The Florida anthropologist

Material Information

The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title:
Fla. anthropol.
Florida Anthropological Society
Place of Publication:
Florida Anthropological Society.
Publication Date:
Quarterly[<Mar. 1975- >]
Two no. a year[ FORMER 1948-]
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 24 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- May 1948-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01569447 ( OCLC )
56028409 ( LCCN )
0015-3893 ( ISSN )


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Published by



THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST is published by the Florida Anthropological Society Inc., P.O. Box
1013, Tallahassee, Florida 32302. Subscription is by membership in the Society. Membership is
not restricted to residents of the State of Florida nor to the United States of America.
Membership is for the calendar year, January 1st through December 31st. Membership may be
initiated for any current year by remitting dues for that year ON OR BEFORE SEPTEMBER 30TH of
that year. There is a $2 discount for dues received before February 1st and a $4 late charge
for added postage and handling for dues received after August 1st. Dues postmarked or hand-
delivered on October 1st or later will be applied to membership in the following calendar year.
Annual dues are as follows: individual $18, family $20, Institutional subscription $18,
sustaining $25 or more, patron $100 or more, and life $200. Foreign subscriptions are an
additional $5 US to cover added postage and handling costs for individual, family or
institutional memberships categories. Copies of the journal will only be sent to members with
current paid dues. Back issues may be ordered from Mickler's Floridiana, Inc., P.O. Box 1450,
Oviedo, Florida 32765.

Requests for information on the Society, membership application forms and notifications of
changes of address should be sent to the Membership Secretary. Donations should be sent to the
Treasurer or may be routed through the FA Editor to facilitate acknowledgement in subsequent
issues of the journal (unless anonymity is requested). Submissions of manuscripts should be
sent to the Editor. Please follow the American Antiquity style guide in preparing manuscripts
for submission to the journal, and submit five (5) copies for use in peer review. Only one set
of original graphics need be submitted. Address changes should be made AT LEAST 30 DAYS prior
to the mailing of the next issue. The Post Office will not forward bulk mail nor retain such
mail when "temporary hold" orders exist. Such mail is returned to the Society postage due. We
publish the journal quarterly in March, June, September and December of each year.


George M. Luer
3222 Old Oak Drive
Sarasota, Florida 34239

Kathleen Hbffman
Florida Museum of
Natural History
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

John Maseman
South Florida Conservation Center
3400 Spring Street
Pompano Beach, Florida 33062

Joan Deming
308 6th Street NE
Largo, FL 34640


(Three Years):
Marion Smith
Bureau of Archaeological Research
Division of Historical Resources
500 South Bronough Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0250

(Two Years):
J. Raymond Williams
Dept. of Anthropology
University of South Florida
Tampa, FL 33620


Judith A. Bense
Institute of West
Florida Archaeology
University of West Florida
Pensacola, Florida 32514

Kenneth Johnson
Florida Museum of
Natural History
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

(One Year):
Robert Austin
P.O. Box 919
St. Petersburg, FL 33731

Louis D. Tesar
P.O. Box 1013
Tallahassee, FL

Joan Deming
308 6th Street NE
Largo, FL 34640

George Luer
3222 Old Oak Drive
Sarasota, FL 34239

Candy Printers
1800 S. Monroe St.
Tallahassee, FL

James J. Miller
Div. of Historical Resources
Department of State
The Capitol
Tallahassee, FL 32399-0250

John W. Griffin
450 Owens Ave.
St. Augustine, FL 32084


William H. Marquardt
Florida Museum of
Natural History
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

Glen Doran
Department of Anthropology
Florida State University
Tallahassee, FL 32306

Morgan H. Crook
Dept. of Anthropology
Georgia State University
Atlanta, GA 30303

NOTE: In addition to the above Editorial Board members, the review comments of others
knowledgable in a manuscript's subject matter are solicited as part of our peer review process.



Volume 43 Number 2

June 1990


Editor's Page: FA 43(2) -- June 1990 .................. .. 82

Honoring Private Sector Involvement In Archaeological Preservation: The Florida
Archaeological Oouncil's Preservation Awards Day by Robert J. Austin ; 84
Florida Archaeological council Forum --- Building the Future While Protecting
the Past: A New Partnership -- Introductory Remarks by Stanley Bond ... .89
What State and Federal Laws Can and Can't Do For Archaeological Site Preserva-
tion by James J. Miller .. .. ... .. ... .. .. 91
Florida Firsts: Benefiting from Florida's Past by Kathleen Deagan . .. .93
The De Soto Site and Archaeological Preservation: A Developer's Point of View
by Chuck Mitchell . . . .. . . . 96
The GOod, the Bad and the Ugly in Northwest Florida Archaeology by Robert
Thunen . . . . . . . . 101
The Florida Archaeological Cuncil's Stewards of Heritage Preservation Awards
Banquet: Welcome Address by Kenneth W. Hardin . . . ... 103
The Florida Archaeological COuncil's Stewards of Heritage Preservation Awards
Banquet: Prepared Remarks by Jim Smith . . . .... .105
Excerpts from (Cmments by the Stewards of Heritage Preservation Awards Banquet
Speakers Excerpted and Edited by Pobert J. Austin . . .. .107
Some Thoughts on boles and Responsibilities: The New Partnership and Beyond
by Robert J. Austin .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. ... ..113

The Temple Mound Museum: rembering the First Twenty Years by Yulee Lazarus .116

The Search for the Lost Bectors: A Public Archaeology Project --- Overview and
Project Description by Judith A. Bense. .. . . .. . 127

Excavations Under Old Christ Church in Pensacola, Florida by Deborah Joy 133
The Search for the Lost Rectors: A Public Archaeology Project --- Public Bela-
tions and Archaeology by Mary Ann Fabbro . . . .... 138
The Search for the Lost Bectors: A Personal Perspective by B. Madison Currin 140

Eastern Paleoindian Lithic Resource Use edited by Christopher J. Ellis and
Johnathan C. Lothrop. Reviewed by Dan F. Marse . . . .. : 144
Points and Blades of the Coastal Plain: A Guide to the Classification of North
American Hafted Implements in the Southeastern Coastal Plain Begion by John
Powell. Reviewed by Michael Wisenbaker . . . . . 146
Florida Senate Honors B. Calvin Jones for Archaeological Site Discoveries
by Louis D. Tesar . . . .... . . . 149
The Question remains: W. S. Eubanks' Argument for Sixteenth Century Spanish
COntact at the Peachtree Site Near Murphy, N.C. Has Not Been Refuted by Hudson
and Smith. CQmment by Keith Little . . . .. .. 152

Published by the

EDITOR'S PAGE: FA 43(2) -- June 1990

The focus of this issue is PUBLIC
ARCHAEOLOGY. We must all be Stewards of
the Past, if the heritage represented by
prehistoric and historic archaeological
sites (and historic structures) is to have
a future.
In 1947, the Florida Anthropological
Society (FAS) was organized to provide a
cooperative forum for avocational and pro-
fessional archaeologists, and has grown in
scope since that time. In 1980, the
Florida Archaeological Council (FAC) was
established to provide a forum for profes-
sional archaeologists working in Florida.
The FAC has worked with the Florida
Department of State, Division of
Historical Resources (DHR) to establish
professional standards in the performance
of field work and reporting under State
and Federal environmental review laws and
regulations. More recently the FAC has
made a concerted effort to actively bridge
the gap between developers for whom many
FAC members perform contract work and en-
vironmental review agencies whose regula-
tions require that such work be performed.
In these efforts they join the DHR
Compliance Review Program, which has for
several years sought to advise developers
about the positive benefits which could be
obtained through compliance with Federal
and State laws and regulations. Indeed,
the FAC has taken a further step by estab-
lishing a Stewards of Heritage Preserva-
tion Awards program to honor and acknowl-
edge the efforts of developers and private
citizens whose archaeological stewardship
exceeded any legal requirements, and serve
as examples for others.
The first topic addressed in this
issue is publication of the PROCEEDINGS OF
Robert J. Austin. The Florida Anthropo-
logical Society was one of the many con-
tributors supporting that forum.
The second topic addressed in this
issue concerns efforts to establish a lo-
cal museum. The article, "The Temple
Mound Museum: Remembering the First Twenty
Years" by Yulee Lazarus, serves as an

example to us all of the human element
which is such a critical ingredient in any
successful museum program.
The third topic addressed in this
issue in a public archaeology project, THE
Pensacola, Florida. It is an example of
the many public archaeology projects oc-
curring throughout Florida and the South-
eastern United States.
The issue concludes with its Book
Reviews, Current Research and Comments
section. The first book review is
reprinted from last issue with an impor-
tant date correction. The 10,500 begin-
ning date for the Dalton period was erro-
neously printed as 15,000 B.P. The second
book review is concerned with projectile
points and blades in the Southeastern
Coastal Plain Region. On the State level,
recognition of public archaeology is
evidenced in the article by Louis Tesar,
"Florida Senate Honors B. Calvin Jones for
Archaeological Site Discoveries." Finally,
Keith Little comments in defense of W.S.
Eubanks and points to flaws in the argu-
ment presented by Hudson and Smith on
Eubanks' criticism of their de Soto Expe-
dition Route research.


Louis D. Tesar
May 18, 1990

June, 1990


Vol. 43 No. 2


Edited by Robert J. Austin

Honoring Private Sector Involvement In Archaeological Preservation: The Florida
Archaeological Council's Preservation Awards Day by Robert J. Austin .... .84

Florida Archaeological Council Forum --- Building the Future While Protecting
the Past: A New Partnership -- Introductory Remarks by Stanley Bond . 89

What State and Federal Laws Can and Can't Do For Archaeological Site Preserva-
tion by James J. Miller . . . . ... .. 91

Florida Firsts: Benefiting from Florida's Past by Kathleen Deagan . .. .93

The De Soto Site and Archaeological Preservation: A Developer's Point of View
by Chuck Mitchell . . . . .. .. . 96

The Good, the Bad and the Ugly in Northwest Florida Archaeology by Robert
Thunen . . . . . . . . 101

The Florida Archaeological Council's Stewards of Heritage Preservation Awards
Banquet: Welcome Address by Kenneth W. Hardin . . .... .. 103

The Florida Archaeological Council's Stewards of Heritage Preservation Awards
Banquet: Prepared Remarks by Jim Smith . . .... . 105

Excerpts from Comments by the Stewards of Heritage Preservation Awards Banquet
Speakers Excerpted and Edited by Robert J. Austin . . . .. 107

Some Thoughts on Roles and Responsibilities: The New Partnership and Beyond
by Rabert J. Austin . . . . . . .113
***** *

June, 1990


vol. 43 No. 2


Robert J. Austin
Piper Archaeological Research, Inc.

On November 16, 1989, a day
long series of events was held in
Jacksonville honoring the Florida
Archaeological Council's 1989 Stew-
ards of Heritage preservation award
recipients. The award recognizes
the contribution of non-archaeolo-
gists in preserving Florida's ar-
chaeological heritage. Several or-
ganizations, including the Florida
Anthropological Society, helped
sponsor the events. The day's ac-
tivities included the dedication of
the second floor restoration of the
Amelia Island Museum, a tour of the
Santa Catalina Mission site at
Amelia Island Plantation, a forum
entitled "Building the Future While
Protecting the Past: A New Partner-
ship", and a reception, dinner and
awards presentation at the River
Club in downtown Jacksonville.
The forum was held at the
University of North Florida and was
hosted by University Vice President
Thomas Quinlan. Invited partici-
pants included Jim Miller (Bureau
of Archaeological Research, Florida
Division of Historical Resources) ,
Kathleen Deagan (Florida Museum of
Natural History) Chuck Mitchell
(Mad Dog Design and Construction
Company, Inc.) and Robert Thunen
(University of North Florida).
Stanley Bond, Historic St.
Augustine Preservation Board and
Chairman of the FAC Awards Commit-
tee, served as moderator. The forum
was designed to let archaeologists
and developers exchange views on
issues of importance to archaeolog-
ical preservation. Suggestions on
how the archaeological and develop-
ment communities can work together
towards this common goal were a
major focus of the forum.

The day ended with a dinner
and awards presentation at the
River Club. The awards were pre-
sented by Ken Hardin, Piper Archae-
ological Research, Inc. and FAC
President, assisted by Florida Sec-
retary of State Jim Smith. Speak-
ers included Secretary of State
Smith, Chuck Mitchell, Jim Swann of
Windover Farms, Inc., and Jeff
Tucker, Florida Trend Magazine.

Awards Recipients

The individuals and organiza-
tions honored by the Florida Ar-
chaeological Council each played a
critical role in ensuring that
Florida's past lives in its future.
Remarkably, they did so without
legislative mandates; in other
words, they could have ignored the
archaeological discoveries made on
their lands. They chose instead to
preserve the sites and allow ar-
chaeologists and other scientists
the opportunity to conduct research
that has contributed immeasurably
to a better understanding of the
state's history and prehistory.
The 1989 Stewards of Heritage
preservation awards were presented
to the following individuals:

Dale Allen, Steve Allen and Chuck
Mitchell for the de SotoApalachee
Site, Tallahassee
Although it would cost them
time and money to delay their de-
velopment, Chuck Mitchell and Steve
Allen agreed to allow excavation of
a site that produced tangible ar-
chaeological evidence of Hernando
de Soto's 1539 winter encampment at
the Apalachee village of Anahaica.
Artifacts excavated at the site in


Vol. 43 No. 2

June, 1990

clude Spanish and Indian ceramics,
spanish coins, nails, chain mail,
and the tip of a crossbow dart.
The encampment is believed to be
the site of the first Christmas
celebration in the United States
and has provided researchers with
an excellent opportunity to study
an early contact period site.
To ensure that part of the
encampment would be preserved, Dale
Allen, representing the Trust for
Public Land, arranged for funding
to purchase over 75 percent of the
threatened property. The property
was held by the Trust until the
State of Florida could purchase and
preserve the land through its Con-
servation and Recreation Lands ac-
quisition program. Allen's partic-
ipation in the negotiation process
impressed on him the need for emer-
gency funding to deal with just
such a crisis situation. Allen
supported legislation that created
a $2 million emergency set-aside in
the state's land acquisition pro-
gram for threatened, significant
archaeological sites.
Without the interest and co-
operation of these three individu-
als, this nationally significant
site may have been lost to develop-

Dr. Frank and Eveline Bilek for the
Mission San Pedro y Pablo de
Patale, Tallahassee
The Bileks have made it possi-
ble for long term archaeological
studies to be conducted at the
Patale mission which is on their
property in Tallahassee. The site
represents a typical 17th century
Franciscan mission, one of the ear-
liest in the Apalachee region. Ar-
chitectural remains indicate the
size and location of the struc-
tures, while ceramics and other ar-
tifacts provide clues to the rou-
tine of daily life at the mission.
The Bileks, who live on the site,
have contributed funds to support
excavation costs, donated money to

pay for assistantships, and pro-
vided on-site service to the exca-
vation crews including storage fa-
cilities and weekly meals. They
have also provided funding for
other archaeological projects in-
cluding the Apalachee-Mission
survey and a survey of Seminole In-
dian sites.

Jack Eckerd and Jim Swann for the
Windover Site, Titusville
The Windover site became in-
ternationally recognized with the
discovery of 7400 year old brain
tissue containing the oldest human
DNA known. The significant discov-
ery would have been lost if not for
the persistent efforts of Jim Swann
and Jack Eckerd. Although they
were in the process of developing
the property, Swann and Eckerd
brought the site to the attention
of the professional archaeological
community. The site has yielded
the largest sample of skeletal ma-
terial of this age in the New
World. Normally perishable arti-
facts have also been recovered in-
cluding pieces of handwoven fabric
representing at least six different
weaving patterns. Study of materi-
als from the site is currently un-
derway at ten universities across
the United States and Canada.
Contributions by Swann and
Eckerd include modifying the origi-
nal building plans and re-routing
the main road to accommodate ar-
chaeological investigations and
long-term preservation of the site.
They also have contributed finan-
cially and have been instrumental
in obtaining other funds for the

Senator Bob Johnson for the Warm
Mineral Springs Site, Sarasota
Research conducted at Warm
Mineral Springs has yielded several
of the best preserved, older human
remains in North America, in addi-
tion to well preserved remains of

Pleistocene mammals such as the gi-
ant ground sloth, saber-tooth cat,
horse, and camel. preservation,
research and education efforts re-
lated to this site are due primar-
ily to the continued support of
Senator Johnson. In 1985, he
sponsored the acquisition of the
Warm Mineral Springs property by
the Conservation and Recreation
Lands program. In 1988, he nomi-
nated the site to become a National
Historic Landmark. That same year
he introduced legislation to pro-
tect Warm Mineral Springs and other
springs from the potentially de-
structive effects of deep well in-
jection. Senator Johnson has not
only provided legislative support,
but has contributed to the research
effort by participating in some of
the research dives.

Dr. George and Dottie Dorion for
the Mission of Santa Catalina de
Guale on Amelia Island
When a backhoe uncovered evi-
dence of an Indian cemetery on
their three acre homesite at Amelia
Island Plantation, the Dorions did
two things: they delayed construc-
tion of their new home and they
hired a professional archaeological
firm to investigate the site.
Along with the discovery of nearly
200 well preserved Indian remains,
the site has yielded valuable in-
formation about the cultures occu-
pying Florida 300 years ago. Among
the ceramics and other artifacts, a
brass wax seal was found bearing
the likeness of St. Catherine of
Alexandria. The seal led to the
discovery that this site was the
relocated mission of Santa Catalina
de Guale which had originally been
located on St. Catherine's Island
in Georgia. The Dorions encouraged
site investigations by the Florida
Museum of Natural History and fi-
nancially supported museum exhibi-
tions, public presentations and
field schools. They have consis-
tently exhibited tremendous pa-

tience and enthusiasm in favor of
archeological preservation.

Lykes Brothers Family for the Fort
Center Site, Glades County
The Lykes Brothers con-
tributed funds and equipment to
support long-term excavations at
the Fort Center site by several in-
stitutions during the 1950s and
1960s. They have also contributed
funds for a traveling exhibit of
artifacts from the site and to the
publication of the book Fort Cen-
ter: An Archaeological Site in the
Lake Okeechobee Basin by William
This large earthworks complex
is one of the best preserved exam-
ples of its kind in South Florida.
The site has a long history of abo-
riginal occupation beginning around
500 B.C. and continuing until the
European contact period. Glass
beads and reworked metal jewelry
have been found there, and large
wooden carvings have been recovered
from a charnel pond where they have
been preserved for over one thou-
sand years. Research at Fort Cen-
ter is responsible for much of our
current knowledge of the prehis-
toric Belle Glade culture which oc-
cupied the Okeechobee Basin 2000
years ago. Many of the artifacts
from the site are now on display in
an exhibit that is touring the
southeastern United States.

Roy Rogers for Peace Mound Park,
Broward County
The Weston Development in
western Broward County contains the
Peace Mound and Taylor's Head sites
which have yielded some of the old-
est radiocarbon dates in the East-
ern Everglades. The Arvida Corpo-
ration, at the request of Vice
President Roy Rogers, preserved the
site as a green space area. The
area was then donated to the
Broward County parks system.
Arvida hired professional archaeol-
ogists to develop and interpret the

public park which opened in January

What Is the Florida Archaeological

The Florida Archaeological
Council is the State of Florida's
professional archaeological associ-
ation and is composed of profes-
sional archaeologists practicing in
the State of Florida. The objec-
tives of the Council are to promote
and stimulate interest and research
in the archaeology of Florida; to
encourage a more rational public
appreciation of the aims and limi-
tations of archaeological research;
to promote high quality standards
in the conduct of archaeological
investigation in Florida; to serve
as a bond between professional ar-
chaeologists practicing in Florida;
to advocate and to aid in the con-
servation of archaeological data;
and to discourage the indiscrimi-
nate destruction of archaeological
sites, both on land and underwater,
as well as the practice of collect-
ing, hoarding, exchanging, buying
or selling archaeological materials
for personal satisfaction or finan-
cial gain.
This is the first year that
the Florida Archaeological Council
has honored private sector involve-
ment in archaeological preserva-
tion. The FAC plans to present the
award to deserving individuals or
organizations on a continuing ba-
sis. The FAC Preservation Awards
Committee is actively soliciting
nominations for the 1991 Stewards
of Heritage award. Nominations
should include the name, address
and phone number of the nominated
personss, a brief description of
the archaeological site(s) and the
individual's contributions to
preservation and/or research. Nom-
inations can be mailed to any of
the following committee members:
Robert Austin, Piper Archaeological
Research, Inc., P.O. Box 919, St.

