The Florida anthropologist

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The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title:
Fla. anthropol.
Florida Anthropological Society
Place of Publication:
Florida Anthropological Society.
Publication Date:
Quarterly[<Mar. 1975- >]
Two no. a year[ FORMER 1948-]
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v. : ill. ; 24 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- May 1948-

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University of Florida
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0015-3893 ( ISSN )


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9[o idaa

f/nt zI ooloylit

Adelaide K. Bullen, Interim Editor

uyesedC 4 tie
71orida Anthlropological Society


7L ST Lo'rida -cntIhopoLfogit

Vol. VII September, 1954 No. 3


CAPE CANAVERAL, FLORIDA ............... Gordon R. Willey 79

A SMALL HIALEAH MIDDEN .................... .... D. D. Laxson 91


HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA ...... Adelaide K. and Ripley P. Bullen 103

CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS ISSUE .......... ...................... 109


It is with great pleasure that I take on the duties of your Interim
Editor; I find my task very easy due to the excellent work of the past
editor, Dr. Robert Anderson, who leaves me with most of the articles
for the remaining two issues of 1954. Dr. Willey's contribution is a
recent arrival.

The manuscripts on hand have been grouped to make as integrated
issues as possible. You may have guessed from the figures on the
cover that this issue concerns itself with excavated material.

Yours in the interest of The Florida Anthropologist,

Adelaide K. Bullen, Interim Editor


Gordon R. Willey

In 1933-34 Dr. George Woodbury excavated several burial mounds on
Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, east central Florida. This work was
done as a part of a Federal Relief archaeological program under the spon-
sorship of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution. It
was under the general direction of Dr. M. W. Stirling, Chief of the Bureau.
In 1945, while I was a staff member of the Bureau, Dr. Stirling turned over
to me the notes and collections from the Canaveral excavations for study
and eventual publication. At the present writing, over 20 years since the
date of the field work, a lengthy "final" report on the Canaveral data is
unwarranted. Stirling (1935, pp. 385-388) has given a brief description of
the excavations with some detail on mound construction and burials in his
preliminary account. Rouse (1951, pp. 192-194 and 195-198) analyzed and
classified the pottery and other artifacts from these mounds in his general
survey of the Indian River area. There exist, then, only a few items about
these sites that have not been made available in published form. Most of
these are the burial diagrams made by Dr. Woodbury. This short paper is
written to put these facts upon record.


Cape Canaveral juts into the Atlantic about halfway down the Florida
peninsula. In a general way it marked a division between the Ais tribes
of south Florida with their dependence upon hunting, fishing, and gather-
ing, and the Timucuan peoples to the north who followed an agricultural
tradition. Stirling (1935) was of the opinion that most of the Cape Canaveral
region lay north of this line and that it was occupied by a Timucuan group,
the Surruque, during the 16th, 17th, and early 18th centuries. Rouse (1951,
pp. 34 ff.) has questioned this location of the Surruque. Following an early
17th-century Spanish document, the Derrotero of Alvaro Mexia, he is of the
opinion that a subdivision of the Ais, the Ulumay, were living along the
Banana River and that the archaeological sites under consideration prob-

ably can be referred to them or to their immediate ancestors. Insofar as
this is correct we would expect the cultural affiliations of these sites to be
to the south. Archaeological analysis seems to bear this out. Both Rouse
(1951, fig. 1, pp. 68-69) and Goggin (1952, pp. 15-17) agree that a line de-
fining archaeological areas can be drawn with reasonable accuracy just
north of Cape Canaveral and that this line once separated the agricultural,
temple-mound building Indians of the Northern St. Johns from what they have
named the Indian River area. The presence or absence of certain pottery
and shell-tool types also distinguish this Indian River area from the adja-
cent Kissimmee and Glades areas to the west and south. The Burs and
Fuller mounds, with which we are concerned, lie at the northern end of the
Indian River area.

The later archaeological chronology of the Indian River area with its
estimated dates has been outlined by Rouse (1951, pp. 234-263) as follows:

Malabar I ---- About the time of Christ
Malabar I' ---- 1-1000 A.D.
Malabar II ---- 1000-1763 A.D.
St. Augustine ---- 1700-1763 A.D.
Seminole --- 1750 on.

The artifact collections from the Burs and the Fuller mounds which have
been studied by Rouse are placed by him in his Malabar I, I', and II periods,
with the heaviest representations in the latest period. In 1950 I also class-
ified these same collections, quite independently of Rouse, and came to
similar conclusions. A subsequent comparison of our results showed only
a few minor differences in our tabulations. For the most part, the pottery
belongs to the St. Johns series, but there are a few Glades types and an
occasional specimen apparently derived from the Florida Gulf Coast in the
lot. Stone and shell tools were also found; and objects made of European
metal came from some of the mounds.


