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THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
Volume XXIII, No. 3
The Safford Burial Mound, Tarpon Springs, Florida
Ripley P. Bullen, William L. Partridge, and Donald A. Harris .81
The Yamassee Indians in Florida: 1715 1763
James W Covington . . . . . 119
OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY
President James W. Covington
Tampa University, Tampa, Fla. 33606
1st Vice President Carl A. Benson
3400 East Grant Ave. Orlando, Fla. 32806
2nd Vice President William M. Goza
P. O. Box 246, Clearwater, Fla. 33515
Secretary-Treasurer Sara B. Benson
3400 East Grant Ave., Orlando, Fla. 32806
Editor-Resident Agent Ripley P. Bullen
Florida State Museum, Gainesville, Fla.,
Three years: Thomas H. Gouchnour
Two years: Cliff E. Mattox
Cocoa Beach, Florida
One year: Don D. Laxson
At large, for one year:
Charles A. Hoffman, Jr.
Donald W. Sharon
Fort Walton Beach
THE AFFORD BURIAL MOUND, TARPON SPRINGS, FLORIDA
Ripley P. Bullen, William L. Partridge, and Donald A. Harris
This paper has been written to record the results of Frank H. Gushing's
excavation of the Safford burial mound (Pi-3) in Tarpon Springs, Florida
(Fig. 1). Cushing (1897: 352-53) dug this site in 1896 while waiting for the
boat to take him and the other members of the Pepper-Hearst Archaeological
Expedition to Key Marco. At the same time, Wells M. Sawyer, artist and
photographer of the expedition, worked at the Hope mound in Finley Hammock
(Fig. 1). Collections were also made at nearby shell middens and from village
sites in cultivated fields. This report is limited to the Safford mound but it is
anticipated a future study will cover the results of the work at the Hope mound.
The specimens collected at and near Tarpon Springs were sent to the
Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. ,
where Cushing worked as an ethnologist, to await study after his return. The
Key Marco report was published in a preliminary form but death prevented
Cushing from writing papers on the Safford or Hope mounds although work at
these sites is mentioned briefly in the Key Marco report (Cushing 1897: 353-54).
Subsequently, the Safford and Hope mound collections were sent to the University
Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, where they remained until
1957 when they were sent to Dr. John M. Goggin of the Depa-rtment of Anthro-
pology at the University of Florida for study and eventual publication.
In 1959, Adele Silbereisen presented a paper on the Safford mound pottery
at the annual meeting of the Florida Anthropological Society. This paper, which
pointed out the importance of the pottery from the Safford mound, was never
published. After Goggin' s death in 1963, the specimens and data were trans-
ferred to the Florida State Museum. Subsequent study there resulted in this
While these collections were at the Bureau of American Ethnology, photo-
graphs were made of many of the specimens and some of the pottery vessels
were restored. At this time there seems to have been a possibility the Bureau
might publish something on this material but nothing of that nature happened
(Sawyer to Powell, letter of Jan. 1901). However, W.H. Holmes (1903: 126-
28; Pls. CI-CIV, CVI-CIX) used several illustrations of Safford mound pottery
in his "Aboriginal Pottery of the Eastern United States. These pictures are
reproduced here for the sake of completeness. In some cases we have included
different views of vessels than those used by Holmes. Plates I-IV, VI-VII, and
X are composed of pictures from the Smithsonian Institution. Plates V, IX,
XI-XIII include pictures from that institution, from the University Museum,
University of Pennsylvania and some taken at the Florida State Museum.
Data available for a report on the Safford mound is extremely limited.
We have a diagram of the mound (Fig. 2), a few field photographs, copies of
contemporary newspaper articles, and Gushing' s field catalog. The last, which
may have been written some time after excavation as it refers to "field notes,"
is descriptive and has been very useful in determining which specimens came
from the Safford as opposed to the Hope mound but in only a very few instances
is any hint of provenience included. The actual field notes are not known to be
In spite of this paucity of field data, the uniqueness of much of the deco-
rated pottery and its wide range in time and place of origin makes it an im-
portant collection well worth recording by publication. It is important to have
such information available for comparative students working with the pottery
traditions of the Gulf Coastal Plain. To this end, we have the pottery and other
specimens sent from the University Museum, and photographs of restored
vessels, knives, plummets, and a few other items currently in Washington and
Philadelphia. Other data are virtually non-existant.
Cushing (1897: 352) mentions in his Key Marco report that the Safford
mound was located on land then belonging to the Safford Estates and situated
"at the foot of the village. From a newspaper article printed in the Florida
Times Union, Jacksonville, Florida, February 2, 1896, we learn that the
site was located near the head of a bayou, in sight of a "boiling spring, and
close to the Anclote River. R. F. Pent (1964: 45-46) in his History of Tarpon
Springs gives us more specific information:
"The first school that I attended was on North Pinellas
Avenue. The old two-story wood building stood just where
the now abandoned elementary stands. Many are the mem-
ories of those by-gone days -- some pleasant, some other-
wise. Once in 1889 or 1890 [sic] a staff of archeologists
from the Smithsonian Institute [sic] in Washington, D. C.,
under the leadership of Dr. Cushing, excavated an Indian
mound, just north of the school. They worked on this
mound carefully, for quite a while but time and decay had
left their mark on these skulls, and bones so they were not
able to salvage many good specimens. This mound was in
the midst of the Negro quarters at that time. "
BULLEN, PARTRIDGE, AND HARRIS
O Q B
Fig. 1 Site location map, Safford Mound and Finley Hammock
The Safford mound, as diagrammed by Cushing, was roughly circular
with a path cutting across it in its northwest section (Fig. 2). At its widest
point it was 128 feet across and rose to a height of 6 feet. His profile indi-
cates three burial horizons. Each horizon or zone is indicated to be 2 to 2. 5
feet thick with burials interred in the lowest level in one area (Fig. 2). This
agrees with Cushing' s statement in the Key Marco report that the Safford
mound was built in obvious stages and was "distinctly stratified. He also
notes the presence of "moats" or "artificial depressions" that surrounded the
mound. These we would now recognize as borrow pits. He mentions that the
lowermost stratum of the mound occurred at a lower depth than the bottom of
the borrow pits (Cushing 1897: 354). It would appear that Indians in building
this mound, as they did in other instances, first dug a large circular hole in
which some burials were interred. The hole was probably refilled with the
removed dirt but later burials required fill from the surrounding borrow pits.
Cushing's catalog contributes little to our knowledge of the field methods
employed in digging the mound or to the manner in which the mound was con-
structed by Indians. The catalog merely lists a superficial description of the
more outstanding pottery. Ordinary pottery was apparently arranged in lots
with little regard to level or relative location in the mound. Rather, lots ap-
pear to have been placed together on the criteria of decoration, shape, size,
and color. Occasionally, Cushing made note of the location or relative depth
of a significant vessel but no systematic pattern of such notation has been dis-
covered. Certain of these locations are referred to under the sections on pot-
tery and other artifacts which follow.
From photographs taken by Sawyer at the time of the excavation, it ap-
pears that the mound was dug at random wherever it seemed most productive.
Cushing states that the Safford mound was superficially "honeycombed" by
pot-hunters prior to his excavation, but that he suspected much material still
remained undisturbed in the depths of the mound. Subsequently, he noted six
hundred skeletons or parts of skeletons and considerable amounts of pottery
(Cushing 1897: 352-53). It should be mentioned that in no cases were burials
correlated with specific pottery and, therefore, the scanty information avail-
able on the skeletal material is irrelevant to this paper which deals primarily
with the pottery from the Safford mound. The catalog does to a degree sup-
port Cushing' s contention that the mound was stratified.
This section is based principally upon the ceramic material from the Saf-
ford mound and now at the Florida State Museum. We have included in our ta-
bulation restored vessels located at the United States National Museum and the
University Museum at the University of Pennsylvania. Thus, we have included
all ceramic material known to be extant from the Safford mound. The number of
BULLEN, PARTRIDGE, AND HARRIS 85
o-ist Burial Horizon
a-2nd Burial Horizon
a-3rd Burial Horizon
0 20 40
Fig. 2. Excavation plan, Safford Mound.
restored vessels are given in the following descriptions. Sherd tabulations,
not including these vessels, are given in Table 1.
Definitions of pottery types follow Willey (1949), Goggin (1948), Sears
(1950) and in the case of Cartersville Check Stamped, Fairbanks (1954). Com-
ments below supplement these definitions and point out significant differences.
In all other cases it can be assumed that our specimens conform to the defini-
tion unless specifically noted otherwise. No new types have been proposed, as
might be possible in the case of several St. Johns paste vessels with abundant
limestone inclusions, due to the unfortunate lack of stratigraphic information.
Gushing's notes regarding location and distribution of decorated sherds are in-
cluded where pertinent.
Deptford Simple Stamped Most of the 31 Deptford Simple Stamped sherds from
the Safford mound came from one vessel which had tetrapods and a rather out-
flaring rim. The presence of rim nodes are indicated by one rim sherd. Stamp-
ing does not extend onto the neck but terminates about 4 cm. below the lip.
Temper consists of fine sand plus some medium-sized grains of quartz.
Deptford Linear Check Stamped Sherds of one vessel have a slightly micace-
ous paste with very fine sand tempering. The pronounced lands are 5 mm. in
width and 5 mm. apart with the small transverse lands only 1 mm. apart. De-
coration does not cover the entire vessel but there are no rim or basal sherds
present from which a more complete idea of the design of the vessel might be
obtained. Other Deptford Linear Check Stamped sherds are of the same quartz-
sand temper described above for Deptford Simple Stamped. These sherds are
from several different vessels and conform to the definition in Willey (1949).
The sherd pictured in Plate V, h, is greatly weathered and hard to distinguish,
but it can be identified as Deptford Linear Check Stamped.
A variant of this pottery type is pictured in Plates V, d, and VIII, n-o.
The pronounced lands are equal in width to the transverse lands with the for-
mer being 1 cm. apart and the latter 3 mm. apart. Temper is of fine-grained
sand and medium-grained quartz. The stamping stops 8 cm. short of the lip
leaving the neck of the pot undecorated. The neck has been buffed and is out-
flaring with a rounded lip. Tetrapods are present and the stamping covers them.
