The Florida anthropologist

Material Information

The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title:
Fla. anthropol.
Florida Anthropological Society
Place of Publication:
Florida Anthropological Society.
Publication Date:
Quarterly[<Mar. 1975- >]
Two no. a year[ FORMER 1948-]
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 24 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- May 1948-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01569447 ( OCLC )
56028409 ( LCCN )
0015-3893 ( ISSN )


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MARCH, 1963



/3. 272~


a publication of the florida anthropological society

Volume XVI, No. 1

March, 1963


A Duck Effigy from Lundgren Island, Astor, Florida
Frank Bushnell ................. 1

A Potter's Tool of the Safety Harbor Period
William C. Lazarus .............. 3

Fifteen-Year Index, Volumes 1 15, 1948-1962. .............. 5

St. Augustine Colonial Archeology
Hale G. Smith. .................10

Mulberry Midden Test SiteGle Gustafson...............29
Glen Gustafson. ...............29

GIST is published quarterly by
the Florida Anthropological So-
ciety during March, June, Sep-
tember, and December. Sub-
scription is by membership in
the Society for individuals
interested in the aims of the
Society. Annual dues are $4.00
(Students $2.00). Libraries and
institutions may subscribe to
GIST at $2.75 per year.

Membership applications Secretary
Subscriptions Treasurer
Back issue orders Treasurer
General inquiries Secretary
Newsletter items President
Manuscripts Editor

President-Charlton W. Teb,
University of Miami, Coral Gat
1st VICE PRESIDENT-William Laza
Eglin Air Force B.
University of Flor

1960 SW 61st Ct., Miami
SECRETARY-Mrs. Violet Teb.
Coral Gab

Cliff E. Mat
DBM Research Corp., Cocoa Be

Dr. William H. Se
Florida State Museum, Gainesv

Mr. Carl A. Ben
2310 Resthaven Dr., Orla
Charles H. Fairba
Department of Anthropol
Florida State University, Tallahas-..

A Duck Effigy From Lundgren Island, Astor, Florida

Frank Bushnell

The Lundgren Island or Birds Island site is located in the St. Johns River in Lake County,
Florida. The shell midden dates from St. Johns II times as indicated by quantities of St.
Johns Check Stamped at all levels. One burial was observed in the shell midden. A standing
effigy of a duck was found and slightly restored. It is about three inches tall.

On a recent trip to several sites in Volusia and Lake Counties,
interest was aroused by the Lundgren Island, or Birds Island site
(Vo-21). An exploratory trip was planned and carried out the follow-
ing weekend.
This island lies in the middle of the St. Johns River, roughly one
mile south of the bridge at Astor, Lake County, Florida. In the past
decades, several professional groups have run test trenches and pits
primarily in the northeastern section of the site. The midden covers
the entire island, which measures about one hundred feet in length-
north to south, and is perhaps fifty feet in width. The river channel
is to the west and a shallow lagoon to the east (Goggin, 1952, p. 89).
Since the highest portion of the midden is to the south and was
untouched, a trench was started, extending from the water level (the
midden at this area is about three feet above water level) in a north-
ern direction for fifteen feet.
From the first, it was noticed that St. John's Creek Stamped sherds
seemed to extend throughout all depths. Large amounts of wet charcoal
were heavily distributed throughout the area, plus numerous burned
lenses of shell and fishbone. The pictured effigy came from the
trench, four feet north of the water edge an at a depth of eight inches.
Also found were numerous flint chips, four broken bi-point bone pro-
jectile points and the base of a small St. John's check stamped vessel.
The effigy itself is composed of fired, untempered clay. It mea-
sures approximately three inches in height, three inches from bill
to tail, and has a two and one-eighth inch wingspread.
The Florida Anthropologist, Volume XVI, No. 1, March 1963.

When found, the head and the tip of the right wing were missing,
the wing tip being found nearly one foot to the right. Despite careful
sifting, the head was reconstructedto fitthe effigy in a corresponding
life-like fashion. The posture as a whole seems to represent a duck
exercising, its wing spread, neck craned forward as often is when
these birds are congregated on open water.
As a whole, the artist's conception of such duck antics is excellent,
and even though the effigy is rather crude the style and position are
very appealing. This specimen was coated with "alvar" to halt a
slow, but progressive, disintegration.
With the numerous check-stamped sherds, it is assumed that this
effigy was made during the St. John's II period and that this island
was in use throughout that period.
One burial was located in the shell, protruding from the roots of
a large oak at the extreme southern tip of the island. No attempt was
made to remove this burial, although its presence in a midden of
this period is puzzling.


Although one burial was located, this small island site was most
probably a fishing camp of the St. John's II period. St. John's Check
Stamped ware predominated. The effigy was not found close enough
to the burial to be an association, although the depths corresponded.
Bone projectile points seemed numerous, considering the small
amount of shell removed during excavation. Charcoal was heavy in
all areas with large numbers of fish bones and burned shell being
A return trip is planned in order that a more thorough study of
the stratigraphic layout of the ceramic types be made.

Figure 1 Duck Effigy from Lundgren Island.

William C. Lazarus

While classifying a collection of Safety Harbor Period sherds
and artifacts from the Maximo Midden Site (Pi- ), it was observed
that some rim notches on Pinellas Plain had distinct grooves like
the surface of a file, on one of the two notch surfaces (Fig. le).
Again, on the flat lip of a Safety Harbor sherd the same type of
fine grooving was observed running around the rim. (Fig. Id).
These grooves are distinct, shallow and uniform measuring 12-14
to the centemeter. Based on their minute nature, it appeared that
they were not intended as decoration but were marks left by the
potter's tool.
In examining the stone, shell and bone artifacts from this same
collection, an intentionally cut section of a large Southern Quahog
Clam shell was identified as an artifact.. (Fig. la). The lip of the
clam shell forms one of the four sides. The minute serrations on
the inside of the shell lip were measured and found to run from 12
to 14 to the centemeter.
If this tool were used to cut a rim notch in the moist clay of the
vessel, then one side of the cut would be smooth and the other would
be grooved as was observed on the notched Pinellas Plain sherds.
If the tool were used with its serrated edge against the plastic of
the pot rim, then the serrations would produce grooves on the rim
of the vessel as on the Safety Harbor sherd.
It is therefore concluded that the shell artifact shown in Fig. la
is a potter's tool of the Safety Harbor Period.
Subsequent to this determination, a similar but triangular shell
artifact cut from a Southern Quahog Shell (Fig. Ib) was found in the
midden area at Weeden Island (Pi-1). This does not imply a Weeden
Island Period dating since over 5% of the sherds from this midden
are in the Safety Harbor Series.
It is observed that both tools have a "blade" width of 5.2 cm and
a total tool length of about 6.5 cm. Figure Ic illustrates the probable
position on the Quahog clam shell from which tools such as these
were cut.
Acknowledgement is given to Mr. GeraldA. Spence and the students
of Florida Presbyterian College who made the collection of artifacts
from the Maximo Midden Site available for this study.


Willey, G. R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast, Smithsonian Mis-
cellaneous Collections, Vol. 113, Washington, D. C.

Ft. Walton Beach
October, 1962
The Florida Anthropologist, Volume XVI, No. 1, March 1963.




Shell Potter's tools (a) and (b). Quahog clam shell showing area
used for the tool (c). Arrows indicate the finely grooved surfaces
of a Safety Harbor Rim sherd (d) and a Pinellas Plain Notched Rim
sherd (e). Figures (a), (b), (d), and (e) are to the same scale as shown.




