger village¬
wide study that should incorporate the below, albeit smaller,
samples from the Boca Raton Midden and Boca Weir.
The Spanish River Complex: Boca Raton Midden (8PB12)
FAU MNI=2
The Boca Raton Midden is a disturbed black dirt and shell
midden located on an island in what is today the intracoastal.
Dredging and construction impacted the site, with a preserved
portion of the midden located to west and spoil piles found to
the east of the intracoastal. During his extensive work at the
Spanish River Complex, John Furey (1972) gathered materials
from concentrations of surface finds from the Boca Raton
Midden. Although these finds were disturbed and possibly
intrusive, Furey argued that they are associated with the lowest
level of the midden and date to Glades I Early (ca. 500 B.C.-
A.D. 500).
The FAU human skeletal material from this site originated
from two surface concentrations (Furey 1972). The sample has
at least two individuals as determined by the presence of two
right femurs. When taking account of non-matching antimeres
and indicators of sex, however, at least four individuals may
be present. This small collection includes both sexes, and
several of the bones show evidence of periostitis. Of note is
the presence of a barnacle-encrusted pelvis with an associated
sacrum that has partial lumbarization of the first sacral
element. In addition, a humerus with taphonomic indications
of bleaching and cracking suggests weathering and long-term
exposure prior to collection. Other bones in the collection,
however, show less surface wear and may have been more
recently exposed prior to Furey’s collection.


86
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
The Spanish River Complex: Boca Weir (8PB56) FAUMNI-2
Boca Weir is located to the east of the intracoastal. It is
part of a large aboriginal midden located on a beach dune,
with the Boca Beekman, Boca Snead, and Boca Aylward sites
placed progressively northwards along the dune. The BCAS
excavated at this location in the 1960s and recovered human
remains (Ferdinando 2007). Furey’s (1972) later excavation
also produced some human osteological material. Reviewing
data from both of these excavations, along with discussion in
Wheeler et al. (2002), Native Americans occupied this part of
the Spanish River Complex from Glades I Late to Glades III
(ca. A.D. 500-1763).
FAU’s Boca Weir collection comes from Furey’s
excavation. The university curates an MNI=2, as suggested
by the presence of two right maxillas. A pelvis from an adult
female was found in association with fragments of St. Johns
Check Stamped, indicative of a later Glades II or Glades
III date (ca. A.D. 1000-1763). Additionally, the recovery of
an adult male cranium in association with olive jar sherds
suggests a contact-era Glades IIIc date (A.D. 1513-1763).
There also are several other institutions that curate material
from Boca Weir, including the PBMNH (Ferdinando 2007),
and the FLMNH (NAGPRA, 11/22/2017).
Waldron (8PB554) FAUMNI=1
The Waldron site included a single burial uncovered
during the demolition of a structure from the 1940s. The site
is located on a beach dune along the east side of Al A. Due to
the highly disturbed nature of this location, it is not clear if
this was an isolated burial or a remnant of a larger mortuary
site. The burial was found approximately 1.2 m below the
modem grade. According to the brief report completed by
I$can (1989), the well-preserved individual was missing only
the distal ends of the tibiae and fibulae, along with the bones
of the feet. The broken edges of the lower limbs suggested
recent fracture and probably were damaged during the modem
demolition activities. The burial was primary and extended,
with the arms flexed and the hands folded over the pelvis. The
head was pointing to the east and the feet to the west.
Observing morphological characteristics, I§can (1989)
concluded that this individual was a robust male of about 25-
35 years of age. I$can calculated a stature of 174.3cm+/-3.8 cm
using femur length, but he did not specify the specific standards
employed. Interestingly, I§can noted that the teeth on both the
left and right side showed evidence of circular wear, which
he interpreted as habitual pipe smoking. There is no evidence
of dental work, and a healed fracture on one of the ribs does
not show any modem medical treatment. This information,
coupled with the age of constmction of the associated building,
suggest an archaeological context for the remains. Finally,
I§can (1989) concluded that the individual was either White or
Native American as indicated by morphological features, and
White using E. Giles and O. Elliot’s (1962) method involving
discriminant analysis of eight cranial measurements.
Williamson Mound #7 (8CR703) FAUMNI=2
While investigating the human remains curated by FAU,
the author came across a single box containing human skeletal
remains labeled “Immokalee.” As with the collection from
the Mound Crossing site, it appears someone mailed this
osteological material to FAU for identification. Consulting
the FMSF for Collier County, the only known site in the
Immokalee area with possible human remains is Williamson
Mound #1 (8CR703). Therefore, this site is a possible origin
for this skeletal material. The mound is oval, constructed
of sand, about 30 m in diameter and 1 m high at the tallest
point. According to Carr’s narrative description filed with this
site’s FMSF, “a slight depression on the mound crest suggests
previous digging by collectors, but disturbances were minor.”
It is possible that the skeletal collection under discussion
originated from that disturbance event. As part of the same
pre-development archaeological survey by Carr, three shovel
tests to 75 cm revealed no cultural deposits and sterile white
sand. The age of this mound is unknown, but again Native
Americans apparently first constructed burial mounds in
southern Florida no earlier than A.D. 500 (Widmer 1988:78).
Reviewing the ten bags of skeletal material packed in
the Immokalee box, the presence of two left temporal bones
suggests an MNI=2. However, the large size difference
between several non-contiguous femur elements is suggestive
of at least three individuals. In total, the collection includes
17 bones and 6 teeth. The skeletal material includes relatively
large elements from the skull and long bones; there are no
smaller bone fragments. The presence of fused epiphyses
and fully erupted third molars suggests adults, with no
evidence for juveniles. Moreover, at least one male and one
female are represented, as indicated by a large and small
mastoid processes, respectively. An occipital fragment, which
includes a nuchal crest with male-like development, has light
healed porotic hyperostosis. There is also evidence for slight
periostitis on the distal end of the tibia shaft.
Updates, Corrections, and Clarifications to KesseTs
(2001) FAU Bibliography
Along with announcing the discovery of the above
hitherto undocumented skeletal samples in FAU’s collections,
this paper affords the opportunity to make a few research
updates, corrections, and clarifications about the osteological
assemblages held by FAU. Since the publication of Kessel’s
(2001) original article, FAU graduate students have completed
several theses examining these collections. For example,
Deborah Pinto (2004) reanalyzed the Briarwoods (8PA66)
skeletal sample using computed tomography scans. Her
analysis appears to negate the earlier argument for the presence
of Paget’s disease (osteitis deformans) in this sample (cf. I§can
and Gomez 1982). Christopher Hennessey (2015) used new
methods to reanalyze the paleodemography of the Highland
Beach (8PB11) osteological sample originally studied by
Kenneth J. Winland (1993, 2002). Smith’s (2015) work
compared some of the Belle Glade (8PB41) samples from
the 1930s and 1970s, thus providing an initial step towards


Ferdinando
Updated Bibliography of FAU Skeletal Remains
87
a broader analysis incorporating all known samples from this
site. Also of note are several comparative pieces, including
an article by Alison Elgart-Berry (2003) that examined
hypoplastic insults on teeth from a number of sites in southeast
Florida, a poster by Ferdinando et al. (2011) comparing stable
isotopes from four south Florida sites, and several posters
by Kendra L. Philmon et al. (2012a, 2012b) that compared
treponemal disease in tibiae from Highland Beach and Fort
Center (8GL12). Finally, this author, in cooperation with
the Parkland Historical Society, the Parkland Library, and
the Palm Beach Museum of Natural History, reviewed the
Margate Blount (8BD41) human skeletal
remains, artifacts, and excavation notes to
develop the Paleo-Parkland: the Story of the
Margate Blount Archaeological Site exhibit
for the Parkland Library. Of particular note,
this exhibit included the first attempt to
reconcile and plot on a single map the several
excavations in the Margate Blount midden and
burial mound, see Figure 2.
This above recent research, coupled with
this author’s work, suggest a few corrections
to Kessel’s (2001) original article. First, for
Boynton Multiple Mounds (8PB100), Kessel
(2001) listed an MNI=3 5, but the original count
sourced from I§can and Kessel (1988) was not
based on an MNI calculation. In actuality,
they counted the number of crania and post¬
crania separately. This author calculated
an MNI=17 for Boynton Multiple Mounds
sample based on the number of repeated
occipitals. As an additional note of caution,
while the correct FMSF number is listed in
Kessel (2001), several other sources (e.g.,
Jaffee 1976) incorrectly list the site number as
8PB56. Second, for Margate Blount (8BD41),
Kessel (2001) indicated an MNI=49, but this
number originates from Incan’s (1983) paper
that utilized a calculation of the maximum
number of individuals. This author calculated
an MNI=12 from the total number of right
parietal bones of the skull. Third, Kessel
(2001) indicated seven individuals from
Patrician (8PB99), but again my reanalysis
indicated an MNI=8 based on the repetition
of the right radius. Fourth, for the Briarwoods
site (8PA66) Kessel (2001) listed an MNI=87.
Pinto’s (2004) reanalysis, however, calculated
an MNI=67. Finally, the number of individuals
from the Highland Beach Mound (8PB11) was
listed in Kessel (2001) as MNI=120, while
Winland’s study (1993, 2002) indicated a
minimum of 128 individuals, and Hennessey’s
recent work (2015) suggested an MNI=216.
Furthermore, several clarifications
are necessary concerning the renowned
ceremonial complex at Fort Center. While
FAU curated the human remains from this site for a number
of years, and although the NAGPRA database (9/28/2018)
still shows FAU as the repository, the remains reportedly were
transferred to the FLMNH. Additionally, the FMSF assigned
the number 8GL12 to the Mounds/Pond complex from which
the human remains came, but Kessel (2001) incorrectly used
the number 8GL13. This latter number refers to another part
of the site, i.e., Midden A and Midden B. The chronology and
the number of individuals recovered from Fort Center also
needs clarifying. Kessel (2001) cited a number of roughly
300 burials, but Patricia MillerShaivitz (1986) noted only 121
Parkland's Margate Blount Archaeological Site
Excavation Plan
H Tree
Ét 19S9-196SW, Williams Excavation, S by S feet Pits
• 1980s G. Graves Excavation, 1 by 1 Meter Pits
â– I 1989-1990,2000 W. Cockrell Excavation, 1 by 2 Meter Pits
lr
Figure 2. Margate Blount Excavation Plan. Map by the author, originally
designed for the Paleo-Parkland: the Story of the Margate Blount
Archaeological Site exhibit.


88
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
individuals based on a count of the crania. A close reading
of Sears (1982) explains this discrepancy. The Sears-led
excavation at Fort Center documented approximately 150
burials from Mound B and about another 150 in the Pond.
He stressed, however, that the material from the mound was
extremely decayed and only limited information could be
recovered. Thus, the majority of the preserved human skeletal
material from Fort Center originated from the Pond. Finally,
while people occupied the Fort Center site from ca. 500 B.C.-
A.D. 1700, the vast majority of the human remains appear
to come from the site’s period II lasting from A.D. 200 to
600/800. Careful reading of such information is vital when
investigating the time depth and geographical breadth of
southern Florida bioarchaeological samples.
Discussion and Conclusion
As established above in the individual site entries, the
vast majority of these newly reported human skeletal samples
curated by FAU are small in number. Consequently, osteological
investigation at the level of the individual site would not be
recommended. Bioarchaeologists, however, could use the sum
data from a number of these samples in combination with other
samples for wider regional-focused population studies. The
following research suggestions are examples of such aggregated
investigations, but the applications are infinite. On the other
hand, several of these newly documented samples have practical
application towards this author’s ongoing bioarchaeological
investigation of the populations from the East Okeechobee Area
and Lake Okeechobee Area. In fact, this author’s project was the
primary backdrop to the discovery of the previously unreported
human skeletal material discussed in this paper.
Aggregated Sample Research Possibilities
In the FAU collection there are a number of small samples
that could be valuable for aggregated studies. For example, the
sample from Mound Crossing could be useful as a part of a
regional study of dental metric and non-metric traits, especially
as this site is on the border of several of the archaeological
cultures in southern Florida. Moreover, the combined samples
from such a dental project could then be compared to other
areas of Florida and beyond. Indeed, this approach would
be a natural extension of the Elgart-Berry’s (2003) work in
southeastern Florida.
Another fascinating project might investigate the single
skeleton recovered from the Waldron site. I§can (1989)
concluded that this individual might have been a European-
derived male from an archaeological context. If these
two assertions are correct, this person maybe a shipwreck
victim from the times of Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda
and Jonathan Dickinson in the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries, or an eighteenth- or nineteenth-century settler like
William Cooley. The combination of a radiocarbon date and
stable isotope analysis could be enlightening concerning the
temporal placement and diet of this individual. Comparing
such information to known groups from other areas of the
Americas could be interesting, and this data may assist
Florida bioarchaeologists with distinguishing between Native
American and European-derived populations.
Finally, another important aggregated examination might
review the Late Archaic-Glades I samples from Miami-Dade
and Broward counties. FAU curates small samples from
three Miami-Dade Late Archaic-Glades I sites: Brickell Bluff
(8DA1082), Flagami South (8DA1053), and Santa Maria
(8DA2132). The PBMNH curates small samples from three
Broward Late Archaic-Glades I sites: Goodman (8BD188),
Markham Park I (8BD182), and Markham Park II (8BD183).
A comparative analysis that brought together data from these
six sites likely would reveal new information about this
transitional time period in southern Florida. Such a project
would extend the work of FAU graduate student Ruben
Verdes (2016), who compared the skeletal samples from the
two Markham Park sites. These suggested projects are just
three ways to utilize some of the smaller osteological samples
curated by FAU and other local institutions.
The Bioarchaeology of the East Okeechobee and Lake
Okeechobee Peoples
In contrast to the potential aggregated studies detailed
above, several of the samples discussed in this article have
direct relevance for the author’s current bioarchaeological
project examining the peoples of the East Okeechobee and
Lake Okeechobee areas. For example, data from the House
of Refugee and the Boca Raton Midden samples could further
bolster information concerning Glades I mortuary practices
in the East Okeechobee Area. In addition, the presence of
extra, albeit small, skeletal elements from The Spanish River
Complex allows for additional comparison between midden
and mound burials and diachronic testing in this important
aboriginal village. Furthermore, the Lake Okeechobee Area
samples from Belle Glade, Canal Point 2, and Canal Point 3,
along with the previously published data from Fort Center and
Boynton Multiple Mounds, are essential as an outgroup for
comparison to this East Okeechobee Area population. Overall,
the existence of previously unreported samples held in FAU’s
collections enhances this bioarchaeological project and adds
important possibilities for future research.
Conclusion
The preceding discussion illustrates the importance
of continuing to curate both large and small samples of
archaeologically relevant human bone. Bones tell stories, as do
documents, artifacts, and peoples. Adding the findings of this
study to those of Kessel (2001), FAU curates human remains
from twenty-four archaeological sites, with a minimum of
467 individuals, see Table 2. These collections stretch back
at least 4,000 years and are from a variety of sites across the
region. Such temporal depth and geographical breadth permits
analysis of human populations through time and space. This
type of investigation would be the culmination of many
researchers’ hard work. Indeed, past publications demonstrate
the commitment of the faculty of FAU’s Department of
Anthropology to investigate the past. Finally, the presence of
willing graduate students and other dedicated professionals


Ferdinando
Updated Bibliography of FAU Skeletal Remains
89
ensures that investigation of these human remains is ongoing,
increasing our knowledge of the past.
Notes
1 This author has collected bioarchaeological data from the
following sites: Belle Glade Burial Mound (8PB41), Boynton
Multiple Mound (8PB100), Canal Point 2 (8PB45), Fort
Center (8GL12), House of Refuge Midden (8MT354), Nebot
(8PB219), Patrician (8PB99), and several sites in the Spanish
River Complex (Highland Beach Burial Mound [8PB11],
Boca Raton Midden [8PB12], and Boca Weir [8PB56]).
Furthermore, this author is trying to locate the skeletal samples
from the Barnhill Mound (8PB13), and the Palm Beach 3
Burial Mound (8PB26), with over 70 individuals reportedly
recovered from each of these sites.
2 The author-calculated minimum number of individuals
(MNI) utilized in this study focused strictly on the maximum
number of duplicate bones from the same side. This was the
most reliable method to use, because many of the samples were
fragmentary and/or intermingled. If factors such as age, sex,
or non-matching bones from the left and right side indicated
a higher number of individuals, this point is specified in the
individual site entry.
3 For the development of the osteological data found herein,
the author used the customary techniques described in William
M. Bass (1995), Brenda J. Baker et al. (2005), Tim D. White
and Pieter A. Folkens (2005), and in particular the Standards
of Jane E. Buikstra and Douglas H. Ubelaker (1994). Routine
tools were employed, including vernier calipers, outside
calipers, measuring tape, and an osteometric board. Additional
sources were consulted to review paleopathologies including
Donald J. Ortner (2003), and Robert W. Mann and David R.
Hunt (2005). Finally, unless otherwise noted, all long bone
reconstructions used the methods of D. Gentry Steele and
Thomas W. McKern (1969), all stature estimates used the
standards of Santiago Genoves (1967), and the computation of
a final standard of error for the stature calculation combining
the errors from the long bone reconstruction and the stature
calculation followed Steele’s (1970) technique.
Acknowledgments
My thanks are extended to the numerous people who
assisted with this article. I would like to single out Ronda
Graves, Meghan Hess, Micheline Hilpert, Devin Howell,
and Dr. Douglas Broadfield, who many years ago accepted
distractions to their regular work while I started to rummage
around the backrooms of FAU’s Department of Anthropology.
I must acknowledge William Collins for providing information
concerning the Kendall-John site. I want to thank Jeffrey P. Du
Vemay, who reviewed an earlier draft of this paper and made
the crucial suggestion to present the information on the newly
uncovered remains at the start of the piece. I also express my
gratitude to everyone who assisted with revising and editing
this paper, especially Paul Callsen, the two anonymous
reviewers, and the very patient Ramie Gougeon. Domonique
deBeaubien and Paul Backhouse of the Seminole Tribe of
Florida Historical Preservation Office, along with Meredith A.
B. Ellis of Florida Atlantic University, contributed to a cordial
and effective dialogue among the numerous stakeholders. I
want to highlight the collegiate atmosphere among the faculty
of the University of North Carolina at Charlotte’s Department
of History, whose drive for publications spurred me to return
to this dusty paper and finish it. I also would like to denote the
continuing work of Rudolph F. Pascucci and The Palm Beach
Museum of Natural History. As always, I end by recognizing
the patience of my wife, son, and parents for putting up with
my absences while I hide myself away to work.
References Cited
Baker, Brenda J., Tosha L. Dupras, and Matthew W. Tocheri
2005 The Osteology of Infants and Children. Number
Twelve: Texas A&M University Anthropology
Series. Texas A&M University Press, College
Station, Texas.
Bass, William M.
1995 Human Osteology A Laboratory and Field Manual,
Fourth Edition. Special Publication No. 2 of
the Missouri Archaeological Society. Missouri
Archaeological Society, Columbia, Missouri.
Buikstra, Jane E., and Douglas H. Ubelaker (eds.)
1994 Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal
Remains, Third Printing. Arkansas Archeological
Survey Research Series No. 44. Arkansas
Archaeological Survey, Fayetteville, Arkansas.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1957 The Barnhill Mound, Palm Beach County, Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 10:23-36.
Carr, Robert S.
1981 Dade County Historic Survey Final Report The
Archeological Survey. Prepared by Metropolitan
Dade County, Office of Community and Economic
Development, Historical Preservation Division.
Copy provided by Jeff Ransom, Miami-Dade
Archaeologist, includes additional handwritten notes
post-dating 1981.
2012 Digging Miami. University Press of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida.
Carr, Robert S., Kim Heinz, Don Mattucci, and Willard Steele
1993 An Archaeological Survey of Broward County;
Florida: Phase Two. Conducted for The Broward
County Office of Planning by The Archaeological
and Historical Conservancy, Inc. AHC Technical
Report #67.


90
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
Carr, Robert, Linda Jester, Jim Pepe, and W.S. Steele
1995 An Archaeological Survey of Martin County, Florida.
The Archaeological and Historical Conservancy, Inc.
AHC Technical Report #124.
Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Chip and Jami Powell
2012 Repatriation and Constructs of Identity. Journal of
Anthropological Research 68:191-222.
Elgart-Berry, Alison
2003 Hypoplastic Insults in Prehistoric Teeth from Eight
South Florida Sites. The Florida Anthropologist
56:253-266.
Ferdinando, Peter
2007 A Preliminary Review and Bibliography of Human
Skeletal Remains Curated by the Palm Beach Museum
of Natural History. The Florida Anthropologist
60:39-49.
Ferdinando, Peter and Micheline Hilpert
2008 The Bioarchaeology of the 1975 Salvage Collection
from the Belle Glade Burial Mound (8PB41). Paper
presented at the 60th Annual Meeting of the Florida
Anthropological Society, Ybor City, Florida.
Ferdinando, Peter, Ann O. Laffey, and John Krigbaum
2011 Stable Isotope Analysis of Samples from the East
Okeechobee Archaeological Area: A Preliminary
Sketch of Paleodiet on the Southeast Florida Coast
from 500 B.C.-A.D. 1513. Poster at the Southeastern
Archaeological Conference, Jacksonville, Florida.
Florida Master Site File (FMSF)
n.d. Florida Master Site Files. On File with the Florida
Division of Historical Resources, Tallahassee,
Florida, http://www.flheritage.com/preservation/
sitefile.
Franklin, Ryan, Joseph F. Mankowski, and John G. Beriault
2008 A Phase III Cultural Resource Assessment of
8DA1081 within the SW157 Avenue R.O. W, Miami-
Dade County, Florida. On File with Archaeological
and Historical Conservancy, Inc., Davie, Florida.
Furey, John E., Jr.
1972 The Spanish River Complex: Archaeological
Settlement Patterning in Eastern Okeechobee
Sub-Area, Florida. M.A. Thesis, Department of
Anthropology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca
Raton.
Furey, John E. Jr., and Karl Steinen
1971 Emerald Towers Field Notes. Unpublished Field
Notes on File with Florida Atlantic University, Boca
Raton, Florida.
Genoves, Santiago
1967 Proportionality of the Long Bone and their Relation
to Stature among Mesoamericans. American Journal
of Physical Anthropology 26:67-78.
Giles, E., and O. Elliot
1962 Race Identification from Cranial Measurements.
Journal of Forensic Sciences 7:147-157.
Hennessey, Christopher John
2015 Paleodemography of Highland Beach: Reexamining
the Demographic Parameters of a Native American
Population from Southeastern Florida. M.A. Thesis,
Department of Anthropology, Florida Atlantic
University, Boca Raton.
Hoffman, Charles A.
1966 Archaeological Test at the Bryant Site, Palm Beach
County, Florida. Unpublished Site Report on File
with Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida.
Hrdlicka, Ales
1940 Catalog of Human Crania in the United States
National Museum Collections: Indians of the Gulf
States. Proceedings of the United States National
Museum 87:315-464.
I$can, Mehmet Ya$ar
1983 Skeletal Biology of the Margate-Blount Population.
The Florida Anthropologist 36:154-166.
1989 A Preliminary Report on Waldron Site (8PB554)
Skeletal Remains. Unpublished Report, on File with
the Department of Anthropology, Florida Atlantic
University.
I§can, M. Ya§ar, and J. Gomez
1982 Prehistoric Paget’s Disease in Florida. Florida
Science 45(suppl.):13.
I§can, M. Ya§ar, and Morton H. Kessel
1988 Osteology of the Prehistoric Boynton Beach Indians.
Florida Scientist 51:12-18.
Jaffee, Howard
1976 Preliminary Report on a Midden Mound and Burial
Mound of the Boynton Mound Complex (8/PB56).
The Florida Anthropologist 29:145-152.
Johnson, William Gray
1996 A Belle Glade Earthwork Typology and Chronology.
The Florida Anthropologist 49:249-260.
Kakaliouras, Ann M.
2012 An Anthropology of Repatriation: Contemporary
Physical Anthropological and Native American
Ontologies of Practice. Current Anthropology
53:S210-S221.


Ferdinando
Updated Bibliography of FAU Skeletal Remains
91
Kennedy, Wm. J., Charles Roberts, Shih-Lung Shaw, Ryan
Wheeler
1991 Prehistoric Resources in Palm Beach County =
A Preliminary Predictive Study. Florida Atlantic
University, Department of Anthropology, Boca
Raton, Florida.
Kessel, Morton H.
2001 A Bibliography of Human Burial Sites Curated
at Florida Atlantic University. The Florida
Anthropologist 54:24-29.
Landau, Patricia M., and D. Gentry Steele
1996 Why Anthropologists Study Human Remains.
American Indian Quarterly 20:209-228.
Lillie, Robin M., and Bryan Ludwig
2004 Human Skeletal Remains from Belle Glade Mound,
8PB41, Palm Beach County, Florida. Unpublished
Report on File with the Iowa Office of the State
Archaeologist at the University of Iowa, Iowa City,
Iowa.
Mann, Robert W., and David R. Hunt
2005 Photographic Regional Atlas of Bone Disease.
Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.
Milanich, Jerald T.
1995 Florida Indians and the Invasion from Europe.
University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Miller-Shaivitz, Patricia
1986 Physical and Health Characteristics of the Indians
from the Fort Center Site. M.A. Thesis, Department
of Anthropology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca
Raton.
Mount, Gregory J.
2009 Prehistoric Trade Networks in the Lake Okeechobee
Region: Evidence from the Ritta Island and
Kreamer Island Sites. M.A. Thesis, Department of
Anthropology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca
Raton.
Mowers, Bert
1974 The Emerald Towers Site Report. Unpublished Site
Report on File with PBMNH, Wellington, Florida.
NAGPRA Database
n.d. Culturally Unidentifiable Native American
Inventories Database. Electronic Document, National
Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, https://
grantsdev.cr.nps.gov/Nagpra/CUI/, last accessed on
March 4, 2019.
Ortner, Donald J.
2003 Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human
Skeletal Remains. AcademicPress, San Diego,
California.
Philmon, Kendra L., Douglas Broadfield, Michael Harris, and
Peter Ferdinando
2012a A Comparative Study of Treponemal Disease in
the Tibiae of Two South Florida Archaeological
Populations: Fort Center (8GL12) and Highland
Beach (8PB11). Poster at the Society for American
Archaeology, Memphis, Tennessee.
2012b A Comparative Study of Treponemal Disease in
the Tibiae of Two South Florida Archaeological
Populations: Fort Center (8GL12) and Highland
Beach (8PB11). Poster at the Paleopathology
Association Meeting, Portland, Oregon.
Pinto, Deborah
2004 Re-Visiting Briarwoods: Determining Reliability
of Assessing Population Health from Fragmentary
Remains. M.A. Thesis, Department of Anthropology,
Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton.
Purdy, Barbara A.
1991 The Art and Archaeology of Florida s Wetlands. CRC
Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Russo, Michael, and Gregory Heide
2002 The Joseph Reed Shell Ring. The Florida
Anthropologist 55:67-87.
Sears, William H.
1982 Fort Center An Archaeological Site in the Lake
Okeechobee Basin. University Press of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida.
n.d. Correspondence Concerning the Joseph Shell Ring
site. On File with Florida Atlantic University, Boca
Raton, Florida.
Smith, Catherine
2015 Defining Population Characteristics of the Belle
Glade Culture: Skeletal Biology of Belle Glade Mound
(8PB41). M.A. Thesis, Department of Anthropology,
Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton.
Steele, D. Gentry
1970 Estimation of Stature from Fragments of Long Limb
Bones. In T.D. Stewart (ed). Personal Identification
in Mass Disasters. National Museum of Natural
History (Smithsonian), Washington D.C.: 85-97.
Steele, D. Gentry, and Thomas W. McKern
1969 A Method for Assessment of Maximum Long Bone
Length and Living Stature from Fragmentary Long
Bones. American Journal of Physical Anthropology
31:215-228.


92
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
Stewart, T. Dale
1939 A New Type of Artificial Cranial Deformation from
Florida. Journal of the Washington Academy of
Sciences 29:460-465.
Stojanowski, Christopher M. and Kent M. Johnson
2011 Brief Communication: Radiocarbon dates From
Florida Crania in Hrdlicka’s Gulf States Catalog.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
145:163-167.
Sublett, Audrey J.
1975 Belle Glade Burial Mound. Excavation Notes on
File with the Department of Anthropology, Florida
Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida.
Verdes, Ruben
2016 Osteological Analysis of the Human Remains at
Markham Park I and II: Social Standing and Age
Questions. M. A. Thesis, Department of Anthropology,
Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton.
Wheeler, Ryan J.
1992 The Riviera Complex: An East Okeechobee
Archaeological Area Settlement. The Florida
Anthropologist 45:5-17.
2002 Editor’s Introduction: Archaeology of Jupiter Inlet
and Coastal Palm Beach County. The Florida
Anthropologist 55:113-117.
2004 Southern Florida Sites Associated with the Tequesta
and their Ancestors. National Historic Landmark/
National Register of Historic Places Theme Study.
Prepared by Florida Division of Historical Resources.
Wheeler, Ryan J., Wm. Jerald Kennedy, and James P. Pepe
2002 The Archaeology of Coastal Palm Beach County. The
Florida Anthropologist 55:119-156.
White, Tim D., and Pieter A. Folkens
2005 The Human Bone Manual. Elsevier Academic Press,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Wickman, Patricia Riles
1999 The Tree That Bends: Discourse, Power, and the
Survival of the Maskóki People. The University of
Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama.
Widmer, Randolph J.
1988 The Evolution of the Calusa: A Nonagricultural
Chiefdom on the Southwest Florida Coast. The
University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama.
Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Excavations in Southeast Florida. Yale University
Publications in Anthropology, Number 42. Yale
University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.
Winland, Kenneth J.
1993 Disease and Population Ecology in Southeast
Florida. M.A. Thesis, Department of Anthropology,
Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida.
2002 Disease and Population Ecology in the East
Okeechobee Area. The Florida Anthropologist
55:199-220.
Worth, John E.
2009 Razing Florida: The Indian Slave Trade and the
Devastation of Spanish Florida, 1659-1715. In
Mapping the Mississippian Shatter Zone, edited by
Robbie Ethridge and Sheri M. Shuck-Hall, pp. 295-
311. University of Nebraska Press: Lincoln.






REVISITING STANLEY MOUND (8MA127): A SAND BURIAL MOUND IN THE CENTRAL
PENINSULAR GULF COAST INTERIOR
Kendal Jacksona\ Thomas J. Pluckhahn% Jeffrey T. Moates8, Kassie Kemp8
A Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 33620
B Florida Public Archaeology Network, West-Central Region, Tampa, FL, 33620
E-mail: Kendalj@mail.usfedu
Abstract
Stanley Mound (8MA127) is a disturbed sand burial mound
constructed in present-day interior Manatee County within the
headwaters of the Myakka River drainage. While the Stanley
Mound was tested in 1975 as part of a larger compliance
survey, the site and its surrounding landscape remain poorly
understood. Subsequent visits noted a paucity of geo-spatial
and archaeological data and documented a pressing need for
conservation measures. We report the results of
survey testing and stabilization efforts at Stanley
Mound carried out through a collaboration between
USF Applied Anthropology, FPAN West-Central,
and Florida State Parks. Our survey incorporated
LiDAR mapping, Total Station mapping, and shovel
testing with a re-analysis of the artifact assemblage
recovered in 1975. In this paper we redefine the
morphology of the mound, report a newly identified
activity area, and describe the conservation program
currently being implemented by Florida State Parks
to preserve the site. Our study demonstrates the
value of heavily looted and previously excavated
sites to contemporary research interests, and we
suggest that continued archaeological work within
the interior central Gulf Coast may contribute
meaningfully to studies of complex monumentality
and regional interaction in Precolumbian Florida.
Stanley Mound (8MA127) is a disturbed sand
burial mound constructed in the interior headwaters
region of the central peninsular Gulf Coast (Figure
1). The site was known to and dug by relic hunters
periodically from the 1930s until, and presumably
after, its professional documentation in 1975 during
a contract survey of phosphate mining property
(Deming 1975, 1976). Recent work by Burger
(2017), described below, has revealed that the
Stanley Mound has a long and complex history of
excavation by collectors. Fortunately, the site was
spared destruction by the phosphate drag line and
the surrounding land tract was transferred to the
State of Florida in the 1980s. In 2016 the land was
designated as Wingate Creek State Park, and after
consultation with archaeologist William Burger, Figure
Florida State Parks environmental specialists and
the Florida Department of Environmental Protection recognized
a pressing need for the spatial-topographic delineation, study,
and conservation of Stanley Mound (Stanton 2015). Our
research team documented the topographic morphology of
the mound and its surrounding landscape through mapping.
We shovel-tested the nearby area looking for occupational
evidence associated with activities at the mound site. Lastly,
we collaborated with Florida State Parks to develop and begin
implementing a conservation program for the mound area. In
1. Locations of Stanley Mound Site and other sites mentioned
in the text.
Vol. 71 (2)
The Florida Anthropologist
May 2019


96
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
Figure 2. Stanley Mound Site and major stream systems of the
Central Peninsular Gulf Coast.
this paper, we review the history of disturbance and
investigation at Stanley Mound, and then report
the results of our topographic mapping, shovel
testing, and conservation/stabilization work. In a
discussion, we place Stanley Mound in regional
perspective and present the sand burial mounds
of Florida’s interior central peninsular Gulf Coast
as valuable sites for future research into late-
Precolumbian ritual landscapes.
Background
Indigenous Floridians constructed Stanley
Mound within the Upper Myakka River drainage
of present-day Eastern Manatee County on an
upland sand terrace situated above the confluence
of the Upper Myakka River and Wingate Creek.
Like much of Florida’s western coastal interior, the
landscape surrounding the site today is dominated
by cattle ranches, agricultural fields, and citrus
orchards; though this region in particular has been
(and is today increasingly being) converted for
phosphate strip-mining. Previous to agro-industrial
alteration in the nineteenth century, and probably
since about 2500 B.P., this region supported vast
pine flatwoods and scrublands broken by broadleaf
hammocks, floodplain forest, and marshy sloughs
bordering west- and south-flowing headwater
streams (Brooks 1982; Brown et al. 1990). The
region is drained by numerous tributaries that feed
major river systems that empty into Tampa Bay,
Sarasota Bay, and Charlotte Harbor. The Manatee
River, now dammed to form the Lake Manatee
reservoir, flows west to the mouth of Tampa Bay,
while the Myakka and Peace Rivers flow southwest
into Charlotte Harbor (Figure 2).
The post-Archaic culture history of interior
Manatee County and Western Hardee County is
generally not well understood (Mitchem 1989a:603-604;
SEARCH 2007:9). The lack of knowledge seems to result
largely from three circumstances. First, the area was targeted
relatively early-on for agricultural and industrial development
and broad swaths of the landscape were ditched, drained,
graded, and/or strip mined by the time the National Historic
Preservation Act (NHPA) and state compliance regulations
came about (Blake 1980; Brown et al. 1990:65-69; Schwing
2011). Second, local soils are mostly unconsolidated acidic
sands that seem to permit the preservation of only the most
robust archaeological remnants (i.e., lithics and ceramics).
Lastly, the interior headwaters largely escaped the purview
of WPA work under Matthew Stirling (1935) and Clarence
Simpson (see Bullen 1952) and were dug almost exclusively
by relic hunters until the 1970s. As a result of these factors,
no one has quite known how to treat this coastal interior
landscape in archaeological syntheses. Building upon the
work of Stirling, John Goggin (1947) included the area within
the “Manatee Region,” noting that little was known about the
interior reaches of the culture area. A short while later Gordon
Willey (1949) was inclined to agree.
In the early and mid-1970s, archaeologists working for the
Florida State Museum (now the Florida Museum of Natural
History), the State of Florida, and the University of South
Florida were among the first trained researchers to survey in
the region (Browning 1973, 1975; Hemmings 1974, 1975;
Milanich and Willis 1976; Milanich et al. 1975; Padgett 1974;
Wood et al. 1976). These early compliance-driven surveys
identified numerous small lithic scatters consisting mainly of
chert and silicified coral artifacts along the interior tributary
systems. Ceramics were scant, but present, and the region
appeared to lack strong evidence for village settlements.
Drawing upon these early surveys, early syntheses for
the region considered the inland headwaters a “hinderland
[sic]” utilized in post-Archaic times exclusively as a sort of
resource extraction zone for villagers with permanent or semi¬
permanent residences on the coast (Hemmings 1974, 1975;
Padgett 1974,1976). Subsequent work in the late 1970s by Ray
Williams and his students at the University of South Florida


Jackson, et al.
Revisiting Stanley Mound
97
complicated the Hinterland Hypothesis by documenting
the remains of two seasonal village sites in western Hardee
County (Ellis 1977; Wharton 1977) and locating several
seemingly isolated sand burial mounds - including Stanley
Mound (Deming 1975, 1976; Wood et al. 1976). Wharton
and Williams (1980) marshalled these new data to argue
for a “Heartland Hypothesis,” proposing that local groups
inhabited the headwaters year-round and developed a local
horticultural tradition during the Weeden Island/Safety Harbor
transitional period (ca. A.D. 900-1100). In the absence of
further evidence for the Heartland Hypothesis (and really, in
the absence of intensive programs of research in the central
Gulf coastal interior) subsequent regional syntheses have
treated the areas inland from the coast largely as hinterlands
intermittently utilized by coastal villagers (Luer and Almy
1982; Mitchem 1989a). Thus, how the coastal interior artifact
scatters, seasonal villages, and sand burial mounds fit into the
larger scale cultural developments of the post-Archaic/ late-
Precolumbian era is uncertain. Our project, while decidedly
limited in scope, works toward addressing some of the major
open questions about the Woodland- and Safety Harbor-period
peoples of the coastal interior.
Previous Work at Stanley Mound
The first controlled excavations at Stanley Mound were
led by Joan Deming, who documented and named the mound
as part of a nearly 10,000-acre survey of the Beker Phosphate
Company’s land holdings in the summer of 1975 (Deming
1975, 1976) (Figure 3). By the time Deming documented
Stanley Mound, it had already been the target of vegetation
clearing by heavy equipment sometime between 1951 and
1957 as well as intensive looting (Jackson et al. 2017; Stanton
2015). Deming (1976) suggested that the damage was so
great as to make estimation of the mound’s pre-disturbance
dimensions and form nearly impossible. Her assessment seems
related in part to reported observations by a local resident,
James Z. Stanley, who described the former mound to Deming
as standing 15 ft (4.5 m) in height and covering a circular area
50 ft (15 m) in diameter. This estimate would position Stanley
Mound as the tallest and steepest sand burial mound in the
region. In our evaluation, Mr. Stanley’s mound-height estimate
seems exaggerated. Deming’s field school crew excavated 10
units (nine 1 x 1 m units and one 2 x 2 m unit) to 60 cm depth,
conducted a pedestrian ground surface survey of an undefined
area surrounding the mound, and produced a contour sketch
map of what Deming considered to be the major extent of the
remaining mound (Deming 1976).
They recovered plain and decorated pottery, marine
gastropod shells, weathered human remains, a few chert flakes,
one tiny (<1 cm3) Columbia Plain Majolica sherd, and a small
blue glass seed bead with pressed facets. Deming reports only
10 decorated pottery sherds, of which only one was diagnostic
at the time - a small, but clearly identifiable Weeden Island
Punctate body sherd. Plain pottery was abundant and contained
a variety of paste types and tempering agents. Perhaps
most notable within the assemblage are sherds that Deming
determined through experiment to be tempered with Fuller’s
Earth - a silicate clay resembling limestone, and most of a
large straight-walled “chalky-temperless” vessel exhibiting
a deliberate basal puncture. Taking the pottery assemblage
together, Deming (1975:26, 1976:53-54) tentatively proposed
a late-Weeden Island time period for the mound’s construction,
considering the early-historic artifacts to be indicators of
later intrusive activities. The presence of a Fate Woodland
burial mound in interior Manatee County, along with the
small seasonal villages documented farther east in Hardee
County, were enough for Deming and her cohort at USF to
question the Hinterland Hypothesis. In her Master’s thesis,
Deming lamented not having the time necessary to search for
a village area associated with Stanley Mound, but suggested
that “although no supportive archaeological evidence has been
recovered, it may be speculated that a village or villages dating
to the Weeden Island Period should be located in
the vicinity of this mound...” (Deming 1975:39).
In the years following Deming’s work a
small number of Florida archaeologists have taken
an interest in the Stanley Mound as a rare example
of a coastal interior mortuary mound (Burger
2017; Fuer 2014; Fuer and Almy 1982; Mitchem
1989a). Archaeologist Bill Burger has devoted
considerable time and effort to tracking down sites
visited by collector Montague Tallant, and his
artifact collections. While investigating Tallant’s
Mound 61, Burger found through pedestrian
surface survey that a locational error was made in
Tallant’s records. After archival research, Burger
(2017) concluded that 8MA57, Tallant’s Mound
61, is actually the Stanley Mound. Tallant reports
in his notes that the mound was constructed of
white and yellow sand in a “high oak and hickory
scrub” habitat. He describes the mound as 4.5 ft.
(1.4 m) high and 50 ft. (15.2 m) in diameter, with
an encircling 2 ft. (0.6 m) high enclosure. The
Figure 3. Field school students excavating at Stanley Mound in 1975.
Photograph on file, Dept, of Anthropology, USF Tampa.


98
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
Figure 4. Large, straight-walled St. Johns vessel recovered from Stanley
Mound by Joan Deming in 1975.
mound was apparently looted heavily in 1935
by an antiquarian from New York State, who
reported to Tallant the recovery of “many glass
beads, some silver pendants, and several fine
decorated bowls” (Burger 2017). It appears that
Tallant never dug at the site himself, and did not
hold any of the artifacts in his collections. As a
result, it seems that the materials taken during
the most substantial excavation of Stanley
Mound remain unaccounted for.
Burger also reports that a local relic
collector and informant dug at Stanley Mound
with his sons through the 1960s and 70s,
recovering glass beads, a cut crystal bead, a
gold bead, and various pottery sherds. Some
of this collection made its way into the hands
of another local collector who was amenable
to Burger photographing items reportedly
from Stanley Mound, including: Weeden
Island Punctate rim and body sherds, a UID
crimped-edge type rim sherd, and a small Point
Washington Incised cup-shaped vessel with a
cut basal kill hole, as well as glass beads and a
round silver bead.
As a minor element of his dissertation
research, Jeffrey Mitchem (1989a) reviewed
the 1975 assemblage from Stanley Mound,
and re-examined the early historic artifacts.
Mitchem identified the faceted blue glass
seed bead as type ICla in the Smith and
Good (1982) typology - dating to the first few
decades of the 17th century (see Smith 1977,
figure 4). After examining the small glazed
sherd, Mitchem identified it as Columbia Plain
Majolica, also associated with the late 16th
and early 17th centuries. Among the decorated
indigenous pottery recovered by Deming, Mitchem argued
that the notched-lip rim sherd may be best associated with
the Safety Harbor type “Pinellas Plain”. From his analysis,
Mitchem (1989a: 147) proposed that “based on the artifacts
recovered, the site was probably a Safety Harbor burial mound
constructed in the late 16th Century.”
No documented archaeological testing has been completed
at Stanley Mound since Deming’s work; however, the site has
received documented visits by three parties over the past 6
years. In 2012 Florida Division of Recreation and Parks
archaeologist Triel Lindstrom visited the mound and filed an
update with Florida Master Site File. In 2014, archaeologists
from the Alliance for Integrated Spatial Technology (AIST)
at the University of South Florida visited the site and refined
its geospatial location, attempting to correct an error of nearly
200 m in the reported mound location (Collins et al. 2014).
Most recently, William Stanton of the Florida Park Service
visited the site to conduct a site assessment with the aid of Park
manager Manuel Perez, District 4 Environmental Specialist
Matthew Hodge, and archaeologist Bill Burger (Stanton
2015). Stanton analyzed aerial photographs (ca. 1951 and
1957) to substantiate the timing of the land clearing operation
reported by Mr. James Stanley to Deming and mapped several
large looter pits present at the site.
At the onset of our survey, and during shovel testing,
the site was over-grown and in desperate need of controlled
burning. The mound area supported several large hickory trees
and slash pines and contained an over-abundance of young
saplings, and the xeric hammock surrounding the mound area
was dominated in most areas by nearly impenetrable thorny
hog plum and saw palmetto forest. The major conservation
concern was that environmental management tasks involving
heavy equipment might damage the remaining mound or
associated village features if left without delineation and
stabilization. Natural disturbances were also a concern; the
abundance of trees on the mound had the potential to cause
substantial damage if they were upturned, and the deeply
pocked mound surface - with human remains present among
the leaf litter - faced erosion by rainfall and exposure by wild
hogs. In addition to these conservation issues, Florida DEP
also recognized the research value of Stanley Mound as one of
very few remaining burial mounds in the region.


