The Florida anthropologist

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The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title:
Fla. anthropol.
Florida Anthropological Society
Place of Publication:
Florida Anthropological Society.
Publication Date:
Quarterly[<Mar. 1975- >]
Two no. a year[ FORMER 1948-]
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 24 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- May 1948-

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
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Resource Identifier:
01569447 ( OCLC )
56028409 ( LCCN )
0015-3893 ( ISSN )


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Volume XIII Nos. 2-3
September, 1960

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a publication of the florida anthropological society

Volume XIII, Nos. 2-3

September, 1960

The Stetson Collection ........... ..... ... William B. Griffen 33
Animal Remains from the Etowah Site, Mound C, Bartow County,
Georgia . ... Henry van der Schalie and Paul W. Parmalee 37
SPart 1: Mollusks . . . ... Henry van der Schalie 39
Part 2: Vertebrates . . . ..... Paul W. Parmalee 47
The Bluffton Burial Mound . . . ..... W. H. Sears 55
Human Figurines from the Coast of Northwest Florida
............................... William C. Lazarus 61
English Gifts to the Indians: 1765-1766 . ... James Covington 71
Book Review: The Archeology of the Childersburg Site, Alabama
................. David L. Delarnette and Asael T. Hansen 76
The Johns Pass Mound .................. .. Ozzie Ostrander 77

Contributors to this Issue .........

GIST is published quarterly by
the Florida Anthropological So-
ciety, during the months of
March, June, September and
December. Subscription is by member-
ship, which is open to all interested in
the aims of the Society. Annual dues are
$3.00 (students $1.50) of which $1.25 is
for subscription to THE FLORIDA AN-
THROPOLOGIST and other publications
as issued.


Membership applications, orders for back
issues Treasurer
General inquiries Secretary
Newsletter items President
Manuscripts Editor (An information
sheet regarding manuscript preparation
is available upon request)

. . . . . 80

PRESIDENT Marvin J. Brooks
805 NW 15th Ct., Miami 33
Ist VICE PRES. William Lazarus
103 South Bay Drive
Ft. Walton Beach
2nd VICE PRES. E. Y. Guernsey
Box 426, Cocoa Beach
TREASURER Harry L. Goetz
5012 Suwannee, Tampa 3
William C. Sturtevant
Smithsonian Inst., Wash., D. C.
Cliff E. Maddox
209 Beverly Rd., Cocoa
EDITOR Mrs. William Massey
1018 NE 28th Ave., Gainesville
Charles Fairbanks
Florida State U., Tallahassee
W. H. Sears
Florida State Museum, Gainesville

The Stetson Collection
William B. Griffen

IN THE UNITED STATES-and especially within the state of Florida-
there exist a great many documents, mostly reproductions of originals,
which relate to the Colonial Period of Florida History. This Colonial
Period of over 300 years, with the exception of some twenty years of
British rule and a much shorter period in the sixteenth century when the
French flag flew over Florida, is the story of the peninsula's role in
Spain's empire in America. This means, of course, that the great bulk of
sources covering the events and general development during these long...
years are written in Spanish and in the main the originals of these
sources are found in the archives of Hispanic countries such as Spain,
Cuba, and Mexico.
Of the several collections of these documents available in the state
of Florida, the largest single one is that of the late John B. Stetson, Jr.
This collection, usually referred to as the Stetson Collection, consists
of approximately 100,000 sheets (Robertson, p. 18) of photostatic copies
of manuscript documents from the General Archives of the Indies in
Seville, Spain, and some thousands of typescripts covering the English
period of Florida from the British Public Record Office. It also contains
a great deal of the correspondence between Mr. Stetson and Dr. James
Alexander Robertson regarding activities of the now defunct Florida State
Historical Society. (Chapman, p. 7). At present, the collection is owned
by the University of Florida and is available to scholars at the P. K.
Yonge Library of Florida History at the University.
Aside from the Stetson Collection, there are other collections of
Colonial Floridiana such as the Lowery collection, the North Carolina
Collection and the Papeles Procedentes de Cuba also on file at the P.K.
Yonge Library of Florida History, as well as elsewhere in the state. All
of these collections of Spanish documents comprise letters and reports
from religious, military, and administrative officials covering a wide
range of topics and in them can be found information valuable to re-
searchers with a variety of interests. Besides the more usual kinds of
history, these papers contain data on the historical ethnography and cul-
tural geography of Florida of interest to the archaeologist and culture

The story of the Stetson Collection begins soon after the formation
of the old Florida State Historical Society in 1921. Sometime before this
date Mr. Stetson had made the acquaintance of Mrs. Jeanette Thurber
Connor, the well-known scholar and researcher into Florida's Hispanic

The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XIII, Nos. 2-3, September, 1960

past. These two persons had been working independently on their respec-
tive interests in Florida history. Following their meeting at the Library
of Congress, their energies were pooled and as Robertson has put it,
"quite naturally, the result was the formation of the Florida State His-
torical Society." This organization's charter explicitly stated that two of
its principal objectives were to collect and to publish primary source
material relating to Florida history. (Robertson, pp. 16-17).
By the year 1914, Mrs. Connor had already become deeply interested
in Spanish Florida history. Sometime following this year she engaged the
services of Miss Irene A. Wright to help her obtain transcripts of docu-
ments from the Seville Archives for her own work. (Robertson, p. 16).
.After the founding of the Historical Society, Dr. James A. Robertson, who
during the 1920's held the posts of Executive Secretaryand General Editor
of the Society plus the position of Research Professor at the John B.
Stetson University in Florida, (Wilgus, p. 9) was selected to direct the
work of collecting Florida documentary materials from the Seville Archivo
General de Indias. Miss Wright was then employed to perform the actual
selection and photostating of the manuscripts, while Mr. Stetson footed
the bill of this costly undertaking. (Chapman, p. 7).
A photostat machine was installed in the Archivo and photocopying
was begun in 1924. (Mearns, b; Robertson, p. 17). Work was carried on
until August, 1927, when photostating was stopped owing to a decree
issued by the Ministerio de Bellas Artes restricting the reproduction of
manuscripts. However, the Historical Society continued to receive the
photostats already taken until the early part of 1928. (Robertson, p. 17).
These photostats were apparently kept by the Society until sometime
around its termination in the early 1930's when financial reverses stem-
ming from the Depression caused its demise. (Mearns, b; Chapman, p. 7;
Wilgus, p. 10).
Dr. Robertson died in March of 1939. (Wilgus, p. 14). Between the
termination of the Historical Society and his death, the Stetson papers
were stored in Robertson's office (personal conversation with Dr. A. C.
Wilgus) in Takoma Park, Maryland, perhaps being taken there soon after
the end of the Society. (Mearns, b). Then, between the months of Decem-
ber, 1939, and October, 1940, the Collection was sent to the Library of
Congress in four separate lots. Here it stayed-although never the proper-
ty of the Library-until it was sent to the University of Florida. During
the Collection's sojourn at the Library of Congress it remained "not open
to investigators." (Mearns, a).
Later, Dr. Rembert W. Patrick began negotiations to obtain the Col-
lection for the University of Florida where he was Professor of History.
(At present Dr. Patrick holds the Julien C. Yonge Graduate Research Pro-
fessorship of History at the same institution). Success was in the offing
--the collection was finally acquired and at no cost to the University.
For the most part this was achieved as a gift, although part of the col-

election was purchase e d with funds donated by Mrs. Alfred I. Dupont.
(Chapman, p. 7).

In August of 1952, the first shipment of some 11,500 photostats was
made to the University of Florida. The main portion of the Collection was
sent almost two years later, in July of 1954. Somewhat over a year after-
wards, a small amount of remaining Stetson documents were discovered
at the Library of Congress; these were shipped to Mr. Julien C. Yonge at
the University of Florida in November 1955. The sole obligation of the
Library of Congress during this time had been to take care of the collec-
tion and to finish the index started by Dr. Robertson. (Mearns, a).
Since this time the Stetson Collection has remained at the University
of Florida. In 1957, the St. Augustine Historical Society began a project
to make a calendar of the Collection. This calendar is still in the process
of completion although all the documents of the First Spanish Occupation
have now been described on calendar cards. Into this calendar have also
been integrated the excellent calendars prepared by Mr. Albert C. Manucy,
of the National Park Service, of the North Carolina Collection of Docu-
ments on Spanish Florida, the Lowery Collection, the collection of letters
from the Spanish Florida Governor Manuel de Montiano, and the calendar
of Florida maps (located at the Castillo de San Marcos in Saint Augus-
tine). Some documents on Pensacola history from theLibrary of Congress,
Washington, D. C., and from the Newberry Library, Chicago, have also
been included. The cards of this not-yet-complete central index of Co-
lonial Floridiana are on file at the Library of the Saint Augustine His-
torical Society where they are available for use by researchers. A micro-
film of this integrated calendar is also on file in the P. K. Yonge Library
at the University of Florida.

The Stetson photostats described in this calendar consist of more
than 78,000 pages which fall within the dates of the First Spanish Period,
1513 to 1763, and a few documents of a later date which are retroactive
to this period. For each document a calendar card has been made which
summarizes the contents of the document. On each card is noted the
archival reference number, the date, the place of origin, the originator,
the recipient, the number of pages in the document, the collections)
and/or location, and the type of document (original, photostat, microfilm,
etc.). In addition to the above calendaring project, a few scholars have
used the collection for research purposes since it has been at the Uni-
versity of Florida.
The great majority of the Stetson photostats at the P. K. Yonge Li-
brary are filed in individual folders, although there are a few loose docu-
ments without folders. A number of the documents thus filed contain

more than one letter although most of the papers in any one folder pertain
roughly to a single topic. With regard to readability, these photostats are
for the most part clear, and faulty reproduction is hardly a problem. Illeg-
ibility owing to damaged originals, that is, originals which have been
torn, watersoaked, or have undergone some similar mishap, occurs in a
very small percentage. However, quite a few of the originals were written
on both sides of the paper and the ink of one side has penetrated through,
blotching or confounding the writing on the reverse side. Also, the script
itself sometimes is not the clearest and more than a few of the scribes
sported rather poor orthography. Possibly of interest to the general reader
is that during the sixteenth and early part of the seventeenth centuries a
backhand style called encadenado, or "enchained," which links several
or most of the words of a single line together is often encountered, to
further hinder the researcher.
The temporal distribution of the Stetson documents over the years of
Colonial Spanish Florida is not uniform. The early years of the sixteenth
century are sparsely covered. Around the 1560's, the time of Pedro
Menendez de Aviles and the founding of Saint Augustine, the number of
documents for each year increases and is maintained with some fluctua-
tion until a little after 1610, when it decreases. In the last half of the
seventeenth century, especially around the beginning of the construction
of the stone Castillo de San Marcos (1672), the number of documents
picks up again and continues into the early years of the eighteenth
century. A drop-off occurs around the 1720's,but the number of letters
jumps voluminously in the Oglethorpe period (ca. 1740), following which
there is a moderate number until 1763. The Second Spanish Occupation is
also represented by a rather small number of documents although these
have not yet been calendared and the exact number is unknown. As pre-
viously stated, the Collection includes some thousands of typescripts
relating to the English Occupation of Florida.

