Citation
The Florida anthropologist

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Title:
The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title:
Fla. anthropol.
Creator:
Florida Anthropological Society
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publisher:
Florida Anthropological Society.
Frequency:
Quarterly[<Mar. 1975- >]
Two no. a year[ FORMER 1948-]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Edition:
Volume 71, number 1, February, 2019
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 24 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Indians of North America -- Antiquities ( fast )
Florida ( fast )
Indians of North America -- Florida ( fast )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )
Periodicals ( fast )
Periodicals ( lcgft )

Notes

Summary:
Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- May 1948-
General Note:
Florida Anthropological Society Publications:No. 14.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
P.K. Yonge Library of Florida History, UF
Rights Management:
Copyright Florida Anthropologist Society, Inc. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
01569447 ( OCLC )
56028409 ( LCCN )
0015-3893 ( ISSN )
22023452 ( Aleph )

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Published by the
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Number 1
February 2019
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The Florida
Anthropologist
Volume 71 Number 1
February 2019
Table of Contents
From The Editor
Articles
Rivers as Centers, Rivers as Boundaries: Florida Variations on a Mississippi an Theme
Gary Shapiro
Palatine Torus Expression at the Windover Site (8BR246), Florida
Ericka L. Seidemann, Christine L. Halling, Ryan M. Seidemann, and Glen H. Doran
Biological Affinities of Middle Woodland Populations of Southern Florida
as Assessed Through Dental Non-Metric Traits
Alison A. Elgart
Florida Anthropological Society 2018 Award Recipients
About the Authors
Published by the
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC.
ISSN 0015-3893




An Endowment to Support production of The Florida Anthropologist,
the scholarly journal published quarterly by the
Florida Anthropological Society since 1947
Donations are being accepted from individuals, corporations, and foundations.
Inquiries and gifts can be directed to:
Ramie A. Gougeon, Ph.D., RPA
University of West Florida
11000 University Parkway
Pensacola, Florida 32514
The Florida Anthropological Society is a non-profit organization under
section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code.
Contributions are tax-deductible as provided by section 170 of the code.




2





From the Editor
Let me start with my sincere apologies for the absence
of The Florida Anthropologist in 2018. There are a lot of
moving parts involved in getting a journals worth of articles
and reports in print, but the buck stops with me. I have made
several changes in how I am managing the peer review and
editing processes, and I expect we will complete Volume 71
and be back on track with Volume 72 before the year is out. I
thank the readership, the reviewers, and especially the authors
for their patience.
This volume starts out with a manuscript retrieved
from the files of the late Gary Shapiro. As his friends Mark
Williams and Jeffrey Mitchem note, this work stems from a
paper he presented at the Society for American Archaeology
conference in 1986. There are elements of the work that will
come across as dated (and how could they not after three
decades?). What stands out to me, though, is how much of it
still resonates. This article could easily have been a chapter
in Ashley and Whites recent edited volume, Late Prehistoric
Florida: Archaeology at the Edge of the Mississippian
World (University Press of Florida, 2012). A savvy graduate
student will see a perfectly testable idea in Shapiros work,
a thesis project now made much more interesting by GIS
and additional decades of research and interpretation in the
Apalachee heartland. Readers should note that I updated one
reference, as John Hanns 1988 book Apalachee was still
in press at the time of Shapiros writing. Interestingly, the
subtitle of the volume in Shapiros original bibliography was
Indian and Spaniard in Florida s Premier Province but was of
course published as The Land Between the Rivers.
Palatine Torus Expression at the Windover Site may
prove to be one of the more technically challenging reads for
those not versed in bioanthropology, but it is well worth the
effort. The famous Windover Site in Brevard County, Florida
was discovered in 1982. The remarkable preservation of
human remains interred in the submerged peat has enabled
anthropologists to study many different facets of Archaic
lifeways, health, diet, and genetics, just to name a few.
Seidemann, Hailing, Seidemann, and Doran mine information
from previous studies in their examination of a bony protrusion
of the palate, a trait found on a surprisingly high number of
individuals at Windover.
Alison Elgart rounds out this volume with an interesting
study of biodistance using a sample drawn from nearly 200
individuals from 11 Woodland period sites in southern Florida.
In this study, statistical analyses of 33 of 64 specific dental
traits were compared across the different sites and between
three cultural areas. Her conclusions are in line with the
interpretations of other archaeologists who view the period
from 200 BC to AD 800 as marked by widespread connections
between people living on the coasts and the interior. Materials
goods are known to have moved between these communities,
and Elgarts results suggest that people did as well. Both of
these bioanthropological works demonstrate the value of
returning to older collections for the purpose of asking new
questions of the data.
In the issues to come, look for a return of the report.
Generally speaking, an article is less than 10,000 words
in length. Reports are brief perhaps no more than 5,000
words. The Florida Anthropologist is one of the premier state
journals in the Southeast and is a reflection of the diverse
membership of the Florida Anthropological Society, but our
continued successes depend on you. Read any good books
about archaeology or anthropology? Get in touch with our
Book Review Editor, Becky OSullivan. Have a conference
paper on Florida anthropology or ethnohistory? Got a recent
CRM project that would be of interest to the readership? Please
consider submitting your manuscript to this journal. I welcome
your questions, comments, and, of course, your papers.
Ramie A. Gougeon
flanthro. editor@gmail. com
Vol. 71 (1)
The Florida Anthropologist
February 2019




RIVERS AS CENTERS, RIVERS AS BOUNDARIES:
FLORIDA VARIATIONS ON A MISSISSIPPIAN THEME
Gary Shapiro
Introductory Remarks
by Mark Williams and Jeffrey M. Mitchem
The following paper was written in early 1986 by the late
Dr. Gary Shapiro, then archaeologist at the San Luis Mission
site in Tallahassee, Florida. Gary died at the very young
age of 34 in June of 1988. He had presented the following
paper in April 1986 at the Annual Meeting of the Society
for American Archaeology in New Orleans. At the time of
his death, Gary had apparently not submitted the paper for
publication. His collective papers passed to Mark Williams,
of the University of Georgia, in the summer of 1988, and were
moved to the Laboratory of Archaeology in Athens, Georgia.
About 2008, Jeff Mitchem of the Arkansas Archaeological
Survey, remembered the paper and inquired about it of
Williams. Williams did locate it in Shapiros files and sent it
to Mitchem. Both agreed that it really should be published.
After a few years of dithering, we finally prepared the original
draft for publication. It is substantially the same as originally
presented. We did not have the figures in hand, however, but
discovered that Figures 2-4 in the 1987 first publication on
the San Luis Mission project were likely the same ones used
in his presented paper (Shapiro 1987). These were originally
drafted by Charles Poe. We both believe the paper presents a
simple, but powerful perspective on the differences between
the Mississippian societies in Florida and in other areas of the
Southeastern United States. We are delighted to see this little
paper by our sadly missed friend finally see the light of day.
Shapiro, Gary
1987 Archaeology at San Luis: Broad Scale Testing, 1984-
1985. Florida Archaeology 3. Florida Bureau of
Archaeological Research, Tallahassee.
Introduction
Rivers were at the heart of most Mississippian polities,
but this was not true for late prehistoric chiefdoms of northern
Florida. Historic accounts and limited archaeological data
suggest that Florida rivers were more often boundaries
between polities rather than regions of dense settlement.
Floridas riverine boundaries are mentioned in narratives
of the sixteenth century Soto expedition. According to Elvas,
a river formed the boundary of the territory of Mococo
in central Florida (Smith 1968:31). Garcilaso records that a
river marked the boundary between the province of Ocali,
in northern peninsular Florida, and the uninhabited lands
which separated it from Ochile (Varner and Varner 1980:127).
Farther north, Biedma relates that We departed from here for
another town, which is called Aguile. This [town] borders on
that province of Apalache; a river divides the one province
from the other. (Worth 1993:226-227).
Apalachee was the last province along Sotos route that
was bounded by rivers. After leaving the territory of present-
day Florida, Soto found polities distributed in linear fashion
along the rivers. In central Georgia, between Yupaha and
Ocute, Elvas records that the expedition:
The governor...departed from this town on the first
day of April, marching through his land up along a
river with many villages....On April 4, the governor
passed through a town, by name, Altamaca; and on
the tenth day of the month reached Ocute [Robertson
1993:77].
From this point on, the Soto chroniclers provide numerous
examples of the riverine settlement pattern we know as
typically Mississippian.
Anthropologists have long recognized that a riverine way
of life is one defining characteristic of Mississippian societies
(Hudson 1976:78-79; Smith 1978). On this basis, some
might argue that Floridas polities should not be classified as
Mississippian. Even though the riverine settlement pattern is
not typical in northern Florida, very few would argue that the
Lake Jackson site, with its six platform mounds, large village,
and southern cult burial furniture (Jones 1982), is not a typically
Mississippian center in Apalachee. In the same light, sixteenth
century French accounts of Timucua society leave little doubt
that Outina was the paramount chief of a highly structured
northern Florida chiefdom (Lorant 1965). The chiefdoms of
both Apalachee and Outina were bounded by rivers. Historic
accounts further indicate that the Suwannee River separated
the Timucuan provinces of Yustega and Utina, and that Utina
was separated from Potano by the Santa Fe River (Figure 1)
(Milanich and Fairbanks 1980:217; Swanton 1946:201).
The Florida pattern of riverine boundaries is the opposite
of that known throughout most of the Southeast, but it can be
understood in relation to two factors. First, northern Florida
chiefdoms practiced a typically Mississippian subsistence
economy of intensive farming supplemented by hunting and
gathering. Second, there is a fundamental difference between
the ecology of Florida rivers and those at the centers of most
southeastern polities. It is the adaptation of Mississippian
subsistence strategy to non-Mississippian environments that
accounts for Floridas seemingly anomalous variation in
southeastern demography. To understand this adaptation,
Vol. 71 (1)
The Florida Anthropologist
February 2019


8
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (1)
we must first review the well-known model of Mississippian
human ecology.
Rivers as Centers
In most Mississippian societies, villages and farmsteads
were located in river bottomlands. This reflects both the
importance of crops in Mississippian life and the ecology of
alluvial rivers. Throughout the interior Southeast, the soils
most suitable for growing com are found in the seasonally
inundated floodplains of major rivers. These are the natural
levees, which are well-drained, easy to till, and which contain
organic and mineral nutrients deposited by floodwaters.
When rivers that occupy broad floodplains periodically
change course, they leave braids of ancient levees juxtaposed
with oxbow lakes. The lakes provide aquatic resources, which
are an essential warm-season source of protein at a time
when extended deer hunts are impractical. By locating their
settlements in the river bottomlands, Mississippian Indians
had direct access to the best horticultural soils and the rich
aquatic resources of oxbow lakes.
The importance of simultaneous access to favored
horticultural soils and aquatic resources is a hallmark of
Mississippian settlement strategy (Smith 1978). This model
was developed to help archaeologists understand settlement
patterns in the Middle Mississippi valley, where seasonally
inundated floodplains and oxbow lakes are common, but these
same considerations influenced Mississippian settlement even
in regions where such geomorphic features are absent.
Rivers as Boundaries
Unlike rivers of the Mississippi Valley and much of the
Coastal Plain, most Florida rivers do not originate as surface
mnoff from uplands. Instead, they issue from lowland swamps
or from springs that directly tap the underground aquifer.
As such, Florida rivers do not carry loads of silt or mineral
nutrients over their bottomlands. Instead of containing the best
horticultural soils, swampy Florida bottomlands are among
the poorest microenvironments for growing crops.
The unsuitability of floodplains for agriculture meant
that Indian farming societies of Florida needed to locate their
settlements in inter-riverine areas which held better soils.
This resulted in a settlement pattern at odds with that seen
throughout the remainder of the Southeast. Rivers were at the
heart of most southeastern societies, but in northern Florida,
rivers were more often at boundaries between polities. Detailed


Shapiro
Rivers as Centers, Rivers as Boundaries
9
discussion of a single polity will help demonstrate this pattern.
An ecological perspective applied to Floridas Apalachee
province yields insights not only to demographic patterns,
but also to the ways in which basic needs of horticultural
chiefdoms were met in northern Florida.
Apalachee
From the time of their initial contacts with Spanish
explorers, and extending through the seventeenth century
mission period, Apalachee occupied a territory between
the Ochlockonee and Aucilla Rivers (Hann 1988). While
Apalachee is part of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province,
there is considerable variation in soils and topography within
the region. In the broadest sense, Apalachee may be divided
into two physiographic regions, each of which has their own
subdivisions (Figure 2). To the north, the Tallahassee Hills are
characterized by clayey soils and local relief that may range
between 50 and 60 meters. South of the Tallahassee Hills are the
Gulf Coastal Lowlands, which consist of predominantly sandy
soils with little local relief. There are, however, numerous karst
features in the Coastal Lowlands. The boundary between these
two broad divisions is named the Cody Scarp. The Cody Scarp
lies about 30 kilometers (20 miles) from the Gulf Coast and
extends from west to east across northern Florida. It conforms
approximately to the 25 meter topographic contour.
Since Mississippian times, the Tallahassee Hills have
been a favored area for human settlement. Archaeologists have
long recognized this settlement pattern reflects the greater
agricultural potential of the upland soils (Fairbanks 1971).
More recently, Louis Tesar has quantitatively demonstrated
the co-occurrence of Mississippian and mission period
settlements with Dothan-Orangeburg and Plummer-Rutledge
soil associations of the uplands (Tesar 1980:616-626).
Figure 3 is a simplified topographic map of Apalachees
uplands, which held the vast majority of the provinces
population. The Cody Scarp is clearly indicated by the 25
meter contour near the bottom of the map. Above the scarp,
we can see the extent to which the Tallahassee Hills, with their
favored horticultural soils, are dissected by drainage basins.
The 25 meter contour line marks the eastern and western
boundaries of Apalachee at the Aucilla and Ochlockonee
River valleys. These boundaries, which probably originated in
prehistoric times, remained stable throughout the seventeenth
century mission period because they have a basis in riverine
ecology and Apalachee economy.
In addition to their agricultural potential, the Tallahassee
Hills offered a number of microenvironments rich in wild foods.
Especially important were aquatic resources available in the
many small and large lakes that dot the landscape. This is not to
say that the Apalachee limited their activities to the Tallahassee
Hills. There are a number of Fort Walton sites along the Gulf
coast. Most of these are associated with shell middens, which
demonstrate the importance of estuarine resources.
The Apalachee also exploited resources in the Gulf
Coastal Lowlands away from the coast proper. A document
recently translated by John Hann provides insight to the
importance of these coastal plain resources (Hann 1986). In
1654, the chief of Asile (directly across the Aucilla River from
Apalachee) complained of his land dispute with the heir of
Floridas late governor, Ruiz de Salazar Vallecilla. Governor
Salazar sought an unoccupied tract of land on which to locate
his cattle ranch. He suggested a location toward the sea, but
Asiles chief protested, ...because the food that exists there,
New Hope Ridge
O SO Miles
LTUTU
Figure 2. Physiographic regions of northwest Florida (after Shapiro 1987).


