Table of Contents
 Editor's page : The Florida Anthropologist...
 The riviera complex : An east Okechobee...
 The overgrown road site (8Gu38)...
 Analysis of lithic materials from...
 Popeyed bird-head effigies in west-central...
 Piney Island (8MR848) : An eroding...
 The Florida Anthropologist : An...
 Book reviews, current reasearch,...
 Was this shell damaged by a predatory...
 Featured photographs
 Join the Florida Anthropological...

Group Title: Florida anthropologist
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027829/00047
 Material Information
Title: The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title: Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Publisher: Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Frequency: quarterly[]
two no. a year[ former 1948-]
Subject: Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Summary: Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- May 1948-
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027829
Volume ID: VID00047
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569447
lccn - 56028409
issn - 0015-3893

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editor's page : The Florida Anthropologist 45(1) - March 1992 - Louis D. Tesar
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    The riviera complex : An east Okechobee archaeological area settlement - Ryan J. Wheeler
        Page 5
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    The overgrown road site (8Gu38) : A swift creek camp site in the lower Apalachicola valley - Nancy Marie White
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    Analysis of lithic materials from the Rattlesnake Midden site (8H1980), Tampa Bay, Florida - Richard W. Estarbook and J. Raymond Williams
        Page 39
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    Popeyed bird-head effigies in west-central and southwest Florida - George M. Luer
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    Piney Island (8MR848) : An eroding prehistoric site in the Oklawaha river basin of central Florida - Robin L. Denson and James S. Dunbar
        Page 63
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    The Florida Anthropologist : An index to volumes 37-45(1) (1984-1992) with brief comments - Louis D. Tesar
        Page 68
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    Book reviews, current reasearch, comments, and meetings
        Page 79
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    Was this shell damaged by a predatory sea turtle? George M. Luer
        Page 86
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    Featured photographs
        Page 88
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    Join the Florida Anthropological Society (FAS)!
        Page 96
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Editor's Page: The Florida Anthropologist 45(1) -- March, 1992. Louis D. Tesar 2

The Riviera Complex: An East Okechobee Archaeological Area Settlement Ryan J. Wheeler 5

The Overgrown Road Site (8Gu38): A Swift Creek Camp Site in the Lower Apalachicola Valley.
Nancy Marie White 18

Analysis of Lithic Materials from the Rattlesnake Midden Site (8HI980), Tampa Bay, Florida.
Richard W. Estabrook and J. Raymond Williams 39

Popeyed Bird-Head Effigies in West-Central and Southwest Florida. George M. Luer 52

Piney Island (8MR848): An Eroding Prehistoric Site in the Oklawaha River Basin of Central
Florida. Robin L. Denson and James S. Dunbar 63

The Florida Anthropologist: An Index to Volumes 37-45(1) (1984-1992) With Brief Comments.
Louis D. Tesar 68


Tatham Mound (1991) by Piers Anthony. Louis D. Tesar, Reviewer 79

Guide to the Paleo-Indian Artifacts of North America (1990) by Richard Michael Gramly. Michael
Wisenbaker, Reviewer 80

The Art and Archaeology of Florida's Wetlands (1991) by Barbara A. Purdy. Michael Wisenbaker,
Reviewer 82

Archaeological Geology of North America (1990) edited by Norman P. Lasca and Jack Donahue.
Kevin McCartney, Reviewer 85

Was This Whelk Shell Damaged By A Predatory Sea Turtle? George M. Luer 86


Two Unusual Stone and Shell Artifacts from Site 8BR559, Brevard County, Florida. Submitted by
Vera Zimmerman 88

Brief Biographical Sketch of Montague Tallant (1892-1962). Submitted by Laura Branstetter. 90

Montegue Tallant at Shaw's Point, Manatee County, Florida. Submitted by Karen Malesky 90

"Munsilna McGundo House," Duval County, Florida. Submitted by Henry Baker 92

ANNOUNCEMENT: A New Beginning for the Pipers. Harry and Jackie Piper UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 93

ERRATUM: A Note on Pineland and Josslyn Island. George M. Luer 31 11 I 1262 [110 633! 93
3 1262 05100 6335
Apalachee Chapter Stresses Member Training. Prepared by K. C. Smith 3 1262 05100 6335 94



Louis D. Tesar, Journal Editor
Florida Anthropological Society

This issue contains a mix of articles, book reviews,
comments, and featured photographs. I hope that you will
enjoy them.
The lead article, "The Riviera Complex: An East
Okeechobee Archaeological Area Settlement," by Ryan J.
Wheeler has been long awaited -- in two senses. First, it
provides a thoughtful synthesis of area archaeology. Second,
it had been reviewed and accepted for publication well over a
year ago; however, the letter notifying the author of that fact
and the accompanying edited text apparently were lost in the
mail. It was not until a year later when I chanced to ask Mr.
Wheeler why he had chosen not to submit his final text for
publication that we discovered the problem. Fortunately,
Ryan still had the original text on electronic media, I was able
to provide him with my photocopy of the edited document,
and he promptly responded with a final text and diskette.
Mr. Wheeler is currently working on a comparative
analysis of decorated bone artifacts from Florida, as part of
his graduate studies. I hope that he will publish at least part
of his results in a future issue of The Florida Anthropologist.
Any of our readers who have found decorated bone artifacts
are encouraged to send photographs or slides of those
artifacts, along with a description of the dimensions, site
location information, and so forth, to Mr. Wheeler. His
address may be found at the end of his Riviera Complex
The second article, "The Overgrown Road Site (8Gu38):
A Swift Creek Camp Site in the Lower Apalachicola Valley,"
by Nancy Marie White illustrates the results of carefully
excavating a small archaeological site, and the contribution
which such sites can make toward furthering our
understanding of area history and prehistory. As she notes,
most previous archaeological efforts have focused on larger
sites with a wealth of archaeological materials, or on burial
sites with more complete artifacts. However, in respect for
the wishes of Native Americans, Dr. White and other
archaeologists now generally forego excavation of human
burial sites unless they are threatened with loss to erosion or
This is but one of the many sites located and evaluated
by Dr. White during her more than ten years of focused
research on the Apalachicola River drainage system. Most of
this research has been conducted as summer field schools and
she has included a fair mix of volunteers -- time, space,
equipment, and circumstances permitting. Many of her
students have gone on to become professional archaeologists,
and her public archaeology efforts are to be lauded as an
example for others. One product of Dr. White's public

archaeology effort is a recently published 33-page booklet,
Apalachicola Valley Archaeology (1992) by Nancy White,
Terry Simpson and Suella McMillan.
The third article, "Analysis of Lithic Materials from the
Rattlesnake Midden Site (8HI980), Tampa Bay, Florida," by
Richard W. Estabrook and J. Raymond Williams reports on
one aspect of a field school project conducted to aid
Hillsborough County in planning the development of a public
park being developed for passive recreation, environmental
preservation purposes. The information presented in their
article helps us to better understand prehistoric usage of lithic
The fourth article, "Popeyed Bird-Head Effigies in
West-Central and Southwest Florida," by George M. Luer
suggests the cultural insights which can be derived from
studying the distribution of Native America art styles. In this
case, George examines the distribution of "popeyed" bird-
head effigies, mostly ceramic vessel adornos, found primarily
in ceremonial/mortuary contexts. It serves as an example of
the value of restudying older collections of artifacts and
looking for regional and extra-regional similarities and
distinctions. In so doing, we will be able to derive a better
understanding of cultural dynamics.
The fifth article, "Piney Island (8MR848): An Eroding
Prehistoric Site in the Oklawaha River Basin of Central
Florida," by Robin L. Denson and James S. Dunbar serves
two purposes. First, it helps document the rate of loss of an
archaeological site in a riverine environment. Second, it
serves as yet another example of the mutual benefit and value
of conducting cooperative professional-avocational
archaeological projects.
The last article, which perhaps should not be referred to
as an article, "The Florida Anthropologist: An Index to
Volumes 37-45(1) (1984-1992) With Brief Comments," by
Louis D. Tesar is what the title describes. I have prepared a
content index for all of the issues which have been published
during my tenure as the FAS Journal Editor. I also printed
that text in a smaller type size to reduce publication costs.
The comments are indeed brief, being slightly over one page,
and discuss changes made during my tenure as the Journal
The above articles are followed by four book reviews, an
announcement, a brief erratum note, mini-article, and
featured photographs and accompanying text presented for
our readers' enjoyment.

This is my last issue as the FAS Journal Editor --
September 1983 March 1992 (8.5 years) being sufficient


Vol. 45 No. 1

March, 1992

volunteer time for anyone. Brent Weisman, Director of the
Conservation and Recreation Lands (CA.R.L.)
Archaeological Program in the Florida Division of Historical
Resources' Bureau of Archaeological Research, has agreed to
accept the challenge as your next Journal Editor; and, I will
continue as one of his editorial assistants, at least for a while.
I began my editorship with the task of mailing FA 36(3-
4), forming my editorial review committee, undertaking the
task of editing and having edited a large backlog of
unpublished manuscripts, working with George Luer on the
final edits and galley preparation of FA 37(1) -- which I typed
during several evenings and which George helped proof. I
also typed subsequent issues, as those were tight budgetary
times and, given the circumstances, I decided that it would be
better to save the money that would have been spent on a
typist and to use it instead to pay for more pages in each
issue. I did, however, use a typist to prepare the combined
content/author/topic/geographic index of the journal from
FA 1-2 (1948) to FA 37 (1984) which appeared in FA 37(3).
[That index plus the one in this issue cover all of our
publications to date.] Since then I have done nearly all of the
typing and subsequently word processing, except during the
past few years when authors have been able to provide an
increasing number of final text on electronic media, and
except for FA 44(2-4), which Jean Wilson word processed
under Bonnie McEwan's guest editorship.
I have continued to illustrate the journal's cover (see the
cover of this issue for examples of past issue covers) and until
recently continued the practice of using different colored
cover stock, before shifting to the glossy white stock used for
the past several issues. I also shifted to using a perfect bound
rather than saddle stitched binding. Finally, having
discovered the versatility of word processors, I have
constantly attempted to improve the visual content of articles.
During my editorship I have continuously sought to
serve BOTH our professional and avocational members and
subscribership. It can be a hard fence to straddle, as
evidenced by some issues in which I was criticized on the one
hand for becoming too technical for avocational readers and
on the other hand being too unprofessional for professional
readers -- both comments received for the same issue.
Fortunately, the vast majority of the journal's readers from
whom I received comments were positive -- and, I consistently
took measures in subsequent issues to correct identified
I have tried to provide a broad range of topics and
through reducing the type size, shifting to a column format
and cropping or reducing graphics as necessary to present the
material in a more compact format. The latter has resulted in
a 25-35% (sometimes more) reduction in the amount of
pages needed to present an article over that needed for the
same article in the type size and layout prior to my editorship.
This permitted the presentation of more and larger articles
per issue without increasing printing costs.

The cover for this issue serves to illustrate the range of
covered during my editorship, including physical
anthropology, topical studies of artifacts such as metal tablets,
ceramic, lithics and shells, lithic analyses, historic archaeology
studies ranging from Spanish explorations and settlement to
turpentine camps, regional syntheses, artifact collecting and
reporting, public archaeology, and historic preservation laws,
among other things. These topics have been presented in 364
authored articles, book reviews, comments and so forth. The
eight complete volumes (FA 37-44) and the present issue
represent over 2800 pages of text.
One of the things which I have found disappointing
during my editorship has been the relative lack of manuscript
submissions from our avocational members. I published a
style guide, a how to conduct surveys and collect data guide,
and a how to write reports guide in various issues of this
journal. Yet, our avocational members -- many of whom I
know have materials worthy reporting -- still have not
responded as expected. Perhaps the answer lies in increased
coauthorship with, or at least pre-manuscript submission
assistance by, professional archaeologists. Brent Weisman
has indicated his willingness to work with avocational authors
and I encourage other professional archaeologists to do
Another disappointment, in view of the many
anthropology programs in Florida and adjoining states, has
been the relative lack of manuscript submissions from
undergraduate and pre-doctoral graduate students. With all
of the field schools and artifact collections analysis projects
which occur annually, there should be dozens of publishable
quality products languishing in faculty file drawers or waiting
to be written. At the very least, some of the presentations at
annual meetings of the Florida Anthropological Society or at
the Southeastern Archaeological Conference, for instance,
could be turned into publications. Short descriptive articles
are not that difficult to produce and, with the proliferation of
word processors facilitating rewrites to polish and correct
reports, I hope that Brent will begin to receive more
manuscripts from that quarter.
Finally, we come to one of my most long-standing
disappointments. I thought that constantly striving to produce
a quality product published in a timely manner would lead to
a greater subscribership than it has. We have a long-standing,
loyal membership/subscribership, which results in a relatively
constant membership; however, we have not grown in
subscribership. Word-of-mouth lauding of our product and
organization has not generated increased membership. The
result of this is likely to be a decrease in the number of pages
printed annually in the journal unless there is increased
membership to offset increased printing, postage and other
operating costs.
I spent a lot of my time during my editorship raising
funds to permit publication of enlarged issues. These efforts
were assisted by grants raised by contributors and guest

editors. However, Brent will not have the time to undertake
such fund raising efforts, nor should he be expected to do so.
Current membership dues -- 80% of which go to produce,
print and mail The Florida Anthropologist (and 15% of which
go toward FAS Newsletter production and mailing) -- are
sufficient to pay for publication of around 200 journal pages
annually; although, anticipate increased printing costs in
response to inflationary pressures and increased mail costs in
response to union demands will reduce the number of pages
covered by dues. If FAS membership/subscribership were
doubled, the per issue cost would be reduced around 15%;
and if tripled around 25%. While it would not affect mailing
costs, increased membership could off-set printing costs
increases and sufficient increased membership could actually
result in dues being sufficient to cover journal production and
mailing expenses -- that is how the National Geographic
Society, for instance, is able to keep its costs down and even
to pay staff and fund projects. In other words, if every FAS
member would get at least one other person or institution to
join FAS, ALL members can get more for their money.
Please help double or triple FAS membership/
subscribership. If you are already a member, get your friends,
neighbors, coworkers, businesses, and school libraries to
join/subscribe. If you are not already a member of FAS and
wish to receive an informative, quality journal at a bargain
price, please join FAS. Copy and complete the application
form included at the end of this issue.
At this time I wish to take the opportunity to thank the
members of my own Editorial Review Board, the many
specialist reviewers from whom review comments have
periodically been solicited, and two my two Editorial
Assistants (George Luer and Joan Deming). Without you
the quality of the articles published in this journal would
have been diminished.

Please send manuscript submissions to Brent Weisman
for his distribution to his Editorial Review Board. Brent is
actively seeking manuscript submissions for review and
possible publication in this journal. Authors should send
their manuscripts to him at: 714 NE 7th Avenue, Gainesville,
Florida 32601.


Ryan J. Wheeler

Examination of artifacts collected by the Palm Beach
County Archaeological Society (PBCAS), unpublished maps
held by the Smithsonian Institution, and ethnohistoric
documents provides new information on the East
Okeechobee Archaeological Area in southeastern Florida.
The Riviera site (8PB30), excavated by PBCAS from 1978 to
1980, is a large Glades III Period village that is part of a
settlement complex similar to the one described by Furey
(1972) for a group of sites in Boca Raton, also in Palm Beach
County. A review of ethnohistorical literature reveals that
Riviera and its associated sites may have been the location of
the historic period village Jeaga first mentioned in the 1500s
by the Spaniard Fontaneda (1973).


John Goggin (n.d.:383-384) summarized his 1950 and
1957 observations of Riviera by describing a large dirt and
shell midden located in a hammock on the west side of Lake
Worth. A small stream flowing out of the Everglades
bisected the site. Goggin also mentioned a sand earthwork
and elevated sand causeway to the west of the midden.
Figure 1 illustrates a map prepared by Charles Newcomb
(1914) that is helpful in visualizing the size and configuration
of this site. The elliptical area labeled "Big Mound" is
probably the earthwork mentioned by Goggin; though most
of the site now is covered by pavement or residences, this
sand mound is still partially visible. Riviera is likely only one
site in the Riviera Beach Complex; the Palm Beach Inlet
Midden (8PB28) and the Palm Beach Inlet Burial Mound
(8PB29), located about one kilometer south of Riviera (see
Figure 2), also comprise part of this settlement. 8PB28 is a
200 m long midden of black dirt and shell located in a
hammock on the east side of Lake Worth, portions still
remain today. 8PB29 is a circular mound of black sand
adjoining the Palm Beach Inlet Midden.

Materials and Methods

The PBCAS excavated a small portion of Riviera at the
intersection of Orange Avenue and Oak Street, Lots 1 and 2,
visible on Figure 1. All 33 units were 1.5 m square test pits
dug in 15 cm arbitrary levels, except test pit 21 which was 0.5
m square. Figure 3 illustrates the exact location and
distribution of the test pits. Areas bearing cultural material
were located with post holes and then investigated by test pit.

Artifactual items recovered from screened soil were stored in
labeled bags or vials. Accession number 79 was assigned to
the excavated materials received by the Florida Atlantic
University (FAU) archaeology laboratory. A small collection
of artifacts donated by Miss Edith Newcomb also formed part
of the collection.



The following description of the stratification in the
excavated portion of the site is based on hand-written field
notes and several crude sketches made by the excavators.
The first level, 0 to 15 cm, is thoroughly mixed with modern
rubbish. An undisturbed cultural layer begins around 15 to 20
cm and continues to approximately 85 cm; this area is
composed of black dirt, typical of middens in southern
Florida. From 85 to 100 cm a layer of generally sterile sand
was present in most of the excavated units. From 100 to 120
cm another cultural level occurred; this layer is typically
composed of larger, coarser sandy material.


Many of the PBCAS notebook entries mention 'a great
deal of charcoal,' while these may be features or components
of features, it is impossible to determine what was actually
encountered. Only when more detailed descriptions are
present is it possible to comment on the nature of the
deposits. Features identified include hearths (12), post molds
(4), pits (2), living floors (1), burials (2), and lenses (3), a
total of 24 (See Table 1).
Hearths, despite being the most numerous type of
feature excavated, were not well described. They are
characterized by large amounts of charcoal and food debris,
fire cracked rock and clay, and are roughly circular in outline.
In one case (Feature 6, Pit 5, 60-75 cm), large portions of a
turtle were found in a cooking area, where it may have been
The three lenses reported are all primarily composed of
coquina shell (Donax sp.); the notes indicate that quite a bit
of charcoal occurred within these areas and that many of the
shells were burned. I have observed similar features at the
Singer Island Midden 2 (8PB214), located nearby on the
beach strand, and feel that these may be the product of large


March, 1992

Vol. 45 No. 1

Figure 1. Map of Riviera Site (Ncwcomb 1914). Areas
labeled by Newcomb include "Big Mound" near the
center of the site, "Old Shell Mound" at the
eastern portion of the site, and occasional
contours. Newcomb's hotel adjoins the shell

collection episodes.
The excavation of Pit 30 revealed a greasy black spot
that may be a portion of aboriginal floor; large portions of a
St. Johns Check Stamped bowl were recovered from this area
(Feature 22, Pit 30, 90-105 cm).
Perhaps the most interesting features are the two
burials. Feature 13 (Pit 20, 60-75 cm) consists of a dog (Canis
familiaris) that was interred in the general village midden.
Portions of the skull and long bones were recovered, and are
surrounded by a dense sandy concretion. Feature 15 (Pit 23,
45-60 cm), while not really a burial, represents the carcass of
a large shark discarded with other food debris; 20 articulated
vertebrae were excavated.

Ceramic Analysis

Sixteen-hundred and forty-one sherds were recovered
from the excavation units; Table 2 presents the frequencies
and percentages of the 18 identified types. The ceramics
found at Riviera are typical of the East Okeechobee Area and
seem to be from large open bowls, reflecting participation in
the "Florida Open Bowl Tradition" discussed by Sears (1982).

St. Johns Series. St. Johns Check Stamped is a distinctive
paddle-marked type with a chalky, temperless feel (Figure
4a). All levels at Riviera have large quantities of it. This type
is known throughout southern Florida from Glades III Period
sites and is considered a marker for Glades III occupation
(Goggin 1947). Some authors (Milanich and Fairbanks
1980:233) suggest that it was produced locally, while others
argue that it entered this area via late Formative Period trade
networks with the areas to the north (Carr and Beriault
1984:2; Sears 1982:31). In either case its presence seems to
give some continuity to the groups of the east coast and
southern Florida during the protohistoric period.
St. Johns Plain was also present in large amounts at
Riviera. It has the same chalky paste as does St. Johns Check
St. Johns Punctate, St. Johns Simple Stamped, and St.
Johns Incised (probably not the same as the defined type) are
represented at the site by a few sherds along with mat-
marked and fabric-marked patterns on sherds of St. Johns

Belle Glade Series. Willey (1949:25-26) first described Belle
Glade Plain from an inland site in Palm Beach County.
Okeechobee Area sites, like Ft. Center (Sears 1982:22), have
the highest frequencies for this type. Belle Glade Plain
sherds range from sandy to temperless but are easily
distinguished by pits and drag marks on their exterior surface
produced by a smoothing tool. This type is moderately
common at the Riviera site.
Belle Glade Incised has been described from sherds at
the Belle Glade (Willey 1949:26) and Ft. Center sites (Sears

1982:26). One sherd at Riviera bears a design similar to the
one Willey described as "Guilloche."

Glades Series. Sand-tempered plain pottery will be discussed
under the "Glades Series" heading since most researchers
identify sand-tempered sherds found in this area as Glades
Plain. Scars (1982:23) and others suggest that to label all

undecorated sand-tempered ceramics of southern Florida as
Glades Plain causes confusion when considering cultural
contact and ethnic identity. Sand-tempered plain was
represented at Riviera but did not occur in the high
frequencies seen at other sites in the East Okeechobee and
Everglades Areas.
Riviera's ceramic assemblage contains one Surfside

K*'* t i\ i ^ "" I r

Figure 2. The Riviera Complex. Arrows indicate the position of 8PB28, 8PB29, and 8PB30. (Sites plotted on portion
of U.S.G.S. Riviera 1946.)

I _Y Y I c~EEl-

1 7i

M~t Shermnan Par iI-
--- -

Jim X

~U a~Z~-L,1L and ;

___ -i --. g
/ Li ,a
i Ii

1 8~11 I im

- --------- b



Incised sherd, considered a marker type for the Glades liIa
Period. John Goggin (n.d.) reports finding Surfside Incised
sherds during his survey visits to this site in the 1950s.

Reworked Ceramics. Sherd hones and sherd gorgets are the
two types of reworked ceramic items present in the Riviera
collection. Six sherds of St. Johns temper exhibit linear wear

x Indicates a post hole
Figure 3. Riviera (8PB 30) Test Pit Locations.

Feature Pit Depth Description

1 Pit 3 60 cm Shallow pit; white sand
2 Pit 3 80 cm Shallow pit; white sand
3 Pit 3 90-105 cm Hearth; charcoal layer
4 Pit 3 103 cm Hearth
5 Pit 5 34 cm Post mold
6 Pit 5 60-75 cm Hearth; turtle bone
7 Pit 5 75-90 cm Hearth
8 Pit 6 45-60 cm Lens; coquina shell
9 Pit 6 90-105 cm Hearth; stone, clay, bone
10 Pit 7 60-80 cm Lens; coquina shell
11 Pit 13 75-90 cm Hearth
12 Pit 13 90-105 cm Hearth; crushed shell
13 Pit 20 60-75 cm Burial; dog
14 Pit 23 30-45 cm Hearth
15 Pit 23 45-60 cm Burial; shark
16 Pit 23 90-110 cm Hearth; fire cracked rock
17 Pit 24 15-30 cm Hearth
18 Pit 25 75-90 cm Lens; coquina shell
19 Pit 26 45-60 cm Hearth
20 Pit 26 60-70 cm Hearth
21 Pit 26 90-105 cm Post mold
22 Pit 30 90-105 cm Living floor
23 Pit 32 15-30 cm Post mold
24 Pit 32 30-45 cm Post mold
Table 1. Features from Riviera (8PB30).

O 2 24

-] 217 721,3
12 6

F- F,

patterns suggesting that they were
used to finish and sharpen bone,
shell, and perhaps, wooden items.
One Belle Glade Plain sherd was
fashioned into a crude, circular
gorget with two holes in its center
(Figure 5f).

Miscellaneous Ceramics. Small
quantities of trade wares from
other portions of the state are
represented at Riviera; these
x include Carrabelle Punctated
(Figure 4d), Little Manatee
Zoned-Shell Stamped (Figure 4b),
Dunn's Creek Red, Pinellas Plain,
Pasco Plain, mat-marked, and
x fabric-marked types (Figure 4c),
the latter two most probably from
the St. Johns Area. Most of these
sherds come from the upper levels
of the midden, with the deepest
S occurring around 75 cm. It is
interesting to note that the St.
Johns Punctate, Simple Stamped,
and Incised sherds also occur
above 75 cm.

Ceramic Analysis. In an attempt
to understand changes in the
proportions of ceramic types at
Riviera two analysis units were
created from the test pit data.
These are composed of four
adjoining test pits each. Figures 6
and 7 present the ceramic
seriations constructed from
percentages of each sherd type by
level. This analysis shows a strong
presence of St. Johns Check
Stamped. Some fluctuation
occurs between the proportions of
plain and check stamped St. Johns
types, yet these always represent
the most substantial classes.
Analysis Unit 2 (Figure 7)
demonstrates an increase in Belle
Glade Plain sherds from the
lowest to the middle levels after
which its presence decreases in
the upper midden area. Sand-



St. Johns Check Stamped 635
St. Johns Plain 405
St. Johns Punctated 22
St. Johns Simple Stamped 20
St. Johns Incised 2
Mat-marked 1
Pasco Plain 1
Pinellas Plain 2
Fabric-marked 7
Fiber-tempered 1
Dunn's Creek Red 1
Sand-tempered plain 222
Belle Glade Plain 303
Belle Glade Incised 1
Carrabelle Punctated 1
Little Manatee Zoned-
Shell Stamped 1
Unclassified 13
Unclassified incised 3
TOTAL 1641
Table 2. Ceramics from Riviera (8PB30).

o. (iIIIiiiillll|II|II l litj llHllllll ili t milli jiiii


Figure 4. Ceramics from Riviera (8PB30). A: St. Johns Check SI
B: Little Manatee Zoned-Shell Stamped; C: Fabric-i
D: Carrabelle Punctated.

tempered plain ceramics, well represented in the lowest
levels, dramatically decrease in the middle and upper midden.
As mentioned above, trade wares from other areas appear




only in the middle and upper midden levels,
after the deposition of the sterile sand layer
around 85 cm.

Non-ceramic Artifacts

Table 3 summarizes the distribution of
non-ceramic artifacts by level for Riviera. The
objects recovered were typical of the tools and
ornaments possessed by the aborigines of
southern Florida. Local resources like bone,
shell, and limestone were used to make most of
the items.

13.53 Shell Artifacts. Sixteen modified items of shell
18.46 were recovered during excavation. One
.06 Strombus celt, made from the outer lip of an
.06 adult shell, was found at Riviera. Celts of this
nature are found at coastal and inland sites, and
.06 also were traded to the north, out of the
.79 biogeographical range of Strombus gigas. The
.18 chalky patina present on this artifact makes a
100.00 description of its wear patterns difficult. Eight
Busycon shell tools were identified and are in
various stages of disrepair. They all seem to
have been perforated to allow for hafting and
most exhibit wear on the inner portion of the
siphonal canal and an overall modification of
the columella. These tools are most similar to
what Goggin classified as a Busycon cutting-
edged tool (Goggin and Sommer 1949:54-55;
Luer et al. 1986:106). Other shell artifacts from
Riviera include a long, well polished columella
B plummet (Figure 8c), two crudely worked
columellae, two modified Cassis lips similar to
ones known from Boca Weir (8PB56) and
Patrician (8PB99), and a small shell node
(Figure 5c) like the one described by Goggin
and Sommer from Upper Matecumbe (1949:63-
64). Gilliland (1975:184) calls these nodes "shell
mask eyes" because "two were associated with
fragments of a wooden human face mask" at
Key Marco.

D Bone Artifacts. Ten worked bone items are
present in the collections from Riviera. Six
undecorated bone pin fragments suggest flat,
:amped; tapering pins of approximately 15 cm in length,
narked; fashioned from animal long bones. Bones
prepared for piercing include an awl from the
split metapodial of a deer (Figure 8a), a solid
awl (Figure 8b), and a socketed projectile point. During
excavation one peg-top pin fragment was recovered (Figure
5e); this also appears undecorated. Only two decorated bone

fragments were recovered. The larger piece may have been a
portion of a decorated bone pin or pendant (Figure 5a);
Purdy (1988:648-651) suggests that geometric designs of this
nature were introduced during the historic period, and



,m I llt illltilti f 11111111 111t111111llt lt ll Ill Itq1I

Figure 5. Artifacts from Riviera (8PB30). A: Decorated bone fr
B: Bone fragment carved to represent an animal jaw; i
node; D: Limestone plummet; E: Peg-top bone pin frn
F: Belle Glade Plain sherd reworked into gorget.

documents the distribution of similar bone objects in
southern and eastern Florida. The smaller object is a stylized
animal jaw, reminiscent of the cut and decorated animal jaws
found in the St. Johns Area (Figure 5b).
Forty-four worked shark teeth were also
found at Riviera, but only one is perforated;
most of the shark teeth examined have their
upper portion broken, possibly from use as a
hafted knife blade. The wear patterns on these
teeth show they may have been used in working
bone and wood.

Stone Artifacts. Of the five sandstone and
limestone artifacts recovered only one is readily
identified as a plummet (Figure 5d). The
others include a flat knife-like sandstone
pebble, a few perforated stones, a tubular
"pipe," and a ground stone sharpener. Two
chert flakes, not local to southern Florida, are
also present.

Historic Period Artifacts. Levels above 60 cm
contain several Spanish artifacts including a
lead bead, an earthenware olive jar sherd, a
agent; brass medal, a button, a metal fragment with a
C: Shell cross-hatched design, a glass bead, and a
Pigment; fragment of porcelain.



O-15cm l
15-30cm 1

Number of Sherds82
Percent of Total 33.74


























1 1 3
.41 .41 .41 1.23

Figure 6. Ceramic Seriation for Analysis Unit 1 (Pits 13, 19, 32, and 33).

The location of Riviera
provided access to freshwater,
brackish, and marine resources.
The faunal specimens collected
reflect the utilization of all these
areas. Analysis of the remains
unfortunately will have to be
confined to a list (Table 4) of
identified species and the
inferences made from them
since only large, recognizable
51 bones and shells were retained
36 during excavation. The
presence of Loggerhead sea
34 turtle (Caretta caretta), which is
common in most coastal sites of
this area, would indicate a
36 summer occupation since these

23 animals are rare during periods
other than nesting season, early
17 May through late August. It is
243 likely that the eggs from sea
turtles also were eaten. Lake
Worth, which was fresh to


Each level is 15cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 UNK

Shell Plummet 1
Stone Plummet 1
Shell Columella 1 1
Sandstone 1 2 1
Carved Bone 2
Worked Shell 1 1
Bone Awl 1 1
Peg-Top Bone Pin 1
Bone Pin 1 1 5
Bone Projectile 1
Worked Cassis 1 1
Chert 1 1
Worked Shark Teeth 1 2 5 8 3 8 4 13
Strombus Celt 1
Busycon Tool 4 3 1
Historic 2 1 3

Table 3. Non-ceramic Artifacts from Riviera (8PB30).

and Bernard Romans (1962:242) tells us that "this
island affords an abundance of turtle, venison, and
bear; as likewise numerous quantities of wild ducks,
each in their season..." when describing the area
near Riviera. The presence of Mallard, Ring-
necked duck, and Sandhill Crane remains at
Riviera, which frequent southern Florida during the
winter, may indicate site occupation during winter
months. Most of the shellfish remains are of
animals that reside in quiet, brackish water; some
of these species are still numerous today around
the mangrove fringe of islands in Lake Worth.
Emphasis should be placed on the fact that Riviera
was not an oyster shell midden, indicating that the
salinity of Lake Worth had risen beyond oyster
tolerance during Glades III (post A.D. 1200).
Shark remains are from those species known to
frequent inshore and even brackish areas. Since
sharks are primarily nocturnal, fishing for these
animals probably would have occurred at night.
The presence of large quantities of saltwater fish
bones and those of the bottlenose dolphin shows
active procurement of these species near the shore;
they were probably speared or
harpooned in the manner described by
Dickinson (1945) for the Jobe.


15.63 31.25 31.25
0-15cm a 1

9.38 12.50

41.67 16.67 20.83 20.83
15-30cm N W

45-60cm M
90-105cm m

Number of Sherds 1
Percent of Total 30.96

23.73 39.00

22.86 42.86
m -


36.73 8.16

18.52 3.70
M i




48. 15

59 61 36 5
24.69 25.52 15.06 2.09

.84 .42 .42


The East Okeechobce Area

John Furey (1972:1-3), in his
discussion of the Spanish River Complex
(8PB11, 8PB12, 8PB13, 8PB55, 8PB56,
8PB57, 8PB103) describes the eastern
32 Okeechobee region as the coastal

24 portion of the Okeechobee subarea.
Based on Furey's work, it would seem
59 that the Broward-Palm Beach County

35 line would be a good place to divide the
East Okeechobee and Everglades Areas.
13 Carr and Beriault (1984:7) agree with

49 this boundary and suggest the northern
limit of the area is at St. Lucie Inlet. The
2' work that has been done at inland sites

in Palm Beach and Martin Counties
239 suggests that they are classic Belle Glade
Culture sites, i.e., Big Mound City

Figure 7. Ceramic Scriation for Analysis Unit 2 (Pits 5, 9, 12, and

brackish in prehistoric times, probably provided an alligator
and turtle hunting area; this is reflected in the
zooarchaeological material. Bones and teeth from deer, bear,
raccoon, and opossum are common in the Riviera collection,

16). (SPB4-), Boynton Mounds (8PB100),
Barley Barber I (8MT19), and Belle
Glade (8PB41). Furey (1972:1-2) feels that the coastal zone
was influenced heavily by the Belle Glade peoples who lived
around Lake Okeechobee. To the north of the coastal region
is the Indian River Area (Rouse 1951) that the Ais controlled

COMMON NAME Scientific Name

. lllSP llECIMEN ill|ll |ltlln ls ltl l

Figure 8. Artifacts from Riviera. A. Split deer metapodial
awl; B. Solid Bone awl; C. Shell columella

during the historic period. To the south is the Everglades
Area, which the Tequesta group, centered in Dade and
Broward Counties, occupied.

The Riviera Complex

The loose definition of a settlement complex, based on
present and past (Furey 1972) research, involves a large
central village, several outlying campsites or villages, and a
mortuary site. Temporally and spatially they are known from
Glades II (A.D. 700-1200) through Glades III (A.D. 1200-
1750) Periods (dates from Widmer 1988).
Ceramic collections indicate that the Palm Beach Inlet
Midden and Burial Mound, constructed during Glades IIa,
were in use throughout Glades II and into Glades III. In
contrast to the main part of Riviera, the inlet midden (8PB28)
is an oyster shell mound. Absence of historic materials from
the midden may show abandonment of this site by the end of
Glades III. The Riviera site, first inhabited during early
Glades III, supported a large village into the historic period.
Contact, via trade networks, with the St. Johns Area in the
north seems to have been sustained throughout occupation as
suggested by the large quantities of St. Johns Check Stamped
(38.70%), St. Johns Plain (24.68%), and other trade ceramics.
In examining the ceramic assemblage there appear to be
similarities or links with the north, yet the sand earthworks at
Riviera, mentioned by Goggin (n.d.:383-384) and Small
(1927:4), suggest a relationship with the Okeechobee Basin.
Sears (1982) regards earthworks of this nature to have served
in ridged-field maize agriculture; more recent interpretations

Crown Conch
Queen Conch
Lightning Whelk
Horse Conch
Requiem Sharks
Tiger Shark
Lemon Shark
Atlantic Sharpnose Shark
Catfish (marine)
Red Drum
Great Barracuda
Pond Turtle
Softshcll Turtle
Loggerhead Sea Turtle
Common Water Snake
Cottonmouth Moccasin
Mallard Duck
Ring-necked Duck
Sandhill Crane
Unidentified Bird
Cotton Rat
Bottlenose Dolphin
Indian Dog
Black Bear

Melongena corona
Strombus gigas
Busycon contrarium
Cypraea spp.
Cassis spp.
Pleuroploca gigantea
Oliva sp.
Crassostrea spp.
Donax sp.
Galeocerdo cuvieri
Negaprion brevirostris
Rhizoprionodon terraenovae
Dasyatis sp.
Lepidosteus sp.
Amia Calva
Caranax sp.
Sciaenops ocellata
Mugil sp.
Sphyma barracuda
Sphoeroides spp.
Apalone sp.
Caretta caretta
Natrix sp.
Agkistrodon piscivorous
Alligator mississipiensis
Anas platyrhyches
Aythya sp.
Grus canadensis

Didelphis marsupialis
Sigmodon hispidus
Tursiops truncatus
Canis familiaris
Ursus americanus
Procyon lotor
Odocoileus virginianus

Table 4. Faunal Remains from Riviera Site (8PB30).

suggest a ceremonial function. Decorated bone objects found
at the Nebot site (8PB219), several kilometers to the south of
Riviera, strengthen the argument that East Okeechobee and
Okeechobee peoples were closely connected (Kennedy and
Iscan 1987). However, there is no direct evidence of
horticulture associated with any of the components of the
Riviera Complex, and a maritime subsistence economy,

similar to that of the Everglades Area, is suggested by the site
location and faunal collection.
John Furey (1972:100) hypothesized that a mortuary cult
spread to the coast from the Okeechobee Area. At the
Riviera Complex, burial ceremonialism probably centered on
the Palm Beach Inlet Mound during the late occupation of
the inlet midden and the early occupation of Riviera. The
"Big Mound" portion of the Riviera site must have become
the mortuary area after abandonment of the older inlet
mound. Human remains recovered during a 1990 surface
collection of this mound confirm its use as a cemetery. The
presence of a mortuary cult at East Okeechobee Area sites
during Glades II and III is almost indisputable, but it is
difficult to pinpoint its source.