The Burs mound was referred to as "Mound 2A" in Stirling's (1935,
p. 387) account, and Rouse has designated it by the symbol and number
Br-85 as well as by the name of the property owner. The site is both a
shell midden and a burial mound, the latter feature being built over the
former. It is just west of the town of Canaveral on the edge of the Banana
River. Before excavation it measured 3.95 meters in height and 23.9 meters
in diameter.

The burial mound proper was composed largely of sand, and the exca-

vator defined two principal physical zones: a lower one consisting of sand
(Figure 1, stratum 3) and an upper one, ‘‘a thick laminated deposit which
contained ...charcoal, pot sherds, shells, etc.’’ (Woodbury, n.d.) (Fig. 1,
stratum 4). Burials were found in both zones, and these have been plotted
separately. All were oriented with their heads toward the center of the
mound. Woodbury excavated approximately one-half of the total bulk of the
mound, cutting down to mound base throughout the excavated portion. He




Ast TATE” sano


Fig. 1. Cross-section (north-south line) of Burns mound.

discovered 31 burials in his lower zone excavations (Fig. 2) and 21 in the
upper zone (Fig. 3). All of the upper zone burials were extended and placed
on the back (Fig. 3) while a few in the lower zone were flexed or semi-
flexed. Woodbury (n.d.) has stated that all but one of the 52 skeletons were
those of adults and that the mound population was about evenly divided
between males and females. No secondary burials were reported for the
Burns mound.

Woodbury’s pottery collection from the mound included 249 fragments of
St. Johns Check Stamped. The presence of this type along with Little
Manatee Zone Stamped and Sarasota Incised sherds places the Burns mound
in the Malabar II period. Presumedly the Little Manatee Zone Stamped and
Sarasota Incised types were trade sherds from the Gulf Coast. A pendant
of European silver, but of Indian manufacture, was the only evidence of
European contact in the mound. This pendant was probably found in asso-
ciation with one of the burials, but there is no information as to whether it
ceme from the upper or lower zone of the mound construction. Rouse (1951,
p. 194) surmises that ‘‘... it a by-product of the looting of wrecks
[Spanish ships] during the Period of Hostility’? (1564-1602).

The pendant (Fig. 4; see also Rouse, 1951, Pl. 7C) is a thin flat piece
of silver measuring 3.7 cms. across. It is in the form of a cut-out, equal-
amed cross within —or superimposed over—a square. The edges are
smooth and evenly trimmed. There is a small hole at the end of one of


Fig. 2. Ground plan of burial arrangements from lower zone (stratum 3) of Burns

the cross-bars, presumably for suspension. One side of the pendant is
plain; the other side has a crude scratched design which follows the pat-
tern of the square and cross. It is difficult to say whether the design
concept was aboriginal or Christian, but probabilities favor the former in-
terpretation. The cross was an ancient southeastern decorative element,
and in late prehistoric times the cross-within-a-circle was a common motif
of Southern Cult art (Waring and Holder, 1945, p. 7 and Figs. I, III). The
time horizon of the Southern Cult climax undoubtedly antedates the 16th
century, but occasional elements and concepts derived from it seem to
have lasted on into later periods in some regions.


Stirling has referred to these mounds as being one mile south of the


Fig. 3. Ground plan of burial arrangements from upper zone (stratum 4) of Burns

town of Artesia. Woodbury's notes describe six mounds, and Rouse has
followed Woodbury in listing all of them, enumerated and lettered as Br-90
to Br-95, inclusive (Fuller mounds A through F). All six mounds lay with-
in a radius of 100 meters. About 250 meters to the south of these mounds
is a shell midden (see Rouse, 1951, p. 198, Br-96). Quite possibly these
burial mounds and the midden formed a village unit.

Fuller Mound A

Mound A proved to be a sand burial mound similar in form and substance
to the Burns mound. It was 2.6 meters high, 19.7 meters in diameter, cir-
cular and conical. A cross-section of mound construction is shown in
Figure 5. Stratum 2, although artificially deposited, contained no burials.
Stratum 3 was a thin layer of oyster shells. Stratum 4, composed of sand,


Fig. 4. Silver pendant, 3.4 cms. diameter, of aboriginal manufacture (but of
European transported metal) from the Burns mound.




Fig. 5. Cross-section (north-south line) of Fuller mound A.

held all the burials recovered by Woodbury. The mound was excavated in
its entirety, and 96 complete skeletons were recorded. All but 12 of these
were adults, and females slightly outnumbered males. Figure 6 shows the
same burial pattern as the Burns mound. Nearly all skeletons were oriented
with their heads toward the center of the mound. Most of them were extended
and lying on the back; a few were semi-flexed. Woodbury notes that many
partial burials were discovered in the course of the digging. From his
descriptions these sound like single-skull and bundle burials, obviously
secondary interments. A few of these secondary burials are entered on the
Figure 6 diagram, but, apparently, not all of those encountered are so in-
dicated. At the center of the mound, deep tree roots had disarranged a
number of burials and made their accurate plotting impossible.

Fig. 6. Ground plan of burial arrangements, Fuller mound A.