Adams, Grey L., and Lazarus, William C.
1960 Two skulls from a Fort Walton Period cemetery site (OK-35), Okaloosa County,
Florida. 13:4; 109-114.
Adams, Richard B.
1957 Investigations of a northwest Florida Gulf coast site. 10:3-4; 50-56.
Aga-Oglu, Kamer
1955 Late Ming and early Ching porcelain fragments from archeological sites In
Florida.8:4; 91-110.
Allen, Ross
1948 The big circle mounds. 1:1-2; 17-21.
Anderson, Robert
1953 Some relations of geography and cultural anthropology. 6:4; 129-137.
Anonymous, reviewed
1957 The Seminole Indians of Florida, review by C. H. Fairbanks. 10:3-4; Inside
back cover.
1959 Seminole Patchwork, review by C. H. Fairbanks. 12:4; inside back cover.
Armistead, William J.
1950 An Indian stone saw. 2:3-4; 46-48.
1959 An unusual shell gorget from Terra Ceia Island, Manatee County, Florida. 12:4;
Arnade, Charles W., reviewed
1959 Florida on Trial, 1593-1602, review by C. H. Fairbanks. 12:4; inside back cover.
Arnett, William T.
1953 Seminole Indian clues for contemporary house form in Florida. 6:4; 145-148.
Aten, Lawrence E.
1961 Excavation and salvage at Starks Hammock, Volusia County, Florida. 14:1-2;
Bell, Bonnie
1952 See Bullen, Ripley P., et al.
Benson, Carl A.
1956 Test results at the Pau Pau Mound, Brevard County, Florida. 9:2; 61-65.
1959 Some pottery contributions to early fabric techniques. 12:3; 65-70.
Benson, Carl A., and Green, Howard B., II
1962 The Kimball Midden, Lake County. 15:4; 113-114.
Blassingame, Wyatt, reviewed
1959 Seminoles of Florida, review by Charles H. Fairbanks. 12:3; inside back cover.
Boyd, Mark F.
1958 Horatio S. Dexter and events leading to the Treaty of Moultrie Creek with the
Seminole Indians. 11:3; 65-96.
Boyd, Mark F.; Smith, H. G.; and Griffin, John W., reviewed
1950 Here They Once Stood, the Tragic End of the Apalachee Missions, review by
John M. Goggin. 3:3-4; 65-66.
Brooks, Marvin J., Jr.
1956 Excavations at Grossman Hammock, Dade County, Florida. 9:2; 37-46.
Bryant, William J.
1955 Program in Spain, William L. Bryant Archeological Foundation. 8:2; 33-41.
Bullen, Adelaide K., and Bullen, Ripley P.
1953 The Battery Point Site, Bayport, Hernando County, Florida. 6:3; 85-92.
1954 Further notes on the Battery Point Site, Hernando County, Florida. 7:3; 103-108.
1961a The Summer Haven Site, St. Johns County, Florida. 14:1-2; 1-15.
1961b Wash Island in Crystal River. 14:3-4; 69-73.
Bullen, Adelaide K., and Bullen, Ripley P., reviewed
1957 Excavations on Cape Hazel Peninsula, Florida, review by Charles H. Fairbanks.
10:3-4; inside back cover.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1949 Indian sites at Florida Caverns State Park. 2:1-2; 1-9.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1950a The Woodward Site. 2:3-4; 49-64.
1950b Tests at the Whittaker Site, Sarasota, Florida. 3:1-2; 21-30.
1951a Perico Island: 1950. 3:3-4; 40-44.
1951b The Gard Site, Homosassa Springs, Florida. 4:1-2; 27-32.
1951c S. T. Walker, an early Florida archeologist. 4:3-4; 46-49.
1952 Some problems in the practical application of somatotyping. 5:1-2; 17-20.
1953a The famous Crystal River Site. 6:1: 9-37.
The Florida Anthropologist, Volume XVI, No. 1, March 1963.

1953b Excavations at Manatee Springs, Florida. 6:2;53-68,
1954a A unique St. Johns punctuated vessel, 7:2; 73-74,
1954b The Davis Mound, Hardee County, Florida, 7:3; 97-102.
1955a Stratigraphic tests at Bluffton, Volusia County, Florida, 8:1; 1-16,
1955b Carved owl totem, DeLand, Florida. 8:3; 61-74.
1956 Some Florida radiocarbon dates and their significance, 9:2; 31-36.
1957 The Barnhill Mound, Palm Beach County, Florida, 10;1-2; 23-36.
1958a More Florida radiocarbon dates and their significance, 11:4; 97-110.
1958b A unique vessel from Murphy Island, Putnam County, Florida, 11:4; 125-127,
1959 What was it? 12:3; 75-76,
1962a A human head adorno from the Vance site, 15:1, 11-12,
1962b Suwannee Points in the Simpson Collection, 15:3; 83-88,
1962c Perforated deer phalanges in the Simpson Collection, 15:4; 111-112,
Bullen, Ripley P., and Dolan, Edward M.
1959 The Johnson Lake Site, Marion County, Florida. 12:4; 77-94,
1960 Shell mound, Levy County, Florida. 13:1; 17-23,
Bullen, Ripley P,, and Griffin, John W.
1952 An archeological survey of Amelia Island, Florida, 5:3-4; 37-64,
Bullen, Ripley P., and Laxson, D, D.
1954 Some incised pottery from Cuba and Florida, 7:1; 23-26,
Bullen, Ripley P.; Reeder, G. R,; Bell, Bonnie; and Whisenaut, Blake
1952 The Harbor Key Site, Manatee County, Florida, 5;1-2; 21-23.
Bullen, Ripley P., and Sackett, William M,
1958 Dates of the busycon gouges at the Bluffton Site, Florida, 11;4; 111-113,
Bullen, Ripley P., and Sleight, Frederick W., reviewed
1959 Archeological Investigations of the Castle Windy Midden, Florida, review by
Charles H, Fairbanks, 12:2; inside back cover.
Bushnell, Francis F,
1960 The Harris Creek Site, Tick Island, Volusia County. 13:1; 25-31,
1962 The Maximo Point Site. 15:4; 89-101,
Caldwell, Joseph R., reviewed
1959 Trend and Tradition in the Prehistory of the Eastern United States, review by
Charles H. Fairbanks. 12:1; inside back cover,
Capron, Louis
1956 Notes on the hunting dance of the Cow Creek Seminole, 9:3-4; 67-78.
Carison, Charlie, Jr.
1961 The Marshall Bluff Site, 14:3-4; 81-83.
Carter, Clarence Edwin, editor, reviewed
1957 The Territorial Papers of the United States. Vol. 22, The Territory of Florida
1821~1824, review by Charles H, Fairbanks. 10:3-4; inside back cover.
1959a The Territorial Papers of the U.S. Vol. 23, The Territory of Florida, 1824-1828,
review by Charles H, Fairbanks. 12:2; inside back cover.

1959b The Territorial Papers of the U.S, Vol. 24, The Territory of Florida, 1828-1834,
review by Charles H, Fairbanks, 12:4; inside back cover,
Caughey, John Walton, reviewed
1959 McGillivray of the Creeks, review by Charles H, Fairbanks, 12:2; inside back
Coates, Gordon C,
1955 Recent tests at the Battery Point Site, Hernando County, Florida, 8:1; 27-30.
Copeland, Leelia S,, and Dovell, J, E., reviewed
1958 La Florida, Its Land and its People, review by Charles H, Fairbanks, 11:2;
inside back cover.
Covington, James W,, reviewed
1958 The Story of Southwestern Florida, review by Charles H, Fairbanks, 11:4;
inside back cover.
Covington, James
1960 English gifts to the Indians: 1765-1766, 3:2-3; 71-75,
Cummings, William P., reviewed
1958 The Southeast in Early Maps, review by Charles H, Fairbanks, 11:2; inside back
De Boyeris Moya, Emile; Krestensen, Marguerita K,; and Goggin, John M.
1957 Zamia starch in Santo Domingo. 10:3~4; 17~40.
DeJarnette, David L., reviewed
1948 See Webb, William S.
Densmore, Frances, reviewed
1957 Seminole Music, review by Charles H. Fairbanks. 10:3~4; inside back cover.
Dolan, Edward M.
1959 See Bullen, Ripley P.