1960. Florida Collections in Florida Libraries, (unpublished). MS.
1960. (Chief, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress), personal
communications, a) Letter of May 4. b) Letter of June 20.
1930. "The Spanish Manuscripts of the Florida State Historical
Society." Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society.
New Series, Vol. 39, April 17, 1929-October 16, 1929,Worces-
ter, Massachusetts.
1942. "The Life of James Alexander Robertson."Hispanic American
Essays. A Memorial to James Alexander Robertson. (ed. A.C.
Wilgus). Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.


The Etowah Site, Mound C


Henry van der Schalie and Paul W. Parmalee


THE ETOWAH SITE, located three miles southwest of Cartersville,
Bartow County, Georgia, consists of three large ceremonial or temple
mounds clustered together near the north bank of the Etowah River, with
smaller domiciliary mounds in the surrounding area. The main concentra-
tion of mounds and village occupation comprises approximately 40 acres
and the general periods of occupancy range from the Etowah Culture
Periods I to IV (1,1000-1,500 A.D.), through the Wilbanks Culture Period
(1,500-1,600) to the early historic Cherokee (1,600-1,700).
Mound C, like the other two large mounds (A and B) at Etowah, was
four-sided with a flat top intended primarily as a temple foundation. The
mound had a number of building periods, each marked by the addition of
a new layer (mantle) of clay to the sides and top. The addition of a new
mantle, usually of a single type of clay and distinct from the preceding
layer, may have taken place at the beginning of a ceremonial cycle,
following the deliberate destruction of the old temple. Supposedly there
was a ramp which ran from the ground level to the top of the mound on
the east side, although no trace of such a ramp exists today. Extensive
traces of a palisade, in the form of post-holes, have been found surround-
ing the base of the last construction phase of the mound. A second pali-
sade (probably a light pole fence) encircled an earlier mound phase.
The time span at Etowah (Mound C) is involved and not all periods
of occupation have as yet been clearly defined. The premound refuse pits

The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XIII, Nos. 2-3, September, 1960 37

as well as some of the material from certain upper-level structures belong
on a Hiwassee Island level. The last construction phase of the mound
belongs on a Wilbanks Level but the early building phases are as yet
somewhat indeterminate insofar as a temporal position is concerned;
probably some of the construction phases are pre-Wilbanks and, therefore,
fit into the Etowah III or IV Period. After the pits were filled with Etowah
Periods II and III refuse, occupation continued during Etowah Period IV
in the same area, as indicated by the two-foot layer of refuse above the
pits. Etowah IV exhibits a wider range of pottery types, including a late
Etowah complicated stamped ware (Savannah Complicated Stamped), a
large series of undecorated but beautifully smoothed and burnished wares,
and a certain amount of painted pottery and rims of effigy vessels (Kelly
and Larson, 1957).
Pottery of the Wilbanks Period is a fairly homogeneous assemblage
of very heavy, gritty, friable domestic ware which is primarily decorated
with a crudely executed and badly applied complicated stamp. The Etowah
Period IV and the Savannah complicated stamps are clearly defined pat-
terns, with the pottery thinner and much stronger. According to Kelly and
Larson (op. cit.), "The deterioration in ceramic art by Wilbanks times is
very striking. It is as if in their desperation and inability to produce a
satisfactory, durable pottery, the Wilbanks people compensated by simple
massive reinforcement and size." Their pottery consisted mainly of
huge cooking vessels and heavy dishes; the rims were thick and plain,
with almost no attempt at modeling or decoration.
Over 100 human burials were found in Mound C, the majority of which
occurred around the edge of the final mound construction, and a large
number and variety of cultural artifacts have been recovered. Probably no
single mortuary structure in the Southeastern culture area has proved to
be so rich in ritualistic paraphernalia as this mound. The objects re-
covered from burials (burial customs suggestive of the "Southern Cult")
indicate a highly organized and complex religious pattern characterized
by special ceremonials, priests with elaborate and distinctive costumes,
and a variety of unique symbols. Probably the most sensational find was
the discovery of two human figures (male and female), carved from
Georgia marble, each of which was two feet in height and weighed nearly
100 pounds. The variety of other artifacts included items such as: conch-
shell bowls; conch columella pendants; copper hair ornaments, celts,
copper-covered wooden beads, plaques, plates and a horned headdress;
stone human effigies, celts, pipes and a monolithic axe; pots, effigy jars
and bowls; galena; mica; carved wooden objects; flint projectile points,
knives and ceremonial blades; several kinds of cloth; pearl and shell
beads and bone awls.
Archaeological explorations had been made at the Etowah Site prior
to 1900 although it was not until the years 1925-1927 that portions of the
site (primarily Mound C) were extensively excavated. The comprehensive

report by Moorehead (1932) deals with the history of the site, his find-
ings at Etowah, and his attempt to show cultural affiliations with other
groups based on significant artifacts which were recovered. Apparently
through the efforts of Dr. Frank C. Baker, a sample of the shell found
during Moorehead's excavation was retained and the specimens identified
(F. C. Baker: Molluscan Shells from Etowah Mounds, pp. 145-149); un-
fortunately, however, the bone refuse was apparently not kept.
In June, 1954, the Georgia Historical Commission and the University
of Georgia, Department of Anthropology and Archaeology, began a de-
tailed exploration of Mounds B and C. During the field work in 1954, 1955
and 1956 a quantity of significant artifacts were recovered (Kelly and
Larson, 1957) as well as several thousand specimens of mollusks and
vertebrates; excavations in 1957 and 1958 added considerably more ma-
terial. Lewis H. Larson, Jr., Archaeologist, Georgia Historical Commis-
sion, Cartersville, was in charge of the excavation of Mound C, and the
authors would like to express their appreciation to him for making this
excellent faunal sample available for study. Identification of the various
species of snails, clams and fresh-water mussels was made by the co-
authors, while the vertebrate species were determined by Paul W.
Parmalee unless otherwise acknowledged.

Henry van der Schalie

THE MOLLUSKS found in mounds at the Etowah site in Georgia were
reported by F. C. Baker (1932) in W. K. Moorehead's "Exploration of the
Etowah Site." It is now possible to compare the shells obtained in recent
(1954 to 1958) studies of Mound C with the mollusks reported from that
area by Baker. The current excavations yielded many additional species.
As a result, this newer information will occasion some changes in con-
cepts previously presented when fewer species were available. It is also
important to consider all of the mollusks recovered to date in relation to
the known recent fauna of the Coosa River drainage to which the Etowah
region belongs.
Baker and others have indicated that aboriginal people made exten-
sive use of the rich mollusk materials in their immediate environment.
Although the presence of marine species is clearly an indication of trade
relations or routes of travel, most of the shell remains are of local origin,
the animal itself being used as food, the shells in the construction of
tools or implements, as well as jewelry. Baker compared the marine and

fresh-water species from the mounds of Georgia with those from Hopewell,
Cahokia, and Illinois Valley mounds to the north. For convenience, a list
of the species, following the group arrangement of Baker, will be pre-
sented and comparisons then will be made between the earlier and the
later discoveries.

Although the land mollusks recovered in Mound C were represented
by relatively few species, as compared to the many available in the
Etowah region, the following four species were among the larger snails
inhabiting the area and were probably used as food:

Anguispira alternate (Say)
Forty-three specimens of the Tiger Snail were recovered from Mound C.
This snail occupies a wide variety of habitats but tends to be abundant
in areas where there is much litter and down timber. It is usually com-
mon enough to serve as a good source of food.

Triodopsis albolabris major (Binney)
This Polygyrid (2 specimens recovered) is among the largest and most
widespread of the land shells; it undoubtedly grew to a maximum size
in the limestone region surrounding the Etowah drainage where it could
serve as a substantial food.

Mesodon thyroidus (Say)
Twelve specimens of this mollusk were found. It is usually very com-
mon today on flood plains of rivers where it lives among litter. Although
not as large as the previous species, it attains a shell dimension of 2
to 3 centimeters. It is far more abundant where it occurs than most
Polygyrids and would, perhaps, be more likely to be used for food than
any of the four species found in Mound C.

Triodopsis obstricto (Say)
While this species (2 specimens recovered) is not as common as the
other three listed here, its shell may average 2.5 centimeters in diame-
ter and the animal is sufficiently large to be used as a food. It tends to
be more localized through habitat preference.
Hitherto, land snails were not listed among the animal materials
found at the Etowah site. Their shells are somewhat smaller and more
fragile than the aquatic snails and the mussels which are represented
far more abundantly. Hence these shells may not be preserved as well as
those that have proven more abundant.