The Spanish River Complex

In comparing the Riviera Complex to the Spanish River
Complex a number of similarities are evident. Furey
(1972:89) reports that the Barnhill Mound (8PB13), located
away from the main village at Boca Weir, was constructed
during Glades II by the occupants of an adjacent midden
(8PB12) and utilized as a ceremonial site. This bears close
similarity to the relationship of the Palm Beach Inlet Midden

and Burial Mound across from Riviera. Boca Weir was
constructed and occupied from Glades II through Glades III
and is adjoined by a burial mound to the north. This site
contains small quantities of Spanish artifacts, including olive
jar sherds, a glass bead, and an iron knife.
Comparison of ceramics from Riviera and Boca Weir
reveals interesting differences; the pattern for Riviera,
presented in Table 2, is almost the opposite to that of Boca
Weir where St. Johns types represent only 12.33% of the
sherds with Glades Plain at 47.30% and Belle Glade Plain at
39.88%. These differences may reflect varying political or
trade alignments.
I believe the inhabitants of the Riviera and Spanish
River Complexes must have shared similar subsistence
practices. The faunal collections and technological artifacts
for these sites bear this out, including the presence of
migratory bird remains at both (Fradkin 1980).

The Jupiter Inlet Complex

This group of sites is located at the mouth of the
Loxahatchee River in northern Palm Beach County. The
south side of the inlet is home to the main village site, Jupiter
Inlet Midden (8PB34) (Figure 9). The size and depth of the

Figure 9. Jupiter Inlet Midden (8PB34).

-- -

r ~

I f'i1c J

1' s --_- -


Figure 10. Liguera Map of 1742. "Jove" and "Gega" are visible on the lower half of the coast.






deposit indicates that the village supported a large population
(for this area) for some time. Jonathan Dickinson (1945:11)
described the village as "being little wigwams made of small
poles stuck in the ground, which they bended one to another,
making an arch, and covered with thatch of small palmetto
leaves." Florida Atlantic University collections date the site
to Glades III. However, two Archaic Period stemmed points
have been found at the site. Other interesting items from
Jupiter Inlet Midden include sandstone plummets, a
European axe or adze blade, and several non-local sherds.
Across the inlet is the Jupiter Inlet Midden 2 (8PB35), which
is also a large village midden. 8PB170 is a poorly known
midden east of the other two sites that may be part of the
Jupiter Inlet Complex. Eugene Lyon argues for Jupiter Inlet
as the location of the ill-fated Fort Santa Lucia established by
Menendez in 1566. He notes that soldiers from the fort, built
in December, traded with the Jeaga Indians for small bits of
gold--indicating that they were present on the coast during
the winter season (Lyon 1976:140-141).

Riviera as the Indian Village Jeaga

Charles M. Andrews (1945), in his discussion of 17th
Century Florida natives, notes that the shell midden at Jupiter
Inlet represents the remains of the historic period village
Hoe-Bay (Jobe, Jove) that shipwreck survivor Jonathan
Dickinson visited in September 1696. Andrews also discusses
the term Jeaga "a name which may have come from the
Spanish Rio Jega or Gega, found on Spanish maps of the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries at a point represented
by Lake Worth Inlet." The Liguera map of 1742 is one of
these (Figure 10). He notes that this river was probably
named after a local tribe residing on its banks. Roberts
(1976:22) lists the Rio Jego in his 1763 description of the east
coast of Florida; it is five leagues south of the Rio Jobe
(Jupiter Inlet). Herrera, chronicler of the voyages of Juan
Ponce de Leon, reports that during the expedition of 1513
hostile Indians were engaged at the Rio de la Cruz, and to the
south an Indian village called Abaioa was visited (Davis
1935:16-19). It has been postulated that la Cruz is on the
lower east coast and Abaioa is near Palm Beach (Davis
1935:38). David O. True (1944:51) discusses the Feducci
Map, prepared from data gathered by Juan Ponce, and
suggests Jupiter Inlet may be la Cruz. He notes that Jupiter
Inlet's three branching streams give it a cruciform shape. The
Indian town Abaioa of Herrera is spelled Abacoa by Feducci;
True suggests its position is at the Lake Worth Inlet.
Recalling Goggin's description of 8PB30 as a site bisected by
an extinct river, the presence of Lake Worth Inlet directly
opposite the site (Figure 2), and the indicators of Glades IlIc
occupation it seems that Riviera (8PB30) and its associated
sites south of the inlet are good candidates for the location of
the historic period village Jeaga or Abaioa. Fontaneda
(1973:32) is the first to mention the Jeaga. He describes them

as poor Indians, "rich only by the sea, from the many vessels
that have been lost...." Fontaneda (1973:34) says that Carlos,
cacique of the Calusa divided some valuables recovered by
the Ais among several tribes, including the Jeaga. Gabriel
Calderon, Bishop of Cuba, visited Florida in 1675 and
mentions "thirteen tribes of savage heathen Carib Indians"
along the "southern frontier" including the "Geigas" (Wenhold
1936:11-12). Calderon does not mention any mission activity
among this group.
Swanton (1922:331,333) states that Jeaga was located 10
leagues north of Tekesta (sic) at Jupiter Inlet. Despite which
conversion is used between leagues and miles, the distance
between the Miami River, the supposed location of Tequesta,
and Jupiter Inlet is far greater than any possible 10 leagues.
Swanton (1922:389-390) later says that Dickinson's Hobe is
probably identical with Fontaneda's Jeaga. Swanton's
location for Jeaga is most likely based on Solis de Meras'
(Lyon 1976:140, 150) account of Pedro Menendez de Aviles'
activities in Florida. The fact that Andrews (1945) and
Swanton (1922) disagree about the position of the Jeaga
settlement does not necessarily mean that one of these writers
is wrong. Based on evidence provided by Andrews (1945) and
Roberts (1976) it does seems that the term originally applied
to the river near Lake Worth Inlet and those aborigines
inhabiting that area. Jeaga may, in fact, have become a term
used by Indians at several villages in the East Okeechobee
Area, suggesting some level of ethnic or political identity.


Integration of the archaeological and ethnohistorical
data demonstrates the existence of a complex coastal
adaptation in Palm Beach County during the protohistoric
period. The inhabitants of this area had relationships with
several neighboring groups, some form of ceremonialism
centered on sand mounds and earthworks, large sedentary or
semi-sedentary villages, and a subsistence economy based on
the exploitation of a brackish lagoon and a high-energy
coastline. Settlements are found concentrated around river
mouths and estuarine areas, which are common in Palm
Beach County because of Lake Worth and the Everglades


To compare and to contrast the complexity found in the
Caloosahatchee and East Okeechobee Areas may be
impossible, but a few brief statements can be made.
Archaeologically the groups appear very similar, however the
one observable difference may lie in the number of large sites
to be found in each area. If it is argued that site size is
directly related to population size, then we have found the
variable that can be used to distinguish these two areas.
Underlying this distinction in population may be the

dichotomy between the low-energy Gulf coast and the high-
energy Atlantic; as Widmer (1988) has demonstrated, the
people in southwestern Florida had a broader resource base
from which to work. The level of complexity reached at
Riviera and other Palm Beach County sites may be partly
attributed to Lake Worth, which has provided a situation
resembling, in part, the conditions found on the lower Gulf


I would like to thank Dr. W.J. Kennedy of Florida
Atlantic University for providing access to collections and
commenting on this paper. Dr. Barbara Purdy made valuable
suggestions during the final stage of preparation. The efforts
of the Palm Beach County Archaeological Society are also
greatly appreciated. The assistance of the staff of the
National Anthropological Archives and the P.K. Yonge
Library is also acknowledged.

References Cited

Andrews, Charles M.
1945 The Florida Indians in the Seventeenth Century.
Tequesta 3:36-48.

Carr, Robert S. and John G. Beriault
1984 Prehistoric Man in Southern Florida. In The
Environment of South Florida: Present and Past, edited
by Patrick J. Gleason, pp. 1-14. Miami Geological
Society Memoir 2, Miami, Florida.

Davis, Frederick T.
1935 Juan Ponce de Leon's Voyages to Florida. Florida
Historical Quarterly 14:3-70.

Dickinson, Jonathan
1945 (1699) Jonathan Dickinson's Journal. Edited by
Evangeline Walker Andrews and Charles McLean
Andrews. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Fontaneda, Do. d'Escalante
1973 Memoir of Do. d'Escalante Fontaneda Respecting
Florida, Written in Spain about the Year 1575.
Translated with notes by Buckingham Smith; edited by
David O. True. Glade House, Coral Gables.

Fradkin, Arlene
1980 Bird Remains from Two South Florida Prehistoric Sites.
Florida Scientist 43:111-115.

Furey, John F.
1972 The Spanish River Complex: Archaeological Settlement
Patterning in Eastern Okeechobee Sub-Area, Florida.

Unpublished MA. Thesis, Department of Anthropology,
Florida Atlantic University.

Gilliland, Marion Spjut
1975 The Material Culture of Key Marco. University of
Florida Press, Gainesville.

Goggin, John M.
1947 A Preliminary Definition of Archaeological Areas and
Periods in Florida. American Antiquity 13:114-127.

n.d. Archeology of the Glades Area, Southern Florida.
Manuscript on file at P.K. Yonge Library of Florida
History, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Goggin, John M. and Frank H. Sommer III
1949 Excavations on Upper Matecumbe Key, Florida. Yale
University Publications in Anthropology 41.

Kennedy, William J. and M. Yasar Iscan
1987 Archaeological Investigation of the Nebot Site (8Pb219),
Palm Beach, Florida. Florida Scientist 50(3):136-146.

Luer, George M., David Allerton, Dan Hazeltine, Ron
Hatfield, and Darden Hood
1986 Whelk Shell Tool Blanks From Big Mound Key
(8Ch10), Charlotte County, Florida. Florida
Anthropological Society Publications No. 12.

Lyon, Eugene
1976 The Enterprise of Florida. University Presses of Florida,

Milanich, Jerald T. and Charles H. Fairbanks
1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic Press, San Diego,

Newcomb, Charles N.
1914 Contour map of "Big Mound," Riviera, Florida.
Manuscript on file, National Anthropological Archives,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Purdy, Barbara A.
1988 American Indians After A.D. 1492: A Case Study of
Forced Culture Change. American Anthropologist

Roberts, William
1976 (1763) An Account of the First Discovery, and Natural
History of Florida. University Presses of Florida,

Romans, Bernard
1962 (1775) A Concise Natural History of East and West

Florida. University Presses of Florida, Gainesville.

Rouse, Irving
1951 A Survey of Indian River Archaeology, Florida. Yale
University Publications in Anthropology 44.

Sears, William H.
1982 Fort Center: An Archaeological Site in the Lake
Okeechobee Basin. University Presses of Florida,

Small, John K.
1927 Among Floral Aborigines. Journal of the New York
Botanical Garden 28:1-20,25-40.

Swanton, William C.
1922 Early History of the Creek Indians and Their Neighbors.
Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 73.

True, David O.
1944 The Feducci Map of 1514-1515. Tequesta 1:50-55.

United States Geological Survey
1946 Riviera, Florida 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle

Wenhold, Lucy L.
1936 A 17th Century Letter of Gabriel Diaz Vara Calderon,
Bishop of Cuba, Describing the Indians and Missions of
Florida. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 95(16).

Widmer, Randolph J.
1988 The Evolution of the Calusa: A Nonagricultural
Chiefdom on the Southwest Florida Coast. University of
Alabama, Tuscaloosa.

Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Excavations in Southeast Florida. Yale University
Publications in Anthropology 42.

Ryan J. Wheeler
Department of Anthropology
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611


Nancy Marie White
University of South Florida


The rich archaeological record of northwest Florida's
Apalachicola Valley has been documented since the turn of
the century, with an emphasis upon large habitation sites and
spectacular mounds that have yielded beautiful and exotic
artifacts (Moore 1903, 1918; Willey 1949). More recently
exploration of this valley has also included survey and test
excavation of smaller prehistoric occupations. In 1985, the
University of South Florida conducted field survey in the
lower portion of the Apalachicola Valley (Henefield and
White 1986). Much of the archaeological record remained
unknown here, due to the remoteness of this interior region
of inaccessible estuarine wetlands and swamp forest. Among
the many sites found were small Middle Woodland campsites
characterized by Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped ceramics.
Most of the literature on Middle Woodland centers
around the buial mounds of this valley, with their skeletons
and exotic grave goods. There are some studies of Swift
Creek components of coastal shell mounds as well (Milanich
and Fairbanks 1980). When the opportunity arose to conduct
test excavations in the Lower Apalachicola, it was decided to
seek information about the sites usually ignored, the small
habitation sites, in an attempt to expand the picture of Middle
Woodland life. Thus the Overgrown Road site (8Gu38) was
chosen for testing in the summer of 1987. This site report
describes the data and materials recovered.

Site Description

The Overgrown Road site is located on the south side of
Saul Creek, a small tributary of the lower Apalachicola River
system in the western delta river swamp area (Figure 1). In
modern geographic terms, it is situated in Gulf County, south
of the fish camp of Howard Creek and in the middle of an
area known locally as Indian Swamp (!). It was located during
the 1985 survey as the crew hiked through an abandoned
farm/apiary area that is now part of the protected
Apalachicola National Estuarine Reserve. This federal/state
property is now leased for hunting; an old house trailer
provides shelter for hunters and a dirt road gives access to the
trailer and the creek.
During survey the surface of this overgrown dirt road
and an adjacent firebreak yielded plain and Swift Creek
Complicated-Stamped ceramics. As the horizontal extent of
the midden seemed limited, and there was no mound in sight,

it was considered a small, short-term occupation. Several
other sites are nearby, and may represent related occupations,
perhaps people camping in the same general area for
different seasons or in different time periods. (Henefield and
White 1986:32-33).
The site occupies an estimated 2500 square meters, 100
m south of Saul Creek (Figure 2). It is only 1.7 miles (2.7 km)
due west of the main channel of the Apalachicola, at river
mile 11. However, by water, which even today is still easier
than overland travel, given modern boat engines and the
swampy terrain, the site is actually 3.6 total stream miles (5.8
km) from the main river, where Saul Creek empties into the
Apalachicola at River Mile 6. Stream channels constantly
change in the dynamic estuarine environment. Presently it is
unknown whether this fluvial configuration existed circa 1650
years ago when the site was occupied. In aboriginal times,
however, it has been estimated that water travel was up to 40
times more efficient than walking in terms of human effort
per mile traversed (Blanchard 1989).
According to local informant Bob Funderburk, who kept
bees at the old homestead in 1985, it was relatively easy to get
places by water earlier in this century if one knew the tidal
patterns. He told the crew a story of an earlier homesteader
at that same house who would plan to go downriver when the
tide was moving out and back home up the river as the tide
was rising, counting on the tidal effects to make paddling or
rowing easier. Aboriginal inhabitants doubtless traveled the
same way.
Today the site is in secondary forest of mixed pine and
hardwoods, which changes to low muddy cypress swamp as
one descends toward the creek. It was probably inhabited
because it is slightly higher ground (> 1 m) than the
surrounding area, if indeed environmental conditions were
not too different 1650 years ago. On the old USGS
quadrangle (Jackson River, FL, 1943) it does not appear as an
elevated area, but then most of the sites in the lower
Apalachicola Valley do not. However, on the 1982 USGS
orthophoto quadrangle, with contour lines in meters instead
of 10 foot intervals, the site does appear to be situated on a
low rise, one meter and more above sea level. Because there
are no benchmarks for many miles around from which to
shoot an absolute elevation, the site map in Figure 2, made
with a transit, has contour lines showing relative elevation;
but they turn out to be pretty close to the absolute elevation
as well.
The site is limited to the edge of the rise and does not


Vol. 45 No. 1

March, 1992

extend to the highest ground, as demonstrated by the lack of
surface cultural remains, and also the absence of darkened
midden soil in Test Unit 4. This pattern of settlement has
been seen at many Woodland sites along the lower
Apalachicola tributaries: occupation of ground far enough
from the stream to be about a meter above present (summer)
water levels but not far enough to be the highest ground.

Possibly this compromise between proximity to water and
high ground reflects the conflicting needs for a convenient but
dry dwelling place. As noted, the creek is tidally influenced
even this far upriver, which makes for daily fluctuations of the
creek level, not to mention the appearance of the water table
at different depths in our units, depending on the day and the
time. Perhaps the higher ground was used for human activity

Figure 1. Map of the lower Apalachicola Valley in northwest Florida, showing location of the Overgrown Road site
(8Gu38) and the possibly related mound 8Gu41.

that did not leave noticeable evidence.
The area around the site would have been rich in
subsistence resources, as with most of the delta swamp and
estuary. During our fieldwork there we saw plenty of deer and
other wildlife, including two large white oak snakes mating in
a tree close to one excavation unit! Communication and
transportation connections with the major river system would
have been easy from here. At the time of its discovery we
hypothesized that the site was a short-term, single component
habitation probably for obtaining various seasonal and other
resources, such as deer and fish. This interpretation is
supported by the data and materials excavated in 1987.

Though today hunting and fishing are usually recreational
instead of subsistence activities, the site can be said to have
continued in this function.



Test excavations at the Overgrown Road site were
conducted for two weeks, from 29 May to 9 June, 1987, by a
crew averaging 8 workers. Fieldwork began with mapping and
surface collection of materials exposed by creation and
maintenance of the dirt road and firebreak
Sand recreational use of the area. There
seems to have been no looting of this site, as
it is not very obvious nor spectacular. In fact,
UL it was not easy to relocate two years after
S the 1985 survey.
Seven units of different dimensions,
totaling 18 square meters, were excavated
(Figure 2) to culturally sterile soils, which
I were reached at depths of between 40 and
50 cm (except for features); thus about 9
I I cubic meters were excavated (Figure 2), an
'estimated 1% of the site. The soft grey and
I yellow sands were very easy to dig and held
up well in profile. Unit placement was
S, entirely judgemental.
All units were dug in arbitrary levels of
10 cm because no clear cultural stratigraphy
was visible. For units in more disturbed
areas the first level was greater, to remove
disturbed soils and get to undisturbed
midden. All levels were dry screened
through 1/4" mesh hardware cloth, except
for one-liter soil samples taken for
permanent storage and 4-liter samples for
flotation. All features were pedestaled and
later cross-sectioned, with all of both halves
being bagged separately for flotation, except
for a one-liter soil sample for permanent
storage. All units were backfilled.

Figure 2. Map of the Overgrown Road site, showing test excavation units.


The site was very flat; depths are given
in cm below the surface. Though this land
must have been logged earlier in the
century, it has apparently remained
otherwise undisturbed except for the dirt
roads and firebreaks built recently. There
was no evidence of a plow zone.
The undisturbed stratigraphic profile of
the site was quite simple: underlying an

average of 15-20 cm of light grayish brown topsoil (Munsell
[1973] colors 10 YR 6/6, 6/1, 5/2) was the prehistoric
cultural stratum, consisting of an average of 15-24 cm of pale
brown sand (10 YR 6/3), containing artifacts. At various
depths within or just below this midden zone the features
appeared, most of the cultural ones being the remains of
probable pits. The midden gradually gave way to culturally
sterile light yellowish brown or grayish brown subsoil (10 YR
5/2, 5/4, 5/8), at about 40-45 cm depth. In this were orange
iron stains and concretions as well as white streaks. The
subsoil became lighter in color with increasing depth. At
about 1 m the water table was reached.

Excavation Units

Test Unit 1 (TU 1) measured 2 x 2 m, and was placed
just off the road adjacent to the surface find of the largest and
most interesting complicated-stamped sherds. It contained
Features 2-8 (Figure 3). TU 1A was a 1.5 x 2 m extension
along the east margin of TU 1.
TU 2 was 1 x 1 m, placed in the woods east of TU 1,
where the stratigraphy was undisturbed, and not far from an
overturned tree in whose roots pottery was found. A small
concentration of ceramic sherds (Feature 1) appeared at a

depth of 22 cm, though there was no associated soil
TU 3 was 1 x 1 m unit located on the east side of the
road south of TU 1, adjacent to an area of discolored soil and
artifacts in the road. That feature originally appeared to be a
hearth but, after troweling, proved to be redeposited
materials. Despite the proximity to the disturbed road, the
unit strata, which sloped from north to south, had suffered no
modern disturbance. Feature 9 was uncovered here, but the
small number of artifacts recovered (only 3 sherds; see Table
6) suggest this was near the southern edge of the site.
TU 4 was placed just south of the old trailer in an
undisturbed, slightly higher area. It was culturally sterile,
producing only a few iron concretions and charcoal bits, the
latter probably from forest fires. The cultural stratum
appeared to occur at the expected depth, but was much paler
and contained no artifacts. Perhaps this locale was off the
edge of the actual prehistoric habitation but retained a
residue of culturally darkened soil from walking, ash blown
from fires, and other human activities, such as horticulture.
The unit was dug to 96 cm depth, and a core in the center of
it taken by USDA soil scientist Joe Schuster showed the
subsoil turning paler until the water table was reached at 145
cm depth.

Figure 3. Test Unit 1, 2 x 2 m in area, showing Feature 2 (pedestaled at top right), Feature 3 (pedestaled at
left), and Feature 4 (bottom right). View facing north.

TU and TU 6 each measured 2 x 2 m, and were located
close to TU 1, to the southeast, as by this time it was clear
that most of the cultural deposits extended eastward from the
road. Features 11 and 12 were in TU 5 and Features 13 and
14 in TU 6. Since artifacts were recovered in the first two
levels, as with TU 1 and 1A, it is probable that the surface at
these units was also disturbed, though it did not appear so.


Fourteen features were excavated at the Overgrown
Road site, 4 clearly cultural in origin, 7 possibly cultural, and
3 of natural origin. All except F 1, a sherd concentration, were
composed of darker brown soil matrix. Features 3 and 4 were
even darker than the others due to a high charcoal content.
Data on features are summarized in Table 1, including
measurements, soil colors, and a list of the cultural or
possibly cultural contents recovered. None contained any
faunal remains. Several yielded charred floral materials
sorted from the remains recovered by flotation; of these
selected samples were submitted for ethnobotanical analysis,
and one for a radiocarbon date. The others are stored and
await future research funds.

FEATURE 1 in TU 2 consisted of a concentration of
three check-stamped sherds and one plain sherd treated as a
feature because they were piled together within the midden.
The complicated-stamped sherds were later found to fit
together with others from the general level 3. Thus, Feature 1
may simply be a small area where discarded remains were
less kicked around than elsewhere.
FEATURE 2 was one of several pit features exposed in
the 2 x 2 m Test Unit 1. It proved to have no artifacts but a
large amount of charcoal and some possible charred seeds.
This feature was shallower by about 10 cm than others in that
unit, possibly meaning it was deposited later in time but still
within the prehistoric cultural stratum. Figure 2 shows
Features 2, 3, and 4 exposed in TU 1.
FEATURE 3 (Figure 3) was a very dark, well defined
fire pit full of charcoal. It was exposed almost in its entirety,
except for that portion extending into the west wall of TU 1.
As it contained no artifacts it can only be considered either
the locus of a fire or a pit into which refuse from a fire was
put. Some charred seeds were present in the fill.
FEATURE 4 (Figures 3 and 4), the most informative at
the site, was a well defined refuse pit containing ceramics
(Figure 5), charcoal, and charred botanical remains. The list

Figure 4. Cross-section of Feature 4, interpreted as a stratified refuse pit, showing basin shape and sherds in
situ in eastern half.

Table 1. Summary of Excavated Features at the Overgrown Road Site (8Gu38).


1 2 3/ -24 cm

2 1 2/ -22 cm

3 1 3/ -39 cm

4 1 3/ -38 cm

5 1 4/ -58 cm

6 1 4/ -60 cm

7 1 4/ -64 cm

8 1 4/ -58 cm

9 3 2/ -29 cm

10 1A 4/ -50cm

11 5 2/-15cm

12 5 2/ -15 cm

13 6 2/ -32 cm

14 6 2/ -32 cm

rough oval; 13 cm
E-W x 9 cm N-S

oval; 39 cm N-S x
30 cm E-W

oval; 36 cm NW-SE
x 33 cm E-W

oval; 46 cm N-S x
55 cm E-W

oval; 40 cm E-W x
60 cm N-S

oval; 26 cm N-S x
24? cm E-W
3-lobed amorphous
avg 47 cm wide
round; 46 cm diam

ovoid; 52 cm NE-SW
x 44 cm NW-SE

amorphous; 40 cm
N-S x 75 cm E-W

round?; 62 cm N-S
x 75 cm E-W

round?; 60 cm

round?; 45 cm diam?

round?; 60 cm diam?

basin-shaped; 10YRS/6 N/A
3 cm avg depth (surround-
ing matrix)
basin-shaped; mottled 38 1;
26 cm deep dark 10YR 51.1 kg
6/5 to 3/3
basin-shaped; mottled 24 1;
20 cm deep dark 10YR 36.3 kg
5/6 to 2/2
basin-shaped; dark brown 28.8 1;
stratified; 10YR3/2 44 kg
23 cm deep mottled
with char

long, tapered; brown (wet) 19.0 1;

> 70 cm

> 70 cm ?
50 cm deep
> 110 cm deep

to 6/2

It brown
It brown

24.7 kg

4.7 1;
7.0 kg
29.0 1;
39.2 kg
195 1;
25.9 kg

amorphous; brown; 71.5 1;
50 cm ? deep 10YRS/3 92.7 kg
to 4/3
amorphous; It brown 11-5 1;
up to 10 cm 10YR7/2 15.5 kg
deep ?
rough basin greyish 38.6 1;
shape; 50 cm It brown 47.0 kg
deep? 10YR7/2
amorphous; dark grey- 16.3 1;
1-2 cm deep ish brown 20.6 kg
amorphous; dark brown 21.3 1
1-2 cm deep 30.2 kg

straight- dark brown > 5 1
13 cm deep

Sherd con-
in midden
fire pit
or hearth?

3 comp-st sherds (27 g), 1 plain
sand-t sherd (3 g), charcoal
(14 g)
charcoal (at least 10 g), charred

much charcoal and seeds

1 comp-st rim (15 g), 1 plain
sand-t flat-bottomed bowl frag
(6 sherds, 176 g), clear quartzite
(worked? hemisphere frag?, 5 g),
wood (oak [16 g]; oak & pine
[16.5 g]; pine [1 g]; d-p h.w.
[1 g]; oak, elm & d-p h.w. [2 g];
r-p h.w [5.8 g); unident [<.5 g]),
70 fern spores, 1 seed of
Polygonum, 5 chert flakes
charred seeds, decomposing
wood in bottom below water

charcoal, seeds

charcoal, seeds

charcoal, seeds, mica flecks, poss
2 plain sand-t sherds (21 g), 1
comp-st sherd (6 g), 1 pebble
charcoal, seeds


Tallahatta quartzite chunk, chert
flake, 1 plain sand-t rim (4.2 9),
1 sand-t sherd crumb, 1 chert
flake, charcoal, seeds

1 chert flake, charcoal, seeds

possible charred plant frags

fire pit?

refuse pit

either still-
decaying root
or post mold/
probably natural
root mold?
probable root
probable root

possible pit

probable natural
feature or dis-
turbed pit
probable dis-
turbed pit

probably dis-
turbed pit
fill redeposited

probably dis-
turbed pit fill
probably dis-
turbed pit fill

1 3 4 5

Figure 5. Small plain partial bowl from Feature 4. Photographed
fragments are inverted, with flat circular bottom (darl
to upper left).

of materials in Table 1 gives exact amounts within the feature
as defined and pedestaled, but it is probable that other items
originally deposited in the very top of this feature were
scattered around within the midden just by the everyday
activity of the inhabitants. Thus a comparison with the
materials from the surrounding cultural stratum must
consider the effects of mixing.
Feature 4 contained several plain sherds with folded
rims exposed in situ in the top, as well as a complicated-
stamped sherd. After cross-sectioning and removing the west
half, it was clear that this feature was stratified into at least
two depositional layers (Figure 4), the upper one 6 to 10 cm

thick, and the lower roughly the same dimensions. In
the eastern half the pottery was only in the upper
stratum. The lower stratum was darker and
contained more charcoal than the upper.
When cleaned and pieced together the plain
sherds formed a partial small bowl with a distinctive
flat circular bottom (Figure 5), though the rim was
missing. The complicated-stamped sherd was a
typical rim. Other contents were five chert flakes and
a clear quartz piece that appears to be a fragment of
a hemisphere.
Charred botanical remains in this feature were
oak, elm, and other hardwoods (both diffuse-porous
and ring-porous), a small amount of pine, a
Polygonum seed and many fern spores (the 70 listed
in Table 1 are a sample that could be counted and
sorted from the large numbers present). Most of the
charcoal is oak, perhaps chosen for fuel since it burns
better and longer than pine and other woods,
according to the ethnobotanist. Today oak is
abundant at the site. The fern spores and pine also
suggest a mixed forest. The Polygonum is a weedy
plant perhaps growing in a small area cleared for
A sample of the oak charcoal from the western
half (combining both strata) of the feature was sent
for radiocarbon dating and returned a result of 1650
+ 50 years before the present, or approximately A.D.
300 (uncorrected; Beta-25771). This is a quite
reasonable date for the later variety Swift Creek
Complicated-Stamped pottery.
Feature 4 thus appears to have been a refuse
pit. It may have held animal remains that have long
since decayed. The clear quartz fragment is not
readily explainable. It is an exotic material, but
perhaps was discarded because the original object
broke. Its appearance here suggests it was used in a
domestic context.
vessel FEATURE 5 was an oval area that tapered in
k area cross-section and continued 70 cm deep until, at the
water table, it became unrotted wood. It was either a
post or a tree root. A sample of the wood was taken
and tentatively identified as cypress, a wood that indicates wet
soil conditions.
FEATURES 6, 7. 8. and 10 were irregular shapes of
probable natural origin. They may be decaying tree roots or
animal burrows into which some cultural remains may have
FEATURES 9 and 11 may have been pits that were
later disturbed or whose fill or strata of fill got jumbled
around enough to obscure a basin-shaped cross-section.
Feature 11 contained a plain sherd and a chunk of Tallahatta
quartzite, a material available in south Alabama.
FEATURES 12, 13, and 14 were shallow stained areas

Table 2. Summary by Provenience of All Ceramics at the Overgrown Road Site (8Gu38).

General surface All TUs All Features TOTALS
TYPE count wt(g) count wt(g) count wt(g) count wt(g)

Complicated-Stamped 28 196.0 76 600.1 5 48.0 109 844.1
Net-Marked 2 20.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 20.5
Indeterm.-Stamped 0 0.0 1 4.5 0 0.0 1 4.5
Check-Stamped 2 18.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 18.0
Sand-Tempered Plain 40 101.0 225 520.1 11 205.0 276 826.1
Grit-Tempered Plain 1 6.0 1 1.0 0 0.0 2 7.0
Sand/Grit-Tempered Plain 14 41.0 21 29.5 0 0.0 35 70.5
Sand/Grog-Tempered Plain 0 0.0 1 10.4 0 0.0 1 10.4

TOTALS 87 382.5 324 1155.2 16.0 253.0 427 1790.7

% by Provenience
Complicated-Stamped 32% 51% 23% 52% 31% 19%
Net-Marked 2% 5% 0 0 0 0
Check-Stamped 2% 5% 0 0 0 0
Sand-Tempered Plain 46% 26% 69% 45% 69% 81%
Grit-Tempered Plain 1% 2% 0 0 0 0
Sand/Grit-Tempered Plain 16% 11% 6% 3% 0 0
Sand/Grog-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 1% 0 0

TOTAL % 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

% within Type
Complicated-Stamped 26% 23% 70% 71% 5% 6% 100% 100%
Net-Marked 100% 100% 0 0 0 0 100% 100%
Check-Stamped 100% 100% 0 0 0 0 100% 100%
Sand-Tempered Plain 14% 12% 82% 63% 4% 25% 100% 100%
Grit-Tempered Plain 50% 86% 50% 14% 0 0 100% 100%
Sand/Grit-Tempered Plain 40% 58% 60% 42% 0 0 100% 100%
Sand/Grog-Tempered Plain 0 0 100% 100% 0 0 100% 100%

% of Total
Complicated-Stamped 7% 11% 18% 34% 1% 3% 26% 47%
Net-Marked 0 1% 0 0 0 0 0 1%
Check-Stamped 0 1% 0 0 0 0 0 1%
Sand-Tempered Plain 9% 6% 53% 29% 0 0 65% 46%
Grit-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 3% 11% 3% 11%
Sand/Grit-Tempered Plain 3% 2% 5% 2% 0 0 8% 4%
Sand/Grog-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 1% 0 0 0 1%
GRAND TOTAL 20% 21% 76% 65% 4% 14% 100% 100%

with the appearance of midden fill. They may have
been areas where the modern disturbance simply
extended deeper or else zones of darker midden or
pit fill may have been moved around and
In sum, the cultural features appear to be pits,
containing materials classifiable as refuse. Such pits
may have had other uses originally, though only
evidence of their last function is now present. A
recent article by DeBoer (1988) reminds us that,
ethnographically, pits were common for storage in
aboriginal America. Rather than indications of a
more sedentary existence, he demonstrates their
association with more seasonal, temporary
settlements. They are easy to construct and quite
functional; more settled groups would have been
more likely to construct above-ground storage
facilities of a more permanent nature. Another fact
that archaeologists seldom note is that humans may
dig pits for use as latrines. It is difficult to prove
this when interred wastes such as coprolites are
absent, but perhaps those pit features with only
seeds, for example, were for such a use.
The site produced no evidence of structures
and only tentative identification of Feature 5 as a
post. The features appear to be pits or redeposited
midden materials consistent with a short stay.


At the Overgrown Road site 427 ceramic
sherds were recovered, totaling 1790 grams; about
20% of them were from the surface. Ceramic data
are summarized in Table 2, and Tables 3-8 list
sherds from the different units by 10 cm level
(except Level 1 from TUs 1, 1A, 5 and 6, which
encompassed the entire disturbed zone, averaging Figur
20 cm). All the ceramics were sand- or grit-
tempered. Only complicated-stamped and plain
wares were recovered from excavated proveni-
ences. The surface collection included other types: two check-
stamped and two net-marked sherds. Photos of some of these
ceramics appear in Figures 6-8.
Nearly half the total ceramics by weight are
complicated-stamped, and nearly half are plain. By sherd
count 26% are complicated-stamped and 73% plain. Plain
sherds are much smaller, suggesting plain pots were broken
more, used more, less cared for, or less well constructed. If
complicated-stamped vessels were more for special purposes
this might make sense. It is unknown what proportion of the
plain sherds are from un-stamped portions of stamped
vessels, however. The category "plain" also includes sherds too
eroded to make a judgement on the surface treatment.
The complicated-stamped designs all fit within the

0 1 2 3 4


-e 6. Surface ceramics from the Overgrown Road site (8Gu38).
Top: net-marked; Others: Swift Creek Complicated-
Stamped, Late Variety. (Middle right is sloppy folded rim.)

general type Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped, Late Variety,
and are typical of those found in the Apalachicola Valley.
Frankie Snow, of South Georgia College in Douglas, who has
studied distributions of different Swift Creek stamped
designs, has looked at photos of these sherds. He found no
patterns showing any connections with other Swift Creek
patterns in the south Georgia area. Louis Tesar and Calvin
Jones of the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research state
that these designs are typical of those along the Florida Gulf
Coast from the St. Andrew Bay system to the Ocklocknee
River. As shown in Figures 6-8, the designs include diamond,
U, and other complicated shapes. Rims of both the plain and
the stamped vessels were typical folded smoothed styles of the
later Middle Woodland period (Willey 1949:378-79, 431-35).

Table 3. Ceramics from Test Unit 1 at the Overgrown Road Site (8Gu38).