Douglas, Majory S., reviewed
1948 The Everglades: River of Grass, review by John W. Griffin. 1:1-2; 30-31.
Dovell, J. E., reviewed
1958 See Copeland, Leelia S.
Du Bois, Bessie Wilson
1957 Celt and pendant from Jupiter Inlet Mount. 10:3-4; 15-16.
Dyer, Donald R.
1953 A geographic interpretation of civilizations in tropical America. 6:4; 123-28.
Eaton, John M.
1962a Pipe stem dating and the date for Silver Bluff, S.C. 15:2; 57-62.
1962b The preservation of wood by the alum process. 15:4; 115-117.
Fairbanks, Charles H.
1958a Some problems of the origin of Creek pottery. 11:2; 53-64.
1958b Obituary of John R. Swanton. 11:3; 96.
1959 Additional Elliot's Point Complex sites. 12:4; 95-100.
1960 Listing of miscellaneous paperbacks on anthropology. 13:1; Inside back cover.
1962a The contribution of the amateur. 15:1; 13-20.
1962b Excavations at Horseshoe Bend, Alabama. 15:2; 41-56.
1962c A Colono-Indian Ware milk pitcher. 15:4; 103-106.
Fearney, Edward M.
1953 Building in Florida. 6:4; 139-143.
Feibleman, James, reviewed
1948 The Theory of Human Culture, review by Bevode C. McCall. 1:1-2; 31-33.
Ferguson, Vera Masius, reviewed
1951 Chronology at South Indian Field, Florida, review by John M. Goggln. 4:3-4; 77.
Florida State University Studies (No. 28), reviewed
1958 The Negro in American Society, review by Charles H. Fairbanks. 11:3; inside
back cover.
Florida State University Studies (No. 29), reviewed
1958 Problems in Pre-Columbian Textile Classification, review by Charles H. Fair-
banks. 11:3; inside back cover.
Freeman, Ethel Cutler
1961 The happy life In the city of ghosts: an analysis of a Mikasuki myth. 14:1-2; 23-36.
Fundaburk, Emma Lila, reviewed
1959 Southeastern Indians Life Portraits, review by Charles H. Fairbanks. 12:1 31-32.
Gelber, Leonard, reviewed
1953 See Martin, Michael.
Godwin, Mary E.
1949 See Goggin, John M., et al.
Goggin, John M.
1948 A revised temporal chart of Florida. 1:3-4; 57-60.
1949 A Southern Cult specimen from Florida. 2:1-2; 36-37.
1950a Cultural occupation at Goodland Point, Florida. 2:3-4; 65-91.
1950b Florida archeology-1950. 3:1-2; 9-20.
1951a The Snapper Creek Site. 3:3-4; 50-64.
1951b Beaded shoulder pouches of the Florida Seminole. 4:1-2; 3-17.
1952 Archeological notes on lower Fisheating Creek. 4:3-4; 50-66.
1954 Historic metal plummet pendants. 7:1; 27-28.
1957 See De Boyeris Moya, Emile, et al.
Goggin, John M.; Godwin, Mary E.; Hester, Earl; Prage, David; and Spangenberg, Robert.
1949 An historic Indian burial, Alachua County, Florida. 2:1-2; 10-25.
Greenlee, Robert F.
1952 Aspects of socialorganization and material culture of the Seminole of Big Cypress
Swamp. 5:3-4; 25-31.
Griffen, William B.
1960 The Stetson Collection. 13:2-3; 33-36.
Griffin, John W.
1948 Toward chronology in coastal Volusia County. 1:3-4; 49-56.
1950 Notes on the archeology of Useppa Island. 2:3-4; 92-93.
1952a J. Clarence Simpson: 1910-1952. 5:1-2; 8.
1952b See Bullen, Ripley P.
1952c A stone spud from Florida. 5:3-4; 36.
1957 (Ed.) Some comments on the Seminole in 1818. 10:3-4; 41-49.
Griffin, John W., reviewed
1950 See Boyd, Mark F.
Gut, H. James, and Neill, Wilfred T.
1953 Bone artifacts resembling projectile points, from pre-ceramic sites in Volusia
County, Florida. 6:3; 93-94.

Haag, William G., reviewed
1960 The Archeology of Coastal North Carolina, review by Charles H. Fairbanks.
13:1; 32.
Harper, Francis (ed.), reviewed
1958 The Travels of William Bartram, Naturalist's Edition, review by Charles H.
Fairbanks. 11:3; inside back cover.
Harris, Walter A., reviewed
1958 Here the Creeks Sat Down, review by Charles H. Fairbanks. 11:2; inside back
Heizer, Robert F., reviewed
1959 The Archeologist at Work, review by Charles H. Fairbanks. 12:2; inside back
1962 Man's Discovery of His Past, review by Charles H. Fairbanks. 15:4; 118.
Hester, Earl
1949 See Goggin, John M., et al.
Howard, James H.
1959 Some Chickasaw fetishes. 12:2; 47-55.
Irwin, Carol
1959 Dating English pipestems. 12:3; 71-72.
Keel, Bennie C.
1960 The Money's Bend Site, Cev3, Cherokee County, Alabama. 13:1; 1-16.
1961 A radiocarbon date for the Money's Bend Site, Cev3, Cherokee County, Alabama.
14 1-2; 47-48.
Kneberg, Madeline
1948 See Lewis, Thomas M. N.
Krestensen, Marguerita K.
1957 See De Boyeris Moya, Emile, et al.
Krogman, Wilton M.
1948 The racial type of the Seminole Indians of Florida and Oklahoma. 1:3-4; 61-74.
Kurjack, Edward B.
1961 Clay pipes at the Childersburg Site in Alabama. 14:1-2; 21-22.
Larson, Lewis H., Jr.
1955 Unusual figurine from the Georgia coast. 8:3; 75-82.
1957 The Norman Mound, McIntosh County, Georgia. 10:1-2; 37-52.
1958 Cultural relationships between the northern St. Johns area and the Georgia
coast. 11:1; 11-22.
Laxson, D. D.
1953a Stratigraphy at Hialeah Midden. 6:1; 1-8.
1953b Further excavations at Hialeah, Florida. 6:3; 95-99.
1954a See Bullen, Ripley P.
1954b A small Hialeah midden. 7:3; 91-96.
1954c An historic Seminole burial in Hialeah Midden. 7:4; 111-118.
1957a The Madden Site. 10:1-2; 1-16.
1957b Three small Dade County sites. 10:1-2; 17-22.
1957c The Arch Creek Site. 10:3-4; 1-10.
1959a Excavations in Dade County during 1957. 12:1; 1-8.
1959b Excavations in Dade and Broward County, 1958. 12:2; 33-40.
1959c Three salvaged Tequesta sites in Dade County, Florida. 12:3; 57-64.
1961 Two worked shell objects from a Uleta River shell midden. 14:3-4; 65-68.
1962 Excavations in Dade and Broward Counties 1959-1961. 15:1; 1-10.
Lazarus, William C.
1958 A Poverty Point Complex in Florida. 11:1; 20-32.
1960a Human figurines from the coast of northwest Florida. 13:2-3; 61-75.
1960b See Adams, Grey L.
1961a The Morrison Spring Site. 14:1-2; 17-20.
1961b Ten middens on the Navy Live Oak Reservation, Santa Rosa County, Florida.
14:3-4; 49-64.
1962 Templa Mound Museum at Ft. Walton Beach, Florida. 15:3; 65-70.
Lazarus, William C., and Spence, Gerald S.
1962 Pasco Series sherds from the Bayport Mound. 15:4; 107-110.
Lewis, Thomas M. N., and Kneberg, Madeline, reviewed
1948 The Archaic Horizon inWesternTennessee, reviewby Ripley P. Bullen. 1:3-4; 78.
1958 Tribes That Slumber, review by Charles H. Fairbanks. 11:4; inside back cover.
MacDonald, Robert
1951 A new interpretation of the Carrabelle Site. 3:3-4; 45-49.
Macgowan, Kenneth, and Hester, J. A., Jr., reviewed
1962 Early Man in the New World, review by Charles H. Fairbanks. 15:4; 102.
McKinley, Daniel
1962 Research appeal. 15:1; 27.
Continued on page 23


Florida State University
Summer Field Session, 1962.

Report of the summer field session of 1962 of the Florida State University Department of
Anthropology in St. Augustine, Florida. Excavations were carried out to locate certain
Spanish structures and to determine their relationship to existing buildings and streets.