Combination: Deptford Check and Simple Stamped The paste, temper, and
color of this vessel exhibiting both types of stampings (Pl. VIII, 1-m), are the
same as the Deptford Linear Check Stamped variant vessels mentioned above.
The simple stamping has 5 parallel lanes while the check stamping is rectangu-
lar in shape. The two stamps (probably cut on the same paddle) are alternated
vertically and horizontally with the simple stamping running horizontally around
BULLEN, PARTRIDGE, AND HARRIS
the pot. The stamping stops 7 cm. short of the lip leaving an undecorated neck
with a rounded lip. Fragments of tetrapods are present and are simple stamped
only. There is much overlapping of stamping near the base of the vessel. One
sherd occurs with this distinctive combination of stamping on Pasco (limestone-
Cartersville Check Stamped Tempering ranges from fine to medium sized grains
of sand and quartz. Some vessels are only 8 cm. high and exact miniatures of
larger vessels almost three times their size (P1. V, m). Rims are both outflar-
ing and inflaring and are undecorated in all cases. Lips are rounded or slightly
pointed. Between the rim and the linear check stamping there occurs in all
cases a row of punctations made by either a blunt or sharp ended object. These
punctations are deep and range from 2 mm. to 7 mm. apart. The shape of the
punctations ranges from slit-like to large elongated grooves, (P1. V, j-k, m).
Linear check stamping is larger on the large pots and smaller on the small pots.
Tetrapods are present and decorated.
Deptford Bold Check Stamped One sherd occurs that is tempered with fine grains
of sand and medium sized grains of quartz. It conforms to Willey' s (1949) de-
Santa Rosa Swift Creek Period
Santa Rosa Stamped Most sherds come from one vessel with fine sand and fine
grain quartz tempering. Stamping runs vertically up the wall of the vessel and
extends to the rim which is flattened and slightly incurving (P1. 5, e-g). The
neck is slightly thicker than the rest of the vessel (1 to 1. 5 mm. thicker). Sus-
pension or repair holes are present near the rim. Sherds from another pot are
present with a slightly micaceous paste.
Swift Creek Complicated Stamped, Early Variety Most sherds are from two
different vessels, one of a lighter firing than the other. All sherds are tempered
with very fine sand and medium grains of quartz. Sherds from one vessel have a
highly micaceous paste, (P1. VII, k-l). The other vessel, (P1. II, d), does not
have as high a micaceous content but some is present. The stamping in both
cases follows Willey (1949). Another sherd with large grains of quartz and fine
grains of sand as temper also contains some mica. One, unusually wide vessel
of this type (University Museum cat. no. 26-124-146), is 6 1/2 x 9 inch in size.
It does not have a notched lip but does have a tetrapodal base.
West Florida Cord Marked Sherds are all from one vessel tempered with fine
sand and large grains of quartz. The cord markings run vertically and extend
to meet the lip. The lip is rounded and the neck quite high and outflaring. Frag-
ments of tetrapods are present.
New River Complicated Stamped Temper is fine sand and medium-sized
grains of quartz. Stamping covers the entire vessel and is composed of check
stamping combined with curvilinear stamping of the concentric circles type.
There is considerable overlapping of the stamping and the design does not run
in the same direction on any two rim sherds. Rims are straight, lips rounded
and thinner than walls. The interior surface is smoothed.
Crystal River Incised Tempering is of very fine sand and the paste is slightly
micaceous. One vessel has straight sides.and a flat bottom. Cushing notes in
his catalog that this vessel was found in the eastern excavation. Another pot
shows a hand design with the fingers pointing upward at the rim (P1. V, a). The
incised lines show "fractured" edges as mentioned in Willey (1949: 389), prob-
ably due to the vessel being sun-dried before decoration was applied. The lip
is flattened and the neck straight. Vessel walls are thicker near the bottom and
thinner near the top although the bottom itself is the same thickness as the upper-
most section of the walls. Other examples of this type are not included among
the artifacts at the Florida State Museum but are pictured in this paper (Pls.
IV, a, c). The larger (P1. IV, c) is 6 by 3 1/2 inches in size.
Franklin Plain All sherds of this type from the Safford mound have tetrapods
or fragments of tetrapods (P1. IV, b). Exteriors are generally smoothed and
in some cases also the interiors. Several miniature vessel fragments have
straight sides and rounded bases with small tetrapods. No rims sherds are
present. Cushing notes that sherds of this type were found scattered in the ex-
treme western edge of mound.
Alligator Bayou Stamped This type is not present at the Florida State Museum
but one whole vessel was collected from the mound and was recorded by a photo-
graph from the Smithsonian Institution (P1. III, c). It is 8 1/2 inches high, 6 3/4
inches in diameter at the top, and 3 inch diameter at the bottom.
Weeden Island Period
Weeden Island Plain.
Following Willey (1949) we have used this classification only for rim sherds
of the Weeden Island Plain type. Tempering ranges from very fine-to medium-
sized grains of sand and quartz with some examples of included lumps of clay.
Mica is observable in a number of sherds. Incised lines beneath a thickened
rim is the most common identifying characteristic of these sherds. In some
cases two lines are incised beneath the lip. Some rims have nodes protruding
at various places. Rims are rounded, rectanguloid and trianguloid in shape and
range in thickness from 1.5 to .4 cm. Necks are both outflaring and inflaring.
Lips are both flattened and rounded with some sherds having an almost bevelled
appearance in the shape of their lips. A Weeden Island Plain lobed vessel
BULLEN, PARTRIDGE, AND HARRIS
(Pl. II, a) from this mound is currently at the University Museum, University
One partially restored vessel of Weeden Island Plain with red painted
bands is in the collection. Temper includes fine sand and lumps of clay. The
paste is very micaceous. This pot has a rounded lip with an incised line be-
neath it. The neck is straight and the painting extends up to the incised line.
The painting is heavy and dark red. Not enough of the vessel is restored to ob-
tain any overall pattern of the painting, but it is evident that the paint was ap-
plied in a set pattern.
Bands range in width from 3 to 7 cm. with the narrowest running hori-
zontally around the pot and the widest running vertically from rim to base.
They meet each other at 90-degree angles. There are no incised lines out-
lining these bands and no decoration on the pot other than the paint. For these
reasons the pot has been classified as Weeden Island Plain and not as Weeden
Island Zoned Red. The overall shape of the vessel seems to be that of a square
beaker with flat bottom and straight sides.
Weeden Island Incised Tempering of these sherds is generally fine sand and
fine quartz grains with a slight amount of mica in all specimens. Decoration
consists of incising in rectilinear and curvilinear forms and punctation at var-
ious intervals along and near these lines following the definition in Willey (1949).
Cross hatching occurs quite often within many of these patterns (Pl. VII, q).
One specimen has several curvilineal designs each of which is filled in with a
series of parallel incised lines but not cross hatching. One Weeden Island In-
cised lobed vessel, recorded by a Smithsonian Institution photograph (P1. I, a),
is included here. Its lobes are encircled with a series of incised lines.
A variant of this type (Pl. VIII, r) has been partially reconstructed. It
is quite crude in appearance and seems to have been decorated in the same man-
ner as the Crystal River Incised pottery mentioned earlier. The pot was ap-
parently sun-dried before the decoration was applied giving the incised lines
"fractured" edges. The design is curvilinear. Lines are incised parallel to
each other and then filled in with a series of parallel bars. These filled-in
lines are arranged in twisting patterns over the entire vessel. The lip is flat-
tened and the decoration extends up to it. The lip is smoothed and faces in-
ward rather than upward. The vessel shape is globular. The temper is fine
sand and the paste is highly micaceous.
A unique form of Weeden Island Incised illustrates an interesting design
technique (Pl. IX, m). The vessel is small and circular in shape. Temper is
very fine sand. Incised lines run horizontally around the vessel. There are
medium-sized dot-like punctations every 1 to 1.5 cm. on or in these incised
lines. All incised lines are so punctated except the single line underneath the
thickened and rounded lip of the pot. One incised line with these punctations on
it runs along the upper surface of the lip. These complexes of lines and punc-
tations are arranged in panels separated by a raised surface applied after the
pot was completed. This strip has a single incised line terminated by a single
punctation. Thus, a plane panel is interspersed between each decorated panel
and the two are separated by an appliqued raised strip.
It should be noted that the appliqued strip extends up and over the rim of
the vessel giving it the appearance of having rim nodes. The node is actually
an extention of this strip (Pl. XI, m). It is interesting to note that the puncta-
tions on the incised lines of this vessel correspond directly to a St. Petersburg
incised variant noted in this paper. The latter sherds have similar punctations
along some incised lines beneath the "flaps" or "shingles".
Weeden Island Punctated The temper of these sherds ranges between fine- and
medium-sized grains of sand and quartz with several sherds having lumps of
clay also. Mica is sometimes present. The rims are mostly rounded and
thickened with necks either straight, outflaring, or inflaring. Several speci-
mens have double rims and several have lobes (Pls. II, e-g; VI, a, d; VII,
There are two variants of this type present. One is a round vessel with
slit-like punctations arranged in horizontal bands around the exterior (Pl. IX, i).
The other is a square shaped vessel with rather deep dot punctations arranged
in bands that transverse the exterior both vertically and horizontally. The
bands vary from 6 to 2 punctations wide and are composed of parallel lines of
punctations (Pl. IX, h).
Weeden Island Punctated decoration also appears frequently in this col-
lection on a Pasco paste. Red paint is sometimes present on sherds of this type.
Kill boles with ground edges (pre-fired?) are also present.
Weeden Island-like with cut away surfaces These sherds (Pl. IX, j-k), ob-
viously do not conform to any of our Gulf coast pottery types. Tempering is
fine sand and medium-sized quartz with some micaceous inclusions. One
vessel has straight sides with punctations and cut-away grain surfaces form-
ing the decorations. The lip of the vessel is thinned and bevelled and the neck
is very slightly outflaring. It is on the neck of the vessel where the cut away
surfaces are found. The clay has been cut away in certain areas leaving raised
surfaces in the shapes of bisected ovals. These raised surfaces are the height
of the original exterior surface.