PROVENIENCE Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 TOTALS
Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g)

Complicated-Stamped 5 24.0 4 24.0 1 2.0 0 0.0 10 50.0
Sand-Tempered Plain 13 18.0 13 15.0 7 32.3 1 1.5 34 66.8
Gnt-Tempered Plain 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 1.0 0 0.0 1 1.0
Sand/Grit-Temp Plain 1 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 2.5

TOTALS 19 44.5 17 39.0 9 35.3 1 1.5 46 120.3

% by Provenience by ct by wt by ct by wt by ct by wt by ct by wt
% Complicated-Stamped 26 54 24 62 11 6 0 0
% Sand-Tempered Plain 68 40 76 38 78 92 100 100
% Gnt-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 11 3 0 0
% Sand/Grit-Temp Plain 5 6 0 0 0 0 0 0

TOTALS 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

% within Type by ct by wt by ct by wt by ct by t by ct by wt by ct by wt
% Complicated-Stamped 50 48 40 48 10 4 0 0 100 100
% Sand-Tempered Plain 38 27 38 22 21 48 3 2 100 100
% Grit-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 100 100 0 0 100 100
% Sand/Grit-Temp Plain 100 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 100

% of Total TU 1 by ct by wt by ct by wt by ct bywt by ct by wt by ct by wt
% Complicated-Stamped 11 20 9 20 2 2 0 0 22 42
% Sand-Tempered Plain 28 15 28 12 15 27 2 1 74 56
% Grit-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 2 1
% Sand/Grit-Temp Plain 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2

TOTALS 41 37 37 32 20 29 2 1 100 100

Table 4. Ceramics from Test Unit 1A at the Overgrown Road Site (8Gu38).

PROVENIENCE Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 TOTALS
Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g)

Complicated-Stamped 4 22.8 10 57.2 7 42.0 0 0.0 21 122.0
Sand-Tempered Plain 1 5.5 7 37.0 6 21.5 2 0.5 16 64.5
Grit-Tempered Plain 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
Sand/Grit-Temp Plain 3 19.0 17 8.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 20 27.0

TOTALS 8 47.3 34 102.2 13 63.5 2 0.5 57 213.5

% by Provenience by ct by wt by ct by t byct by w by ct by wt
% Complicated-Stamped 50 48 29 56 54 66 0 0
% Sand-Tempered Plain 13 12 21 36 46 34 100 100
% Gnt-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
% Sand/Grit-Temp Plain 38 40 50 8 0 0 0 0

TOTALS 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

% within Type by ct by wt by ct bywt by ct by wt by ct bywt by ct by wt
% Complicated-Stamped 19 19 48 47 33 34 0 0 100 100
% Sand-Tempered Plain 6 9 44 57 38 33 13 1 100 100
% Grit-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
% Sand/Grit-Temp Plain 15 70 85 30 0 0 0 0 100 100

% of Total TU IA by ct by wt by ct by wt by ct by wt by ct by wt by ct by w
% Complicated-Stamped 7 11 18 27 12 20 0 0 37 57
% Sand-Tempered Plain 2 3 12 17 11 10 4 0 28 30
% Grit-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
% Sand/Grit-Temp Plain 5 9 30 4 0 0 0 0 35 13

0 100 100

14 22 60 48 23 30 4


Table 5. Ceramics from Test Unit 2 at the Overgrown Road Site (8Gu38).

PROVENIENCE Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 TOTALS
Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g)

Complicated-Stamped 0 0.0 0 0.0 8 75.7 0 0.0 8 75.7
Sand-Tempered Plain 0 0.0 0 0.0 21 67.6 0 0.0 21 67.6
Grit-Tempered Plain 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
Sand/Grit-Temp Plain 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 00 0 0.0

TOTALS 0 0.0 0 0.0 29 143.3 0 0.0 29 143.3

% by Provenience by ct bywt by ct bywt byct by wt by ct bywt
% Complicated-Stamped 0 0 0 0 28 53 0 0
% Sand-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 72 47 0 0
% Grit-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
% Sand/Grit-Temp Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

TOTALS 0 0 0 0 100 100 0 0

% within Type by ct by wt by ct bywt by ct by wt by ct by wt by ct by wt
% Complicated-Stamped 0 0 0 0 100 100 0 0 100 100
% Sand-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 100 100 0 0 100 100
% Grit-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
% Sand/Grit-Temp Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

% of Total TU 2 by ct bywt by ct by wt by ct bywt by ct by w by ct by wt
% Complicated-Stamped 0 0 0 0 28 53 0 0 28 53
% Sand-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 72 47 0 0 72 47
% Grit-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
% Sand/Grit-Temp Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

TOTALS 0 0 0 0 100 100 0 0 100 100

Table 6. Ceramics from Test Unit 3 at the Overgrown Road Site (8Gu38).

PROVENIENCE Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 TOTALS
Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g)

Complicated-Stamped 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 1 5.0
Sand-Tempered Plain 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 0.6 2 0.6
Grit-Tempered Plain 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
Sand/Grit-Temp Plain 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0

TOTALS 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 5.0 2 0.6 3 5.6

% by Provenience by ct by wt by ct by wt by ct by wt by ct by wt
% Complicated-Stamped 0 0 0 0 100 100 0 0
% Sand-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 100
% Grit-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
% Sand/Grit-Temp Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

TOTALS 0 0 0 0 100 100 100 100

% within Type by ct bywt by ct bywt by ct bywt by ct by wt by ct bywt
% Complicated-Stamped 0 0 0 0 100 100 0 0 100 100
% Sand-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 100 100 100
% Grit-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
% Sand/Grt-Temp Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

% of Total TU 3 by ct bywt by ct by wt by ct bywt by ct bywt by ct by wt
% Complicated-Stamped 0 0 0 0 33 89 0 0 33 89
% Sand-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 67 11 67 11
% Grit-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
% Sand/Grit-Temp Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

TOTALS 0 0 0 0 33 89 67 11 100 100

Table 7. Ceramics from Test Unit 5 at thc Overgrown Road Site (8Gu38).

PROVENIENCE Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 TOTALS
Count Wt(g) Count W1(g) Count WI(g) Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g)

Complicated-Stamped 1 5.5 3 6.6 0 0.0 4 470 8 59.1
Sand-Tempered Plain 2 4.2 20 46.9 13 43.5 5 14.0 40 108.6
Gnt-Tempercd Plain 0 0 0 00 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
Sand/Grit-Tcmp Plain 0 0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0

TOTALS 3 9.7 23 53.5 13 435 9 61.0 48 167.7

% by Provencnce by ct by wt by ct by wt by ct by wt by ct by wt
% Complicated-Stamped 33 57 13 12 0 0 44 77
% Sand-Tempered Plain 67 43 87 88 100 100 56 23
% Gnt-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
% Sand/Grit-Tcmp Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

TOTALS 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

%7 within Type by ct by wt by ct by wt by ct by wt byct by wl by ct by wl
% Complicated-Stamped 13 9 38 11 0 0 50 80 100 100
% Sand-Tempered Plain 5 4 50 43 33 40 13 13 100 100
% Gnt-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
% Sand/Grit-Temp Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

% ofTotal TU 5 by ct by wt by ct by wt byct by wt by ct bywt by ct bywt
% Complicated-Stamped 2 3 6 4 0 0 8 28 17 35
%Sand-Tempered Plain 4 3 42 28 27 26 10 8 83 65
% Grit-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
% Sand/Gril-Tcmp Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

TOITALS 6 6 48 32 27 26 19 36 100 100

Table 8. Ceramics from Test Unit 6 at the Overgrown Road Site (8Gu38).

PROVENIENCE Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 TOTALS
Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g) Count Wt(g)

Complicated-Stamped 15 945 11 183.4 2 10.4 0 0.0 28 288.3
Indetcrmnate-Stamped 0 0.0 1 4.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 45
Sand-Tempered Plain 65 107.5 43 915 4 13.0 0 00 112 212.0
Grit-Tempered Plain 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
Sand/Grog-Temp Plain 0 0.0 1 10.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 10.4

TOTALS 80 202.0 56 289.8 6 23.4 0 0.0 142 515.2

% by Provenience by ct by wt by ct by wt by ct by wt by ct by wl
% Complicated-Stamped 19 47 20 63 33 44 0 0
% Indeterminate-Stamped 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0
% Sand-Tempered Plain 81 53 77 77 67 56 0 0
% Gnt-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
% Sand/Grog Temp Plain 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0

TOTALS 100 100 100 100 100 100 0 0

% within Type by ct bt byl by ct by wt by ct by wt by ct by wt by ct by wt
% Complicated-Stamped 54 33 39 64 7 4 0 0 100 100
% Indeterminate-Stamped 0 0 100 100 0 0 0 0 100 100
% Sand-Tempered Plain 58 51 38 43 4 6 0 0 100 100
% Grit-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
% Sand/Grog-Temp Plain 0 0 100 100 0 0 0 0 100 100

% ofTotal TU 6 by ct by w by ct by wt byct bywt by ct by wt by ct by wt
% Complicated-Stamped 11 18 8 36 1 2 0 0 20 56
% Indeterminate-Stamped 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
% Sand-Tempered Plain 46 21 30 18 3 3 0 0 79 41
% Grit-Tempered Plain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
% Sand/Grog-Temp Plain 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 2

TOTALS 56 39 39 56 4 5 0 0 100 100

0 1 2 3 4 5
Figure 7. Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped rim sherds from the Overgrown Road site (8Gu38), showing
variation in typical folded rim lip. Provenience: (Left) Test Unit 2 Level 3; (Middle) Test Unit 5
Level 4; (Right) Test Unit 3 Level 3.

0 1 2 3 4 5

I P1

Figure 8. Sherds from Test Unit 6 Level 2 of the Overgrown Road site (8Gu38). Top and lower right: Swift
Creek-Complicated Stamped body sherds. Middle left: two plain folded rim sherds. Bottom center:
small folded rim sherd with some stamping.

As shown in Tables 3-8, only Test Units 3 and 4 had no
ceramics from the first levels, demonstrating the undisturbed
nature of the deposits. Whether the disturbed levels are taken
into account or not, however, there is no obvious patterning
of the ceramic frequencies according to vertical or horizontal
space. The implication is of a single component site, even
suggesting a single season's visit to camp while hunting,
fishing, and/or collecting some other resource.
Ceramics from the features (Tables 1 and 2) were few,
totaling 5 complicated-stamped (48 g) and 11 plain (205 g)
sherds, occurring in Features 1, 4, 8, 11 and 12 only. Feature 1
actually was a small concentration of complicated-stamped
and plain sherds. Features 4 and 11 were pits, while Feature
12 was redeposited pit fill. Feature 8 appeared to be a natural
stain such as a decaying tree root into which artifacts could
have fallen. The plain sherds in Feature 4 made up the lower
portion of a small bowl, as noted (see Figure 5).
Besides vessel sherds, the only other ceramic remains
were very small irregular lumps of clay. These are common at
sites of many different types and (ceramic) time periods in
the Apalachicola Valley. They do not resemble daub but
possibly are little squeezings left over from pottery making, or
some other activity, or even the result of some natural
process. These all occurred in Test Unit 1, 5 fragments (5 g)
in level 3 and 25 + fragments (8 g) in level 4. They were hard
to count because of their crumby nature and texture; some
may have been actual sherd crumbs, but none appeared to
have any temper. If daub houses had been made, they
certainly would have left more than this. Unless our tests
were not placed in the area of shelters, this is one more bit of
evidence, albeit negative evidence, for a very seasonal
habitation not requiring more permanent housing.

Lithic Materials

Chipped Stone

The only chipped stone artifacts from the site were lithic
debitage, totaling 70 pieces, weighing 584.8 g (Table 9). Most
of this debitage was secondary chert flakes. There were only a
handful of pieces suggesting primary reduction of material for
tools: some pieces of block shatter, two secondary
decortication flakes, and two large chunks, one of poor
quality cortex and one of Tallahatta quartzite.
Most of the secondary flakes were very small, as well,
clearly bifacial thinning flakes. This assemblage suggests that
chipped stone tools were seldom manufactured at the site, but
merely sharpened from time to time. One secondary flake
and one decortication flake were utilized, probably as simple
expedient tools. The only possible curated tool fragment is a
battered, retouched blocky flake from Test Unit 6 Level 1
that may be a biface fragment.
The small size of the lithic assemblage also supports the
interpretation of a brief camp. People may have taken along

only the few things they needed, and the short stay may not
have been long enough to break any finished tools. Or broken
pieces may have been saved for reworking. (Of course, this
impression is gained from only our small test investigations.
An area of stone tool manufacture at the site may simply be
somewhere we did not dig.)
The interesting aspect of the chipped stone remains is
the wide variety of chert types. The typical chert used in this
part of Florida is a creamy whitish local material sometimes
called Gulf Coast chert or Ocala chert. It outcrops along the
east side of the upper and middle Apalachicola Valley,
perhaps 80-100 stream miles from the Overgrown Road site,
in Jackson and Calhoun Counties, where Upchurch et al.
(1982) have recognized the Marianna quarry cluster source
area. Less common but still frequently encountered is
agatized coral, usually about the same color, and also local (I
have collected samples of it from creek beds just above the
Flint-Chattahoochee River confluence that forms the
Apalachicola, at the Georgia border, perhaps 100 stream
miles from the Overgrown Road site). Much less common is
a translucent tan or honey-colored chert; some think this
chert weathers to become the whitish variety, and I have seen
some evidence of this in recently broken whitish pieces with
the tan material inside. All these varieties predominate in
lithic assemblages throughout the entire Apalachicola Valley.
They range from fair to poor quality for chipped stone tool
manufacture, especially because of the fossiliferous nature of
the material and its tendency to break irregularly at the fossil
At the Overgrown Road site there are many other kinds
of chert, a remarkable variety for a small lithic assemblage.
The color range of these materials includes pink, red, dark
brown, dark gray, light brown, beige, translucent white.
Perhaps these can be traced to specific sources when further
work is done on chert types in this region. The pink and red
chert may be thermally altered varieties of the local material,
but the others are definitely of non-local origin, and all are of
excellent quality for knapping. Future work should include
obtaining the proper Munsell charts and labeling these colors
so they can be compared better with chert remains elsewhere,
and proceeding on to structural, mineralogical and other
analyses to attempt source determination.
Another material of non-local origin is Tallahatta
quartzite, used for chipped stone tools more frequently
farther up the valley and to the west. It is unmistakable
because of its glittery appearance and greenish-gray grains
outlined in white. When it weathers to dull light brown it is
less distinctive. This material outcrops in south Alabama
(Lloyd et al. 1983). The people at the Overgrown Road site
had to obtain it from well over 100 river miles away, and it is
rare in the lower valley.
Middle Woodland lithic assemblages commonly contain
many exotic or non-local cherts. In the Apalachicola-Lower
Chattahoochee Valley the presence of such materials is highly

Table 9. Lithic Remains from the Overgrown Road Site (8Gu38).

Category/Provenience Count Wt(g) Type Comments

Chipped Stone (all debitage
Test Unit 1 Level 1
Test Unit 1 Floor 1
Test Unit 1 Level 2
Test Unit 1 Level 2
Test Unit 1 Level 2 SE corer
Test Unit 1 Level 3
Test Unit 1 Level 3
Test Unit 1 Floor 3
Test Unit 1A Level 1
Test Unit 1A Level 3
Test Unit 1A Level 3
Test Unit 1A Floor 3
Test Unit 5 Level 2
Test Unit 5 Level 3
Test Unit 5 Level 3
Test Unit 5 Level 4
Test Unit 5 Level 4
Test Unit 6 Level 1
Test Unit 6 Level 1
Test Unit 6 Floor 1
Test Unit 6 Floor 1
Test Unit 6 Level 2
Test Unit 6 Level 2
Test Unit 6 Level 3
Feature 4 East 1/2
Feature 4 West 1/2
Feature 11
Feature 11 East 1/2
Feature 12
Feature 13



Other Stone
Test Unit 1 Level 2
Test Unit 1 Level 2
Test Unit 1A Level 2
Test Unit 1A Level 2
Test Unit 1A Level 2
Test Unit 1A Level 3
Test Unit 1A Level 3
Test Unit 1A Level 3
Test Unit 5 Level 1
Test Unit 5 Level 3
Test Unit 5 Level 3
Test Unit 5 Level 4
Test UNit 6 Level 1
Test Unit 6 Level 2
Test Unit 6 Level 3
Feature 4
Feature 6

secondary decortication

block shatter
block shatter
secondary decortication
thick secondary
blocky, secondary
block shatter
chunk, shatter?

clear quartz chip
quartzite cobble frag
clear quartz fragments
sandstone fragments
limestone fragment
clear quartz fragments (small)
stone piece
quartz pebbles
quartzite cobble chip
quartzite chip
mica pieces
quartzite cobble
black rock
quartzite or sandstone
quartzite chips
clear quartz fragment
quartz pebble fragment

translucent tan with white cortext
one pink, utilized (expedient tool)
unusual dark brown

dark gray

light brown

translucent tan
two high quality bright red; one translucent tan
appears to be Tallahatta quartzite
smaller one translucent tan
mostly cortext
translucent tan
translucent tan, some use wear, retouched (expedient tool)
one is pink, lustrous
battered at one end, heavy retouch; bifacial frag?

poor quality, cortext?

Tallahatta quartzite
translucent white
red, thermally altered
translucent tan

use wear on butt end

sandstone or possibly Tallahata quartzite
like pea gravel
use wear (expedient tool)
appear broken, not cut, <4 cm long
several worn surfaces for grinding or hammering
could be coal lump
possibly utilized (expedient tool ?)
one fine-grained, one coarse-grained
worked; part of hemisphere ?

diagnostic of this period. Burial mound ceremonialism
included interment of artifacts made of exotic materials. But
here at this small site they appear in what seems to be an
everyday domestic context. Perhaps these people used more
imports in general, as well as preferring to be buried with

Other Stone

Fifty-seven other pieces of stone were recovered at the
site, totaling 690.3 g (Table 9). These included many
sandstone and quartzite pebbles, like pea gravel, that are
probably natural inclusions. Iron concretions
from the deeper levels resemble sandstone. A Table 10.
possible lump of coal came from a disturbed
Level 1. Provenience
The clearly cultural items were a Feature 4 N
quartzite cobble and two cobble fragments
with use wear from hammering or grinding,
small irregular pieces of mica, and clear Feature 4 E
quartz debitage fragments (8 chips and a
worked fragment). The first items suggest
either plant processing or possibly chipped
stone tool sharpening. The latter two are Feature 14
more of the exotic Middle Woodland Test U 1
materials. The clear quartz fragment, from
Feature 4, appears to be a piece of a Test Unit 1
smoothed, ground, deliberately shaped
hemishpere. The chips might be debitage Test Unit 1
from either chipped or ground stone artifact
manufacture, though they show no grinding. Test Unit 2
The mica fragments are irregular, as if torn, Test Unit 2
with no signs of cutting or deliberate shaping.

Biotic Remains: Ethnobotanical Materials Test Unit 2
Test Unit 2
Doubtless due to the acidity of the soils,
no bone was preserved at the site, with the Test Unit 2
exception of 1 fragment of deer or cow long
bone from Test Unit 1, level 1, that was Test Unit 5
cleanly cut with a modern implement. The
lack of faunal remains seriously hampers Test Unit 5
interpretations of subsistence at the site.
The few charred prehistoric floral Test Unit 5
remains recovered were enough for some Test Unit 5
interesting insights into the behavior at the
site. These are listed in Table 10, as identified Test Unit 6
by ethno-botanist Elisabeth Sheldon. Some
can be identified to a family or genus level; Test Unit 6
some charcoal fragments are of mixed woods.
There is little variety in the plant
remains, but a few items are noteworthy. Most Test Unit 6
of the wood is pine, suggesting a higher, drier
environment at the site during the time of

occupation, in comparison with the mostly hardwood
bottomland of today. At many sites tested lately in the
hardwood bottomlands of the middle and lower Apalachicola
valley the predominant charred wood remains have been pine
(White 1989). It is suspected that this might be a good
indicator of continuing climate shift and sea level rise since
the end of the Pleistocene, with the establishment of modern
warmer wetter environments not taking place until much later
in the Woodland. However, at the Overgrown Road site the
contents of Feature 4 were predominantly oak, perhaps, as
noted, a deliberate choice of a better firewood. The possible
cypress in Feature 5, if it does represent a post, may have

Botanical Remains from the Overgrown Road Site (8Gu38).


Vest 1/2

ast 1/2

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4

Level 2
Level 3

Level 4
Level 5

Level 6

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3
SLevel 4

SLevel 1

SLevel 2

SLevel 3

WOOD: oak (16 g), oak & pine (3.5 g), pine (1 g), oak,
diffuse-porous hardwood, & pine (13 g)
SEEDS: 42 fern spores
WOOD: diffuse-porous hardwood (1 g), oak, elm & diffuse-
porous hardwood (2 g), unidentified (< 0.5 g),
ring-porous hardwood (5.8 g)
SEEDS: 28 fern spores, one Polygonum spp.


pine (2 g)
unidentified (0.2 g)
34 fern spores, one badly eroded Vitaceae (?)
pine (9.5 g)
114 fern spores
unidentified (< 0.5 g)
12 fern spores
pine (2.6 g), unidentified (2.8 g)
pine (15.4 g), pine & oak (58.7 g), unident (3.4 g)
20 fern spores
hickory shell (six frags, 1.5 g), 2 acorn fruits & 1 cap
34 fern spores

WOOD: pine (< ).5 g)
SEEDS: 17 fern spores
WOOD: pine (< 0.5 g), unidentified (< 0.5 g)
SEEDS: 14 fern spores
WOOD: oak (4.8 g), unidentified (< 0.5 g)
SEEDS: 33 fern spores
WOOD: pine (< 0.5 g), unident (0.9 g), pine resin (1.1 g)
SEEDS: 40 fern spores, two Galium


unidentified (1 g), pine (0.6 g)
pine (1.9 g), pine & ring-porous hardwood (5.1 g)
35 fern spores, one partial seed coat ?
pine & ring-porous hardwood (37 g), pine (1 g)
14 fern spores
pine (11.5+ g)
fern spores
hickory nut shell (one fragment, 0.2 g)
pine (6.5 g)
3+ fern spores

been chosen for this function so it would not decay when
stuck deep into the ground below the water table, as we
encountered it during excavation.
The high number of fern spores is actually even greater
than what is represented on the table. The labworkers sorting
the materials from the flotation recovery could pick out only
so many of these extremely tiny items, and we settled for
sorting a sample of the total in each provenience. The wood
and fern spores suggest a forest environment.
The identifiable seeds are a Polygonum (knotweed or
knotgrass), a possible Vitaceae (grape) and a Galium
bedstraww). These may have been species collected for eating
or they may have accidently become charred in campfires.
Wild grape is plentiful in the area today, and the others
undoubtedly exist there also.
The hickory nutshells and acorn fragments represent
species known to have been utilized widely as foods by
aboriginal Americans. They might also indicate a season of
occupation, except that we also know from ethnographic
accounts that nutshells were saved for fuel after the nuts were
The sample ethnobotanical assemblage from the
Overgrown Road site provides few real clues to the season of,
or reason for habitation at this locale. But the remains are not
inconsistent with a general hunting/gathering camp type of

Summary and Interpretations

As with any site that is subjected to limited test
excavations, interpretation of the aboriginal use of the
Overgrown Road site must be given with all the usual caveats.
Very different kinds of evidence might have been recovered if
we had dug in different spots. Judgemental sampling was
done based on archaeological experience in estimating the
areas with the most stratigraphic integrity and the least
modern disturbance, and with the greatest potential for
containing artifacts and features. It is felt that the testing
provided a good sample of the cultural record.
Because this is a small domestic site of the Middle
Woodland period, during which such elaborate and
spectacular mound and ceremonial sites were deposited, it is
the kind of site that usually receives little attention from
archaeologists. While nothing radically unusual was turned up
by our shovels and trowels, some observations can be made.
The artifacts recovered and features examined indicate a
small habitation site utilized over a relatively short period of
time. Lithic remains suggest not manufacture but
maintenance of tools made of both exotic and local stone.
Use of such raw materials often occurs in Middle Woodland,
but these appear to have been completely domestic, utilitarian
items. Ceramics are half plain and half Swift Creek
Complicated-Stamped, suggesting both were for utilitarian
use, though differential breakage patterns may indicate

functional differences. Floral remains indicate a forested
environment and some utilization of local wild food plants.
The radiocarbon date of A.D. 300 is quite consistent with the
Late Swift Creek ceramics.
Some discussion is required of what was not found.
There was no Weeden Island pottery. The folded, smoothed
rims and complicated-stamped designs (see Figures 6-8) from
the Overgrown Road site are also typically found at sites
classed as Weeden Island, but accompanied by diagnostic
Weeden Island incised and punctated types. Only four sherds
recovered at Overgrown Road that were not complicated-
stamped or plain: two check-stamped and two net-marked.
The former are only diagnostic of a post-Late Archaic
affiliation, since check-stamped pottery appears in all time
periods from Early Woodland to post-contact. The latter
could be labeled Mound Field Net-Marked, which Willey
(1949:440) originally considered a Weeden Island type.
However I prefer a generic label until the distinctions
between Swift Creek and Weeden Island are less uncertain.
This site's ceramics are interesting evidence to add to
the debate on how and if the Weeden Island cultural
manifestation of the Middle Woodland is temporally or
culturally distinct (or both) from the Middle Woodland Swift
Creek "culture." As both are too often defined solely by
ceramics, the debate is often unresolvable (White 1981:633-
666; Willey 1949 and 1985). We cannot assume that different
ceramics mean different time periods or different people.
Perhaps the campers at the Overgrown Road site did make
Weeden Island pots but left them at home. There is also the
possibility that Weeden Island ceramics were present but not
recovered by our tests, though this is less likely, given the
large exposed surface area and reasonable sample size.
There may be real temporal differences that can be
pinpointed better with more and better data. Current work at
the Otis Hare site (8Li172), some 70 river miles north of the
Overgrown Road site, has produced reliable dates averaging
about A.D. 400 (uncorrected) for a Middle Woodland
assemblage with similar Swift Creek ceramics with folded
rims, Weeden Island ceramics of most types, some net-
marked sherds, and a large amount of check-stamped sherds
as well (White 1991). Though this is only about 100 years
later than the Overgrown Road site date, it may be enough
time for such clear change in the material record.
Furthermore, the sample of radiocarbon dates from the Otis
Hare site is small (4 dates) and that from Overgrown Road is
only a single date. Nonetheless, there is no reason to consider
them unreliable. Corrected or refined according to the
accepted calibration curve derived from dedrochronology
(Stuiver and Pearson 1986), the Overgrown Road date of
A.D. 300 becomes A.D. 363, and the Otis Hare date of A.D.
400 becomes A.D. 500, allowing an even greater amount of
time for culture change.
There should always be extreme caution in equating one
artifact type or ceramic series with one ethnic or geographic

Figure 9. Plain straight sided, round bottomed ceramic vessel with "kill"
hole, from a Swift Creek mound site (8Gu41) private

Figure 10. Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped, Early Variety vessel
fragments from 8Gu41 mound private collection. Note
tightly scalloped rim at top.


0 1 2 3 4 5
Figure 11. Materials from 8Gu41 mound. Top: (left) bone toc
(right) one centimeter thick piece of mica; Bottom: c
ear spools with center perforation. (Private collection)

group. (Consider that, not only do more of us drive Japanese
cars these days, but also those cars are now often made in the
U.S. This sort of situation is not unique to the twentieth
century world economic system). It is the job of
anthropological archaeologists to formulate testable
hypotheses to determine whether temporal, functional or
cultural differences can explain type frequencies or absences
in ceramic assemblages. In northwest Florida we have not yet
accomplished this, though the first step for Early and Middle
Woodland would be the accumulation of a large series of
radiocarbon dates on well controlled and quantified ceramic
data. Work in progress 6n settlement in the entire Apalachi-

cola Valley indicates that a full range of Middle
Woodland sites is present: those with only Swift
Creek and no Weeden Island ceramics, those
with only Weeden Island sherds, and those with
Further comparison of the Overgrown
Road site with others having only Swift Creek
ceramics is possible. Most such sites are small
occupations. But at least one is a mound,
8Gu41, located near Howard Creek, nearly 8
km (5 mi) north of the Overgrown Road site
(11 mi or 18 km by water; see Figure 1).
Recorded from collectors' data during USFs
1985 survey (Henefield and White 1986:51-52),
it has never been investigated beyond brief
Surface inspection. A private collection said to
have come from this modest (ca. 20 m diameter,
0.5 m high) mound included only plain and
complicated-stamped ceramics, globular bowls
and tall, round bottomed vessels with straight
and outflaring rims. All vessels were "killed"
(had holes knocked into the bottom). Other
cultural materials included some chert
implements and bone, and exotics such as a
mica piece and copper ear spools. (In the
interest of expanding the knowledge of the
archaeological record, photos of some of these
items appear in Figures 9-11). Though at least
one vessel rim is scalloped, as in earlier Swift
Creek (and one plain bowl has a ticked rim
similar to a Fort Walton vessel), many are plain
and folded, as with the ceramics at Overgrown
Road. This mound may have been a ritual
locale for people who camped at the latter site.
Other remains not found at Overgrown
Road were animal bones, either in the general
midden or in refuse pits. They were probably
originally present but have decayed due to soil
1o (?), acidity. It is hard to imagine a small group of
opper people staying in this area, perhaps a family or
extended family, not taking advantage of the
terrestrial and riverine wildlife. Had they been
preserved, there probably would have been many deer and
freshwater fish bones, as well as other small animals. This
statement is based on the results of tests at Swift Creek
components of both estuarine and freshwater riverine shell
middens in this valley, where bone preservation is excellent.
Quantitative zooarchaeological analyses are demonstrating
that aquatic animals, especially fish and turtles, appear to be
the most utilized, even where deer and other terrestrial
species are abundant (White 1989).
Likewise, floral remains at the site were limited to those
preserved by charring, but those exploited probably included
a bountiful harvest of fruits, nuts, and seeds. This is the time

when people in the East supposedly were experimenting with
horticulture. Would they have brought a squash or gourd to
camp? Such a short term stay as suggested by the relatively
small amount of material evidence would probably not have
involved the practice of horticulture at the site, unless a small
planting was done and then revisited at harvest time.
Reconstruction of the seasonal round of Swift Creek
period foragers and its relationships with ever-changing
natural environments at this hypothesized earliest stage of
food production will require classes of data not yet available
for this region, such as large, well preserved ethnobotanical
assemblages of the types available from wet sites. Work of
this type is just as important as the demonstration of
interactionwith other geographic areas and peoples with
Weeden Island ceramic assemblages.
A final note on the actual nature of the occupation is
essential. The recent archaeological literature is full of
descriptions of small habitation sites in which they are labeled
short-term special purpose resource extraction or
procurement sites. I prefer to call the Overgrown Road site a
camp. First of all, "camp" implies short-term settlement.
Second, no special purpose can be inferred from the record
here as yet; probably scores of wild resources were obtained
from this rich environment. To be so successful, Middle
Woodland folk must have had excellent generalized
adaptation strategies. Finally, "extraction" or "procurement"
connotes considerable difficulty in obtaining something. In
reality these prehistoric peoples could probably camp in
different spots such as this site throughout the year and easily
take advantage of several resources at a time. The use of this
rich land for obtaining these wild species continues today.


Many, many thanks are due several individuals who
made this research possible. The 1985 survey was supported
by a historic preservation grant from the Florida Division of
Historical Resources. The 1987 testing was funded by a grant
from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,
Estuarine Research Reserve Program. A President's Council
grant from the University of South Florida made possible the
ethnobotanical analyses. Field accommodations were
generously provided by Panama City businessman Max
Fleming at his Howard Creek hunting camp. The residents of
Howard Creek welcomed us warmly and provided much help
and information about their artifact collections.
The 1985 survey was supervised by Susan Henefield-
Herring. Crew member Fred Steube originally discovered the
site and loaned his expertise two years later to relocate it in
the thick vegetation, even pinpointing the spot where we
would excavate the richest unit. The 1987 student crew
members braving the climate, buzzing pests, and cold showers
were Phil Gerrell, Jennifer Giesler, Jerry Hren, Heather

Mahan, Doug Potter, Cyndy Jo Rossiter, and Annette Snapp.
Soil Conservation Service (USDA) scientists Joe Schuster and
Leland Sasser volunteered their time and expert advice. Grad
student Terry Simpson tabulated the ceramic type
frequencies. Elisabeth Sheldon of SITE, Inc. in Montgomery
provided the usual expert ethnobotanical identifications and
analysis. Frankie Snow of South Georgia College graciously
donated his expertise in evaluating the Swift Creek stamp
designs. Woody Miley and Bonnie Holub, director and
education coordinator, respectively, of the Apalachicola
National Estuarine Reserve, and their staff helped coordinate
the project and make it possible in the first place. Lab
director Maggie Goetze contributed editorial assistance to
this report.
Finally I wish to thank the late caretakers of the Howard
Creek field camp, Eletha and Arthur Nixon. Longtime area
residents, they were like adoptive grandparents to the student
crews. They shared much ethnographic lore of the streams
and swamps, and even made us swamp cabbage stew. This
work is dedicated to their memory.


Blanchard, Chuck
1989 The Calusa and Their Watercraft. Calusa News
Number 3:12. Newsletter of the Southwest Florida
Project. Florida Museum of Natural History,

DeBoer, Warren R.
1988 Subterranean Storage and the Organization of Surplus:
The View from Eastern North America. Southeastern
Archaeology 7:1-20.

Henefield, Susan and Nancy Marie White
1986 Archaeological Survey in the Middle and Lower
Apalachicola Valley, Northwest Florida, 1985. Report to
the Florida Division of Historical Resources,
Tallahassee. University of South Florida Department of
Anthropology, Tampa.

Lloyd, Janet R., Judith A. Bense and Jesse L. Davis, Jr.
1983 Tallahatta Quartzite Quarries in the Escambia River
Drainage. Journal of Alabama Archaeology 29(2):125-

Milanich, Jerald T. and Charles H. Fairbanks
1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic Press, Orlando.

Moore, Clarence B.
1903 Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Apalachicola River.
Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences 12:440-490.

1918 The Northwestern Florida Coast Revisited. Journal of
the Academy of Natural Sciences (Second Series) 16:514-
581. Philadelphia.

Munsell Color
1973 Munsell Soil Color Charts. MacBeth Division of
Kollmorgen Corporation, Baltimore.

Stuiver, Minze and Gordon W. Pearson
1986 High Precision Calibration of the Radiocarbon Time
Scale, A.D. 1950 500 B.C. Radiocarbon 28(2B):805-838.

Upchurch, Sam B., Richard N. Strom and Mark G. Nuckels
1982 Methods of Provenance Determination of Florida
Cherts. Report to the Florida Division of Historical
Resources, Tallahassee. Department of Geology,
University of South FLorida, Tampa.

White, Nancy Marie
1981 Archaeological Survey at Lake Seminole. Cleveland
Museum of Natural History Archaeological Research
Report No. 29.

1989 Archaeological Investigations of Six Sites in the
Apalachicola River Valley, Northwest Florida. Report
Submitted to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration, Marine and Estuarine Management
Division, Washington, D.C. (to be published as a NOAA
Technical Memorandum).

1991 Middle Woodland Ceramics and Subsistence in the
Middle Apalachicola Valley, Northwest Florida. Paper
presented at the annual meeting of the Southeastern
Archaeological Conference, Jackson, Mississippi,
November 1991.

Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections 113. Washington, D.C.

Nancie Marie White
Department of Anthropology
University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida 33620


Richard W. Estabrook and J. Raymond Williams



Excavations performed at the Rattlesnake Midden site
(8Hi981) were part of the University of South Florida 1984
Summer Field School. Besides the expected voluminous
quantities of shellfish remains and a sizable ceramic
assemblage, large numbers of stone tools and a considerable
quantity of the debris from their manufacture were also
recovered. Presented herein are the results of the analyses of
these lithic materials. Our findings suggest that when stone
was locally available, coastal fishing/shellfish collecting
groups used these resources to fashion a variety of stone
tools; tools that performed many of the same tasks
undertaken at inland sites. These coastal groups relied heavily
on locally available lower-grade cherts, but appear to have
had some access to higher-grade cherts common to the
northern portion of the Hillsborough River and silicified
corals from the Lake Thonotosassa/Wesley Chapel vicinity.


Although there have been several analyses of lithic
materials recovered from shell middens in the Tampa Bay
area, most have resulted from standard 50x50 cm test pits dug
as part of Cultural Resource Management projects or limited
excavations employing a somewhat larger unit of excavation
(Deming et al. 1984a; Austin 1988). There is an almost total
absence of thorough lithic analyses of material recovered
from shell middens during planned data recovery projects.
This is because many shell midden sites do not produce the
quantities of lithic material necessary to reach conclusions
about lithic procurement or technology. The site discussed in
this study not only involved an extensive excavation, but also
produced a great deal of lithic material.
These analyses were performed by the authors during
the summer of 1987 and were initially reported as part of
John Whitehurst's master's thesis (Whitehurst 1988). While
no new analyses were undertaken for the present study, the
original data have been reexamined in light of our increased
understanding of stone tool production and lithic
procurement processes. New interpretations are most
evident in the identification of raw material sources and in the
explanation of the flake size data. This reevaluation provides
several new insights into how stone tools were made and used
at a coastal shell midden during the later Weeden Island-
related and Safety Harbor periods.