10
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (1)
Figure 3. Simplified topographic map of Apalachees uplands.
such as the acorn and the fruit of the palm, would be eaten and
spoiled (Hann 1986).
The concept of ecotones, although perhaps overused
by anthropologists (Rhoades 1978), applies very well to
Apalachee. From the red hills to the coast, Apalachee included
excellent horticultural soils and forest resources, plus plants
and animals of the coast and coastal plain. The importance
of access to both uplands and lowlands is illustrated by the
locations of known mission sites, several of which are situated
directly on the Cody Scarp (Figure 3).
Suitable horticultural soils form only part of Smiths
Mississippian adaptive niche model (Smith 1978). The other
important factor is access to the abundant aquatic resources
of oxbow lakes. Oxbow lakes are virtually non-existent in
northern Florida, but their economic role is fulfilled by the
many small and large lakes that dot the uplands between the
Aucilla and Ochlockonee Rivers. Thus, in Apalachee the basic
environmental requirements of Mississippian societies are
met. The best horticultural soils are juxtaposed with lakes that
provide aquatic resources.
The distribution of lakes provides a clue to Apalachees
northern boundary, which is not clearly indicated by historic
documents. While favorable horticultural soils of the Dothan-
Orangeburg association extend hundreds of miles to the north,
Apalachees lakes do not. The Lake Iamonia basin appears to
mark the northern extent of the regions lakes. If co-occurrence
of favored horticultural soils with aquatic resources of lakes
is the hallmark of Mississippian adaptations throughout the
Southeast, then the Lake Iamonia basin should mark the
northern limits of Apalachee. Although documentary evidence
is lacking, there are limited archaeological data that support
this hypothesis (Tesar 1980:621; Calvin Jones, personal
communication 1985).
The concept of rivers as boundaries also has implications
for understanding the internal structure of Apalachee. From
Sotos time to the end of the Mission period, Ivitachuco
and Anhayca, located at the provinces eastern and western
extremes, were Apalachees two most important towns. Spanish
documents often disagree as to which towns chief was the
most important (Hann 1988). Claudine Payne observed that
the distribution of Ft. Walton mound sites may indicate this
eastern-western political subdivision existed centuries prior
to Spanish contact. I suggest these political and observations
may have a basis in regional ecology.
Near the center of the province, the St. Marks River
valley effectively divides Apalachees uplands (which include
its most favorable farming soils) into two large territories. It
is possible that the eastern-western political subdivision of
Apalachee is related to this physical separation of upland soils
by the St. Marks River valley.
The existence of both eastern and western uplands also
helps explain aspects of the seventeenth century road that


Shapiro
Rivers as Centers, Rivers as Boundaries
11
connected Apalachee missions with one another. Beginning
at the Aucilla River and continuing west, the mission road
followed close to the Cody Scarp until it reached the St. Marks
Valley. The St. Marks Valley probably did not form a complete
barrier to travel, but its swampy terrain could be avoided by
skirting around the drainage to the north. The Patale mission
was located at the very headwaters of the St. Marks River
drainage, and from here the mission road split into a northern
and southern circuit from which missions in the western
highlands of Apalachee could be reached (Figure 3). On the
basis of historic documents John Hann has characterized Patale
as a crossroads for travel within the province and as an entrepot
for contact with other Indian groups north of Apalachee (Hann
1985). This fits well with Patales geographic position at the
top of the drainage which divides Apalachees uplands into
eastern and western segments.
Florida Variations on a Mississippian Theme
The rivers-as-centers, rivers-as-boundaries distinction
is a useful tool for understanding human ecology at several
scales. In the broadest sense, there is a pattern of riverine po
litical boundaries that can be understood with reference to the
physiography of Florida rivers. At a finer scale, it enhances our
understanding of a single province. There is an ecological ba
sis not only for Apalachees boundaries, but perhaps even for
a political subdivision within the province which is hinted at
by historic documents and by the distribution of mound sites.
Finally, I have speculated about the environmental basis for the
role of a single Apalachee mission site as a junction along the
seventeenth century mission road.
I do not wish to give the impression that human ecology of
Florida chiefdoms is monolithic. The ostensibly non-horticul-
tural Calusa of southwestern Florida provide an excellent ex
ample of variability among Florida chiefdoms. Even in northern
Florida, there are important exceptions to the rivers-as-boundar
ies model. First, unique among Florida rivers, the Apalachicola
is a large alluvial river with its origins in the Georgia Piedmont.
There is no reason to expect a departure from the classic mod
el of Mississippian settlement here, and accordingly, the upper
Apalachicola valley was well populated during Mississippian
times (Scarry 1984:399-414; White 1982).
Other important variations may reflect ecological vari
ability among Floridas non-alluvial streams. For example,
black water rivers, which derive mostly from tannic swamps,
are relatively impoverished in terms of organic carrying ca
pacity. This is a combined result of their high acidity, the na
ture of their watershed soils, and low primary productivity
(Femald and Patton 1984:101). Such rivers include portions
of the Suwannee, Santa Fe, and Aucilla, all of which form pro
vincial boundaries. By contrast, there are clear Florida rivers
that receive most of their flow directly from springs. These
allow luxuriant growth of aquatic plants that provide import
ant habitat for animal species. When spring-fed rivers empty
directly into estuaries, they may serve as thermal refugia for
salt-water species (Femald and Patton 1984:101). Such rivers
have extremely rich aquatic biota composed of fresh and salt
water species. Among the most famous examples are Crystal
River and the St. Johns River, both of which supported chief-
dom level societies in Mississippian times.
These variations serve to illustrate the point that
exceptions are as important as the mle itself. Deviations
indicate the relationships among various components of a
model. For me, this is the most important aspect of the rivers-
as-centers, rivers-as-boundaries distinction. In northern
Florida, we can see the typical Mississippian subsistence
strategy modified to conform with local conditions. I have
argued the same for Mississippian settlement in the Georgia
Piedmont (Shapiro 1983:262-269). An underlying pattern
crosscuts various environments. Whether they lived in the
Mississippi Valley, the Georgia Piedmont, or northern Florida,
horticultural chiefdoms of the Southeast achieved balanced
access to favored horticultural soils and aquatic resources.
References Cited
Fairbanks, Charles H.
1971 The Apalachicola River Area of Florida. Southeastern
Archaeological Conference Newsletter 10(2):60-61.
Femald, Edward A., and Donald J. Patton (editors)
1984 Water Resources Atlas of Florida. Institute of Science
and Public Affairs, Florida State University, Tallahassee.
Hann, John H.
1985 San Pedro y San Pablo de Patali: A Crossroads for
Apalachee. Manuscript on file at the Florida Bureau
of Archaeological Research, Tallahassee.
Hann, John H.
1986 The Use and Processing of Plants by Indians of
Spanish Florida. Manuscript on file at the Florida
Bureau of Archaeological Research, Tallahassee.
Hann, John H.
1988 Apalachee: The Land Between the Rivers. University
Press of Florida, Gainesville.
Hudson, Charles M.
1976 The Southeastern Indians. University of Tennessee
Press, Knoxville.
Jones, B. Calvin
1982 Southern Cult Manifestations at the Lake Jackson
Site, Leon County, Florida. Midcontinental Journal
of Archaeology 7(l):3-44.
Lorant, Stefan
1965 The New World. Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, New York.
Milanich, Jerald T., and Charles H. Fairbanks
1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic Press, New York


12
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (1)
Rhoades, Robert E.
1978 Archaeological Use and Abuse of Ecological
Concepts and Studies: The Ecotone Example.
American Antiquity 43(4):608-615.
Robertson, James Alexander (translator and editor)
1993 True Relation of the Hardships Suffered by Governor
Hernando de Soto & Certain Portuguese Gentlemen
During the Discovery of the Province of Florida. Now
Newly Set Forth by a Gentleman of Elvas. In The
De Soto Chronicles: The Expedition of Hernando de
Soto to North America in 1539-1543, Volume I, edited
by Lawrence A. Clayton, Vernon James Knight, Jr.,
and Edward C. Moore, pp. 18-219. University of
Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.
Scarry, John Francis
1984 Fort Walton Development: Mississippian Chiefdoms
in the Lower Southeast. Ph.D. Dissertation, Case
Western Reserve University, University Microfilms,
Ann Arbor.
Shapiro, Gary
1983 Site Variability in the Oconee Province: A late
Mississippian Society of the Georgia Piedmont.
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida, University
Microfilms, Ann Arbor.
Shelby, Charmion (translator)
1993 La Florida by the Inca. In The De Soto Chronicles:
The Expedition of Hernando deSoto to North America
in 1539-1543, Volume If edited by Lawrence A.
Clayton, Vernon James Knight, Jr., and Edward C.
Moore. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.
Smith, Bruce D.
1978 Variation in Mississippian Settlement Patterns. In
Mississippian Settlement Patterns, edited by Bruce
Smith. Academic Press, New York.
Smith, Buckingham (editor)
1968 Narratives of De Soto in the Conquest of Florida.
Palmetto Books, Gainesville.
Swanton, John R.
1946 The Indians of the Southeastern United States. Bureau
of American Ethnology Bulletin 137. Smithsonian
Institution, Washington.
Tesar, Louis Daniel
1980 The Leon County Bicentennial Survey Report.
Division of Archives, History, and Records
Management Miscellaneous Project Report Series
49. Florida Department of State, Tallahassee.
White, Nancy M.
1982 The Curlee Site and Fort Walton Development in the
Upper Apalachicola- Lower Chattahoochee Valley.
Ph.D. Dissertation, Case Western Reserve University,
University Microfilms, Ann Arbor.
Worth, John E. (translator)
1993 Relation of the Island of Florida by Luys Hernandez de
Biedma. In The De Soto Chronicles: The Expedition
of Hernando de Soto to North America in 1539-1543,
Volume f edited by Lawrence A. Clayton, Vernon
James Knight, Jr., and Edward C. Moore, pp. 221-
246. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.






PALATINE TORUS EXPRESSION AT THE WINDOVER SITE (8BR246), FLORIDA
Ericka L. Seidemann,1 Christine L. Halling,2 Ryan M. Seidemann,3 and Glen H. Doran4
1 Womans Hospital, 100 Womans Way, Baton Rouge, LA 70817E-mail: seidemannericka@gmail.com
2 Louisiana Department of Justice, 1885 North Third Street, Baton Rouge, LA 70802 E-mail: hallingc@ag.louisiana.gov
3 Louisiana Department of Justice, 1885 North Third Street, Baton Rouge, LA 70802 E-mail: seidemannr@ag.louisiana.gov
4 Department of Anthropology, Florida State University, 1847 West Tennessee Street, Tallahassee, FL 32304-3356
E-mail: gdoran@fsu.edu
Introduction
The palatine torus, first mentioned in the literature by
Fox (1814), is a bony protuberance along the midline suture
on the palate. The morphology of the palatine torus can be
unilateral or bilateral, following the entire midline or only the
anterior portion of the palate (Hauser and DeStefano 1989).
While morphologically the palatine torus is an exostosis (as
broadly defined in Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994) a benign
new growth protruding from the surface of a bone and
characteristically capped by cartilage), multiple lines of
evidence from decades of research indicate that the palatine
torus is a unique nonmetric trait with multifactorial causes
including genetic, environmental, and dietary factors that
influence its development. Simple categorization of the trait
as an exostosis does not broach the complexity of this feature
as a recent review of oral exostoses has noted (Leonard et al.
2014). Additionally, as Hauser and DeStefano (1989) (see also
Axelsson and Hedegaard 1985) noted in their review of the
literature, the palatine torus and other tori of the oral mucosa
(all maxillary and mandibular tori) should not necessarily be
presumed to correlate to the presence/absence of one another,
as is often assumed in much historic research (Hooton 1918;
Hrdlicka 1940; Woo 1950).
Most sources in the literature agree that the palatine torus
is an autosomal dominant trait (Barbujani et al. 1986; Gorsky
et al. 1998; Gould 1964; Nichol 1989; Sawyer et al. 1979;
Suzuki and Sakai 1960) with most of the genetic determinants
of susceptibility being on the X-chromosome (Eggen et al.
1994). Although genetic factors are the main impetus for torus
formation, other factors such as environment, genetic flow/
drift, and masticatory stress have been proposed as having an
effect on the development of the torus (Baumann et al. 2017;
Eggen et al. 1994; Eroglu and Erdal 2008; Gorsky et al. 1996;
Halffman and Irish 2004; Kerdpon and Sirirungrojying 1999).
Eggen et al. (1994) explain the development of the palatine
torus as a genetic trait with a liability threshold, meaning
that the palatine torus is multifactorial; each individual in a
population has a threshold for developing the palatine torus
due to genetic propensity for the trait in tandem with the
necessary environmental factors. Each population, therefore,
will vary in its palatine torus expression depending on the
gene pool and environment.
Some research suggests that the palatine torus is a trait
more prevalent in females, though this sex difference is still
debated in the literature (Hauser and DeStefano 1989). At
a glance, frequency appears to be population dependent in
archaeological samples. Higher frequency in females has been
observed in northern (Arctic or higher latitude) populations,
whereas males exhibit a higher prevalence in areas closer to the
equator. However, this generalization results from the survey
of few archaeological samples in the literature reporting on
the palatine torus frequency. In the archaeological literature
reviewed here, four samples show a higher prevalence in
males, three in females, and two samples where the prevalence
is equal between males and females. One sample is not
applicable for inclusion of sex frequency of the trait (see
Table 1 for further detail on these archaeological samples and
the frequency of the trait by sex). Although factors such as
environment, genetics, diet, masticatory stress, and age all
have been proposed to have an effect on the formation and
development of the palatine torus (Barbujani et al. 1986;
Eggen et al. 1994; Eroglu and Erdal 2008; Gorsky et al. 1998;
Gould 1964; Halffman and Irish 2004; Hauser and DeStefano
1989; Kerdpon and Sirirungrojying 1999; Nichol 1989;
Sawyer et al. 1979; Suzuki and Sakai 1960), recent literature
has focused on a combination of environmental and genetic
factors as motivations for palatine torus formation (Barbujani
et al. 1986; Baumann et al. 2017; Eggen et al. 1994; Gorsky et
al. 1998; Halffman and Irish 2004; Halffman et al. 1992).
The Windover site (8BR246) sample was chosen for
this study because of the considerable amount of available
data regarding the age-at-death, sex, and diet of the sample
population. Additionally, the multifactorial etiology of the
palatine torus illustrates the need for careful examination
of multiples lines of evidence to support conclusions in the
archaeological record. The Windover site location, during
its time of use, was inland, providing further interpretive
value for archaeological site investigation and corresponding
osteological studies. In particular, this study assesses the
presence of the palatine torus through examination of an
archaeologically-derived sample, combined with a well-
documented data on diet and dental wear to determine which (if
any) etiological factors may be correlated to the development
of the palatine torus at the Windover site.
Vol. 71 (1)
The Florida Anthropologist
February 2019