About 2. 5 to 3.0 cm. down from the lip of the vessel there are tworows
of triangular punctations. From the lower row of punctations there is a single
row of vertical punctation terminating in a large triangular dot extending onto
BULLEN PARTRIDGE, AND HARRIS 91
the raised surface. Large circular punctations occur on either side of this row.
Directly beneath these raised surfaces is an incised line and another row of
punctations, the latter being part of a punctated design on the body of the vessel.
There are not enough body sherds present to determine the overall picture of the
decoration but it makes use of several typical Weeden Island motifs.
Weeden Island Red (rims) - In this pottery type we have followed Sears (1950:
22-23). Temper is of very fine micaceous sand and occasionally quartz. Only
rim sherds have been so typed and of these only the large and thickened, as op-
posed to the simple folded or incised, Weeden Island rims. Rims are rounded,
triangular, or rectangular in shape. Several have an incised line on the exter-
ior beneath the lip. Two examples have nodes molded into the thickly folded
rim. All have a layer of red paint. On some sherds weathering and wear have
been so great as to only leave a thin layer of paint on the top of the rim; others
have quite a thick layer of dark red paint. Several sherds have this red paint
applied to both the interior and exterior. Vessel shapes are varied and necks
are straight, outflaring, and inflaring.
Weeden Island Zoned Red - Fragments of a single vessel of this type are present
at the Florida State Museum (Pl. VI, c). Another vessel of the same type, cur-
rently located at the University Museum, is also pictured here (Pl. I, c). It is
10 7/16 inches high, 3 inches diameter at one end and 5 3/8 at the other end.
The former vessel has fine sand and quartz temper with a moderate amount
of mica present. The rim is folded and rounded with an incised line beneath it.
The neck is inflaring and the decoration meets the incised line beneath the rim.
The red-painted decoration is, of course, outlined by incision. There are lip
nodes on the rim extending out from the rim horizontally. On the top of each is
a single triangular punctation; the rest of the rounded lip surface is plain with
the exception of the red paint. The painting extends over the lip and into the ves-
sel interior approximately 5 cm.
Papys Bayou Incised ~ Two sherds of this type are extant in the collection and
neither differs from Willey's (1949) definition. However, an interesting variant
is also present. Incised designs filled in with rows of punctations (very similar
to Englewood Incised punctations) make up the decorations. This pot is decorated
both on interior and on exterior surfaces (Pl. IX, f-g). Designs of the interior
and exterior are not markedly different but punctations on the exterior are
slightly larger and deeper and incised lines wider and deeper. However, one
large sherd is present that has both these characteristics on the exterior side.
In this case, the thicker and deeper incised lines and punctations are separated
from the thinner and shallower ones by a broad and deep incised line that seems
to circle the pot horizontally. This is the only sherd that shows this broad in-
cised line and the two different motifs. The vessel rim is outflaring and de-
corated. The lip is slightly thickened and rounded but not folded.
Papys Bayou Punctated Vessel forms and tempering conform closely to Wil-
ley' s (1949) definition. It is interesting to note that whereas thickened rounded,
trianguloid, and rectanguloid rims are characteristic of Weeden Island Punc-
tated sherds from the Safford mound, only sherds of one vessel of Papys Bayou
Punctated shows a thickened rim. All other rims of this type are not thickened
and are simply rounded with an incised line beneath the lip. One whole vessel
of this type, in the University Museum at Philadelphia, is pictured here (Pl. I,
An interesting variation of this type occurred but due to the unfortunate
lack of stratigraphic information no new pottery type is being proposed at this
time. Many sherds were found with lumps of limestone spotted throughout the
otherwise temperless St. Johns paste. We have called these sherds "Papys
Bayou Punctated, abundant limestone inclusions" in Table I. They are typically
decorated and shaped like the above type but the limestone inclusions strike us
as quite unique. About one-fifth of the Papys Bayou Punctated sherds were
found to 1 ave this atypical treatment. This may, of course be only a local varia-
tion but if so, it was a consistent one.
Gushing notes in his catalog that punctated sherds like Papys Bayou Punc-
tated were found "widely scattered over surface of second burial-horizon south-
ern side of mound. "
Carabelle Incised Temper varies from fine-to medium-sized sand and quartz.
Rims are outflaring and straight, no inflaring rims being found. Decoration is in
conformity with Willey (1949) with both diagonal and vertical lines appearing in
rows or in patterns on rim or body sherds. One example, which is not in the
collection at the Florida State Museum, is noted as having incised lines in a
crosshatching pattern only on the body and not on the large neck of the vessel.
This vessel has two incised lines around its rim whereas most of the sherds
from the Safford mound of this type have either one or no incised lines around
the rim. One red painted sherd occurs with vertical incised lines on the vessel
neck and a single incised line beneath the lip.
A variant of this type, with very fine sand and medium quartz temper
plus small amounts of mica (Pl. V, b-c), has a very hard paste and represents
a straight-sided, flat-bottomed vessel. The rim sherds are decorated with
nested triangles filled with incised lines. Suspension holes are present. Body
sherds show a design composed of bands of incised lines four to five lanes wide
cutting across the vessel at diagonal angles. It appears that the lowermost sec-
tion of the vessel also had the same nested triangles as did the rim.
Carrabelle Punctated Temper of these sherds varies from fine-to medium-
sized sand with some sherds having larger quartz grains present. Rims are
straight and inflaring with no outflaring rims. Necks of most vessel fragments
BULLEN, PARTRIDGE, AND HARRIS
show a broad band of punctations beneath the incised line around the rim. One
sherd has a broad neck with no decoration on it. The punctations start beneath
an incised line separating the neck from the outflaring body of the vessel. This
is the only sherd present from that particular vessel so it can not be said
how far down the body of the vessel the punctations extended. Punctations range
in size from very small dots to rather large holes. They range in shape from
fingernail to slit-like to triangular. Round punctations are rare. Two sherds
occur with triangular punctations massed together in a band around the rim but
not arranged in typical rows.
Keith Incised Sherds from three or possibly four vessels occur with paste
temper ranging from fine- to medium-sized sand and quartz. Lumps of clay were
included as temper in one vessel. Decoration conforms to Willey' s (1949) de-
finition with the exception of one set of sherds with a rounded rim and two very
wide and deeply incised lines beneath it. Rim nodes occur on several specimens.
Incised lines range from very deep to thin surface scratches.
Tucker Ridge Pinched Sherds from one vessel are present (Pl. IX, o). The
temper is medium-sized sand and quartz grains. The decoration is confined to
a band, 9. 5 to 10 cm. wide, around the vessel neck which is bordered, both top
and bottom, with an incised line. Rim nodes are present. The vessel had
Lemon Bay Incised Temper is fine grained sand and quartz. No rim sherds
are present. Hardness of the paste and excision in the design point to Lemon
Bay Incised. The design appears to have been applied after the pot was sun-
dried for the lines show fractured edges. Lines are arranged in rectilinear and
curvilinear patterns the overall picture of which can not be seen due to the small
size of available sherds. Triangles of paste are cut out at the intersection of
lines twice in our sample.
Old Bay Complicated Stamped Temper is fine sand and medium-sized grains of
quartz. The paste is crude looking with a very rough interior surface. The de-
coration of check stamping overstamped with curvilinear designs extends to the
rim. The lip is rounded and the neck slightly outflaring. Sherds are greatly
weathered and eroded so that distinct features of the design pattern are difficult
to find, but the two diagnostic basic elements can be descerned.
Swift Creek Complicated Stamped, Late Variety Temper ranges from fine-to
medium-sized sand and quartz with mica present in the paste. Rims are folded
and round or rectangular in shape. Some examples have rims which appear to
have been folded down after the decoration was applied (P1. VII, f). Decoration
is usually concentrated in bands around the rim. In several cases this band is
separated from the rim by a plain area approximately 2. 5 cm. wide (P1. VII,
b-c, d). Incised lines are found on some examples just beneath the rim.
Necks may be straight, outflaring or inflaring.
One vessel is lobed (P1. VII, f). Red paint applied over the design occurs
on another. A third has a folded and flattened rim with small nicks on the ex-
terior edge of the lip. Horizontal nodes are present with small triangular punc-
tations on the upper surface of the lip directly above this node. Two rows of
punctation are present on the upper surface of the lip (Pl. VII, h).
Wakulla Check Stamped Temper is mostly medium-sized sand and quartz.
Some very crude specimens have large quartz grains and occasional limestone
lumps present. Only a very few examples are tempered with fine sand. Wall
thickness varies from thin to very thick with the majority having sides .5 cm.
thick. Rims are rounded or flattened. Folding of rims is rare. Most often the
decoration extends up to the lip (P1. VIII, a). Incised lines beneath the rims
are rare, occurring on only two sherds. Necks are usually straight or very
slightly incurving. Two examples occur with greatly outflaring necks. Four
sherds have Weeden Island folded rims with notched lips (P1. IX, p). Rim
nodes also occur on these four sherds with a single triangular punctation on the
lip directly above the node. The size of the check stamping varies from very
fine and to very bold and crude (Pls. VIII, a-e; IX, p). Red paint is applied
over the check stamping on a few sherds.
Thomas Simple Stamped Temper is fine sand and medium-sized quartz grains.
All sherds of this type come from one vessel with stamping consisting of four
parallel bars applied irregularly over the entire exterior surface. The neck
shape is incurving and the lip is pointed with an incised line beneath it. The lip
is undecorated. Rim projections seem to have been present but to have broken
off prior to time of analysis so that their shape is unknown.
Hillsborough Shell Stamped Medium-sized sand is used as tempering. No rim
sherds are present. Sherds represent one vessel with a 1 cm. thick wall. The
stamping is done with the edge of a shell and is in no apparent arrangement. The
punctations appear to be comma-shaped and the rows are very close together.
The paste is quite hard and the interior is polished.