Jackson, et al.
Revisiting Stanley Mound
99
Methods
For our first phase of work we obtained and analyzed
Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) remote
sensing data for the survey area available via the Southwest
Florida Water Management District. The LiDAR data
utilized for this project were collected by EarthData Aviaton,
utilizing a Leica ALS50 LiDAR system incorporating both an
inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a dual frequency GPS
receiver. The data were collected in 2006, and according to
accompanying metadata, minimum horizontal accuracy was
tested to meet 1.371 m accuracy at 95 percent confidence as
defined by the National Standards for Spatial Data Accuracy
(NSSDA). Likewise, vertical accuracy was tested to meet an
18.28 cm NSSDA accuracy. Two tiles of data that cover the
survey area were downloaded and converted to applicable
formats. The text files were then imported into ArcMap
(ESRI, Inc.) and filtered to display only data points classified
as bare earth or water (i.e., excluding points that were either
not classified or classified as vegetation or other). As a final
procedure, a Kriging interpolation was utilized to create the
raster surface and elevation contours. We utilized LiDAR-
derived topographic maps throughout our field survey; and
following shovel testing were able to define the outer perimeter
of the mound area for later mapping.
Shovel testing was designed to locate possible displaced
mound fill and possible village/encampment remains
associated with activities at the mound. We excavated 149 50
x 50 cm tests at 25 m intervals over a roughly 20-acre area
surrounding the mound, focusing mostly to the south along
stream terraces flanking the confluence of Wingate Creek and
the Upper Myakka River. Shovel tests were excavated to a
depth of 100 cm; and sediment-depths were recorded upon
the recovery of artifacts. Soil was screened through 0.635
cm (0.25 in) hardware mesh and all cultural materials were
collected for laboratory analyses.
Following preliminary delineation of the mound area,
problematic vegetation was cleared from the mound by
Florida State Parks and we returned to map the topography
of the mound area at greater resolution. Total station mapping
concentrated on areas where LiDAR coverage was poor,
probably owing to the density of vegetation and the numerous
small topographic anomalies (see Pluckhahn and Thompson
2012). Using the total station, we collected a total of 446
elevations. We combined these data points with 319 elevations
in the LiDAR data from the mound area and conducted a
nearest neighbor interpolation analysis of the combined 765
elevation points. We then used the resulting raster surface to
generate contours at 10 cm intervals.
Laboratory analyses of the Deming (1975) collection
and the artifacts recovered by our shovel testing were carried
out by the lead author at the Southeastern Archaeology
Laboratory, University of South Florida. Pottery sherds were
analyzed for gross paste and temper composition using low-
power (5-40x) microscopy and a reference type-collection
maintained by the Applied Anthropology Department at
USF. A weak (10 percent) HC1 solution was instrumental for
distinguishing between limestone-tempered and Fuller’s Earth
tempered sherds. Flaked stone artifacts were first measured
and weighed, then categorized by the presence and abundance
of cortex material. Additional notes were taken to document
evidence of thermal alteration.
Results
Reanalysis of Existing Collections
The vast majority (94 percent) of pottery sherds recovered
by Deming’s (1975) excavations and surface collections are
undecorated (n=295). Our analysis of paste and temper
attributes resulted in 10 categories. These categories reflect
five ubiquitous plain ‘types’ (St. Johns Plain, Belle Glade
Plain, Pasco Plain, Weeden Island Plain, and Sand Tempered
Plain), and include four mixed-temper groups (Sand Tempered
with Fuller’s Earth Inclusions, Limestone Tempered with Sand
Inclusions, etc.). Table 1 reports relative abundance data for
the 1975 plain pottery assemblage.
A major portion of the St. Johns Plain sherds (n= 18, wt.=
532.2 g) have been mended to partially reconstruct a large,
straight-walled pot with a simple, rounded rim and a basal
“kill” puncture (Figure 4). While often documented at sites
post-dating ca. A.D. 900 (e.g., the burial mound at Safety
Harbor site [8PI2]), “killed” pottery is best associated with
Middle to late Woodland-period Weeden Island mortuary
traditions (Fewkes 1924; Sears 1958; Wallis et al. 2014).
Sand Tempered Plain pottery sherds are so ubiquitous
and variable throughout the Manasota region and beyond as
to prohibit any specific temporal assignment. Without large
enough sherds to elucidate vessel forms with certainty it is
difficult to glean much cultural-historical data from these
plain sherds; however, nine sand tempered plain rim sherds,
including six simple, rounded, slightly incurving rims, two
simple, flat, straight rims, and one simple, rounded, straight
rim fall into the middle and late Manasota period typology (ca.
200 B.C. through Safety Harbor) (Luer and Almy 1982:45).
Following the same typology, the presence of straight-walled
vessels and flattened rim lips may indicate deposition of
pottery after ca. A.D. 800.
We identified 10 large (mean wt. 30.2 g) Belle Glade
Plain sherds. These made up the third most abundant plain
sherd category by total weight (302 g) and exterior surface
area (241 cm2). This pottery type often contains sand, grit, and
sponge spicules, and exhibits a buff to grey, characteristically
abraded surface. It is best known from the Kissimmee-Lake
Okeechobee-Everglades watershed system, where it comes on
the scene in some abundance between ca. A.D. 400 and 600
(Austin 1987; 1993; Goggin 1947; Sears 1982), However, like
the St. Johns ceramic series, Belle Glade pottery is constructed
from wetland sediments that are ubiquitous throughout the
Florida peninsula, and pots of this type are found in substantial
quantities throughout the Manasota region during the Late
Manasota, Late Weeden Island, and Safety Harbor Periods
(Bullen 1952; Luer and Almy 1982). Belle Glade Plain sherds
are relatively common among the limited pottery assemblages
recovered from scatters and small village sites in the vicinity


100
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
Table 1. Attribute table of re-analyzed plain pottery recovered at Stanley Mound by Joan Deming in 1975.
Attribute Category
“Type”
Count
Weight X
(g)
Surface Area
I (cm2)
Rim
Count
Body
Count
Spicule Temp. Plain
St. John’s Plain
44
715.44
683.25
3
41
Sand Temp. Plain
Sand Temp. Plain
129
461.9
441.5
9
120
Sand/ Grit/ Spicule Temp. Plain
Belle Glade Plain
10
302
241
2
8
Limestone Temp. Plain
Pasco Series
29
77.59
127.21
6
23
Fuller’s Earth Temp. Plain
32
76.35
102.3
0
32
Sand Temp./ Fuller’s Earth Inclusions
UID Mixed
Temper
13
83.23
80.5
1
12
Limestone Temp./ Sand inclusions
20
45.56
46.9
1
19
Fuller’s Earth Temp./ Sand Inclusions
14
39.76
42.8
0
14
Sand Temp./ Fuller’s Earth and
Spicule Inclusions
3
15.02
13
0
3
Fine Sand Temp. Plain
Weeden Island
Plain
1
8.18
5
1
0
of Stanley Mound, and sites throughout the interior central
peninsular Gulf Coast
Limestone tempered plain and Fuller’s Earth tempered
plain sherds, often included within the “Pasco" series, represent
the fourth (77.59 g) and fifth (76.35 g) most abundant plain
sherd types by weight, respectively. Deming tested a sample
of sherds to identify the use of Fuller’s earth as ceramic temper
in the Stanley Mound assemblage. Our analysis continued this
testing to separate Limestone Tempered from Fuller’s Earth
Tempered sherds and tabulate count, weight, and surface area
data separately for each type. Limestone tempered ceramics
are characteristic of late Manasota and Late Weeden Island
contexts throughout the central peninsular Gulf Coast including
Parrish Mound 5 (Luer and Almy 1982; Willey 1949). Four
ceramic categories that we identified are composed of plain
sherds with mixed tempering (Table 1). When combined, the
mixed temper sherds (not including Belle Glade Plain sherds)
make up 16.9 percent of the plain sherd assemblage count and
10.1 percent of the plain sherd assemblage weight.
We identified 20 decorated pottery sherds in Deming’s
collection (Table 2). Of these, eight decorated Pasco Series
sherds make a Late Manasota/Late Weeden Island use-period
for Stanley Mound probable, and bolster Deming’s original
interpretation (Deming 1975; 1976; Luer and Almy 1982).
Two St. Johns Check Stamped body sherds, one Wakulla
Check Stamped body sherd, one Weeden Island Punctate body
sherd, one Papys Bayou Punctate rim sherd, and one Dunns
Creek Red body sherd are associated with the “very late”
Manasota/Late Weeden Island period (Luer and Almy 1982). A
fine sand tempered notched rim sherd, interpreted by Mitchem
(1989a) as a specimen of the Pinellas ceramic series, is the
only decorated aboriginal pottery sherd clearly diagnostic of
the Safety Harbor period; however, the Pasco series sherds and
St. Johns series sherds are also found in Safety Harbor period
contexts (Willey 1948, 1949).
Deming’s investigations recovered a large (19 cm long)
Lightning Whelk (Sinistrofulgur sinistrum) shell, as well as
two additional fragments from smaller Lightning Whelks,
one small Crown Conch (Melongena corona) columella, and
four unidentified marine gastropod shell fragments (Figure
5). It seems fair to assume the most likely origin of these
marine shells is the West Central Gulf coast; however, given
that upstream travel to the site would have been possible
from Charlotte Harbor, Sarasota Bay, and Tampa Bay, we
refrain from proposing a more specific area of origin at this
time. Other mound sites of the central peninsular Gulf Coast
interior, including the nearby Keen and Parrish Mounds,
have also yielded marine shell carried inland from the
shore. The exogenous origins of these marine gastropod
shells and deposition at mortuary-ceremonial mound sites is
highly suggestive of ritual use, and supports the argument
made recently by Marquardt and Kozuch (2016) that the
Lightning Whelk, in particular, played an important role
in the metaphysical lifeways of aboriginal Floridians (also
see Kozuch 1998; 2013). The 1975 excavations yielded
two early-historic period artifacts, including one blue glass
seed bead faceted on three sides, and one tiny Columbia
Plain Majolica sherd. We concur with Mitchem’s (1989a)
categorization and interpretation of these artifacts and
consider them evidence of later activities at Stanley Mound
during the early historic period.
At least five of Deming’s excavation units, as well
as undefined surface contexts, yielded mammalian bone
fragments, including human elements. Among the human


Jackson, et al.
Revisiting Stanley Mound
101
Table 2. Attribute table of re-analyzed decorated pottery recovered at Stanley Mound by Joan Deming in 1975.
Paste - Temper Attributes
Surface Treatment
Count
Total
Weight (g)
Total Surface
Area (g)
Possible “Types”
Sand Temp.
Incised
4
15.08
11.5
UID Incised
Sand Temp.
Red Painted
1
1.38
2
UID
Fine Sand Temp.
Punctated
1
8.18
5
Weeded Island Punctate
Fine Sand Temp.
Notched Rim
1
7.36
6
Pinellas Series
(Mitchem 1989a)
Chalky, Spiculate Temp.
Check Stamped
2
5.5
7.2
St. Johns Check Stamped
Chalky, Spiculate Temp.
Linear Punctated
1
11.28
12
Papy’s Bayou Punctated
Chalky, Spiculate Temp.
Red Painted
1
20.76
22
Dunn’s Creek Red
Fuller’s Earth Temp.
Check Stamped
3
13.48
17.2
Pasco Check Stamped
Fuller’s Earth Temp.
Linear Punctated
1
5.28
8
Pasco Punctated
Fuller’s Earth Temp.
Red Painted
4
8.66
10.6
Pasco Red
Sand Temp./
Fuller’s Earth Inclusions
Check Stamped
Red Painted
1
2.09
2
Wakulla Check Stamped
remains are a mid-shaft section of a femur, a humeral
head and shaft section in three fragments, and two molar
teeth. The molars, analyzed in collaboration with USF
bioanthropologists, appear to be from an individual
between 18 and 21 years of age. Dental caries in one of
the molars are extreme enough to indicate a potentially
life-threatening infection. Following our survey, and
in consultation with the Florida Department of State
Division of Historical Resources, we re-interred the
human remains at Stanley Mound.
Topographic Mapping
Figure 6 depicts our integrated LiDAR-Total Station
topographic map of the Stanley Mound. An enclosure or
embankment feature (reported in the notes of collector
Montague Tallant) is visible as a discontinuous oval¬
shaped ridge measuring about 60 m north-south and 40
m east-west. Some of the discontinuity in the enclosure
may be the result of looting or other disturbances; this
seems particularly likely for a break along the northeast
edge of the earthwork. However, a larger break along the
southwest edge may be an indication that the enclosure
was horseshoe-shaped, similar to burial mounds at the
River Styx site in Alachua County (Wallis et al. 2014),
the Keen Mound Complex in Hardee County (Janus
Research/Piper Archaeology 1994), and Parrish Mound 3
in Manatee County (Stirling 1935; Willey 1949).
At Stanley, the mound is positioned within the
Figure 5. Marine gastropod artifacts recovered from Stanley enclosure midway along its north-south axis but appears
Mound by Joan Deming in 1975. to be contiguous with the enclosure’s eastern side. It is


102
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
Figure 6. Integrated LiDAR/Total Station topographic
map of the Stanley Mound, Spring 2018.
possible that the mound was spatially separated from the
eastern side of the enclosure before looting and land clearing
altered the topography of the area. In its current damaged
form, the mound measures approximately 15m east-west and
slightly less north-south, although its edges are difficult to
discern clearly. As noted earlier, collector Montague Tallant
and 1970s local land owner James Z. Stanley both estimated
the diameter of the mound at 50 ft (15 m), consistent with our
mapping results. There are relatively large and pronounced
depressions both north and south of the mound within the
enclosure that appear to be unrelated to looting and other
disturbances. Smaller depressions in the immediate mound
area are more likely related to looting.
The mound and enclosure have maximum elevations of
around 19 m above mean sea level. This is about one meter
higher than the base of two large depressions within the
enclosure, and about 70 cm higher than the ground surface in
the area immediately outside the enclosure. Our measure of
the mound’s height is less than the 4.5 ft (1.4 m) recorded by
Tallant. However, our mapping is consistent with his estimate
of 2 ft (60 cm) for the height of the enclosure. It seems quite
possible that looting, clearing in the 1950s, excavations by
Deming (1975, 1976), and natural erosion have collectively
reduced the height of the mound by the 40 cm that separate
Tallant’s estimate of the mound height from the current
elevation determined by our mapping.
Shovel Test Survey
Artifacts appear to be generally frequent (63 positive
tests, 86 negative tests) throughout the project area, but occur
in relatively low densities. Among the 17 tests containing
pottery (11.4 percent), we recovered an average of 3.35 sherds
per test (mean wt. = 8.6 g) (Table 3; Figure 7). The pottery
sherds recovered from our shovel testing are undecorated
(Table 3). The majority (55.1 percent by count, 69.7 percent
by weight) of these sherds are of a moderate thickness (.75 cm
- 1 cm), with a dark organic rich paste, mixed spicule - sand -
grit temper, and often have a lightly scratched surface texture.
We are comfortable interpreting these sherds as Belle Glade
Plain. We also recovered lesser quantities of Sand Tempered
Plain, Fiber Tempered Plain, and Grit Tempered Plain pottery
from the arc-shaped pottery scatters south of the mound. One
sherd recovered near the mound exhibited fine sand tempering
and a laminated surface - indicative of the Pinellas series (see
Mitchem 1989a).
The spatial distribution of pottery sherds maps well atop
the two mostly level upland stream terraces that flank the
mound area to the south (Figure 7). We did not encounter
any concentrated accumulations of organic material that
might indicate hearths, middens, or other household features.
However, the distribution of pottery along level areas of
the landscape may suggest the presence of a semi-circular
encampment situated south of the mound. Several observations
suggest that this ceramic scatter was recovered in situ and does
not represent displaced mound fill. First, our shovel testing did
not indicate that mound fill was displaced to such an extent.
Second, we did not encounter any human remains in the
vicinity of the ceramic scatter, or anywhere outside the mound
area. Third, sherds were encountered at some depth (x sherd
depth = 20.3 cmbs) and within developed soil profiles (Figure
8). Fourth, the sherds recovered from the semi-circular scatter
area are distinct in character from the wares recovered from
the mound by Deming in 1975. If the pottery scatter deposits
represent disturbed and dispersed mound fill then we would
expect the sherds to approximate the ceramic assemblage
composition recovered from the mound itself and reanalyzed
here, which they do not.
Flaked stone artifacts were relatively common to 1 m
depth throughout the survey area surrounding the mound.
Among the 46 shovel tests containing lithic artifacts (38.3
percent), we recovered an average of 1.87 flaked stone artifacts
per test (mean wt. =1.07 g). A small fraction (7.7 percent) of
the flaked stone assemblage was recovered from within 30
cm of the surface, and in three cases lithics co-occurred with
pottery. However, most lithics (80.8 percent) were recovered
from contexts below 50 cm, which may indicate human use
of the landscape during the Archaic-period and/or taphonomic
migration of lithics through the sandy soil column. The
distribution of flaked stone artifacts by depth (Figure 9) follows


Jackson, et al.
Revisiting Stanley Mound
103
Table 3. Attribute table of pottery recovered by shovel testing in 2017.
STP#
Depth
(cm)
Paste/ Temper
Body
(ii=)
Rim
(n=)
“Type”
Weight
(g>
Surface
Area (cm2)
52
20-30
carbon rich paste coarse sand and grit temper
3
0
Glades Plain
13.82
18.5
49
30
carbon rich paste coarse sand and grit temper
1
0
Glades Plain
2.75
4
18
20
fine sand tempered
1
0
Pinellas Plain
13.9
15
41
40-60
carbon rich paste, sand - grit - spicule temper
2
0
Belle Glade Plain
5.62
7
33
20-30
carbon rich paste, sand - grit - spicule temper
1
0
Belle Glade Plain
0.31
0.7
37
70
carbon rich paste, sand - grit - spicule temper
1
0
Belle Glade Plain
0.42
3
58
10-15
carbon rich paste, sand - grit - spicule temper
3
0
Belle Glade Plain
25.84
17
60
10-20
carbon rich paste, sand - grit - spicule temper
2
2
Belle Glade Plain
14.83
11
67
10-30
sand tempered
4
0
Sand Temp. Plain
15.41
14
69
30-40
carbon rich paste, sand - grit - spicule temper
3
0
Belle Glade Plain
11.57
8
83
0-20
sand and grit tempered
7
0
Sand Temp. Plain
10.14
18
84
10-30
carbon rich paste, fiber tempered
8
0
Fiber Tempered
19.19
12
99
0-30
carbon rich paste, sand - grit - spicule temper
10
1
Belle Glade Plain
5.9
7
110
10-30
carbon rich paste, sand - grit - spicule temper
5
0
Belle Glade Plain
3.83
4
109
0-10
carbon rich paste, sand - grit - spicule temper
1
0
Belle Glade Plain
0.82
1
100
0-10
carbon rich paste, sand - grit - spicule temper
1
0
Belle Glade Plain
0.52
1
91
0-30
sand tempered
1
0
Sand Temp. Plain
1.29
1
a bimodal pattern with greatest frequencies at 60 cmbs and
at 90 cmbs—well below the mean depth of pottery recovery.
As modeled by Austin (2002:170-173), this signature may
“indicate stratigraphic separation of components” and suggest
at least two episodes of occupation at Stanley Mound that
most likely pre-date mound building activities.
The lithic assemblage from our survey is composed
of flaked chert and silicified coral artifacts, including: one
complete stemmed point, one basal stemmed point fragment,
and one “thumbnail” scraper fragment, as well as 83 pieces
of unifacial and angular debitage. The complete stemmed
chert point (Figure 10) recovered at 90 cm depth from STP
39, about 50 m east of the mound area, appears to have been
substantially reworked and likely represents the conservation
of workable chert by Archaic-period peoples occupying a
region with limited availability of tool stone (Austin and
Estabrook 2000). Alternatively, this reworked artifact may be
indicative of Woodland period mound-related activity in the
south Florida interior (see Austin 2015). This point is similar
in form, material, and size to several seemingly re-worked
points recovered from Cowboy Mound (8HR15) and Welch
Mound (8HR16), both domiciliary sand mounds in the Horse
Creek/Peace River drainage (see Wood et al. 1976). These
Hardee County points were designated generically as “Florida
Archaic Stemmed”, and indeed the base and shoulders are
reminiscent of certain Marion points (Bullen 1975). The type
Weeden Island Straight Stemmed, as described by Schroder
(2006), also offers a possible option for categorizing this point
form; though again, the re-sharpening of the point from STP
39 complicates this association.
Ten flaked stone artifacts (12 percent) are ‘objective’,
having been worked subsequent to detachment. All of these
specimens were considered either tools, tool fragments, or
possible tool forms. Three objective lithic artifacts contained
‘some’ cortex (less than 50 percent coverage on any given
surface), but none exhibited ‘abundant’ cortex (more than
50 percent) and most contained none. More than half (54.7
percent) of the total flaked stone assemblage contained no
cortex material; 31.4 percent contained some, and 13.9 percent
featured abundant cortex material. The low relative percentage
of flakes with abundant cortex material and the prevalence of
cortex-free lithics suggests a greater focus on later stages of


104
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
date was admittedly unexpected but aligns quite well with
the temporal association assigned by Mitchem (1989a) to the
early historic artifacts recovered by Deming in 1975.
Conservation Measures
In keeping with the findings described above, we felt it
important to expand the overall management and interpretive
goals for Stanley Mound to include the newly discovered
artifact scatter(s) surrounding the mound area. The primary
emphasis of conservation measures will be placed on the
stabilization and protection of the burial mound, however
detailed maps and descriptions were shared with park staff
to ensure that the site is considered in its entirety during any
future land management actions. With a spatial and topographic
delineation of the Stanley Mound in hand, we met with Florida
State Parks environmental specialists to mark off the mound
area so that problematic vegetation could be removed. We
estimated the approximate volume of sediment necessary
to fill the mound’s looter holes and cap the central mound
area to 20 cm depth. Following our survey work a protective
geotextile was purchased to be placed over the existing mound
surface, and about 100 cubic yards of culturally sterile fill sand
was trucked to the site and staged for future use. Filling and
capping with sand will be followed up with native vegetation
planting, and the installation of signage.
Discussion: Stanley Mound in Regional Perspective
Figure 7. Distribution of pottery sherds recovered from
shovel testing in 2017. Contour Interval = 1 m.
core preparation, tool production, re-shaping, or sharpening.
Twenty-two percent (16/72) of the lithic assemblage exhibited
evidence of thermal alteration, or heat-treatment. In the case
of four flaked stone artifacts we determined the
likely origin to be the nearby Peace River Quarry
Cluster, which yields Miocene cherts with a waxy
or greasy luster and dark-colored phosphatic
inclusions (Austin and Estabrook 2000; Austin et
al. 2012; Upchurch et al. 1982).
AMS Radiocarbon Dating
During our analysis of the pottery recovered
from shovel tests to the south of the mound area,
accumulations of well-adhered sooty residue were
noted on the interior surfaces of several sherds.
In the absence of other organic archaeological
samples, we scraped sooty residue from a single
sand tempered sherd recovered at 30 cm depth
from Shovel Test 67 and sent the sample (UGAMS
No. 29662) to the Center for Applied Isotope
Studies at the University of Georgia for AMS
radiocarbon dating analysis. The analysis yielded
a date of 340 ±20 14C years BP, or calibrated AD
1582 ± 52 at 95.4 percent probability (513C,%o=
-24.5, pMC=95.85 ± 0.27) (OxCal 4.3, IntCal 13)
(Reimer et al. 2013). This early historic-period
Drawing upon our reanalysis of the plain and decorated
pottery assemblage recovered at Stanley Mound by Deming
in 1975, as well as the limited plain pottery assemblage
we recovered west and south of the mound during recent
shovel testing, we propose that Stanley Mound was likely
constructed during the Late Manasota/Late Weeden Island
Figure 8. Distribution of Pottery Frequency by Depth.
30
Pottery Frequency by Depth
Mean = 20 31
Std, Dev. = 10.66
N = 57
60
80
Depth (cm below surface)


Jackson, et al.
Revisiting Stanley Mound
105
Flaked Stone Frequency by Depth
Figure 9. Distribution of Flaked Stone Artifacts by Depth.
culture period (perhaps ca. AD 400-1000). Thus, Deming’s
chronological placement of the Stanley Mound as a Late
Weeden Island site remains sound. Radiocarbon analysis
on sooty residue sampled from a pottery sherd recovered
during our shovel testing survey yielded a calibrated date
of AD 1582 ± 52. While a single carbon date is less than
definitive, this chronometric data-point aligns well with the
temporal placement of the blue seed bead and the Columbia
Plain sherd recovered from the site. Stanley Mound may
represent a “continuous use” burial mound (see Bullen 1952;
Mitchem 1989a; Willey 1949); however, we cannot rule
out the alternative hypothesis that groups visited the site
during temporally-confined, discrete episodes separated by
centuries of disuse. As described by Luer (2014:77-78), there
is relatively ample evidence that many ancient burial mounds
throughout peninsular Florida were revisited centuries later
by descendent populations during the protohistoric era.
Notable examples include: early post-contact interments
and inclusions in the Weeden Island/Safety Harbor-period
Thomas Mound (8HI1) on Hillsborough Bay (Bullen 1952),
glass trade bead inclusions recovered from a Weeden Island
burial mound at Lake Weir (Sears 1959), and post-contact
artifacts found with intrusive burials within older burial
mounds in south Florida (e.g., Allerton et al. 1984:10,22).
Farther north along the Gulf Coast work by Mitchem (1989b)
at Ruth Smith Mound (8CI200), Weeki Wachee Mound
(8HE12), and Tatham Mound (8CI203) has documented the
scale of material exchange in European goods on the central
peninsular Gulf Coast during the protohistoric era (also see
Hutchinson and Mitchem 2001; Mitchem 1989a).
Deming hypothesized in 1976 that the Stanley Mound
site included a village area; and indeed, our survey results
lend some empirical support to her prediction. Like the Keen
Mound Complex (8HR149), and late-Woodland-period mound
centers of the central peninsular Gulf Coast,
Stanley Mound is associated with a habitation
area. While the pottery scatter and soil profiles we
documented in areas surrounding the mortuary do
not constitute evidence of perennial occupation or
intensive village coalescence, the data do suggest
that groups of people inhabited the landscape
periodically—perhaps before, during, and after
mortuary ritual events. Thinking regionally, the
documentation of an associated encampment
area at Stanley Mound should motivate Florida
archaeologists to re-visit the other enigmatic
sand burial mounds of the Central Gulf Coast
interior where chronometric dating has not been
conducted and little, if any, sub-surface survey
has been carried out within the landscapes
surrounding the mounds.
Stanley Mound was constructed within a
coastal interior headwaters region at the junction
of the Manatee River, Myakka River, Peace River
watersheds. From a regional perspective, and
acknowledging the importance of waterways for
transportation, subsistence, and social interaction
in the ancient and protohistoric past, this location
is quite conspicuous. This is to say that Stanley Mound is well
positioned to be accessed by peoples traveling up-river from
Tampa Bay, Sarasota Bay, and/or Charlotte Harbor, and may
have served as an important (if small) ceremonial node on the
coastal interior landscape for dispersed individuals linked by
kinship, clan membership, or other social structures. Further,
settlements and ceremonial nodes in this sub-region may
have facilitated interactions between peoples inhabiting the
Kissimmee-Lake Okeechobee-Everglades watershed and the
village-mound centers of the coastal strand. It is noteworthy
that a relatively diverse assemblage of ceramic types has been
recovered from Stanley Mound, including a substantial quantity
of plain and decorated limestone and fuller’s earth tempered
sherds (i.e., Pasco Series wares) that are not common within
the interior headwaters region, nor generally within areas
south of Tampa Bay. We also describe four ceramic categories
Figure 10. Chert projectile point Recovered at 90 cm
depth from STP 39, 50 m east of the mound area.


106
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
in the 1975 collection that exhibit mixed tempering. To what
degree these sherds represent intentional versus unintentional
incorporation of mixed aplastics is unclear, and we note that
Florida clay deposits may naturally contain sand, spicules,
and even limestone gravel (see Wallis et al. 2015; Bloch et
al. 2019). While mixed-temper pottery is not unusual in the
region, researchers on the Gulf Coast have interpreted mixed-
temper ceramics as indicators of technological exchange
between social groups within broader communities of practice
(see Kemp 2015; Pluckhahn et al. 2017). In our view, more in-
depth analytical research, especially provenience studies (i.e.,
chert/coral sourcing and petrographic ceramic ecology), will
be necessary to evaluate the operation of such interactions at
Stanley Mound, and at other sites within the central peninsular
Gulf Coast interior.
The documentation of a mound-enclosure complex at the
Stanley Mound site is notable. As put simply by Luer (2014:77)
“embankments indicate greater monumental complexity than
just mounds.” Earthwork complexes with enclosed burial
mounds have been recorded at several prominent Florida
sites, including Parrish Mound 3 (Stirling 1935; Willey 1949),
River Styx and other Cades Pond culture sites in central
interior Florida (Wallis et al. 2014), the Crystal River site on
the Gulf Coast (Pluckhahn and Thompson 2009, 2018), and
the Fort Center site in south Florida (Sears 1982). In a review
of the latter three sites, Wallis et al. (2014) note comparable
diameters (around 100 m) for the enclosures. The enclosure
at Stanley Mound is smaller, but otherwise similar in shape
and size to these other earthworks. River Styx, Crystal River’s
Main Burial Complex, and Fort Center date primarily to the
Middle Woodland period (ca. A.D. 100-300), suggesting that
ancient peoples may have constructed the Stanley Mound
during this same time period. Stanley Mound and other less-
well-known enclosed burial mounds of the central peninsular
interior such as the burial mound at Myakkahatchee site (Luer
et al. 1987) and the Philip Mound (Benson 1967) should
be incorporated in syntheses of complex monumentality in
Precolumbian Florida Archaeology.
Acknowledgments
We thank William Stanton and Bill Burger for their insight,
expertise, and many days of labor at the Stanley Mound. We
also thank Chris Becker, Charles Brown, and the Florida
Department of Environmental Protection for striving to
conserve and protect our State’s cultural and natural resources.
For long days of shovel testing in dense hog plum forest, we
extend our gratitude to Colby Williams, Courtney Hartle,
Rachel Westfall, and Kimberly Cruz-Montalvo. We also thank
two anonymous reviewers for careful comments and insightful
recommendations that improved the quality of this manuscript.
References Cited
Allerton, David, George M. Luer, and Robert S. Carr
1984 Ceremonial Tablets and Related Objects from
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 37:5-54.
Austin, Robert J.
1987 An Archaeological Site Inventory and Zone
Management Plan for Lee County, Florida.
Submitted to Lee County Department of Community
Development, Division of Planning by Piper
Archaeological Research, St. Petersburg, Florida.
1993 The Royce Mound: Middle Woodland Exchange and
Mortuary Customs in South Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 46:291-309.
2002 Beyond Technology and Function: Evaluating the
Research Significance of Lithic Scatter Sites. In
Thinking about Significance, edited by Robert J.
Austin, Kathleen S. Hoffman, and George R. Bailo,
pp. 153-185. Special Publication Series No. 1.
Archaeological Council, Inc., Riverview, Florida.
2015 The Ritual Uses of Lithic Raw Materials During the
Woodland Period, Fort Center, Southern Florida.
Journal of Field Archaeology 40(4):413-427.
Austin, Robert J. and Richard W. Estabrook
2000 Chert Distribution and Exploitation in Peninsular
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 53:116-130.
Austin, Robert J., Nicholas Linville, and Matthew Betz
2012 Phase II Test Excavations at 8HR880 and Historical
Background Research at 8HR883, Mosaic Fertilizer s
Ona Mine, Hardee County, Florida. Report
prepared for Mosaic Fertilizer LLC by Southeastern
Archaeological Research Inc. On file, Florida
Division of Historical Resources, Tallahassee.
Benson, Carl A.
1967 The Philip Mound: A Historic Site. The Florida
Anthropologist 20:118-132.
Blake, N.M.
1980 Land into Water - Water into Land: A History of
Water Management in Florida. University Presses of
Florida, Tallahassee.
Bloch, Lindsay, Neill J. Wallis, George Kamenov, and John
M. Jager
2019 Production Origins and Matrix Constituents
of Spiculate Pottery in Florida, USA: Defining
Ubiquitous St Johns Ware by LA-ICP-MS and
XRD. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports
24:313-323.
Brooks, Harold K.
1982 Guide to the Physiographic Divisions of Florida.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute
for Food Agricultural Science, University of
Florida, Gainesville.


Jackson, et al.
Revisiting Stanley Mound
107
Brown, Randall B., Earl L. Stone, and Victor W. Carlisle
1990 Soils. In Ecosystems of Florida, edited by Ronald
L. Myers and John J. Ewel pp. 35-69. University of
Central Florida Press, Orlando.
Browning, William D.
1973 An Archaeological and Historical Survey of the Florida
Power and Light Company Manatee Power Plant.
Prepared for the Florida Power and Light Company
under contract by the Bureau of Historic Sites and
Properties, Division of Archives, History, and Records
management, Florida Department of State. On File,
Florida Master Site File, No. 5, Tallahassee.
1975An Archaeological and Historical Survey of the
International Mineral and Chemical Company
Kingsford Plant in Hillsborough County, Florida.
Florida Division of Archives, History and Records
Management, Miscellaneous Project Report Series
No. 24, Tallahassee.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1952 Eleven Archaeological Sites in Hillsborough County,
Florida. Florida Geological Survey Reports of
Investigation 11, Tallahassee.
1975 A Guide to the Identification of Florida Projectile
Points. Kendall Books, Gainesville.
Burger, B. William
2017 Archaeological Research and Investigations of the
Stanley Mound (8MA127) and Adjacent Areas,
Manatee County, Florida. In Phase 1 Archaeological
Survey Report and Preservation Plan, Stanley
Mound Site (8MA127), Wingate Creek State Park,
Manatee County, Florida by Kendal Jackson,
Thomas J. Pluckhahn, and Jeffrey T. Moates pp.
100-110. Prepared for the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection, District 4 Administration,
Osprey, Florida.
Collins, Lori D., Steven Fernandez, Jeffrey P. Du Vemay,
James “Bart” McLeod, and Travis F. Doering
2014 Archaeological Resource Sensitivity Modeling in
Florida State Parks Districts 4 and 5. The Southwest
and Southeast Florida Regions. University of South
Florida Alliance for Integrated Spatial Technologies.
Report produced for the Florida Division of
Recreation and Parks, Department of Environmental
Protection.
Deming, Joan
1975 An Archaeological and Historical Survey of the
Beker Phosphate Corporation Property in Eastern
Manatee County, Florida. Performed for the Beker
Phosphate Corporation. University of South Florida,
Department of Anthropology, Miscellaneous Project
Report Series No. 33, Tampa.
1976 An Archaeological Survey of the Beker Phosphate
Corporation Property in Manatee County, Florida with
a research Design for Future Archaeological Surveys
in the Manatee Region. Unpublished Master’s Thesis,
Department of Applied Anthropology, University of
South Florida,Tampa.
Ellis, Gary D.
1977 A Report on the Excavations of the Payne Creek
Site, 8HR10, Hardee County, Florida. University
of South Florida, Department of Anthropology,
Archaeological Report No. 4, Tampa.
Fewkes, Jesse W.
1924 Preliminary Archeological Explorations at Weeden
Island, Florida. Smithsonian Miscellaneous
Collections 76:1-26.
Goggin, John M.
1947 A Preliminary Definition of Archaeological Areas and
Periods in Florida. American Antiquity 13(2): 114-127.
Hemmings, Thomas E.
1974 Evaluation of Archaeological and Historical Sites
on the Lonesome Mine Tract. Report for Brewster
Phosphates. On File, Florida Master Site File No.
248, Tallahassee.
1975 An Archaeological Survey of the South Prong of the
Alafia River, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist
28:41-51.
Hutchinson, Dale L. and Jeffrey M. Mitchem
2001 The Weeki Wachee Mound, An Early Contact Period
Mortuary Locality in Hernando County, West-Central
Florida. Southeastern Archaeology 15(l):47-65.
Jackson, Kendal, Thomas J. Pluckhahn, Jeffrey T. Moates
2017 Phase 1 Archaeological Survey Report and
Preservation Plan, Stanley Mound Site (8MA127),
Wingate Creek State Park, Manatee County,
Florida. Prepared for the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection, District 4 Administration,
Osprey, Florida.
Janus Research/ Piper Archaeology
1994 Cultural Resource Assessment Survey for Goose Pond
Road (County Road 663A) Bridge Replacement over
Horse Creek, Hardee County, Florida. Submitted to


108
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee.
On File, Florida Master Site File No. 3798.
Kemp, Kassie C.
2015 Pottery Exchange and Interaction at the Crystal
River Site (8CIl)y Florida. Master’s Thesis,
Department of Applied Anthropology, University of
South Florida, Tampa.
Kozuch, Laura
1998 Marine Shells from Mississippian Archaeological
Sites. PhD Dissertation, Department of Anthropology,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
2013 Ceramic Shell Cup Effigies from Illinois and their
Implications. Southeastern Archaeology 32(l):29-45.
Luer, George R.
2014 New Insights on the Woodland and Mississippi
Periods of West-Peninsular Florida. In New Histories
of Pre-Columbian Florida, edited by Neil J. Wallis
and Asa R. Randall, pp. 74-93. University Press of
Florida, Gainesville.
Luer, George R., and Marion M. Almy
1982 A Definition of the Manasota Culture. The Florida
Anthropologist 35:34-58.
Luer, George R., Marion M. Almy, Dana Ste. Claire, and
Robert Austin
1987 The Myakkahatchee Site (8S0397), A Large Multi-
Period Inland from the Shore Site in Sarasota County,
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 40:137-153.
Marquardt, William, and Laura Kozuch
2016 The Lightning Whelk: An Enduring Icon of
Southeastern North American Spirituality. Journal of
Anthropological Archaeology 42:1 -26.
Milanich, Jerald T., Rochelle A. Marrinan, and Carlos A.
Martinez
1975 Archaeological and Historical Resources of the
Carlton Ranch, Limestone, and Olliff Properties,
Hardee County, Florida. Performed for Environmental
Science and Engineering, Inc. under contract by
the Department of Social Sciences, Florida State
Museum, University of Florida, Gainesville. On File,
Florida Master Site File No. 60.
Milanich, Jerald T., and R.F. Willis
1976 Archaeological and Historical Resources of the Fort
Green Mine, Hardee County, Florida. Mise. Project
Series No. 7. Florida State Museum, Gainesville.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M.
1989a Redefining Safety Harbor: Late Prehistoric/
Protohistoric Archaeology in West Peninsular Florida.
PhD Dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville.
1989b The Ruth Smith, Weeki Wachee, and Tatham
Mounds: Archaeological Evidence of Early Spanish
Contact. The Florida Anthropologist 42:317-339.
Padgett, Thomas
1974 An Archaeological and Historical Survey of the
W.R. Grace Property in Hillsborough and Manatee
Counties, Florida. Florida Division of Archives,
History and Records Management, Miscellaneous
Project Series No. 17, Tallahassee.
1976 Hinterland Exploitation in the Central Gulf Coast -
Manatee Region During the Safety Harbor Period.
The Florida Anthropologist 29:39-48.
Pluckhahn, Thomas J., and Victor D. Thompson
2009 Mapping Crystal River: Past, Present, and Future.
The Florida Anthropologist 62(1 -2):3-22.
2012 Integrating LiDAR and Conventional Mapping Data:
Methodological Insights and Appraisal of Results
from Mapping of the Fort Center site in South-Central
Florida (8GL13). Journal of Field Archaeology
37(4):289-301.
2018 Woodland-Period Mound Building as Historical
Tradition: Dating the Mounds and Monuments at
Crystal River (801/ Journal of Archaeological
Science: Reports 15:73-94.
Pluckhahn, Thomas J., Rachel E. Thompson, and Kassie Kemp
2017 Constructing Community at Civic-Ceremonial
Centers: Pottery-making Practices at Crystal River
and Robert’s Island. Southeastern Archaeology
36(2): 110-121.
Reimer, Paula J., Bard, Edouard, Bayliss, Alex, Beck, J.
Warren, Blackwell, Paul G., Bronk Ramsey, Christopher,
Grootes, Pieter M., Guilderson, Thomas P, Haflidason, Haflidi,
Hajdas, Irka, Hatté, Christine, Heaton, Timothy J., Hoffmann,
Dirk L., Hogg, Alan G., Hughen, Konrad A., Kaiser, K. Felix,
Kromer, Bemd, Manning, Sturt W., Niu, Mu, Reimer, Ron W.,
Richards, David A., Scott, E. Marian, Southon, John R., Staff,
Richard A., Turney, Christian S.M., van der Plicht, Johannes
2013 IntCall3 and Marine 13 radiocarbon age calibration
curves 0-50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55 (4),
1869-1887.
Schroder, Lloyd E.
2006 The Anthropology of Florida Points and Blades.
American Systems of the Southeast, Inc., West Columbia.


Jackson, et al.
Revisiting Stanley Mound
109
Schwing, Patrick
2011 A Sedimentary Record of Regional Land-Use and
Climate Change in the Manatee River, Manatee County,
Florida. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. College of
Marine Science, University of South Florida, Tampa.
Sears, William H.
1958 Burial Mounds on the Gulf Coastal Plain. American
Antiquity 23(3):274-284.
1959 Two Weeden Island Period Burial Mounds, Florida.
Contributions of the Florida State Museum, Social
Sciences No. 5. University of Florida, Gainesville.
1982 Fort Center: An Archaeological Site in the Lake Okeechobee
Basin. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
Smith, Marvin T.
1977 The Early Historic Period (1540-1670) on the Upper
Coosa River Drainage of Alabama and Georgia.
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology Papers
1976, 11:151-167.
Smith, Marvin T. and Mary Elizabeth Good
1982 Early Sixteenth Century Glass Beads in the Spanish
Colonial Trade. Cottonlandia Museum Publications,
Greenwood, Mississippi.
Southeastern Archaeological Research, Inc. (SEARCH)
2007 A Cultural Resource Assessment Survey of the Texaco
Tracts, Manatee County, Florida. Prepared for
Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC. On File, Florida Master Site
File Report No. 14873, Tallahassee.
Stanton, William
2015 Archaeological Site Assessment - Stanley Mound
(8MA127), Wingate Creek State Park. Florida Park
Service, Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, Tallahassee.
Stirling, Matthew W.
1935 Smithsonian Archaeological Projects Conducted
under the Federal Employment Relief Act in 1933-
34. Smithsonian Archaeological Report for 1934, pp.
371-400.
Upchurch, Sam B., Richard N. Strom, and Mark G. Nuckels
1982 Silicification of Miocene Rocks from Central Florida.
In Miocene of the Southeastern United States, edited
by T.M. Scott and S.B. Upchurch, pp. 251-284.
Florida Bureau of Geology, Special Publication No.
25, Tallahassee.
Wallis, Neill J., Ann S. Cordell, and James B. Stoltman
2014 Foundations of the Cades Pond Culture in North-
Central Florida: The River Styx Site (8A1458).
Southeastern Archaeology 33:168-188.
Wallis, Neill J., Zackary Gilmore, Ann Cordell, Thomas
Pluckhahn, Keith Ashley, and Michael Glascock.
2015 The Ceramic Ecology of Florida: Compositional
Baselines for Pottery Provenience Studies. Science and
Technology of Archaeological Research 1(2): 30-49.
Wharton, Barry R.
1977 Salvage Investigations at the Orchard Fenseline Site,
8HR11, Hardee County, Florida. University of South
Florida, Department of Anthropology, Archaeological
Report No. 5.
Wharton, Barry R., and J. Raymond Williams
1980 An Appraisal of Hardee County Archaeology:
Hinterland or Heartland? Florida Scientist
43(3):215-220.
Willey, Gordon R.
1948 Culture Sequence in the Manatee Region of West
Florida. American Antiquity 13:209-218.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collection Volume 113.
Wood, Lewis N., Jr., Joan Deming, and J. Raymond Williams
1976 An Archaeological and Historical Survey of the CF
Industries, Inc. Property in Northwestern Hardee
County, Florida. Conducted for CF Industries, Inc.
On File, FMSF No. 334.




WASHINGTON HALL (8LE6292): RECONSTRUCTING THE HISTORY OF A TALLAHASSEE
FRONTIER HOTEL
Paulette S. McFadden
Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research, B. Calvin Jones Center for Archaeology, 1001 De Soto Park Drive, Tallahassee,
Florida 32303
E-mail: paulette. mcfadden@dos. myflorida. com
Introduction
On a cold winter day in Tallahassee, Florida, an historic
feature was discovered by construction workers that opened
a window into the early frontier history of the town. This
article combines extensive archival research with analysis of
the cultural materials recovered from the feature to create a
narrative about the history of the Washington Hall hotel and
the people who were associated with it. The results of this
research illustrate the importance of salvage archaeology and
shows how even a relatively small artifact assemblage can
yield a great deal of information.
On Wednesday, January 4, 2017, construction activities
on city property located at the southeastern comer of
Apalachee Parkway and South Monroe Street uncovered
what appeared to be an historic feature beneath the modem
sidewalk. After stripping a section of the old concrete
sidewalk with a backhoe, the workers noticed a round
depression measuring approximately two and a half feet in
diameter in the ground that contained soil differing in color
and texture from the surrounding matrix, and upon digging
further, they encountered an increased frequency of what they
described as old bricks. Work was halted, and the Department
of Management Services called the Bureau of Archaeological
Research (BAR).
A BAR crew traveled to the site to assess the feature.
Upon clearing the loose material from the excavated area, no
intact areas of brick constmction were observed; rather the
bricks were arranged in a haphazard fashion, suggesting the
feature was possibly a filled-in well or privy (Figure 1).
The material that had already been removed from the
feature by the construction crew was screened using lA in
hardware cloth. Brick and other cultural materials including
ceramic sherds, broken glass, nails, and other assorted artifacts
were recovered.
The profiles of the feature were cleared, and bricks were
observed in the north, east, and south profiles (Figure 2). In
the south wall, whole and broken bricks were co-mingled and
tightly packed in an area 40 to 90 centimeters below surface
(cmbs). In the east wall, bricks were in a similar orientation
between 70 and 100 cmbs. Finally, in the north wall, bricks
were observed from 90 to 100 cmbs. No brick was present
in the west wall. The matrix immediately behind the bricks
was dense, unmottled, red clay that contained no artifacts,
Figure 1. A worker clears loose materials from the
excavated hole.
Vol. 71 (2)
The Florida Anthropologist
May 2019


112
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
indicating that the remaining bricks in the walls were the
outer edges of the feature. The remainder of the feature was
excavated by the backhoe and the materials were screened.
Location, Description, and Background
The property on the southeast comer of Apalachee Pkwy
and South Monroe St is owned by the State of Florida and
leased to the City of Tallahassee. A small park and a portion
of the Union Bank parking lot are situated on the lot in the
northwest quarter of the block, the area where the feature was
discovered (Figure 3). Historical research of this lot revealed
that it was the location of significant events that shaped the
history of Tallahassee, beginning with the initial development
of the lot and the constmction of Washington Hall.
Figure 3. Map of the southeast corner of Apalachee
Parkway and South Monroe Street showing the locations
of the area of feature.
Washington Hall was central to the early development
of Tallahassee and the State of Florida. Constructed between
1825 and 1828 by Joseph R. Betton, a recent immigrant to
Tallahassee from Alexandria, Virginia (Rogers and Clark
1999:155), it was one of only four hotels in the frontier town
(Groene 1971:28). At the time of its constmction, Tallahassee
was a fledgling city in an equally young Leon County, the
population of which numbered around 1,000 residents at the
time of incorporation in 1826. Likely a multi-story stmcture,
Washington Hall was located on the southeast comer of Monroe
and East Lafayette Streets, facing the newly constmcted log
capítol building (Figure 4).
The hotels and taverns that clustered around the small
capítol were a vital component of public life. At various
times, Washington Hall provided a place for meetings,
religious services, and in some cases was utilized by the
government prior to the constmction of public buildings.
The first court session was held in Tallahassee in 1825 (State
Archives of Florida) nearly a decade before the constmction
of the first courthouse on 200 Foot Road (Park Avenue)
Figure 4. Replica of Florida’s first capítol - Tallahassee,
Florida. 1924. Photo from State Archives of Florida,
Florida Memory.
between Monroe and Adams streets. In the absence of an
official courthouse, court proceedings were conducted in a
variety of places, including for a time at Washington Hall
(Diocese of Florida 1889).
Concurrent with its use as the courthouse, Washington
Hall was also the initial meeting place for one of the oldest
churches in Tallahassee. In 1826, Episcopalian missionaries,
Reverends Ralph Williston and Horatio Nelson Gray, began
holding services at the hotel. The congregation soon outgrew
the meeting space and in May of 1837 moved into the newly
constmcted Saint John’s Episcopal Church (Diocese of
Florida 1889).
Betton’s Washington Hall appears to have prospered
during the early decades of Tallahassee’s development and the
Betton family would branch out into other business ventures.
Although anything beyond the bare necessities was difficult
to obtain early on, the burgeoning population and the wealth
created by the available lands for planting created a growing
economy in Tallahassee. The wealthy planters that had moved
into the area to exploit the fertile lands around the small town,
required goods and services. Goods arrived from the port at
nearby St. Mark’s and included staples such as lard, flour,
pork, and salt. As the wealthy class continued to prosper from
cotton exports, luxury items also began to come into the city,
including silk cloth, fine hats, and clothing from London.
Businessmen such as Joseph Betton and his son, Turbutt,
profited greatly from this economic boom, having expanded
into retail. But, this prosperity was short-lived. Already under
strain from the Second Seminole War that began in 1835, the
economy suffered significantly during the national depression
of 1837, driving many planters and business people into
bankruptcy. Francis de Laporte de Castelnau, a visiting French


McF ADDEN
Washington Hall, Tallahassee
113
naturalist, provided a description of the small frontier town
during this time in his book Vues et Souvenirs de I’Amerique
du Nord (Views and Memories of North America) (Castelnau
1842). It is one of the earliest descriptions of Tallahassee
(Figures 5 and 6). Below is a translation of the original French
text (translation by the author):
Figure 5. Lithograph of Tallahassee street scene from
Vues et Souvenirs de PAmreique du Nord. 1842.
Figure 6. Lithograph of the State capitol from Vues et
Souvenirs de l’Amreique du Nord. 1842.
The houses, about three hundred in number, are
almost all constructed of wood and in the Italian
style. They rarely have more than one floor; Only
two or three are of brick painted in a shining red,
with green shutters. There are several Presbyterian,
Episcopal and Methodist churches, two banks, now
united in one, two inns, etc. There are published two
papers, each of which appears twice a week.
Everything is at an exorbitant price; The market is
very poorly provided, and it is difficult, even by
money, to procure anything beyond the necessaries
of life. It is often impossible, for example, to find a
drop of milk in a country where herds abound, and
where a fine cow only sells for 25 fr[ancs].
The number of inhabitants is about fifteen hundred;
They are Americans and most come from South
Carolina and Georgia; There are no Spaniards;
During my stay, there were two Frenchmen. Nearly
all are engaged in trade, and supply goods to the
neighboring planters in exchange for their crops.
This type of business is done throughout the year on
credit and settles only on January 1st...
Just as the economy was beginning to improve,
Tallahassee’s small population of around 1,600 people was
devastated by Yellow Fever in 1841, with up to one-quarter of
the residents dying after contracting the mosquito-borne virus
(Dehart 2011). Life went on for the survivors of the terrible
epidemic and Washington Hall continued to provide lodgings
for visitors and boarders, even constructing an addition to
the structure to accommodate a larger number of guests. The
newly renovated structure could comfortably house 40 people
at a daily rate of $2.00 (Figure 7). At the time of the renovation,
Park and Harris were the proprietors of the hotel.
No information could be found about Park; however,
Harris appears to have been a prominent figure in Tallahassee.
Alexander Ewing Harris, originally from South Carolina,
Figure 7. Washington Hall advertisement from The
Floridian, December 25,1841.