Since the time of the first report on the Etowah site, some useful

papers have been published on the snail fauna of the Coosa drainage.
Prior to the installation of the several power dams throughout the course
of the Coosa with the attendant alterations in the fauna of the river, H.H.
Smith was able to make extensive collections of mollusks there. He was
a professional collector supported by Bryant Walker, George Clapp and
Truman Aldrich. The specimens collected by Smith in his explorations
were used by Goodrich (1936; 1941; and 1944) in studies of the snails
inhabiting the Coosa drainage. These reports and the specimens available
in the Museum of Zoology have been used to establish the identity of the
species given in the following enumeration of operculate snails now
known to be associated with the mounds at the Etowah site. Table 1 in-
cludes both the species listed by Baker (1932) and those recently un-

Table I. Enumeration and Comparison of Fresh-Water Operculates
from Mound C, Etowah Site, with those reported by Baker

Species Number of Species Number of
Mound C Specimens Baker (1932) Specimens

Goniobasis capillaris (Lea) 2244
Goniobasis coelatura 13 = Goniobasis decorate 20
(Conrad) (Anthony)
Goniobasis flava 1
Pleurocera showalterii 723 (Lea)
(Lea) Pleurocera annuliferum 2
Campeloma geniculum 221
(Conrad) Campeloma crassullum 3
Compeloma ponderosum 145 = Campeloma coorctatum 2
coarctatum (Lea) (Lea)
Campeloma sp. 70 Campeloma lewisii 2

Since the two families represented in the tabulation contain some of
the larger snails among those now living in the local streams, and since
some of them are found in such large numbers, it would seem that these
aquatic snails did serve as a food. Also, the additional information tends
to support the statement by Baker (1932: 146): "It is surprising that the
round river snail, Anculosa, so commonly used in Illinois for bead pur-
poses, is totally absent in the Etowah mounds, although this genus of
snails is common in Georgia and Alabama." As will be indicated later,

the beads at the Etowah site were made almost entirely from marine

One of the best sources of food for the aboriginal peoples in the
Etowah region, as well as for the inhabitants of the sites studied in Illi-
nois, were the fresh-water mussels. The large amount of naiad material
recovered from the Mound C site necessitates some changes in perspec-
tive regarding the value of these animals in the life of the Etowah Indi-
ans. Baker (1932: 146) stated:
"Comparing the fresh water molluscan material in the Etowah
mounds with that from the mounds in Illinois, we find that among
the clams or bivalves the Illinois Indians used twenty species
while the Etowah Indians used but eight. Only two species are
common to both localities, Lampsilis ovata and Elliptio crassi-
The additional material uncovered now indicates that there are about
two dozen species of mussels commonly used by the Etowah tribe, actual-
ly more than recorded for the Illinois group. Also, a closer inspection of
the lists reveals that there are several species both areas have in com-
mon. One must realize that a basic fauna, the Mississippi fauna, invades
most of the eastern naiad faunal regions (van der Schalie, 1938; 1950).
Parmalee (1956) has made a comparison of the past and present popula-
tions of mussels in southern Illinois. He has also discussed the use of
these mussels as tools (hoes, cups, dippers) and ornaments. Essentially,
the species in the Etowah region are similar enough to those in Illinois
to serve many of the same needs.
A list of the mussels of the Coosa River drainage has not been pre-
pared heretofore. In view of the altered conditions in that valley at the
present time it would seem worth while to present the following list of
species belonging to the original naiad fauna of the Coosa drainage. This
information was taken from data prepared by Bryant Walker and available
because his collections are deposited in the Museum of Zoology at Ann
Arbor. It is unfortunate that men like Walker and A. E. Ortmann are not
appreciated by some recentmalacologists who are not willing to recognize
their basic contributions.
It is clear from Table II (page 43) that the mussel fauna in the Coosa
River was formerly a very rich assemblage. In all, some 57 species have
been recognized with 34 of them more or less common in the drainage.
An analysis of the mussels of another northern tributary to the Alabama
River, the Cahaba River, was made by H. van der Schalie (1938) and it
has approximately the same assemblage of mussels as the Coosa but
with fewer (48) recorded species. The similarities and differences and
the relation of the Alabama fauna to the Cumberlandian fauna need not be
discussed here. However, it is necessary to stress that there are, con-

trary to the statement by Baker (1932: 146), several species of mussels
common to both the Illinois and Alabama drainages and those wide-
ranging species were used extensively by both groups of Indians.

Table 1]. Mussel Fauna of Coosa River Drainage Prior to 1900

Abundant (34) Not Abundant (23)
No. No.
Specimens Specimens
Fusconaia ebenus Lea Fusconaia undata Conrad
*Quadrula sp. 29
*Quadrula pustulosa Lea 102

Quedrula rumphiana Lea

Quadrula metanevra Raf.
*Tritigonia verrucosa Raf. 72
*Amblema boykiniana Lea
B (= Amblema triumphans B.H. Wright)

* Amblema perplicata Conrad 116
Pleurobema showalterii Lea Pleurobema nux Lea
*Pleurobema hartmaniana Lea 1 B*Pleurobema mbella Conrad 82

Pleurobema troscheleana Lea

Pleurobema alta Conrad
Pleurobema stabilis Conrad

Pleurobema chattanoogaensis Lea

*Pleurobema decisa Lea : 4 Pleurobema nucleopsis Conrad
*Pleurobema sp. 239 Pleurobema perovata Conrad
B*Efliptio arctatus Lea 15 Pleurobema brumbyana Lea
(= E. forbesianus ? ) Pleurobema cor Conrad
B*Elliptio crassidens Lea 630 Pleurobema interventus Lea
Elliptio crassidens Pleurobema hanleyana Lea
incrassatus Lea *P leurobema murrayense Lea 153

B* Elliptio dilatatus

f. subgibbosus Lea 9
*Strophitus connasaugaensis Lea 1 Strophitus subvexus Conrad
*Ptychobranchus foremanianus Lea 160

Obliquaria reflexa Raf.
*Tritigonia verrucosa Raf.
Plagiola lineolata Raf,
*Obovaria subrotunda lens Lea 220
*Medionidus acutissimus Lea 1
Medionidus parvulus Lea
B Leptodea fragilis Raf.
*Proptera purpurata Lamarck 1
Proptera alata poulsoni Conrad
Carunculina germana Lea
Micromya vibex Conrad
Micromya plancus Lea
Micromya nebulosa Conrad

*Micromya vanuxemensis Lea 12

*Ligumia recta latissima Raf. . 30 *Lampsilis clarkiana Lea 87
Lampsilis doliaris Lea Lampsilis perpasta Lea
Lampsilis excavata Lea Lamp silis perovalis (Conrad)

Dysnomia compacta Lea Dysnomia penita Conrad
Dysnomia modicella Lea

*Dysnomia metastriata Conrad 26
Truncilla donaciformis Lea


* Species recovered in Mound C, together with the number of specimens found.

Carunculina cromwelli Lea
*Carunculina corvunculus Lea 2
*Micromya lienosa Conrad 73

Micromya concestator Lea

B Species recorded by F. C. Baker.

If the mussels listed by Parmalee (1956: 186) and those listed in
Table II are compared in terms of the mussel species recovered in Mound
C at the Etowah site (species marked with an asterisk in Table II), the
following ten species are common to both regions:
Elliptio dilatatus Tritigonia verrucosa
(Spike; Lady-finger) (Pistol-grip)
Elliptio crassidens Fusconaia ebenus
(Elephant's Ear) (Niggerhead)
Amblemo peruviana Proptera alata poulsoni
(similar to A. perplicata or Blue-point) (Pink Heel-splitter)
Quadrula pustulosa Ligumia recta latissima
(Warty-back) (Black Sandshell)
Quadrula metanevra Plagiola lineolata
(Monkey-face) (Butterfly)
A number of other species have counterparts in the Coosa drainage but
their taxonomic relationships are as yet not clear. In any case, several
of the species that these drainages have in common were used by the
Etowah Indians who utilized the animals as one of their basic. food

The marine mollusks found at the Etowah site are sufficiently well
represented to make up somewhat for the "disparity" noted for this site
by Baker (1932: 148) who reported only 5 marine species, two bivalves
and three snails. If the number of species Baker reported is added to
those listed here from Mound C, the total becomes eleven as compared to
twelve found in Illinois. Five are clams; six are snails. The species and
the number of each recovered from Mound C are given in Table III. The
composition of the Etowah Mound C and the Illinois mounds no longer
appears so different.

One of the missing species recovered in Hopewell mounds in Illinois
but not previously found at the Etowah site is Cassis madagascarensis.
Its recovery, along with the several large specimens of species of Busy-
con, indicates that these large conchs are also among the most valuable
shells for making dippers, vessels of various kinds, and especially for
making beads. Numerous beads were made from the columella of the larg-
er whelks. Beads were also manufactured using pearls and the nacreous
materials of the many species of fresh-water mussels recovered at the
Etowah site. The number of heart shells, Dinocardium robustum, and re-
lated species of marine clams, such as Dosinia discus, indicates that
those east coast and Gulf coast shells were obtained by barter or during
extended travels to the coasts. To what extent they served as implements
or food is uncertain. Examples of the larger conchs, Cassis madagas-
carensis and Busycon perversum, which were used as dippers, are shown
in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Above, Busycon perversum dipper from Mound C, Etowah Site,
Georgia. Below, Cassis madagascarensis dipper from same site.

Table III. Comparison of Marine Shells Recovered at Mound C
with Those Reported by Baker (1932)

Mound C Species Number of Baker (1932) Species Number of
Specimens Specimens
Dinocardium robustum 11
Trachycardium sp. 7 Trachycardium magnum 2
Dosinia discus Reeve 9
Volsella demissa Dillwyn 1
Arca pexata Say (Anadara
ovalis Bruguiere)

Busycon canaliculatum 25
Busycon perversum Linne 10 Busycon perversum Linne
Busycon contrarium Conrad 3
Cassis cf. madagascarensis 2
Oliva litterata Lam. (Oliva
sayana Rav.)
Marginella apicina Menke

In summary, the extensive amount of shell material recovered from
Mound C at the Etowah site in Georgia was compared with the mollusks
reported from the same area by F. C. Baker (1932). When all known groups
are considered together the shells recovered are contained in the follow-
ing groups: 4 species of land shells, 9 species of fresh-water operculate
snails, 26 species of fresh-water mussels or naiades, 5 marine bivalves
or clams, and 6 marine snails. It is evident that the Etowah Indians made
ample use of the rich fresh-water mollusk fauna of the Coosa River drain-
age for food, while the larger marine whelks and clams were utilized in
the manufacture of implements and jewelry. With the combined collec-
tions reported here it is shown that the differences in the use of shells
by the Indian tribes in Illinois as compared to those living in the Coosa
valley are not as pronounced as previously claimed.


Baker, Frank C.
1932 (In Moorehead, W. K. Exploration of the Etowah Site in
Georgia. pp. 145-149.)