Ruskin Dentate Stamped Tempering is of fine grained sand and quartz. The
stamping consists of several rows of small circular or semicircular puncta-
tions. One rim sherd is present which has a folded and flattened lip. An in-
cised line is barely descernable beneath this lip.
Savannah Fine Cord Marked The paste is tempered with fine sand and medium-
grained quartz. The decoration is fine and clear. The cord markings are cross
stamped at a diagonal angle. One rim sherd occurs with the decoration extend-
ing up to the outer surface of the lip. This lip is flattened and almost squared
at a 90-degree angle to the interior surface which is polished.
BULLEN, PARTRIDGE, AND HARRIS
Prairie Cord Marked Temper consists of medium-grained sand and quartz.
Decoration is applied haphazardly and conforms to Goggin' s (1948) definition.
No rim sherds are present.
St. Petersburg Incised Temper is fine sand and medium-grained quartz with
some large quartz crystal included. Interiors of vessels have been smoothed.
Rims are folded and lips rounded. Incised lines run around the neck of the ves-
sels present and the "clapboard" appearance noted by Willey (1949) is clearly
present. Vessels resemble beakers in shape. This same type of decoration
and vessel shape is also found on several sherds of St. Johns paste.
An interesting variation occurs on three sherds where some of the in-
cised lines have small triangular punctations applied, approximately every
5 cm. along the line. It is not possible to tell whether or not these extended
to the rim for pertinent sherds are not present. It can be said that the puncta-
tions do not occur on all lines because they do not appear on the lower three
near the body of the vessel. The interior of this vessel was not smoothed and
there are some lumps of limestone present but not to any great degree.
Englewood Incised Sherds from three vessels are present. Temper is both
fine sand and medium coarse sand and quartz. Rims are folded and lips roun-
ded. A single incised line runs around the rim just beneath the lip. The de-
coration is arranged in panels consisting of incised lines filled with puncta-
tions of both teardrop and round shapes. Incised lines are deep and on one ves-
sel very broad. Only enough sherds from one vessel are present to give a hint
of vessel shape. This vessel was a flat bottomed beaker with straight sides.
Decoration covered the entire exterior.
Unique check- and simple-stamped with Weeden Island rim Paste is tempered
with fine sand and medium grains of quartz. Small lumps of limestone are oc-
casionally noted. There is considerable overlapping in the stamp application
but it appears to represent alternating panels of check and simple stamping.
The check-stamped panels are wider and larger than the simple-stamped ones.
The simple-stamped panels appear to have no more than three lanes. The
stamping was applied quite randomly with no apparent overall pattern in mind.
The rim is typically Weeden Island with notched lip, horizontal nodes, and an
incised line below the lip. Directly above each node is a single triangular
punctation on the lip.
Combination, complicated stamped and linear punctations, Pasco paste The
paste is tempered with limestone and fine sand (Pl. VI, f). The complicated
stamping is of the teardrop shape and is confined to a band. Several rows of
linear punctations are arranged horizontally under this band. The punctations
appear to have been made by a large blunt object. There are suggestions pre-
sent--in the nature of faint lines crossing the centers of punctations--to indi -
cate that the punctations were applied along an incised line used as a guideline.
St. Johns Plain Our specimens conform to Willey' s (1949) definition using St.
Johns instead of Biscayne Plain. Some St. Johns Plain sherds exhibit folded
and rounded rims. None of the other Weeden Island rim forms are present. An
incised line beneath the round rim is practically universal for this group of
sherds. The same situation that has been described for Papys Bayou Punctated
applies to St. Johns Plain sherds. A good many have abundant amounts of lime-
stone in their paste. The number of such sherds indicate it was a consistent
practice, at least in this area.
St. Johns Check Stamped Our specimens conform to Willey' s (1949) definition
(Biscayne Check Stamped) (Pl. IX, b).
St. Johns Scored A single scored sherd occurs on St. Johns paste. It corres-
ponds in decoration to Willey' s (1949) Biscayne Roughened type. The exterior
surface of the sherd is scored with a blunt object in no apparent pattern.
Dunns Creek Red Our specimens conform to Willey' s (1949) definition of Bis-
cayne Red. Several sherds occur with Weeden Island type folded and rounded
rims. The painting is red to red-brown and is found on both interiors and ex-
teriors. The painting covers the entire vessel exterior or interior or both.
One sherd occurs with quite irregular incising applied after the vessel
was painted with a red slip. No recognizable pattern can be discovered due to
the small size of the sherd and the apparently large size of the incised pattern.
Dunns Creek Red, abundant limestone inclusions The same situation exists
here as existed for Papys Bayou Punctated and St. Johns Plain. Some sherds
are found with lumps of limestone abundantly included in their paste. It seems
certain that this was at least a local technique of pottery manufacturing as it
spreads consistently across three pottery types of the period. Cushing field
no. 529, now at the University Museum, is 11 inches high and 12. 5 inches dia-
meter with an inturned
Belle Glade Plain Our specimens conform to Willey (1949). The rims are in-
curving and the lips are flattened and slanted inward. The exterior of the pot is
undecorated but has the appearance of being very slightly scored or roughed in
the process of smoothing. In, some cases the rims are slightly thicker than the
Oklawaha Plain The paste is St. Johns as indicated by Goggin (1949). All ex-
amples present are sherds from just beneath the rim but no actual rim is pre-
sent. All specimens have a red slip applied before decoration took place. Sur-
BULLEN, PARTRIDGE, AND HARRIS
faces have been cut away in geometrical patterns resembling faces. The cutting
is crude and not at all smooth. Two of the examples have smoothed interiors
(Pl. VII, t).
Oklawaha Incised All sherds present with one exception are red painted. The
paste is St Johns. The rim sherds are plain with slightly inflaring and out-
flaring necks and beveled and flattened lips. Bold designs are cut out and in-
cised in geometrical and curvilinear patterns (Pl. VII, u).
Pasco Plain Our specimens conform to Willey' s (1949) definition. Several ex-
hibit Weeden Island type rims. They are usually rounded with an incised line
beneath the lip.
Pasco Check Stamped These limestone tempered sherds have quite large and
deep stampings. Only a-few have small checks. Rims are plain.
Pasco Red These red-painted limestone-tempered sherds require no special
Plain Red Our specimens conform to Willey' s (1949) definition. Some sherds
are found with miscellaneous punctations or incising that can not be typed. An
adorno or handle of a fine sand-tempered vessel with a red slip should be noted.
It is in the shape of an animal head with stylistic eyes and mouth cut in the clay.
Compartmental vessel, plain Certain sherds with smoothed interior and ex-
terior surfaces because of their shapes obviously represent compartmental con-
tainers. The only one complete compartment has straight sides that slope to a
flat bottom. At the intersections of the other compartments the walls are no-
ticeably thick while the bottom is thicker than the sides. Temper consists of
very fine sand.
Smooth Plain These sherds, tempered with very fine to fine grains of sand,
have exterior, interior, or both surfaces smoothed. Vessel shapes are varied
with beakers and flat-bottomed bowls being the most common. Pasco paste
occurs sometimes in this grouping.
Safety Harbor Period
Lake Jackson Plain Temper of these sherds includes fine to medium-sized
sand, medium-sized grains of quartz, and lumps of clay. Bowls are the most
common shape. Vertical lugs with one or two nodes are common. Pinched
rims and rims with wide vertical and close-spaced flutings (Pl. VI, e) occur.
Small nodes are sometimes pinched up on the exterior surface either along the
rim or on the upper body. In some cases these nodes are appliqued rather than
pinched up from the surrounding clay. One example combines pinched up nodes,
an incised line beneath the rim, and vertical noded lugs (P1. IX, a). Some rims
are plain and inflaring, outflaring, and straight neck shapes occur.
Pinellas Plain Our specimens conform to Willey' s (1949) definition. One
example has small triangular-shaped notches on the exterior edge of the lip.
The notches are close spaced and quite regular.
Pinellas Incised Tempering varies as with Lake Jackson Plain but medium-
grained sand and quartz are common with clay tempering next in popularity.
Cecoration is confined to the neck and upper region of the body of the vessel
(Pl. X, j). Single and double noded handles are frequently found. In all cases
crude incised lines either filled in or outlined by punctations are the rule (P1. X,
'h-i). The design motif is curvilinear and usually quite crudely executed (P1. VI,
g). The surfaces of the vessel are usually smoothed but appear pitted or very
A unique example in the University Museum is shallow, basin-shaped,
and supplied with opposite facing, flat rim lugs. The vessel proper is 3 inches
high and 12 inches wide. The rim lugs extend 75 inches upward and have a
maximum distance across of 11 inches. The vessel has a "kill" hole.
Safety Harbor Incised Temper ranges from very fine to medium sized sand.
Quartz is sometimes present and one example has a highly micaceous paste.
Rims are flattened in all rim sherds present. Neck shapes are incurving, out-
flaring and straight. Decoration is both curvilinear (Pl. IX, c) and rectilinear
(Pl. IX, e). A mass of punctations fills these design motifs in all cases. On
one sherd a molded ridge circling the vessel horizontally is observed. This
ridge is punctated with slit-like punctations (Pl. IX, c). This type also occurs
in Pasco paste. In general the design is quite crudely executed.
Three miniature examples (all similar to P1. 3, a) are 3 1 /2 by 3 inches
in size. All have "kill" holes and one has opposing support holes. Another with
lug handles 13 1/2 by 10 1/2 inches in size.
Ft. Walton Incised Sherds from one vessel are present. The temper is of
very fine sand and appears almost temperless. The vessel is bowl-shaped with
decoration about its rim which is flattened and meets the sides at a sharp 90
degree angle. One sherd is present with a large horizontal node or handle
(P1. VIII, q). The decoration is found only in a band under the rim. It con-
sists of interlocking scrolls made up of three wide incised lines. The pattern
is well executed.
Several sherds are found that greatly resemble Ft. Walton Incised. The
design is curvilinear and is made up of parallel lines filled with dot punctations.
Temper is very fine sand and the design execution quite precise. Two of these
sherds appear to come from a flat bottom vessel with straight sides.