16
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (1)
Table 1. Summary of publications featuring palatine torus data from archaeological samples.
Author
Year
Population
%
M vs F
Measurement
Standard
Suggested Etiology
Hooton
1918
Iceland
14.5-76.7
N/A
0-4
genetic dietary
Hrdlicka
1940
Peruvian
24.00-37.00
M t
Presence/Absence
genetic palate size
Woo
1950
Multiethnic
36.00-70.00
F|
Small/Medium,/Large
genetic palate size
Vidic
1966
Yugoslavia
49.70
FT
Small/Medium,/Large
genetic
Sawyer et al.
1979
Peruvian
0.00
N/A
N/A
genetic
Halffman et al.
1992
Greenland Norse
70.00-100.00
FT
Rank 0-5
genetic dietary
Seidemann
1999
Iroquois
68.1
N/A
Presence/Absence
genetic dietary/environmental
Skrzat et al.
2003
Polish
56.00
M=F
3 sizes, 3 forms,
4 positions
genetic
Halffman and
Irish
2004
Canary Islands
24.00 and
below
M T
ASU DAS 0-41
genetic- environmental
Eroglu and Erdal
2008
Anatolian
62.80
M T
H&D 4 forms2
genetic
Baumann et al.
2017
Greenland Norse
& Inuit
75.7-90
M T
H&D 0-42
dietary combined with behavior
This study

Windover
73.17
M=F
Rank 0-41
genetic non dietary
1 Turner, et al. (1991).
2 Hauser and DeStefano (1989).
Materials and Methods
The human remains of 168 individuals were recovered
from within an excavated pond at the Windover site (Doran
et al. 1990). The Windover site, located in Brevard County,
Florida, is approximately 8 km west of Cape Canaveral. The
site consists of a long-standing pond that served as a cemetery
for the Windover population. The pond bottom is composed
of multiple strata of anaerobic peat, whose deposition resulted
from the accumulation of decomposing plant material for
the last 10,000 years (Doran 2002). Burials were placed in
shallow depressions in the peat and were often wrapped in
fabric, covered in wood debris, and intentionally staked to
the pond floor (Doran 2002). Glen Doran and David Dickel
conducted excavations at the Windover site over a 17-month
period from 1984-1986. Radiocarbon dating of human bone,
wooden stakes, peat, and bottle gourds placed burial activities
in the Early Archaic period (after Milanich 1994), from 8,120-
6,990 years BP (Doran and Dickel 1988).
Demographic information of the individuals recovered
from the Windover sample is representative of all age and sex
categories. The ages of those interred in the Windover mortuary
pond range from infant to 65+ years, with approximately half
(52%) the sample consisting of subadults (Hauswirth et al.
1991) and the ratio of males to females was approximately
equal. Fifty-three individuals had intact palates and were
scored for the presence of the palatine torus. Twelve of these
palates were subadults and therefore eliminated from further
analysis. Further, two individuals who had no correlated sex or
age information were also eliminated from analysis resulting
in 39 individual palates available for analysis that had been
subjected to sex and age analysis. Of those 39 individuals, 27
had intact dentition, allowing for the analysis of tooth wear as
a factor in the development of the palatine torus.
Standard approaches were used in the assessment of
sex, age, and dental wear. Using available sex and age
determinations from the Windover sample, analyses of the
correlation of these demographic variables to the amount of
expression of the palatine torus in the sample was possible.
Of the 41 adult palates examined, sex and age could be
attributed to 39 individuals (22 females and 17 males with
ages ranging from 19-65+). In this assessment each complete
palate was scored using the method developed by Turner et
al. (1991) due both to the ability to replicate data collection
in later studies and its adoption as the standard methodology
in bioarchaeology (Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994). Degree of
expression was ranked on a 5 point scale from 0 to 4, where
0 is no expression of a palatine torus anywhere along the
midline of the palate and 4 is a large, elevated palatine torus
covering the majority of the midline. No expressions of the


Seidemann, et al.
Windover Site Palatine Torus
17
palatine toms present in the Windover sample were so large
as to rank a 4 on the scale. Presence and degree of expression
were scored for both bilateral and unilateral tori; in the rare
instance that the palatine toms was asymmetrical the degree of
expression was scored on the side of the palate with the most
prominent toms formation.
Although the Turner et al. (1991) method is comprehensive
and allows for differentiation of toms size, it is not the only
methodology utilized to document the palatine toms. Indeed,
despite the use of Turner et al. (1991) in Buikstra and Ubelaker
(1994), there has not been a standard documentation method
applied to samples in the archaeological literature. A review
of the methods used for documentation of archaeological
material revealed that six different methods (from ten studies)
have been employed to document the palatine toms. A scale
similar to what was used here, measurement on a scale of 0-4,
was used by Hooton (1918), Halffman and Irish (2004), and
Baumann et al. (2017). Hrdlicka (1940) and Sawyer et al.
(1979) used a binary documentation system that noted the trait
as present or absent, while Woo (1950) and Vidic (1966) used
the subjective criteria of small, medium, and large. Halffman
et al. (1992) used a scale ranking the tori from 0-5, whereas
Eroglu and Erdal (2008) used the method described in Hauser
and DeStefano (1989) based on the clinical data recording
method by Suzuki and Sakai (1960), and Skrzat et al.
(2003) used the most complex documentation methodology,
including 3 sizes, 3 forms, and 4 positions of the palatine torus.
Regardless of the method applied, the subjective and varied
methodologies used to describe this trait make comparisons
between and among samples difficult (see Table 1), often
requiring researchers (as here) to strip out data regarding the
degree of expression for cross-sample comparisons. While it
would be ideal for all researchers to use the same standard, this
is simply not what has occurred in the past, and comparative
analyses must account for these discrepancies (a reality that
often undermines maximum inter-sample comparability).
Tuross et al. (1994) performed a paleodietary analysis of
32 skeletons from the Windover sample using human collagen
stable isotope values of nitrogen and carbon. The researchers
used samples removed from ribs of the human remains for the
isotope studies (Tuross et al. 1994). The stable isotope values
of the Windover skeletons were found to be consistent with
a diet comprised of river-dwelling fauna, such as catfish and
duck, and some terrestrial flora, mostly grapes and prickly
pear (Tuross et al. 1994). The isotope values did not support
a subsistence strategy dependent on the extensive use of
marine animals or traditional terrestrial fauna, such as deer
and rabbit. As summarized by Doran (2002:21), the isotopic
information shows no hint of marine orientation and is best
interpreted as a freshwater and terrestrial signature. Tuross et
al. (1994) explained this low value as a function of the sites
location; although the Windover site is now near the east coast
of Florida, during the mid-Holocene it was some distance
from the sea. Excavations of burials revealed some evidence
of fish consumption, such as killifish, shiners, and catfish, as
well as remains of seeds of fleshy fruits and berries; however,
comparative archaeobotanical data from three other Archaic
sites in Florida support the idea that prickly pear, grape, and
palm were the main botanical diet staples, while other plants,
such as acorns and wild grass seeds, though present, were not
an important food source (Newsom 1985,1987,1988a, 1988b).
Results
Of the 41 palates analyzed, 30 (73.17%) expressed some
degree of palatine torus formation. The confidence interval for
proportions demonstrates that the true population frequency is
between 0.59 and 0.87 (p< 0.05), indicating that sampling error
is not a factor in assessing palatine torus frequency. Indeed,
when analyzed merely as presence or absence, there were more
Windover palates with some expression of the palatine torus
than with none at a statistically significant level (t=8.1783; df
= 39; SE = 0.171; p=0.0001) (see Table 2). The majority of the
tori had a score of 1 (46.34%; n=19). The remaining tori were
scored as 0 (26.83%; n=ll), 2 (24.39%; n=10), and 3 (2.44%;
n=l) and, as previously mentioned, there were no palates with
a score of 4. The data from Windover are reported in Table
3 alongside comparative data from other archaeologically-
derived samples. The two-tailed t-tests reported in Table 3 are
the results of rates of expression comparisons between each
individual reported sample and the Windover data. Therefore,
Table 3 indicates whether the mean rate of expression for a
given comparative sample is or is not statistically similar to
that of Windover.
In addition to the simple expression rate of the palatine
torus in the Windover sample and its comparison to other
samples worldwide, analyses using the Pearsons coefficient
of correlation allowed for intrasite testing of relationships
between torus expression and other variables at Windover. The
results of these tests demonstrated no significant correlation
(R = -0.1318; p = 0.427) at the 95% confidence level between
assessed sex and the expression of the palatine torus in the
Windover sample. In addition, the results of these tests also
demonstrated no significant correlation (R = -0.0245; p =
0.885) at the 95% confidence level between the assessed
age-at-death and the expression of the palatine torus in the
Windover sample. Finally, an analysis of the relationship
Table 2. Windover site palatine torus data
Windover Sample
N
41
Present
30
%
73.17%
0
11
1
19
2
10
3
1
4
0


18
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (1)
Table 3. Summary of statistical information and comparison to data from the Windover sample.*
Author
Sample
N
Mean
SD
t
df
SE
p (at 95%)
Difference
Baumann et al.,
2017
Greenland Norse
42
0.90476
0.29710
2.0769
81
0.083
0.0410
significant
Inuit
37
0.75676
0.43496
0.2499
76
0.100
0.8033
not significant
Eroglu & Erdal,
2008
Ikiztepe
65
0.44615
0.50096
2.9736
104
0.096
0.0037
significant
Cevizcioglu
27
0.59259
0.50071
1.1947
66
0.116
0.2365
not significant
Kovuklukaya
25
0.6
0.5
1.1077
64
0.119
0.2721
not significant
Yortanli
11
0.72727
0.4671
0.0288
50
0.154
0.9771
not significant
Andaval
24
0.79167
0.41485
0.5345
63
0.112
0.5949
not significant
Iznik
85
0.61176
0.49024
1.3218
124
0.091
0.1887
not significant
Hagios aberkios
15
0.66667
0.48795
0.4694
54
0.139
0.6407
not significant
Amasya samlar
11
0.72727
0.4671
0.0288
50
0.154
0.9771
not significant
Tasmasor
6
0.83333
0.40825
0.5233
45
0.194
0.6033
not significant
St. Nicholaos Church
79
0.87342
0.33463
1.9523
118
0.073
0.0533
not significant
Erzurum
28
0.35714
0.48795
3.2866
67
0.114
0.0016
significant
Hakmehmet
11
0.18182
0.40452
3.6793
50
0.149
0.0006
significant
Halffman & Irish,
2004
Canary Islands
130
0.23846
0.42779
6.3625
169
0.078
0.0001
significant
Northwest Africa
167
0.04192
0.201
14.7868
206
0.047
0.0001
significant
Northeast Africa
327
0.06116
0.23999
14.9497
366
0.045
0.0001
significant
Sub-Saharan Africa
777
0.01802
0.1331
27.2506
816
0.026
0.0001
significant
Southern Europe
147
0.07483
0.26402
11.881
186
0.055
0.0001
significant
Western Asia
95
0.02105
0.14432
13.9165
134
0.051
0.0001
significant
Northern Europe
333
0.57357
0.4953
1.9479
372
0.081
0.0522
not significant
Skrzat et al., 2003
Cracovian
98
0.62245
0.48727
1.2332
137
0.089
0.2196
not significant
Seidemann, 1999
Poole-Rose
72
0.68056
0.46953
0.5656
111
0.090
0.5728
not significant
Sawyer et al., 1979
Peruvian
1000
0
0
52.1697
1039
0.014
0.0001
significant
Vidic, 1966
Yugoslavian
400
0.4975
0.50062
2.8788
439
0.081
0.0042
significant
Woo, 1950
African American
873
0.37572
0.48458
4.6116
912
0.077
0.0001
significant
White American
667
0.42579
0.49483
3.8617
706
0.079
0.0001
significant
Mongolian
163
0.46626
0.5004
3.0969
202
0.086
0.0022
significant
Native American
175
0.54286
0.49959
2.2191
214
0.085
0.0275
significant
Eskimo
366
0.47268
0.49994
3.1767
405
0.082
0.0016
significant
HrdliCka, 1940
Peruvian
211
0.30806
0.46279
5.3896
250
0.079
0.0001
significant
Hooton, 1918
Iceland
59
0.71186
0.45678
0.2152
98
0.092
0.8301
not significant
Eskimo
60
0.76667
0.42652
0.3962
99
0.088
0.6928
not significant
Native American
60
0.6
0.49403
1.3649
99
0.096
0.1754
not significant
Italian
40
0.325
0.47434
3.9655
79
0.103
0.0002
significant
Si wans
55
0.14545
0.35581
7.1399
94
0.082
0.0001
significant
This study
Windover
41
0.7317
0.4486
-

-
-
-
*Halffman et al., 1992 is not presented in this Table due to lack of presented data (no numbers detailing the amount of palatine
tori present in each sample analyzed).