Petersburg 33731; Stanley Bond,
Historic St. Augustine Preservation
Board, P.O. Box 1987, St. Augustine
32085; or, Bob Carr, Metro-Dade
Historic Preservation Division, 111
S.W. 5th Ave., Suite 101, Miami

A Note on the Proceedings

The proceedings of the FAC fo-
rum and the comments of the awards
dinner speakers are being published
in this issue of The Florida An-
thropologist in order that they may
reach a wider audience of both pro-
fessional and avocational archaeol-
ogists, as well as the general pub-
lic. Both the proceedings and the
comments of the awards dinner
speakers have been transcribed from
audio tape recordings made at both
events. The forum proceedings are
presented here with a minimum of
editing. The transcription was
made easier since most of the forum
participants spoke from written
manuscripts or notes, some of which
were provided to the proceedings
The comments of the awards
dinner speakers were generally de-
livered extemporaneously and ex-
cerpts from the speakers' remarks
are presented here. Some editorial
license has been taken in order to
improve sentence clarity. Some
comments have been removed from
their original context in order to
group the comments together by
topic. Secretary of State Smith
came prepared with a written text,
but chose to abandon it and speak
to the audience "off-the-cuff."
Secretary Smith generously provided
a copy of his prepared remarks
which are being published here
along with his extemporaneous com-


As anyone who has ever orga-
nized anything realizes, an under-

taking of this size requires the
efforts of many individuals. Some
of those who were involved with the
FAC awards day activities deserve
special mention.
From its humble beginnings in
committee, the FAC awards
presentation grew to encompass a
full day of events, the forum and
an awards banquet. The idea for a
FAC awards day was conceived during
a meeting between Ken Hardin, Bar-
bara Doran and George Dorion. It
was brought to fruition through the
efforts of Ken and Barbara. Both
of these individuals contributed an
extraordinary amount of time and
energy in order to make the day the
success it was. To enumerate the
specifics of their involvement
would alone take several para-
graphs. Suffice it to say, that
the day would never have happened
without their vision and hard work.
George and Dottie Dorion pro-
vided advice and support for the
project from the very beginning.
George Dorion was especially help-
ful in arranging for the University
of North Florida to host the forum.
Others at UNF whose efforts on be-
half of the forum should be ac-
knowledged are Marcelle Lovette and
Robert Thunen. Members of the UNF
Anthropology Club helped with the
forum arrangements and spent many
hours preparing and mailing out in-
Secretary of State Jim Smith
took time from his busy schedule to
accept the FAC's invitation to par-
ticipate in the day's events. When
his arrival at the Amelia Island
Museum was unfortunately delayed,
Jim Miller came to the rescue with
an impromptu talk. Jim's aplomb
under pressure was much appreci-
Rebecca Saunders has directed
the excavations at the Santa
Catalina Mission site since their
inception, first with Piper Archae-
ological Research, Inc. and then as
a Phd. candidate with the Univer-

sity of Florida. Becky lead a tour
of the site and explained its ar-
chaeology and history to Secretary
Smith and an interested audience.
FAC members helped erect ex-
hibits and poster displays at the
River Club which enabled those at
the awards reception to glimpse
some of the artifacts and other
discoveries from the sites being
honored. Ted Dethlefsen videotaped
the day's events and his audio
recordings were used to transcribe
the forum proceedings and the com-
ments of the banquet speakers.
Photographic chores were ably
handled by Sylvia Layman.
Funding to underwrite the
costs of the day's events was pro-
vided by the following individuals
and organizations: Amelia Island
Museum, Amelia Island Plantation,
Archaeological and Historical Con-
servancy, Inc., Archaeological Con-
sultants, Inc., BND Communications,
Bacardi Imports, Inc., Castleton
Beverage Corporation, Dr. and Mrs.
George Dorion, Florida Anthropo-
logical Society, Florida Archaeolo-
gical Services, Inc., Mr. William
Goza and the Wentworth Foundation,
Landers/Atkins Planners, Inc.,
Piper Archaeological Research,
Inc., the Trust for Public Land,
and the University of North

Robert J. Austin
Piper Archaeological Research, Inc.
P.O. Box 919
St. Petersburg, Florida 33731

Introductory Remarks

Stanley Bond
Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board

Florida contains a multitude of
significant archaeological sites ranging
from the earliest period of man's settle-
ment of the North American continent to
the earliest period of colonization and
development by Europeans in the New World.
Many sites have been documented and re-
ported, but there are many more yet to be
found. As archaeologists we view signifi-
cant sites as being able to give us infor-
mation about the people that occupied
them, and we hope to utilize this informa-
tion to understand human behavior in
other, often more modern or relevant,
situations. Overdevelopment of resources
in the past may help us to understand pro-
blems in today's rapid growth of Florida,
and could even suggest changes that might
better mitigate human impact to the
natural environment. Archaeology is, then,
a way of better understanding ourselves,
and Florida offers an excellent laboratory
for the study of the human condition.
The individuals and corporations
being honored at our awards banquet later
today represent the vanguard of archaeolo-
gical preservation efforts in Florida.
These people are not professional archae-
ologists, but represent the general citi-
zenry of the State of Florida. It is a
group that has recognized the importance
of archaeological resources to the State
of Florida, and has done something about
preserving those resources for future
The sites they have helped save
represent broad periods of time in the
human occupation of Florida. Senator Bob
Johnson has been instrumental in support-
ing research and preservation at the Warm
Mineral Springs site, an important early
man [Archaic (ldt, FA Ed. Note)] site in
the in Florida. Mr. Jack Eckerd and Mr.
Jim Swann of Windover Farms in Titusville,

recognized the importance of their site
when it was uncovered during development.
Data from the site is significantly chang-
ing our ideas about early aboriginal in-
habitants of Florida. The Fort Center
site, preserved by the Lykes Brothers,
contains some of the largest earth-works
created by Indians in Florida. Excava-
tions carried out at Fort Center have
changed our views of Everglades Indians as
simple hunters and gatherers. The preser-
vation of Indian habitation sites in
Broward County by the Arvida Corporation
allows us to more fully understand the
everyday life of south Florida Indians.
The use of these sites as a park and
educational area allows us to disseminate
archaeological information to the general
The last three sites recognized are
part of the Spanish colonization and mis-
sionization effort in Florida and ulti-
mately throughout the Southeast. Mr.
Chuck Mitchell and Mr. Steve Allen of Mad
Dog Construction Company, allowed archae-
ological excavations on what became the
only documented campsite of de Soto's ex-
ploration of the Southeast. Mr. Dale
Allen, of the Trust for Public Land,
stepped in at a time when the need for
preservation was obvious, and the Trust's
support eventually led to State purchase
of the property.
Dr. and Mrs. Frank Bilek have for
many years supported research at the
[Mission San Pedro y Pablo de] Patale site
located on their property in Leon County.
Dr. and Mrs. George Dorion have delayed
construction for years on their property
on Amelia Island while archaeologists have
excavated the Santa Catalina [de Guale]
mission site. They've also lent substan-
tial financial support to these excava-
tions. Archaeological excavations on these


Vol. 43 No. 2

June, 1990


gites have added substantially to our
knowledge of Indian-Spanish relations.

We of the Florida Archaeological
Council hope this forum and awards cere-
mony will usher in a new period of
cooperation between archaeologists and
developers in Florida. As can be seen
from these examples, archaeology can work
for the betterment of developers, and
developers can be instrumental in the
preservation of archaeological sites. We
believe that this forum can begin to open
avenues of communication between archae-
ologists and developers. The Florida
Archaeological Council is committed to
site preservation through cooperation,
rather than conflict, with developers in
Florida. Tt is only in the spirit of
mutual cooperation that Florida's endan-
gered cultural resources can be saved from
this unprecedented growth that we are now

With that general overview, I would
like to introduce the participants of this
forum today. Mr. James Miller is the State
Archaeologist and Chief of the Bureau of
Archaeological Research, Division of
Historical Resources. Mr. Miller was a
contract archaeologist prior to becoming
the State Archaeologist, so he has seen
archaeology from both the developer's and
the regulator's viewpoint. He has been
instrumental in the development and pas-
sage of federal and state laws governing
archaeological resources, Two recent
examples are the new federal shipwreck
legislation [Abandoned Shipwreck Act of
1987] and the Florida human burial bill
{Chapter 872, F.S.]. His training in city
and regional planning gives him a unique
background aS an archaeologist to assess
both the impact of development to cultural
resources, and the impact of federal,
state and local regulations on devel-
opers. He will be discussing exactly what
state and federal laws do and don't do for
Site protection.

Dr. Kathleen Deagan is Curator and
Chairperson of the Department of
Anthropology, Florida Museum of Natural
History. Dr. Deagan is the leading
scholar on Spanish Colonial archaeology in
the United States. Her almost 20 years of
archaeological work on prehistoric and

historic sites give her a broad per-
spective on the development of archaeolo-
gical research in the state. Her pre-
sentation will outline the history of
Florida archaeology and detail the
academic needs of site preservation in
terms of conserving the archaeological
data base.

Mr. Chuck Mitchell is founder and
owner of Mad Dog Design & Construction
Company. Mr. Mitchell is a contractor and
developer from Leon County, but he also
has a background in history. He is the
type of developer we all want working in
our area. His company, Mad Dog Construc-
tion, has received two environmental
awards for residential and commercial de-
velopment, and an award for volunteerism.
His company was the owner and developer of
the de Soto site, and he will discuss site
preservation from the developer's point of

Mr. Robert Thunen is visiting
instructor of anthropology at the
University of North Florida. Mr. Thunen
has been working on aboriginal burial and
temple mounds in the southeast for the
past six years. Since his arrival in
Florida, he has been especially interested
in the burial mounds located along the St.
Johns River. His topic has become more
important in the past few years with the
passage of the Florida burial bill. Mr.
Thunen will be discussing problems in
cultural resource preservation in
northeast Florida.

Stanley Bond

Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board
P.O. Box 1987

St. Augustine, Florida 32085


James J. Miller
Bureau of Archaeological Research,
Florida Division of Historical Resources

My specific charge is to talk
about what state and federal laws
can and can't do to accomplish the
protection of archaeological re-
sources. Let's start by making
some distinctions. There are
several ways of cutting the archae-
ological pie in considering poten-
tial protection. One way would be
to consider ownership of a site.
The three relevant categories are
federal, state, and private. Gen-
erally speaking, sites in public
ownership may be considered to be
sufficiently protected in the legal
sense. Executive Order 11593
requires that federal properties be
surveyed for cultural resources.
The National Historic preservation
Act, the Antiquities Act, and a
handful of other mandates require
that any federally involved under-
taking take into account the pro-
ject's impact on archaeological and
historical sites. This does not
necessarily ensure that all sites
will be preserved, protected, or
excavated in advance of construc-
tion, but it is safe to say that
they are given a fair chance.
Title to archaeological sites on
state-owned lands rests with the
Division of Historical Resources of
the Florida Department of State,
and Chapter 267 [Florida Statutes]
contains language parallel to the
federal requirements. Again, there
are no absolutes, but there is
authority. Finally, on private
lands, available protection depends
for the most part on the type of
activity that might disturb a site.
Large scale developments, like
Developments of Regional Impact,
routinely receive archaeological

attention, and in most cases, the
procedures are quite effective.
The second distinction we
should make is between theoretical
protection and practical protec-
tion. I can think of a number of
examples where sites were disturbed
or destroyed on public property
even though such activity is
illegal. This may occur as a
result of vandalism, with which we
are all familiar, or it might be
inadvertent damage caused by
failure to recognize a resource or
failure to take proper care of
known sites. These are the inci-
dents that are most frustrating to
those of us who are responsible for
management of publicly owned
resources, but these also offer the
best opportunity to learn from our
mistakes, and improve our treatment
of sites in the future.
Finally, it is necessary to
distinguish between human burial
sites and all other types of
archaeological sites. All human
burials are protected by provisions
of Chapter 872, Florida Statutes
[Offenses Concerning Dead Bodies
and Graves] whether they are on
private or public land. No other
archaeological protection is so
absolute in Florida. It is likely
also that federal legislation will
be passed within the next several
years regarding protection of
burial sites. As you know, this is
a controversial and difficult area,
and it remains to be seen what form
a federal law would take. At best,
it would prevent tragedies like
Slack Farm in Kentucky. At worst
it would hinder necessary archae-
ological excavation intended to

June, 1990


Vol. 43 No. 2

save information from threatened
burial sites.
There are a few categories of
site disturbance that seem to
represent the majority of losses to
the archaeological record in
Florida. These appear to me to be
vandalism, development of small
scale projects not afforded archae-
ological review, and erosion. They
are very different in nature, and
require substantially different
approaches. Based on reports I
have received I estimate that the
most serious vandalism occurs on
prehistoric burial mounds and on
very early lithic sites that
produce Paleo-Indian and Early
Archaic projectile points. Both
types of collecting seem to be
driven by a private market in
antiquities. There is reason to
hope that the destruction of burial
mounds will decline as Chapter 872
is effectively enforced, but prices
of hundreds of dollars for
projectile points for well made
Clovis points, in particular will
continue to lead to the destruction
of sites bearing such artifacts.
It is difficult to estimate
the loss of sites connected with
development that does not receive
archaeological review. We often
don't hear about these sites. I
have the impression, based on the
amount of construction I see in
Leon County and in north Florida
compared to the small number of
projects that receive surveys, that
far more land in Florida is being
modified than is being reviewed for
archaeological remains. Opportuni-
ties for improvement in this area
seem to me to rest at the local
level. Our ability to manage
development impacts on sites at the
state level is already strained.
We need more county and city
archaeological ordinances, and more
county and city archaeological pro-
grams with the authority, ability
and funds to protect sites and

recover information before it is
Finally, I suspect that much
information is lost over the long
term to erosion and other natural
processes, but these incidents are
seldom dramatic and seldom re-
ported. Moreover, even when they
are recognized, there is usually no
one to whom responsibility may be
assigned. Sites along Florida's
vast coastline are being inexorably
inundated, washed and mixed by
tides and storms, and even being
washed entirely away during
I'd like to close with a
simple point. Archaeological con-
servation is too big a job for
archaeologists. We may hope to
provide some leadership and exper-
tise, but our resources are not
sufficient to accomplish what needs
to be done without some real out-
side help. That's what the new
partnership is all about. There
will continue to be examples where
authority is lacking, time is
short, or money is unavailable, and
where important sites are under
threat. As technical specialists
with the ability to assess the
importance of such sites, we have
the responsibility to be cautious
in our declaration of emergencies.
In exchange, we hope that when the
need is present, the public and the
development community will recog-
nize the value of the resources we
care for and join us in conserving
the information they contain.

James J. Miller, Chief
Bureau of Archaeological Research
Division of Historical Resources
Department of State
500 S. Bronough Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0250


Kathleen Deagan
Florida Museum of Natural History

I was very pleased when Ken Hardin
invited me to join everyone here today. I
suppose that I am representing historical
archaeology, which is my special research
interest, as well as museum archaeology,
which is how I get my paycheck. But I
hope that my comments today reflect the
feelings of all my colleagues in archae-
ology and history regardless of what their
particular interest or affiliation might
be. I know that we all agree that this is
a very important and overdue occasion, and
it's one that recognizes a great deal of
very hard work that has affected not just
archaeologists, developers and business
people, but everybody in Florida, and it's
going to continue to do so.
I've often wondered who first came
up with the slogan of "Florida Firsts". I
have found it to be really appropriate in
a lot of ways, particularly regarding
archaeology in Florida. Florida has been
first in archaeology in many ways for a
very long time, and has some remarkable
credit to its history. For example, some
of the very earliest archaeology in North
America took place right here in
Jacksonville in the 1830s. A physician
tourist named John Durkee excavated some
of the mounds along the St. Johns River,
and its continued non-stop since then.
I have to mention that I first
became a Floridian about the same time I
first became an archaeologist, about 20
years ago. I was first attracted to
archaeology by Florida's amazing prehis-
tory. The original inhabitants of this
state the Timucua, the Apalachee, the
Calusa, the Ais, the Tequesta are all
exotic and mysterious and extinct people.
That's a combination that is irresistible
to almost anybody's imagination. The only
way to know anything about these unique
and special people is through archaeology.
I can testify to this raw interest
working in a museum. We at the Florida
Museum of Natural History get hundreds of
calls every month from people wanting to

know about Indians, wanting to learn more
about the pottery and sites and arrow-
heads. We have summer programs for kids
in archaeology and Florida prehistory, and
they are sold out immediately. They're
the first ones to close, and our Timucua
exhibits are almost as popular as the
Florida Cave exhibit.
Everybody is fascinated by Florida's
prehistoric past, and I was too when I
first began studying prehistoric archae-
ology at the University of Florida. That
was before some of the most exciting
recent discoveries in Florida archaeology
which have been done, for the most part,
in conjunction with development projects.
One of the more recent is the Windover
site, which I am sure most of you know
about, where for the first time ever 7000
year old human DNA has been recovered and
replicated. Seven thousand year old
disease antibodies have been recon-
structed. The implications of these finds
have stunned scientists all over the world
in lots of different fields. I think
everyone is thinking very hard, all over
the world, about the potential of
Florida's water-logged sites. These sites
really extend our understanding of prehis-
toric life in North America. Things are
preserved here in Florida that are rarely
found anywhere else canoes, wooden
statues, human brains, baskets, weapons,
all thousands of years old. We know that
this has captured the imagination of
America and the world because we see these
things from our own state on NOVA, on
Odyssey, on BBC, and so does everybody
else. People remember that when they come
to Florida to live, or to visit, or to
start businesses. I'm sure all of you
here at the University of North Florida
see visitors from many countries coming to
look at the sites in this area. Just in
the last six months we [at the Museum]
have had inquiries and visits from people
in England, Sweden, France, Germany and


June, 1990

Vol. 43 No. 2

Spain who want to see Florida's wetland
Most of the materials from these
sites has survived only because of
Florida's very effective partnership that
we've heard about today between
developers, builders, land owners, state
officials and archaeologists. And this is
another Florida first. I think that this
is one of the most effective programs in
the country. My own first paid job in
archaeology came through just such a
partnership. I was hired as a crew chief
on a project funded by the Amelia Island
Corporation. I spent four months in 1970,
in what seemed to me then like an
impossibly remote, inaccessible, hot and
wild area, excavating a mission site and a
prehistoric burial mound that you visited
this afternoon. It may not be easily
accessible today, but it's certainly not
wild or remote anymore. The mound was
preserved as a park and it's one of the
nicest spots in the development, and I
suspect one of the most valuable. Since
then we have seen many, many really
successful partnerships, many of which
Stan mentioned in his introduction and
which we will honor this evening.
As internationally acclaimed as
Florida's prehistoric heritage is, I did
get derailed early on in my own work in
Florida archaeology by another remarkable
Florida first, and that is our history,
the state's history. We have the oldest
written history of any place in the United
States. Florida was claimed as a Spanish
Colony, as we all know, in 1513. That was
100 years before the Pilgrims landed, and
it was nearly a decade before Cortez
conquered Mexico. As my colleague Michael
Gannon has pointed out, it will be the
year 2084 before the United States has
been a nation as long as Florida was a
Spanish colony. With the Quincentenary of
Columbus' voyages to the New Wrld coming
in 1992, I think even more international
attention will be focused on Florida, and
particularly Florida's Spanish sites like
those in Tallahassee the de Soto winter
campsite, the San Luis [de Talimali]
mission excavations that are underway -
and also St. Augustine. St. Augustine is
America's oldest European city, and it's a

national treasure as well as a state
We really have the sites to testify
to all of this in Florida. The state, the
universities, and lots of private land-
owners have worked together, for example,
in reconstructing de Soto's route through
Florida to the delight of thousands of
people who like to drive our back roads
every year. Florida is the first place in
North America to which Christianity was
introduced, and many archaeologists are
getting widespread publicity and recogni-
tion all over the country for our
[Spanish] mission archaeology programs.
The first African-Americans to come
to North America came to Florida, and the
first legitimate free African-American
community was founded here in the state at
St. Augustine at the site of Mise. That
town, founded in 1739, has been excavated
over the last couple of years by the
University of Florida and generously sup-
ported by the Florida legislature. And I
might add that the media coverage has been
on television and magazines in Africa,
England, Spain, Germany and all over North
America. So Florida is very well known
both historically and prehistorically by a
lot of people.
It was my great good fortune to be
assigned as a graduate student in 1972 to
St. Augustine. I was a little reluctant
at the time, because I still thought maybe
I could unlock some prehistoric secrets,
but after my first year in St. Augustine I
was hooked and I have never wanted to
leave. St. Augustine has always captured
national and international attention, and
we've been able to ride on those coattails
in the archaeology program.
Probably one of the most appealing
things to me about working in St.
Augustine is the intense and relentless
public interest. Hundreds of people each
day visit the dig sites there and the
tempo of this, as Stan and others from St.
Augustine can tell you, is only increas-
ing. As much as people are fascinated by
Florida's prehistoric past, I believe they
are even more profoundly captured by the
archaeology of their own heritage. I
think as people know about this they want
more. They want more opportunities to

learn in a tangible way about their own
past and the way things used to be.
People want more opportunities to visit
sites, see exhibitions, have hands-on
experiences in dealing with the past, and
have educational programs. It's not just
in St. Augustine. We see it in Judy
Bense's programs in Pensacola which are
overwhelmed by eager volunteers and sup-
porters. Similar programs are springing
up by popular demand all over the state.
Do you know, for example, what the three
leading recreational activities are for
visitors to Florida? Well the first,
which you've probably guessed, is going to
the beach. The second is going to
swimming pools. And third is visiting
archaeological and historical sites.
Thirty-nine percent of all tourists who
come to Florida list this as a leading
recreational activity, and this comes in
ahead of camping, RV parks, picnicking,
nature study, golf, fishing and, believe
it or not, shuffleboard. This is from the
recent Florida Almanac prepared at Florida
State University.
For attracting industry to this
state we have to rely on cultural oppor-
tunities that are perceived as good by
industry leaders. These are often based
on archaeological research, museums, and
summer programs, along with clean air,
water and scenic natural beauty. We have
it all here in Florida. So all archae-
ological sites in Florida, like all
natural areas, are central to the kind of
development we'd like to see here. This
is what we're all really here today to
celebrate. The joining together of public
agencies and private citizens, business
people, archaeologists and tourists in a
common interest and a common goal.
We all want, I think, to be full,
productive and non-destructive citizens of
the 21st century. We all know that growth
is unavoidable, but everybody here recog-
nizes that we don't have to sacrifice our
cultural, historical and environmental
treasures to do that. It's my view that
archaeology in Florida, from this point
onward, is public archaeology no matter
who does it or for whatever reason. We
all need it; archaeologists to do our
work and keep our jobs; developers and

business to attract the good citizens
and responsible industry we'd like to see
in Florida; our private citizens to
learn more about their own heritage and
participate in it. And I expect that we
will see a great many more archaeological
programs involving all of these compon-
ents. I hope that in the process, we as
archaeologists can unbend a little in this
direction, and that the citizens of
Florida can join us in teaching the rest
of the country a lesson about progress
that is bound to be another Florida first.

Kathleen Deagan
Department of Anthropology
Florida Museum of Natural History
Museum Road
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


Chuck Mitchell
Mad Dog Design & Construction Company, Inc.

I have to admit that I and my
partners at Mad Dog find the fact
that a developer has been asked to
be a guest speaker by the Florida
Archaeological Council a bit un-
usual all week I've heard about
"strange bedfellows" and an "unholy
alliance." They were kidding me,
of course, but hopefully the pro-
spect of archaeologists and devel-
opers reaching out to seek each
other's help and counsel will be
less and less unusual in the
The reason I say that is
because I see the future of archae-
ology and development (particularly
in Florida with the way that we are
growing and the history we have) as
more and more entwined. The more
we understand each other's goals,
needs and dilemmas, the more we
will discover that cooperation
between archaeologists and develop-
ers benefits both groups far more
than confrontation or mutual mis-
In fact, I ran across a news-
paper article the other day, the
headline of which sort of stunned
me. It says "Development Can Aid
Archaeology" which indicates that
at least one half of the equation
is true. I wonder when we'll see
the opposite where it says "Archae-
ology Can Aid Development?" The
thought of that kind of makes you
shudder, doesn't it? But that's
alright, I was an American history
major at FSU [Florida State Univer-
sity], and was therefore excited to
hear that my superintendent had
discovered some pottery sherds in
the root ball of a tree we were
moving on a job site near the
Capitol. Still, I was a bit wary
of the two guys I saw standing next

to him as I drove up to my job site
in March of 1987.
The reason for my uneasiness
was the "suspicious" demeanor of
none other than Jim Miller and
Calvin Jones. And even though I
discovered that they're two of the
nicest guys you'd want to meet, and
that I would learn much from both
of them, we initially circled each
other warily like dogs sniffing out
each other's turf and intentions.
I wondered what I was in for,
but agreed to let Jim have Calvin
poke around for "just a day or two,
if you don't mind." Right, Jim.
As you may know, the days stretched
into weeks, which stretched into
months, and all the while our
patience and pocketbooks were being
stretched as well. In fact, neither
Jim nor I had any grey hair when we
first met on the site, which goes
to show that this process is not
just tough on the developer.
Now perhaps it's true that
because of my background I may have
been more empathetic than most
developers. But although none of
my several partners shared my back-
ground, they all shared my feelings
about wanting to "do the right
thing." Of course, as the project
evolved, the definition of "the
right thing" became murky.
Nonetheless, I believe that
most developers want to do "the
right thing," whatever that is, and
share a sense of communitarianism.
I'm not sure that that's even a
word, but it's one I use a lot and
which I define as placing value on
the sense of community. Developers
create communities and, I think,
have that sense, believe it or not.
I think we all share a recognition
that we all have common bonds in


Vol. 43 No. 2

June, 1990

our history that help establish a
sense of direction and purpose for
the future.
Since archaeology is the
first line of establishing and
reinforcing that sense of community
- of who we are and where we came
from it's really the only way to
begin to know where we are in time
and where we're heading. Discov-
eries like the de Soto site help
anchor a community in its histori-
cal roots and identify itself.
Now I know I'm preaching to
the choir here (that's always kind
of fun to do) and you're probably
wondering why, if all you develop-
ers are such great guys, then how
do sites get bulldozed over? And
how could any developer have a mind
set like the two different ones who
each called me to tell me how crazy
I was to let the state onto my
site, how sorry I was going to be,
and how each of them had bulldozed
graveyards over (one at night)
rather than call in the archae-
ologists. Why? Because of bad ex-
periences they either had or heard
of, or more likely, thought they
might have.
"The state does not care about
you or your problems," they said.
"They will tie up your project
forever," they said. "They will
give you no indication of what
resolution you can expect." Sort
of sounds like what really hap-
pened, doesn't it Jim? "They will
get the press and public to gang up
on you to try and make your project
fail so they can increase their
negotiating position with you and
that's assuming they even try to
buy anything from you. If they do,
it will take years and the interest
costs will kill you. But more
likely, they'll decide to just
condemn your land and take it from
Well, that's just what I
needed to hear as my partners and I
were pondering our options and
watching the interest clock run.