BULLEN, PARTRIDGE, AND HARRIS
This category in Table I is used for those sherds that can not be assigned
to any particular pottery type or time period on the basis of available evidence.
Descriptive names have been used and pictures provided in some cases.
POTTERY FROM THE AFFORD MOUND
With field Without
Deptford Simple Stamped 29 2
Deptford Linear Check Stamped (Pls. V, h-i; VIII, p) 15 6
ditto variant (Pls. V, d; VIII, n-o) 35
Deptford Linear Check Stamped, Pasco paste 1
Cartersville Check Stamped (P1. V, j-n) 14
combined, Deptford Check and Simple Stamped (P1. VIII, 1-m) 109
combined, ditto, Pasco paste 1
Deptford Bold Check Stamped 1
Santa Rosa-Swift Creek period
Santa Rosa Stamped (P1. V, e-g) 22
Alligator Bayou Stamped, vessel (P1. III, c) 21
Swift Creek Complicated Stamped, Ear. Var. (Pls. II, d, VII) 35 4
New River Complicated Stamped 31
West Florida Cord Marked, Early Variety (tetrapods) 21
Crystal River Incised (Pls. III, b; IV, a, c; V, a) 59
Franklin Plain (P1. 4, b) 6 4
Weeden Island period
Weeden Island Plain (vessel) 1
ditto, lobed vessel (PI. II, a) 1
ditto, rims (Pls. I, e; VII, r) 270 16
Weeden Island Plain with red painted bands 40
Weeden Island Incised (Pls. VII, q; I, a) 39 12
Weeden Island Incised with red paint 3
Weeden Island Incised, variant (P1. VIII, r) 24
unique Weeden Island Incised (P1. IX, m) 9
Weeden Island Punctated (Pls. II, e-g; VI, m-p, s) 174 160
Weeden Island Punctated, variants (PI. IX, hi) 6 4
Weeden Island Punctated, micaceous paste, vessel 1
ditto, Pasco paste 114 93
Weeden Island Punctated with red paint 4
Weeden Island-like with cut away surfaces (P1. IX, j-k) 5
Table 1, continued With field Without
Weeden Island Red (rims) 32
Weeden Island Zoned Red (Pls. I, c; VI, c) 39
Papys Bayou Incised 2
Papys Bayou Incised, variant (P1. IX, f-g) 20
Papys Bayou Punctated (P1. I, b; and other designs) 274 174
ditto with abundant limestone temper 78
Carrabelle Incised (P1. VI, b) 52
Carrabelle Incised, variant (P1. V, b-c) 8
Carrabelle Incised with red paint 1
Carrabelle Punctated 3
zoned Carrabelle Incised 10
Keith Incised 29
Tucker Ridge Pinched (P1. IX, o) 14 2
Lemon Bay Incised 5
Old Bay Complicated Stamped 5
Tampa Complicated Stamped (P1. VII, a) 41
Swift Creek Complicated Stamped, Late Var. (P1. VII, b-j) 196 89
ditto with red paint 1
Wakulla Check Stamped (Pls. VIII, a-e; IX, p) 186 255
Wakulla Check Stamped with red paint 5
Thomas Simple Stamped 19
Hillsborough Shell Stamped 10 4
Ruskin Dentate Stamped 4 4
Savanna Fine Cord Marked 15
Pairie Cord Marked 5 1
St. Petersburg Incised 6
ditto with punctations on some lines 3
ditto, St. Johns paste 6
Englewood Incised 12
check and simple stamped with Weeden Island rim 19
combined, comply, st' d with linear punctattions, Pasco paste 2
St. Johns Plain 3366 841
St. Johns Plain, Weeden Island type rim 117 4
St. Johns Plain, abundant limestone inclusions 77
St. Johns Check Stamped (P1. IX, b) 110 205
St. Johns Scored 1 4
Dunns Creek Red 876 219
Dunns Creek Red, abundant limestone inclusions 2
Dunns Creek Red with miscellaneous incising 1
Belle Glade Plain 46
Oklawaha Plain (P1. VII, t) 4
Oklawaha Incised (P1. VII, u) 12
BULLEN, PARTRIDGE, AND HARRIS
Table 1, cont. 2
Pasco Plain, Weeden Island type rim
Pasco Check Stamped
ditto, miscellaneous incising
ditto, miscellaneous punctations
Plain Red adorno or handle
compartmental vessel, plain
Smooth Plain (P1. I, d)
Smooth Plain vessel, Pasco paste
Safety Harbor period
Lake Jackson Plain (Pls. VI, e; IX, a)
Pinellas Plain with notched lip
Pinellas Incised (Pls. VI, g; X, h-j)
Safety Harbor Incised (P1. IX, c,e)
ditto, Pasco paste
ditto, micaceous paste (Pl. III, a)
Ft. Walton Incised (P1. VIII. q)
Ft. Walton-like Incised
unique broad line incised with punctated border (P1. IX, n)
trade sherds with appliqued strip
human effigy adorno (P1. IX, d)
fragment, human effigy bowl
miscellaneous incised, St. Johns paste
miscellaneous check stamped
Goodland Plain, crude
Busycon-shaped drinking vessel or large cup
Gushing's field catalog records 117 specific occurrences of non-ceramic
objects from the Stafford burial mound. These include a piece of galena, round
plates of mica, 3 burnt wooded stakes or posts, deposits of chert spalls, 6 ex-
amples of worked chert, 4 chipping hammers, 6 small triangular (Pinellas type)
arrow points, 5 arrow or spear points, 13 daggers or knives (large spear points?)
a perforator, a polished adze, 4 polished celt fragments, 19 miscellaneous stones
(mostly rubbing or scraping stones), 4 fragments of fossil bone, a notched shark' s
tooth, 4 pieces of worked shell, 4 shell cups, 35 plummets of deer antler, copper,
shell, and stone (including one of steatite), and 5 occurrences of white clay or red
sandy concretions suitable for white or red paint. Some of these specimens are
illustrated in Plates X-XIII. Available for description at the Florida State
Museum are approximately 50 of these specimens.
Examination of Gushing's notes indicates very little provenience data for
these specimens. Horizontal locations are given in very general terms such as
"east central burials" or "west edge of mound. Vertical depths are only given
for 13 of the 35 plummets or parts of plummets excavated. The following is an
attempt to salvage all presently available data on these specimens.
It seems convenient to start with six large spear points or knives of which
five are illustrated in Plate X. Their typology is shown in the picture; a is 5
11/16; b is 6 3/4, d and e both 7 3/4 inches in overall length. The unillustrated
point is4 3/4 inches in length, made of agitized coral, and supplied with a
curved or rounded stem leading downward from weak shoulders.
Two of these large points (P1. X, b-c) were found lying "flat, points
crossed, under bundled skeleton, central burial Stafford Mound. The dis-
tance below the burial was not noted. The unillustrated point is said to have
accompanied a dismembered skeleton and two others (Pl. X, a and e) are listed
as "Found under dismembered skeleton, central burial Stafford Mound. The
sixth large point (P1. X, d) came from what is described as a "mortuary sacri-
fice, west edge burials. Relatively deep provenience may be suggested for
most of the large points or knives.
Another large point, 4 7/8 inches long with a short but well defined stem,
is of interest because the chipping scars on both faces have been smoother by
rubbing or some form of grinding. It came from near the edge of the south-
eastern part of the excavation. One other large chipped tool (P1. XI, i) re-
mains to be mentioned. It is an ovate knife with a reddish surface, and one
large chip has been removed since the surface was reddened. It also came
from the southeastern part of the excavations. Gushing suggests this knife
may have been in a sacrificial fire.
BULLEN, PARTRIDGE, AND HARRIS
Slightly smaller is a large well made spearpoint or knife (P1. XI, b),
3 1/4 inches long, which exhibits extreme smoothing of chipping scars, edges
and base. Grinding is especially noticeable on the edges and sides where the
stem joins the main portion of the blade. The results are rounded basal blade
edges and rounded side stem edges. This is most exceptional for a Florida
chipped tool. The provenience of this specimen, other than that it came from
the Stafford Mound, is not given.
Smaller projectile points are represented by only 6 specimens in the col-
lections available for study at the Florida State Museum. One is an assym-
metric lanceolate trianguloid point, 1 7/8 inches in length. It came from the
eastern part of the mound. Next is a narrow lanceolate point, also 1 7/8 inches
in length. It resembles a Duval subtype 2 point (Bullen 1968: 17) but the base
seems unfinished. A third (P1. XI, a) is side-notched but the broken base pre-
vents close typological identification. It was found near the "torch-sticks" to be
The other three are all typical Pinellas sub type 2 triangular points (Bul-
len 1969: 12) approximately 1 inch in length. They were found with the central
burial but depths are not given. Their presence in the mound is not surprising
in view of the large amount of Safety Harbor-Ft. Walton period pottery which
was also present.
Other chipped stone specimens include a small blade, 2 inches long and
about 5/8 inches across, with many chips removed from both edges. This blade
has part of a downward sloping strickling platform left at one end. The removal of
chips along the edges probably resulted from extensive use.
Mention was made previously of deposits of chert spalls. Nineteen such
spalls, two with field numbers, have been preserved. Of these, two show chip-
ping along one edge and may hence be classed as utilized flakes. According to
the field number, they came from the extreme northern end of the mound. We
also have a fairsized core and five hammerstones or chipping hammers. Speci-
fic proveniences are not given and it may be suggested that these are archaic
workshop debitage brought to the mound as inclusions in mound fill.
Cushing' s catalog mentions fragments of fossil bones and various rubbing,
scraping or rasping stones. The two fossil bone fragments available are well
rounded (or rolled) and similar to those which can be found today on inner beaches
or tidal areas of the Tampa Bay region. They show no evidence of use and may
have been taken to the mound as natural curiosities. Eight of the rubbing stones
are in the collection. All are irregularly shaped sandstone specimens exhibiting
one or more smoothed surfaces. They are probably rubbing or smoothing stones
but they show no grooves or other clear evidence of the grinding or sharpening of
tools. They are more like similar stones found in middens of the Safety Harbor
period and thought to be fragments of grinding stones for the reduction of corn.