Hale G. Smith

The Florida State University Department of Anthropology held its
1962 archaeological summer field session in St. Augustine, Florida.
The work was in collaboration with the St. Augustine Historical
Restoration and Preservation Commission. In all, nineteen areas
were investigated. The archaeological investigations were mainly
made to determine the locations of certain Spanish structures and
their relationship td the existing street and other buildings. The
main body of the work was done in the area of the Arrivas House
on St. George Street. However, excavations were also made on Cuna
Street, between St. George Street, and Charlotte Street, at the Dra-
goon Lot, the Drysdale yard and 267, 269 and 271 Charlotte Street
in the south part of town.
The work on lots 267, 269 and 271 on Charlotte Street were done
in co-operation with the St. Augustine Historical Society.
The initial work was centered around the location and excavation
of an outbuilding on the lot Rocque 44. A building fitting the dimensions
of those drawn by Rocque was found in the area to the southwest
of Rocque 44 and to the northeast of Rocque 43. This building was
originally constructed of coquina blocks. However, the only remains
of the walls was a mortar topped shell footing. All of the coquina
blocks had been removed but in some areas the impression of the
coquina blocks remained. The Rocque map showed two projections
on the south side of this building. However, only one projection
was discovered and this was a coquina fireplace of the west room.
The structure had an east room or porch. Corner stone piers were
found for this area but no footings necessary for a masonry wall were
discovered. If the area was enclosed it was made of wood. Since
excavation this structure has been reconstructed by the commission.
The Florida Anthropologist, Volume XVI, No. 1, March 1963.

In the area between Rocque 44 and 45 the remains of a house were
uncovered that dated from the last half of the 19th Century. This
building was a tin shop in the early part of the 20th Century. Photo-
graphs of this building are preserved in the Commission offices.
The north-south dimensions of the Rocque 45 building was estab-
lished during the summer of 1960. This was a tabby wall structure.
To the north of this structure occurred Rocque 46, a L-shaped
building. The north wall of that part of the building that was tangent
to the street became the south wall of the rear wing that extended
northward. This wall was located in a 5.50 foot passageway between
the Tucker Photographic Shop and the Parks Hotel. In order to find
the southeast corner of the building that was tangent to the street,
the sidewalk in front of the Tucker Photographic Shop was penetrated.
The outside dimension of the front of Rocque 46 was 15.40 feet.
The front wall of a building that was a pre-Rocque structure was
located under the curbing in front of the Parks Hotel. The width of
the walls and the depth of the footing indicated that this probably
was a large two story structure. The first course was a coquina
wall 1.80 feet wide and the shell footing extended 2.50 feet below
the bottom of the first course.
A trench was dug across the front of 31 St. George Street and two
shell walls were located. The nature of the structure, or structures,
was not determined. A test trench on the southeast corner of St.
George Street and Fort Lane revealed a shell wall 1.40 feet wide
as well as a good tabby floor. Details of this structure also awaits
further investigation.
The front wall of the Manucy House located on the northeastern
corner of Cuna and St. George Street was re-established. This was
a coquina wall one foot thick and had an outside dimension of 30.00
The front, one foot thick, wall of the Benet House was also found.
The Benet House was located on the southeast corner of Cuna and
St. George Street.
The excavations at 25 Cuna Street, the St. Augustine Historical
Society's Parking Lot on Cuna, the northwest corner of Cuna and
Charlotte, and the southwest corner of Cuna and Charlotte Street
did not yield any structural remains. These excavations were made
up of test trenches along the street curb or on the inside of garden
walls so there is the possibility that structural remains were missed.
Test trenches on the east or Spanish street side of the Dragoon
Lot brought to light three shell walls. Due to restrictions on the
excavations these walls could not be traced.
267, 269 and 271 Charlotte Street was the area that was selected
for excavation by the First Annual Dig of the Florida Anthropological
Society. Lots 267 and 271 had existing structures on them while
269 was vacant. The Florida Anthropological Society dug for a day
and a half, and the work in this area was continued another week by
the regular crew.



267 Charlotte St. 269 unda
under una tabb
kin flra

Columbia Plain 10
lohtuakwe Blue an Blue 2
Pig Springa Polpohroae 25
Mt. Royal folychra 1
Auilza olyophrom 32 3
Tallhuasee Blue o White 3 3
Sman ai Polychrom 5
Abo Polychrome 1
PaU la Polfohrome 7 3
San Augstin Blae on tWite 1 1
Urnknol 5 2
Olive Ja
Early Tariety 30
Middle Variety 360 30
Cireular gaing stone Middle Variety 3
Thin Type 3
Unknown larthemares
Spanish or Mxcman 6
Maeden Hd Painted Ware 2
San Nero Complicated Steped 256 50
Son Harco Red Filmed 2
St. Jonas Plain 3 2
St. John Check Steeped 12
San Auguatine Ear2l Spanish 5 2
Tile Ft 1
Nai2 2 19
Wedge 1
rY*tet 1
Pot 1
Dise, Perforated 1
Igneous ook 1 2
Flint Noedla 1
Quarts Crystal 1
Glues 5
Slag 1 1


267, 269 and 271 Charlotte Stret,
Column 1R- vel 0.00-1.00, for aI ltrenche.

2- aer hard packed occupational levl
in lot 269 adjacent to 20th Century
fireplace bae.

3- Sd ooqlu chip and rahble are sr
tt floor lot 29.

4- Trash pit, lot 269, not in aesoc ation
with archeteotural feature.

5- Trah pit lot 267.

1 2 3 1 5

Colobia Plain
Capuan Blue
Santo Domingo Blue on Wite
Ichtucknee Blue on Blue
Fig Sprie Peolyhrme
San Li HBlue on White
Mt. eRoal Polychrae
Aucilla Polychroe
Tallahssee Blue on White
San Ins Polychrome
Abo Polychrome
Puebla Pb1ychrame
Castilo Polyhroee
San Augustin Blue on Wite
Publo Blue on m alite
Aranma Polychrae
Blie Oreen Basin
19th Century

OUie Jar
Early Variety
Middle Variety
Late Variety
MXnican BSd Painted re
Spanish Clear (lale
San Xaroo Plain
San Marco Caplicated Stmped
St. John Plain
St. Johns Cheoketanped
Say Ware
El Morro Ware
Unknown Spanish Earthenmare
Tile Barrel
Briok Danish

continued next page

1 11 1
2 1
2 1 2
8 2 4
n 2 5
9 1
16 9 2 1
7 7 2
i 5

27 3
50 1
2 3 1
1 1
2k 1
13 I2 3 3

2 3
102 35 10 9 17
26 43
2 1
83 17 13 6 3
286 210 9 17 26
21 17 2 31 2
6 38 5
5 4 2
17 4 8

1 6 I
2 1 2

Table 2 Continued

123 3

St. Augustine Spanish Slipare
Combed Tello Peasant Ware
Marbled Peasant Wre
Peasant Ware Red Paste
Peasant Ware Yellow Slip
Salt Gla6ed Stoneware
Painted Crean Ware
Queen'a Ware
Scratched Blue Stoneware
Painted White Ware
Banded White Ware
Salt Glazed Stoneware
Thin anauled Ware
lead Glazed Eartheanare
muster Ware, Black
(ray Were
Sponge Ware
Ginger Beer Bottle
European Porcelain
Chinese Porcelain
Elers Iare
Bone Ware
Transfer Ware
Carolina Ware
Spoon Bowl
Haraes Hardware
Scre Cap
Pipe Fitting
Jew's Harp
B od Ferrule
Architectural Hardware
Watch Case
Misoellanmons Pragmenta
Cannon Ball
Skate Kay
Co Bell

1 1
8 2 1
20 2 4
28 2 2
8 8
253 41 I48
1 1
3 11 23
25 11.
102 1
7 1 2
16 12
1 1
3 1
35 8 7
16 1
17 2 2
21 7 2
I9 15 7
6 1
169 19 13
93 21 3


1 Sa Blade
1 Buckle
BrM s and Coppe
Clothing Ornaents
Shell Cases
1 1 Strap
Xuaket Bill
2 2 Sinker
1 Green
Milk Glas
Bottle Stopper
Goblet Stem Clear
2 Shell, 1 Hole
5 Bne, 1 Hole
3 5 Hole
1 Metal Military Cuba
Other Iron

35 20 12 1 Plastic
1 Exaolin Stems /66
7 2 7/61
1 Reddish Brown Cla
Slate Pencil
Porcelain Poker Chip
1 Goblet Base
Ceral. oofing Tile Modern
7 1 5 1 Cay Marbles
Glase Marble
Flint Nodule
Slate Fragment
1 Bone Battn Blank
hfite Handle, BSo
Igneous Rock
Gun Flint
Egg Shell
Quartz Crystal



12 48 2


1 1


2 2
2 4


k 1

" ''


0 NORTH 0.00 1.00

Plate I

Colonial Structure at 267 Charlotte Street. Northwest Corner.