Goodrich, Calvin
1936 Goniobasis of the Coosa River, Alabama. Univ. Mich. Mus.
Zool, Misc. Pap. No. 31, pp. 1-60, 1 plate.

1941 Pleuroceriidae of the Small Streams of the Alabama River
System. Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool., Occ. Pap. No. 427, pp. 1-10.

1944 Certain Operculates of the Coosa River; Pulmonates of the
Coosa River. The Nautilus, Col. 58, pp. 1-15.

Parmalee, Paul W.
1956 A Comparison of Past and Present Populations of Fresh-
Water Mussels in Southern Illinois. Ill. Acad. Sci., Trans.
49, pp. 184-192.

van der Schalie, Henry
1938 The Naiades (Fresh-Water Mussels) of the Cahaba River in
Northern Alabama. Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool., Occ. Pap. No.
392, pp. 1-29.

van der Schalie, Henry, and Annette van der Schalie
1950 The Mussels of the Mississippi River. Amer. Midl. Nat.,
Vol. 44, pp. 448-466.

Walker, Bryant
1918 A Synopsis of the Classification of the Fresh-Water Mollusca
of North America, North of Mexico. Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool.,
Misc. Pap. No. 6, pp. 1-213.


Paul W. Parmalee

REPRESENTATIVES of the five classes of vertebrates occurred in
the faunal sample recovered during the excavation of Mound C. Bone
scattered throughout the mound fill, in refuse pits and with human burials
has provided an excellent index to the food habits of the Etowah people,
and the variety of bone (and shell) artifacts manufactured for use as
tools or ornaments have aided the archaeologist in understanding their
activities and living standards. Although shell hoes and other evidence
of agricultural activities were discovered at the Etowah Site, it is ap-
parent from the huge quantity of faunal remains that these Indians utilized

the native animals for a large percentage of their subsistence. The verte-
brate species identified from Mound C and the number of remains of each
are listed in Table IV.

A minimum of 15 species of mammals were determined from the faunal
sample, representing a total of nearly 4,800 identified bones. Typically,
the Whitetail Deer ranked first numerically and constituted 94 percent of
the total number of identified mammal remains. Coupled with over an ad-
ditional 13,000 unidentifiable large mammal bone fragments, most of
which were probably deer, it is evident that this animal was of extreme
importance in the diet of these Indians and that it probably formed the
basic meat staple. Bones and antler of 0. virginanus were also utilized
for the manufacture of tools such as antler projectile points and tines,
awls and beamers. All bones of the deer were represented so it is ap-
parent that the entire carcass was brought back to camp.
It is of interest to note here that no remains of the Elk, Cervus
canadensis, were found in either Mounds C or B (material from Mound B
is presently being studied) although 16 bones of this species were iden-
tified by William R. Adams, Indiana Laboratory of Ethnozoology, Bloom-
ington, from a faunal sample recovered in the village between these
mounds by William H. Sears in 1953. All bones of the Elk came from Sq.
240L90, an area of historic Cherokee settlement; since this species was
not represented in earlier occupation levels, these data suggest that
possibly the Elk did not enter the region until quite recently.

Table IV. The species of Vertebrates Identified from the Faunal Sample
Recovered in Mound C, Etowah Site, Bartow County, Georgia. 1954-1958

Total Number
Species of Identified
Fresh-water Drum, Aplodinotus grunniens 111
Bull Shark, Carcharhinus leucas (teeth from headdress) 32

Catfish spp. 17
Catfish and/or Bullhead, Ictalurus spp. 14
Sucker and/or Buffalofish, Catostomidae 14
Gar, Lepisosteus sp. 13
Sucker, Catostomus cf commersoni 11
Redhorse, Moxostoma cf carinatum 4
Bass, Micropterus cf salmoides 1
Sauger or Walleye, Stizostedion sp. 1

Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana 2

Rattlesnake, Crotalus cf horridus 2

Common Box Turtle, Terropene carolina 730
Pond Terrapin, Pseudemys cf floridana and/or P. script 302
Turtle spp. 238
Snapping Turtle, Chelydra serpentina 56
Soft-shelled Turtle, Trionyx cf ferox 42
Alligator Snapping Turtle, Macrochelys temminckii 3

Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo 587
Passenger Pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius 48
Canada Goose, Branta canadensis 6
Sandhill Crane, Grus canadensis 4
Great Horned Owl, Bubo virginianus 3
Red-shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus (two with a burial headdress) 3
Bobwhite, Colinus virginianus 3
Cooper's Hawk, Accipiter cooper? 2
Great Blue Heron, Ardea herodias 2
Ivory-billed Woodpecker, Campephilus principals 2
Red-bellied Woodpecker, Centurus carolinus 1
Swan, Olor sp.? 1
Barred Owl, Strix varia? 1
Blue or Snow Goose, Chen sp. 1
Mallard or Black Duck, Anas sp. 1
Raven, Corvus corax 1
Screech Owl, Otus asio? 1
Bald Eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus 1
Red-tailed Hawk, Buteo jamaicensis

Whitetail Deer, Odocoileus virginianus 4,500
Black Bear, Ursus americanus 46
Beaver, Castor canadensis 39
Opossum, Didelphis marsupialis 35*
Rabbit, Sylvilagus cf floridanus 33
Gray Squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis 26
Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger 23
Raccoon, Procyon lotor 20
Marsh Rice Rat, Oryzomys palustris 14
Mountain Lion, Felis concolor 10
Canid, Probably Dog, Canis familiaris 8**
Bobcat, Lynx rufus 6
Squirrel, Sciurus sp. 5
Gray Fox, Urocyon cinereoargenteus 5
Striped Skunk, Mephitis mephitis 3
Small rodent spp. 2
Southeastern Pocket Gopher, Geomys tuza? 2
Spotted Skunk, Spilogale putorius? 1
Mink, Mustela vison 1
A nearly complete skeleton not included.
** Two complete dog burials not included.

The Black Bear was taken and utilized although it is apparent that
this carnivore was killed in limited numbers. With reference to historic
Indians in the southeastern United States, Swanton (1946) states that
"The bear was probably the next [to the deer] most useful animal. It
was hunted for its flesh, but still more for its fat, which was preserved
in skins. Heavy winter robes and bed coverings were made of the skins,
and moccasins were also cut out of them." Various sections of the skull
and limb bones were found, thus suggesting that the entire animal was
utilized; a rather unique awl was recovered that had been fashioned from
a fibula of this species. Several bones of the Bobcat and Mountain Lion
were encountered which points to limited use of these carnivores; Swan-
ton (op. cit.) mentions that "We hear of the panther [Mt. Lion] being
eaten sometimes and the use of its skin as clothing for the person, or as
bedclothes. The wildcat [Bobcat] seems to have been eaten at times
and its skin was also worn."
Several smaller species of mammals such as Beaver, Opossum, rabbit
(Sylvilagus sp.), squirrel (Sciurus spp.), and Raccoon also were utilized
for food and probably their hides for clothing, but the combined number
of their remains constituted less than four percent of the total. In con-
trast to other sites of a contemporaneous time-period (e.g. Cahokia in
Illinois: Parmalee, 1957), squirrels were of little significance as a sup-
plement to the deer meat diet. The majority of the rabbit bones compared
favorably with the Eastern Cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus, although a
few (apparently from adult animals) were relatively small and may be
referable to the Marsh Rabbit, Sylvilagus palustris. Of interest was a
two-inch section of a Beaver incisor that had been cut off perpendicular
to the long axis of the tooth; the cutting surface of the incisor appeared
to have been ground down and possibly the tooth and been used as a
chiseling tool.
The paucity of Canid remains found scattered in the midden debris
and refuse pits is noteworthy; only eight bones, which were probably
those of the Domestic Dog, were recovered in these deposits. Possibly
the dog was still held in high esteem by the Etowah people as it had
been with cultures of a much earlier time-period, e.g. the Archaic in
Kentucky (Webb, 1946). Two complete dog burials were found in Mound C
and according to Mr. Larson (letter of Jan. 30, 1959), ".. the tails
of both dogs were curled over their backs in the burials." Although no
detailed statistical study has been made of these sketetal remains, the
tail being curled forward over the hip suggests some related form of the
basic Eskimo dog type.

Avain remains were recovered in considerable numbers (over 650
identified bones) from Mound C and it is apparent that birds formed an
important supplement to the meat diet. Although at least 16 species were

represented, the Turkey was by far the most important and bones of M.
gallopavo constituted 88 percent of the total number of identified bird
remains. As in the case of the Whitetail Deer with mammals, bones of
the Turkey are typically the most numerous of the bird remains found at
sites in Eastern United States (e.g. Neill, Gut and Brodkorb, 1956; Sears,
1956). This large bird was evidently quite common in the vicinity of the
Etowah Site and the Indian utilized it to a far greater extent than any
other avain species. Of nearly 600 unidentifiable bird bone fragments,
at least 90 percent were those of large birds and are probably referable
to M. gallopavo. Several awls manufactured from the tarsometatarus of
the Turkey were recovered in Mound C as well as the cut distal ends of
a tibiotarus and tarsometatarus; possibly the shafts of these two bones
were utilized in some manner.
The scarcity of duck and goose bones suggests that waterfowl were
rarely available in the vicinity of Etowah or for some reason were dis-
dained by the Indian; in regions where these birds are common, they were
extensively utilized (Parmalee, 1957). Except for the Turkey and Passen-
ger Pigeon, the majority of the other avain species represented (hawks,
owls, crane and woodpeckers) could not .be considered as desirable food
animals and it is quite possible that these birds were collected primarily
for their bones and/or plumage. A distal end of a tarsometatarsal of the
Red-shouldered Hawk was found with each of two burials and had ap-
parently been part of the headdress.