114
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
migrated to Leon County after fighting with the Florida Militia
in the Second Seminole War (Florida Department of Military
Affairs). He is listed in the 1840 Leon County Census as a
40-year-old white male with nine slaves. Harris served as the
City Marshall for a number of years and as Tax Collector in
1841 (Figure 8). In 1847 he enlisted as a private in the U.S.
military and died in Vera Cruz during the Mexican War (The
Floridian 1848).
NOTICE.
raiHE of TliiltiwwNi ar« roqueaUri H
JL clur up and heap Iheí* Jola aad back jaré*
clear of fi'tfc and niWiwti, Th« Corporation Carta
will go round the Citj on H^edneadaja and Saiar
daj*. and ti i» reqoeei» d that all litter and rahlneh
ha collected and capoeited on the «tract*. carlj vn
the mmm'mg of iI»um daja, and on *n ether daje in
the week. The warm weather hieing act w, the
pr »prictjr of weak an arrangement is awadwt u* all
who hare regard for the health of (ha e.tj, and it
ia hoped that the mtixtna gaaerallj will eomplj
with the ahoea regulaboo.
Bj order of Urn Cilj Council,
A. £. KUKRIS,
ap il 13 33 Citj Marshal.
Figure 8. Notice in The Floridian, April 18,1838
(Harris 1838).
Sometime between 1841 and 1843, Washington Hall was
sold to Richard Keith Call and David Shelby Walker, and
Harris stayed on to oversee the property. After previous visits
to Florida with Andrew Jackson, Call (Figure 9) permanently
moved to Florida in 1822 and later became territorial governor
(Florida Department of State). By 1840, he owned two
plantations in Leon County. Walker (Figure 10) was Call’s
cousin and business associate. Walker moved to Leon County
in 1837 and was a prominent political figure in Florida,
becoming governor himself in 1865.
After the 1841 renovations, Washington Hall continued
to operate as a hotel and boarding house as well as a meeting
place. Temperance meetings were regularly held at the hotel,
the attendees hoping to overcome the depressed state of the
city after the war and Yellow Fever epidemic (Rogers and
Clark 2010). The prosperity of the hotel, however, was quickly
coming to an end, and an incident at Washington Hall in 1843
would have disastrous consequences for the entire town.
Around 5:00 pm on Thursday, May 25,1843, a fire started
at the rear of Washington Hall. Three hours later, the entire
business district of Tallahassee was in ruin. The following
detailed report of the fire comes from a special edition of the
Star of Florida newspaper, dated May 27, 1843:
On Thursday last there occurred in this city one of the
most sweeping fires that perhaps ever overwhelmed
any city with perfect and entire ruin. The fire
commenced at the house known as the Washington
Hall, on the eastern side of the Capitol, and in the
southeastern quarter of the city. The wind was fresh
at the time and the flames spread northwardly with
fearful rapidity. A vacant lot and the fire-proof
dwelling of Mr. Cutter prevented it extending
southwardly. To its progress on the north the narrow
street called La Fayette street presented no barrier. It
soon caught the low buildings occupied as a carriage
maker’s shop, the dwelling of Mr. Watson, Judge
Gibson, and approached the red store of Captain
Bond. The efforts made to arrest its progress were
impotent and futile. The terrible element had arisen
in its power, and the feeble strength of man was
nothing before it. It crossed Pensacola street, swept
the entire block occupied by the Messrs. Hackley
and E. W. Dorsey, Auctioneers, by the Floridian
Office, and others. Every exertion which the means
within reach and the time allowed were used to
prevent the flames being communicated to the west
side of Monroe street, but in vain, many roofs were
fired at once, and the fire fully established itself in
the block between Monroe street on the east, Adams
street on the west, and the entire business portion
of the city before it on the north. And such was the
fearful rapidity with which the flames were driven
forward, that but few goods could be saved from the
numerous stores which lined both sides of Monroe
street, and the cross streets, Jefferson and Clinton
Figure 9. Portrait of Richard Keith Call. Date unknown.
Photo from Florida Department of State.


McFadden
Washington Hall, Tallahassee
115
Figure 10. Portrait of David Shelby Walker, 1883. Photo
from Florida Department of State.
streets. Owing to the great protection which the trees
on both sides of Adams street furnished, the citizens
were enabled by great exertion to prevent the fires
from crossing this street westward. The two-story
brick dwelling of R. Hayward Esq., the three-story
brick building of C. E. Bartlett, and the Union Bank,
and the Bank of Florida, were all in great danger, and
saved only by extraordinary efforts. To the northward
the flames rushed on without impediment, till they
found nothing to prey on in the vacancy of the Court
House Square. On the eastern side of Monroe street
everything was swept till it reached the dwelling of
Dr. Randolph, where its further progress was arrested.
The Court House was several times on fire, but those
on the alert were fortunate enough to extinguish the
flames before they gathered strength. The fire broke
out about five o’clock, P.M., and was arrested before
eight, so that all this destruction occurred in the short
space of three hours.
Figure 11 is a hand-drawn map of the city of Tallahassee
dating to 1840, produced just three years before the fire. The
outer, circular line is original to the map and shows the extent
of development in the town. Inside the line were homes and
businesses, outside the line there was wilderness, except for a
cemetery. The large box in the center is the business distract,
with the location of Washington Hall indicated by a star.
The fire destroyed the entire area inside the business district
box and continued northward to the courthouse (indicated
by the smaller box). The newspaper account lists each of
the properties that were destroyed, which includes 45 retail
or service businesses, 16 dwellings, 13 offices, the Floridian
and Sentinel newspaper offices, Governor Call’s office,
the post office, the railroad office, and the register’s office.
The estimated damage was half a million dollars (valued at
approximately $18.6 mil. in 2015; Edvinsson nd.).
The city launched an investigation into the cause of the fire
and several suspects were arrested. One, an African American
man who was accused by one of the owners (Call or Walker)
as starting the fire in retaliation for a past disagreement. John
Daly, a white cook at the hotel, was arrested when a patron,
Lawrence Russ, told of hearing Daly brag about starting the
fire. Russ reversed his story when under oath. In both cases,
there was not enough evidence to convict either of the accused
and they were released (Groene 1971).
Figure 11. 1840 Hand-drawn map of Tallahassee showing
the extent of development. Areas in the two boxes in the
center were impacted by the 1843 fire. Note: Map from
State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory.
The property was cleared after the fiery destruction
of Washington Hall and the lot sat empty, along with many
others in the city, for over three decades. Illustrations of the
area around the Capitol dating to 1868 (Figure 12) and 1876
(Figure 13) shows the intersection of Monroe and Lafayette
streets, which remained undeveloped.
A photograph taken from the steps of the Capitol looking
east down Lafayette street dating to sometime in the 1870s
(Figure 14) appears to show some sort of structure, but it is
unclear if the structure is on the Capitol building property or
on the property across Monroe St. No records of this structure
could be found.
Sometime around 1885, Frederick Towle Myers (Figure
15) built his two-story home on the property, with an address
of 407 South Monroe St. (Figure 16). Myers was bom in


116
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
Figure 12. Illustration of the Capital City, 1868. Photo
from State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory. The
corner of Lafayette and Monroe Streets is indicated by
the arrow.
Figure 13. View looking toward the Capitol, 1876. Photo
from State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory. The
corner of Lafayette and Monroe Streets is indicated by
the arrow.
Figure 14. View looking from the steps of the Old Capitol,
ca. 1870. Photo from State Archives of Florida, Florida
Memory.
Figure 15. Frederick Towle Myers, between 1908 and 1927.
Photo from State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory.


McFadden
Washington Hall, Tallahassee
117
Figure 16. Home of Fred T. Myers, between 1885 and
1910. Photo from the Alvan S. Harper Collection, State
Archives of Florida, Florida Memory (Harper n.d.).
Figure 18. Detail of the Capitol building and surrounding
area showing the Myers House, designated with the
number 39, from View of the city of Tallahassee state
capitol of Florida, county seat of Leon County 1885.
Zoomable map available from State Archives of Florida,
Florida Memory.
Tallahassee in 1854. After attending the University of Georgia,
he returned to his hometown where he accepted an appointment
as Clerk of the Supreme Court of the State in 1875. After being
admitted to the Bar in 1876, Myers began practicing law.
During his career, he served as the President of the Florida
Bar Association, was elected to the State Senate, and for 36
years, served as the city attorney. Tallahassee’s oldest park,
Myers Park, is named for him in honor of his many years of
service to the city. Myers died in 1927, followed four years
later by his wife, Jessie DeCottes Myers. The property was
sold, and the Myers home was demolished sometime between
1941 and 1945. The Myers home is depicted in the 1885 Bird’s
Eye View of Tallahassee map (Figures 17 and 18) produced
by artist Henry Wellge and published by Norris, Wellge
& Co. Maps produced by Wellge are based on topographic
Figure 17. View of the city of Tallahassee state capitol of
Florida, county seat of Leon County 1885. Photo from
State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory. Note: Detail
of the area in the white box can be seen in Figure 18.
maps, street maps, and measurements provided by a team of
surveyors and are very accurate. The Myers house is marked
by the number 39. In the key at the bottom of the map, number
39 is listed as “F.T. Myers, Attorney at Law.”
Facilitated in part by expansion of Florida State
University, Tallahassee began to grow rapidly in the latter half
of the twentieth century. The population more than doubled
between 1950 and 1970, going from 27,237 to 72,624 residents
(Population.us). Commercial development around the capitol
had replaced most of the older residential homes, and over the
next three decades, the southeastern comer of Lafayette and
Monroe streets changed significantly. After the Myers home
was demolished, the comer was the location of a Standard Oil
service station (Figure 19). Apalachee Parkway was constmcted
in 1957, with its terminus at the capitol and replacing Lafayette
Street. By that time, the Standard Oil service station was gone,
replaced by a parking lot (Figure 20). In 1971, the historic
Union Bank was moved from its original location on Adams
Street to its current location on Apalachee Pkwy and Calhoun
Avenue, adjacent to the parking lot (Figure 21). Finally, in the
mid-1980s, the comer was converted to a park with a small
parking lot for visitors to the Union Bank (Figure 22).
Material Culture
The fill from the feature yielded a variety of cultural
materials, many of which were temporally diagnostic. Table
1 provides total frequencies of the collected materials by type.
Detailed discussions of each type follow.
Brick
Representative samples of the brick found in the feature
were collected for analysis. All the bricks were composed of
clay, tempered with large clasts of materials that included
limestone and clinker (Figure 23). The practice of adding


118
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
Figure 19. Standard Oil on the southeast corner of
Lafayette and Monroe Streets. View from across Monroe
Street looking southeast. Photo from State Archives of
Florida, Florida Memory.
Figure 21. Bird’s-eye view of the Union Bank building at
the corner of Apalachee Parkway and Calhoun Street prior
to restoration in 1984. The parking lot on the right side
is the southeast corner of Apalachee Parkway (formally
Lafayette Street) and Monroe Street. Photo from State
Archives of Florida, Florida Memory (Gaines n.d.).
Figure 20. View of the Capitol and construction of
Apalachee Parkway. The parking lot is on the southeast
corner of Apalachee Parkway (formally Lafayette Street)
and Monroe Street. Photo from State Archives of Florida,
Florida Memory.
Figure 22. View of the southeastern corner of Apalachee
Parkway (formally Lafayette Street) and Monroe Street
facing east from Monroe Street, 2015. The former location
of Washington Hall. Screen shot from Google Maps.


McF ADDEN
Washington Hall, Tallahassee
119
Table 1. Frequency of Materials by Type
Material
No.
Wt. (gm)
Notes
Ceramics
43
95.74
Two thermally altered sherds, 1 pipe stem
Nails
34
209.86
Metal
8
31.13
UID metal fragments and a garment buckle
Window Glass
78
55.57
Window Glass
Glass
15
55.57
Includes tumbler fragments (7), base of a medicine vial, and bottle glass
Worked Bone
1
18.53
Cut cow bone.
Bone
14
38.51
Includes 1 cow tooth and 13 unidentifiable fragments.
Worked Shell
1
0.14
Shell button
Shell
21
52.1
Oyster and hooked muscle fragments
Stone
23
86.73
Slate roof tile fragments
Building Materials
20
322.8
Modem concrete from surface and clay sewer pipe fragment
Other
9
19.66
Includes coal and clinkers
Total
223
clinker as a temper is unique to territorial Florida, between
1821 and 1845 (Rothrock 2013). Prior to the advent of the
railroad in 1837, which provided a means to import them,
bricks were made locally in Tallahassee. The characteristic lip
scars along the edges of some of the bed faces and distinctive
form marks on the sides indicate that these were machine
manufactured using an early type of brick press (Rothrock
2013). At the time Washington Hall was built there were two
local brickworks, one owned by Richard Keith Call, and the
other by Benjamin Chaires, and it is possible that one or both
Figure 23. Brick collected from the feature fill.
supplied bricks for the construction of the hotel. After the
destruction of Washington Hall in 1843, no structure was built
on the southeastern comer of Monroe and Lafayette Streets
until at least 1870, at which time, bricks were being brought in
to the city via the railroad and lacked the clinker and limestone
temper of the earlier locally made bricks.
Nails
A total of 34 nails were recovered from the feature
fill, all of which are heavily concreted with mst prohibiting
characterization of most of the nail’s attributes. Five nails
were identifiable, including one wrought nail, two cut nails,
and two wire nails. Wrought nails were exclusively used
for constmction prior to the advent of cut nails in the early
nineteenth century although there is some overlap in the
temporal ranges of usage, and in some cases, both types were
used in the same constmction. Wire nails were not in common
use until after about 1882, when they represented nearly half
of all nails produced in the United States (Adams 2002).
Ceramics
A total of 43 ceramic sherds were recovered from the
feature fill. Table 2 provides frequencies of ceramics by type
and the date range association with each. Creamware is the
minority, with only four sherds, and is also the earliest type
in the assemblage. Creamware was predominately made by
Josiah Wedgwood during the late eighteenth century.
By the early nineteenth century, Wedgwood and others
had developed new glazing techniques and creamware was


120
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
Table 2. Frequencies of Ceramics by Type
Type/Subtype
No.
%
Date Range
Notes
Creamware
4
9.5
1775-1820
Pearlware
1779-1830
White
13
31.0
1779-1830
Polychrome
2
4.8
1800-1820
Hand-painted
2
4.8
1800-1820
1 pc. thermally altered
Blue Transfer
1
2.4
Ca. 1820
Black Transfer
1
2.4
Ca. 1820
Mocha
1
2.4
1840-1900
Blue Shell Edgeware
4
9.5
1788-1834
Whiteware
1820-Present
Flow Blue
4
9.5
1840-1879
Blue Transfer
3
7.1
1827-1828
Red Transfer
3
7.1
1829-1839
Earthenware
White
1
2.4
Ind.
Thermally altered
Buckley Ware
1
2.4
1720-1775
Unglazed
1
2.4
Ind.
Possible planter
Stoneware
1
2.4
Ind.
Total
42
Note: Dates from Noel Hume 1978, Miller, Samford, Shlasko, and Madsen 2000.
replaced by pearlware. This new ceramic ware was harder and
whiter in color than the earlier cream-colored ceramics, and the
glaze that was applied took on a slight blueish tint after firing
(Stelle 2001). The assemblage is dominated by pearlware,
which was in common use from 1779 until about 1830 and had
a variety of surface treatments. Plain, hand-painted (Figure 24a,
e, and d), polychrome (Figure 24b), transfer printed (Figure
24c and g), and mocha edge treatment (Figure 24f) were all
recovered from the fill. The latest type, blue shell edge-wear,
also called the rococo style, consists of four sherds representing
three different patterns (Figure 25). Excepting the white, the
remaining pearlware sherds represent an additional seven
vessels with unique decorations. Rising in popularity after the
development of the clear glazing technique, whiteware began
to replace pearlware after about 1820.
Although whiteware is still made, patterns of decoration
on this more durable ceramic are temporally diagnostic. Anew
technique for transfer printing made it possible for greater
detail in decorative patterns and this surface treatment became
very popular in the early nineteenth century. A later type, flow
blue, had the addition of a chemical during the firing process
that enabled the blue ink to spread across the background of
the design, creating a distinctive and easily recognized type
(Stelle 2011). The Washington Hall assemblage includes three
blue transfer print, and three red transfer print (Figure 26)
sherds, representing at least three different vessels. At least
two different vessels are represented by the four flow blue
sherds, one of which appears to be a fragment of the base of a
pitcher or teapot (Figure 27).
The earthen- and stonewares are general categories for
sherds that could not be identified to a specific type, except
for one small black lead-glazed sherd that is possibly Buckley
ware (Figure 32, bottom right). Buckley ware is normally
associated with the late 18th century (Miller, Samford, Shlasko,


McFadden
Washington Hall, Tallahassee
121
Figure 24. Decorated Pearlware, hand-painted, a, d, and
e; polychrome, b; transfer printed, c and g; mocha, f. Figure 27. Flow blue sherds.
Figure 25. Rococo style Blue Shell Edgeware.
Figure 26. Blue and red transfer printed Whiteware.
and Madsen 2000), but there were certainly pieces of the ware
that continued to circulate early into the nineteenth century.
The remaining sherds have an indeterminate (Ind.) date range.
The dates associated with the ceramics recovered from the
feature all fall within the time frame that Washington Hall was
present on the lot.
Glass
Most of the assemblage (n=63) is glass, most of which
is thin, light green, flat window glass. During the nineteenth
century, the majority of window glass was made using the
cylinder glass method, which produced glass of uniform
thickness. Over time, as glass became less expensive, window
glass became thicker (Weiland 2009). Measurements of a
random sample taken from the light green flat glass range from
0.8 to 1.6 millimeters (mm) in thickness. Resources for dating
window glass indicate that all the glass falls within a date range
of 1810 to 1845 (Chance and Chance 1976; Roenke 1978).
Also recovered was the base of a small glass vial,
measuring 1.9 cm in diameter, which is made of very thin
light green glass with a pontil mark on the bottom. Pontil
marks are the scars left on the base of a bottle when the rod,
or pontil, that is used to hold the hot malleable glass is broken
off. These scars are common on bottles, including medicinal
bottles prior to the 1860s, when new bottle making methods
were developed (Lindsey 2017). The remainder of the glass
assemblage consists of glass from bottles or tablewares,
including fragments of a green wine bottle and a broken
paneled tumbler (Figure 28). The paneled tumbler is a blown
molded glass with a smoothed pontil.
Personal Items
Three personal items were recovered from the feature, a
garment clip, a button, and a fragment of a kaolin pipe stem
(Figure 29). The garment clip is the upper portion of the
clip that would have been attached to clothing. The copper


122
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
Figure 28. Blown molded paneled tumbler.
Figure 29. Garment clip, a; shell button, b; and kaolin
pipe stem fragment, c.
implement measures 27 mm across at the top. The small size
suggests it was likely a garter clip rather than a suspender
clip. The button is 8 mm in diameter with four holes and is
made of shell. In the southeastern United States, shell, also
referred to as pearl, buttons were generally produced from
oyster shells around 1820. Buttons ranging in size from 8 to
15 mm, and having up to four holes, were common on shirts
(Venovcevs and Hons 2013). Finally, the stem fragment of the
kaolin pipe is 30 mm long and has no distinguishing marks,
making assigning a date to the pipe difficult. Given that the
date ranges of the other cultural materials found in association
with the pipe stem all indicate an early nineteenth century
age, using bore hole diameter as a means to date the pipe stem
(eg., Binford 1962; Heighton and Deagan 1971) is unreliable
because of the influx of European style pipes into the southeast
during that time (Binford 1962).
Other materials
Fourteen bone fragments were recovered, including
a cow tooth, a cow long bone that was cut at the end, and
11 unidentifiable fragments. Shell was also present and
including 18 oyster shell fragements and two hooked mussel
(Ischadium recurvum) fragments. In addition to the nails and
bricks, other building materials collected included 23 slate
roof time fragments and one small fragment of clay sewer
pipe. Finally, six fragments of coal and 3 clinkers were found
in the feature fill.
Discussion
The nature and morphology of the feature suggests it
is either a privy or a hole dug to dispose of building debris.
Privies are holes dug into the ground as part of an outhouse.
In many areas, privies were lined with wood, brick, or stone
to shore up the sides and prevent collapse (Genheimer 2003).
Although there were numerous bricks in the feature, they were
not arranged in a fashion that would suggest they had lined the
hole. It is likely that no lining would have been necessary for a
privy since the feature was dug into the hard-packed clay that
characterizes the Tallahassee area.
The lack of whole or large portions of bottles or other
items that would be expected in a privy and the relative sparsity
of artifacts is puzzling given that privies were normally also
used to deposit trash and other debris over time. However, as
early as 1838, residents were asked to put trash by the street
for pick up by city carts two days per week (Harris 1838). This
would certainly have been advantageous for the hotel, as the
privy would not be filled up with trash and need cleaning out
or moving as often.
Organic-rich sediments, so called “nightsoil,” would
also be expected in a privy, particularly if it was used almost
exclusively for the disposal of human waste. Additionally,
alternating strata of nightsoil and some other material that
would be used to cap the privy contents from time to time
would be expected (e.g. Wheeler 2000, Stottman 2000). No
such sediments were observed during the salvage excavation.
This suggests that, rather than a privy, this may have been a


McF ADDEN
Washington Hall, Tallahassee
123
hole dug for the disposal of building or construction debris.
The nature of the feature deposits indicate that it was
filled-in quickly and during one episode. Without exception,
all the diagnostic artifacts recovered from the fill indicate an
early- to mid-nineteenth century domestic or non-industrial
occupation and can confidently be associated with Washington
Hall. These artifacts are distributed throughout the unstratified
contents along with whole and broken bricks and nails.
Although it is possible that the feature fill represents
the clearing of the lot after the 1843 fire, the nature of the
deposit suggests it may be the result of the 1841 renovation,
in which portions of the original structure would have been
removed prior to the construction of the addition. Except for
two thermally altered sherds, none of the artifacts recovered
suggest they were subject to fire damage. Of noted absence is
melted glass. The thin window glass that is present throughout
the deposit would certainly have been subject to alteration
from a fire of the described intensity (e.gDoroszenko
2001). Additionally, none of the bricks observed during the
excavation exhibited evidence of burning or soot, and no ash
deposits were observed in the fill.
Conclusion and Recommendations
Washington Hall was significant in that it was a vital part
of the early history of Tallahassee. In addition to providing
lodging for guests and boarders during the early development of
the city, it provided space for civil uses and religious meetings.
Throughout its life, the hotel was owned by several prominent
early Tallahasseans, individuals who were instrumental in the
development of the early frontier town, and it is likely that
many discussions of import to the city took place within the
walls of THE hotel. Ironically, Washington Hall would be the
origin of the disastrous fire of 1843 that destroyed the entire
business district of Tallahassee. The city rose from the ashes
of the fire to continue its journey to the present, but sadly
Washington Hall did not. The only material evidence of this
important building are the small fragmented pieces of history
that were deposited in the hole during construction of an
addition to the thriving hotel.
The topography of the southeast comer of Apalachee
Pkwy (formally Lafayette St) and Monroe St. has changed
significantly since the destmction of Washington Hall. After
a hiatus, another prominent citizen, Frederick T. Myers, built
his home on the comer across from the Capitol and close to the
courthouse where he spent many years working in service of his
home state. Like Washington Hall, there is little evidence left
of the house on the lot. The clearing of the lot and constmction
of a gas station, and later grading to build a parking lot, further
modified the original location of Washington Hall and it is
likely there are no intact archaeological remains of the hotel or
the Myers House that have survived the significant alterations
to the property. However, the southeast comer of Apalachee
Pkwy and Monroe St. continues to be a significant location for
the history that is associated with it.
Acknowledgments
This project was made possible by the attention and
concern for historical resources of the constmction crew and
Spencer Shepard. They halted work and called the Bureau of
Archaeological Research immediately upon discovery of the
feature, and their actions lead to a significant discovery. Julie
Duggins led the field work that retrieved the materials from
the feature and Nicholas Yarbrough led the laboratory phase of
the project. Their contributions are much appreciated. Thanks
also goes to Marie Prentice, who lent her expertise of historic
ceramics and glass, and to the staff of the State Library of
Florida for their assistance in locating historical documents.
Endnotes
The illustrations (Figures 12 and 13), which were
obtained from the State Archives of Florida, were found to be
flipped and have been corrected in this report. The error was
determined using the steeple of the First Presbyterian Church
as a landmark. The church was built in 1832 and is the oldest
church in the capital city (Figure 14). This iconic building was
added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. I
used the F. R. & N. Co railroad and the low-lying Cascades
area, depicted in both photos, as a reference point, which
means the viewer is looking west toward the Capitol building.
First Presbyterian Church is located north of the Capitol. The
archived photos have the church depicted to the south of the
Capitol, therefore at some point, the pictures had been flipped.
References Cited
Adams, William Hampton
2002 Machine Cut Nails and Wire nails: American
Production and Use for Dating 19th-Century and
Early-20th-Century Sites. Historical Archaeology,
36:66-88.
Binford, Lewis R.
1962 A New Method of Calculating Dates from Kaolin
Pipe Stem Samples. Southeastern Archaeological
Conference Newsletter 9:19-21. Reprinted 1978 in
Historical Archaeology: A Guide to Substantive and
Theoretical Contributions, edited by Robert Schuyler,
66-67. Baywood Publishing Company, Farmingdale,
New York.
Castelnau, Francis de
1842 Vues et Souvenirs de L ’Amérique du Nord. Libraire
de la Société de Géographie, Rue Hautenfeuille.
Chance, David H. and Jennifer V. Chance
1976 Kanaka Village Vancouver Barracks 1974. Office of
Public Archaeology, University of Washington, Seattle.


124
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
Dehart, Jason
2011 Yellow Fever Was the Scourge of Tallahassee and
Surrounding Towns in 1841. Tallahassee Magazine,
July-August edition.
Doroszenko, Dena
2001 Burning Down the House. The Archaeological
Manifestation of Fire on Historic Domestic Sites.
Northeast Historical Archaeology, 31:41 -52.
Edvinsson, Rodney
nd. Historical Currency Converter (Test Version 1.0).
Electronic document, http://www.historicalstatistics.
org/Currencyconverter.html, accessed October 4, 2018.
Gaines, James L.
n.d. Birds eye view of the Union Bank Building in
Tallahassee. Not before 1971. Color slide. State
Archives of Florida, Florida Memory. Electronic
document, https://www.floridamemory.com/items/
show/297879, accessed August 2, 2017.
Genheimer, Robert A.
2003 Digging the Necessary: Privy Archaeology in
the Central Ohio Valley. Ohio Valley Historical
Archaeology 18:143-151.
Groene, Bertram H.
1971 Ante-Bellum Tallahassee. Florida Heritage
Foundation, Tallahassee.
Harper, Alvan S.
n.d. Home of Fred T. Myers. Between 1885 and
1910. Black & white glass photonegative. State
Archives of Florida, Florida Memory. Electronic
document, https://www.floridamemory.com/items/
show/129203, accessed August 2, 2017.
Harris, A.E.
1838 Notice. The Floridian, April 18, 1838.
Heighton, Robert F., and Kathleen A. Deagan
1971 A New Formula for Dating Kaolin Clay Pipestems.
The Conference on Historic Site Archaeology Papers
6:220-229
Lindsey, Bill
2017 Bottle Bases: Pontil Marks or Scars. Society for
Historical Archaeology Historic Glass Bottle
Identification and Information Website. Electronic
document, https://sha.org/bottle/pontil_scars.htm,
accessed August 16, 2017.
Miller, George L., Patricia Samford, Ellen Shlasko, and
Andrew Madsen
2000 Telling Time for Archaeologists. Northeast Historical
Archaeology, 29:1-22.
n.a.
1840 Plan of Tallahassee, 1840. State Archives of Florida,
Florida Memory. Electronic document, https://www.
floridamemory.com/items/show/323129, accessed
January 18, 2018.
n.a.
1841 Washington Hall. The Floridian, December 25, 1841.
n.a.
1843 Tallahassee Fire. Star of Florida, May 27, 1843.
n.a.
1848 Florida Rifle Company Deaths. The Floridian,
May 1848.
n.a.
1868 Illustration of the Capital city - Tallahassee,
Florida. 1868. Black & white photoprint, 7x9
in. State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory.
Electronic document, https ://www.floridamemory.
com/items/show/24682, accessed August 2, 2017.
n.a.
187- View looking from the steps of the Old Capitol -
Tallahassee, Florida. 187-. Black & white photoprint.
State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory. Electronic
document, https://www.floridamemory.com/items/
show/24255, accessed August 2, 2017.
n.a.
1876 View looking toward the capítol: Tallahassee,
Florida. 1876. Black & whitephotonegative. State
Archives of Florida, Florida Memory. Electronic
document, https://www.floridamemory.com/items/
show/154098, accessed August 2, 2017.
n.a.
1883 David Shelby Walker. Portrait by R.L., 1883. Florida
Department of State. Electronic document, http://dos.
myflorida.com/florida-facts/florida-history/florida-
govemors/david-shelby-walker/, accessed August 2,
2017.
n.a.
1889 Semi-centennial of the Diocese of Florida, Held in
Tallahassee, January 19 and 19, 1888, The Church
Year Publishing Company, Jacksonville
n.a.
1908 Frederick Towle Myers. Between 1908 and 1927.
Black & white photonegative, 4 x 5 in. State Archives
of Florida, Florida Memory. Electronic document,
https://www.floridamemory.com/items/show/19965,
accessed August 2, 2017.


McFadden
Washington Hall, Tallahassee
125
n.a.
1924 Replica of Floridas first Capitol - Tallahassee,
Florida. 1924. Black & white photoprint, 8x7
in. State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory.
Electronic document, https ://www.floridamemory.
com/items/show/24808, accessed August 2, 2017.
n.a.
1957 Apalachee Parkway being paved in front of the
Capitol in Tallahassee, Florida. 1957. Black & white
photonegative. State Archives of Florida, Florida
Memory. https://www.floridamemory.com/items/
show/261430, accessed August 2, 2017.
n.a.
n.d. The Capitol. Florida Department of State. Electronic
document, http://dos.myflorida.com/florida-facts/
florida-history/the-capitol/, accessed 2 August 2, 2017.
n.a.
n.d. Florida Archives. Electronic document,
http://archivescatalog. info.florida.gov/
default, asp?IDCFile=7fsa/DETAILS S .
IDC,SPECIFIC=217 7, DATABA SE=SERIES,
accessed August 2, 2017.
n.a.
n.d. Florida Department of Military Affairs. Florida
Militia Muster Roles Seminole Indian Wars. Special
Archives Publication Number 71.
n.a.
n.d. Richard Keith Call. Florida Department of State.
Electronic document, http://dos.myflorida.com/
florida-facts/florida-history/florida-governors/
richard-keith-call/, accessed August 2, 2017.
n.a.
n.d. Population of Tallahassee Florida. Electronic
document, http://population.us/fl/tallahassee/,
accessed 2 August 2, 2017.
n.a.
n.d. Portrait of Francis Wayles Eppes - Tallahassee,
Florida. Not after 1881. Black & white photoprint,
9 x 7 in. State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory.
Electronic document, https://www.floridamemory.
com/items/show/26290, accessed August 2, 2017.
Noel Hume, Ivor
1978 A Guide to Artifacts of Colonial America. Alfred A.
Knopfit, New York.
Roenke, Karl G.
1978 Flat Glass: Its use as a dating tool for nineteenth
century archaeological sites in the Pacific Northwest
and Elsewhere. Northwest Anthropological Research
Notes, memoir no. 4, Moscow, ID.
Rogers, William Warren, and Erica R. Clark
1999 The Croom Family and Goodwood Plantation: Land,
Litigation, and Southern Lives. The University of
Georgia Press, Athens.
Rothrock III, Oscar A.
2013 Archaeological Evaluation of Brickwork Feature
(LE5117A), The Grove Site (LE5117), Tallahassee,
Florida. Report from Florida Public Lands
Archaeology, Bureau of Archaeological Research,
Division of Historical Resources, Department of
State, State of Florida. Tallahassee, FL.
Stelle, Lenville J.
2001 An Archaeological Guide to Historic Artifacts of
the Upper Sangamon Basin, Central Illinois, U.S.A.
Center for Social Research, Parkland College.
Electronic document, http://virtual.parkland.edu/
lstellel/len/archguide/documents/arcguide.htm,
accessed August 2, 2017.
Stottman, M. Jay
2000 Out of Sight, out of Mind: Privy Architecture and
the Perception of Sanitation. Historical Archaeology,
34:39-61.
Venovcevs, Anatolijs, and B.A. Hons
2013 Dress for Life and Death: The Archaeology of
Common Nineteenth-Century Buttons. Paper
presented at the 23rd Annual Forward into the Past
Conference, Waterloo, Ontario.
Weiland, Jonathan
2009 A Comparison and Review of Window Glass Analysis
Approaches in Historical Archaeology. Technical
Briefs in Historical Archaeology 4:29-40.
Wellge, Henry
1885 Birds-Eye View of Tallahassee, 1885. Norris, Wellge
& Co. Milwaukee.
Wheeler, Kathleen
2000 Theoretical and Methodological Considerations for
Excavating Privies, Historical Archaeology, 34:3-19.


















.
oo
4 a
Â¥ ;

'

¢ : ride ‘ ti

jz . 4 " . ae . ea
‘ i re } ree:
3 : an x i





2018 Field School Summaries
2018 UWF Luna Settlement Field School
Christina L. Bolte (University of West Florida)
In summer 2018, the University of West Florida field
school returned for a third season of excavations at the
Luna Settlement site. Led by principal investigator John
Worth and graduate field director Christina L. Bolte, a crew
of seven graduate student supervisors-in-training and eight
undergraduate students continued to explore Luna-era
deposits for the duration of the ten-week project. The field
school returned to a portion of the site explored in 2016 that
was known to have a high density of Luna-era materials based
on the previous shovel testing survey of the settlement site.
The Spanish settlement of Tristán de Luna y Arellano
was occupied from 1559-1561. Dispatched from Veracruz,
Mexico, 1,500 colonists arrived in Pensacola in August 1559
and established a settlement on a high bluff overlooking the
bay. After a little over a month a hurricane struck the fledgling
settlement, destroying seven of the expedition’s ships and
the majority of the colony’s food stores. Despite numerous
expeditions into the interior, and a temporary relocation of
some of the settlers to the native village of Nanipacana, the
settlement was abandoned in August of 1561, after just over
two years of continuous occupation.
The site was identified in the fall of 2015 when Tom Gamer,
a Pensacola native, discovered a large assemblage of 16th
century Spanish artifacts and Native American ceramics in a
neighborhood overlooking Pensacola Bay. In consultation with
the landowners, UWF archaeologists conducted investigations
at the site and confirmed it as the Luna Settlement. Additional
survey and testing of the landform was conducted from fall
2015 through spring 2017 to delineate the site boundaries and
identify Luna-era features for further investigation.
During the 2016 field school season, a trash pit containing
16th century olive jar, barrel bands, Columbia Plain majolica,
chainmail, and numerous other Luna-era artifacts was
investigated after being located by the shovel testing survey
earlier that year. The trash pit was exposed in a 2m x 2m unit
and sectioned at that time. Aportion of the feature was removed,
Figure 1. Students photo-clean block excavations at the Luna Settlement site.
Vol. 71 (2)
The Florida Anthropologist
May 2019


128
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
Figure 2. Field school students Karlie Laage (foreground)
and Thomas Grace participate in block excavations as the
Luna Settlement site.
but due to time constraints, the remainder was left in situ for
future investigation. The 2018 field school was designed to
return to the trash pit, document the remainder, and remove it
in full. Additionally, the 2018 field school sought to open large
areas surrounding the feature and across the lot in an effort to
establish spatial relationships of subsurface features.
A block excavation strategy was designed and two 6m x
6m blocks and an 8m x 8m block were opened on portions
of the lot known to yield a high-density of 16th century
artifacts. Approximately 10-15 cm of surficial sediments
were removed from all blocks in an effort to expose the tops
of Luna-era features. The trash pit was re-exposed in Block
1 and excavated in full. The pit yielded iron barrel straps,
Columbia Plain majolica, olive jar sherds, several fragments
of a smashed Pensacola Incised vessel first exposed in 2016,
and a range of other items including a tiny metal star likely
used as part of a personal penitential flail. Despite opening
such a large area around the trash pit, no associated subsurface
features could be distinguished at the time excavations were
concluded. However, based on the presence of olive jar sherds
in the surficial deposits that mended with sherds deep within
the trash pit feature, it is clear that these contexts are related
to one another, and therefore there is a potential for future
excavations to yield additional subsurface features associated
with the Luna occupation.
The 8m x 8m Block 2 was positioned adjacent to
Block 1 where the excavation of a modem waterline trench
yielded substantial quantities of 16th century artifacts.
After excavation of the surficial sediments, which yielded
significant amounts of additional 16th century materials, a
portion of the block was designated Unit 90, a 4m x 4m unit
placed in an area of darker sediments rich with oyster shell,
lead-glazed redware, a crossbow bolt, and olive jar sherds.
Basalt mano fragments, originating from Mexico and used
for grinding com, were discovered within Unit 90, suggesting
a possible Luna-era kitchen deposit or food preparation area.
Due to time constraints, excavations of Unit 90 ceased at the
end of the field season, but the area in and around Unit 90
has a high potential for containing cultural features. Future
investigation may provide information about how the settlers
survived on the landscape after the hurricane destroyed much
of their food stores.
Block 3, a 6m x 6m block, was excavated opposite Block
1 in an area recorded in the shovel testing survey as having
Native American ceramics likely contemporaneous with
the Luna occupation. Excavation of the surficial sediments
revealed approximately 15 potential subsurface features,
Figure 3. The 2018 Luna Settlement field school crew poses for a photograph with the descendant of Tristán de Luna y
Arellano, Alvaro de Marichalar, at the Luna Settlement site.


2018 Field School Summaries
129
though additional testing revealed they were related to 20th
century landscaping activities. Continued excavation in
Block 3 did not yield any Luna-era subsurface features,
although significant quantities of Aztec redwares, olive jar,
a comer-faceted Nueva Cadiz bead, and other 16th century
artifacts confirm that Luna-era midden is present. Preliminary
interpretations suggest that this area may not have evidence of
stmctural features associated with the Luna occupation, though
excavations in all three large blocks had to be backfilled before
reaching the base of the Luna-era midden, making it possible
that posts and other structural traces still await continued
excavations there.
The 2018 Luna Settlement field school had the
pleasure of hosting numerous visitors, scholars, and even
the titled descendant of Tristán de Luna y Arellano, Alvaro
de Marichalar, from Pamplona, Spain. UWF Archaeology
students, faculty, and staff welcomed the opportunity to foster
information exchange between other researchers engaged in
various aspects of the 16th century throughout the southeast.
Although definitive stmctural features were not located
by the close of the field season, the 2018 Luna Settlement field
school recovered a significant amount of 16th century Spanish
and Native American materials, increasing our knowledge
of the settlement’s material culture. The field school also
delineated significant areas for future investigation as part of
UWF’s continuing exploration of the Luna Settlement site.
2018 University of North Florida Archaeological Field
School
Peter Scholz and Keith Ashley
The 2018 University of North Florida (UNF) Summer
Archaeological Field School was conducted within the
Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve (TEHP) in
Jacksonville. Managed by the National Park Service (NPS),
this 46,000-acre tract consists of various wetland and upland
habitats on both the north and south sides of the lower St.
Johns River, near its mouth. The field school’s objectives were
to assess damage to parts of known archaeological sites caused
by Hurricanes Mathew (2016) and Irma (2017) and to provide
NPS with management recommendations. Specifically, the
field school focused on 30 uprooted trees along trails within
four different TEHP parks: Kingsley Plantation (8DU108),
Cedar Point on Black Hammock Island (8DU63), the Fort
Caroline National Memorial - Spanish Pond (8DU15985),
and the Theodore Roosevelt Preserve (8DU59). The field
school provides UNF students with a hands-on opportunity to
leam the fundamentals of archaeological survey, excavation,
and recording techniques (Figure 1).
The first week of field school was devoted to examining
the 30 uprooted trees identified by NPS. Each rootball and
associated hole were visually inspected, and, if present, all
Figure 1. University of North Florida 2018 Archaeological Field School participants.


130
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
artifacts were collected. A single 50-cm square shovel test
was excavated adjacent to each uprooted tree; two additional
judgmental shovel tests were dug, bringing the total to 32.
The majority of shovel tests yielded small amounts of cultural
material; a few contained a light scatter of shell. Pottery
from the shovel tests ranged from Late Archaic Orange to
Mission period San Marcos wares. Only one uprooted tree
had impacted a dense cultural deposit. This occurred at the
Browne-2 site (8DU59) within the Theodore Roosevelt
Preserve. In consultation with NPS, the next five weeks were
spent excavating dense shell midden deposits immediately
surrounding this uprooted tree (Figure 2).
The Browne-2 site (8DU59) is located in a maritime
hammock along the south side of the St. Johns River,
immediately adjacent to extensive tidal marshes fronting
Colorinda Creek. William Sears (1957) first recorded and
tested the Browne-2 site in 1955. At the time, he noted that the
site covered about 15 acres and that some shell piles reached
a height of six feet along the northwest shore of Colorinda
Bay. He further mentioned extensive site damage caused by
commercial shell mining and placed his three test units in
“undisturbed deposits” (Sears 1957:7). Based on his results,
the major component at 8DU59 dated to the Deptford period,
with lesser amounts of Woodland period Colorinda and St.
Johns pottery also recovered.
As Sears’ discussed, large sections of the once mounded
shell middens at 8DU59 were mined in the 1940s for road
and construction fill, so what exists today are small, scattered
“islands” of apparently intact shell midden. The uprooted
tree that brought us to the site was located on one of these
islands. We decided to sample this area along with a higher
shell midden about 10 m to the southwest. Fieldwork over the
next five weeks was severely hampered by almost daily rain
showers, which forced us to cancel or shorten some field days
To sample the shell midden to the southwest, we arranged
a l-x-4-m trench (Trench 1) along its highest point. Because
of time constraints, we restricted excavations, after level 2,
to the trench’s eastern l-x-2-m unit. Students dug fifteen 10-
cm levels within this unit. The midden was 130 cm thick and
composed mostly of densely packed oyster shell with little
soil. The shell midden contained a small amount of Deptford
pottery and moderate quantities of animal bone, mostly fish
vertebrae, in the lower levels. A radiocarbon assay on an oyster
shell from the base of the shell midden produced a 1-sigma
Figure 2. Students excavate shell midden deposits uprooted by a tree tip at the Browne-2 site (8DU59) within the Theodore
Roosevelt Preserve.


2018 Field School Summaries
131
date range of 449 - 364 B.C. We hope to obtain another date
from the top of the shell midden.
A l-x-5 m trench (Trench 2) was placed 8.8 m northeast
of Trench 1, immediately north of the uprooted tree and along
the edge of an NPS hiking trail that runs along the bluff line.
In contrast to the shell midden sampled via Trench 1, this
shell midden was shallower (only 50 cm thick) and contained
a large number of pottery sherds and abundant faunal remains.
Cultural materials were most concentrated between 30 and 40
cm below surface. Laboratory analysis is currently underway,
but a few preliminary statements can be offered. It appears
that Deptford (simple, checked, and complicated stamped)
and sand tempered plain pottery are most prevalent, with
fewer Colorinda and St. Johns sherds present. Other notable
artifacts include a modified deer long bone awl, three whelk
celts, and a modified quartz cobble. Inspection of the faunal
assemblage suggests fish and oysters dominate, with less
mammal and bird bones.
Three pit features were identified at the base of the shell
midden in Trench 2, extending 30 to 70 cm into light yellow
brown sand. These contained mostly shell, bone, pottery, and,
in some instances, pieces of calcium carbonate. A radiometric
assay on shell from the bottom of Feature 3 (130 cm below
surface) produced a 1-sigma date of 28 B.C. - A.D. 62. A very
similar date of 38 B.C. - A.D. 54 was obtained on shell from
level 2 of the overlying shell midden. Thus, Trench 1 appears
to have sampled an early Deptford shell midden, whereas
Trench 2 encountered late Deptford deposits. Before leaving
the field, we mapped the testing area using a total station.
A preliminary review of the data generated by the 2018
UNF field school suggests that the Browne-2 site consists of
Woodland-period shell middens, which contrasts with site
8DU58 farther to the north. Tested by a UNF field school in
2013, 8DU58 is a St. Johns II habitation and mortuary site
that dates to the eleventh/early twelfth centuries A.D. (Sapitan
2013). The lack of later St. Johns II deposits at 8DU59 might
signify a settlement shift over time, although we cannot rule
out the possibility that upper St. Johns II refuse deposits were
removed by past shell mining activities. Further research is
needed to understand better the occupational, depositional,
and post-depositional history of the Browne-2 site. Special
thanks to TEHP and NPS for all their help and support during
the project. For additional photographs from our 2018 summer
field school, please check the UNF Archaeology Lab Facebook
page.
References Cited
Sears, William H.
1957 Excavations on the Lower St. Johns River, Florida.
Contributions of the Florida Site Museum 2,
Gainesville.
Sapitan, Robert
2013 2013 University of North Florida Field School. The
Florida Anthropologist 59: 202-204.
St. Johns Archaeological Field School at Silver Glen
Springs
By Asa R. Randall (University of Oklahoma) and Kenneth E.
Sassaman (University of Florida)
The St. Johns Archaeological Field School—this year a
combination of students and personnel from the University of
Florida (UF) and the University of Oklahoma (OU)—returned
to the Silver Glen Springs watershed. The region encompasses
a one-km-long spring run from which the first order magnitude
spring debouches into Lake George. Nine previous seasons
there demonstrated that it was one of the longest and most
intensely terraformed localities in the region during antiquity.
We have documented no fewer than two shell rings, two shell
mounds, a sand mound, and numerous non-mounded spaces
dating between 8900 and 500 years ago. Previous work focused
almost exclusively on characterizing the chronology and
social contexts of the remnants of the shell mounds that were
mined in the 1920s. During this field season, we focused on
the privately owned south half of the watershed. We conducted
two interrelated projects to document the use of spaces
between mounds, and establish the ecological conditions that
afforded long-term inhabitation there. The results of the field
school reaffirmed the complex history of the landscape, and
revealed a Woodland-aged feature assemblage that may be a
St. Johns I public building.
Regarding land use, prior limited work in spaces
between mounded areas suggested that shell-bearing pits of
various sizes and ages were distributed across the landform.
Our research strategy this summer was to test with multiple
methods whether there were intact deposits, and whether there
was spatial patterning in subsurface features that may reflect
architecture. Field school students learned shallow geophysics
(soil resistivity, magnetometry, and ground penetrating radar),
bucket augering and small-diameter coring, quadcopter drone
reconnaissance and photogrammetry, and test unit excavation.
Scott Hammerstedt of the Oklahoma Archeological Survey
provided geophysics equipment and expertise, OU graduate
student Charlie Rainville is working on the geophysics results
for his M.A. thesis. We used geophysical prospection in
two clear-cut areas where we tested anomalies identified by
remote sensing with multiple sub-surface samplers. We chose
some anomalies for more intensive test unit excavation to
determine whether they were anthropogenic in origin, and if
so, characterize the age and cultural affiliation.
The East Project Area is situated between a large Mound
Taylor period shell mound and an Orange period midden.
The Orange period deposits are not village remains; where
previously tested they contain numerous shellfish roasting
pits. The geophysics survey identified numerous anomalies
without clear-cut spatial patterning. Test unit excavations
suggest that at least some anomalies were shell-bearing pits.
Radiocarbon dating and assemblage content revealed that
these pits date to the Mount Taylor and Orange periods. We
excavated a third test unit outside of the geophysics survey
area in a location of mined topography. Excavations exposed


132
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (2)
two large thermal pits dating to the Orange period. The results
indicate that despite mining this area contains significant intact
deposits. Collectively the cultural features in the East Project
Area register extensive use during the Middle to Late Archaic.
Most notable are the Orange-aged pits, which appear to extend
the practice of shellfish processing across the landform.
The West Project Area is bordered by the spring run to the
north, to the west by a St. Johns Il-period village, and on the
east and south by the Orange deposits. Both the magnetometry
and GPR surveys identified numerous anomalies. Many of the
anomalies are consistent with pit features, particularly adjacent
to the south and east where clusters of Orange-period pits were
identified in previous years. For much of the survey area there
is no clear patterning. However, along the western margin,
and adjacent to the St. Johns II village area, the gradiometer
revealed a series of anomalies in a roughly oval pattern
measuring 15-m by 20-m in maximum dimensions. The center
of the oval is mostly free of anomalies. We emplaced two 2-x-
2 m units along the western arm to determine whether this
pattern was cultural. The upper 20-cm in both units was a plow
zone that contained abundant St. Johns Plain and Check Stamp
sherds. Below the disturbed zone in one unit we encountered
a series of post holes and molds that were roughly in line with
the gradiometer results (Figure 1). Significantly, two of the
post holes contained what appear to be votive offerings. In
one, we recovered a whole box turtle carapace. In another post
hole we recovered a small, whole St. Johns Plain cup as well
as a St. Johns Incised sherd that may have been an heirloom.
Although not contemporaneous, radiocarbon assays from
each post pit place them in the St. Johns I period. We plan to
submit more samples to ensure we are not assaying old wood.
The adjacent test unit revealed a very different pattern. Below
the plow zone, we documented two large shell-filled pits,
each at least 1.5 m in diameter. The lower and larger pit was
Orange in age; it was intruded upon by a St. Johns I thermal
pit. Collectively, the results suggest that what the gradiometer
revealed is a St. Johns I feature complex that included posts.
Continued laboratory work will be necessary to determine if
the area contained a structure.
A final project, and part of UF student Anthony Boucher’s
dissertation research, focused on documenting the ecological
conditions of life in the watershed. This season we focused
on downslope primary refuse deposits fronting the spring
run. Prior work identified a morphological variant of the
banded mystery snail there, which is apparently found only
in the Silver Glen Springs watershed. A series of bucket
augers and test units were excavated to identify the spatial
and chronological distribution of the anomalous shells. Based
on the summer’s field research they appear to post-date the
Orange period; when they disappeared from the watershed
has not yet been determined. The hope is that further work on
these shells will provide insight into not only snail ecology
and population dynamics, but will provide a basis for inferring
localized changes in water availability and quality.
Figure 1. Field school students recording post molds at Silver Glen Springs.






