Membership Information
 Table of Contents
 Editor's Page
 Hypoplastic Insults in Prehistoric...
 Beehive Hill: Another Pre- and...
 Excavations at Refugee Island (8DA2102),...
 Creating the Weedon Island Preserve...
 Obituary of Wilfret T. Neill,...
 Obituary of Charles Joslyn...
 Book Reviews
 FAS Chapter Locations
 About the Authors

Group Title: Florida anthropologist
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00199
 Material Information
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title: Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Publisher: Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Frequency: quarterly[]
two no. a year[ former 1948-]
Subject: Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Summary: Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- May 1948-
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027829
Volume ID: VID00199
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569447
lccn - 56028409
issn - 0015-3893

Table of Contents
    Membership Information
        Unnumbered ( 2 )
    Table of Contents
        Page 249
        Page 250
    Editor's Page
        Page 251
        Page 252
    Hypoplastic Insults in Prehistoric Teeth from Eight South Florida Sites
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
    Beehive Hill: Another Pre- and Post-First Contact Period Site in Central Florida
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
    Excavations at Refugee Island (8DA2102), Miami-Dade County, Florida
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
    Creating the Weedon Island Preserve Cultural and Natural History Center
        Page 293
        Page 294
    Obituary of Wilfret T. Neill, Jr.
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
    Obituary of Charles Joslyn Wilson
        Page 301
        Page 302
    Book Reviews
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
    FAS Chapter Locations
        Page 308
    About the Authors
        Page 309
Full Text


cj~ 74,5

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Volume 56 Number 4
December 2003

Editor's Page 251

Hypoplastic Insults in Prehistoric Teeth from Eight South Florida Sites. Alison Elgart-Berry 253

Beehive Hill: Another Pre- and Post-First Contact Period Site in Central Florida.
Daniel Hughes and Kenneth Hardin 267

Excavations at Refugee Island (8DA2102), Miami-Dade County, Florida. Gary N. Beiter 277

Creating the Weedon Island Preserve Cultural and Natural History Center. Sheila K. Stewart 293


Wilfred T. Neill. George M. Luer 295

Charles Joslyn Wilson. William H. Marquardt 301


Young: Archaeology of Southern Urban Landscapes. Daniel Hughes 303

Larsen: Bioarchaeology of Spanish Florida: The Impact of Colonialism. Christopher M. Stojanowski 304

Blake and Cutler: Plants from the Past. Donna L. Ruhl 306

About the Authors 309

Cover: Three postcard views of Ross Allen's Reptile Institute at Silver Springs, Florida. Images include a large alligator;
demonstration of Seminole crafts like patchwork sewing and model canoe carving; and two Seminole women grinding
corn with mortar and pestle.

Published by the
ISSN 0015-3893


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This issue includes three articles and one short report that
all deal with the archaeology and physical anthropology of
southern Florida. The first paper, by Alison Elgart-Berry,
presents an analysis of tooth enamel hypoplasia for nine
assemblages from sites in southeastern Florida. This is a
diverse group of sites, including isolated teeth from midden
deposits, burial mound assemblages, and cemetery assem-
blages ranging in age from the Archaic to the European
contact period. Both coastal and inland sites were included in
the study. This type of study is interesting since it has the
potential to address several questions of southeastern Florida
archaeology; these include notions regarding the relationship
between interior, Everglades sites and those found along the
Atlantic coast as well as diachronic changes in health and
nutrition. Elgart-Berry explains that childhood stresses are
recorded in tooth enamel hypoplasia, which can then be
observed on adult teeth. She concludes that hypoplasia rates
varied considerably among the sites considered, but that the
rates were generally low, which is typical of hunting-gathering
societies. The variation between sites and through time may
pose other questions that can be addressed by examining other
skeletal elements for indicators of health.
The second article, by Dan Hughes and Ken Hardin,
presents the results of work done for a Florida Department of
Transportation project along a highway right-of-way in
Osceola County. This project was within the Reedy Creek
drainage, an enigmatic part of the broader Kissimmee River
Valley and central lake area. Testing at the Beehive Hll site
identified the remnants of a burial mound and habitation area.
The burial area, while disturbed, produced glass beads dating
to the second half of the seventeenth century, possibly related
to the Spanish missions to the Mayaca people who inhabited
the area at that time. The ceramics from the site, however,
indicated a long pre-contact occupation of the site. Hughes
and Hardin compare their findings to work at the Southport
Mound in Polk County, which also produced contact period
burials. They suggest that both sites demonstrate the
persistence of prehistoric traditions, even after European
contact and missionization attempts.

The third article, by Miami-Dade County Archaeologist
Gary Beiter, presents the results of excavations at Refugee
Island, a tree island site in the eastern Everglades that faces
possible impacts from an extensive limestone mining opera-
tion. While the site produced fairly typical artifacts of the
area, primarily sand-tempered plain ceramics, some bone and
shell artifacts, and quantities of faunal bone, Beiter also
documented a constructed marl mound and ramp that appear
to have been constructed by the prehistoric inhabitants of the
site. Similar constructed features have been found at other
sites in the area, including other tree islands. Beiter's work,
however, may change ideas about the role of humans in the
formation of tree islands, an important topic considering
current efforts to restore the Everglades.
The fourth article is abrief report, by FAS President Sheila
Stewart, chronicling the founding and development of the
Weedon Island Preserve Cultural and Natural History Center.
Stewart explains how the idea of the center came to fruition in
2002. The center includes innovative interactive exhibits that
allow visitors to view artifacts from the Weedon Island site,
which leant its name to the important Woodland culture
occurring in parts of Florida and neighboring states.
This issue also contains two obituaries of noted Florida
scientist Wilfred T. Neill and anthropologist Charles Wilson,
as well as three book reviews.

December, 2003


VOL. 56(4)





Archaeological and Historical Conservancy, Inc., 4800 SW 64'hAve., Davie, FL 33314
E-mail: ael6@att.net

Analyzing dental enamel, the hardest and most often
preserved substance in the human body, can provide informa-
tion about the health status of extinct populations. Whole
teeth, or fragments thereof, and five random skeletal elements
were the only human remains recovered from the Miami
Circle 1998-2000 excavations and from the 1980 Brickell
Point excavation. All are from midden contexts associated
with site 8DA12 (Table 1). These teeth were examined for
developmental defects that would suggest poor health. This
small sample of human teeth was compared to six other
prehistoric sites in Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach
Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) are enamel defects that
commonly appear as grooves on the lingual surface of the
enamel. These lines represent periods of arrested enamel
development, and their position on the surface of the teeth
corresponds to the age at which arrestments occurred. Defects
have been correlated with age at time of death (Goodman and
Armelagos 1988; Goodman, 1996), broad subsistence strategy
changes (Goodman et al. 1980; Hutchinson and Larsen 1988),
weaning, and disease (Malville 1997; Wright 1997; Santos and
Coimbra 1999).
Enamel defects such as LEH occur when ameloblasts
(enamel secreting cells) are adversely affected, disrupting the
secretion of enamel rods. Amelogenesis (enamel production)
occurs only once in the lifetime of an individual, in early
childhood, and if development is impaired a permanent defect
results. Linear enamel hypoplasia has no specific etiology, but
results from any great systemic disturbance (Wood 1996).
Developmental cessation is due to factors affecting metabolism
such as malnutrition, infectious disease, parasitism, and
weaning (Malville 1997; Wright 1997; Santos and Coimbra
1999). Thus, hypoplastic lines record an "accurate, prompt,
and permanent record of chronological development" of the
childhood in the adult skeleton (Santos and Coimbra
Enamel secretion progresses from the tip of the crown of a
tooth to its base, and amelogenesis rate is essentially constant
(Goodman and Rose 1990, cf. Wood 1996). Due to this
ameloblast "clock," measuring the location of enamel defects
on tooth crowns can pinpoint the age at which these develop-
mental disruptions occurred. To time the systemic insult, the
location of the LEH is measured from the midline of the base
of the crown to the defect (Wood 1996; Wright 1997). This
measurement is age-calibrated through regression analysis
using the total crown height of the tooth and the length of time

that amelogenesis occurs (Goodman and Rose 1990).
There are several types of developmental defects that have
been classified by the Federation Dentaire Internationale
(FDI). Two of the most common types are linear enamel
hypoplasia (LEH) (FDI type 4), characterized by a broad
furrow in the enamel surface, and hypoplastic pits (HP) (FDI
type 3), manifested by pits in the enamel (Santos and Coimbra
1999). Both types were measured in this study.
In order to understand these defects, enamel secretion at
the cellular level must be examined. Out of the four types of
teeth, incisors and canines are the most affected by dental
defects because of the manner of amelogenesis in teeth.
Ameloblasts secrete enamel in parallel lines, creating grooves
termed either perikymata or imbricational lines on the surface
of teeth, and Striae of Retzius below the enamel surface.
During enamel development, the first striae form a dome on
the occlusal surface of the teeth, creating the apposition zone.
In this zone, no perikymata grooves appear on the surface and
thus, the record of this growth is hidden from view. The
remainder of the surface of the tooth constitutes the
imbricational zone, where perikymata grooves reach the
The apposition zone of the incisors and canines consists of
only 20% of the tooth as opposed to 44% of the tooth of a
molar, thus more of the growth record of the anterior teeth can
be viewed than of the posterior teeth. Enamel insults are more
apparent and are more frequently viewed on the anterior teeth.
Canines have the most surface striae (about 300), followed by
incisors (100-250), and molars have the least (less than 100)
(Hillson and Bond 1997). Therefore, anterior teeth are the
best teeth to study, as they record the greatest frequency of
stresses, although cheek teeth may be used as well.
Malville (1997) cautions that several teeth of a single
individual should be examined for similar episodes of trauma.
If a dental defect occurs in a single tooth, it may be the result
of an insult to that particular tooth. If a defect is found at the
same age in two teeth, then it is clearly the result of a systemic
problem. This method, albeit a good one, cannot be employed
with the Brickell teeth because we cannot attribute more than
one tooth to any individual. In other samples multiple teeth
from one individual will be compared.

Previous Studies

Much evidence exists linking enamel hypoplasia to stresses
endured during developmental years. Zhou and Corrucini


VOL. 56(4)




Figure 1. Locations of the sites in Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties.


2003 VOL. 56(4)

Table 1. Catalog Numbers and provenience of human teeth measured from Brickell Point (8DA12).

Tooth Catalog # Unit/Location Level# (NGVD) Within Circle?
RM, 63.1 1 (135N, 295E) 5.2 ft No
LP1 82.1 3(160N, 280E) 5 (5.05-4.65 ft) No
RM3 98.2 5 (145N, 295E) 3 (5.6-5.2 ft) No
RP2 117.20 6(165N, 280E) 8 No
LM2 389.1 Circle Trench, 210-2400 -6.8 ft On SW border
LMi 494.11 32 (125N, 325E) 2 Yes
RI2 500.2 32 (125N, 325E) 4 (5.85-? ft) Yes
LM'& 605.2 54(115N, 315E) 3 Yes
RP2 609.2 55 (110N, 315E) 4 Yes
LP 33.2 64 2 Yes
P1 = first premolar
P2 = second premolar
Ml = first molar
M2 = second molar

(1994) found that the frequency of hypoplasia was higher in
Chinese during famine years (57.3%) than in non-famine
years (35.9%) (cf. Santos and Coimbra 1999). Santos and
Coimbra (1999) recorded hypoplasias in 98% of Tupi-Mond6
Amerindians from the Brazilian Amazon during their contact
years with Europeans, at which time their mortality rate was
very high. Extremely high frequencies of hypoplasia have
been found in a nineteenth century New York poorhouse
(Wood 1996), and in enslaved nineteenth century African-
Americans (Blakey et al. 1994, cf. Wood 1996). Wright
(1997), examining hypoplasias in individuals during the
Classic Maya collapse, found that 59% of them exhibited
hypoplasia, and Malville (1997) reported that hypoplasia
frequency is very high in modern Native American populations
in the Southwest. In the Black Mesa Anasazi, 85% of individ-
uals had at least one hypoplasia. On the other side of the
scale, Suckling and Pearce (1984) recorded dental defects in
only 10% of New Zealand children, and the rate of hypoplasia
in Great Britain is below 15% (Downer et al. 1994, cf. Wood
Increased hypoplastic insults have been associated with an
increase in dependence upon agriculture (Goodman et al.
1980; Hutchinson and Larsen 1988). Goodman and colleagues
(1980) examined temporal changes in the amount of LEH
formation in the prehistoric Dickson Mound population. The
earliest group, in the Late Woodland Period, practiced a
hunter-gatherer strategy, and had the fewest hypoplastic
defects (40%). Sixty percent of the Middle Acculturated Late
Woodland (MALW) population and 80% of the Middle
Mississippian population exhibited one or more LEH. The
latter periods were characterized by a change in subsistence,
in which maize agriculture and social stratification became
predominant (Goodman et al. 1980).

Linear enamel hypoplasia has been correlated with
decreased longevity. A significant association exists between
the age at death and linear enamel hypoplasia incidents, which
represent childhood stress (Goodman and Armelagos 1988;
Goodman 1996). In the same prehistoric populations of the
Dickson Mound (Late Woodland, MALW, and Middle
Mississippian Periods), linear enamel hypoplasia was corre-
lated with age of death in two of the three populations. In the
MALW period population, individuals with no hypoplasias
died around 36.5 years, whereas those with one defect died at
31.1 years, and those with two or more died at 28.6 years. In
the Middle Mississippian Period population, those without
LEH died at 37.5 years, and those with one or with two or
more died at 30.2 and 21.8 years, respectively (Goodman and
Armelagos 1988). Taking results from several studies,
Goodman (1996) found that earlier age at death (i.e., mean age
of 29 to 33 years) was significantly associated with hypoplastic
insults occurring at ages two to four years, compared to an age
at death of 38-39 years for those without LEH.
The severity of the stress episode causing linear enamel
hypoplasia can be measured by the width of the defect (Hutch-
inson and Larsen 1988; Clarkson and O'Mullane 1989; Larsen
et al. 1992; Ensor and Irish 1995), although caution must be
exercised (Hillson and Bond 1997). Ensor and Irish (1995)
describe hypoplasia as acute if it was less than 0.5mm wide or
chronic if it was greater than 0.5mm wide. In a population
from St. Catherine Island, Georgia, there was both an increase
in the frequency of LEH temporally (up 21% in the post-
contact population versus the pre-contact population), and the
width of the LEH defects. Difference in width was significant.
In a study of changing stress and health from pre-contact to
post-contact "La Florida" sites (from the Georgia to North
Florida coast), LEH width increased from 0.56mm to 0.86mm




in the maxillary central incisors.
The objective of this study is to compare the degree of LEH
in the Brickell population with other southern Florida Indian
populations and with published accounts of LEH. This will
provide an index of health during childhood for the Brickell

Materials and Methods

The age of enamel insults in the Miami Circle teeth were
measured and compared to other samples of Archaic Indian
and Tequesta dentition. Six sites were located in Miami-Dade
County, two were in Broward County, and one was in Palm
Beach County (Figure 1). Skeletal collections were measured
at Florida Atlantic University, at the Historical Museum of
Southern Florida, and at the Archaeological and Historical
Conservancy. The majority of the sample consisted of random,
loose teeth that could not be attributed to any individual with
the exception of some teeth from Long Lakes, Pine Island, and
Highland Beach sites. The Pine Island site sample solely
consists of three burials and the other two sites contain some
intact burials. Due to the nature of the remaining teeth, sex
could not be determined and remains an unknown variable.
However, all teeth were measured, so if size differences were
to come into question, allowances could be made.
Teeth with excessive wear or calculus that precluded
observation of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) were
excluded from the study. Most teeth typically exhibited
moderate to heavy horizontal wear common to Archaic Indian
dentition in southern Florida. Horizontal, flat wear is a
hallmark of dentition of hunter-gatherers (Smith 1984).
"MDC Brickell Point" is the Miami Circle collection
derived from work by a consortium of archaeologists from
Miami-Dade County at site 8DA12 in 1998-2000. The
"Brickell Point- 1980" dental collection was recovered at
Brickell Point in 1980 slightly north of the later excavation.
Eleven teethfrom the 1998-2000 Circle excavations (Table
1) and fifteen teeth from the 1980 Brickell excavation were
complete enough to be studied. After a gross inspection, there
are three teeth, two mandibular third premolars and one
mandibular first molar, out of 11 (27%) with obvious enamel
defects from the Miami Circle sample. A total of 26 teeth from
17 different field specimen numbers, probably constituting
separate individuals, was observed and measured from the two
Brickell sites.
The Brickell teeth were compared to six prehistoric sites in
Miami-Dade County, two sites in Broward County, and one in
Palm Beach County. All populations surveyed varied tempo-
rally, but they all employed a hunter-gatherer subsistence
The Brickell Bluff, or Atlantis site (8DA1082), a mile
south of the Brickell Point sites (Figure 1), also dates to the
Late Archaic-Glades I period. The site lies on Biscayne Bay
in the current location of the Atlantis condominium. Thirty-
seven teeth were observed and measured from Atlantis.
Little is known about the Kendall-Coleman site (8DA2131)
in south-central Miami-Dade County (Figure 1). It was a

prehistoric camp with a possible cemetery dating to the Glades
II period (Florida Master Site File form). A sample of 35 teeth
was examined from Kendall-Coleman. The Dolphin Stadium
(8DA411) and North Ridge (8DA3678) sites, near Dolphin
Stadium in northern Miami-Dade County, had a long occupa-
tion, from about 1000 AD to the nineteenth century (Florida
Master Site File form). Teeth from these two sites were
combined for a sample size of 34.
The Flagami site complex, consisting of the Flagami North
site (8DA1073), a cemetery and midden, and Flagami South
(8DA36), a burial mound, is located 16km west of Biscayne
Bay in central Miami-Dade (Figure 1). The entire site dates
to the Glades II-III period, but the burials probably date to the
Late Archaic to Glades II (Iscan et al. 1995). These sites were
combined for a total sample of 102 teeth. The Cheetum site
(8DA1058) and nearby Cheetum-Coleman site (8DA141) are
located in Hialeah in northern Miami-Dade near the Broward
border (Figure 1). One of the twenty-nine burials uncovered
here was radiocarbon dated to 4020 370 B.P. Eighty-six
teeth were examined from the Cheetum and Coleman-
Cheetum sites.
Sites sampled in Broward and Palm Beach counties
included Pine Island, Long Lakes Estates, and Highland
Beach. Three burials dating to the Late Archaic Period (4000-
2500 BP) were uncovered at the East Midden site (8BD 1113)
on the Pine Island Ridge (Figure 1) in central Broward County
(Felmley 1990). One side of the dentition (left or right,
whichever was better preserved) was measured from each
burial constituting a sample of 42 teeth. Nearby, on another
area of the Pine Island Ridge, six burials from the same period
were found at one of the Long Lakes Estates sites (8BD3283)
(Figure 1). One burial was dated to 2540 40 B.P. A total of
167 teeth were measured and examined from this site.
Highland Beach (8PB11), a burial mound in Palm Beach
County dating to A.D. 60 to 1200 (Isler et al. 1985), yielded
108 burials. A portion (142) of the total teeth available were
Linear enamel hypoplasias (LEH) and pit defects were
viewed macroscopically. As in many other studies little to no
magnification was needed to identify and measure the position
of defects (Moggi-Cecchi et al. 1994; Wood 1996; Wright
1997; Malville 1997; Guatelli-Steinberg and Lukacs 1998;
Lovell and Whyte 1999). Goodman and Rose (1990) note that
lower canines and upper central incisors should be examined
first for defects, as these are the most sensitive. Because
sample sizes in these collections are so small, all teeth were
inspected for defects, and because most of the samples are
composed of random teeth, each tooth was treated as a separate
All teeth were examined for linear enamel hypoplasia
(LEH) and hypoplastic pits (HP). Once a defect was identified
on the labial enamel, the position was measured from the
cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) to the defect with digital
sliding calipers to the nearest tenth of a millimeter (Appendix
I). Sometimes a hand lens was used to clarify the defect
position. Defects were scored as LEH or HP, and some teeth
had multiple LEH or multiple pits. The majority of defects

2003 Voi 56(4)



Table 2. Frequency of LEH, by tooth type.

Tooth Type n defects Frequency (%)
per tooth
Mandibular Dentition
Central Incisor 5 4
Lateral Incisor 4 3
Canine 34 26
First Premolar (PM3) 4 3
Second Premolar (PM4) 5 4
First Molar 5 4
Second Molar 3 2
Maxillary Dentition
Central Incisor 19 14
Lateral Incisor 9 7
Canine 30 23
First Premolar (PM3) 6 5
Second Premolar (PM4) 4 3
First Molar 2 2
Second Molar 3 2
TOTAL 133 100

were LEH, however, and all defects were pooled for the
statistical analysis.
To check the accuracy of the method, where antimeres
were present, the defects were measured on both teeth and then
compared. For example, in FS #513 at Long Lakes, the right
upper canine had defects at positions 2.0, and 2.9-3.2 mm
from the CEJ, whereas the left upper canine had defects at 2.4
and 3.3 mm. In all cases, the defect positions were within 0.3
mm or overlapped.
The timing of defects was first converted using regression
equations from Goodman and Rose (1990), which are derived
from a compilation of studies of mean crown height
(Swardstedt 1961; cf. Goodman and Rose 1990) and crown
formation (Massler et al. 1941; cf. Goodman and Rose 1990).
They assume a constant velocity of rate of enamel formation.
The age of the formation is derived from the negative of the
rate of the defect development multiplied by the distance of the
defect from the CEJ plus the intercept, which is the age at
crown completion. Due to the fact that amelogenesis pro-
gresses from the tip of the crown down to the CEJ, the smaller
the distance of the defect from the CEJ, the older the age of the
defect (Appendix I).
Whittington (1992; cf. Wright 1994) and Wright (1994)
noted that Mayan teeth are much larger than the Swedish teeth
used to derive the formulae by Goodman and Rose (1990),
therefore Wright calculated regression equations specific to
their Mayan sample using the same logic. The teeth analyzed
in this study tend to be very large, and an Amerindian sample
is more population-specific than a European one. Defects were

aged a second time using regressions from Wright (1997) for
Amerindians, which produced an older age for each defect
(Appendix I).
The number and frequency of hypoplastic defects, both
LEH and hypoplastic pits, were calculated for each site. The
frequency was also calculated per tooth type. The mean age of
the insults per site was determined and these were compared.
An ANOVA, which is a statistical analysis of variance that
compares multiple population means, tested whether the
variation in the ages between sites was significantly different.
All statistical comparisons were performed using Excel
(Microsoft) and Statview (SAS Institute, Inc.).
In addition to measuring the position of defects, all teeth
that were observed were measured. Where there was an entire
set of dentition, only one side was measured. The buccal-
lingual width and the medio-distal length were measured with
digital sliding calipers to a tenth of a millimeter. Crown
height was measured on all unworn teeth, of which there were
The mean and standard deviation were calculated for the
buccal-lingual width, medio-lingual length, and crown height
of each site. An ANOVA compared the variation of the dental
dimensions between sites.