It is not clear if artifacts were found in strata 2 and 3. Woodbury's
use of the term "sterile" on his field drawing in connection with stratum
2 would suggest that they were not. The designation "artifact-bearing"
for stratum 4 also strengthens the supposition that pottery and other mate-
rials were present only in the sand stratum where the burials were found.
One complete pottery vessel and several sherds were recovered. In addi-
tion to various shell, stone, and bone tools and ornaments (see Rouse,
1951, pp. 196-197, for details) iron tools and glass beads of European
manufacture were found in significant numbers. Also present were a num-
ber of native-made articles fashioned of European-transported metals.
These consisted of copper pendants, copper disks, and an embossed pen-
dant of gold.

One of the copper pendants is of curious shape and design. This
appears to be a fragment of a rattlesnake effigy (Fig. 7). It is made of


a thin strip of metal, 13 cms. long and 1.7 cms. wide
(of aboriginal manufacture, but of European-transported
metal). The tail portion has been cut out to represent
rattles while the body is decorated in a repousse tech-
nique. A row of fine, close-spaced dots borders each
_41 edge of the body. On the body of the snake are x-marks
arranged in panels set off by horizontal bars. This kind
S.of stylized representation of the rattlesnake by the
use of x-marks on the body is typical of Southern Cult
forms (see Waring and Holder, 1945, Fig. IV, 1).

The pottery assemblage from Fuller mound A, in-
cluding a complete St. Johns Check Stamped vessel,
dates from the Malabar I period. The number and vari-
ety of European articles suggest, however, a somewhat
later date than that assigned to the Burs mound. Rouse
1951, p. 197) suggests the 17th century. If this is so,
and it is certainly the best estimate that can be made
from present data, the copper rattlesnake pendant is an
interesting retention of what seems to be Southern Cult
art forms.

Fuller Mound B

Fuller mound B was similar in shape to, but some-
what smaller than, mound A. It was completely exca-
vated, and its physical stratigraphy duplicated that of
mound A (Fig. 8). Burials, however, were concentrated
in a central pit which penetrated only to the bottom of
stratum 3. Remains of about 20 individuals were found
jumbled together in this pit. Quite probably many had
Fig. 7. been disarticulated before burial. Two primary flexed
burials lay outside the pit oriented with their feet toward

Fig. 8. Cross-section (north-south line) of Fuller mound B.

the center of the mound. The presence of no St. Johns Check Stamped
pottery and the absence of European materials argue for an earlier date
than those accorded Burns mound or Fuller mound A. Rouse (1951, p. 197)
suggests the Malabar I' period. The significantly different burial pattern
here tends to confirm an important chronological difference.

Fuller Mound C

Fuller mound C was a low rise of rather amorphous outline. Woodbury's
map (n.d.) shows it as an elongated ridge. No burials were found here, and
the few sherds from the excavations fall in the Malabar I period.

Fuller Mound D

Fuller mound D was constructed of sand and shell, 14 meters in diam-
eter and 1.75 meters high. The physical stratigraphy is shown in Figure 9.



Fig. 9. Cross-section (north-south line) of Fuller mound D.

It is most likely that the burials were found in the upper, or shell, level;
but Woodbury's designation of "artifact-bearing" for stratum 2 indicates
that cultural materials were found in this sand layer. The entire mound was
excavated, but burials were found only along the southern edge. These were
primary extended interments placed with their heads toward the center of the
mound (Fig. 10). The burials total 16 with more males than females and with
5 identified as "infants." The burial diagram (Fig. 10) would suggest that
the "infants" were sub-adults. No artifacts remain from these excavations,
but some of the burials were said to have been accompanied with glass
beads. These associations impute a late date probably contemporary
with Fuller mound A.

Fuller Mounds E and F

Fuller mounds E and F were excavated, in part, but revealed no burials
or artifacts of any significance.

Fig. 10. Ground plan of burial arrangements, Fuller mound D.


Two archaeological sites were explored on the Canaveral peninsula
in territory formerly held by the Ulumay division of the Ais tribe. Each
site seems to consist of a village midden and a burial mound, or mounds,
in close association. The burial mounds, for the most part, are made of
sand; and they contain the remains of the dead as well as ceramics and
other aboriginal artifacts. Some of these mounds also show objects of
European provenience.

The Burns mound and the Fuller mounds A and D display a pattern of
radially arranged burials. In each case most of the burials were extended
upon the back and placed with their heads toward the center of the mound.
Burials were always found in mound fill, not on or below mound base. The
pottery from the Burns mound and Fuller mound A is identified as belonging


to the Malabar II period of the Indian River area. Inasmuch as European-
derived materials were found in both mounds, it seems certain that both date
from after the beginning of the 16th century. A 16th-century date for the
Burns mound and a 17th-century date for the Fuller mound A are the most
reasonable assignments. The Fuller mound D probably fits somewhere into
this chronological range.

The pottery from Fuller mound B matches the Malabar I' ceramic period,
and the majority of the burials from this mound were found in a large central
pit. Many of them appear to have been secondary interments. The pattern
of radial arrangement was absent.