About the Authors
135
About the Authors
Jessica Jenkins is a PhD student at the University of Florida working with Dr. Kenneth Sassaman as part of the Laboratory of
Southeastern Archaeology. Her research is primarily focused on Florida’s northern Gulf Coast. Dan May is the first of several sites
she intends to use as part of her PhD research which will explore the concept of revitalization movements at small-scale dispersed
sites in the Lower Suwannee research area after the abandonment of civic-ceremonial centers in the region.
Peter J. Ferdinando joined the Department of History at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte as a Visiting Lecturer in
2016. He earlier earned his Ph.D. in History from Florida International University, along with an M.A. in Anthropology from
Florida Atlantic University. This dual focus on the historical and archaeological records serves Peter’s interests in erasing the pre-/
post-contact boundary in telling Native American history. His current book project, ( the Rise of Florida s Ais Indians in the Atlantic World, examines how the Ais adapted their existing maritime skills as an effective
strategy to exploit the Spanish, French, English, and Dutch vessels dashed on the rocks and reefs of Florida’s east coast during the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Kendal Jackson is a second-year student in the PhD program in Applied Anthropology at the University of South Florida. His
primary research interests involve human-environment interaction throughout the Holocene epoch on the Gulf Coast of Florida.
Thomas J. Pluckhahn is Professor of Anthropology at the University of South Florida. His research focuses on the native societies
of the Woodland and Mississippian periods in the U.S. Southeast, particularly the Gulf Coast.
Jeffrey I Moates directs the West-Central and Central Regional Centers of the Florida Public Archaeology Network. His research
and professional interests involve the documentation of historic watercraft in Florida and encouraging public interest in archaeology.
Kassie Kemp is a Public Archaeology Coordinator for the Florida Public Archaeology Network. Her research focuses on prehistoric
archaeology and ceramic studies in Florida.
Paulette McFadden received her Ph.D. in anthropology from the University of Florida in 2015. After completing a post doc position
with the Florida Museum of Natural History in 2016, she joined the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research as an archaeologist.




Join the Florida Anthropological Society
Florida Anthropological Society membership categories and rates:
Student:
Regular:
Family
Institutional:
Sustaining:
Patron:
Benefactor:
$ 15 (with a copy of a current student ID)
$30
$35
$30
$100
$1000
$2500
• Student membership is open to graduate, undergraduate, and high school students. A photocopy of
your current student ID must accompany payment
• Add $25 for foreign address
• Membership forms are also available at http://fasweb.org/membership/
• The Society publishes the journal The Florida Anthropologist and newsletters, normally quarterly and
sponsors an annual meeting hosted by a local chapter
Name
Address
City
State
Zip
Telephone
Email
FAS Chapter
I agree to abide by the Code of Ethics of the Florida Anthropological Society
Mail to:
Florida Anthropological Society
c/o Pat Balanzategui
PO Box 1135
St. Augustine, FL 32085


Chapters of the Florida Anthropological Society
1. Ancient Ones Archaeological Society of North Central Florida
3001 SW College Road, Building 8, Ocala, FL 34474
2. Archaeological Society of Southern Florida
2495 NW 35th Avenue, Miami, FL 33142
3. Central Florida Anthropological Society
P.O. Box 948083, Maitland, FL 32794
4. Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society
RO. Box 1563, Pinellas Park, FL 33780
5. Emerald Coast Archaeological Society
c/o Indian Temple Mound Museum
139 Miracle Strip Parkway SE, Fort Walton Beach, FL 32548
6. Gold Coast Anthropological Society
6720 East Tropical Way, Plantation, FL 33317
7. Indian River Anthropological Society
P.O. Box 73, Cocoa, FL 32923
8. Kissimmee Valley Archaeological and Historical Conservancy
80 Bear Point Lane, Lake Placid, FL 33852
9. Panhandle Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 20026, Tallahassee, FL 32316
10. Pensacola Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 13251, Pensacola, FL 32591
11. St. Augustine Archaeological Association
P.O. Box 1301, St. Augustine, FL 32085
12. Southeast Florida Archaeological Society
816 St. Lucie Crescent, Stuart, FL 34994
13. Southwest Florida Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 9965, Naples, FL 34101
14. Time Sifters Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 5283, Sarasota, FL 34227
15. Volusia Anthropological Society
P.O. Box 1881, Ormond Beach, FL 32174
16.Warm Mineral Springs/Little Salt Spring Archaeological
P.O. Box 7797, North Port, FL 34287
17.Palm Beach County Archaeological Society
9722 Alaska Circle, Boca Raton, FL 33434


*OP°Z.o
Q
O
>
'i'
^A/CE
Back Issues of The Florida Anthropologist
ARE AVAILABLE FROM
Debra J. Wells, M.A., RPA
Back Issue Coordinator
debrajwells@aol.com
OR
1129 NW 143rd Street
Jonesville, FL 32669










FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC.
Ramie A. Gougeon, Ph.D., RPA
University of West Florida
11000 University Parkway
Pensacola, Florida 32514
NON-PROFIT
U.S. POSTAGE
PAID
TALLAHASSEE, FL
PERMIT NO. 329
RETURN SERVICE REQUESTED
** * ** * * ** * ***/yjT0* *3-01011 342 P-1 P51 8 427
GEORGE M LUER
3222 OLD OAK DR
SARASOTA FL 34239-5019
Table of Contents
From The Editor 59
Articles
The Site In-between in the Lower Suwanee: Excavations at Dan May (8LV917), Levy County, Florida 61
Jessica A. Jenkins
Bibiliography of Human Skeletal Remains Curated by Florida Atlantic University: Rediscoverd Osteological
Materials and an Updated Accounting of Research 77
Peter J. Ferdinando
Revisiting Stanley Mound (8MA127): A Sand Burial Mound in the Central Peninsular Guld Coast Interior 95
Kendal Jackson, Thomas J. Pluckhahn, Jeffrey T Moates, and Kassie Kemp
Washington Hall (8LE6292): Reconstructing the History of a Tallahassee Frontier Hotel 111
Paulette S. McFadden
Field School Summaries 127
About the Authors 135
Copyright 2019 by the
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC.
ISSN 0015-3893


Full Text
The Florida Anthropologist
Publishedbythe FloridaAnthropological Society
Volume 71 Number 2

May 2019

The Florida Anthropologist is published by the Florida Anthropological Society, Inc., P.O. Box 12563, Pensacola, FL 32591 Subscription is by membership in the Society. Membership isNOTrestrictedtoresidentsofthe StateofFloridanorto theUnited States ofAmerica. Membership may be initiated at any time during the year, and covers the ensuing twelve month period. Dues shall bepayableontheanniversaryoftheinitial duespayment.Membersshallreceivecopiesofallpublicationsdistributedby theSocietyduringthe 12monthsoftheirmembershipyear.Annualduesare asfollows: student$15,individual$30,family$35, institutional $30, sustaining $100 ormore, patron $1000 or more, and benefactor $2500. Foreign subscriptions are an additional $25 U.S. to cover added postage and handling costs for individual, family, or institutional membership categories. Copies ofthe journal will only be sent to members with current paid dues. Please contact the Editors for information on recent back issues.
Requests for information on the Society, membership application forms, and notifications of changes of address should be
sent to the Membership Secretary. Donations should be sent to the Treasurer or may be routed through the Editors to facilitate
acknowledgmentin subsequent issuesofthejournal (unlessanonymityisrequested). Submissionsofmanuscripts shouldbe
sent to the Editors. Publications forreview should be submittedto the Book Review Editor. Authors please follow TheFlorida Anthropologist style guide (on-line at www.fasweb.org) in preparing manuscripts for submission to thejournal and contact the Editorswith specific questions. Thejournal is formattedusingAdobe InDesign.Allmanuscripts mustbe submittedvia email to thejournal Editors in final form inMicrosoft Word format. Address changes should be madeAT LEAST 30 DAYS prior to the mailing ofthe next issue. The post office will not forward bulk mail nor retain such mail when �temporaryhold� orders exist. Such mail is returned to the Society postage due. Thejournal is published quarterly in March, June, September, and December ofeach year.
Officers ofthe Society
President: Emily Jane Murray First VicePresident.Dr.GeorgeM.Luer Second VicePresident Becky O� Sullivan
RecordingSecretary: Jon-Simon Suarez
Membership Secretary: Dorothy Block
Treasurer. Joanne Talley Directors: Maranda Kies, Jen Knutson, Nigel Rudolph ImmediatePastPresident: Jason Wenzel
NewsletterEditor: JeffMoates (newsletter@fasweb.org)
Journal Editorial Staff

Editor:RamieA.Gougeon,UniversityofWestFlorida, 11000UniversityParkway,Pensacola,Florida32514 (flanthro.editor@gmail.com) BookReviewEditor:RebeccaO�Sullivan,4202EastFowlerAve.,NEC 116,TampaFL33620(rosulliv@usf.edu) EditorialAssistant:GeorgeM.Luer, 3222OldOakDr.,Sarasota,FL 34239-5019(geoluer@gmail.com) Printer: Durra-Print, 717 South WoodwardAve., Tallahassee, FL 32304 BulkMail:ModernMailers,Inc.,877WestOrangeAve.,Tallahassee,FL 32310
Editorial Review Board

JeffreyM.Mitchem,ArkansasArcheologicalSurvey,P.O.Box241,Parkin,AR 72373(jmitcheml@yahoo.com) NancyMarieWhite,DepartmentofAnthropology,UniversityofSouthFlorida,Tampa,FL 33620-8100(nmw@usf.edu) Robert J.Austin, 7224Alafia Ridge Loop, Riverview, FL 33569 (roc_doc@verizon.net)
NOTE: In additionto the above Editorial ReviewBoard members, thereview comments ofothers knowledgeable in amanuscript�s subject matter are solicited as partofour peerreview process.
VISIT FAS ON THE WEB: www.fasweb.org


TheFlorida Anthropologist
Volume 71 Number 2 May 2019

Tableof Contents
From The Editor 59 Articles TheSiteIn-betweenintheLowerSuwanee:ExcavationsatDanMay(8LV917),LevyCounty,Florida 61
Jessica A. Jenkins Bibliographyof Human Skeletal Remains Curated byFloridaAtlantic University: Rediscoverd Osteological MaterialsandanUpdatedAccountingofResearch 77 Peter J. Ferdinando
RevisitingStanleyMound(8MA127):ASandBurialMoundintheCentralPeninsularGulfCoastInterior 95 KendalJackson, ThomasJ.Pluckhahn,JeffreyIMoates,andKassieKemp WashingtonHall(8LE6292):ReconstructingtheHistoryofaTallahasseeFrontierHotel 111
Paulette S. McFadden Field School Summaries 127
AbouttheAuthors 135
Published by the FLORIDAANTHROPOLOGICALSOCIETY, INC. ISSN 0015-3893


An Endowment to Support production of TheFloridaAnthropologist, the scholarlyjournal published quarterly by the FloridaAnthropological Society since 1947
Donations are being accepted from individuals, corporations, and foundations. Inquiries and gifts can be directed to:
RamieA. Gougeon, Ph.D., RPA
UniversityofWestFlorida
11000 University Parkway
Pensacola, Florida 32514
TheFloridaAnthropologicalSocietyis anon-profitorganizationunder section 501(c)(3) ofthe Internal Revenue Code. Contributionsaretax-deductibleasprovidedbysection 170ofthecode.

From the Editor
This second issue ofVolume 71 contains a smorgasbord of anthropological archaeology offerings, including papers
on
historic and prehistoric archaeology, bioanthropology, and
archaeological training and education.
Jessica Jenkins brings us a report ofinvestigations ofthe Dan May site (8Lv917), excavated in 2014. The Dan May site is a single component, short-term occupation dating to the 10thcenturyA.D.Fallingattheendofaperiodofdecline ofMiddleWoodlandceremonialism, theDanMaysiteoffers a rare glimpse into an underexplored dispersed settlement pattern and the relationship of smaller sites to former civic-
ceremonial residential centers.

Peter Ferdinando provides the readership a valuable bibliography of human remains being curated by Florida AtlanticUniversity(FAU).Asyouwillreadinhisintroduction, this collection is the subjectofongoing consultations between FAU and the Seminole Tribe of Florida as part of FAU�s compliance with the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Ferdinando notes, this process is ameaningful dialoguewith affiliated and descendantNative American communities. His bibliography is another example of the value of reexamining legacy collections, particularly those falling into the category of �culturally unidentifiable.�
Careful and conscientious analysis of the remains of valued ancestors is, in my opinion, another means ofbridge-building between archaeologists andNativeAmerican communities. Kendal Jackson and his co-authors, Tom Pluckhahn, Jeff Moates, and Kassie Kemp, revisit the Stanley Mound, a greatly disturbed sand burial mound site in Manatee County. Theyreviewpastexcavations anddocumentationofthe site, offer anupdatedcultural context, andprovide detailsofnew
fieldwork and LiDAR mapping undertaken in conjunction with a conservation project being implemented by the Florida State Parks to protect and preserve this important site.
Paulette McFadden takes the inadvertent discovery of archaeological materials during a construction project to
illustrate the history of an important civic-ceremonial center in Tallahassee�s early history: Washington Hall. Washington Hall was more than a hotel, serving also as a courthouse at times and as a meeting place for Tallahassee�s business elite. It was also the epicenter of a fire in 1843 that devastated the burgeoning business district that was growing around it. McFadden weaves together historical documents, titles, maps and figures, and, ofcourse, artifact analyses to tell the tale.
This volume is going to press as students and their faculty leaders are undertaking a wide variety of archaeological projects across the state as part ofsummer field schools. You can learn about some ofthe 2018 field school projects in this issue. These activities are in addition to the annual meeting ofthe Florida Anthropological Society, monthly meetings of FAS chapters, thedailyworkofCRMprofessionals, andthe review andoversightactivitiesofourcolleagues in local, state, and federal agencies. In short -archaeology is happening daily across Florida.Allofthese activities canresult in reports and articles for your Florida Anthropologist. Please consider submittingyourmanuscripttothisjournal. Manuscripts should be sent to returning editor, George Luer (flanthropologist@ gmail.com). We welcome questions, comments, and, as ever, your papers.
RamieA. Gougeon flanthro.editor@gmail.com
Vol.71(2) TheFloridaAnthropologist May2019

THE SITE IN-BETWEEN IN THE LOWER SUWANNEE: EXCAVATIONS AT DAN MAY (8LV917), LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA
JessicaA. Jenkins

LaboratoryofSoutheasternArchaeology,DepartmentofAnthropology, UniversityofFlorida, Gainesville,Florida32611 E-mail:jajenkins@ufl.edu
At about A.D. 700, settlement of the Lower Suwannee region of Florida transitioned into dispersed, small-scale encampments following the abandonment of Woodland
Period civic-ceremonial centers of the northern Gulf Coast.
Places like Garden Patch (8DI4), Shell Mound (8LV42), andCrystalRiver(8CL1), wereknown
for a shared tradition of elaborate monumental architecture and diagnostic material culture related to large-scale communal gatherings and mortuary practices (Pluckhahn et al. 2010;
Sassaman et al. 2016; Wallis et al. 2015). After theabandonmentofcivic-ceremonialcenters in the Lower Suwannee region, coastal habitations
were scattered and small in size, leaving behind only ephemeral archaeological signatures. In the Lower Suwannee region, these small, dispersed sites include Butler Island (8DI50) (McFadden 2014), Bird Island (8DI52) (McFadden and Palmiotto 2012), and the latest component of Richard�s Island (8LV137) (Sassaman et al. 2016). Coeval with these and other post�
abandonment sites is Dan May (8LV917), a previously undocumented single-component sitedatingtothetenthcenturyA.D.(Figure 1). Described herein are the methods and results of fieldwork undertaken in March of
2014 at Dan May, which consistedofnine auger tests, one shovel test pit, and one 1 x 2-m test unit (Jenkins et al. 2017). The excavationofDan May was undertaken in accordance with the goals of the Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey (LSAS), a long-term program designed to document the full range of variation in the distribution,timing,andcontentofarchaeological sites in the Lower Suwannee region ofFlorida�s Gulf Coast (Sassaman et al. 2011). The Lower Suwanneeregionencompassesthe42-kmstretch of largely undeveloped coastline centered on
the Suwannee River Delta between Horseshoe
Beach to the north and Cedar Key to the south. Thisstretchofcoastlineis arelativelyflat,low�relief landscape that is vulnerable to flooding withonlyminorrisesin sea-level, compromising many archaeological sites. In conjunction with
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, research in the
8DI52
Study Area
Lower Suwannee has beenundertakenby archaeologists atthe University ofFlorida through the Laboratory ofSoutheastern Archaeology (LSA) and the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH).
� site on record
� site with 14C assay(s)

Q mound center m*S 8DI4 oyster bioherm
8DI50

GulfofMexico
8LV917 8LV75
Atlantic Ocean 8LV293
'-N
8LV290 � 8LV122*�*




8LvS^137
}�.v. /
....

GulfofMexico
8LV66A�
0 5 Kilometers 10 1

Figure 1. Location ofrecorded sites in the Lower Suwannee Research
area

with Dan May and coeval sites indicated (adapted from Sassaman et al. 2016).
Vol.71(2) TheFloridaAnthropologist May2019
The study area is comprised primarily of the Lower Suwannee and Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuges, along with a few private inholdings and state and county lands. As partoftheresearch designoftheLSAS, theregionwas divided into five research tracts that reflect patterned variation in site density and type. These five tracts include: the Horseshoe Beach Tract; the Shired Island Tract; the Suwannee Delta Tract; the Shell Mound Tract; and the Cedar Key Tract. The Lower Suwannee is home to 112 documented archaeological sites ranging fromtheArchaic to Mississippianperiods, nearly a quarterofwhich have been dated, surveyed, or excavated as partofthe LSAS to date.
Dan May is among the private inholdings in the LSAS study area. Beforefieldworkwas conductedby the Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology (LSA) in 2014, no previous
research had been reported for Dan May Island. Dan May has now been added to the Florida Site Files as site 8LV917. The initial work at this site contributes important information
concerning aperiodoftime(A.D. 700-1000)thatisnotwell understood in the research area.
Environmental Setting and
Background
Dan May lies between

two
surveytracts ofthe LSAS (see Sassamanet al. 2011:31). This �in-between� quality
also applies to ecological and historical dimensions
of variation. Ecologically,
the site occupies an ecotone between freshwater
and saltwater biomes.
Historically, the tenth century
A.D. was a time between the
civic-ceremonial centers of
the Middle Woodland period
in the Lower Suwannee and
the cultural and political
influence of Southeastern
Mississippian chiefdoms of the ensuing centuries. A pattern that emerges from these multiple dimensions
of �in-betweenness� is a
heightened level of diversity in the material culture ofDan
May, particularly pottery.
EnvironmentalSetting
Dan May is a 72�acre island surrounded by
brackish water. The estuarine
flowing to the west and Dan May Creek to the east (Figure 2). The estuarine habitat provides the ideal conditions for a diversityoffloraandfauna,including avarietyofwaterbirds, fish, and shellfish. The island is situatedin awaythatprovides easyaccesstotheproximateLoneCabbage,HalfMoon, and
Great Suwannee oyster reefs. Located within the Lower SuwanneeNationalWildlife Refuge, the broader area consists
ofhardwood swamps, natural saltmarshes, tidalflats andtidal creeks, as well as pine forests and scrub ridges. On the island is a restored 100-year-old 1,700-square-foot cypress log
hunting lodge.
LowerSuwanneeMiddleandLate WoodlandCultureHistory
Dan May is located relatively distant from Middle Woodland civic-ceremonial centers in the region, in a portion of the study area that is otherwise devoid of archaeological sites, owing, in large measure, to the 10-km stretch of
wetlands that extend southeast ofthe Suwannee River Delta. TheoccupationofDanMaydatesto afewcenturiesafterthe initial abandonment of Middle Woodland civic-ceremonial centers in the region at aboutA.D. 700.Attheirheight, Middle
environment surrounding the
islandiscreatedbytheEast Figure2.LocationofDanMayIslandinrelation tochannelsthatdeliverfreshwatertothe PassoftheSuwanneeRiver estuarinebiomeoftheSuwanneeRiverDelta(orthnographicimagecourtesyofNOAA).
Woodland civic-ceremonial centers brought diverse groups of people and objects together for ritual gatherings, likely tied to celestial events such as the solstices (Sassaman et al. 2016). The reason for regional abandonment of these centers remains unknown, although one possible reason would be the environmental and cultural effects of the Vandal Minimum. The Vandal Minimum was a climatic event that occurred
between A.D. 500 and 800 when temperatures were cooler and sea-level regressed (Marquardt and Walker 2013; Wang et al. 2011). These environmental changes likely affected local resources, changing migratory patterns for example. It is also possible that sea-level regression had cultural impacts as well. For example, the watery barrier separating Shell Mound from its mortuary counterpart,
Palmetto Mound (8LV2) on Hog Island, is very shallow, and may have disappeared during the Vandal Minimum, altering the way people understood and interacted
with their landscape. DanMayis oneofa diverse arrayofsitesthat
were dispersed across the length of the Lower Suwannee research area during the Late Woodland period (A.D.
700-1000). Many of these sites are small-scale villages located away from places of the dead. During this period communities reoccupied earlier sites (i.e., Bird Island, Butler Island, Deer Island, Richards Island), while
others settled new locations (i.e., Dan May), and some settled to the immediate west of former civic-ceremonial centers (i.e., Area I at Garden
was
screenedthrough %-in hardware cloth and all artifacts were bagged and transported to the LSAfor further analysis.
AugerandShovel TestPitSurvey Ninethree-inchbucketaugerholes,placedatdiscretionary locations, and one 50 x 50-cm shovel test pit were excavated
to determine the extent and integrity of archaeological deposits on the island (Figure 3). Materials recovered in auger tests were collected to assess the variation in the artifact assemblage across the site in orderto determine where the test
unit should be located. The area with the highest density of cultural material was the central part ofthe island, to the west ofthe hunting lodge (Augers 7-9).
Patch).Thisdiversityextends Figure3.TopographicmapofDanMayIslandshowinglocations ofaugers,STP1,TUI,and tothetypesofsitesthatdate thelodge(contourinterval=5ft[1.5m]).Representationsofexcavationunitsnottoscale.
tothisperiod, someofwhich are terraformed (Deer Island and Richard�s Island) others of which are not. These disparate, diverse communities were united through shared burial mound practices which included
the interment ofelaborate Weeden Island and effigy vessels, many of which were nonlocal, in caches in burial mounds (Wallis et al. 2017).
Methods and Results ofField Excavations

As no previous archaeological work has been reported on the island, field excavations at Dan May began with an exploratoryaugersurvey. Oncetheaugersurveywascomplete, one 1 x 2-m test unit, revealing several pit features and post holes, and one shovel testwere excavated. Soil from excavation
Augers 7 and 8 contained faunal remains, shell, pottery, and historic artifacts. These augers revealed two lenses of shell (interpretedinthefieldaspossiblemiddens) separatedby mediumbrown sand.Auger9wasplacedsoutheastofAugers 7 and 8 to investigate the extentofpossible middens observed in theprevioustwo augers. The middens didnot appearto extend into this area, although the light brown, dry, loose sand from 20 to 58 centimeters below surface (cmbs) was interpreted as
redepositedfill,likelymakingAuger9 adisturbedcontext.
Given the density of cultural material in this part of the island, a 50 x 50-cm shovel test pit (STP1) was placed betweenAugers 7and 8,offofthesouthwestcomerofthe lodge. At about 60 cmbs, a utility line was encountered and testing was halted.Avarietyofpottery and vertebrate fauna
was recovered from the unit, along with modified Merceneria clam, a limestone abrader, and historic glass.
Test UnitExcavation
Basedontheresultsofauguring,a 1x2-mtestunitwas sited adjacentto the lodge andproximate toAuger 7. TestUnit 1 (TUI) was excavated in arbitrary 10-cm levels until sterile soil, with the exception ofthe first level, LevelA, and the last level, Level F. LevelAwas excavatedto 20 centimeters below datum(cmbd) asitwaslikelyadisturbedcontext.LevelFwas
excavated from 60 to 95 cmbd, as it was mainly comprised
of sterile subsoil into which features extended. There was
no indicationofplowing, and fourdistinct strata(I-IV) and
four features (1-4) were encountered. Profile photographs anddrawingsofallfourwallsofTUI areprovidedinFigure 4; descriptions ofstratigraphic units are provided in Table 1. Bulk samples were taken from Strata II and III for flotation. Pottery and vertebrate fauna were encountered in all levels, and shell was present in all levels except Level F. Levels B and C (2CM0 cmbd) yielded the densest amount of cultural material. Several pit features were encountered, emanating
from between 40-55 cmbd into Stratum III.
Features
Three hemispherical pit features (Features 1-3) and one post hole (Feature 4) were identified in TUI. Feature 1 was first recorded at 40 cmbd, measured 49 cm in length, 35 cm
in width, and was terminated at 75 cmbd. Feature 2 measured 51 cm in width, 54 cm in length, and extended 77 cmbd. Feature 3 is visible in the west unit wall profile and extended into the west wall 12 cm. Feature 4 was 10 cm in diameter and extended to 68 cmbd. Two other possible post holes were also identified in the side walls, one in the west profile and
one in the eastprofile, but were not assigned feature numbers. While not in a clearly defined pattern, the post holes indicate thepossiblepresenceofa structure. Photographs and drawings ofFeatures 1and2inplanandprofileareprovidedin Figure5.
Features 3 and 4 can be seen in profile in Figure 4 in the west
and east unit wall profiles respectively. All three pit features containedpottery sherds, vertebrate fauna, shell, and charcoal, and a few lithic flakes were recovered from Features 1 and 3.
Site Chronology
Charcoal recovered from bulk samples taken from the
three pit features was submitted to Beta Analytic, Inc. for AMSdating.CharcoalfromFeature 1producedanAMSassay of1090 � 30 B.P. (calibrated attwo-sigma rangeofA.D. 890�1015), charcoal from Feature 2 produced an AMS assay of 1040 � 30 B.P. (calibrated at a two-sigma range ofA.D. 970�1025), and charcoal from Feature 3 produced an AMS assay of1060� 30 (calibrated attwo-sigma range ofA.D. 900-925) (Table 2). Figure 6 shows the modeled summed probability
distribution of calibrated age estimates as calculated with
OxCal v 4.2.4 (Bronk Ramsey and Lee 2013). Highlighted in Figure 6 is the highest probability of actual age, which is 970-960 cal B.P. (calA.D. 980-990).
Occupation at Dan May is contemporaneous with small-scale dispersed occupations at several other sites in the Lower Suwannee study area, including a component at Bird Island datingto 1150�30B.P.(calibratedattwo-sigmarangeofA.D. 810-980) (McFadden and Palmiotto 2012:94); a component at Butler Island dating to 1070 � 30 B.P. (calibrated at two-sigma range of A.D. 885-1015) (McFadden 2014:80); and overlaps with the latest dated component at Richard�s Island dating to 1200 � 30 B.P. (calibrated at two-sigma range of A.D. 765-895) (Sassaman et al. 2016:14). Other sites dating to this period include the earliest dated component at Raleigh Island (8LV293), an extensively terraformed island (Terry Barbour, personal communication, 2018), and the reoccupation ofthe western portion ofGarden Patch (Area I)
aftertheabandonmentofthesite as acivic-ceremonialcenter
(Wallis et al. 2015). Furthermore, during this time there was intensification of ritual activity at Palmetto Mound, which
included the emplacement of several ritual deposits and an unusuallyhigh numberofeffigy vessels characteristicofthe Weeden Island Tradition (Donop 2017).
MaterialCulture
Thebulkofthe material culture recovered from DanMay
consistsofpotterysherds,with atotalof733 sherdsweighing
2652.3 g. In Table 3, sherd counts and weights are presented by temper, surface treatment, and portion represented (rim, body, base, crumb). By count, over half (n = 401) of the assemblage consists of �crumb� sherds, or sherds less than
Vi-inch in maximum dimension. Crumb sherds are classified
by temper but not surface treatment, given their small size.
Four temper types and six surface treatments are represented in the Dan May pottery assemblage. The most prominent temper is sand, followed by limestone, spicule, and lastly, �assorted,� which is characterized by the inclusion ofmultipletempering agents (sand, limestone, shell, spicule, charcoal, or grog) in varying amounts and combinations. In order of frequency, surface treatments include plain, stamped, punctated, impressed, and incised. Within these broad categories, considerable variation is glossed over. For example, sherds labeled as stamped can be furtherdividedinto check stamped, simple stamped, stamped on the interior and exterior, dentate stamped, and complicated stamped.
Fifty-eight vessel lots are inferred based on sets ofshared characteristics (e.g., surface treatment and paste) (Table 4)
(Buchanan 2017). Crumb sherds were not considered in the determination of vessel lots. Sherds from vessel lots were refitted whenever possible to obtain portions suited to vessel size and shape characterization. Unfortunately, none of the vessels portions were sufficiently large enough to determine vesselformwith certainty. Wallthicknessofrim sherds was measured at a point 3 cm below the lip and orifice diameter was estimatedon sherds exceedingfivepercentoftheorifice circumference. Wall thickness could be measured on sherds from nine vessel lots, and orifice diameter was estimated for fiveofthe vessel lots.As aresult, orifice diameters range from
10to 18cm,andwallthicknessrangesfrom6.0to9.6mm.

Figure 4. Photographs and scaled drawings ofthe profiles ofall fourwalls ofTest Unit 1, 8LV917. (PH = post hole).
Table 1.StratigraphicUnitsofTestUnit 1,8LV917. Max Depth

Stratum Munselle Color Description(cmbd) I 12 10YR2/2 Verydarkbrownfinesandyloamwithnoshell II 44 10YR2/2 Very dark brown fine sandy loam with whole oyster and marsh clams III 78 10YR3/1 Very dark gray fine sandy loam with sparse shell IV 95 10YR7/4 Verypalebrownfinetomediumsandwithnoorganics
AccordingtoWilley�s (1949)potterytypology, themajorityof vessels areindicativeoftheWeedenIslandceramictradition.
The most common identifiable type of pottery by vessel
lot in this assemblage is Wakulla Check Stamped (n = 12), followed by Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped (n = 4), and Ruskin Dentate (n = 3). Plain vessels include two types: St. Johns Plain (n= 4), characterizedby a spicule-tempered paste, and Pasco Plain (n = 3), which contains a limestone-tempered paste. There is one vessel lot each of Carabelle Punctate, St. Johns Simple-Stamped, and St. Johns Check-Stamped. Twenty-nine vessels were not assigned a specific culture-historical type and include sand-tempered plain (n = 11), burnished (n = 4), simple-stamped (n = 6), check-stamped (n
=
2), limestone-tempered check-stamped (n= 2), cord-marked (n = 1), punctated (n = 1), and incised (n = 2). Notableamongthesite�spotteryassemblageisanadvanced degree ofdiversity in temper and surface treatment that exists both within features and the general levels (Figure 7). Late
Woodland pottery assemblages in the greater area are usually
diverse inbothresidential andmortuary contexts,with an array of surface treatments and vessel forms classified within the
WeedenIslandtradition(e.g.,Wallisetal.2017). AtDanMay,
the short-term and spatially discrete nature of the settlement underscoresthatthe diversityofpottery atthe site is notsimply
a function of a coarse-grained occupational sequence, but is rather a real aspectofthe site�s pottery assemblage. Other classes of material culture are sparse and limited
to a small assemblage of chert flakes from TUI (n = 11), two limestone abraders recovered from STP1, one piece
of quartzite fire-cracked rock (FCR) from TUI, and a few limestone clasts or pebbles, quartz pebbles (identified as modem driveway gravel), and mudstone pebbles. No shell or
bone artifacts were recovered.
Faunal Remains

A variety of invertebrate and vertebrate fauna was recovered from Dan May. The majority ofthe faunal remains
deposited in the midden and thepit features are from saltwater
or
estuarine environments, although some freshwater species are present. Given the high density of shell in the middens and pit features at Dan May and other sites in the research area, the LSA has developed a sampling strategy in which all gastropods recovered during general excavation are kept and
allbivalves,withtheexceptionofmodifiedorunique shells, are left at the site as part of the unit backfill. Bulk samples are collected from shell-rich deposits and features in order to characterize the invertebrate assemblage without the bias of
selective recovery methods.
InvertebrateFauna
Carolina marsh clam (Polymesoda caroliniana), a

primarilyfreshwater species, and Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) comprise nearly the entire invertebrate assemblage in bulk samples from Dan May. In addition to Carolina marsh clam and Eastern oyster, other species ofinvertebrates present at Dan May include: crown conch {Melongena corona), quahog clam {Mercenaria sp.), marsh periwinkle {Littorina irrorata), lightning whelk {Busycon sinistrum), shark eye (Neverita duplicate), barnacle (.Balanidae), and unidentifiable bivalves (Bivalvia) and gastropods (Gastropoda).
All invertebrates were counted and weighed, and further

analysiswasconductedontheCarolinamarshclamandEastern oyster. The invertebrate fauna discussed below are from six bulk samples recovered fromTU1: two bulk samples from the east wall of the unit, one each from two shell-rich deposits (Strata II and III), and from each of the four features, three pits (Features 1, 2A, 2C, and 3) and one post hole (Feature 4).
There were no invertebrates recovered from Feature 2B.
Absolute frequencies of shell by taxa for both Carolina marsh clam and Eastern oyster are provided in Table 5. Shells were sorted by side (right versus left) when the diagnostic hinge elements were present, which allowedfordetermination oftheminimumnumberofindividuals(MNI).Theinvertebrate faunawas depositeddifferentially,with oyster as the dominant
invertebrate species in midden deposits (StrataII andIII), and

Carolina marsh clam as the primary species in the pit features (Features 1-3). Carolina marsh clam is rarely the dominant species in a given context in the research area. One exception is the Weeden Island component of Cat Island (cal. A.D. 610-680) where there is a ratio of3:2 Carolina marsh clams to oysters in the midden. A second is a shell midden strata at Little Bradford (8DI32), with a ratio of 2:1 Carolina marsh clam to oyster (Sassaman et al. 2011). It is likely that the high
amountofCarolina marsh clam atDanMay is, at least inpart,
a product ofthe low salinity waters surrounding the island in which Carolina marsh clam thrive.
The oyster shells were further analyzed using methods

Figure5.PlanandprofiledrawingandphotographofFeatures 1and2inTestUnit1,8LV917.
Table 2. Radiocarbon Data for Dan May, 8LV917.

Beta Lab Measured 13C/12C Conventional 2-sigma Cal 2-sigma Cal
Provenience Material

Number 14CAgeBP Ratio 14CAgeBP AD BP
Dan May charcoal 421083 1090�30
TU1-F.1
Dan May charcoal 458225 1020�30
TU1-F.2C
Dan May charcoal 458226 1070�30
TU1-F.3

outlined in Jenkins (2017) to determine harvesting niche (intertidal versus subtidal) and to infer maricultural practices. Alloystershellswere separatedintoleft(cupped) andright(flat) valves. Both left and right valves were counted and weighed,
and all whole left valves were further analyzed for evidence of
resource niche and mariculture (Jenkins 2017). The attributes that were documented for each shell include: height, length, height-to-lengthratio(HLR), presenceorabsenceofattachment scar, presence or absence of boring sponge parasitism, and presence or absence ofboring sponge parasitism on attachment scars (Table 6). The results indicate that most of the oysters deposited in themidden at DanMaywere from intertidal waters where no mariculture was being practiced.
Intertidal oysters are typically small because they are cut off from their food supply when exposed at low tide, have attachment scars and are elongate because they grow together in tight clusters or burrs, and lack evidence of holes left behind from boring sponges, which are common on subtidal oyster shells, as boring sponges cannot live in intertidal waters. Furthermore, subtidal oyster reefs, including the Lone Cabbage,HalfMoon, and Great Suwannee are located
OxCalv4.3.2 BronkRamsey(2017); r:5IntCali3atmosphericcurve(Reimeretal2013)
Feature 1 j7 ft
Feature 3
Feature 2C
��
SumAll Dates
1200 1000 Modeled date (cal BP)

25.3 o/oo 1090�30 890-1015 1060-935
23.6 o/oo 1040�30 970-1025 980-925
25.6 o/oo 1060�30 900-925 1005-930
near Dan May, but watercraft would be necessary to access and harvest these oysters. In contrast, intertidal oysters and Carolina marsh clams likely could have been collected at the water�s edge. Evidence suggests that offshore reefs were harvested when the scale and intensity of oyster harvesting in the region heightened during Middle Woodland civic�ceremonialism, and intertidal oyster harvesting was more
common
when the demand for oysters was reduced and food production was downscaled and localized.
Since it appears that most of the oysters harvested and deposited at Dan May are intertidal, it is not surprising that there does not appearto be any evidenceofmariculture. The
two maricultural practices that have been inferredattending the ritual economy at Shell Mound include shelling, or returning dead shell to oyster reefs to encourage spat attachment and growth, andculling,orbreakingapartoysterburrs andreturning smaller or younger oysters back to the reefs to continue to grow and live through reproductive cycles. These maricultural practices are still in use today, and almost exclusively are used on subtidal reefs where oysters grow larger and faster. At Shell Mound, the uneven ratio ofleft to right oyster valves is a possible indicator that right valves were being returned to reefs while left valves were being used in mound construction (Jenkins 2017).Also, ahighpercentageofoyster shells at Shell Mound with sponge parasitism on the attachment scar indicates that culling was
likely being practiced, which would expose the attachment scar making that part of the shell more vulnerable to parasites. It is also possiblethatotherpredatorsorstormscouldbe responsible for breaking apart oyster clusters. At Dan May, the ratio of left to right valves remains close to 50/50, and there are almost
no
instances of parasitism on attachment scars, with the exception ofone shell.

VertebrateFauna Meggan Blessing, zooarchaeologist at 800 the LSA, created a species list ofrecovered vertebrate fauna from Dan May (see Jenkins
et al. 2017 for the complete list). The

Figure6.ProbabilitydistributionofthreeageestimatesfromDanMay. majorityofthevertebratefaunafromTUI Highlightedisthehighestprobabilityofactualage. aresaltwaterand/or estuarinespecies,andthe
Table 3.AbsoluteFrequencyandWeight(g)ofPotterySherdsfrom2014ExcavationofDanMay(8LV917),byTemper and Surface Treatment. Plain Stamped Punctate Other Eroded/UID Total ctctct ctct
Temper ct wt(g) wt(g) wt(g) wt(g) wt(g) wt(g) Sand Body 133.0 784.40 49.00 386.60 2.00 12.40 3.00 21.20 2.00 27.60 189.00 1,232.20 Rim 10.00 80.40 11.00 145.00 21.00 225.40 Base 1.00 24.00 1.00 24.00 Crumb 312.00 265.80 Subtotal 143.00 864.80 61.00 555.60 2.00 12.40 3.00 21.20 2.00 27.60 523.00 1,747.40 Limestone Body 42.00 176.60 30.00 315.60 12.00 29.20 3.00 39.30 1.00 14.00 88.00 574.70 Rim 1.00 3.10 2.00 16.60 3.00 19.70 Crumb 67.00 82.20 Subtotal 43.00 179.70 32.00 333.20 12.00 29.20 3.00 39.30 1.00 14.00 158.00 676.60 Spicule Body 18.00 113.40 1.00 4.00 19.00 117.40 Rim 1.00 3.70 2.00 29.30 3.00 33.00 Crumb 22.00 14.50 Subtotal 19.00 117.10 3.00 33.30 44.00 164.90 Assorted Body 7.00 55.10 1.00 8.30 8.00 63.40 Subtotal 7.00 55.10 1.00 8.30 8.00 63.40 Total 212.00 1,216.70 96.00 921.00 14.00 41.60 7.00 68.80 3.00 41.60 733.00 2,652.30
assemblageisdominatedbyfish.Saltwaterandestuarinetaxa LevelBhasagreaternumberofblackdrumindividuals,which include sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus), black appear to be large, given the size of the otoliths, compareddrum (Pogonias cromis), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and to the other levels; and second, Feature 1 is dominated by mullet (Mugil sp.), and freshwater taxa include the golden hardhead catfish, followed by black drum. shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas), freshwater catfish family (.Ictaluridae), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), Discussion and Conclusion shellcracker (Lepomis microlophus), other bream species (Lepomis sp.), river cooter (Pseudemys sp.), softshell turtle A unique feature ofDan May Island is its �in-between� (Apaloneferox)andalligator(Alligatormississippiensis). spatialandtemporaldimensions.DanMayIslandisprivately-
Therelativelylow numbersofelementsoffreshwaterspecies ownedandlocatedinthewetlandsthatextendsoutheastof present in the assemblage could be a product of sampling, the Suwannee River Delta, between saltwater and freshwater
as
those represented tend to be on the smaller side, with biomes. The island is positioned between two research tracts theexceptionoflargemouthbass.Overall,theboneiswell oftheLowerSuwanneeArchaeologicalSurvey,somedistance preserved, and there was little-to-no burning. There are two from known civic-ceremonial centers and other sites in the notable patterns regarding the vertebrate faunal remains: first, area. Moreover, Dan May is a single-component site dating
Vessel
Provenience
Lot Lvl C, D, F; F.3
F.2 Lvl C, E Lvl C, E F.2 STP1 F.2 F.2 F.2 STP1 Lvl B STP1 Lvl C Lvl C F.2 Lvl B Lvl C Lvl C, F.2 Lvl E; F.2; STP1 Lvl C, D Lvl B
Surface Treatment
Simple-Stamped Dentate
Simple-Stamped Simple-Stamped Simple-Stamped Simple-Stamped Simple-Stamped Complicated-Stamped Complicated-Stamped Check-Stamped Check-Stamped Complicated-Stamped Check-Stamped Check-Stamped
Punctate
Punctate
Simple-Stamped Check-Stamped Plain
Plain
Incised
Temper Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Limestone Sand Spicule Sand Spicule, Limestone
Sand Sand
Type
Ruskin Dentate

Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped
Wakulla Check-Stamped Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped Wakulla Check-Stamped Wakulla Check-Stamped Carabelle Punctate
St. Johns Simple-Stamped
St. Johns Plain
Wakulla Check-Stamped

Orifice
Diameter (cm)
10
-4 o
Thickness (mm)
8.4
8.4
The
Florida



Anthropologist
9.2
2019
71 (2)
Table 4. Description ofVessel Lots from 2014 Excavation ofDan May (8LV917). (cont�d) Vessel SurfaceProvenience TemperLot Treatment Type Orifice Diameter (cm) Thickness (mm) Jenkins
LvlE Check-Stamped Sand Wakulla Check-Stamped
Lvl E; F.2 LvlE STP1 Plain, Scraped Interior Complicated-Stamped Plain Spicule, Limestone Spicule Sand St. Johns Plain Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped The Site
F.l Lvl D Lvl E; F.2 F.l Lvl C Plain Plain Cord-Marked Check-Stamped Dentate Sand Sand Limestone, Charcoal Limestone Limestone Ruskin Dentate 10 18 7.9 6.3 9.0 In-Betweenin the Lower
STP Lvl B, C, D F.2 Lvl C Lvl B F.2 F.3 Lvl B F.l; F.2 Check-Stamped Plain, Burnished Check-Stamped Check-Stamped Check-Stamped Plain Burnished Plain Check-Stamped Dentate Limestone Sand Sand Sand Spicule Limestone Sand Sand Limestone Wakulla Check-Stamped Wakulla Check-Stamped St. Johns Check-Stamped Pasco Plain Wakulla Check-Stamped Ruskin Dentate 18 18 9.6 9.1 6.0 Suwanee: Excavation at Dan May (8LV917)
Lvl A, B, C Check-Stamped Sand Wakulla Check-Stamped 16 7.9
F.l Plain Sand 14
Lvl B Plain Sand

�~-4
Vessel Surface

Orifice Thickness
Provenience
Temper

Lot Treatment Type Diameter (cm) (mm)
43 Lvl B, C, D Plain, Incised Rim Sand
44 LvlA, C Check-Stamped Sand Wakulla Check-Stamped
45 F.2 Plain Sand
46 Lvl D; F.2 Plain, Burnished Sand
47 Lvl D, E Check-Stamped Sand Wakullla Check-Stamped
48 Lvl E Plain Limestone Pasco Plain
49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 Lvl B, E; F.1; F.2 Lvl B Lvl C Lvl B, D STP1 Lvl B; F.l Lvl B, C, D, E; F.2, STP! LvlA, C: F.l Plain Check-Stamped Plain, Burnished Check-Stamped Plain, Burnished Plain Plain Plain Spicule, Limestone, Shell Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Limestone Sand St. Johns Plain Wakulla Check-Stamped Wakulla Check-Stamped Pasco Plain The Florida Anthropologist
57 Lvl B Plain Spicule St. Johns Plain
58 Lvl F Plain Sand

2019
(2)
majority of the pottery excavated from Test Unit 1ischaracteristicoftheWeedenIsland ceramic tradition. Sherds belonging to one
vessel lot were frequently found across multiple contexts, including multiple pit features, confirming their contemporaneity. While the diversity of pottery types at Dan May could be viewed as simply a reflection ofthe immensely diverse pottery assemblage
attributed to the Weeden Island tradition, it is remarkable for a small, short-term context, ruling out both time and ethnicity (multiple communities) as the causes for diversity. Little other material culture was recovered, with the exception of a small assemblage of chert flakes and two possible limestone
abraders. The assemblage of vertebrate fauna from Dan May is typical for the region, with a variety of mostly estuarine and saltwater species and some freshwater species.