Results and Discussion

Out of 671 teeth observed and measured, a total of 133
teeth, or 20%, exhibited LEH and/or HP. The location of the
defects in the dentition varied by tooth type, and every tooth



Table 3. Sample size and frequency of hypoplastic insults observed by site, with the percent of hypoplastic insults expected
from the Chi-square Test of Homogeneity. Sites with a higher expected percentage of hypolasia are highlighted.

Site n Teeth n Teeth with % of hypoplasia % of hypoplasia expected
Hypoplasia observed (Chi-square test)
Two Brickell sites 26 7 27 5.8
Brickel Bluff(Atlantis) 37 11 30 9.1
Flagami North & South 102 15 15 12.4
Kendall-Coleman 35 3 9 2.5
N Ridge/Dolphin 34 6 18 5.0
Cheetum 86 22 26 18.2
Pine Island 42 13 31 10.7
Long Lakes 167 17 10 14.0
Highland Beach 142 27 19 22.3

type except for third molars exhibited defects (Table 2).
Defect dental position correlated with results of other studies.
Canines were the most affected tooth type and molars were the
least affected, which was predicted from dental development.
The majority of defects were found on the mandibular canines
(26%), closely followed by the frequency of defects on the
maxillary canines (23%). Fourteen percent of defects were
found on the upper central incisors, which is low compared to
the results of Santos and Coimbra (1999). Frequencies of LEH
on other tooth types were below 10%. Maxillary molars and
mandibular second molars accounted for only two percent of
LEH positions each.
Overall percent of hypoplastic insults per site ranged from
9 to 31% (Table 3). Four sites had frequencies of hypoplasia
above 25%. The highest frequency (31%) was found in the
Pine Island site. All three individuals from Pine Island
exhibited hypoplasia in at least three teeth; albeit this is a very
small sample size. The Brickell Bluff/Atlantis site and the
Brickell sites also had relatively higher freqencies of LEH
(30% and 27%, respectively), but both of these comprise very
small sample sizes. The Cheetum site, with a slightly larger
sample size, had an LEH frequency of 26%.
On the low end of the range, the Kendall-Coleman site had
the fewest teeth with hypoplasia (9%; n=6), and in the Long
Lakes population, LEH and/or HP were scored in only 10% of
the teeth. Long Lakes contained the most teeth with
hypoplastic pits (5 out of 17 teeth). All other percent of LEH
per site were unremarkable. This study found more incidence
of hypoplasia in teeth from Highland Beach (19%), as opposed
to the reported 7.5% in a previous study (Isler et al. 1985).
However, not all teeth were sampled in this study.
A Chi-square Test for Homogeneity tested whether the
observed frequencies of hypoplasia corresponded to the
expected frequencies of hypoplasia for a given site based on
this sample. The test showed that observed frequencies
significantly varied from the expected frequencies (df=8,
p<0.05). Brickell, Atlantis, Kendall-Coleman, Flagami, North
Ridge/Dolphin, Cheetum, and Pine Island samples had higher

frequencies of hypoplasia than expected, and Long Lakes and
Highland Beach samples had lower frequencies than expected.
The greatest discrepancy between observed and expected
values was in the Brickell sample.
The ages at which disturbances occurred ranged from 2.2
years to 7.0 years. These ages are older than those reported in
other studies due to the use of the Wright (1997) regression
equations instead of the Goodman and Rose (1990) equations.
The oldest ages were calculated from defects on second
molars. The mean age for all sites was 4.3 0.9 years, but the
mode age was 3.7 years, indicating there were more LEH cases
in children under four years of age.
The distribution of the calculated ages for all sites is found
in Figure 2. The ages were placed in half-year categories,
from two to seven years. The mode of the data is skewed
towards younger ages, with peak occurrences of LEH at 3.6 to
4.0 years (n=71). After four years there is far less incidence of
LEH (n<30 per category).
The mean age of hypoplastic insult per site ranged from
3.8 to 4.9 years. In all but two sites, the mean age at which
LEH and HP were found was within the fourth year. The
distribution of the age ranges per site is depicted in a box-and-
whiskers plot (Figure 3). Site hypoplasia age means progress
from low to high in the figure. With a mean age of 3.8 0.4
years, the Cheetum site has the lowest mean, while the highest
mean (4.9 0.8) was found at the North Ridge/Dolphin
Stadium sites.
The ANOVA revealed that some site means of the age of
hypoplastic insults varied significantly from others. To
pinpoint where the statistical differences lie, the Games-
Howell "post hoc test" was employed. This is a recently
developed procedure that does not require equal variance,
equal cell n, or the assumption of normality. The Cheetum
site values, with the lowest mean age, significantly differ from
the values of the site with the highest mean age, North
Ridge/Dolphin Stadium, and they also vary from Long Lakes
(mean=4.4 yrs) and Highland Beach (mean=4.4 yrs) values.
All other site comparisons showed no statistical difference.


2003 VOL. 56(4)



2.0-2.5 2.6-3.0 3.1-3.5 3.6-4.0 4.1-4.5 4.6-5.0 5.1-5.5



Developmental Age (years)

Figure 2. Distribution of developmental ages (years) for all sites. The y-axis represents counts for each category.



: o o0 o
i T *
6 -
2 ----------
3 0

2 9 --

Figure 3. Box and whiskers plot comparing the range, mean, and median of the developmental ages of hypoplasia between
sites. The diamonds represent the mean, the lines within each box represent the median, and the box represents the
interquartile distance of the data. The circles represent data outliers.

With the exception of the Kendall-Coleman site sample,
the mean age of hypoplastic events increases over chronologi-
cal time. The Cheetum site dates to the earliest time period

(4020 370 B.P.) of the sites sampled here, while the North
Ridge/Dolphin Stadium sites date to the most recent time
period (A.D. 1000 to the nineteenth century). All other sites





5.6-6.0 6.1-6.5 6.6-7.0

I I I 1 1




0 *L J* *

2.6-3 3.1-3.5 3.6-4 4.1-4.5 4.6-5
Developmental age (years)

Figure 4. Comparison of ages of hypoplastic defects on only canines and incisors for each site. Brickell and Atlantis samples
and Pine Island and Long Lakes samples have been combined.

except Kendall-Coleman, which has a sample size of only six,
have dates of occupation and mean developmental ages of LEH
that fall in between the two extremes.
To create a more comparable study, the data was
reanalyzed using only the age of first onset of hypoplastic
insults on incisors and canines. This narrows the LEH
occurrences to 96 teeth (14%). Due to small sample sizes, the
Kendall-Coleman site was omitted, the Brickell and Atlantis
site samples were combined, and the Pine Island and Long
Lakes site samples were combined. Age of defect occurrence
ranged from 2.2-5.6 years with a mean age of 3.9 0.8, but
the mode age is still younger than the mean, at 3.7 years
(Figure 4). The peak age for LEH remains between 3.6 and
4.0 years for all sites except the Cheetum site, which has a
younger peak age of 3.1 to 3.5 years. When an ANOVA was
run again with this reduced data set, there were no significant
differences in the defect ages between sites.
Out of the entire sample, 48 teeth (7%) showed multiple
episodes of enamel disruption. These teeth had two to five
occurrences of LEH, HP, or a combination of the two. The
highest mean number of hypoplastic episodes (1.5) was found
in the Kendall-Coleman and Pine Island sites.
If severity of the enamel disturbance is measured by the
width of the defect, 42 teeth (6%) displayed chronic stress.
Defect duration length ranged from 0.1 to 0.8 years with a
mean duration of 0.3 years for these 42 teeth. Pine Island and
Cheetum sites exhibited the highest percentage of teeth with
severe stress (>11%) out of all sites.
To confirm that the sample of these teeth are comparable

in size, .the bucco-lingual width, medio-lateral length, and
crown height of each of the teeth were statistically tested. The
mean and standard deviation were calculated for each tooth
per site. An ANOVA analyzed the variation of the sample
within each site and between each site for the width and length
of every maxillary tooth, and the canine and first molar of each
mandibular tooth.
For the majority of dental measurements, there was no
statistical difference in the size of teeth in the entire sample.
For most tooth dimensions, the variation within each site was
greater than the variation between the sites. The three
measurements that significantly differedbetween samples were
maxillary lateral incisor width, maxillary third premolars
width, and maxillaryfourthpremolars width. However, sample
sizes for each of these tooth types were small. The Flagami
site sample had wider maxillary lateral incisors than other
sites, but for the other two measurements, none of the dimen-
sions of any one site could be singled out as distinct. In any
case, the dimensions of the teeth that most frequently have
hypoplasia, the canines and the maxillary central incisors, are
equivalent in all sites.


Overall, the results of this study show that the dental health
of the prehistoric populations of southern Florida was gener-
ally good. This is not uncommon for hunter-gathering
populations such as these as opposed to agricultural popula-
tions, wherein a cariogenic diet is introduced (i.e., Cook and


2003 VOL. 56(4)


Buikstra 1979; Goodman et al. 1980; Hutchinson and Larsen
1988; Katzenberg et al. 1993), and it is similar to the conclu-
sions of Winland (2002). The greatest frequency of
hypoplasia, found in Pine Island, Brickell, Atlantis, and
Cheetum sites, was about 30%. This is far less than the 98%
hypoplasia rate found in the Tupi-Mond6 Amerindians from
the Brazilian Amazon during their contact years (Santos and
Coimbra 1999), the 90% rate found in prehistoric Anasazi
(Malville 1997), or the 59% rate Wright (1997) found in
individuals during the Classic Maya collapse. Many of the
sites studied here, with hypoplasia rates under 20%, are closer
to rates of healthy, industrialized populations studied such as
New Zealand and Great Britain (Suckling and Pearce 1984;
Downer et al. 1994, cf. Wood 1996). Low hypoplasia rates
(17%) were also found in ancient Mendes, Egypt (Lovell and
Whyte 1999).
With the low frequencies of enamel disruptions found here,
caution must be exercised in drawing conclusions. Studies of
hypoplastic incidents should be accompanied by examinations
of Harris lines and other stress indicators to make a strong
argument for developmental disturbances (i.e., Neiburger
1990), but unfortunately this cannot be accomplished here.
Where hypoplastic insults were found, the average age of
occurrence for all sites was during the fourth year. The mean
was slightly lower when just incisors and canines were
examined (3.9 years). However, when the distribution of
defect ages for all teeth is examined, the data are skewed
towards ages younger than four years. This remains true for
the sample of incisors and canines. The peak age of LEH for
all sites is 3.6 to 4.0 years, which nearly corresponds to the
peak of 3.0-3.5 years found by Malville (1997) when popula-
tion differences in LEH calculations are considered. This is
lower than the 2.5 to 3.0 year peak found in a nineteenth
century Italian population (Moggi-Cecchi et al. 1994).
Malville attributed enamel disruptions to malnutrition coupled
with infectious disease and parasitic infections in several
northern prehistoric Anasazi populations. If protein malnutri-
tion were a factor here, one would expect to see lower frequen-
cies of hypoplasia among coastal populations due to the
abundance of marine and terrestrial fauna available. The
results do not show this; coastal sites Brickell and Atlantis
have higher rates of hypoplasia than inland sites Long Lakes
and Flagami.
Moggi-Cecchi and colleagues (1994) and Lovell and Whyte
(1999) concluded that weaning stress caused the enamel
defects found in the populations they studied. Weaning stress
may explain the hypoplastic incidences found here, but there
is no way to test this hypothesis.
Out of all the sites, Brickell, Pine Island and Cheetum
show relatively higher rates and more severe episodes of
hypoplasia. These three have higher than expected rates of
hypoplasia for their sample size, and Cheetum has the highest
percentage of severe episodes. For Pine Island, the sample
only constitutes three individuals.
For a truer picture of the health of southern Florida
Indians, more comparative studies need to be undertaken. To
place this study in perspective, it would be useful to compare

the results found here on hunting-gathering populations to an
agricultural population.


I want to thank the Historical Museum of Southern Florida and
Florida Atlantic University, and in particular, Doug Broadfield and
Jorge Zamanillo, for allowing me access to their collections. The
Archaeological andHistorical Conservancy, Inc. sponsored this work.

References Cited

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Davis, Joseph H., and Richard R. Souviron
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Ensor, Brian E., and Joel D. Irish
1995 Hypoplastic area method for analyzing dental enamel
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Felmley, Amy
1990 Osteological analysis of the Pine Island Site human
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1995 Human skeletal analysis of the prehistoric Flagami South
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1985 Dental pathology of a prehistoric human population in
Florida. Florida Scientist 48:139-146.

Katzenberg, M. Anne, Shelley R. Saunders, and William R. Fitzger-
1993 Age differences in stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios
in a population of prehistoric maize horticulturalists.
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Larsen, Clark S., Christopher B. Ruff, Margaret J. Schoeninger, and
Dale L. Hutchinson
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and Douglas Ubelaker, pp. 25-39. Smithsonian Institution
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Lovell, Nancy C., and Ira Whyte
1999 Patterns of dental enamel defects at ancient Mendes,
Egypt. American Journal ofPhysicalAnthropology 110:69-

Malville, Nancy J.
1997 Enamel hypoplasia in ancestral Puebloan populations from
Southwest Colorado: I. Permanent dentition. American
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Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo, Elsa Pacciani, and Juan Pinto-Cisternas
1994 Enamel hypoplasia and age at weaning in 19"-Century
Florence, Italy. American Journal ofPhysical Anthropol-
ogy 93:299-306

Neiburger, Ellis J.
1990 Enamel hypoplasias: poor indicators of dietary stress.
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Santos, Ricardo V., and Carlos E. Coimbra, Jr.
1999 Hardships of contact: enamel hypoplasias in Tupi-Monde
Amerindians from the Brazilian Amazonia. American
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Winland, Kenneth J.
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hypoplasia in a North American colonial skeletal sample.
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2003 Voi. 56(4)



Appendix I: Age estimates of linear enamel hypoplasias.
Population FS# Tooth Defect Position Converted age, years
from CEJ (mm) (Wright, 1997)
MDC Brickell 82 PM3 1.4 5.3
Point 389 Mi 0.5 4.3
633 PM3 3.8,4.4 3.9,4.2
Brickell Point 668 C1 4.5 4.6
1980 676 C1 2.2,3.0 3.7,3.9
839 C1 Multiple, 1.5-3.9 3.5 to 4.1
874 M2 1.1 6.6
Brickell Bluff # 1 I2 1.9, 2.7 3.2, 3.4
Ci 1.9,3.2 3.7,4.0
S C 2.1, 3.5, 4.0 3.5, 3.6, 4.0
#2 Pm4 1.5 6.2
M 2.1 2.8
M__ 1.7 6.7
#3 C1 2.8 3.8
# 4 Ci 2.0,3.0 3.7,4.0
#5 Mi 2.3 3.8
#.6 Pm4 2.0 5.3
# 7 M1 1.6,2.4 3.8,4.0
Flagami North 723 C 3.6 4.9
PM3 1.2 5.6
730 PM 1.1 5.6
738 C1 3.5 4.9
I1 pits, 1.7-3.3 3.5 to 4.0
Ii 5.5 2.3
Flagami South # 1 M2 1.3-1.7 6.3 to 6.5
C1 1.9, 2.3, 2.6, 4.7 3.3, 3.8, 3.9, 4.0
#2 C1 Pits, 1.1- 1.8 5.4to 5.7
#3 I1 1.6 4.0
566A I1 5.2 2.4
Ci 2.6, 3.3-3.7 3.5 -3.6, 3.8
I2 2.8 3.8
172A C1 1.5 5.5
C1 1.5-2.3 5.3 to 5.5
147A Mi 3.1 3.5
C1 2.7 5.2
PM3 2.0,2.8 5.0,5.3
38- C1 3.3 3.6
burial 2 C1 3.2-4.2 3.4 to 3.7
II__ 1.7,2.8 3.6 to 4.0

Appendix I: Age estimates of linear enamel hypoplasias, continued.
Population FS# Tooth Defect Position Converted age, years
from CEJ (mm) (Wright, 1997)
Kendall- 2267 C1 1.2,2.0,2.9,4.0 3.5, 3.8, 4.0, 4.2
Coleman C1 2.5 5.2
M__ 2.6 2.6
North Ridge 1863 #5 M1 1.1 4.2
1863 #6 M 1.5 6.8
1863 #9 11 3.8 3.3
1863 I2 0.7 4.3
burial 1 CI 1.8 4.0
C ___Pits, 1.2, 1.9 5.4, 5.6
Dolphin Stadium 2273.254 I1 Pits: 1.8, 2.6 3.7, 3.9
12 2.0 4.0
2273.224 PM4 0.9, 1.8 6.1,6.5
C1 3.1,4.5 4.6,5.0
PM 0.9,2.1 5.3,5.7
PM3 1.5 5.3
2506.1 C1 2.8-3.7 4.8 to 5.1
2505.2 C1 2.8-4.1 4.7 to 5.1
Cheetum site 1597 II 2.3-3.5, 3.8-4.4 3.1, 3.3, 3.4,3.8
C1 3.0-4.2 4.7 to 5.1
LCi 2.0-3.1; 3.8 3.5 to 3.7, 4.0
RC1 2.2-4.3 3.4 to 3.9
East Cheetum Burial #1 LCI 4.6 3.3
RCI 3.0,3.6 3.6 to 3.7
990 C1 3.3 3.6
1268 LCI 2.4,3.2 3.7, 3.9
RCI 3.2,4.2 3.4 to 3.7
RC1 4.0 4.7
PM4_ 1.9 5.4
1267 C1 2.5-3.8 3.5 to 3.9
IF 1,1.9,2.7,3.8,4.7 3.1, 3.3, 3.7, 3.9, 4.2
1536 M2 1.3 6.5
1272 C1 3.0 3.7
1387 11 1.9 3.4
1274 12 1.5,1.8-2.4 3.3, 3.4 to 3.5
1535 C1 3.7 3.5
1273 1 1.8 3.9
1259 Ci 3.0,4.3,5.3,9.1 2.2, 3.1, 3.4, 3.7
1368 I1 2.8-3.3 3.5 to 3.6
11_ 1.2, pits2.4-3.1 3.5, 3.8 to 4.1

2003 VOL. 56(4)



Appendix I: Age estimates of linear enamel hypoplasias, continued.
Population FS# Tooth Defect Position Converted age, years
from CEJ (mm) (Wright, 1997)
Pine Island Burial #1 I1 3.4, 4.4, 5.9 2.7,3.1, 3.5
C1 2.2,4.2 4.7,5.3
C1 1.9, 3-3.9, 5.0 3.2, 3.5, 3.7, 4.0
Burial #2 I2 2.6,3.1 3.8,3.9
Ca 2.4-2.7,3.1-3.9 4.8 to 5.0, 5.2
C1 Pits 2.1- 4.6 3.3 to 4.0
Burial #3 I1 1.1, 2.3, 3.5 3.4, 3.8, 4.2
1 1.5, 2.2, 4.1-4.3, 4.6 3.4, 3.5, 4.0, 4.1
C1 1.8-2.2, 5.1 4.4, 5.3, 5.4
Ii 1.3,2.1 3.4,3.6
12 3.2, 3.3-3.6 2.9,3.0
C1 Pits, 1.6-3.8, 5.2 3.2, 3.5, 4.1
Pm3 3.1 4.5,
Long Lakes Burial #2 C1 0.7, 1.5; 3.6, 3.9,
pits: 2.4-3.4 4.1 to 4.3
C1 1.6, 3.6
pits: 2.4-3.4 3.9 to 4.1
PM3 1.9 5.3
Burial #3 I1 2.8 3.6
Burial I 2.7 3.5
#6- 7-yr pits:1.8-3.1 3.7 to 3.9
old I2 1.6 4.0
C Pits: 2.8-3.4, 3.6- 4.9 to 5.1; 4.6 to 4.9
PM 5.1-5.8 4.0 to 4.3
Burial I 2.7 3.9
#6- adult
199 C1 3.8 4.8
PM3 1.0, 3.2-4.2 4.5 to 4.9, 5.6
201 11 2.7,3.8 3.3,3.7
C1 3.0, 4.1, 5.4 4.3, 4.7, 5.1
243 C 2.7-2.9, 5.1, 6.0 4.1, 4.4, 4.4 to 5.1
pits:3.7-4.4 4.6 to4.8,
513 C1 2.0, 2.9-3.2 5, 5.1 to5.4
517 I1 1.9 3.9
I__ 1.1, 2.0 4.0,4.2


Appendix I: Age estimates of linear enamel hypoplasias, continued.
Population FS# Tooth Defect Position Converted age, years
from CEJ (mm) (Wright, 1997)

Highland Beach


I 3.2 3.7
S2-1 Ci 2.5,4.3 3.4 to 3.9
12 1.2 3.6
S2-2 C' 0.7,1.3 5.6 to 5.8
I 2.6 3.9
C1 2.9-3.7 3.5-3.8
S243-16 C1 2.3-3.0 3.7 to 3.9
C1 2.3,3.2 5 to 5.3
S243-18 I1 Lg. Pit:3.2-6.0 2.7 to 3.5
C1 2.5 5.2
C1 2.8-3.4 3.6 to 3.8
S4 Ci 3.4 3.6
PM4 1.9 6
C1 2.6-3.8 4.8 to 5.2
M2 1.0,2.9 6.1 to 7
S4-1 C 2.9 5.1
Ci 2.4-4.3 3.4-3.9
Wl-1 Ci 3.0-4.0 3.4 to 3.7
C1 4.9 4.5
W1-2 PM3 1.7 5.4
C1 4.7 4.5
W2-2 C1 2.4 3.9
Pm4 1.6 6.2


C1 4.7 4.5
Ci 1.6-2.8 3.8 to 4.1
Pm4 1.5 6.2

I _______ J &


2003 VOL. 56(4)



1Sarasota County History Center, 701 N. Tamiami Trail, Sarasota, FL 34236

2 JanusResearch, 2935 1"Ave. N, St. Petersburg, FL 33713

In March of 1999, Janus Research conducted a Phase I and
n investigation of the Beehive Hill Site, (80S1726) located
just west of Intercession City, for the Florida Department of
Transportation (FDOT) (Janus Research 1999) (Figure 1).
The work conducted on this site marks the identification of a
burial mound. This burial mound can possibly be attributed to
the seventeenth century Mayaca tribe (Hann 1993:112-120).
The Beehive Hill site is important in that it appears quite
similar to a nearby post-contact period site, the Southport
Mound, also investigated by Janus Research (Hardin et al.
1984). Research on both sites offers important clues to
cultural practices, interaction with European cultures, precon-
tact lifeways, resistance to acculturation, and the verification
of historical documentation. It also sheds light on the ongoing
debate of the precise identification of the historic tribes in this
area at different times.
The possible association of Beehive Hill with the Mayaca
is important because it lies within nine miles of the Southport
Mound (80S21), another post-contact period Mayaca site
(Austin and Mitchell 1998, Hardin et al. 1984; Mitchem 2000,
Mitchem et al. 1998). The recovery and analysis of materials
from site 80S1726 show a clear similarity to the Southport
Mound and therefore may provide insight into cultural
practices within the area.