Plate I. Colonial Structure at 267 Charlotte Street, Northwest Corner.

Plate III 269 Charlotte Street, Showing Tabby Floor.


r! i.

~~ r
r I u

L: t

267 Charlotte Street had a coquina structure located on the lot.
The north wall lay beneath the north wall of the existing building.
The true nature of this building is unknown since the excavations
were not extensive enough to give a complete picture. However, the
area that was excavated yielded foundations for a structure that had
an outside width of 9.70 feet with the walls that were 1.00 foot wide.
The relationship of the existing wall along the curb to the excavated
structure is unknown. In some ways it appears that it in some
manner was part of the structure. Wall C was possibly made up to
the existing wall (Wall D) and it appears that wall A also was possibly
made up to wall D. However, since both coquina blocks of wall C
and A, adjacent to wall D are missing it is possible they were re-
moved when wall D, a later wall was built. Only investigation in the
street will solve this problem. Wall B appears to be an interior wall.
A cut-out for the door sill also extends into a coquina block that
occurred in wall C. This block probably held the south door jamb.
In this same coquina block a hole was cut 1.00 foot in diameter and
1.00 foot deep. Holes also occurred in two coquina blocks in wall A
and were about the same dimensions as the one in wall C.
Wall E was not a wall in the sense that the coquina did not have a
shell footing nor was mortar present. It appears that wall E was a
wooden wall or possibly a loggia area. No tabby was in evidence for
this structure but the "loggia" area was paved with coquina chips
0.20 foot thick. Insets of recta-linear coquina pieces, 0.20 foot thick
occurred in various areas.
Within the coquina building there was a coquina chip floor 0.25 of a
foot thick that occurred 0.27 of a foot above datum. The coquina
foundation of the house was 0.55 of a foot above datum.
The cultural material from beneath the coquina chip floor dates
from the latter part of the seventeenth century (A. D. 1650-1700).
This material came from a trash pit.
The material from this trash pit had either aboriginal or Spanish
affinities. Some of the unique artifacts included olive jar gaming
stones of the middle variety, St. Augustine brick, a badly bent copper
pot and a copper disc with a central perforation. Also a large num-
ber of aboriginal sherds came from the pit.
Due to the similarity of materials and their dates between this
area and the area excavated in lot 269, it might be possible that the
structural remains are of one house. In many ways it seems im-
probable that a coquina house would only have a width of 9.70 feet.
It appears more likely that the coquina foundations belonged to a loggia
area of a relatively large house. Further, excavations would reveal
the relationship between these two areas.
The evidence seems to indicate that this structure was built during
the 1700-1725 period.
At 269 Charlotte Street the remains of a tabby floor dating from
A. D. 1650-1700 were found. This floor was part of a wooden struc-
ture. At a higher elevation and to the east of the wooden structure


2L0 )L010XC~'0~ 0~ 0)
o .


~.> WALLS8

0 ~EL.8-91
IL to I1 Z b or

0 s






9. pS9HLE.


W . I


.. ,oTr-,oL, .



E .






1 T T -7 T 'T


( E L. 6 r0



10 EAST 269 CHARLOTTE STREET 0.00 1.00 20 EAST

.- ,--.-r T .T

Y-. --. T . T

T r
EL. 6.15 1t
T "~r

*' .\ ,
I ( ~ ~ ~ -

(. -






LOTS 267, 269, AND 271
6.00 10.00

a chronologically later habitation area was uncovered. The remains
of a wooden dwelling that existed until the 20th Century were located.
The main feature was the base of a fireplace made of brick and stone.
No other structural remains occurred, aside from post holes in the
yellow sand. It is believed that the post holes date from prehistoric
times rather than Spanish occupation.
Cultural materials were not present in any great numbers under
the tabby floor. Out of the area encompassedby the trenches the only
ceramics found included: 18 majolica sherds; 10 olive jar sherds;
two Mexican red painted sherds; and 52 aboriginal sherds, of which
50 were San Marco Complicated Stamped and 2 St. Johns Plain.
It appears that the earliest Spanish construction in this area was
at the same time as that for the area of 267 Charlotte, and there is
the possibility that it was part of the same building complex.
On the lot at 271 Charlotte Street two shell footings for coquina
walls were found. They were 1.25 feet wide. One wall was 32.75 feet
south of the southwest corner stake of square 10-20 east; the second
wall was 49.20 feet south of the same point. If these were the north
and south walls of a single structure it would have had outside di-
mensions of 17.55 feet. No floors or any other type of features were
found in this area.
In the area of 267, 269 and 271 Charlotte Street the remains of two
or three Spanish buildings were encountered. On lot 267 a coquina
structure with a course of coquina blocks still in place was located.
In lot 269 an early (A. D. 1700-1725) tabby floor appeared and the
question still remains whether or not this was a separate building
from that on lot 267 or was part of it. Another definite coquina
structure was found on lot 271. This structure was not as well built
or as well preserved as that on lot 267.
With more extensive archaeological excavation many of the ques-
tions remaining as to the nature of this complex could be answered.
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida
January, 1963



Cl. B

72 fi~

2' l 12

*>. i1
*y :L3u


S1 i 17

27 2

2,6 2 5


Plate IV
1-2 San Marco Complioated Stamped, 3 St. Johns Checkmtamped, i St. Johns Plain, Strap Handle,
S San Marco Colon-Indian Pitcher Handle, 6 Olive Jar, 7 Roof Tile, 8a-8b Aucilla Pc2ychrome,
9 San Lulas i.S on White, 20-1l Puebla Blue on White, 12 Chinese Porcelain, 13-25 Delft, 16-
17 Marble Ware, 18 Coobed Ware, 19 Rhenish Ware, 20-22 Tranefer ware, 23 Banded White Ware,
21-25 Lead Olaaed Earthemare, 26 Queens Ware, 27-28 Kaolin Pipee, 29 Spanish Bottle Neck, 30
Lead Pencil, 31 Section of Brass Buckle, 32 Pinfire Brass Shotgun Shell Case, 33 Brass Buckle,
31-35 Pistol P,1a 36 Iron Strap Hinge, 37 Ornate Iron Singe.