The Rattlesnake Midden site (8Hi981) is located in the
Upper Tampa Bay Park, a county-owned park found on the
east side of Old Tampa Bay. It is bounded on the east by
Double Branch Creek and Double Branch Bay and on the
west by Mobbly Bay (Figure 1). The midden lies on the
shoreline of the peninsula near the mouth of Double Branch
Creek. Low physiographic relief characterizes the area and
the site is exposed to coastal erosion caused by high tides and
storm surges. Maximum elevation is 30 cm above mean sea
The site was first recorded in 1979 when Hillsborough
County, interested in the park's archaeological resources and
their potential for display and interpretation at the park's
educational center, contracted with Stephen Gluckman, then
with the Anthropology Department of the University of South
Florida (USF), to conduct a survey (Gluckman et al. 1978).
The survey resulted in the location of 18 sites, one of which
was the Rattlesnake Midden site. Gluckman et al. (1978)
believed the site to be significant and recommended that it be
preserved and protected (at that time the county park people
intended to maintain a sand road through the length of the
site; still, Gluckman's recommendations were implemented).
No tests were dug, but 18 plain sand-tempered sherds were
recovered from the surface.
In 1984, as part of a USF Cultural Resource
Management class project, two students, John Whitehurst and
Thomas Scofield, prepared a National Register district
nomination that included the Rattlesnake Midden site, the 17
other previously recorded sites, and one newly-recorded site.
In 1985 this district nomination passed review and was signed
by the Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places.
The Hillsborough County Parks and Recreation
Department maintained a protective interest in the sites, and
was aware of their potential use as part of the Upper Tampa
Bay Park Interpretive Center. Arrangements were made with
Dr. Ray Williams of USF for a limited data recovery program
at one or more of these sites. The Rattlesnake Midden site
was selected for two reasons: (1) its potential to contribute to
our knowledge about the prehistory of the area, and (2) it
seemed to be the site that was suffering most from chronic
erosion. In the summer of 1984, Ray Williams, funded by
USF and Hillsborough County, investigated the site using it
as a summer archaeology field school project. John
Whitehurst was the graduate student supervisor. Richard


Vol. 45 No. 1

March, 1992

Figure 1. Location of the Rattlesnake Midden site (8Hi981), Rocky Creek and Rocky Creek Point on Old Tampa
Bay in Hillsborough County, Florida.

Estabrook performed the analysis of the lithic material;
Karla Bosworth, then with the Florida State Museum (since
renamed the Florida Museum of Natural History), analyzed
the faunal material recovered from selected column samples.

Site Destruction

The midden area measures roughly 100 m north-south
and 30 m east-west. Only about 50% of this 3000 square
meter area has shell exposed; the rest is covered with
protective deposits of sand or has been completely washed
away by tidal action. The midden originally may have been
wider, but through time, erosion probably destroyed some of
the western portion of the site where it lies along Old Tampa
Bay. The deepest deposit extends to 75 cm. Vegetation at the
site consists primarily of mangrove and other wetland species
protected by state and federal law.
The excavation was planned with two criteria in mind.
The first was to ensure that its size and scope would provide
enough data to enable us to postulate a site date and function.

This, we hoped, would allow us to discuss the relationship of
the site to others in Upper Tampa Bay. The second criterion
was to employ a strategy that would conserve native flora at
the site. Excavation strategy had to minimize damage to the
flora while ensuring that there would be adequate site
coverage. A random sampling strategy was used, resulting in
sixteen two-meter square excavation units and five judgmental
two-meter square units. The judgmental areas were selected
to test areas where random sampling appeared to have
missed potentially high data yield areas, and as extensions of
the randomly-placed units that we felt needed expansion. All
units were excavated in 15 cm arbitrary levels within
stratigraphically defined shell zones. Column samples, 20x20
cm in size, were taken from the southwest corner of all 21
units. These were used for flotation, soil chemistry analysis
and fine screening.
The aim of this article is to present the data on lithic
analysis, but a summary of what was learned from other data
categories is necessary to provide a context for understanding
the lithic analysis. A total of 1,591 sherds were recovered.

Ceramic types/categories consist of Pasco Plain (12%),
Pinellas Plain (12%), St. Johns Plain (4%), St. Johns Check
Stamped (2%), Pasco Check Stamped (1%), and sand-
tempered plain (62%). The remaining 7% consist of
indeterminate plain, stamped, or decorated sherds. This
sample suggests a multiple component occupation ranging
from Weeden Island times (A.D. 200 800), possibly
beginning as early as A.D. 500, and continuing through much
of the Safety Harbor period. The Safety Harbor occupation
clearly dominates. No discussion of the vertical and horizonal
distribution of the ceramics will be presented here.
Shell and bone artifacts are not diagnostic of any period
but consist of shell hammers (all Melongena corona), shell
clippers, utilized columella, shell picks, shell pendants and
shell beads. Most shell tools are Melongena hammers. Bone
tools are rare and consist of seven pins or pin fragments and a
pendent fragment.
Molluscan remains were identified as to species,
measured and weighed. The studied samples were taken
from the column samples. Eleven species were identified.
Most of shellfish remains consist of oyster (Crassostrea
virginica); Florida crown conch (Melongena corona) is the
second most common species. With only a few other rare
exceptions, other molluscan species recovered consist of small
univalves or bivalves commonly associated with oyster beds.
A sample of bone from selected column samples was
sent to the Florida Museum of Natural History. The faunal
identification was performed by Karla J. Bosworth. She
analyzed 2,124 bones or bone fragments and identified 21
species. These consist primarily of fishes, but include several
terrestrial species commonly found along the shores of Old
Tampa Bay: white-tailed deer, opossum, cotton rat, turtles,
tortoise and snakes.

Lithic Analysis Techniques

The debris from stone tool manufacture, tool use, and
modification are perhaps the most abundant class of
archaeological remains typically recovered from sites in the
Central Peninsular Gulf Coast archaeological region. These
remains, while abundant at inland deep-sand sites, are rarely
reported on from coastal shell middens in this region. This is
due, in part, to the inland region's abundant supply of chert
outcrops, which occur mainly along the banks of the major
rivers in central Florida, or away from the coast. Chipping
debris, or debitage, can be considered in some ways similar to
shellfish remains. Both are likely to have been disposed of at
or near the location they were created (de facto refuse),
rather than at another locale (primary or secondary refuse)
(Schiffer 1972).
This generalization also holds true for most stone
implements broken during manufacture. It is unlikely that
mistakes and rejects would have been carried far from the
place they were made unless stone was scarce or the fragment

was still suitable for the task at hand. Formed or
intentionally-shaped stone tools constitute a class of artifacts
that were most likely to have been used and discarded at
locations other than where they were made (cf. Bamforth
1986; Kelly 1988; Torrence 1983, 1989). These considerations
make the intensive analysis of the discarded stone tools,
manufacture failures, and waste flakes of paramount concern
to archaeologists working in this region. Thus, the goals of
the lithic artifact analysis for Rattlesnake Midden were three-
fold: 1) to figure out the origin of the lithic materials and
production stage of the stone tools manufactured, used, and
discarded at the site; 2) to provide information that would aid
in identifying site use (function); and, 3) to provide
information regarding the cultural/temporal affiliations) of
the site.
All stone tools and chipping debris were first separated
into three major categories: tool forms, waste flakes
(debitage), and manufacture failures. A variety of analyses
were employed to gather data useful in pursuing the goals set
for this investigation. These included a low-power (10x to
70x) use-wear study, a provenience analysis for all stone
recovered, a debitage analysis including both size-based and
attribute-based methods, and an investigation into tool
production trajectories. A brief discussion of the individual
methods is provided here; an extended discussion of these
methods can be found in Whitehurst (1988), and the general
procedures in Austin and Ste. Claire (1982), Estabrook and
Newman (1984), and Estabrook (1990, 1991).
Both the microscopic inspection of tool edges and a
measurement of the edge angle, or range of edge angles, were
used to identify the probable use of a tool. Modern tool
function experiments have shown that the use of stone tools
on various materials can result in characteristic and
recognizable patterns of tool edge scarring. Edge damage
patterns, particularly as scalar, hinge, and step fractures,
polish and edge rounding provide evidence of the kind of
material worked (Tringham et al. 1974; Odell 1980, 1981;
Ballo 1985). The type of damage identified, and their
location on the edge or surface of the stone tool, can often be
used to infer the tasks in which the tool was used, e.g.,
cutting/slicing, drilling, scraping or chopping.
The edge angle of a stone tool is the angle formed by the
intersection of the two flaked surfaces. Wilmsen (1968, 1970)
and Wylie (1975) have noted that general categories of
functional effectiveness may be inferred for certain ranges of
edge angle values. Tools with edge angles in the 260 to 350
range are most suitable for cutting and slicing activities
associated with meat and hide processing. Tools with edge
angles in the 460 to 550 range are suitable for a variety of
tasks involving cutting and scraping activities. Tools with
edge angles greater than 600 are most effective when used to
perform tasks involving scraping or shredding (Wilmsen
Use-wear and edge angle data were compared to edge

damage observed on modern replications displaying edge
damage from a variety of cutting, scraping, chopping, and
shredding tasks, and to published accounts (Tringham et al.
1974; Wylie 1975; Odell 1980, 1981; Odell and Odell-
Vereeken 1980; Vaughan 1985).
Two kinds of lithic raw material were available for use
by the inhabitants of the site: silicified coral and silicified
limestone. Silicified coral is the replacement of the original
coral aragonite skeletal material with quartz. It is sometimes
called "agatized coral." Such replacement often preserves the
fabric of the coral resulting in distinctive polyps in the stone.
The fossil genus most commonly silicified is Siderastraes, a
common fossil found in Oligocene and Miocene Formations
in Florida and south Georgia (Upchurch et al. 1982). The
distribution of this material is widespread in Florida. Artifacts
made from silicified coral cannot yet be assigned to any of the
known coral quarry areas. The closest known coral quarry
sources to the Rattlesnake Midden site are located on the
northern end of Honeymoon Island in Pinellas County and
Wesley Chapel in Pasco County (Upchurch et al. 1982;
Goodyear et al. 1983). This material is difficult to flake in its
unaltered form, and it was often heat treated to enhance its
flaking qualities.
Silicified limestone is the replacement of limestone by
quartz (Upchurch et al. 1982). This replacement usually
retains both the fabric of the limestone and the fossils
contained within it. Upchurch et al. (1982) have devised a way
to differentiate silicified limestone materials based on their
original geological strata. They have identified 19 quarry
clusters in the state based on these investigations. Each
quarry cluster contains any number of specific quarry
locations, all of which contain silicified limestone with similar
fabric and fossils (Upchurch et al. 1982).
Quarry cluster provenience determinations were made
for all silicified limestone artifacts by the senior author.
Often key index fossils could not be identified on each
individual specimen. Flakes were sorted into piles of material
with similar rock fabric and color. Specimens were placed
within the group they appeared to resemble the most. A
quarry cluster determination was then made for the entire
The chert identified as being from the Hillsborough
River quarry cluster is all fairly homogeneous. This material
is mostly light tan in color, and often contains relatively large
fossil molds of Rotaliad foraminifera. Hillsborough River
materials tend to be vitreous, are therefore more easily
flaked, and should be considered a high-grade chert.
Type-4 chert, first described by Goodyear et al. (1983:58-
60), out-crops in four places: Rocky Point, Rocky Creek,
Ballast Point, and in isolated locations on the Hillsborough
River (Goodyear et al. 1983; Deming et al. 1984a). Type-4
cherts are often white-to-buff in color, and may contain
abundant quantities of Peneroplidforaminifera common to the
Tampa/St. Marks Formation (Upchurch et al. 1982:Figure

16A and 16B). Because of the greater amounts of inclusive
fossil molds, and a much courser rock fabric, Type-4 chert is
considered a lower-grade of chert than the Hillsborough
River materials.
Type-4 cherts were misclassified in the original analysis
as Type-5 cherts (Whitehurst 1988). Type-5 cherts and Type-
4 cherts originate from the same geological formation
(Tampa/St. Marks), contain similar fossils (Peneroplid
foraminifera), but differ markedly in the fabric of the parent
limestone. It was first believed that the artifacts from 8Hi981
represented heavily-corticated specimens of Type-5 chert.
Experience, and a larger and more quarry-specific type
collection, has made distinguishing between these two cherts
types much easier (Estabrook et al. 1990).
A map/literature search and an on-site inspection were
performed to discover the exact quarries used by the site's
inhabitants. On-site investigations at Rocky Creek in western
Hillsborough County identified partly silicified limerock from
the Tampa/St. Marks Formation. Samples were taken from
dredge spoil along the exposed banks of the creek and used
for comparison during the provenience determinations.
Rocky Creek is 3.7 kilometers southeast of Rattlesnake
Midden; Rocky Point is roughly 7.4 kilometers southeast of
the site (Figure 1).
A variety of patterned tools and expedient flake tools
were also recovered from this site. Five have been identified
as patterned stone tools, and have been classified according to
the published descriptions in Bullen (1975), Robinson (1979)
and Purdy (1981) and/or by comparison to the type
collections at USF. Other specimens were identified by their
morphological characteristics (e.g., biface fragments), while
others were identified solely on the basis of use-wear (e.g.,
utilized flakes, hammerstones).
Flake size distribution analysis is the investigation of
waste flake counts over a series of flake size ranges. Flake
size distribution studies have been undertaken by Gunn,
Mahula and Sollberger (1976), Patterson (1977, 1982, 1990),
and Patterson and Sollberger (1978). These studies are based
on the premise that the manufacture of bifaces, or any tool
shaped by patterned flaking, produces a characteristic flake
size distribution curve. If systematic chipped stone tool
production has taken place, the resulting debitage distribution
should plot as an exponential curve, skewed toward smaller
flake size range (Patterson 1982, 1990:Figure 1).
When the log-transforms of these data are calculated
and the transformed values plotted on graph paper, they
should form a straight line (Patterson 1990:552; cf. Stable and
Dunn 1982, 1984). Rather than plot our data on a graph
employing a logarithmic scale, we have chosen to transform
our counts and use an equal interval scale (Shennan 1988:112-
114). Also, there is a considerable difference between the
sizes of the Hillsborough River and Type-4 chert portions of
the assemblage. Patterson (1982, 1990) converts flake counts
to percentages to overcome the problem of disproportionate

sample sizes. We have chosen to convert our transformed
data into indexed ratio scores, arrayed between 0 and 100. A
score was calculated for each size interval by assigning the
category containing the greatest number of flakes a score of
100, and calculating all other scores relative to this value
(Binford 1981:263). These procedures were implemented to
make these data easier to present, and to eliminate the
problems caused by having samples of vastly different sizes.
Attribute analysis consists of the investigation of specific
flake attributes or sets of attributes from all the chipping
debris recovered from a site. The attributes selected must be
good indicators of the various stages of the stone tool
manufacturing process. The variables we chose were the
amount of dorsal cortex and platform configuration. The
amount of dorsal surface cortex was classified using the
primary, secondary, and non-decortication categories
established by White (1963), and used extensively to describe
waste flake assemblages from many sites in the Tampa Bay
area. Platform configuration describes the conditions of the
striking platform. For this analysis, three kinds of platforms
were identified: flat or cortex covered platforms, platforms
with one to two facets (remnant flake scars), and platforms
with more than two facets.
The primary analytical device used in the attribute
analysis is the debitage paradigm. The paradigm we used is
loosely based on a model developed by Johnson and Raspet
(1980). The paradigm is a matrix arrangement, similar to a
chi-square table, in which flake categories are defined by the
co-occurrence of certain flake attributes. This configuration
allows for the simultaneous consideration of several sets of
attributes, and ensures that the distinguishing characteristics
between and within the attribute sets are clearly defined
(Austin 1982). The debitage paradigm also allows for the use
of simple statistical procedures. The chi-square statistic can
be calculated, but perhaps more importantly, the number of
flakes that would occur in each cell if the attribute sets were
independent can be calculated (the "E" or expected
frequency) (Johnson and Raspet 1980:4). This value may be
compared to the actual number of flakes recorded for that
combination of attributes (the "O" or observed frequency).
When an expected cell frequency is greater than the observed
cell frequency, the cell is regarded as having a negative
loading. In cases where the expected frequency is less than
the observed frequency, the cell is regarded as having a
positive loading. When both the vertical and horizontal
dimensions are arranged with their early stage attribute in the
upper left hand corner of the matrix, the cells along the
principal diagonal should display positive loadings and all off-
diagonal cells should display negative loadings (Johnson 1981,
The presence or absence of thermal alteration was also
analyzed. Thermal alteration, as defined for this study, is a
method of altering stone to make the stone easier to flake
(Crabtree 1972:94). Thermal alteration has been shown to

improve the flaking quality of certain kinds of stone, silicified
coral for example, making it easier to produce thinner tools
with sharper edges (Mandeville and Flenniken 1974:146-148;
Rick 1978:44-56). For our study, we looked for the presence
of at least two common visual indicators that the stone had
been heat-treated: a waxy luster and a red to pink color.

Results of Analysis

Flake Analysis

The debitage assemblage from Rattlesnake Midden
consists of 489 waste flakes: 361 Type-4 chert flakes, 72
Hillsborough River quarry cluster flakes, and 56 silicified
coral flakes. The distribution of material by level shows that
most of material was recovered from a 45 cm band between
levels two and four (15-60 cm), with level three (30-45 cm)
containing the greatest number of flakes. Level three also
contained the greatest number of specimens classified as
either Type-4 chert or silicified coral. Material from the
Hillsborough River quarry cluster was most abundant in level
four. Only eight flakes were recovered from depths below 60
cm, and all were recovered in unit 978N/973E. These data
display a gradual increase in the amounts of lithic waste
material from levels one to three, with the major lithic
activities associated with levels three and four, 45 to 60 cm
below unit datum.
The bar graph in Figure 2 shows that most of the
debitage was recovered from four units: 976N/998E,
960N/973E, 962N/973E, 978N/973E. This distribution
identified three areas of reduction, the first associated with
unit 976N/998E, the second with unit 987N/973E, and the
third associated with units 960N/973E and 962N/973E. Unit
946N/973E was the locus of silicified coral reduction, as more
than half (30 flakes) of the silicified coral assemblage was
recovered in this unit.
Thermal alteration is rare in this assemblage. Only 13
flakes could be positively identified as having been heat
treated. Three silicified limestone specimens, 0.7%, displayed
a definite red/orange enhancement and a waxy luster. Ten
silicified coral specimens, 17.9% displayed these attributes.
In comparison, it is commonly found at Gulf Coast sites that
silicified coral was thermally treated with greater frequency
than limestone (Austin and Ste. Claire 1982; Estabrook and
Newman 1984; Ste. Claire 1987). Still, the identification of
thermal alteration in the Rattlesnake Midden assemblage was
hampered by a thin cortication present on many specimens.
Flake size analysis is based on one obvious aspect of
stone tool manufacture -- the relationship between tool size
and flake size. Stone tool manufacture is a subtractive
procedure. Typically, the smaller the tool being made, the
smaller will be the flakes removed during manufacture. So,
debitage produced while finishing or modifying an implement
should, on average, be smaller than the flakes produced

Silicified Coral Hillsborough River = Type-4 Chert

140 1

120 -

100 -






9 9 9 9 9 9 1 1 1 1 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
6 7 7 9 9 9 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 6 7
2 6 8 8 8 8 0 1 1 2 2 6 8 2 4 0 2 6 6 8
N N N N N N 2 6 8 2 N N N N N N N N N N
/ / / / / / E N N N / / / / / / / / / /
9 9 9 9 9 1 / / / / 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
9 9 9 9 9 0 9 9 9 9 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
8 8 6 2 4 0 9 9 9 9 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 1 3
E E E E E 2 8 8 8 8 E E E E E E E E E E
Figure 2. Bar graph depicting the relative contribution each of the three raw material categories makes to the
total debitage assemblage at the Rattlesnake Midden site.

Log-Transformed/Scaled Flake Counts


SType-4 Chert -- Hillsborough River -4- Silicified Coral

100 h

80 -

60 -

0 1 I I I 1
0-.5 .5-1.0 1.0-2.0 2.0-3.0 3.0-4.0 4.0-5.0 5.0-6.0 6.0-7.0 7.0-8.0
Flake Size Categories (cm)
Figure 3. Flake size distribution for the three categories of lithic raw material identified at the Rattlesanke
Midden site.


during the initial shaping of the tool. This assumption is
central to several debitage studies (Newcomer 1971; Ahler
1975; Raab, Cande and Stable 1979; Burton 1980). This size
assumption must be qualified. While large flakes are the
product of early stage reduction, small flakes, particularly
those less than one cm in size, are produced throughout the
manufacturing sequence (Newcomer 1971; Patterson 1982;
Patterson and Sollberger 1978; Stable and Dunn 1984).
The results of the flake size distribution analysis are
presented in Figure 3. Both the Type-4 chert and the
silicified coral categories display characteristic left-censored
distributions, a bias toward non-recovery of smaller flakes.
This may have resulted from the use of .64 cm (1/4-inch)
mesh hardware cloth screens during excavation which allow
less than .64 cm wide/long flakes to pass through. A second
factor affecting this distribution may have been the use of
unequal flake size categories during the initial analysis -- the
smallest size category (0-1 cm) is two units wide (0-.5 and .5-1
cm), the rest are only one unit wide each. The Hillsborough
River distribution shows no indication of the failure to
recover small flakes, and no apparent affect from the category
size discrepancy. Experimental stone tool manufacturing
studies (Ahler 1976; Newcomer 1971; Patterson 1982) and
archaeological excavations (Austin and Ste. Claire 1982;
Deming et al. 1984b; Estabrook 1986, 1991; Williams and
Estabrook 1988) have shown that significant numbers of small
flakes are produced that are too small to be recovered by .64
cm screens.
The Type-4 chert and Hillsborough River distribution
curves are the easiest to interpret. Allowing for the effect of
the left-censored graphs, both distributions form straight
lines, which suggested patterned tool production (cf. Stahle
and Dunn 1984). The main differences between the graphic
representations for these two assemblages are the right
termination points. The Hillsborough River assemblage ends
at the 3.0-4.0 cm category, while the Type-4 chert assemblage
continues to the 6.0-7.0 cm category. This indicates that while
both materials were being used to produce similar kinds of
patterned tools, the Hillsborough River silicified limestone
was brought to Rattlesnake Midden in a smaller, more
reduced form, probably as bifacial reforms or very late-stage
blanks. These differences in the flake size also could have
been the result of culling, or collection of larger flakes from
piles of debitage for later use as utilized flakes. In this case,
culling behavior is considered an unlikely cause for this
distribution. We will return to our reasons for this conclusion
when we discuss the utilized flakes recovered from the site.
The silicified coral distribution appears to be both left
and right-censored. The left-censoring is easily explained by
the frequency of small flakes passing through the .64 cm
screens used during excavation. The apparent drop in
frequency of larger flakes, particularly those in the 4.0-5.0 cm
size range, is more problematic. This could be interpreted
that the distribution pattern is not right-censored at all, but

merely reflects a debitage size distribution from the
production of a tool type other than the typical biface or
uniface. We believe this represents a culling behavior -- the
recovery and curation of sharp silicified coral flakes for use as
expedient tools.
The flake attribute analysis considered two cross-
tabulations: flake size by dorsal cortex and platform condition
by dorsal cortex (Whitehurst 1988: Tables 10 and 11). Only
the flake size/dorsal cortex paradigm produced interpretable
results. This cross-tabulation produced a significant chi-
square value (Table 1). However, the positive cell loading did
not occur along the principal diagonal (cells DB1, DB5, and
DB9) as had been expected. Positive loadings were observed
in cells DB1 and DB5, but not in cell DB9. Positive loadings
were also observed in cells DB6 and DB8. This shows that
secondary decortication flakes that are greater than 4.1 cm
(DB6 flakes) and 2.1 to 4 cm primary decortication flakes
(DB8 flakes) occur in greater frequency than expected under
conditions of randomness. The sparse recovery of larger
primary decortication flakes (categories DB8 and DB9) and
the greater representation of mid-size secondary
decortication flakes (category DB6) suggest that stone for
making tools was decorticated, shaped, and well-thinned prior
to its arrival at Rattlesnake Midden.

Table 1. Flake Size/Dorsal Cortex Debitage Paradigm.
.46 2 cm 2.1- 4 cm >4.1 cm Totals
Non- 0=280 0=98 0=13
Decortication E=262.50 E=111.06 E=17.44
Loading + Loading Loading 391
Secondary 0=6 0=22 0= 6
Decortication E=22.83 E=9.66 E=1.52
Loading Loading + Loading + 34
Primary 0=0 0=1 0=0
Decortication E=0.67 E= 0.28 E=0.04
Loading Loading + Loading 1
Totals 286 121 19 426*
SNote: Only flakes with a discernable dorsal surface were included in
this analysis
Critical Region (alpha .05) = 9.488
df = 4
Chi-square (obs.) = 47.67

The flake size distribution and attribute analyses both
suggest that patterned stone tool production was being
undertaken at Rattlesnake Midden. No evidence for core
reduction or use of either large cores for bifacial tool

production or micro-cores for flake tool manufacture were
recovered from the site. The linear flake size distribution
graphs argue against core reduction or initial shaping
activities. The right termination points of the resulting graphs
have been interpreted as indicating a later-stage reduction
sequence involving well-thinned blanks and reforms.
Further, we feel that the difference in the size of the
largest flakes implies that the locally-available Type-4 cherts
were being brought to the site in a larger, less-finished form
than were pieces of Hillsborough River chert or silicified
coral that had to be transported to Rattlesnake Midden from
as far away as 34 kilometers (21 miles). The Hillsborough
River chert and silicified coral appear to have been brought
to the site in a form much closer to that of a finished tool, and
may well have been transported as late-stage blanks or
reforms. The debitage analysis, taken as a whole, suggests
that the production of stone tools at Rattlesnake Midden was
limited to secondary trimming and shaping of new tools and
the maintenance and modification of existing tools.

Tool Analysis

Twenty artifacts were recovered from Rattlesnake
Midden and classified as tool forms, manufacture failures, or

utilized flakes. A brief description and limited discussion of
these artifacts is provided below. A photograph of the
chronologically-sensitive specimens is provided in Figure 4 a-
A biface identified as a Florida Archaic Stemmed variety
(Figure 4a) (cf. Bullen 1975:32) was recovered from level two
in unit 968N/973E. The implement is made from a non-
Siderastraes variety of silicified coral. The closest known
source of this material is near Lake Thonotosassa in
Hillsborough County and in Wesley Chapel in Pasco County
(Upchurch et al. 1982). Definitive thermal alteration and use-
wear determinations are hampered by a thick surface cortex.
A rounded transverse fracture and an apparent haft snap are
observed. No use-wear/hafting damage determination was
made because of severe weathering along all lateral margins.
A Pinellas point (Figure 4b) was recovered from level
one of unit 962N/973E. The implement is made from a non-
Siderastraes variety of silicified coral. A fracture across the
blade, a possible heat-induced createde) fracture, is
apparent at the tip. No use-wear or hating damage was
observed. A large dorsal ridge may have inhibited further
reduction of the piece. Crazing (heat-cracking) across the
entire surface indicates an unintentional exposure to heat.
A second Pinellas point (Figure 4c) was recovered from

Figure 4. Selected Tools from Rattlesnake Midden: a) Florida Archaic Stemmed variant; b-c) Pinellas
points; d) preform; e) Bradford-like biface; f) Ocala-like biface.

level one of unit 978N/996E. This unaltered silicified coral
specimen displays a critical transverse fracture at the tip,
which may be the result of impact and appears to have been
hafted, but no use-wear damage was observed.
An Ocala-like preform (Figure 4d) was recovered from
level four in unit 978N/996E. This unaltered silicified
limestone specimen is made from Type-4 chert. Edge and
surface damage, combined with an average edge angle of 380,
indicate use as a cutting tool on soft/medium density
materials, though evidence of hating was indeterminate.
A Bradford-like biface (Figure 4e) was recovered from
level four of unit 998N/992E. It was made from unaltered
silicified limestone that has been identified as a local Type-4
variety. The specimen has been identified as Bradford-like
because of the weakly expanding stem, rounded shoulders,
and fair workmanship (see Bullen 1975:14 for description). It
also displays a critical transverse fracture at the mid-section,
which is probably the result of use. The specimen had been
hafted, and edge damage suggests use as a cutting implement.
An Ocala-like hafted biface (Figure 4f) was recovered
from level two in unit 1022N/998E. This unaltered silicified
limestone specimen is made from locally-available Type-4
chert. The classification of this piece is problematic. The
absence of use-wear or hafting damage could be interpreted
to suggest that the specimen was discarded during
manufacture. However, the relatively small size of the blade
compared to the size of the hafting areas suggests that this is
may be a worn-out tool.
Two specimens identified as blanks were recovered from
level two of unit 976N/1000E. The largest of the
manufacture failures is made from a Type-4 silicified
limestone. This implement was probably rejected because of
an inability to reduce a large mid-ridge, and thin the
specimen effectively. The smaller blank is made from
silicified coral. It may have been thermally altered, and
displays several reduction problems. A critical tip fracture, an
inability to flake-off the exterior cortex, and an inability to
reduce the left lateral margin may have led to specimen
Four artifacts were assigned to the category of biface
fragments. Three of these were classified as manufacture
failures. Only one was identified as a portion of a bifacial
tool broken during use. All are made from local Type-4
cherts. The broken tool fragment is best described as a
hafting element to a stemmed biface. It was recovered in
level five of unit 998N/1002E.
Five utilized flakes were identified during the debitage
analysis. Three of the five were made from unaltered silicified
limestone; all were used as scraping tools. Use-wear was also
identified on two silicified coral flakes. The unaltered coral
specimen has an average edge angle of 890, and was used as a
scraper. The heat-altered silicified coral utilized flake was
recovered from level two in unit 976N/1000E. The specimen
is lightly corticated, and may be thermally altered.

Modification to both ends of the flake (pressure flaking, edge
rounding) indicates that it may have been altered for hafting.
The edge angle (360) and edge scarring indicate that this
implement was used to cut soft or medium density materials,
such as meat or hides.
A fragment of a uniface was recovered from level two of
unit 968N/973E. The rest of this implement was not
recovered during the excavation. Extensive "salt water
staining" (a dull gray surface) was observed covering the
entire specimen, but was particularly noticeable in the fresh,
unstained flake scars observed along the right margin. The
edge angle (550) and edge damage suggests use in chopping
activities against medium-dense materials.
A hammerstone was recovered from level two in unit
952N/971E. It was made from Type-4 silicified limestone.
Battering across most of the surface shows heavy use.
Damage within recessed flake scars also suggests use as an
anvil, or possibly as a broad-surface hammer. A
hammerstone fragment was recovered from level one in unit
962N/998E. It was made from silicified limestone originating
from the Hillsborough River quarry cluster and had not been
thermally altered. Battering within the central area of the
tool shows use in hammering activities. The fracture was
probably the result of tool use.
The five utilized flakes also can be described as
expedient or opportunistic tools. The small number of
expedient tools may be related to the dearth of larger flakes
recovered at the site. It seems, still, that silicified coral was
selected for a source material for utilized flakes; of the five
identified two are made from Type-4 cherts, one from
Hillsborough Quarry cluster materials, and two are silicified
coral. These observations provide support for our contention
that the right-censored distribution obtained for the silicified
coral assemblage shown in Figure 3 was the result of the
purposeful selection of larger coral flakes for use as expedient
The number of manufacture failures is also low (n=5),
but is considered relative in size to the debitage assemblage.
There were 11 artifacts classified as tool forms, eight of which
were expended or broken, and discarded. These data
suggested that rehafting and retooling of stone implements
was performed at this site (cf. Keeley 1983).
The most prolific lithic resource available at the time
Rattlesnake Midden was occupied (circa post-A.D. 500)
would have been at what is now called Rocky Point, and/or
along the banks of Rocky Creek (see Figure 1). Twelve
specimens, exclusive of debitage, were made from Type-4
cherts: four manufacture failures, two utilized flakes, and six
whole or broken formed tools. Six specimens were made
from silicified coral: one manufacture failure, two utilized
flakes, and four formed, probably curated tools, including
three of the six bifaces recovered. Only two specimens
classified as either a formed tool or a manufacture failure
were made from Hillsborough River Quarry Cluster material:

a utilized flake and a small hammerstone fragment.
Special care was taken during the provenience analysis
to identify Caladesi, Turtlecrawl Point, and Upper
Withlacoochee Quarry Cluster material. None was identified.
These data suggest that the other coastal lithic resources like
those found within the Turtlecrawl Point and Caladesi quarry
clusters and northern inland resources were not being used by
the inhabitants of the site, while inland sources in the
Hillsborough River Basin were exploited to some extent. The
failure to use Gulf coastal resources may be the result of sea
level changes. Most of the Gulf coastal lithic resources have
been identified from dredge spoil (Upchurch et al. 1982), and
may not have been exposed during the proposed occupation
period of the site (circa A.D. 500 1500).
Two of the form/curatable tools, a Pinellas point and an
Archaic Stemmed biface, are made from a non-Siderastraes
variety of coral. Four of these specimens can be considered
imported material, the two Hillsborough River specimens and
the two non-Siderastraes specimens. The two Hillsborough
River specimens, and their associated debitage, resembles
material sampled from the Hillsborough River Basin. The
non-Siderastraes silicified coral can occur anywhere in the
chert-bearing regions of the state, but is most commonly
associated in the Tampa Bay area with Lake Thonotosassa
and the Wesley Chapel area of southeastern Pasco County.


Weeden Island-related and Safety Harbor groups
inhabited the shoreline of Old Tampa Bay. A large portion of
their sustenance came from the oyster beds and estuaries that
line the shores of the Bay. Many of their tools and
ornaments, including hammers, picks, and pins, were made
from the discarded shells of various whelk and conchs
gathered for food or from the bones of the animals they
hunted. Stone for the manufacture of stone tools was also
gathered from local resources, most probably from the area
we known now as Rocky Point or along Rocky Creek. This
material was fashioned into flake blanks and crudely-shaped
reforms at the quarry outcrops, and were then brought back
to the Rattlesnake Midden. Limited quantities of non-local
(non-Type-4 chert) materials, mainly reforms and finished
tools made from Hillsborough River cherts and a somewhat
uncommon kind of silicified coral often found near Lake
Thonotosassa, some 21 miles distant, also made their way to
this site.
We can only speculate about the ways in which these
materials traveled from quarry to camp site. The stone from
Rocky Point or from along Rocky Creek is within a short
canoe trip from Rattlesnake Midden. These materials could
easily have been collected during other activities away from
the site -- the gathering of oysters and clams, the netting of
small fish and crustaceans, or during the ensnaring or
spearing of waterfowl. No special trips would be required,

just the continual procurement of flake blanks to replace
stone tools used or broken, imbedded in the day-to-day
activities of the site's inhabitants. Stone from the upper
reaches of the Hillsborough River may have taken many
paths down to Old Tampa Bay. These finished tools and late-
stage reforms may have been obtained during the
opportunistic, perhaps seasonal, use of this inland zone as
suggested for the earlier Manasota period by Luer and Almy
(1982) and implied for the Safety Harbor phase (Goodyear
1972:54; Mitchem 1989:583-584). They may also have been
obtained in trade or as tribute from groups permanently
inhabiting inland regions. What is apparent from this
investigation is that either stone tools were not involved in
most site activities, or that many stone tools used to cut,
scrape, chop, and pound were removed from Rattlesnake
Midden after use. Given the dominance of shell tools
reported from this site and many other shell middens along
the Gulf Coast, shell tools were probably used in many
situations, and stone tools played a significant, but clearly
subsidiary role.

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J. Raymond Williams
Department of Anthropology
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Tampa, Florida 33620


George M. Luer

This paper calls attention to some little-known Florida
examples of bird-head effigies, many having projecting eyes
or pupils, which were made by Native Americans during
Mississippian times (circa A.D. 1000-1700). These effigies
were made of pottery except for one specimen of carved and
painted wood. Their exaggerated eyes or pupils distinguish
them from some other Florida examples of bird-head effigies,
such as those represented by stone plummets (Moore
1905:Fig. 15, 1907:Fig. 12; Willey 1949a:123, Fig. 15; Rouse
1951:Pl. 4,M, U-W; Bullen 1952:Fig. 15 and 16; Steinen
1982:Fig. 6.1, P) and those on carved wooden birds from
various wet-site deposits (Willey 1949b:56-57, Fig. 6 and 7;
Sears 1982:Fig. 4.6 and 4.7; Purdy 1991:Fig. 22-24, 37, and 38).