The archaeological investigations at the Beehive Hill site
focused on determining the nature of the entire site and
obtaining clearance for a proposed Florida Department of
Transportation (FDOT) right-of-way expansion and parcel
transfer. The site was first identified in 1994 as two sites
(Beehive Hill and the Mosca site) (Johnson 1994:31-37). Both
sites had been identified during a previous ROW testing
conducted on behalf ofFDOT. In 1997 and 1998, the Univer-
sity of South Florida Department of Anthropology conducted
shovel tests and excavation units at the site as part of two
summer field schools. Based on the results of this testing, the
nearby Mosca site was subsumed under the Beehive Hill site,
resulting in a recommendation for further testing (Florida
Master Site File forms for 80S1726: 12/29/98 update). This
recommendation was based on the discovery of fragmentary
human remains on the ground surface, and an informant
report that human remains had been looted from the site.

Phase I Testing

Phase I testing of the site was designed to maximize the
retrieval of significant cultural information, utilizing a range
of archaeological field methods and analysis techniques. The
primary goal was to confirm that the site contained the classes
of data indicated by previous surveys, and to determine
whether they retained enough integrity to recommend the site
for inclusion in the National Register. It was also hoped that
the study would confirm or refute the presence of human
remains at the site.
A total of 468 shovel tests were placed on a 10-m grid
system. To accomplish complete testing in the proposed right-
of-way, four 1x2 m and one lxl units were excavated within
the area (Figure 2). Limited testing was also conducted in
several artifact concentration areas at five-m intervals within
the established grid. Half way through the shovel testing a
small rise was noted along the southern edge of the remaining
sand hill
As the grid testing approached the small rise it became
apparent that disturbed human remains were indeed, located
on the site. Once the edges of the burial area were encoun-
tered, testing was conducted in accordance with Florida
Division of Historical Resources consultation. The margins of
the burial area were probed with additional shovel tests, any
shovel tests that encountered human remains were immedi-
ately halted, and the shovel test closed.

Phase II Testing

Once the burial area had been identified, Phase II testing
began, which involved the excavation of seven 1x2 m units
and shovel testing at a 5-m interval around the area identified
as containing human remains. The purpose was to ascertain
the extent of this area and the nature of the human remains
present with as little disturbance to these remains as possible.
All five meter interval shovel tests, boundary testing, and test
units were screened through 1/16 in screens.
In Test Units J and L (Figure 3), undisturbed human
remains were identified. In Test Unit J, the remains of two
long bones were discovered 43-cm below surface (cmbs). The
remains were temporarily exposed to be studied in situ. They
were poorly preserved and did not allow a positive identifica-
tion other than human. The bones are identified as the distal
half of a humerus and a highly fragmented radius. The


VOL. 56(4)



Figure 1. Beehive Hill site location.



L4PJN 34 -VY




M9 General Area of Humal
Positive Shovel Tests
o Negative Shovel Tests
S 1x2m Test Units
O 1xlm Test Units

444 248
0 0

416 418
* 0

408 *

420 425
0 e

259 412 256 250 397 271

404 423 424
0 421
J[L o

260 403 254 252
* g 398 245
0 O

401 402 400
* *

IK 9 422 272

275 442 278
* 0 *

396 441 468

270 440 279
.e 0 0

439 467
O 0

438 280
0 0

437 466

436 244

435 465

434 464

Figure 3. Detail showing testing inside the mound location at the Beehive Hill site.


0 .5 1.0m

459 266
0 *

458 448
0 *

457 267
* 0

456 449
* 0

455 268
0 o

454 450
* 0

407 0



453 269
* *

2003 VOL. 56(4)


Table 1. Ceramic frequencies, Beehive Hill site.

Ceramic Type Count Percent
St. Johns Plain 2189 70.50
Dunn's Creek Red 347 11.18
sandy St. Johns Plain 336 10.82
sand tempered plain 103 3.32
Weeden Island Plain 38 1.22
Pasco Plain 37 1.19
Unidentified 20 0.64
Orange Plain 9 0.29
St. Johns Check Stamped 8 0.26
St. Johns Incised 4 0.13
St. Johns Simple Stamped 4 0.13
St. Johns Punctated 3 0.10
Weeden Island Punctate 3 0.10
Unidentified punctated 1 0.03
Sand tempered incised 1 0.03
Pinellas Plain 1 0.03
Orange Incised 1 0.03
Totals 3105 100.00

remains appeared to be in a flexed position, aligned north-
south. However, due to preservation qualities and the frag-
mented nature of the find, identification or positioning of the
materials is approximate.
In Test Unit L, two long bones also were discovered in an
undisturbed context at a depth of 35 cmbs. The remains were
in a highly fragmented state and poorly preserved. The mid-
shaft of a right femur and a right ulna were identified. Based
on observations, they appear to be from an adult individual (25
years or older) and.may have been in a flexed position. In
addition to the human remains, an archaeological feature was
uncovered at the same depth approximately 70 cm to the north.
This feature was exposed, photographed, and mapped in place,
but not excavated. The feature appeared to be an assemblage
of burned faunal remains from a small mammal. Included on
the edge of the feature were four Dunn's Creek Red ceramic
sherds. No materials from any of the undisturbed burials were
collected and no material was collected from the feature
located in Test Unit L, as it was assumed that the feature
might represent grave materials.
The burial area is roughly 35 x 30 m (115 x 98 ft) in size
and represents a small portion of the overall Beehive Hill site.
The site has been disturbed by cultivation and a modem
borrow area. The borrow area is located on the south edge of
the property and bisects the burial area. Most of the human
remains that have been disturbed exist just beneath the ground
surface. Two occurrences of undisturbed remains were
identified at lower levels.
Based on field observations, it appears that at one time
there were human burials located within a small mound
located centrally within a xeric hammock. These burials were
apparently disturbed by agricultural practices on the property.

These disturbances severely impacted several burials that have
now been identified as a concentration of human remains
within the site. Portions of burials at a sufficient depth to
remain undisturbed are, however, present.
The identification of highly disturbed human remains in
the upper levels of the site provides evidence of at least
subsurface site disturbances within the burial area. Although
the burial area cannot truly be called a mound in its current
condition, it was most likely a small broad mound before
extensive land alterations. These alterations include a modem
borrow pit to the east and frequent discing of the area during
its time as a citrus grove. These practices have led to general
leveling and dispersing of the mound and its contents.


While the focus of the Phase I investigation was to obtain
data to ascertain the extent of the area and nature of the
human remains, it is through analysis of the recovered
artifactual remains that leads to a better understanding of the
site's function. In this paper, we would like to focus on two
classes of data: aboriginal ceramics and European glass beads.


A total of 3836 sherds was recovered from Beehive Hill.
Only those sherds larger than 6mm ( in) were analyzed in
detailed. In total 3105 sherds were analyzed (Table 1). St.
Johns Plain was the most frequently recovered ceramic type
from the Beehive Hill site, making up just over 70% of the
total ceramics. The second and third most frequently recov-
ered ceramic types were Dunn's Creek Red at 11.18% and




Table 2. Ceramic recovery locations, Beehive Hill site.

Ceramic Count % % Entire site Count % % Entire site
St. Johns Plain 2075 71.75 66.83 114 53.52 3.67
Dunn's Creek Red 347 12.00 11.18 0 0 0
sandy St. Johns Plain 312 10.79 10.05 23 10.80 0.74
sand tempered plain 68 2.35 2.19 35 16.43 1.13
PascoPlain 26 0.90 0.84 11 5.16 0.35
Weeden Island Plain 23 0.80 0.74 15 7.04 0.48
Unidentified 19 0.66 0.61 1 0.47 0.03
St. Johns Check Stamped 8 0.28 0.26 0 0 0
St. Johns Incised 4 0.14 0.13 0 0 0
St. Johns Punctated 3 0.10 0.10 0 0 0
Weeden Island Punctated 3 0.10 0.10 0 0 0
Orange Plain 2 0.07 0.06 7 3.29 0.23
unidentified punctated 1 0.03 0.03 0 0 0
sand tempered incised 1 0.03 0.03 1 0.47 0.03
St. Johns Simple Stamped 0 0 0 4 1.88 0.13
Pinellas Plain 0 0.00 0.00 1 0.47 0.03
Orange Incised 0 0.00 0.00 1 0.47 0.03
TOTALS 2892 100.00 93.14 213 100.00 6.86

sandy St. Johns Plain at 10.82%. The three most frequently
recovered types are all varieties of the St. Johns series. The
fourth most frequently recovered type was sand-tempered
plain. This type represents 3.32% of the total analyzed
The abundance of St. Johns Plain within the Beehive Hill
ceramic assemblage is indicative of a predominately St. Johns
I-Ia site occupation ranging from 500 B.C.-A.D. 500. St.
Johns Plain and sandy St. Johns Plain are the dominant types
of pottery, totaling 81.32% of the assemblage. It is the later
categories, however, that provide a higher resolution of
chronology. Dunn's Creek Red was first manufactured within
the St. Johns la period (A.D. 100-500) and continued into the
early St. Johns Ib period (A.D. 500-750). Similarly, Weeden
Island Plain ceramics recovered from the site are also found on
St. Johns sites during the same time span as Dunn's Creek
Red. Therefore, the main site occupation, based on the
ceramic data, is the St. Johns Ia through Ib periods, spanning
A.D. 100-750.
The recovery of Orange Plain and Orange Incised ceramics
indicates the earliest period of occupation during the late
archaic ca. 2000-1650 B.C. (Milanich 1994:94; Sassaman
2003:11). The recovery of later types, in small amounts, such
as St. Johns Check Stamped, documents shorter periods of use
during later time periods. St. Johns Check Stamped occurs on
sites starting ca. A.D. 750-1050, thereby marking the St. Johns
IIa period, and continues through contact in the 1500s
(Milanich 1994:246-248). Continued occupation in the later
St. Johns II period from A.D. 750-1513 is further supported by

the presence of Weeden Island/Safety Harbor period ceramics
that include Pinellas Plain and Pasco Plain ceramics, which
extend into the Safety Harbor period and were recovered in
small quantities (Milanich 1994). The total ceramic assem-
blage indicates that the site was occupied from 2000 B.C.
through the contact period.
We feel that the broad period of occupation is not from
continuous site habitation, but rather reflects a long period of
use during the St. Johns Ia period. In order to determine the
nature of the occupations that bracket the main period of
occupation of Beehive Hill, an analysis of intrasite ceramic
patterning was performed. The locations of the ceramics were
analyzed according to their proximity to the burial area. A
total of 93.14% of the recovered ceramics came from the burial
area, while only 6.86% were located outside the burial area
(Table 2).
The dominant ceramic type, within the burial area, was St.
Johns Plain followed by Dunn's Creek Red and sandy St.
Johns Plain. All other types were represented by only a small
percentage within the burial area. Only two types of ceramics
identified within the site, Orange Incised and St. Johns
Punctated, were not recovered within the burial area. This is
likely due to the low frequency of these types at the site.
An examination of the burial area reveals that there is a
predominance of St. Johns Plain pottery. This ceramic type
indicates that the burial area was used most often during the
St. Johns la period. The small percentage of other types of
pottery indicates that the burial area was used intermittently in
preceding and later time periods. The occupation of the site


2003 VoL. 56(4)


Figure 4. Glass beads recovered from Beehive Hill, the larger "pony" bead is lower, right.

does not necessarily dictate that the area was also used
specifically for a burial area. An analysis of the portion of the
site outside the burial area reveals that some ceramic types are
only found associated with the burials. In general, the later
ceramic types are confined to the burial area. A similar
occurrence was noted as part of a ceremonial deposit located
within the Philip Mound, which Karklins (1974) dated to the
Safety Harbor period.
Outside the burial area, St. Johns Check Stamped, Incised,
and Punctated, Dunn's Creek Red, and Weeden Island
Punctated were not recovered. The fact that no Dunn's Creek
Red was found outside the burial area is key to interpreting the
site during its primary, St. Johns Ia and Ib periods, occupation.
This one ceramic type makes up 11.18% of the total ceramics
recovered. The absence of the Dunn's Creek Red ceramics
outside the burial area may be an indication of its importance
within burial traditions. In addition, St. Johns Incised and
Punctated and Weeden Island Incised (which are associated
with the St. Johns Ia and Ib periods), also are confined to the
burial area. The amounts of those types, however, are signifi-
cantly less than Dunn's Creek Red. During the later St. Johns
II period, St. Johns Check Stamped is also missing from
outside the burial area. St. Johns Check Stamped is a common
type during the St. Johns II period. The fact that no St. Johns
Check Stamped sherds were recovered outside the burial area
is an indication that outlying areas were probably not fre-
quently used in the later St. Johns II periods. The total amount
of St. Johns Check Stamped recovered, which is low, is more
typical of a short-term habitation or special use camp, perhaps
associated with burial activities.


The second artifact category analyzed was glass beads. A
total of 178 glass beads was recovered. These were analyzed

by Dr. Jeffrey Mitchem. The 177 glass seed beads and a single
"pony" bead were determined to date to the second half of the
seventeenth century and likely represent contact between the
Spanish mission of 1655 and the Mayaca people (Mitchem
2000:5) (Figure 4). Dr. Mitchem noted the similarity between
the bead assemblages from both the Southport Mound and
Beehive Hill. Similarly, the Philip Mound, located approxi-
mately 25 miles to the north also had an occupation date A.D.
1600-1700 assigned to it based on its glass bead assemblages
(Karklins 1974). The association of the glass beads with the
Mayaca is due to the relatively early contact of the Mayaca
with the Spanish Franciscans. Spanish documents suggestthat
the Jororo were not in the area until near the end of the
sixteenth century (Hann 1993, Mitchem 2000, Mitchem et al.
1998). Likewise such groups reported as the Aypaja orPiajaw
were not reported until the late 1600s (Hann 1993). Therefore,
it is unlikely that these groups would have had sufficient time
to be represented at the site. Had the Jororo made use of the
burial site, eighteenth century artifacts most likely would have
been observed. No eighteenth century beads were recovered or
observed from the undisturbed burials and the seventeenth
century beads that were found, appear to have been spread
across the burial area as a result of heavy disturbance to the
upper levels of the mound. The stratum containing the
seventeenth century beads, therefore, represents the most
recent site use occupation.
The location and construction of the Beehive Hill mound
as well as the reuse of the mound during successive time
periods, and the recovery of glass beads is similar to that of the
nearby Southport Mound excavated in the fall of 1996 by
Janus Research. Excavations at the Southport Mound yielded
approximately 40 intact burials (Mitchem et al. 1998:1; Austin
and Mitchell 1998:129). While excavations were halted prior
to the completion of the field investigation, three phases of
interments were identified. The first was premound interment

W Av9
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CM 1 2
.... ,


where burials occurred beneath the natural ground surface
(Mitchem et al 1998:2; Austin and Mitchell 1998:129). The
second was interment within a constructed mound, and the
third was interment during a later phase of mound construc-
tion, the European contact period (Mitchem et al 1998:2;
Austin and Mitchell 1998:129).
The recovery of in situ remains at Beehive Hill from at a
depth of 35 and 43 cmbs is a result of a sub-mound burial
component. The disturbed remains are representative ofburial
interments within the mound. Beehive Hill, like the Southport
Mound contains earlier burials with non-historic materials
located in the sub-mound component of the site. Later,
historic burials, with historic artifacts such as glass beads, are
located within the mound itself.


Using information from both sites, it appears that within
this small region around Osceola and Polk county burial
mounds were used by both precontact and contact peoples, who
continued to reuse the mounds for burial purposes, after the
sites' main period of occupation. It is with this identified
reuse that we present the possibility of a continued burial
tradition starting at the end of the St. Johns I period and
continuing through the late 1600s. Burials at both sites appear
to remain nearly unchanged from the precontact to the contact
periods. The only observed change being the appearance of
glass beads in later burials. This tradition, of mound burial
and mound reuse, seems to have been affected very little by the
Spanish Mission efforts. This is in a period that saw the
decline of native populations, the shifting of settlement
patterns as tribes became incorporated into the mission
systems, and the restructuring of political authority (Smith
1987:128). Based on the overwhelming odds of preserving
traditions, it would appear that the Mayaca were resisting
Spanish acculturation and missionization during periods of
greatest contact.
The burial area havingbeen identified through this project,
is protected by the FDOT. To aid in the site's protection it was
determined that the burial area would be covered by fill. The
center of the burial area is currently under a layer of four feet
of fill that slopes outward to encompass a larger surrounding
buffer zone. The placement of this fill also includes the
sloping edge of the modern borrow pit so that a wearable
surface could aid in the prevention of disturbance through


Through Phase I and II excavations and artifacts analysis
evidence was recovered to support pre- and post-contact use of
the Beehive Hill site. Similarities were also found between the
Beehive Hill site and the Southport Mound suggesting that
burial practices and mound use patterns were not isolated to a
single site and may therefore be representative of the region.
Excavation of this site has demonstrated continued use from
ca. 2000-1450 B.C. to A.D. 1700. By comparing data from
within the defined burial area to outer-lying areas, it was

determined that the burial area was used throughout the site's
occupation. The study of the burial practices at the Beehive
Hill site provides insight into precontact lifeways and cultural
practices that included resistance to outside/ Spanish accultur-
ation. However, more work is still needed within the region to
see if this pattern continues. In addition, advances in glass
bead dating allows us to bring another line of understanding
to the historic documents concerning seventeenth and eigh-
teenth century Native American tribal locations and move-
ments in this part of Florida so that information pertaining to
the Jororo and Mayaca can be measured in decades not eras.


We would like to thank Dr. Ryan Wheeler for all his help and
encouragement throughout this process; James Pepe and Skye
Wheeler for their editorial help; Thorn Williams for his assistance
with the graphics; and Dr. Jeff Mitchem for his bead analysis. This
paper also benefitted from the outstanding work done on Southport
Mound by Bob Austin, Jeff Mitchem, and Scott Mitchell. Thanks
also go to James Miller, formerly of the Division of Historical
Research, George Ballo of FDOT Environmental Management, and
Letita Neal of the FDOT who provided funding for the research and
site preservation.

References Cited

Austin, Robert J., and Scott Mitchell
1998 A Ceremonial Tablet from Osceola County. The Florida
Anthropologist 51(2):129-130

Harn, John H.
1993 The Mayaca and Jororo and Missions to Them. In The
Spanish Missions of La Florida, edited by Bonnie G.
McEwan, pp. 111-140. University Press of Florida,

Hardin, Kenneth W., Janice R. Ballo, and Mark J. Brooks
1984 Cultural Assessment Survey of the Proposed Southport
Sanitary Landfill Site, Osceola County, Florida. Ms. on
file, Janus Research, St. Petersburg.

Janus Research
1999 Phase II Archaeological testing of the Beehive Hill Site
(80S1726) in Osceola County, Florida. Ms. on file,
Janus Research, St. Petersburg.

Johnson, Robert E.
1994 A Cultural Assessment Survey of US Highway 17/92
from CR532 to Poinciana Boulevard, Osceola County,
Florida. Ms. on file, Florida Department of Transporta-
tion, District 5. Deland, Florida.

Karklins, Karlis
1974 Additional Notes on the Philip Mound Polk County,
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 7(1):1-8

Milanich, Jerald T.
1994 Archaeology ofPrecolumbian Florida. University Press
of Florida, Gainesville.