One of the most interesting bird records from Etowah was that of the
Ivory-billed Woodpecker (two carpometacarpals, determined by Dr. Herbert
Friedmann, U.S. Nat. Mus., Wash.); although remains of this now nearly-
extinct species have been reported from other archaeological sites (Wet-
more, 1943; Parmalee, 1958), the woodpecker may suggest a certain cul-
tural significance at this site. Moorehead (1932: Figs. 31, 32a and e) has
illustrated three shell gorgets, found with burials in Mound C, which
depict woodpeckers. Although these artifacts might be simply the artistic
achievement of the Indian(s) who made them, they may also signify the
importance of these birds (particularly the large, impressive Ivory-billed
Woodpecker) as a part of their cultural complex.
Bones of the now-extinct Passenger Pigeon ranked second, numeri-
cally, and these birds were probably collected for food during the migra-
tions. Remains of E. migratorius have been reported from several sites
(Goslin, 1955; Parmalee, 1958) although the quantity at most sites has
been small considering the availability of this once extremely abundant
game species. In the case of historic tribes in southeastern United
States, Swanton (1946) states that "The most important game bird was
the wild turkey, hunted where-ever it could be found. Second in impor-
tance was the passenger pigeon, whose roosts were gathering places for
Indian hunters at certain seasons."

REPTILES (snakes)
Only two vertebrae of a snake (Crotalus sp.) were recovered during
the five years of excavation in Mound C. Although snakes may have been
of some ceremonial or religious significance to those people as suggested
by Moorehead (1932: Fig. 38 illustrates a coiled rattlesnake [or knot of
hair?] carved with wood with copper overlay, found with a Mound C buri-
al), the scarcity of remains suggests little-if-any practical use of these

REPTILES (turtles)
The abundance of turtle remains which occurred in the refuse pits
and in the midden debris attest to their extensive use by the Etowah
people. Apparently they were collected exclusively for food since none
of the shell remains had been altered in any fashion for use as ornaments,
dishes or other utensils as is so typically the case in other regions
(Parmalee, 1958, et. al.). Nearly 1,400 turtle bones, representing at
least five sp ecies, were recovered from Mound C; a nearly-complete
plastron of the Map Turtle (Graptemys cf geographica, a species as yet
not identified from Mounds B or C, was found in a village refuse pit in
1953. Remains of the Alligator Snapping Turtle at the Etowah Site are
noteworthy since this species now occurs only in the southern half of
Georgia; although positive specific identification is questionable on the
basis of the fragmentary remains (plastron, humerus, mandible), these
bones-especially the mandible section-compare favorable with reference
specimens of M. temminckii.
Remains of the Soft-shelled Turtle (Trionyx cf ferox), the Snapping
Turtle and the Terrapin (most of which are probably referable to the River
Turtle, (Pseudemys floridana), as well as those of mollusks and fish,
indicate that the Etowah River was rather intensively hunted for food
animals. However, bones of the terrestrial Box Turtle were the most nu-
merous and comprised 53 percent of all the turtle remains. Shells of the
aquatic species are generally fragmentary and this condition suggests
that the flesh was probably extracted by the Indian after the shell was
first broken by pounding. Many of the plastrons and carapaces of Terra-
pene from Mound C were recovered in an unbroken condition, however,
and an interesting explanation with regard to Box Turtles has been hypo-
thesized by Neill, Gut and Brodkorb (1956): "The Indians merely chipped
or broke away the posterior margin of the carapace, thus leaving a gap
between upper and lower shell. Into this gap a stick, or perhaps the
fingertips, could be inserted; the posterior lobe of the plastron could
then be pried, pulled, or broken away. In consequence, box turtle remains
include carapaces that are intact except for the posterior portions, and
small, battered fragments that had been broken from the carapace mar-

A section of the pelvis and femur of a large frog, probably referable
to the Bullfrog, were found in this mound; possible frogs were utilized
for food by the Etowah people but the paucity of amphibian remains in-
dicates that they were rarely, if ever, collected for that purpose.

The quantity of fish bones recovered during the excavation of Mound
C was small compared with the total number of vertebrate remains. Less
than 200 bones of fish endemic to the area were identified to the genus
and/or species level; in addition, there were approximately 400 unidenti-
fiable fish bone fragments. As a group, however, fish apparently served
as an important supplement in the diet of the Indians occupying this site
and one species, the Fresh-water Drum, was utilized more extensively
than any other single species. Approximately 60 percent of the identified
fish bones were those of A. grunniens and of the several hundred fish
scales found in the midden debris, over 90 percent were those of the
Representatives of two genera of suckers were recognized (Moxos-
toma and Catostomus) and judging from the size of several pharyngeal
arches (and teeth), hyomandibulars, maxillae, and dentaries, some of the
specimens must have been quite large. A few of the large catfish bones
are probably referable to the Channel Catfish, Ictalurus lacustris.

Approximately 32 shark teeth, identified as those of the Bull Shark
(Carcharhinus leucas) by Dr. Loren P. Woods, Curator of Fishes, Chicago
Natural History Museum, occurred with Burial No. 148 in Mound C, and
apparently they had been incorporated as a part of the headdress. A
single tooth of the Great White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) was found
by Dr. A. R. Kelly, University of Georgia, Athens, during his excavations
of Mound B. The remains of exotic forms such as the shark and marine
mollusks at Etowah signify the establishment of an efficient barter sys-
tem or of extensive trade routes to the Gulf and/or Atlantic Coasts. How-
ever, the commodities were evidently not obtained for culinary purposes
but rather for the manufacture of ornaments and other decorative objects;
for their subsistence, the Etowah people depended primarily upon the
native species which inhabited the region.


Goslin, Robert M.
1955. Animal Remains from Ohio Rock Shelters. Ohio Jour. Sci.,
Vol. LV, No. 6, pp. 358-362.

Kelly, A. R., and Lewis H. Larson.
1957. Explorations at Etowah, Georgia 1954-1956. Archaeology,
Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 39-48.

Moorehead, Warren K.
1932. Exploration of the Etowah Site in Georgia. Phillips Acad.,
Andover, Mass., Yale Univ. Press, 178 pp.

Neill, Wilfred T., H. James Gut, and Pierce Brodkorb.
1956. Animal Remains from Four Preceramic Sites in Florida.
Amer. Antiquity, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 383-395.

Parmalee, Paul W.
1957. Vetebrate Remains from the Cahokia Site, Illinois. Trans.
Ill. Acad. Sci., Vol. 50, pp. 235-242.

1958. Remains of Rare and Extinct Birds from Illinois Indian Sites.
Auk, Vol. 75, No. 2, pp. 169-176.

Sears, William H.
1956. Excavations at Kolomoki, Final Report. Univ. Ga. Series
in Anthro., No. 5, 114 pp.

Swanton, John R.
1946. The Indians of the Southeastern United States. Smiths. Inst.,
Bur. Amer. Ethnology, Bull. 137, 943 pp.

Webb, William S.
1946. Indian Knoll. Univ. Ky. Repts. in Anthrop. and Arch., Vol.
IV, No. 3, Pt. I, pp. 115-365.

Wetmore, Alexander.
1943. Evidence of the Former Occurrence of the Ivory-billed Wood-
pecker in Ohio. Wilson Bull., Vol. 55, p. 55.

Figure 1. Topographic Map of the Bluffton Burial Mound. Heavy line out-
lines excavated area.

The Bluffton Burial Mound

W. H. Sears

A LARGE BURIAL MOUND was adjacent to the rear or inland edge of
the Bluffton Shell Heap on the St. Johns River. Test excavations in the
shell mound were made by the Florida Park Service and the Florida Geo-
logical Survey in 1951 (Bullen 1955). The burial mound was excavated in

The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XIII, Nos. 2-3, September, 1960 55


4 x' X x X X X
xJ x X x x x X
6- x x xxxx : xx X x x x
X X X X X X X X X x X X X

x x x x x x x x
12'X X X X X X X I
30L10 40LI0 50LIO 60L

1959 by the writer for the Florida State Museum. This excavation pro-
duced some new problems, and contributed to the solution of none. The
concrete data is here presented in hopes that some future work will make
further interpretation possible. Clarence B. Moore cut a trench in the
mound (Moore 1894) with equally ambiguous results. Some discussion of
his results will be found in the conclusions.
The entire site is now owned by Mary Farms, Inc., Their co-operation
and the material assistance rendered by Mr. C. B. Austin, Manager, were
greatly appreciated.

Dimensions of 100 feet by 16 feet gave the structure a rather impos-
ing appearance, although I presume that it was rather inconspicuous
against the rear of the shell mound before the latter was excavated by
power equipment. Some damage to the west and southwest sides by
power equipment was obvious, but the dirty shell and sand layers ap-
peared to have discouraged complete removal.
After staking out the mound in a 10-foot grid, excavation was started
at the west edge, at a point where the machinery had cut a sizeable gouge
out of the mound. Work in each square was from the top down, with several
squares under excavation at the same time to produce a trench.
When the trench reached mound base between stakes 50 and 50L10,


5' 10'


several features of some importance were apparent. These follow:
1. The bulk of the structure was composed of dirty pre-ceramic shell
midden. Basket-loading was apparent. Most of the shells were the
small snail, Viviparus contectoides goodrichi. A few shell tools
were found in this old midden material.
2. The structure base, or point of origin, was an old shell midden
surface. This old midden was horizontally laminated and was com-
posed of crushed, relatively clean mussel and large snail (Pomacea
paludosa) shells.
3. At the 49-foot line, a sand layer was encountered, resting on
mound base and sloping upwards sharply toward mound center. A
single flexed burial lay on the edge of this layer.
These features lead me to the belief that the total structure was a
burial mound, and that it contained a sand core mound. Subsequent opera-
tions were directed toward stripping the old shell midden layer from the
core mound. This layer varied in thickness from 6 feet on the west side
to a foot or less on the north and east (Fig. 2).
The dome-shaped core mound was completely isolated, and then ex-
cavated. A vertical slicing technique from the west side was used at
first. This was later changed to horizontal stripping. Fig. 2 shows that
the core mound used more old shell midden around the lower parts of its
periphery and sand with occasional thin shell elements in the higher
parts. Near its top, a layer of dense black gumbo covered the entire core

mound. The lack of feather edges on any of the core mound building ele-
ments, including the final sand surface, demonstrates that none of the
surfaces were exposed to weathering or wear from the traffic of human
feet for very long. This sand shifted downwards with the least bit of
traffic as we were excavating it. I presume that the thin shell elements,
flanking shell layers, and the black gumbo layer all served as stabilizing
elements, tying the structure together at intervals so that work could
continue to bring it to the desired final size and shape.
Directly under the core mound center was a single partially flexed
burial without any accompaniments. It lay on an old shell midden which
had been heavily burned so that the shells were partially calcined and
cemented together. Some quantities of clear wood ash were also present.
Over the burial, for a radius of about 10 feet, was a thin layer of an odd
tan to brown organic material. In spots it had a greenish tinge, and con-
tained small masses of fine fish bones and scales. It has been suggested
that this substance is alligator fecal material.