A Note About the Pottery

All but one of the bird-head effigies discussed below are
pottery adornos broken from the rim of bird-effigy bowls.
Some of these adornos are derived from pottery which can be
classified as Point Washington Incised, or an "unnamed"
variety of it, which is closely related to Lake Jackson and Fort
Walton pottery (Sears 1967:38-39, 59-60, Fig. 7:6, Fig. 10:3;
Schnell, Knight, and Schnell 1981:165). Other adornos are
derived from pottery often classified as Lake Jackson Plain or
Lake Jackson Incised.
The "unnamed" variety of Point Washington Incised
pottery, henceforth called "Point Washington Incised-like,"
has a rim with several broad shallow incised lines which
parallel the lip and curve around the base of a projecting
adorno head or tail -- see Figure 1. The incised lines also can
form a scroll-like motif which may represent a highly stylized
appendage, such as a bird's wing. Many adorno heads have
popeyes, and many have a crest on top of the head.
Point Washington Incised-like effigy bowls resemble, in
both form and decoration, many other effigy vessels of the
"mainland" Southeast which date to the Mississippian period.
They consist of a simple bowl with a solid projecting effigy
adorno and a flat shelf-like tail. For example, they resemble
pottery bird-effigy bowls from Tennessee (Fundaburk and
Foreman 1957:P1. 123) and some which, in the lower
Mississippi valley area, are classified as the ceramic type
"Mound Place Incised" (Phillips, Ford, and Griffin 1951:147-
148; Phillips 1970:135-136). Their form also resembles
pottery bird-effigy bowls from the Caddoan area of Arkansas
and east Texas (Sears 1967:39, 59-60; Calvin Jones pers.
comm. 1978). In west-central Georgia, sherds from effigy
bowls which have been classified as "Point Washington

Incised var. Point Washington" also represent animals,
including the beaver (Schnell et al. 1981:165, P1. 4.8:e).
In the Apalachee region of northwest Florida, ceramic
bird-head effigies also occur on differently-shaped pottery
vessels such as collared bowls or jars. These vessels,
especially Lake Jackson Plain and Lake Jackson Incised
collared bowls, typically have lugs or loops on their collar
(Griffin 1950; Gardner 1966; Jones and Penman 1973). In
some cases, their rim lugs or loops have been modified to
create animal effigies, some of which are bird-heads with
projecting eyes or pupils (Moore 1903b; Gardner 1966:P1.
3,E; Brose 1980:P1. 4,g; NPS-FDHR 1988; Calvin Jones pers.
comm. 1992).

Early Reports of Pottery Bird-heads
in West-Peninsular Florida

About 90 years ago, two or three ceramic bird-head
effigies were reported from southwest Florida, and another
was found in west-central Florida. They are described briefly

Specimens #1 and #2. In 1900, C. B. Moore (1900:374, 376)
obtained two ceramic bird-head effigies at Goodland Point
(8Cr45) in Collier County. Moore (1900:Fig. 20, 21)
published a photograph of each (see Figure l:b, c).
In the 1940s, archaeologist John Goggin examined
Moore's specimens at the Museum of the American Indian
(MAI) where both bore accession number 17/2074. Goggin
wrote that they:

... were apparently handles or "adornos" on pottery
vessels. They must be considered as trade pieces
from somewhere north along the Gulf coast, and
are probably a type of the Fort Walton Series. The
paste of the Goodland Point specimens is unlike
any of the wares of the Glades area (1949:n.p.).

Inspection of Moore's published photographs suggest that
both specimens served as pendants, although both appear to
have been broken originally from the rims of pottery vessels.
One of them (Fig. l:b) appears to be a modified loop from a
collared Lake Jackson vessel of the Apalachee region of
northwest Florida. Presumably it was suspended by utilizing
its loop. The other specimen (Fig. l:c) lacks a loop but,
instead, has been given an encircling carved groove
resembling that of a plummet. Presumably this groove


Vol. 45 No. I

March, 1992

5 cm 1g

Figure 1. Popeyed Bird-Head Effigies from West Peninsular Florida. A) Point Washington Incised-like bird effigy
bowl with adorno head and shelf-like tail; B & C) Adornos from Goodland Point; D) Adorno from
Chassahowitzka; E & F) Side and rear view of rim sherd and adorno from Immokalee; G) Carved and
painted wooden effigy from Key Marco. Scale applies to B-F only.

allowed it to have been suspended and worn as a pendant as
described by Reiger (1990).
Both of Moore's specimens have eyes of exaggerated size.
One specimen appears to have projecting or popeyes (Fig.
l:c). The other, while apparently lacking popeyes, seems to
have a raised rim around the eye (Fig. l:b). This rim suggests
that it might have held a bulged inlaid eye of some material
which subsequently decayed or was dislodged.
A third possible bird-head pottery specimen was obtained
by Frank Cushing on or near Key Marco (8Cr48) in Collier
County in 1895 or 1896. He identified it as a perforated
"handle" broken from a "bird bowl" and wrote that it had been
"modified to form a pendant" (Gilliland 1975:231, 236). This
specimen is housed at MAI and has accession number
1/6905. It has not been described adequately enough to
determine whether it represents a head nor whether it has
projecting eyes.

Specimen #3. C. B. Moore (1903a:413-414) unearthed a
single pottery bird-head adorno from a burial mound (8Ci3)
near the Chassahowitzka River in Citrus County. He noted
that it was unassociatedd" with burials and "other ware."
Moore's published photograph shows that this adorno had
bulged eyes (Fig. l:d) and was similar to his specimens from
Goodland Point.

A New Specimen

Specimen #4. In early 1981, archaeologist Jerald T. Milanich
of the Florida Museum of Natural History (FMNH) (then the
Florida State Museum) referred Ralph Olson of Chicago to
archaeologists Marion Almy and the author. Mr. Olson, a
collector of American Indian artifacts, was wintering at
Holmes Beach near Bradenton in Manatee County, west-
central Florida.
Mr. Olson wanted to report some Florida Indian artifacts
to the scientific community. In February 1981, Mr. Olson
took the author to meet a man from Oneco, also in Manatee
County, who recently had unearthed pottery sherds from
"deep in a large sand mound" near Immokalee in Collier
County. This description, and the pottery unearthed, seemed
to match Goggin's (1949) description of 8Cr80 where, in the
1930s or 1940s, many historic contact period metal artifacts
had been found in addition to sherds of decorated
Mississippian pottery, some with "loop handles" and
"rectangular rim lugs."
The pottery shown by the Manatee County man consisted
of two items: 1) an effigy human face (see Luer 1986:Fig.
l:c), and 2) a rim sherd with a bird-head adorno. The adorno
was striking not only for its beak and crest, but also for its
exaggerated eyes or pupils which projected laterally from the
head (Fig. l:e, f). The throat or breast of the bird was
represented by a cleverly-adapted rim lug resembling those
typical of some Lake Jackson series ceramics (for example,

see Gardner 1966:Pl. 2:A,B; Jones and Penman 1973:P1. 4 and
P1. 6; Howard and Sapronetti 1988:Fig. 3, upper left). (The
resemblance to a bird's throat or breast is also shared by the
loop on one of Moore's effigies -- Fig. l:b).
The "Specimen #3" adorno was broken from a Point
Washington Incised-like bird-effigy vessel. The outer surface
of the rim displays three broad incised lines which parallel the
lip and curve around the base of the adorno. The adorno and
its attached rim sherd consist of hard, compact, well-fired,
sand-tempered, brown pottery. It is burnished on both the
outer and inner surfaces, and the back of the bird's head and
inner surface of the sherd are shiny. The upper portion of the
adorno extends 2.6 cm (1 inch) above the lip. It faced
outward from the vessel's aperture (Fig. l:e, f).

Additional Specimens

Specimen #5. An obscure 1930s typescript provides a
remarkable description of this specimen. It was written by J.
E. Moore, a Sarasota resident who collected fossils and
artifacts (see Luer and Almy 1987:304 for biographical data
about J. E. Moore). In June 1936, Moore investigated a sand
burial mound in Manatee County, which he called the
"Ellenton Mound." The mound was 2 meters (6 to 7 feet) in
height and about 11 meters (35 feet) in diameter (Moore
1936). He gridded the mound into 5-foot squares, which he
called "stations," and drew an excavation diagram. (This
diagram was very similar to his diagram of the Laurel Mound
(8So98) -- see Luer and Almy 1987:Fig. 3.)
At "station 28" in the northeast quadrant of the EUenton
Mound and at a depth of "about thirty inches below the top of
the mound", Moore uncovered: 1) most of a decorated cone-
shaped vessel, 2) most of the pieces of a large decorated bowl
with four handles, and 3) a broken bird-head pottery effigy.
In describing the last find, he wrote:

... this is an unusual piece, the eyes extend more than
half an inch from the head, there is a flat piece
under the head like the wattles of a rooster ...
(Moore 1936:1).

Interestingly, the "flat piece under the head" might have been
a rim lug like that of the Collier County specimen described
Also in the Ellenton Mound, J. E. Moore found a second
pottery bird-head which apparently lacked popeyes. He
found it about 1.5 meters (5 feet) farther east between
"station 26" and "station 27" where it was "right on the base of
the mound, resting on the gray sand floor." Moore wrote that
it was a rim adorno broken from a "decorated" pot on which it
had faced inward. He described it as:

... painted black, except around the eyes and bill
which is cream color ... the head is bald and the

slits for the nose go all the way through the bill ...
(Moore 1936:2).

It is possible that Moore's two bird-head adornos may be
housed at the South Florida Museum (SFM) in Bradenton. It
is known that J. E. Moore (1941) loaned some of his
specimens to Montague Tallant whose collection resides at
SFM, and that SFM does have artifacts closely resembling the
cone-shaped vessel (SFM #1830) and an incised bottle from
the Ellenton Mound (SFM #2334, Luer 1985:Fig. 1,f [note:
Figures 1 and 2 are inverted]). (For additional data about the
Ellenton Mound [8Ma44], see Mitchem 1989a:176-178.)

Specimen #6. Another popeyed bird-head pottery adorno
was excavated in 1964 from a 10-foot square unit in a "black
earth plateau" of the Narvaez Midden (8Pi54) on Boca Ciega
Bay in St. Petersburg, Pinellas County. In describing the
Safety Harbor period (circa A.D. 1000 1700) artifacts
recovered in the "0 6 inch" level (including historic period
artifacts), Frank Bushnell wrote of "... one bird effigy (rim
effigy), on Pinellas paste. ... the eyes ... were bulged in effect"
Bushnell also reported popeyed bird-head effigies from
another site in St. Petersburg which yielded much evidence of
the Safety Harbor period. He wrote:

Effigy adornos similar to this one [from Narvaez]
have been seen in collections from the Maximo
Point Site. All have the eyes bulging out to quite
an extent ... (1966:116).

Specimen #7. This carved and painted wooden specimen has
been reported as a "beaked sea turtle figurehead" (Gilliland
1975:85; 1989:Pl. 19). Apparently it was discovered very near
two carved and painted human masks nested together
(Cushing 1897:65) in the "court" (8Cr49) at Key Marco. It
was found "bedded in marl" which was "below the muck which
is two feet deep" (Collier in Gilliland 1989:80). Sawyer's
watercolor and field photograph of this "figurehead"
(Gilliland 1975:P1. 59 and 68, 1989:P1. 19) both show a peg-
like pupil projecting from one of the eyes (Fig. l:g).
This projecting pupil, plus the specimen's curved beak,
suggest that it may represent a bird's head rather than a
turtle's. Indeed, the specimen's curved beak resembles the
beak of a stone bird-head plummet from the Thomas Mound
(8Hil) near Tampa Bay (see Willey 1949a:123, Fig. 15).
Furthermore, the highly-stylized painted designs which depict
the shape of the eye itself, as well as the geometric designs
behind the eye, are similar to those of silver crested
woodpecker effigies found in southern Florida. In analyzing
such designs, these very same resemblances led Allerton,
Luer, and Carr (1984:19) to call the Key Marco specimen a
"possible osprey head." In particular, they noted:

... the eyes of the crested woodpecker effigies as
well as those of the "sea turtle" or possible osprey
head from Key Marco have a "point or triangle"
below the eyeball" (Allerton et al. 1984:19, Fig. 5,
Row 3: second and third from left).

In addition, it should be noted that the pupil of several silver
crested woodpecker effigies also "bulged" outward and was
represented by an applied concave disc of gold. All of these
resemblances in form and depiction strongly suggest that the
animal represented by the carved and painted "figurehead"
from Key Marco represents a bird's head with projecting

Specimen #8. A pottery bird-head rim adorno with bulged
eyes or pupils was found in a vandalized sand burial mound at
the Wrecked Site (8Ch75) near El Jobean in Charlotte
County in 1983 (for photographs of this mound, see Luer and
Almy 1987:Fig. 1). The specimen probably originated from a
Point Washington Incised- like vessel. It resembles an effigy
head pictured by Lazarus and Hawkins (1976:11, upper left)
from a site (80k6M) in northwest Florida, although the
Charlotte County specimen's eyes bulged out much more.
Other sherds recovered from the Wrecked Site's burial
mound include portions of two Pinellas Plain bowls having
notched lips, a portion of the burnished collar of a Safety
Harbor Incised collared jar having incised scrolls on a
punctated field, a piece of a Sarasota Incised-like vessel, and
half of a thick cylindrical beaker having two bands of Sarasota
Incised decoration (Luer 1985:Fig. 1,g [note figures are
inverted]). Additional sherds from the mound formed
portions of a conical vessel resembling a "seed jar" (Gail
Schnell, pers. comm. 1983) which displayed rings of incised
lines and loops. Other references to pottery from this mound,
which is in private collections in Venice, Florida, include Luer
and Almy (1987:315, Table 2) and Mitchem (1989a:256). All
of the pottery indicates a Safety Harbor period age (circa
A.D. 1000- 1600). In addition, there is a report of a historic
contact-period metal "bell" from the mound.

Specimen #9. A bird-head rim adorno on a Point
Washington Incised-like rim sherd was recovered from the
Weeki Wachee Mound (8Hel2) in Hernando County. This
specimen had bulged eyes or pupils (Mitchem, Smith,
Goodyear, and Allen 1985:187, Fig. 3). Other Point
Washington Incised-like rim sherds from this mound had
effigy bird tails projecting from the rim (Mitchem et al.
1985:Fig. 3), a trait noted by Sears (1967:38-39).

Specimen #10. Another Point Washington Incised-like bird-
head rim adorno was found at the Tatham Mound (8Ci203) in
Citrus County in 1984. Although it lacked popeyes, it was
"crested" (Jeffrey M. Mitchem pers. comm. 1991). It was

excavated from the base of the east side of the mound.
Portions of the rest of the vessel were excavated from the
mound's central and northwest portions. Cross-matching of
sherds showed that this bird-head adorno had faced the
interior of an open bowl. Sherds of this vessel, as well as of
two other Point Washington Incised-like vessels, were in the
"postcontact stratum" which dated to circa A.D. 1525-1550
(Mitchem 1989a:367, 370, Fig. 7).

Additional Data Relating to Bird-Head Adornos

Bird-head effigies are rare in west-central and southwest
Florida. At least six of the ten specimens described above
were found in burial mounds where six of them were the only
such effigies recovered. Nine of the ten specimens were
pottery adornos, and at least four of them apparently were
derived from Point Washington Incised-like effigy bowls.
This rarity of ceramic bird-head adornos is paralleled by
the area's scarcity of the pottery from which they were
derived. For example, Point Washington Incised-like pottery
in west-central and southwest Florida is usually restricted to
burial mounds where, like the adornos, it occurs in small
quantities only. At a number of burial mounds, just a few
sherds from only one, two, or three vessels were recovered.
These small quantities typically consist of sherds scattered in
the mound.
In addition to the four burial mounds listed above
(Tatham, Weeki Wachee, Wrecked Site, and Immokalee),
Point Washington Incised-like pottery has been reported at
other burial mounds in west-central and southwest Florida.
These mounds include: Ruth Smith (8Ci200) (Mitchem
1989a:25), Safford (8Pi3) (Bullen, Partridge, and Harris
1970), Tierra Verde (8Pi51) (Sears 1967), Picnic (8Hi3)
(Bullen 1952:Fig. 23,E), Prine (8Ma83C) (Bullen 1951:30, P1.
IV,D), Aqui Esta (8Ch68) (Luer 1980), Gasparilla Sound
(8Chl) (Moore 1905:Fig. 4), 8LL8 in Lee County, and
Kirkland (8Cr57) (Mitchem 1989a:291-295).
This widespread occurrence of small quantities of Point
Washington Incised-like pottery forms a pattern of
distribution like that of some other wares in Mississippian-
period burial mounds in west-central and southwest Florida.
For example, Lake Jackson and Fort Walton series ceramics
are rare in the area and, when found, are usually in relatively
small quantities in widely-scattered burial mounds. In many
cases, the pottery seems to have been imported into the area
and dispersed. For example, the close resemblances between
some Point Washington Incised-like sherds from the Tierra
Verde Mound (FMNH 97710, FMNH 97792) and Aqui Esta
Mound suggest an origin from a common source.
Also consistent with dispersal from common sources are
similarities in style and manufacture among some Safety
Harbor period mortuary ceramics. These include similarities
in the decoration on some Safety Harbor Incised bottles and
collared jars (Luer and Almy 1987:315), in the form of

ceramic human faces (Luer 1986, 1991), and in the ware
characteristics of some Safety Harbor Incised pottery (Luer,
Almy, Ste. Claire, and Austin 1987:147; Luer and Almy
1987:315). Moreover, it is consistent with this dispersal that
these similar Safety Harbor Incised ceramics have been found
among different local plain ware assemblages in different
burial mounds (such as predominantly Pasco Plain, Pinellas
Plain, Belle Glade Plain, or sand-tempered plain) (Luer and
Almy 1987:315; Luer 1991:70).
There are also other patterns in relative and absolute
frequencies of mortuary wares both within and among
Mississippian-period burial mounds in west-peninsular
Florida. Comparisons between mounds reveal that the
largest and most diverse assemblages of Mississippian-period
decorated mortuary pottery occur at some large coastal burial
mounds (such as Tierra Verde or 8LL8). In contrast, small
and limited assemblages occur at small inland burial mounds
(such as at Myakkahatchee [8So397], the Wrecked Site, and
others). Assemblages of intermediate size and composition
seem to occur at some near-coastal or riverine mounds (such
as Picnic, Laurel, or Aqui Esta). These differences suggest
differential access to decorated Mississippian-period wares as
a function of a site's location and size, and hence possibly as a
function of a site's political and economic influence.
Within overall pottery assemblages in burial mounds, the
small absolute frequencies of decorated Mississippian-period
ceramics point to their importance and value. For example, it
already was stated above that only a single bird-head adorno
was reported from each of five different burial mounds. At
one of these, the Tatham Mound, sherds from a total of only
three Point Washington Incised- like vessels were found in a
stratum which contained the bones of between 290-350
individuals (Mitchem and Hutchinson 1987; Mitchem
1989a:367-371). This small amount of Point Washington
Incised-like pottery contrasts sharply with the numerous
burials and the mound's large amounts (over 7,500 sherds) of
local plain ware (Mitchem and Hutchinson 1987:15).
Contrasting frequencies such as these suggest special
functions for the scarce Point Washington Incised-like pottery
(as well as for other scarce Mississippian-period decorated
ware such as Safety Harbor Incised).

Social Organization and Sacred Pottery

Hypotheses involving chiefdoms engaged in long-distance
trade and intraregional tribute and redistribution can help
explain the occurrences of pottery described above. Ranked
societies and redistributional economies are central socio-
cultural elements in models of Mississippian chiefdoms (see
for example, Peebles 1971; Milanich and Fairbanks 1980:191-
In west-peninsular Florida, there were at least two major
Mississippian-period chiefdoms: one centered in the Tampa
Bay region and another in the Caloosahatchee region. Via

foot-paths and canoe-routes, they traded marine shell
northward (such as left-handed whelk, queen conch, and
helmet shell), and they received some pottery, copper, stone,
and other items from the north. Within chiefdoms, it seems
that lesser chiefs delivered tribute to paramount chiefs who,
in turn, were engaged in redistributive networks to lesser
chiefs and villages.
The latter relations may help explain the observed
occurrences (see above) of decorated Mississippian-period
pottery in burial mounds. Such pottery (obtained through
long-distance trade or made locally at one or a few of the
major coastal centers) could have been given by paramount
chiefs to lesser chiefs, or other headmen, in amounts
reflecting their individual/village status within the chiefdom.
When a "chief or priest" died, his burial might have triggered
the building of, or addition to, a local burial mound
accompanied by the interment of his community's charnel
house remains (Mitchem 1988:103-104) and the breaking and
interment of sacred pottery.
Perhaps bird-effigy vessels and adornos were rare because
they were special items identified closely with a chief,
shaman, or other religious specialist. Archaeological
evidence tends to support this possibility. Although pre-
dating Mississippian times, a Weeden Island Zoned Red bird-
head adorno was the only pottery item found in direct
association with the burial of a "religious specialist" in Mound
B at the McKeithen site (8Co17) in north Florida (Milanich,
Cordell, Knight, Kohler, and Sigler-Lavelle 1984:105, 112).
At the historic-period Apalachee town of Anhaica (the
Martin Site [8Le853B/8Le282] in present-day Tallahassee), a
ceramic bird-head adorno with popeyes (pictured in NPS-
FDHR 1988; Mitchell and Jones 1988:49; Ewen 1989a:113)
was found in a pit alongside the remains of "two round
cojoined or adjacent" aboriginal "high status" structures which
might represent the chiefs house (Tesar and Jones 1989:354,
357). Calvin Jones (pers. comm. 1992) suggests that the pit's
popeyed bird-head belonged to the structure's original
resident, possibly a chief/shaman.
As items possibly associated with a community's political
and religious leaderss, bird-effigy vessels and bird-head
adornos could be classed as "sociotechnic" items. Such items
were primarily symbolic: they helped communicate status
and articulate "individuals one with another into cohesive
groups" (Binford 1962). Various artifacts occurring with
Mississippian-period burials at Moundville phase sites in
Alabama were classified as sociotechnic items by Peebles
(1971), including animal effigy vessels. He subdivided the
items further, classifying animal effigy vessels as "local
symbols" which helped "to differentiate individuals within a
single site" (Peebles 1971:69).
In much of Florida, however, evidence indicates that
Mississippian-period bird-effigy pottery vessels and adornos
usually were not associated with individual burials. For
example, they were not found associated directly with Fort

Walton period burials at the Winewood Site (8Le164), nor at
the Lake Jackson Site (8Lel), both in Tallahassee (Jones and
Penman 1973; Calvin Jones pers. comm. 1992). At Safety
Harbor period burial mounds in west-central Florida, pottery
vessels usually are broken and not associated with particular
burials, instead lying in general deposits of various densities
in the fill of the mound.
Although Mississippian-period bird-head adornos do not
seem to be associated with specific burials in Florida, they
still could have served as "local symbols" for political/religious
leaders through ceremonial uses. One such possible
ceremony may be evidenced by the proximity of certain
artifacts at the Tatham Mound. There, the bird-head adorno
was found on the mound's east edge near many Pinellas
projectile points which apparently were "thrust or shot into
the mound" at or near the close of its construction (Mitchem
1989a:393, 531). Yet another ceremony may be evidenced by
the separation of the adorno from the rest of the effigy vessel
which was broken intentionally when the mound was being
built (although the vessel already had a hole knocked in its
bottom -- evidence of a third and earlier ceremony). (Similar
stages of breaking pottery also occur in a peninsular late
Weeden Island period burial mound -- see Luer and
Archibald 1988.)
Clearly, there were successive uses for ceramics, including
effigy adornos. The removal of adornos for further usage
may explain why some adornos were not found in, or seem to
be missing from, some burial mounds. For example, adornos
belonging to two of the three Point Washington Incised-like
vessels at the Tatham Mound were not found (Mitchem
1989a:367, 371). Further usage of broken-off adornos would
help account for isolated specimens in non-burial contexts
such as at Anhaica (the Martin Site) and the Narvaez Midden
("Specimen #6," above). It also would help account for
apparent pendants at Goodland Point ("Specimens #1 and
#2," above).

Popeye Age, Distribution, and Beliefs

Evidence indicates that the popeyed bird-head adornos
discussed above date to late Mississippian times. Indeed, they
appear to span the late prehistoric and early historic contact
periods (perhaps circa A.D. 1400-1700).
Evidence of their age consists of associated artifacts. Five
of the popeyed bird-head specimens discussed above have
been found in or near contexts yielding historic period
artifacts at 8Cr80, Narvaez, Wrecked Site, Weeki Wachee,
and Anhaica. Three were found in contexts not known to
have yielded historic period artifacts at Chassahowitzka,
Ellenton, and Key Marco. Contextual data are lacking for the
specimens from Goodland Point, but artifacts from the site
indicate that they could date to either prehistoric or historic
times. For west-peninsular burial mounds with Point
Washington Incised-like sherds, some have yielded historic

5 cm

Figure 2. Popeyed Bird-Head Effigies from Leon County in Northwest Florida. A & B) Front and side views
of pottery adorno from probable second site of San Pedro y San Pablo de Patale (adapted from
drawing by B. Calvin Jones); C) Side view of pottery adorno from Anhaica (aka the Martin site),
where the de Soto expedition encamped for the 1539-40 winter season.

period artifacts (Ruth Smith, Tatham, Picnic, 8Chl, 8LL8)
and some have not (Safford, Tierra Verde, Prine, Aqui Esta).
The best evidence for a very early historic contact period
age was found at Weeki Wachee, Tatham, and Anhaica. At
the Weeki Wachee Mound, an array of historic artifacts
including glass beads indicate an age of A.D. 1525-1550 for
"Specimen #9" (Mitchem et al. 1985; Mitchem 1989a:41-42,
1989b:103-104, 1989c:326-328). At Anhaica, a large variety of
historic materials indicate a precise age of A.D. 1539-1540
(Mitchell and Jones 1988; Tesar and Jones 1989:352-357;
Ewen 1989a, 1989b:364-365). Although the Tatham Mound's
"Specimen #10" lacked popeyes, its age is also circa A.D.
1525-1550 (Mitchem 1989a:367, 1989b:104-109, 1989c:331-
335). The latter three sites indicate an early contact period
age. This is consistent with popeyed bird-heads continuing
from late prehistoric times.
Additional evidence suggests that popeyed bird-heads
continued through the First Spanish Period (Smith 1956) to
perhaps circa A.D. 1700. At the Narvaez Midden, Bushnell
(1966) reported apparent 17th-century historic artifacts,
including Jefferson ware, iron items, and olive jar sherds, in
the same level as "Specimen #6." At the probable second
location of the late 17th-century mission of San Pedro y San
Pablo de Patale (8Le157) near Tallahassee (Jones, Hann, and
Scarry 1991:Fig. 2), another popeyed bird-head adorno (see
Figure 2:a, b) was excavated from a structure's red clay daub
floor where it was "associated with late 17th-century artifacts
including Spanish majolica, olive jar, and Leon-Jefferson

aboriginal wares" (Calvin Jones pers. comm. 1992). The close
resemblance in form between this specimen from the "Second
Patale Site" and "Specimen #4" from Immokalee may suggest
that "Specimen #4" also dates to the 17th century (a
possibility consistent with metal artifacts at 8Cr80).
Regarding geographic distribution, the specimens of
popeyed bird-head adornos reported above show that they
were widespread in west-peninsular Florida. Until now,
popeyed bird-heads have been known primarily from the
northwest portion of the state (for example, Moore 1903b;
Griffin 1950:Fig. 37:22?, 29; Gardner 1966:P1. 3,E; Brose
1980:P1. 4,g; NPS-FDHR 1988; Mitchell and Jones 1988:49;
Ewen 1989a:113). They also have been known from other
parts of the "mainland" Southeast, such as from a site in South
Carolina (Ferguson 1974:Fig. 22). The specimens described
above extend their geographic range southward through west-
central Florida and deep into southwest Florida.
The carved and painted wooden popeyed effigy from Key
Marco ("Specimen 7," above) suggests that popeyes were
incorporated into indigenous "Glades" or south Florida art
and beliefs. This is suggested also by the bulged "eyes" on
some ceremonial tablets from south Florida, and by the
concave gold discs which formed the pupils of silver crested
woodpecker effigies (Goggin 1949; Allerton et al. 1984:12).
Like the popeyed adornos, the tablets apparently date to both
late prehistoric and contact periods. The silver crested
woodpecker effigies are clearly of historic contact times.

Bird-head effigies and popeyes are the physical
manifestation of beliefs which are as yet unclear. As artifacts
dating to late prehistoric and early contact times, it is possible
that early historic accounts may be of help in interpreting
them. Indeed, accounts show birds and/or eyes as significant
to Florida's Native Americans. For example, in 1539 at the
village of Ucita near Tampa Bay or Charlotte Harbor, there
was "... a temple, on the top of which perched a wooden fowl
with gilded eyes ..." (Elvas 1922:23). In northeast Florida, a
large bird-head formed the headdress of a Timucua headman
(Lorant 1946:57, 63). In southwest Florida, a Jesuit
missionary related the Calusa belief that one of a person's
three souls consisted of "the pupil of the eye" (Lewis 1978:35).


This paper brings attention to little-known bird-head
effigies from west-peninsular Florida and catalogues ten
specimens, eight having popeyes, which apparently date to
late Mississippian times (circa A.D. 1400-1700). It is
hypothesized that different frequencies of decorated
Mississippian-period pottery at different burial mounds in
west-peninsular Florida were related to a site's location and
size, and to its economic and political influence within
chiefdoms. It also is hypothesized that the widespread and
isolated occurrences of bird-head adornos in various contexts
could be related to their uses by religious "specialists."


Information and assistance were kindly given by Marion
Almy, Lauren Archibald, Calvin Jones, Jennifer Hamilton,
Lee Harrison, Karen Malesky, Jerald Milanich, Jeff Mitchem,
Ralph Olson, Gail and Frank Schnell, Louis Tesar, and the
South Florida Museum and Bishop Planetarium in
Bradenton. Calvin Jones and Jeff Mitchem were especially
generous in sharing data.

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Howard, Frank, and Susan Sapronetti
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Jones, B. Calvin, John H. Hann, and John F. Scarry
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Mitchell, Mary L., and B. Calvin Jones
1988 Hernando de Soto en La Florida.
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Mitchem, Jeffrey M.
1988 Some Alternative Interpretations of Safety Harbor
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1989a Redefining Safety Harbor: Late
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1989b Artifacts of Exploration: Archaeological Evidence
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1989c The Ruth Smith, Weeki Wachee, and Tatham Mounds:
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Mitchem, Jeffrey M., and Dale L. Hutchinson
1987 Interim Report on Archaeological Research at the
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and Robert R. Allen
1985 Early Spanish Contact on the Florida Gulf Coast: The
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Moore, Clarence B.
1900 Certain Antiquities of the Florida West Coast. Journal
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1903a Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Central Florida
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1903b Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Apalachicola River.
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1905 Miscellaneous Investigations in Florida. In: Certain
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1907 Notes on the Ten Thousand Islands, Florida. Journal of
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 13:458-

Moore, J. E.
1936 Log of the Ellenton Mound, Investigations June 14, 18,
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1941 Loan receipt from J. E. Moore to Montague Tallant.
Dated August 28th. On file, South Florida Museum and
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NPS-FDHR (National Park Service and Florida Division of
Historical Resources)
1988 De Soto in La Florida. Pamphlet distributed by
National Park Service and Florida Department of State.

Peebles, Christopher S.
1971 Moundville and Surrounding Sites: Some Structural
Considerations of Mortuary Practices II. In:
Approaches to the Social Dimensions of Mortuary
Practices. Organized by James T. Brown. Pages 68-91.
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Number 25.

Phillips, Philip
1970 Archaeological Survey in the Lower Yazoo Basin,
Mississippi, 1949-1955. Papers of the Peabody Museum
of Archaeology and Ethnology Vol. 60. Harvard
University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Phillips, Philip, James A. Ford, and James B. Griffin
1951 Archaeological Survey in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial
Valley, 1940-1947. Papers of the Peabody Museum of
Archaeology and Ethnology Vol. 25. Harvard
University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Purdy, Barbara A.
1991 The Art and Archaeology of Florida's Wetlands. CRC
Press. Boca Raton, Florida.

Reiger, John F.
1990 "Plummets" -- An Analysis of a Mysterious Florida
Artifact. The Florida Anthropologist 43:227-239.

Rouse, Irving
1951 A Survey of Indian River Archeology, Florida. Yale
University Publications in Anthropology Number 44.
New Haven.

Schnell, Frank T., Vernon J. Knight, Jr., and Gail S. Schnell
1981 Cemochechobee. Archaeology of a Mississippian
Ceremonial Center on the Chattahoochee River.
University Presses of Florida. Gainesville.

Sears, William H.
1982 Fort Center, An Archaeological Site in the Lake
Okeechobee Basin. The University Presses of Florida.

Smith, Hale G.
1956 The European and the Indian. Florida Anthropological
Society Publications Number 4.

Steinen, Karl T.
1982 Other Nonceramic Artifacts. In: Fort Center, An
Archaeological Site in the Lake Okeechobee Basin by
William H. Sears. Pages 68-110. The University Presses
of Florida. Gainesville.

Tesar, Louis D., and B. Calvin Jones
1989 In Search of the 1539-40 De Soto Expedition Wintering
Site in Apalache. The Florida Anthropologist 42:340-

Willey, Gordon R.
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Miscellaneous Collection 113. Washington, D. C.

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George M. Luer
3222 Old Oak Drive
Sarasota, FL 34239


Robin L. Denson and James S. Dunbar

Introduction and Background

The Piney Island site (8MR848) is situated on the outer
edge of an oxbow in the Oklawaha River in Marion County,
Florida. Its location in an oxbow is particularly significant MR4
because forces of erosion are actively destroying the site R848
(Figure 1). Archaeological data loss has been, in part,
minimized through monitoring of exposed site areas. Piney
Island was discovered and, thereafter, systematically
monitored by an avocational archaeological diving group
formed to support archaeological and palaeontological
studies. Their action to record the Piney Island site is
evidence of the ability of sport diving groups to work closely '
with professional archaeologists and to make effective
contributions. ,
Archaeological sites along Florida's inland waterways
are numerous. Their location in wetland settings increases
their probability of good organic preservation. However,
these river margins are frequently excluded from terrestrial
archaeological surveys because of their wet, low-lying
geographical positions. Like river bottoms, they are rarely
systematically surveyed or included in site distribution studies.
An understanding of the processes affecting sites in river
basins begins with considering how rivers migrate. In this
paper, we address the process of erosion, show how it affects
the archaeological record associated with rivers, and discuss
the Piney Island site as an example.

Understanding River Erosion Processes V

There are two principal forms of erosion acting at any I A 7
one time upon a typical river system (Crickmay 1974:55):
vertical erosion (downcutting) and horizontal erosion
(lateral). Along the concave bank in the river's bend both -,
types of erosion are at work upon the river's bed in the same
direction (Crickmay 1974:57). This dual action characterizes
the forces destroying the prehistoric site at Piney Island. t ,f
Horizontal erosion is the most common form of erosion.
It is responsible for the lateral migration of river channels.
Over time, the river environment is assumed to be A d
undergoing natural and expected variations -- a series of
fluctuations about an equilibrium (Schumm 1977). An
example of this oscillation at Piney Island is the flooding that '
occurs each season with the heavy summer rains. The Figure 1. Aerial photograph of showing location of Piney
erosional impact of major storm events is greater than that of Island site (8MR848) on Oklawaha River, Marion
daily, normal-velocity water flow. Preliminary results of our County Florida. Inset Map of Northern Half of
low level monitoring at Piney Island support this hypothesis. Florida showing general site location.


Vol. 45 No. 1

March, 1992

Lateral migration is significant because the scale of
movement can be extensive. A study of forty selected
meanders of the Mississippi River showed that they had
migrated an average of 2.24 km laterally in 167 years --
approximately 13.5 meters per year (Crickmay 1974:57).
Second, many meanders migrated as far in the downstream
direction as they had travelled laterally. For the archaeologist
this has significant implications. The Mississippi channel
movement was accompanied by an excavation of alluvium
over 30 meters deep. The volume of sediment removal for
each bend was approximately 70,000 cubic meters per year
(Crickmay 1974:57). Considering this natural form of
sediment removal as a potential area survey tool, one can
begin to see the value of monitoring and recording areas of
active erosion.

Identifying the Archaeological Potential of Rivers

Due to the relatively young age of the Oklawaha
basin (Plio-Pleistocene) compared to that of the
Mississippi basin, the potential for destruction to its
early archaeological sites is proportionately less. A
quote from geologist Stanley Schumm on Mississippian
research serves to illustrate this point: "Archaeologists
have provided clear evidence that the lateral shift of
channels is completely natural and to be expected. ...
The number of archaeological sites on floodplains
decreases signif-icantly with age, simply because, as
floodplains are modified by river migration, the earliest
sites have the greatest probability of being destroyed"
(Schumm 1977:132).
It follows that the location of archaeological sites within
the floodplain can act as indicators of river shift, either lateral
or downstream.
Although Piney Island may not be
the earliest site to be eroded from the /
Oklawaha River, it does illustrate an O/
imperative in archaeology -- that 4"
archaeologists must utilize the finite
resources made available to them.
This includes not only financial and
labor resources but the "natural" ones
as well. A river system, through its
constant reworking of floodplain
sediments, provides a natural process
of excavation capable of uncovering or
destroying archaeological sites existing
within the floodplain. By studying the
effects of modern-day river erosion on
archaeological sites we can improve
our understanding of post-depositional
processes in alluvial settings.
We must quantify the
archaeological resource associated with Figure 2. Piney Isla

riverine systems before attempting to rank the sites in terms
of their relative importance. In "Archaeology and the Green
Movement", Greeves (1989) emphasizes the need to protect
and conserve archaeological sites and their surrounding
landscapes for the benefit of future generations. If these
kinds of programs are to succeed, the number and types of
sites must first be identified before we can begin to make
informed decisions about how to record, protect, and
preserve them.
Piney Island is one example of an archaeological
resource that is being destroyed. However, there are gaps in
our knowledge about the existence of other significant sites in
the associated river environment and their likelihood of
erosional destruction. It is only through search and survey of
the river topography and its margins that these unknowns
may be identified, quantified, and finally recorded. Perhaps
Piney Island is just one of many such sites dating to the
Greenbriar/Bolen period in the Oklawaha River or,
alternatively, it may be a rarity that is eroding away, much to
our misfortune.