Mitchem, Jeffrey M.
2000 The Beads from Interior Florida Sites and What They

2003 VOL. 56(4)



Tell Us about European/Indian Interactions. Paper pre-
sented at Bead Expo 2000, Santa Fe, New Mexico

Mitchem, Jeffrey M., Robert J. Austin, and Scott E. Mitchell
1998 Investigations at the Southport Mound: A Protohistoric
and Historic Period Burial Mound in East-Central
Florida. Paper presented at the 1998 Society for Histori-
cal Archaeology Conference on Historical and Underwa-
ter Archaeology, Atlanta.

Sassaman, Kenneth
2003 New AMS Dates on Oranges Fiber-Tempered Pottery from
the Middle St. Johns Valley and Their Implication for
Culture History in Northeast Florida. The Florida Anthro-
pologist 56(1):5-13

Smith, Marvin T.
1987 Archaeology ofAboriginal Culture Change in the Interior
Southeast. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

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Miami-Dade County Office of Historic Preservation, 140 W. Flagler Street, Suite 1102, Miami, Fl, 33130
E-mail: beiterg@miamidade.gov

Refugee Island (8DA2102) is a black earth and marl tree
island site located on the Portland Plant property. The initial
Florida Master Site File form completed for the site in 1980
indicated an Archaic Period occupation. I conducted a Phase
I survey of the property in 1997, which confirmed the site's
presence; documented the possible stratification; delineatedthe
location and boundaries; and demonstrated that there was a
Glades period ceramic occupation (Beiter 1998). Since the site
would be destroyed by limestone mining, Phase II mitigation
was required by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers permit
issued to Kendall Properties and Investments, Inc. Under the
auspices of the Graves Museum of Archaeology and Natural
History I served as Principle Investigator for the mitigation
project. Fieldwork started in February 2000, but was sus-
pended on May 26, 2000, after human remains were exposed.

Research Goals

General research goals included determining site chronol-
ogy; investigation of subsistence, settlement patterns,
sociopolitical structure, and funerary practices; investigation
of intersite and interregional relations; and study of the
prehistoric environment. Specific questions addressed
selection and functions of the site; the presence or absence of
certain fauna (e.g., apple snails, oysters); use of shell cutting
tools, shell hammers, columella tools, and celts at the site; and
the functions and occurrences of bone points. Other phenom-
ena studied were tree island genesis, faunal utilization over
time, intrasite organization, and the function and distribution
of particular ceramics.

Natural Setting

Refugee Island is in Section 24 of Township 54 South,
Range 38 East, Miami-Dade County, Florida (Figures 1 and
2). The property also has been referred to as the Portland
property. Originally, the property was part of the Model Land
Company and Perrine Grant Land Company, companies
owned and controlled by Henry Flagler and the Florida East
Coast Railroad (Larson 1903). General Portland owned the
land from at least 1956, and then it was purchased by Kendall
Properties and Investments in1995 (Kendall Properties and
Investments 1997; Miami-Dade County 1998). Access to the
property is via a service road off Krome Avenue, approxi-
mately three miles south of the Tamiami Trail.
The site area is underlain by Miami Oolite, the local
geological basement formation, which is punctuated by

numerous solution holes. The limestone bedrock is overlain
by several soil types, including Biscayne marl, Dania muck,
Tamiami muck (depressional) and Chekika very gravely loam
(Noble et al. 1996). Ak1903 map shows two large sloughs in
the vicinity (Larson 1903). One slough is on the south edge of
Section 24 and one is on the north edge. The north slough
runs from west to east then to the southeast to the Cutler Ridge
area. The south slough traverses from the west to the east to
the location of present day Krome Avenue where it bends to
the south.
Vegetative categories in the area include wet prairie and
wet tree islands. Wet prairie areas can be divided into two
types: marl prairies and peat prairies. Marl prairies occur on
thin calcitic soil, referred to generally as marl, which is on top
of the oolitic limestone. Melaleuca sp., beak rushes, spike
rushes, white sedge, low sawgrass, and muhly grass grow in
marl prairies (Lodge 1994). The peat prairie is a deep marsh
on peat soil and has a long hydroperiod. Common plant
species are maidencane, Tracy's beak rush, and spike rushes.
Wet tree islands have been taken over by Brazilian pepper,
though in their natural state they harbored red bay, southern
willow, sweet bay, dahoon holly, myrsine, and trema. Ficus
sp. also was present on Refugee Island.
The climate and geomorphology of the area have been
relatively constant, with some high and low water episodes
since approximately 3000 B.C. to the early twentieth century
(Robbin 1984). Although sea level has been slowly rising since
3000 B.C., the numerous drainage and building projects have
lowered the water table and altered water flows. In both
Sections 24 and 25 the water level during the dry season
averages 5-cm and during the wet season it averages 30-cm
above the bedrock.

Previous Research

In August 1980, Robert Taylor filed a Florida Master Site
File (FMSF) site form for Refugee Island (8DA2102). He
describes the site location as 3 km north of the Portland
Cement Company facility and 500 m west of Krome Avenue.
The site was characterized as an elongated island 20 m by 15
m with an elevation of 60 cm, and was classified as being an
Archaic and Glades period site.
In October 1997, a Phase I survey was conducted on the
property (Beiter 1998). An area of dry ground was located 3
km north of the Portland Plant and 192 m west of Krome
Avenue. Maximum elevation from the site datum point was 56
cm, and the dry area had a maximum length of 30 m


VOL. 56(4)



Tamiami Trail (SR 41)

C .
a / Panther North and South (8DA6460, 8DA6461)
-J N
Refugee Island (8DA2102)

0) (a
Levee Cut a) L
(8DA2104) '


Bamboo Mound (8DA94)

North Kendall Drive


0 2 4 6 8

Figure 1. Map of the general area and the location of Refugee Island (DA2102), Miami-Dade County, Florida.

(northwest-southeast) and a width of 21 m. This area of dry
ground matched the 1980 description of Refugee Island
Several different strata were recorded during the course of
the initial fieldwork. Sampling found dense deposits black
earth midden with snake and fish remains. Sand-tempered
plain; a thick, friable unclassified ware; and an Opa Locka
Incised variant were among the sherds found. A tentative
occupation date was given of from 1000 B.C. to A.D. 600.



A site grid was laid out using the coordinates obtained in
the Phase I survey (Figure 2). Datum A, the southwest corer
of the site grid, is 1373 m north and 1361 m east of a monu-
ment at the southwest corer of Section 24, Township 54

South, Range 38 East. A grid with 2-m units was laid out to
the north and west from E1397N1370. The units extended to
the outer limits of the site as defined in the Phase I survey,
which are at E1358N1370 in the south and E1358N1404 in
the north. In some cases the coordinate data were shortened
in the recording and reporting context by dropping the 13
The final research design was planned to bisect the mound
portion of the site with 2 x 2-m units in east/west and
north/south directions. After the east/west and north/south
trenches were completed, a parallel trench was excavated on
the south side of the original east/west trench. The datum
point for each unit was the southwest corer. Elevations for
each unit datum were from the site datum.
Excavation was by 10-cm levels within each stratum, when
possible. All artifacts uncovered in situ were measured
horizontally and vertically from the unit datum. Solution
holes that were unique or out of proportion to others were

2003 VOL. 56(4)



1360.00 1365.00 1370.00 1375.00 1380.00 1385.00 1:


0 5 10 15 20
Contour Interval: 15 centmeters
Excavation Units:

Figure 2. Contour map of Refugee Island showing the south slough, the ramp, the mound the deep solution hole, and excavated

considered separate features and recorded separately by
stratum and level. All units were excavated to bedrock or to
10-cm below the water table. Several units were not com-
pleted to bedrock or the water table. Excavation stopped on a
unit when suspected human remains were encountered. The
remains were left in situ and covered with soil.
Column samples were taken from some units, so that each

stratum encountered was represented. The columns were
removed by stratum and level after the unit had been com-
pletely excavated. Column samples were taken at
E1377N1379.5, on the ramp of the mound, and at
E1397N1381.6, as a control, off the mound. The column
samples were processed in a flotation chamber. The chamber
had two screens in the water chamber: a 6.4-mm (1/4 in) mesh




Table 1. List of features at Refugee Island.

Feature Location Description

Feature 1 E1377N1378 Incipient concretion mass within the unit
Feature 2 E1377N1380 Postmold, L4, 20-30 cm below datum at 27 cm BD. 22 cm by 40
Feature 3 E1375N1380 Pot sherd scatter, L4, 20-30 cm at 21 cm and E105N110 from
Feature 4 E1366N1359.3 Large solution hole, 177 cm by 175 cm. 3.5 m deep
Feature 5 E1370N1370 Slough. Borrow pit, 2 m deep. Extends around mound to NE.
Feature 6 E1381N1392 Pot sherd scatter, L2, 10-20 cm at 15 cm, N100cm, E 20 cm.
Feature 7 E1381N1392 Pot sherd scatter, L2, 10-20 cm at 15 cm, N100cm, E 20 cm.
Feature 8 E1381N1392 Pot sherd scatter, L2, 10-20 cm at 15 cm, N100cm, E 20 cm.
Feature 9 E1379N1382 Pot sherd scatter, Miami Incised. L3, 20-30 cm.
Feature 10 E1367N1380 Concreted marl with Lucina shells

and a 1.6-mm (1/16 in) mesh. Water pressure was used to
agitate the soil. Overflow water was directed through a 500-
micron mesh. The residue was sorted, identified, and tabu-
lated, both macroscopically and microscopically.
At the beginning of the project, water screening was
through 1.6-mm (1/16 in) mesh. The cohesiveness of the
matrix was such that 1.6-mm screening was not practical. A
6.4-mm (1/4 in) screen was used instead, except for one bucket
sample per level. Any levels that had human remains associ-
ated with them were washed through a 1.6-mm screen. A
shaker screen was erected for separation of dry and loose soil.
Soil samples were collected from each stratum, feature, and
other significant areas. These samples were used for sedimen-
tation tests. Sedimentation tests using a graduated cylinder
determined the percentage of clay, silt, and sand. Samples of
charcoal, wood, bone, and shell were collected for carbon-14
dating. Only samples from each stratum that had their
associations well established were submitted for testing. A
sample of apple snail shell was taken at the top of a marl-apple
snail layer, and another was taken at the bottom of the layer
that was at the same elevation where Miami Incised and sand-
tempered plain ceramics were found. A sample of faunal bone
was taken from midden stratum on top of the bedrock.
Charcoal was collected from the ceramic stratum in trench
N78 and N80. Most of the charcoal was found in the upper
ceramic stratum where it interfaced with the ceramic stratum.
There was not enough charcoal found in the lower levels of the
ceramic stratum to submit for a test.


Artifacts and ecofacts were cleaned, sorted, tabulated and
stored, under the supervision of the principal investigator, at
the former Graves Museum of Archaeology and Natural
History, now the South Florida Museum of Natural History, at
Dania Beach, Florida. Tables 1-3 list representative samples
of six units. The tables were derived from units representing
the mound, the ramp, and an off-mound control unit. The full

tabulation of the entire site is on file with the Bureau of
Archaeological Research, Division of Historical Resources,
Bone implements, often referred to as bone points, were the
subject of a detailed analysis. Morphological characteristics
used in this study include single versus double pointed
implements; length; width; base shape (e.g., square, notched,
flat, etc.). These characteristics may suggest use of the
implements as points, pins, or other tools. Generally, the bone
points are from 4 to 12 cm long. Two types were assigned to
the points: narrow (< 8 mm wide) and broad (> 8 mm wide).
A pin is defined as a bone worked to a point on one end, is
longer than 12 cm, and the other end is worked to a square,
notched, flat or some configuration other than a point.


Site Features and Components

As previously discussed, the site is underlain by Miami
Oolite bedrock that has numerous solution holes (Figure 3).
The bedrock at the site and the hammock that surrounds it is
5 to 20 cm higher than the wet prairie in the area. However,
some intrasite areas have top bedrock elevations lower than the
wet prairie. Immediately off the mound, the soil covering the
bedrock is composed of 5 to 10 cm of recent leaf matter with
a 2 to 5 cm marl layer on the bedrock, which is typical for a
marl prairie.
A slough was located adjacent to the mound, on the
southwest corer, curving from an east/west to a north/south
direction (Feature 2, Table 1). Deposits in the slough were
peaty, which is typical for a peat prairie. The slough had an
arc of 12 m with an average width of 2 m and an average
depth of 2.5 m. A slight rise 8 meters to the southwest of the
mound was separated from the mound by the slough.
The rise to the southwest of the mound has a nearly
circular 1.75-m diameter solution hole on it. The depth of the
hole was obtained by coring to 3.5 m (Feature 4, Figure 4).

2003 VOL. 56(4)



Figure 3. Photographs of Refugee Island excavation: Top) Overview of site after clearing and opening of several units,
facing east; Bottom) Stratification on the mound; Stratum A is the black layer on the bottom interfacing with the bedrock;
Stratum B is the gray layer on top of Stratum A; the yellow limonite facies is seen near the bottom of Stratum B; Stratum
C is a narrow band on top of Stratum B.




Table 2. Faunal material recovered from three representative units at Refugee Island.

Unit E97N80 E81N80 E75N80

Level 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Moccasin 0 0 0 30 29 14 20 4 2 6 0 44 35 90 179 15 0 0
Garter 0 0 0 44 50 77 150 93 48 13 42 242 439 770 473 132 3 1
King/Racer 0 0 0 13 22 24 107 97 19 3 19 127 167 402 35 128 1 0
Snake UnlD 0 1 0 3 5 14 27 42 20 2 15 32 66 80 36 110 3 3

AppleSngm 0.2 0 0 97 70 13 58 2 0 0 0 11 36 67 25 7 0 0
Ramshorn Ct 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 32 33 2 4 1 0 0
Planorbis Ct 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Polygyra Ct 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4

Clam fwg 0 0 0 0.7 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 15 0 0 0 0
Conch fg g 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 7 5 0 0 0 0 0
LucinaCt 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0
Lucinag 0 0 0 12 13 20 0 0 0 0 0 1 18 0 0 0 0 0

BirdUnlD g 0 0 0 34 20 60 82 28 2 0 1 8 72 17 64 15 0.3 0

Deer g 0 0 0 0 0 116 20 1 7 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

BowfinCt 0 0 0 12 18 67 5 18 7 12 0 16 14 11 20 51 0 2
Gar Ct 0 0 0 1 4 0 4 0 1 0 1 7 6 13 15 10 0 0
FishUnID Ct 2 8 3 117 76 241 385 181 39 9 38 86 169 75 240 226 7 6

Painted g 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
Snapping g 0 0 0 0 0 4 11 1 0 1 0 2 0 16 44 0 0.2 0
Spotted g 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Gopher g 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Softshellg 0 0 0 19 9 15 27 32 12 8 15 14 13 11 60 14 0.4 0
Chicken 0 0 0 0 0 37 15 0 1 0 4 4 37 15 18 2 0 0
UnId gm 3 16 1 144 72 292 398 151 53 33 44 158 361 218 371 124 13 5

Bone Brnd g 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Note: U = Unit, Le = Level, g = grams, Ct = count, UnID = unidentified, Sn = snail


2003 VOL. 56(4)


Figure 4. Feature 4, the large and deep solution hole.

This solution hole was not excavated due to suspension of
activities until disposition of the human remains could be
An almost linear depression, 3 m wide with an average
depth of 1.5 m, was located at the northwest corer of the site.
The depression terminates at the mound and connects to a
large slough found 30 m to the north of the site, which is
shown on Larson's (1903) map. It is probable that the large
slough fed the headwaters of the South Fork of the Miami

Site Stratification

Three strata, overlying the marl bedrock, characterize the
site. Stratum A is the lowest unit, lying on top of the bedrock
and. in the solution holes. Toward the center of the site
Stratum A is black sand/silt (Munsell: Gley 2.5N; 20% sand,
20% silt, 60% carbon- stained marl), where probable living
floors were found. It was observed during lab work that
portions of the black stratum turn red after exposure to air, due
to oxidation of the iron in the deposit. Stratum A has deposits
of both burned and unburned faunal material; broken chert
implements near the bottom of the stratum; some worked bone;
and scattered, sporadic, and fragmented human remains
throughout the layer. Stratum A extends north and south for
17 m, and east and west for 28 m. This layer is from 10-20 cm
thick and is parallel to the bedrock except toward the edges
where it pinches off into the wet prairie (Figure 5).
Stratum B overlies Stratum A, and is composed of nodules

of marl concretion, with a gray background (Munsell:
10YR4/1), sand/silt/clay (sand = 86%, Silt = 8%, clay = 4%),
and apple snail shells (Figure 5). There are faunal materials
in the stratum, including snake, turtle, fish, freshwater clams,
aquatic and land snails, and marine lucina clams mostly in the
lower levels. Ceramics were found mainly in the 10-40 cm
levels. Burned bone was found in pockets among unburned
bone. Stratum B is higher on the west side of the mound, with
an abrupt drop. The stratum then tapers to the east from the
drop for 20 m and is rounded on the north and south sides
within a width of 8 m. A yellow stain (Munsell: 10YR4/6)
from limonite precipitation, 15 to 25 cm wide, runs parallel to
the bedrock and its bottom edge averages 60 cm above the
bedrock (Figure 5).
Stratum C covers the top of the site, and is a 5 to 10 cm
layer of soil and duff with few faunal and artifact deposits. A
cone-shaped, soft concretion was recorded at E67N80 and was
left as a feature (Feature 10). The cone extends into E67N80,
is in contact with Stratum A at the bottom, and has an eleva-
tion of 40 cm above Stratum A. It is composed of marl and
Lucina shells. Stratum C is stained with red limonite at the
edges of the mound, where minerals have leached out of the
mound and precipitated in contact with ground water.
A postmold was found at E77N80 (Feature 2). The mold
was revealed in level 4 (20-30 cm) at 27 cm below datum. It
was 22 cm by 40 cm in size at the top. Sectioning of the
feature was done to Level 5 (30-40 cm) where bedrock started
to appear.
Unit E79N80 appeared to have disturbed areas in it. The



Table 3. Artifacts from the east/west trench at N80 at Refugee Island.

Unit E97N80 E81N80 E75N80
Level 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
STP 1 0 0 1 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 9 56 17 6 0 0 0
Miami Inc 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
BonePtNrw 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 ,0 0
Note: STP = sand tempered plain, Inc = incised, Pt = point, Nrw = narrow.

Table 4. Artifacts from the east/west trench at N78 at Refugee Island.

Unit E81N78 E71N78 E75N78
Level 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6
STP 0 3 0 2 4 0 2 27 7 1 0 0 2 6 1 0 0 0
KLIQ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
BonePtNrw 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
BonePtBrd 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Note: STP = sand tempered plain, KLIQ = Key Largo Incised Type Q, Pt = point Nrw = narrow.

disturbance is evidenced by the horizontal mottled texture and
color changes. Lower concentrations of some faunal remains
in the unit may be related to past soil disturbances.

Radiocarbon Dates

Samples of apple snail shell were taken at the top of
Stratum B and 40 cm below the surface for radiocarbon dates.
The shell near the surface had a conventional radiocarbon age
of 830 +/- 70 years B.P.; calibrated dates (2 sigma, 95%
probability) were A.D. 1030 to 1290. The shell 40-cm below
the surface had a conventional radiocarbon age of 1140 +/- 70
years B.P.; calibrated dates (2 sigma, 95% probability) were
A.D. 710 to 1020 (Table 5). Freshwater shells are usually not
acceptable for radiocarbon dates, since it is difficult to correct
for the varied absorption of carbon by these creatures, though
these dates seem consistent with a Glades Ia Period (A.D.
750-900) occupation as indicated by the ceramics.
A sample of faunal bone was separated from the lowest
level of Stratum A for radiocarbon testing, but not enough
collagen was left for a radiocarbon sample. Charcoal was
collected from the upper level of Stratum A, which interfaces
with Stratum B, for radiocarbon testing. The charcoal at the
top of Stratum A had a conventional radiocarbon age of 1520
+/- 60 years B.P.; calibrated dates (2 sigma, 95% probability)
were A.D. 420 to 650. This date suggests a mid to late Glades
I Period (ca. A.D. 400-750) occupation.


Artifact frequency and diversity recovered from Refugee

Island was low compared to Bamboo Mound 3 km to the south
(Tables 2, 3) (Beiter 2001). The greatest frequency of artifacts
and faunal bone was in the north/south E81 trench. The strata
in the E81 trench, except for the center of the ramp, is mixed
indicating some type of disturbance such as a tree fall, a
refilled pit, erosion, or soil creep.
Control units excavated off mound generally did not
contain artifacts. Scatters of sand-tempered plain sherds were
recovered on the bedrock at E95N1402, 10 to 20 cm below
datum. Two narrow bone points were found in a solution hole
30-cm below datum at E97N92. The soil cover above bedrock
at all units off the mound was shallow, from 10 to 12-cm,
however, solution holes went down as far as 40-cm below
Ceramics were mainly sand-tempered plain, stained orange
from the limonite in the soil. With the exception of a frag-
mentary pottery vessel found on the highest part of the mound
at E73N80, the greatest concentration of ceramics was in the
ramp area, including units E81N82 and E81N84. No ceramics
were found in Stratum A. Miami Incised (n = 2) and Key
Largo Incised (n = 2) sherds were found in small quantities.
The Key Largo Incised sherds were identified as Key Largo
Incised, variant Q, as defined by Beiter (2001).
Narrow and broad bone points were distributed randomly
throughout the site at most levels, except there was a concen-
tration of broad points in the E81 trench area. Only one bone
point was found in Stratum A. Two socketed points were
found off of the mound. A notched bone point was recovered
at E69N80 at the interface of strata A and B. An incised bone
pin was found on the mound at E71N80 in the upper levels
(10-20 cm) of Stratum B (Figures 6 through 9).


2003 VOL. 56(4)


Feature 10

2.25 /
2.10 ,--un
1.95 r 7np Ye
1.65 --- ---------- - --
1.50 ---
1.05 Bedrock
.75 .......
1365.00 1370.00 1375.00 1380.00 1385.00 139C


0 5 10 15 20
Vertical Scale is 3/20 of Horizontal Scale


Figure 5. East/west profile of Refugee Island facing north.