Steps in the construction of this mound may be summarized, in order,
as follows:
1. A large hot fire was built on the surface of the old shell midden.
The presence of ashes and the lack of charcoal indicate careful fire
tending to produce complete combustion.
2. A single complete body was laid on its right side in a slightly flex-
ed position on the center of the burned area. It was covered with a layer
of organic material which resembles alligator feces.
3. A mound was built over this body. Sand, midden shell, and black
gumbo were used as building materials. This midden material was con-
centrated near the peripheries, but there was some in layers throughout.
Lumps of rusty, limey sand were found near the top of this core mound.
A layer of dense black gumbo, ranging in thickness from several inches
to over a foot covered the entire mound when it was nearly completed.
A final 6 to 8-inch thick layer of sand covered the gumbo on the west
side to complete the mound. There was less over the gumbo on the east
side and on top.
4. One flexed burial was placed at the extreme west edge of the core
5. The structure was completed with a layer of midden shell. This was
6 feet thick on the west side, quite thin on the east and on top.
6. At some date after completion of the mound, pits were dug into it
for burials. Four are known. One is shown on the map, a single flexed
burial. A few sherds in the fill of the pit demonstrate that the burial
was made during or after the St. Johns Ib or Weeden Island I period.
Another burial, apparently intrusive, was torn up by the roots of a very
large tree which blew down in the Southeast quadrant of the mound.

Two or more burials were encountered by Clarence B. Moore, who notes
three humeri (Moore 1894: 47).

Three burials were excavated. Age and sex identifications, and other
observations, were made by Charles Snow.
Burial 1. On lower west edge of core mound. Male, age 40. Medium size,
well muscled, dental abcesses.
Burial 2. Intrusive in top of mound. Male, age 42. Medium size, more
powerfully built than burial 1. Arthritis in feet.
Burial 3. Main burial, on burned area under center of core mound. Male,
age 40 to 50. Long narrow head. Shorter than burials 1 or 2.

Excepting for several potsherds, all artifacts were associated with
the archaic shell midden used as mound building material. One St. Johns
Plain sherd was found 18 inches deeper near the top of the mound. Several
St. Johns Plain sherds and one copy of a Carabelle Punctated sherd on
chalky pottery were in the fill of the grave with the intrusive burial,
Burial 2.

6 complete or partial gouges made from Busycon (Carica) shells.
They are identical to the specimens illustrated by Bullen (1955,
fig. 3).
2 partial picks, Busycon (Carica).
2 broken hammers, Busycon (Carica).

1 projectile point, 3 inches long and 1 and 7/8 inches wide, one
shoulder atright angles to axis of blade, one sloped toward the point.
Stem is very short and is either unfinished or broken. Found 2 feet
from burial 3, on same level, but probably associated with old shell
midden rather than the burial.

The entire burial mound at Bluffton was built to cover a single burial,
number 3. The construction, both of the core mound and of the shell mid-
den layer over it, was essentially a continuous process. This was dem-
onstrated by the interlensing of sand and shell layers at the base of the
core mound, by the lack of wash or traffic wear feathering at the lower
edges of this structure, and by the interlensing of basketloads of midden
shell used in the final layers. The period of construction is unknown,
except that it is probably pre-St. Johns Ib, or the Weeden Island period.

Clarence B. Moore cut a trench into the mound (Moore 1894: 46-7).
The southwest comer of his trench was 5 feet northeast of the real peak
of the core mound. Moore observed essentially the same stratification

which we did.


Bullen, Ripley P.
1955. ‘‘Stratigraphic Tests at Bluffton, Volusia County, Florida.’’
The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. VIII, No. 1. Gainesville.

Moore, Clarence B.
1894, ‘*Certain Sand Mounds of the St. Johns River, Florida.’’ Jour-

nal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol.
10, pp. 129-246. Philadelphia.


G9 u t. J op


Human Figurines \

From the Coast of

Northwest Florida

William C. Lazarus

FIVE FIGURINES-one whole and four fragments-not previously
reported in archaeological literature, have recently come to light in the
Choctawhatchee Bay-St. Andrews Bay section of Northwest Florida. Al-
though none was found in situ by qualified archaeologists, as will be
explained later, there is very strong evidence that they all have Weeden
Island I associations. All are "in the round" solid ceramic artifacts.

The first-and only complete human figurine in the group under con-
sideration-is 10.7 cm tall and 3.4 cm broad at the shoulders (Fig. 1). It
clearly portrays a male either standing erect or lying in a fully extended
position, with arms folded across the chest. The face has obviously been
obliterated by filing or grinding. A large headdress resembling a feathered
war bonnet is unique when compared with all other human effigy forms
reported in this area to date.
Two holes of 2mm diameter have been made, one in each shoulder,
either to "kill" the figurine or to provide the means for suspending it.
It is not easily determinable whether these holes were drilled or pre-
formed, although the former is favored based on observations under mag-
nification. 'The surface color, except for the black obliterated face area,

The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XIII, Nos. 2-3, September, 1960

is a reddish buff. The color, paste and surface texture are typical of the
highest quality Weeden Island or Santa Rosa ceramic ware found in this

This first male figurine was discovered circa 1910 by Mr. Ralph Buck
while leveling the western two-thirds of a mound in the yard of his home.
This mound has been named the Buck Burial Mound(OK-11).It is situated
1,200 ft. West-Southwest from the center of the Ft. Walton Temple Mound.
It was observed and noted by Clarence B. Moore (1901) but somehow this
burial mound escaped his shovels. Originally it was about 60 feet in dia-
meter at the base and had a platform height of nearly 6 feet.
At least one well-preserved burial was uncovered during the leveling
of the mound by the Buck family. Part of the cranium and the long leg
bones are still available. A group of artifacts, in addition to the male
figurine, also came from the 1910 excavation although information is no
longer available as to whether they were in a cache, were associated
with the burial or burials, or were randomly scattered in the mound.
These artifacts consist largely of whole vessels or large section thereof.
All have kill holes. There are classified by the author as follows:

Shallow Bowl -4" max. dia. 2" deep. Weeden Island Plain.
Jar or Cup 22" dia. 4" deep. Tucker Ridge Pinched.
Ogival Cup 3Y2" dia. 5" deep. Carabelle Incised-Weeden
Island Red.
Globular Bowl 4" dia. Weeden Island Punctate-Zoned Red.
Wild Turkey Effigy Vessel 8" long Weeden Island Incised-
Red exterior Cut outs.
Cattle- like Effigy Head hollow with orifice mouth Weeden
Island Red exterior.

Excavation by the author in the remaining eastern third of the Buck
Mount (Five 5' x 5' stratographic Sections to be reported upon separately
at a later date) have produced sherds from two additional Weeden Island I
Period vessels. One is a Swift Creek Complicated Stamped (late variety)
cylindrical beaker and the other is a small Weeden Island Plain bowl.
All identifiable artifacts associated with this mound or recently ex-
cavated from it belong to the Weeden Island Period, and the complete
absence of check stamped pottery favors a Weeden Island I dating. It
appears logical to assume that the male figurine from this mound is from
this period, too.

This is a very large village midden site located on the south shore
of Chactawhatchee Bay where a small stream known locally as "Holly

Figure 1. Complete figurine from the Buck Burial Mound (OK-11).

Branch" enters the Bay. This is about 0.9 mile east of Cobb's Point,
near Destin, Fla. The site was first recorded in 1956 after a hurricane
cut a hundred or more feet of the sand bank, revealing over a mile of
continuous midden deposits along the new bluff line. The initial collec-
tion from the shallow water at the site contained 2,751 sherds having a
total dry weight of 55.0 pounds. When classified, practically all pottery
types for four major complexes were represented. By complexes, the
sherd count on this sizable sample was:

Santa Rosa-Swift Creek 54 sherds.
Santa Rosa-Swift Creek 380 "
Weeden Island I & II 618 "
Ft. Walton 198 "
Unidentified sherds 380 "
Residual Plain 1,141 "

Total 2,751 "

Checkstamp was the most prevalent pattern by a wide margin, but
Carrabelle Incised was also present in large quantities. Numerous base
tetrapods continue to be found at the site and several large sections of
Santa Rosa vessels have been recovered recently. Fiber tempered pottery
is present in some quantity also, indicating a very long site occupation
with the biggest occupations during Weeden Island and Santa Rosa-Swift
Creek Periods. The eastern half of the site seems older than the west.


i I

Figure 2. Torso fragment from the Bell Site.

Among the interesting artifacts to come from the eastern half of this
site is a torso fragment of a female human figurine (Fig. 2). Although the
posture can not be accurately determined, it is obvious that the legs were
separately formed from the hips down a new feature for Gulf Coast ef-
figy or figurine forms. The maximum diameter at the hips is 3.3 cm. If


Figure 3. Head and shoulder fragments from Bell Site.

normal human proportions prevail and they appear to do so the fig-
urine would be approximately 13.6 cm. tall.
The low stomach bulge of the figurine gives the impression of preg-
nancy. A G-string with front apron is well depicted. The sunken navel is
accurately incorporated. The paste and surface texture of this figurine
are of the highest quality Santa Rosa or Weeden Island ware. The color
is a brownish red or copper tone of uniform quality. The fabricator of this
figurine possessed an excellent knowledge of human anatomy as well as
of the ceramic art.
The head and shoulders of a second human figurine from the eastern
half of the Bell Site (the 3rd figurine discussed in this paper) was re-
covered in the summer of 1958 (Fig. 3). Based on the dimension from the
top of the head to the chin (32mm.) and assuming normal human propor-
tions, this figurine would be about 20 cm. tall. It has a uniform blackish
appearance with a typical Weeden Island ceramic finish. The nose, which
protruded, has been partially broken. There is sufficient of the chest to
cover the region of the breasts, and it is obvious that this must certainly
have been intended as a male figure. The shoulder cap and armpit on the
right side are sufficiently intact to indicate that the arm was separately
formed member.
The side view of this male figure illustrates its most unusual char-
acteristic. The face is actually on a concave surface. Further, the body
has a definite concave characteristic.
The head of a third human figurine to come from the Bell Site was
recovered in the summer of 1959 (Fig. 4.). It differs considerably from
the above-described head in that is nearly spherical. Its size, however,
is comparable, being 32 mm. in diameter. The full figure should therefore
have been about 20 cm. in height. The color is buff with a blackish core
visible at the break in the neck. The texture and paste are comparable to
that of the best of Weeden Island ceramic art. The incised eyes give the
impression of being closed. The nose is missing-if the figurine ever had
one. The headdress or hairdo resembles a "Page Boy" bob with puffs
over the ears. It cannot be identified as either male or female.
Since the only mounds known at the Bell Site (OK-19) are shell mid-
dens of 18 inches or less, and there has been no evidence of human buri-
als at the site, it must be assumed-at least for the present-that these
three figurines came from village midden. All three were actually re-
covered in the shallow water very close to the shore, with numerous
sherds in the same general vicinity. Since it is obvious that all this ma-
terial washed down from the receding bank and was grossly mixed by
wave action, no significance can be given to the classification of sherds
found in association with any of the figurines. However, the site is pre-
dominantly Weeden Island and Santa Rosa-Swift Creek and is one of the
largest middens of these periods. The quality and texture of these three
figurine fragments appear on their own to be sufficiently definitive to