Of the shell specimens listed by Cushing only a few scraps remain. His
catalog, however, contains some items of considerable interest. He states,
regarding field number 88, that a Busycon ladle contained the remains of a new
born child and was found to the right of a burial containing beads and below a
bunched burial of 19 skeletons. Another ( no. 89), perforated at the bottom,
was found upside down over a pottery bowl which, also inverted, w s over a
skull. In two other instances, he speaks of Busycon ladles as being inverted.
Of polished stone celts, we have available two. One is the very small
miniature celt illustrated as "k" in Plate XI. Made of a greenish gray stone, it
is smoothed all over and not broken in any way. No specific provenience is
given in the catalog. The other (Pl. XI, 1) has been split lengthwise, forming
in effect two celts. The surviving half has been polished on its broken face but
hot sufficiently so as to eliminate all the surface craters. It was found in the
southeastern part of the excavations at a depth of 3 1/2 feet. Two additional
complete celts are illustrated in Plate X.
Cushing' s catalog mentions stakes or "torch posts" twice. The first
(field number 250) lists "Stakes of light wood or pine knots; found driven up-
right either side of decayed human remains (sketched 23rd Jan). Unfor-
tunately the sketch has not survived. The other (field number 256) he calls
"Small portion of torch post, charred. Found in one of the central eastern
burials. This specimen consists of a piece of charcoal, 2 1/2 inches in dia-
meter and about 4 inches long, with growth rings indicating it came from a
piece of wood similar to a post.
Twenty-seven of the 35 plummets or parts of plummets listed in Cushing's
catalog are illustrated in Plates XI, XII, and XIII. The most remarkable of
these are a beautiful crystal quartz specimen (Pl. XII, c) and a large on (Pl.
XIII, a) of copper. In the Florida State Museum collection we have two of
shell (Pls. XI, c; XII, a), two of limestone (Pl. XI, h), and one of a gypsum-
like rock (Pl. XI, f), and four of green-gray stone (P1. XI, d-e, g, and j).
The last (Pl. XI, j), extremely long and beautifully polished, is broken at the
There is little one can say about these plummets except that all were very
well made and uniformly have a small groove at the top for hafting. Vertical
distribution data is given in the catalog for 12 of the plummets. Interestingly,
the one of copper (Pl. XIII, a), the one of rock crystal (Pl. XII, c) and a "Long
slender bobbin-shaped pendant, with ornate flaring and rounded termination, and
grooved for suspension at opposite ends, showing wax finish and attachment near
groove. Highly finished in fine gray stone" (Pl. XII, s) were found together at a
depth of 8 2/3 feet in the east central part of the mound. This depth would cer-
tainly place them well below the depth of the lower tier of burials shown in Figure
2. Other plummets are recorded for depths from 2 1/2 to 5 1/2 feet with more
below than above a depth of 3 feet. It may be suggested from this data, tenuous
as it may be, that plummets were more typical of the deeper, and hence older
than of the shallower, more recent, burial ones.
BULLEN, PARTRIDGE, AND HARRIS
PLATE 1. POTTERY CACHE ONE, AFFORD MOUND
a, lobed vessel, Weeden Island Incised; b, Papys Bayou Punctated;
c, Weeden Island Zoned Red; d, Plain Smooth, Pasco paste; e,
Weeden Island Plain with thickened rim; f. cache in situ.
b c T d e
PLATE II. POTTERY CACHE TWO, AFFORD MOUND
a, lobed vessel, Weeden Island Plain; b, cylindrical beaker, Pasco
paste; c, large bowl, possibly Ruskin Dentate Stamped; d, Swift Creek
Complicated Stamped, Early Variety; e, Weeden Island Punctated;
f-g, other sides of e, showing design details; h, cache in situ.
PLATE III. DECORATED VESSELS, AFFORD MOUND
a-b, Safety Harbor Incised, multiple views ahowing design variations;
c, Alligator Bayou Stamped, three views. o
PLATE IV. SMALL VESSELS, AFFORD MOUND
a, c, Crystal River Incised; b, Franklin Plain
BULLEN, PARTRIDGE, AND HARRIS
0 3 6
k I m n
PLATE V. EARLY PERIOD POTTERY, AFFORD MOUND
a, Crystal River Incised; b-c, Carrabelle Incised, variant; d, Deptford
Linear Check Stamped, variant; e-g, Santa Rosa Stamped; h-i, Deptford
Linear Check Stamped; j-n, Cartersville Check Stamped.
Iga~qp~~r~c l i~l/
PLATE VI. DECORATED POTTERY, AFFORD MOUND
a, Weeden Island Punctated; b, Carrabelle Incised; c, Weeden Island
Zoned Red; d-d', Weeden Island Punctated (d' is restored); e, Lake
Jackson Plain; f, combination, complicated stamped and linear punc-
tation; g, Pinellas Incised.
BULLEN, PARTRIDGE, AND HARRIS
0 3 6
PLATE VII. DECORATED SHERDS, AFFORD MOUND
a, Tampa Complicated Stamped; b-1, Swift Creek Complicated Stamped (h has
a Weeden Island Punctated rim); m-p, s, Weeden island Punctated; q, Weeden
Island Incised; r, Weeden Island Plain; t, Oklawaha Plain; u, Oklawaha Incised
^/ *1~- "- )
,.'. '. '^
'' / /, :
n "" :"
PLATE VIII. DECORATED SHERDS, AFFORD MOUND
a-e, Wakulla Check Stamped; f, Pasco Check Stamped; g-k, St. Johns Check
Stamped; _-m, combination check and simple stamping; n-p, Deptford Linear
Check Stamped; q, Ft. Walton Incised; r, Weeden Island Incised, variant.
BULLEN, PARTRIDGE, AND HARRIS
e f g n
i J; k
0 3 6
o Inches q
PLATE IX. WEEDEN ISLAND PERIOD POTTERY, AFFORD MOUND
a, Lake Jackson Plain; b, St. Johns Check Stamped; c, e, Safety Harbor Incised;
d, hman face adorno; f-g, Papys Bayou Incised; h-i, Weeden Island Punctated;
j-k, ditto with cut away surfaces; 1, punctated sherd with Hopewell-like rim; m,
unique Weeden Island Incised; n, unique incised and punctated; o, Tucker Ridge
Pinched; p, Wakulla Check Stamped; q, Carrabelle Incised.
PLATE X. STONE KNIVES, AXES, AND SAFETY HARBOR PERIOD POTTERY
a-e, hafted knives or spear points, found under burials; f-g, celts of imported
volcanic rock; h-j, sherds and restored vessel, Pinellas Incised.
a, notched point; b, stemmed point; c-h,
j, plummets (c of shell); i, knife; k,
miniature stone celt; 1, broken stone celt.
PLATE XII. SHELL, CRYSTAL QUARTZ
AND STONE PLUMMETS, STAFFORD MOUND
This report has been written to record and illustrate the results of Cushing' s
excavation of the Safford burial mound. Cushing (1897) refers to it briefly in his
account of his trip to Key Marco but presents hardly any data. Due to the lack of
provenience data, our work has of necessity, been mainly descriptive in nature.
However, a few comments can be made regarding chronological and cultural im-
The ceramic collections (Table 1) clearly range from the Deptford and
Santa Rosa-Swift Creek periods through Weeden Island times, well into the Safety
Harbor period. Projectile points, while few in number, suggest the same time
span. The tectonic structure of the mound (Fig. 2) also is evidence of con-
struction and use over a long period of time. The site must have been a cere-
monial center to which the dead were brought for interment for many hundreds
The relatively deep provenience of large projectile points or knives and
their apparent ceremonial deposition has been mentioned in the descriptive sec-
tion. This trait, deposits of large projectile points or knives at the bases of
THE YAMASEE INDIANS IN FLORIDA: 1715-1763
James W. Covington
University of Tampa
In the struggles between the various European colonial empires in North
America, the American Indian tribes played a prominent, if not a decisive role.
Yet, due to the fact that the natives were merely tools in the hands of the Dutch,
French, Spanish and English, it really did not matter whether one tribe was on
the winning side or not. Sooner or later, each tribe was destined to lose most
or all of its land, independence and primitive way of life and would be fortunate
if it was not destined for complete extinction.
One example of the melancholy fate reserved for an Indian tribe was that
of the Yamasee Indians who had been allies of the English from 1685 to 1715
and, in a surprise move, joined forces with the Spanish. The principal reason
for this unusual turn of events was a defeat in the Yamasee War which the Ya-
masee Indians and their allies endured at the hands of the colonists. Conse-
quently, the vanquished warriors were forced to migrate to places where the
Carolina militiamen would have difficulty in finding them and inflicting more
Placing themselves at the mercy of the Spaniards was not an easy task
for prior to 1685 some of Yamasees had been under Spanish control in coastal
Georgia and after being subjected to excessive demands for work in the fields
about Saint Augustine had moved to South Carolina where they became staunch
allies of the English (Fray Joseph Escodero to Marques de Monteleon, October
20, 1734, A.M. Brooks Transcripts, Library of Congress). Other Yamasees,
who were probably non-Christian, were lured to the English side by the sums
of money or trade goods available to those who captured and sold to Carolina
dealers the Spanish mission Indians (Bolton 1925: 38).
When they arrived in South Carolina, the bands of Yamasee who had pre-
viously lived a short distance from the Georgia coast were joined by mission
Indians fleeing to Carolina for protection when the coastal islands of Georgia
were overrun by pirates, and Cherokees and Lower Creeks in search of slaves
and loot from the missions. The last of the Guale mission bands, the Yoa
joined the Yamasees in 1702 when Moore and Daniel invaded the area en route
to Saint Augustine with their assorted army of whites and Indians. During the
period from 1685-1710 the Yamasees took part in many raids into Florida and
played a leading role in the seizure of Florida Indians and subsequent sale in
New England or the West Indies (Milling 1940: 106-108). Led by Altamaha
these Indians were so successful in the raids that by 1715 there were probably
less than two hundred Indians residing in Florida north -of Tampa Bay.