Figure 7. Representative sampleofpottery sherds from Dan May.
However, auniquefeatureofDanMayisthe

Limestone-tempered check-stamped (a), sand-tempered check-stamped
differential deposition of oyster shells and

(b-c), sand-tempered check-stamped (d), limestone-tempered Ruskin
Carolinamarsh clams, where there is agreater

Dentate (e), sand-tempered Ruskin Dentate (f), sand-tempered simple-
ratio of oysters in the midden and Carolinastamped (g, i), St. Johns simple-stamped (h), sand-tempered incised (j,

marsh clams in the pit features. Carolina

n), limestone and charcoal tempered cord-marked (k), sand-tempered
marsh clams hardly dominate the invertebrate

punctated (1), Carabella Punctated (m), Pasco Plain (o), St. Johns plain (p),
sand-tempered plain burnished (q).
to the tenth century A.D., a period underrepresented in the study area and situated betweentwo phasesofaggregation and terraforming in the region.
Small-scale, dispersed settlements characterized the region after the decline ofMiddle Woodland civic-ceremonial centers. Although civic-ceremonial centers, such as Garden Patch and Shell Mound, were abandoned as residential centers post-A.D. 700, the sites maintained relevance on the landscape and likely influenced activities at places like Dan May. Perhaps the newly dispersed nature of settlement
also influenced activity at the former Middle Woodland civic-ceremonial centers. For example, Donop (2017:224)
suggests that the intensificationofactivity and the interment of extralocal pottery and effigy vessels at Palmetto Mound
duringthe WeedenIsland phasewas areflectionofthe site�s deep ancestry and ability to periodically attract dispersed and diverse persons. Considering the reconfigurationofsettlement patternsaftertheabandonmentofcivic-ceremonial centers as
residential centers andthe inclusionofextralocalpottery in the
mound, Donop (2017:228) contends that the intensification ofactivity at PalmettoMound may have been the, �material manifestation ofrituals performed by dispersed communities to renew their social relations with the mound at periodic
gatherings in a time ofuncertainty.�
The high diversityofpottery at DanMay is matched,if not exceeded, by the pottery deposited at Palmetto Mound during these centuries. Using Willey�s 1949 typology, the
assemblage of any context at a given site
in the research area, with the exception of
Weeden Island components at Cat Island and
Little Bradford, where Carolina marsh clams naturally thrive given the low-salinity waters. It is possible that the dominance ofCarolina marsh clam in the pit features ratherthan themidden atDanMayrepresents specific episodes ofcollecting and depositing these species. The results of survey and test excavations reported here show the potential and need for additional archaeological
investigations at Dan May. Further testing at Dan May would provide important information concerning a period of time that is not well understood in the research area. Likewise,
continuedidentificationandtestingofcontemporaneous sites in region would ultimately assist the goals of the LSAS to documentthe full rangeofvariation in the distribution,timing, and contentofarchaeological sites inthe study area (Sassaman et al. 2011). Following these recommendations would help clarify the post-abandonment period of civic-ceremonial centers (A.D. 700-1000) in the Lower Suwannee region.
Acknowledgements
I would like to acknowledge the crew from the Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology who undertook this fieldwork: Kenneth Sassaman, Ginessa Mahar, Andrea Palmiotto, Kris Hall, and Micah Mon�s. I would also like to acknowledge Kenneth Sassaman for his guidance in writing this and the initial site report, and Sean Buchannan, and Meggan Blessing for contributing to the analysis ofartifacts

Table 5.Absolute Frequency,Weight,MNI, and Ratio ofTaxafor Oysters and Carolina Marsh Clams by Bulk Sample.
RightValve LeftValve FragmentTotal
MNI/ Ratioof

Oyster ct wt(g) Ct wt(g) ct wt(g) MNI
Liter Taxa ii 90 551.9 64 838.2 713.9 2104.0 90 12 12:1 m 53 246.5 59 448.0 538.5 1233.0 59 9 9:1
F.l 28 142.6 35 361.7 316.5 820.8 35 3 1:2 F.2A 4 28.8 3 1.6 40.8 71.2 4 1 1:9 F.2C 16 107.1 15 76.2 145.5 328.8 16 2 1:9
F.3 3 17.1 3 5.5 30.0 52.1 3 <1 0:1
f.4 0 0 0 00.20.2 0 00:1 Total 194 1094.0 179 1730.7 1785.4 4610.1 207 4 1:3
Marsh Clam ii 3 26.8 3 16.2 21.3 64.3 3 <1 1:12 hi 2 2.9 2 10.8 11.0 24.7 2 <1 1:9
F.l 79 620.3 91 683.2 417.5 1721.0 91 7 2:1 F.2A 9 21.5 3 10.9 49.2 81.6 9 9 9:1 F.2C 151 1178.3 165 1424.0 212.2 2814.5 165 17 9:1
F.3 2 14.1 7 40.3 59.8 114.2 7 1 1:0
F.4 1 8.6 15.83.718.1 1 1 1:0 Total 247 1872.5 272 2191.2 774.7 4838.4 278 6 3:1
Table 6. Summary ofAttributes Indicative ofResource Niche and Mariculture.
Parasitism

Sample n Right Left Mean Mean Mean Scars Parasitism
on Scar

n n nnn
% % Height Length HLR % % % II 154 90 58 64 42 51.19 32.71 1.58 27 63i 16 0 0 III 112 53 47 59 53 52.67 32.08 1.61 15 68 14 64 1 5
F.l 632844355662.94 36.64 1.73 1267 1 6 0 0 F.2A 7 457 34321.64 12.48 1.74 150 0 0 0 0 F.2C 31 1652 154848.36 26.31 1.87 267 0 0 0 0 F.3 6 350 350 Total 373 194 52 179 48 53.20 32.68 1.63 57 65 22 25 1 1
from Dan May. Access to Dan May Island was granted by the landowner, Mr.Allen Scott. I also acknowledge Joe Hipps, the island�s caretaker, who provided logistical support for field investigations and back-filled TUI with heavy equipment. Funding for the Dan May project was provided by the Hyatt and Cici Brown Endowment for FloridaArchaeology.
References Cited
Bronk Ramsey, Christopher, and Sharen Lee 2013 Recent and Planned Developments in the Program OxCal. Radiocarbon 55 (2-3):720-730.
Buchannan, Sean M.
2017 Dispersed and Diverse: Accounting for Ceramic VariationatDanMay(8LV917).Paperpresentedatthe 69th Annual Meeting ofthe Florida Anthropological Society, Jacksonville.

Donop, Mark C. 2017 BundledAncestor:ThePalmettoMound(8LV2)onthe
FloridaGulfCoast. Ph.D.dissertation.Gainesville: DepartmentofAnthropology, UniversityofFlorida.

Jenkins, JessicaA.
2017 Methods for Inferring Oyster Mariculture on Florida�s Gulf Coast. Journal of Archaeological Science 80:74-82.
Jenkins,JessicaA.,KennethE. Sassaman,SeanM.Buchanan, and Meggan E. Blessing 2017 ArchaeologicalInvestigationsatDanMay(8LV917),
Levy County, Florida. Technical Report 24. LaboratoryofSoutheasternArchaeology,Department ofAnthropology, UniversityofFlorida, Gainesville.

Marquardt, William H., and Karen J. Walker
2013 The Pineland Site Complex: Theoretical and CulturalContexts.In TheArchaeologyofPineland: A CoastalSouthwestFloridaSite Complex, edited byWilliam H. Marquardt andKaren J. Walker, pp. 1-22. Monograph 4. Institute ofArchaeology and
Paleoenvironmental Studies, University of
Florida, Gainesville.

McFadden,Paulette S.,andAndreaPalmiotto
2012 Archaeological Investigations at Bird Island (8DI52), Dixie County, Florida. Technical Report 14. LaboratoryofSoutheasternArchaeology,Department ofAnthropology, UniversityofFlorida, Gainesville.
McFadden, Paulette S.
2014 Archaeological Investigations at Butler Island Northeast (8DI50), Dixie County, Florida. Technical Report 20. Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology, Department of Anthropology, UniversityofFlorida, Gainesville.
Pluckhahn, Thomas J.,VictorD. Thompson, BrentR.Weisman
2010 Toward a New View of History and Process at Crystal River (8CI1). Southeastern Archaeology 29:164-181.
Sassaman, Kenneth E., Paulette S. McFadden, and Micah P. Mon�s 2011 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 2009�
2010:InvestigationsatCatIsland,BirdIsland, and Richards Island. Technical Report 10. Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology, Department of Anthropology, UniversityofFlorida, Gainesville.
Sassaman, Kenneth E., Ginessa J. Mahar, Mark C. Donop,
Jessica A. Jenkins, Anthony Boucher, Cristina I. Oliveira,
Joshua M. Goodwin
2015 Lower Suwannee Archaeologica Survey 2013-2014
Shell Mound and Cedar Key Tracts. Technical Report 23, Laboratory ofSoutheastern Archaeology, Department ofAnthropology, UniversityofFlorida.
Sassaman, Kenneth E., Neill J. Wallis, Paulette S. McFadden, Ginessa J. Mahar, JessicaA. Jenkins,MarkC. Donop,Micah
P. Mon�s, Andrea Palmiotto, Anthony Boucher, Joshua M. Goodwin, and Cristinia I. Olieira 2016 Keeping Pace with Rising Sea: The First Six Years
of the Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey, GulfCoastal Florida. Journal ofIsland and Coastal Archaeology 12(2):173-199.

Wallis, Neill J., Paulette S. McFadden, and Hayley M.
Singleton

2015 Radiocarbon Dating the Pace of Monument
Construction and Village Aggregation at Garden Patch: A Ceremonial Center on the Florida Gulf Coast. JournalofArchaeological Science: Reports
2:507-516.

Wallis, Neill J, Ann S. Cordell, Erin Harris-Parks, Mark C. Donop, and Kristen Hall 2017 Provenance of Weeden Island �Sacred� and
�Prestige� Vessels: Implications for Specialized Ritual Craft Production. Southeastern Archaeology 36:131-143.

Wang, Ting, Donna Surge, and Karen Jo Walker
2011 Isotopic Evidence for Climate Change during the Vandal Minimum from Ariopsis felis Otoliths and Mercenaria campechensis Shells, Southwest Florida, USA. TheHolocene21(7):1081-1091.
Willey, Gordon R. 1949 ArchaeologyofFloridasGulfCoast.Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 113. Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF HUMAN SKELETAL REMAINS CURATED BY FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY: REDISCOVERED OSTEOLOGICAL MATERIALS AND AN UPDATED ACCOUNTING OF RESEARCH
Peter J. Ferdinando1,2

1 VisitingLecturer,DepartmentofHistory,theUniversityofNorthCarolinaatCharlotte,9201UniversityCityBlvd.Charlotte, NC28223 2 Curator ofAnthropology and Ethnohistory, The Palm Beach Museum ofNatural History, 10300 Forest Hill Blvd. Suite 172, Wellington, FL 33414 E-mail:pferdina@uncc.edu
Consultation Notice and Statement ofIdentities
Subsequent to the author�s research on Florida Atlantic University�s human osteological collections detailed in the below article, the DepartmentofAnthropology atFAU and the
SeminoleTribeofFloridaenteredinto aconsultationonNative American Graves Protection and RepatriationAct(NAGPRA) compliance. They beganthis currently ongoing consultation in July2018 andthe Seminolerequested andFAU agreedto close access to these collections during this process (MeredithA. B. Ellis, personal communication, 2019). In recognition of the vital importance ofopen dialogue involving all stakeholders, this author corresponded with the Seminole Flistorical Preservation Office and FAU Anthropology concerning the belowpaper.Allstakeholders cameto asuccessfulcompromise thatincluded the inclusionofthis consultationnotice about the importanceofmeaningful dialogue coming outofNAGPRA and an acknowledgment of the need for cultural sensitivity,
respect, and protection for all ancestors, along with these two subsequent paragraphs that discuss the multiple identities of the individuals under discussion in the below article.
The human remains under review in this paper have several distinct but sometimes overlapping identities. The Seminole recognize these individuals with an identity as
�valued ancestors� (Domonique deBeaubien, personal communication, 2019). Theseindividuals also appearcurrently on the NAGPRA Culturally Unidentifiable Native American
Inventories Database (NAGPRA Database, 3/4/2019). Such an unidentified identity may or may not be a permanent designation, however, with identity fluid both in the past and present(Colwell-ChanthaphonhandPowell2012;Kakaliouras 2012). This author, coming from a bioarchaeological perspective, asserts that the scientific study and re-study of human remains is avital avenue to understanding past peoples and populations (Landau and Steele 1996). This paper thus uses terminology derived from statistics such as �samples�
to refer to the individual collections ofhuman remains from archaeological sites and �populations� to the overall regional populaces. Readers should not take such a bioarchaeological identity wrapped in statistical and scientific terms as an attempt to obscure the reality that these human remains were/
are individuals and that they belonged/belong to a variety of kinship networks.
Another identity for these individuals, of course, is as part ofthe Florida peninsula�s pre-and post-contact history. There is disagreement presently, however, over the identity and trajectory of such individuals, the temporal depth of tribal affiliations, and cultural extinctions in the post-contact era. On the one hand, Jerald T. Milanich (1995) and John E. Worth (2009) both argued that Florida�s original indigenous
inhabitantssuccumbedinthe 1700slargelybecauseofEnglish Carolina-sponsored and Yamasee-and Creek-led raids for indigenous slaves. In such an interpretation, the Seminole and Miccosukee were relative latecomers to Florida and filled the void leftby the extinctpeoples like the Calusa andAis. On the otherhand, PatriciaRilesWickman(1999) arguedthata shared cosmogony across much of the American Southeast means thathistorianscannotcutoffthepeninsulapeoples asdistinct Florida Indians who are now extinct, but rather must examine the region-wide transformation that led to the emergence of the multicultural Creek, Miccosukee, and Seminole. This discussion over extinction, survival, and the pre-and post� contact Native Americans ofFlorida and the widerAmerican Southeast is important, and continued dialogue must include
information from all sources and conversation among all stakeholders, but it is beyond the scope ofthis paper.
Introduction
The following bibliography of human skeletal remains curated by Florida Atlantic University (FAU) is the result of two distinct threads of research. The first thread highlights the reality that digging into the backrooms of museums and universities often is as enlightening as being in the field. The preparation for a widerbioarchaeological project investigating the populations ofthe East Okeechobee and Lake Okeechobee areas thus led to the discovery of a number of additional archaeologically-relevant human skeletal samples curated by FAU�s DepartmentofAnthropology.1 Bioarchaeologists have not described these osteological collections previously, and
information aboutthem is gatheredhereforthefirsttime.While full bioarchaeological investigation of these rediscovered

Vol.71(2) TheFloridaAnthropologist May2019
samples must await future publications, this paper inventories the material and includes some preliminary data.
The second research thread leading to this bibliography ties into the continued reverberations of NAGPRA. Two of
the ongoingpositive effectsofNAGPRAinclude the strong impetus for federally-funded repository facilities to inventory and document the osteological materials they curate, and the development of a defined method for Native Americans
and other stakeholders to consult over the disposition and
repatriationofNativeAmericanhumanremains. Infact, this dialogue among all stakeholders who want to protect the history, heritage, anddignityofthe peoplesofthe pastremains a key way to bridge sometimes-divergent views. In Florida,
the former effect also resulted in two previous publications in
The Florida Anthropologist (Kessel 2001; Ferdinando 2007). Morton Kessel recognized that his bibliography of human remains curated by FAU would be �an evolving document that will require regular updates (2001:27).� This paper thus inventories the FAU osteological samples not included in Kessel�s original article, and provides an update
on recent research projects using FAU�s human
skeletal collections.
Rediscovered Human Remains Curated
by FAU

The following entries inventory the rediscoveredFAUhumanosteologicalmaterials.
They are listed alphabetically by archaeological site name, and, when available, include the Florida Master Site File number (FMSF), site
chronology and components, minimum number of individuals (MNI2) held by FAU and other
organizations, available publications about the site, and any otherpertinent information.Abrief note concerning the archaeological sites in the Canal Pointregionprecedes the entries covering
the skeletal samples fromCanalPoint2 (8PB45) and Canal Point 3 (8PB46). Additionally,
the samples from the Boca Raton Midden (8PB12) and Boca Weir (8PB56) are grouped under the wider village�s name of the Spanish River Complex, and again a short note about that aboriginal town precedes these entries. Figure 1 maps the generalized locations ofthe
sites covered in this text. Table 1 includes the
chronologies for the Glades, East Okeechobee, and Lake Okeechobee areas. Table 2 presents
a master list of human skeletal samples
curated by FAU, including those discussed in Kessel (2001) and in this article. While the rediscovered osteological samples with a large minimum number ofindividuals will be subject
to separate papers, Tables 3 and 4 include brief
Belle Glade (8PB41), FAUMNI=23 TheBelleGlade site includes amidden(8PB40) andburial
mound (8PB41), with the course ofthe now extinct Democrat Riverrunning betweenthetwo. GordonWilley�s (1949) report onthe 1930sexcavationattheBelleGladesiteincludedabrief
appraisal of the burial mound�s construction. He indicated five distinct components: Old Habitation Level, Old Muck Mound, First Sand Mound, Two Small Habitation Levels, and Final Sand Mound with possible intrusive contact-era burials. Becauseofthepaucityofceramic sherds distributed throughout the burial mound, Willey (1949:72) was cautious concerning temporal placement ofthese mound components in comparison to the two distinct periods he recorded for the Belle Glade Midden. Barbara Purdy (1991:79) suggested that �since manyofthewooden objects are similarto the Ft. Center carvings, a tentative date ofAD 200-600 can be suggested for
theFirst SandMound.�RadiocarbonworkbyPeterFerdinando and Micheline Hilpert (2008), however, argued for a later date for the constructionofthe First Sand Mound.
osteometricdataforthoseonesthatincludeonly Figure1.MapofFloridawithgeneralizedsitelocations.Mapby afewindividuals.3 theauthorusingArcGISandlocationdatainFMSF.Thenumbers correspond to the archaeological sites listed in Table 2.
Table 1. Southern Florida Chronologies

Glades Area East Okeechobee Area Lake Okeechobee Area
Glades IIIc East Okeechobee IV
(A.D. 1513-1763) (A.D. 1513-1763)
Belle Glade IV
Glades IIIb (A.D. 1400-1513) (A.D. 1200/1400-1700)
Glades Ilia
(A.D. 1200-1400) East Okeechobee III (A.D. 1000-1513)
Glades lie
(A.D. 1100-1200)
Glades lib Belle Glade III
(A.D. 900-1100) (A.D. 600/800-1200/1400)
East Okeechobee II
Glades Ha (A.D. 750-900) (A.D. 800-1000)
Glades I late
(A.D. 500-750) East Okeechobee I Belle Glade II
Glades I early (500 B.C.-A.D. 500) (750 B.C.-A.D. 800) (A.D. 200-A.D. 600/800) Belle Glade I

(450 B.C.-A.D. 200)

For the GladesArea see Wheeler 2004 and compare with Carr 2012; for the East OkeechobeeArea see Wheeler 2002; and for theLakeOkeechobeeAreasee Sears 1982andcomparewithWilley 1949andJohnson 1996.
There were two main collection periods for human remains from the Belle Glade mound. During the 1930s, the Smithsonian sponsored a systematic excavation of the
site as part of a Depression-era work program by the Civil Works Administration and the Federal Emergency Relief
Program (Willey 1949). The exact number of individuals recovered during the 1930s is unknown, but Ales Hrdlicka
(1940) published craniometric data for 17 males and 26 females, suggesting at least an MNI=43. Subsequent analysis ofthis Smithsonian-held material include a single measured radiocarbon date of 920 � 40 BP, with a 2-sigma calibrated
range of 970-890 and 860-800 BP, and a comparative analysis of age, sex, stature, ancestry, and paleopathology (Stojanowski and Johnson 2011; Smith 2015). Also ofnote, in
1973 the Smithsonian deaccessioned part oftheir Belle Glade
collection and sentitto the Iowa StateUniversityArchaeology
Laboratory,withthismaterialmovedagainin 1994totheIowa Office of the State Archaeologist (IOSA). Robin M. Lillie and Bryan Ludwig (2004) reported an MNI=35 for the IOSA collection,basedonrepeatedvertebrae andjuvenileremains. As with Hrdlicka (1940), Lillie and Ludwig (2004) recorded both males and females. They also noted the presence of subadults, adults, and older adults. A total MNI for the 1930s samplecurrently isunknown, becauseno one hasyetexamined the entiretyofthis collection.
The second collecting period at the Belle Glade Burial Mound occurred during the 1970s with several salvage excavations at the site. Audrey Sublett (1975) led an
excavation in November 1975 during the construction of a new house. Recovered osteological materials included seven burials discovered in situ in the Old Muck Mound and First
Sand Mound, along with a large surface scatter of human bones likely from these same components. The Palm Beach Museum of Natural History (PBMNH) curates one of the in situ burials (Ferdinando 2007). The repository for the remaining six burials is unknown. FAU holds the surface scatter. Ferdinando and Hilpert (2008) calculated an MNI=23 fortheFAU sampleusingthenumberofleftdistalone-third humeral shafts. Furthermore, their analysis of this material
indicatedthepresenceofbothmales andfemales, alongwith juveniles and adults. This age and sex distribution thus is similar to the 1930s sample. Personnel from the Glades Historical Society, the original Palm Beach County Archaeological Society (PBCAS), and the Broward County Archaeological Society (BCAS) completed another excavation at the Belle Glade site in 1977, uncovering a commingled human bone layer. The Lawrence
E. Will Museum (LEW) stored this material for a number of years prior to this collection�s repatriation (FMSF: 8PB40, 8PB41; Smith 2015). Catherine Smith (2015) examined the
Table 2. Human skeletal remains curated by FAU.
Site Name Smithsonian Trinomial MNI Reference
1 Belle Glade Mound 8PB41 23 PF
2 Boynton Multiple Mounds 8PB100 17 MK/PF
3 Briarwoods Site 8PA66 67 MK/PF/DP
4 Brickell Bluff 8DA1082 4 MK
5 Canal Point 2 8PB45 20 PF
6 Canal Point 3 8PB46 19 PF
7 Emerald Towers 8BD57 1 PF
8 Flagami South 8DA1053 16 MK
9 House ofRefuge Midden 8MT354 2 PF
10 Jose Marti 8DA3220 1 PF
11 Joseph Reed Shell Ring 8MT13 1 PF
12 Kendall-John Site 8DA1081 1 PF
13 Margate Blount 8BD41 12 MK/PF
14 Mound Crossing 8CR86 8 PF
15 Nebot 8PB219 2 MK
16 Patrician 8PB99 8 MK/PF
17 Republic Groves 8HR4 37 MK
18 Riviera Site 8PB30 1 PF
19 Santa Maria 8DA2132 5 MK
20 Spanish River Complex
Boca Raton Midden 8PB12 2 PF
Boca Weir 8PB56 2 PF
Highland Beach Mound 8PB11 216 MK/PF/CH
21 Waldron 8PB554 1 PF
22 Williamson Mound 1 8CR703 1 PF
Total Minimum Number ofIndividuals 467

MK: Morton Kessel 2001 Article; PF: Peter Ferdinando this article; DP: Deborah Pinto 2004 Thesis; CH: Christopher Hennessey 2015 Thesis
Table 3. Cranial measurements. Site Bone Measurement Result Belle Glade See Smithsonian: Hrdlicka 1940 Canal Point 2 See Smithsonian: Hrdlicka 1940; FAU: Ferdinando Database Canal Point 3 See Smithsonian: Hrdlicka 1940 Emerald Towers N/A
HouseofRefugee N/A
Jose Marti N/A Joseph Reed N/A Kendall Site N/A

Mound Crossing N/A Riviera Site Lt Parietal Thickness 6.5 mm
Chord 104.58 mm SpanishRiverComplex: SeeFAUBocaWeir/BocaRatonMidden:Furey1972;PBMNHBocaWeir:FerdinandoDatabase; FAUHighlandBeachBurialMound: Winland1993, 2002, Hennessey2015, FerdinandoDatabase Boca Weir Frontal Chord 116 mm Lt Mandible Height 25 mm
Breadth 12 mm Min Ramus Breath 37 mm Max Ramus Height 45 mm Mandible Length 97 mm
Waldron I�can 1989 Williamson Mound #1 Rt Mandible Height 32.86 mm
Breadth 14.67 mm Lg Lt Temporal Mastoid Height 34.35 mm Lt=left,Rt=right, Lg=large/robust,Min=minimum,Max=maximum.Allmeasurementsinitalics areestimated based onthe re� maining bone.
Table 4. Post-cranial measurements.

Site Bone Measurement Result
BelleGlade SeeIOSA:Lillie&Ludwig2004;FAU:FerdinandoDatabase CanalPoint2 SeeFAU:FerdinandoDatabase Canal Point 3 N/A Emerald Towers Rt Tibia Reconstructed Length 33.27+/-1.09 cm Stature 154.28+/-6.48 cm
V; � -:-m
HouseofRefuge RtHumerus ReconstructedLength 28.73+/-1.18cm
Jose Marti N/A
Joseph Reed N/A
Kendall Site N/A
Mound Crossing N/A

Riviera Site Lt Femur Midshaft Circ 75 mm Reconstructed Length 40.22+/-1.02 cm Stature 153.91+/-6.46 cm See FAU Boca Weir/Boca Raton Midden: Furey 1972; PBMNH Boca Weir: Ferdinando Spanish River Complex: Database; FAU Highland Beach Burial Mound: Winland 1993, 2002, Hennessey 2015, Ferdinando Database Waldron I�can 1989 Williamson Mound #1 Sm Lt Femur Head Head Dia 39.29 mm
Sm Rt Femur Head Head Dia 39.03 mm Reconstructed Length 42.27+/-1.23 cm
�*
-. *�

Stature 159.22+/-7.00 cm
Lg Femur Head Head Dia 44.41 mm Rt Femur Shaft AP Subtroc Dia 25.50 mm
ML Subtroc Dia 28.91 mm
.
:

AP Midshaft Dia 26.15 mm
ML Midshaft Dia 24.89 mm �
Midshaft Circ 77 mm
Reconstructed Length 39.86+/-1.02 cm
Stature 152.98+/-6.46 cm
H �.
�;

H Lg Femur Shaft Midshaft Circ 92 mm
j
Rt Tibia Shaft Circ nutrient foramen 99 mm
.... ..
�

RtUlnashaft APDia 18.01mm
Lt=left, Rt=right, Sm=small/gracile, Lg=large/robust, Circ=circumference, Dia=diameter, AP=anterior-posterior, ML=medial�lateral, Subtroc=subtrochanter. All measurements in italics are estimated based on the remaining bone.
LEW collection, calculated an MNI=10 to 12, and completed
comparative analysis with some of the above Belle Glade
collections. Ofparticular importance, she argued against the
idea that the area inhabited by the Belle Glade culture was a
regionoflowpopulation, athesisthatfurthertestingusingall the various Belle Glade skeletal collections could examine.
The Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH)

curates a small collection from Belle Glade with an MNI=3
(NAGPRA Database, 11/22/2017). To determine whether this
material comes from the 1930s, 1970s, or another excavation
will require more research.
A Note about CanalPointArchaeologicalSites
There are a cluster of archaeological sites close to the

modern-day community ofCanal Point, including Canal Point
1 (8PB44), Canal Point 2 (8PB45), Canal Point 3 (8PB46),
Canal Point 4 (8PB47), Canal Point Ridge 1 (8PB6227), Canal Point Ridge 2 (8PB6228), Kreamer Island (8PB43), Kreamer Island Mound (8PB93), and Ritta Island (8PB92). These sites
are
in thevicinityofa formerbeachridge thatroughlyparallels the present Lake Okeechobee shoreline (Kennedy et al. 1991). Kreamer Island and Ritta Island both played an important role in the pre-contact exchange networks ofFlorida (Mount 2009). The integration ofthe various Canal Point sites with the regional exchange networks, however, needs more research.
Excavations at Canal Point 2 and 3, Kreamer Island,

and Ritta Island produced human remains (FMSF: 8PB43, 8PB45, 8PB46, 8PB92). Unfortunately, the combination of the impact of agricultural development, and a lack of
differentiation between the sites, their various components,
and their chronologies renders much about the Canal Point osteological samples unclear. Hrdlicka�s (1940)publicationof craniometric data for three male and five female skulls from
Canal Point highlights such issues. He did not distinguish whether these samples came from Canal Point 2 and 3
(FMSF: 8PB45). While Hrdlicka did not indicate specific sites for these Smithsonian-curated crania, information in
T. Dale Stewart (1939:462) noted that some of the skulls were �shell encrusted� and came from a shell mound. Using
Stewart�s map, and information in the FMSF (8PB46) noting Canal Point 3 as a shell and muck mound, it is likely that at least some ofthe Smithsonian-held collection came from
that mound site. Although a date for this mound is unknown, the earliest appearance of other burials mounds in southern Florida was approximately A.D. 500 (Widmer 1988:78). A laterFAU-led excavation at Canal Point 3, or as they called it the Bryant Site, did not record the presence ofa mound and the recovered ceramics primarily suggests a transitional date (ca. 1000B.C.-A.D.500)(Hoffman1966).Thischronological discontinuity may be the result of distinct components at a singlesite,orsuggestthelabelingofseveralseparate sites as
Canal Point 3. More work in the Canal Point area is required to clarify such issues.
CanalPoint 2 (8PB45), FAUMNI=20
notes on the collection�s boxes, archaeologists collected this osteologicalsampleinthe 1980sfollowing areportofhuman remains to the local police. The university holds no other
artifactsfromthesite,andwithoutany ofrelativedating
means

the ageofthematerialcurrentlyisunknown. Bioarchaeological work on this sample by the author indicated the presence of malesandfemales, alongwithseveraljuveniles.AnMNI=20
was calculated from the right temporal bones.
CanalPoint 3 (8PB46) FAUMNI=19
As discussed above, the Smithsonian-and FAU-curated samples from Canal Point 3 are either from two distinct components of the same site, or from two separate sites in close geographical proximity. In 1930, the Southern Sugar Company recovered skeletal materials from the upper 1 m of
the shell mound and sent them to the Smithsonian. Stewart
(1939) found evidence of obelionic cranial deformation in that sample. Additionally, Hrdlicka (1940) measured some ofthe skulls from this same collection, but again he did not
differentiate between the different Canal Point sites.
FAU acquired their Canal Point 3 skeletal sample three decades later, againowingto the activitiesofsugargrowers. In 1965, during constructionofponds forwastewater, employees of the Untied States Sugar Company found artifacts and a
human burial located several meters beneath the surface.
Archaeologists from FAU conducted limited fieldwork and recovered a partial skeleton of a young adult male, along
with some other artifacts. The presence of St. Johns Incised
suggestsapossibleLateArchaic-GladesIdate(ca. 1000B.C.�

A.D.
500). The next year, FAU personnel followed up with another small excavation at the site, recovering the remaining
osteological material that constitutes the Canal Point 3 sample at the university (Hoffman 1966). Preliminary bioarchaeological work on this sample by the author calculated an MNU19 from repeated mandibular
mental spines. Additionally, morphological markers, along with the size and development of the bones, suggest the presenceofmales and females. The collection also includes at leasttwojuveniles, evident from long bone fragments without fused epiphyses.
Emerald Towers (8BD57) FAUMNI=1 This shell midden site is located on a Broward County
coastal barrier island. It was discovered during construction of the Emerald Towers high-rise condominiums and it includes both habitation and mortuary components. A team from FAU undertook the initial salvage at the site in early September 1971, and the BCAS accomplished additional work there later the same month (Furey and Steinen 1971; Mowers 1974). Both groups uncovered typical midden materials, including faunal bones and pottery sherds, along with human skeletal remains. The combined ceramic data from these excavations included
51 sherdsofsand-temperedplain,and 8sherdsofBelleGlade Plain, suggestive of a date between Glades I and II (ca. 500

B.C.-A.D.
1000). Robert S. Carr et al.�s (1993) Broward County

FAU curates a collection from the Canal Point 2 site, archaeological survey indicated that Emerald Towers might whichislocatednearPelicanLake.Accordingtoacoupleof havebeenacomponentofthePompanoBeachMidden(8BD6).
The FAU collection includes 26 bone fragments and no
teeth. The remains are of at least one adult female, based
on the fused epiphysis ofa gracile distal tibial fragment and the wide sciatic notch of the pelvis, respectively. The rest of the associated fragments also are quite lightly built and
could represent the same individual. This material should be compared to the Emerald Towers skeletal remains held by the PBMNH (MNT=1) to determine ifthey potentially represent parts ofthe same individual (Ferdinando 2007).
HouseofRefuge Midden (8MT354) FAUMNI=2
According to Carr et al.�s (1995) Martin County archaeological survey, this shell midden is under the House of Refuge structure on Gilbert�s Bar located on Hutchinson Island.AthinEastOkeechobeeIV(A.D. 1513-1763)contact�
era component, including some olive jar fragments, overlies a more extensive East Okeechobee I (750 B.C.-A.D. 800)
shellmiddenwithsherdsofsand-temperedplainpottery. The FAU-held material originates from a 1967 surface collection by unknown individuals. Associated artifacts include shell fragments and sand-tempered plain pottery sherds. The absence of any decorated Glades sherds and the lack of contact-era goods in association with the burials strongly suggests that the skeletal remains should be assigned to the
earlier East Okeechobee I componentofthe site.
TheHouseofRefugeskeletalsampleincludes66fragments ofhuman bone and no teeth. Mostofthe bone pieces are quite
small, and many appear to have extensive surface wear. There are at least two individuals in this collection based on two
overlapping segments of frontal bone. Three non-contiguous femurfragmentsofdiffering size anddevelopment,however, hint at the presence ofmore individuals. Furthermore, all of theremainsareadults, asindicatedbyfusedepiphysesandthe sizeofthe bones. The collection also includes both sexes, due
to
the thicknessofthe eye orbit and prominenceofthe glabella on one frontal, and the diminutive size ofa left talus.

Jose Marti (8DA3220) FAUMNI=1 The Jose Marti site is a shallow black dirt midden on the
southernbankoftheMiami River.Accordingto information in the FMSF (8DA3220), archaeologists monitored construction at Jose Marti Park in 1983, leading to the recovery faunal bone and shell, pottery sherds, and worked bone, shell, and stone. According to a letter by Carr in the site�s FMSF, the archaeologists also uncovered a single human skull, and
charcoalassociatedwiththeskullrendered�adateofca. 200

A.D.-500A.D.�
The osteological collection curated by FAU from this site includes five bags of very small and quite worn human

bone fragments. Notes on the bags indicate that the material was excavated in 1983, suggesting it may be from the same
excavation referenced above. Of the few recognizable bone elements, long bone fragments and a mandible piece are present. Several adult teeth are included, all of which are very worn. Sex determination was not possible due to the fragmentary nature of the sample. It is unclear how these fragments relate with the noted cranium.
Joseph ReedShellRing (8MT13) FAUMNI=1
The Joseph Reed Shell Ring is an intriguing LateArchaic (ca. 3300 B.P.) site with extremely early dated St. Johns Plain pottery sherds. It is located on Jupiter Island, adjacent to the beach,andis alowincompletecircleofshellmiddenmaterial about 250 m across (Russo and Heide 2002; Wheeler et al. 2002). While Michael Russo and Gregory Heide�s (2002) investigation helped clarify some of the details concerning this important site, preliminarywork for an ultimately aborted excavation by FAU also recorded vital information. In 1965,
William Sears and Charles Hoffman visited the site in the
company ofNat Reed, then the site owner, and they recovered three sherds ofSt. Johns Plain and one sherdofsand-tempered plain. Sears,realizingtheimportanceofthe site,wanteditto be fully mapped and partially excavated. He was unable to complete this project, however, because oflegal complexities relating to the property�stitle transfer from the Reed family to
the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (Carr et al. 1995; Sears Correspondence; FMSF: 8MT13). FAU curates the right side of a human skull, partially encrusted in matrix. Considering the size of the mastoid, this individual probably was male. Additionally, the size and developmentofthe skull indicates that the remains were those of an adult. According to correspondence on file at FAU,
Ranger Charles Bacheller sent this skull to the university in 1966 at the direction of the aforementioned Reed. Russo and Heide (2002) briefly discussed the possibility of human remains from the Joseph Reed Shell Ring, but concluded that the recoverycontext isnotclear andthathumanremains found
at
other shell rings have beenlaterintrusiveburials. Reviewing Sears� correspondence about the site, however, there seems a clear case that this skull came from the Joseph Reed Shell Ring, but it could verywell be intrusive. Alsoofinterest, Carr et al. (1995) discussed a newspaper report from 1962 that indicated the possible presence of additional human remains atthesite.Inthatyear, aseverestormimpactedthesitelocale,
and scattered human remains were noted in the aftermath.
Kendall-John Site (8DA1081) FAUMNI=1
The Kendall-John site, also known as the West Kendall site, is a black dirt midden on the northern end of an Everglades tree island. The site is 15 m in diameter and has
a relative elevation of 75-100 cm. The recovered ceramic assemblage indicated a Glades I to Glades III occupation (ca. 500B.C.-A.D. 1513).ThePeninsularArchaeologicalSociety excavated there in 1972. John Reiger then collected artifacts at this location from 1978 through 1980. Carr and a team of volunteers followed up in 1983, and recovered fragmentary
human remains. They then sent these pieces to Mehmet Ya�ar I�can atFAU�s DepartmentofAnthropologyforidentification. Archaeologists also uncovered additional human remains during a later excavation (Carr 1981; Franklin et al. 2008; FMSF: 8DA1081). The FAU collection from the Kendall-John site includes fragmentary limb and cranial bones, along with other smaller, largely unidentifiable, elements, and some faunal bones. This material appears to be from the 1983 excavation

originallysentto I�can.Allofthebones arequitewornand
fragmentary. No duplicate bones were noted, suggesting an
MNI=1. Given the presenceofpermanent teeth andnoting
the general size and development of several of the bones,
this individual was an adult. The sex of the individual remains indeterminate. The reasonably robust mandibular mental eminence andblunt eye orbits suggest a male, but the
humerus is relatively gracile. Consequently, the presence of
more than one individual is a possibility.
HistoryMiami also curates a small osteological
collection from this site, with an MNIA2 (NAGPRA database,
11/22/2017). Ryan Franklin et al. (2008) record seven bones
and teeth from a 2008 excavation at the site, with an MNI=2.
They noted that this material again was quite fragmentary and thatit was later reinterred.

MoundCrossing (8CR86) FAUMNI=8
The Mound Crossing site is a constructed sand mound located in Collier County. The FMSF (8CR86) lists very little data about this site so much ofthe following is speculative. According to Randolph J. Widmer (1988:78), Native
Americans did not construct burial mounds in southern
Florida before A.D. 500, suggesting that the Mound Crossing humanremains should datefromthattimeorlater.Ifthebox associated with the human remains is the original container, the Miami-West Indies Archaeological Society mailed this material to FAU in 1971. Furthermore, related information indicates that a report was completed, but it could not be locatedprior to the publication ofthis article. In total, this collection includes 26 bones and 52 teeth. The duplication of mandibular mental spines indicates an MNI=8. The sizeofthe bones andpatternsoftootheruption and wear indicates that these eight individuals were adults.
The presence of two permanent teeth without fully-formed roots and no surface wear, however, suggests the existence of a ninth individual. These latter teeth, a canine and a first
molar, indicate that thisjuvenile was approximately 6-8 years ofage.Both sexes arepresent, asindicatedbymorphological characteristics, alongwiththe general size and developmentof the bones.Afrontal has evident cribra orbitalia, several ofthe teeth have enamel hypoplasias, and one tooth has a cavity.
Riviera Site (8PB30) FAUMNI=1
The Riviera Complex includes three sites: the Palm Beach Inlet Midden (8PB28), the Palm Beach Inlet Mound (8PB29), and the Riviera Site (8PB30). The original PBCAS excavated
attheRivera site from 1978-1980. Ryan J. Wheeler(1992) later synthesized and published data about this excavation using the society�s notes. The Rivera site is located on atransverse beach dune to the west of the modern-day intracoastal. The site is primarily a midden, with a mound located towards the center ofthe dune. The midden was inhabited during GladesIII (A.D. 1200-1763) and probably is the site of the post-European
contact
villageofJeaga(Wheeler 1992;Wheeleretal.2002). There are a total of three osteological pieces from the Riviera Site curated by FAU. These items are an almost complete left parietal, a left femur shaft missing both ends,
and ahumantooth. Thecircumferenceofthefemurmidshaft
suggests that this individual was female, an interpretation that isfurther substantiatedbythegracilityofboththisbone
and the parietal. The parietal has evidence ofhealed porotic hyperostosis, andthefemurhasperiostitis alongmuchofthe shaft. Although the FAU catalog lists at least three human teeth originating from this site, only one was located, which was a second molar. While scant, this material demonstrates the presence ofhuman skeletal material from the Riviera Site.
A Note about the Spanish River Complex
The Spanish River Complex is a large aboriginal village that includes a number of sites: the Highland Beach Burial Mound (8PB11), the Boca Raton Midden (8PB12), the Boca Raton Burial Mound (aka the Barnhill Mound) (8PB13), Boca Beekman (8PB55), Boca Weir (8PB56), Boca Aylward (8PB57), and Boca Snead (8PB103). What makes this complex so important for bioarchaeological study is the presence ofhuman skeletal samples from several distinct time periods and locales within a single village, along with the
seminal work of Ripley P. Bullen (1957) at the Boca Raton
Burial Mound, which includes one of the best descriptions ofmortuarypractices inthe East OkeechobeeArea. Bullen�s article, coupledwith the osteological material from BocaWeir (Ferdinando 2007) and the extensively studied human remains fromtheHighlandBeachBurialMound(Winland 1993,2002; Hennessey, 2015), provides a foundation for a larger village� wide study that should incorporate the below, albeit smaller, samples from the Boca Raton Midden and Boca Weir.
The Spanish River Complex: Boca Raton Midden (8PB12) FAUMNI=2
The Boca RatonMidden is a disturbedblackdirt and shell
midden located on an island in what is today the intracoastal.
Dredging and construction impacted the site, with a preserved portion ofthe midden located to west and spoil piles found to the east ofthe intracoastal. During his extensive work at the
SpanishRiverComplex, John Furey(1972) gatheredmaterials from concentrations of surface finds from the Boca Raton
Midden. Although these finds were disturbed and possibly intrusive, Furey arguedthatthey are associatedwith the lowest levelofthemidden anddatetoGladesIEarly(ca. 500B.C.�
A.D. 500).
TheFAUhuman skeletalmaterial fromthis site originated fromtwo surface concentrations (Furey 1972). The sample has atleasttwoindividuals asdeterminedbythepresenceoftwo
right femurs. Whentaking accountofnon-matching antimeres and indicators ofsex, however, at least four individuals may be present. This small collection includes both sexes, and severalofthe bones show evidenceofperiostitis.Ofnote is the presence ofa barnacle-encrusted pelvis with an associated
sacrum
that has partial lumbarization of the first sacral element. In addition, a humerus with taphonomic indications ofbleachingandcracking suggestsweatheringandlong-term exposure prior to collection. Other bones in the collection, however, show less surface wear and may have been more recently exposedprior to Furey�s collection.