Site Discovery and Monotoring

The site was first discovered in 1985 when members of
PART (Paleontological and Archaeological Research Team
of Florida), an amateur diving group formed for the support
of underwater archaeology, traced a displaced artifact scatter
back to its eroding stratigraphic horizon. In 1986
archaeologists from the Bureau of Archaeological Research
accompanied PART members to Piney Island where limited
testing with a 2" hand-held auger on land and a screen for the
eroding underwater slumpage identified the main site
component (Figure 2). Eleven auger tests were performed

5 8Mr848
4 3 1986 TEST AND
S c9 1 Auger Hole Contents
E -10 X Chert & bone
^- Bone
0 11 0 Sterile


md Site 1986 testing results. (From J. Dunbar 10/30/90).

Figure 3. Piney Island site (8MR848) after 20 months of erosion.

Figure 4. Piney Island site (8MR848) after 34 months of erosion.

and four were negative. Two of the tests contained both chert
and bone, while the remaining five yielded bone material
The diagnostic artifact assemblage included a Bolen
Side-notched biface, fragments of hafted spoke-shaves (all of
which were found in situ), and a large variety of
Greenbriar/Bolen-age unifacial tools. The preservation of
worked bone and charcoal was extremely good. The evidence
indicated that site occupation dates were clustered around
10,500 to 9,000 years before present. There are human
remains eroding from the river bank and should it prove to be
a Greenbriar burial site it would be only the second known
site of its kind in the State of Florida (Turnmire 1987:5).
Samples of the bone are to be dated by the particle
acceleration dating method (Bonnichson, pers. comm.). The
artifacts collected are stored in the Bureau of Archaeological
Research in Tallahassee.
PART'S active role in the history of Piney Island is proof
of the ability of sport diving and avocational archaeological
groups to cooperate and make effective contributions to
archaeology. Since the limited site testing in 1986, PART has
set up an erosion watch designed to monitor the site's
destruction. Some PART members have continued to dive at
Piney Island and to record their observations in a disciplined
and systematic manner.
After 20 months, the site displayed visible signs of
extreme deterioration (Figure 3). Two of the auger-test
positions that had contained cultural material had
disappeared into the river channel. The loss of a tree cluster
acting to reduce the erosion effect in the middle area of the
river's bend was most significant. This tree cluster had fallen
during a storm surge several months prior to the 20-month
survey. Future surveys would prove that most of the erosion
occurred during and directly following the uprooting of the
trees associated with the storm event. Approximately 80
square meters of surface soil were removed during the 20
month period.
After 34 months, PART noted that a new cluster of trees
had fallen downstream from the first set. A trend was
developing whereby the eroding force was visibly affecting the
central area of the bend, followed by an equally destructive
act downstream. After this, the upstream eroding action
began again. This trend is displayed in Figure 4 which depicts
the entire erosion activity over the 34-month period. It was
likely that the next major victim of erosion at the Piney Island
site would be the remaining tree cluster located in the middle
area of the bend.

Summary and Conclusions

Within the 34-month period of study, approximately 100
square meters of surface soil was eroded from the Piney

Island site, including four of the seven auger-test positions
that had previously displayed positive archaeological
evidence. Further auger testing inland is now needed to
delineate the parameters of the site, which continues to be
threatened by erosion. The monitoring process has identified
major storm events as the most significant force in facilitating
erosion. Associated with vegetation loss, these events
improve the river's ability to entrain and transport sediment,
thereby further eroding the river margin and any associated
cultural materials with it.
Natural processes are not the only agents of erosion
attacking the Piney Island site. Boat traffic in many Florida
rivers causes destructive wave action (Baker 1988) that affects
river banks. This force has not been quantified but certainly
is a major contributor to river bank erosion at Piney Island.
The Oklawaha River was recently nominated as one of
Florida's outstanding waterways. Ironically, the area
nominated to be preserved will probably be under greater
threat. Its nomination will increase boat traffic and thereby
increase erosion-causing wakes. Greater areas of
archaeological material will be washed away and be in need
of monitoring, protection, and management. Before they can
be monitored, these sites must be identified and quantified
through river survey so that they can be managed more
In 1991, a nine mile segment of the Oklawaha River was
surveyed for sites being affected by erosion. The work was
conducted under the auspices of an Archaeological Research
Permit issued by the Bureau of Archaeological Research,
Division of Historical Resources, Florida Department of
State in accordance with s. 267.12, Florida Statutes, and
Chapter 1A-32, Florida Adiministrative Code. The Oklawaha
River Survey project was financed in part with historic
preservation grant assistance provided by the Bureau of
Historic Preservation, Division of Historical Resources,
Florida Department of State, assisted by the Historic
Preservation Advisory Council. Eleven new sites were
identified and two previously known sites were revisited. The
observations made at Piney Island were directly responsible
for the development of the survey project's research design
(Denson 1991).
PART's activity to support underwater archaeological
studies in Florida has led to the recognition of the Piney
Island's site destruction Many other river sites suffering
similar erosional deterioration could provide venues for
interested archaeological groups to participate in riverine
research. Management of the cultural resource begins with
quantification. By taking advantage of sites being exposed by
natural processes these programs also promote positive
interaction between sports divers, the public, and
archaeological professionals. Piney Island is one example
how it can work for everyone.

References Cited

Baker, HA.,
1988 Erosion at the Shell Bluff Landing Site(8SJ32). Florida
Archaeological Reports 2. Florida Bureau of
Archaeological Research, Tallahassee.

Crickmay, C.H.
1974 The Work of the River. London.

Denson, R.L.
1991 Oklawaha River Survey Final Report. Submitted to the
Bureau of Archaeological Research. Florida Museum of
Natural History, Gainesville.

Greeves, T.
1989 Archaeology and the Green Movement: a case for
perestroika. Antiquity 63:659-66.

Schumm, SA.
1977 The Fluvial System. New York.

Turnmire, K.L.
1987 Florida Archaeologists Plunge into the Past. Mammoth
Trumpet 3(2):1-5.

Robin L. Denson
(at school in Scotland; write
care of James S. Dunbar)

James S. Dunbar
Bureau of Archaeological Research
Division of Historical Resources
500 South Bronough Street
Talahassee, Florida 32399-0250

AN INDEX TO VOLUMES 37-45(1) (1984-1992)

Louis D. Tesar, Journal Editor
Florida Anthropological Society

This index has been prepared for inclusion in my last
issue as the Journal Editor of The Florida Anthropologist. I
began my editorship in September, 1983, following Robert
("Bob") S. Carr as the Journal Editor. Many changes have
been made in our operation since then, and it has been an
interesting eight-and-a-half years. However, there are only so
many hours in a day, and it is time to pass the gauntlet to
another volunteer. Brent Weisman, Director of the
Conservation and Recreation Lands (C.A.R.L.)
Archaeological Program in the Florida Division of Historical
Resources' Bureau of Archaeological Research, has agreed to
accept the challenge; and, I will continue as one of his
editorial assistants, at least for a while.
The transition from typewriters, scissors and scotch tape
to word processors has permitted expansion of the journal's
content and improvement in its format. It has also reduced
by at least half the amount of time that I have had to spend
on retyping manuscript text to final galley form. Some of the
earlier issues required over 100 hours of typing and related
activities to bring to publication. With respect to actual
publication, having the cooperation of an excellent printer
helps -- Gandy Printer's in Tallahassee has been outstanding
in this capacity.
Having Mickler's Floridiana in Oviedo, Florida take
over back issues sales has also eased the Journal Editor's
responsibility. For the first seven years of my editorship, I
had that task, with the exception of a brief period when Chris
Newman tried her hand at back issues sales. The only
remaining non-editing task requiring much time is that of
preparing printed issues for bulk mailing and delivery to the
U.S. Postal Service.
As with most volunteer jobs, the greatest reward has
been in producing a product which serves a broader public, in
this instance a peer reviewed educational journal with
national and international distribution. The journal is
directed to both professional and nonprofessional
anthropologists/archaeologists, historians, and other historic
preservationists beginning at a high school level on up, while
maintaining a professional level of presentation. It is a hard
fence to straddle, as evidenced by the few complaints that it is
not scholarly enough being received for the same issues that
produced complaints that the text was too technical.
However, the vast majority of those who have commented
have been complimentary. Thus, I am satisfied with the
product which was produced during my editorship.

Funding has been a problem throughout the history of
the Florida Anthropological Society. We have maintained a
very low dues structure so that students and those with tight
incomes could join and receive The Florida Anthropologist.
Unfortunately, in spite of the low dues structure we have
remained a relatively small organization, thus making the
issue cost higher per copy than it would be with a
membership double that which we have. That has meant that
the Journal Editor has had two choices: either restrict the
journal size to around 150 pages annually to stay within dues
generated finances or find the means to raise supplemental
funds. Much effort has been devoted by myself and my
predecessors to the latter, since our organization's
membership has not grown proportionately through the years.
Back issues sales, donations and grants have permitted
publication of the larger issues which we have published,
including the 204 page 40th Anniversary issue [FA 41(1)] with
its color plate -- the first color plate in our publication history,
and the 236 page "The Missions of Spanish Florida" issue [FA
44(2-4)]. Unfortunately, we have not been the recipient of
any large endowments which could produce interest income
sufficient to meet our needs.
In Volume 37 Number 3 of The Florida Anthropologist,
I published Our Past, Our Present: An Overview and Index of
Publications of the Florida Anthropological Society, which
includes a combined content/author/topic/geographic area
index of all of the issues published from 1948 to mid-1984.
That effort took over 100 work hours to assemble and
prepare. In this issue, you are only presented with a content
index of the issues published during my editorship.
As a point of trivia, my tenure as the Journal Editor has
been the longest continuous editorship in our organization's
history. I have tried to maintain an open forum for topics of
interest to our readers, and I have made a concerted effort to
solicit contributions from avocational, student and
professional members. To assist the former, I published a
style guide in my first issue [FA 37(1)]; although, it has since
been superseded by the American Antiquity style guide.
Furthermore, in FA 38(4), I published Archaeological Site
Survey Reports: A Non-Professional's Guide to Their
Preparation, as a means of helping potential authors of
manuscripts which might be submitted for publication
consideration in The Florida Anthropologist. The future is
in the hands of my successor.
In the following index, FA will be used to indicate The


March, 1992

Vol. 45 No. 1

Florida Anthropologist and FASP will be used to indicate
issues of the former Florida Anthropological Society
Publications series. The latter was dropped as a separate
series as it was published as an extra issue of the former and
indeed continued the pagination of the former. It resulted in
convoluted citation problems. The purpose of the irregularly
published FASP series is now accomplished through enlarged
regular series FA issues and issue citation, thereby, has been
made less confusing.

The Florida Anthropologist Volume 37 1984 (206 pages)

FA 37(1) (60 pages)
Editor's Page. pp. 2-4
Allerton, David, George M. Luer and Robert S. Carr -- Ceremonial
Tablets and Related Objects from Florida. pp. 5-54.
Editorial Policy and Style Guide for The Florida Anthropologist and
Florida Anthropological Society Publications. pp. 55-60.

FA 37(2) (36 pages)
Editor's Page. p. 62
Dickinson, M. F. and G. W. Edwardson -- The Salt Works of Salt Island
Florida (8Lv133): A Site Survey and Historical Perspective. pp. 63-74.
Benson, Larry and Richard Allen -- Preliminary Investigations at the
Hornsville Site (8Ja387) in Jackson County, Florida. pp. 75-82.
McLellan, James -- Two Platform Pipes From Southern Florida. p. 83.
Tesar, Louis D. -- A Guide to Surface Survey Techniques, Artifact
Recording and Curation, and Type Collection Preparation for the
Amateur Archaeologist. pp. 84-96.

FA 37(3) (56 pages)
Editor's Page. pp. 98-99.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M. and Brent R Weisman -- Excavations at the Ruth
Smith Mound (8Ci200). pp. 100-112.
Dilworth, Anne L. -- A Spanish Olive Jar from the Florida Panhandle. pp.
Doran, Glen H. Proton Induced X-Ray Emission Analysis of Prehistoric
Florida Ceramics. pp. 115-119.
Tesar, Louis D. -- Our Past, Our Present: An Overview and Index of
Publications of the Florida Anthropological Society [from 1948-1984].
pp. 120-152.

FA 37(4) (56 pages)
Editor's Page. pp. 154-155.
Wienkler, Curtis W. -- The Human Remains from the Quad Block
(8Hi998), Tampa, Florida. pp. 156-164.
Dailey, R. C. and Dan Morse, M.D. -- The Sowell Mound, A Weeden
Island Period Burial Site in Bay County, Northwest Florida. pp. 165-
Carr, Robert S., M. Yasar Iscan and Richard A. Johnson A Late Archaic
Cemetery in South Florida. pp. 172-188.
Tesar, Louis D. -- Human Bones for the Non-Physical Anthropologist: An
Aid in Their Identification. pp. 189-202.


Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer -- Handbook of Forensic Archaeology and
Anthropology, Edited by Dan Morse, Jack Duncan and James
Stoutemire. p. 203.
Weisman, Brent -- New Radiocarbon Dates from Withlacoochee River
Shell Middens. pp. 204-205.
Shapiro, Gary Spanish Research. p. 206.

The Florida Anthropologist Volume 38 1985 (303 pages)

FA 38(1-2 Part 1) SPECIAL ISSUE:
Editor's Page. pp. 2-3
Deagan, Kathleen -- Guest Editor's Preface. pp. 4-5.
Deagan, Kathleen The Archaeology of Sixteenth Century St. Augustine.
pp. 6-33.
Manucy, Albert The Physical Setting of Sixteenth Century St. Augustine.
pp. 34-53.
Reitz, Elizabeth J. Faunal Evidence for Sixteenth Century Spanish
Subsistence at St. Augustine, Florida. pp. 54-69.
Scarry, C. Margaret -- The Use of Plant Foods in Sixteenth Century St.
Augustine. pp. 70-80.
Piatek, Bruce J. -- Non-Local Aboriginal Ceramics from Early Historic
Contexts in St. Augustine. pp. 81-89.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M. -- (CURRENT RESEARCH) Continuing Florida
State Museum-Withlacoochee River Archaeological Council Citrus
County Research. p. 90.
Tesar, Louis D. (COMMENTS) More on the Sowell Mound (8By3).
pp. 91-92.

FA 38(1-2 Part 2)/FASP 11 (105 pages)
Editor's Page. p. 94.
White, Nancy Marie -- Guest Editor's Preface to Archaeology of
Northwest Florida and Adjacent Borderlands: Current Research
Problems and Approaches. pp. 95-97.
Forney, Sandra Jo -- Prehistoric Settlement and Subsistence Systems of the
Apalachicola National Forest, Florida. pp. 98-103.
Doran, Glen H. PIXE Analysis of Gulf Islands Ceramics. pp. 104-109.
Thomas, Prentice M., Jr., and L. Janice Campbell The Deptford to Santa
Rosa/Swift Creek Transition in the Florida Panhandle. pp. 110-119.
Bense, Judith A. -- Archaeological Resource Management Plan in
Pensacola, Florida, and the Hawkshaw Project. pp. 120-123.
Classen, Cheryl -- Shellfish Utilization During Deptford and Mississippian
Times in Escambia Bay, Florida. pp. 124-135.
Mann, Cyril B. -- An Archaeological Study on the Conecuh Drainage. pp.
Stowe, Noel R. The Pensacola Variant and the Bottle Creek Phase. pp.
Fuller, Richard S. -- The Bear Point Phase of the Pensacola Variant: The
Protohistoric Period in Southwest Alabama. pp. 150-155.

Brose, David S. "Willey-Nilly" or the Archaeology of Northwest Florida
and Adjacent Borderlands Revisited. pp. 156-162.
White, Nancy Nomenclature and Interpretation in Borderland
Chronology: A Critical Overview of Northwest Florida Prehistory.
pp. 163-174.
Milanich, Jerald T. Discussion and Comments. pp. 175-177.
Willey, Gordon R. Comments on the Archaeology of Northwest Florida
in 1984. pp. 178-183.
Tesar, Louis D. Comments on Archaeology of Northwest Florida and
Adjacent Borderlands: Current Research Problems and Approaches.
pp. 184-186.
References Cited (for all issue articles). pp. 187-193.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer BOOK REVIEW: Final Report of the United
States De Soto Commission- by John R. Swanton, Classics of
Smithsonian Anthropology Reprint. pp. 194-195.

FA 38(3) (54 pages)
Editor's Page. p. 198.
Scarry, John F. A Proposed Revision of the Fort Walton Ceramic
Typology: A Type-Variety System. pp. 199-233.
Griffin, John W. -- Comments. pp. 234-235.
Luer, George M. -- Some Comments on Englewood Incised, Safety Harbor
Incised, and Scarry's Proposed Ceramic Changes. pp. 236-239.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M. Comments on John Scarry's Fort Walton Type-
Variety Paper. pp. 240-241.
Knight, Vernon James, Jr. Additional Remarks on Fort Walton Ceramic
Typology: A View From Alabama. pp. 242-243.
Scarry, John F. -- Comments on Comments On A Proposed Fort Walton
Ceramic Typology. pp. 244-246.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M. -- New Dates From Eastern Citrus County. pp. 247-
Chance, Marsha A. Showcasing Archaeology: Public Interpretation at
San Luis. pp. 249-250.

FA 38(4) (54 pages)
Editor's Page. p. 252.
Stewart, Marilyn C. A Partial Archaeological Survey of the William
Berdhall Tosohatachee Preserve. pp. 253-259.
Lien, Paul M. An Atypical Projectile Point/Knife from the
Withlacoochee River. p. 260 & Cover Illustration.
Daniel, I. Randolph, Jr. A Preliminary Model of Hunter-Gatherer
Settlement in Central Florida. pp. 261-272.
Luer, George M. An Update on Some Ceremonial Tablets. pp. 273-274.
Forney, Sandra Jo The Importance of Sites Related to the Naval Store
Industry in Florida. pp. 275-281.
Tesar, Louis D. Archaeological Site Survey Reports: A Non-
Professional's Guide to Their Preparation. pp. 282-287.
Carr, Robert S. -- Prehistoric Circular Earthworks in South Florida. pp.
Scarry, John BOOK REVIEW: Report on the Mound Explorations of
the Bureau of Ethnology, CYRUS THOMAS. Classics of
Smithsonian Anthropology Reprint. pp. 302-303.

The Florida Anthropologist Volume 39 1986 (299 pages)

FA 39(1-2) (88 pages)
Editor's Page. pp. 2-3.
Weisman, Brent The Cove of the Withlacoochee: A First Look at the
Archaeology of an Interior Florida Wetland. pp. 4-23.
Daniel, I. Randolph, Jr., Michael Wisenbaker, and George Ballo The
Organization of a Suwannee Technology: The View from Harney
Flats. pp. 24-56.
Mitchell, Douglas R. Adaptations on the Georgia Coast During the
Early Prehistoric Period. pp. 57-67.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M. Comments on Some Ceramic Pastes of the Central
Peninsular Gulf Coast. pp. 68-74.
Hardin, Kenneth The Santa Maria Mission Project. pp. 75-83.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M. -- CURRENT RESEARCH: Tatham Mound
Excavation Results. p. 84.
McCartney, Kevin -- BOOK REVIEW: The Myth of Evolution by Louise
Thomas. pp. 85-87.

FA 39(3 Pt. 1)/FASP 12 (92 pages) SPECIAL ISSUE: SHELLS AND
Editor's Page. p. 90.
Luer, George M. -- Guest Editor's Page. p. 91.
Luer, George, David Allerton, Dan Hazeltine, Ron Hatfield and Darden
Hood -- Whelk Shell Tool Blanks From Big Mound Key (8ChlO),
Charlotte County, Florida: With Notes on Certain Whelk Shell Tools.
pp. 92-124.
Luer, George M. -- Some Interesting Archaeological Occurrences of
Quahog Shells on the Gulf Coast of Central and Southern Florida.
pp. 125-159.
Beriault, John G. -- Observations Concerning Shell Mounds and a System
for Classifying Shell Material. pp. 160-163.
Carr, Robert S. -- Historical Use Interpreted from a Conch Shell Feature
in Southern Florida. pp. 164-170.
Tesar, Louis D. -- BOOK REVIEW of American Archaeology Past and
Future: A Celebration of the Society for American Archaeology 1935-
1985, David J. Meltzer, Don D. Fowler, and Jeremy A. Sabloff,
editors, pp. 171-176.
Skowronek, Russell K. -- COMMENTS: Counterfeit Coins and the
Columbian Quincentennial: An Archaeological Early Warning. pp.
Marquardt, William H. -- CURRENT RESEARCH Southwest Florida.
p. 179.

FA 39(3 Pt. 2) (60 pages)
Editor's Page. p. 182.
Kalisz, Paul J., Alan W. Dorian and Earl Stone -- Prehistoric Land Use
and the Distribution of Long-leaf Pine on the Ocala National Forest,
Florida. pp. 183-192.
Luer, George -- Post Printing Corrections for FASP # 12. p. 193.
Whitney, Theodore The Blackwater Pond (8He66) Site, Hernando
County, Florida. pp. 194-207.

Weisman, Brent R. Newman's Garden (8Ci206): A Seminole Indian Site
Near Lake Tsala Apopka, Florida. pp. 208-220.
Covington, James W. Some Observations Concerning the July, 1913
Seminole Census Taken by Agent Lucien Spencer. pp. 221-223.
Lien, Paul M. A Spontoon Tomahawk from Dixie County, Florida. pp.
Miller, James J. Florida's Unmarked Burial Bill. pp. 226-230.
Carr, Robert S. Preliminary Report on Excavations at the Cutler Fossil
Site (8Da2001) in Southern Florida. pp. 231-232.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M. -- Radiocarbon Dates from the Tatham Mound
(8Ci203). pp.233-234.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer Review of "Bibliography of Florida
Archaeology Through 1980" by Gregory Toole, Nelson Rowan
Comer-Tesar (sic, Rowan Fairgrove) and Mary LePoer (pp. 1-148);
and, "Index to Bibliography of Florida Archaeology Through 1980" by
James J. Miller, Yvonne Gsteiger and David Bradley (pp. 149-235).
In Florida Archaeology Number 1 (1986). pp. 235-236.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer -- The North American Indian (21-volume
Volume 1. The Antiquity and Origin of Native Americans,"
edited by Clark Spencer Larsen. p. 236.
Volume 2. "A Northern Algonquian Sourcebook, papers by
Frank G. Speck," edited by Edward S. Rogers. p. 236.
Volumes 3-5. "An Iroquois Source book. VOLUME ONE:
Political and Social Organization; VOLUME TWO: Calendric
Rituals; and, VOLUME THREE: Medicine Society Rituals," edited
by Elizabeth Tooker. pp. 237-239.

FA 39(4) (60 pages)
Editor's Page. pp. 242-243.
Widmer, Randolph J. Sociopolitical Implications of Off-Shore Fishing in
Aboriginal Southeastern Florida. pp. 244-251.
Kennedy, William J. -- Computer Communications Network Information
Request. p. 252.
MEETING ANNOUNCEMENT: From Big Game to Bingo: Native
Peoples of the Southeastern United States, A Retrospective
Symposium. p. 252.
Lazarus, Yulee W. -- The Indianola Inn Shell Midden Mound (80k6sm),
Fort Walton Beach, Florida. pp. 253-256.
Tesar, Louis D. Historic Preservation and Florida's Local Government
Comprehensive Planning Process. pp. 257-280.
Luer, George M. Ceramic Faces and a Pipe Fragment from South
Florida, with notes on the Pineland site, Lee County. pp. 281-286.
(Topical Series of Articles)
Tesar, Louis D. -- Introduction. p. 287.
Hoffman, Kate -- On The Importance of Volunteers. pp. 287-288.
Bell, Valerie SA-23: A Summary of the Parking Lot North of Artillary
Lane. p. 289.
Caraway, Corkey Adventures in the Dirt. pp. 289-290.
Bell, Valerie -- Burials Found on SA-23. pp. 290-291.
Dow, Bob SA-24 Update. pp. 291-292.

Tesar, Louis D. Archaeological Volunteers: Concluding Remarks. p. 292.
Tesar, Louis D. BOOK REVIEW: The North American Indian,
Volumes 6-12 (Cont. from last issue). pp. 293-296.
Johnson, William Gray and Donald A. Matucci An Experiment with a
Decomposition Cage. p. 297.
Trimble, Judi (POEM) Da 1058. p. 298.
Tesar, Louis D. Grave Robbing: Are the Guilty Innocent? p.299.

The Florida Anthropologist Volume 40 1987 (360 pages)

FA 40(1)/FASP 13 (108 pages)
Editor's Page. p. 2.
Purdy, Barbara A. Acknowledgements. p. 3.
Purdy, Barbara A. Investigations at Hontoon Island (8-VO-202), An
Archaeological Wetsite in Volusia County, Florida: An Overview and
Chronology. pp. 4-12.
McGee, Ray M. and Bruce K. Nodine -- Sampling and Excavation
Strategies at Hontoon Island (8-VO-202). pp. 13-16.
Nodine, Bruce K. -- APPENDIX: Wetsite Excavation Strategies at
Hontoon Island (8-VO-202), Florida. pp. 16-18.
Nodine, Bruce K. Refuse Disposal and Midden Formation at Hontoon
Island (8-VO-202), Florida. pp. 19-26.
Purdy, Barbara A. -- Hontoon Island, Florida (8-VO-202) Artifacts. pp.
Wing, Elizabeth S. and Laurie McKean Preliminary Study of the Animal
Remains Excavated from the Hontoon Island Site. pp. 40-46.
Newsom, Lee A. -- Analysis of Botanical Remains from Hontoon Island
(8-VO-202), Florida: 1980-1985 Excavations. pp. 47-84.
LeCompte, Elsie V. The Conservation of Wooden Remains from
Archaeological Wetsites. pp. 85-89.
Eubanks, W. S., Jr., Reviewer -- Florida Archaeology, Number 2: four
translations of Spanish Documents by Dr. John H. Hann. pp. 90-93.
McCartney, Kevin, Reviewer Archaeological Geology, edited by George
Rapp, Jr. and John A. Gifford; and, Geoarchaeology quarterly
journal, p. 94.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer -- The North American Indian, Volumes 13-17
(Continued from last issue). pp. 95-97.
Tesar, Louis D. -- A Note on Undelivered FAS Journals. p. 98.
Pollock, Philllip M. -- Artifact Recording Methods. pp. 99-102.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M. -- CURRENT RESEARCH: Tatham Mound. p. 103.
ASVNET/ESANET Computer Network Announcement. p. 104.
Announcement of the 50th Anniversary of Dr. Joffre Coe's Initial
Archaeological Work at Town Creek Indian Mound, North Carolina.
p. 105.

FA40(2) (72 pages)
Editor's Page. p. 110.
Cardwell, Harold D., Sr. -- Comments from the President: The Year of

Preservation. p. 111.
An Invitation to Join the Florida Anthropological Society. pp. 112-113.
FIND NEW MEMBERS: Earn Back Issues Credits. p. 114.
Ruhl, Donna L. A Case of Mistaken Identity: Is it "Wood" or What? pp.
Rotenstein, David S. Archaeology of a Rural Blacksmith's Shop. pp.
Luer, George, Marion Almy, Dana Ste.Claire, and Robert Austin -- The
Myakkahatchee Site (8So397), A Large Multi-Period Inland from the
Shore Site in Sarasota County, Florida. pp. 137-153.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M. and Brent R. Weisman Changing Settlement
Patterns and Pottery Types in the Withlacoochee Cove [Region of
Florida]. pp. 154-166.
Lee, Arthur R. Liason Group Furthers Cooperation in British
Archaeology. pp. 167-168.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M. OBITUARY: Adelaide Kendall Bullen. p. 169.
White, Nancy Marie -- Shell Mounds of the Lower Appalachicola Valley,
Northwest Florida. pp. 170-174.
Cardwell, Harold D., Sr. Dendrochronology and Dendroarchaeology.
pp. 175-176.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer The North American Indian, Volumes 18-21
(Continued from last issue). pp. 177-179.
Payne, Claudine, Reviewer Alabama and the Borderlands: From
Prehistory to Statehood, Edited by R. Reid Badger and Lawrence A.
Clayton. p. 180.
White, Nancy Marie, Reviewer The Tombigbee Watershed in
Southeastern Prehistory, by Ned J. Jenekins and Richard A. Krause.
pp. 181-182.
ANNOUNCEMENT: 1987 Southeastern Archaeological Conference. p.

FA 40(3) (64 pages)
Editor's Page. p. 186.
Bond, Stanley C., Jr. The Development of the Naval Stores Industry in
St. Johns County, Florida. pp. 187-202.
Ste.Claire, Dana The Development of Thermal Alteration Technologies
in Florida: Implications for the Study of Prehistoric Adaptation. pp.
Webster, William J. The Manufacturing Techniques of an Early Hoe
from Colonial Georgia (ca. A.D. 1780). pp. 209-214.
Hranicky, Wm. Jack The Single Light Method (SLM): A New Technique
in Photographing Artifacts. pp. 215-220.
Tesar, Louis D. -- Chapter 872, Florida Statutes ("Offenses Concerning
Dead Bodies and Graves") Amended: The Law and Its Significance.
pp. 221-222.
Salvage Excavations at the Gibsonton Site, Hillsborough County, Florida.
pp. 224-228.
Wienker, Curtis W. Archaeological Evidence of a Second Seminole War
Autopsy. pp. 229-232.
Hardin, Kenneth W. and Robert J. Austin -- A Preliminary Report on the
Bay Cadillac Site: A Prehistoric Cemetery in Tampa, Florida. pp.

Deming, Joan, Reviewer -- 300' x 35 mi Corridor to the Past by Phillip M.
Pollock. pp. 235-236.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer -- Harney Flats: A Florida Paleo-Indian Site by
I. Randolph Daniel and Michael Wisenbaker. pp. 237-238.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer -- The Art of Flint Knapping (Third Edition) by
D.C. Waldorf. p. 239.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer In Search of De Soto's Trail (A
Hypothesis of the Alabama Route) by Caleb Curren. p. 240.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M., Reviewer Culture in Contact: The European
Impact on Native Cultural Institutions in Eastern North America,
A.D. 1000-1800, William W. Fitzhugh,editor and commentator, pp.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M. FILM COMMENTARY: The Mission. pp. 244-
CALL FOR ASSISTANCE: The 1539-40 de Soto Winter Encampment
Needs You! p. 245.
An Invitation to Join The Florida Anthropological Society. pp. 246-247.
Find New Members: Earn Back Issues Credit. p. 248.
Join/Rejoin the Florida Anthropological Society (Membership
Application). p. 248.

FA 40(4) (112 pages)
Editor's Page. pp. 250-253.
Important Back Issues Sales Notice. p. 253.
Goodwin, R. Christopher -- Louisiana Is Looking Forward To Its Past. pp.
Piper, Harry M. and Jacquelyn G. Piper -- Urban Archaeology in Florida:
The Search For Pattern In Tampa's Historic Core. pp. 260-265.
Austin, Robert J. and Kenneth W. Hardin -- Conserving A City's
Prehistory: St. Petersburg's Archaeological Survey And Planning
Project. pp. 266-274.
Johnson, G. Michael and Timothy A. Kohler Toward A Better
Understanding of North Peninsular Gulf Coast Florida Prehistory:
Archaeological Reconnaissance In Dixie County. pp. 275-286.
Austin, Robert J. -- Prehistoric and Early Historic Settlement In The
Kissimmee River Valley: An Archaeological Survey of the Avon Park
Air Force Range. pp. 287-300.
Luer, George M. and Marion M. Almy -- The Laurell Mound (8So98) And
Radial Burials With Comments On The Safety Harbor Period. pp.
Lazarus, Yulee W. -- The Case Of The Face Down Burial: A Possible
Explanation For A Unique Burial From Site 8By39, Bay County,
Florida. pp. 321-327.
Quetone, Joe A. -- Chapter 872, Florida Statutes 1987 ("Offenses
Concerning Dead Bodies And Graves"): A Native American's
Perspective. pp. 328-329.
Askew, Walter H. -- Uncovering Our Prehistoric Pineland. pp. 330-332.
Cardwell, Harold A., Sr. -- Coontie Root: The Dangerous Blessing. pp.
Haiduvan, Richard and Roger C. Smith -- Survey of Ship's Wreckage
(8Du3157) At Little Talbot Island Park, Duval County, Florida. pp.

Tesar, Louis D. BOOK REVIEW: Story In Stone: Flint Types Of The
Central And Southern U.S. (1987) Illustrated by Val Waldorf with
text by D. C. Waldorf. p. 348.
Wisenbaker, Michael BOOK REVIEW: Environments and Extinctions:
Man In Late Glacial North America (1985), Edited by Jim I. Mead
and David J. Meltzer. pp. 349-351.
Tesar, Louis D. Index Of The Florida Anthropologist, Volumes 37-40
(1984-87) With Brief Comments. pp. 352-355.
An Invitation To Join The Florida Anthropological Society. pp. 356-357.
Tennessee Anthropological Association Membership Information
Announcement. p. 358.
Arkansas Archaeological Society Membership Information Announcement.
p. 359.
FAS Back Issues Order Form. p. 360.

The Florida Anthropologist Volume 41 1988 (508 pages)

FA 41(1) (204 pages)
Tesar, Louis D. -- Comments on Special 40th Anniversary Issue of The
Florida Anthropologist. pp. 4-7.
Cardwell, Harold D, 1987-88 FAS President -- A New Era in
Anthropology. p. 8.
ANNOUNCEMENT: Fortieth Annual Meeting of the Florida
Anthropological Society, May 6-8, 1988. p. 9.
REPRINT: The Florida Anthropologist Volume I Number 1-2 (1948).
pp. 13-30.
Smith, Hale G. -- Results of an Archaeological Investigation of a Spanish
Mission Site in Jefferson County, Florida. pp. 13-17.
Simpson, J. Clarence Folsom-like Points from Florida. pp. 18-20.
W. W. Erhmann -- A Note to Members. p. 21.
Allen, Ross The Big Circle Mounds. pp. 21-23.
Griffin, John R. Weeden Island Zoned Red. p. 24.
Sleight, Frederick W. Man Enters America. pp. 24-26.
Griffin, John W. -- An Unusual Shell Pendant. p. 27.
Smith, Hale G., Reviewer The Indians of the Southeastern United States
by John R. Swanton. pp. 27-28.
Griffin, John W., Reviewer -- The Everglades: River of Grass by Marjory
Stoneman Douglas. p. 28.
McCall, Bevode C., Reviewer -- The Theory of Human Culture by James
Feibleman. pp. 28-29.

An Invitation to Join the Florida Anthropological Society. pp. 31-32.
Tesar, Louis D. -- The Role of the Avocational Archaeologist. pp. 3341.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M. and Jonathan M. Leader -- Early Sixteenth Century
Beads from the Tatham Mound, Citrus County, Florida: Data and
Interpretations. pp. 42-60.
Hann, John H. -- Florida's Terra Incognita: West Florida's Natives in the
Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century. pp. 61-109.
Piper, Harry M. -- Subsistence Strategies of Private Archaeological Firms
in Florida: Inside Looking In. pp. 108-139.
Tesar, Louis D. -- The Statutory Framework of Florida's Comprehensive

Historic Preservation Planning Process and Related Activities. pp.
Muncher, David A. -- Conservation of the El Morro Castle Ordonez Gun.
pp. 146-162.
Scarry, John F., Reviewer Artifacts of the Spanish Colonies of Florida
and the Caribbean, 1500-1800, Volume 1: Ceramics, Glassware, and
Beads (1987) by Kathleen Deagan. p. 163.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer Indians, Colonists, and Slaves: Essays in
Memory of Charles H. Fairbanks (1985), edited by Kenneth W.
Johnson, Jonathan M. Leader and Robert C. Wilson.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer Anthropology in Florida (1986) by Brian M.
duToit. p. 165-166.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer The Route of the Soto Army Through
Alabama (1983) by Caleb Curren. p. 168.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina
de Guale: 1. Search and Discovery (1987) by David Hurst Thomas
with a contribution by Lorann SA. Pendleton. pp. 168-169.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer -- HAWKSHAW: Prehistory in an Urban
Neighborhood in Pensacola, Florida (1985), edited by Judith A.
Bense. pp. 170-171.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer -- Indian Mounds of the Atlantic Coast: A
Guide to Sites from Maine to Florida (1987) by Jerry N. McDonald
and Susan L. Woodward. p. 172.
Griffin, John W., Reviewer -- Spanish Point: Guide to Prehistory (1987) by
Marion M. Almy and George M. Luer. Illustrated by Hermann
Trappman. p. 173.
Smith, Marion, Reviewer -- Pottery Analysis: A Source-book (1987) by
Prudence M. Rice. pp. 174-175.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer -- Early Sixteenth Century Glass Beads in the
Spanish Colonial Trade (1982) by Marvin T. Smith and Mary
Elizabeth Good. p. 176.
Dunbar, James S. -- Archaeological Sites in the Drowned Tertiary Karst
Region of the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. pp. 177-180.
Anuskiewicz, Richard J. -- Preliminary Archaeological Investigations at
Ray Hole Spring in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. pp. 181-184.
Faught, Michael Inundated Sites in the Apalachee Bay Area of the
Eastern Gulf of Mexico. pp. 185-189.
Serbousek, Don -- An Example of an Offshore Sinkhole in the Gulf of
Mexico with Good Archaeological Potential. p. 190.
Jones, B. Calvin and Charles Ewan De Soto Winter Encampment. p.
Smith, Marion and John Scarry Apalachee Settlement Patterns Project.
p. 192.
Scarry, John, Rochelle Marrinan and Ronda Majors -- St. Marks Wildlife
Refuge Firetower Cemetery Site (8Wal5). p. 192.
Shapiro, Gary -- San Luis (8Le4). p. 192.
Adovasio, J. M. NEWS RELEASE: ARPA Conviction. pp. 193-194.
Help Buy the de Soto Winter Camp Site Funding Effort. pp. 195-196.
Call for Papers for de Soto-First Spanish Period Special Issue. p. 197.
de Soto Commemorative Stamp Effort. p. 197.
How to Join the Texas Archaeological Society Information. p. 198.