Perforated teeth included shark teeth with one or two holes,
and an unidentified mammal tooth with one hole (Figure 10).
The drilled teeth were randomly distributed horizontally and
vertically within Stratum B, although there was a concentra-
tion on the ramp in a north/south line at E81. Shark teeth
with single perforations include: tiger shark (Galeocerdo
cuvieri) (n= 1); bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) (n=2); mako
(Isurus sp.) (n=l); and unidentified shark (n=3). Two tiger
shark teeth had two perforations. One blacktip shark
(Carcharhinus limbatus) tooth was worked on the basal edge.
No perforated teeth were found in strata A or C. A worked
blacktip shark centra was recovered from Stratum B in the
artifact concentration of trench E81.
Unworked shark teeth of several species of were found
distributed horizontally and vertically within strata A and B.
Species represented in Stratum B were tiger shark (n=5), bull
shark (n=2), dusky shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) (n=l), and
unidentified (n= 1). Species found in Stratum A were sandtiger
shark (Odontaspis taurus) (n=l) and tiger shark (n=l). Two
unworked barracuda teeth were found in Stratum A at
Two worked stingray barbs were found on the mound at
E69N80 in Stratum B. Unworked stingray barbs (n=7) were
randomly deposited horizontally and vertically within Stratum
B. One stingray barb was deposited in Stratum A.
Several worked antler and bone artifacts were recovered
from the site. One worked deer antler was found on the

mound in Stratum B. Two were found on the ramp in Stratum
B. A deer-bone awl was found in Stratum B on the ramp. A
pin, made from a long bone of the great blue heron (Ardea
herodias), was recovered in the artifact concentration of the
ramp in Stratum B. Two bone beads were found in Stratum B
in the ramp area as well.
Shell tools were relatively rare at the site. A worked conch
fragment and aBusycon Type A cutting-edge tool were located
in the E81 artifact concentration area of Stratum B. A worked
conch fragment and a Busycon Type A cutting-edge tool were
found on the mound in Stratum B (cf. Marquardt 1992:193-
194). Two large (9-cm in width) quahog clams were recovered
on the ramp from levels 4 and 5 at E81N78, N82. This area
had a high concentration of artifacts and ecofacts. The ventral
edges of the valves are worn from some usage.
The distal portion of a chert biface, with a diamond shaped
cross section and serrated edges, was found in Stratum A at
the bottom of a solution hole in contact with the bedrock.
Chert flakes were recovered from Stratum A as well. One
flake was found in Stratum B, near the bottom of the stratum.
One flake was found in a possible erosional zone.

Faunal Remains

The majority of the faunal deposits in Stratum B were fish,
snake, turtle, and apple snails (Table 2). Several of the apple
snails had protoconchs (embryonic shells) within the body




Table 5. Radiocarbon dates from Refugee Island.

Lab ID Provenience Material Measured Age C12/C13 Conventional Age Calendrical
Ratio Range, 2 sigma

Beta-142170 Top of Apple 520 +/- 70 BP -6.2 830 +/- 70 years B.P. A.D. 1030-1290
Stratum B Snail
Beta-141543 40 cm Apple 780 +/-70 BP -3.1 1140 +/- 70 years B.P. A.D. 710-1020
Below Snail
Beta-145371 Stratum A Charcoal 1520 +/-60 BP -25.3 1510+/- 60 years B.P. A.D. 400-750

mm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Figure 6. Incised bone pin (37208).

cavity of the adult. Marine clams (Lucina sp.), some articu-
lated, were present in the deposit, along with conch fragments,
marine crab claws, several marine fish parts, and a single
oyster valve. Adult freshwater clams, freshwater snails, and
land snails were recovered at all levels of Stratum B. Bird
bone was recorded at most levels and locations within all the
strata, but was most dense in Stratum B. Deer teeth, antlers,
and bone were mainly found deeper than 20 cm and above the
ceramic layer.
Alligator scutes, teeth, and bone were mainly recorded
from Stratum B. Siren, lizard and miscellaneous amphibian
vertebrae were prevalent in all levels of Stratum B, and were
less frequent in Stratum A. A few otter bones were present
throughout Stratum A. Some opossum, rabbit, possible dog or
fox, and unidentified bones were recorded from Stratum B.
Charcoal and clumps ofburned bone were found in the stratum

at most levels.
Stratum A had areas of fewer, and in some units no,
deposits offish, turtle, and snake remains. Three saltwater
fish vertebrae were found at the interface of Strata A and B.
Stingray barbs and unperforated shark teeth were present in
small quantities. Apple snails, freshwater clams, freshwater
snails and tree snails were not represented in the fauna from
Stratum A. Alligator remains were only found at the Strata
A/B interface. Frequencies for amphibian, siren, and lizard
were low in this stratum and lacking in some units. Compared
to Stratum B the occurrence of bird bone was low. Deer
remains were present in the upper level of Stratum A, but the
frequency was low compared to the lower levels of Stratum B.
Unidentified teeth, bone, jaws, and vertebrae were recorded
from this level. Pockets of burned bone were found in most

2003 VOL. 56(4)



M 1 l ll i-2-- l l
min 2- 3

Fauna recovery in the off mound control units was mini-
mal. Fish, turtle, and snake remains were rare or non-existent
in the units. Apple snail and other freshwater snail remains
were rare. No freshwater or saltwater bivalves were found.
Some deer bone and unidentified bones were found.
Flotation of the column samples from the mound and off
mound units recovered hundreds of protoconchs of freshwater
snails and clams in'the 500-micron mesh screen. Sizes ranged
from 500 microns to 5 mm. The smaller ones appear as white
flakes to the naked eye. None of the protoconchs were found
in the off mound unit. Three gourd seeds were found in the
floated samples as well.

Human Remains

Some fragmentary human remains were encountered
during excavation, though no formal burials were encountered.
A portion of a femur shaft, approximately 20-30 cm long, was
found 20-25 cm below the SW datum in a 2x2-m unit at
E1381N1394. Twenty cm to the east, in a small solution hole,
a possible human metatarsal was noted at 30 cm below the SW
datum of the same unit. No diagnostic artifacts were associ-
ated with these fragments to indicate cultural affiliation.
The ventral quarter of a right human mandible, with no
teeth, was found in the matrix scooped from a solution hole
below the water table. The location of the mandible fragment
was approximately 108 cm below the SW datum in a 2x2-m
unit at E1369 N1380. After identification, the mandible
fragment was replaced in its original location and matrix. No

diagnostic artifacts were found with the mandible fragment,
however, it was below a radiocarbon sample that dated to A.D.
420-1290 and a Miami Incised sherd (ca. A.D. 750-900).
A large human cranial fragment was found in the NW
corer ofE1367N1380 80-cmBD near the bedrock. Several
small, possible human cranial fragments were found in the SW
corer ofE1365N1380 75 cm BD. A femur fragment, several
split ulna fragments, a humerus fragment, a possible human
cranial fragment, and a possible human phalange were found
in the NE corer of E1371N1380 80 cm BD. No diagnostic
artifacts were associated with these fragments to indicate
cultural affiliation.
All of the human remains are in close proximity to bedrock
in the 10-20 cm dark-brown stratum (Stratum A). The midden
stratum containing the remains is capped by a 20-80 cm
stratum (Stratum B). There was no evidence of any intrusions
through the marl cap over the remains, suggesting the remains
are from burials dating to the time that Stratum A was


History of Site Use

There are several possible models for the original occupa-
tion and use of the Refugee Island site. One model for the
history of the site would start with the occupation of the site by
ceramic people (possibly Archaic?) sometime before 2000
B.C., since no pottery was found in Stratum A, the lowest

Figure 7. Socketed bone points (37424).

4 5 6




Figure 8. Bone beads (37421).

cultural unit. The radiocarbon date from the top of Stratum
A indicates that occupation continued until A.D. 420-650.
Pottery and radiocarbon dates from Stratum B indicate that
this stratum was deposited circa A.D. 1030-1290 or later. The
radiocarbon dates and decorated ceramics indicate occupation
from at least Glades I late (A.D. 500-750) through Glades IIb
(A.D. 900-1100) periods.
An alternative model would involve occupation of the site
after 2000 B.C. by late Archaic peoples who did not use fiber
and semi-fiber tempered ceramics, which are usually associ-
ated with this time period. Russo and Heide (2002:77-78)
have suggested that several late Archaic traditions may co-
exist in southern Florida, including pottery and non-pottery
using groups. It is postulated that humans, not using ceram-
ics, were at the site prior to ceramic users because of the lack
of ceramics in Stratum A, the occurrence of the chert point
near the bedrock, the human remains, and the presence of
faunal bone, especially the burned bone, in Stratum A.
It is likely that the site was selected by the first arrivals
because of several deep solution holes and depressions (Fea-
tures 15 and 16) that would have been a source of water and
food duringperiods of lower water table levels. Laxson (1959)
noted that many Everglades sites were near water holes deeper
than the average solution holes prevalent in the region.
Bamboo Mound, another prehistoric site, had at least one deep
(> 3 meters) solution hole associated with it (Beiter 1999).
The people using the site after A.D. 420 were probably
attracted to the area by the slight rise formed by accumulation
of material during the earlier period. The attraction to the site

was not for water, but because it was a dry area in the sur-
rounding inundated Everglades wetlands that had developed
since the Archaic Period. During the Stratum A (pre-2000
B.C.) activities, the water level in the area, according to
Robbin (1984), was 2 to 4 m lower than at present. By A.D.
420, the people at the site were confronted with a water level
nearly the same as the present, which, factoring in the drain-
age of the area in the early twentieth century, would have put
the areas around the Stratum A rise under water. From A.D.
420 and later the water level was still rising and starting to
flood the Stratum A high area. To compensate, the Stratum B
people dug up sediments that had been collecting in the
sloughs enjoining the Stratum A rise and placed it on top of
the ceramic deposits in the form of an east/west ramp with a
platform on the west end. Griffin (2002:192, 211-212)
observed that marl-based mounds, at Bear Lake, in Everglades
National Park may have been partially constructed, rather than
from natural occurrences of midden accumulation.

Site Formation and Development

The genesis of the marl mound, whether for ceremonial,
flood protection, or some other function, by deliberate con-
struction is the best fit to the data in contrast to several other
propositions. If the mound was built by natural causes, such
as water deposition or trapping of soil by tree roots, the same
depositional contexts should be found off the mound and
evidence of water levels equal to or higher than the highest
portions of the mound should be evident. If the mound was


2003 VOL. 56(4)


Figure 9. Antler handle (37423).

built by inadvertent deposits brought onto the mound by
human activities then no inadvertent deposits should be found
on the mound to which the human activities or natural causes
can subscribe. Before erosion and soil creep modified the
mound, it was located in the approximate center of the site,
with the ramp and mound aligned in a general east/west
direction. The ramp was 10 meters long and the mound was 14
meters long. The width of the ramp and mound was from eight
to nine meters (Figure 2). The ramp rose on the east from an
elevation of 1.5 meters to 2 meters on the west at its intersec-
tion with the mound (Figure 5).
The matrix of the off mound units differ from the matrix of
the units dug on the mound. The variety of faunal species and
the frequency of individuals is much higher on the mound than
off the mound. Fresh water snails and clams are present in the
mound and are not found off the mound. Limestone marl is
present at the bottom of solution holes off the mound but is not
found through the whole vertical and horizontal profiles of the
mound. Water deposition would not be so selective that marl
would only be deposited in a one-meter pile only in one
Trapping of sediments by tree roots may have happened at
the lower parts of the mound just on top of Stratum A. There
is no evidence that water levels ever got as high as the top of
the mound or within 30 cm of the top. A yellow-brown stain
was found that ran horizontally at an elevation of 1.64 meters
and was 16 cm to 24 cm thick. This could be the pre-
Everglades draining water level. The thickness could repre-
sent fluctuations between wet and dry seasons. Present water

table levels at the site are approximately 1.1 to 1.28 m above
sea level. If this limonite stain was the highest that the
Everglades water levels advanced then trapping by roots
cannot explain the genesis of the upper levels of the mound
(Figure 5).
Inadvertent accretion of marl to form the mound by human
activities does not explain the presence of freshwater snails
and clams. These could not have been inadvertently tracked
onto the mound in the amount that was found. There is a
possibility that the apple snails were deposited because they
were a food source. They are large enough to be viable for
harvesting and to be calorie efficient. However, some large
apple snails, which are vivaparous, were found that had
juveniles inside of them which would indicate that they were
never consumed, but were deposited on the mound alive. No
apple snail shells in any quantity were found at Bamboo
Mound two kilometers south of Refugee and was coeval with
Refugee (Beiter 2001). If they were being used as a food by
the local population, they should have been present at Bamboo
Mound. The presence of smaller (500 microns to 5 mm in
size) snails (Ramshorn, Planorbis), that are hard to see in the
water and not calorie efficient, would argue against them as a
food source for humans or animals. There is the possibility
that the small (500 microns to 5 mm in size) snails could have
been deposited on the mound as inclusions in the marl that
was being dug from the sloughs to build the mound.
Radiocarbon dates, artifacts, faunal bone, pockets ofburned
bone distributed vertically indicates the building of the mound
over time. Some of the faunal bone was probably placed on the




AW ^ J;11 1-11!1 111^^
l, :. l..- *.. . .. I
.". 7 ".." ,'- ,-
9 ~ a. P FIli~X

Figure 10. Worked shark teeth from Refugee Island.

mound with the fill as dead remains that sank into and on the
sediments. The burned bone and non-local remains indicate
that there were living activities taking place on the mound
during the building.
The Cibi site (8DA1068), located north of Refugee Island,
also has a possible ramp, a mound, and borrow pit features
(New World Research Inc. 1988). The ramp at the Cibi site is
reported to have a bearing of 290 degrees to an oblong mound.
The oblong mound generally aligned in a north/south direc-
tion. These alignments are similar to the alignments of the
ramp and mound at Refugee Island. Two strata, comparable
to those at Refugee Island, were identified on the Cibi site
ramp: a black (10YR2/1) fine-silty sand and a dark grayish
brown (10YR3/2) fine silty sand with ashy white specks.

Material Culture

Comparison of shell tool frequencies at Refugee Island and
the nearby Bamboo Mound reveals some interesting differ-
ences and similarities. Bamboo Mound had high frequencies
of both shell columella tools and celts. However, the fre-
quency of hated shell tools was low (Beiter 1999). No
columella tools and only two hafted shell tools were found at
Refugee Island. It appears that tasks or activities performed
with hafted shell tools were not important on these tree
islands. The differences noted may be due to the larger size of
the Bamboo Mound site, which may have been a village or
Drilled shark teeth had a high frequency in the ceramic

levels (Stratum B) at Refugee but drilled teeth were not found
in the ceramic levels (Stratum A). Undrilled shark teeth were
found in both ceramic and ceramic strata at Refugee. This -
dichotomy could indicate that the drilled tooth trait was
unknown to the ceramic groups or not needed by them.
Several types of bone points were identified from Bamboo
Mound. These were distinguished from bone pins, which are
longer and have a longer taper and awls that have a sharper
and narrower point (Wheeler and McGee 1994). Similar
points were recorded from the Granada Site (Richardson and
Pohl 1983). Both the broad and narrow types of bone points
were present at Refugee Island in the ceramic levels indicating
a trait confined to that period. There is no evidence, from this
site, that the differences are from idiosyncrasies, skill fluctua-
tions, drift, or evolution of form.

Faunal Remains and Diet

Most animal remains recovered from the site are freshwa-
ter or terrestrial species associated with Everglades tree
islands. Animals collected or caught near the site formed the
bulk of the protein foods being eaten. Some marine animals
are present in the assemblage as well, often represented by
shark teeth or mollusk shells used as tools. There are, how-
ever, some marine species that appear to have been used as
food, suggesting that food was gathered from a much broader
area. It also is possible that these marine species, usually
clams or oysters, were brought as an initial food source by
people returning to the site from the coast.


2003 VoL. 56(4)


Clam (Lucina sp. andMercenaria sp.) densities at Refugee
Island and nearby Bamboo Mound (Beiter 1999) are much
greater than oyster. Both marine species were brought 17.7
km (11 mi) to the site from the coast. Some of the lucine
clams at Refugee Island were articulated, indicating they were
probably alive when deposited. Few of the clams were worked;
therefore, their prevalence over the oysters generates several
questions: Were the clams more of a food source than oysters?
If so, were they preferred for gastronomical reasons or because
they stayed fresh longer? Were there environmental factors
that precluded the harvesting of oysters? Did they serve
ceremonial functions? Based on the evidence of lower water
levels in the past and the physiography of the coastal areas of
southeastern Florida the conditions may not have been
compatible for oysters until more recently. A review of studies
done on coastal sites of the same period could provide some
information on the low frequencies of oysters at Refugee Island
and Bamboo Mound.

Coastal and Interior Connections

Mowers (1972) noted that the main mode of communica-
tion in the Glades area was by water. Travel did occur and
some use was made of Atlantic coast resources (Carr 1986).
This was confirmed at Refugee Island by the presence of
marine shells on the site. Their origin in exchange or in
excursions to the ocean is difficult to determine. Refugee
could have had communication to the coastal zone by way of
the South Fork of the Miami River. Possible sloughs ran from
the Miami River to just 30 m north of Refugee Island. A
canoe channel may have been constructed from the slough to
the north of Refugee Island up to the mound itself on the
northeast corer. Sites like Refugee Island may have been
important stopping points between larger sites like Bamboo
Mound when traveling by water through the Everglades.

Mortuary Practices

Recognition of the special cognitive practices associated
with death among southeastern Florida prehistoric cultures are
difficult to ascertain due to limited data. Felmley (1991:69,
72) compiled data on sites with human remains in the region
and concluded that burial in habitation sites was quite com-
mon and that both secondary and primary burial forms were
used in the Late Archaic and Glades I periods. In many cases
formal cemetery areas seem to have been established in or near
habitation areas, especially on interior, tree island sites
(Felmley 1991:86).
The presence of scattered human remains at the Refugee
Island site suggests that there are (or were) burials present, but
they have either deteriorated or been broken and scattered by
natural, animal or human causes. Alternately, the human
remains may not have been formal burials but rather, isolated
deaths ofindividual(s) with mortem or postmortem modifica-
tions of the bone articulation and location, such as scattering
by animals, etc. Middens like Refugee Island often contain
disarticulated human remains from burials disturbed by later

site occupations or scavenging animals.


Refugee Island is a tree island site in Miami-Dade County
investigated during a Phase I data recovery project. The site
exhibits two cultural components: an earlier ceramic compo-
nent and a later ceramic component. The ceramic occupants
probably selected this site as a source of water since there was
a large, deep solutio.,hole and other deep depressions in the
limestone bedrock. A large deep solution hole also was found
at Bamboo Mound one mile south of Refugee Island (Beiter
2001). Lower water levels during this period of occupation
may have prompted the ceramic people to seek out these
deeper solution holes as sources offreshwater. The first people
on the site had to exist on very rugged bedrock that was thinly
covered by soil.
It is proposed that the people of the ceramic component
purposely added sediments on top of the ceramic deposits,
including large quantities of marl and apple snail remains.
The result was a marl mound. This mound may have been
constructed as a reaction to rising water levels. Similar marl
mound features are reported at other Everglades sites, includ-
ing Cibi and Bear Lake. Radiocarbon dates place the ceramic
occupation between A.D. 420 and A.D. 1290. Miami Incised
and Key Largo Incised ceramics, dating to circa A.D. 7507
A.D. 1100, are consistent with the radiocarbon range.
Different frequencies of bone and shell artifacts between
strata, as well as different frequencies of faunal remains,
suggests two discontinuous occupations at the site. The
differing toolkits and diets may reflect different activities
undertaken at the site by the different groups, since the
radiocarbon dates do not indicate a considerable gap between
occupations. The nearby Bamboo Mound exhibited other
distinct artifact and faunal patterns as well, even though it was
coeval with the Refugee Island site. This suggests that use of
tree island sites might be very complex, with different activi-
ties occurring at different islands during roughly the same
period. Some sites, like Bamboo Mound, exhibit greater
artifact diversity and density, while others, like Refugee Island,
seem to have more limited or specific use.


Brian Conesa, Alex Rodriguez, Frank Rodriguez, and Jim South
were the field and lab technicians for this project. Harry "Chip"
Robelain of H&R Productions did the photography. Bill Lyons gave
the project much advice and support. I thank the reviewers for their
important time that they spent on this paper.

References Cited

Beiter, Gary N.
1998 An Archeological Survey of the Portland Plant Property
Section 24, 25, Township 54S, Range 38E, Dade County,
Florida. On file, Miami-Dade County Historic Preservation
Division, Miami.

1999 Salvage Excavation of Bamboo Mound (8Da 94), Dade




County, Florida. On file, Miami-Dade Historic Preserva-
tion Division, Miami.

2001 Salvage andExcavation ofBamboo Mound (8DA94), Dade
County, Florida: A Multi-Component Site. The Florida
Anthropologist 54(1):30-48.

Bullen, Ripley P., and Adelaide K. Bullen
1962 The Lemon Bay School Mound. The Florida Anthropolo-
gist 16(2):51-56.

Bullen, Ripley P
1975 A Guide to the Identification ofFlorida Projectile Points.
Revised Edition. Kendall Books, Gainesville.

Carr, Robert S.
1980 Strombus Celt Caches in Southeast Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 33(2):66-74.

1986 Historical Use Interpreted from a Conch Shell Feature in
Southern Florida. In Shells and Archaeology in Southern
Florida, edited by George M. Luer, pp. 164-170. Florida
Anthropological Society Publication No. 12, Tallahassee.

Felmley, Amy
1991 Prehistoric Mortuary Practices in the Everglades Cultural
Area, Florida. Master's thesis, Department of Anthropol-
ogy, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton.