TheSpanishRiverComplex:Boca Weir(8PB56)FAUMNI-2
Boca Weir is located to the east ofthe intracoastal. It is
part of a large aboriginal midden located on a beach dune,
with the Boca Beekman, Boca Snead, and BocaAylward sites
placed progressively northwards along the dune. The BCAS excavated at this location in the 1960s and recovered human
remains (Ferdinando 2007). Furey�s (1972) later excavation also produced some human osteological material. Reviewing datafrombothoftheseexcavations, alongwithdiscussionin
Wheeler et al. (2002), NativeAmericans occupied this partof the Spanish River Complex from Glades I Late to Glades III (ca. A.D. 500-1763).
FAU�s Boca Weir collection comes from Furey�s excavation. The university curates an MNI=2, as suggested bythepresenceoftworightmaxillas.Apelvisfrom anadult
female was found in association with fragments of St. Johns Check Stamped, indicative of a later Glades II or Glades III date (ca. A.D. 1000-1763). Additionally, the recovery of
an adult male cranium in association with olive jar sherds
suggests a contact-era Glades IIIc date (A.D. 1513-1763). There also are several other institutions that curate material from Boca Weir, including the PBMNH (Ferdinando 2007),
and the FLMNH (NAGPRA, 11/22/2017).
Waldron (8PB554) FAUMNI=1 The Waldron site included a single burial uncovered
during the demolition ofa structure from the 1940s. The site is located on a beach dune along the east side ofAlA. Due to
the highly disturbed nature ofthis location, it is not clear if this was an isolated burial or a remnant ofa larger mortuary
site. The burial was found approximately 1.2 m below the modem grade. According to the brief report completed by I$can (1989), the well-preserved individual was missing only thedistal endsofthetibiae andfibulae,alongwiththebones of the feet. The broken edges of the lower limbs suggested recent fracture andprobablywere damaged during the modem

demolition activities. The burial was primary and extended, with the arms flexed and the hands folded over the pelvis. The head was pointing to the east and the feet to the west. Observing morphological characteristics, I�can (1989) concludedthatthisindividualwas arobustmaleofabout25�
35 yearsofage. I$cancalculated astatureof174.3cm+/-3.8 cm usingfemurlength,buthedidnotspecifythe specific standards employed. Interestingly, I�can noted that the teeth on both the left and right side showed evidence of circular wear, which he interpreted as habitual pipe smoking. There is no evidence ofdentalwork, and ahealedfracture on oneoftheribs does not show any modem medical treatment. This information, coupledwiththe ageofconstmctionofthe associatedbuilding, suggest an archaeological context for the remains. Finally, I�can (1989) concludedthatthe individual was eitherWhite or Native American as indicated by morphological features, and White using E. Giles and O. Elliot�s (1962) method involving discriminant analysis ofeight cranial measurements.
Williamson Mound #7 (8CR703) FAUMNI=2
While investigating the human remains curated by FAU, the author came a single box containing human skeletal
across
remains labeled �Immokalee.� As with the collection from
the Mound Crossing site, it appears someone mailed this osteological material to FAU for identification. Consulting the FMSF for Collier County, the only known site in the Immokalee area with possible human remains is Williamson Mound #1 (8CR703). Therefore, this site is a possible origin for this skeletal material. The mound is oval, constructed of sand, about 30 m in diameter and 1 m high at the tallest point. According to Carr�s narrative description filed with this site�s FMSF, �a slight depression on the mound crest suggests previous digging by collectors, but disturbances were minor.� It is possible that the skeletal collection under discussion originated from that disturbance event. As part of the same pre-development archaeological survey by Carr, three shovel
tests to 75 cm revealed no cultural deposits and sterile white
sand. The age of this mound is unknown, but again Native Americans apparently first constructed burial mounds in southernFloridanoearlierthanA.D. 500(Widmer1988:78).
Reviewing the ten bags of skeletal material packed in the Immokaleebox, the presenceoftwolefttemporal bones
suggests an MNI=2. However, the large size difference between several non-contiguous femur elements is suggestive of at least three individuals. In total, the collection includes
17 bones and 6 teeth. The skeletal material includes relatively large elements from the skull and long bones; there are no smaller bone fragments. The presence of fused epiphyses and fully erupted third molars suggests adults, with no evidence for juveniles. Moreover, at least one male and one female are represented, as indicated by a large and small mastoid processes, respectively. An occipital fragment, which includes a nuchal crest with male-like development, has light healed porotic hyperostosis. There is also evidence for slight periostitis on the distal endofthe tibia shaft.
Updates, Corrections, and Clarifications to KesseTs (2001) FAU Bibliography
Along with announcing the discovery of the above hitherto undocumented skeletal samples in FAU�s collections,
this paper affords the opportunity to make a few research updates, corrections, and clarifications about the osteological assemblages held by FAU. Since the publication ofKessel�s (2001) original article, FAU graduate students have completed several theses examining these collections. For example, Deborah Pinto (2004) reanalyzed the Briarwoods (8PA66) skeletal sample using computed tomography scans. Her analysis appearsto negatethe earlierargumentforthepresence ofPaget�s disease (osteitis deformans) inthis sample (cf. I�can and Gomez 1982). Christopher Hennessey (2015) used new methods to reanalyze the paleodemography of the Highland Beach (8PB11) osteological sample originally studied by Kenneth J. Winland (1993, 2002). Smith�s (2015) work compared some of the Belle Glade (8PB41) samples from the 1930s and 1970s, thus providing an initial step towards a broader analysis incorporating all known samples from this FAU curated the human remains from this site for a number site. Also of note are several comparative pieces, including of years, and although the NAGPRA database (9/28/2018) an article by Alison Elgart-Berry (2003) that examined stillshowsFAUastherepository,theremainsreportedlywere hypoplasticinsultsonteethfromanumberofsitesinsoutheast transferredtotheFLMNH.Additionally,theFMSFassigned Florida, a poster by Ferdinando et al. (2011) comparing stable the number 8GL12 to the Mounds/Pond complex from which isotopes from four south Florida sites, and several posters the human remains came, but Kessel (2001) incorrectly used

the number 8GL13. This latter number refers to another part

by Kendra L. Philmon et al. (2012a, 2012b) that compared treponemaldiseaseintibiaefromHighlandBeachandFort ofthesite,i.e.,MiddenAandMiddenB.Thechronologyand Center (8GL12). Finally, this author, in cooperation with the number of individuals recovered from Fort Center also
the Parkland Historical Society, the Parkland Library, and needs clarifying. Kessel (2001) cited a number of roughly thePalmBeachMuseumofNaturalHistory,reviewedthe 300burials,butPatriciaMillerShaivitz(1986)notedonly121
Margate Blount (8BD41) human skeletal remains, artifacts, and excavation notes to
develop the Paleo-Parkland: the Story of the Margate Blount Archaeological Site exhibit for the Parkland Library. Of particular note, this exhibit included the first attempt to
reconcile and plot on a single map the several excavations in the Margate Blountmidden and burial mound, see Figure 2.
This above recent research, coupled with this author�s work, suggest a few corrections to Kessel�s (2001) original article. First, for Boynton Multiple Mounds (8PB100), Kessel (2001)listedanMNI=35,buttheoriginalcount sourced from I�can and Kessel (1988) was not
based on an MNI calculation. In actuality, they counted the number of crania and post� crania separately. This author calculated an MNI=17 for Boynton Multiple Mounds sample based on the number of repeated occipitals. As an additional note of caution, while the correct FMSF number is listed in Kessel (2001), several other sources (e.g., Jaffee 1976) incorrectly list the site number as 8PB56. Second, for Margate Blount (8BD41), Kessel (2001) indicated an MNI=49, but this number originates from Incan�s (1983) paper that utilized a calculation of the maximum numberofindividuals. This authorcalculated an MNI=12 from the total number of right parietal bones of the skull. Third, Kessel (2001) indicated seven individuals from Patrician (8PB99), but again my reanalysis indicated an MNI=8 based on the repetition ofthe right radius. Fourth, for the Briarwoods site (8PA66) Kessel (2001) listed an MNI=87. Pinto�s (2004) reanalysis, however, calculated
an
MNI=67. Finally, thenumberofindividuals from the Highland BeachMound (8PB11) was listed in Kessel (2001) as MNI=120, while Winland�s study (1993, 2002) indicated a minimum of128 individuals, and Hennessey�s
recent
work (2015) suggested an MNI=216. Furthermore, several clarifications
are
necessary concerning the renowned ceremonial complex at Fort Center. While

Parkland'sMargate BlountArchaeological Site Excavation Plan
H Tree�t 19S9-196SW,WilliamsExcavation,SbySfeetPits
� 1980sG.GravesExcavation,1by1MeterPits
lr

�I1989-1990,2000W.CockrellExcavation, 1by2MeterPits
Figure 2. Margate Blount Excavation Plan. Map by the author, originally designedforthePaleo-Parkland: theStoryoftheMargateBlount Archaeological Site exhibit.
individuals based on a count of the crania. A close reading of Sears (1982) explains this discrepancy. The Sears-led excavation at Fort Center documented approximately 150 burials from Mound B and about another 150 in the Pond. He stressed, however, that the material from the mound was extremely decayed and only limited information could be recovered. Thus, themajorityofthe preservedhuman skeletal material from Fort Center originated from the Pond. Finally, while people occupied the Fort Center site from ca. 500 B.C.�
A.D. 1700, the vast majority of the human remains appear to come from the site�s period II lasting from A.D. 200 to 600/800. Careful reading of such information is vital when investigating the time depth and geographical breadth of southern Florida bioarchaeological samples.
Discussion and Conclusion
As established above in the individual site entries, the

vast majority ofthese newly reported human skeletal samples curatedbyFAU are small in number. Consequently, osteological investigation at the level of the individual site would not be recommended. Bioarchaeologists, however, could use the sum datafrom anumberofthese samplesincombinationwithother samples for wider regional-focused population studies. The following research suggestions are examplesofsuch aggregated investigations, but the applications are infinite. On the other hand, severalofthese newly documented samples havepractical application towards this author�s ongoing bioarchaeological investigationofthe populations from the East OkeechobeeArea and Lake OkeechobeeArea. In fact, this author�s projectwas the primary backdrop to the discovery ofthe previously unreported
human skeletal material discussed in this paper.
AggregatedSample Research Possibilities IntheFAU collectionthere are anumberofsmall samples
thatcould be valuable for aggregated studies. Forexample, the sample from Mound Crossing could be useful as a part of a regional studyofdentalmetric andnon-metrictraits, especially as this site is on the border of several ofthe archaeological cultures in southern Florida. Moreover, the combined samples from such a dental project could then be compared to other areas of Florida and beyond. Indeed, this approach would be a natural extension of the Elgart-Berry�s (2003) work in
southeastern Florida.
Another fascinating project might investigate the single skeleton recovered from the Waldron site. I�can (1989)
concluded that this individual might have been a European-
derived male from an archaeological context. If these two assertions are correct, this person maybe a shipwreck
victim from the times of Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda
and Jonathan Dickinson in the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries, or an eighteenth-or nineteenth-century settler like William Cooley. The combination of a radiocarbon date and stable isotope analysis could be enlightening concerning the temporal placement and diet of this individual. Comparing
such information to known groups from other areas of the
Americas could be interesting, and this data may assist Florida bioarchaeologists with distinguishing between Native American and European-derived populations.
Finally, another important aggregated examination might review the Late Archaic-Glades I samples from Miami-Dade and Broward counties. FAU curates small samples from three Miami-Dade Late Archaic-Glades I sites: Brickell Bluff
(8DA1082), Flagami South (8DA1053), and Santa Maria (8DA2132). The PBMNH curates small samples from three
Broward Late Archaic-Glades I sites: Goodman (8BD188), Markham Park I (8BD182), and Markham Park II (8BD183). A comparative analysis that brought together data from these six sites likely would reveal new information about this
transitional time period in southern Florida. Such a project would extend the work of FAU graduate student Ruben Verdes (2016), who compared the skeletal samples from the two Markham Park sites. These suggested projects are just three ways to utilize some ofthe smaller osteological samples curated by FAU and other local institutions.
The Bioarchaeology of the East Okeechobee and Lake OkeechobeePeoples In contrast to the potential aggregated studies detailed above, several of the samples discussed in this article have
direct relevance for the author�s current bioarchaeological project examining the peoples of the East Okeechobee and Lake Okeechobee areas. For example, data from the House
ofRefugee and the Boca Raton Midden samples could further bolster information concerning Glades I mortuary practices in the East Okeechobee Area. In addition, the presence of
extra, albeit small, skeletal elements from The Spanish River Complex allows for additional comparison between midden and mound burials and diachronic testing in this important
aboriginal village. Furthermore, the Lake Okeechobee Area samples from Belle Glade, Canal Point 2, and Canal Point 3, alongwith thepreviously published data from Fort Center and Boynton Multiple Mounds, are essential as an outgroup for comparisonto this East OkeechobeeAreapopulation. Overall, the existence ofpreviously unreported samples held in FAU�s collections enhances this bioarchaeological project and adds important possibilities for future research.
Conclusion The preceding discussion illustrates the importance of continuing to curate both large and small samples of
archaeologicallyrelevanthumanbone. Bonestell stories, as do documents, artifacts, and peoples. Adding the findings ofthis study to those ofKessel (2001), FAU curates human remains from twenty-four archaeological sites, with a minimum of 467 individuals, see Table 2. These collections stretch back at least 4,000 years and are from a variety ofsites across the region. Suchtemporal depth and geographical breadthpermits analysis ofhuman populations through time and space. This type of investigation would be the culmination of many researchers� hard work. Indeed, pastpublications demonstrate the commitment of the faculty of FAU�s Department of Anthropology to investigate the past. Finally, the presence of willing graduate students and other dedicated professionals

ensures
thatinvestigationofthesehumanremains isongoing, increasing our knowledge ofthe past.
Notes
1 This author has collected bioarchaeological data from the
following sites: Belle Glade Burial Mound (8PB41), Boynton
Multiple Mound (8PB100), Canal Point 2 (8PB45), Fort
Center(8GL12), HouseofRefugeMidden(8MT354), Nebot
(8PB219), Patrician (8PB99), and several sites in the Spanish
River Complex (Highland Beach Burial Mound [8PB11],
Boca Raton Midden [8PB12], and Boca Weir [8PB56]).
Furthermore, this author istrying to locatethe skeletal samples
from the Barnhill Mound (8PB13), and the Palm Beach 3
Burial Mound (8PB26), with over 70 individuals reportedly recovered from each ofthese sites.
2 The author-calculated minimum number of individuals
(MNI) utilized in this study focused strictly on the maximum number ofduplicate bones from the same side. This was the mostreliablemethodto use, becausemanyofthe sampleswere
fragmentary and/or intermingled. Iffactors such as age, sex,
or
non-matching bones from the left and right side indicated a higher number of individuals, this point is specified in the individual site entry.
3 For the development ofthe osteological data found herein, the authorused the customarytechniques described inWilliam
M. Bass (1995), Brenda J. Baker et al. (2005), Tim D. White andPieterA. Folkens(2005), andinparticulartheStandards ofJane E. Buikstra and Douglas H. Ubelaker (1994). Routine
tools were employed, including vernier calipers, outside
calipers, measuring tape, and an osteometric board.Additional sources were consulted to review paleopathologies including Donald J. Ortner (2003), and Robert W. Mann and David R. Hunt (2005). Finally, unless otherwise noted, all long bone
reconstructions used the methods of D. Gentry Steele and
Thomas W. McKern (1969), all stature estimates used the standardsofSantiago Genoves (1967), andthe computationof afinal standardoferrorforthe staturecalculationcombining
the errors from the long bone reconstruction and the stature calculation followed Steele�s (1970) technique.
Acknowledgments
My thanks are extended to the numerous people who assisted with this article. I would like to single out Ronda
Graves, Meghan Hess, Micheline Hilpert, Devin Howell, and Dr. Douglas Broadfield, who many years ago accepted distractions to their regular work while I started to rummage
around the backrooms ofFAU�s DepartmentofAnthropology. ImustacknowledgeWilliamCollins forprovidinginformation
concerning the Kendall-John site. I wantto thankJeffrey P. Du Vemay, who reviewed an earlier draft ofthis paper and made the crucial suggestion to present the information on the newly
uncoveredremains atthestartofthepiece.Ialsoexpressmy
gratitude to everyone who assisted with revising and editing

of FAU Skeletal Remains 89
this paper, especially Paul Callsen, the two anonymous reviewers, and the very patient Ramie Gougeon. Domonique deBeaubien and Paul Backhouse of the Seminole Tribe of FloridaHistorical Preservation Office, alongwithMeredithA.
B.EllisofFloridaAtlanticUniversity,contributedto acordial
and effective dialogue among the numerous stakeholders. I want
to highlight the collegiate atmosphere among the faculty ofthe UniversityofNorth Carolina at Charlotte�s Department ofHistory,whosedriveforpublications spurredmetoreturn to this dusty paper andfinish it. I also would like to denote the continuingworkofRudolph F.PascucciandThePalmBeach MuseumofNaturalHistory.As always,I endbyrecognizing thepatienceofmywife, son, andparentsforputtingupwith my absences while I hide myselfaway to work.
References Cited
Baker, Brenda J., Tosha L. Dupras, and Matthew W. Tocheri
2005 The Osteology of Infants and Children. Number Twelve: Texas A&M University Anthropology Series. Texas A&M University Press, College
Station, Texas.
Bass, William M.
1995 HumanOsteologyALaboratoryandFieldManual, Fourth Edition. Special Publication No. 2 of the Missouri Archaeological Society. Missouri Archaeological Society, Columbia, Missouri.
Buikstra, Jane E., and Douglas H. Ubelaker (eds.)
1994 StandardsforDataCollectionfromHumanSkeletal Remains, Third Printing. Arkansas Archeological Survey Research Series No. 44. Arkansas Archaeological Survey, Fayetteville, Arkansas.
Bullen, Ripley P. 1957 The Barnhill Mound, Palm Beach County, Florida.
TheFloridaAnthropologist 10:23-36.
Carr, Robert S.
1981 Dade County Historic Survey Final Report The Archeological Survey. Prepared by Metropolitan Dade County, Office of Community and Economic Development, Historical Preservation Division. Copy provided by Jeff Ransom, Miami-Dade Archaeologist, includes additional handwritten notes post-dating 1981.
2012 Digging Miami. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Carr, Robert S., Kim Heinz, Don Mattucci, andWillard Steele 1993 An Archaeological Survey of Broward County;
Florida: Phase Two. Conducted for The Broward County Office of Planning by The Archaeological and Historical Conservancy, Inc. AHC Technical Report #67.

Carr, Robert, Linda Jester, Jim Pepe, and W.S. Steele 1995 AnArchaeologicalSurveyofMartinCounty,Florida. TheArchaeological and Historical Conservancy, Inc. AHC Technical Report #124.
Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Chip and Jami Powell 2012 Repatriation and Constructs of Identity. Journal of AnthropologicalResearch 68:191-222.
Elgart-Berry,Alison
2003 Hypoplastic Insults in Prehistoric Teeth from Eight South Florida Sites. The Florida Anthropologist 56:253-266.

Ferdinando, Peter 2007 A Preliminary Review and Bibliography of Human SkeletalRemainsCuratedbythePalmBeachMuseum
of Natural History. The Florida Anthropologist 60:39-49.

Ferdinando, Peter and Micheline Hilpert
2008 TheBioarchaeologyofthe1975SalvageCollection from the Belle Glade Burial Mound (8PB41). Paper presented at the 60th Annual Meeting ofthe Florida Anthropological Society,Ybor City, Florida.
Ferdinando, Peter,Ann O. Laffey, and John Krigbaum
2011 Stable Isotope Analysis of Samples from the East Okeechobee Archaeological Area: A Preliminary Sketch of Paleodiet on the Southeast Florida Coast from 500 B.C.-A.D. 1513. Poster at the Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Jacksonville, Florida.
Florida Master Site File (FMSF)
n.d. Florida Master Site Files. On File with the Florida DivisionofHistoricalResources, Tallahassee, Florida, http://www.flheritage.com/preservation/
sitefile.

Franklin, Ryan, Joseph F. Mankowski, and John G. Beriault 2008 A Phase III Cultural Resource Assessment
of 8DA1081 within the SW157Avenue R.O. W, Miami-Dade County, Florida. On File with Archaeological and Historical Conservancy, Inc., Davie, Florida.

Furey, John E., Jr. 1972 The Spanish River Complex: Archaeological Settlement Patterning in Eastern Okeechobee Sub-Area, Florida. M.A. Thesis, Department of Anthropology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca
Raton.

Furey, John E. Jr., and Karl Steinen 1971 Emerald Towers Field Notes. Unpublished Field Notes on File with FloridaAtlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida.
Genoves, Santiago 1967 ProportionalityoftheLongBoneandtheirRelation to Stature among Mesoamericans. AmericanJournal ofPhysicalAnthropology 26:67-78.
Giles, E., and O. Elliot 1962 Race Identification from Cranial Measurements. JournalofForensic Sciences 7:147-157.
Hennessey, Christopher John
2015 PaleodemographyofHighlandBeach:Reexamining the Demographic Parameters ofa Native American Populationfrom Southeastern Florida. M.A. Thesis, Department of Anthropology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton.
Hoffman, CharlesA. 1966 Archaeological Test at the Bryant Site, Palm Beach County, Florida. Unpublished Site Report on File withFloridaAtlanticUniversity, BocaRaton,Florida.
Hrdlicka,Ales 1940 Catalog of Human Crania in the United States National Museum Collections: Indians of the Gulf
States. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 87:315-464.
I$can, Mehmet Ya$ar 1983 Skeletal Biology ofthe Margate-Blount Population. TheFloridaAnthropologist 36:154-166. 1989 A Preliminary Report on Waldron Site (8PB554) Skeletal Remains. Unpublished Report, on File with the Department of Anthropology, Florida Atlantic University.
I�can, M. Ya�ar, and J. Gomez 1982 Prehistoric Paget�s Disease in Florida. Florida Science 45(suppl.):13.
I�can, M. Ya�ar, and Morton H. Kessel 1988 OsteologyofthePrehistoricBoyntonBeachIndians. Florida Scientist 51:12-18.
Jaffee, Howard 1976 Preliminary Report on a Midden Mound and Burial Mound of the Boynton Mound Complex (8/PB56). TheFloridaAnthropologist 29:145-152.
Johnson, William Gray 1996 ABelleGladeEarthworkTypologyandChronology. TheFloridaAnthropologist 49:249-260.
Kakaliouras,Ann M.
2012 An Anthropology of Repatriation: Contemporary Physical Anthropological and Native American Ontologies of Practice. Current Anthropology
53:S210-S221.

Kennedy, Wm. J., Charles Roberts, Shih-Lung Shaw, Ryan Wheeler 1991 Prehistoric Resources in Palm Beach County
=
A Preliminary Predictive Study. Florida Atlantic University, Department of Anthropology, Boca Raton, Florida.
Kessel, Morton H.
2001 A Bibliography of Human Burial Sites Curated at Florida Atlantic University. The Florida Anthropologist 54:24-29.
Landau, Patricia M., and D. Gentry Steele 1996 Why Anthropologists Study Human Remains. AmericanIndian Quarterly 20:209-228.
Lillie, Robin M., and Bryan Ludwig 2004 Human Skeletal Remains from Belle Glade Mound, 8PB41, Palm Beach County, Florida. Unpublished Report on File with the Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist at the University ofIowa, Iowa City,
Iowa.
Mann, Robert W., and David R. Hunt 2005 Photographic Regional Atlas of Bone Disease. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.
Milanich, Jerald T. 1995 Florida Indians and the Invasion from Europe. University Press ofFlorida, Gainesville, Florida.
Miller-Shaivitz, Patricia
1986 PhysicalandHealthCharacteristicsoftheIndians from the Fort Center Site. M.A. Thesis, Department ofAnthropology, FloridaAtlantic University, Boca
Raton.
Mount, Gregory J. 2009 Prehistoric Trade Networks in the Lake Okeechobee Region: Evidence from the Ritta Island and
Kreamer Island Sites. M.A. Thesis, Department of
Anthropology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca
Raton.
Mowers, Bert 1974 The Emerald Towers Site Report. Unpublished Site Report on File with PBMNH, Wellington, Florida.
NAGPRADatabase
n.d. Culturally Unidentifiable Native American Inventories Database.Electronic Document,National
Park Service, U.S. Departmentofthe Interior,https:// grantsdev.cr.nps.gov/Nagpra/CUI/, last accessed on March 4, 2019.
Ortner, Donald J. 2003 IdentificationofPathologicalConditionsinHuman Skeletal Remains. AcademicPress, San Diego, California.
Philmon, Kendra L., Douglas Broadfield, Michael Harris, and Peter Ferdinando 2012a A Comparative Study of Treponemal Disease in the Tibiae of Two South Florida Archaeological Populations: Fort Center (8GL12) and Highland Beach (8PB11). Poster at the Society for American Archaeology, Memphis, Tennessee. 2012b A Comparative Study of Treponemal Disease in the Tibiae of Two South Florida Archaeological
Populations: Fort Center (8GL12) and Highland Beach (8PB11). Poster at the Paleopathology Association Meeting, Portland, Oregon.
Pinto, Deborah
2004 Re-Visiting Briarwoods: Determining Reliability ofAssessing Population Healthfrom Fragmentary Remains. M.A. Thesis, Department ofAnthropology, FloridaAtlantic University, Boca Raton.
Purdy, BarbaraA. 1991 TheArtandArchaeologyofFloridasWetlands.CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Russo, Michael, and Gregory Heide 2002 The Joseph Reed Shell Ring. The Florida Anthropologist 55:67-87.
Sears, William H.
1982 Fort Center An Archaeological Site in the Lake Okeechobee Basin. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
n.d. Correspondence Concerning the Joseph Shell Ring site. On File with Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida.
Smith, Catherine 2015 Defining Population Characteristics of the Belle
GladeCulture:SkeletalBiologyofBelleGladeMound (8PB41). M.A. Thesis, DepartmentofAnthropology, FloridaAtlantic University, Boca Raton.
Steele, D. Gentry
1970 EstimationofStaturefromFragmentsofLongLimb Bones. In T.D. Stewart (ed). Personal Identification in Mass Disasters. National Museum of Natural
History (Smithsonian), Washington D.C.: 85-97.
Steele, D. Gentry, and Thomas W. McKern 1969 AMethodforAssessmentofMaximumLongBone
Length and Living Stature from Fragmentary Long Bones. American Journal ofPhysical Anthropology 31:215-228.

Stewart, T. Dale 1939 ANewTypeofArtificialCranialDeformationfrom Florida. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 29:460-465.
Stojanowski, Christopher M. and Kent M. Johnson
2011 Brief Communication: Radiocarbon dates From Florida Crania in Hrdlicka�s Gulf States Catalog.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology 145:163-167.

Sublett,Audrey J.
1975 Belle Glade Burial Mound. Excavation Notes on File with the DepartmentofAnthropology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida.
Verdes, Ruben 2016 Osteological Analysis of the Human Remains at
Markham ParkIandII: Social Standing andAge
Questions.M.A.Thesis,DepartmentofAnthropology,
FloridaAtlantic University, Boca Raton.

Wheeler, Ryan J.
1992 The Riviera Complex: An East Okeechobee Archaeological Area Settlement. The Florida Anthropologist45:5-17.
2002 Editor�s Introduction: Archaeology of Jupiter Inlet and Coastal Palm Beach County. The Florida Anthropologist 55:113-117. 2004 Southern Florida Sites Associated with the Tequesta
and their Ancestors. National Historic Landmark/
National Register of Historic Places Theme Study.
PreparedbyFloridaDivisionofHistoricalResources.

Wheeler, Ryan J., Wm. Jerald Kennedy, and James P. Pepe 2002 TheArchaeologyofCoastalPalmBeachCounty.The FloridaAnthropologist 55:119-156.
White, Tim D., and PieterA. Folkens
2005 TheHumanBoneManual.ElsevierAcademicPress, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Wickman, Patricia Riles 1999 The Tree That Bends: Discourse, Power, and the Survival ofthe Mask�ki People. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama.
Widmer, Randolph J. 1988 The Evolution of the Calusa: A Nonagricultural Chiefdom on the Southwest Florida Coast. The University ofAlabama Press, Tuscaloosa,Alabama.
Willey, Gordon R. 1949 Excavations in Southeast Florida. Yale University Publications in Anthropology, Number 42. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.
Winland, Kenneth J.
1993 Disease and Population Ecology in Southeast Florida.M.A. Thesis, DepartmentofAnthropology, FloridaAtlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida.
2002 Disease and Population Ecology in the East Okeechobee Area. The Florida Anthropologist 55:199-220.
Worth, John E.
2009 Razing Florida: The Indian Slave Trade and the Devastation of Spanish Florida, 1659-1715. In Mapping the Mississippian Shatter Zone, edited by Robbie Ethridge and Sheri M. Shuck-Hall, pp. 295�
311. UniversityofNebraska Press: Lincoln.



REVISITING STANLEY MOUND (8MA127): A SAND BURIAL MOUND IN THE CENTRAL PENINSULAR GULF COAST INTERIOR
Kendal Jacksona\ Thomas J. Pluckhahn% Jeffrey T. Moates8, Kassie Kemp8
A DepartmentofAnthropology,UniversityofSouthFlorida,Tampa,FL,33620 BFloridaPublicArchaeologyNetwork, West-CentralRegion, Tampa,FL,33620 E-mail: Kendalj@mail.usfedu
Abstract
Stanley Mound (8MA127) is a disturbed sand burial mound constructed in present-day interior Manatee Countywithin the headwatersoftheMyakkaRiver drainage.Whilethe Stanley Mound was tested in 1975 as part of a larger compliance
survey, the site and its surrounding landscape remain poorly

understood. Subsequent visits noted a paucity of geo-spatial
and archaeological data and documented a pressing need for

conservation measures. We report the results of
survey testing and stabilization efforts at Stanley Mound carried out through a collaboration between USF Applied Anthropology, FPAN West-Central, and Florida State Parks. Our survey incorporated LiDARmapping,Total Stationmapping, and shovel testing with a re-analysis ofthe artifact assemblage
recovered in 1975. In this paper we redefine the morphologyofthe mound, report anewly identified activityarea, anddescribethe conservationprogram currentlybeing implemented byFlorida State Parks to preserve the site. Our study demonstrates the value of heavily looted and previously excavated sites to contemporary research interests, and we suggest that continued archaeological work within the interior central Gulf Coast may contribute meaningfully to studies ofcomplex monumentality and regional interaction in Precolumbian Florida.
Stanley Mound (8MA127) is a disturbed sand burial mound constructed in the interior headwaters region ofthe central peninsular GulfCoast (Figure
1). The site was known to and dug by relic hunters periodically from the 1930s until, and presumably after,itsprofessionaldocumentation in 1975during a contract survey of phosphate mining property (Deming 1975, 1976). Recent work by Burger (2017), described below, has revealed that the Stanley Mound has a long and complex history of excavation by collectors. Fortunately, the site was spared destruction by the phosphate drag line and the surrounding land tract was transferred to the
StateofFloridainthe 1980s.In2016thelandwas designated as Wingate Creek State Park, and after consultation with archaeologist William Burger, Figure Florida State Parks environmental specialists and
theFloridaDepartmentofEnvironmentalProtectionrecognized a pressing need for the spatial-topographic delineation, study,
and conservation of Stanley Mound (Stanton 2015). Our research team documented the topographic morphology of the mound and its surrounding landscape through mapping.
We shovel-tested the nearby area looking for occupational evidence associated with activities at the mound site. Lastly, we collaboratedwith Florida State Parks to develop and begin
implementing a conservation program for the mound area. In

1. Locations ofStanley Mound Site and other sites mentioned in the text.
Vol.71(2) TheFloridaAnthropologist May2019
this paper, we review the historyofdisturbance and investigation at Stanley Mound, and then report the results of our topographic mapping, shovel testing, and conservation/stabilization work. In a discussion, we place Stanley Mound in regional perspective and present the sand burial mounds of Florida�s interior central peninsular Gulf Coast
as valuable sites for future research into late-Precolumbian ritual landscapes.
Background
Indigenous Floridians constructed Stanley Mound within the Upper Myakka River drainage of present-day Eastern Manatee County on an upland sand terrace situated above the confluence of the Upper Myakka River and Wingate Creek.

Like muchofFlorida�s western coastal interior, the landscape surrounding the site today is dominated by cattle ranches, agricultural fields, and citrus orchards; though this region in particular has been (and is today increasingly being) converted for phosphate strip-mining. Previous to agro-industrial alteration in the nineteenth century, and probably since about 2500 B.P., this region supported vast pine flatwoods and scrublands broken by broadleaf hammocks, floodplain forest, and marshy sloughs bordering west-and south-flowing headwater streams (Brooks 1982; Brown et al. 1990). The region is drained by numerous tributaries that feed major river systems that empty into Tampa Bay, Sarasota Bay, and Charlotte Harbor. The Manatee River, now dammed to form the Lake Manatee reservoir, flows west to the mouth ofTampa Bay, Figure 2. Stanley Mound Site and major stream systems ofthe
while the Myakka and Peace Riversflow southwest
into Charlotte Harbor (Figure 2).
The post-Archaic culture history of interior Manatee County and Western Hardee County is
generally not well understood (Mitchem 1989a:603-604; SEARCH 2007:9). The lack of knowledge seems to result largely from three circumstances. First, the area was targeted relatively early-on for agricultural and industrial development and broad swaths of the landscape were ditched, drained, graded, and/or strip mined by the time the National Historic
Preservation Act (NHPA) and state compliance regulations
came about (Blake 1980; Brown et al. 1990:65-69; Schwing 2011). Second, local soils are mostly unconsolidated acidic sands that seem to permit the preservation of only the most robust archaeological remnants (i.e., lithics and ceramics). Lastly, the interior headwaters largely escaped the purview of WPA work under Matthew Stirling (1935) and Clarence Simpson (see Bullen 1952) and were dug almost exclusively by relic hunters until the 1970s. As a result ofthese factors, no one has quite known how to treat this coastal interior landscape in archaeological syntheses. Building upon the workofStirling, John Goggin (1947) included the areawithin the �Manatee Region,� noting that little was known about the
Central PeninsularGulfCoast.
interior reaches ofthe culture area.Ashortwhile later Gordon
Willey (1949) was inclined to agree.
Inthe early andmid-1970s, archaeologistsworkingforthe Florida State Museum (now the FloridaMuseumofNatural History), the State of Florida, and the University of South Florida were among the first trained researchers to survey in the region (Browning 1973, 1975; Hemmings 1974, 1975;
MilanichandWillis 1976;Milanichetal. 1975;Padgett 1974; Wood et al. 1976). These early compliance-driven surveys identified numerous small lithic scatters consisting mainly of
chert and silicified coral artifacts along the interior tributary systems. Ceramics were scant, but present, and the region appeared to lack strong evidence forvillage settlements. Drawing upon these early surveys, early syntheses for the region considered the inland headwaters a �hinderland [sic]� utilized in post-Archaic times exclusively as a sort of resource extraction zone forvillagerswithpermanent or semi� permanent residences on the coast (Hemmings 1974, 1975; Padgett 1974,1976). Subsequentworkinthe late 1970sbyRay Williams and his students at the University of South Florida

complicated the Hinterland Hypothesis by documenting the remains of two seasonal village sites in western Hardee
County (Ellis 1977; Wharton 1977) and locating several seemingly isolated sand burial mounds -including Stanley Mound (Deming 1975, 1976; Wood et al. 1976). Wharton and Williams (1980) marshalled these new data to argue for a �Heartland Hypothesis,� proposing that local groups inhabited the headwaters year-round and developed a local horticultural tradition during the Weeden Island/Safety Harbor transitional period (ca. A.D. 900-1100). In the absence of
further evidence for the Heartland Hypothesis (and really, in the absence of intensive programs ofresearch in the central
Gulf coastal interior) subsequent regional syntheses have treated the areas inland from the coast largely as hinterlands intermittently utilized by coastal villagers (Luer and Almy 1982; Mitchem 1989a). Thus, how the coastal interior artifact scatters, seasonal villages, and sand burial mounds fit into the larger scale cultural developments ofthe post-Archaic/ late-
Precolumbian era is uncertain. Our project, while decidedly
limitedin scope,workstoward addressing someofthemajor open questions aboutthe Woodland-and Safety Harbor-period peoples ofthe coastal interior.
Previous WorkatStanleyMound
The first controlled excavations at Stanley Mound were
led by Joan Deming, who documented and named the mound aspartofanearly 10,000-acresurveyoftheBekerPhosphate Company�s land holdings in the summer of 1975 (Deming 1975, 1976) (Figure 3). By the time Deming documented Stanley Mound, it had already been the target ofvegetation clearing by heavy equipment sometime between 1951 and
1957 as well as intensive looting (Jackson et al. 2017; Stanton
2015). Deming (1976) suggested that the damage was so great as to make estimation of the mound�s pre-disturbance dimensions andformnearlyimpossible. Herassessment seems related in part to reported observations by a local resident, James Z. Stanley, who described the formermoundto Deming as standing 15 ft (4.5 m) in height and covering a circular area 50 ft (15 m) in diameter. This estimate would position Stanley Mound as the tallest and steepest sand burial mound in the region. Inourevaluation, Mr. Stanley�smound-heightestimate seems exaggerated. Deming�s field school crew excavated 10 units(nine 1x 1munitsandone2x2munit)to60cmdepth, conducted a pedestrian ground surface survey ofan undefined area surrounding the mound, and produced a contour sketch map ofwhat Deming considered to be the major extentofthe remaining mound (Deming 1976).
They recovered plain and decorated pottery, marine gastropod shells,weatheredhumanremains, afew chertflakes,
one
tiny (<1 cm3) Columbia Plain Majolica sherd, and a small blueglass seedbeadwithpressedfacets.Demingreportsonly 10 decorated pottery sherds, ofwhich only one was diagnostic at the time-a small, but clearly identifiable Weeden Island Punctatebody sherd. Plainpotterywas abundantandcontained
a
variety of paste types and tempering agents. Perhaps most notable within the assemblage are sherds that Deming determined through experiment to be tempered with Fuller�s Earth-asilicateclayresemblinglimestone, andmostofa large straight-walled �chalky-temperless� vessel exhibiting a deliberate basal puncture. Taking the pottery assemblage together, Deming (1975:26, 1976:53-54) tentatively proposed
a
late-WeedenIslandtimeperiodforthe mound�s construction, considering the early-historic artifacts to be indicators of later intrusive activities. The presence of a Fate Woodland burial mound in interior Manatee County, along with the
small seasonal villages documented farther east in Hardee County, were enough for Deming and her cohort at USF to question the Hinterland Hypothesis. In her Master�s thesis, Deming lamented not having the time necessary to search for a village area associated with Stanley Mound, but suggested that�although no supportive archaeological evidence has been recovered, itmay be speculatedthat avillage orvillages dating
to the Weeden Island Period should be located in
thevicinityofthismound...�(Deming 1975:39).
In the years following Deming�s work a
smallnumberofFloridaarchaeologistshavetaken
an interestinthe StanleyMound as arare example
of a coastal interior mortuary mound (Burger
2017;Fuer2014;FuerandAlmy 1982;Mitchem
1989a). Archaeologist Bill Burger has devoted
considerabletime andefforttotrackingdown sites
visited by collector Montague Tallant, and his
artifact collections. While investigating Tallant�s
Mound 61, Burger found through pedestrian
surface surveythat a locational errorwas made in
Tallant�s records. After archival research, Burger
(2017) concluded that 8MA57, Tallant�s Mound
61, is actually the Stanley Mound. Tallant reports
in his notes that the mound was constructed of
white andyellow sand in a �high oak and hickory
scrub� habitat. He describes the mound as 4.5 ft.

Figure 3. Field school students excavating at Stanley Mound in 1975. (1.4 m) high and 50 ft. (15.2 m) in diameter, with Photographonfile,Dept,ofAnthropology,USFTampa. anencircling2ft.(0.6m)highenclosure.The
mound was apparently looted heavily in 1935 by an antiquarian from New York State, who reported to Tallant the recoveryof�many glass beads, some silver pendants, and several fine
decoratedbowls� (Burger2017). Itappears that Tallantneverdug atthe sitehimself, anddidnot holdanyoftheartifactsinhiscollections.As a result, it seems that the materials taken during the most substantial excavation of Stanley Mound remain unaccounted for.
Burger also reports that a local relic collector and informant dug at Stanley Mound with his sons through the 1960s and 70s,
recovering glass beads, a cut crystal bead, a gold bead, and various pottery sherds. Some ofthis collection made its way into the hands of another local collector who was amenable
to
Burger photographing items reportedly from Stanley Mound, including: Weeden

Island Punctate rim and body sherds, a UID crimped-edge type rim sherd, and a small Point Washington Incised cup-shaped vessel with a cut basal kill hole, as well as glass beads and a
round silver bead.
As a minor element of his dissertation research, Jeffrey Mitchem (1989a) reviewed the 1975 assemblage from Stanley Mound,
and re-examined the early historic artifacts. Mitchem identified the faceted blue glass seed bead as type ICla in the Smith and Good (1982) typology-dating to the first few decades of the 17th century (see Smith 1977,
Figure 4. Large, straight-walled St. Johns vessel recovered from Stanley
figure 4). After examining the small glazed
sherd, Mitchem identified it as Columbia Plain Majolica, also associated with the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Among the decorated indigenous pottery recovered by Deming, Mitchem argued that the notched-lip rim sherd may be best associated with the Safety Harbor type �Pinellas Plain�. From his analysis, Mitchem (1989a:147) proposed that �based on the artifacts recovered, the site wasprobably a SafetyHarborburialmound
constructed in the late 16th Century.�
Nodocumentedarchaeologicaltestinghasbeencompleted at Stanley Mound since Deming�s work; however, the site has received documented visits by three parties over the past 6 years. In 2012 Florida Division of Recreation and Parks archaeologist Triel Lindstrom visited the mound and filed an update with Florida Master Site File. In 2014, archaeologists from the Alliance for Integrated Spatial Technology (AIST) at the University ofSouth Florida visited the site and refined its geospatial location, attempting to correct an errorofnearly 200 m in the reported mound location (Collins et al. 2014). Most recently, William Stanton of the Florida Park Service visitedthe siteto conduct a site assessmentwiththe aidofPark manager Manuel Perez, District 4 Environmental Specialist Matthew Hodge, and archaeologist Bill Burger (Stanton
2015). Stanton analyzed aerial photographs (ca. 1951 and
Mound by Joan Deming in 1975.
1957) to substantiate the timing ofthe land clearing operation reportedby Mr. James Stanley to Deming and mapped several large looter pits present at the site.
At the onsetofour survey, and during shovel testing, the site was over-grown and in desperate need of controlled burning. The mound area supported several largehickorytrees and slash pines and contained an over-abundance of young saplings, and the xeric hammock surrounding the mound area was dominated in most areas by nearly impenetrable thorny hog plum and saw palmetto forest. The major conservation
concern was that environmental management tasks involving heavy equipment might damage the remaining mound or associated village features if left without delineation and stabilization. Natural disturbances were also a concern; the abundance oftrees on the mound had the potential to cause substantial damage if they were upturned, and the deeply pocked mound surface-with human remains present among
the leaflitter-faced erosion by rainfall and exposure bywild hogs. In addition to these conservation issues, Florida DEP also recognizedthe researchvalueofStanleyMound as oneof very few remaining burial mounds in the region.

Methods
For our first phase of work we obtained and analyzed
Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) remote
sensing data for the survey area available via the Southwest
Florida Water Management District. The LiDAR data
utilized for this project were collected by EarthData Aviaton, utilizing a LeicaALS50 LiDAR system incorporating both an
inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a dual frequency GPS
receiver. The data were collected in 2006, and according to
accompanying metadata, minimum horizontal accuracy was
tested to meet 1.371 m accuracy at 95 percent confidence as
defined by the National Standards for Spatial Data Accuracy
(NSSDA). Likewise, vertical accuracy was tested to meet an
18.28 cm NSSDA accuracy. Two tiles of data that cover the survey area were downloaded and converted to applicable formats. The text files were then imported into ArcMap (ESRI, Inc.) and filtered to display only data points classified as bare earth or water (i.e., excluding points that were either
not classified or classified as vegetation or other). As a final procedure, a Kriging interpolation was utilized to create the raster surface and elevation contours. We utilized LiDAR�
derived topographic maps throughout our field survey; and following shoveltestingwere ableto definetheouterperimeter ofthe mound area for later mapping. Shovel testing was designed to locate possible displaced

mound fill and possible village/encampment remains associated with activities at the mound. We excavated 149 50 x 50 cm tests at 25 m intervals over a roughly 20-acre area
surrounding the mound, focusing mostly to the south along stream terraces flanking the confluence ofWingate Creek and the Upper Myakka River. Shovel tests were excavated to a depth of 100 cm; and sediment-depths were recorded upon the recovery of artifacts. Soil was screened through 0.635 cm (0.25 in) hardware mesh and all cultural materials were collected for laboratory analyses.
Following preliminary delineation of the mound area, problematic vegetation was cleared from the mound by Florida State Parks and we returned to map the topography ofthe mound area at greater resolution. Total station mapping
concentrated on areas where LiDAR coverage was poor,
probably owing to the densityofvegetation and the numerous small topographic anomalies (see Pluckhahn and Thompson 2012). Using the total station, we collected a total of 446
elevations. We combined these datapointswith 319 elevations in the LiDAR data from the mound area and conducted a
nearest neighbor interpolation analysis ofthe combined 765 elevation points. We then used the resulting raster surface to generate contours at 10 cm intervals.
Laboratory analyses of the Deming (1975) collection and the artifacts recovered by our shovel testing were carried out by the lead author at the Southeastern Archaeology Laboratory, University ofSouth Florida. Pottery sherds were analyzed for gross paste and temper composition using low-power (5-40x) microscopy and a reference type-collection maintained by the Applied Anthropology Department at USF. A weak (10 percent) HC1 solution was instrumental for
distinguishing between limestone-tempered andFuller�s Earth tempered sherds. Flaked stone artifacts were first measured and weighed, then categorizedby the presence and abundance
of cortex material. Additional notes were taken to document
evidence ofthermal alteration.
Results
ReanalysisofExisting Collections Thevastmajority (94percent)ofpottery sherds recovered by Deming�s (1975) excavations and surface collections are undecorated (n=295). Our analysis of paste and temper
attributes resulted in 10 categories. These categories reflect five ubiquitous plain �types� (St. Johns Plain, Belle Glade Plain, Pasco Plain, Weeden Island Plain, and Sand Tempered Plain), and include fourmixed-temper groups (SandTempered withFuller�s EarthInclusions,Limestone Temperedwith Sand Inclusions, etc.). Table 1 reports relative abundance data for the 1975 plain pottery assemblage.
AmajorportionoftheSt.JohnsPlainsherds(n= 18,wt.=
532.2 g) have been mended to partially reconstruct a large, straight-walled pot with a simple, rounded rim and a basal �kill� puncture (Figure 4). While often documented at sites post-dating ca. A.D. 900 (e.g., the burial mound at Safety Harbor site [8PI2]), �killed� pottery is best associated with Middle to late Woodland-period Weeden Island mortuary
traditions (Fewkes 1924; Sears 1958; Wallis et al. 2014).
Sand Tempered Plain pottery sherds are so ubiquitous and variable throughout the Manasota region and beyond as to prohibit any specific temporal assignment. Without large enough sherds to elucidate vessel forms with certainty it is difficult to glean much cultural-historical data from these plain sherds; however, nine sand tempered plain rim sherds, including six simple, rounded, slightly incurving rims, two simple, flat, straight rims, and one simple, rounded, straight rimfall into the middle and late Manasotaperiodtypology (ca. 200 B.C. through Safety Harbor) (Luer and Almy 1982:45). Followingthe sametypology, thepresenceofstraight-walled vessels and flattened rim lips may indicate deposition of pottery after ca. A.D. 800.
We identified 10 large (mean wt. 30.2 g) Belle Glade
Plain sherds. These made up the third most abundant plain sherd category by total weight (302 g) and exterior surface
area
(241 cm2).Thispotterytypeoftencontainssand,grit,and spongespicules,andexhibits abufftogrey,characteristically abraded surface. It is best known from the Kissimmee-Lake
Okeechobee-Everglades watershed system, where it comes on the scene in some abundance between ca. A.D. 400 and 600
(Austin 1987; 1993; Goggin 1947; Sears 1982), However, like the St. Johns ceramic series, Belle Glade pottery is constructed from wetland sediments that are ubiquitous throughout the Floridapeninsula, andpotsofthis type are found in substantial quantities throughout the Manasota region during the Late Manasota, Late Weeden Island, and Safety Harbor Periods (Bullen 1952;LuerandAlmy 1982).BelleGladePlainsherds
are
relatively common among the limitedpottery assemblages recovered from scatters and small village sites in the vicinity Table 1.Attributetableofre-analyzedplainpotteryrecoveredatStanleyMoundbyJoanDemingin 1975.

Attribute Category �Type� Count
Spicule Temp. Plain St. John�s Plain 44
Sand Temp. Plain Sand Temp. Plain 129
Sand/ Grit/ Spicule Temp. Plain Belle Glade Plain 10
Limestone Temp. Plain 29 Pasco Series Fuller�s Earth Temp. Plain 32
Sand Temp./ Fuller�s Earth Inclusions 13
Limestone Temp./ Sand inclusions 20
UID Mixed

14
Fuller�s Earth Temp./ Sand Inclusions Temper
SandTemp./Fuller�sEarthand 3 Spicule Inclusions
Weeden Island Fine Sand Temp. Plain 1
Plain

of Stanley Mound, and sites throughout the interior central peninsularGulfCoast Limestone tempered plain and Fuller�s Earth tempered
plainsherds,oftenincludedwithinthe�Pasco" series,represent the fourth (77.59 g) and fifth (76.35 g) most abundant plain sherd types by weight, respectively. Deming tested a sample ofsherdstoidentifythe useofFuller�s earth as ceramictemper in the StanleyMound assemblage. Our analysis continued this testing to separate Limestone Tempered from Fuller�s Earth Tempered sherds and tabulate count, weight, and surface area data separately for each type. Limestone tempered ceramics
are characteristic of late Manasota and Late Weeden Island
contextsthroughoutthecentralpeninsularGulfCoastincluding Parrish Mound 5 (Luer and Almy 1982; Willey 1949). Four
ceramic categories that we identified are composed of plain sherds with mixed tempering (Table 1). When combined, the mixed temper sherds (not including Belle Glade Plain sherds) makeup 16.9percentoftheplainsherdassemblagecountand
10.1 percentoftheplainsherdassemblageweight.
We identified 20 decorated pottery sherds in Deming�s collection (Table 2). Of these, eight decorated Pasco Series sherds make a Late Manasota/Late Weeden Island use-period
for Stanley Mound probable, and bolster Deming�s original interpretation (Deming 1975; 1976; Luer and Almy 1982). Two St. Johns Check Stamped body sherds, one Wakulla Check Stamped body sherd, one Weeden Island Punctate body sherd, one Papys Bayou Punctate rim sherd, and one Dunns Creek Red body sherd are associated with the �very late�
Manasota/LateWeedenIslandperiod(Luer andAlmy 1982).A
fine sandtempered notchedrim sherd, interpretedby Mitchem (1989a) as a specimen of the Pinellas ceramic series, is the only decorated aboriginal pottery sherd clearly diagnostic of
Weight X Surface Area Rim Body
(g) I(cm2) Count Count
715.44 683.25 3 41

461.9 441.5 9 120
302241 2 8
77.59 127.21 6 23
76.35 102.3 0 32
83.23 80.5 1 12
45.56 46.9 1 19
39.76 42.8 0 14
15.02130 3
8.18 5 10
the SafetyHarborperiod; however, the Pasco series sherds and St. Johns series sherds are also found in Safety Harbor period contexts (Willey 1948, 1949).
Deming�s investigations recovered a large (19 cm long) LightningWhelk(Sinistrofulgursinistrum)shell, aswell as two additional fragments from smaller Lightning Whelks,
one
small Crown Conch (Melongenacorona) columella, and four unidentified marine gastropod shell fragments (Figure
5). It seems fair to assume the most likely origin of these marine shells is the West Central Gulfcoast; however, given that upstream travel to the site would have been possible from Charlotte Harbor, Sarasota Bay, and Tampa Bay, we
refrainfromproposing amorespecific areaoforiginatthis time. Other mound sites ofthe central peninsularGulfCoast
interior, including the nearby Keen and Parrish Mounds, have also yielded marine shell carried inland from the shore. The exogenous origins of these marine gastropod shells and deposition at mortuary-ceremonial mound sites is highly suggestive of ritual use, and supports the argument made recently by Marquardt and Kozuch (2016) that the Lightning Whelk, in particular, played an important role in the metaphysical lifeways of aboriginal Floridians (also
see
Kozuch 1998; 2013). The 1975 excavations yielded two early-historic period artifacts, including one blue glass seed bead faceted on three sides, and one tiny Columbia Plain Majolica sherd. We concur with Mitchem�s (1989a) categorization and interpretation of these artifacts and
considerthemevidenceoflateractivities atStanleyMound
during the early historic period. At least five of Deming�s excavation units, as well as undefined surface contexts, yielded mammalian bone
fragments, including human elements. Among the human

Table 2.Attribute table ofre-analyzed decorated pottery recovered at Stanley Mound by Joan Deming in 1975.
Total Total Surface Paste-TemperAttributes SurfaceTreatment Count Possible�Types�
Weight (g) Area (g)

Sand Temp. Incised 4 15.08 11.5 UID Incised
Sand Temp. Red Painted 1 1.38 2 UID
Fine Sand Temp. Punctated 1 8.18 5 Weeded Island Punctate
Pinellas SeriesFine Sand Temp. Notched Rim 1 7.36 6 (Mitchem 1989a)
Chalky, Spiculate Temp. Check Stamped 2 5.5 7.2 St. Johns Check Stamped
Chalky, Spiculate Temp. Linear Punctated 1 11.28 12 Papy�s Bayou Punctated
Chalky, Spiculate Temp. Red Painted 1 20.76 22 Dunn�s Creek Red
Fuller�s Earth Temp. Check Stamped 3 13.48 17.2 Pasco Check Stamped
Fuller�s Earth Temp. Linear Punctated 1 5.28 8 Pasco Punctated
Fuller�s Earth Temp. Red Painted 4 8.66 10.6 Pasco Red
Sand Temp./ Check Stamped

1 2.09 2 Wakulla Check StampedFuller�s Earth Inclusions Red Painted
remains are a mid-shaft section of a femur, a humeral
head and shaft section in three fragments, and two molar teeth. The molars, analyzed in collaboration with USF bioanthropologists, appear to be from an individual
between 18 and 21 years ofage. Dental caries in one of
the molars are extreme enough to indicate a potentially life-threatening infection. Following our survey, and in consultation with the Florida Department of State
Division of Historical Resources, we re-interred the human remains at Stanley Mound.
Topographic Mapping Figure 6 depicts our integrated LiDAR-Total Station topographicmapoftheStanleyMound. Anenclosureor embankment feature (reported in the notes of collector
Montague Tallant) is visible as a discontinuous oval� shaped ridge measuring about 60 m north-south and 40 m east-west. Some ofthe discontinuity in the enclosure may be the result of looting or other disturbances; this seems particularly likely for a break along the northeast edgeoftheearthwork.However, alargerbreakalongthe southwest edge may be an indication that the enclosure was horseshoe-shaped, similar to burial mounds at the River Styx site in Alachua County (Wallis et al. 2014), the Keen Mound Complex in Hardee County (Janus Research/PiperArchaeology 1994),andParrishMound 3 in Manatee County (Stirling 1935; Willey 1949).