St. Francis Barracks Project Seeks Funds and Volunteers. p. 199.
Rediscover San Luis, March 11-12, 1988 Public Archaeology Event. p. 200.
1000 Friends of Florida Organization Information. p. 201.
FA Back Issues Order Form. pp. 202-203.
Join/Rejoin the Florida Anthropological Society Information. p. 204.

FA 41(2) (74 pages) [Joint publication with]
Editor's Comments
The Florida Anthropologist. p. 3.
Florida Journal of Anthropology. p. 4.
Lawless, Robert The Cognition of Intersections: An Analysis of Kalinga,
American and Haitian Folk Models. pp. 5-20.
Susan D. deFrance Perspectives on the Development of Political
Structure in Affluent Marine Social Groups: Ethnographic and
Archaeological Examples. pp. 21-30.
Trogdon, Richard S. Resettlement of the Mopan Maya from the
Cockscomb Basin of Belize. pp. 31-38.
Gladden, Kathleen A. Sexism and Language in Farming Systems
Research. pp. 39-44.
Schaeff, Gary W. The Practice of Couvade among Lowland Tropical
Forest Peoples of South America: A Study of Causes and
Correlations. pp. 45-52.
Ruhl, Donna L., Editor BOOK REVIEWS. pp. 53-62.
Cusick, James, Editor CURRENT RESEARCH. pp. 63-68.
1987. pp. 69-73.
Seahorse Key Field School. p. 74.
Charles H. Fairbanks Memorial Issue. p. 75.
SOCIETY. pp. 76-77.
P. 78.

FA 41(3) (122 pages)
Editor's Page. pp. 284-287.
DeSoto Expedition/First Spanish Period Issue: Call for Papers and Funding
Assistance. p. 288.
DeSoto Commemorative Stamp Effort. p. 288.
Historic Preservation in Virginia: Remarks of the Honorable Gerald L.
Baliles, Governor of The Commonwealth of Virginia. pp. 289-294.
Chambers, Tori Dean Archaeological Dig Experiment Report. pp. 303-
McKee, Lynn and her 4th grade class -- Could Prehistoric Indians Have
Used Gar Oil As An Insect Repellent? pp. 306.
Howard, Frank and Susan Sapronetti One Small Site. pp. 307-312.
Masson, Marilyn A. Shell Celt Morphology and Reduction: An Analogy
to Lithic Research. pp. 313-335.
Masson, Marilyn A., Robert S. Carr and Debra S. Goldman The Taylor's
Head Site (8BD74): Sampling a Prehistoric Midden on an Everglades
Tree Island. pp. 336-350.
Smith, Marion F., Jr. and John F. Scarry -- Apalachee Settlement

Distribution: The View from the Florida Master Site File. pp. 351-
Doran, Glen H. and David N. Dickel -- Radiometric Chronology of the
Archaic Windover Archaeological Site (8BR246). pp. 365-380.
Purdy, Barbara A. Piston Corers: Equipment, Technique, and Application
to Archaeology. pp. 381-392.
Wisenbaker, Michael, Reviewer -- Stone Age Spear and Arrow Points of the
Midcontinental and Eastern United States: A Modern Survey
Reference (1987) by Noel D. Justice. pp. 393-395.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer Treasures of the Chipola River Valley (1987)
by H. L. Chason. p. 396.
Weisman, Brent R., Reviewer Creeks and Seminoles (1987) by Leitch
Wright, Jr. pp. 397-398.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer Apalachee: The Land Between the Rivers
(1988) by John Hann. pp. 399401.
Current Research. p. 402.
Comments: FAS Brochure: Offenses Concerning Dead Bodies and Graves.
p. 402.
Jones, B. Calvin The Dreamer and the deSoto Site. pp. 402-403.
FAS Dues Increase Notice. p. 404.

FA 41(4) (104 pages)
Editor's Page. pp. 406-412.
REPRINT: The Florida Anthropologist Vol. I No. 2-3 (1948). pp. 413-434.
Spellman, Charles W. -- The Agriculture of the Early North Florida Indians.
pp. 413-419.
Griffin, John W. -- Toward Chronology in Coastal Volusia County
[,Florida]. pp. 419-423.
Goggin, John M. -- A Revised Temporal Chart of Florida Archaeology. pp.
Krogman, Wilton Marion The Racial Type of the Seminole Indians of
Florida and Oklahoma. pp. 425-431.
Griffin, John W. -- Editorial Comments. p. 432.

Bullen, Ripley P., Reviewer -- The Flint River Site:Ma 48. Wi. S. Webb and
David L. DeJarnette. pp. 432-433.
Bullen, Ripley P., Reviewer The Archaic Horizon in Western Tennessee.
T.M.N. Lewis and Madeline Kneberg. p. 434.

Dunbar, Jim The Types and Potentials of Underwater Archaeological
Resources in Florida. pp. 435-441.
Dunbar, James S., Michael K. Faught and S. David Webb Page/Ladson
(8Je591): An Underwater Paleo-Indian Site in Northwestern Florida.
pp. 442-452.
Willis, Craig -- Controlled Surface Collection of the Little River Rapids Site
(8Je603): A Stratigraphically Deflated Site in the Aucilla River, North
Florida. pp. 453470.
Richardson, Steve -- Survey of the Aucilla River South from Ward Island on
the Jefferson-Taylor County Line, Florida. pp. 471-482.
Alexon, Roger C. -- Gingery Cache Site (8Ta99): A cache of possible pale-
olithic tools found with mastodon bones. pp. 483-485.
Wisenbaker, Michael, Reviewer -- Florida's Fossils: A Guide to Location,

Identification and Enjoyment (1988) by Robin C. Brown. pp. 486-488.
Weisman, Brent R., Reviewer Creeks and Seminoles (1987) by Leitch
Wrught, Jr. pp. 489490.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer Crossroads of Continents: Cultures of Siberia
and Alaska (1988), William W. Fitzhugh and Aron Crowell,
Compilers. pp. 491.
McCartney, Kevin, Reviewer Geological Society of America symposia.
Archaeological Geology: Geophysical, Geochemical, and Geological
Studies (1988). pp. 492-493.
Historic Preservation Advisory Council Recommendations for 1989 Special
Category Grants (November 1988 Meeting). pp. 494-495.
Notice of State Grants-in-Aid Cycle. pp. 496-507.
Florida State Museum Name Change [Announcement]. p. 508.
[Announcement] Native American Symposium Planned. p. 508.

The Florida Anthropologist Volume 42 1989 (418 pages)

FA 42(1) (84 pages)
Editor's Page: FA 42(1). pp. 3-4.
Cardwell, Harold D., Sr. President's Message. p. 5.
Anon. In Memorium: Ed Henriquez and Frank Morrison. p. 6.
Carr, Robert S. Archaeological Excavations at the Stranahan House
(8Bd259), Fort Lauderdale, Florida. pp. 7-33.
Kersey, Harry A., Jr. Seminole Trading Sites in South Florida: A New
Ethno-Archaeological Opportunity. pp. 34-42.
West, Patsy Seminole Indian Settlement at Pine Island, Broward County,
Florida: An Overview. pp. 43-56.
Smith, Marion F., Jr., and R. Douglas Walton, Jr. The Florida Master Site
File. pp. 57-76.
Eubanks, Scott, Reviewer Catastrophism and the Old Testament: The
Mars-Earth Conflicts by Donald Wesley Patten. pp. 77-78.
ANNOUNCEMENT: "Rediscover San Luis" Recreates the Mission Era in
North Florida. April 21-22, 1989 event in Tallahassee. Open to the
Public. pp. 79-80.
ANNOUNCEMENT: Florida Anthropological Society (and Florida
Archaeological Council) Annual Meeting. April 28-30, 1989 event in
Jacksonville. Open to the Public. pp. 81-82.
The Florida Anthropological Society Wants You! [Membership Application
Form] p.83.
[Editor's] Request For Comments. p. 84.

FA42(2) (92 pages)
Editor's Page: FA 42(2). pp. 86-88.
Luer, George M. Calusa Canals in Southwestern Florida: Routes of
Tribute and Exchange. pp. 89-130.
Luer, George M. A Seminole Burial on Indian Field (8LL39), Lee
County, Southwestern Florida. pp. 131-133.
Piatek, Bruce John, Stanley C. Bond, Jr., and Christine L. Newman St.
Augustine Under Siege: St. Augustine's Archaeological Preservation
Ordinance. pp. 134-152.

Tesar, Louis D. Editorial Postscript to St. Augustine Under Siege. pp.
Lee, Arthur R. Instruments to Measure Hafting Angles of Whelk Shell
Tools in Both the Vertical and Horizontal Planes. pp. 155-157.
Lazarus, Yulee W. Fort Walton Wonders: Four Odd Artifacts in the
Florida Panhandle. pp. 158-162.
Wisenbaker, Michael, Reviewer Wet Site Archaeology, edited by Barbara
A. Purdy. pp. 163-171.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer Key Marco's Buried Treasures: Archaeology
and Adventure in the Nineteenth Century by Marion Spjut Gilliland.
pp. 172-174.
The Florida Anthropological Society Wants You (FAS Membership
Application). p. 176.

FA 42(3) (94 pages)
Editor's Page: The Florida Anthropologist 42(3). p. 178.
Griffin, John W. Time and Space in South Florida: A Synthesis. pp. 179-
Carr, Robert S., Marilyn Masson and Willard Steele Archaeological
Investigations at the Okeechobee Battlefield. pp. 205-236.
Luer, George M. A Seminole Burial on Indian Field (8LL39), Lee
County, Southwestern Florida. pp. 237-240.
Luer, George M. Further Research on the Pine Island Canal and
Associated Sites, Lee County, Florida. pp. 241-247.
POSITION ANNOUNCEMENT: St. Augustine City Archaeologist. p. 248.
Luer, George M. Notes on the Howard Shell Mound and Calusa Island,
Lee County, Florida. pp. 249-254.
Graves, Gypsy C. Preliminary Report on the New River Midden
(8Bd196) Excavation, Broward County, Florida. pp. 255-256.
Coleman, Wesley F. Salvage Excavations at the Trail Ridge Site, Dade
County, Florida. pp. 257-262.
Lord, James S. A Zoomorphic Pin from Dade County, Florida. pp. 263-
Scarry, John, Reviewer Stylistic Boundaries among Mobile Hunter-for-
agers (1988) by. C. Garth Sampson. pp. 265-266.
46th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological Conference,
November 8-11, 1989, Tampa, Florida. p. 267.
Florida Archaeological Council Symposium: Building the Future While
Protecting the Past: A New Partnership" November 16, 1989,
Jacksonville, Florida. p. 268.

FA 42(4) (148 pages)
Editor's Page: FA 42(4) December 1989. pp. 272-275.
Tesar, Louis D. The Case for Concluding That deSoto Landed Near
Present-dat Fort Myers, Florida: The Conclusions Presented by
Warren H. Wilkinson Reviewed. pp. 276-279.
Williams, Lindsey A Charlotte Harbor Perspective on de Soto's Landing
Site. pp. 280-294.

Milanich, Jerald T. Where Did DeSoto Land?: Identifying Bahia Honda.
pp. 295-302.
Milanich, Jerald T. Hernando De Soto and the Expedition in Florida: An
Overview. pp. 303-316.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M. The Ruth Smith, Weeki Watchee, and Tatham
Mounds: Archaeological Evidence of Early Spanish Contact. pp.
Tesar, Louis D. and B. Calvin Jones In Search of the 1539-40 de Soto
Expedition Wintering Site in Apalache. pp. 340-360.
Ewan, Charles R. The DeSoto Apalachee Project: The Martin Site and
Beyond. pp. 361-368.
Eubanks, W.S., Jr. Studying de Soto's Route: A Georgia House of Cards.
pp. 369-380.
Curren, Caleb, Keith J. Little and Harry O. Holstein Aboriginal
Societies Encountered by the Tristan de Luna Expedition. pp. 381-
Dickinson, Martin F. Delineating a Site Through Limited Research:
The Mission of San Juan del Puerto (8Du53), Fort George Island,
Florida. pp. 396-409.
Book Reviews:
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer First Encounters: Spanish Explorers in the
Caribbean and the United States, 1492-1570 edited by Jerald T.
Milanich and Susan Milbrath. pp. 410-414.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer Gold Coins of the 1715 Spanish Plate Fleet:
A Numistmatic Study of the State of Florida Collection by Alan K.
Craig with and appendix by Frances Keith. p. 414.
Current Research:
Weisman, Brent R1 CARL Program Archaeological Inventory Project. p.
Lee, Arthur R. Florida Anthropological Society Annual Meeting and
Call for Papers. p. 416.
Invitation to Join the Florida Anthropological Society. pp. 417-418.

The Florida Anthropologist Volume 43 1990 (280 pages)

FA 43(1) (80 pages)
Editor's Page: FA 43(1) March 1990. p.2.
Hann, John H. DeSoto, Dobyns, and Demography in Western Timucua.
pp. 3-12.
Anderson, David G. The Mississippian Occupation and Abandonment of
the Savannah River Valley. pp. 13-35.
Hudson, Charles and Marvin Smith Reply to Eubanks. pp. 36-42.
Chardon, Roland Response to Eubanks. pp. 43-44.
Morse, Dan F. Scientific Instruments and Early Explorers in the United
States. pp. 45-47.
Johnson, Kenneth W. and Bruce C. Nelson The Utina: Seriation and
Chronology. pp. 48-62.
Watson, Mary Lou, Tom Watson and Louis D. Tesar -- A Cache of Points
from Bay County, Florida. pp. 63-70.
Ballo, George Use-Wear Analysis of Six Projectile Point/Knives from
the Shell Point Site (8By89). p. 71.

Morse, Dan F., Reviewer Eastern Paleoindian Lithic Resource Use,
edited by Christopher J. Ellis and Johnathan C. Lothrop. pp. 72-73.
McCartney, Kevin, Reviewer "Geological Controls on the Regional
Distribution of Archaeological Sites" Symposium, Geological Society
of America. p. 74.
ERRATA: "Aboriginal Societies Encountered by the Tristan de Luna
Expedition." Correction submitted by Caleb Curren. p. 75.
ANNOUNCEMENT: 42nd Annual Meeting of the Florida Anthropological
Society in Naples, Florida on April 27-29, 1990; and, concurrent
Florida Archaeological Council Annual Meeting on April 27, 1990.
pp. 76-77.
The Florida Anthropologist: An Invitation to Join the Florida
Athropological Society. pp. 77-78.
The Florida Anthropological Society Wants You! (Application Form). p.

FA 43(2) (72 pages)
Editor's Page: FA 43(2) -- June 1990. p. 82.
THE PAST: A NEW PARTNERSHIP. Edited by Robert J. Austin.
Austin, Robert J. -- Honoring Private Sector Involvement In
Archaeological Preservation: The Florida Archaeological Council's
Preservation Awards Day. pp. 84-88.
Bond, Stanley -- Florida Archaeological Council Forum Building the
Future While Protecting the Past: A New Partnership -
Introductory Remarks. pp. 89-90.
Miller, James J. -- What State and Federal Laws Can and Can't Do For
Archaeological Preservation. pp. 91-92.
Deagan, Kathleen Florida Firsts: Benefiting from Florida's Past. pp. 93-
Mitchell, Chuck The De Soto Site and Archaeological Preservation: A
Developer's Point of View. pp. 96-100.
Thunen, Robert -- The Good, the Bad and the Ugly in Northwest Florida
Archaeology. pp. 101-102.
Hardin, Kenneth W. The Florida Archaeological Council's Stewards of
Heritage Preservation Awards Banquet: Welcome Address. pp. 103-
Smith, Jim The Florida Archaeological Council's Stewards of Heritage
Preservation Awards Banquet: Prepared Remarks. pp. 105-106.
Austin, Robert J., Excerpter and Editor -- Excerpts from Comments by the
Stewards of Heritage Preservation Awards Banquet Speakers. pp.
Austin, Robert J. -- Some Thoughts on Roles and Responsibilities: The
New Partnership and Beyond. pp. 113-115.

Lazarus, Yulee The Temple Mound Museum: Remembering the First
Twenty Years. pp. 116-125.

Bense, Judith A. -- The Search for the Lost Rectors: A Public

Archaeology Project Overview and Project Description. pp. 127-
Joy, Deborah Excavation Under Old Christ Church in Pensacola,
Florida. pp. 133-137.
Fabbro, Mary Ann The Search for the Lost Rectors: A Public
Archaeology Project Public Relations and Archaeology. pp. 138-
Currin, B. Madison The Search for the Lost Rectors: A Personal
Perspective. pp. 140-143.

Morse, Dan F., Reviewer Eastern Paleoindian Lithic Resource Use
edited by Christopher J. Ellis and Johnathan C. Lothrop. pp. 144-145.
Wisenbaker, Michael, Reviewer Points and Blades of the Coastal Plain:
A Guide to the Classification of North American Hafted Implements
in the Southeastern Coastal Plain Region by John Powell. pp. 146-
Tesar, Louis D. Florida Senate Honors B. Calvin Jones for
Archaeological Site Discoveries. pp. 149-151.
Little, Keith The Question Remains: W.S. Eubanks' Argument for
Sixteenth Century Spanish Contact at the Peachtree Site Near
Murphy, N.C. Has Not Been Refuted by Hudson and Smith. p. 152.

FA 43(3) (72 pages)
Editor's Page: FA 43(3) September 1990. pp. 154-155.
Mitchem, Jeffrey Mitchem The Contribution of Nels C. Nelson to
Florida Archaeology. p. 156-163.
Newsom, Lee Ann and Barbara A. Purdy Florida Canoes: A Maritime
Heritage From the Past. pp. 164-180.
Little, Keith J. and Caleb Curren The Alabama de Soto Commission
Debates: A Reply to the Criticisms by Charles Hudson. pp. 181-188.
Ste. Claire, Dana -- The Archaic in East Florida: Archaeological Evidence
from Early Coastal Adaptations. pp. 189-197.
Mikell, Gregory A. -- The Sheephead Bayou Site (8BY150): A Single
Component Fort Walton Hamlet Site in Northwest Florida. pp. 198-
Johnson, William Gray The Role of Maize in South Florida Aboriginal
Native Societies: An Overview. pp. 209-214.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M., Reviewer -- Powhantan's Mantle: Indians in the
Colonial Southeast, edited by Peter H. Wood, Gregory A Waselkov
and M. Thomas Hatley. pp. 215-216.
Hann, John, Reviewer The Juan Pardo Expedition: Exploration of the
Carolinas and Tennessee, 1566-1568 by Charles Hudson. pp. 217-218.
Lee, Arthur R. -- One of FAS' Younger Chapters Has Had A State-wide
Impact: Review of Time Sifters Archaeology Society. pp. 219-220.
Lyons, W. R. Left Hand Valves. p. 221.
NPS NEWS RELEASE: Join in the Activities at the Theodore Roosevelt
Area of the Timucuan Ecological and Historical Preserve. pp. 222-

FA 43(4) (56 pages)
Editor's Page Robert S. Carr, Guest Editor p. 226.
Reiger, John F. "Plummets" An Analysis of a Mysterious Florida
Artifact. pp. 227-239.
West, Patsy History of Post-war Seminole Settlement in the Big Cypress.
pp. 240-248.
Carr, Robert S. Archaeological Investigations at Pine Island, Broward
County. pp. 249-261.
Felmley, Amy Osteological Analysis of the Pine Island Site Human
Remains. pp. 262-274.
McKinney, Diane, James Lord, John Ayer, Barbara Tansey, and Grant
Hammersberg Preliminary Results of Excavations at The L&L
Site, Dade County, Florida. pp. 275-278.
Tansey, Barbara FA.S. Chapter Profile: Archaeological Society of
Southern Florida. p. 280.
Lee, Art Pendant Found in Gait Island Spoil Pile. p. 280.

The Florida Anthropologist Volume 44 1991 (336 pages)

FA 44(1) (100 pages)
Editor's Page: FA 44(1), March 1991. p. 2.
Gerrell, Philip R., John F. Scarry and James S. Dunbar Analysis of Early
Archaic Adzes from North Florida. pp. 3-16.
White, Nancy Marie -- Testing Remote Shell Mounds in the Lower
Apalachicola Valley, Northwest Florida. pp. 17-29.
Archibald, Lauren C. Working to Save the Past in Sarasota County,
Florida: A New Archaeological Review Program. pp. 30-36.
Archibald, Lauren C. Landscape Archaeology at the Clam Shell Pool,
Historic Spanish Point, Osprey, Florida. pp. 37-46.
Archibald, Lauren C. An Early Twentieth Century Domestic Artifact
Scatter in Osprey, Sarasota County, Florida. pp. 47-58.
Luer, George M. Historic Resources at the Pineland Site, Lee County,
Florida. pp. 59-75.
Lee, Arthur R. The Randells of Lee County's Pineland: Florida
Archaeology Owes Them Much. p. 76.
Austin, Robert J. Charting the Course of Florida's Archaeological
Future. pp. 77-78.
Siegel, Peter E. Migration Research in Saladoid Archaeology: A
Review. pp. 79-91.
Daniel, I. Randolph, Jr., Reviewer The Earliest South Carolinians, The
Paleoindian Occupation of South Carolina (1990) by Albert C.
Goodyear III, James L. Michie and Tommy Charles. pp. 92-93.
Kessel, Morton H., Commentor The Role of Maize in South Florida
Aboriginal Societies: A Comment. p. 94.
Lee, Arthur R. Southwest Florida Chapter Started Life Deep in Archaic
Muck. p. 95.
Ripley P. Bullen and Stela 1, Crystal River Site (8Cil), 1964. Submitted by
Brent R. Weisman. p. 96.
Reconstructing Calusa Woodworking Techniques. Submitted by Robin C.
Brown. p. 97.
Old Stone Wharf, New Smyrna Beach, Volusia County, Florida. Submitted

by Dot Moore. p. 98.
The FAS "Florida Indians" Poster. Created by Theodore Morris. p. 99.
Membership/Subscription Form. p. 100.

FA 44(2-4) (236 Pages)
McEwan, Bonnie G. -- Guest Editor's Preface. p. 104
Gannon, Michael V. Introduction. pp. 105-106.
Thomas, David Hurst -- The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de
Guale: Our First Fifteen Years. pp. 107-125.
Saunders, Rebecca Architecture of the Missions Santa Maria and Santa
Catalina de Amelia. pp. 126-138.
Hoffman, Kathleen The Archaeology of the Convento de San Francisco.
pp. 139-153.
Deagan, Kathleen St. Augustine and the Mission Frontier. pp. 154-163.
Hann, John H. -- The Mayaca and Jororo and the Missions to Them. pp.
Johnson, Kenneth -- Mission Santa Fe'de Toloca. pp. 176-186.
Weisman, Brent R. -- Archaeology of Fig Springs Mission, Ichetucknee
Springs State Park. pp. 187-203.
Loucks, L. Jill -- Spanish-Indian Interaction on the Florida Missions: The
Archeology of Baptizing Spring. pp. 204-213.
Hoshower, Lisa M. and Jerald T. Milanich Excavations in the Fig
Springs Mission Burial Area. pp. 214-227.
Marrinan, Rochelle A. Archaeological Investigations at Mission Patale,
1984-1991. pp. 228-254.
McEwan, Bonnie G. Hispanic Life on the Seventeenth Century Florida
Frontier. pp. 255-267.
Larsen, Clark Spencer -- On the Frontier of Contact: Mission
Bioarchaeology in La Florida. pp. 268-284.
Scarry, C. Margaret -- Plant Production and Procurement in Apalachee
Province. pp. 285-294.
Reitz, Elizabeth J. -- Evidence for Animal Use at the Missions of Spanish
Florida. pp. 295-306.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M. -- Beads and Pendants from San Luis de Talimali:
Inferences from Varying Contexts. pp. 307-315.
Vernon, Richard and Ann S. Cordell -- A Distributional and Technological
Study of Apalachee Colono-Ware from San Luis de Talimali. pp.
Book Reviews:
Lister, Florence C., Reviewer -- Columbian Consequences, Volume 2:
Archaeological and Historical Perspectives on the Spanish
Borderlands East, edited by David Hurst Thomas. pp. 331-332.
Milner, George R., Reviewer -- The Archaeology of Mission Santa
Catalina de Guale: 2. Biocultural Interpretations of a Pupulation in
Transition, edited by Clark Spencer Larsen. pp. 333-334.

The Florida Anthropologist Volume 45 1992

FA45(1) (96 pages)
Tesar, Louis D. -- Editor's Page: The Florida Anthropologist 45(1) --
March 1992. pp. 2-4.

Wheeler, Ryan J. -- The Riviera Complex: An East Okeechobee
Archaeological Area Settlement. pp. 5-17.
White, Nancy Marie -- The Overgrown Road Site (8Gu38): A Swift Creek
Camp Site in the Lower Apalachicola Valley. pp. 18-38.
Estabrook, Richard W., and J. Raymond Williams -- Analysis of Lithic
Materials from the Rattlesnake Shell Midden Site (8HI980), Tampa
Bay, Florida. pp. 39-51.
Luer, George M. -- Popeyed Bird-Head Effigies in West-Central and
Southwest Florida. pp. 52-62.
Denson, Robin L., and James S. Dunbar -- Piney Island (8MR 848): An
Eroding Prehistoric Site in the Oklawaha River Basin of Central
Florida. pp. 63-67.
Tesar, Louis D. -- The Florida Anthropologist: An Index to Volumes 37-
45(1) (1984-1992) With Brief Comments. pp. 68-78.
Tesar, Louis D., Reviewer -- Tatham Mound (1991) by Piers Anthony. p.
Wisenbaker, Michael, Reviewer -- Guide to the Paleo-Indian Artifacts of
North America (1990) by Richard Michael Gramly. pp. 80-81.
Wisenbaker, Michael, Reviewer -- The Art and Archaeology of Florida's
Wetlands (1991) by Barbara A. Purdy. pp. 82-84.
McCartney, Kevin, Reviewer -- Archeological Geology of North America
(1990) edited by Norman P. Lasca and Jack Donahue. pp. 85.
Luer, George M. -- Was This Whelk Shell Damaged By A Predatory Sea
Turtle? pp. 86-87.
Two Unusual Stone and Shell Artifacts from Site 8BR559, Brevard County,
Florida. Submitted by Vera Zimmerman. pp. 88-89.
Branstetter, Laura, Submitter -- Brief Biographical Sketch of Montague
Tallant (1892-1962). p. 90.
Montegue Tallant at Shaws Point, Manatee County, Florida. Submitted by
Karen Malesky. pp. 90-91.
"Munsilna McGundo House," Duval County, Florida. Submitted by Henry
Baker. p. 92.
Piper, Harry and Jackie -- ANNOUNCEMENT: A New Beginning for the
Pipers. p. 93.
Luer, George M. -- ERRATUM: A Note on Pineland and Josslyn Island,
Lee County, Southwest Florida. p. 93.
Smith, K. C., Preparer -- Apalachee Chapter Stresses Member Training.
pp. 94-95.
FAS Membership Application Forms. p. 96.

Louis D. Tesar
P.O. Box 1013
Tallahassee, Florida 32302


Tatham Mound (1991) by Piers Anthony. William Morrow
and Company, Inc., New York. 6 1/8" x 9 1/4" Hardcover,
522 pages.

I received from Valet Publishing Company, P.O. Box
1568, Clayton, Georgia 30525 an uncorrected, bound galley
copy of Piers Anthony's Tatham Mound for review. Having
kept up with Brent Weisman's archaeological excavation of
the Tatham Mound and habitually spending much of my
leisure time reading science fiction/fantasy and historical
novels -- including the writings of Piers Anthony, I was
delighted to have an opportunity to review Piers Anthony's
Tatham Mound.
In the letter which accompanied the book, it is stated
that this is Piers Anthony's "first foray into the main stream of
historical fiction." This may be so, but it is not his first use of
scientific and historical fact in his stories. Indeed that is a
characteristic of his writings. For example, in Orn (1970) he
provides a paleontological lesson, while in Steppe (1976) he
provides an historical lesson. Thus, the reader is provided
with an educational experience in the framework of good
story telling and entertaining reading. In Tatham Mound he
uses archaeological and ethnohistorical data more indirectly
as a foundation from which to build his tale. A tale which
provides flesh and reality to the dry bones and artifacts of
unemotional scientific data. In my opinion, he accomplishes
his goal in Tatham Mound.
The letter which accompanies the book also includes the

Of the book TATHAM MOUND, Linda
Shuler, author of SHE WHO REMEMBERS,
wrote: "An engrossing story with the most
intriguing characters I have ever met. Meticulously
researched, beautifully told. TATHAM MOUND
lingers in memory long after the story is told."
TATHAM MOUND tells the story of the
Tocobaga Indians who disappeared from Florida
before it was settled by Europeans. The excavation
of this rare, untouched burial site in 1986, revealed
the devastating results of their encounter with early
explorers. Based on this archaeological dig, the life
blood of a dying culture is relived in the telling of
its story. Now, for the first time, re-discover a lost
American culture in this moving adventure by
master storyteller Piers Anthony.

Piers Anthony begins Tatham Mound with a ten page
introduction and ends it with a detailed Author's Note.
Together, these provide an insight into the author's

involvement with the archaeological project and the data
upon which his tale is based. From his notes and
observations during the Tatham Mound archaeological
project, from his reading of Brent Weisman's dissertation and
related materials on Southeastern Indians and those of the
Yucatan and Mexico, Piers Anthony assembles his
background information and sets the stage for his story: "But
what of the people buried there? These folk lived and died,
and their demise as shown by the evidence of the mound was
tragic. What was their personal story?" To this question he
responds: "We can never know precisely, but this novel
represents one conjecture. This is a vision of the living folk of
the region, whose bones were found in Tatham Mound. It
could have happened this way."
Indeed, it could and what follows is nearly 500 pages of
engrossing historical fiction. It is well worth reading.

P.S. I subsequently obtained a copy of the final bound
hardcover edition. Its a nice looking publication. It would
look good on your book shelf, but would be better served if
devote a quite weekend or a few evenings to some (hopefully)
uninterrupted reading.

Reviewed by
Louis D. Tesar, Editor
The Florida Anthropologist


Vol. 45 No. 1

March, 1992

Guide to the Paleo-Indian Artifacts of North America. 1990,
by Richard Michael Gramly, Persimmon Press, 78 pages,
paperback, indexed, many figures, and references cited, ISBN

The author of this book is Curator of Anthropology at
the Buffalo Museum of Science. He also is the archaeologist
who excavated and reported the Vail and Adkins Paleo-
Indian sites in Maine.
In the preface, Gramly states the book's three basic
goals. The primary goal is to compile a list of "all" North
American Paleo-Indian artifacts (biased toward stone, bone,
antler and ivory since these are the objects most likely to be
preserved from this period). He notes that other things such
as clothing, dwellings and conveyances may only be inferred.
The second goal, and a noble and useful one, is for the book
to serve as a thesaurus or synonym finder for Paleo-Indian
technological jargon. Obviously many similar artifact types
are assigned different names based solely on where and by
whom they were found. Some French terms noted here more
than likely arose from Francois Bordes' pioneering studies of
Old World Paleolithic sites. The last goal of the book is to
show the tremendous variation in tool kits for the earliest
Native Americans. In the past, too much has been made of
the putative sameness of Paleo-Indian assemblages. This is
analogous to the long-held, but antiquated, anthropological
notion that Paleo-Indians were nomads whose lives focused
on the relentless pursuit of now-extinct megafauna.
At any rate, Gramly bases what is and what is not Paleo-
Indian strictly on technology and economy. If there is any
question or doubt about a cultural phase, such as were extinct
or extirpated animals exploited, he excludes them. For
example, bolen points are often classed as Paleo-Indian
artifacts by many Florida archaeologists, although no clear,
uncontested association between Pleistocene animals and
bolens has been made in Florida. Further, bolens don't bare
any technological similarities to Suwannees, Simpsons,
Clovises or any other lanceolate points. This approach should
be commended because too often what appears in the
literature soon has a way of becoming immutable divine truth.
All total, nearly 20 major types or varieties of Paleo-
Indian projectile points are recognized in North America.
They are found in every Canadian province except New-
foundland and in every state but Hawaii. The following
artifacts, and features, are discussed in the book: abrader,
adze, alternately beveled biface, anvilstone, awl, backed knife,
bead, beamer, bend break tool, biface, biface reduction flake,
bifacial bit, bifacial core, bifacial lozenge, bipolar core, blade,
blade core, blank, borer, boulder hammer (hammerstone),
burin, burin spall artifact, butterfly, celt, channel flake, chip,
chisel, chisel graver, chopper, circular scraper, cleaver, cobble
tool, combination endscraper-sidescraper, concave scraper,

core, core-biface, coronet graver, crescent, dagger, debitage,
denticulate, disc, discoidal core, distal edge uniface, drill, end-
scraper, Enterline scraper, expedient tool, flake, flake blade,
flake knife, flesher, fluted point, foreshaft, foret, gouge,
grattoir, grattoir a museau, graver, graving spur, grinding
stone, hachoir, inscribed bone, keeled scraper, knife, lateral
edge uniface, limace, manuport, microlith, miniature
projectile point (toy), Mungai knife, needle, notch, pendant,
perforator, petroglyph, pick, piece esquillee, pigment, plane,
point, polishing stone, polyhedral core, preform, prismatic
blade, probe, punch, racelette, radial fracture tool, reamer,
retouched flake, retoucher, saw, scaled and splintered flake,
scraper, semifabricate, shatter, shouldered knife, sickle,
sidescraper, slotting tool, socket, spall, spokeshave, spurred
scraper, stepping stone, storage chamber/cache, tent,
thrusting spear, twist drill, uniface, uniface resharpening
flake, utilized flake, wedge-shaped core, weight and wrench.
For each artifact noted, he gives the name (with other
names in parentheses), describes, and sometimes depicts, its
form. Occasionally he touches on the function--while being
well-aware that the same tool may have had multiple
functions or could have served different purposes through
time. The book also reveals where the artifact was found and,
if known, where it is now reposited. Gramly brings out some
things that aren't widely known about Paleo-Indian artifacts.
For example, a bead was found in a Paleo-Indian (Folsom)
context at the Lindenmeier site in Colorado. At the Murray
Springs (Clovis) site in Arizona, a mammoth leg bone with a
cylindrical hole at one end was used as a wrench, probably for
straightening out wooden shafts. He also depicts a "fluted"
bone point recovered from a Lake Okeechobee canal that was
allegedly found imbedded in a giant ground sloth.
Unfortunately, none of the Florida professional
archaeologists that I have spoken to know anything about this
The book does, unfortunately, have a few minor flaws.
Most of the artifacts covered represent assemblages from the
Northeast, the Ohio Valley, the Southwest or the Great
Plains. If the book is to be truly comprehensive, it should give
equal coverage to artifact types from the Northwest, Canada
and the Southeast. Further, in discussing the artifacts, the
author should have differentiated between true diagnostics,
possible diagnostics and those that also might occur in Ar-
chaic, or even later, period sites. While some artifacts
discussed clearly are from a definitive Paleo-Inidan context,
others are either questionable or also turn up in later period
sites. Also, inferences such as the location of tent features
based on the lack of postholes, should be plainly labeled as
such. Finally, Gramly employs the term Palaeo-Indian while
other professionals use the terms Paleo-Indian or Paleoindian
to refer to the same period. While most archaeologists
probably recognize these terms as synonyms, the public may


Vol. 45 No. I

March, 1992

not. It is something that is confusing and should be
standardized, preferably using the earliest term. With these
few shortcomings in mind, Guide to the Palaeo-Indian
Artifacts of North America should be a valued addition to the
libraries of those who are interested in the most intriguing
and colorful period of North American prehistory.