There is, then, some slight evidence on Cape Canaveral for a change of
burial customs between the Malabar I' and Malabar H periods. The primary
extended burial, radially arranged in the mound, appears to have superseded
massed secondary inhumation.


Goggin, John M.
1952. "Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns Arche-
ology, Florida." Yale University Publications in Anthro-
pology, No. 47. New Haven.

Rouse, Irving
1951. "A Survey of Indian River Archeology, Florida." Yale Uni-
versity Publications in Anthropology, No. 44. New Haven.

Stirling, M. W.
1935. "Smithsonian Archeological Projects conducted under the
Federal Emergency Relief Administration, 1933-34."
Smithsonian Institution, Annual Report for 1934, pp. 371-400.

Waring, A. J., Jr., and Preston Holder
1945. "A Prehistoric Ceremonial Complex in the Southeastern
United States." American Anthropologist, Vol.47, pp. 1-34.

Woodbury, George
n.d. Preliminary Report on Excavation of Mortuary Mounds in
Brevard County, Florida East Coast. (Archeological Report
of CWA Project 5-F-70, December 18, 1933-February 15,
1934. Manuscript now in Bureau American Ethnology, Smith-
sonian Institution.)



D. D. Laxson

In May, 1952, excavation was started in a group of hammocks located
in Section 35, Range 40 east, Township 52 south, Dade County, Florida.
Two sites were completed and notes published in The Florida Anthropol-
ogist (Laxson, 1953a and 1953b). The present paper refers to the smallest,
southernmost, and last hammock in the group and is called Hialeah No. 3.

This small midden is locatedin a rectangular-shaped hammock about
500 feet long and 200 feet across at its widest point. It lies along the
southern edge of a muck and sawgrass slough, running in a NE-SW direc-
tion. In approaching from the west across the sawgrass, it can be seen
that the site sits upon a limestone ledge two feet above the low area.

The surface of the midden site is undulating, following the contour of
the limestone underneath. Test holes showed limestone at depths varying
from several inches near the western rim to several feet near the hammock's
center. Some of the underlying limestone had solution holes; some could
be broken off in flat, laminated pieces.

Vegetation is in no way different from other hammocks in the area. In
the low spots bay, wax myrtle, groundsel, sawgrass, andtrema are evident.
On the higher portions of the hammock are ficus, hackberry, pokeberry,
elderberry, and wild grape.

The midden site is located near the eastern edge of a large ficus tree,
forty feet east of the western rim bordering the slough (Fig. 1). A large
hole has been burned in the tree, evidently to smoke out bees. A single
wooden hive has been placed in the thick vegetation near the tree.

There was, even after a careful search, no sign on the surface of any
occupation. It was decided to test the area just east of the large ficus
because the larger roots disappeared under the ground on this side of the
tree, seemingly indicating the deeper soil. On the west side of the tree,
roots lay along the surface.

Fig. 1.
As soon as digging began, it became obvious that a peculiar situation
existed. The midden area was small, covering twenty feet in a N-S direction
and fifteen feet to the E-W. The soil profile seemed to show from three to
six inches of black dirt and then a narrow occupation zone of from four to
six inches in a dark grey sand (Fig. 1). Below this there was about eighteen
inches of a grey marl down to the limestone. There was very little material,
except snail shells, in this marl.

Three five-foot-square pits were started. It was apparent that there was
to be no worthwhile material below the six- or eight-inch level. Therefore


no deeper excavating was done. In an effort to locate additional material,
test holes were dug at two-and-a-half foot intervals across the midden area.
Nothing promising was found so the project was halted.

Examination of sherds from Hialeah No. 3, classified in Table I, showed
this midden to be of the Glades II period (presence of Key Largo Incised
and absence of Glades Tooled sherds). The unclassified incised sherds

Table I
0-6’ level
Pit 3 Pit 2 Pit 1

Unclassified incised l 2 8
Unclassified punctated 1

Surfside Incised 1
Key Largo Incised 6

Glades Tooled (?) 1

Black painted Glades Plain

Belle Glade-like, but Glades Plain paste 1
Glades Plain 42 81 37

0-6”’ level

Pit 3 Pit 2 Pit 1

Pieces of cut bone handle

Shark vertebrae bead

Turtle bone

Deer bone (incl. antler)

Clam shells

Conch shells

Land snail (Euglandia, sp., recent)

met et Tete

Macrocallista shell 1
Unidentified animal bone 1

(Fig. 2, first two rows) were quite interesting. One (Fig. 2, first sherd)
was similar to one illustrated by Goggin and Sommer for Upper Matecumbe
Key (1949, Pl.1, R). Those with vertical lines between horizontal lines
(Fig. 2, second row) closely resembled one illustrated by Willey for the
Belle Glade site (1949, Pl. 5, L).