We had over a million dollars tied
up in this property, and our in-
terest costs were about $330 per
day, or $10,000 per month. That
doesn't count the manpower we had
tied up and waiting to start over a
million dollars worth of new con-
struction which we had contracted
to begin that month but didn't get
to start until nearly seven months
later. That's a lot of money, par-
ticularly for us.
It also doesn't count my and
my partner's time grappling with
all the public facets of this
"unplanned situation." Before I
came over here I went through my
files of all the newspaper and
magazine articles I have collected
that were generated during this
time. And I began making a list of
all the local, state and federal
agencies we dealt with. Some of
you are already smiling at the
prospect of what I came up with.
I've claimed a number of times in
the past that if we had a buck for
each bureaucrat, five bucks for
every meeting I've attended, and
two bits for every reporter that
we've talked to, we could have
donated the site to the state.
Of course we didn't and all
the while the uncertainty kept
building and that's what really
made things tough. We just didn't
know what was going to happen. We
kept believing that our government
(the city, the county, the state)
would come through and end our
agony by "doing the right thing"
themselves. Lots of officials made
lots of supportive statements, but
the little financial assistance we
got came from local businessmen and
from another foundation. It wasn't
nearly enough to compensate us for
the cost of carrying the load while
the diggers dug, nor did it help us
deal with the two buyers with whom
we had binding contracts to
complete buildings before the end
of 1987 (each carrying a $100 per
day penalty for delays).

As we twisted slowly in the
wind, we began wondering if the
other guys weren't right after all.
Despite public statements about how
the state should own the property,
no one from the state ever ap-
proached us about acquiring any-
thing (except for more time).
Why was it, we wondered, that
the state can respond to all kinds
of crises with S.W.A.T. teams, the
National Guard and rainy day funds,
and not respond to this cultural
crisis that was happening a mile
away from the Capitol? The answer,
of course, was that the state
bureaucracy wasn't set up to deal
with this kind of situation. The
system that was designed to prevent
sweetheart land deals from quickly
going through unfortunately also
prevented quick responses to real
and unique needs like ours. No
developer can afford to carry a
half complete project for a few
years and wait for all the various
state agencies and committees to
give a blessing to a purchase.
Fortunately for us for all of us
- the Trust for Public Land came in
and bought us out of our situation
and they played the waiting game
with us until the state could buy.
And I would really like to
recognize Dale Allen from the Trust
as a key man who really made this
project one that Jim and I can sit
up here and talk about today. If
it hadn't been for them, none of us
would be here talking about a
successful project.
Fortunately for everyone
else, the state passed legislation
on the heels of our project that
now provides for emergency funds
[approximately $2 million] and pro-
cedures to allow for a quick inter-
vention, and to assist developers
and archaeologists in future situa-
tions like this. The problem is
that the state has not promoted or
publicized this program enough so
that the message gets through to
the development community. We

developers need to know that things
are different now, that mechanisms
are in place that can provide
equitable solutions to the guys who
discover graveyards or pottery
Understand that because
developers are basically unlicensed
and unregulated (which is certainly
not to say that we don't deal with
regulations just that our pro-
fession is unregulated), it's hard
to classify us with broad-brush
descriptions. Basically though,
we're strong willed, egotistical,
(some of us would say) visionary,
optimistic overreachers who are
impatient and over leveraged. But
we are the one's responding to the
state's growth pressures and, like
it or not, we are the ones
literally shaping our environment
and the future face of Florida.
That's why we need to have good
cooperation between the development
and archaeological communities.
We are the guys that uncover
and discover, albeit with bull-
dozers and backhoes instead of hand
trowels. We need to be partners
with the archaeologists because
daily we are, let's face it on the
leading edge of peeling away our
historical bed covers everyday in
Florida, and it's going to happen
more and more.
If you are trying to think
about ways that the state has to
try to evaluate the use of their
limited resources, how do you
decide the best use of state monies
for archaeological excavations?
That's a good question, and a scale
of significance needs to be
established to guide the use of
these monies and determine the
priorities, and if more is needed.
Of course more is always needed and
more is never there. But in a time
of scarce resources, these re-
sources must be used as efficiently
as possible and, whenever possible,
co-mingled with local funds to get
more "bang for the buck."

There will always be a debate
over how to establish the signi-
ficance of a site based on history
alone, and I can't presume to guess
as to whether one discovery or
another is "more important" from an
archaeological standpoint. But
other criteria should come into
play as well. For example, I be-
lieve that more emphasis should be
placed, in other words more money
should be spent, on excavation and
retrieval of artifacts rather than
on preservation of an undisturbed
site simply because it's a function
of how much you can get for your
money. Ideally there may be some
land left preserved as a commem-
orative or interpretive park area.
But a $2 million fund doesn't go
far when you're buying land. It
will provide for a lot of digging
and interest carry, however.
To that end, consideration
needs to be given to the existing
contractual obligations of the
developer and any particular site
constraints. To have condemned the
property upon which we had already
executed contracts, for example,
would have cost a great deal (not
just to buy the property, but also
the contracts), would have been
tied up for months (if not years)
in litigation, and would have sent
the wrong message to the develop-
ment community. And maybe it's no
great loss, but you sure wouldn't
have me up here talking about what
a great thing happened in
Tallahassee two years ago.
Additionally, I believe weight
must be given to finds that gener-
ate significant community response
and support. Charlie Ewen [field
director assisting B. Calvin Jones
in the de Soto site excavations]
described the scene at the de Soto
site as "a circus" when he first
arrived. It was. We had tents out
there and there were people all
around carrying hot dogs and food
for the diggers. That was a re-
flection of the tremendous local

interest that the site stimulated.
We even had to hire security guards
for the first six weeks of the dig
to keep folks away at night. Once
the newspaper cooperated with us
and published a story that said
"no, de Soto did not bring gold, he
just brought pigs," that helped
take care of a lot of it.
Besides, the history of any
find is the community's history.
That's not to say that if the com-
munity isn't excited or very sup-
portive that the find isn't
significant, but community response
should also be a gauge. As the
state finds itself having to judi-
ciously dole out limited support
dollars to an increasing number of
sites, consideration must be given
to providing some initial seed
money to set the tone and send the
right message to the developer and
community, and then provide match-
ing funds for excavation and pre-
servation as the community itself
responds. Sort of a public-private
Finally, I think the degree
of developer cooperation has to
play a role, and developers need to
know that the more they cooperate
the more they will benefit. And
what they should get is a combina-
tion of funds to offset carrying
costs (and any land acquisition),
and good press to help create more
value for the remaining project
that they may have to sell. We
were fortunate in that respect in
Tallahassee. Of course we didn't
end up with anything left to sell,
but we did get good press. Good
press is also important to give the
local community a stronger feeling
about what's going on. Certainly,
the state doesn't control the
press, but the state has much to do
with the press's perception of
what's going on, why the project is
important, why people should
support it' whether the developer
should be stroked or shot, those
sorts of things.


There is obviously great value
to the community in an archae-
ological find. And there's no
reason that there shouldn't be
additional value ascribed to the
remainder of the developer's pro-
ject that has any proximity to the
find. There's no question that the
proper presentation of the find can
increase the marketability of the
project. That's why we could have
easily presold every proposed
building on the de Soto site, and
actually found ourselves in the
very unusual position of turning
away potential sales contracts on
the property that the state now
owns. People clearly value the
historical significance of an
archaeological site.
Archaeological discoveries are
valuable resources that can be
shared with the public that
should be shared with the public.
No one needs to reap huge profits
because of them nor suffer huge
losses because of them. They
belong to all of us, and it is all
of our responsibility to ensure
that they do in fact get to all of
us. But if we can allow some
profits to be generated by some
development of the site after
excavation, then less state and
other monies need to be kicked in
to help offset the developer's
costs and losses.
Understand that for developers
there are two big enemies -
negative press and negative cash
flow, not necessarily in that
order. But a good thing is the
enhanced marketability of the rest
of the site. That can really help
offset some of the cost of
otherwise donating the site. Once
we recognize the various roles that
we all can play and properly
utilize all the resources available
to us (and not just monetary
resources), and the more we educate
each other about our respective
roles, then I believe we'll begin
to see more and more discoveries

come to light yielding more and
more of our history to us. And that
will be our mutual success.

Chuck Mitchell
Mad Dog Design &
Construction Company, Inc.
1713 Mahan Drive
Tallahassee, Florida 32300



Robert Thunen
University of North Florida

What I would like to talk to
you all about are the dreams and
nightmares that are the archaeology
and prehistory of Duval County;
that is, the area of northeast
Florida. I also feel that I am
preaching to the already converted,
but if you remember only one thing
from my talk it should be that
Duval County has one of the richest
and fullest histories and prehis-
tories of anywhere in the south-
east. It was here along Florida's
north coast, that the struggle for
colonial North America was forged.
The blood of Timucuan, French,
Spanish and English stained the
sand here.
Let no one dismiss Jackson-
ville as simply another growing
Florida city of malls and crack
houses, needing only a professional
football team to be complete.
Jacksonville has a sense of history
and place that extends back at
least 5000 years before the
present, if not earlier. The
problem rather is amnesia a
selected memory of the past. We
are gathered here today not to
throw slings and arrows at each
other, but rather to discuss the
good, the bad and the ugly. The
problems both archaeologists and
developers have in facing the past.
Jacksonville today more than
ever is at a crossroads with
continual development across the
county. The words preservation,
protection and mitigation are
cursed words, and archaeologists
are perceived as foes rather than
friends in the business community.
Archaeology is often visualized as
another hurdle on the dash for
approval and completion of pro-
jects. Yet we should not lose
sight of what archaeology is and

what it can do for a community.
There is plenty of opportunity for
cooperation among developers and
archaeologists. That is, in part,
why we are here today to
acknowledge and celebrate indivi-
duals who have, often on their own,
placed archaeology and the pursuit
of the past on a relative footing
with the construction of the
A valid question posed is
"What is archaeology's role in the
community?" I would argue that
archaeology contributes to a com-
munity's sense of place, and we
have heard some of the panelists
talk about archaeology as a sense
of place. A sense of place in
history is a legacy for that
community; a cultural trail that
unites different historic, ethnic
and cultural groups together
focused around one place; a shared
continuity that in Jacksonville
spans thousands of years. Archae-
ology here in Jacksonville explores
that sense of place as experienced
by a diversity of ethnic and cul-
tural groups. I think that's one
of the really unusual things about
Jacksonville, and St. Augustine for
that matter, that is, the diversity
of ethnic experience in terms of
the archaeology. Archaeology helps
a community or county or country
develop that sense of place.
Archaeology puts us literally in
touch with history.
Archaeologists are not neces-
sarily anti-development, despite
what some may think. Rather, our
first priority lies in caring for
the past. We are trustees or cura-
tors for a very fragile and vulner-
able thing. For who else speaks for
the dead be they Indian, French,
Spanish, British, Afro-American, or


Vol. 43 No. 2

June, 1990

Colonial American. It is an uneasy burden
to speak of history when no one cares to
For the next couple of minutes I
would like to address in rather general
terms the good, the bad and the ugly
concerning archaeology in Duval County.
The good news in archaeological terms is
that there is a growing awareness in
Jacksonville that it does have a past a
rising sort of self consciousness. And
that past is a rich one. Work by the
University of Florida at St. Augustine and
at the Santa Maria St. Catherine de Guale
Mission on Amelia Island have helped raise
the profile of archaeology in northeast
Florida. Certainly the work of Stan Bond
and the Historic [St. Augustine]
Preservation Board, and his band of
dedicated volunteers, has helped increase
our awareness about St. Johns County and
St. Augustine. Contract work by Bob
Johnson, Martin Dickenson and others have
all contributed to a growing information
base on the prehistory and early
historical cultures of this area. Tbday as
never before, history can come alive.
Research questions about the past can be
But the real story here lies in the
people behind the archaeology. The
Dorions at Amelia Island, Charlie Brown of
Summer Homes all have exhibited a
curiosity that has supported archaeology
beyond the theory and method, beyond the
computer models and statistical analyses.
Curiosity binds the scientist and layman
together, and in most cases, it is the
curiosity of ordinary men and women that
brings important sites to the attention of
archaeologists. Whether it is the desire
of the landowner to know more about that
land, to seek the history that lies
beneath the surface, or a developer
interested in the potential problems of
development, archaeologists need to
harness that sense of curiosity and wonder
about the past for it can bring the
archaeologist and landowner together.
To you who have that curiosity I
salute you. It is a rare and special
quality which often the most seasoned
archaeologists have lost in the face of
raising money, departmental politics, and

expanding professional commitments.
Curiosity and the courage to become
involved in the pursuit of the past, in
search of place, is what I honor today.
And that is the good that is going on in
Duval County.
The bad is the apathy found among
individuals and companies, that the past
is, for them, not good business. Rather,
it is seen as an obstacle, something that
is to be avoided at all possible costs.
The bad is a lack of understanding about
the past. It is a view of the future
without a sense of place. The bad is
archaeology as a hurdle rather than
archaeology as discovery. The bad is
watching dump trucks of mound fill
disappear as Grant Mound is whittled away.
The bad is the looting of sites for
personal collection or monetary gain.
What cost is the past? How does a
community put a value on its history?
When significant sites are found, or
potentially in harms way, what is a
developer to do? This is something we
must struggle with and continue to figure
The ugly is the downright abuse of
the past. The destruction of sites to get
rid of them and we've heard some
testimony about that. This is the dark
side that archaeology must deal with the
purposeful destruction of sites, the
elimination of history at its very base.
Site destruction is often associated with
a belief that it does not matter because
it is "Indian stuff" or "Spanish junk,"
and such stuff has no place in the modern
world. It's difficult to argue with this
viewpoint for it encompasses a distinctly
different set of values, a set of values
that denies a sense of cultural worth to
another culture or time. It is difficult
to bridge the gap set by such ignorance,
but perhaps that is the greatest of all
challenges facing the archaeologist -
breaking the ethnocentric assumptions
about our culture and about our past.
I would like to conclude with some
thoughts on the future. There are great
possibilities here in northeast Florida.
The passage and development of Congressman
[William] Bennett's Timucuan Historical
and Ecological Preserve offers northeast


Florida the chance to put its past on
display at the national level. This is an
opportunity for Jacksonville to show off
its history, to show off its sense of
place. Another important project will be
the completion of the St. Johns Bluff
survey by Bob Johnson. This survey will,
for the first time, accurately document
the intensive occupation of the St. Johns
Bluff region. In the future as well, the
University of North Florida, through its
Anthropology Club, plans to develop a
regional program designed to study the
well documented but little known Timucuan
occupation along the lower St. Johns

The future should be promising
indeed, but archaeology, the public and
developers must be aware of the needs and
problems of one another. Will Rogers once
said, everyone is ignorant, only on
different subjects. Let us hope that this
forum begins a dialogue to end that
ignorance, and that together we can leave
a record of our stay along the river.

Robert Thunen
Department of Political Science
University of North Florida
Jacksonville, Florida 32216

Welcome Address

Kenneth W. Hardin
Piper Archaeological Research, Inc.

On behalf of the Florida Archae-
ological Council, I would like to welcome
you to our 1989 Stewards of Heritaqe
preservation awards banquet. We are
honored to welcome Secretary of State Jim
Smith, University of North Florida's
President Adam Herbert, our program
speakers and most particularly, tonight's
honorees: George and Dottie Dorion; Chuck
Mitchell, Dale Allen, and Steve Allen;
Frank and Eveline Bilek; Jack Eckerd and
Jim Swann; Charles Lykes; Roy Rogers; and
Senator Bob Johnson.
We are here tonight not only to
celebrate your outstanding leadership and
the strength of your vision, but also to
learn from your example and experience. We
who have made our life's work the study
and protection of our rich cultural heri-
tage can, at times, become beleaguered by
the enormity of the task, by its bitter
urgency and its hard choices. Yet you
offered us both support and hope. It was
as if we raised our heads from the tren-
ches to find not enemies, but friends; not

impending defeat, but fresh reinforce-
ments. You and others like you will be
the ones that will make the difference.
You are the vital partners without which
we will surely fail.
We archaeologists are used to study-
ing important cultural processes operat-
ing in past cultures. Well, today we saw
an important process unfolding before our
eyes in the here and now. We experienced
the very human need to esteem, to study,
to connect with our past, our ancestors,
our communities' founders. Perhaps it is
an important adaptation to see how
others handled problems, problems over
which they prevailed or problems that
defeated them. Or is it an innate but
little recognized human instinct that
understands that the past can show us our
own face, and help us to know ourselves?
Think of the devotion, hard work and
inspiration of Dion Jaccard and the 200
plus volunteers at the Amelia Island
Museum. Even more important, I think, than
the educational significance of the ex-


Vol. 43 No. 2

June, 1990


hibits is the volunteers' demonstration of
the importance they feel for the value of
history to their community.
As exciting as the discoveries made
at the Santa Maria/Santa Catalina Missions
on the Dorion property on Amelia Island
Plantation have been, I think an equally
important benefit has come from the moral
leadership of people like George and
Dottie Dorion. Anyone who comes into con-
tact with the Dorions cannot help but come
away uplifted and rededicated. Think
about the over 2000 school children and
college students that looked into the
ground at the site and saw history come
And today's forum at UNF I didn't
think I'd ever see so many archaeologists
learning so much from developers. We
found out that we do have much to learn
and that there are many of you out there
who can teach us.
Tonight, high above the Jacksonville
skyline and the historic St. Johns River,
there is a tangible magic, a group energy.
Can't you feel it? I see a beauty that
comes from overcoming obstacles in a just
cause, a power that comes from being a
part of something very important.
All of you that participated today -
developers, educators, museum and commun-
ity activists, politicians, members of the
media, administrators, patrons have
shown us that which we desperately need to
see: our cultural heritage is vital -
archaeology matters.
It has been said that anything you
love you can save. Everyone here tonight
shares a love of our cultural heritage.
We all can also see a crisis the poten-

tial destruction of this patrimony during
our lifetime. The problem is easier to
define than the solution. One of the
reasons tonight's honorees are so
important is because they know how to turn
a crisis into an opportunity. They can
help us find the way. So, before I
introduce our special guest and supporter,
Secretary Smith, let me ask each honoree
and everyone else in the room and those
who may read these remarks please
continue your efforts to protect and
enhance our cultural resources, please
continue to set an example for others to
see, for others to follow. We
professional archaeologists are ready to
listen, we are ready to learn.

Kenneth W. Hardin
Piper Archaeological Research, Inc.
P.O. Box 919
St. Petersburg, Florida 33731


Vol. 43 No. 2

June, 1990


Prepared Remarks

Jim Smith
Florida Secretary of State

Archaeology has revealed much about
man and the various cultures throughout
the world; some extinct, others evolving.
Without knowledge of our past we would
have no direction for the future. As
Secretary of State I'm deeply committed to
preserving Florida's past, including the
conservation, excavation and interpreta-
tion of archaeological sites.
I'd like to express my appreciation
to the Florida Archaeological Council for
initiating a very worthwhile awards pro-
gram. By honoring those who have made a
commitment to archaeology as part of
development projects, we encourage others
to practice responsible development.
It's no secret that Florida is grow-
ing rapidly. The impact of this growth is
felt in our overcrowded prisons, congested
highways and diminishing natural re-
sources. As the state struggles to plan
for growth, however, there are other en-
dangered resources that demand immediate
attention. I'm talking about non-
renewable historical and archaeological
resources ... our portholes to the past.
Because of Florida's prominent role
in the founding of our nation, and the
wealth of Indian cultures that flourished
here prior to European domination, the
stakes are high. Florida's irreplaceable
historical sites are rapidly being
destroyed by vandalism, erosion and devel-
opment. Twenty years ago, there seemed
little hope for sites in the way of pri-
vate development. Now, thanks to the
efforts of those we honor tonight, devel-
opment is recognized as a means to protect
and recover archaeological information
rather than a threat.
In Tallahassee, a state archae-
ologist [B. Calvin Jones] discovered the
16th century site of Hernando de Soto's
first winter encampment, the only known
site of its kind in the Southeast.
Through the dedicated commitment of devel-
opers, the site was partially excavated

and eventually purchased by the state.
This is an archaeological success story of
national importance.
In every area of the state, archae-
ologists and responsible developers are
forging a new alliance. Cooperation and
common understanding are allowing impor-
tant sites to be preserved or excavated in
advance of construction. This partnership
brings great credit to the development
community and builds positive public rela-
tions. No developer's advertising budget
could generate the kind of national
attention resulting from the excavation of
the de Soto site.
Earlier today I had the opportunity
to tour the Santa Catalina Mission site,
on nearby Amelia Island, where excavations
have been in progress for several years.
Spanish Colonial research, especially of
the Mission Period, is advancing rapidly
in Florida. As we approach the 500th an-
niversary of Columbus's landing, even more
attention will be focused on Florida's
sites of European exploration and settle-
Most archaeologists believe the
first Indians settled in Florida over 12
thousand years ago. We think many of
these Indians settled in coastal areas.
Over the years, Florida's climate changed
and sea level rose more than 100 feet.
Evidence of prehistoric people that inha-
bited coastal areas now rests beneath the
sea. New technology will permit the future
excavation of clues to early cultures
embedded in the ocean floor.
Underwater archaeology promises to
shed new light on the lifestyles of
Florida's first inhabitants. Marine
archaeologists are also providing insight
into our rich maritime heritage.
Shipwrecks of many nations and historical
periods are preserved along our extensive
coastline. These sites are only beginning
to be recognized for their historical


June, 1990

Vol. 43 No. 2


The Spanish galleon San Pedro, which
was lost during a 1733 hurricane in the
Keys, has become one of Florida's two
underwater archaeological preserves. Now
open to the public, the site is accessible
to glass-bottom boats and divers. San
Pedro visitors observe the unique rela-
tionship between shipwreck and the marine
environment. One of Florida's oldest
artificial reefs, the vessel is a living
museum where fish, sea grasses and
colorful corals thrive.
Each day excavations reveal new
information about Florida, where a melting
pot of cultures takes pride in their past.
The cycle of historical discovery and
future application will probably continue
until the last man takes his last breath.
We can look to the future with hope
and confidence. Archaeologists throughout
the state are making great efforts to
identify and conserve or excavate sites of
historical significance. The task before
us is immense. It can only be accom-
plished with the understanding, coopera-
tion and support of the development com-
munity. By encouraging consideration of
historical values prior to development,
we can improve the preservation and public
understanding of Florida's past. At the
same time, we can accommodate the needs of
our ever increasing population. The public
is well served when preservationists and
developers work together. I hope you will
join me in pursuit of this goal.
The conservation awards being pre-
sented this evening pay tribute to those
who respect Florida's rich heritage. To
all recipients, I offer my congratula-

Jim Smith, Secretary
Department of State
The Capitol
Tallahassee, Florida 32399



Secretary of State Jim Smith

On Budget Cuts and
State Historic Resources Programs

I want to take Just a moment
to sound an alarm about where we
are right now with what I antici-
pate may be some really tough times
for the state in terms of the
budget. Those of you who read the
newspaper or watch television I'm
sure are aware that Governor
Martinez and the Cabinet are in the
process of having to cut about $280
Million out of the state budget
because revenues that have been
anticipated are not coming in at
the rate we thought they would ...
That $280 million translated to the
Department of State means that we
have to cut about $2 million out of
our $70 million budget. That is
very painful ... We have been able
to look at some other Divisions and
we're taking the cuts there so that
we are not, hopefully, going to
have to impact any of these
[historic resources] programs. But
the concern I have is that the pro-
jections for the remainder of this
fiscal year [indicate] that we may
be back one or two more times with
cuts, and the state budget for next
year appears to be quite bleak. We
have to compete with Education and
Law Enforcement, Drug Programs and
Children's Programs, and it's kind
of easy for legislators to look at
{historic resources] programs...and
just say "well, we can eliminate
them or take drastic cuts there,"

On Contacting Your Legislators

We are working right now to
try and find some revenue sources
so that we can be sure that our
programs in cultural affairs and
historic resources will not be
impacted when we have shortfalls in
general revenues, Hopefully, we

Vol. 43 No. 2

will go forward with some of those
this legislative session. The

point I want to make tonight, to
all of you, is to please ... go out
of your way to your representa-
tives, your senators, and make them
aware of the importance of these
programs and what they mean to your
communities ... Believe me, that
kind of help early on can make a
tremendous difference.