Seidemann, et al.
Windover Site Palatine Torus
19
between dental wear and expression of the palatine torus also
revealed that there is no significant correlation (R = -0.0979; p
= 0.630) at the 95% confidence level in the Windover sample.
Discussion
As the palatine torus is one bony feature without any
real meaningful explanation, this sample contributes to the
still growing literature regarding this nonmetric feature. The
frequency of the palatine torus in multiple samples is presented
here for comparative purposes in Table 4. Frequency, while
easy to quantify is unlikely to accurately represent the true
distribution of the palatine torus. A high frequency (and
therefore presence of the trait) does not necessarily mean
that there is a single explanation for the display of the trait.
Therefore, while frequency is a simple quantifier of the
palatine torus and can be used to analyze and compare samples
worldwide, that variable is tempered according to the scale used
for each population sample and by the reality that the probable
multifactorial causation cannot be fully explored through
cross-sample comparisons. For this table, we standardized the
available published data for comparison. The ability to be able
to standardize these data (by converting the varying methods
and expression scales into mere presence/absence data) allows
for the salvage and use of data collected and reported using
otherwise disparate ranking methods. The standardized data
from archaeological samples in Table 4 demonstrate the full
range of palatine torus frequency, illustrating an interesting
variation in palatine torus expression: there appears no
temporal or geographic correlation to the existence of the
palatine torus in a sample.
While all of the authors of these works concur that genetic
control the palatine torus is predominant, subtle influences
of dietary or genetic flow/drift tend to be supported as well.
Some studies suggest a link between the development of
the palatine torus and a dietary intake of fatty saltwater fish
(Eggen et al. 1994; Kerdpon and Sirirungrojying 1999). A
diet of marine food, especially one comprised of foods high
in omega-3 fatty acids, has been suggested as one of the
specific environmental influences on palatine torus formation
(Kerdpon and Sirirungrojying 1999). Omega-3 fatty acids
stimulate prostaglandin production, which, in turn stimulates
osteoblastic activity and bone remodeling in the palate (Watkins
et al. 2001). Prostaglandins are fatty acid derivatives that have
many physiological functions, one being the regulation of
bone formation and resorption (Raisz and Fall 1990). E series
prostaglandins (PGE2) are necessary for bone formation. They
can inhibit osteoclastic activity and stimulate osteoblasts
(Watkins et al. 2001). A diet rich in flax (from grasses and seeds)
and fish oil will promote the production of PGE2 in the body,
thus enhancing the development of the palatine torus through
osteoblastic stimulation. A dietary deficiency of essential fatty
acids has been linked to bone demineralization (Alfin-Slater
and Bemick 1958), thus potentially hindering palatine torus
development in populations otherwise genetically predisposed
for the trait. What is lacking in the Windover sample is the
food that stimulates the production of PGE2, thus suggesting
that, even if the Windover people had a genetic predisposition
to express the palatine torus (as the high frequency of tori
present suggest), the lack of dietary stimulants kept what tori
did form to a size minimum.
The Windover sample provided the opportunity to
examine whether, as some scholars have posited, there may be
a relationship between palatine torus formation, intensity, and
dental wear (e.g., Hooton 1918; Axelsson and Hedegaard 1985;
Halffman et al. 1992; Haugen 1992; Eggen et al. 1994; Gorsky
et al. 1996; Kerdpon and Siriungrojying 1999; Halffman and
Irish 2004). This proposed relationship assumes that there
is a causal factor in the severity of palatine torus expression
resulting from masticatory stress in a given sample (with dental
wear used as a proxy for masticatory stress). At least for the
Windover sample, this proposed relationship was not supported
by the data. As noted above, there is no significant correlation
of dental wear to the presence or size of the palatine torus in the
examined Windover individuals. This was a surprising result,
as the generally substantial tooth wear of the Windover people
leads to an expectation that the present palatine tori would
be substantial in size. Although it is not possible to rule out
masticatory stress as a contributing factor to palatine torus size
in general, the data collected here demonstrate no relationship
between these variables at Windover.
Finally, it is apparent from the standardized comparative
data presented in Table 3 that interpreting causal factors
in palatine torus presence and size based merely upon
cross-sample comparisons is virtually impossible. The
basic notion behind the construction of this table is that, if
certain shared geographic locations, dietary similarities, or
temporal relationships exist between or among samples in
the table, statistical comparisons of palatine torus presence
between samples should provide clues to causal factors in
torus expression. However, as a cursory review of this table
demonstrates, this notion does not ring true. For example,
it is curious that there is a statistically significant similarity
between the Windover palatine torus incidence and the
incidence of the trait in the majority of Near Eastern skeletal
samples analyzed by Eroglu and Erdal (2008). The oddity
of this similarity is illustrated when considering that the
Windover people lived on a terrestrial and riverine diet at an
inland site in the New World some 6,000+ years ago, whereas
the Near Easterners lived on an Old World terrestrial inland
diet from the Hellenistic through historic periods. Further,
though the Windover palatine torus incidence is statistically
similar to that of some of the other reported New World Native
American samples such as the Huron of the Poole-Rose site in
Ontario (Seidemann 1999) and the Native American sample
reported by Hooton (1918), it is statistically different from the
Native American sample reported by Woo (1950) and from
the Peruvian sample reported by Hrdlicka (1940). In other
words, while it is convenient to attempt to group trait incidence
by easily knowable sample identifiers (e.g., geography, etc.),
it is clear from this study that the palatine torus defies such
simple comparisons.


20
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (1)
Table 4. Summary of all populations with data on sample size, presence of Palatine Torus, and frequency.
Researcher
Population
Region
N
Present
Frequency (%)
Baumann et al., 2017
Greenland Norse
Arctic
42
38
90.5
Inuit
Arctic
37
28
75.7
Eroglu & Erdal, 2008
Ikiztepe
Anatolia Middle East
65
29
44.6
Cevizcioglu
Anatolia
27
16
59.3
Kovuklukaya
Anatolia
25
15
60.0
Yortanli
Anatolia
11
8
72.7
Andaval
Anatolia
24
19
79.2
Iznik
Anatolia
85
52
61.2
Hagios aberkios
Anatolia
15
10
66.7
Amasya samlar
Anatolia
11
8
72.7
Tasmasor
Anatolia
6
5
83.3
St. Nicholaos Church
Anatolia
79
69
87.3
Erzurum
Anatolia
28
10
35.7
Hakmehmet
Anatolia
11
2
18.2
Halffman & Irish, 2004
Canary Islands
Northwest Africa
130
31
23.8
Northwest Africa
Northwest Africa
167
7
4.2
Northeast Africa
Northeast Africa
327
20
6.1
Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
111
14
1.8
Southern Europe
Southern Europe
147
11
7.5
Western Asia
Western Asia
95
2
2.1
Northern Europe
Northern Europe
333
191
57.4
Skrzat et al., 2003
Cracovian
Poland
98
61
62.2
Seidemann, 1999
Native American
North America
72
49
68.1
Halffman et al., 1992
Norwegian
Northern Europe
98
N/A
70.8-90.0
Iceland
Northern Europe
54
N/A
75.0-91.2
Greenland Eastern
Arctic
31
N/A
80.0-90.9
Greenland Eastern
Arctic
28
N/A
90.9-100.0
Greenland Western
Arctic
34
N/A
100.0
Sawyer etal., 1979
Peruvian
South America
1000
0
0.0
Vidic, 1966
Yugoslavian
Southeast Europe
400
199
49.8
Woo, 1950
African American
North America
873
328
37.6
White American
North America
667
284
42.6
Mongolian
Eastern Asia
163
76
46.6
Native American
North America
175
95
54.3
Eskimo
Arctic
366
173
47.3
Hrdlicka, 1940
Peruvian
South America
211
65
30.8
Hooton, 1918
Iceland
Northern Europe
59
42
71.2
Eskimo
Arctic
60
46
76.7
Native American
North America
60
36
60.0
Italian
European
40
13
32.5
Si wans
Middle Eastern
55
8
14.5
This study
Windover
Southeast United States
45
34
75.6


Seidemann, et al.
Windover Site Palatine Torus
21
Conclusion
Significant focus on the Windover sample by previous
researchers provided a wide range of analyses (including
isotopic analyses of diet and substantial inquiries into the
subsistence patterns of these peoples), information from
which can be drawn upon to provide insight into possible
causal factors of the palatine torus. The Windover people
were not consuming large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids,
and thus were not stimulating the development of their
palatine tori with prostaglandins. Their diet lacked sources
such as fatty fish and flax seed that are rich in omega-3s;
however, the palatine torus is still present in a significant
portion of this skeletal sample. Based upon the absence
of dietary triggers for palatine torus development in the
Windover sample, the statistically significant presence of the
trait in this sample supports the notion that the presence of
the trait is genetically determined, while the degree of the
torus expression is only influenced by diet. A high percentage
of the palates from the Windover site sample exhibit palatine
tori, but few have a high degree of expression (grade 2 or
higher). Therefore the presence of a high amount of omega-3
fatty acids in the diet may affect the degree of the palatine
torus expression, but is not the impetus for its formation.
Because there is no statistically significant relationship
between palatine torus expression and age, sex, or wear in the
Windover sample, it is apparent that Barbujani et al.s (1986)
suggestion for the Venezuelan sample that environmental
factors (e.g., diet) could account for size differences (but not
for the presence or absence) of palatine tori, is also the best
available interpretation of the Windover palatine torus data.
Because the diet of the Windover people did not consist of a
high intake of omega-3 fatty acids, their tori may have been
underdeveloped. Ultimately, the high frequency but small
size of the palatine torus reported here is best explained
by the genetic predisposition and had little to do with the
consumption of dietary sources for the Windover sample.
Acknowledgments
The authors thank Christopher M. Stojanowski for sharing
Windover dental wear data.
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Anthropology 8:81-100.




BIOLOGICAL AFFINITIES OF MIDDLE WOODLAND POPULATIONS OF SOUTHERN
FLORIDA AS ASSESSED THROUGH DENTAL NON-METRIC TRAITS
Alison A. Elgart
Department of Social Sciences, Florida Gulf Coast University, 10501 FGCU Blvd. S., Fort Myers, FL 33965
E-mail: aelgart@fgcu.edu
Biological relationships are unknown among Pre-
Columbian Floridian populations, but would be useful to
know for establishing social interactions among groups.
Although DNA extraction and analysis is excellent for this
purpose, it is not always possible, particularly in a climate
such as Florida. Further, DNA extraction is destructive
and culturally insensitive. We have other means by which
to examine the migration and social interaction of ancient
people through their remains without the use of invasive
methods, a field known as biodistance analysis (Stojanowski
and Hubbard 2017).
Teeth are common agents of biodistance analysis for
numerous reasons. Because they are composed of a harder
substance than bone, they are usually the most common
elements preserved in burial sites. Teeth are also good
estimates of underlying genetic variation, as demonstrated by
many studies (Hlusko et al. 2011; Irish et al. 2013; Koh et al.
2010; Scott 1974; Scott and Turner 1988; 1997; Stojanowski
et al. 2017; Tucker and Sharpe 2004). Thus, the observation
of teeth from comparative contemporaneous populations can
provide insight into genetic relationships without the use of
destructive analysis.
Discrete or nonmetric traits of teeth are morphological
variants that cannot easily be measured, so they are scored as
present or absent. Many of these features are tooth cusps,
grooves, and ridges. Discrete dental traits have been shown to
be under strict genetic control, with high heritability (h2= 0.5-
0.91) although this estimate varies greatly by dental trait (Scott
and Turner 1997). Furthermore, one recent study demonstrated
that each tooth varied in its heritability measure (Stojanowski
et al. 2017). Recent advances in the genetics underlying dental
development substantiate the use of these features for discerning
biological affinities (Hlusko et al. 2011; Irish et al. 2013; Koh
et al. 2010; Scott 1974; Scott and Turner 1988; 1997; Tucker
and Sharpe 2004). Furthermore, nonmetric traits are easy to
identity and score, particularly when using the Arizona State
University Dental Anthropology System (ASUDAS). These
plaques have standardized the scoring of dental nonmetric
traits and have been used extensively in studies of biodistance
(e.g., Burnett et al. 2013; Coppa et al. 2007; Guatelli-Steinberg
et al. 2001; Hemphill 2013; Irish 2005; 2006; Soltysiak and
Bialon 2013; Stojanowski and Johnson 2015; Turner 1990;
Willermet and Edgar 2009). Furthermore, dental nonmetric
traits are not sexually dimorphic (Hanihara 2008; Willermet
and Edgar 2009), are conservative in nature, and have low
correlation to each other, which makes them good for cladistics
analyses (Irish et al. 2013).
Studies during the last 20 years have advanced our
knowledge of the coordination between dental genetics and
tooth morphogenesis. This work indicates that at least nine
homeobox genes are involved in the formation of teeth in
the embryo and moreover, separate tooth fields are controlled
by different genes (e.g., Jemvall and Theslett 2000; Tucker
and Sharpe 2004). Studies on mouse embryos specify that
there are at least four genes that are involved in incisal
formation, which work separately from the five or more
genes controlling molar formation. For example, genes such
as BMP4 and Islet 1 are expressed only in the presumptive
incisal region, while genes FGF8 and FGF9 only operate in
the molar field (Tucker and Sharpe 2004). Therefore, the
incisor module forms genetically independently of postcanine
teeth, and premolars and molars form as submodules, at least
in baboons and other Old World monkeys (Grieco et al. 2012;
Hlusko et al. 2011). One recent study questioned this effect in
humans (Stojanowski et al. 2017).
This study will make four assumptions that are made
by all studies of biodistance. First, estimates of biological
distance will predict the amount of social interaction that
occurred between populations. Second, allele changes that
are due to microevolution are evident in non-metric traits.
Third, rare dental variants actually have low heritability, and
thereby their presence in a family is due to chance alone.
Fourth, a cemetery or a sample thereof represents an actual
breeding population (Kies 2013; Stojanowski and Schillaci
2006). The last assumption is problematic, because for many
archaeological sites, we do not know the temporal period in
which they were used, or exactly by whom (Novak 2017).
For the intents and purposes of this study, even though each
site does not correspond to a point in time, testing the sites
as belonging to a gene pool is still viable. It is also presumed
that these populations would practice matrilocality, a pattern
demonstrated at the Palmer site (Kies 2016) and common in
other southeastern native societies (Hudson 1976).
Southern Florida was first populated by people during
the Paleoindian period (e.g., Dunbar 2016; Hutchinson 2004;
Milanich 1994). From this time up to and including the Contact
Period, archaeologists have been uncertain of social, cultural,
and political ties within this region. No modem correlates of
these people exist, and the few ethnographic accounts from the
historic period do not present us with much information.
Vol. 71 (1)
The Florida Anthropologist
February 2019