All of this material was found in a narrow occupation zone (Fig. 1,
lower, second zone from surface), These ‘‘unclassified’’ incised sherds


0 I 2


Fig. 2.


were associated with the relatively abundant Key Largo Incised pottery
(Fig. 2, third row) and hence date also to Glades II times, probably late in
that period or circa 900-1000 A.D. (Goggin, 1950).

This work has been reported to record this association as the "unclass-
ified" incised sherds appear to represent a rare Miami-area type.

Appreciation is expressed to the following for their help: Mr. Jack
Christianson, owner of the site; Mr. Ripley P. Bullen, Curator of Social
Sciences, Florida State Museum, for help with typology.


Laxson, D. D.
1953a. "Stratigraphy in a Hialeah Midden." The Florida Anthro-
pologist, Vol. VI, No. 1, pp. 1-8. Gainesville.

1953b. "Further Excavations at Hialeah, Florida." The Florida
Anthropologist, Vol. VI, No. 3, pp. 95-99. Gainesville.

Goggin, John M.
1950. "Florida Archeology 1950." The Florida Anthropologist,
Vol. III, No. 1-2, pp. 9-20. Gainesville.

Goggin, John M., and Frank H. Sommer, III
1949. "Excavations on Upper Matecumbe Key, Florida." Yale
University Publications in Anthropology, No. 41. New Haven.

Willey, Gordon R.
1949. "Excavations in Southeast Florida." Yale University Pub-
lications in Anthropology, No. 42. New Haven.



Ripley P. Bullen

The Davis burial mound is located in Hardee County, Florida, in the
west central portion of Section 5, Range 27 east, Township 35 south, about
12 miles east-southeast of the town of Zolfo Springs. It is situated about a
mile southeast of Big Charlie or Charlie Apopka Creek in a large, fairly
level field which, during the fall of 1953, was being turned into an orange

The mound was originally about 40 feet in diameter and 4 feet high.
To the northwest was a low area which may be presumed to have been the
borrow pit. To fill this pit and level the field, Mr. Walter T. Davis of
Arcadia, owner of the land, had a bulldozer operator work in from one side
of the mound with instructions to stop if bones or other objects were en-

A considerable amount of the mound was removed before the presence
of human bones was noted. Mr. Davis immediately employed the bulldozer
in other areas and reported the find. In a round-about way, the report
reached the Florida State Museum and a party under the author's direction
went to investigate. We were taken to the site by Mr. Davis, accompanied
by Mr. John N. Hardin and Mr. J. W. King, both of the Florida Fish and
Game Commission.

We found about three-fifths of the mound had been removed, all of the
northeast half and an additional portion of the southeast quadrant. We
were told that two or three skeletons had been noted. We found small frag-
ments of human bones scattered over much of the area which had been
covered by spread dirt. The head of a femur and part of a long bone were
exposed in the face of the mound where they had been left by a bulldozer
cut (Fig. 1, upper X).

We spent two days at the site. Small tests were dug in the area covered
by the bulldozer but away from the center of the mound. They proved to be
sterile but suggested the mound to have had a subsurface core of dark dirt

in which occasional lumps of charcoal, 1 inch across, were found. We
next proceeded to excavate the central portion of the mound, removing dirt
under that previously removed by the bulldozer. For the purpose of re-
cording a profile (Fig. 1), an approximately southeast-northwest trench
was dug a little to the southwest of the presumed center of the mound.
Finally, the central portion of this trench was extended up to the edge of
a live oak tree.



wm Ca «= OBROWN ?” BROWN

o 10
———— ed

In this way about 150 sq. ft. of the central area of the mound was
excavated. Twelve burials or parts of burials were found but it is prob-
able the mound originally contained the remains of about twenty individuals.

As shown in the profile (Fig. 1), the mound consisted of a brown core
which rested on light brown subsoil and was capped by a light tan layer.
All deposits consisted of medium fine sand. We would interpret the sloping
deposit of tan sand, shown on the profile towards the southeast, as repre-
senting part of the slope of an early mound surface below land level.

This would imply the aborigines dug a hole and filled it with sand
darkened by charcoal. While our work was insufficient to prove this point,
it is a reasonable hypothesis based on our knowledge of other mounds and
the presence in this one of numerous lumps of charcoal.

All the burials found by us, except the one shown in the profile in the
lower part of the superior light tan zone, came from the **dark-nonhomo-
geneous” deposit shown near the center of the profile. This zone, while
basically similar to the brown zone mentioned above, included a series of
dark mottled areas or deposits. Some of them contained skeletal material,
some of them did not.

A few, both with and without bones, were stained red. One consisted

of a compact deposit of burned human bones. Charcoal was more frequently
encountered in this dark-nonhomogeneous zone than in the brown zone.


Occasionally, isolated bone fragments were found, very rarely a sherd.

The impression we gained was that the dark-nonhomogeneous deposit
was originally the same as the brown zone but that it had been frequently
entered by means of shallow pits into which burials had been put. That
they had not all been interred at the same time is implied by the fact that
in several cases superimposed burials were uncovered.