During this period of Carolina residence the Yamasee men, coloring
their faces with red and black marking--red for war and black for death--
treated the Spaniards in a most cruel manner and held little regard for their
fighting ability. In the seige of Saint Augustine in 1702 the English leader
James Moore had been forced to admit that the Castillo de San Marcos was too
strong for his combined force of whites and Indians, but the Yamasees were
most reluctant to call off the seige and had been the last ones to leave the
battle-field (Rivers 1856: 201). Whenever the Yamasees captured any Spani-
ards they tied them to trees and shot burning arrows into them or buried them
in the ground with only their heads appearing above the surface (Hewatt 1962:
213). Finally, the English took pity on their hapless enemies and offered a
reward for each Spaniard brought alive to Charleston (McDowell 1935: 36). Of
course, during this period the Yamasees were being subjected to raids by the
Indians under Spanish control and persons taken prisoners were burned at the
stake and others were sold to the Spaniards to be used as slaves.
The Yamasees had been granted a tract of land as large as a present day
county which became known as the Yamasee or Indian Land for establishment
and settlement of ten towns. In a census taken just prior to the war, the Ya-
masees were described as residing ninety miles southwest of Charleston and
possessing a population of 1215 persons which included 413 men, 345 women,
234 boys and 223 girls (Governor Robert Johnson to Council of Trade and Plan-
tations, January 12, 1720. Colonial Office 5-1265, Q 201 Public Record Office,
London). They cultivated fields of corn, peas and watermelons and raised hogs,
cattle and chickens but depended upon the killing, of deer for hides to exchange
for muskets, powder, shot, kettles and other articles of civilization which they
Although the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel had been active in
Carolina, very few of the Yamasees had been converted by the English. Of
course, many recalled practices taught to them by the Spanish priests and some
bore Spanish names (Klingberg 1956: 57). The first missionary, Rev. Samuel
Thomas, sent by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel to convert the
Yamasees in So'uth Carolina arrived in 1702 carrying with him the sum of
L 10 to be expended upon materials for the wild Indians (Pasco 1904: 12). He
found that these Indians were too intent upon defending themselves from the
Spaniards and as a result the missionary settled in the Cooper River area
where he devoted his time to Indian and Negro slaves. In 1711 Mr. J. Norris,
a planter, paid for his son' s education as a minister and sent him to work
among the Yamasees. Two years later in 1713, the son of a very important
Yamasee leader travelled to England for education in the Christian faith.
Aroused by mistreatment at the hands of Carolina traders, the Yamasee
and other Carolina Indians rose in a savage attack during the Spring of 1715 but
after a brief period of success were badly defeated. On the night of May 27,
1715, four Yamasee leaders claiming to represent 160 towns appeared in Saint
Augustine seeking help from Governor Corcoles (Te Paske 1964: 199). It was
difficult to determine if any preliminary negotiations had paved the way for the
four leaders but perhaps Adrain, leader of the Apalachees, had assisted the
Yamasees. The Apalachees had gone to Carolina in 1704 but had not taken
part in any raids against the Spaniards and returned to Florida in 1715 after
the Yamasee debacle. It was said that when the Yamasee men decided to attack
the Carolina colonists, the women and children were loaded into canoes and
dispatched to Saint Augustine (Rivers 1856: 200). Certainly, such a migration
could not have been arranged without prior consultation with the Florida au-
thorities. Although the people of South Carolina knew well that the Yamasees
had ample cause for revolt, they claimed that the Spaniards had helped arouse
the Indians. Some support of this charge could be found in the fact that during
the Yamasee War, many slaves had been seized b-y the Indians in the expecta-
tion they could sell them to the Spanish (Extract of Mr. Boon' s and Mr. Bere-
ford's Journal, December 17, 1716, Colonial Office 5-382 No. 40, London).
In the name of the King of Spain, Governor Corcoles granted pardon for
past Yamasee misdeeds and gave the visitors land adjacent to Saint Augustine
where they could settle. The Spanish were so glad to see the Yamasee leaders
that they were presented with hats and coats and were invited to dine with the
governor (Juan de Ayala to the Spanish Ambassador at London, February 17,
1716, Brooks Transcripts). Motivated by the same spirit, soldiers in the Cas-
tillo de San Marcos fired their cannon and priests ordered the bells to be rung
in the various chapels and churches of the city (Fairbanks 1871: 179-180).
When the English authorities denounced the Indians as rebels and demanded
their return, the Spanish governor, with tongue in cheek, replied that the Ya-
masees had decided to return to the Roman Catholic Church--a faith they had
deserted a few years ago.
The principal reason for the virtual extermination of the Florida Indian's
was the fact that the Spaniards refused to furnish them with guns and ammuni-
tion. Consequently, the Timucuans, Apalachees and other tribes were no
match for the musket-bearing Creeks and Yamasees. Bearing this lesson in
mind, the Spaniards were most pleased to furnish guns and ammunition to the
Yamasees. In fact, one observer claimed that the Yamasees were supplied
with an abundance of everything that they desired. Muskets purchased from
Charleston merchants and foodstuffs from Mexico were given to the Indians
and the sum allotted for Indian aid in the annual budget was tripled.
At first, some of the Yamasees did not trust the Spaniards enough to re-
main near Saint Augustine but settled in the uninhabited fertile area known as
Apalache which was situated approximately one hundred miles westward of
Saint Augustine. In 1719 one of the Yamasee leaders visited an Indian village
located near Pensacola and was given a suit by the Spanish commander (Kerri-
gan 1951: 378). After hearing of the good treatment given to their fellow tribes-
men at Saint Augustine, the Yamasees requested and received Franciscan
missionaries to work among them. According to one of the missionaries, all
of these Indians were converted to the Christian faith. In 1724 raids by the
Yuchi Indians forced the liquidation of the Apalache villages and the migration
of the Indians and priests to the neighborhood of Saint Augustine where the two
divisions of the Yamasee tribe were reunited (Escudero to Monteleon, October
20, 1734, Brooks Transcripts). During the first two decades several of the
Yamasee Florida towns bore names that had been known in Carolina--Poco-
taligo, Huspaw, Yoa and Tulafina.
It was difficult to determine how many of the 1215 Yamasees survived
the Yamasee War and made their way to Florida but certainly many of them
were captured by the English and sold as slaves in New England and Jamacia.
Some were able to join the Lower Creeks and others migrated as far west as
Pensacola. When the Spanish evacuated Pensacola in 1763, one hundred and
eight Catholic Yamasees and Apalachees went to Vera Cruz, Mexico (Seibert
The addition of one hundred or more loyal and able warriors as allies
gave Spanish Florida a far more effective force than she had previously been
able to muster against Carolina. Within a short time, Yamasee raiding par-
ties moved against exposed plantations in present day South Carolina burning
houses, killing white males and returning with booty, Negro slaves and a few
white women and children as captives. From 1715 to 1719 ninety-eight slaves
were captured and taken to Saint Augustine and,, in 1720 and 1721, one hundred
and seventeen were seized.
The desertion by the Yamasees hurt the pride of the English and at first
they tried peaceful means to lure the Indians back under their flay. In 1716 a
reward of 500 was offered to Maria, an Indian woman and wife of an English-
man, if she were able to bring back all or the greater part of the Huspaw King' s
village from Saint Augustine. She was unable to accomplish the feat and did
not earn the reward (Cooper 1837: 695).
In retaliation against Yamasee raiders who had succeeded in killing
three colonists and carrying off three more as captives, an attack was planned
against the Yamasees at Saint Augustine in the Fall of 1720. In this raid the
Lower Creeks destroyed four towns, burned and looted a church, killed six
Yamasees, captured twenty-four Yamasees and ten Spaniards, defeated a large
Spanish force and returned in triumph to South Carolina.
This successful attack had two results. First, at least sixteen Creeks
living among the Yamasees deserted to the English and brought pressure upon
others to do the same. Second, the Spaniards had demonstrated to all includ-
ing the Creeks and Yamasees that they were unable to defend any place in Flo-
rida except the Castillo de San Marcos and protect only the persons who were
able to reach its protecting walls. It was after this defeat that the majority of
the Yamasees and Creeks cast aside any hope that the Spanish might be able to
help them and joined the pro-British Creek villages.
During the decade following the conclusion of Queen Anne' s War in 1713
the Spanish had a golden opportunity to secure some degree of control over the
Lower Creek Indians. At first the English eliminated or reduced all aid to the
Indians and the field was wide open to any competitors. In 1715 and 1716 a
leader of the Yuchis visited Saint Augustine and received presents. In 1717,
over one hundred and fifty Lower Creeks including twenty-five leaders visited
Saint Augustine and pledged their loyalty to the King of Spain (Te Paske 1964:
202). In order to promote new friendship among the Indians, San Marcos de
Apalache (near present day Saint Marks) was established as a blockhouse and
store house for supplies (Crane 1929: 258). Yet despite this excellent beginning,
the Spanish effort was doomed to failure. The King of Spain would not supply
sufficient funds to provide for the needs of the Indians and as a result the Span-
ish saw a decline of the'r influence with the Indians.
By 1723 the English policy had changed and muskets and pikes were given
to the Tallapoosas and Yuchis so that they could attack the Yamasees. The
Spanish governor sought unsuccessfully to secure muskets and shot from the
French to give to the Yamasees living in Apalache. The Lower Creeks tried
to play the English and Spanish against each other but the Spanish did not have
sufficient funds to furnish enough supplies to keep the Indians loyal. The Span-
iards could not keep their storehouse in Apalache even half filled with goods but
the English were as one priest attested, ". .. selling the Indians the goods they
want on credit and never asking for payment until they themselves are ready to
pay. It is true though that although late, the Indians always pay their debts in
deer skins." (Escudero to Monteleon October 20, 1734, Brooks Transcripts).
Thus, due to the Spanish failure to cement their friendship with the Lower
Creeks, no protective shield of pro-Spanish Lower Creeks was available and
the Yamasees were exposed to raids by various Lower Creek bands.