26 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST

2019 71 (1)



Geographic focus

This investigation will focus on the southern Gulf coast
of Florida archaeological culture areas, historically known as
Okeechobee, Manasota, and Caloosahatchee during the post-
Archaic or middle Woodland period (ca. 200 B.C. to A.D.
500) (e.g., Griffin 1974; Luer and Almy 1982; Milanich 1994).
Local periods are designated Belle Glade I, Manasota, and
Caloosahatchee I (Luer and Almy 1982; Marquardt 1992a;
Sears 1994; Widmer 1988). Burial mounds were constructed
in two of these areas during the early Woodland and mid
Woodland, so many of the individuals scored here were
interred in mounds composed of sand (Luer 2014).

The null hypothesis of this study is that there are no
differences in trait frequencies between the study populations
(Harris and Sjovold 2004; Irish 2005; 2006). This investigation
will test whether cultural areas reflect disparate populations
that had little to no migration or gene flow between them. If
movement was restricted between cultural areas, then this
genetic drift will be manifested as a difference in dental
nonmetric traits. In one analysis, incisal and molar features
will be treated separately in case they differ in genetic and
developmental origin.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Individuals included in this study were chosen from
[1 sites in the areas of Okeechobee, Manasota, and
Caloosahatchee. The names of the sites, number of samples



from each site, time period and type of site are listed in Table
1. Ten of the sites are located on the coast in the Manasota and
Caloosahatchee regions and one site, Fort Center, is located
inland in the Okeechobee region (Figure 1). Individuals from
Fort Center were chosen to represent an outgroup by which to
contrast the coastal populations.

The Manasota culture was located in the central peninsular
Gulf Coast region of Florida, from Tampa Bay southward to
Charlotte Harbor. It existed from about 500 B.C. until around
A.D. 800, and may be characterized by a subsistence based
upon fishing, shellfish, and hunting (Luer and Almy 1982).
The Caloosahatchee culture area was located on the Florida
Gulf Coast from the Peace River and Myakka River in the
north to Estero Bay in the south (Milanich 1994). In both
of these areas, village locations reflect a mixed economy,
spanning the environments between the shore and interior.
As demonstrated by large village sites in this rich habitat,
Manasota and Caloosahatchee people could remain sedentary.
Manasota burials consisted of primary, flexed burials in or near
shell middens early during the period, changing to secondary
burials by the later Manasota (Koski et al. 2017; Luer 2017;
Luer and Almy 1982). Marquardt (2013a) states that burial
mounds are rare in the Caloosahatchee I period and that hardly
any burials have been found in the Caloosahatchee region
dating to this time period. The sites sampled here (Buck Key,
Galt Island, and Useppa Island) date mainly to Caloosahatchee
H-I (Hansinger 1992; Hutchinson 1992; Marquardt 1992b).
During Caloosahatchee II-IV periods (A.D. 500-1500), the

| FonCener |

Figure 1. Geographical location of the sites from southern Florida used in the study.



Elgart
Dental Non-Metrics of Woodland Southern Florida
27
Table 1. Southwest Florida sites sampled in the study, with the number of individuals scored at each site, date of the site,
geographical location and where the burials were found.
Site n Time Period/ Cultural Area Location Site Type
Bay Pines (8PI64)
9
Post 500 B.C.-A.D. 200,
mid Manasota1
Pinellas County
Cemetery
Buck Key (8LL55)
10
A.D. 1200 Caloosahatchee II2
Small island in Pine Island Sound;
Lee County
Sand burial
mound
Casey Key (8S017)
6
Late Manasota3
Barrier island off northern Sarasota
County
Sand burial
mound
Dunwody (8CH61)
5
A.D. 410-660 late Manasota4
Charlotte County
Burial area 3
Fort Center (8GL13)
61
A.D. 80-6505 Okeechobee
South central Florida on western
side of Lake Okeechobee, Glades
County
Burials within
Mounds A and
B; burials in
charnel pond
Galt Island (8LL81)
13
Caloosahatchee III-IV6
Small island in Pine Island Sound;
Lee County
Sand burial
mounds
Manasota Key (8S01292)
21
AroundA.D. 2007or
early-mid Manasota
Barrier island off southern Sarasota
County
Cemetery
Palmer (8S02)
30
A.D. 500-800, late Manasota3,7
Coastal Sarasota County
Burial mound
Pillsbury Mound (8MA30)
23
Pottery indicates Manasota
Period8
Coastal Manatee County
Sand burial
mound
Useppa Island (8LL51)
5
1 burial: 2180 B.C.; Late
Archaic other burials:
A.D. 595-666
Caloosahatchee IIA9
Small island in Pine Island Sound;
Lee County
Cemetery;
burials intrusive
into midden
Yellow Bluffs (8S04)
13
185-60 cal B.C.-middle
Manasota10,11
Coastal Sarasota County
Sand burial
mound
1 Gallagher and Warren 1975
2 Hutchinson 1992
3 Bullen and Bullen 1976; Kies 2013
4 Gold 2006
5 Thompson and Pluckhahn 2012
6Marquardt 1992a
7 Hutchinson 2004
8Mitchem 1989
9Hansinger 1992
10Luer and Hughes 2011
11 Elgart and Paule 2013


28
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (1)
Calusa chiefdom dominated the area (Marquardt 1992a;
2013b; Milanich 1994). Their largest towns were Mound Key,
in Estero Bay, and Pineland (Tampa) on Pine Island, both of
which contained large mounds. However, the origins of the
Calusa people are not known.
The Okeechobee region, also known as the Belle Glade
area (Griffin 2002; Milanich 1994; Sears 1994), is located
around Lake Okeechobee in south, central Florida. From as
early as 800 B.C., people around the lake were living in this
area, constructing great ditches and circular earthworks. In
the Middle Woodland period, large platform mounds and
causeways were constructed at several sites in this region
(e.g., Milanich 1994; Thompson and Pluckhahn 2012).
At Ortona, a canoe canal was dug at the headwaters of the
Caloosahatchee River during the Belle Glade I period (ca.
A.D. 0-750) presumably to connect large earthworks sites to
the river, creating a conduit to the coast (Carr et al. 1995;
Carr et al. 2002). At Fort Center, along with ditches, mounds,
and other earthworks, people built a charnel house where
bundled burials were placed on a platform in a charnel pond
(Sears 1994; Thompson and Pluckhahn 2012). Some of the
teeth scored here were from individuals recovered from the
charnel pond.
From these 11 sites, 196 individuals were selected and
the dentition was scored. The people examined in this study
demonstrate extensive occlusal dental wear mainly due to
attrition and abrasion, probably from a gritty diet. Teenagers
and young adults were chosen predominantly because there
was too much dental wear on older adults, which obliterates
dental features.
Scoring dental non-metrics
Nonmetric dental traits were scored solely by the author
using the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology
System (ASUDAS) (Turner et al. 1991). The ASUDAS utilizes
a series of 27 plaques that display standard graded variants of
each dental trait to score. In all, 38 traits and 64 tooth-trait
combinations were scored in this study, and the amount of wear
for each tooth and any pathological condition were recorded.
If there were a difference in the scoring between antimeres
(the same tooth on the opposite sides of the mouth), the tooth
with the maximum expression for a phenotype was recorded
(Coppa et al. 2007; Irish 2006; Scott and Turner 1997). If there
were only one side or only loose teeth present, that side or
those teeth are assumed to be an accurate representation of the
state of the individual (Irish 2006). Because numerous studies
have failed to detect significant sexual dimorphism in dental
traits, the data for the sexes were pooled together (Coppa et
al. 2007; Hanihara 2008; Irish 2006; 2010; Scott and Turner
1997; Turner et al. 1991). A list of dental traits used in the final
analysis and their descriptions are found in Table 2.
Due to the fragmentary status of prehistoric remains in
southern Florida, the dentition and dataset has many missing
values. In addition, some of the sample sizes are quite
small. For both of these reasons, Smiths Mean Measure of
Divergence (MMD) distance statistic was chosen to compare
samples (Irish 2010; Soltysiak 2011; Soltysiak and Bialon
2013). In order to use MMD, scores were dichotomized into
present or absent following previous studies (e.g., Coppa
et al. 2007; Haeussler et al. 1988; Irish 2005; 2006; 2010;
Nikita 2015; Turner 1987). Breakpoints, at which a trait was
deemed to be expressed, were gleaned from Scott and Turner
(1997), Irish (2006), and from Coppa and colleagues (2007).
Table 2 lists the breakpoints used in this study. Although the
practice of creating a binary code has the effect of the loss of
information, it is necessary to manage the large quantity of
data and to utilize multi-variate statistical programs.
The raw data for 64 variables were input into SPSS (23.0)
and tested for correlations by Kendalls tau-b correlation
coefficient. The MMD does not work with correlated
variables, so all with significant correlations (tb>0.5) were
removed (Hemphill 2013; Irish 2010). Of 477 unique pairwise
correlations, 8 pairs were deemed to be highly correlated:
double shoveling UI2 with double shoveling UC (tb=0.508);
LM1 molar cusp number with LM1 cusp 6 (xB=0.891); LM2
molar cusp number with LM2 cusp 5 (tb=0.561); LM2 molar
cusp number with LM2 cusp 6 (xB=0.536); absence of UM3
with Carabellis cusp UM1 (xB=-1.00); absence of UM3 with
root number UM1 (xB=-1.00); mandibular shovel with LP1
odontome (xB=-1.00); and LC distal accessory ridge with LP1
odontome (xB=-l .00). Thirteen traits were removed due to this
editing and 51 remained.
Next, traits were examined to see if they did not vary.
For example, only 4 parastyles were observed on all of the
UM1 scored, and none were observed on UM2 nor UM3
in any individual, so these variables were removed. Others
removed included: root number UP1 (n=4); peg/reduce UI2
or UM3 (n=4); odontome UP1-UP2 (n=2); Uto-Aztecan UP1
(n=3); C1-C2 DT crest LM1 (n=6); protostylid LM1 (n=6);
protostylid LM2 (n=7); cusp 7 LM1 (n=l); enamel extension
LP (n=0); root number LC (n=2); root number LM1 (n=l); root
number LM2 (n=0); radical number LM1 (n=4); congenital
absence LM3 (n=5); and Tomes root (n=4). The culling of
traits left 33 remaining from 64.
The percentages of each trait per sample were then
calculated (Table 3), as well as the number of traits counted
as present in each sample (Irish 2005; Soltysiak 2011). The
MMD was run in R using a script from Soltysiak (2011) with
the MMD formula derived from Green and Suchey (1976) and
from Harris and Sjovold (2004). An Anscombe transformation
was employed with a Freeman & Tukey correction. Three
analyses were run: the first compared all 11 sites to one
another; the second compared the values of the three cultural
areas to each other; and the third separated the incisal features
from the molar features and compared only incisors to incisors
and molars to molars from each site.
The MMD values between the 11 sites were subjected to
cluster analysis (SPSS 23.0) using Wards method to visually
display the biodistance relationships between the sites (Lee
and Zhang 2013; Prowse and Lovell 1996; Soltysiak and
Bialon 2013). Before running this analysis, all MMD values
exceeding -2.0 were set to zero (Harris and Sjovold 2004).
Distance values were also analyzed through multidimensional
scaling (MDS) using the MMD values (SPSS 23.0).