On Archaeology and

the Business Community

We have found through surveys
that archaeology and historic
restoration is important. We have
found that tourists who visit spend
[nearly as much] time visiting his-
torical sites [as] they do the
beach. And we are trying to bring
that message to Chambers of Com-
merce to make the business commun-
ity appreciate how these programs
really benefit their pocketbooks.

On the de Soto Site

Shortly after I became
Secretary of State ... I had a very
early, personal experience in deal-
ing with Chuck [Mitchell] and Steve
Allen [of] Mad Dog Construction
Company ... [I] was impressed and
delighted with the attitude they
had in working with and cooperating
with our people to preserve a site
that, certainly in terms of histor-
ical significance, is one of the
most important finds in this
country ... We saw in our community
people raliying to support the
preservation of this site in many
ways. Fortunately, we were able to
eventually acquire it. Because of
that experience, I went to the
legislature that next session and
we now have the ability, on an
emergency basis, to...acquire sites
like this. We didn't have that
ability before,


Jim Swann, Windover Farms, Inc.

On the Windover Site Discovery
They asked me to talk about
how Windover happened and then why
it happened. Windover was a freak
accident. We were demucking a pond
and putting a road across it when
[what looked like] a round ball
rolled out. Knowing that there are
not many such things ten feet un-
derground in Florida, the operator
stopped, examined it, and dis-
covered it was a [human] skull. It
took us awhile to figure out what
you do in such a case I'd never
unearthed a body before...
Some of my employees had got-
ten fearful that I wasn't handling
it correctly, and next door was the
Highway Patrol station office. So
they had taken all the buckets [of
bones] over to the Highway Patrol
station. And they were looking
frantically through all their man-
uals to see how to handle buckets
of bones. This was the Driver's
License Bureau so they were hardly
The Sheriff's Department came
to pick up these bones ... so we
took him next door to the Highway
Patrol station, and the Highway
Patrol and the Sheriff's Department
both thumbed their manuals fran-
tically. Finally, after calling all
sorts of places, including Talla-
hassee, they decided they could
take the bones to the coroner's
office, who proclaimed my bones to
be Archaic old and not of recent
vintage and therefore not in his
department ... So I ended up get-
ting my bucket of bones back ...
and they sat around my house for
weeks after that. As my wife said,
we started worrying about the
"haints". I don't know if any of
you know what a "haint" is, but
it's nothing you want hanging your

On Finding an Archaeologist
We tried to get what we

thought was [a representative of]
the University of Florida to come
down and take [the bones]. But it
really wasn't the University of
Florida, it was somebody else in
Gainesville. To the people in
Cocoa everything in Gainesville is
the University of Florida. Then I
told a corporate lobbyist that I
couldn't get much out of the Uni-
versity of Florida, and he being a
[FSU] "Seminole" I knew that he
could do better. He went off and
found Glen Doran for me who came
down and got all of us excited
including this poor lobbyist who
has never done anything charitable,
I don't think, in his life. And we
went to work on trying to get
funding to do the site, and Jim
Smith helped us, I mean he's a
Seminole too. It's funny how
football and archaeology are tied
together, isn't it?

On Enjoying Archaeology
Anyway, the legislature in
their wisdom did fund that whole
program, and it was a blast. I
mean, to have all that going on,
and National Geographic, and
national television. People ask me
why? Why was it a blast? I mean,
there is nothing more fun than
being involved in one of these
things, and it's what you have to
sell and you need to know that.
For you all [archaeologists] it's
science, and it's important, but to
people like myself, it's just
really enjoyable. Much more so than
cocktail parties, or water skiing,
or the other things you can do in

On Why Windover Happened
I've been trying to think why
we did it ... I was interviewed by
all these television stations, and
Glen Doran told them I was a great
guy and he was trying to make me
[into] this great thing, and I
really don't feel that way ... I am
a fourth generation Floridian [and]


I think I have the Florida ethic.
I think I believe in Florida. And
I believe that Florida has a
history, and that I don't own that
history. And that I discovered
some of that history, and that we
didn't really own that piece of
land. I know that seems odd ...
you've got investments, and you
don't want to lose your money, and
you've got all these forces
twisting at you ... but I really
didn't feel like I had the right to
destroy that site. I really feel
like it belonged to somebody else.
And I think that's something that
we all ought to think about in
terms of why Florida's the way it
is, and where it's going in the
future. With so many people who
haven't been here very long, it's
very hard to have enough people who
care. I think the reason we did
it, which is one of the questions I
was asked to address, is that we
cared. We didn't feel like it was
our s.

On Tax Deductions
I have to tell you one more
thing that I think is important,
and I think archaeology ought to
think about it. I took one hell of
a tax deduction. I didn't do that
when we first started, it was an
afterthought. So I don't want you
to think that I'm totally greedy
... but that little pond is
probably the most valuable piece of
real estate in Florida in terms of
what it meant financially to our
company. But it was a real hard
thing to quantify what the value of
that stuff was ... So we basically
used the argument that what the
state spent, and what we spent,
excavating those materials was the
minimal value. If the state ...
believed it was worth that to get
it out of the ground, it had to be
worth that and something more. So
we used the minimum value, which
was the value of the extraction. I
think that's important, and I think

you all ought to think about how we
can quantify that in the future.

On Preemptive Destruction
I want to leave you with a
puzzling thought. Right now in the
State of Florida there's a lot of
preemptive destruction going on.
People are afraid, desperately
afraid, of the laws that are being
passed to protect properties. And
because of that, they are going out
and destroying their property to
turn it into something that's not
valuable to the environment, not
valuable to you, not valuable to
anyone. I really think that's
unfortunate, and we really ought to
do something about it.

Chuck Mitchell, Mad Dog Design &
Construction Company, Inc.

On the Role of Luck
in the Management of Events
As a builder-developer, my
primary job is to manage events,
people and budgets to compel
events to happen according to a
plan ... The more I am able to
compel things to happen according
to my plan, the more successful I
will be. Indeed, anyone who tries
to get events to follow a prede-
termined path will try to minimize
the role that luck plays. I think
that's something we really have to
think about. We were really very
lucky in Tallahassee during the
evolution of the de Soto dig ... as
it turns out, we were a lot luckier
than we realized. I really don't
want that fact to be lost on us as
we celebrate some of the successes
we are talking about this evening
... [The de Soto site] is a great
story about things falling into
place. But is that something we
can count on again and again?
People's reliance on luck is the
way the Lottery makes its money,
but it's not [what] any of us
should depend on [for] the

successful identification and
preservation of other archaeo-
logical sites.

On Educating Developers
and Archaeologists
You know most developers be-
lieve that "I'm from the state and
I'm here to help" is about the
second biggest lie you can tell
somebody, so obviously a sales and
education job needs to be put on
the development community to try
and instill in it the sense of
cooperation we need to have with
The key doesn't really lie in
more legislation, but in under-
standing all of the nuances of the
dilemma in which the developer
finds himself, and how to help him
achieve his goal while at the same
time helping the archaeologists
achieve their goal. The more we
learn about each other, the more we
can help each other.

On Project Delays
and Contractual Obligations
[There are] contractual obli-
gations that developers already
have in place at the time a dis-
covery is made. It's not just the
obligations to buyers, but it's the
obligations to folks like the
[Leon] County Environmental Ser-
vices Department who got very exas-
perated with us because our storm-
water management system got halted
right in the middle [of the
project]. We had permit obliga-
tions ... which we couldn't comply
with as long as there were dozens
of diggers on the site excavating
more and more earth every day.
These are some of the obligations
that developers enter into before
starting a [project] that you've
got to be aware of.
Crew placement we had not
taken on other jobs because we had
folks committed to do another
million dollars worth of construc-
tion that we thought was going to

happen next week, and then next
week, and then maybe next week, and
then didn't happen for another
seven months. We had people we had
to lay off because we didn't know
what to do with them, we didn't
know where they were going to be.
So some of our carpenters got hurt
because of the delay. It wasn't
just us and the company you've
got real folks out there too who
get into a development process and
count on things happening sequen-

On Archaeological Sites
as Value Added Properties
We [developers] are probably
the ones that will initially un-
earth most of our future discover-
ies. Will we cooperate? Will we
do anything about it? What's in it
for us? Developers are in business
to make money ... but we are also
at substantial risk and have
several legitimate concerns...
So where is the opportunity
for cooperation with archaeologists
to create value? What can be in it
for a developer, what can make [a
project] valuable? Developers
typically make money by adding
value to land, generally through
infrastructure and buildings, and
then selling it. So anything that
seems to add value to land and
seems to enhance its marketability
will be received favorably by the
development community. The real
opportunity that the archaeological
community has is something that
they can give to a developer ... or
something that they can point out
was there all along ... that really
makes a [piece of land] more
If you can let the
development community know that
when a discovery is made the state
now has the ability to move in
quickly and excavate where neces-
sary as quickly as possible...and
will seek to buy and preserve only
that which is really necessary to


interpret and commemorate, I think
the development community will
start to be an awful lot less
skittish than they are now.

On the Importance of Good Publicity
The state and the archaeo-
logical community should do all it
can to generate good publicity for
the developer and the project to
try and give [the project] some
value. Not only will this help to
assure more cooperation with that
particular developer, but I know
for sure, as a result of our good
experiences in Tallahassee, that
the message gets out to the entire
development community that an
archaeological find is a valuable
asset and that really good things
can come out of it. Developers
love good press we see it so
rarely ... At the same time, it
costs the archaeological community
very little to promote a positive
face for the press.
The more times the develop-
ment community sees good press
ascribed to one of their own upon
the discovery of an archaeological
find, the more chances we have of
actually seeing more sites called
in for the archaeologists to

Jeff Tucker, Florida Trend Magazine

On Archaeology and Development
in the 1990s
I want to echo one thing that
Jim Smith said, and that is when we
look back at the history of the
1980s, development processes in
Florida, expansion of our popula-
tion base, and all of those things,
I think we're going to see that
we've probably been through a
decade that we can ... never expect
to go through again. That's one
thing we should remember as we
approach the '90s. Because the
'90s are going to be a different
time altogether. It's going to be

a lot harder to do the things we
all have said here today need to be
done because it's going to be
harder to pay for those things.
It's all sort of come back to wash
up on our shore now, and I guess
that we're going to [have to]
figure out whether or not we're
smart enough and bold enough to
make hard decisions and hard
choices as developers, as govern-
ment officials, and as members of
the press who write about these
things. Because it's going to be
harder, not easier, in the 1990s.

On Appreciating Archaeology
I think collectively what I've
heard among the archaeological com-
munity today is that you want to be
more appreciated. And I think that
you are appreciated by the right
people. That's one thing you have
to go away knowing. Three years
ago we did a piece in our magazine
that basically pointed out that
smart developers were careful
developers. They were spending
more money to make more money, and
the way they were doing it ... was
by doing the very thing that [the
awards recipients] are being
honored for doing tonight. We
pointed out too that in the future
it will be that sort of developer
that will be the value-added
developer of Florida ... [These
are] the people that will be
supported, not only by the laws as
they are changed over the next
generation, but by people who spend
money with you, and that's where
the bottom line stops with a lot of
development companies as Chuck
[Mitchell] has pointed out.

On the End of Greed
We may be beginning to see a
change nationally that may portend
a whole different type of attitude
in the 1990S, not just about devel-
opment, but about things we haven't
thought about a lot in Florida.
There's some good evidence, not


just impressionistic evidence, but
some good solid evidence ... that
maybe the greed generation ... the
days of "I want mine now and I want
it first" ... are receding into the
Arthur Schlesinger wrote an
interesting book in 1986 called The
Cycles of History which is not very
much talked about, but is very good
reading and I would recommend it to
you. It basically points out that
we may have been vacillating for
the last 30 years between periods
of idealism and periods of self
interest... He felt that by the
end of the 1980s we probably [will]
have come to the end of a period, a
long period, of self interest in
the country ... [and that] in the
1990s we may find that we are going
into a period of more idealistic
feelings about things ... and we've
already seen it happen. In a
[recent] Gallup poll, 13 percent
more people this year than last
year said that they lent their time
and spent their money to work on
social issues that needed collect-
ive understanding and support. Not
only that, but we have evidence in
some of the best journals in
America that "greed is dead". If
you read Newsweek you saw it on
their cover. And if you can
believe their reporting, and I tend
to believe it, it probably is
receding into the past a little
bit. There may be a feeling not
only in Florida, but collectively
in the South and maybe across the
nation, that we have to come
together to think about common
problems that we face in the 1990s.

On the Future
The thing I want to leave you
with as a group, that I have really
now come to understand a lot more
after today ... is that even if you
look behind you and you don't see a
parade of other developers ...
following the charge of you bold
leaders who have come here tonight

... the collective clout, and the
collective asset base of the people
that [are being honored] here
tonight, is very, very big and
very, very important. And even
though it may not be a huge group
... [these] people ... are
collectively some of the most
important business voices in the
State of Florida. And they will be
heard when they go back and talk
about their experience as bold
leaders. I think it's important
that we, as business journalists
who for 32 years have covered
business in Florida, were here and
I ... say that we support
everything you've done here today
and we're going to make sure that
other people know about it.


Robert J. Austin
Piper Archaeological Research, Inc.

The issues that were discussed
by the FAC forum participants and
awards dinner speakers are of
critical importance to all who are
interested in the future of archae-
ology in Florida. For those of us
who attended, the day's events
provided an opportunity to think
about and discuss these issues with
other archaeologists and non-
archaeologists. Hopefully, the
publication of the proceedings in
The Florida Anthropologist will
extend that opportunity to those
who were unable to attend.
As many of the day's speakers
observed, archaeological and
historical sites are rapidly being
destroyed by development and
vandalism. Much of the day's focus
was on establishing a cooperative
relationship between archaeologists
and developers the "new partner-
ship." But if this partnership is
to be successful in protecting
these tangible expressions of the
past, it will require the combined
efforts of everyone archaeolo-
gists, developers, government
officials and private citizens.
Developing such a broad-based
alliance requires an understanding
of the needs of the participants,
as well as some of the constraints
under which they operate. It is
also necessary to understand and
accept our various roles and
responsibilities if the partnership
is to succeed.
The responsibilities of the
developer were stated often by
several of the day's speakers. The
best developers understand that
their creations are part and parcel
of a community which includes not
just buildings, highways and golf
courses, but people, landscapes and
traditions. Communities are organic

things with a history as well as a
future, and developers have a re-
sponsibility to respect a commun-
ity's history while, at the same
time, creating its future.
Developers also have a
responsibility to their companies,
their employees, their families,
and themselves to generate profits.
Striking the balance between con-
scientious development and accept-
able profit margin is the devel-
oper's responsibility under the new
What then are the archae-
ologist's responsibilities? For
one thing, archaeologists need to
do a better job of educating devel-
opers about archaeology. Our ef-
forts to explain our discipline to
the development community are prac-
tically nonexistent. Developers
are fearful of archaeology because
they don't understand our prior-
ities, our agenda, our science (and
I would guess that most of the
general public doesn't either).
This is the fault of archaeolo-
gists, not developers. It is our
responsibility to initiate the
education process and we can do
that by abandoning the role of
adversary and embracing the role of
Archaeologists must also
understand the financial risks
under which developers operate.
Enormous amounts of money, time and
personnel are invested in develop-
ment projects, and the unwilling-
ness of archaeologists to under-
stand how their activities may im-
pact developers and the development
process has resulted in the gener-
ally negative attitude that many
developers have when confronted
with an archaeological discovery on
their land.

June, 1990


Vol. 43 No. 2


But a partnership involves
understanding, education and real-
istic expectations on both sides.
A disconcerting, but often stated,
theme throughout the talks by
developers was that state govern-
ment should carry much of the
burden for conducting archaeolog-
ical projects. The expectation
that state government can, or
should, be responsible for funding
excavations or purchasing important
archaeological sites seems unreal-
istic given current state budgetary
constraints. These budget con-
straints will probably become more
severe in the near future as
Secretary of State Smith plainly
stated at the awards banquet.
Therefore, it seems only reasonable
that some of the burden of funding
archaeological preservation efforts
be borne by the development commun-
ity since development activities
are the primary cause of archaeolo-
gical and historic site destruction
in Florida.
Another apparent misconception
that was stated by developers is
that most archaeological sites are
discovered by accident during land
clearing or project construction.
This is directly related to the
developer's biggest fear a
Windover or de Soto site that will
take months or years to excavate
and will cost untold thousands,
perhaps millions, in lost time and
money while the project is on hold.
What is disconcerting about this
belief is that many developers seem
to be unaware that a large pro-
portion of the archaeologists prac-
ticing in Florida are private con-
sultants conducting surveys every
day for development projects, and
that these surveys are mandated by
laws designed, in part, to help
avoid just such a scenario.
The best way to combat unex-
pected discoveries, and the finan-
cial and emotional trauma they en-
gender in developers, is to follow
the advice of Chuck Mitchell and

minimize the role that luck plays
in their discovery. Mandated
archaeological surveys that are
conducted pursuant to large scale
Developments of Regional Impact are
one way that the surprise factor
can be minimized. Knowing what is
on a piece of property before
ground breaking occurs and before
contractual commitments have been
made is simply good planning from
both an archaeological and business
perspective. County and municipal
ordinances, and the historic pre-
servation component of Local
Government Comprehensive Plans, are
other attempts to include archae-
ology and historic preservation in
the overall planning process early
Everyone who spoke that day,
developers and archaeologists
alike, extolled the virtues of
archaeology and archaeological
preservation. I think one of the
most important comments of the day
was Jim Swann's observation that
archaeology is fun! Archaeologists
at times take their discipline so
seriously that they tend to over-
look (or forget) that it is one of
the most enjoyable and interesting
things a person can be involved in.
The message Jim Swann was trying to
get across to us is that we need to
take advantage of that fact. The
truth is, we have done almost
everything we can to deny it.
This is particularly true in
our relations with the public.
Originally archaeologists were
viewed as adventurers and treasurer
hunters. First impressions die
hard and this is an image that has
persisted in the mind of the public
due primarily to the way that
archaeology is portrayed in the
entertainment media and in the
press. It is a role we have out-
grown and an image we need to
change, but we must do so without
forfeiting the mystery and excite-
ment that has always been part of
the romance of archaeology. In our


quest to be mote scientific, to be
taken seriously as professionals,
we may have sacrificed some of that
excitement, or perhaps more pre-
cisely, we have co-opted that
excitement for ourselves and denied
the general public the opportunity
to experience it with us.
Our move towards a more
scientific discipline has enabled
archaeology to grow and mature as a
science, but at the same time it
has made archaeology inaccessible
for many. In our role as educators
we must continue the efforts to
enlighten the public about the
science of archaeology, but without
sacrificing the very thing that the
public is enthralled with the
thrill of discovery and the inex-
plicable feeling that comes from
experiencing the past first hand.
More importantly, we must be
willing to explore ways to allow
the public to participate with us
in that experience, and to partici-
pate in ways that are meaningful to
them. If we are successful in this
attempt, then I think we will have
an easier time educating the public
and special interest groups (for
example, planners, developers,
school teachers, other scientists,
ethnic groups) about what archae-
ology is, why it is important, and
why archaeological preservation is
Archaeology is not like any
other science. We depend on public
funding in many cases and our
endeavors are of intrinsic interest
to almost everyone. Because of
that we often operate in the public
arena. We should use this arena to
demonstrate to the general public
that archaeological and historical
sites are more than just sources of
scientific inquiry or historical
curiosity, they are important
elements of the "good life" as
worthy of our concern as clean
water, clean air, thriving wild-
life, unspoiled beaches, and uncut
forests. To do this we must be

able to explain why archaeological
and historical sites are important
in human, as well as scientific,


Almost everyone has an intrin-
sic interest in the past, particu-
larly the ancient past and I
think this intrinsic interest stems
from the fact that archaeology can
tell us something about how the
human species has evolved to become
what it is today. When we study
the past, we are studying the ways
that people through the millennia
have coped with the everyday
problems of living. And the benefit
of this is that we find that there
are many different ways of coping
with life's problems. What may at
first seem odd or strange can,
within the context of culture, be
seen as sensible and normal. It is
that sort of revelation that is one
of the most important benefits of
archaeology; the ability to see the
world through different eyes, even
if those eyes have been shut for
thousands of years. That experi-
ence has a basic gut appeal to al-
most everyone whatever their ethnic
or cultural ancestry.
That being the case, it is
important that we strive to pre-
serve these links with our human
heritage, because if we do not, it
won't be long before we don't have
archaeological discoveries that we
can be enthralled with, wonder
about and reflect upon. If, on the
other hand, we treat these sites as
the valuable resources that they
are, we may be able to study them,
learn from them and enjoy them for
years to come, and we will all be
the better for it.

Robert J. Austin
Piper Archaeological Research, Inc.
P.O. Box 919
St. Petersburg, FL 33731

Remembering the First Twenty Years

Yulee Lazarus


Over the years, two frequently
asked questions at the Temple Mound Museum
in Fort Walton Beach, Florida, have been:
How did the museum begin?; and, How did it
keep growing to become a permanent, funded
part of the city administration of Fort
Walton Beach, Florida? Other related
questions also were asked and details
In conversations with Louis Tesar,
Editor of The Florida Anthropologist, he
noted that, while circumstances will vary
with each community, there are certain
common, minimum requirements for esta-
blishing and developing a local museum,
and concluded that the experience of the
Temple bMund Museum could serve as an
example for others. He urged that I write
an article to respond to questions con-
cerning the founding, growth and develop-
ment of the museum, including memorable
instances which helped strengthen the
sense of place of the musuem as an inte-
gral part of the community. I agreed to
do so, and the following article is the


Museums are built to house a col-
lection of objects, which (generally) are
relevant to the locale in which they
occur. As such, they serve (along with
archaeological sites and historic struc-
tures) to provide a tangible link with a
community's prehistoricc heritage and
often also include exhibits on natural
In the case of the Temple Mound
Museum, the objects are those reflecting
the prehistoric and historic heritage of
the area served by the museum. We are
fortunate in having the associated Fort
Walton Temple Mound on the museum grounds
to serve as a focus and attraction for
visitors and residents. However, museums

in other communities may be built around
other types of local landmarks, such as
old train terminals, forts, and the like;
or, they may focus on a mix of natural
environment and historic resources, such
as at the several junior museums in
In any event, they need to be
publically accessible and they need to
provide interesting changing exhibits of
objects of interest to visitors, be they
tourists or residents. The latter is im-
portant, since for a museum to be sup-
ported on a continuing basis by the com-
munity, residents (and tourists) must have
a reason to visit it more than once.
Thus, to start a museum, you need to have
sufficient objects to exhibit and a plan
on ways to obtain more objects to improve
and change your exhibits. Further, the
exhibits need to be well lighted and
attractively displayed and interpreted,
not crowded on shelves like groceries in
your cupboard.
The story on how the Temple Mound
Museum came about and grew follows.