Apparently, the superior light tan zone was deposited after most of the
burials had been interred. However, its color may be the result of normal

Burial 1 comprised fragments of a skull and two teeth. A sherd was
nearby but no other bones were found.

Burial 2 consisted of a deposit of reddened sand (impregnated with
red ochre) which measured 1 foot across and 8 inches vertically. In it
were a few very fragmentary bones, a small barrel-type shell bead, and a
small flat-type shell bead.

Cremation A, at the same elevation and about 2 feet to the northeast
of Burial 2, was formed by a compact deposit of burned bones, 16 inches
in diameter and 3 inches thick. It included fragments of human skull,
radius, vertebrae, and other bones. All were well calcined and checked
from intense heat. Charcoal was not present.

Burial 3, nine long bones covering an area 18 inches across, was
apparently a bundle burial with the skull a foot to the northeast. Between
the skull and the long bones, and also under the latter, was a deposit of
gray-white sand. The skull lay on its right side and was nearly covered
with pink and red ochre-stained sand. This red color was particularly
intense where the left shoulder should have been. Suggestions of the
first two vertebrae were found at the base of the skull. The skull was
that of a gracile individual. Tooth wear was substantial but not pro-

Burial 4 was an isolated skull which was fairly large, thick, and rugged.
The lower jaw was not present.

Burial 5 covered an area about 24 by 30 inches. It consisted of two
skulls and various long bones. While what appeared to be a left humerus and
very slight suggestions of what might have been a left scapula were found
in a nearly correct anatomical position, between the larger skull and the
long bones, we were unable to call this other than a bundle burial. Heel,
ankle, pelvic, and back bones were completely absent. The larger skull

was buried face downward with the jaw in normal position. Warping was
very great but the skull seemed to be medium sized with thin walls and
small teeth. The other skull, found near and slightly below the end of one
of the long bones, was clearly the remains of a young child who, to judge
from the teeth, was four or five years of age at death. Did burial 5 repre-
sent the remains of a mother and child?

Two fragments of a small skull separated by about 6 inches, apparently
by root action, was called Burial 6. A fragmentary lower jaw was also

The vertical location of Burial 7 is indicated in the profile (Fig. 1)
by the upper X. It included the head of a right femur and the articulated
lower part of the right leg (tibia, fibula, ankle and foot bones). On top of
the right ankle was the astragalus of the left. Apparently, the shaft of the
right femur as well as the other bones of the left leg, if originally present,
had been removed by the bulldozer. This interment could be part of a
flexed burial. It was the highest burial we encountered and the preservation
of the bones by far the best, probably due to better drainage.

Burial 8 was formed by four long bones lying approximately parallel in
the ground.

Three more long bones, found below Burial 8 and lying in the same
direction, were designated Burial 9. They may have been part of Burial 8.

Burial 10 consisted of a small, thin skull with what may have been a
humerus extending outward from near its base. No other bones were present.
This appears to be the remains of another child as the small lower jaw only
contained two molars on each side.

A small skull with, at a distance of a foot, fragments of long bones and
possibly one of a rib, was called Burial 11. No teeth were present.

What appeared to be two femora and two tibiae were called Burial 12.
The outer bones lay parallel with the inner ones crossed between them.

Eight sherds and the broken tip of a chert projectile point were found
during excavation. All sherds were undecorated and tempered with rather
fine sand. With one exception they seem to represent the ceramic type
called Belle Glade Plain. The exception, with a flattened expanded lip,
exhibits reddish discoloration which may be the remains of red paint.


Our work at the Davis burial mound was not sufficiently extensive to
give us a complete picture of the mound and its contents. We'believe it did
give us a good, representative sample. This mound is located in an area of
Florida for which we have but little archaeological knowledge. We are par-
ticularly indebted, therefore, to Mr. Walter T. Davis of Arcadia for the con-
servation of this data which otherwise would have been completely lost.

We feel that with few exceptions burials at the Davis mound were of the
bundle type. Both ends were missing from all long bones except those of
Burial 7. In spite of the extremely eroded condition of the bones due to the
acidity of the soil (Mr. Davis told us it probably had a pH value of 4 to 5),
we feel some evidence of heel bones, pelves, and vertebrae would have been
found if they had been originally present, i.e. if complete bodies had been

The small fragments of human bones, noted on the surface of sand from
the mound and spread by the bulldozer, were not carefully examined. From
their white color and small size it is possible they came from cremations.
If so, more than one should be recorded for the Davis mound.

The mound, therefore, produced a number of bundle burials plus the
remains of at least one cremation. This situation is similar to that at the
Parrish Mounds 1-3 in Manatee County, about 40 miles to the northwest.
The Parrish Mounds also produced Belle Glade Plain pottery as well as
sherds of the Safety Harbor period and, in addition, European trade goods
such as glass beads (Willey, 1949, pp. 142-156).