Elgart
Dental Non-Metrics of Woodland Southern Florida
29
Table 2. Dental traits used in analysis and their description
Trait
Trait description (from Turner et al. 1991 and Scott and Turner 1997) Breakpoint
MAXILLARY
Winging UI1*
Labial curve UI1
Shoveling UI1
Shoveling UI2
Shoveling UC
Double shoveling UI1
Interruption Groove UI1
Interruption Groove UI2
Talon cusp
Tuberculum dentale UI1
Tuberculum dentale UI2
Tuberculum dentale UC
Canine mesial ridge
Canine distal accessory ridge
UP1 cusp number
UP2 cusp number
MxPAR UP
Uto-Aztecan UP1
Odontome
Metacone UM1
Hypocone UM1
Hypocone UM2
Hypocone UM3
Cusp 5 UM1
Parastyle UM
Enamel extensions UM1
Enamel extensions UM2
Radical number UM1
Mesiolingual* rotation of the upper first incisors such that they form a V-shape
Degree of convexity of the labial* surface of the upper first incisor
Mesial and distal ridges on the lingual side of the upper first incisors
Mesial and distal ridges on the lingual side of the upper second incisors
Mesial and distal ridges on the lingual side of the upper canine
Mesial and distal ridges on the labial surface of the upper first incisor
Grooves on the lingual surface that cross the cingulum* on the upper first incisor
Grooves on the lingual surface that cross the cingulum on the upper second incisor
A cusp-like structure on the lingual surface of an incisor; rare variant, not scored
Ridge or a cusp on the cingulum of the lingual surface of the upper first incisor
Ridge or a cusp on the cingulum of the lingual surface of the upper second incisor
Ridge or a cusp on the cingulum of the lingual surface of the upper canine
Large mesial ridge on the upper canine, also known as the Bushman canine
An additional ridge in the distolingual fossa between the upper canine apex and
distal marginal ridge
Number of cusps on the upper first premolar
Number of cusps on the upper second premolar
Crests on the occlusal surface of the upper premolars (Burnett et al. 2010)
A rare trait on the distal upper premolars
Tiny bead of enamel and dentin on the occlusal surface of premolars
The expression of the distobuccal cusp or cusp 3 on the upper first molar
The expression of the distolingual cusp or cusp 4 on the upper first molar
The expression of the distolingual cusp or cusp 4 on the upper second molar
The expression of the distolingual cusp or cusp 4 on the upper third molar
The expression of a fifth cusp, the metaconule on the upper first molar
A cusp on the buccal surface of the mesiobuccal cusp or cusp 2 of upper molars
Projection of enamel onto the apical (root) surface of the upper first molar
Projection of enamel onto the apical (root) surface of the upper second molar
Count of unseparated divisions of the roots of the upper first molar
+=ASU 1
+=ASU 2-4
+=ASU 2-6
+=ASU 2-6
+=ASU 2-6
+=ASU 2-6
+=ASU 1
+=ASU 1
+=ASU 2-6
+=ASU 2-6
+=ASU 2-6
+=ASU 1-3
+=ASU 2-5
+=ASU 1
+=ASU 1
+=ASU +
+=ASU 1
+=ASU 1
+=ASU 3-5
+=ASU 3-5
+=ASU 3-5
+=ASU 3-5
+=ASU 2-5
+=ASU 1-5
+=ASU 1-3
+=ASU 1-3
MANDIBULAR
LP1 lingual cusps
LP2 lingual cusps
Groove pattern LM1
Groove pattern LM2
Deflecting wrinkle
Anterior fovea
C1-C2 DT crest LM
Cusp 5 LM1
Protostylid LM
Tomess Root
Enamel extension LM1
Enamel extension LM2
The number of cusps on the lingual side of the lower first premolar +=ASU 2-9
The number of cusps on the lingual side of the lower second premolar +=ASU 2-9
Determination of cusp pattern of lower first molars. Patterns include Y, +, or X. +=ASU Y
Determination of cusp pattern of lower second molars. Patterns include Y, +, or X. +=ASU Y
The expression of the medial ridge on cusp 2 of the lower first molar. +=ASU 2-3
A fossa on the anterior occlusal surface of the lower first molar. +=ASU 2-4
A ridge that connects cusp 1 and cusp 2 on the mesial side of the lower molars +=ASU 1
The expression of cusp 5, the hypoconulid, on the lower first molar +=ASU 3-5
A small cusp found on the buccal surface of cusp 1 of the lower molars +=ASU 1-6
A double-rooted lower first premolar +=ASU 4+
Projection of enamel onto the apical (root) surface of the lower first molar +=ASU 1-3
Projection of enamel onto the apical (root) surface of the lower second molar +=ASU 1-3
*U=upper dentition; L=lower dentition; I=incisor; C=canine; P=premolar; M=molar; buccal= towards the cheek; linguaUtowards the
tongue; labial=towards the lips; mesial=towards the midline of the body; distal=away from the midline of the body; cingulum=edge
of bottom of tooth where it meets the gum


30
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (1)
RESULTS
Frequency of dental features
The frequency and degree of maxillary incisal shoveling
was notable. It was rare to see individuals without any
shoveling, and extremes, where I2s were scored as 6-7 (barrel
shaped) were scored in 8 individuals. Shoveling of the UI1
averaged 35.9% (Table 3), and double shoveling of this tooth
averaged 36.6% if we discount Casey Key, which only had
one data point.
The majority of maxillary dentition also had large
hypocones on the UM1 (mean=57.8%), and nearly a third of
them had large ones on the UM2 as well. Nearly a fifth of
all individuals (18.3-20.1%) had enamel extensions on their
UM1 and UM2. Traits infrequently viewed on the maxillary
dentition include interruption grooves on the UI1 (4.5%),
Uto-Aztecan UP1 (0.8%), parastyles, odontomes, and peg or
reduced teeth.
In the mandibular dentition, 42.1% of all teeth had a Y-5
pattern on the LM1. Over 60% had a cusp 5 on the LM1, but
cusps 6 and 7 were rare, with under 3% possessing a cusp
6, and only one individual displaying a cusp 7 on this tooth.
Protostylids also averaged under 5%. Enamel extensions on
LP, Tomes roots, LP odontomes, and the congenital absence of
M3 all were rare, averaging 5.5% or less.
Four individuals had a rare dental trait on their permanent,
anterior maxillary incisors that is known as a talon cusp.
One was found on the left UI2 of an individual interred in
the Manasota Key cemetery (Burial 24) (C. Stojanowski,
personal communication, June 30, 2015; Stojanowski et al.
2011). It is worn, but it is probably a type 2 talon cusp. The
individual is an adult, likely a male. Another probable type
2 talon cusp was found on a left UI2 in a juvenile from the
Palmer Burial Mound (Burial 454, FLMNH 97628). An adult
from Palmer (Burial 395, FLMNH 97571) has a possible
talon cusp on the left UI2, but it is so worn that the type
cannot be identified. Another individual from this site (Burial
284, FLMNH 95548), an adult of unknown sex, has a type 3
talon cusp.
MMD Analysis
The results of the MMD comparison indicate that the
populations are indistinguishable from one another. The first
indication of this homogeneity is that the variable status table
generated by the R script for the MMD (Table 4) demonstrates
that these traits are not useful in distinguishing the populations.
The first column lists the mean MMD for the trait, and the
second records the amount of positive MMD values (Soltysiak
2011). All mean values are negative except for one trait (Cusp
5 LM1), which occurs when sample sizes are too small or
traits do not vary sufficiently (Soltysiak 2011). If there were
more positive values in column 1, those traits with high values
in columns 1 and 2 would be selected and the negative traits
would be discarded, but with only one positive value it is
not possible. The second indication of homogeneity is the
MMD matrix (Table 5). All matrix values are negative and the
statistical significance values are all 1.
In the second analysis, sites were consolidated to reflect
the three archaeological culture areas: Fort Center is the only
site in the Okeechobee area and therefore represents it; Bay
Pines, Pillsbury, Palmer, Yellow Bluffs, Casey Key, Dunwody
and Manasota Key were grouped into the Manasota cluster;
and Useppa Island, Buck Key, and Galt Island were grouped
as Caloosahatchee. In this analysis, two traits out of the 33
were positive (Shovel UI1 and Hypocone UM1), but the
rest were still negative. The MMD matrix values were all
negative and statistically not significant, again indicating that
the populations of the three regions do not vary. In the third
analysis, incisal traits did not differ between sites, nor did
molar traits.
The cluster analysis (Figure 2) separates out two main
clusters: one with Fort Center, Manasota Key, Palmer site on
one branch and Yellow Bluffs and Pillsbury on the other. The
other cluster contains Buck Key, Casey Key, and Useppa Island
on one branch and Bay Pines, Dunwody, and Galt Island on
the other branch. Results of the MDS analysis (Figure 3) using
the MMD values are similar to the cluster analysis. Again, the
Fort Center, Palmer and Manasota grouping contrasts with the
Bay Pines, Galt Island and Dunwody grouping in Dimension
1. Useppa Island is an outlier and contrasts with Casey Key
and Buck Key on Dimension 2.
DISCUSSION
The reported percentages of each trait can be deceiving,
because in collections with small sample sizes, the
percentages are either very low, very high, or absent. In
sites such as Useppa Island, Buck Key, and Dunwody, a
combination of poor preservation and few individuals results
in many features that cannot be scored, and percentages are
based upon only one to two individuals. Features of the roots
were not frequently scored at any site because viewing of
them was difficult as most were still situated in alveolar
sockets, so the low percentages recorded here do not reflect
an accurate assessment.
Notable hypocones on UM1 were one of the most
frequently seen features in all sites observed here (mean of
58%). Three-cusped molars, or absence of hypocones are seen
in 20-35% of Native Americans, according to Scott and Turner
(1997:197). A departure from recorded average frequencies is
the amount of Y-5 molar patterns of south Florida populations,
which were seen in 22-80% of individuals. This contrasts
with the paltry mean of 12% reported by Scott and Turner
(1997:213) for Native Americans.
The Middle Woodland populations observed here have
dental traits that are similar to those studied at Windover
Pond, Florida (Stojanowski et al. 2015), except much lower
frequencies of upper central incisor shoveling, double
shoveling, and LM1 deflecting wrinkle were scored here.
Stojanowski and colleagues (2011) found three cases of
talon cusps at Windover Pond (2-3% of the maxillary lateral
incisors), and four at Buckeye Knoll, Texas (3-4%), which are
the oldest cases in the New World. Four talon cusps were seen
in this study, which is a frequency of 2% of all individuals.


Elgart
Dental Non-Metrics of Woodland Southern Florida
31
Table 3. Percentages of discrete dental features at each of the sites.
Fort Center
Bay Pines
Pillsbury
Mound
Palmer
Mound
Casey Key
Yellow
Bluffs
Manasota
Key
Dunwoody
Useppa
Island
Buck Key
Galt Island
Mean
MAXILLARY
n=61
n=9
n=23
o
m
II
G
n=6
n=13
n=21
n=5
n=5
n=10
n=13
Winging UI1
0
li.i
0
20.0
16.7
0
19.0
0
0
10
7.0
Labial curve UI1
1.6
11.1
17.4
16.7
16.7
7.7
9.5
0
0
0
7.3
Shoveling UI1
24.6
33.3
21.7
63.3
33.3
38.5
61.9
80.0
38.5
35.9
Shoveling UI2
27.9
22.2
13.0
80.0
23.1
71.4
40.0
10.0
15.4
30.3
Shoveling UC
26.2
11.1
0
46.7
7.7
33.3
0.0
30.8
15.6
Double shoveling UI1
23.0
22.2
8.7
60.0
0
30.8
66.7
60.0
20.0
38.5
30.0
Interrup. Groove UI1
1.6
0
8.7
10.0
0
15.4
14.3
0
0
0
4.5
Interrup. Groove UI2
8.2
33.3
26.1
20.0
33.3
15.4
47.6
20.0
0
7.7
19.2
Tuberculum dentale UI1
3.3
0
13.0
26.7
0
15.4
19.0
20.0
0
8.9
Tuberculum dentale UI2
11.5
44.4
34.8
70.0
33.3
0
47.6
20.0
0
23.8
Tuberculum dentale UC
11.5
33.3
30.4
46.7
0
7.7
33.3
0
23.1
16.9
C mesial ridge
0
33.3
30.4
0
0
4.8
0
0
6.9
C distal accessory ridge
21.3
33.3
17.4
26.7
7.7
9.5
20.0
23.1
15.9
UP1 cusp number
8.2
0
0
30.0
15.4
28.6
0
0
7.7
9.0
UP2 cusp number
3.3
0
4.3
26.7
15.4
14.3
0
0
0
0
6.4
MxPAR UP
9.8
11.1
4.3
16.7
7.7
4.8
7.7
6.2
Metacone UM1
9.8
33.3
47.8
30.0
50.0
15.4
23.8
60.0
0
20.0
0
26.4
Hypocone UM1
54.1
44.4
60.9
73.3
50.0
53.8
90.5
80.0
40.0
50.0
38.5
57.8
Hypocone UM2
27.9
55.6
39.1
50.0
16.7
46.2
57.1
20.0
20.0
10.0
31.1
Hypocone UM3
1.6
11.1
17.4
20.0
33.3
15.4
42.9
20.0
0
14.7
Cusp 5 UM1
3.3
11.1
0
6.7
0
7.7
23.8
40.0
0
0
7.7
9.1
Enamel extension UM1
9.8
22.2
17.4
36.7
16.7
7.7
33.3
40.0
0
10.0
7.7
18.3
Enamel extension UM2
9.8
33.3
26.1
20.0
16.7
23.1
61.9
20.0
0
10.0
20.1
Radical UM1
18.0
8.7
40.0
16.7
7.7
23.8
7.7
13.6
MANDIBULAR
LP1 lingual Cusps
18.0
0
8.7
70.0
23.1
71.4
60.0
40.0
10.0
30.1
LP2 lingual Cusps
8.2
0
4.3
16.7
15.4
42.9
0
0
10.0
9.7
Groove pattern LM1
34.4
22.2
39.1
40.0
33.3
30.8
61.9
80.0
60.0
30.0
30.8
42.1
Groove pattern LM2
8.2
0
4.3
3.3
0
15.4
14.3
20.0
0
0
6.0
Deflecting wrinkle
6.6
11.1
4.3
10.0
0
15.4
9.5
0
10.0
46.2
10.3
Anterior fovea
6.6
3.3
40.0
10.0
46.2
17.7
Cusp 5 LM1
47.5
66.7
69.6
73.3
33.3
53.8
71.4
100.0
40.0
50.0
61.5
60.7
Enamel extension LM1
13.1
33.3
26.1
33.3
33.3
30.8
47.6
20.0
40.0
20.0
7.7
27.8
Enamel extension LM2
8.2
44.4
43.5
40.0
33.3
15.4
61.9
20.0
20.0
0
26.1