Index, continued from page 8
McReynolds, Edwin C., reviewed
1957 The Seminoles, review by Charles H. Fairbanks. 10:3-4; 14.
Manucy, Albert C., reviewed
1962a El Morro, review by Charles H. Fairbanks. 15:2; 63.
1962b The Fort at Fredericka, review by Charles H. Fairbanks. 15:2; 63.
Martin, Fletcher
1951 Two field trips. 3:3-4; 35-39.
Martin, Michael, and Gelber, Leonard, reviewed
1953 The New Dictionary of American History, review by Charles H. Fairbanks.
6:2; 73-75.
Milfort, LeClerc, reviewed.
1959 Memoirs, or a Quick Glance at my Various Travels and Sojourns in the Creek
Nation, review by Charles H. Fairbanks. 12:3; inside back cover.
Morrell, L. Ross
1960 Oakland Mound (JE-53), Florida, a preliminary report. 13:4; 101-108.
Morse, Dan, and Morse, Phyllis
1960 A preliminary report on 9-GO-507: the Williams Site, Gordon County, Georgia.
13:4; 81-100.
National Park Service, reviewed
1959 Archeological Excavations at Jamestown, Virginia, review by Charles H. Fair-
banks. 12:4; inside back cover.
Neill, D. D.
1954 Coracles or skin boats of the Southeastern Indians. 7:4; 119-126.
Neill, Wilfred T.
1952a The manufacture of fluted points. 5:1-2; 9-16.
1952b Unusual rattles from Silver Springs, Florida. 5:3-4; 33-35.
1953a See Gut, James H.
1953b Dugouts of the Mikasuki Seminole. 6:3; 77-84.
1954a Graters of the Mikasuki Seminole. 7:2; 75.
1955a The identity of Florida's "Spanish Indians." 8:2; 43-57.
1955b The calumet ceremony of the Seminole Indians. 8:3; 83-88.
1956a Preparation of rubber by the Florida Seminole. 9:1; 25-28.
1956b Sailing vessels of the Florida Seminole. 9:3-4; 79-86.
1957 A note on the Seminole burial from Hialeah, Florida. 10:3-4; 11-14.
1958 A stratified early site at Silver Springs, Florida. 11:2; 33-52.
Neill, Wilfred T., reviewed
1952 Florida's Seminole Indians, review by William C. Sturtevant. 5:3-4; 65.
1957 Florida's Seminole Indians, review by Charles H. Fairbanks. 10:3-4; 14.
Nero, Robert
1956 The surface collector. 9:3-4; 101-103.
Neuman, Robert W.
1959 Two unrecorded vessels from the Purcell Landing Site, Hendry County, Alabama.
12:4; 101-104.
1961 Domesticated corn from a Ft. Walton mound site in Houston County, Alabama.
14:3-4; 75-80.
Olds, Doris L.
1962 Some highlights in the history of Ft. St. Marks. 15:2; 33-40.
Olsen, Stanley J.
1962 Artillery projectiles from the Civil War engagement at Newport, Florida. 15:1;
Ostrander, Ozzie, and Sears, William H.
1960 The Johns Pass Mound. 13:23; 77-79.
Parmalee, Paul W.
1960 See Schalle, Henry Van der
Prage, David
1949 See Goggin, John M.
Peithman, Irving M., reviewed
1957 The Unconquered Seminole Indians, review by Charles H. Fairbanks. 10:3-4; 14.
Plowden, William W., Jr.
1955 Archeology of Rocky Point, Florida. 8:1; 17-22.
Porter, Kenneth W.
1951 Origins of the St. Johns River Seminole: were they Mikasuki? 4:3-4; 39-45.
1960 Thonoto-Sassa: a note on an obscure Seminole village of the early 1820's. 13:4;
Porter, Rita Kristensen
1952 An analysis of Bell Glade Plain rim sherds from two Fisheating Creek sites.
4:3-4; 67-75.
Reeder, G. R.
1952 See Bullen, Ripley P.

Ridaught, Horace, reviewed
1957 Hell's Branch Office. Florida's ChoctawIndians, reviewbyCharles H. Fairbanks.
10:3-4; 14.
Roberts, Frank H. H., reviewed
1959 River Basin Survey Papers, review by Charles H. Fairbanks. 12:1; inside back
Rouse, Irving, reviewed
1951 A Survey of Indian River Archeology, Florida, reviewby John M. Goggin. 4:3-4;77.
Sahlins, M. D., and Service, E. R., reviewed
1962 Evolution and Culture, review by William DeVane. 15:4; 115-116.
Schalie, Henry Van der, and Parmalee, Paul W.
1960 Animal remains from the Etowah Site, Mound C. Bartow County, Georgia.
13:2-3; 37-54.
Schley, Robert
1959 An aboriginal shell mound at Drum Point, Alligator Harbor, Franklin County,
Florida. 12:2; 41-46.
Schmitt, Karl
1950 Two Creek pottery vessels from Oklahoma. 3:1-2; 3-8.
Sears, William H.
1952 An archeological manifestation of a Natchez-type burial ceremony. 5:1-2; 1-7.
1956a The Turner River Site, Collier County, Florida. 9:2; 47-60.
1956b Melton Mound Number 3. 9:3-4; 87-100.
1958a The Maximo Point Site. 11:1; 1-10.
1958b The Grant Site--Br-56. 11:4; 114-124.
1959a A Seminole site in Alachua County. 12:1; 25-30.
1959b A-296--A Seminole site in Alachua County. 12:1; 25-30.
1960a The Bluffton Burial Mound. 13:2-3; 55-60.
1960b See Ostrander, Ozzie.
Sears, William H., reviewed
1951a Excavations at Kolomoki, Season I, review by Ripley P. Bullen. 4:1-2; 32-33.
1951b Excavations at Kolomoki, Season II, review by Ripley P. Bullen, 4:3-4; 76.
Simmons, William Hayne, reviewed
1958 Notices of East Florida with an Account of the Seminole Nation of Indians by a
Recent Traveller in the Province, review by Charles H. Fairbanks. 11:3; inside
back cover.
Simpson, Clarence J.
1948 Folsom-like points from Florida. 1:1-2; 11-15.
Sleight, Frederick W.
1948 Man enters America. 1:1-2; 23-27.
1949a Notes concerning an historic site of central Florida. 2:1-2; 26-30.
1949b Recent discoveries of early man. 2:1-2; 34-35.
1953 Kunti, a food staple of Florida Indians. 6:2; 46-52.
Sleight, Frederick W., reviewed
1959 See Bullen, Ripley P.
Smith, Hale G.
1948 Results of an archeological investigation of a Spanish mission site in Jefferson
County, Florida. 1:1-2; 1-10.
1953 Development of cultures in nuclear America. 6:4; 121-122.
1954 Excavations at La Finca de dos Marias, Camaguey, Cuba. 7:1; 19-21.
1955 Archeological significance of Oriental porcelain in Florida sites. 8:4; 111-116.
Smith, Hale G., reviewed
1950 See Boyd, Mark F.
Smith, Hale G., and Watson, William
1951 Experiments with raw materials utilized by the Florida Indians in ceramic con-
struction. 4:1-2; 18-26.
Solien, Nancie L.
1954 A cultural explanation of geophagy. 7:1; 1-9.
Spangenberg, Robert
1949 See Goggin, John M., et al.
Spence, Gerald S.
1962 See Lazarus, William C.
Spellman, Charles W.
1948 The agriculture of the early north Florida Indians. 1:3-4; 37-48.
Spindler, George, and Spindler, Louise, reviewed
1960 Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology, review byCharles H. Fairbanks. 13:1; 32.
Stackett, William M.
1958 See Bullen, Ripley P.

Stafford, Harry Erald, reviewed
1959 The Early Inhabitants of the Americas, review by Charles H. Fairbanks. 12:3;
inside back cover.
Sturtevant, William C.
1954 The medicine bundles and busks of the Florida Seminole. 7:2; 31-70.
1956 R. H. Pratt's report on the Seminole in 1879. 9:1; 1-24.
1962 A newly discovered 1838 drawing of a Seminole dance. 15:3; 73-82.
Swanton, John R., reviewed
1948 The Indians of the Southeastern UnitedStates, reviewby Hale G. Smith. 1:1-2; 29.
Tebeau, Charlton U., reviewed
1958 Florida's Last Frontier. The History of Collier County, review by Charles H.
Fairbanks. 11:2; inside back cover.
Underhill, Ruth, reviewed
1953 Red Man's America: A History of Indians in the United States, review by Robert
Anderson. 6:2; 69-72.
Van Campens, J. T., reviewed
1959 St. Augustine, Capital of La Florida, review by Charles H. Fairbanks. 12:3;
inside back cover.
Voss, Gilbert L.
1949 An Indian Mound at Hypoluxo, Palm Beach County. 2:1-2; 31-33.
Warren, Lyman O.
1962 Early pottery in the Tampa Bay area. 15:3; 71-72.
Watson, William
1951 See Smith, Hale G.
Webb, Clarence, reviewed
1960 The Belcher Mound: A Stratified Caddoan Site in Caddo Parrish, Louisiana,
review by Charles H. Fairbanks. 13:1; 32.
Webb. William S., and DeJarnette, David L., reviewed
1948 The Flint River Site: Mao48, review by Ripley P. Bullen. 1:3-4; 75-77.
Weigel, Robert D.
1959 Bird remains from South Indian Field, Florida. 12:3; 73-74.
Whisenaut, Blake
1952 See Bullen, Ripley P., et al.
Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Crystal River, Florida: a 1949 visit. 2:3-4; 41-46.
1954 Burial patterns in the Burns and Fuller Mounds, Cape Canaveral, Florida. 7:3;
Williams, Stephen, reviewed
1962 A Paperback Bibliography in Anthropology and Related Subjects, review by Char-
les H. Fairbanks. 15:1; 32.
Wulsin, Frederick R.
1953 Hot weather and high achievement. 6:4; 103-120.
Ameila Island: R. P. Bullen, 1952.
Arch Creek: D. D. Laxson, 1957.