Price: $14.95
Plus $2.00 Shipping & Handling
New York residents add 8% sales tax

Persimmon Press
118 Tillinghast Place
Buffalo, New York 14216

Reviewed by: a
Michael Wisenbaker
Tallahassee, Florida f a

The Art and Archaeology of Florida's Wetlands, 1991, by
Barbara A. Purdy, CRC Press, 317 pages, hardbound,
indexed, figures and bibliography, ISBN 0-8493-8808-2.

This is the author's second book on the archaeology of
wet sites. Unlike Wet Site Archaeology published by Telford
Press in 1988, The Art and Archaeology of Florida's
Wetlands focuses only on sites and artifacts found within the
state. In the preface, Purdy notes that organic objects that
normally perish in land sites may be preserved in anaerobic
wet sites. For example, some Florida wet sites have produced
impressive large wooden effigies that would have rotted in
most environments. On the downside, though, most such sites
have been discovered because of drawdowns, dredging and
development projects. This is an undesirable situation since
sites may be destroyed before archaeologists get a chance to
evaluate them properly or it could result in untold and costly
delays in construction during emergency salvage operations.
The Art and Archaeology of Florida's Wetlands is made
up of five separate chapters, the first of which is an
introduction. Here Purdy notes that even under the best of
circumstances--where all material culture is preserved--
archaeologists normally work without benefit of any written
records to guide them in their research. At most terrestrial
sites, more than 90% of the material culture has perished.
Thus, wet sites provide us with a unique window of
opportunity, allowing scientists to reconstruct more
realistically people's material culture that, in turn, may give us
better insight into their behavioral patterns. Further, non-
human remains sheltered in wet sites such as animal bones
and plants can shed light on subsistence activities and natural
environments in which people lived.
Chapter two depicts the general conditions present at
Florida's wet sites. It is unfortunate that many sites are
discovered accidentally. In essence, this means that even in
instances where wet sites are reported to the proper
authorities, their integrity may have been compromised
before a professional archaeologist has had an opportunity to
investigate them. Dr. Purdy notes that pH is one important
variable in predicting where wooden artifacts would most
likely be preserved. She makes another important point,
stating you would expect the preservation of most floral and
faunal material, including human skeletons and wooden
artifacts, would date only to about 5,000-6,000 years ago when
moist conditions in Florida became more widespread. Finding
older sites is possible since many spectacular Florida wet sites
predate 6,000 years. These include Little Salt Spring, Warm
Mineral Springs, Windover, Republic Groves and Bay West.
The survival of early sites may be the result of people
focusing on water located in sinks or deep depressions at
times when the precious liquid was more scarce. No mention
is made that this idea originated with W.T. Neill in what he
called the "Oasis Hypothesis."

Chapter three pulls together site data from disparate,
and sometimes obscure, sources about Florida's wet sites.
These include Key Marco, Bay West, Belle Glade, Fort
Center, Hontoon Island, Little Salt Spring, Page-Ladson,
Republic Groves, Warm Mineral Springs, Windover, Tick
Island and Lake Monroe.
Key Marco (8CR48), excavated under the direction of
the eccentric Frank Hamilton Cushing, was the first, in 1896,
wet site in Florida to be systematically investigated. A wide
array of wooden tools and art (ceremonial?) objects were
encased for hundreds of years in the muck of this site near
Naples. Objects were made from pine, cypress, mahogany and
lignum vitae. An assortment of animal remains also came
from Key Marco. Wooden trays, cups, bowls, tubs, mortars,
pestles, toy canoes, amulets, boxes, paddles, stools, ear
buttons, clubs, atlatls and anthropomorphic carvings and
masks were found as well as bone, stone and shell objects.
Pigments and resins used for painting some wooden items
appeared at Key Marco. The woodworking skills of these
people rivaled those of the craftsman on the Northwest Coast
of North America. Unfortunately, many artifacts quickly
disintegrated after having been removed from their mucky
matrix. Cushing did have enough foresight, though, to make
sure that most objects from Key Marco were sketched and
photographed. As a minor quibble in this section, the correct
spelling is Hrdlicka, not 'Hrdicka.'
The Bay West site (8CR200), located just a few miles
northeast of Naples, was discovered when it was draglined. It
appeared to be primarily a mortuary in a 35 meter diameter
depression of a cypress dome. A variety of plants, fish, birds,
reptiles, amphibians and various invertebrates were found
here. Based on recovered human skeletal remains, Bay West
represented at least 37 burials. Several Middle to Late
Archaic "spearheads" and other stone objects were found. A
few wooden artifacts turned up from this approximately 6,000
year old site. Concerning Bay West, Purdy states that
"stronger legislation and greater compensation or incentives
to property owners are needed to avoid similar situations."
While legislation, s.872.05 F.S., has been in place since 1987
to deal with this issue, the main concern now should be for
Cultural Resource Management professionals to develop
effective ways for predicting probable locations of potentially
significant archaeological sites in wetlands and investigating
them before permitting any draining or demucking.
The Belle Glade site (8PB40 and 8PB91) is on the
southeast shore of Lake Okeechobee. It was comprised of a
huge habitation midden, burial mound and linear earthworks.
The site was excavated in 1933 and 1934 as part of the
Federal Emergency Relief Program. Some 1,500 men, under
the direction of G.M. Sterling, collected wooden, shell and
bone artifacts. Some artifacts resembled those from Key
Marco and Fort Center. Many ceramics also were recovered.
A few tools were made from human bones. Shell celts, adzes
and hated shark teeth were probably used to shape and carve

the wooden artifacts found at Belle Glade. European artifacts
here consisted of gold, silver and copper heads, some iron
and lead scraps, Spanish olive jars and hundreds of glass
beads. Spanish shipwrecks provided a new source of exotic
materials and the effect of controlling these materials and
their introduction into Southeastern aboriginal trade
networks remains to be studied.
The Fort Center site (8GL13) is on the west side of
Lake Okecchobee. John Goggin tested it in 1951. Looters hit
the site in 1961 in search of gold and silver. William Sears
excavated there from 1964 and 1965 and, again from 1966
through 1971. Fort Center was made up of middens, house
and ceremonial mounds, earthworks and a charnel pond.
Most wooden artifacts found at Fort Center were made from
pine. Scars believes that pine could have been more easily
shaped into various implements than cypress. Maize was the
only plant cultigen found at the site. The fauna recovered
consisted of shellfish, fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds and
mammals. Apparently subsistence centered on collecting
aquatic species and gathering a variety of wild plants.
Hontoon Island (8VO202) is midway along the St. Johns
River in northern Florida. Since Dr. Purdy directed the
excavations, more information was available about this site
than others. Although the mounds had been used for road fill
and septic tank systems, most of the midden was left
unmolested. In 1955, a dragline operator uncovered a 12 foot
high carving of an owl. In 1977, otter and pelican effigies were
found in the same area. Formal excavations at Hontoon
Island began in 1980 and ended in 1988. Eleven species of
fauna appeared here--including large deposits of freshwater
mollusk shells, especially snail (Viviparus georgianus) and
mussel (Elliptio bucklcyi). The flora recovered from the site
represented 30 species of wood and 82 species of seeds. One
was an ornamental gourd (Curcubita pcpo) similar to a
Mexican pumpkin. Edible wild plants at Hontoon were corn,
hickory, oak, maypop, grape, saw palmetto and cabbage palm.
As for artifacts, there were 82,000 ceramics, wood (80), stone
(147), shell (112), and bone (77) tools. Fifty-three historic
artifacts were found at Hontoon Island. Although the site was
clearly occupied from 740 B.C. until A.D. 1850, Purdy
speculates that it may date as far back as the Middle Archaic
period. It seems odd that 1492 was chosen for the beginning
of the historic period in Florida since Ponce de Leon didn't
arrive in the state until 1513. Dr. Purdy suggests that the
preservation of organic materials at this site was enhanced by
the still lagoonal waters, the neutral pH and anaerobic
Little Salt Spring (8S018) and Warm Mineral Springs
(8S019) near North Port were discovered by the charismatic
Colonel William R. Royal. Purdy writes that while Royal's
impressions about the two sites were correct, his methods of
recovery were not. Still, he did try to interest archaeologists in
investigating them but was greeted with apathy and,
sometimes, hostility. At any rate, Little Salt Spring produced

an extinct giant land tortoise impaled with a wooden stake 26
meters below the present water level. The stake was
radiocarbon dated at 12,030 B.P. Undoubtedly this portion of
the site was dry when this event occurred. Other early finds at
the site included a wooden mortar and a "non-returning oak
boomerang." Probably the most impressive component at
Little Salt Spring was the "hundreds" of humans interred
during the Middle Archaic period in the moist, soft peat of
the slough leading into the spring. "Studies of flora, fauna,
sediments and other environmental variables have
demonstrated that a freshwater cenote attracted humans to
this site during periods when surface water was scarce in
Florida. The site had no allure when the water became salty
(mineralized) and when lake bottoms filled and rivers flowed
elsewhere providing easier access to water than the deep
sinks." Incidentally, the statement that problems with depth
and coldness still are a problem at deep underwater sites is no
longer true. Divers now routinely use various mixtures of
helium, nitrogen and oxygen at depths of more than 300 feet
to prevent nitrogen narcosis. They also inflate their dry suits
with gases such as argon to prevent rapid loss of body heat,
greatly extending their bottom times.
Page-Ladson (8JE591) lies in the lower Aucilla River
not far from the Gulf of Mexico. It has provided an
impressive assemblage of Early Archaic and Deptford
occupations, with a few Paleo-Indian artifacts associated with
extinct Pleistocene fauna. About 10,000 or more years ago the
area appeared to be a series of discrete sinkholes that became
interconnected as water levels progressively rose during the
Holocene transgression. Researchers have discovered 86
plant species from pollen and macrobotanical specimens at
Page-Ladson. Dr. David Webb, of the Florida Museum of
Natural History, and his coworkers have recovered remains of
Columbian mammoth, American mastodon, tapir, giant land
tortoise, Jefferson's ground sloth, horse and giant armadillo
with recent species from this highly significant underwater
site. Much woodworking must have been done here based on
all the adzes in the assemblage. Jim Dunbar and Louis Tesar
of the Bureau of Archaeological Research in Tallahassee are
now compiling a comprehensive and informative site report
on Page-Ladson.
Republic Groves (8HR4) is about five miles south of
Zolpho Springs. Mitchell Hope, an amateur archaeologist,
discovered human remains and artifacts as well as Pleistocene
fauna in spoil that had been dredged from this bayhead
swamp. Eventually over a 26 month period, 400 square feet of
this prehistoric cemetery was excavated. A variety of artifacts
dating from the Middle to Late Archaic periods was
recovered, including a pendant made of an exotic serpentine-
like material. Also, tapered stakes made of oak and pine
appeared to have been related to burials. Bones of at least 37
people, ranging in age from infants to middle-aged, were
systematically analyzed.
Warm Mineral Springs, not far from Little Salt Spring,

would rival King Tut's Tomb if publicity were the sole
criterion for significance. A lively presentation of the history
of events at this site is given. Carl Clausen believes that Warm
Mineral Springs ceased to be a passive cenote and began
flowing as sea level rose and rainfall increased about 8,500
years ago. Again, Colonel William Royal is credited with
recovering human skeletons (representing about 30
individuals), artifacts and extinct vertebrates from the depths
of Warm Mineral Springs. The diagnostic artifacts (i.e., side-
notched projectile points) are most likely associated with the
Early Archaic period, not the Paleo-Indian. I also asked
several physical anthropologists about Donald Morris' paper,
that Purdy refers to, where he said that some bodies from the
spring clearly represent a Paleo-Indian population (as
opposed to an Archaic one), based on statistical comparisons
of cephalic indices and vaulting from various sites. The
physical anthropologists that I quizzed were skeptical of the
validity of this hypothesis. One said that this was "Stone Age
Physical Anthropology" that brought to mind Stephen J.
Gould's book The Mismeasure of Man.
Windover (8BR246) lies in east central Florida near
Titusville, west of Cape Canaveral. Excavations were
conducted during fall and winter months of 1984, 1985 and
1986 by Florida State University's Department of
Anthropology under the direction of Glen Doran and Dave
Dickel. Human bones of at least 168 individuals, ranging in
age from infants to sexagenarians, 91 of whom still held brain
tissue, were interred in the pond. The site's main occupation
was from 8,000 to 7,000 years ago. Artifacts found include
wood, textiles, incised bone objects, deer antler implements
and marine shell tools. Floral and faunal remains were also
recovered in an attempt to reconstruct past environments.
The site purportedly produced the "oldest known bottle gourd
in North America." Studies of mitochondrial DNA, from the
brain tissue recovered at Windover, by biochemists and
physical anthropologists should provide valuable insights into
evolution and other aspects of human biology of prehistoric
populations in North America.
Other wet sites such as Tick Island (8V024), Lake
Monroe (8V02601), Cutler Fossil (8DA2001), Devil's Den
(8LV44), and the Gauthier site (8BR193) are noted here.
Even a few isolated finds of wooden artifacts are discussed
toward the end of this chapter.
Chapter four summarizes the study of Florida's
aboriginal canoes. More prehistoric and historic canoes have
allegedly survived in Florida than anywhere else in the world.
So far, 185 have been found, dating from 5,410 B.P. to the
19th century. Most date to A.D. 700-950. The more than five
thousand year old find from DeLeon Springs is the oldest
known canoe in the Western Hemisphere. These ancient
watercraft could have been used for transportation, trade,
warfare and the exploitation of resources that otherwise
would have been difficult to reach. It seems that pine was
favored over cypress during the prehistoric periods. Purdy

speculates this may have been due to tradition, preference,
availability and because it has resin canals that would have
aided in the fire-hollowing process. Conversely, cypress was
thought to be favored over pine in the historic periods for
three reasons: (1) the use of iron tools negated the need for
fire-hollowing, (2) non-Florida Indians and Europeans
introduced the use of cypress for canoes in the 16th to 18th
centuries, and (3) the abundance of cypress in the Everglades
where the Seminoles lived. A useful chart in this chapter gives
the radiocarbon dates and places where a few of the canoes
were found.
The final chapter (five) delves into the preservation of
water-logged woods. Polyethylene Glycol or PEG--a synthetic
polymer--is one of the principal chemicals used in preserving
woods. It has the advantage of preventing shrinkage and the
treatment can be reversed. She discusses other preservation
techniques such as freeze drying. It is revealed that some
treatments do not work as well with wood that has been
charred. Also, softwoods are easier to preserve than
hardwoods. It is important to be prepared to treat wooden
artifacts immediately after they have been removed. Cost and
logistics must be considered from the outset of a project. Wet
site archaeology is much more expensive and requires more
specialists than excavating most land sites.
A recent Nature Conservancy publication revealed that
Florida has lost 46% (9.3 million acres) of its original
wetlands during the last 200 years--more acreage than any
other state. Therefore, The Art and Archaeology of Florida's
Wetlands is a timely book. It synthesizes rare data from a
variety of sources, including personal interviews.
Archaeologists and historians interested in Florida should add
this book to their libraries. While much remains to be done
with Florida's wet site archaeology, Dr. Purdy is to be
commended for having taken the first step.

Send orders to:
CRC Press
P.O. Box 6123
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33310

Price: $49.95
Plus Shipping and state's sales tax for Florida addresses:

Reviewed by:
Michael Wisenbaker
Tallahassee, Florida

Archeological Geology of North America (1990), edited by
Norman P. Lasca and Jack Donahue. Geological Society of
America, 3300 Penrose Place, P.O. Box 9140, Boulder,
Colorado 80301. 633 pages. ISBN 0-8137-5304-X. Retail
Price $62.50.

The past decade saw interdisciplinary cooperation
between geologists and archaeologists at a level not seen
earlier. This cooperation led to a significant body of
literature that dealt with the geological interpretation of
archaeological sites, including a new journal dedicated to the
subject (Geoarcheology, reviewed in The Florida
Anthropologist 40(1):94). However, books dedicated to the
subject of archaeological geology have been scarce, and tend
to treat classical archaeological sites rather than American
ones. Recently the Geological Society of America, as part of
their centennial celebration, published a large volume of
research articles on the archaeological geology of sites in
North America. This book, Archeological Geology of North
America, serves as an excellent introduction to this emerging
scientific discipline and provides abundant reference material;
it is an important book for anybody doing field archaeology.
The text consists of thirty-five articles which are
organized by geographic region, including two articles on sites
in the southeastern United States. The articles cover a wide
range of geologic disciplines such as mineralogy,
tephrochronology, and pedology that are used to interpret
archaeological sites. In addition, there are a number of
articles on specific techniques such as isotope geochemistry,
high-resolution geophysical methods and soil analyses. One
interesting article discusses the petrographic analysis of chert
and details its use in determining the provenance of chert
artifacts found in modern-day New Jersey. Another reviews
the use of mollusk shells in dating, interpretating, and
reconstructing the environments of coastal sites. Two articles
discuss the sources of native copper available to pre-
Columbian Indians and include an extensive listing of known
sources and reference material.
The quality of the presentation throughout this book is
of a very high standard. Maps, figures and photographs are
abundant and the reference listings are extensive. The
articles themselves present clear examples of the use of
geological techniques, methodologies and thinking processes
that can provide the archaeologist with a new and sometimes
different perspective. The book has a large-sized format, 8.5"
by 11", and also includes an adequate index.
Archeological Geology of North America is by far the
best resource on archaeological geology that this reviewer has
seen and it may be many years before another book of this
scope is published. The cost is reasonable enough that many
researchers may wish to buy a personal copy, although this
book should be available in any respectable science library.

Submitted by
Kevin McCartney
University of Maine at Presque Isle
Presque Isle, Maine 04769

EDITOR'S NOTE: This review had been submitted for
inclusion in the March, 1991 issue of The Florida
Anthropologist, but because of an unexpected delay in the
mail arrived the day that issue went to the printers. Further,
it did not fit the special issue theme, the Missions of Spanish
Florida, of our last issue. Nevertheless, it still has relevance
to our readers and, therefore, has been published in this


March, 1992

Vol. 45 No. 1


George M. Luer

These photos show a left-handed whelk shell (Busvcon
contrarium) with mysterious scars or damage marks. The
arrows point to the dark jagged line where the shell was
broken. The misshapen shell which grew beyond the jagged
line shows that the snail survived and grew larger after its
shell had been damaged.
What caused this damage? Perhaps an attack by a
predator, such as a stone crab, might have caused it (Luer
1986:130, 132). It now seems, however, that another likely
predator could have been a carnivorous sea turtle such as the
loggerhead (Caretta caretta). The loggerhead is one of five
species of sea turtle found in Florida waters, and is the only
one which still nests in southwest Florida. A threatened
species today, the loggerhead was common before over-
hunting. Its diet includes fish, crabs, and mollusks. After
visiting the Florida Keys in 1832, John James Audubon wrote:

... the Loggerhead [feeds] mostly on the fish of
conch-shells of large size, which they are enabled,
by means of their powerful beak, to crush to pieces
with apparently as much ease as a man cracks a
walnut (Proby 1974:352). .-

View of turtle (?) damaged Busycon shell from Old Oak Site
(8So51) in Sarasota County, Florida.


The shell shown here was excavated in 1973 from the Old
Oak Site (8So51) in Sarasota, Florida (Luer 1977:45, 50-51).
It was in a feature consisting of a "buried pile" of many
unbroken sizeable whelk shells in the northern halves of
Units 10 and 11, Layer VI. In 1980, the shell was dated (Beta-
71482) at 1250 +/- 70 uncorrected radiocarbon years before
r present (present = A.D. 1950) (Luer and Almy 1980:216) or
.around A.D. 673 880 when calibrated (Stuvier and Reimer
Loggerhead Sea Turtle (courtesy of Mote Marine Laboratory) 1987).


Vol. 45 No. I

March, 1992

References Cited

Luer, George M.
1977 Excavations at the Old Oak Site, Sarasota, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 30:37-55.

1986 Some Interesting Archaeological Occurrences of
Quahog Shells on the Gulf Coast of Central and
Southern Florida. Florida Anthropological Society
Publication No. 12.

Luer, George M., and Marion M. Almy
1980 The Development of Some Aboriginal Pottery of the
Central Peninsular Gulf Coast of Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 33:207-225.

Luer, George M., and Lauren C. Archibald
1990 Monitoring and Limited Archaeological Salvage at the
Palmetto Lane Midden (8So96), Tocobago Bay
Subdivision, Sarasota, Florida. Archaeological and
Historical Conservancy, Technical Report 18, Miami.

Proby, Kathryn H.
1974 Audubon in Florida. University of Miami Press. Coral

Stuvier, Mince, and P. J. Reimer
1987 Radiocarbon Calibration Program 1987, Rev. 1.3.
Quaternary Isotope Lab. University of Washington.

:\ '\

Aperture view of same shell. Arrow points to turtle (?)
damaged area on Busycon shell.

In addition to this shell, another similarly-damaged left-
handed whelk shell from Unit 11 (Layer II) was excavated in
1973 from the Old Oak Site. A third left-handed whelk shell
also showing similar damage and regrowth was salvaged in
1990 from midden material disturbed by the "Sewer Trench"
at the Palmetto Lane Midden (8So96) in Sarasota, Florida
(Luer and Archibald 1990:23). Yet a fourth univalve shell
with similar damage, in this case a mature fighting conch
(Strombus alatus) shell, was recovered in 1991 from a
disturbed area near "A Window to the Past" Archaeological
Exhibition in the Shell Ridge Midden (8So2) at Historic
Spanish Point near Sarasota. Although the two damaged
whelk shells from the Old Oak Site have been discussed
before (Luer 1986:130, 132), these are the first photos
published showing this curious damage.

Submitted by:
George M. Luer
3222 Old Oak Drive
Sarasota, FL 34239

Two Unusual Stone and Shell Artifacts from site 8BR559, Brevard County, Florida

Photo and text submission by
Vera Zimmerman
Indian River Anthropological Society

The two unusual artifacts shown in the accompanying
photographs were found in November 1989 during excavation
of a test pit at site 8BR559 by the Indian River
Anthropological Society (IRAS). This site is an undisturbed
low shell mound west of Highway A1A, between the Atlantic
beach and Indian River, north of Sebastian Inlet in Brevard
County, Florida. The site area is being developed by the
owner as a home site. Local informants report that human
remains were found east of this site when A1A was being
constructed during the 1950s, but it was not recorded as a site
at that time.
The stone artifact was found at the 40-50 cm level in the
NE Quadrant of the 2 m x 2 m test excavation. St. Johns
Plain pottery was found both at and above this level.
The object is made of a fine grained greenish stone. It is
irregularly cylindrical, tapering from a diameter of 1.4 cm at
the base to a rounded wedge or lipstick shaped tip. The
length is 7.2 cm.
The shell artifact (shown from both sides) was found in
the SE Quadrant of the test excavation, at a depth of 70-80
cm. It is made from a conch shell point. This finely shaped
and extremely smooth object measures 4.7 cm in lenght, 2.3
cm in width at its widest point, and 1 cm in depth.
One of the interesting things about this artifact is that
we found another identical one in the course of cataloging
artifacts for the Brevard Museum of History and Natural
Science. It was part of Accession B 88.1, a trade of artifacts
with the University of Central Florida, and was in a bag
labeled 8SJ46, Matanzas Inlet, 4/27/74, Hale.
We would like to hear from others who have seen or
read of similar artifacts, or who have information on their
possible identity or use. Please address your letters to:

Vera Zimmerman, President
Indian River Anthropological Society
3705 S. Tropical Trail
Merritt Island, FL 32952


Vol. 45 No. 1

March, 1992

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1. II

i. i.


Laura Branstetter

Montague Tallant was born in Virginia in 1892, and
moved to Manatee County, Florida with his family as a young
man. He owned a furniture store and a hardware store in the
town of Manatee near Bradenton.
Tallant was quite an outdoorsman. He hunted, fished,
gardened, and practiced taxidermy. He also collected
artifacts, digging at sites all over Florida, but mostly in the
southern areas. Tallant corresponded with Matthew Stirling
of the Bureau of American Ethnology and worked with the
WPA archaeology team in the 1930s. Tallant amassed a large
personal collection consisting mostly of Florida pottery and
Historic Period metal artifacts.
Part of his original collection was sold to the founders of
the South Florida Museum in 1948. Tallant's widow sold
another part of his collection to the Museum of the American
Indian in New York City, after his death in 1962.

Submitted by:
Laura Branstetter
FAS general member
8878 Ivey Road
Jacksonville, Florida 32216


Submitted by Karen Malesky

This photograph shows Montague Tallant on the shore
of the eroding shell midden at the Shaw's Point site (8MA7).
This site is on the south side of Tampa Bay at the mouth of
the Manatee River near the community of Palma Sola west of
the City of Bradenton in Manatee County.
Tallant holds a Native American shell artifact found on
the beach: a perforated quahog clam left valve (see Florida
Anthropological Society Publication Number 12, 1986).
Another shell artifact, a reduced left-handed whelk shell
gouge or pick, is visible on the beach to Tallant's right.
This photograph probably was taken around 1935 by
Tallant's daughter, and it shows her dog at his feet. Today,
the photograph is in the collection of the South Florida
Museum and Bishop Planetarium in Bradenton, Manatee
County, Florida. A portion of the Shaw's Point site is now
protected by the DeSoto National Monument, administered
by the National Park Service.

Submitted by:
Karen Malesky
FAS general member
5312 Bay State Road
Palmetto, Florida 34221


Vol. 45 No. 1

March, 1992

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"Munsilna McGundo House," Duval County, Florida

Photo and text submitted by
Henry Baker
Bureau of Archaeological Research

Little is known of this standing wall ruin on the south
end of Fort George Island. The poured tabby walls are
located on top of an extensive shell midden. The earliest
occupation of the midden probably dates to the Orange or St.
Johns I Periods (2000 B.C.-1000 B.C.). Shells used as
aggregate in the tabby were taken from the underlying
The ruin apparently dates to the early nineteenth
century as it was described by Julia B. Dodge in 1877 as "a
large unfinished house of cement and shell." There is no
clear connection between the structure and Munsilna
McGundo or any other individual in the island's history.

Selected Reading Related to Fort George Island

Arnade, Charles W.
1959 The Siege of St. Augustine. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Baker, Henry A.
1985 Roads and Walkways at the Kingsley Plantation: an Archaeological
Study. Bureau of Archaeological Research, Florida Archaeological
Reports 15, Tallahassee

Conner, Jeannette Thurber (ed.)
1927 Jean Ribault. Florida State Historical Society, Deland.

Dickinson, Jonathan
1961 Jonathan Dickinson's Journal or God's Protecting Providence. Yale
University Press, New Haven.

Fairbanks, Charles H.
1972 The Kingsley Slave Cabins in Duval County, Florida 1968. Conference
on Historic Sites Archeology Papers 7:62-93.


Vol. 45 No. 1

March, 1992


Harry and Jackie Piper

Three years ago, as a result of our mutual experience in
the practice of private sector archaeology, one of us wrote
about the identification and training of future leaders in an
archaeological firm, and the importance of providing them
with an opportunity to realize their career goals (Piper
1988:126-127). This concept includes the logical step of
ownership succession, as both the firm's founders and its
future leaders progress.
Accordingly, in 1986 a plan was established to
implement the orderly purchase over time of our stock in
Piper Archaeological Research, Inc. by Ken Hardin, who had
at that time been associated with the firm for five years. Ken
and we two continued the management of the company for
the next five years, with Ken directing operations in his new
capacity as Chief Operating Officer and Harry acting as Chief
Executive Officer.
On April 26, 1991, Ken purchased our remaining
majority interest in the firm. On April 29, he formed a new
board of directors which elected new officers of the company.
We have asked Ken that he, in due course, change the name
of the firm to exclude our surname and he has agreed to do
We are truly pleased that the plan of ownership
succession has worked and that the firm's future is in Ken's
hands. We wish the company and its staff continued success.
For our part, we plan to continue the practice of archaeology
as consultants to other archaeologists, as well as to non-
We wish to take this opportunity to acknowledge the
contributions and support of all the staff of our former firm
during the past fifteen years, as well as of the many agencies,
institutions, colleagues and clients who have been linked with
whatever success our firm may have achieved on behalf of
Florida's archaeological resources.

Reference Cited

Piper, Harry M.
1988 Subsistence Strategies of Private Archaeological
Firms in Florida: Inside Looking In. The Florida
Anthropologist 41(1):108-139.

Harry M. and Jacquelyn ("Jackie") G. Piper
Piper Consulting
P.O. Box 608
St. Petersburg, FL 33731
May, 1991


Since its purchase by Kenneth Hardin, Piper
Archaeological Research has begun its name change. The
firm's letter-head now reads Piper Archaeology < > Janus
Research. The firm's address remains P.O. Box 919, St.
Petersburg, Florida 33731.
Readers interested in obtaining information on
archaeological firms in Florida should contact the Florida
Archaeological Council, a state-wide organization of
professional archaeologists. The Florida Archaeological
Council holds periodic meetings and an annual meeting. The
annual meeting is generally held jointly with that of the
Florida Anthropological Society, since most FAC members
are also FAS members and one of FAC's goals is to further
understanding and working relationships between
professional and avocational archaeologists and the public in
general. Additional information may be obtained by writing
to Marion Almy, President, Florida Archaeological Council,
P.O. Box 5103, Sarasota, Florida 34277-5103. Marion is also
the President of her own archaeological firm, Archaeological
Consultants Incorporated, which she cofounded with Joan
Deming, the firm's Vicepresident and one of my editorial
assistants during the past 8.5 years.


George M. Luer

This note's purpose is to correct an error on page 61 in the
article titled "Historic Resources at the Pineland Site, Lee
County, Florida" which appeared in the March 1991 issue of
The Florida Anthropologist (volume 44, number 1). After re-
checking C. B. Moore's unpublished field notes, it is now
apparent that Moore (1900:31) was NOT referring to
Pineland (8LL33) when he wrote that he "made a number of
excavations" but was "unable to locate central court as
described by Mr. Cushing, there being several courts, canals,
etc." Instead, Moore was referring to Josslyn Island
(8LL32/8LL50). The author apologizes for this mistake.

Reference Cited

Moore, Clarence B.
1900 Field Notes, Notebook 17. On file, Huntington Free
Library/Museum of the American Indian. The Bronx.

George M. Luer
3222 Old Oak Drive
Sarasota, Florida 34239


Vol. 45 No. 1

March, 1992


K. C. Smith

The newest chapter of the Florida Anthropological
Society, organized in December 1989, has strived since its
inception to offer training programs and informative lectures
to prepare members for participation in archaeological
projects. While strong support and encouragement have
come from the professional community, the Apalachee
Archaeological Society consists primarily of enthusiastic
avocationalists with limited field experience. Therefore, our
initial objectives have been to provide basic information about
local cultures, ceramic and lithic sequences, and
methodologies of the discipline.
Five programs in 1991 in particular helped to fulfill these
objectives. In January, Richard Vernon, field supervisor at
San Luis Archaeological and Historic Site, presented a
lecture about ceramic typologies, using artifacts from the San
Luis collection to explain decorative patterns, vessel forms,
and other clues to pottery identification. The following
month, flintknapper Tom Lightsey demonstrated lithic
production, giving members a look at the sophistication of the
technology as well as the array of tools produced. In March,
Jim Dunbar, field supervisor with the Bureau of
Archaeological Research (BAR), Florida Department of
State, continued the topic by discussing projectile point
typologies from Paleoindian to Protohistoric times. A
program on survey strategies for avocationalists, with tips on
how to plan and prepare for fieldwork, was presented in May
by Louis Tesar, BAR archaeology supervisor, and in
September, engineer William Miller led a hands-on workshop
in surveying techniques that included practice with
conventional field equipment.
To present a look at theoretical aspects of the discipline,
the Society sponsored a special "Mini-course in Archaeology"
in March, conducted by Dr. Bonnie McEwan, director of
archaeology at San Luis. Her fifteen-hour workshop,
attended by twelve AAS members, outlined the history of
American archaeology, site formation processes, and
standard field and laboratory techniques. Participants were
given required readings and classroom assignments to
complete as part of their coursework.
The impact of growth and development on local sites
was the focus of a public forum entitled "The Future of Our
Past: Archaeological Resources and the Comprehensive
Plan," sponsored by the AAS in April. Panelists included a
county commissioner, a developer, representatives from the
Historic Tallahassee/Leon County Preservation Board, and
the chief of the Bureau of Archaeological Research, each of
whom offered their perspective on the relationship between
local long-range plans for growth and the preservation of
archaeological resources. Among the more envigorating

meetings of the Society last year, this forum enabled AAS
members to become acquainted with issues facing the
archaeological community and to express their support for
and willingness to assist in the protection of sites.
Having prepared themselves practically and theoretically
for the business of fieldwork during the first half of the year,
chapter members decided to apply their new skills and
knowledge with a site survey in July. Guided by San Luis
archaeologist Jerry Lee, a shovel test was undertaken at the
Yent Bayou Site (8FR59), a midden that had yielded pot
sherds from the Swift Creek to Weeden Island sequence
when initially surveyed in 1971. Battling dense undergrowth,
every insect in the State of Florida, and the hottest day of the
year, stalwart members learned the most important lesson of
archaeology: if possible, do not conduct your fieldwork in
July. These inconveniences aside, the project had
innumerable other benefits: members acquired a sense of
confidence about their ability to conduct limited surveys; a
wonderful sense of camaraderie emerged; and a small
collection of artifacts was recovered, thus giving members an
assemblage to analyze and interpret.
Additional experience in the laboratory was acquired in
September when members completed the processing of
artifacts recovered from the Orange Avenue Weeden Island
site in Tallahassee, excavated in the spring of 1990 under the
direction of B. Calvin Jones, BAR archaeologist, when
imperiled by construction. Several Society members had
aided the recovery of the cache of nearly whole vessels, and
the prospect of assisting with their reconstruction, when
members are properly trained, has been discussed.
Activities offered by the Apalachee chapter have created
a small but solid core of trained members who are anxious to
continue field exercises. Some members are currently
assisting B. Calvin Jones on a site survey project in Wakulla
County. That project will be followed by another field project
directed by Louis Tesar, the mapping and restoration of the
Porter's Bar Mound -- which has recently been set aside for
preservation in a park in a proposed Franklin County
development project. Additionally, opportunities to accession
and analyze artifact collections from various sites will be
offered to members, as will other laboratory activities.
Efforts in 1992 will be directed toward increasing our ranks
and continuing member training.

Prepared by
K. C. Smith
Apalachee Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 10552
Tallahassee, Florida 32302


Vol. 45 No. 1

March, 1992


Discovered by B. Calvin Jones during a lunch hour construction site inspection, because of its proximity
to a known village area to the south, the Orange Avenue ceramic cache became a classic public
archaeology project -- involving owner cooperation, AAS members and other volunteers, public
visitation and favorable newspaper coverage. Top. While construction proceeds in the background, B.
Calvin Jones (third from top right) discusses project findings with BAR staff while volunteers work in
the foreground. Bottom. Volunteers illustrating in situ artifacts, recording field observations, and
excavating to expose cache ceramics.

Join the Florida Anthropological Society (FAS)!

A non-profit organization founded in 1947, with chapters throughout Florida

Florida Indian
This Bird-man
Dancer is the
main illustration
of an attractive
and informative
poster depicting
the major tribes
that once in-
habited Florida.
Available for a
$10 donation to
FAS, this 18 by
36-inch poster is
printed maroon
and purple on a
heavy paper.

Pnnn, covurtes of
Archaeolo cal Conisultnlts, li
Saravla. nfirvia

Anthropology is the study of people and their cultures. Join FAS and help
save and enjoy Florida's heritage! FAS holds an annual meeting and banquet
featuring renowned speakers. FAS members receive a newsletter and informa-
tive journal four times a year. The journal features interesting articles on
Florida archaeology, history, folklore, and preservation.

------------------ m-------.----- m-


0 YES! I want to join FAS!
Membership is only $18 a year, and is tax-deductible.
0 YES, I would like to donate an additional $10, also tax-deductible, and
receive a poster by mail (allow 3-5 weeks).



e: (

bershp, c/o Terry Smpson, 5822 Dory Way, Tampa, FL 33615-3632
bership, c/o Terry Simpson, 5822 Dory Way, Tampa, FL 33615-3632

I Name:




Join the Florida Anthropological Society (FAS)!

A non-profit organization founded in 1947, with chapters throughout Florida

Florida Indian (
This Bird-man
Dancer is the
main illustration
of an attractive
and informative
poster depicting
the major tribes
that once in-
habited Florida.
Available for a
$10 donation to
FAS, this 18 by
36-inch poster is
printed maroon
and purple on a
heavy paper.

PR mTng courefts of
Archaioitlacal ConsulFt-fn Irn
Sfrawra : rla

Anthropology is the study of people and their cultures. Join FAS and help
save and enjoy Florida's heritage! FAS holds an annual meeting and banquet
featuring renowned speakers. FAS members receive a newsletter and informa-
tive journal four times a year. The journal features interesting articles on
Florida archaeology, history, folklore, and preservation.

r-- m------ ---------- -
SD YES! I want to join FAS!
SMembership is only $18 a year, and is tax-deductible.
WO YES, I would like to donate an additional $10, also tax-deductible, and
receive a poster by mail (allow 3-5 weeks).

I Name:


City: State: Zip:
Telephone: (
SFAS Membership, c/o Terry Simpson, 5822 Dory Way, Tampa, FL 33615-3632

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