While one lump of red ochre is mentioned for Parrish Mound 3, the use
of red paint with burials does not seem as prevalent there as at the Davis
mound. This trait seems to have been more common during late Weeden
Island times (Bullen, 1952, p. 49).

The above considerations would seem to place the Davis mound as
dating from a time equivalent to the prehistoric part of the Safety Harbor
Period, probably very early in that period when some traits from the Weeden
Island Period were still present (about 1400 A.D.).

The nearest site to the Davis mound for which we have any data is the
Goodnow Mound in Highlands County, about 15 miles to the southeast.
There both bundle burials and extended primary burials were encountered
as well as a large amount of trade goods of European origin. Belle Glade
Plain (and St. Johns Plain) sherds were found and red ochre was present
in the general area of the burials (Griffin and Smith, 1948).

Except for the extended primary burials (which may have been present
but not excavated at Davis) and the large amount of trade material, there
seem to be definite similarities between the Goodnow and Davis mounds.
Again this comparison would suggest a late prehistoric date for the Davis


Bullen, Ripley P.
1952. "Eleven Archaeological Sites in Hillsborough County,
Florida." Report of Investigations No. 8, Florida Geological
Survey. Tallahassee.

Griffin, John W., and Hale G. Smith
1948. "The Goodnow Mound, Highlands County, Florida." Contri-
butions Number One, Florida Park Service. Tallahassee.

Willey, Gordon R.
1949. "Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast." Smithsonian Mis-
cellaneous Collections, No. 113. Washington.




Adelaide K. and Ripley P. Bullen

The Florida Anthropologist (Vol. VI, No. 3) recently contained an article
about an interesting collection of Indian artifacts from Battery Point, Bay-
port, Florida. As was pointed out, the collection was important as it (1) was
dredged from the Gulf of Mexico from below low tide, thus implying some
antiquity; (2) was only the second known occurrence of Perico Incised and
Perico Linear Punctated pottery types (Willey, 1949, p. 365); and (3) was
only the second known occurrence in any quantity of percussion-flaked,
adze-like stone tools such as had been found at Johns Island in the mouth
of the Chassahowitzka River (Bullen and Bullen, 1950). The collection also
contained a new pottery type, Perico Punctated, and increased our knowl-
edge of the distribution of semi-fiber-tempered pottery in Florida.

Due to the kindness of Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Amstutz of Brooksville,
Florida, whose efforts and interest are greatly appreciated, the Florida
State Museum is fortunate to have received another collection from the
same site salvaged from the same dredging operation (Accession No. 3883).
This collection substantially augments that reported in the previous article
and it seems worthwhile to record the additional information. For a de-
scription of the site and a discussion of the specimens, the reader is re-
ferred to the previous article (Bullen and Bullen, 1953).

Selected specimens from the new collection are illustrated in Figures
1 and 2. Chert tools include five large adze-like tools, thirty-one small
adze-like tools, a rectangular knife or scraper, five asymmetric trianguloid
knives, a chipped and pecked blank, a utilized flake, and sixty-two worked
fragments (mostly parts of knives or projectile points). Projectile points
and knives may be classified as six stemmed, four stemmed and barbed,
seventeen basally-notched, one corner-notched, and two small triangular
points. An elongate drill and what appears to have been a stone ball were
also found.

Nine St. Johns Incised, three Pasco Incised, seven Perico Linear

21 1 -- IlN

Fig. 1. Top row, narrow triangular, (three) basally-notched, and corner-notched
points; second row, stemmed and barbed point, stemmed point, drill,
asymmetric trianguloid knife; third row, ovate knife, rectangular knife
or scraper, and small adze-like tool; bottom row, large adze-like tool.

21- I 1 IIN.

Fig. 2. Top row, plummet-shaped pendant of igneous rock and pick-like tool of
fossil bone; second row, Perico Incised, Perico Punctated A, combina-
tion Perico Punctated B and Perico Linear Punctated, and Pasco Incised;
third row, two St. Johns Incised and one Deptford Simple Stamped; bottom
row, steatite sherd (left, outer surface; right, inner surface).


Punctated, three Perico Incised (two containing sand but no apparent lime-
stone inclusions), one Perico Punctated A, one Deptford Simple Stamped,
and a sherd which appears to be fingernail-indented comprise the decorated

Of special interest is a small plummet-type pendant made of a non-
Floridian rock (gabbro?), what appears to have been a pick made from a
fossil Manatee rib, and a fragment from a steatite (soapstone) vessel. The
last shows tool marks on both surfaces. The pick-like tool (Fig. 2, upper
right) indicates Indian use of available material, in this case a well-fos-
silized animal rib. The bone had become fossilized a long time before
being utilized by an Indian.

Presence of the fragment of a steatite vessel (Fig. 2, bottom) is note-
worthy as such fragments are rare in peninsular Florida. The nearest
sources for this material are central Georgia or central Alabama. As has
been pointed out elsewhere, steatite vessels appear to have been intro-
duced into Florida during very late fiber-tempered or Orange Period times
(Griffin, 1952, p. 324; Bullen, n.d.). Semi-fiber-tempered pottery was in-
cluded in the previous collection from the Battery Point site (Bullen and
Bullen, 1953). Presence of steatite at this site, probably from an early
post-fiber-tempered period, is not surprising.