Griffin, John W.
1988 The Archeology ofEverglades NationalPark: A Synthesis.
National Park Service, Southeast Archeological Center,

2002 Archaeology oftheEverglades. UniversityPress of Florida,

Kendall Properties and Investments, Inc.
1997 Application to the U. S. Army Corps ofEngineers. On file,
Kendall Properties and Investments, Ft. Lauderdale.

Larson, Louis
1903 Map. Land Department, Florida East Coast Railway
Company. On file, Miami-Dade County Public Library,

Lodge, Thomas E.
1994 The Everglades Handbook: Understanding the Ecosystem.
St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach.

Marquardt, William H.
1992 Shell Artifacts from the Caloosahatchee Area. Culture and
Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, edited by
William H. Marquardt, pp. 191-227. Monograph No. 1.
Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies,
University of Florida, Gainesville.

Miami-Dade County
1998 Dade County Tax Roll. On file, Miami-Dade County Tax
Collector, Miami.

Mowers, Bert, and Wilma B. Williams
1972 The Peace Camp Site, Broward County, Florida. The

Florida Anthropologist 25(1):1-20.

New World Research Inc.
1988 Condition Assessment of the Cibi Site (8Da1068) Dade
County, Florida. Prepared for Florida Power & Light
Company, Miami, by New World Research, Ft. Walton

Noble, Chris V., Robert W. Drew, and James D. Slabaugh
1996 Soil Survey ofDade County, Florida. Natural Resources
Conservation Service, United States Department of Agri-
culture, Washington, D.C.

Richardson, Sue B., and Mary Pohl
1983 The Bone Tool Industry from the Granada Site. Excava-
tions at the Granada Site: Archaeology and History of the
Granada Site Volume I. Florida Division of Archives,
History and Record Management.

Robbin, Daniel M.
1984 A New Holocene Sea Level Curve for the Upper Florida
Keys and Florida Reef Tract. In Environments of South
Florida: Present andPast II, edited by Patrick J. Gleason,
pp. 437-458. Miami Geological Society, Coral Gables.

Roessler, Martin
1997 Report on the Ecological Communities ofKendall Proper-
ties and Investments Tract. On file, Kendall Properties and
Investments, Ft. Lauderdale.

Wheeler, Ryan J., and Ray M. McGee
1994 Technology of Mount Taylor Period Occupation, Groves'
Orange Midden (8VO2601), Volusia County, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 47(4): 350-379.

Williams, Wilma B.
1983 Bridge to the Past: Excavations at the Margate-Blount Site.
The Florida Anthropologist 36(3-4):142-153.

Williams, Wilma B., and Bert Mowers
1979 Bishops Hammock, Broward County, Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 32(1):17-32.


2003 Voi. 56(4)



2130 Burlington Ave. N., St. Petersburg, FL 33713
E-mail: sjstew@gte.net

The Weedon Island Site is a large shell midden and burial
mound complex located within Pinellas County. The mounds
blanket the shoreline of Papys Bayou (Riviera Bay today) and
the shores of Old Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg. It was the first
archaeological site in Pinellas County to be recorded in the
Florida Master Site Files. In July 1972, the site was officially
listed on the National Register of Historic Places and was
unanimously approved by the St. Petersburg Historic Preserva-
tion Commission on June 12, 1986 for designation as a local
Overseen today by Pinellas County's Department of
Environmental Management as part of a 3,164-acre Preserve,
the Weedon Island Site is situated within a rich mosaic of
mangrove forest, open salt flats, pine flatwoods, and ham-
mock. This land, which also includes the Yat Katischee Site,
was home to at least three prehistoric cultures that thrived on
the abundant fish, shellfish, plants, and wild animals of the
Tampa Bay estuary. Perhaps the most.celebrated group is the
Weeden [sic] Island culture whose distinctive ornate pottery
was first recorded on Weedon Island in 1924 by Jesse Walter
Fewkes of the Smithsonian Institution. The collection from
his excavations is housed in Washington D.C. at the National
Museum of Natural History.
If a sense of place derives from the intersection of time,
space and memory, then the remains of the famous Weedon
Island Site and the preserved lands around it carry a strong
sense of place in "the memories of the citizens of Pinellas
County. The idea of creating an archaeological museum,
which also would highlight the natural wonders of the island,
was first conceived as early as 1930. And this spirit for
preserving the historic, archaeological and ecological re-
sources shown by the early supporters has spread in widening
circles through the years and captured the imagination of the
greater community. Because of the recent efforts of the
Pinellas County Board of County Commissioners, many have
benefited, and the rough charms of the Preserve have persisted
amid the built-out urban landscape that surrounds its shores.
It is no surprise that some 70 years after the first idea was
proposed, Pinellas County officials decided to build the
Weedon Island Preserve Cultural and Natural History Center
and fast-tracked the building schedule shortly after I became
manager. We began our design process with the questions,
"What would an education center look like that belongs with
the landscape, and how could we respectfully incorporate
native perception into the architectural design?" In Native
culture, the preparation and process involved in creating is as

important as the thing that you are creating, so we decided to
start the process with a design charrette which included Native
As part of the charrette, two Cultural Values Workshops
were held in October and December of 2001, lead by special
architectural consultant Ken Rhyne, a Tuscarora Indian, who
had worked on the design team of the Cultural Resources
Center for the Smithsonian's National Museum of the Amer-
ican Indian. Mr. Rhyne encapsulated our work together when
he said, "It's all about place." Participants came from many
walks of life: marine scientists, archaeologists, ecologists,
museologists, Indian activists, educators, rangers, architects,
builders, and representatives of the Friends of Weedon Island.
Duane Blue Spruce, special Native American consultant and
Facilities Planner for the Smithsonian's National Museum of
the American Indian, Billy Cypress, Executive Director of the
Ah Tah Thi Ki Museum and Dr. Brent Weisman from the
University of South Florida were among the specialists
present. The Workshops, which left no stone unturned,
gathered information from this diverse and committed crowd
and then the architects put pencil to paper to translate the
process into an exciting piece of architecture. On February 16,
2002, the ground was blessed by Seminole Elder Bobby Henry,
and the first soil was turned for the long awaited Weedon
Island Preserve Cultural and Natural History Center. The
facility was dedicated on November 2nd at a ceremony entitled
"Sowing the Seeds of an Honored Landscape" and officially
opened December 26, 2002.
A fusion of culture and function, the Center contains
offices, an auditorium, an exhibits hall and a class-
room/laboratory, while incorporating Native American
features into the design with an east entrance and a view of the
four directions and the sky from a central point. In addition,
the distinctive design that adorns the wall curving around the
classroom honors the First Weedon Islanders, who created this
finely-crafted pottery made from clay collected within the
environment of the Tampa Bay estuary.
The interactive exhibit called the Virtual Tour ofArtifacts
was unveiled at the dedication and was among the first
exhibits bringing the Native Peoples of Weedon Island back
into our collective sense of place. The process was a collabora-
tive effort among Pinellas County staff, including founding
Assistant Manager, Phyllis Kolianos and myself, The National
Museum of the American Indian, the Smithsonian National
Museum of Natural History, and Seminole students and
teachers from the Ahfachkee School in Big Cypress and from


VOL. 56(4)




Figure 1. The Weedon Island Preserve Cultural and Natural History Center.

the Haskell Native American University in Kansas. Native
American students photographed artifacts in 3-D and wrote
interpretations for each with the direction of their teachers,
Marty Kreipe De Montano (NMAI), Dr. James Krakker
(NMNH) and Mark Christal (University of Texas at Austin).
By touching the kiosk's computer screen, visitors can rotate
and magnify images of the artifacts. Thanks to funding by the
Progress Energy Corporation, this pioneering exhibit shows us
the objects used in the daily lives of the First Weedon Islanders
through the eyes of archaeologists and modern Native people.
The week after the dedication, more seeds were sown in the
greater community. Teachers and students from Pinellas
County Schools braved the waters of Lookout Point to pilot
another pioneering program at the Weedon Island Preserve.
Funded by our faithful partner the Southwest Florida Water

Management District, the program entitled "The Islands and
the Estuary" teaches Pinellas County students about the
estuarine environment of Weedon Island in the living labora-
tory of the Preserve. The curriculum team also is developing
an interdisciplinary social studies unit, "The Islands and the
People," which will introduce the 8t grade classes to the
prehistoric and historic peoples who made Weedon Island their
The creation of the Weedon Island Preserve Cultural and
Natural History Center has been a thoughtful journey through
honored tradition and terrain, a journey that will continue as
new partnerships form. In the words of former FAS President
Loren Blakeley, "Weedon Island will continue to heal, to
preserve and to educate for a long time to come."


2003 VOL. 56(4)


Wilfred T. Neill, Jr.

Wilfred Trammell Neill, Jr., passed away on February 19,
2001, at age 79. He was among Florida's foremost archaeolo-
gists inthe 1950s through 1970s. In 1954 and 1955, Neill was
President of the Florida Anthropological Society (FAS).
Neill, a herpetologist, was a prolific writer, researcher, and
thinker in herpetology as well as biogeography, history,
linguistics, and archaeology. He was an expert on Seminole
Indians and their languages, Mikasuki and Creek, and was
knowledgeable in Florida ecology, Southeastern wildlife, and
the history and anthropology of Indonesia.
In archaeology, Neill is widely known for his book,
Archeology and a Science ofMan (1978). It should be read
and studied by everyone interested in Florida archaeology. Its
chapter on place-names is excellent, and its chapter on
physical anthropology is a rare synthesis. Neill made notable
contributions to our knowledge of lithic artifacts and sites of
the Paleo-Indian and Archaic periods in Florida and the
Southeast. Through his interests in animals and ecology, Neill
became a pioneer in environmental archaeology.
Born in Augusta, Georgia, on January 12, 1922, Neill's
boyhood interest in reptiles grew. In 1941, at age 19, he
earned a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of
Georgia, in Athens, and already was contributing new knowl-
edge to herpetology (e.g., Neill 1940, 1941). During World
War II, he served in the U.S. Army Air Force in Okinawa,
Luzon, and Indonesia, where he lived with Papuan and
Negrito tribes in New Guinea. Returning to Augusta, he
taught at Richmond Academy and Augusta Junior College
(Auth 1991; Crocodile Specialist Group 2001), where he
continued to pursue his interest in amphibians and reptiles
(e.g., Neill 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949a).
In 1949, at age 27, Neill moved to Florida to become
Director of the new Research Division of Ross Allen's Reptile
Institute, located at the famous Silver Springs tourist attraction
near Ocala. The Institute itself was an attraction, where Allen
displayed reptiles and "milked" venom from poisonous snakes
for anti-snakebite serum and other uses. The non-profit
Research Division was about a mile away and not open to the
public. There, Neill assembled a library and a collection of
preserved specimens (1949b:20-21, 1961). The Ross-Neill
collection is now housed at the American Museum of Natural
History (Auth 1991).
While working for Allen, Neill traveled around the state,
collecting and studying amphibians and reptiles (e.g., Neill
1950a, 1951a, 1951b, 1952a). He named a number of new
varieties of salamanders and snakes (e.g., Carr and Goin

1959:167, 174, 177, 276, 281; Liner etal. 1993:Table I; Neill
1950b, 1951c). During one trip in 1950, he saw armadillos in
much of Florida, and noted their apparent spread from the
state's central east coast during the previous two or three
decades (Neill 1952b). In 1950-1952, Neill drew weekly
wildlife cartoons that appeared in dozens of newspapers (Auth
When Neill arrived at Silver Springs, a group of Seminole
Indians had been living there since 1935, a pattern begun at
Miami tourist attractions in the 1910s (Downs 1981; West
1981). Neill studied the Seminole, and wrote a book about
them (Neill 1952c; Sturtevant 1952). He began to present
knowledge about Seminole and other Indians in The Florida
Anthropologist, continuing to do so for many years (e.g., Neill
1953a, 1954a; and see Tesar 1984:144). His interest in early
Indians and extinct vertebrates also was growing (Neill
1953b), leading to much more in years ahead (see below).
At Silver Springs, Neill found early lithic artifacts and, in
the early 1950s, began to correspond with archaeologist Ripley
Bullen. This quickly led to investigations of middens, such as
nearby Bluffton on the St. Johns River, including work with
zooarchaeological remains (e.g., Gut and Neill 1953; Neill
1954b, 1978:169-170, 188-189; Neill and Bullen 1955; Neill
et al. 1956). Regarding some of the zooarchaeological work,
Neill later wrote:

As far as I know this was the first fairly intensive effort in the
southeastern United States to discover some environmental
relations of a single culture through the application of
zoological, anatomical, taxonomic, and ecological knowledge
to a wide range of faunal remains [Neill 1978:156].

In 1954 and 1955, Neill served two terms as President of
FAS. In 1955, 1956, and 1958, he arranged for FAS Annual
Meetings to be held at Rainbow Springs, another well-known
tourist attraction near Ocala and Dunnellon.
Meanwhile, Neill continued working in herpetology (e.g.,
Neill and Allen 1955; Neill 1954c, 1956a) and studying
Indians, especially the Seminole. In 1955, he participated in
the "Osceola Symposium" of The Florida Historical Society,
writing about the site of Osceola's Village based on surface
collecting and historical research (Neill 1955a; also see
Dickinson and Wayne 1985). He did other research on the
Seminole (Neill 1955b, 1956b, 1956c) and on southwestern
Florida's "Spanish Indians" and Calusa (Neill 1955c). In
addition, he reported an historic Yuchi Indian burial from


VOL. 56(4)




Figure 1. Wilfred T. Neill, Jr. on a field trip near

Georgia (Neill 1955d).
Neill also finished a revised, improved edition of his book,
titled The Story ofFlorida's Seminole Indians (Neill 1956d).
It was inexpensive and became a widely available classic
(since reprinted, see below). The little book provides a well-
written, well-illustrated account of Seminole history as well as
their life in the mid-twentieth century. Its three pencil
sketches show Neill's ability as an illustrator. They are copies
of McKenney and Hall's painting of Tokos Emathla, Catlin's
portrait of Osceola, and Tidball's sketch of a Creek Indian
cabin (Neill 1956d:9, 15, 40, 87).
In 1957, Neill published an article about rapid mineraliza-
tion in Florida, important to paleontologists, geologists, and
archaeologists (Neill 1957a). The same year, he finished a
study of biogeography in present-day Florida, detecting
patterns among diverse animals and plants (Neill 1957b). He
also completed his study of an early, deeply stratified site,
called the Silver Springs Site or Paradise Park Site (Neill
1958; also see Bullen 1958:28; Hemmings 1975).
Beginning in 1957, Ross Allen and Neill planned and
participated in six expeditions to British Honduras (today's
Belize) and nearby regions, resulting in a number of research
publications (e.g., Neill 1962, 1965a; Neill and Alien 1959).
The area's tropical savanna interested Neill, and he collected
herpetological data to investigate its origin. Was it a natural

habitat or a result of Maya agriculture and its effects on soils
and hydrology? He concluded that the savanna habitat was
natural (Neill 1978:290-292).
Neill worked at the Reptile Institute until the fall of 1960,
when he moved to New Port Richey, Florida (north of
Clearwater and Tarpon Springs). There, he took care of his
ailing mother, who died in June 1961. Staying in New Port
Richey, he studied archaeological sites in surrounding Pasco
County, an endeavor he started in 1956 (Neill 1978:223).
These included a submerged site located approximately 3 miles
out in the Gulf of Mexico, the One Fathom Site dating to the
early Deptford Period (ca. 500 B.C.), which Neill (1978:163-
168) saw as evidence of sea level rise, subsidence, site defla-
tion, and other geomorphic processes (also see Bullen and
Bullen 1950, Lazarus 1965, andNeill 1957:200-203 regarding
sea level change along this stretch of coast).
In a visionary article, Neill reported the association of
lanceolate Suwannee points and remains of extinct animals,
especially mammoth and mastodon bones, from the submerged
Cavern Site at Silver Springs. He proposed that it and similar
sites were used as "water-holes" and "kill-sites" by Paleo-
Indians (Neill 1964a; also 1971a, 1978:171-174). This
inspired further research and the popular "oasis hypothesis" of
Florida Paleo-Indian land use (e.g., Dunbar and Waller 1983;
Hoffman 1983; Martin 1966; Rayl 1974; Tesar 1994).
During the early 1960s, Neill also added other knowledge
of lithic artifacts in Florida. He defined the Tallahassee,
Wacissa, and Taylor hafted biface types, proposing that they
date to the "Early Preceramic period" with relationships to
Dalton, Bolen, and other types (Neill 1963). Bullen (1975:6,
43, 45) maintained an early date for Tallahassee and Wacissa,
placing them tentatively in the Late Dalton Period (ca. 7000-
6000 B.C.). However, Bullen (1975:6, 20) thought that the
"chronological position of the Taylor point is, at present, not
clear" and suggested that it dates to the post-Florida Transi-
tional Period (ca. 500 B.C. A.D. 200).' In addition, Neill's
interest in early lithic sites led him to excavate a portion of the
Trilisa Pond Site, near Silver Springs, where he documented
a deeply buried Arredondo lithic assemblage and offered
hypotheses about ecology and site formation processes (Neill
In 1964, when 42 years old, Neill worked briefly as an
associate curator of herpetological collections at the Florida
State Museum, in Gainesville. He continued to work in
biogeography (Neill 1964c), and named a new species, the
one-toed amphiuma (Amphiumapholeter), a small salamander
that he originally collected in 1950 near Cedar Keys, Florida
(Neill 1964d). He also named a new variety of rainbow snake
(Neill 1964e). While in Gainesville, Neill saw some of
Cushing's Key Marco artifacts "just recently ... returned to
Florida" and was aware of related studies by the Van Becks
(1965), Wing (1965), and Gilliland (1965), which led him to
write a popular article about the site (Neill 1965b). Mean-
while, another edition appeared of the Seminole Indian book
(Neill 1965c). In 1966, a new variety of snake was named in
his honor, the Florida crowned snake, Tantilla relicta neilli
(Telford 1966).

2003 Voi 56(4)



During these years, Neill conducted several archeological
studies along the Savannah River in Georgia and South
Carolina, where he had spent his youth. At Westo Bluff, he
(1966a) investigated remains belonging to the Morrow
Mountain and Guilford complexes of the Middle Archaic
Period (ca. 7500-5000 years ago). He also described an
"Eden-like" biface (1966b), now classified as a Brier Creek
Lanceolate, which dates to the late Middle Archaic Period (ca.
5500 years ago) (see Sassaman et al. 2002:119-120, Figure 5-
l:a-d). In addition, Neill (1968a) worked at the Galphin
Trading Post at Silver Bluff, a significant British frontier site
(see Crass et al. 1995).
At this point, Neill turned to writing more books. They
were remarkable achievements. First, he completed, The
Geography of Life (Neill 1969). Then, he wrote a large and
comprehensive book for which he is widely known, The Last
of the Ruling Reptiles: Alligators, Crocodiles, and Their Kin
(Neill 1971b). Soon after, he finished another major work,
Twentieth-Century Indonesia (Neill 1973). A year later, yet
another large book appeared, Reptiles andAmphibians in the
Service ofMan (Neill 1974).
In the 1970s, Neill taught herpetology, ecology, and
archaeology at Pasco-Hernando Community College, north of
Tampa. His interests in Seminole Indians and lithic artifacts
continued (e.g., Ferguson and Neill 1977; Neill 1976a, 1976b),
and another snake was named in his honor (Henderson et al.
1977). He kept writing and, in 1978, dedicated Archeology
and a Science ofMan to Ripley and Adelaide Bullen. In the
book, discussions range widely and deal at length with
environmental archaeology. He uses many examples from
Florida. While explicitly not an environmental determinist
(Neill 1978:208), he explores influences from the environment
on culture and vice-versa. He foresaw improvements in
archaeology through the borrowing of ideas, theories, and
methods from an array of scientific disciplines.
Neill's contributions to Florida anthropology and archaeol-
ogy are formidable. As is perhaps inevitable, some of his
interpretations can be questioned. For example, Bullen and
others have doubted the "Spanish" attribution that Neill gave
to sherds from Rocky Point on Old Tampa Bay (Neill 1968b).
The identification of nineteenth-century American trade pipes
from Marion County as "Spanish" (Neill and Ferguson 1976)
is incorrect per Milanich (1977). An hypothesis that Tampa
Complicated Stamped designs were made with "cut shells,"
rather than carved wooden paddles (Neill 1978:245-250,
illustrations 40-42), seems unlikely. While his strengths may
not be in studies of ceramics, shell middens, and shell tools
(many methods of field work and laboratory analysis are now
more developed than in Neill's time), he did excel in many
areas. He was ahead of his time in emphasizing diversity in
the study of culture (e.g., Neill 1973), and in ecological
approaches to archaeology. Moreover, his broad knowledge
allowed him to conceive many more "big picture" interpreta-
tions than many archaeologists do today.
In 1978, when Neill was 56, he suffered an almost fatal
snake bite, and his health declined steadily. One of the last
FAS Annual Meetings he attended was at the Langford Resort

Hotel in Winter Park in 1980. In 1985, he moved to a nursing
facility in Lakeland, Florida. In 1990, he was visited by
herpetologist David Auth, of the Florida Museum of Natural
History, who was interested in Neill's work, which led to visits
by a number of admiring scientists. A biographical sketch of
Neill, along with a bibliography, was published by the Smith-
sonian Herpetological Information Service (Liner et al. 1993).
Neill's herpetology colleagues held him in esteem. One
obituary states:

Neill was best knownan crocodilian circles for his book, The
Last of the Ruling Reptiles .... In this comprehensive work,
Neill combined an overview of what was known at the time
about crocodilians with his own insightful, and sometimes
visionary, appreciation oftheir biology and significance. The
book has been an inspiration to two generations of crocodile
biologists and remains as readable, factually correct and
inspirational today [Crocodile Specialist Group 2001].