At Stanley, the mound is positioned within the Figure 5. Marine gastropod artifacts recovered from Stanley enclosure midway along its north-south axis but appears Mound by Joan Deming in 1975. to be contiguous with the enclosure�s eastern side. It is
Figure 6. Integrated LiDAR/Total Station topographic map ofthe StanleyMound, Spring 2018.

possible that the mound was spatially separated from the easternsideoftheenclosurebeforelootingand landclearing altered the topography of the area. In its current damaged form, the mound measures approximately 15m east-west and slightly less north-south, although its edges are difficult to discern clearly. As noted earlier, collector Montague Tallant and 1970s local land owner James Z. Stanley both estimated the diameterofthe mound at 50 ft (15 m), consistentwith our mapping results. There are relatively large and pronounced depressions both north and south of the mound within the enclosure that appear to be unrelated to looting and other disturbances. Smaller depressions in the immediate mound
area are more
likely related to looting. The mound and enclosure have maximum elevations of around 19 m above mean sea level. This is about one meter
higher than the base of two large depressions within the enclosure, and about 70 cm higher than the ground surface in the area immediately outside the enclosure. Our measure of the mound�s height is less than the 4.5 ft (1.4 m) recorded by Tallant. However, our mapping is consistentwith his estimate of2ft(60cm)fortheheightofthe enclosure.It seems quite possible that looting, clearing in the 1950s, excavations by
Deming (1975, 1976), and natural erosion have collectively reduced the height ofthe mound by the 40 cm that separate Tallant�s estimate of the mound height from the current
elevation determined by our mapping.
Shovel Test Survey
Artifacts appear to be generally frequent (63 positive tests, 86 negative tests) throughout the project area, but occur in relatively low densities. Among the 17 tests containing pottery(11.4percent),werecoveredanaverageof3.35 sherds per test (mean wt. = 8.6 g) (Table 3; Figure 7). The pottery sherds recovered from our shovel testing are undecorated (Table 3). The majority (55.1 percent by count, 69.7 percent byweight) ofthese sherds are ofa moderate thickness (.75 cm
-
1 cm),withadarkorganicrichpaste,mixedspicule-sand�grit temper, and often have a lightly scratched surface texture. We are comfortable interpreting these sherds as Belle Glade Plain. We also recovered lesser quantities of Sand Tempered Plain, Fiber Tempered Plain, and Grit Tempered Plain pottery fromthearc-shapedpotteryscatters southofthemound. One
sherd recovered nearthe mound exhibitedfine sandtempering
and a laminated surface-indicative ofthe Pinellas series (see
Mitchem 1989a).
The spatialdistributionofpotterysherds mapswellatop the two mostly level upland stream terraces that flank the mound area to the south (Figure 7). We did not encounter any concentrated accumulations of organic material that might indicate hearths, middens, or other household features. However, the distribution of pottery along level areas of the landscape may suggest the presence of a semi-circular encampmentsituated southofthemound. Several observations suggestthatthis ceramic scatterwas recovered insitu and does
not
represent displacedmoundfill. First, our shoveltesting did not indicate that mound fill was displaced to such an extent.
Second, we did not encounter any human remains in the vicinityofthe ceramic scatter, or anywhere outside the mound area. Third, sherds were encountered at some depth (x sherd depth = 20.3 cmbs) and within developed soil profiles (Figure 8). Fourth, the sherds recovered from the semi-circular scatter
area are distinct in character from the wares recovered from
themoundbyDemingin 1975.Ifthepotteryscatterdeposits represent disturbed and dispersed mound fill then we would expect the sherds to approximate the ceramic assemblage composition recovered from the mound itselfand reanalyzed here, which they do not.
Flaked stone artifacts were relatively common to 1 m depth throughout the survey area surrounding the mound. Among the 46 shovel tests containing lithic artifacts (38.3 percent),werecovered an averageof1.87 flaked stone artifacts per test (mean wt. =1.07 g). A small fraction (7.7 percent) of the flaked stone assemblage was recovered from within 30 cmofthe surface, andinthree caseslithics co-occurredwith pottery. However, most lithics (80.8 percent) were recovered from contexts below 50 cm, which may indicate human use
ofthe landscape during theArchaic-period and/ortaphonomic migration of lithics through the sandy soil column. The distributionofflakedstoneartifactsbydepth(Figure9)follows

Table 3.Attribute table ofpottery recovered by shovel testing in 2017.
Depth Body Rim Weight Surface
STP# Paste/Temper �Type�
(cm) (ii=) (n=) (g> Area (cm2)
52 20-30 carbon rich paste coarse sand and grit temper 3 0 Glades Plain 13.82 18.5
49 30 carbon rich paste coarse sand and grit temper 1 0 Glades Plain 2.75 4
18 20 fine sand tempered 1 0 Pinellas Plain 13.9 15
41 40-60 carbon rich paste, sand -grit -spicule temper 2 0 Belle Glade Plain 5.62 7
33 20-30 carbon rich paste, sand -grit -spicule temper 1 0 Belle Glade Plain 0.31 0.7
37 70 carbon rich paste, sand -grit -spicule temper 1 0 Belle Glade Plain 0.42 3
58 10-15 carbon rich paste, sand -grit -spicule temper 3 0 Belle Glade Plain 25.84 17
60 10-20 carbon rich paste, sand -grit -spicule temper 2 2 Belle Glade Plain 14.83 11
67 10-30 sand tempered 4 0 Sand Temp. Plain 15.41 14
69 30-40 carbon rich paste, sand -grit -spicule temper 3 0 Belle Glade Plain 11.57 8
83 0-20 sand and grit tempered 7 0 Sand Temp. Plain 10.14 18
84 10-30 carbon rich paste, fiber tempered 8 0 Fiber Tempered 19.19 12
99 0-30 carbon rich paste, sand -grit -spicule temper 10 1 Belle Glade Plain 5.9 7
110 10-30 carbon rich paste, sand -grit -spicule temper 5 0 Belle Glade Plain 3.83 4
109 0-10 carbon rich paste, sand -grit -spicule temper 1 0 Belle Glade Plain 0.82 1
100 0-10 carbon rich paste, sand -grit -spicule temper 1 0 Belle Glade Plain 0.52 1
91 0-30 sand tempered 1 0 Sand Temp. Plain 1.29 1
a bimodal pattern with greatest frequencies at 60 cmbs and Mound (8HR16), both domiciliary sand mounds in the Horse at90cmbs�wellbelowthemeandepthofpotteryrecovery. Creek/PeaceRiverdrainage(seeWoodetal.1976).These AsmodeledbyAustin(2002:170-173),thissignaturemay HardeeCountypointsweredesignatedgenericallyas�Florida �indicatestratigraphicseparationofcomponents�andsuggest ArchaicStemmed�,andindeedthebaseandshouldersare atleasttwoepisodesofoccupationatStanleyMoundthat reminiscentofcertainMarionpoints(Bullen1975).Thetype most likely pre-date mound building activities. Weeden Island Straight Stemmed, as described by Schroder The lithic assemblage from our survey is composed (2006),alsooffersapossibleoptionforcategorizingthispoint offlakedchertandsilicifiedcoralartifacts,including:one form;thoughagain,there-sharpeningofthepointfromSTP complete stemmed point, one basal stemmed point fragment, 39 complicates this association. and one �thumbnail� scraper fragment, as well as 83 pieces Ten flaked stone artifacts (12 percent) are �objective�, of unifacial and angular debitage. The complete stemmed having been worked subsequent to detachment. All of these chert point (Figure 10) recovered at 90 cm depth from STP specimens were considered either tools, tool fragments, or 39,about50meastofthemoundarea,appearstohavebeen possibletoolforms.Threeobjectivelithicartifactscontained substantially reworked and likely represents the conservation �some� cortex (less than 50 percent coverage on any given of workable chert by Archaic-period peoples occupying a surface), but none exhibited �abundant� cortex (more than region with limited availability of tool stone (Austin and 50 percent) and most contained none. More than half (54.7 Estabrook 2000). Alternatively, this reworked artifact may be percent) of the total flaked stone assemblage contained no indicativeofWoodlandperiodmound-relatedactivityinthe material;31.4percentcontainedsome,and13.9percent
cortex

southFloridainterior(seeAustin2015).Thispointissimilar featuredabundantcortexmaterial.Thelowrelativepercentage inform,material,andsizetoseveralseeminglyre-worked offlakeswithabundantcortexmaterialandtheprevalenceof points recovered from Cowboy Mound (8HR15) and Welch cortex-free lithics suggests a greater focus on later stages of
Figure 7. Distribution ofpottery sherds recovered from shoveltestingin2017.ContourInterval= 1m.

core preparation, tool production, re-shaping, or sharpening. Twenty-two percent (16/72)ofthe lithic assemblage exhibited evidenceofthermal alteration, orheat-treatment. In the case
of four flaked stone artifacts we determined the
likely origin to be the nearby Peace River Quarry Cluster, whichyields Miocene cherts with awaxy
or greasy luster and dark-colored phosphatic 30 inclusions (Austin and Estabrook 2000; Austin et
al. 2012; Upchurch et al. 1982).
AMSRadiocarbon Dating
During our analysis ofthe pottery recovered from shovel tests to the south ofthe mound area,
accumulationsofwell-adheredsootyresidue
were noted on the interior surfaces of several sherds.
In the absence of other organic archaeological samples, we scraped sooty residue from a single sand tempered sherd recovered at 30 cm depth fromShovelTest67 andsentthe sample(UGAMS No. 29662) to the Center for Applied Isotope Studies at the University of Georgia for AMS radiocarbon dating analysis. The analysis yielded
a
dateof340�20 14CyearsBP,orcalibratedAD

1582 � 52 at 95.4 percent probability (513C,%o= -24.5, pMC=95.85 � 0.27) (OxCal 4.3, IntCal 13) (Reimer et al. 2013). This early historic-period date was admittedly unexpected but aligns quite well with the temporal association assigned by Mitchem (1989a) to the early historic artifacts recovered by Deming in 1975.
Conservation Measures In keeping with the findings described above, we felt it important to expand the overall management and interpretive goals for Stanley Mound to include the newly discovered artifact scatter(s) surrounding the mound area. The primary
emphasis of conservation measures will be placed on the stabilization and protection of the burial mound, however detailed maps and descriptions were shared with park staff
to ensure that the site is considered in its entirety during any futurelandmanagementactions.Withaspatialandtopographic delineationofthe StanleyMoundinhand,wemetwithFlorida
State Parks environmental specialists to mark offthe mound area so that problematic vegetation could be removed. We estimated the approximate volume of sediment necessary to fill the mound�s looter holes and cap the central mound
area
to 20 cm depth. Following our survey work a protective geotextile was purchased to be placed overthe existingmound surface, and about 100 cubic yardsofculturallysterilefillsand was trucked to the site and staged for future use. Filling and
cappingwith sandwillbefollowedupwithnativevegetation planting, and the installation ofsignage.
Discussion: Stanley Mound in Regional Perspective
Drawing upon our reanalysis ofthe plain and decorated pottery assemblage recovered at Stanley Mound by Deming in 1975, as well as the limited plain pottery assemblage
we recovered west and south of the mound during recent shovel testing, we propose that Stanley Mound was likely constructed during the Late Manasota/Late Weeden Island
PotteryFrequency by Depth
Mean=20 31 Std, Dev. = 10.66 N = 57
60 80

Depth (cm below surface) Figure 8. Distribution ofPottery Frequency by Depth.
Flaked Stone Frequency by Depth

Figure 9. Distribution ofFlaked StoneArtifacts by Depth.
centers
of the central peninsular Gulf Coast, Stanley Mound is associated with a habitation
area.
While the pottery scatter and soil profiles we documented in areas surrounding the mortuary do notconstitute evidenceofperennial occupation
or intensive village coalescence, the data do suggest that groups of people inhabited the landscape periodically�perhaps before, during, and after mortuary ritual events. Thinking regionally, the
documentation of an associated encampment area at Stanley Mound should motivate Florida archaeologists to re-visit the other enigmatic
sand burial mounds of the Central Gulf Coast interior where chronometric dating has not been conducted and little, if any, sub-surface survey
has been carried out within the landscapes surrounding the mounds. Stanley Mound was constructed within a coastal interior headwaters region at thejunction
ofthe Manatee River, Myakka River, Peace River watersheds. From a regional perspective, and acknowledgingthe importanceofwaterways for
culture period (perhaps ca. AD 400-1000). Thus, Deming�s chronological placement of the Stanley Mound as a Late
Weeden Island site remains sound. Radiocarbon analysis on sooty residue sampled from a pottery sherd recovered during our shovel testing survey yielded a calibrated date ofAD 1582 � 52. While a single carbon date is less than definitive, this chronometric data-point aligns well with the temporalplacementoftheblue seedbeadandtheColumbia
Plain sherd recovered from the site. Stanley Mound may represent a �continuous use� burial mound (see Bullen 1952; Mitchem 1989a; Willey 1949); however, we cannot rule out the alternative hypothesis that groups visited the site during temporally-confined, discrete episodes separated by centuries ofdisuse. As describedby Luer (2014:77-78), there is relatively ample evidence that many ancientburial mounds throughout peninsular Florida were revisited centuries later by descendent populations during the protohistoric era. Notable examples include: early post-contact interments and inclusions in the Weeden Island/Safety Harbor-period Thomas Mound (8HI1) on Hillsborough Bay (Bullen 1952), glass trade bead inclusions recovered from a Weeden Island burial mound at Lake Weir (Sears 1959), and post-contact artifacts found with intrusive burials within older burial
mounds in south Florida (e.g., Allerton et al. 1984:10,22). Farthernorth along theGulfCoastworkbyMitchem (1989b) at Ruth Smith Mound (8CI200), Weeki Wachee Mound (8HE12), and Tatham Mound (8CI203) has documented the scale ofmaterial exchange in European goods on the central
peninsular GulfCoast during the protohistoric era (also see Hutchinson and Mitchem 2001; Mitchem 1989a). Deming hypothesized in 1976 that the Stanley Mound site included a village area; and indeed, our survey results lend some empirical support to her prediction. Like the Keen MoundComplex(8HR149), andlate-Woodland-periodmound
transportation, subsistence, and social interaction
in the ancient and protohistoric past, this location is quite conspicuous. This is to say that Stanley Mound is well positioned to be accessed by peoples traveling up-river from Tampa Bay, Sarasota Bay, and/or Charlotte Harbor, and may haveserved asanimportant(ifsmall)ceremonialnodeonthe coastal interior landscape for dispersed individuals linked by kinship, clan membership, or other social structures. Further,
settlements and ceremonial nodes in this sub-region may
have facilitated interactions between peoples inhabiting the
Kissimmee-Lake Okeechobee-Everglades watershed and the village-mound centers ofthe coastal strand. It is noteworthy that a relatively diverse assemblage ofceramic types has been
recoveredfromStanleyMound,includingasubstantialquantity ofplain and decorated limestone andfuller�s earthtempered sherds (i.e., Pasco Series wares) that are not common within the interior headwaters region, nor generally within areas southofTampa Bay. We also describe four ceramic categories
Figure 10. Chert projectile point Recovered at 90 cm depth from STP 39, 50 m east ofthe mound area.

in the 1975 collection that exhibit mixed tempering. To what degree these sherds represent intentional versus unintentional incorporation ofmixed aplastics is unclear, and we note that Florida clay deposits may naturally contain sand, spicules, and even limestone gravel (see Wallis et al. 2015; Bloch et al. 2019). While mixed-temper pottery is not unusual in the region, researchers on the GulfCoast have interpreted mixed-temper ceramics as indicators of technological exchange between social groupswithin broader communities ofpractice (see Kemp 2015; Pluckhahn et al. 2017). In ourview, more in-depth analytical research, especially provenience studies (i.e., chert/coral sourcing and petrographic ceramic ecology), will be necessary to evaluate the operation ofsuch interactions at StanleyMound, and at other sites within the central peninsular
GulfCoast interior.
The documentation ofa mound-enclosure complex at the

StanleyMoundsite isnotable.AsputsimplybyLuer(2014:77) �embankments indicate greater monumental complexity than
just mounds.� Earthwork complexes with enclosed burial mounds have been recorded at several prominent Florida sites, including Parrish Mound 3 (Stirling 1935; Willey 1949), River Styx and other Cades Pond culture sites in central
interior Florida (Wallis et al. 2014), the Crystal River site on
the Gulf Coast (Pluckhahn and Thompson 2009, 2018), and the Fort Center site in south Florida (Sears 1982). In a review
ofthe latter three sites, Wallis et al. (2014) note comparable diameters (around 100 m) for the enclosures. The enclosure at Stanley Mound is smaller, but otherwise similar in shape
and size to these other earthworks. River Styx, Crystal River�s
Main Burial Complex, and Fort Center date primarily to the Middle Woodland period (ca. A.D. 100-300), suggesting that ancient peoples may have constructed the Stanley Mound during this same time period. Stanley Mound and other less�well-known enclosed burial mounds ofthe central peninsular interior such as the burial mound at Myakkahatchee site (Luer
et al. 1987) and the Philip Mound (Benson 1967) should be incorporated in syntheses of complex monumentality in Precolumbian FloridaArchaeology.
Acknowledgments

We thank William Stanton and Bill Burger for their insight, expertise, andmany daysoflaboratthe StanleyMound. We also thank Chris Becker, Charles Brown, and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection for striving to
conserve
andprotectour State�s cultural andnatural resources. For long days ofshovel testing in dense hog plum forest, we extend our gratitude to Colby Williams, Courtney Hartle, Rachel Westfall, andKimberly Cruz-Montalvo. We also thank
two
anonymousreviewers forcareful comments andinsightful recommendationsthatimprovedthequalityofthismanuscript.
References Cited

Allerton, David, George M. Luer, and Robert S. Carr 1984 Ceremonial Tablets and Related Objects from Florida. TheFloridaAnthropologist37:5-54.
Austin, Robert J. 1987 An Archaeological Site Inventory and Zone Management Plan for Lee County, Florida. Submitted to Lee County DepartmentofCommunity Development, Division of Planning by Piper Archaeological Research, St. Petersburg, Florida.
1993 The Royce Mound: Middle Woodland Exchange and Mortuary Customs in South Florida. The Florida Anthropologist46:291-309.
2002 Beyond Technology and Function: Evaluating the Research Significance of Lithic Scatter Sites. In Thinking about Significance, edited by Robert J. Austin, Kathleen S. Hoffman, and George R. Bailo, pp. 153-185. Special Publication Series No. 1. Archaeological Council, Inc., Riverview, Florida.
2015 TheRitualUsesofLithicRawMaterialsDuringthe Woodland Period, Fort Center, Southern Florida. JournalofFieldArchaeology 40(4):413-427.
Austin, Robert J. and Richard W. Estabrook 2000 Chert Distribution and Exploitation in Peninsular
Florida. TheFloridaAnthropologist53:116-130.
Austin, Robert J., Nicholas Linville, and Matthew Betz
2012 PhaseIITestExcavationsat8HR880andHistorical BackgroundResearchat8HR883, MosaicFertilizers Ona Mine, Hardee County, Florida. Report prepared for Mosaic Fertilizer LLC by Southeastern Archaeological Research Inc. On file, Florida Division ofHistorical Resources, Tallahassee.
Benson, CarlA. 1967 The Philip Mound: A Historic Site. The Florida Anthropologist 20:118-132.
Blake, N.M.
1980 Land into Water-Water into Land: A History of WaterManagement inFlorida. University Presses of Florida, Tallahassee.
Bloch, Lindsay, Neill J. Wallis, George Kamenov, and John
M. Jager
2019 Production Origins and Matrix Constituents of Spiculate Pottery in Florida, USA: Defining Ubiquitous St Johns Ware by LA-ICP-MS and XRD. JournalofArchaeologicalScience: Reports
24:313-323.
Brooks, Harold K.
1982 GuidetothePhysiographicDivisionsofFlorida. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute for Food Agricultural Science, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Brown, Randall B., Earl L. Stone, and Victor W. Carlisle 1990 Soils. In Ecosystems ofFlorida, edited by Ronald
L. Myers and John J. Ewel pp. 35-69. University of Central Florida Press, Orlando.
Browning, William D.
1973 AnArchaeologicalandHistoricalSurveyoftheFlorida Power and Light Company Manatee Power Plant. Prepared for the Florida Power and Light Company under contract by the Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties, DivisionofArchives, History, and Records management, Florida Department of State. On File, Florida Master Site File, No. 5, Tallahassee.
1975An Archaeological and Historical Survey of the International Mineral and Chemical Company Kingsford Plant in Hillsborough County, Florida. Florida Division ofArchives, History and Records Management, Miscellaneous Project Report Series No. 24, Tallahassee.
Bullen, Ripley P. 1952 ElevenArchaeologicalSitesinHillsboroughCounty, Florida. Florida Geological Survey Reports of
Investigation 11, Tallahassee.
1975 A Guide to the Identification ofFlorida Projectile Points. Kendall Books, Gainesville.
Burger, B. William 2017 Archaeological Research and Investigations of the
Stanley Mound (8MA127) and Adjacent Areas, Manatee County, Florida. In Phase 1 Archaeological Survey Report and Preservation Plan, Stanley Mound Site (8MA127), Wingate Creek State Park, Manatee County, Florida by Kendal Jackson, Thomas J. Pluckhahn, and Jeffrey T. Moates pp.
100-110. Prepared for the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, District 4Administration, Osprey, Florida.
Collins, Lori D., Steven Fernandez, Jeffrey P. Du Vemay,
James �Bart� McLeod, and Travis F. Doering
2014 Archaeological Resource Sensitivity Modeling in FloridaStateParksDistricts4and5. TheSouthwest and SoutheastFlorida Regions. University ofSouth FloridaAlliance for Integrated Spatial Technologies. Report produced for the Florida Division of Recreation and Parks, DepartmentofEnvironmental
Protection.
Deming, Joan 1975 An Archaeological and Historical Survey of the Beker Phosphate Corporation Property in Eastern Manatee County, Florida. Performed for the Beker Phosphate Corporation. University ofSouth Florida, DepartmentofAnthropology, MiscellaneousProject Report Series No. 33, Tampa.
1976 An Archaeological Survey of the Beker Phosphate CorporationPropertyinManateeCounty,Floridawith
a
research Design for FutureArchaeological Surveys inthe ManateeRegion. UnpublishedMaster�sThesis, Department ofApplied Anthropology, University of South Florida,Tampa.
Ellis, Gary D. 1977 A Report on the Excavations of the Payne Creek Site, 8HR10, Hardee County, Florida. University of South Florida, Department of Anthropology, Archaeological ReportNo. 4, Tampa.
Fewkes, Jesse W. 1924 Preliminary Archeological Explorations at Weeden Island, Florida. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 76:1-26.
Goggin, John M. 1947 APreliminaryDefinitionofArchaeologicalAreasand PeriodsinFlorida. AmericanAntiquity 13(2):114-127.
Hemmings, Thomas E. 1974 EvaluationofArchaeologicalandHistoricalSites on the Lonesome Mine Tract. Report for Brewster Phosphates. On File, Florida Master Site File No. 248, Tallahassee.
1975 AnArchaeologicalSurveyoftheSouthProngofthe Alafia River, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 28:41-51.
Hutchinson, Dale L. and Jeffrey M. Mitchem
2001 The Weeki Wachee Mound, An Early Contact Period MortuaryLocalityinHernando County,West-Central Florida. SoutheasternArchaeology 15(l):47-65.
Jackson, Kendal, Thomas J. Pluckhahn, Jeffrey T. Moates
2017 Phase 1 Archaeological Survey Report and Preservation Plan, Stanley Mound Site (8MA127), Wingate Creek State Park, Manatee County,
Florida. Prepared for the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection, District 4 Administration,
Osprey, Florida.
Janus Research/ PiperArchaeology 1994 CulturalResourceAssessmentSurveyforGoosePond Road (County Road 663A) Bridge Replacement over Horse Creek, Hardee County, Florida. Submitted to

Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee. On File, Florida Master Site File No. 3798.

Kemp, Kassie C.
2015 Pottery Exchange and Interaction at the Crystal River Site (8CIl)y Florida. Master�s Thesis, Department ofAppliedAnthropology, Universityof South Florida, Tampa.
Kozuch, Laura
1998 Marine Shells from Mississippian Archaeological Sites. PhDDissertation, DepartmentofAnthropology, UniversityofFlorida, Gainesville.

2013 Ceramic Shell Cup Effigies from Illinois and their Implications. SoutheasternArchaeology 32(l):29-45.
Luer, George R. 2014 New Insights on the Woodland and Mississippi
PeriodsofWest-PeninsularFlorida. InNewHistories ofPre-ColumbianFlorida,editedbyNeil J.Wallis and Asa R. Randall, pp. 74-93. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Luer, George R., and Marion M.Almy 1982 A Definition of the Manasota Culture. The Florida
Anthropologist 35:34-58.

Luer, George R., Marion M. Almy, Dana Ste. Claire, and RobertAustin
1987 The Myakkahatchee Site (8S0397), A Large Multi-Period Inland from the Shore Site in SarasotaCounty,
Florida. TheFloridaAnthropologist40:137-153.

Marquardt, William, and Laura Kozuch
2016 The Lightning Whelk: An Enduring Icon of SoutheasternNorthAmerican Spirituality. Journalof AnthropologicalArchaeology 42:1-26.
Milanich, Jerald T., Rochelle A. Marrinan, and Carlos A. Martinez
1975 Archaeological and Historical Resources of the Carlton Ranch, Limestone, and Olliff Properties, HardeeCounty,Florida.PerformedforEnvironmental Science and Engineering, Inc. under contract by the Department of Social Sciences, Florida State Museum, UniversityofFlorida, Gainesville. On File,
Florida Master Site File No. 60.

Milanich, Jerald T., and R.F. Willis
1976 ArchaeologicalandHistoricalResourcesoftheFort Green Mine, Hardee County, Florida. Mise. Project Series No. 7. Florida State Museum, Gainesville.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M. 1989a Redefining Safety Harbor: Late Prehistoric/ ProtohistoricArchaeologyin WestPeninsularFlorida.
PhD Dissertation, UniversityofFlorida, Gainesville.
1989b The Ruth Smith, Weeki Wachee, and Tatham Mounds:ArchaeologicalEvidenceofEarly Spanish Contact. TheFloridaAnthropologist42:317-339.
Padgett, Thomas 1974 An Archaeological and Historical Survey of the
W.R. Grace Property in Hillsborough and Manatee Counties, Florida. Florida Division of Archives, History and Records Management, Miscellaneous Project Series No. 17, Tallahassee.
1976 HinterlandExploitationintheCentralGulfCoast�Manatee Region During the Safety Harbor Period.
TheFloridaAnthropologist29:39-48.
Pluckhahn, Thomas J., andVictor D. Thompson 2009 Mapping Crystal River: Past, Present, and Future. TheFloridaAnthropologist 62(1-2):3-22.
2012 Integrating LiDAR and Conventional Mapping Data: Methodological Insights and Appraisal of Results fromMappingoftheFortCentersiteinSouth-Central Florida (8GL13). Journal of Field Archaeology 37(4):289-301.
2018 Woodland-Period Mound Building Historical
as Tradition: Dating the Mounds and Monuments at
Crystal River (801/ Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 15:73-94.
Pluckhahn,Thomas J., Rachel E. Thompson, andKassieKemp 2017 Constructing Community at Civic-Ceremonial Centers: Pottery-making Practices at Crystal River and Robert�s Island. Southeastern Archaeology
36(2):110-121.
Reimer, Paula J., Bard, Edouard, Bayliss, Alex, Beck, J. Warren, Blackwell, Paul G., Bronk Ramsey, Christopher, Grootes,PieterM.,Guilderson,ThomasP,Haflidason,Haflidi, Hajdas, Irka, Hatt�, Christine, Heaton, Timothy J., Hoffmann, Dirk L., Hogg,Alan G., Hughen, KonradA., Kaiser, K. Felix, Kromer, Bemd, Manning, Sturt W.,Niu, Mu, Reimer, Ron W., Richards, DavidA., Scott, E. Marian, Southon, John R., Staff, RichardA., Turney, Christian S.M., van der Plicht, Johannes
2013 IntCall3 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration
curves 0-50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55 (4), 1869-1887.
Schroder, Lloyd E. 2006 The Anthropology of Florida Points and Blades. American Systemsofthe Southeast,Inc.,WestColumbia.

Schwing, Patrick
2011 A Sedimentary Record of Regional Land-Use and ClimateChangein theManateeRiver, Manatee County, Florida. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. College of Marine Science,UniversityofSouthFlorida,Tampa.
Sears, William H. 1958 Burial Mounds on the GulfCoastal Plain. American Antiquity 23(3):274-284.
1959 TwoWeedenIslandPeriodBurialMounds,Florida. Contributions of the Florida State Museum, Social SciencesNo. 5.UniversityofFlorida,Gainesville.
1982 FortCenter:AnArchaeologicalSiteintheLakeOkeechobee Basin. University Press ofFlorida, Gainesville.
Smith, Marvin T. 1977 The Early Historic Period (1540-1670) on the Upper
Coosa River Drainage of Alabama and Georgia. Conference on Historic Site Archaeology Papers 1976, 11:151-167.
Smith, Marvin T. and Mary Elizabeth Good
1982 Early Sixteenth Century Glass Beads in the Spanish Colonial Trade. Cottonlandia Museum Publications, Greenwood, Mississippi.
SoutheasternArchaeological Research, Inc. (SEARCH) 2007 ACulturalResourceAssessmentSurveyoftheTexaco Tracts, Manatee County, Florida. Prepared for Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC. On File, Florida Master Site FileReportNo. 14873,Tallahassee.
Stanton, William
2015 Archaeological Site Assessment -Stanley Mound (8MA127), Wingate Creek State Park. Florida Park Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee.
Stirling, Matthew W. 1935 Smithsonian Archaeological Projects Conducted under the Federal Employment ReliefAct in 1933�
34.SmithsonianArchaeologicalReportfor 1934,pp. 371-400.
Upchurch, Sam B., Richard N. Strom, and Mark G. Nuckels 1982 SilicificationofMioceneRocksfromCentralFlorida. InMioceneoftheSoutheastern UnitedStates, edited by T.M. Scott and S.B. Upchurch, pp. 251-284. Florida Bureau ofGeology, Special Publication No. 25, Tallahassee.
Wallis,NeillJ.,Ann S.Cordell,andJamesB.Stoltman 2014 Foundations of the Cades Pond Culture in North-
Central Florida: The River Styx Site (8A1458). SoutheasternArchaeology 33:168-188.
Wallis, Neill J., Zackary Gilmore, Ann Cordell, Thomas
Pluckhahn, KeithAshley, and Michael Glascock.
2015 The Ceramic Ecology of Florida: Compositional BaselinesforPotteryProvenience Studies. Scienceand TechnologyofArchaeologicalResearch 1(2): 30-49.
Wharton, Barry R. 1977 SalvageInvestigationsattheOrchardFenselineSite, 8HR11, Hardee County, Florida. UniversityofSouth Florida,DepartmentofAnthropology,Archaeological Report No. 5.
Wharton, Barry R., and J. Raymond Williams 1980 An Appraisal of Hardee County Archaeology: Hinterland or Heartland? Florida Scientist 43(3):215-220.
Willey, Gordon R. 1948 Culture Sequence in the Manatee Region of West Florida.AmericanAntiquity 13:209-218.
1949 ArcheologyoftheFloridaGulfCoast.Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection Volume 113.
Wood, Lewis N., Jr., Joan Deming, and J. Raymond Williams 1976 AnArchaeologicalandHistoricalSurveyoftheCF Industries, Inc. Property in Northwestern Hardee County, Florida. Conductedfor CF Industries, Inc. On File, FMSF No. 334.


WASHINGTON HALL (8LE6292): RECONSTRUCTING THE HISTORY OF A TALLAHASSEE FRONTIER HOTEL
Paulette S. McFadden

FloridaBureauofArchaeologicalResearch,B.CalvinJonesCenterforArchaeology,1001DeSotoParkDrive, Tallahassee, Florida 32303
E-mail:paulette.mcfadden@dos.myflorida.com
Introduction
On a cold winter day in Tallahassee, Florida, an historic feature was discovered by construction workers that opened a window into the early frontier history of the town. This
article combines extensive archival research with analysis of
the cultural materials recovered from the feature to create a

narrative about the history ofthe Washington Hall hotel and the people who were associated with it. The results of this research illustrate the importance ofsalvage archaeology and shows how even a relatively small artifact assemblage can yield agreatdealofinformation.
On Wednesday, January 4, 2017, construction activities

on
city property located at the southeastern comer of Apalachee Parkway and South Monroe Street uncovered what appeared to be an historic feature beneath the modem sidewalk. After stripping a section of the old concrete sidewalk with a backhoe, the workers noticed a round
depression measuring approximately two and a half feet in
diameter in the ground that contained soil differing in color
and texture from the surrounding matrix, and upon digging
Figure 1.Aworker clearsloosematerialsfromthe further,theyencounteredanincreasedfrequencyofwhatthey excavatedhole. described as old bricks. Work was halted, and the Department
ofManagement Services called the Bureau ofArchaeological Research (BAR).
A BAR crew traveled to the site to assess the feature.

Upon clearing the loose material from the excavated area, no intact areas of brick constmction were observed; rather the
bricks were arranged in a haphazard fashion, suggesting the featurewaspossibly afilled-inwellorprivy(Figure 1). The material that had already been removed from the
feature by the construction crew was screened using lA in hardware cloth. Brick and other cultural materials including
ceramic sherds, broken glass, nails, and other assorted artifacts
were recovered.
Theprofilesofthefeaturewerecleared, andbrickswere observed in the north, east, and south profiles (Figure 2). In the south wall, whole and broken bricks were co-mingled and tightly packed in an area 40 to 90 centimeters below surface (cmbs). In the east wall, bricks were in a similar orientation between 70 and 100 cmbs. Finally, in the north wall, bricks
were observed from 90 to 100 cmbs. No brick was present
in the west wall. The matrix immediately behind the bricks was dense, unmottled, red clay that contained no artifacts,
Vol.71(2) TheFloridaAnthropologist May2019
indicating that the remaining bricks in the walls were the outer edges ofthe feature. The remainder ofthe feature was excavated by the backhoe and the materials were screened.
Location, Description, and Background
The property on the southeast comerofApalachee Pkwy and South Monroe St is owned by the State of Florida and leased to the City ofTallahassee. A small park and a portion of the Union Bank parking lot are situated on the lot in the
northwest quarterofthe block, the area where the feature was discovered(Figure 3).Historicalresearchofthislotrevealed that it was the location of significant events that shaped the history ofTallahassee, beginning with the initial development
ofthe lot and the constmction ofWashington Hall.
Figure 3. Map ofthe southeast corner ofApalachee
Parkway and South Monroe Street showing the locations
ofthe area offeature.
Washington Hall was central to the early development ofTallahassee andthe StateofFlorida. Constructedbetween
1825 and 1828 by Joseph R. Betton, a recent immigrant to
Tallahassee from Alexandria, Virginia (Rogers and Clark 1999:155), it was one ofonly four hotels in the frontier town (Groene 1971:28).Atthetimeofitsconstmction,Tallahassee
was a fledgling city in an equally young Leon County, the populationofwhichnumberedaround 1,000residentsatthe timeofincorporationin 1826.Likely amulti-storystmcture, WashingtonHallwaslocatedonthesoutheastcomerofMonroe and East Lafayette Streets, facing the newly constmcted log cap�tol building (Figure 4).
The hotels and taverns that clustered around the small cap�tol were a vital component of public life. At various times, Washington Hall provided a place for meetings, religious services, and in some cases was utilized by the government prior to the constmction of public buildings. The first court session was held in Tallahassee in 1825 (State ArchivesofFlorida)nearly adecadebeforetheconstmction of the first courthouse on 200 Foot Road (Park Avenue)
Figure 4. Replica ofFlorida�s first cap�tol-Tallahassee, Florida. 1924.PhotofromStateArchivesofFlorida, Florida Memory.
between Monroe and Adams streets. In the absence of an
official courthouse, court proceedings were conducted in a variety of places, including for a time at Washington Hall (DioceseofFlorida 1889).
Concurrent with its use as the courthouse, Washington
Hall was also the initial meeting place for one ofthe oldest churches in Tallahassee. In 1826, Episcopalian missionaries, Reverends Ralph Williston and Horatio Nelson Gray, began holding services at the hotel. The congregation soon outgrew
the meeting space and in May of 1837 moved into the newly constmcted Saint John�s Episcopal Church (Diocese of Florida 1889).
Betton�s Washington Hall appears to have prospered during the early decades ofTallahassee�s development and the Betton family would branch out into other business ventures. Although anything beyond the bare necessities was difficult to obtain early on, the burgeoning population and the wealth created by the available lands for planting created a growing economy in Tallahassee. The wealthyplanters that had moved into the area to exploitthe fertile lands around the small town, required goods and services. Goods arrived from the port at nearby St. Mark�s and included staples such as lard, flour, pork, and salt. As the wealthy class continued to prosper from cotton exports, luxury items also began to come into the city, including silk cloth, fine hats, and clothing from London.
Businessmen such as Joseph Betton and his son, Turbutt, profited greatly from this economic boom, having expanded into retail. But, this prosperity was short-lived. Already under
strain from the Second Seminole War that began in 1835, the economy suffered significantly during the national depression of 1837, driving many planters and business people into bankruptcy.FrancisdeLaportedeCastelnau, avisitingFrench

naturalist, provided a description of the small frontier town during this time in his book Vues et Souvenirs de I�Amerique duNord(Views andMemoriesofNorthAmerica)(Castelnau 1842). It is one of the earliest descriptions of Tallahassee (Figures 5and6).BelowisatranslationoftheoriginalFrench
text
(translation by the author):
Figure 5. Lithograph ofTallahassee street scene from Vues et Souvenirs de PAmreique du Nord. 1842.
Figure 6. Lithograph ofthe State capitol from Vues et Souvenirs de l�Amreique du Nord. 1842.
The houses, about three hundred in number, are
almost all constructed of wood and in the Italian
style. They rarely have more than one floor; Only two or three are of brick painted in a shining red, with green shutters. There are several Presbyterian, Episcopal and Methodist churches, two banks, now united in one, two inns, etc. There are published two
papers,eachofwhichappearstwice aweek.
Everything is at an exorbitant price; The market is very poorly provided, and it is difficult, even by money, to procure anything beyond the necessaries
oflife.It is oftenimpossible,forexample,tofind a dropofmilkin acountrywhere herds abound, and where a fine cow only sells for 25 fr[ancs].
The number ofinhabitants is about fifteen hundred; They are Americans and most come from South Carolina and Georgia; There are no Spaniards; During my stay, there were two Frenchmen. Nearly all are engaged in trade, and supply goods to the neighboring planters in exchange for their crops. This type ofbusiness is done throughout the year on credit and settles only on January 1st...
Just as the economy was beginning to improve, Tallahassee�s small population of around 1,600 people was devastatedbyYellowFeverin 1841,withuptoone-quarterof the residents dying after contracting the mosquito-borne virus (Dehart 2011). Life went on for the survivors ofthe terrible
epidemic and Washington Hall continued to provide lodgings for visitors and boarders, even constructing an addition to the structure to accommodate a larger number ofguests. The
newly renovated structure could comfortably house 40 people
at a
dailyrateof$2.00 (Figure 7).Atthetimeoftherenovation, Park and Harris were the proprietors ofthe hotel.
No information could be found about Park; however, Harris appears to have been aprominentfigure in Tallahassee. Alexander Ewing Harris, originally from South Carolina,
Figure 7. Washington Hall advertisement from The Floridian, December 25,1841.

migratedto Leon County afterfightingwith the FloridaMilitia inthe Second SeminoleWar(FloridaDepartmentofMilitary Affairs). He is listed in the 1840 Leon County Census as a 40-year-old white male with nine slaves. Harris served as the City Marshall for a number ofyears and as Tax Collector in 1841 (Figure 8). In 1847 he enlisted as a private in the U.S. military and died in Vera Cruz during the Mexican War (The
Floridian 1848).
NOTICE. raiHE of TliiltiwwNi ar� roqueaUri HJL clur up and heap Ihe�* Jola aad back jar�*clearoffi'tfcandniWiwti, Th�CorporationCarta willgoroundtheCitjon H^edneadajaandSaiar daj*.andtii�reqoeei�d thatalllitter andrahlneh hacollected andcapoeitedon the�tract*.carlj vn
the mmm'mgofiI�umdaja,andon*netherdajein the week. The warm weather hieing act w, the pr�prictjrofweakanarrangementisawadwt u*all who hare regard for the health of (ha e.tj,and it ia hoped that the mtixtna gaaerallj will eompljwith the ahoea regulaboo.
Bj orderof UrnCiljCouncil,
A. �. KUKRIS, ap il 13 33 Citj Marshal.
Figure 8.Noticein TheFloridian,April18,1838 (Harris 1838).
Sometime between 1841 and 1843, Washington Hall was sold to Richard Keith Call and David Shelby Walker, and
Harris stayed on to oversee the property. After previous visits to Florida with Andrew Jackson, Call (Figure 9) permanently movedtoFloridain 1822andlaterbecameterritorialgovernor
(Florida Department of State). By 1840, he owned two plantations in Leon County. Walker (Figure 10) was Call�s cousin and business associate. Walker moved to Leon County
in 1837 and was a prominent political figure in Florida, becominggovernorhimselfin 1865. After the 1841 renovations, Washington Hall continued
to operate as a hotel and boarding house as well as a meeting place. Temperance meetings were regularly held at the hotel, the attendees hoping to overcome the depressed state ofthe
city after the war and Yellow Fever epidemic (Rogers and Clark2010). Theprosperityofthe hotel, however, wasquickly coming to an end, and an incident at Washington Hall in 1843 would have disastrous consequences for the entire town.

Around 5:00pm onThursday, May25,1843, afire started at the rear ofWashington Hall. Three hours later, the entire business district of Tallahassee was in ruin. The following detailedreportofthefire comesfrom aspecialeditionofthe
StarofFloridanewspaper,datedMay27, 1843:
OnThursdaylastthereoccurredinthiscityoneofthe most sweeping fires that perhaps ever overwhelmed any city with perfect and entire ruin. The fire commenced at the house known as the Washington
Hall, on the eastern side of the Capitol, and in the southeasternquarterofthecity. Thewindwas fresh at the time and the flames spread northwardly with fearful rapidity. A vacant lot and the fire-proof dwelling of Mr. Cutter prevented it extending southwardly. To its progress on the north the narrow street called La Fayette street presented no barrier. It
soon
caught the low buildings occupied as a carriage maker�s shop, the dwelling of Mr. Watson, Judge Gibson, and approached the red store of Captain Bond. The efforts made to arrest its progress were impotent and futile. The terrible element had arisen in its power, and the feeble strength of man was nothing before it. It crossed Pensacola street, swept the entire block occupied by the Messrs. Hackley and E. W. Dorsey, Auctioneers, by the Floridian Office, and others. Every exertion which the means
within reach and the time allowed were used to
prevent the flames being communicated to the west sideofMonroe street,butinvain,manyroofswere fired at once, and the fire fully established itself in
the block between Monroe street on the east, Adams street on the west, and the entire business portion ofthecitybeforeitonthe north.And suchwas the fearful rapidity with which the flames were driven forward, that but few goods could be saved from the
numerous stores which lined both sides of Monroe
street, and the cross streets, Jefferson and Clinton
Figure 9.PortraitofRichardKeithCall.Dateunknown. Photo from Florida Department ofState.

Figure 10.PortraitofDavidShelbyWalker, 1883.Photo from Florida Department ofState.
streets. Owing to the greatprotection which the trees
on
both sides ofAdams street furnished, the citizens were enabled by great exertion to prevent the fires from crossing this street westward. The two-story brick dwelling of R. Hayward Esq., the three-story brickbuildingofC. E.Bartlett,andtheUnionBank, and the BankofFlorida, were all in great danger, and savedonlybyextraordinaryefforts. Tothenorthward the flames rushed on without impediment, till they found nothing to prey on in the vacancyofthe Court House Square. Onthe easternsideofMonroe street everything was swept till it reached the dwelling of Dr. Randolph,whereitsfurtherprogresswas arrested. The Court House was several times on fire, but those on the alert were fortunate enough to extinguish the flames before they gathered strength. The fire broke out about five o�clock, P.M., and was arrested before eight, so that all this destruction occurred in the short space ofthree hours.

Figure 11isahand-drawnmapofthecityofTallahassee datingto 1840,producedjustthreeyearsbeforethefire.The outer, circular line is original to the map and shows the extent ofdevelopment in the town. Inside the line were homes and businesses, outside the line there was wilderness, except for a cemetery. The large box in the center is the business distract, with the location of Washington Hall indicated by a star. The fire destroyed the entire area inside the business district
box and continued northward to the courthouse (indicated
by the smaller box). The newspaper account lists each of the properties that were destroyed, which includes 45 retail or service businesses, 16 dwellings, 13 offices, the Floridian and Sentinel newspaper offices, Governor Call�s office, the post office, the railroad office, and the register�s office. The estimated damage was half a million dollars (valued at
approximately $18.6 mil. in 2015; Edvinsson nd.). Thecitylaunched aninvestigationintothe causeofthefire andseveral suspectswerearrested. One, anAfricanAmerican manwhowas accusedbyoneoftheowners(CallorWalker)
as starting the fire in retaliation for a past disagreement. John Daly, a white cook at the hotel, was arrested when a patron, Lawrence Russ, told ofhearing Daly brag about starting the fire. Russ reversed his story when under oath. In both cases,
there was not enough evidence to convict eitherofthe accused and they were released (Groene 1971).
Figure 11. 1840Hand-drawnmapofTallahasseeshowing
the extent ofdevelopment. Areas in the two boxes in the
center were
impacted by the 1843 fire. Note: Map from StateArchives ofFlorida, Florida Memory.
The property was cleared after the fiery destruction of Washington Hall and the lot sat empty, along with many others in the city, for over three decades. Illustrations ofthe area around the Capitol dating to 1868 (Figure 12) and 1876 (Figure 13) shows the intersection of Monroe and Lafayette streets, which remained undeveloped.
Aphotograph taken from the steps ofthe Capitol looking east down Lafayette street dating to sometime in the 1870s (Figure 14) appears to show some sort of structure, but it is
unclearifthe structure is ontheCapitolbuildingpropertyor
on
the property across Monroe St. No records ofthis structure could be found.
Sometime around 1885, Frederick Towle Myers (Figure
15) built his two-story home on the property, with an address of 407 South Monroe St. (Figure 16). Myers was bom in

Figure 12.IllustrationoftheCapitalCity,1868.Photo from StateArchives ofFlorida, Florida Memory. The
corner
ofLafayette and Monroe Streets is indicated by
the arrow.
Figure 14.ViewlookingfromthestepsoftheOldCapitol, ca. 1870.PhotofromStateArchivesofFlorida,Florida Memory.
Figure 13. View looking toward the Capitol, 1876. Photo from StateArchives ofFlorida, Florida Memory. The
corner
ofLafayette and Monroe Streets is indicated by
the arrow.
Figure 15.FrederickTowleMyers,between 1908and1927. Photo from StateArchives ofFlorida, Florida Memory.

Figure 16.HomeofFredT.Myers,between1885and 1910.PhotofromtheAlvan S.HarperCollection,State Archives ofFlorida, Florida Memory (Harper n.d.).