The Idea and Its Fruition

For a museum to exist, someone has
to have the idea itself and the vision to
capture the interest of others to form a
small but dedicated group working toward
the same goal. The group generally has to
have help from those with experience in
display techniques, knowledge about the
objects to be displayed so they may be
properly interpreted, knowledge in how to
properly curate objects displayed or
stored by the museum, and administrative
knowledge. Likewise, there are basic
funding requirements for maintenance of
the facility, curation and display needs,
and general operation costs. Furthermore,
the initial group of enthusiasts must work
together to capture the interest of others
and grow into a community effort. To
succeed, a museum must become a part of

June, 1990


Vol. 43 No. 2


the community's vision of itself, a
reflection of its cultural heritage, a
source of pride, and a place to which
residents and visitors alike wish to visit
and revisit.
In the case of the Temple Mound
Museum the idea was presented by William
C. Lazarus. He had moved into the area in
1953, leaving active duty at Wright Field,
to enter civilian status at Bglin Air
Force Base. His first introduction to the
area's prehistoric cultural heritage began
with the discovery of Indian pottery while
planting grass in the yard of a house
which he had bought on the shore of
Choctawhatchee Bay.
Seeking to learn more about the
pottery he had found led Lazarus to the
Department of Anthropology at Florida
State University in Tallahassee. There he
met Drs. Hale G. Smith and Charles H.
Fairbanks. They expressed delight that
someone in the Florida panhandle had
become interested in the archaeological
resources of that area, as it had, until
that time, been more or less ignored by
archaeologists and the area's very early
history was incompletely understood.
As word spread of professional help,
interest and encouragement, others in the
area, who had found ceramic and lithic
artifacts, were located by Lazarus. A core
group, organized under local Arts and
Design Society (ADSO) sponsorship, brought
interested people together to form a
cohesive group of volunteers ready for the
team of Fairbanks and Smith to instruct in
archaeology and to demonstrate how to use
area artifacts in exhibits and displays to
show their value to others. The generous
guidance and unending interest of Smith
and Fairbanks educated many local people
who became part of a group of amateur
explorers, artists interested in Indian
crafts (especially pottery) and historians
curious about the anthropology of early
inhabitants of the Florida panhandle.
The surface collection and uncon-
trolled digging ("pot-hunting"), which had
become a weekend sport of many, was soon
converted to a more controlled approach by
our two mentors, who came from Tallahassee
from time to time. ADSO sponsored a course

in anthropology, and Fairbanks came
regularly to teach the local group.
In October 1957, the team of Smith
and Fairbanks, with local members of the
working group, met with City officials and
other leading citizens, to explain and
promote the potential benefits of a small
museum. This group recommended that the
City acquire ownership of the temple mound
located in the middle of downtown. In
1959, the property owners, Thomas F.
Brooks and W. C. Pryor, offered to donate
the mound itself plus the property front-
ing on Main Street. The City OCuncil's
Indian Mound Qommittee recommended accept-
ance of the donation provided that the
city could acquire the adjoining property
fronting highway 85. The owners were ask-
ing $75,000; the appraised value of the
land had been set at $158,000, not includ-
ing buildings. The City acquired the major
part of the temple mound, partly by gift
and partly by purchase. A board of citi-
zens was appointed to work with Drs. Smith
and Fairbanks and recommend the best pro-
cedures for development. The first step
was determined to be archaeological test-
ing of the temple mound to obtain informa-
tion for its interpretation. The City
agreed to a budget of $5000.
Celebration of Florida's quadricen-
tennial of the Spanish exploration was in
the statewide planning stages for a group
of traveling exhibits. Pensacola was, of
course, the kickoff city as the first
exploration city. A diorama was con-
structed by the volunteer group and was a
very successful addition for the 1959
tour. More events followed rapidly.
Dr. Fairbanks was engaged to super-
vise the excavation in the mound during
the summer of 1960. One small real estate
office building, the Brooks Building, was
retained on the lower level of the south-
west corner of the property. It became a
temporary lab for Fairbanks' work and
eventually would be converted into the
temporary museum.
The excavation work at the mound in
a highly visible downtown setting provided
an attraction for tourists and area
residents alike, and was reported in the
Pensacola News Journal. The publicity

served to attract more tourists and
curious residents, as well as to enlist
volunteers and demonstrate to the local
tax-payer that public interest would sup-
port a museum.
Participants in the first mound dig
were surprised at the end of Fairbanks'
summer session when they were awarded a
"diploma" from the "Ghoul School" for
those who had unearthed human bones. An
ADSO-sponsored course in silk-screening
and wood block-printing had provided mem-
bers of the group with the means to supply
this final humorous touch. However, the
results of the excavation were not form-
ally reported until 1965, when an article
by Dr. Fairbanks, "Excavations at the Fort
Walton Temple Mound, 1960" appeared in The
Florida Anthropologist 18(4):239-264.
A 1960 Readers Digest article was
devoted to encouraging communities to en-
hance their tourism by capitalizing on an
area's unique qualities. The mound in the
middle of town and artifacts acquired
locally was a readymade winner. An ADSO
meeting which brought together this inter-
est in a combination of culture and tour-
ism sparked the movement to develop a
museum under the guidance of our two men-
tors. One ADSO member even begged the mem-
bership get all that pottery stashed under
their beds out to be used for exhibits.
Besides appealing to tourists, as an
adjunct to their beachside vacations, it
was clear that a good museum, even a small
one, would add to the educational programs
of local schools and be of interest to
area residents.
In 1960, the local newspaper, the
Playground Daily News, reported that Fort
Walton Beach Mayor Bd Brown had appeared
before the Board of Cbunty Cbmmissioners
announcing the City's acquisition of the
mound property and requesting $100,000 to
construct a museum building on the site.
Commissioner R.J. 1einke reportedly warned
the Board against being too hasty in the
matter, and expressed his opinion that it
might be illegal for county funds to be
expended on such a project. The funding
request was tabled for consideration. But
local enthusiasm persisted.
The group had come this far in a
cooperative effort. The City asked that

the small Brooks Building be converted to
a museum ready for business by June 1,
1962. With $750 remaining from the origi-
nal mound excavation budget, the group
believed that it could be done with one
paid carpenter and some volunteers. Work
began in April and the new tourist attrac-
tion was completed on time, except for two
large glass panels to secure 93 ceramic
bowls in the largest display. The City
Manager approved the extra expense and the
doors opened as planned. The temporary
museum had cost the City $950.

Figure 1. Plan of Temple Mound Museum,
Ft. Walton Beach. (Reproduced from
The Florida Anthropologist 15(3):66)

The interior of the building had
been adapted to museum use (Figure 1) with


the addition of four vertical panels in
two V-formations projecting from one long
wall to provide space for four displays.
An old candy cabinet discarded from a
waterfront pier store provided space for
another exhibit, while the western long
wall provided space to exhibit the 93
bowls. The diorama, returned to ADSO
following its state tour, had a prominent
freestanding place near the front door.
It was shielded with a silk-screened drape
of Indian designs copied from the bowls.
A desk discarded by a local merchant was
painted and held a visitors registration
book. Enclosed window space added shallow
exhibit spaces and the congressional
representative from this district donated
two deer skin rugs as appropriate decor.
There were actually 12 exhibits, a few of
which are described in this report. The
results were described in a 1962 article,
"Temple Mound Museum At Ft. Walton Beach,
Fla." by William C. Lazarus, which
appeared in The Florida Anthropologist
This was the first fully municipal
museum to operate in the State of Florida.
It opened its doors to the public on June
1, 1962, following a preview showing to
civic leaders on May 31st. The museum was
air conditioned and contained 525 square
feet of exhibit space with another 200
square feet of laboratory/storage space on
the back. A public restroom and off street
free parking were provided for museum
As Lazarus (1962:70) wrote:

All artifacts on display in this
museum were recovered from sites which
are within 70 miles of Fort Walton
Beach. The majority of the materials
came from within 30 miles of the
Although a public museum, the City
has stipulated that its operations
must be self supporting. This is being
accomplished through a 250 per person
admission charge and through the sale
of archaeological and historical pub-
lications, colored slides of local ar-
tifacts, and an authentic cast repro-
duction of one of the best Fort Walton
vessels displayed in the museum.

The museum is being manned by inter-
ested volunteers during the month of
June in order to permit operating
funds to accumulate. Later a paid at-
tendant is contemplated if attendance
revenues warrant it. The musuem is
operated seven days a week 10 to 12
except on Sunday and 3-5 every day.
Attendance figures for June were about
700 people.

We called the first V-panel "Walt",
the Cave man, for Fort Walton, of course.
This was a "papier-mache" man given to the
museum by the Hurlburt Field Air Force
Wives Club. They had made him just under
life size and for a husbands' (cavemen ?)
party. He was one of our first real
The first panel viewed by visitors
was a map showing migration of people from
Asia across the Bering Sea and the North
American continent into our area. Beside
a sea level map was a hole cut so that
visitors could peep in and see the caveman
standing within the V-shaped area. He was
lighted from above and gave us maximum use
of the limited floor space without
crowding. It also was a new dimension to
ordinary displays.
The children especially delighted in
seeing a sort of secret. Then one day we
heard them exclaim that the cave man had a
bug on his head! Walt was summarily
removed and stored temporarily behind a
drape in the back hall. The next evening
the police discovered the front door glass
was broken. They entered to inspect and
as they approached the dark end of the
hall their flashlights brought out the
shape of a man standing behind the drape.
Guns were drawn, but fortunately not
fired. Nevertheless, Walt and his
popularity was not forgotten; and, we
learned that paper mache made with flour
has a limited shelf life. Incidentally,
the broken glass had been caused as
several airmen jostled with each other
walking along the sidewalk. One of them
appeared at City Hall the following day
and offered to pay for the damage.
In the interest of minimizing ex-
pense, particularly in the temporary

museum, many shortcuts were needed and
were a test of ingenuity. In order to
portray the use of clay balls the Indians
had made for cooking in pits, one of the
men prepared a cutaway of a hole in the
ground with charcoal and clay balls in the
bottom. This was attached to the glass
front of the exhibit set in one of the
panels. A main street merchant was
puzzled when he was asked if he could
spare a couple of feet with legs from his
display material. He could and did so, and
the exhibit showed a person tending the
cooking pit.
ADSO promoted opening day with an
outdoor art show beside the building, and
a festival air brought in an overflowing
attendance. The venture was considered
off and running!
A review of the hours, fees and
operating schedules of other museums was
made. Other relevant information was also
gathered. This information was important
as it helped us establish our policies,
especially the most productive measures to
reach the most people.
The mission of the museum was
simple: to present our prehistoric and
historic American heritage complete with
relevant sciences. The first operating
hours were during the summer days, winter
weekends, and school tours as requested.
When part-time employment became possible,
hours were staggered and volunteers fit in
as needed. Being a part of the City opera-
tion was a definite benefit. There was
help and guidance in security, utilities,
bookkeeping, and other business chores. A
pattern of extreme cost control was
established. It was our opportunity to
prove our genuine dedication to the
project. Questions and problems were
readily solved by our friends at the uni-
versity and other places in the southeast,
just a phone call away.
During the first year the museum was
operated with volunteers manning the
reception desk and answering tourists' and
other visitors' questions. volunteers also
visited area schools to present slide
shows and show some artifacts. They
arranged tours for small groups at the
mound and museum. We felt secure with this
arrangement because the volunteers were

members of the classes taught by both Drs.
Fairbanks and Smith and, thus, could pro-
vide knowledgeable answers to inquiries.
The second summer the City agreed to
employ part-time help and a graduating
senior from one of Fairbanks' classes was
hired. It was a good arrangement as she
could perform excavations on the mound in
the morning for her own experience in
archaeology and man the desk in the
afternoon when the weather was hottest.
Her exploratory trench into the west side
of the ramp produced a very significant
analysis of midden from the earliest
inhabitants. A professional archaeologist
from California visiting in Pensacola read
about the excavation and came every day to
work with her and our volunteers. During
subsequent years, part-time employment
worked pretty well with tourists in the
summer and school appointments and weekend
hours in the winter.
The two finest exhibits in the
museum had been uncovered under the direc-
tion of William Lazarus. Friends, who
were co-owners of a mound, the Buck Nbund,
near the shore downtown, had asked him to
explore their mound if he was interested.
Fortunately, the mound, which dates to the
Weeden Island period (ca. 350-700 A.D.),
had not been completely disturbed.
In the course of work on weekends,
when possible, and with volunteers, the
famous funerary urn was recovered in 1963.
This red, white and black painted ceramic
effigy vessel stands around 15 inches
high. It has human feet, legs, hands and
arms on the front and another two animal-
like legs and feet on the rear. In all,
there were 30 vessels and a dog skeleton
recovered during the mound excavation. The
dog had been buried by the mound builders,
apparently with proper ceremony as one of
the bowls had been placed at the head and
a water bottle beside it. Fairbanks sent
the dog bones to a friend at Harvard for
The urn was (and still is) consid-
ered the finest artifact found in the
southeast and the dog burial is a very
rare occurrence. At the time of the urn's
discovery, Drs. Smith and Fairbanks stated
that "it is one of the most unique vessels
ever found in Florida". Both the urn and


reconstructed dog burial have been
featured exhibits in the museum.
Recovery of the dog occurred under
very fortunate circumstances. With all of
the volunteers assisting in the excavation
efforts, recovery of the dog fortuitously
occurred under the direction of a profes-
sionally trained archaeologist working as
a volunteer. Major J. C. RIbson was an
air force pilot sent to Bglin on temporary
duty after extensive heavy duty flying and
had earned some time for rest and relaxa-
tion. Before military duty, he had been
trained in archaeology in California. All
of us learned patience and self-control by
observing his careful work. The bones were
preserved in situ and again before being
shipped to Harvard for analysis. The
remains were subsequently returned and our
in situ exhibit has been very popular and
has been copied by other museums. A few
years after the excavation the pilot
returned to Eglin with some of his flight
crew. He had bragged to them about "his
dog" which he had left here years ago, and
they had doubted him. He was pleased to
show off the in situ exhibit.
At the annual meeting of the Florida
Anthropological Society, Lazarus gave a
report on this important Buck Mound
Burial. He called it his "dog and pony"
show. His talk coordinated alternate
movies of the actual digging with slides
of some of the vessels and other related
artifacts in association. Some museum
successes just happen.
In preparing this report, the dog in
the burial is referred to as the dead dog.
In contrast, is a brief report on the live
dog, another unplanned success. Peanuts
belonged to a staff member and came to
work each day. He was a shaggy gray small
dog similar to the movie dog Benji. His
duties seemed to be to check the mound
each morning before the arrival of
tourists and then to occupy the area under
the office desk until closing time. He
was featured in several news stories and
pictures as a unique angle for reporters
doing a museum story. This pet added
humor to the museum operation. A red rose
for Valentine was delivered to Peanuts as
thanks from a reporter.

Throughout the first twenty years,
cooperation among all agencies was good.
For instance, when the State Highway
Department widened U.S. Highway 98 (Main
Street) through downtown they removed
extra sidewalk paving before quitting for
Labor Day weekend. This enabled the museum
crew to have several days work before this
particular recorded site was sealed again
with paving. The Associated Press made
quite a story of the very public archae-
ology which attracted summer vacationers
and caused them to slow their traffic to
watch. Digging in a hole while car wheels
roll by your head is a rare experience.
Among the many examples was an
"inherited" bonus which gave us additional
experience and an opportunity to improve
our reputation. For many years, Florida
State University had designated Dr. Smith
as the university representative for the
War Department to conduct excavations and
make reports in regard to Federal reserva-
tion surveys. In turn, he vouched for the
museum to follow suit. Several sites were
examined and some excavations were made by
the museum crew. One was featured by the
Bglin newspaper as an all-girl dig by
volunteer and staff women. In truth, one
husband of this group worked with us but
withdrew from sight when the Bglin photo-
grapher took the picture. It was a unique
story, but it angered some of the other
husbands who had helped with other digs.
Another case was the arrangement
with the City to allow certain prisoners
at the Bglin Federal Prison to earn time
away from the prison in city approved
labor projects. One of these was a young
man delegated to museum staff in work in
the area around the Buck Mound. It was a
bonus in particular because he could work
during the week when husbands could not
help us. With children in school, a few
of the women on the crew could work during
the week. Actually, this job so appealed
to the prisoner that he became an expert
at shaving walls and watching for
artifacts. He never seemed to get tired.
Prisoners were delegated to help us also
with excavations on the reservation in
several instances.
There was quite a variety of inci-


dents during the years of the museum's
development. Some were highlights, like
the mute group from a school watching
their leader's fingers fly while we
lectured on the exhibits. We learned from
other guides with handicapped members.
And, for foreign language visitors,
especially those visiting at Bglin, we had
a list of volunteers who could -explain
exhibits in the visitors' language.
In 1964, the Fort Walton Temple
Mound was designated by the National Park
Service as a National Historic Landmark.
The City Council appointed Indian Mbund
Board, with its two Florida State
University consultants, had functioned for
five years. The museum had come into
being and operated as Lazarus had dreamed
it would. In November, 1965, Lazarus died
and the time had come for those involved
to make the decision of whether to con-
tinue or give up. They decided that it
was time for a firm commitment to develop
a permanent facility, small but first
class, with trained staff and a firm
policy. At the same time, we realized that
the roll of volunteers had changed from
time to time as people moved in and out of
the area, especially in response to mili-
tary assignments. We called these sup-
porters donors, loaners, and doers, as
each contributed as he or she could.
The temporary building was on the
west side of the mound and on the sidewalk
by the highway. Museum environment is best
with a sense of remoteness, which means
space. The first impulse was to try to
acquire the entire mound triangle; how-
ever, the estimated appraisal amounted to
several million dollars. The most feasible
step was to acquire the small parcel on
the immediate east side of the mound which
had spilled over onto private property.
Thus, part of the National Register site
was outside City ownership. A state grant
was available to provide funds to acquire
the parcel, but the grant review process
delayed acquisition. To insure that the
property was not acquired by someone else
before the grant funds became available,
two local businessmen purchased the
parcel. When the grant money was avail-
able, they released their ownership at no

profit. This gesture was acknowledged by
the following resolution:

Board of Directors of the Greater Fort
Walton Beach Chamber of Commerce, that
Clifford Long and James Ready receive
the gratitude and appreciation to
which they are entitled for using
their personal funds to purchase addi-
tional Temple Mound Museum property
and hold same in trust for the City
until such time as the City of Fbrt
Walton Beach was financially able to
purchase the property; and that they
then turned over the property to the
City without profit or compensation of
any kind.

This is another example of where community
interest aided in establishing the museum.
The information concerned with
establishing a small museum had been
gathered from several books and booklets,
as recommended by Dr. Fairbanks and Dr.
Smith. The best reference had come from
the American Association of Museums. The
two regional conferences which we attended
on archaeology and museology were invalu-
able. visiting other museums and exchang-
ing guidance with others was enriching.
The Department of Anthropology at Florida
State University, at that time, had a
nationally recognized museum training
program, and Dr. Smith was able to give
excellent guidance on exhibit and curation
For the school year 1967-1968, the
first teacher was employed to develop an
educational program to serve area school
systems effectively. He was in fact hired
by the school system, but selected by the
museum curator according to teacher/museum
training. The agreement with the Superin-
tendent of Schools placed the teacher on
temporary assignment. Three teachers were
thus, at a year each, able over a three
year period to explore all facets of
reaching students. An additional benefit
evolved because each of these three had
been trained in different universities
with experience in varying systems and
locations. Each added their experience to


the educational angle. We considered ours
one of the best departments because of the
personal support and cooperation of the
Superintendent and personal interest of

The spring on the east side of the mound
could have drained toward the sound run-
ning through the culvert discovered in
1966. Thus, four of the five reported

Figure 2. Architect's drawing.

the three teachers.
The first teacher deserves top bill-
ing for amusing happenings. His master's
thesis had been a study of a New York
State dowser who could locate subterranean
water sources. An 1883 account by S. T.
Walker had reported to the Smithsonian
Institution the presence in Fort Walton of
the temple mound and five springs in its
vicinity. Three springs had been located,
although they were dry at the time. TO
prove the dowser technique could be used
anywhere, our teacher decided to try it on
and around the mound. He was prudent
enough to choose a test at night when no
one would wonder what he was doing pacing
the mound in a systematic pattern with two
dowsing rods in his hands. Even so, the
airmen exiting the bar on the west side of
the mound reportedly caught him in their
headlights, whereupon they returned into
the bar, shaking their heads in disbelief.
His dowser map indicated a water
source on the east side of the mound on
the lower level. The 1966 highway con-
struction work had unearthed a drain cul-
vert, which had been placed across the
early roadway running north to south
toward Santa RIsa Sound. In 1968, the
dowser map confirmed a water source. In
1970, museum excavations in the foundation
area for the new museum building located
evidence of the old spring as a circle of
very clean white sand surrounded by muck.

springs have been identified.
During the following two years one
teacher came from the local area and was
acquainted with local needs as applied to
museum visits and local resources. She
created and streamlined several portable
cases for teachers to use. Cases on
various subjects could be prepared by
museum staff and transported to the
classroom by school courier.
The third teacher had a varied back-
ground in that she had worked for a year
with a large western museum and also had
archaeological training at a prominent
southeastern mound and museum site. This
teacher is still working at a local high
school. In fact, both local teachers have
been among our best museum volunteers.
In 1970, the new Indian Temple Mound
Museum was begun and completed in 1971.
The structure (Figure 2) is located on the
east side of the mound in a setting which
provides it with a sense of isolation from
the surrounding downtown businesses. The
architectural design harmonizes with the
adjacent temple mound. The architect
received a Merit Award for Institutional
Design from the American Institute of
Architects for this structure.
Judy Kaczor, in a 1972 Pensacola
News Journal article, reported:

All 50 states and 16 foreign countries
were represented among 28,000 visitors


who poured into the new museum in its
first year ...

In 1974 the new museum was
accredited by the American Association of
Museums. All of us our proud of the
quality of our facility and its displays.

In another side event of note, one
volunteer developed her own project with
two thermometers. She attached one on a
tree at the base of the mound in an open
area and the other on a tree on top of the
mound in heavy shade. For a year she kept
a chart noting temperatures each week on
her volunteer work day. The result was a
graphic demonstration of the value of hav-
ing shade trees to alleviate the heat. The
officer in the Bglin Reservation Natural
Resources Division appreciated her support
for growing more trees. Her chart also
corroborated the national report’ that
stressed that shade trees in cities would
minimize the greenhouse effect.

The male member of this husband-wife
team made miniature pump drills in his
workshop so museum visitors could purchase
a copy of an Indian tool demonstrated in a
hands-on exhibit. They were a popular
souvenir unique to the Temple Mound

Finally, the declaration of the
mound as a temple mound was firmly made
with the erection of a temple~style
shelter on the platform top. Much research
had described the configuration of such
structures at various sites. An engineer
at Eglin took special interest in this
project. He mapped the mound area
relative to spring and fall solstices.
When a new bank wanted to introduce its
move to the city a donation toward a
temple-style building was made. State and
City funds made the final temple a real
contribution to eliminate the skeptical
scowls of the public.

Construction of the temple-style
structure was preceded by archaeological
excavations. In addition to structural
data, the remains of a shell dipper, which
may have been used for ceremonial purposed
by the Indians using the mound, was

The temple-style shelter was built
in a rectangular shape with palisade

walls. In place of thatch, which would
certainly need frequent replacement, the
architect researched modern building tech-—
niques and came up with the perfect solu-
tion. From ridgepole to eave we used
poured cement sprayed with layers of cer-
tain colors that aged in the weather and
appeared to be a thatch. It was approval
enough to hear a professional archae-
ologist remark, upon examining the roof
closely, "with a finish like this, who
needs real thatch!"

In all of our exhibits, low cost
items with high cost appearance were the
challenge. These were also our points
with the taxpayers and the City Adminis-
tration. Certain items needed for the
interpretive exhibits, for example, led to
hand-tied net for a turkey feather cloak
and papier mache improvisations. Also dis-
carded mechanisms and timers re-worked by
our Eglin engineer husbands helped us with
exhibit effects. Research for pirate pre-
sence supported the Chamber of Commerce
Billy Bowlegs Festival for tourists in
June of each year, an event which also
brings new visitors to the museum. A fine
hand-formed copy of the funerary urn was
made by a staff member when a professional
ceramist denied his capability. It is our
insurance against vandalism and is avail-
able for loan.

Many reports have been published in
trade journals and copies are available
for resale at the museum. In fact, with
the addition of other books dealing with
the subjects presented in our exhibits and
lectures, the museum has become a source
for public purchases of such publications.

Two booklets brought unexpected
responses. A long letter declared that
Lazarus himself had directed recovery in
1966 of the face to fit the urn he had
unearthed before his death in 1965. The
report of the face-down burial and the
conjectures of cannibalism elicited a list
of recorded cases with religious signifi-
cance and cultural practices.