In his career, Neill produced hundreds of scientific and
popular articles. One compilation states that "Neill authored
or co-authored about 272 papers and books, not including
numerous newspaper articles" (Liner et al. 1993:2). A search
under "Neill" at one herpetology web-site produced more than
90 articles that he authored or co-authored (Florida Fish and
Wildlife Conservation Commission 2002). From 1950
through 1968, Ross Allen and Neill wrote more than 60
articles for Florida Wildlife magazine, with Neill supplying
many of his own. In 1974, Neill wrote a weekly column about
west-central Florida history for the Pasco-Hernando Edition of
the St. Petersburg Times (Auth 1991; Liner et al. 1993:2).
And, he wrote six books, four published by Columbia Univer-
sity Press, one of the foremost academic publishers of the time.
Neill's productivity, in decades before personal computers
and electronic mail, is staggering. Such technology, however,
may make Neill's work more accessible to more people today.
It is our challenge to study Neill's work so that we can
improve our own knowledge, and research, to benefit the


'Neill's Taylor point is different than the South Carolina region's
"Taylor" point, which was defined three years later by Michie (1966).


David Auth, Patricia and Richard Bartlett, Jerry Milanich, Ken
Sassaman, and Ryan Wheeler provided helpful information.

References Cited

Auth, David L.
1991 Wilfred T. Neill Florida's Premier Herpetologist.
Gainesville Herpetological Society Newsletter 7(8):9-15.

Bullen, Adelaide K., and Ripley P. Bullen
1950 The Johns Island Site, Hernando County, Florida. Amer-
ican Antiquity 16:23-45.


Bullen, Ripley P.
1958 The Bolen Bluff Site on Payne'sPrairie, Florida. Contri-
butions of the Florida State Museum, Social Sciences,
Number 4. Gainesville.

1975 A Guide to the Identification ofFlorida Projectile Points.
Revised Edition. Kendall Books, Gainesville.

Carr, Archie, and Coleman J. Goin
1959 Guide to theReptiles, Amphibians andFresh-Water Fishes
ofFlorida. University of Florida Press, Gainesville.

Center for North American Herpetology
2001 In Memoriam: Wilfred T. Neill, Jr. The Center for North
American Herpetology (CNAH) (www.naherpetology

Crass, David C., Bruce R. Penner, Tammy R. Forehand, Lois J.
Potter, and Larry Potter
1995 A Man of Great Liberality: Recent Research at George
Galphin's Silver Bluff. South Carolina Antiquities 27-26-

Crocodile Specialist Group
2001 Last of the Ruling Reptiles! Obituary for Wilfred T. Neill,
Jr. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 20(1), WWW

Dickinson, Martin F., and Lucy B. Wayne
1985 The Seminole Indian Dispersed Settlement Pattern: An
Example from Marion County, Florida. In Indians,
Colonists, and Slaves: Essays in Memory of Charles H.
Fairbanks. Florida Journal of Anthropology, Special
Publication Number 4, Gainesville.

Downs, Dorothy
1981 Coppinger's Tropical Gardens: The First Commercial
Indian Village in Florida. The Florida Anthropologist

Dunbar, James S., and Ben I. Waller
1983 A Distribution Analysis of the Clovis/Suwannee Paleo-
Indian Sites of Florida A Geographic Approach. The
Florida Anthropologist 36:18-30.

Ferguson, George R., and Wilfred T. Neill
1977 The Age of the Santa Fe Projectile Point Type. The
Florida Anthropologist 30:18-21.

Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
2002 A Searchable Bibliography of the Herpetofauna of Florida.
On-line web-site (http://wld.fwc.state.fl.

Gilliland, Marion S.
1965 The Material Culture ofKey Marco, Florida. M.A. Thesis,
Department of Anthropology, University of Florida,

Gut, H. James, and Wilfred T. Neill
1953 Bone Artifacts Resembling Projectile Points, From Prehis-
toric Sites in Volusia County, Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 6:93-94.

Henderson, Robert W., Leo G. Hoevers, and Larry David Wilson
1977 ANew Species ofSibon (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridea)
from Belize, Central America. Journal of Herpetology

Hemmings, E. Thomas
1975 The Silver Springs Site, Prehistory in the Silver Springs
Valley, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 28:141-158.

Hoffman, Charles A.
1983 A Mammoth Kill Site in the Silver Springs Run. The
Florida Anthropologist 36:83-87.

Lazarus, William C.
1965 Effects of Land Subsidence and Sea Level Changes on
Elevation of Archaeological Sites on the Florida Gulf
Coast. The Florida Anthropologist 18:49-58.

Liner, Ernest, C. J. McCoy, and David L. Auth
1993 Biographical Sketch and Bibliography of Wilfred T. Neill.
Smithsonian Herpetological Information Service, Number
95, Washington, D.C.

Martin, Richard A.
1966 Eternal Spring: Man's 10,000 Years of History at
Florida's Silver Springs. Great Outdoors Publishing
Company, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Milanich, Jerald T.
1977 Editor's Page. The Florida Anthropologist 30:36.

Michie, J. L.
1966 The Taylor Point. The Chesopiean 4:123-124.

Neill, Wilfred T.
1940 Eumeces egregius in Georgia. Copeia 1940:226.

1941 Notes on Pine Snakes from Georgia and South Carolina.
Copeia 1941:56.

1946 Notes on Banded Water Snakes from Georgia. Copeia

1947 Size and Habits of the Cottonmouth Moccasin.
Herpetologica 3:203-205.

1948 The Lizards of Georgia. Herpetologica 4:153-158.

1949a Juveniles of Siren lacertina and S. intermedia.
Herpetologica 5:10-20.

1949b Ross Allen's Reptile Institute atFlorida's Silver Springs.
24-page booklet. Ross Allen's Reptile Institute, Silver
Springs, Florida.

1950a How to Preserve Reptiles and Amphibians for Scientific
Study. First Edition, technical booklet. Ross Allen's
Reptile Institute, Silver Springs, Florida.

1950b ANewSpeciesofSalamander, GenusDesmognathus, from
Georgia. RossAllen 'sReptile Institute, Research Division,
Publication 1(1):1-6.

2003 V01- 56(4)



1951a The Taxonomy of North American Soft-Shelled Turtles,
Genus Amyda. Ross Allen's Reptile Institute, Research
Division, Publication 1(2):7-24.

1951b Notes on the Natural History of Certain North American
Snakes. Ross Allen's Reptile Institute, Research Division,
Publication 1(5):47-60.

1951c A New Subspecies of Salamander Genus Pseudobranchus
from the Gulf Hammock Region of Florida. Ross Allen's
Reptile Institute, Research Division, Publication 1(4):39-

1952a Remarks on Salamander Voices. Copeia 1952 (3):195-196.

1952b The Spread of the Armadillo in Florida. Ecology 33:282-

1952c Florida 'sSeminole Indians. RossAllen's Reptile Institute,
Silver Springs, Florida.

1953a Dugouts of the Mikasuki Seminole. The Florida Anthro-
pologist 6:72-84.

1953b Notes on the Supposed Association ofArtifacts and Extinct
Vertebrates in Flagler County, Florida. American Antiq-
uity 19:170-171.

1954a GratersoftheMikasuki Seminole. The Florida Anthropol-
ogist 7:74-75.

1954b Artifacts from the Bluffton Midden, Volusia County,
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 7:11-17.

1954c Ranges and Taxonomic Allocations of Amphibians and
Reptiles in the Southeastern United States. Ross Allen's
Reptile Institute, Research Division, Publication 1(7).

1955a The Site of Osceola's Village in Marion County, Florida.
The Florida Historical Quarterly 33:240-246.

1955b The Calumet Ceremony of the Seminole Indians. The
Florida Anthropologist 8:83-88.

1955c The Identity of Florida's "Spanish Indians." The Florida
Anthropologist 8:43-57.

1955d AnHistoricIndianBurial from Columbia County, Georgia.
Southern Indian Studies 7:3-9.

1956a Secondarily Ingested Food Items in Snakes. Herpetologica

1956b Preparation of Rubber by the Florida Seminole. The
Florida Anthropologist 9:25-28.

1956c Sailing Vessels of the Florida Seminole. The Florida
Anthropologist 9:79-86.

1956d The Story ofFlorida's Seminole Indians. Ross Allen's
Reptile Institute, Silver Springs, Florida.

1957a The Rapid Mineralization of Organic Remains in Florida,

and Its Bearing on Supposed Pleistocene records. Quar-
terly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 20:1-13.

1957b Historical Biogeography of Present-day Florida. Bulletin
oftheFloridaStateMuseum, BiologicalSciences 2(7):175-
220. (http://purl.fcla.edu/fcla/dVUF00001469.pdf)

1958 A Stratified Early Site at Silver Springs, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 11:33-52.

1961 How to Preserve Reptiles and Amphibians for Scientific
Study. With an appendix: The Preparation of Reptile Skins,
by Ross Allen. Second Edition, 19-page technical booklet.
Ross Allen's Reptile Institute, Silver Springs, Florida.

1962 The Reproductive Cycle of Snakes in a Tropical Region,
British Honduras. Quarterly Journal of the Florida
Academy ofSciences 25(3):234-253.

1963 Three New Florida Projectile Point Types, Believed Early.
The Florida Anthropologist 16:99-104.

1964a The Association of Suwannee Points and Extinct Animals
in Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 17:17-32.

1964b Trilish Pond, An Early Site in Marion County, Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 17:187-200.

1964c Biogeography: The Distribution of Animals and Plants.
Biological Science Curriculum Study Pamphlet 18. Heath
and Company, Boston.

1964d A New Species of Salamander, Genus Amphiuma, from
Florida. Herpetologica 20:62-66.

1964e Taxonomy, Natural History, and Zoogeography of the
Rainbow Snake, Farancia erytrogramma (Palisot de
Beauvois). American Midland Naturalist 71:257-295.

1965a New and Noteworthy Amphibians and Reptiles from
British Honduras. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum,
Biological Sciences 9(3):78-130. (http://purl.fcla.edu

1965b Court of the Pile-Dwellers: Florida's Most Amazing
Underwater Find. Florida Wildlife 19(3):14-17.

1965c The Story ofFlorida's Seminole Indians. Great Outdoors
Publishing Company, St. Petersburg, Florida.

1966a Westo Bluff, A Site of the Old Quartz Culture in Georgia.
The Florida Anthropologist 19:1-10.

1966b An Eden-like Projectile Point from South Carolina. The
Florida Anthropologist 19:143-144.

1968a The Galphin Trading Post at Silver Bluff, South Carolina.
The Florida Anthropologist 21:42-54.

1968b An Indian and Spanish Site on Tampa Bay, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 21:106-116.

1969 The Geography ofLife. Columbia University Press, New


Sciences 10:261-304.

1971a AFloridaPaleo-IndianImplement. TheFlorida Anthropol-
ogist 24:61-70.

1971b The Last of the Ruling Reptiles: Alligators, Crocodiles,
and TheirKin. Columbia University Press, New York and

1973 Twentieth-Century Indonesia. Columbia University Press,
New York and London.

1974 Reptiles and Amphibians in the Service ofMan. Pegasus:
Division of the Bobbs-Merrill Company, New York.

1976a The Seminole Pumpkin. The Florida Anthropologist

1976b Ecological Data Bearing on theAge ofKirk Serrated Points
in Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 29:153-159.

1978 Archeology and a Science ofMan. Columbia University
Press, New York and London.

Neill, Wilfred T., and E. Ross Allen
1955 Metachrosis in Snakes. The Quarterly Journal of the
Florida Academy of Sciences 18:207-215.

1959 Studies on the Amphibians and Reptiles of British Hondu-
ras. Ross Allen's Reptile Institute, Research Division,
Publication 2(1).

Neill, Wilfred T., and Ripley P. Bullen
1955 Muskrat Remains from a Prehistoric Indian Site in Jackson
County, Florida. Journal ofMammalogy 36:138.

Neill, Wilfred T., and George R. Ferguson
1976 Spanish Trade Pipes from Marion County, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 29:126-128.

Neill, Wilfred T., H. James Gut, and Pierce Brodkorb
1956 Animal Remains from Four Preceramic Sites in Florida.
American Antiquity 21:383-395.

Rayl, Sandra L.
1974 A Paleo-Indian Mammoth Kill Site Near Silver Springs,
Florida. M.A. Thesis on file, Department ofAnthropology,
Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff.

Sassaman, Kenneth E., I. Randolph Daniel, Jr., and Christopher R.
2002 G. S. Lewis-East: Early and Late Archaic Occupations
along the Savannah River, Aiken County, South Carolina.
Savannah River Archaeological Research Papers 12,

Sturtevant, William C.
1952 Review ofFlorida's Seminole Indians, by Wilfred T. Neill.
The Florida Anthropologist 5:65-67.

Telford, Sam R., Jr.
1966 Variation among the Southeastern Crowned Snakes, Genus
Tantilla. Bulletin ofthe Florida State Museum, Biological

Tesar, Louis D.
1984 Our Past, Our Present: An Overview and Index of Publica-
tions of The Florida Anthropological Society. TheFlorida
Anthropologist 37:120-150.

1994 Clubheads, Bola Stones, or What? TheFlorida Anthropol-
ogist 47:295-303.

Van Beck, John C., and Linda M. Van Beck
1965 The Marco Midden, Marco Island, Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 18:1-20.

West, Patsy
1981 The Miami Indian Tourist Attractions: A History and
Analysis of a Transitional Mikasuki Seminole Environ-
ment. The Florida Anthropologist 34:200-224.

Wing, Elizabeth S.
1965 Animal Bones from Marco Island. The Florida Anthropol-
ogist 18:21-28.


3222 Old Oak Drive, Sarasota, FL 34239-5019
E-mail: gluer@grove.ufl.edu

York and London.


2003 VoL. 56(4)


Charles Joslyn Wilson

Charlie Wilson was a Florida anthropologist. He died July
26, 2003 in Tallahassee, and is survived by his wife, Joan
Schroeder Wilson, a son Charles of Charlottesville, Virginia;
a daughter, Joslyn, of Tallahassee; and three grandchildren,
Emily Wilson of Tallahassee, Riley and Madeline Wilson of
Charlie grew up in Pelham Manor, New York, and
graduated from Phillips Exeter Academy and Yale University.
He was a partner at Cresap, McCormick, & Paget, a market-
research firm in New York City. He received his Ph.D. in
anthropology from Columbia University, where he was a
student of Charles Wagley. He taught at Columbia in the
graduate school of business. He was a resident of Rowayton,
Connecticut for many years and then retired to Sanibel Island,
Florida in 1972. He was chairman of the Sanibel-Captiva
ConservationFoundation (SCCF), and was instrumental in the
initiation and sustenance of the Florida Museum of Natural
History's research program in southwest Florida. It was in this
context that I came to know Charlie and to benefit from his

knowledge, dedication, and enthusiasm for archaeology.
In 1974-1975 Charlie organized local Sanibel and Captiva
residents to conduct salvage excavations at the Wightman Site
(8LL54), assistedby geology professor Lee High, archaeologist
Jerald Milanich, and their students (Wilson 1982). Data from
the Wightman site formed the basis for Arlene Fradkin's M.A.
thesis (Fradkin 1976), the first research in southwest Florida
to include data from fine-screened bone. The vertebrate faunal
remains were identified by Rochelle Marrinan. In 1979, under
the leadership of Charlie Wilson and Dick Workman, the
SCCF sponsored a symposium and exhibit, "SouthwestFlorida
Archaeology." Charlie continued to work with Milanich and
others toward establishing a long-term research program to
study the archaeology of the Calusa.
Without Charlie's unflagging enthusiasm, Jerry Milanich
might not have become so interested in southwest Florida
archaeology. In 1983, when Donald Randell wanted to have
his property on JosslynIsland archaeologically evaluated, Jerry
suggested I do it, which started our Southwest Florida Project
and changed my life forever. I first met Charlie and
his wife Joan in 1985. They kindly introduced me to
local people interested in site preservation and
research, and helpedfacilitate our work onBuckKey
(Marquardt 1992:33-44). It was Charlie who sug-
gested the idea for a newsletter that became Calusa
News. I had been sending typed, xeroxed updates to
people who had volunteered or made donations.
Charlie commented that these little updates were a
great way to communicate and keep up interest.
Following his advice, I got a small grant to publish
the first of ten newsletters. If not for Charlie, we
would not have realized the significance of the
Wightman site, and the story of sea-level fluctuation
it had to tell (Walker et al. 1994).
In 1988, Charlie and Joan moved to Tallahassee
to live nearer their daughter. Charlie promptly
became a valued volunteer at San Luis Archaeologi-
cal and Historic Site, where he edited the volunteer
newsletter and developed educational materials. He
was committed to educating other site volunteers
about fundamental anthropological concepts such as
kinship and residence rules so they would better
understand Apalachee social life. He also worked
tirelessly to reconstitute the panhandle chapter ofthe
Florida Anthropological Society and was instrumen-
tal in drafting its bylaws.


Figure 1. Charles Joslyn Wilson.



VOL. 56(4)

Charlie was an articulate teacher and writer who inspired
many people to care about the environment and the past. He
brought people together and made things happen. A kind and
gentle person, he was also outspoken, passionate, and effective
in working to preserve Florida's natural and cultural heritage.
His legacy will live long after him.

References Cited

Fradkin, Arlene
1976 The Wightman Site: A Study ofPrehistoric Culture and the
Environment on Sanibel Island, Lee County, Florida. M.A.
thesis, Department ofAnthropology, University ofFlorida,

Marquardt, William H.
1984 The Josslyn Island Mound and its Role in the Investigation
ofSouthwest Florida's Past. Department of Anthropology,
Miscellaneous Project Report Series 22. Florida State
Museum, Gainesville.

1992 Recent Archaeological and Paleoenvironmental Investiga-
tions in Southwest Florida. In Culture and Environment in
the Domain ofthe Calusa, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp.
9-57. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental
Studies, Monograph 1. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Walker, Karen J., Frank W. Stapor, Jr., and William H. Marquardt
1994 Episodic Sea Levels and Human Occupation at Southwest
Florida's Wightman Site. The Florida Anthropologist

Wilson, Charles J.
1982 The IndianPresence: Archaeology ofSanibel, Captiva, and
Adjacent Islands in Pine Island Sound. Sanibel-Captiva
Conservation Foundation, Sanibel.


FloridaMuseum ofNaturalHistory, Dickinson Hall, P.O. Box
117800, University ofFlorida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7800
E-mail: bilmarq@flmnh.ufl.edu


2003 Voi 56(4)


The Archaeology of Southern Urban Landscapes. Edited by
Amy L. Young. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.
2002. 294 pages, $29.00 (paper).