SI// I oK-,q
Figure 4. Head fragment from Bell Site.

justify a Santa Rosa or Weeden Island I classification. The sherd count
reported above for OK-19 serves only to reinforce the classification

Early in 1958, a group of artifacts which had been scattered by a
bulldozer on or in the close vicinity of this site were collected from the
disturbed surface. Classification of the conventional sherds in this col-
lection was made. by the author as follows:

Santa Rosa-Swift Creek Complex
Santa Rosa Complicated Stamped (Early) ....... 5
New River Complicated Stamped. ............. 1
Weeden Island Complex
Keith Incised ......................... 1
Tucker Ridge Pinched ................... 1
Carrabelle Incised ....... ............. 1
Carrabelle Punctate .................... 1
Weeden Island Punctate ........ ......... 2
Weeden Island Incised ................. 2
Weeden Island Plain (Rims) .............. 4
Unidentified ................. ....... 1
Total 19

Three additional significant artifacts were in this collection. One
is a fragment of a turtle shell with black painted lines upon both sides of
it. The second is a phallus about .7" diameter and 2%"
long. The third, and the one of specific interest in this

Figure 5.
Leg fragment

paper, is a leg and foot of a figurine, presumably human.
(Fig. 5).

Using the foot dimension, and again assuming normal
body proportions for the figurine, it should be between 8
and 10 cm. tall. Here again, it is observed that the legs
are separately formed, at least from the knees down.

Identification of this figurine leg is facilitated by very small rem-
nants of the characteristic Weeden Island Red paint on the foot. From the
distribution of these it appears that a red shoe or moccasin was painted

All the sherds collected along with this figurine leg are clearly from
either the Santa Rosa- Swift Creek or Weeden Island I periods, further
corroborating its Weeden Island I dating. Willey and Woodbury in 1940
located the BY-7 site and observed that ‘“‘the site is one of the largest
on the Northwest Florida Coast’’ being several hundred yards in length
along the beach. They identified it as a Weeden Island I site.


The current classification of Florida Gulf Coast effigies by Willey
(1949) is restricted to vessels with effigies affixed and complete effigy
vessels. Now that figurines which are not vessels or attached to vessels
are known (OK-11, OK-19 and BY-7), an additional classification of
human figurines is advocated. These are defined as solid ceramic figures
in human form, with or without separately formed limbs and without evi-
dence of attachment to any vessel or useful object.

A new climax is the ceramic arts along the Northwest Florida Coast
in Weeden Island I times seems evident.

For ease of reference, Table 1 shows the principal features of the
five figurines discussed herein. Separately formed limbs are apparent on
three of four.

These figurines have been found in two of the largest village midden
sites plus one burial mound, all with strong or exclusive Weeden Island



Figure No. 1 2 3 4 5

Part of Whole Torso & Bust Head Leg &
Figurine Found Rt. Thigh Foot

Sex Male Female Male Unknown Unknown

Separately No Yes Yes Unknown Yes
Formed Limbs

Height (cm) 10.7 13.6* 20.0* 20.0* 8-10*

Width-Waist (cm) 2.5 2.2 3.0 Unknown Unknown

Width-Hips (cm) 2.8 3.3 Unknown Unknown Unknown

Paste and S.R. or S.R. or S.R. or S.R. or S.R. or
Texture W.I. I W.I. I W.I. I W.I. I W.I. I

Novel feature Head- Preg- Concave Head- W.I. Red
dress nant face & dress on foot

Site No. OK-11 OK-19 OK-19 OK-19 BY-7

Type Site Burial Large Large Large Large
Mound Village Village Village Village
Midden Midden Midden Midden

Context in S.R.-S.C. Predominantly Weeden Island S.R.-S.C.
which found and I and II and S.R.-S.C. and
(None in situ) W.I. I W.I. I

W.I. Weeden Island
S.R. Santa Rosa
S.C. Swift Creek

I or Santa Rosa-Swift Creek materials. The three figurines from OK-19
attest to the possibility of more than one of these per site. The geograph-
ical spread covers at least 65 miles along the Northwest Florida Gulf
Coast. Therefore this new climax appears to have some breadth in time
or practice and in distance.
Non-utilitarian figurines are features of both Adena-Hopewell and
Meso-American cultures. Fairbanks (1949) has linked the cultural charac-
teristics of Santa Rosa-Weeden Island I focus to Hopewell rather than to
Meso-America. The evidence presented here is sufficient only to suggest
a higher climax in the Santa-Rosa Weeden Island I focus along the North-
west Florida Coast than had previously been known

The author wishes to express appreciation to Mrs. Martha Buck of
Ft. Walton Beach for permission to photograph and examine the material
from the Buck Mound (OK-11). Also thanks are due to Captain A. N.
Robinson of Tyndall AF Base for the collection made at Davis Point,
West (BY-7) and to Mr. William Glover of Eglin AF Base for making avail-
able for study and photography the male figurine from the Bell Site
(OK-19). It is anticipated that all materials discussed herein will become
a part of the Museum proposed for Ft. Walton Beach.


1901 Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Northwest Florida Coast.
Part I. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila.
Vol. XL.

1949 Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian Inst.,
Misc. Col., Vol. 113.

1949 A General Survey of Southeastern Prehistory. The Florida
Indian and His Neighbors. (pp. 61-68).

English Gifts to the Indians:


James Covington

WHEN FLORIDA was acquired by England in 1763, the Indians living
in Florida and the neighboring areas presented grave problems to the
British. The Creek-Seminoles had previously dominated East Florida and
pushed the Spanish into two small centers of control including the area
about San Marcos de Apalache (St. Marks) and San Agustin (St. Augus-
tine). Now it was the job of the British authorities to regain control of
the situation by friendly but firm negotiations with the Indians.
Accordingly, a conference was convened at Picolata, November,
1765, in which John Stuart, southern superintendent of Indian Affairs and
James Grant, Governor of East Florida, met with Lower Creek-Seminole
leaders from present day southern Alabama and Georgia and northern
Florida. In the negotiations which took place the Indians surrendered
title to nearly two million acres of land situated in the northeastern part
of the peninsula. At first the Indians seemed most reluctant to sign any
agreement but pressure, skillfully applied by agents well-versed in abo-
riginal tactics, brought the Indians into a mutually satisfactory agree-
ment. Good relations endured throughout the entire twenty year English
occupation of East Florida and by 1783 proved so pleasant that some
Creek-Seminoles wished to leave Florida with their English friends.
One of the most important reasons for the success of the English in
dealing with the Indians was the type and number of presents distributed
among the red people. It must be recalled that the Spanish refused to al-
low the possession of guns by the Indians but the English quickly gained
the support of many potential allies by trading arms and ammunition to
all. The following lists of presents were found in the files at Public
Record Office, London, England and are printed by permission of the
Controller of H. M. Stationery Office. They represent a guide and means
of identification to what the archaeologist may find in Creek-Seminole
village site remains. The list of presents also should prove interesting
to the student of acculturation at this period in the Eighteenth Century.

The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XIII, Nos. 2-3, September, 1960

Account of Presents delivered to the Indians at the Congress at
Picolata November 15, 1765:
Crawly's broad Carolina hoes 47
Oval eyed hatchets 59
Felling axes 16
Padlocks 64
Drawing knives 6
Horse scissors 144
Butcher pointed knives 408
Spotted razors 132
Gun flints 4,000
Stag cuttoes 48
Steel spurs 36
Osnaburg needles 2,000
Ivory needles 144
Fire steels (doz.) 16
Bathmetal pea buttons (doz.) 96
Stone rings (doz.) 6
Large brass wire (lbs.) 50
White small round beads (bunches) 15
Black small round beads (bunches) 15
Painted frame looking glasses (doz.) 10
Walnut tree frame looking glasses 2
Indian girdles 2
Silver ear rings (prs.) 71
Silver brass buckles 12
Silver gorgets 4
Silver arm plates 2
Silver wrist plates 3
Silver medals 4
Gilt trunks 20
Gold edged hats 11
Suits of cloaths 11
Embossed serge (pieces) 11
Calimancoes, striped (pieces) 3
Hunting saddles 15
Ruffled shirts 54
Checquer shirts 138
White plain shirts 201
Vermillion mixed 70
Bullets (Kegs 28 lb. each) 105
Tin kettles 42
Brass kettles 58
Tin quart potts 42

Tin pint potts 24
Printed calicoes (pieces) 9
Boarded bandanoes (pieces) 1
Colored cottons (pieces) 12
Gun powder (barrels) 13
Strouds (pieces) 50
Duffils (pieces) 14
Half strouds (pieces) 15
Indian trading guns 125
Fowling pieces 45
Osanbourg thread (lbs.) 20
Cadiz (pieces) 36
Colored safety 36
Dutch prities 36
New 10" and 12" figures (doz.) 20
Gartering (gross) 16
Long pipes (gross) 5
Hunters pipes 10
Scarlet 10
Great coats 3

(Signed) Alex Skinner
Keeper of Indian Presents
and Clerk of the Publick Accounts- -