The inventory of this collection from the Battery Point site, in respect
to both projectile points and pottery, indicates cultural admixture as did
the collections previously discussed (Bullen and Bullen, 1953). However,
the bulk of the material would seem to belong to an early post-fiber-tempered
period when St. Johns Incised, Pasco Incised, and Perico Incised and Punc-
tated were the prevailing types of decorated pottery (circa 400 B.C.). Un-
fortunately, we have no data regarding chronological relationships between
these pottery types.

Since writing the above, the Florida State Museum has received from
Mr. and Mrs. Amstutz another smaller collection from the Battery Point site
(Accession No. 3898). As the dredging operations are now finished, this is
probably the last information which will be available from this interesting

As before, the bulk of the collection consisted of adze-like tools;
stemmed, basally-notched, and side-notched projectile points; fragments
of large knives; and a large drill (three and three-eighths inches in length
and made from a flake); as well as Perico Incised, Perico Linear Punctated,
and Pasco Incised sherds. Of special interest are five specimens: two
thick steatite sherds, an unworked "greenstone" cobble, a sandstone grind-
stone, and a cube of galena. The exotic items are worthy of note.

Interestingly, the steatite sherds show a different megascopic composi-
tion from each other and from the one mentioned earlier. As steatite in
natural deposits in the ground varies considerably over a short distance,
this does not necessarily imply different sources. These two more recently
received sherds exhibit smooth interiors (one more so than the other) and
semi-smoothed exteriors while the earlier one showed obvious tool marks on
both surfaces. It is possible Indians living at the Battery Point site had
three vessels made of steatite among their possessions.

The unworked "greenstone" cobblestone, about four inches in length,
represents an importation from the north. It seems to imply that raw mate-
rial was sometimes carried considerable distances. More manufacture may
have occurred in Florida using exotic materials than is evident from our
present knowledge.

Cubes of galena have been found in various burial mounds (Goggin,
1952, p. 128; Willey, 1949, pp. 509, 512). Presumedly, the nearest source
is in or near Kentucky. As more exotic material is recorded for Florida,
trade connections between the prehistoric inhabitants of the peninsular and
the rest of the area now known as the United States becomes more evident.


Bullen, Adelaide K., and Ripley P. Bullen
1950. "The Johns Island Site, Hernando County, Florida." Ameri-
can Antiquity, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 23-45. Menasha.

1953. "The Battery Point Site, Bayport, Hernando County, Florida."
The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. VI, No. 3, pp. 85-92.

Bullen, Ripley P.
n.d. "Culture Changes during the Fiber-tempered Period in Florida."
Presented at the Southeastern Archaeological Conference,
Chapel Hill, 1953.

Goggin, John M.
1952. "Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns Archeol-
ogy, Florida." Yale University Publications in Anthropology,
No. 47. New Haven.

Griffin, John W.
1952. "Prehistoric Florida: A Review." In Archeology of Eastern
United States (J. B. Griffin, ed.). Chicago.

Willey, Gordon R.
1949. "Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast." Smithsonian Mis-
cellaneous Collections, Vol. 113. Washington.



Gordon R. Willey is holder of the Bowditch chair in the Department of
Anthropology, Peabody Museum, Harvard University. Formerly he was
senior anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian
Institution, Washington.

D. D. Laxson, frequent contributor to this journal, is an active member
of the Florida Anthropological Society. He is doing archaeological work
in the Hialeah area near Miami, Florida.

Ripley P. Bullen, also a frequent contributor, is curator of social
sciences at the Florida State Museum in Gainesville.

Adelaide K. Bullen, interim editor of this journal, is associate in
anthropology at the Florida State Museum.



First Vice President:

Second Vice President:

Interim Secretary:


Interim Editor:

Executive Committeemen:


Wilfred T. Neill, Silver Springs.

Leigh M. Pearsall, Melrose.

Charlton W. Tebeau, Miami.

Julian M. Granberry, Gainesville.

Ripley P. Bullen, Gainesville.

Adelaide K. Bullen, Gainesville.

Frederick W. Sleight, Mount Dora.
H. James Gut, Sanford.
J. E. Dovell, Gainesville.


Membership in the Florida Anthropological Society is open to everyone
interested in its aims. Dues are $3.00 per year. Student Membership $1.50.
Members receive the Florida Anthropologist, the Newsletter, and other pub-
lications of the Society. Applications should be sent to the Treasurer, who
should be addressed also concerning receipt of publications. His address
is 103 Seagle Building, Gainesville.

General inquiries concerning the Society should be addressed to the

Manuscripts and publications for review should be sent to the Interim
Editor at the Florida State Museum, Gainesville.

Address items for the Newsletter to the President, Research Division,
Ross Alien Reptile Institute, Silver Springs.

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