32
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (1)
Table 4. Variable status, generated from the MMD analysis.
1 2
Winging UI1
-136.4182
0
Labial curve UI1
-106.0562
0
Shovel UI1
-44.8177
0.1636
Shovel UI2
-47.6038
0.2363
Shovel UC
-112.8966
0.0181
Double shovel UI1
-49.0614
0.1636
Interrup. Groove UI1
-128.9686
0
Interrup. Groove UI2
-62.5692
0.0363
Tuberculum dentale UI1
-111.0639
0
Tuberculum dentale UI2
-87.4967
0.0909
Tuberculum dentale UC
-89.6591
0.0181
C mesial ridge
-166.7521
0
C distal accessory ridge
-80.6259
0
P3 cusp number
-125.5102
0
P4 cusp number
-128.2283
0
MxPAR
-106.8359
0
Metacone UM1
-52.1547
0.0545
Hypocone UM1
-5.8369
0.2363
Hypocone UM2
-47.4970
0.0545
Hypocone UM3
-86.1138
0
Table 4- page 2
Cusp 5 UM1
-104.3061
0
Enamel ext. UM1
-55.4372
0.0181
Enamel ext. UM2
-61.7096
0.0727
Radical UM1
-99.4647
0.0181
LP1 ling. Cusps
-66.2985
0.1636
LP2 ling. Cusps
-111.1885
0.0181
Groove pattern LM1
-13.5416
0.2181
Groove pattern LM2
-117.7472
0
Deflecting wrinkle
-84.1533
0.0181
Anterior fovea
-131.7472
0.0181
Cusp 5 LM1
9.7597
0.3636
Enamel ext. LM1
-31.1989
0.0181
Enamel ext. LM2
-59.0129
0.1090
Stojanowski and colleagues (2011) state that talon cusps are
most common in Asians and Native Americans, with modem
examples far outnumbering ones in the archaeological record.
These rare traits are most frequently found in lateral, maxillary
incisors, as were the four reported here.
Results of the MMD Analysis
The results of the MMD analysis revealed that the Middle
Woodland southern Florida populations show little to no
variability from each other and therefore the null hypothesis is
supported. The individuals living in this geographic location
are genetically homogeneous as demonstrated by dental
nonmetric traits.
The results of the cluster analysis agree with a lack of
geographic distinction (Figure 2). Clusters do not follow the
cultural regions or even proximity to one another. Fort Center,
Manasota Key, and Palmer may form a cluster because they
have the largest sample sizes and represent the most accurate
trait frequencies.
The result of the MDS analysis agrees with the groupings
of the cluster analysis. Referring back to the percentages of
trait features, nothing seems to distinguish these groups from
each other. Useppa Island is distinguished from the other sites
by its more recent date, but also by its missing values from the
poor preservation of the sample.
Previous studies based on craniometries support the results
found here to some extent. Kies (2013) examined biodistance
among prehistoric Florida populations through craniometric
data. She also concludes that the Manasota populations were
closely related and there was some relative homogeneity in
individuals during the Woodland period. However, she does
not separate out the Middle Woodland sites from all Woodland
ones, and she does see a distinction between the east and
west coast populations. Dental non-metrics from east coast
populations were not examined here, so her conclusions are
not directly comparable to this study. Steadman (2001) studied
cranial measurements from Late Woodland and Mississippian
individuals in west-central Illinois. She determines that
Woodland populations were relatively homogeneous in
comparison to Mississippian ones. Similar site distances
between the two time periods were no barrier to gene flow
in the earlier period, yet in the later period, social boundaries
prevented such movement.
Does the result that southern Florida population have close
biological affinities make sense in lieu of the archaeological
record? Most of the samples measured here date from
approximately 200 B.C. to A.D. 800, which corresponds
to Belle Glade I, Manasota and Caloosahatchee I, with two
exceptions (Useppa Island and Galt Island, Table 1). During
Caloosahatchee I and into Caloosahatchee IIA (500 B.C.-A.D.
650), plain pottery predominates; there are no regional pottery
types seen in the Caloosahatchee culture area (Cordell 2013).
In addition, after conducting extensive excavations in this
region and examining the commonality of artifacts and pottery,
Marquardt (2013b) concludes that coastal areas communicated
with the interior of southern Florida during Caloosahatchee
I. Canoes were used in Florida since Mid-Archaic times
(Wheeler 1995) and the Caloosahatchee River as well as canals
connecting sites to it would have enabled travel throughout
southern Florida. Even into the Caloosahatchee IIA period, the
people at Pineland were more sedentary, yet still participated
in long-distance trade networks. Only after A.D. 650 are more
varieties of pottery present at the Pineland site, which could
mean that there was more regionalization present in the period
following the one studied here (Marquardt 2013b).
Farther north, in the Manasota culture region, a similar
pattern is present. Throughout this area during Middle
Woodland times, there is a persistence of the same shell tools
and plain pottery (Luer 2014). Luer sees evidence of travel
between the Okeechobee region to both coasts of Florida in
the form of Hopewell-style ceramic pipes that appear at the
Pineland site on the coast and at the Ortona site in the interior
as well as at other sites. Shark teeth, conch shells, and dried fish
also moved inland and were found at Ortona and Fort Center
during this period (Carr et al. 1995; Steinen 1994). The Ortona
Canal system, likely in use during this time period, provided


Elgart
Dental Non-Metrics of Woodland Southern Florida
33
Table 5. Mean measure of divergence (MMD) values for all sites.
Ft.
Center
Useppa
Is.
Buck
Key
Galt Is.
Manasota
Yellow
Bl.
Pillsbury
Casey
Key
Bay
Pines
Palmer
Dunwody
Ft. Center
0
Useppa Is.
-1.5825
0
Buck Key
-1.3529
-2.9231
0
Galt Is.
-1.1682
-2.7000
-2.3414
0
Manasota
-0.2109
-1.6975
-1.3137
-1.1651
0
Yellow Bl.
-0.8242
-2.0952
-1.7875
-1.6250
-0.6747
0
Pillsbury
-0.7094
-2.0097
-1.7217
-1.5240
-0.5798
-1.0870
0
Casey Key
-1.2531
-2.9014
-2.5255
-2.3035
-1.3042
-1.7244
-1.6520
0
Bay Pines
-0.8658
-2.3962
-2.0622
-1.8662
-0.8548
-1.3192
-1.211
-2.0270
0
Palmer
-0.2705
-1.6591
-1.3307
-1.1303
-0.3622
-0.6820
-0.5559
-1.2890
-0.8321
0
Dunwody
-0.9483
-2.6170
-2.1922
-1.9705
-1.0368
-1.4113
-1.3136
-2.1976
-1.7255
-0.9976
0
0 $ 10 1$ 20 2$
Buck Key 3
Casey Key 8
Useppa Island 2
Bay Pines 9
Dunwody n
Galt Island 4
Fort Center 1
Manasota Key 5
Palmer to
Yellow Bluffs e
Pillsbury Mound 7
Figure 2. Dendrogram of cluster analysis using MMD matrix values from the comparison of the 11 sites and Wards method.


34
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (1)
C4
c
o
*55
c
E
Useppa Island

Galt Island
Dunwody
Bay Pines
Maoasota Key
Palmerport Center
Pillsbury Mo^nd
Yellow
Bluffs Casey Key
1 1
Buckley
1 1
Dimension 1
Figure 3. Results of Multidimensional scaling analysis using the MMD matrix values.
an east-west transportation route through the Caloosahatchee
River. The coast is located approximately 89 km (53 mi) from
Ortona, and Fort Center is located about 36 km (21.5 mi) to the
east, which are distances that could be traversed by canoe in
under a day (Carr et al. 1995; Wheeler 1995). Exotic items such
as a galena cone, quartz crystal plummets, and a granite celt
were found at Fort Center (Steinen 1994), which according to
Luer (1995) is indicative of a widespread exchange network
during the Middle Woodland. The large mound complexes such
as Fort Center and Ortona in the interior may have functioned
as nodes of an interregional exchange network. Thompson
(2016) has been investigating large mound complexes in the
Okeechobee basin and concludes that this area was home
to an integrated network of communities that interacted
with each other socially, ritually and politically (2016:328).
Movement between centers was enabled by a canal network,
and maintenance of the canals in turn created communities
invested in each other on a regional basis.
The Belle Glade I period is characterized by the same,
nearly exclusive occurrence of plain sand-tempered ware,
which is seen early (450-150 B.C.) at Fort Center (Widmer
1988). It is only after A.D. 500 that regional ceramic types
appear in south Florida, and therefore, Widmer (1988) does
not create cultural divisions in southern Florida until after
this date.
The archaeological record of southern Florida during the
Middle Woodland period indicates that there was widespread
movement of goods and people between the interior and the
coast. The lack of diversity of pottery types signifies a sort of
cultural uniformity, which supports the genetic homogeneity
seen in the dental non-metrics.
CONCLUSIONS
This study tested the assumption that traditionally-named
cultural areas during the Middle Woodland of southern Florida
represent regional populations that did not mix. Dental traits,
which are under strict genetic control, were used as a proxy for
the estimation of biological relationships between sites. The
Fort Center site was chosen to contrast the coastal sites from
the interior population. Results of the MMD analysis, cluster
analysis, and MDS demonstrate no such distinction, either in
populations located in different culture areas or between the
coast and the interior. The dentition of these people demonstrate
that the whole southern Gulf region of Florida inland to Lake
Okeechobee functioned as one regional population. During


Elgart
Dental Non-Metrics of Woodland Southern Florida
35
the Middle Woodland, there was substantial enough gene flow
between sites to prevent much variation.
The archaeological record of the Middle Woodland period
in southern peninsular Florida validates this result. During this
period, there are few regional cultural distinctions. Ceramic
traditions are utilitarian and non-distinct. The construction
of a canal system from the interior to the coast begins at this
time and facilitates regional trade networks and presumably,
movement of people across the landscape.
The next step in this investigation will be to expand the
Middle Woodland sample used in the current study to include
Archaic, Mississippian, and Contact-period individuals from
southern and central Florida. If it is true that regional cultures
arose after circa A.D. 650 and there was less migration, then
more distinct populations should be apparent during those
time periods.
Footnote
1. Heritability estimates may be derived from the formula
h2=2 (rMZ r DZ) where r=tetrachoric correlation;
MZ=monozygotic twins; DZ=dizygotic twins.
Acknowledgements
Thank you to Marie Prentice and Dave Dickel at the Bureau
of Archaeological Research, Collections and Conservation,
Division of Historical Resources, Florida Department of State
for allowing me to borrow the Manasota Key human remains.
Donna Ruhl and the staff at the Florida Museum of Natural
History in Gainesville kindly allowed me to access their
collection numerous times and score most of the teeth analyzed
in this study. Arkadiusz Soltysiak aided me extensively in
the use of his R script for MMD. Joel Irish also assisted in
questions on the results of statistical tests.
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,*v
* v;


\


Florida Anthropological Society 2018 Award Recipients
Arthur R. Lee FAS Chapter Award
The Archaeological Society of Southern Florida (ASSF)
was honored as the 14th recipient of the prestigious Arthur R.
Lee Chapter Award at the 70th FAS Annual Meeting, in St.
Petersburg (Figure 1). ASSF is based in Miami-Dade County
and is one of the oldest FAS chapters. The award plaque was
accepted by Sara Ayres-Rigsby on behalf of ASSF and is
inscribed: Presented to the Archaeological Society of Southern
Florida for outstanding public outreach, May 12, 2018.
Figure 1. FAS President Jason Wenzel (right) presents the
Arthur R. Lee Chapter Award to ASSF, accepted by Sara
Ayres-Rigsby of ASSF (photo by Steve Koski).
ASSF holds monthly meetings at the Charles Deering
Estate, a Metro-Dade County park in Cutler, just south of Miami.
The estate is an archaeological, historical, and environmental
preserve overlooking Biscayne Bay. The meetings cover
topics of local and regional interest. Recent topics include
tree islands in Palm Beach County, archaeological surveys in
Dry Tortugas and Biscayne National Park, and a history of the
Tamiami Trail.
Several years ago, ASSF members assisted in wet
screening tons of dirt from the Met Square site in downtown
Miami, a remarkable project directed by archaeologist Bob
Carr. ASSF members found artifacts from the Tequesta
Indians, the Seminole War-period Fort Dallas, and Flaglers
Royal Palm Hotel.
ASSF holds an annual Archaeology Day in March at the
Deering Estate. Now in its 6th year, the Day coincides with
the state-wide Florida Archaeology Month (FAM). Each year,
the theme is based on the FAM poster. This years theme is
Heritage at Risk. Recent themes are Engineers of the
Mississippian in 2017, Artisans of the Woodland in 2016,
and Innovators of the Archaic in 2015. Each Archaeology
Day includes a Tequesta Walking Tour that showcases a
large solution hole resembling the Cutler Fossil Site. Other
tour highlights include the Cutler Burial Mound, a Living
Classroom with hands-on activities, a demonstration of an
archaeological excavation, and historic house tours.
FAS is honored to present the Chapter Award to the
Archaeological Association of Southern Florida.
William C. Lazarus Award
Joanne Talley was honored with the Lazarus Award at the
70th Annual Meeting of FAS, in St. Petersburg (Figure 2). She
was nominated by the Palm Beach County Archaeological
Society (PBCAS). President Jason Wenzel gave Joanne a
plaque inscribed: Presented to Joanne Talley for support of
FAS, chapters, members, and students, May 12, 2018.
Figure 2. Joanne Talley accepts the William C. Lazarus
Award (photo by Steve Koski).
Joanne has served as FAS Treasurer since 2006, the same
year she helped organize the FAS Annual Meeting in Stuart,
hosted by the Southeast Florida Archaeological Society
(SEFAS). Joanne is an excellent treasurer, a difficult job, for
which she was honored in 2015 with the FAS Presidents Award.
Joanne is a former director of the SEFAS Board and
an important member of PBCAS. When PBCAS applied to
become an FAS chapter, Joanne was one of the first to support
Vol. 71 (1)
The Florida Anthropologist
February 2019