Barnhill Mound: R. P. Bullen, 1957.
Battery Point: A. K. Bullen, 1953, 1954; G. Coates, 1955.
Bayport Mounds: W. C. Lazarus, 1962.
Big Circle Mounds: R. Allen, 1948.
Bluffton: R. Bullen, 1955, 1958; W. T. Neill, 1954; W. H. Sears, 1960.
Bricknell Point: D. D. Laxson, 1959.
Buck Mound: W. C. Lazarus, 1960.
Burns Mound: G. Willey, 1954.

Carrabelle: R. McDonald, 1951.
Childersburg: E. B. Kurjack, 1961.
Crystal River: R. P. Bullen, 1953; G. Willey, 1949.

Davis Mound: R. P. Bullen, 1954.
Davis Point West: R. B. Adams, 1957.
Drum Point: R. Schley, 1959.

Etowah: H. Van der Schalie, 1960.

Fisheating Creek: J. M. Goggin, 1951; R. K. Porter, 1952.
Florida Caverns: R. P. Bullen, 1949.
Ft. St. Marks: D. Olds, 1962.
Fuller Mound: G. Willey, 1954.

Gard: R. P. Bullen, 1951.
Goodland Point: J. M. Goggin, 1950.
Grant: W. H. Sears, 1958.
Grossman Hammock: M. J. Brooks, 1956.

Harbor Key: R. P. Bullen, 1952.
Harris Creek: F. F. Bushnell, 1960.
Hialeah: D. D. Laxson, 1953a, 1953b, 1954a, 1954b, 1957.
Horseshoe Bend: C. H. Fairbanks, 1962.
Horseshoe Island: P. Cabeen, 1955.
Hypoluxo: G. L. Voss, 1949.

Johns Pass: O. Ostrander, 1960.
Johnson Lake: R. P. Bullen, 1959.
Jupiter Inlet: B. DuBois, 1957.

Kimball Midden: C. A. Benson, 1962.

La Finca de dos Marias: H. G. Smith, 1954.
Lehigh: D. D. Laxson, 1959.
Little River: D. D. Laxson, 1959.

Madden: D. D. Laxson, 1957.
Manatee Springs: R. P. Bullen, 1953.
Marshall Bluff: C. Carlson, 1961.
Maximo Point: F. Bushnell, 1962; W. H. Sears, 1958.
Medley: D. D. Laxson, 1959.
Melton Mound: W. H. Sears, 1956.
Miami Springs: D. D. Laxson, 1959.
Maney's Bend: B. Keel, 1960, 1961.
Morrison Springs: W. C. Lazarus, 1961.

Newport: S. J. Olsen, 1962.
Norman Mound: L. H. Larson, 1957.

Ocmulgee: C. Irwin, 1959.
Oakland Mound: R. Morrell, 1960.

Pau Pau Mound: C. Benson, 1956.
Perico Island: R. P. Bullen, 1951.
Pine Harbor: L. H. Larsbn, 1955.
Poverty Point: W. C. Lazarus, 1958.
Purcell Landing- R. Norman, 1959.

Red Road: D. D. Laxson, 1959.
Rocky Point: W. Plowden, 1955.

Seaborn Mound: R. Neuman, 1961.
Shell Mound: R. P. Bullen, 1960.
Silver Bluff: J. Eaton, 1962.
Silver Springs: W. T. Neill, 1958.
Snake Creek: D. D. Laxson, 1959.
Snapper Creek: J. M. Goggin, 1951.
South Indian Field: R. Weigel, 1959.
Starks Hammock: L. Aten, 1961.
Summer Haven: A. K. Bullen, 1961.

Tamiami Trail: D. D. Laxson, 1959.
Turner River: W. H. Sears, 1956.

Uleta River: D. D. Laxson, 1961.
Usseppa Island: J. W. Griffin, 1950.

Vance: R. P. Bullen, 1962.

Wash Island: A. K. Bullen, 1961.
Whittaker: R. P. Bullen, 1950.
Williams: D.~'orse, 1960.
Woodward: R. P. Bullen, 1950.


Cherokee Co.: B. C. Keel, 1960, 1961.
Henry Co.: R. W. Neuman, 1959.
Houston Co.: R. W. Neuman, 1961.

Alachua Co.: J. M. Goggin, 1949; W. H. Sears, 1959.
Brevard Co.: C. A. Benson, 1956.
Broward Co.: D. D. Laxson, 1959b, 1962.
Collier Co.: W. H. Sears, 1956.
Dade Co.: M J. Brooks, 1956; D. D. Laxson, 1957, 1959a, 1959b, 1959c, 1962.
Franklin Co.: R. Schley, 1959.
Hardee Co.: R. P. Bullen, 1954b.
Hendry Co.: R. Allen, 1948.
Hernando Co.: A. K. Bullen, 1953, 1954; G. C. Coates, 1955.
Jefferson Co.: H. G. Smith, 1948.
Lake Co.: C. A. Benson, 1962; P. Cabeen, 1955.
Levy Co.: R. P. Bullen, 1960.
Manatee Co.: W. J. Armistead, 1959; R. P. Bullen, 1952.
Marion Co.: R. P. Bullen, 1959.
Okaloosa Co.: G. L. Adams, 1960.
Palm Beach Co. : R. P. Bullen, 1957; G. L. Voss, 1949.
Putnam Co.: R. P. Bullen, 1958.
St. Johns Co.: A. K. Bullen, 1961.
Santa Rosa Co.: W. C. Lazarus, 1961b.
Sarasota Co.: R. P. Bullen, 1950b.
Volusia Co.: L. E. Aten, 1961; R. P. Bullen, 1955a; F. F. Bushnell, 1960; C. Carlson,
1961; J. W. Griffin, 1948; H. J. Gut, 1953; W. T. Neill, 1954a.

Bartow Co.: H. Van der Schalie, 1960; D. Morse, 1960; L. H. Larson, 1955, 1957.
Alachua Co., Fla.,: Goggin et al., 1949; W. H. Sears, 1959.
Central Florida: F. Sleight, 1949.
Central Florida: F. Sleight, 1949.
Childersburg, Ala.: E. B. Kurjack, 1961.
Dade Co., Fla.: D. D. Laxson, 1959a, 1959b, 1959c, 1962; W. T. Neill, 1957.
Horseshoe Bend, Ala.: C. H. Fairbanks, 1962b.
Newport, Civil War: S. J. Olsen, 1962.
Ocmulgee, Ga., English Period: C. Irwin, 1959.
Santa Rosa Co., Fla.: W. C. Lazarus, 1961b.
Silver Bluff, S. C. : J. Eaton, 1962a.
Spanish Mission, Jefferson Co., Fla.: H. G. Smith, 1948.
Culture Periods
Archaic: W. T. Neill, 1958.
Deptford: L. E. Aten, 1961; R. P. Bullen, 1960; L. R. Morrell, 1960; D. Morse, 1960.
Etowah: H. Van der Schalie, 1960.
Ft. Walton: G. L. Adams, 1960; W. C. Lazarus, 1961; R. W. Neuman, 1961; 0. Ostrander,
Glades: D. D. Laxson, 1957a, 1957c, 1959a, 1959b, 1959c, 1961, 1962; R. K. Porter, 1952.
Irene: L. H. Larson, 1955, 1957.
Middle Woodland: B. C. Keel, 1960, 1961.
Orange: A. K. Bullen, 1961a, 1961b; F. F. Bushnell, 1960; C. Carlson, 1961; R. D. Weigel,
St. Johns: L. E. Aten, 1961; F. F. Bushnell, 1960; R. P. Bullen, 1960, 1962a; C. Carlson,
Sub-Taino: H. G. Smith, 1954.
Weeden Island: R. B. Adams, 1957; R. P. Bullen, 1962a; W. C. Lazarus, 1960; R. Schley,