Comments and Conclusions
Recognition of the success of our

museum efforts is evident in several merit
awards from the American Association of

Museums, American Association for State
and Local History, Chamber of Commerce,
U.S. Department of the Interior, American
Institute of Architects, and the Florida
Anthropological Society.
The most pressing goal has been to
please the visitors with interesting and
authentic history. Wbrk days were stag-
gered to permit us to remain open six days
a week, and a careful eye was kept on
statistics to make sure that income was
what it should be compared to other museum
fees. We have always been conscious of the
gamble the city fathers took in supporting
us. Some of the unusual events or high-
lights have been described in this
article, but certainly not all. We had a
good group of people working together, not
for profit, City fathers and taxpayers
with vision and an interest in the tourist
economy and educational support. We were
even invited by representatives of the
City of Mbbile to explain to them how to
start a museum.
We started with Lazarus' vision and
the dedication of many volunteers who
shared that vision. We were fortunate to
have had the owners of the property on
which the mound is located share in that
vision and the desire to preserve that
significant archaeological site. We were
fortunate throughout the years to have had
our City fathers share in that vision. We
were fortunate to have had local merchants
recognize the value of our goals and
support in their accomplishment. From its
beginnings, the idea of the Temple Mound
Museum and its growth from a temporary
facility to a quality, small public museum
has had the support and dedication of
many. It has truly been a community
effort, and the museum is part of the
I hope that the information which I
have presented will be of help to others.
If there is any lesson to be learned it is
that for a museum to be successful, it
must have community support and it must
provide a quality product, one which
people are willing to see more than once
and one to which they are willing to bring
or direct others.


It is with admiration and deep
gratitude for all those involved in the
first twenty years that this report is
submitted. Many friendships have flour-
ished through the years and this resume is
offered as a happy review of the fun we
had together. The hundreds of doers,
loaners, and donors are too lengthy to
list in these acknowledgements. Some of
the information used in this report was
taken from "The Fort Walton Temple Mound
and Museum: A History in Headlines", a
booklet prepared by Temple Mound Museum

Yulee W. Lazarus
1001 Marwalt #111
Fort Walton Beach, Florida 32548


The Search for the Lost r~ctors: A Public Archaeology Project --- Overview and
Project Description by Judith A. Bense ................... 127

Excavations Under Old Christ Church in Pensacola, Florida by Deborah Joy 133

The Search for the lost rPctors: A Public Archaeology Project --- Public Rela-
tions and Archaeology by Mary Ann Fabbro . . . .... 138

The Search for the lost Rectors: A Personal Perspective by B. Madison Currin 140

* ** ******

Photograph taken in the 1930s of CHRIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH.


June, 1990

Vol. 43 No. 2

Overview and Project Description

Judith A. Bense
Institute of West Florida Archaeology
University of West Florida


The archaeology program at the
University of West Florida (UWF) in
Pensacola started in 1979 with a tradi-
tional teaching-research-contract program.
Around 1984, we realized that despite the
presence of this university-based program
and federal and state historic preserva-
tion laws, the well-preserved and diverse
archaeological deposits in the Pensacola
area were being destroyed at an alarming
rate and something more had to be done.
The primary mechanism for dealing with
this local and regional problem has been
through the addition and development of
Public Archaeology to the traditional
University archaeology program.
The concept of Public Archaeology
was first developed in Arkansas by
McGimsey and Davis in response to the
rapidly deteriorating archaeological
record through destructive agricultural
practices and large scale construction.
McGimsey and Davis sounded an alarm to
.professionals to save the country's
archaeological heritage through assuming
positive roles of leadership and public
education. McGimsey pointed out that in
this age of rapid transformation of the
earth's landscape, our only hope for
recovery of a major portion of the
archaeological record in the soil is by
nearly total involvement of the public in
archaeology (1972:6).
In the 20 years that have passed
since McGimsey sounded the alarm, Public
Archaeology has been incorporated into
federal and state archaeology programs
with increasing speed using the Arkansas
Archaeological Survey as a model. The
meaning of "public archaeology" has ex-
panded over the years to include not only
federal and state funded programs but city
and county programs as well as special

public and private funded public archae-
ology projects. Here in Florida we have
had several well-known public archaeology
projects which have been funded by both
the public and private sector: the DeSoto
winter camp in Tallahassee, the Archaic
burial Windover Site near Titusville and
the Hawkshaw and Colonial Archaeological
Trail projects in Pensacola. Public
archaeology has also expanded to include
the use of the media to share with the
wider public the discoveries of archae-
ology as well as bus loads of school
children on field trips. Often now,
archaeology staffs include full time media
managers, public interpreters and sketch
artists. The scope of public archaeology
has been broadened to include the general
public, public products and funding at the
local city and county level.

Introduction and Project Background

The archaeological project which is
described in this and the three following
papers is an example of a public archaeol-
ogy project, and of how the addition of
the "public" element of a project can gen-
erate a new and productive dimension of
interest, funding and community support.
This project also demonstrates how archae-
ology can include and benefit from new
players such as the clergy and their con-
gregation, the severely handicapped, upper
university administrators and small busi-
ness men to make them a part the added di-
mension of public archaeology.
This project began in the early
Spring of 1988 with a phone call from a
colleague in Physics at UWF who happened
to be a member of the governing vestry
board of Christ Episcopal Church in Pen-
sacola. He asked me if I was interested
in locating the graves of three early
priests of the church as part of a poten-


June, 1990

Vol. 43 No. 2

tial real estate transaction and if so, I
should call Dr. Madison Currin, the Rector
of the church. I called Dr. Currin and
scheduled a lunch meeting to discuss it.
At this meeting I learned that the vestry
had been asked by the Historic Pensacola
Preservation Board if the back yard of the
original church building, now being used
as a museum located in the heart of Pen-
sacola's historic district, could be pur-
chased or leased for inclusion in the ex-
panding historic preservation program. In
this meeting, Dr. Currin stated to the
board his long-held concern that histori-
cal records indicated that three priests
had been buried in the 1830s under the
church, and that it was reported that
Union troops, occupying the church during
the Civil War had been observed disturbing
the graves and possibly reburying them in
the back yard. While historians assured
him that the rumor was unfounded, no one
actually knew where the graves were lo-
Burying high status individuals be-
neath the floor of churches was an Episco-
pal tradition during the 19th century;
however the graves were not marked on the
floor as in Catholic churches; the grave
marker or tombstone is placed in a niche
in the wall of the church. This immediate
disassociation of the grave and grave
marker encourages the "losing" of the
grave location over the generations.
When Dr. Currin voiced his concern
about the possibility of the unmarked
graves being in the backyard of the old
church and the mystery about their loca-
tion, one of the vestry members suggested
that I be contacted and asked if I would
locate the graves for the church at his
expense prior to a decision being made.
As he described the situation at our lunch
meeting I realized that the public educa-
tion program we had pushed in Pensacola
had borne fruit; people realized that the
archaeological record was intact and in-
formative in Pensacola. This request also
demonstrated that archaeology was begin-
ning to be considered a useful means to
answer questions about the past. In addi-
tion, the fact that the vestry member un-
derstood that it would cost money for the
archaeological work, that it wasn't free

from the university, underscored one of
the themes of the public archaeology pro-
gram in West Florida that while the return
on the dollar is high, archaeology costs
money just like everything else. I
quickly realized the public archaeology
potential of this project and agreed to
Dr. Currin's request and the "Search for
the Lost Rectors" archaeology project was

Search for the lost Lectors

This project combined public and
academic archaeology and the perspectives
of the different participants in this ven-
ture. My role in this project was to de-
sign it, develop ways that communicate the
message of public archaeology, and make
sure that traditional scientific archaeol-
ogy was performed at a professional level.
The three articles which follow this will
present (1) the professional and technical
archaeological information, (2) the public
relations element and (3) the personal or
"emic" perspective of the current of
Christ Episcopal Church Rector, Dr. Madi-
son Currin.
Several key factors were important
in designing this project. First, key
persons in the community needed to be
brought together under the spotlight of
the media at important junctures in the
progress of the project. Second, the high
profile location in the heart of the his-
toric district during tourist season was
an excellent area for a "demonstration
project" for archaeology. Third, this was
an opportunity to bring the university
students' role in archaeology into full
The main participants in this ar-
chaeology project were the sponsor, the
university, the politicians and the media.
Media attraction to archaeology focuses on
the "search" and the "finds", and served
as a draw to university administration and
politicians. Two key events were devel-
oped. The first was a "Ground Breaking"
in which University of West Florida Presi-
dent Morris Marx, Episcopal Rector Currin,
State Representative Thomas Banjanan, the
archaeologists and the church membership
took part. University archaeology field


school students were stationed at critical
parts of the site to explain what was go-
ing to happen in different areas of the
site. This was a pleasant, short and well
attended Saturday morning event. The sec-
ond event, which came at the end of the
project, was the reburial funeral ceremony
which was attended and participated in by
essentially the same key players. This
event served to cap off the project and
was a good media event. Indeed, through-
out the project, the media served as key
players in reporting project activities
and discoveries to the public.
The location of the site as well as
the unusually difficult access beneath the
church was especially conducive to public
interpretation. Due to the possibility of
reburial of the graves in the back yard of
the church as well as beneath it, both ar-
eas had to be investigated. The problems
and difficulty of excavating under the
floor of a brick building exceeded the
ability of first year field school stu-
dents, so they were assigned to test the
back yard area where they could be taught
and supervised in an unrestricted environ-
ment. Even if the graves were located by
the experienced technical crew under the
church, the backyard contained significant
historical deposits from the Colonial
through World War II cultural periods and
this area had not been investigated by
professional archaeologists in decades.
The student excavations were used as the
"demonstration" part of the project and,
as you will see in a later paper, they
were a key element in public relations.
The mystique of the excavations under the
church was heightened because they were
completely out of sight. Use of closed
circuit TV and polaroid snapshots were ef-
fective in keeping "sidewalk supervisors"
informed. As TV cameras and reporters
rolled under the church, from which area
the general public was excluded, curiosity
grew and was maintained.
University students are liked by
everyone. They represent the leaders of
tomorrow and are young people full of
hopes and dreams. Seeing these young,
hard-working college students learning ar-
chaeology drew much interest from
tourists, students on field trips to the

museum area and especially from local res-
idents of the community. The presence of
the field school in this "fish bowl" com-
municated the essence of the archaeology-
university partnership with which we are
all so familiar to the community of Pen-
sacola and West Florida. In addition, the
sponsor understood that because the uni-
versity was involved, there was a much
higher return on the investment than had
it been performed by the private sector.
For example, all the wrk in the back yard
by the field school was at no cost to the
sponsor. In addition, field school stu-
dents worked in the excavations under the
church with the paid experienced staff on
a steady but limited basis for the experi-
ence but at no cost. Businessmen quickly
understood the value of the university to
archaeology and to the community through
this project.
An important aspect of this project
was credibility for archaeology. We found
the lost rectors and exposed the heart of
the archaeological record of historic Pen-
sacola. Through the public element of
this project we demonstrated that there
actually is an informative archaeological
record in Pensacola that can add greatly
to the documentary and architectural
records already realized by the public.
In the back yard we exposed and showcased
the actual features of the British mili-
tary occupation of Pensacola, foundations
of a two story civic building long forgot-
ten and Victorian Period trash pits and
coal piles. These finds gave essential
credibility to archaeology. This combats
the chronic problem we have in archaeol-
ogy: you can't see it because it's buried.
Finding the graves of the rectors and doc-
umenting postburial disturbance demon-
strated to the public that archaeology
works. Archaeologists using specialized
techniques plus clues in the historical
record can be used to relocate and explain
events which took place in the past. I
know that most of you reading this article
know that, but most of the general public
still are under the perception that we all
work for National Geographic, only dig in
jungle temples, desert ruins, or Europe
and, therefore, those are the only places
where it can and should be done.


Through the public archaeology as-
pect of this project, thousands of people
understood for the first time that:

Archaeologists can be useful to their com-
munity today;

There are important archaeological de-
posits in their community; and,

Historical archaeological deposits actu-
ally contain unique and valuable informa-

These are very important concepts
that can be transmitted through public ar-
chaeology. As a former traditional-only
archaeologist who consistently avoided
public involvement in archaeology, I urge
other professional archaeologists to try a
demonstration project like this. Use both
students and avocational archaeologists on
your crew. Create a project that can show
and communicate to the public that archae-
ology is there, it is worthwhile and it is
in grave jeopardy. Otherwise, as McGimsey
pointed out 20 years ago, the next genera-
tion will not be able to study or preserve
what has already been destroyed.

References Cited

McGimsey, Charles R., III
1972 Public Archeology. Seminar
Press, Inc. New York, N.Y.

Judith A. Bense
Institute of West Florida Archaeology
University of West Florida
Pensacola, Florida 32514

Map of Pensacola identifying the
site location.

-', --T.-

: -,


S.... .. I .i


1903 Sanborn Insurance Company map
showing St. Johns Episcopal Church.

Churc Street

]~~~~~~~ | -t-^ *ini-M '

Lear House =","'9 a v ...a Christ

E+ + rc +
+ L

Zaragoza Street

The Excavation Base Map for the
Old Christ Church Archaeological



S. EIavatioa Units
IW0 10OiE E. avatnin Vnit
Grid y.mbers



Deborah Joy
Institute of West Florida Archaeology
University of West Florida


Historical archaeological investiga~
tions in the Pensacola area have been fo-
cused primarily on military and residen-
tial occupation sites. None of these in-
vestigations involved human burial excava-
tion. However, this situation changed
dramatically in 1988 with this investiga-
tion as well as with two other local his-
toric and prehistoric projects conducted
at St. Michael's Cemetery and at a Missis-—
Sippian Stage cemetery at the Hickory
Ridge site.

Investigations under Old Christ Church
were conducted in the summer of 1988 for
the purpose of locating the remains of the
Reverends Saunders, Peake, and Flower, who
Gied in Pensacola during the yellow fever
epidemics between 1839 and 1853, and to
investigate the validity of the legend of
vandalized graves.

Records from Christ Episcopal Church
indicated that the three rectors were
buried under the church: Saunders in the
vestry, Peake beneath the floor, and
Flower under the chancel and next to
Peake, The original church and vestry
structures were built between 1830 and
1832. In 1879, the church was enlarged
and the vestry was demolished. An archi-
tectural feature associated with the 1879
construction is a foundation wall that is
centered over the former vestry founda-

Excavation Background

Archaeological investigations con-
sisted of excavation wits placed in this
vestry, now situated under Old Christ
Church. Prior to the initiation of field-
work, during an under-the-church recon-
naissance, the original vestry brick foun-
dations were located. Field conditions
could easily be considered as being un-
usual. There was no lighting and little

vol. 43 No. 2

ventilation, and the only access to the
site area was through a small arched door
located along the exterior back wall of
the church. In order to work under the
church, fluorescent lights were suspended
from the floor support beams over the
vestry areas and ventilation fans were po-
sitioned at the vents along the exterior
west wall of the church to circulate fresh
air and help remove dust from the project

To facilitate access and transport of
soil buckets and equipment to the excava-
tion area, two metal roller conveyors were
used: one placed at the entrance and an-
other outside the southern wall of the
vestry foundation. Crew, volunteers and
visitors entering and leaving the site
area had to lie face down and head first
on the conveyors and roll. A pulley-and-
hook system was designed to move soil
buckets to and from the site area, as soil
was screened outside along the west wall
of the church. Crossing over to the south
vestry had to be accomplished by crawling
head-first through a 32 an x 48 cm opening
over a foundation wall that was con-
structed when the church was enlarged.

At the time of this investigation, all
that remained of the early vestry was the
brick foundation covered with debris con-
sisting of handmade brick fragments, oys-
ter-shell mortar chunks, glass fragments,
wood, and very loose, sandy soil. There
was no evidence that indicated a burial
area, such as grave markers or slabs.
However, there was strong evidence that
this area had been disturbed by construc-
tion, maintenance and utility workers
throughout the years following the 1879
building addition. The surrounding area
under the church also contained a surface
accumulation of architectural debris that
very likely was associated with the 1879

Six exploratory units were excavated
inside the former vestry foundations.



During excavation, burial pits, wooden
rectangular burial vaults, octagonal
coffins and the skeletal remains of the
three rectors were located. Information
gathered during excavation and lab analy-
sis was used to answer two questions.
First, what can be revealed about
reiigious-oriented burials during the
early nineteenth century in Pensacola?
The second question, and probably the most
puzzling and most interesting to the
church, is who was who?

Excavation of Burials

After the project area had been pre-
pared, an excavation unit was placed arbi-
trarily in the vestry area. Burial 1 was
encountered in the upper 10 ma of excava-
tion. Excavations proceeded to expose the
skeleton and associated cultural material.
Upon further excavation, a left humerus,
disarticulated at 180 degrees, was ex-
posed. Two thin (2 cm) dark stains with
fine wood flecks and associated iron nails
outlined the decomposed coffin and burial
vault at 25 an below surface. The excava-
tion area was expanded to the east and
west to expose the burial completely.
To pursue the possibility of another
burial inside the former vestry foundation
area, another arbitrarily located excava-
tion unit was placed in the center of the
south vestry area. Excavation proceeded
in 5 cm levels. Scattered iron nails and
small fragments of cedar wood, similar to
those encountered in Burial 1, were ob-
served throughout the unit and indicated a
strong possibility of the presence of an-
other burial shaft. The matrix throughout
had a swirled appearance of white sand and
light brown and yellowish brown sandy soil
indicating soil redeposition. The soil
within the coffin area became a homoge-
neous brown, and the excavation area was
expanded to the east. Exposed at 80 cm
below surface was a series of parallel
wooden planks that were considered possi-
bly to be the collapsed coffin or burial
vault top, or the bottom of the coffin
and/or burial vault. At approximately 85
cm below surface, a skull was exposed. To
expose and excavate the coffin and burial

in this confined space, a work platform
was suspended from the overhead floor
bracing. Working from this platform, the
coffin and burial were exposed completely.
The bones were very soft and deteriorated.
The soil was damp and organic, there was
also root disturbance in the cranial and
vertebrae areas. The skull had been
rotated completely to a face-down posi-
tion, and a gray gunflint was found at the
base of the skull. The long bones and
skull were removed for forensic analysis.
Those remaining were too fragile for han-
dling and were left in situ.
Returning to the north vestry area,
the skeletal remains of Burial 1 were com-
pletely removed and excavation at the ex-
panded area was resumed, since it was pos-
sible that Burial 1 had been stacked over
an earlier buriai. This consideration was
based on the depth of Burial 2 (85 an be-
low surface) compared with the shallow
grave of Burial 1 (7 ma below surface).
A dense concentration of cultural
material was encountered at 25-30 an below
surface and along the southern boundary of
Burial 1. At 55 cm below surface a very
clearly defined area that showed evidence
of soil disturbance was contained in an
area defined by iron nails, lying in a
pattern that suggested the outline of a
third wooden coffin and burial vault lying
just south of Burial 1, rather than below.
All of these excavations were being
conducted on each side of the 1879 founda-
tion wall (Burials 2 and 3). It was dis-
covered that this wall had no subsurface
construction footing trench excavated for
its foundation. Thus, there was a possi-
bility that the excavation activities of
the project could undermine the load-bear-
ing wall and potentially cause structural
damage to the church or physical injury to
those working under the church. To pre-
vent this, two channel steel beams, each
16 feet long, were secured on each side of
the foundation. These beams had holes
spaced two feet apart, and were drilled
through the steel bracing and the 1879
foundation. The two beams were then
bolted together. These steel beams held
the 1879 foundation together so that exca-
vations could then proceed below it.

In Situ Qbservations

Each burial was analyzed in situ for
position and orientation. Further analysis
in the lab determined sex, stature, race,
pathologies, and age at death. Additional
analysis was directed toward the burial
attributes of clothing items and coffin
shape, construction, and decoration.

Based on the pattern of nails and the
presence of wood, Burials 1 and 3 were de-
termined to have been interred in octago-
nal coffins 198 cm from head to foot, 46
cm across at the widest point, 32 cm at
the head and 20 cm at the foot. Burial 2
did not provide enough information about
the coffin shape. Rectangular burial pits
had been excavated prior to the burial in-
terments. Burial 1 was excavated to 30 cm
below the upper course of brick associated
with the vestry foundation; Burial 2 to 95
cm; and, Burial 3 to 80 cm. Rectangular
wooden burial vaults approximately 2.2 m
long and 58 cm wide were first placed into
the burial pit. The coffins were then
placed inside the wooden burial vaults.
There was no evidence of coffin decoration
in any of the burials. The only evidence
of material used inside the coffin was
seen in the fabric impressions on the
tacks associated with Burial 1. In all
three burials there was no evidence of the
use of lime that would accelerate decompo-
Sition of flesh. This is of interest due
to the fact that all three died in the
heat of a Gulf Coast summer during yellow
fever epidemics.

All three burials were found interred
in separate graves and inside deteriorated
coffins that were placed inside wooden
burial vaultS under the former vestry
floor oriented with the head to the west.
The skeletal remains of Burials 1 and 3
were in good condition. Burial 2, how-
ever, was in a very fragile state. Buri-
als 1 and 3 had arms crossed on _ the
pelvis, Burial 2 across the chest. All
three had straight legs and no crossing of
the ankles.

Osteological Analysis

Osteological analysis to ascertain
age, sex, race, and stature was performed


at the University of West Florida Archae-
ology Lab by Robert Dailey, forensic phys-
ical anthropologist from Florida State
University, Tallahassee.

The McKern-Stewart method was used for
determining age based on pubic symphysis
morphology. Sex and race criteria
utilized were based on cranial attributes
(Krogman 1962). Bone lengths were used to
determine stature.

Burial 1 was identified as a Caucasian
adult male based on the robust skull with
prominent inion, large mastoids, and
square chin. This burial showed evidence
of scoliosis and disc degeneration as well
as evidence of dental care. Cranial su-
tures were beginning to close and the 3rd
molars had erupted. The pelvis has a wide
sciatic notch which is typically a femi-
nine characteristic. However, the notch
curves outward, suggesting a male. The
diameter of the left femur is 482 mm which
indicates a height of 1.756 m (5 feet 9
1/4 inches) (Bass 1971). Using the McK-
ern-Stewart method for aging it was deter-
mined that Burial 1 was approximately 31-
35 years of age at the time of death.

The remains of Burial 2 were in a
state of poor preservation very likely due
to the depth of the burial, the water
table, and the acidity of the soil. Many
of these bones were left in situ due to
deterioration and disintegration. The
long bones, skull, mandible, and vertebrae
were friable and extreme care had to be
given to these specimens. The skull has a
high vault and oval shape suggesting Cau-
casoid race. Height was determined to be
1.787 m (5 feet 10 3/8 inches) from the
lenght of the left tibia (400 mm) (Bass
1971). It was noted that the last lumbar
vertebra was fused with the sacrum.

Burial 3 had a prominent brow ridge
with sharp eye orbits and a more prominent
inion, both indicators of a Caucasoid
male. Furthermore, the skull showed age
and had more atrophy of the jaw. The left
femur measured 493 mm indicating a height
of 1.537 m (5 feet 10 1/2 inches). Using
the McKern-Stewart method for aging, it
was determined that Burial 3 was between
36 and 39 years of age at the time of
death. In general, this burial appears to
be older than the others.


Evidence of early orthodontics was
noted in Burial 1. One premolar had been
removed and three teeth had gold fillings.
The absence of dental care was noted in
Burials 2 and 3; Burial 2, in particular,
showed signs of tartar and caries.
The long bones, vertebrae, skull, and
mandibles of all three burials were x-
rayed individually for the purpose of in-
vestigating anomalies not seen during
macroscopic analysis. In all three buri-
als there was no evidence of broken bones
or malnutrition in youth.