42
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (1)
to the fledgling group. As the new chapter grew, Joanne was
there in the field, lab, and lecture hall, always cheering on the
group and its members, especially encouraging students.
For almost 20 years, Joanne has volunteered at many sites
in southeast Florida, including the Whitebelt Circle Ditch in
the Dupuis Reserve in Palm Beach County, and the Joseph
Reed Shell Ring and Mount Elizabeth in Martin County.
In 2008, she volunteered with the Palm Beach County
Archaeologists office in a survey of the Jupiter Inlet 1 site, in
Jupiter, Florida. Once field work was over, Joanne volunteered
in the lab, where she maintains the highest quality work.
For the last 10 years, Joanne has donated approximately
1,000 volunteer hours per year in the field and lab. She has
directed students and FAS volunteers in sorting thousands
of artifacts from across Palm Beach County. Joanne also
contributes to analysis and report writing.
Of special note is Joannes work with students. She
frequently assists interns from Florida Atlantic University and
Palm Beach State College, many of whom are FAS chapter
members from across the state. Joanne is quick to share
relevant FAS articles or books from her own library and to
encourage students to present papers at conferences. She
believes in this so strongly that on several occasions, when
a student could not afford expenses, she gave them travel,
lodging, and conference fees.
Joanne works continually to improve the image of
archaeology and historic preservation in Florida. She has
done great service to FAS, its chapters, and to countless
young people who have come to love her for her diligence,
knowledge, generosity, hard work, and encouragement. It is
with great pride that we honor Joanne Talley with the 2018
William C. Lazarus Award.
Ripley P. Bullen Award
At the Banquet of the FAS 70th Annual Meeting, FAS
President Jason Wenzel presented the Ripley P. Bullen Award
to Chris Davenport (Figure 3). The plaque is inscribed: To
Christian Davenport for leadership and cultivating good
relations among avocational and professional archaeologists,
May 12, 2018.
Chris has guided and encouraged two FAS chapters. Ten
years ago, Chris helped establish the Palm Beach County
Archaeological Society and served as a founding director.
He worked closely with the chapter and the neighboring
Southeast Florida Archaeological Society, mentoring them in
field and lab. Chris has given numerous talks, educating and
encouraging members and students. At the 2016 FAS Annual
Meeting, in Jupiter, Chris helped coordinate tours, exhibits,
and other activities, and he presented the Banquet address.
As Palm Beach County Archaeologist, Chris is
responsible for managing 232 archaeological sites and 51
archaeological conservation zones. Chris has established an
exceptional archaeological internship program, now thriving
in Its 10th year. This program brings together professional and
avbcational archaeologists, and students, and exposes them to
professional work in all phases of archaeology.
Figure 3. Christian Davenport is presented the Ripley P.
Bullen Award (photo by Steve Koski).
The internship program boasts at least 30 volunteers
from the lay public and over 60 students from colleges and
universities all over Florida. Many students have continued
with graduate work. It is of special significance that the
program provides an affordable alternative to field school for
working class students, who need skills to become employable
as they pursue academic degrees.
Chris has reached out to farmers in the Lake Okeechobee
area, who have become valuable informants about new sites
and have allowed excavations on their land. Chris work in the
Glades helped establish a field school by Florida Gulf Coast
University at the Wedgworth site. Chris also has assisted the
Lawrence E. Will Museum, in Belle Glade, and the Clewiston
Museum in Hendry County.
Chris holds a Masters degree in Anthropology
from the University of Tennessee, where he specialized
in zooarchaeology. He is working on a Ph.D. degree in
Geoscience at Florida Atlantic University, specializing in
remote sensing. Chris and his wife Kim are devoted parents
of two beautiful children.
Chris has taught classes in North American archaeology
at FAU and introductory anthropology at Palm Beach State
College. He has authored many reports and publications. He
has aided fieldwork by graduate students at Big Mound City.
He worked with Boots Boyer, a native of Belle Glade, to
survey areas of Lake Okeechobee exposed during extreme
drought in 2006. The project involved volunteers, interns,
avocational and professional archaeologists, and students. The
report presents the first comprehensive summary of the history
and prehistory of the Belle Glade area and identifies more than
30 previously unrecorded sites. FAS is proud to present the
Bullen Award to Chris Davenport.
FAS Presidents Award
Pat Balanzategui, the outgoing FAS Membership
Secretary, was honored at the Banquet of the FAS 70th Annual
I


Florida Anthropological Society 2018 Award Recipients
43
Meeting when President Jason Wenzel gave her an FAS
Presidents Award (Figure 4). The plaque is inscribed: To
Pat Balanzategui for loyal service to FAS as Membership
Secretary, 2009-2018, May 12, 2018.
Figure 4. Jason Wenzel presents the Presidents Award to
Pat Balanzategui (photo by Steve Koski).
As Membership Secretary, Pat transformed annual
renewals from paper to email. She routinely handles checks
and mastered PayPal. Pat keeps track of the chapter affiliations
of FAS members, responds to inquiries from over 500 life,
institutional, and individual members, keeps membership
forms updated, and notifies chapters when a new FAS
member is in their area. She uses her beautiful penmanship to
personalize correspondence.
Pat and her husband are from Fort Walton Beach. Pat
studied Elementary Education at Florida State University,
in Tallahassee. She was a longtime member of the Emerald
Coast Archaeological Society (ECAS), and she volunteered at
the Temple Mound Museum in Fort Walton Beach. She often
traveled with fellow ECAS member Tommy Abood to grant
hearings in Tallahassee to support Florida Archaeology Month.
Pat also was instrumental in bringing the ArtCalusa exhibit,
sponsored partly by FAS, to the Temple Mound Museum.
In 2014, Pat closed Vandegriffs Jewelers, a store in Fort
Walton Beach established in 1947 by her parents. Pat and
her husband moved to St. Augustine, where they could enjoy
more history and be more involved in public archaeology.
There, she has worked alongside archaeologists Carl Halbirt,
Toni Wallace, Andrea White and others. I have a huge interest
in archeology, said Pat, who works on digs and in the lab
whenever she can.
FAS Treasurer Joanne Talley has worked with Pat
throughout her 9 years as Membership Secretary. Joanne says
that Pat has been a pleasure to work with, has kept meticulous
records, and always has the answer to any question I may have.
She keeps track of every detail and, if I ever dropped the ball,
she was there to catch it. It will be difficult to find anyone to
replace her.
FAS Certificates of Achievement
Individual FAS Chapters recognize members for
outstanding service. This year, FAS President Jason Wenzel
presented the following:
Southwest Florida Archaeological Society (SWFAS)
Janet Gooding
Janet Gooding (Figure 5) has given 23 years of service to
SWFAS. Since joining SWFAS in 1994, Jan has been a tireless
worker, volunteering in excavations and in the Craighead
Archaeology Lab, which is staffed by SWFAS at the Collier
County Museum in Naples.She has educated, excavated,
screened, cleaned, and catalogued!
Jan has assisted in excavations and laboratory analysis of
a number of archaeological sites including Estero Island in Lee
County; Horse Creek Campsite, Old Marco Inn, Buschelman,
Heineken Hammock, Margood, and Goodland in Collier County;
and Mt. Elizabeth in Martin County. A self-proclaimed lab
rat, Jan works weekly at the Craighead Lab in season and has
generously donated funds for upgrading computer equipment
and lab furnishings and well as supporting radiocarbon dating
at the Horse Creek Campsite. She participates in SWFAS
fundraisers and has represented SWFAS at the Collier County
Museums annual Old Florida Days.
Jans positive personality is a benefit in the field and lab.
Her ideas and contributions have greatly enhanced SWFASs
ability to meet its goal of increasing archaeological knowledge
in southwest Florida.
Figure 5. Janet Gooding of SWFAS and students in the
Craighead Laboratory, Naples (photo by Steve Koski).


44
The Florida Anthropologist
2019 71 (1)
Prizes and Grants
FAS Student Paper Prize
Kendal Jackson (Figure 6), a graduate student at the
University of South Florida (USF), won the prize for his paper
titled Between Land and Sea: Deep-Time Historical Ecology
in the Tampa Bay Watershed. Kendal was presented books
provided by the University of Alabama Press, University Press
of Florida, Time Sifters Archaeology Society, Lawrence E.
Will Museum of the Glades, and Warm Mineral Springs/Little
Salt Spring Archaeological Society.
Figure 6. Bob Austin (left) and Jason Wenzel present the
FAS Student Paper Prize to Kendal Jackson of USF
(photo by Steve Koski).
FAS Dorothy Moore Student Grant
Jaime Rogers (Figure 7), a graduate student at the
University of Central Florida (UCF), received this grant for
his proposal to analyze oxygen isotopes and trace elements
in the hinges of 80 oyster shells from the Tampa Bay area.
Twenty are modern specimens, plus 60 from middens at the
Bayshore Homes and Yat Kitischee sites in St. Petersburg.
Jaime hopes to detect changes in salinity, water temperature,
and other environmental conditions during the life-time of
each oyster, with a goal of using the data for studies of climate.
Sally McKeige Research Prize (SEFAS)
In honor of Sarah Sally McKeige, the Southeast Florida
Archaeological Society (SEFAS) presented $500 to a student
engaged in significant archaeological research in southern
Florida. In the mid-1990s, Sally was Founder and President of
SEFAS. A Skidmore graduate, she achieved a Masters Degree
in Anthropology from Hunter College at the age of 60. Sally
was an avid sailor, outdoorswoman, and archaeologist, who
worked to conserve the environment and to preserve history. In
Figure 7. Austin and Wenzel hand the Dot Moore Student
Grant check to Jaime Rogers of UCF
(photo by Steve Koski).
2016, the SEFAS Board decided to celebrate Sallys memory
by offering this one-time competitive research prize.
SEFAS presented the check to Ryan Harke (Figure 8), a
graduate student at USF, under Dr. Nancy White and marine
biologist Dr. Gregory Herbert. Ryans proposal is titled The
Conch Republic before Ponce de Leon: Native American
Habitation of Key West. He will explore the late prehistory
of the Stock Island site (8M02) through geochemical analysis
of modem and archaeological clam shells.
Figure 8. Katie Higgins (left), President of SEFAS, and
Wenzel give the Sally McKeige Research Prize to Ryan
Harke of USF (photo by Steve Koski).


Florida Anthropological Society 2018 Award Recipients
45
Warm Mineral Springs/Little Salt Spring Archaeological
Society (WMS/LSSAS)
Student Travel Grant
WMS/LSSAS awarded two student travel grants (Figures
9 and 10) for expenses related to the FAS annual meeting. The
grants were given to Rachel Hilt of the University of Miami
(UM) for her poster Analysis of Shell Tools from Little Salt
Spring and Their Function and to Christina Bolte of the
University of West Florida (UWF) for her paper The 1559-
1561 Tristan de Luna Settlement: Disaster, Relief, and a New
SpanishArtifact Assemblage in Pensacola, Florida.
Figure 9. Rachel Hilt of UM stands next to her poster
(photo by Steve Koski).
Figure 10. Christina Bolte of UWF is congratulated by
Steve Koski of WMF/LSSAS (photo by Steve Koski).




About the Authors
47
About the Authors
Gary Shapiro received bachelors and doctoral degrees from the University of Florida and a masters degree from the University
of Georgia. In a short but storied career, Dr. Shapiro made significant contributions to our understanding of prehistoric and
historic Native American archaeology. At the time of his death in 1988, Dr. Shapiro was Director of Archaeology at the San Luis
Archaeological and Historical Site (now Mission San Luis).
Ericka L. Seidemann holds a B.S. (Univ. of Alabama at Huntsville) in biology and an M.A. (Louisiana State Univ.) in anthropology.
She is the Human Protections Administrator at Womans Hospital in Baton Rouge, LA.
Christine L. Hailing holds a B.S. (Minnesota State Univ. Mankato) in anthropology and an M.S. (University of Indianapolis) in
human biology. She is the Anthropologist on staff at the Louisiana Department of Justice, Baton Rouge, LA.
Ryan M. Seidemann holds a B.A. (Florida State Univ.) and an M.A. (Louisiana State Univ.) in anthropology and a J.D. and B.C.L.
(Louisiana State Univ.) in law. He is the Chief of the Lands & Natural Resources Section, Louisiana Department of Justice, Baton
Rouge, LA. He is currently a doctoral student in the Department of Planning and Urban Studies at the Univ. of New Orleans.
Glen H. Doran holds a Ph.D. (Univ. of California at Davis) in anthropology. He is an emeritus professor of anthropology at Florida
State University.
Alison A. Elgart is an Associate Professor of Anthropology at Florida Gulf Coast University. She specializes in biological
anthropology, studying the health and disease of Precolumbian Florida populations and dental anthropology of humans and non
human primates.




Join the Florida Anthropological Society
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Mail to:
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Chapters of the Florida Anthropological Society
P.O. Box 9965, Naples, FL 34101
14. Time Sifters Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 5283, Sarasota, FL 34227
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P.O. Box 1881, Ormond Beach, FL 32174
16. Warm Mineral Springs/Little Salt Spring Archaeological
PO. Box 7797, North Port, FL 34287
17.Palm Beach County Archaeological Society
9722 Alaska Circle, Boca Raton, FL 33434


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Back Issues of The Florida Anthropologist
ARE AVAILABLE FROM
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FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC.
Ramie A. Gougeon, Ph.D., RPA
University of West Florida
11000 University Parkway
Pensacola, Florida 32514
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Copyright 2019 by the
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC.
ISSN 0015-3893
Table of Contents
From The Editor
Articles
Rivers as Centers, Rivers as Boundaries: Florida Variations on a Mississippian Theme
Gary Shapiro
Palatine Torus Expression at the Windover Site (8BR246), Florida
Ericka L. Seidemann, Christine L. Hailing, Ryan M. Seidemann, and Glen H. Doran
Biological Affinities of Middle Woodland Populations of Southern Florida
as Assessed Through Dental Non-Metric Traits
Alison A. Elgart
Florida Anthropological Society 2018 Award Recipients
About the Authors
NON-PROFIT
TALI 3
PERMIT NO. 801
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Full Text

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