Animal Food
H. Van der Schalie, 1960; R. D. Weigel, 1959.
W. T. Arnett, 1953; E. M. Fearney, 1953.
Amateur: C. H. Fairbanks, 1962a.
Summary--1950: J. M. Goggin, 1950b.
Surface Collectors: R. Nero, 1956.
Historic: J. M. Goggin, et al., 1949; D. D. Laxson, 1954; W. T. Neill, 1957.
Natchez-type: W. H. Sears, 1952.
Busycon Gouges
R. P. Bullen & W. M. Sackett, 1958.
K. Aga-Oglu, 1955; R. Bullen & D. Laxson, 1954; C. H. Fairbanks, 1958; R. K. Porter,
1952; H. G. Smith, 1955; L. O. Warren, 1962.
R. P. Bullen, 1956, 1958a; R. P. Bullen & W. M. Sackett, 1958; J. Eaton, 1962; J. M.
Goggin, 1948; J. W. Griffin, 1948; C. Irwin, 1959; B. C. Keel, 1961; E. B. Kurjack, 1961.
Early Man
F. W. Sleight, 1949.
Anderson, 1953; W. T. Arnett, 1953; M. F. Boyd, 1958; L. Capron, 1956; J. Covington,
1960; D. R. Dyer, 1953; E. C. Freeman, 1961; J. M. Goggin, 1951b; R. F. Greenlee,
1952; J. W. Griffin, 1957; J. H. Howard, 1959; L. H. Larson, 1958; D. D. Neill, 1954; W.
T. Neill, 1952a, 1953, 1955a, 1955b, 1956a, 1956b; K. W. Porter, 1951, 1960; F. W.
Sleight, 1948; H. G. Smith, 1953; N. L. Solien, 1954; C. W. Spellman, 1948; W. C. Sturte-
vant, 1954, 1956, 1962; F. R. Wulsin, 1953.
C. A. Benson, 1959.
D. L. Olds, 1962; S. J. Olsen, 1962.
L. H. Larson, 1955; W. C. Lazarus, 1960.
Plummet Pendants: J. M. Goggin, 1949.
Southern Cult Specimen: J. M. Goggin, 1949.
R. P. Bullen, 1962c; W. B. Griffen, 1960; W. C. Lazarus, 1962.
J. Clarence Simpson, 1952, by John W. Griffin.
John R. Swanton, 1958, by Charles H. Fairbanks.
Physical Anthropology
R. P. Bullen, 1952; W. M. Krogman, 1948.
Plant Foods
E. de Boyeris Moya, 1957; D. Morse, 1960; W. T. Neill, 1954b, 1956a; R. W. Neuman,
1961; F. W. Sleight, 1953; C. W. Spellman, 1948; W. C. Sturtevant, 1956.
Points, Bone
H. J. Gut, 1953.
Points, Folsom-like (Suwannee)
R. P. Bullen, 1962b; C. J. Simpson, 1948.
Pottery, Single Items
R. P. Bullen, 1954a, 1958b, 1959; C. H. Fairbanks, 1962c; R. W. Neuman, 1959; K.
Schmitt, 1950.
S. T. Walker
R. P. Bullen, 1951c.
Shell Gorgets
W. J. Armistead, 1959; D. D. Laxson, 1961.
Stone, Worked
W. J. Armistead, 1950; J. W. Griffin, 1952c; C. J. Simpson, 1948.
E. de Boyeris Moya, 1957; W. T. Neill, 1952, 1954, 1956; F. W. Sleight, 1953; H. G.
Smith, 1951.
R. P. Bullen, 1955b.
William L. Bryant Archeological Foundation
W. J. Bryant, 1955.


Glenn Gustafson

A description of the test pit at Mulberry Midden with analysis of ceramics and faunal
remains. Ceramics were Belle Glade Plain, St. Johns Plain and St. Johns Check Stamped.

Through the cooperation of landowner Mr. Irlo Bronson, and Dr.
William H. Sears of the Florida State Museum, it was possible for
me to make a test dig in Mulberry Midden.
This site is found on the north shore of Lake Kissimmee and has
the dimensions of 115 by 190 feet, giving it an elliptical appearance.
It is approximately one mile from the lake, and in the vicinity of a
large cabbage palm hammock, which would account for its covering
of 34 cabbage palm trees and short prairie grass. Its exact position
is readily located as The Corps of Engineers--Dept. of the Army
Benchmark No. KR305 is set at its midpoint.
The test dig was a 5 by 5 foot plot. Its position in relation to the
mound is shown by the diagram in fig. 1.
Layer 1, the 0 ins.-4 ins. level was sterile, hence determined its
own depth.
Layer 2, the 4 ins.-10 ins. level contained a majority of St. John's
Plain sherds, and as cah be expected in such a site all sherds were
rather small in dimension. Other ceramics present in this layer
were Belle Glades Plain and St. John's CheckStamp. Other materials
excavated were 4 hematite nodules, 43 wire-like metal fragments
(some made up of 2 twisted strands), and 2 metal staples.
Layer 3, the 10 ins.-16 ins. level contained an abundance of Belle
Glades Plain along with St. John's Check Stamped and St. John's
Plain sherds. Hematite nodules, 4 in number, were also found in
this layer.
Layer 4, the 16 ins.-22 ins. level also contained a majority of Belle
Glades Plain sherds. The only other type present being St. John's
Plain. Hematite nodules were again present.
A complete breakdown of sherd types and numbers and rim types
for layers 2, 3 and 4, may be found in figs. 2 and 3 respectively.
The soil was mostly light colored sand mixed with clay and some
loam, for layers 1, 2, and 3, with a sharp change in color (darker)
between layers 3 and 4 showing the presence of a large fireplace.
Charcoal and animal remains were present throughout layers 2-4.
The Florida Anthropologist, Volume XVI, No. 1, March 1963.

X Test pit

C Evidence of plunder

O Cabbage palas

* Benchmark No. S3M05

Figure 1 Malberry Midden

St. John's
Check Stamped





Belle Glades






Figure 2

B iure 3 n ype

Figure 3 Rim Types


Layer 2 A, B, 0, D

Layer 3 A, B, C, D, E
Layer 4 B, 0, D, I

Layer 1

Layer 2

Layer 3

Layer 4

Total #


St. John's






I would like to take this opportunity to extend my appreciation to
Dr. E. Wing of the Florida State Museum for her following analysis
of the animal remains from the test site.

Faunal remains from the test pit in the Mulberry Midden.

The faunal remains consist of 41 bone fragments representing
at least 6 different animal species.

Table indicating numbers of bones excavated and minimum num-
bers of individuals represented:

Species Number of bones Minimum number
of individuals

Odocoileus virginianus 12 3

Sylvilagus sp. 2 2

Pseudemys sp. 12 2

Terrapene carolina 1 1

box turtle
Trionyx ferox 4 2

soft shell turtle

Unidentified turtle 8 2
Unidentified teleost 2 1

There is no significant difference in the kinds of animals or their
abundance in the three levels although such a stratigraphic change
would hardly be expected in such a small collection. It is evident
that throughout the occupation of the site the Indians were able to
catch the same animals, and the ecology in the area around the site
did not change radically enough to eliminate any of the species

Two habitats near the site are indicated by the faunal assemblage.
An aquatic situation that would be required by the terrapin and
soft-shelled turtle and the fish. And a relatively dry hammock or
flatwoods required by deer and box turtle. The rabbit remains do
not provide further information about the habitats as it is not
possible to determine whether these remains are of marsh rabbit
or cottontail.

E. Wing
Florida State Museum


Figure 4 Test Pit near completion of layer 3.

Figure 5 Mulberry Midden (viewing from west).


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2 .



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