Associated Artifacts

Information about the burials was in-
terpreted from the cultural material re-
covered from the burial excavations and
from the position of the skeletal remains.
Cultural material found associated with
the interment of the rectors consists of
both clothing- and coffin-related items as
weil as with the historical occupation of
the site prior to the construction of the
original church and vestry in 1832.
Clothing items recovered were buttons,
buckles, and hooks; there was no recovery
of either personal or religious items with
any of the three burials. Coffin-related
material recovered from all three burials
consists of iron nails and fragments of
either tacks or nails. Nails were recov-
ered from all three burials at the same
frequency, whereas tacks had a more er-
ratic recovery. The largest number of
tacks (126) came from Burial 1,. Burial 3
contained the largest number of nails
(142) had the smallest number of tacks
(42). Also, related to Burial 1 was the
recovery of 4 mm tacks that still retained
the impression of fabric: no other lengths
of either tacks or nails recovered from
this burial or the other two burials had
fabric impressions. The only other 4 mm
tacks recovered were associated with
Burial 3 and on these there was no evi-
dence of fabric impression. The pattern
formed by the nails and decomposed wood
stain associated with Burials 1 and 3 in-
dicated that the rectors were buried in
octagonal coffins that lacked metal deco-
rative elements.

Discussion of Burial MDdes


Koch (1983) reported that coffin
shapes evolved from rectangular to the
octagonal Old World form, often used dur-
ing the First Spanish Period, and then to
a hexagonal form, preferred by the
British. The octagonal form, described by
Thomas et al. (1977:415) as "form-fit ...
widest at the center and tapering to both
ends" was found in an 1859 burial located
in Liberty County, Georgia. During the
excavation of the three rectors, the
coffins of Burials 1 and 3 were found in-
side rectangular, wooden vaults. No his-
torical or archaeological information was
found that could provide comparison.
There was no evidence of grave markers or
coffin plaques that would provide identi-
fication of the skeletal remains which
will be addressed below. If this absence
of marking was intentional, it is possible
that these Episcopalian priests were in-
terred in the "Spanish tradition" of a
spiritual burial rather than a more mate-
rialistic British burial. Another factor
to consider is that the rectors were
buried under the church. This location
was apart from their parishioners and, es-
pecially in the case of Reverend Flowers
whose wife and child also died of yellow
fever, away from their family. This in-
formation in conjunction with the absence
of grave marking and an absence of per-
sonal items could indicate that the rec-
tors were viewed in death as having no
separateness from the spiritual realm.
Coffin burials became common in the
eighteenth century; usually earlier coffin
burials were restricted to the wealthy or
respected. Archaeological investigations
in St. Augustine (Koch 1983) show that
during the British occupation, coffin
burials were more frequent when compared
with the earlier Spanish occupation, where
shroud burial was practiced. Since the
Spanish preceded the British, it is diffi-
cult to determine whether these differ-
ences are cultural or whether they repre-
sent a temporal change in burial prac-


Burial Location.

Another observation in the same vein re-
lates to burials in cemeteries versus
burials under churches. It was found in
St. Augustine that the British did not
bury in the churches. Koch (1983) inter-
prets this as a outcome of the earlier
Spanish church burials the combination
of a tropical climate and church burials
resulted in an unhealthy and foul environ-
ment. Burials beneath the church have
been associated with the Spanish Francis-
can missions in the New World. At Santa
Catalina de Guale off the Georgia coast,
Thomas (1988) located a cemetery for over
400 Christianized Indians in shrouds be-
neath the nave and sanctuary of the
In Pensacola, a burying ground in the
vicinity of present-day St. Michael's
Cemetery was established during the First
Spanish Period ca. 1752-1763. There has
been no historical or archaeological re-
search that documents church burials in
the First Spanish occupation of Pensacola.
When the British gained control of Pen-
sacola in 1763, the Episcopalian parish-
ioners of the Church of England continued
to use the same cemetery. During the Sec-
ond Spanish Period ca. 1781-1821, this
same area of 30 arpents (approximately 25
acres; one arpent equals 0.83 acres) was
deeded to St. Michael's Catholic Church.
Within the cemetery grounds a separate
section was provided for non-Catholic
burials. This practice continued until
1886 when the non-denominational St.
John's Cemetery was established. It is
very likely that the vestry members of
Christ Episcopal Church decided to bury
their three deceased rectors under the
church because that was the only ground
sanctified by their religion.

Burial Placement.

Evidence of cultural influences was
also seen in the orientation of the skele-
tal remains. The three burials were simi-
lar in only one aspect all faced east,
legs straight with the feet toward the
church. Two cultural interpretations can
be applied to body orientation. Thomas et

al. (1977:417) indicate that this is a
"traditional Christian practice, and prob-
ably relates to the expected blowing of a
horn in the east by Gabriel on Judgment
Day." In St. Augustine, Koch's (1983:205)
interpretation of the traditional
Christian burial practice of orientating
the head to the west is "to face the ris-
ing sun in the east, where it was thought
Christ would appear at the Resurrection."
In contrast, Spanish custom was to place
the feet toward the church "so that the
deceased may face the temporal focus of
salvation" (Koch 1983:203). With the Old
Christ Church burials, orientation was
with the feet to the church which faced to
the east. Spanish customs were still in
practice during the Territorial Period in
Pensacola, as the people of the Second
Spanish Pensacola did not leave the area
when Florida became a U.S. Territory.
Furthermore, the early church congregation
was multi-denominational and of mixed eth-
The three burials also exhibited sur-
prising variability. All three were
buried at different depths below surface:
in Burial 1 the skull was exposed only 7
cm below surface; Burial 2 at 85 cm below
surface; and, Burial 3 at 45 cm below sur-
face. The depths correspond with spatial
orientation: the southernmost was the
deepest and the northernmost was the shal-
lowest. It is possible that the deepest
burial may have been the earliest Saun-
ders, and that the later burials Peake
and Flower, who were buried beside each
other were buried at shallower depths.
Reverend Flower, who died within 10 weeks
after his arrival in Pensacola during an
epidemic that claimed 260 lives, might
have been buried in the shallowest grave.
Additional differences were seen in
the placement of the arms and hands: two
burials were crossed over the pelvic area
and one crossed over the chest area. Two
of the burials were interred in burial or
clerical garments. Buttons associated
with these burials (Burials 1 and 3) sug-
gest a two-piece garment. Burial 2, the
deepest and southernmost burial provided
no buttons and suggests a shroud burial.
According to Koch (1973:195), shroud buri-
als were viewed in earlier times as sym-

bolic of the Resurrection of Christ. The
temporal or cultural progression from
shroud to clothing burials also suggests
that Burial 2 may have been the earliest
burial Saunders and that the later
burials were interred in clothing.

Burial Identification

The question of the identity of the
skeletons was a challenge. There were no
grave markers found with the burials. All
three men died in their 30s and documenta-
tion on the physical description of two
was limited. Saunders was described as
having poor posture and being 6 feet tall
and Peake came to Pensacola with consump-
tion. Historical documentation on where
the rectors were buried was sketchy -
Saunders under his favorite sitting place
in the vestry, Peake beneath the floor,
and Flower under the chancel and next to
Peake. In an attempt to link the skeletal
remains of each rector with a specific
burial, the historical and archaeological
information had to be correlated.
The archaeological information on each
burial may be summarized as follows.
Burial 1 was found in the shallowest grave
at 7 cm below surface and was interred in
clothing. Burial 2 was found in the deep-
est grave at 85 cm below surface and ap-
peared to have been buried in a shroud.
Burial 3 was exposed at 45 cm below sur-
face and was also found in a burial gar-
ment. This burial showed signs of being
the oldest at death and being 5 feet 10
1/2 inches in height.
From the historical and burial pattern
information it appears that Burial 1 might
have been Reverend Flower, that Burial 2
might have been Reverend Saunders, and
that Burial 3 might have been Reverend
Peake. This conflicts somewhat with the
forensic analysis, as Burial 3 appeared to
be the oldest 36 to 39 years at death -
and Burial 2 age determination was not
conclusive. Reverend Saunders was the
oldest at death; however, Reverend Peake
was 37 at the age of death and this falls
within the age-at-death range for Burial
Employing all information about the
burials, it appears that Burial 1 is Rev-

erend Flower, that Burial 2 is Reverend
Saunders, and Burial 3 is Reverend Peake.


To summarize, this investigation lo-
cated the skeletal remains of three Epis-
copalian priests (rectors) who died during
yellow fever epidemics in Pensacola in the
early 1800s. They were buried in octago-
nal wooden coffins that were placed inside
rectangular wooden vaults at varying
depths, ranging from 30 cm to 95 cm below
surface, under the floor of the former
vestry of Old Christ Church. There was no
indication of decorative elements associ-
ated with the coffins, nor was there evi-
dence of lime to hasten decomposition.
There was evidence that one coffin might
have been lined with cloth that was held
in place with tacks.
Characteristics of both British (or
Episcopalian) and Spanish (or Catholic)
traditions are seen in the interpretation
of the burials. At the time when the rec-
tors were buried, a strong Spanish cul-
tural influence was still present in Pen-
sacola. In a chronological perspective,
the Second Spanish Period of Pensacola
ended in 1821, and the second period of
Christ Church began in 1821; the rectors
died between 1839 and 1853. There seems
to be a transitional period of time during
which an overlapping of cultural tradi-
tions from England and Spain is evidenced
by these three burials.

References Cited

Bass, W. M.
1971 Human Osteology: A laboratory and
field manual of the skeleton.
Missouri Archaeological Society,

Koch, Joan K.
1983 Mortuary Patterning and Physical
Anthropology in Colonial Saint
Augustine. In Spanish St. Augustine
by Kathleen Deagan, edited by
Stanley South. Academic Press.

Krogman, W.M.
1962 The Human Skeleton in Forensic

Medicine. C.C. Thomas, Springfield,

Noel Hume, Ivor
1969 Historic Archaeology. Alfred A.
Knopf, New York.

Rea, IRbert R.
1969 "Graveyards for Britons," West
Florida 1763 1781. Florida
Historical Quarterly 47(4).

Thomas, David Hurst
1988 St. Catherines: An Island in Time.
Georgia History and Culture Series.
Georgia Endownent for the Humani-
ties, Atlanta.

Thomas, David Hurst, Stanley South, and
Clark Spencer Larson
1977 Rich man, poor man: Cbservations on
three antebellum burials from the
Georgia coast. Anthropological
Papers of the American Museum of
Natural History 54(3).

Deborah Joy
Institute of West Florida Archaeology
University of West Florida
Pensacola, Florida 32514

Photograph of Burial 3 showing rotated
cranium with colonial gunflint in for-
amen magnum. Note metal supports to
which boards were attached to suspend
workers over burial for excavation.

Ground breaking of Search for the Lost
Rectors Project. UWF President Morris
Marx with shovel, the late G. Norman
Simons at screen, Dr. Judy Bense look-
ing in screen.


Public Relations and Archaeology

Mary Ann Fabbro
Institute of West Florida Archaeology
University of West Florida


It would be an understatement to use
the word "unique" to describe the public
relations associated with the search for
the "lost" rectors under Old Christ Church
in historic Pensacola. More than likely
this was a once-in-a-lifetime archaeologi-
cal endeavor -- an endeavor that touched
everyone involved and beyond.
There were several elements at play
during this project. First and foremost,
it was necessary for the staff and volun-
teers to carry out the archaeological work
with a dignified and respectful demeanor.
A large percentage of Pensacola's popula-
tion has an understanding and appreciation
of the city's long and varied history.
Members of the Christ Episcopal Church,
who fully supported the project, were par-
ticularly aware of the historic, as well
as the spiritual, roles played by Rev-
erends Saunders, Peake, and Flower. Being
sensitive to this, it was important to
prevent the atmosphere from becoming cir-
A second element needing to be ad-
dressed was the high visibility of the
project. During the time span when the
archaeological excavations were conducted,
May to July of 1988, the historic district
was .alive with people. There were
tourists, school groups, local visitors,
and people who live and work in the dis-
trict. With the continuous coverage by
the media during the course of the work,
the interest steadily grew. To satisfy
the interest of the public and to insure
the smooth and uninterrupted progress of
the project, some creative approaches were

Project Organization

A University of est Florida under-
graduate student participating in the

archaeological field school (taking place
in the backyard of Old Christ Church) was
the official purveyor of information on
the work going on under and behind the
church. Gary Powell, a quadraplegic,
proved to be an able tour guide, interme-
diary, and godsend for the crew. His
mother, Betty Powell, did her share of
cheering for the students, crew, and vol-
unteers, and her share of meeting and
greeting the public. Both Gary and Betty
ably translated the archaeology that was
taking place.
Public tours were offered at 10 AM,
12 PM, and 2 PM. If a group of senior
citizens or school children came to the
site at an off time, Gary graciously gave
them a special tour. Students from the
Episcopal Day School were given the oppor-
tunity to go under the church and to see
the excavations first-hand.
In addition to guiding tours, Gary
was responsible for publishing a weekly
informative newsletter. Included in this
publication were historic facts about the
site, details of the progress of the in-
vestigation in the backyard and under the
church, explanations of the various facets
of archaeology as a discipline, and bi-
ographies of the rectors.
These newsletters were available to
the public. As the project garnered more
and more publicity, people began to re-
quest copies. Every day a table was set
up in the backyard. Copies of the
newsletter, maps, press releases, photos,
and a glass enclosure containing the most
recently excavated artifacts were dis-
played. Gary and Betty Powell or a volun-
teer supervised the table and were avail-
able to answer any inquiries from the pub-
A local company provided a closed
circuit television transmission. The cam-
era was placed under the church to give a
panoramic view of the work going on; the


June, 1990

Vol. 43 No. 2


monitor was set up in the back yard. This
gave the public the opportunity to witness
exactly what was going on. They could see
for themselves the painstaking effort that
went into the success of the work. The
audio part of this communication system
proved to be bothersome for the crew.
Heads bumping into rock-hard beams and
collapsed walls usually do not elicit "Oh
gollies" from "normal" archaeologists.
There were a few brave people who
desired to roll under the church and to
see the excavations first-hand. Although
this was somewhat disruptive for the crew,
it was tolerated. Intellectual curiosity
should be nurtured when possible.

Project Publicity

Media interest in the project was
extensive. The Pensacola News Journal
printed stories on the front, editorial,
local, and life pages. WKRG News in Mo-
bile, Alabama, provided television cover-
age. The Pensacola magazine did a feature
story, and Public Radio Station WUWF-FM
was in constant communication with the
public about the project. Some media per-
sonnel went under the church. A jumpsuit
and mask were always available for those
having inquiring minds.
Students participating in the field
school were given regular briefings on how
to deal with the media and how to treat
visitors to the site. They behaved in a
professional manner and learned new skills
applicable to public archaeology.
The first chapter in the Christ
Church project was a groundbreaking cere-
mony. The ceremony highlighted the
healthy partnership that exists between
the public, the University of West
Florida, historic preservation, and ar-
chaeology in Pensacola.
The final chapter of the Christ
Church project was the reinterment of the
rectors. At ten o'clock on Saturday morn-
ing, July 23, 1988, in a burial service
taken from the Book of Common Prayer,
1789, and officiated by Reverend B. Madi-
son Currin, Jr., sixteenth rector of
Christ Church, the remains of Reverends
Saunders, Peake, and Flower were once
again laid to rest. A member of Christ

Episcopal Church built replica coffins.
Members of the archaeology crew served as
pall bearers. Ceramic tablets made by a
local potter were placed in each coffin.
Engraved on each tablet was the name of
the rector and a brief acknowledgment that
archaeological work had taken place in
1988. Granite markers were placed on top
of each burial. The public was invited
via the newspaper to attend the service.


All of these endeavors to include
and inform the public yielded a plentiful
harvest. People were first drawn to the
project because of its unusual nature.
Once their initial curiosity was satis-
fied, however, they began to grasp the
valuable role archaeology can play in
gaining new information, new insights into
the past. Many people were introduced to
the rich history of their city through ar-
chaeology. They saw the team effort put
forth to find the "lost" rectors; they saw
the things left behind by those who paved
the way for us living in the area today;
they saw the contribution archaeology can
make toward the preservation of valuable
cultural resources in their community.
Many people returned day after day and be-
came so well-versed in what was going on
that they were able to explain the pro-
ceedings and to answer questions posed by
other visitors.
The co-mingling of archaeological
investigation and the public during the
Christ Church project produced many posi-
tive results for archaeology. It was
worth the time and the energy it took to
devise the different strategies that led
to the strengthening of this relationship.

Mary Ann Fabbro
Institute of West Florida Archaeology
University of VWst Florida
Pensacola, Florida 32514


B. Madison Currin, Th.D.
Rector, Christ Episcopal Church



"The Search for the Lost Rectors" was the
way the Pensacola News-Journal baptized
the Pensacola archaeological project in a
lead editorial four days before the pro-
ject began in the Church yard of Old
Christ Church on Seville Square. This
church building was built between 1830 and
1832 and is today the oldest church build-
ing in the State of Florida, standing vir-
tually as it was when it was constructed.
The only major structural change in the
building took place in 1879 when the west
wall was extended twenty feet, thereby
covering the area where once stood a
vestry room. It was under the floor of
this extension that the major part of "The
Search for the Lost Rectors" took place.


Some background is necessary. In
1936, the Vestry of Christ Church deeded
the old building to the City of Pensacola
to be used as a public library or a mu-
seum. A new church building had been con-
structed at the corner of Wright and
Palafox Streets in 1903, and the old
building had been in a state of disrepair
for a number of years. When I came to
Pensacola in 1966, the old church building
was the home of the Pensacola Historical
In the late winter of 1988, I re-
ceived a telephone call from the director
of the Historic Pensacola Preservation
Board telling me that he had discovered
that Christ Church still owned forty feet
immediately behind Old Christ Church.
This parcel of land had not been deeded to
the city with the church building in 1936.
Why had this happened? Was it a
simple mistake or did the Vestry know
something about this forty feet that made
them decide not to transfer it with the
church building in 1936? A minor archaeo-
logical investigation had taken place on
this property some years ago. The

foundations of a British Government House
dating back to the colonial period of Pen-
sacola history had been discovered along
with some artifacts from both the Spanish
and British periods. But was it possible
that the Vestry in 1936 knew something
My musings turned out to be un-
founded, but my curiosity opened the doors
to what became a fascinating project, one
which put archaeology on the front pages
of the local newspaper and made archaeol-
ogy a household word in our community.
Pensacola would discover through the sum-
mer of 1988 what archaeology is all about
and the major contributions archaeology
can make to the local community.
When I came to Pensacola in 1966 as
the sixteenth Rector of the oldest protes-
tant Church in Northwest Florida, the
mother Church of Anglicanism in the area
and one of the founding parishes of the
Diocese of Florida, I became intensely in-
terested in the rich history of the
parish. I am an historian of sorts and
wrote a history of the parish in 1976.
While doing research for the book, I
became especially interested in the three
Rectors who were supposed to have been
buried under the Church. Joseph Hubbard
Saunders had died of Yellow Fever while
attending to the pastoral needs of his
congregation in 1839, at the age of
thirty-nine. The Pensacola newspaper car-
ried an account of his burial under the
Vestry room. Frederick Fbote Peake died
in 1849 of consumption, and he was buried
under the floor of the Church. He was
thirty-seven. In 1853, David Dubois
Flower died of Yellow Fever at the age of
thirty-one, and he was buried under the
chancel of the Church. He had been in
Pensacola only ten weeks. His wife and
infant son died two weeks later.
The tragedy of these three priests
haunted me. I wanted to find out more
about them. Were they still buried under


Vol. 43 No. 2

June, 1990


the Church and, if so, where? Chancel,
Vestry room, and floor of the church could
mean three different locations, but per-
haps this was the simple mistake made by
laypersons who do not realize the techni-
cal differences in the words.
While writing the book in 1976, Miss
Lelia Abercrombie, a librarian at the mu-
seum in Old Christ Church and one of the
founders of the Historical Society, told
me a legend that had been handed down over
the years. George Hallmark as a very
young boy was held prisoner by the Union
Army during the occupation of Pensacola
during the Civil War. Christ Church was
used as a prison, a barracks, and a hospi-
tal by the Union forces. George Hallmark
was reported to have seen Union soldiers
take up the floor of the church and dig up
the remains of the three priests looking
for valuables. There was no documentation
of this anywhere. But Miss Abercrombie
was only one generation removed from
George Hallmark. Daisy Hallmark, George's
daughter, had been a friend of Miss Aber-
crombie. ODuld this story be true, and if
so, what happened to the skeletal remains
of the three priests?
Several attempts had been made over
the years to go under the Church to see if
the graves could be found but to no avail.
There were no markers, no gravestones.
Nothing could be found. Therefore, when
that telephone call came telling me that
Christ Church still owned forty feet be-
hind the old church, I began to wonder if
perhaps the graves had been desecrated and
if, after the Civil War when the Rector
and congregation came back to the deves-
tated city, they had found the open graves
and had reinterred the priests in the yard
behind the Church. There was no mention
of any of this in the Vestry minutes of
1866, but there was a letter from the
Bishop about his grave concern regarding
the desecration of the Church. Also,
money had been appropriated to repair the
floor of the church building.

Project Beginnings

I mentioned all of this to a parish-
ioner in late March of 1988, and it caught
his attention. He told me to call Dr. Ju-

dith Bense at the University of West
Florida and ask her if she would be will-
ing to do a full scale archaeological in-
vestigation both under the church building
and on the adjoining forty-foot wide
tract. "If she will undertake the
project, I will pay for it, he said. A
chance remark at the proper moment brought
about The Search for the Lost Rectors. I
called Dr. Bense, told her about what was
going on, and asked her if she were inter-
ested. She said, "Let's have lunch." I
asked when and she replied, "Yesterday."
Things moved quickly after that.
The President of the University was per-
sonally interested in the project. A mem-
ber of Christ Church, Dr. Morris Marx had
recently become president of the univer-
sity and was anxious to bring the univer-
sity and the City of Pensacola into a
closer relationship. Town and gown joined
hands. Cnce again, the timing was right.
I am an Episcopal priest. Prior to
this project my knowledge of archaeology
was limited to National Geographic and a
little Biblical Archaeology in seminary.
But I learned fast. I was impressed with
the professionalism of the archaeologists
involved in the project. I was impressed
with the support groups that came to help
and how the archaeologists enabled the
volunteers to make important contribu-
tions. I was amazed at the various disci-
plines that all came together ... archae-
ology, anthropology, anatomy, geology,
history, physics, engineering, and even a
bit of theology and metaphysics. All
these worked together in unity and har-
mony, learning from one another. I was
also deeply impressed with the attitude of
those doing the excavation of the grave
sites. There was no question at any time
but that this was serious business and sa-
cred, too. These skeletal remains had at
one time been living human beings, and now
they deserved the respect of this present

Project Publicity

The other papers will deal with the
scientific aspects of the Search for the
Lost Rectors. But there are some things I
learned which may be of interest to you.

I can speak only as a layman as far as
professional archaeology is concerned.
The media played an important part
in the success of the project, second only
to the private funding of the Search. The
media were never allowed to get in the
way, but they were treated with courtesy
at all times. They were never ignored.
They were carefully briefed and given ac-
curate information in writing. I went to
the editor of the local paper to get him
on board before the project began. I
wanted him to be in on what was about to
take place. I prepared a paper for him,
making it clear what we were going to do
and why. I made it clear that this was a
joint project between Christ Church and
the University of West Florida and that it
was privately-funded. I also wanted to
avoid any newspaper coverage that might
accuse us of grave robbing! I wanted it
clear that we were trying to find out if
the graves had been desecrated during the
Civil War and, if so, we wanted to right
the wrong. At the end of the Search we
would have another funeral as close to the
original as possible and lay them to rest
once again.
We accomplished that. The editor
sat back in his chair and said, "This is
perfect for summer reading. We have all
the ingredients of a good mystery .
lost rectors, grave vandalism, Civil War,
unsolved mysteries."
From the beginning to the end we had
the support of the media. The best re-
porters were assigned to the story. There
were pictures, feature articles, editori-
als. These got the community interested
and involved. Television coverage and ra-
dio reports together with magazine arti-
cles all made the community aware, on a
daily basis for two months, what archaeol-
ogy can accomplish. People in the commu-
nity began to realize that the more we
learn about the past, the better able we
are to understand the present and build
for the future.
The project began with a community
event. I suggested to Dr. Bense that we
have a groundbreaking ceremony with the
President of the University there for a
speech and other community and state offi-
cials to help us launch the project. "A

groundbreaking," Dr. Bense said. "1 never
heard of such a thing." I told her that 1
thought a groundbreaking was most appro-
priate for archaeology. We had a very
good response, and once again we made it
clear what we were doing and why. The
event attracted a great deal of community
Everywhere I went for the next two
months grocery store, shopping mall,
barber shop people stopped and
talked about archaeology. And the commu-
nity became even more aware of our history
and heritage, especially young people.
Then information began to come in from all
over the country, bits and pieces of his-
tory about the Lost Rectors. The more we
looked for historic data, the more we
found. None of this would have happened
had it not been for The Search for the
Lost Rectors. Only recently the great-
great-great grandson of Joseph Hubbard
Saunders called me on the telephone and
came for a visit.