Tallahasseein 1854.AfterattendingtheUniversityofGeorgia, hereturnedtohishometownwhereheaccepted appointment
an asClerkoftheSupremeCourtoftheStatein 1875.Afterbeing admitted to the Bar in 1876, Myers began practicing law. During his career, he served as the President of the Florida Bar Association, was elected to the State Senate, and for 36 years, served as the city attorney. Tallahassee�s oldest park, Myers Park, is namedforhim inhonorofhismanyyearsof service to the city. Myers died in 1927, followed four years later by his wife, Jessie DeCottes Myers. The property was sold, and the Myers home was demolished sometime between 1941 and 1945.TheMyershomeisdepictedinthe 1885Bird�s Eye View ofTallahassee map (Figures 17 and 18) produced by artist Henry Wellge and published by Norris, Wellge & Co. Maps produced by Wellge are based on topographic
Figure 17.ViewofthecityofTallahasseestatecapitolof Florida, county seat ofLeon County 1885. Photo from StateArchives ofFlorida, Florida Memory. Note: Detail
oftheareainthewhiteboxcanbeseeninFigure 18.
Figure 18.DetailoftheCapitolbuildingandsurrounding
area
showing the Myers House, designatedwith the
number 39, from View ofthe city ofTallahassee state
capitol ofFlorida, county seat ofLeon County 1885.
Zoomable map available from StateArchives ofFlorida,
Florida Memory.
maps, street maps, and measurements provided by a team of surveyors and are very accurate. The Myers house is marked by the number 39. In the key atthe bottomofthe map, number 39 is listed as �F.T. Myers, Attorney at Law.�
Facilitated in part by expansion of Florida State University, Tallahassee began to grow rapidly in the latterhalf of the twentieth century. The population more than doubled between 1950 and 1970, going from 27,237 to 72,624 residents (Population.us). Commercial development around the capitol had replaced most ofthe older residential homes, and over the next three decades, the southeastern comer of Lafayette and
Monroe streets changed significantly. After the Myers home was demolished, the comer was the location ofa Standard Oil servicestation(Figure 19).ApalacheeParkwaywasconstmcted in 1957,with its terminus at the capitol andreplacing Lafayette Street. By thattime, the Standard Oil service station was gone, replaced by a parking lot (Figure 20). In 1971, the historic
Union Bank was moved from its original location on Adams
Street to its current location on Apalachee Pkwy and Calhoun Avenue, adjacent to the parking lot (Figure 21). Finally, in the mid-1980s, the comer was converted to a park with a small parking lot forvisitors to the Union Bank (Figure 22).
Material Culture
The fill from the feature yielded a variety of cultural materials, many ofwhich were temporally diagnostic. Table 1 provides total frequencies ofthe collected materials by type.
Detailed discussions ofeach type follow.
Brick
Representative samplesofthebrickfoundinthe feature were collected for analysis. All the bricks were composed of
clay, tempered with large clasts of materials that included limestone and clinker (Figure 23). The practice of adding

Figure 19. Standard Oil on the southeast corner of Lafayette and Monroe Streets. View from across Monroe Street looking southeast. Photo from StateArchives of Florida, Florida Memory.
Figure 21. Bird�s-eye view ofthe Union Bank building at the cornerofApalachee Parkway and Calhoun Street prior to restoration in 1984. The parking lot on the right side is the southeast cornerofApalachee Parkway (formally Lafayette Street) and Monroe Street. Photo from State Archives ofFlorida, Florida Memory (Gaines n.d.).
Figure 20. View ofthe Capitol and construction of Apalachee Parkway. The parking lot is on the southeast
corner
ofApalachee Parkway (formally Lafayette Street) and Monroe Street. Photo from StateArchives ofFlorida, Florida Memory.
Figure 22. View ofthe southeastern cornerofApalachee Parkway (formally Lafayette Street) and Monroe Street facing east from Monroe Street, 2015. The former location ofWashington Hall. Screen shot from Google Maps.

Table 1.FrequencyofMaterialsbyType

Material No. Wt. (gm) Notes
Ceramics 43 95.74 Two thermally altered sherds, 1 pipe stem
Nails 34 209.86

Metal 8 31.13 UID metal fragments and a garment buckle
Window Glass 78 55.57 Window Glass
Glass 15 55.57 Includestumblerfragments(7),baseofamedicinevial,andbottleglass
Worked Bone 1 18.53 Cut cow bone.
Bone 14 38.51 Includes 1 cow tooth and 13 unidentifiable fragments.
Worked Shell 1 0.14 Shell button
Shell 21 52.1 Oyster and hooked muscle fragments
Stone 23 86.73 Slaterooftilefragments
Building Materials 20 322.8 Modem concrete from surface and clay sewer pipe fragment
Other 9 19.66 Includes coal and clinkers
Total 223

clinker as a temper is unique to territorial Florida, between supplied bricks for the construction of the hotel. After the 1821and1845(Rothrock2013).Priortotheadventofthe destructionofWashingtonHallin1843,nostructurewasbuilt railroad in 1837, which provided a means to import them, on the southeastern comer of Monroe and Lafayette Streets bricksweremadelocallyinTallahassee.Thecharacteristiclip untilatleast1870,atwhichtime,brickswerebeingbroughtin scarsalongtheedgesofsomeofthebedfacesanddistinctive thecityviatherailroadandlackedtheclinkerandlimestone
to

form marks on the sides indicate that these were machine temperoftheearlierlocallymadebricks.
manufactured using an early type of brick press (Rothrock 2013). At the time Washington Hall was built there were two Nails local brickworks, one owned by Richard Keith Call, and the A total of 34 nails were recovered from the feature
other by Benjamin Chaires, and it is possible that one or both fill, all of which are heavily concreted with mst prohibiting characterization of most of the nail�s attributes. Five nails were identifiable, including one wrought nail, two cut nails, and two wire nails. Wrought nails were exclusively used for constmction prior to the advent of cut nails in the early nineteenth century although there is some overlap in the temporalrangesofusage, andinsome cases,bothtypeswere used in the same constmction. Wire nails were not in common
use until after about 1882, when they represented nearly half ofall nails produced in the United States (Adams 2002).
Ceramics A total of 43 ceramic sherds were recovered from the
feature fill. Table 2 provides frequencies ofceramics by type and the date range association with each. Creamware is the minority, with only four sherds, and is also the earliest type in the assemblage. Creamware was predominately made by Josiah Wedgwood during the late eighteenth century.

By the early nineteenth century, Wedgwood and others Figure 23. Brick collected from the feature fill. had developed new glazing techniques and creamware was Table 2. Frequencies ofCeramics by Type
Type/Subtype No. % Date Range Notes
Creamware 4 9.5 1775-1820
Pearlware 1779-1830
White 13 31.0 1779-1830
Polychrome 2 4.8 1800-1820
Hand-painted 2 4.8 1800-1820 1 pc. thermally altered
Blue Transfer 1 2.4 Ca. 1820
Black Transfer 1 2.4 Ca. 1820
Mocha 1 2.4 1840-1900
Blue Shell Edgeware 4 9.5 1788-1834
Whiteware 1820-Present
Flow Blue 4 9.5 1840-1879
Blue Transfer 3 7.1 1827-1828
Red Transfer 3 7.1 1829-1839
Earthenware

White 1 2.4 Ind. Thermally altered
Buckley Ware 1 2.4 1720-1775
Unglazed 1 2.4 Ind. Possible planter
Stoneware 1 2.4 Ind.
Total 42

Note: Dates from Noel Hume 1978, Miller, Samford, Shlasko, and Madsen 2000.
replaced by pearlware. This new ceramic ware was harder and technique for transfer printing made it possible for greater whiterincolorthantheearliercream-coloredceramics,andthe detailindecorativepatternsandthissurfacetreatmentbecame glazethatwasappliedtookonaslightblueishtintafterfiring verypopularintheearlynineteenthcentury.Alatertype,flow (Stelle 2001). The assemblage is dominated by pearlware, blue, had the addition ofa chemical during the firing process which was in common use from 1779 until about 1830 and had that enabled the blue ink to spread across the background of
a

varietyofsurfacetreatments.Plain,hand-painted(Figure24a, thedesign,creatingadistinctiveandeasilyrecognizedtype e, and d), polychrome (Figure 24b), transfer printed (Figure (Stelle 2011). The Washington Hall assemblage includes three 24c and g), and mocha edge treatment (Figure 24f) were all blue transfer print, and three red transfer print (Figure 26) recovered from the fill. The latest type, blue shell edge-wear, sherds, representing at least three different vessels. At least alsocalledtherococostyle,consistsoffoursherdsrepresenting twodifferentvesselsarerepresentedbythefourflowblue threedifferentpatterns(Figure25).Exceptingthewhite,the sherds,oneofwhichappearstobeafragmentofthebaseofa remaining pearlware sherds represent an additional seven pitcher or teapot (Figure 27). vessels with unique decorations. Rising in popularity after the The earthen-and stonewares are general categories for
developmentoftheclearglazingtechnique,whitewarebegan sherdsthatcouldnotbeidentifiedtoaspecifictype,except to replace pearlware after about 1820. for one small black lead-glazed sherd that is possibly Buckley
Althoughwhitewareisstillmade,patternsofdecoration ware(Figure32,bottomright).Buckleywareisnormally onthismoredurableceramicaretemporallydiagnostic.Anew associatedwiththelate18thcentury(Miller,Samford,Shlasko,
Figure 24. Decorated Pearlware, hand-painted, a, d, and e;polychrome,b;transferprinted, candg;mocha,f.
Figure 25. Rococo style Blue Shell Edgeware.
Figure 26. Blue and red transferprinted Whiteware.
Figure 27. Flow blue sherds.
and Madsen 2000), but there were certainly pieces ofthe ware that continued to circulate early into the nineteenth century. The remaining sherds have an indeterminate (Ind.) date range.
The dates associated with the ceramics recovered from the feature all fall within the time frame that Washington Hall
was present on the lot.
Glass Most of the assemblage (n=63) is glass, most of which is thin, light green, flat window glass. During the nineteenth century, the majority of window glass was made using the
cylinder glass method, which produced glass of uniform thickness. Over time, as glass became less expensive, window glass became thicker (Weiland 2009). Measurements of a random sample taken from the light green flat glass range from
0.8 to 1.6 millimeters (mm) in thickness. Resources for dating window glass indicate that all the glass fallswithin a date range of 1810 to 1845 (Chance and Chance 1976; Roenke 1978). Also recovered was the base of a small glass vial, measuring 1.9 cm in diameter, which is made of very thin
light green glass with a pontil mark on the bottom. Pontil marks are the scars left on the base ofa bottle when the rod,
or
pontil, that is used to hold the hot malleable glass is broken off. These scars are common on bottles, including medicinal bottles prior to the 1860s, when new bottle making methods were developed (Lindsey 2017). The remainder of the glass assemblage consists of glass from bottles or tablewares, including fragments of a green wine bottle and a broken paneled tumbler (Figure 28). The paneled tumbler is a blown molded glass with a smoothed pontil.
PersonalItems
Three personal items were recovered from the feature, a garment clip, a button, and a fragment ofa kaolin pipe stem (Figure 29). The garment clip is the upper portion of the clip that would have been attached to clothing. The copper

Figure 28. Blown molded paneled tumbler.
Figure 29. Garment clip, a; shell button, b; and kaolin pipe stem fragment, c.
implement measures 27 mm across at the top. The small size suggests it was likely a garter clip rather than a suspender clip. The button is 8 mm in diameter with four holes and is
made of shell. In the southeastern United States, shell, also referred to as pearl, buttons were generally produced from oyster shells around 1820. Buttons ranging in size from 8 to 15 mm, and having up to four holes, were common on shirts (Venovcevs and Hons 2013). Finally, the stem fragmentofthe kaolin pipe is 30 mm long and has no distinguishing marks, making assigning a date to the pipe difficult. Given that the date ranges ofthe other cultural materials found in association with the pipe stem all indicate an early nineteenth century age, using bore hole diameter as a means to date the pipe stem (eg., Binford 1962; Heighton and Deagan 1971) is unreliable becauseofthe influxofEuropean stylepipes into the southeast during that time (Binford 1962).
Othermaterials
Fourteen bone fragments were recovered, including a cow tooth, a cow long bone that was cut at the end, and 11 unidentifiable fragments. Shell was also present and
including 18 oyster shell fragements and two hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum) fragments. In addition to the nails and bricks, other building materials collected included 23 slate roof time fragments and one small fragment of clay sewer pipe. Finally, six fragmentsofcoal and 3 clinkers were found
in the feature fill.
Discussion
The nature and morphology of the feature suggests it is either aprivy or ahole dug to disposeofbuilding debris. Privies are holes dug into the ground as part ofan outhouse. In many areas, privies were lined with wood, brick, or stone to shore up the sides and prevent collapse (Genheimer 2003). Although there were numerous bricks inthe feature, theywere
not
arranged in a fashion thatwould suggestthey had linedthe hole. It is likelythatno lining would have been necessaryfor a privy since the feature was dug into the hard-packed clay that
characterizes the Tallahassee area.
The lack of whole or large portions of bottles or other itemsthatwouldbe expectedin aprivyandtherelative sparsity
ofartifacts is puzzling given that privies were normally also used to deposit trash and other debris over time. However, as early as 1838, residents were asked to put trash by the street forpickupbycitycartstwodaysperweek(Harris 1838).This would certainly have been advantageous for the hotel, as the privy would not be filled up with trash and need cleaning out
or
moving as often.
Organic-rich sediments, so called �nightsoil,� would alsobe expectedin aprivy,particularlyifitwas usedalmost exclusively for the disposal of human waste. Additionally, alternating strata of nightsoil and some other material that would be used to cap the privy contents from time to time would be expected (e.g. Wheeler 2000, Stottman 2000). No such sediments were observed during the salvage excavation. This suggests that, rather than a privy, this may have been a

hole dug for the disposal ofbuilding or construction debris.
The nature of the feature deposits indicate that it was
filled-in quickly and during one episode. Without exception,
all the diagnostic artifacts recovered from the fill indicate an
early-to mid-nineteenth century domestic or non-industrial
occupation and can confidently be associatedwithWashington
Hall. These artifacts are distributed throughout the unstratified
contents along with whole and broken bricks and nails.
Although it is possible that the feature fill represents
the clearing of the lot after the 1843 fire, the nature of the
depositsuggestsitmaybetheresultofthe 1841renovation,
in which portions ofthe original structure would have been
removedpriorto the constructionofthe addition. Exceptfor
two thermally altered sherds, none ofthe artifacts recovered
suggest they were subject to fire damage. Ofnoted absence is
melted glass. The thinwindow glass that is presentthroughout
the deposit would certainly have been subject to alteration
from a fire of the described intensity (e.gDoroszenko
2001). Additionally, none of the bricks observed during the excavationexhibitedevidenceofburningorsoot, andno ash deposits were observed in thefill.
Conclusion and Recommendations
Washington Hall was significant in that it was a vital part of the early history of Tallahassee. In addition to providing lodgingforguestsandboardersduringtheearlydevelopmentof the city, itprovided space forciviluses andreligious meetings. Throughout its life, the hotel was owned by several prominent early Tallahasseans, individuals who were instrumental in the development of the early frontier town, and it is likely that many discussions of import to the city took place within the walls ofTHE hotel. Ironically, Washington Hall would be the origin ofthe disastrous fire of 1843 that destroyed the entire businessdistrictofTallahassee. Thecityrosefrom the ashes of the fire to continue its journey to the present, but sadly WashingtonHall did not. The onlymaterial evidenceofthis importantbuilding arethesmallfragmentedpiecesofhistory that were deposited in the hole during construction of an addition to the thriving hotel.
The topography of the southeast comer of Apalachee Pkwy (formally Lafayette St) and Monroe St. has changed significantly since the destmction ofWashington Hall. After a hiatus, another prominent citizen, Frederick T. Myers, built his home on the comer across from the Capitol and close to the
courthousewherehespentmanyyearsworkinginserviceofhis home state. Like Washington Hall, there is little evidence left ofthe house on the lot. The clearingofthe lot and constmction ofa gas station, and latergradingtobuild aparking lot, further modified the original location of Washington Hall and it is
likelythere are no intact archaeological remainsofthe hotel or the Myers House that have survived the significant alterations to the property. However, the southeast comerofApalachee PkwyandMonroeSt.continuestobe asignificantlocationfor the history that is associatedwith it.
Acknowledgments
This project was made possible by the attention and
concern for historical resources ofthe constmction crew and
Spencer Shepard. They halted work and called the Bureau of Archaeological Research immediately upon discovery ofthe feature, and their actions lead to a significant discovery. Julie Duggins led the field work that retrieved the materials from the feature andNicholasYarbrough led the laboratory phaseof the project. Their contributions are much appreciated. Thanks also goes to Marie Prentice, who lent her expertise ofhistoric
ceramics and glass, and to the staff of the State Library of
Florida fortheir assistance in locating historical documents.
Endnotes
The illustrations (Figures 12 and 13), which were
obtainedfromthe StateArchivesofFlorida,werefoundtobe
flipped and have been corrected in this report. The error was determinedusingthe steepleoftheFirstPresbyterianChurch as a landmark. The church was built in 1832 and is the oldest
church in the capital city (Figure 14). This iconic building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. I used the F. R. & N. Co railroad and the low-lying Cascades area, depicted in both photos, as a reference point, which
means
the viewer is looking westtoward the Capitol building. FirstPresbyterianChurch is locatednorthoftheCapitol. The archived photos have the church depicted to the south ofthe Capitol, therefore at some point, the pictures had been flipped.
References Cited
Adams, William Hampton 2002 Machine Cut Nails and Wire nails: American
Production and Use for Dating 19th-Century and Early-20th-Century Sites. Historical Archaeology, 36:66-88.
Binford, Lewis R.
1962 A New Method of Calculating Dates from Kaolin Pipe Stem Samples. Southeastern Archaeological Conference Newsletter 9:19-21. Reprinted 1978 in
HistoricalArchaeology:A GuidetoSubstantiveand TheoreticalContributions, editedbyRobertSchuyler,
66-67. Baywood Publishing Company, Farmingdale, NewYork.
Castelnau, Francis de 1842 VuesetSouvenirsdeL�Am�riqueduNord.Libraire
de la Soci�t� de G�ographie, Rue Hautenfeuille.
Chance, David H. and Jennifer V. Chance 1976 Kanaka Village Vancouver Barracks 1974. Office of PublicArchaeology,UniversityofWashington, Seattle.

Dehart, Jason
2011 Yellow Fever Was the Scourge of Tallahassee and Surrounding Towns in 1841. Tallahassee Magazine, July-August edition.
Doroszenko, Dena
2001 Burning Down the House. The Archaeological Manifestation of Fire on Historic Domestic Sites. NortheastHistoricalArchaeology, 31:41-52.
Edvinsson, Rodney nd. Historical Currency Converter (Test Version 1.0). Electronic document, http://www.historicalstatistics. org/Currencyconverter.html, accessed October 4, 2018.
Gaines, James L.
n.d. Birds eye view of the Union Bank Building in Tallahassee. Not before 1971. Color slide. State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory. Electronic
document, https://www.floridamemory.com/items/ show/297879, accessedAugust 2, 2017.

Genheimer, RobertA.
2003 Digging the Necessary: Privy Archaeology in the Central Ohio Valley. Ohio Valley Historical
Archaeology 18:143-151.
Groene, Bertram H. 1971 Ante-Bellum Tallahassee. Foundation, Tallahassee. Florida Heritage
Harper, Alvan S. n.d. Home of Fred T. Myers. Between 1885 and

1910. Black & white glass photonegative. State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory. Electronic document, https://www.floridamemory.com/items/ show/129203, accessedAugust2,2017.

Harris,A.E. 1838 Notice. TheFloridian,April 18, 1838.
Heighton, Robert F., and KathleenA. Deagan 1971 ANewFormulaforDatingKaolinClayPipestems. The Conference on Historic SiteArchaeology Papers
6:220-229

Lindsey, Bill 2017 Bottle Bases: Pontil Marks or Scars. Society for
Historical Archaeology Historic Glass Bottle Identification and Information Website. Electronic
document, https://sha.org/bottle/pontil_scars.htm, accessedAugust 16,2017.

Miller, George L., Patricia Samford, Ellen Shlasko, and Andrew Madsen
2000 TellingTimeforArchaeologists.NortheastHistorical Archaeology, 29:1-22.
n.a.
1840 PlanofTallahassee,1840.StateArchivesofFlorida,
Florida Memory. Electronic document, https://www. floridamemory.com/items/show/323129, accessed January 18, 2018.
n.a.
1841 WashingtonHall.TheFloridian,December25,1841.
n.a.
1843 TallahasseeFire.StarofFlorida,May27,1843.
n.a.
1848 Florida Rifle Company Deaths. The Floridian, May 1848.
n.a.
1868 Illustration of the Capital city -Tallahassee,
Florida. 1868. Black & white photoprint, 7x9 in. State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory.
Electronic document, https://www.floridamemory. com/items/show/24682, accessedAugust 2, 2017.
n.a.
187-View looking from the steps of the Old Capitol �
Tallahassee,Florida. 187-.Black&whitephotoprint.
StateArchivesofFlorida,FloridaMemory. Electronic document, https://www.floridamemory.com/items/ show/24255, accessedAugust 2, 2017.
n.a.
1876 View looking toward the cap�tol: Tallahassee, Florida. 1876. Black & whitephotonegative. State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory. Electronic document, https://www.floridamemory.com/items/ show/154098, accessedAugust2,2017.
n.a.
1883 DavidShelbyWalker.PortraitbyR.L.,1883.Florida DepartmentofState. Electronic document, http://dos. myflorida.com/florida-facts/florida-history/florida�govemors/david-shelby-walker/, accessed August 2,
2017.
n.a.
1889 Semi-centennialoftheDioceseofFlorida,Heldin
Tallahassee, January 19 and 19, 1888, The Church Year Publishing Company, Jacksonville
n.a.
1908 Frederick Towle Myers. Between 1908 and 1927.
Black&whitephotonegative, 4x 5 in. StateArchives of Florida, Florida Memory. Electronic document, https://www.floridamemory.com/items/show/19965,
accessedAugust 2, 2017.

n.a.
1924 Replica of Floridas first Capitol -Tallahassee, Florida. 1924. Black & white photoprint, 8x7 in. State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory. Electronic document, https://www.floridamemory. com/items/show/24808, accessed August 2, 2017.
n.a.
1957 Apalachee Parkway being paved in front of the Capitol in Tallahassee, Florida. 1957. Black & white photonegative. State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory. https://www.floridamemory.com/items/ show/261430, accessed August 2, 2017.
n.a.
n.d. The Capitol. Florida Department of State. Electronic document, http://dos.myflorida.com/florida-facts/ florida-history/the-capitol/, accessed 2 August 2, 2017.
n.a.
n.d. Florida Archives. Electronic document, http://archivescatalog. info.florida.gov/ default,asp?IDCFile=7fsa/DETAILS S . IDC,SPECIFIC=2177,DATABASE=SERIES, accessed August 2, 2017.
n.a.
n.d. Florida Department of Military Affairs. Florida Militia Muster Roles Seminole Indian Wars. Special Archives Publication Number 71.

n.a.
n.d. Richard Keith Call. Florida Department of State. Electronic document, http://dos.myflorida.com/ florida-facts/florida-history/florida-governors/ richard-keith-call/, accessedAugust 2, 2017.
n.a.
n.d. Population of Tallahassee Florida. Electronic
document, http://population.us/fl/tallahassee/, accessed 2 August 2, 2017.
n.a.
n.d. Portrait of Francis Wayles Eppes -Tallahassee,
Florida. Not after 1881. Black & white photoprint, 9x 7 in. StateArchivesofFlorida,FloridaMemory.
Electronic document, https://www.floridamemory. com/items/show/26290, accessedAugust2,2017.
Noel Hume, Ivor 1978
A Guide toArtifactsofColonialAmerica.AlfredA. Knopfit, NewYork.
Roenke, Karl G. 1978 Flat Glass: Its use as a dating tool for nineteenth
century archaeological sites in the Pacific Northwest
and Elsewhere. NorthwestAnthropological Research
Notes, memoir no. 4, Moscow, ID.
Rogers, William Warren, and Erica R. Clark 1999 TheCroomFamilyandGoodwoodPlantation:Land, Litigation, and Southern Lives. The University of Georgia Press, Athens.
Rothrock III, OscarA.
2013 Archaeological Evaluation of Brickwork Feature (LE5117A), The Grove Site (LE5117), Tallahassee, Florida. Report from Florida Public Lands Archaeology, Bureau of Archaeological Research, Division of Historical Resources, Department of State, StateofFlorida.Tallahassee,FL.
Stelle, Lenville J.
2001 An Archaeological Guide to Historic Artifacts of the Upper Sangamon Basin, Central Illinois, U.S.A. Center for Social Research, Parkland College.
Electronic document, http://virtual.parkland.edu/ lstellel/len/archguide/documents/arcguide.htm, accessedAugust 2, 2017.
Stottman, M. Jay
2000 Out of Sight, out of Mind: Privy Architecture and the PerceptionofSanitation. HistoricalArchaeology, 34:39-61.
Venovcevs,Anatolijs, and B.A. Hons
2013 Dress for Life and Death: The Archaeology of Common Nineteenth-Century Buttons. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Forward into the Past Conference, Waterloo, Ontario.
Weiland, Jonathan
2009 AComparisonandReviewofWindowGlassAnalysis Approaches in Historical Archaeology. Technical Briefs inHistoricalArchaeology 4:29-40.
Wellge, Henry 1885 Birds-EyeViewofTallahassee,1885.Norris,Wellge & Co. Milwaukee.
Wheeler, Kathleen
2000 Theoretical and Methodological Considerations for Excavating Privies,HistoricalArchaeology, 34:3-19.


2018 Field School Summaries
2018 UWFLuna Settlement Field School
Christina L. Bolte (UniversityofWest Florida)
In summer 2018, the University of West Florida field school returned for a third season of excavations at the Luna Settlement site. Led by principal investigator John Worth and graduate field director Christina L. Bolte, a crew of seven graduate student supervisors-in-training and eight
undergraduate students continued to explore Luna-era deposits for the duration of the ten-week project. The field schoolreturnedto aportionofthe site exploredin2016 that wasknowntohave ahighdensityofLuna-eramaterialsbased
on
the previous shovel testing surveyofthe settlement site.
The Spanish settlement of Trist�n de Luna y Arellano was occupied from 1559-1561. Dispatched from Veracruz, Mexico, 1,500 colonists arrived in Pensacola in August 1559 and established a settlement on a high bluff overlooking the bay.After a little over a month a hurricane struck the fledgling settlement, destroying seven of the expedition�s ships and
the majority of the colony�s food stores. Despite numerous expeditions into the interior, and a temporary relocation of someofthe settlers to the native villageofNanipacana, the
settlementwas abandoned inAugustof 1561, afterjustover two
years ofcontinuous occupation. Thesitewasidentifiedinthefallof2015whenTomGamer, a Pensacola native, discovered a large assemblage of 16th century Spanish artifacts and Native American ceramics in a
neighborhoodoverlookingPensacolaBay. Inconsultationwith the landowners, UWF archaeologists conducted investigations at the site and confirmedit as the Luna Settlement. Additional
survey and testing ofthe landform was conducted from fall 2015 through spring 2017 to delineate the site boundaries and identify Luna-era features for further investigation.
Duringthe 2016 field school season, atrashpit containing 16thcenturyolivejar,barrel bands,ColumbiaPlainmajolica, chainmail, and numerous other Luna-era artifacts was investigated after being located by the shovel testing survey earlier that year. The trash pit was exposed in a 2m x 2m unit andsectionedatthattime.Aportionofthefeaturewasremoved,

Figure 1. Students photo-clean block excavations at the Luna Settlement site.
Vol.71(2) TheFloridaAnthropologist May2019
Figure 2. Field school students Karlie Laage (foreground) and Thomas Grace participate in block excavations as the Luna Settlement site.
but due to time constraints, the remainder was left in situ for future investigation. The 2018 field school was designed to return to the trash pit, document the remainder, and remove it in full.Additionally, the 2018 field school sought to open large areas surrounding the feature and across the lot in an effort to establish spatial relationships ofsubsurface features.
A block excavation strategy was designed and two 6m x

6m blocks and an 8m x 8m block were opened on portions of the lot known to yield a high-density of 16th century artifacts. Approximately 10-15 cm of surficial sediments
were removed from all blocks in an effort to expose the tops
of Luna-era features. The trash pit was re-exposed in Block
1 and excavated in full. The pit yielded iron barrel straps,
ColumbiaPlainmajolica, olivejar sherds, several fragments ofa smashed Pensacola Incised vessel first exposed in 2016,
and a range of other items including a tiny metal star likely used as part of a personal penitential flail. Despite opening such a large area aroundthe trashpit, no associated subsurface features could be distinguished at the time excavations were concluded. However, based on the presence ofolivejar sherds
in the surficial deposits that mended with sherds deep within
the trash pit feature, it is clear that these contexts are related to one another, and therefore there is a potential for future excavations to yield additional subsurface features associated
with the Luna occupation.
The 8m x 8m Block 2 was positioned adjacent to Block 1 where the excavation ofa modem waterline trench
yielded substantial quantities of 16th century artifacts. After excavation of the surficial sediments, which yielded
significant amounts of additional 16th century materials, a portionoftheblockwasdesignatedUnit90, a4mx4munit placedin anareaofdarkersedimentsrichwithoystershell, lead-glazed redware, a crossbow bolt, and olive jar sherds. Basalt mano fragments, originating from Mexico and used forgrindingcom, were discoveredwithinUnit90, suggesting
a
possible Luna-erakitchen deposit or food preparation area. Due to time constraints, excavations ofUnit 90 ceased at the end ofthe field season, but the area in and around Unit 90 has a high potential for containing cultural features. Future investigationmayprovide information abouthow the settlers survived on the landscape afterthe hurricane destroyedmuch oftheir food stores.
Block 3, a 6m x 6m block, was excavated opposite Block 1 in an area recorded in the shovel testing survey as having
Native American ceramics likely contemporaneous with the Luna occupation. Excavation of the surficial sediments revealed approximately 15 potential subsurface features,

Figure 3. The 2018 Luna Settlementfield school crew poses for a photographwith the descendant ofTrist�n de Luna y Arellano, Alvaro de Marichalar, at the Luna Settlement site.
2018 Field School Summaries
though additional testing revealed they were related to 20th century landscaping activities. Continued excavation in Block 3 did not yield any Luna-era subsurface features, although significant quantities ofAztec redwares, olive jar,
a comer-faceted Nueva Cadiz bead, and other 16th century artifacts confirm that Luna-era midden is present. Preliminary interpretations suggest that this area may not have evidence of stmcturalfeatures associatedwiththeLunaoccupation,though excavations inallthree large blocks hadto bebackfilledbefore reachingthe baseoftheLuna-eramidden,makingitpossible
that posts and other structural traces still await continued excavations there.
The 2018 Luna Settlement field school had the pleasure of hosting numerous visitors, scholars, and even the titled descendant of Trist�n de Luna y Arellano, Alvaro
de Marichalar, from Pamplona, Spain. UWF Archaeology
students, faculty, and staffwelcomed the opportunity to foster information exchange between other researchers engaged in variousaspectsofthe 16thcenturythroughoutthesoutheast.
Although definitive stmctural features were not located by the closeofthefield season, the 2018 Luna Settlementfield school recovered a significant amount of 16th century Spanish and Native American materials, increasing our knowledge
of the settlement�s material culture. The field school also delineated significant areas for future investigation as part of UWF�s continuing exploration ofthe Luna Settlement site.
2018 University of North Florida Archaeological Field School
Peter Scholz and KeithAshley
The 2018 University of North Florida (UNF) Summer Archaeological Field School was conducted within the Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve (TEHP) in
Jacksonville. Managed by the National Park Service (NPS), this 46,000-acretractconsistsofvariouswetland andupland habitats on both the north and south sides of the lower St. Johns River, near its mouth. Thefield school�s objectiveswere
to assess
damage to partsofknown archaeological sites caused by Hurricanes Mathew (2016) and Irma (2017) and to provide NPS with management recommendations. Specifically, the field school focused on 30 uprooted trees along trails within four different TEHP parks: Kingsley Plantation (8DU108), Cedar Point on Black Hammock Island (8DU63), the Fort
Caroline National Memorial -Spanish Pond (8DU15985),
and the Theodore Roosevelt Preserve (8DU59). The field school provides UNF students with a hands-on opportunity to leam the fundamentals of archaeological survey, excavation, and recording techniques (Figure 1).
Thefirstweekoffield schoolwas devotedtoexamining the 30 uprooted trees identified by NPS. Each rootball and associated hole were visually inspected, and, ifpresent, all

Figure 1.UniversityofNorthFlorida 2018ArchaeologicalField Schoolparticipants.
artifacts were collected. A single 50-cm square shovel test
was excavated adjacent to each uprooted tree; two additional judgmental shovel tests were dug, bringing the total to 32. The majority ofshovel tests yielded small amounts ofcultural material; a few contained a light scatter of shell. Pottery from the shovel tests ranged from Late Archaic Orange to Mission period San Marcos wares. Only one uprooted tree had impacted a dense cultural deposit. This occurred at the Browne-2 site (8DU59) within the Theodore Roosevelt
Preserve. In consultation with NPS, the next five weeks were
spent excavating dense shell midden deposits immediately surrounding this uprooted tree (Figure 2). The Browne-2 site (8DU59) is located in a maritime hammock along the south side of the St. Johns River,
immediately adjacent to extensive tidal marshes fronting Colorinda Creek. William Sears (1957) first recorded and
testedthe Browne-2sitein 1955. Atthetime,henotedthatthe
site covered about 15 acres and that some shell piles reached
a height of six feet along the northwest shore of Colorinda Bay. He further mentioned extensive site damage caused by commercial shell mining and placed his three test units in �undisturbed deposits� (Sears 1957:7). Based on his results,
the major component at 8DU59 dated to the Deptford period, with lesser amounts of Woodland period Colorinda and St. Johns pottery also recovered.
As Sears�discussed, large sectionsofthe once mounded shell middens at 8DU59 were mined in the 1940s for road
and construction fill, so what exists today are small, scattered �islands� of apparently intact shell midden. The uprooted tree that brought us to the site was located on one of these
islands. We decided to sample this area along with a higher shell midden about 10 m to the southwest. Fieldwork over the
next five weeks was severely hampered by almost daily rain showers, which forced us to cancel or shorten some field days
To sample the shell middento the southwest, we arranged a l-x-4-m trench (Trench 1) along its highest point. Because of time constraints, we restricted excavations, after level 2, to the trench�s eastern l-x-2-m unit. Students dug fifteen 10�cm levels within this unit. The midden was 130 cm thick and
composed mostly of densely packed oyster shell with little
soil. Theshellmidden contained asmallamountofDeptford pottery and moderate quantities of animal bone, mostly fish vertebrae, inthe lowerlevels.Aradiocarbon assayon anoyster shell from the base ofthe shell midden produced a 1-sigma

Figure 2. Students excavate shell midden deposits uprooted by a tree tip at the Browne-2 site (8DU59)within the Theodore
Roosevelt Preserve.
2018 Field School Summaries
date rangeof449 -364 B.C. We hopeto obtainanotherdate
from the top ofthe shell midden.
A l-x-5 m trench (Trench 2) was placed 8.8 m northeast
ofTrench 1,immediatelynorthoftheuprootedtreeandalong
theedgeofanNPShikingtrail thatrunsalongthebluff line.
In contrast to the shell midden sampled via Trench 1, this shell midden was shallower (only 50 cm thick) and contained
a
large numberofpottery sherds and abundantfaunal remains. Cultural materials were most concentrated between 30 and 40 cm below surface. Laboratory analysis is currently underway, but a few preliminary statements can be offered. It appears that Deptford (simple, checked, and complicated stamped) and sand tempered plain pottery are most prevalent, with fewer Colorinda and St. Johns sherds present. Other notable
artifacts include a modified deer long bone awl, three whelk celts, and amodified quartz cobble. Inspectionofthe faunal assemblage suggests fish and oysters dominate, with less mammal and bird bones. Threepitfeatureswereidentified atthe baseofthe shell
midden in Trench 2, extending 30 to 70 cm into light yellow brown sand. These contained mostly shell, bone, pottery, and, insomeinstances,piecesofcalciumcarbonate. Aradiometric assay on shell from the bottom ofFeature 3 (130 cm below surface)produceda 1-sigmadateof28B.C.-A.D. 62.Avery similardateof38B.C.-A.D. 54wasobtainedonshellfrom
level2oftheoverlyingshellmidden.Thus,Trench 1appears to have sampled an early Deptford shell midden, whereas Trench 2 encountered late Deptford deposits. Before leaving the field, we mapped the testing area using a total station.
A preliminary review ofthe data generated by the 2018 UNF field school suggests that the Browne-2 site consists of Woodland-period shell middens, which contrasts with site
8DU58 farther to the north. Tested by a UNF field school in 2013, 8DU58 is a St. Johns II habitation and mortuary site that dates to the eleventh/earlytwelfth centuriesA.D. (Sapitan 2013). Thelackoflater St. JohnsIIdeposits at8DU59might signify a settlement shift over time, although we cannot rule
out
the possibility that upper St. Johns II refuse deposits were removed by past shell mining activities. Further research is needed to understand better the occupational, depositional, and post-depositional history of the Browne-2 site. Special thanks to TEHP and NPS for all their help and support during theproject. Foradditional photographs from our2018 summer field school,please checktheUNFArchaeologyLab Facebook page.
References Cited
Sears, William H. 1957 Excavations on the Lower St. Johns River, Florida.
Contributions of the Florida Site Museum 2,
Gainesville.

Sapitan, Robert 2013 2013UniversityofNorthFloridaFieldSchool.The FloridaAnthropologist 59: 202-204.
St. Johns Archaeological Field School at Silver Glen Springs
ByAsaR.Randall(UniversityofOklahoma) andKennethE. Sassaman (UniversityofFlorida)
The St. Johns Archaeological Field School�this year a combination ofstudents and personnel from the University of
Florida (UF) and theUniversityofOklahoma (OU)�returned
to
the SilverGlen Springs watershed. The region encompasses
a
one-km-long springrun fromwhichthefirst ordermagnitude spring debouches into Lake George. Nine previous seasons there demonstrated that it was one of the longest and most intensely terraformed localities in the region during antiquity.
We have documented no fewer than two shell rings, two shell mounds, a sand mound, and numerous non-mounded spaces datingbetween8900 and 500years ago. Previousworkfocused almost exclusively on characterizing the chronology and
social contexts ofthe remnants ofthe shell mounds that were
mined in the 1920s. During this field season, we focused on theprivately owned southhalfofthe watershed. We conducted
two interrelated projects to document the use of spaces between mounds, and establish the ecological conditions that affordedlong-terminhabitation there. Theresultsofthefield school reaffirmed the complex history ofthe landscape, and revealed a Woodland-aged feature assemblage that may be a St. Johns I public building.
Regarding land use, prior limited work in spaces between mounded areas suggested that shell-bearing pits of various sizes and ages were distributed across the landform. Our research strategy this summer was to test with multiple
methods whetherthere were intact deposits, andwhetherthere
was spatial patterning in subsurface features that may reflect architecture. Field school students learned shallow geophysics (soil resistivity, magnetometry, and ground penetrating radar), bucket augering and small-diameter coring, quadcopter drone reconnaissance and photogrammetry, and testunit excavation. Scott Hammerstedt of the Oklahoma Archeological Survey provided geophysics equipment and expertise, OU graduate student Charlie Rainville is working on the geophysics results for his M.A. thesis. We used geophysical prospection in
two clear-cut areas where we tested anomalies identified by remote sensing with multiple sub-surface samplers. We chose some anomalies for more intensive test unit excavation to
determine whether they were anthropogenic in origin, and if so, characterize the age and cultural affiliation.
TheEastProjectAreais situatedbetween alargeMound Taylor period shell mound and an Orange period midden. The Orange period deposits are not village remains; where previously tested they contain numerous shellfish roasting pits. The geophysics survey identified numerous anomalies without clear-cut spatial patterning. Test unit excavations suggest that at least some anomalies were shell-bearing pits.
Radiocarbon dating and assemblage content revealed that these pits date to the Mount Taylor and Orange periods. We excavated a third test unit outside of the geophysics survey
areain alocationofminedtopography. Excavations exposed

two
large thermal pits dating to the Orange period. The results indicate that despiteminingthis areacontains significant intact deposits. Collectively the cultural features in the East Project Arearegister extensive use during theMiddle to LateArchaic. Mostnotable are the Orange-agedpits, which appearto extend the practice ofshellfish processing across the landform.
The West ProjectArea is borderedby the spring run to the north, to the west by a St. Johns Il-period village, and on the east and south bythe Orange deposits. Both the magnetometry and GPR surveys identified numerous anomalies. Manyofthe anomalies are consistentwithpitfeatures,particularlyadjacent

to the south and eastwhere clustersofOrange-periodpits were identified in previous years. For much ofthe survey area there is no clear patterning. However, along the western margin, and adjacent to the St. Johns II village area, the gradiometer revealed a series of anomalies in a roughly oval pattern measuring 15-mby20-minmaximumdimensions.Thecenter ofthe oval is mostly free ofanomalies. We emplaced two 2-x�2 m units along the western arm to determine whether this pattern was cultural. The upper20-cm inboth units was aplow zone thatcontained abundant St. Johns Plain and Check Stamp sherds. Below the disturbed zone in one unit we encountered a series ofpost holes and molds that were roughly in line with the gradiometer results (Figure 1). Significantly, two of the post holes contained what appear to be votive offerings. In one, we recovered awhole boxturtle carapace. In anotherpost hole we recovered a small, whole St. Johns Plain cup as well
as a St. Johns Incised sherd that may have been an heirloom. Although not contemporaneous, radiocarbon assays from each post pit place them in the St. Johns I period. We plan to submit more samples to ensure we are not assaying old wood. The adjacent test unit revealed a very different pattern. Below the plow zone, we documented two large shell-filled pits,
each at least 1.5 m in diameter. The lower and larger pit
was Orange in age; it was intruded upon by a St. Johns I thermal pit. Collectively, the results suggest that what the gradiometer revealed is a St. Johns I feature complex that included posts.
Continued laboratory work will be necessary to determine if the area contained a structure.
Afinal project, andpartofUF studentAnthony Boucher�s dissertation research, focused on documenting the ecological
conditions of life in the watershed. This season we focused
on downslope primary refuse deposits fronting the spring run. Prior work identified a morphological variant of the banded mystery snail there, which is apparently found only in the Silver Glen Springs watershed. A series of bucket augers and test units were excavated to identify the spatial and chronological distribution ofthe anomalous shells. Based
on the summer�s field research they appear to post-date the Orange period; when they disappeared from the watershed has not yet been determined. The hope is that further work on these shells will provide insight into not only snail ecology and population dynamics, butwill provide a basis forinferring localized changes in water availability and quality.

Figure 1. Field school students recording post molds at Silver Glen Springs.


About theAuthors

JessicaJenkins is a PhD student at theUniversityofFloridaworkingwith Dr. Kenneth Sassaman as partofthe Laboratoryof
SoutheasternArchaeology. Her research is primarily focused on Florida�s northern GulfCoast. Dan May is the firstofseveral sites
sheintendstouse aspartofherPhDresearchwhichwillexploretheconceptofrevitalizationmovementsatsmall-scaledispersed
sites in the Lower Suwannee research area after the abandonmentofcivic-ceremonial centers in the region.
PeterJ. Ferdinandojoined the DepartmentofHistory at theUniversityofNorthCarolina atCharlotte as aVisitingLecturerin
2016. He earlier earned his Ph.D. in History from Florida International University, along with an M.A. in Anthropology from FloridaAtlanticUniversity. ThisdualfocusonthehistoricalandarchaeologicalrecordsservesPeter�sinterestsinerasingthepre-/ post-contactboundaryintellingNativeAmericanhistory.Hiscurrentbookproject,( Kendal Jackson is a second-year student in the PhD program in Applied Anthropology at the University of South Florida. His primary research interests involve human-environment interaction throughout the Holocene epoch on the GulfCoastofFlorida.
ThomasJ.Pluckhahn isProfessorofAnthropologyattheUniversityofSouthFlorida.His researchfocusesonthenativesocieties oftheWoodlandandMississippianperiodsintheU.S. Southeast,particularlytheGulfCoast.
JeffreyIMoatesdirectstheWest-CentralandCentralRegionalCentersoftheFloridaPublicArchaeologyNetwork.Hisresearch andprofessional interests involvethe documentationofhistoricwatercraft inFlorida andencouragingpublic interestin archaeology.
KassieKemp is aPublicArchaeology Coordinator forthe FloridaPublicArchaeologyNetwork. Her research focuses onprehistoric archaeology and ceramic studies in Florida.
PauletteMcFaddenreceivedherPh.D.inanthropologyfromtheUniversityofFloridain2015. Aftercompletingapostdocposition with the Florida MuseumofNatural Historyin 2016, shejoined the FloridaBureauofArchaeological Research as an archaeologist.

Join the FloridaAnthropological Society
FloridaAnthropological Society membership categories and rates:
Student: $15(withacopyofacurrentstudentID) Regular: $30 Family $35
Institutional: $30 Sustaining: $100 Patron: $1000 Benefactor: $2500

�
Studentmembershipisopentograduate,undergraduate,andhighschoolstudents.Aphotocopyof your current student ID must accompanypayment

�
Add $25 for foreign address


�
Membership forms are also available at http://fasweb.org/membership/

�
TheSocietypublishesthejournalTheFloridaAnthropologistandnewsletters,normallyquarterlyand sponsors an annual meeting hosted by a local chapter


Name
Address
City
State
Zip
Telephone
Email
FAS Chapter

I agree to abide by the Code ofEthicsofthe FloridaAnthropological Society
Mail to: FloridaAnthropological Society
c/o Pat Balanzategui PO Box 1135 St. Augustine, FL 32085
Chapters ofthe FloridaAnthropological Society
1.
AncientOnesArchaeologicalSocietyofNorthCentralFlorida 3001 SW College Road, Building 8, Ocala, FL 34474


2.
ArchaeologicalSocietyofSouthernFlorida 2495 NW 35thAvenue, Miami, FL 33142

3.
CentralFloridaAnthropologicalSociety

P.O. Box 948083, Maitland, FL 32794


4.
CentralGulfCoastArchaeologicalSociety RO. Box 1563, Pinellas Park, FL 33780

5.
EmeraldCoastArchaeological Society c/o Indian Temple Mound Museum 139 Miracle Strip Parkway SE, Fort Walton Beach, FL 32548

6.
GoldCoastAnthropologicalSociety 6720 East Tropical Way, Plantation, FL 33317

7.
IndianRiverAnthropologicalSociety

P.O. Box 73, Cocoa, FL 32923


8.
KissimmeeValleyArchaeologicalandHistoricalConservancy80 Bear Point Lane, Lake Placid, FL 33852

9.
PanhandleArchaeologicalSociety

P.O. Box 20026, Tallahassee, FL 32316


10.
PensacolaArchaeologicalSociety

P.O. Box 13251, Pensacola, FL 32591


11.
St.AugustineArchaeologicalAssociation

P.O. Box 1301, St. Augustine, FL 32085


12.
SoutheastFloridaArchaeologicalSociety816 St. Lucie Crescent, Stuart, FL 34994

13.
SouthwestFloridaArchaeologicalSociety

P.O. Box 9965, Naples, FL 34101


14.
TimeSiftersArchaeologicalSociety

P.O. Box 5283, Sarasota, FL 34227


15.
VolusiaAnthropologicalSociety


P.O. Box 1881, Ormond Beach, FL 32174



16.Warm
Mineral Springs/Little Salt SpringArchaeological
P.O. Box 7797, North Port, FL 34287



17.Palm
Beach CountyArchaeological Society9722 Alaska Circle, Boca Raton, FL 33434
*OP�Z.o
Q
O >
'i'
^A/CE
BackIssuesof TheFloridaAnthropologist
ARE AVAILABLE FROM
Debra J. Wells, M.A., RPA Back Issue Coordinator
debrajwells@aol.com
OR
1129 NW 143rd Street Jonesville, FL 32669




FLORIDAANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC. RamieA. Gougeon, Ph.D., RPA
University of WestFlorida
11000 University Parkway Pensacola, Florida 32514 NON-PROFIT
U.S. POSTAGE PAID
TALLAHASSEE, FL PERMITNO. 329
RETURN SERVICE REQUESTED
***
**********/yjT0**3-01011 342 P-1 P51 8 427
GEORGE M LUER 3222 OLDOAK DR SARASOTA FL34239-5019
Table of Contents
From The Editor 59
Articles
The Site In-between in the Lower Suwanee: Excavations at Dan May (8LV917), Levy County, Florida Jessica A. Jenkins 61
Bibiliography of Human SkeletalRemains Curated by FloridaAtlantic University: Rediscoverd Osteological Materials and an UpdatedAccounting of Research Peter J. Ferdinando 77
Revisiting Stanley Mound (8MA127): A Sand Burial Mound in the Central Peninsular Guld Coast Interior Kendal Jackson, ThomasJ. Pluckhahn, JeffreyT Moates, and Kassie Kemp 95
Washington Hall(8LE6292): Reconstructing the History ofa Tallahassee Frontier Hotel Paulette S. McFadden 111
Field School Summaries 127
About theAuthors 135

Copyright 2019 by the FLORIDAANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC. ISSN 0015-3893