In 1725 a party dispatched by the principal leader for the Lower Creeks
attacked the Huspaw King' s village and inflicted a considerable amount of dam-
age. Three members of the Yamasee leader' s family were captured and his
principal leader was killed. Altogether eight Yamasees were killed, nine cap-
tured and booty including several guns, cloth and religious articles from the
chapel were taken (Swanton 1922: 103).
Despite the 1720 and 1725 defeats, the Spanish continued to outfit parties
of Yamasees, and pro-Spanish Lower Creeks accompanied by Spaniards raided
isolated trading posts and plantations in South Carolina. In 1726 these raiders
attacked two places near Port Royal killing three whites and seizing 3,000 deer-
skins and assorted trade articles. Canoes carrying combined crews of Negroes
and Indians raided at least two coastal plantations.
The English claimed that the Governor of Florida had offered thirty pieces
of eight for each white scalp taken by the Yamasees and one hundred pieces of
eight for every Negro slave captured. It was said that the Spanish governor
supplemented his meager salary by shipping most of the captured slaves to
Cuba and selling them (Hewatt 1962: 213).
Those slaves that managed to escape from their masters in South Caro-
lina and make the dangerous journey to Florida were given excellent treatment.
Some time before 1740 these refugees were allowed to settle on the Saint John' s
River at a place which became known as Mosa (Chatelain 1941: 167). These
Negroes had lived in close association with the Yamasees in South Carolina
and probably some of the Indians settled with them at Mosa. The Negroes were
granted their freedom, had their own town and were assigned agricultural areas
in the neighborhood. A Franciscan was assigned to instruct them in the Christ-
ian faith. When James Oglethorpe captured Mosa in 1740, it was noted that a
small fort had been erected and garrisoned by a Spanish force assisted by
Negro and Yamasee auxiliaries.
In March of 1728 Colonel John Palmer led an expedition of one hundred
whites and one hundred Indians against the Yoa band at Nombre de Dios. In a
successful attack against the mission town thirty Yamasees were killed, four-
teen were captured, the town was burned, and the chapel was looted and burned.
In this raid the military power of the Yamasees was virtually extinguished
(Crane 1929: 249-50).
With the decimation of the herds of deer in Georgia, the Lower Creeks
hunted more and more frequently in Florida. Of course, if an opportunity pre-
sented itself on a trip near Saint Augustine, the Creeks would attack the Ya-
masee villages. By 1728, the governor of Florida wrote that the Creeks had
driven away four-fifths of the Indians who had sought refuge on the peninsula
in 1715. In this year there were seven Indian towns situated near Saint Augus-
tine and the inhabitants of these towns included both the Timucuan survivors
and the Yamasees. These habitations included: Nombre de Dios (20 men, 18
women, 10 children), Tolomato (18 men, 14 women, 8 children), Palica (23
men, 7 women, 12 children), Cavapuyas (20-40 men, 7 women, 12 children),
no name given to one village (14 men, 10 women, 4-5 children), Chiquet (15
men, 20 women), and Chasapugas (14 men, 14 women).
Due to the raids by the Creeks it was impossible to have chapels in each
town and perhaps as many as half the Indians were non-Christian. The migra-
tion of the Yamasees to Florida brought some problems to the missionaries.
Priests who understood the Timucuan language found it necessary to employ
interpreters when talking to the Indians from Georgia. Perhaps that is one
reason why many of the Yamasees were not converted to the Christian faith.
In Apalache there were two villages which were probably Yamasee.
These included Hamaste with sixty men, forty women and forty children and
San Juan de Gucama containing ten men, six women and four children. Some
of these Indians revolted against the Spanish on March 20, 1728, and fled to
A 1734 listing of warriors capable of bearing arms indicated that eighty
per cent or more of the Yamasee inhabitants bore Spanish names such as
Manuel, Juan, Ignacio. The leaders were called caciques and usually a larger
village had two leaders. Pueblo de Potalaca had the following age brackets:
warriors: 12 to 20 years five men, 20 to 30 years eight men, 30 to 40
years seven men, 40 to 50 years none, 50 to 60 years three men; Nom-
bre de Dios: 12 to 20 years one man, 41 to 50 years none, 51 to 65 years -
two men. The leaders of Pocotalaca were aged 60 to 20 respectively and Nom-
bre de Dios, 40 and 30 (Swanton 1922: 105).
The invasion of Florida by James Oglethorpe in 1740 brought about a
further disintergration of the Yamasee towns. Some Indians fled to the woods,
others went to Pensacola and by 1742, after Oglethorpe had returned to Georgia,
the Indian towns had been reduced to four Tolomato, Palica, Pocotalaca and
Punta and the population to thirty-nine men, seventy-one women and ninety-
three children. There was much drunkedness among the Indians and, since
they were attacked whenever they ventured into the woods in search of deer or
firewood, the Indians were issued supplies from the royal stores.
Approximately in the middle of the Eighteenth Century a band of Semi-
noles permanently settled in Florida in an area south of Alachua Prairie.
They were non-Muskogee speaking peoples who had migrated from the Creek
Confederacy in search of better hunting acres and freedom from conflicts with
the Cherokees, Chickasaws and other Creeks. In 1773, William Bartram visi-
ted a bluff along the Saint John' s River and observed some thirty small mounds
of dirt and shell which were twenty feet in length, ten or twelve feet in width
and three or four feet in height scattered throughout an area of two or three
acres. He was told that at this place the Yamasees were driven into a bend of
the river by the Lower Creeks or Seminoles and only a few of them were able
to escape from the trap. According to the story, these mounds were the burial
places of the vanquished Yamasee warriors (Harper 1958: 88). It does not
seem logical to assume that the Lower Creeks or Seminoles would take time
to pile dirt and shell about the bodies of Yamasees. Archaeologists have been
unable to check upon this story for the area has been plowed for agricultural
purposes and the shell mounds were removed in 1940 to provide materials for
Consequently, observers have found it difficult to state outright that a
great battle took place between the Yamasees and Seminoles at the bend of the
Saint Johns River. However, during the Nineteenth Century a Seminole story
teller related that the Yamasee men were killed in battle and the Seminole men
married the Yamasee women (Pensacola Gazette October 9, 1824). Whenever
a Seminole appeared to be darker than his fellows, it was said that his Yama-
see ancestry was showing.
When William Bartram visited Cuscowilla (near present day Gainesville)
in 1773 he noted a considerable number of Yamasee slaves in the Seminole
village. They were very docile with little will of their own, well dressed,and
their duties included rendering services for Cowkeeper, the Seminole leader.
The male and female slaves were permitted to marry among the Seminoles
and their children were considered free but the parents held in slavery as long
as they lived (Harper 1958: 88, 308).
With the exception of the Seminoles, the Florida Indian population rapidly
declined and by 1759 there were only three villages in Florida under Spanish
influence. These settlements included seventy-nine Indians at Tolomato and
Nuestra Senora de la Leche and twenty-five persons in a village near San Mar-
cos de Apalache (Te Paske 1964: 224). In 1764, after the Spanish had sur-
rendered Saint Augustine to the English, they carried with them to Havana a
total of eighty-nine Yamasees including twenty men, thirty-two women and
thirty-seven children (Gold 1965: 108). One report stated that only twenty of
these Indians were Christians. There was no mention of Apalachees or Timu-
cuans living at or near Saint Augustine at this time, but there surely must
have been some intermarriage among the groups.
At first the Indians were settled at iatanzas in Cuba but later moved to
Saint Augustine de la Nueva Florida, a rural area near Matanzas. The emi-
grants had a most difficult time in Cuba and, by 1766, sent a desperate appeal
to the King of Spain for assistance. Sickness, prostitution, and death came as
a natural result of the inadequate aid furnished by the Spanish Government and
at that time only fifty-three of the eighty-nine Yamasees who had originally
left Florida were alive. It was during this period of Cuban exile that the Ya-
masee Indians became a virtually extinct tribe (Gold 1964: 224).
1925 Arredondo' s Historical Proof of Spain' s Title to Florida.
University of California Press. Berkeley.
Chatelain, Verne E.
1941 "The Defenses of Spanish Florida: 1565 to 1763," Carnegie
Institution of Publication 511. Washington.
Cooper, Thomas ed.
1837 The Statutes at Large of South Carolina. Vol. Two, State of
Crane, Verner W.
1929 The Southern Frontier 1670-1732, University of Michigan Press.
Fairbanks, George R.
1871 History of Florida, Jacksonville, Florida.
Gold Robert L.
1964 "The Settlement of the East Florida Spaniards in Cuba 1763-1766,"
Florida Historical Quarterly XLIII (January, 1964).
1965 "The East Florida Indians under Spanish and English Control:
1763-1765," Florida Historical Quarterly XLIV (July, 1965).
Harper, Francis, ed.
1958 The Travels of William Bartram, Yale University Press.
1962 A Historical Account of the Progress and Rise of the Colonies
of South Carolina and Georgia, Vol. I. London.
Kerrigan, Anthony, ed. and tr.
1951 Barcia' s Chronological History of the Continent of Florida.
University of Florida Press. Gainesville.
Klingberg, Frank., ed.
1956 The Carolina Chronicles of Dr. Francis Le Jau, University
of California Publications in History, Vol. 53, University of
California Press, Berkeley.
128 YAMASSEE INDIANS
McDowell, William L., ed.
1935 Journals of the Commissioners of the Indian Trade. Colonial
Records of South Carolina Archives Department. Columbia.
Milling, Chapman J.
1940 Red Carolinians, University of North Carolina Press.
Two Hundred Years of the Society for the Propagation of the
Faith. Society for the Propagation of the Faith. London.
Rivers, William J.
1856 A Sketch of the History of South Carolina to the Close of the
Proprietary Government. Charleston.
Seibert, Wilbur H.
1932 "How the Spanish Evacuated Pensacola in 1763, Florida
Historical Quarterly XI (July, 1932).
Swanton, John R.
1922 The Indian Tribes of North America. Bureau of American
Ethnology, Bulletin 145. Washington.
Te Paske, John
1964 The Governorship of Spanish Florida 1700-1765.
Duke University Press. Durham.
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