Sarasota County History Center, 701 N. Tamiami Trail,
Sarasota, Fl 34236

The Archaeology ofSouthern Urban Landscapes, edited by
Amy Young, is a collection of eleven case studies that dis-
cusses the southern landscape. The primary goal of this text
is to serve as an example of current urban archaeology in the
south. The studies are designed to explore many of the south's
urban centers and provide an assessment of how far urban
archaeology has come into standard practice as well as offering
opportunities for new paths of research.
The work is a mosaic of various excavations and historical
studies that continually returns the reader to the changing
nature of urban centers and how landscapes within these
centers are viewed differently, both theoretically and tempo-
rally. The chapters cover Cahawba, Birmingham, and Mobile,
Alabama; Jamestown, Virginia; Covington, Kentucky;
Charleston, South Carolina; Augusta, Georgia; New Orleans,
Louisiana; Knoxville, Nashville, Memphis, and Chattanooga,
Tennessee; and Annapolis, Maryland.
The articles are approximately twenty pages each and share
a bibliography and index. While each chapter is organized
differently and may or may not contain photos and tables,
there is a single unifying theme or common definition of
landscape. They follow Charles Oser's (1996:368) definition
of landscape as comprised of both natural and cultural features
existing inside and outside of human settlements. But while
some of the chapters adhere closely to this definition, others
expand upon it with sections devoted to theoretical discus-
sions. In addition, each article explores issues of urban
functions and processes and how the urban environment
interacts with Southern culture (p. 7).
The first chapter, by Linda Derry, looks at Cahawba,
Alabama, the state's first capitol. She explores the city's
center, and describes how a Native American fortified town
with a ditch and mound were later incorporated into the initial
design of the new town of Cahawba, itself later reused to
symbolically transform the previous seat of power to its new
inhabitants. Within her article, she introduces the concept that
people create new landscapes by altering past landscapes.
They do this either by embracing the past and claiming the
landscape as their own or by removing visible reminders of the
previous culture.
The second chapter, by Bonnie Gums and George Shorter,
examines a city block along Mobile's waterfront. The authors


examine both the city's history and the various types of
structures that were identified throughout their archaeological
excavations. Overall, theirexcavations spannedthree hundred
years of occupation and revealed the "military, environmental,
social, commercial, public, and civic aspects of Mobile's past"
(p. 51). While this chapter does not delve into the theoretical
discussion of the changing landscape, it does provide the
reader with a wealth of information and serves as a prime
example for developing proper historic context in urban
The third chapter, by Audrey Horning, examines how
Jamestown underwent various attempts at revitalization in an
effort to recreate cultural patterns that were common in
England. The government was attempting to provide a feeling
of familiarity for the inhabitants to live and work. Homing
shows that the plantation culture along the Chesapeake formed
in direct opposition to government attempts to create a
centralized town. The government planned Jamestown to be
a centralized area where wealthy elites, would invest in large
construction projects in the urban centers in order to indicate
status within the community.
The fourth chapter, by Robert Genheimer, looks at artifact
collections from two sites in Covington, Kentucky. His goal
was to examine the city's economic dependence on the North
by examining the origin of manufacture of various items
within the collection. Unfortunately, the conclusions stop
short of making any definitive cultural implications, such as
abandoning the city's southern identity. However, Genheimer
leaves the reader with the important information concerning
the city's trade relationships.
Chapter 5, by Martha Zierden, deals with the excavations at
the Charleston Powder Magazine. She expands on the book's
central definition of a landscape and views landscape as
having a unique and definable character of its own, simulta-
neously collective and contradictory" (p. 95). With this in
mind, Zierden goes on to document how the archaeological
record from the Charleston Powder Magazine site reflected
changing cultural values within the city over three centuries.
The author makes an important point in her conclusions by
emphasizing that to understand the site's significance in the
twentieth century one needs to evaluate the site in light of its
current urban context. As work continues on these sites, the
archaeological investigation becomes part of the urban
landscape and the knowledge of the past reshapes current
cultural views of the modern landscape.
Chapter 6, by J.W. Joseph, is one of the strongest chapters
in the book. Although it does not concern itself with any
single site, it draws heavily on work done within the African
American community of Springfield in Augusta, Georgia.
Joseph takes on the task of identifying the African-American



VOL. 56(4)


urban experience. He investigates settlement and land-use,
employment, architecture, subsistence, and material culture.
Within the chapter, he attempts to "present a more comprehen-
sive and culturally focused picture of African-American life"
(p. 126).
Chapter 7 investigates Creole culture and the urban land-
scape in New Orleans. Shannon Dawdy attempts to determine
if the urban Creole compound is an inner-city replication of a
Southern plantation. She uses the Rionda-Nelson site as an
example to demonstrate that within the larger community
there are smaller ethnic communities that utilize similar urban
spaces in different manners. Furthermore, the inheritance of
a space from another group does not necessitate that space will
have similar cultural usage or that similar material culture will
be found within that defined area.
Chapter 8 is authored by the book's editor, Amy Young, who
uses her excavations of Blount Mansion to investigate concepts
of Elite Southern life during the Frontier and Antebellum
periods. Additionally, she expands her work to test a hypothe-
sis concerning Knoxville's access to consumer goods during
both periods. She does this through use of ceramics analysis
as well as a basic landscape analysis.
Chapter 9, by Christopher Mathews, examines the ever-
present struggle of a city's use of the urban landscape to
redefine and reinvigorate itself while attempting to maintain
its traditional sense of community and place. Using data from
excavations of the Bordley-Randall site in Annapolis, Mary-
land, the author records changes in the city from a "colonial
center, to a periphery, to a late-antebellum Southern City"
(p.171). What is exceptional about this chapter is the docu-
mentation ofthe city's attempts to maintain its historic identity
during periods of revitalization. One such period ofrevitaliza-
tion was the establishment of the Naval Academy. Annapolis
residents returned to their past cultural heritage to protect
Annapolis's cultural identity from being over-powered by the
fast-growing society surrounding the new Naval Academy.
The last two chapters in the book were written by Patrick
Garrow (Chapter 10) and Paul Mullins and Terry Klein
(Chapter 11). Both chapters provide a summation of urban
archaeology. Garrow's chapter looks specifically at the
amount of urban archaeology within Tennessee and demon-
strates how little work within the state has actually been done.
He does this by deconstructing and discussing the surveys
conducted in the major urban centers of this state. Mullins
and Klein take a wider perspective in their chapter, encom-
passing all southern culture and its expression within the
urban setting.
This book is suitable for all archaeologists. As an edited
volume, it allows both a brief introduction to the concepts of
urban archaeology and specific case studies that are easily
read. It serves as a starting point for archaeologists beginning
to practice urban archaeology and looking for new paths to
follow in their research. The introduction by Amy Young
gives a detailed description of each chapter, allowing the
reader to follow their own interest. Each chapter appears to be
based on solid research. However, the strength of each work
is also a weakness. Many of these cases could be individually

expanded upon. Often just as the reader becomes fully
engaged, the conclusions are upon you. In a few of the
chapters, an expansion of the text would have done more
justice to the work and better supported the conclusions.
Young's summary within the introduction emphasizes the
key focal point of the book: archaeologists in the South need
to continue to explore the function of urban centers and look
at how the landscape is formed and changed to create the
unique Southern culture (p.13). Finally, it should be noted
that not a single chapter deals with any of Florida urban
landscapes. While Garrow indicates that St. Augustine has
been the scene of substantial archaeological investigation, the
lack of a chapter focusing on a Florida site emphasizes the
limited work occurring in our own urban centers.

Bioarchaeology of Spanish Florida: The Impact of Colonial-
ism. Edited by Clark Spencer Larsen. University Press of
Florida, Gainesville. 2001. 324 pp., 66 b&w illustrations, 4
color plates, 47 tables, notes, bibliography, appendices, index,
$55.00 (cloth).

Department ofAnthropology, Southern Illinois University,
Carbondale, IL 62901

The La Florida Bioarchaeology Project represents one of
the most successful long-term multidisciplinary research
efforts in skeletal biology. Clark Larsen's edited volume, The
Bioarchaeology of Spanish Florida, The Impact of Colonial-
ism presents a summary of over 20 years of research that
resulted from this project. As a testament to what
bioarchaeological approaches have to offer anthropology in
general, the book is unparalleled, due in large part to its inter-
disciplinary, contextually-grounded perspective.
The book contains ten chapters, and although they are not
physically divided into discrete units, the editor indicates in
the prolegomena that five topical foci can be discerned. In my
reading, the work really has three sections: 1) a contextual
introduction, 2) bioarchaeological inference, and 3) a global
summary. The first and last chapters by Worth and Walker,
respectively, represent excellent inclusions of the editor's
choosing because both authors are familiar with the material
but not actively involved in the research itself. The contribu-
tion of Worth (a Florida historian but not a bioarchaeologist)
provides the ethnohistorical framework in which the substan-
tive chapters operate; while the contribution of Walker (a
bioarchaeologist but not a Florida researcher) provides the
important global framework through which all previous
chapters should be interpreted. The remaining contributions
focus on aspects of behavioral inference from human skeletal
Chapter 2 builds on the ethnohistorical research of Chapter
1 and summarizes the archaeological and historical informa-
tion that is of significance for interpreting the biological data.
The dramatic population losses, coupled with an altered
political and social structure, economic hardship, and the
restructuring of people across the landscape allows, in some

2003 VoL. 56(4)


cases, prediction of behavioral modifications, while in other
cases provides the required explanation of results difficult to
interpret in isolation. Of great utility for others interested in
the region is a summarization of the skeletal samples used
throughout the book (Table 2.1). The remaining chapters
address four broad questions: 1) dietary changes (Chapters 3
and 4), 2) changes in activity patterns and workload (chapter
5), 3) stress levels and adaptation (Chapters 6, 7, and 8), and
4) patterns of mate exchange and evolutionary effects (Chapter
In Chapter 3, Larsen and colleagues use chemical analyses
(carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes) to reconstruct dietary
adaptations in the region, in particular how diet varies with
local economic conditions but nevertheless homogenizes
during the mission period. Dietary andbehavioral adaptations
are also discussed in Chapter 4, where Teaford and colleagues
use evidence from enamel microwear to document the impor-
tance of local conditions for interpreting microwear patterns.
Combined, and with reference to prior work on dental pathol-
ogy, the dietary focus of the mission Native Americans and
their ancestors is outlined using complementary methodologi-
cal approaches. The goal of Chapter 5 is the reconstruction of
alterations in activity patterns using biomechanical informa-
tion based on long bones of the arm and leg. In this chapter,
Ruff and Larsen document an increase in sedentism through
time with evidence for elevated workloads for a segment of the
mission populations. Chapters 6 and 7 use dental markers of
physiological stress to infer patterns of morbidity in the
archaeological populations comprising the dataset. Interest-
ingly, despite what one might think, presence of pathological
striae of Retzius (Chapter 6) does not correspond with
hypoplastic defect occurrence (Chapter 7) suggesting the two
growth disruption markers are capturing different types of
stress, presumably related to insult duration. Chapter 8 is a
departure from previous chapters in content and goal. Al-
though the subject of morbidity is addressed via skeletal
indicators of porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia, the
intent of this chapter seems more methodologically focused.
Using microscopic, histological examination of four individu-
als demonstrating these pathological conditions macroscopi-
cally, the authors were able to both confirm previous diagno-
ses, and more importantly, falsify others. The message is
clear; histological examination of pathological skeletal
modifications can lead to decreased diagnostic errors. Finally,
in Chapter 9 Griffin and colleagues use dental and cranial
morphological traits to infer patterns of gene flow and evolu-
tionary processes during the different stages of missionization.
Their results are consistent with populations experiencing
demographic collapse and population aggregation simulta-
Given all the strengths of the manuscript, there are, how-
ever, unaddressed topics that could improve our understanding
of social, political and evolutionary processes operating during
this time period. This comment is not meant to disparage the
book as a whole, as Larsen outlines the goals of the project in
the preface and the manuscript clearly meets these goals.
Nevertheless, bioarchaeology, broadly defined, includes

inferences not discussed in detail in the present volume,
indicating that future work on the La Florida materials is both
welcome and needed. In other words, the publication of this
magnum opus should not be construed as 'completion.'
From an editorial perspective, the book is technically very
clean with few typographical errors or omissions. Tables and
figures are plentiful, although at times a bit overwhelming to
the reader. Larsen's careful editing of the chapters ensures
consistency between authors, in minor things, for example,
such as the spelling of place names and populations where
alternative spellings exist. The careful execution of the
research program is also demonstrated by cross-chapter
consistencies. The same samples are used throughout and are
similarly divided by the different authors in similar, if not
identical, spatial-temporal units (coast/inland,
Florida/Georgia, early precontact, late precontant, early
mission, late mission). This has the effect of allowing easy
comparison and summarization of research findings by authors
using different techniques or with different agendas.
The book is geared toward an audience already versed in
bioarchaeological and skeletal biological applications. As
such, it is best for an advanced undergraduate or graduate
audience. This is not to say, however, that introductory
concepts are not discussed, as each chapter does include a
discussion of germane methodological topics. Those less
versed in quantitative applications will rejoice the relatively
straightforward presentation of much of the research, appropri-
ate for most chapters but perhaps problematic for others (for
example, the use of the Mean Measure of Divergence in
Chapter 9 will be questioned by some). Regardless, the clarity
of presentation and straightforward prose present
bioarchaeology in a positive fashion; the goal is data presenta-
tion within a contextual framework, not jargonsitic obfusca-
In summary, Larsen's volume makes a number of significant
contributions in different areas of anthropology. The chapters
are all grounded in ethnohistory, and perhaps to a lesser
extent, the local archaeology. This is an important point and
reiterates the anthropological focus of the research. Counts of
caries, hypoplastic defects, and skeletal lesions are themselves
of little interest when removed from the unified problem
orientation (social andbehavioral adaptation) that defines each
chapter. In short, the book reaffirms that axiom of graduate
education, it is the question that matters! Secondly, the La
Florida Bioarchaeology Project demonstrates the utility of
dental approaches in the discipline. Nearly half the substan-
tive chapters use dental information exclusively. Having
personally analyzed a portion of the samples used throughout
the volume, I can attest to the poor preservation of much of the
material. Nevertheless, Larsen's contribution is a clear
demonstration of how much can be learned from so little.
Archaeologists working in this region (and others) should be
encouraged by such a conclusion. Indeed "contacts between
archaeology and dental research" were promoted by Henry
Gillett almost 75 years ago in the (then) flagship journal of the
discipline-the American Anthropologist (Gillett 1927). The
Bioarchaeology of Spanish Florida is testament to such a



References Cited

Gillett, Henry W.
1927 Contacts between archaeological and dental research.
American Anthropologist 29(2):291-295.

Plants from the Past. Leonard W. Blake and Hugh C. Cutler.
University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. 2001. xv + 177pp.,
tables, figures, works cited, indices. $29.95 (paper).

FloridaMuseum ofNaturalHistory, EnvironmentalArchaeol-
ogy Program, P.O. Box 117800, Gainesville, FL 32611-7800
E-mail: ruhl@flmnh.ufl.edu

Only in the past few decades have archaeologists realized the
significant role of plant remains in reconstructing past human
foodways, lifeways, and paleoenvironments in the Americas.
Leonard Blake and Hugh Cutler were among the first to bridge
the worlds of botany and archaeology, paving the way for
paleoethnobotany/archaeobotany. The former was a retired
investment securities analyst, who became an avocational
archaeobotanist par excellence achieving an honorary doctor-
ate of science from Washington University, and the latter was
an international scholar and professional botanist with the
Missouri Botanical Garden. Their partnership lasted almost
three decades during which time they authored or co-authored
jointly or with other scholars over 152 archaeobotanical works.
Plants from the Past is a fascinating compilation of ten of
these works, some of which have never been in print, were out-
of print, or were buried in the gray literature. Gayle Fritz and
Patty Jo Watson, two scholars of archaeobotany, worked
closely with Leonard Blake, then in his late 90's, to bring this
useful volume to our desks and bookshelves.
One of the volume's strengths is its historical contribution
for the role Cutler and Blake played in the development of this
subdiscipline, their analyses, and research. Another strength
is its comparative value for the plant data developed from
contemporary and archaeological sources in the American
Southeast, Midwest, and Southwest. In addition, the specific
morphometric and other data generated on corn, beans,
squash, watermelon, and other plant remains reminds us of the
continuing need for such information and the everlasting value
of good empirical data sets. It should be noted that new ideas
have been espoused since Cutler and Blake first wrote their
ideas on origins, evolution, and other aspects on specific plant
domesticates (i.e., corn), their growth and development, and
plant husbandry practices in the Americas. It should equally be
mentioned that while additional references need to be consid-
ered for the twenty-first century archaeobotanist, their funda-
mentally sound methods and comprehensive knowledge still
provide informative data and an historical perspective.
Ten of the 11 chapters that comprise the volume are articles
that reveal these two scholars focus on corn research specifi-
cally or mention corns presence or include morphometric
information as an integral part of a site report or inquiry on

archaeological plant remains form sites in New Mexico, North
Carolina, Missouri, Michigan, and Illinois. The eleventh
chapter is a listing of all of their publications, which a careful
reading reveals that their knowledge was even more far-
reaching than these ten articles in scope, depth, and breadth of
their analysis and research.
In the first chapter, Cutler and Blake looked at types of corn,
distribution and origins of "North American Indian Corn."
Although Chapter 2 looks atvarious cultivated plants, Cutler's
primary emphasis was on the history of southwest corns via
the plant remains from Pieuris and the ties to other villages,
sites, and time periods. Chapter 3, "Corn in the province of
Aminoya" is a parody of some archaeological articles and
reveals Blake's sense of humor along with his mathematical
and analytical acumen. In Chapter 4, "Corn from Three North
Carolina Sites, 31Gs55, 56, and 30," Blake compares the
morphometric data and suggests that the corn from all of these
sites (which date from the late prehistoric to the contact
period) is a southern variant of the Eastern Eight Row race of
corn (after Cutler and Blake 1976) formerly known as North-
ern Flint (Brown and Anderson 1947). Chapter 5 reports on
the cultivated plants (corn, beans, and squash) of the Historic
Osage of Missouri. Chapters 6 and 7 include some of the
authors' research from sites at the northern most limits of corn
production in the North America and records data from Fort
Michilimackinac. In the former chapter Blake reports on how
to prepare, store, and cook corn as revealed by historic
accounts and the chronicles of European traders, trappers, or
"Voyagers" to the area. Archaeological remains from the site
proper are discussed in the later chapter and here again the
work points-out the European ties to Native American groups
for provisions, methods, and techniques, suggesting the use of
plants to address transculturation processes. Chapters 8 and
9 look at the plants sampled from two Illinois sites, Waterman
and Rhoads, respectively. Waterman is an historic-period site
and presents data on corn from small, circular, straight-sided
pits, "hide smoking pits" and suggests multiple influences as
40% had 8 row ears and 60% had more than 8 rowed ears.
From the Rhoads site, a multicomponent site, the authors
identify and compare the cultivated plants of New World
origin (corn, bean, squash) and Old world origin (watermelon)
while interjecting the significance of wild plants at this site.
Chapter 10, "Plants from archaeological Sites East of the
Rockies" is a compilation of materials sent to the authors prior
to 1973 and curated at the Illinois State Museum. This
comprehensive inventory lists site name, culture/tribe, site
date, county location, who provided the samples, corn data
(e.g., row #), and other plant data (species, occasional
morphometric information). Initially distributed via mimeo-
graph in 1976, it was then updated and made available
through the University of Missouri on microfiche. Over 460
entries are recorded and while some have limited data express-
ing a sign of the times and methods used to recover plant
remains, these numbers are also a credit to the authors and the
archaeologists requesting the information and marking the
increasing interest in plant remains. This impressive inven-
tory reflects the pre-1973 burgeoning field of archaeobotany


2003 Voi. 56(4)


and is a wonderful reminder/guide for researchers, museums,
and others to emulate, recording and sharing their research
and holdings.
Plants from the Past is an important grouping of papers, and
while some remain more relevant than others, they all remain
seminal-each enhanced by Leonard Blake's recent introduc-
tory comments. Interestingly, the emphasis on protohistoric
and historic period research articles present in this volume is
timely as interest in this time period advances. The University
of Alabama Press and the efforts of Fritz and Watson should
be applauded for publishing and recognizing the value of such
a delightful collection, bringing it to completion, and distribut-
ing it at an affordable price. This volume is well worth the
read for students, avocational and professional archaeologists,
ethnohistorians, and botanists who wish to learn that the
plants people use are a key to reconstructing the past and to
understanding past activities and environments-something
the authors pioneered, championed, and never forgot.

References Cited

Brown, William L., and Edgar Anderson
1947 The Northern Flint Corns. Annals oftheMissouri Botani-
cal Garden 34:1-29.

Cutler, Hugh C., and Leonard W. Blake
1976 Plants from the Archaeological Sites East of the Rockies.
American Archaeology Reports No.1, American Archaeol-
ogy Division, University of Missouri, Columbia (micro-
fiche) (also in this volume).

Florida Anthropological Society Chapters


1) Archaeological Society of Southern Florida
2495 NW 35th Ave., Miami, FL 33142

2) Broward County Archaeological Society 5
481 S. Federal Highway, Dania Beach, FL 33004

3) Central Florida Anthropological Society
P.O. Box 947544, Maitland, FL 32794-7544

4) Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 82255, St. Petersburg, FL 33682

15 s"" '"*""
5) Indian River Anthropological Society
3705 S. Tropical Trail, Merritt Island, FL 32952

6) Kissimmee Valley Archaeological and Historical Conservancy 2
195 Huntley Oaks Blvd., Lake Placid, FL 33852 1

7) Emerald Coast Archaeological Society
333 Persimmon Street, Freeport, FL 32435

8) Panhandle Archaeological Society at Tallahassee -
c/o The Tallahassee Trust for Historic Preservation TT
423 E. Virginia Street, Tallahassee, FL 32301

9) Pensacola Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 13251, Pensacola, FL 32591 13) Time Sifters Archaeology Society
P.O. Box 25883, Sarasota, FL 34277-2883
10) St. Augustine Archaeological Association
P.O. Box 1301, St. Augustine, FL 32085 14) Volusia Anthropological Society
P.O. Box 1881, Ormond Beach, FL 32175
1I) Southeast Florida Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 2875, Stuart, FL 34995 15) Warm Mineral Springs Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 7797, North Port, FL 34287
12) Southwest Florida Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 9965, Naples, FL 34101


About the Authors:

Gary Beiter has aM.A. in Anthropology from Florida Atlantic University and undergraduate degrees in geology and biology.
At present he is the archaeologist for Miami-Dade County Office of Historic Preservation. Previously, he had been in private
cultural resource management. His interests of study are Eastern United States Prehistoric and Contact Periods.

Alison Elgart-Berry received her doctorate from the Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department at Cornell University in
2000. Since November of 2000, Alison has been working as a biological anthropologist and archaeologist at the
Archaeological and Historical Conservancy, Inc. in Davie, Florida. She has analyzed the human remains that were recovered
at the Miami Circle and at Brickell Park, among other prehistoric sites in south Florida.

George Luer is an archaeologist from Sarasota, Florida. He has studied shell tools, ceramics, shell middens and mounds,
and canoe canals.

Kenneth Hardin is President and C.E.O. of Janus Research. A graduate of the University of South Florida with an M.A in
anthropology, he has been involved in the cultural resource management field in Florida for over 20 years.

Daniel Hughes is the Sarasota County Archaeologist. He has an undergraduate degree from the University of Massachusetts
and holds Master's degrees from Florida Atlantic University and Armstrong State College. His research interest includes class
formation processes and world-systems as well as the archaeology of southern Florida.

William H. Marquardt is Curator in Archaeology, Florida Museum of Natural History. Since 1983, he has focused his work
on the archaeology, history, and ecology of southwest Florida.

Donna L. Ruhl is an archaeologist/archaeobotanist in the Environmental Archaeology laboratory at the Florida Museum of
Natural History. She has studied plant remains from historic and prehistoric archaeological sites across Florida and the
southeastern U.S. Currently, she is Vice President of the Florida Archaeological Council and FAS/FAC liaison.

Sheila Stewart is an anthropologist, an archaeologist and an educator. As an educator, she developed and taught a course in
anthropology, archaeology and culture for the Gifted Program of Pinellas County Schools and taught archaeological field
methods on excavations in Ireland and Israel, and in public archaeology settings in Florida and at Fort Mackinac, Michigan.
She has an M.A. in Applied Anthropology from the University of South Florida. She served as the Education Program
Director for the Ballykilcline Archaeological Project of Illinois State University and was the the Founding Manager of the
Weedon Island Preserve Cultural and Natural History Center in Pinellas County. She is the current President of the Florida
Anthropological Society.

Christopher Stojanowski is currently an Assistant Professor of Anthropology at Southern Illinois University. After
completing his doctorate at the University of New Mexico, he held an adjunct lecturer position at Florida State University
for three years. Stojanowski's research addresses issues of population structure and evolutionary process in prehistoric and
historic population groups in the southeastern and southwestern United States.

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