State of Presents wanting to compleat an assortment for meeting
proposed to be held with Indians in 1766.
50 pieces strouds at 85/ 212.10
20 pieces duffells at 75/ 75
15 pieces half strouds at 38/ 28.10
18 gross gartering at 8/ 6,4
4 ditto ditto at 12/3 2,9
10 nests tin kettles 7 in each at 8/2 4,1,8
4 dozen tin quart potts at 5/ 1
6 ditto pint potts at 3/4 1
15 dozen chequer shirts at 35/6 26,12,6
4 dozen ruffled shirts at 60/ 12
24 dozen plain white shirts at 36/ 43,4
15 hunting saddles with snaffle bridle 15
10 barrels gun powder, 20 quarter
40 half quarters and 95 quarter-quarters 44,1,8

48 brass kettles of a lighter kind than those formerly sent,
price unknown as they could not be included in the invoice.
50 fowling pieces at 20/ 50
30 bunches white barley corn beads at 5/ 7,10
30 ditto black ditto at 5/ 7.10
10 dozen painted frame looking glasses at 6/ 3
4 dozen larger ditto at 10/6 2,2
100 pounds large brass wire at 9.3.8
24 dozen Crambo horn combs at 1/ 1,4
8 dozen ivory combs at 2
4 dozen broad Carolina hoes at 18/ 3,12
5 dozen oval eyed hatchets at 7/ 2,2
2 dozen felling axes at 30/ 3
2 gross butcher pointed knives 3
15 dozen spotted razors at 2/ 1,10
6 dozen padlocks at 7/ 2/2
30 nests gift trunks 4 in each at 8/ 1,2
12 gold laced hats 6,1
4 half all striped calimancoes at 29/ 5,16
6 thousand fine gunflints 3
2 pieces embossed serge 76 yards at 2/ 7,12

James Grant

Stroud A kind of course blanket, made from rags and used in trade with
the Indian.
duffel Coarse woolen cloth having a thick nap or frieze.
nest A set of similar objects.
gartering Tape or band.
fowling piece A light gun for shooting birds.
Bathmetal One of several varieties of brass.
Indian trading guns The trade gun came from many different factories in
Europe and the United States. It was light of weight, short of barrel
and cheaply constructed. It shot a one ounce ball. (Russell, 1957 p.
Gunflints The best gunflints came from the Bradon, England quarries
and were packed in half casks containing 2,000 to 4,000 flints each.
(Russell, 1957, p. 236).
Osnaburg needles and thread Probably first made in Osnaburg, Germany
and perhaps imitated in England or Scotland. Osnaburg fabric was a
coarse linen originally made in Osnaburg but was later woven in Scot-
land and other places.

Calimanco European fabric made of satin weave and plain or striped de-
sign imitating Camel's hair cloth.
Vermilion used for painting the face and body.
padlocks Probably used by Indians to lock white man's style dwellings.
Locks and hinges were mentioned by Thomas Forbes in 1783 as being
essential to the Florida Indian trade.
Trade beads A photograph of trade beads and a Creek Indian wampum
belt may be seen in Jacobs, 1954: opposite 24.
Brass buckle, hoe, axes and a trade pipe Photographs of these objects
found at an English post may be seen in Goggin, 1951: opposite
Dutch prities May be the toys made in Holland and given as presents to
the Indians.


Brannon, Peter
1935 The Southern Indian Trade. Montgomery.

Goggin, John M.
1951 "Fort Pupo: A Spanish Frontier Outpost." The Florida His-
torical Quarterly, Vol. XXX, No. 2, pp. 139-192. Tallahassee.

Jacobs, Wilbur R.
1950 Diplomacy and Indian Gifts. Stanford.

1954 Indians of the Southern Colonial Frontier. Columbia, S. C.

Russell, Carl P.
1957 Guns on the Early Frontiers. Berkeley and Los Angeles.

by David L. DeJamette and Asael T. Hansen. Notes in Anthropology,
No. 6, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, 1960. VI + 65 pp., 13
plates, and 4 figures.

This attractive report concerns the archeology of a site believed to
have been the location of the village of Coosa visited by Hernando De
Soto in 1540. This identification had been suggested by the De Soto Com-
mission headed by the late Dr. John R. Swanton, for a village location
lying between the mouths of the Tallasseehatchee and Talladega Creeks
on the Coosa River, Alabama.
A preliminary archeological survey in 1940 indicated the excavated
site Ta-1, near the town of Childersburg, to have been the only site suf-
ficiently large to correspond with the 16th century description of Coosa.
Excavations were accomplished in the Summer of 1948; analysis of the
specimens was carried out in 1956-57.
Naturally the bulk of the paper is devoted to the analysis and de-
scription of the field work and the artifacts. The material is directed
toward solution of the central problem of whether the Childersburg site
was, or was not, Coosa. In the exposition of detail the authors contribute
to our knowledge artifacts of both Indian and European manufacture.
The bulk of this material as well as the artifacts of European manufac-
ture accompanied the 12 burials which were recovered.
The European artifacts are treated as any of the other archeological
material from the site. They are grouped according to material and de-
scribed with accompanying illustrations. A typology was used for some
of the metal goods and for beads; however there is no clue as to where
the type of these specimens fits into the classification which was in use.
For instance, there is a "Hawk Bell'' Button Type J (p. 47), but no clue
as to how to differentiate this from other types of bells or "Hawk Bells".
An exposition of such a typology would be 'a great help for future work.
In the end the various data derived from correlation of known dates
supplied chiefly by the European materials are applied to the site and
its burials. The scientific but sad conclusion is that the Childers-
burg Site could not possibly have been the Coosa of De Soto. This site
was not only historic, but appears to have been occupied in Colonial and
post-Independence times. Most of the burials derive from the span be-
tween 1750-1775; other evidence suggests occupance up to 1825. Native
affiliations seem to have been definitely with Ocmulgee Fields.
This is a good example of historic site archeology and of the appli-
cation of research methods. It underscores the need for refinement of our
knowledge of historic materials of European origin. Meanwhile the search
for Coosa may continue. -William C. Massey.

The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XIII, Nos. 2-3, September, 1960


Ozzie Ostrander

THESE SHERDS were found on the easternmost tip of the island to the
southeast of the Johns Pass channel, in Boca Ciega Bay. 'In 1945 the
island was covered with small brush, such as mangrove and buttonwood.
The mound had been spaded over by many people before I went there,
but my sherds came from some distance to the west of the mound, between
it and a graveyard area where human bones and skulls were exposed.
In addition to the specimens shown, or described, my collection
once contained three conch-shell dippers and a frog-effigy handle.

All of the decorated sherds are illustrated excepting three small
ones with single incised lines. Paste is uniformly the Lake Jackson
Plain variant, profusely tempered with coarse grit excepting the 2 rim
sherds classified as Pinellas Plain.
In addition to those illustrated, Mr. Ostrander's collection also con-
tains a dozen Lake Jackson Plain rim sherds, 3 sherds from a large St.
Johns Plain bowl, 1 St. Johns Check Stamped sherd, 4 Pinellas Plain
sherds, a few sand tempered specimens.
When Clarence B. Moore excavated this site in 1903 (Moore 1903,
pp. 434-436), he found solidly packed human bones in the mound, and
sherds in the fill. The sherds which he illustrates (fig. 88) are directly
comparable to Mr. Ostrander's although there is more Safety Harbor In-
It is interesting to note the high frequency of the decorated types,
predominantly on the gritty Lake Jackson paste, in burial association
here. The lack of such ware at the nearby Maximo Point site (Sears, 1958)
and its scarcity at Safety Harbor (Willey, 1949, pp. 135-141; Griffin and

The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XII, Nos. 2-3, September, 1960






Sherds from the Johns Pass Mound
A-F, Pinellas Incised. G, Lake Jackson Plain. H-I, P-S, Fort Walton
Incised. J-K, Pinellas Plain. L-O, Fort Walton Incised, variant. T-Safety
Harbor Incised? U-Random punctated.

Bullen, 1950) suggest that the decorated Pinellas, Safety Harbor, and
Fort Walton types have, in this area some mortuary or ceremonial signifi-
cance. In northwest Florida and the adjacent parts of southwest Georgia
and southeast Alabama, the immediate homelands of the Pinellas and
Fort Walton types, their frequency in village middens is much higher. It
seems quite possible that they represent, in the Tampa Bay area and the
adjacent west coast to the north and south, an intrusive element from the
north into a culture dominated by the presumably resident Pinellas Plain
tradition, a tradition in which decoration is limited largely to lip notching
and to which handles are foreign.


Griffin, John W. and Bullen, Ripley P.
1950 "The Safety Harbor Site, Pinellas County, Florida," Florida
Anthropological Society Publications, No. 2.

Moore, Clarence B.
1903 "Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Florida Central West
Coast," Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phil-
adelphia, Vol. 12.

Sears, William H.
1958 "The Maximo Point Site," The Florida Aniti) oi egi t, Vol.
II, No. 1

Willey, Gordon R.
1949 "Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast," Smithssonian Mis-
cellaneous Collections, Vol. 113.


James Covington (English Gifts to the Indians: 1765-1766, p. 71) is a
member of the History Department at the University of Tampa. Dr. Cov-
ington was formerly on the faculty at the University of Florida.

William B. Griffen (The Stetson Collection, p. 33) became interested in
Florida history during his term as Historian of the St. Augustine Histori-
cal Society. Mr. Griffen has since returned to the University of Arizona
to complete work for his Ph.D.

William C. Lazarus (Human Figurines from the Coast of Northwest Flor-
ida, p. 61) is currently serving as first vice-president of the Florida
Anthropological Society. Colonel Lazarus is stationed at Eglin Air Force

Ozzie Ostrander (The Johns Pass Mound, p. 77) is another of the So-
ciety's active amateur members.

Paul W. Parmalee and Henry van der Schalie co-authored Animal Remains
from the Etowah Site, Mound C, Bartow County, Georgia, which begins on
p. 37. Dr. Parmalee is Curator of Zoology at the University of Illinois,
while Dr. van der Schalie is a Professor of Zoology at the University of

William H. Sears (The Bluffton Burial Mound, p. 55), former president of
the Society, is Associate Curator of Social Sciences at the Florida State

The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. XIII, Nos. 2-3, September, 1960

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