Project Significance

The project was successful. Many
questions were answered, some were not and
may never be answered. The project also
uncovered artifacts froln the Spanish and
British colonial periods under the floor
of the Church and in the church yard. The
editorial in the Pensacola News-Journal
two days before the "groundbreaking" said
this: "Penscola's rich and varied history
makes any excavation a potential treasure
trove of historical artifacts and informa-
tion. And the site of the oldest church
in the state of Florida is certainly an
exciting and promising place to seek new
knowledge of this area's past. The more
we know of our history, the better we are
able to weave the full tapestry of our
story for ourselves, our children and vis-
itors to our area."
All three priests were found pre-
cisely where they originally had been
buried. The first one was discovered
eight hours after the project began and on
the first day. The skeletal remains were
only three inches under the surface of the
ground. This grave had been disturbed.


The second grave also was disturbed, but
the third was untouched.
As I had announced at the beginning
of the project, we concluded with a second
funeral conducted in the church yard. A
young carpenter in the parish, whose fa-
ther is an Episcopal priest and who
teaches at the University, fashioned the
coffins as much like the originals as pos-
sible. The President of the University
assisted me with the service. The Burial
Office from the 1789 Book of Common Prayer
was read. This was the authorized service
used during the time of the three Rectors.
The Christ Church choir sang hymns from
the hymnal of that period. The archaeolo-
gists who worked on the project were the
pall bearers. When the service was con-
cluded, the three priests were taken under
the church building and reinterred in the
same location as the original burials.
The Search for the Lost Rectors had
concluded successfully, and the community
of Pensacola had a better and richer un-
derstanding of the work of archaeology and
its contributions to our understanding of
our past. The project gave me a profound
appreciation of archaeology as a science
and archaeologists as highly-skilled sci-
entists who help us understand our past in
order to build a better world.
One final footnote. The Search for
the Lost Rectors enabled other archaeolog-
ical projects to be undertaken in the his-
toric district, Seville Square. The old
Christ Church schoolhouse was purchased
and is the downtown branch of the Insti-
tute of West Florida Archaeology and will
be used for offices, classrooms, and a mu-
seum displaying artifacts found in the
area. A colonial archaeological trail is
in the works. And, it all began with a
telephone call, an interested citizen who
was willing to fund the project, and a lot
of hard work and dedication by a fine
group of highly-skilled archaeologists.

B. Madison Currin, Th.D.
Rector, Christ Episcopal Church
Pensacola, Florida

Funeral procession for Lost Rectors. At
head of procession is Dr. Morris Marx,
UWF President (left) and Dr. B. Madison
Currin, current Rector of Christ
Episcopal Church (right). Note media in
far right covering the event.


edited by Christopher J. Ellis and
Johnathan C. Lothrop. Investigations in
American Archaeology, Westview Press,
Boulder, Colorado. September 6, 1989.
$43.50 (sc) .

There is good news and there is bad
news. The bad news is that $43.50 is the
cost of a 6 x 9 inch paperback with few
artifact illustrations (do only Canadian
Paleoindian archaeologists illustrate
fluted points?), many of which are really
bad in the sense of picture reproduction
quality. The tables are similar to the
ones I produce on my old Royal. Much of
this negativism is the fault of the
publisher, not the authors.
The good news is the 20 contribu-
tors: Mary L. Curran, Peabody Museum of
Salem; I. Randolph Daniel, Jr., North
Carolina Research Laboratories of Anthro-
pology; D. Brian Deller, Ontario;
Christopher J. Ellis, Waterloo, Canada,
Department of Anthropology; Albert C.
Goodyear, South Carolina Institute of
Archaeology and Anthropology; John R.
Grimes, Peabody Museum of Salem; R. G. V.
Hancock, Toronto University Dept. of Chem-
ical Engineering and Applied Chemistry;
Patrick J. Julig, Toronto University Dept.
of Anthropology; Bradley T. Leper, Newark
Earth Works; Jonathan C. Lothrop, Louis
Berger and Associates, Inc.; David J.
Meltzer, Southern Methodist University
Dept. of Anthropology; L. A. Pavlish,
Toronto University Dept. of Anthropology;
Michael J. Shott, Kentucky University
Program in Cultural Resource Assessment;
Arthur Spiess, Maine Historic Preservation
Commission; Peter L. Strock, Royal Ontario
Museum; Kenneth B. Tankersley, Indiana
University Glen A. Black Laboratory of
Archaeology; Peter H. von Bitter, Royal
Ontario Museum; Deborah Wilson, Maine
Historic Preservation Commission; Michael
Wisenbaker, Florida Division of Historical
Resources; and, Henry T. Wright, Univer-
sity of Michigan Museum of Anthropology.

Additional good news is that there
is none of the nonproductive focusing of
attention on alleged extinct megafauna
vis-a-vis old western Clovis/Folsom
models, or the pretense that the behavior
of people in South Africa or Australia
somehow dictates how Paleoindians in a
varied and rich environment had to behave.
In the Preface, Ellis and Lothrop
date the Paleoindian of eastern North
America to "ca. 11,000 to 9500 B.P." This
dating would seem to omit the western
Clovis period almost in its entirety while
including a portion of the period known as
"early Archaic" in the east. I hope this
is not a reflection of the old idea of
western Paleo primacy when easterners
believed fluted points dated significantly
later in the east. Indeed, some scholars
now hold just the opposite and the much
larger number of fluted points recovered
in the east may be the evidence. A dating
of ca. 11,500 10,000 B.P. would seem to
me to be a good conservative guess for the
eastern Paleoindian period marked by
fluted points and unfluted closely related
bifaces. The Dalton period after all is
now dated to roughly 1W0,500:- 10,000 B.P.,
and it may be terminal Paleoindian or post
Paleoindian, depending upon your perspec-
tive. Besides, the date 10,000 B.P. has a
nice round sound to it.
Paleoindian populations had specific
needs which included: (1) food and water;
(2) neighbors for help and/or mates; (3)
territory and/or space; and, (4) stone for
a stone tool technology. Archaeologists
need information concerning stone in order
to reconstruct Paleoindian lifeways be-
cause stone is about all that is preserv-
ed. Archaeological needs include: (1)
where is stone available; (2) where is
stone deposited in relationship to where
it is (and hopefully was) available; (3)
what was stone made into; (4) how do stone
tools and stone debitage found by archae-
ologists relate to the deposits where they
were lost, discarded, or cached.
Goodyear's thesis is that people can


Vol. 43 No. 2

June, 1990


adopt stone technologies so as to not in-
terfere with the need for food. The pro-
curement of stone for tools and the kinds
of tools made are part of the Paleoindian
settlement strategy. The theme of the 1986
Society for American Archaeology symposium
and hence this volume is just how was
stone acquired. Is there evidence of
trade or can the sources of stone found be
used to indicate the territory of groups?
The answer is "yes" to both.
Meltzer defines "exotic" stone as
stone from a source 40 km or more distant
and "local" stone as originating at a
source less than 40 km from the site of
deposit. Like Tankersley, I personally
would prefer 30 km, but perhaps everyone
would have to work it out for specific
regions. Meltzer seems to agree that most
or all stone is obtained directly by knap-
pers but allows for the "ceremonial ex-
change" of complete artifacts and does
state he would reconsider trade of raw
materials if a good case can be made for
it. Variations from this theme are
present throughout the volume with no real
consensus except to fit site data to vari-
ations of the theme. We should not expect
Paleoindian to act the same everywhere
despite the extraordianry homogeneity of
fluted point morphology. Interestingly,
Curran and Grimes arrive at a different
interpretation than Spiess and Wilson by
using the same data. Shott also tries to
deal with frequency of movement in addi-
tion to size of territory.
Lothrop's identification of biface
core, I think, is important and needs to
be assessed by other investigations. Ellis
suggests the intriguing idea that specific
groups may have exhibited their social
memberships by the stone they used.
Storck and von Bitter question "free
wandering" as it should be questioned.
They, together with Julig, Pavish and
Hancock focus on chert identification. As
Deller points out, the Canadians have been
more successful with Paleoindian studies
than Southeastern archaeologists. An ex-
ception would seem to be Daniel and
Wisenbaker's work at Harney Flats (I was
surprised to not see Paleolama mirifica
listed with Florida's extinct Pleistocene
fauna since Florida is famous for its

Paleolama remains.). Leper was able to
use Prufer's data from Chio to develop an
important model of settlements which, like
emerging southeastern models, emphasizes
contrasting but adjacent physiographical
regions in contrast to Prufer's model of
avoidances. Tankersley admirably provides
an identification appendix of 47 cherts
and quartzites defined in the midconti-
nental United States (however, I don't
think that Burlington and Crescent Quarry
are synonymous for the same chert.). The
term "cache" is used in several papers
without regard to the possibility that
those "caches" could have been actually
burial furniture. Wright makes the point
(among others) that we need to record a
variety of non-point sites to get some
concept of forager land use. State bureau-
cracies, unfortunately, generally do not
like to record lithicc scatters" in their
I recommend this book to those who
want to know the status of Paleoindian
studies in the eastern United States.
Many of the papers are difficult to
understand, but after all that is the
status of our knowledge of Paleoindian in
the east. It will get much better pretty
soon as a result of symposiums like this

Reviewed by
Dan F. Morse
Arkansas Archeological Survey
Drawer 820
State University, AR 72467

Points and Blades of the Coastal
Plain: A Guide to the Classifica-
tion of North American Hafted Im-
plements in the Southeastern
Coastal Plain Region, 1990, by John
Powell, American Systems of the
Carolinas, Inc., 53 pages, figures
(line drawings) and bibliography.

This guide covers Florida,
southern portions of Alabama, Geor-
gia and South Carolina. Although
the coastal plain, from a geo-
graphic view, extends farther north
and west, Powell observes that cul-
tural influences from adjacent re-
gions prevented him from adopting a
broader typology for the entire
coastal plain.
In his introduction, Powell
discloses that "projectile points"
(ppks) were used as knives as well
as for spear and arrow tips. It
seems obvious nowadays that people
call many bifaces "points" as a
convenience rather than for func-
tional reasons. In this same vein,
once tools had been made, nothing
prevented them being used for dif-
ferent purposes, especially as
forms were altered by resharpening.
Powell notes that several di-
agnostic traits must be used to
identify points. He discusses such
attributes as hafting methods
(e.g., fluting, notching, thinning
or stemming), lateral rejuvenation
(alternate and bifacial beveling
and serration), thermal alteration
(or heat treatment), preform con-
figuration (looking at finished
blanks as diagnostics--which takes
considerable leaps of faith unless
one knows the whole reduction se-
quence), flaking characteristics
(identifiable patterns and combina-
tions of percussion and pressure
flaking, outline (which should be
used only with other attributes)
and basal and lateral abrasion (the

Vol. 43 No. 2 THE FLORID

use of abrasion in hafting areas
was largely limited to the earliest
lithic traditions).
The Paleoamerican Period
(14,000-10,000 B.P.) is the oldest
culture period. Why he chose this
particular name is puzzling. We now
have to deal with Paleo-Indian,
Palaeo-Indian and Paleoindian, so
why yet another label? Moreover,
the beginning date of 14,000 B.P
appears to be at least 2,000 years
too early based on radiocarbon
dates from the region. At any rate,
Powell describes and illustrates
traditional fluted lanceolates such
as Clovis, Ross County, Redstone
and Cumberland under this heading.
He indicates that unfluted forms
with some basal and lateral grind-
ing might also fall within this pe-
The Protoarchaic (10,000-9,000
B.P.) is the next period covered.
It purportedly represents the tran-
sition between "paleohunting" and
Archaic traditions. This heading,
too, is bothersome. Why adopt a
strange name just for the sake of
novelty? At any rate, Powell di-
vides these points into two subpe-
riods. The Terminal Paleolithic
(10,000-9,500 B.P.) [The Pale-
olithic--or Old Stone Age--should
not be used to describe New World
cultures.] is comprised of auricu-
late (ear-like projections on ei-
ther side of the base) lanceolate
forms such as Quad, Beaver Lake,
Simpson, Suwannee, Union Side
Notched and Greenbrier. [I think
well-informed archaeologists would
place the majority of the above
forms in the Paleo-Indian period,
except for Union Side Notched
(which may be a much later form)
and Greenbrier (probably one of the
earliest notched varieties belong-
ing to the Early Archaic period.]
The other subperiod is the Late
Protoarchaic (or Dalton) Phase


June, 1990


(9,500-9,000 B.P.) where Powell
covers Colbert, Hardaway Side
Notched, Chattahoochee, Ocmulgee,
Dalton and Chipola (another new
designation). Again, placing Dal-
tons and Dalton-like ppks into this
time period is not justified based
on Albert Goodyear's recent find-
ings indicating a Dalton age range
from 10,500 to 9,900 B.P. Powell
also notes that bone and ivory
"points" were used from
"Paleolithic" through
"Protoarchaic" periods. [Contrary
to this notion, the use of animal
bone for tools was continuous from
the Paleo-Indian through the Mis-
sissippian periods.]
Powell reveals that by the
Early Archaic (9,000-7,500 B.P.),
people were settled into a hunting
and gathering subsistence mode.
Beveling and serrating of blade
edges were used for the first time
during this period to prolong the
uselife of stone tools. The
notched, beveled and serrated forms
he discusses include: Hardin,
Bolen, Van Lott, Taylor Side
Notched, Cobb Blade, Gilchrist,
Waller Knife and Edgefield Scraper,
Stanfield, MacCorkle (bifurcated
forms), Kirk Serrated and Corner
Notched. The author's drawings
sometimes depict bifaces in split
view to show how an artifact may
have appeared after repeated re-
During the Middle Archaic
(7,500-5,000 B.P.), people expanded
both geographically and demographi-
cally. Stemmed points were the pre-
dominant (diagnostic) tool types.
Heat treatment of stone became com-
mon while basal and lateral grind-
ing of bifaces fell into disfavor.
Some forms Powell covers in the
Middle Archaic include Stanly, Eva-
-the first basally notched points,
Morrow Mountain, Guilford, Benton,
Six Mile Creek, Hardee, Thonoto-
sassa, Sumter, Wacissa, Arredondo,
Newnan and Hillsborough.

In the Late Archaic: (5,000-
3,500 B.P.) stemmed points became
even more prevalent according to
Powell. Major cultural markers of
the period were steatite vessels
and, somewhat later, the introduc-
tion of fiber-tempered ceramics
(ca. 4,500 B.P.). [It should be
noted that steatite vessels are not
common in Florida.] From this time
forth, pottery replaces stone tools
as the primary diagnostic artifact
used to distinguish prehistoric
populations and their material cul-
tures. At any rate, Powell covers
three Late Archaic point/blade
clusters: the Pickwick, Savannah
River and the Late Florida Archaic
stemmed. Pickwick includes Pick-
wick, Ledbetter, Maples, Elora and
Spring Creek. Savannah River takes
in Savannah River, Hamilton, Savan-
nah River Narrow Stemmed and Semi-
nole. Florida Archaic stemmed vari-
eties embrace Clay and Lafayette
(later notched forms making their
first appearance in the Coastal
What Powell terms the Gulf
Formational period (3,500-2,500
B.P.) bridges the gap between the
late preceramic and early ceramic
cultures of the Gulf Coastal Plain.
Its dates correspond to the
"terminal" Archaic through Early
Woodland periods. Stemmed forms of
bifaces continue, while basally
notched as well as auriculate forms
(i.e., Santa Fe and Tallahassee)
also appear. Originally, due to
bearing superficial similarities to
Dalton varieties, Tallahassees and
Santa Fes tentatively were at-
tributed (e.g,. by Bullen) to much
earlier cultures, but it is now be-
lieved that they belong in a Gulf
Formational or Woodland context.
[This is a good observation but he
should have provided references.]
Besides the two auriculate forms,
stemmed varieties described include
Little Bear Creek, Mulberry Creek
and Flint Creek. Basally notched
(or nearly so) forms such as Cul-

breaths, Citruses and Hernandos are
presented here.
The Woodland period (2,500-
1,000 B.P.) saw ceramic-making peo-
ples spread throughout the south-
eastern Coastal Plain. [The Wood-
land Tradition in Florida, however,
is limited to the Apalachicola
River Valley in the Panhandle.]
Deptford, Swift Creek/Santa Rosa
and Weeden Island are some of the
cultures mentioned here. During the
Weeden Island times, pottery making
reached its zenith but stone work-
manship declined. There was also a
gradual decrease in the proportion
of hafted bifaces in artifact as-
semblages. Powell presents several
plausible hypotheses to explain the
decline in stone tool technology.
Some of the points and blades he
discusses are: Copena, Sarasota,
Taylor Stemmed, Broward, Gadsden,
Bradford, Ocala, Columbia, Duval,
Florida Spike, Jackson, Pigeon
Creek, Weeden Island point, Yadkin,
Hamilton, Durant's Bend, Leon and
Jack's Reef.
The guide concludes with the
Mississippian-Historic periods
(1,000 B.P.- A.D. 1842). Some
Mesoamerican influences are evident
in the pottery vessels and motifs
of Mississippian Indians. As for
stone tools, Powell discusses the
Mississippian Triangular Arrowhead
Cluster, comprised of Pinellas in
Florida and Madison elsewhere in
the Southeast. He uses Ichetucknee,
Shetley, Nodena Banks and Tampa
points to illustrate the Nodena
During the Protohistoric Pe-
riod (1513-1565 in St. Augustine
and 15??-1702 in Mobile), European
explorers roamed the region. In
terms of bifacial tools, iron,
glass and imported flints replaced
most native stones for point tips.
The Historic Period (when Europeans
started to live in the region) be-
gan in 1565 in the East and 1702 in
the West and lasted until the end
of the Seminole War in 1842, when

most Native Americans were removed.
[He means the Second Seminole War,
since there were three separate
wars. The First Seminole War was in
1818, the Second Seminole War was
1835-1842 and the Third Seminole
War was from 1855-1858.] Powell il-
lustrates French Lance Heads,
French Conical Trade points, U.S.
Army Trade arrowheads and various
other tools as representative of
this period.
Generally speaking, Points and
Blades of the Coastal Plain has
better illustrations than Bullen's
Guide to the Identification of
Florida Projectile Points. It does
not, however, cover variations in
point dimensions, site contexts and
associated radiocarbon dates as
does Bullen, or Cambron and Hulse
in Handbook of Alabama Archaeology-
-Part I, Point Types or Justice in
Stone Age Spear and Arrow Points.
of the Midcontinental and Eastern
United States. One aspect of Pow-
ell's guide that is an improvement
over the two state guides, however,
is that it is based on a true geo-
graphic region rather than current
political boundaries. At any rate,
other than substantial problems
with the earlier periods--a trait
not uncommon to numerous profes-
sionals in the region who appar-
ently have read little within the
past ten years on current North
American Paleo-Indian research,
Powell's book should be helpful to
those attempting to identify the
plethora of points and blades found
in the southeastern Coastal Plain.

To order send $12.95 plus $1.50
postage and handling to:

Museum of Florida History
History Shop
500 South Bronough St.
Tallahassee, FL 32399-0250

Reviewed by:
Michael Wisenbaker
Tallahassee, Florida



Louis D. Tesar

B. Calvin Jones came to Florida from
Texas in 1968. He was hired by the State
to survey the Interstate Highway system in
Florida, and he is responsible for
locating most of the recorded 17th-century
Spanish mission sites in Leon and
Jefferson Counties. In 1969, he excavated
the San Damian de Escambi mission site in
Leon County. In 1971, he conducted
excavations at the Patale mission site
which was then threatened by private
development. During 1970-1973, he
reported in several publications on the
results of this work, including a 1972
summary of the destruction of the
Apalachee missions in 1704 by Colonel
James Moore.
In 1975, he worked on Mound 3 of the
Lake Jackson mound group in northern Leon
County, Florida, during which effort he
recovered several copper breast plates and
numerous shell beads and other Mississip-
pian Period artifacts, which were being
lost to site preparation activities.
These activities were conducted with owner
permission, and the owner only granted
permission because of the non-adversarial
reputation which Calvin had for working
with the public.
In 1988 he discovered the de Soto
Winter Encampment. The importance of this
find, the subsequent public archaeology
involving numerous volunteers and trained
professionals, the attention which this
discovery focused on the need for a
City/County archaeological ordinance, and
the like are self evident.
Most recently, he excavated with
volunteer assistance a Weeden Island
ceramic cache which he discover at the
Ross-Hannon site south of Tallahassee.
The site did not come under Federal or
State environmental review, and sherds
from the cache had been exposed by site
preparation activities. Calvin requested
permission to inspect the property and
discovered the cache which he later
excavated with volunteer assistance. This

important find has yet to be fully
During all of these efforts, and
many more which are not listed, Calvin has
involved the public and helped create an
atmosphere of community stewardship for
the archaeological resources of the
Tallahassee/Leon County area, and else-
where throughout Florida. These projects
have also served to place Tallahassee on
the map, so to speak, for its outstanding
archaeological discoveries.
For his untiring efforts, personal
historic resource stewardship, sharing of
his finds with the public, involving the
public as participants, and much more he
clearly deserves public acknowledgement.
His efforts and discoveries have helped
create a broad public sense of stewardship
for historic resources.
In recognition of his years of
dedication and professional achievement,
especially in the realm of public
archaeology, on May 17, 1990, B. Calvin
Jones was honored by the Florida Senate.
A photoreduced copy of the Senate
Resolution is included on the following
pages. That resolution is but another
example of the recognition of the
importance of archaeological resources and
the contribution of archaeological
research to a broader understanding and
appreciation of Florida's prehistoric and
historic heritage that occurs at all
levels of government and in the private
sector. Public archaeology is an
important aspect of resource stewardship.


June, 1990

Vol. 43 No. 2


By Senatar Walker

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

A resolution honuring B. Calvin Jones
for his discoveries and excavations of early
Spanish period historical sites, particularly his
discovery and identification of the 1539-1540
winter campsite of Hernando de Soto.

WHEREAS, Buddy Calvin Jones, a texan who, by the time he received his
Masters Degree in Anthropalogy in 1968, already had mare than 7 years of
experience in the archaeology af the early Spanish contact period, and

WHEREAS, in 1968, Calvin Jones brought his experience to Florida as an
archaeologist with the Florida Board of Archives and History here in Tallahassee,
where he immediately embarked on a highly successful career with the discovery
and excavation of San Joseph de Ocuya, an early Spanish mission that was
testroyed before the year 1700, ant

WHEREAS, Calvin Janes has since discovered and excavated Missians San Peira
de Patale (1) and (II), Mission gan Damian de Escamhe, Mission San Corenaa de
Thitarhuca, Mission San Miguel te Asile, Missian San Pedra te Putohiriba, Missian
San Juan de Guacara, and Mission San Antanin de Enacapi and other Spanish mission
ana ranchero sites about which sa little is known that their proper names are
unknown, and

DHEREAS, it would he a singular achievement to have removed any one of these
ancient places from the ahyss of antiquity into the light of scientific scrutiny
where it will provide an opportunity far generatians of students ta probe inta
the past, yet Calvin Jones has brought literally dozens of these places to light,
often on his awn time and at his own expense, and

WHEREAS, Calvin always finds time for the amateur historian ana
archaeologist and for the landowner, withaut whase aid many Aiscoveries would not
he possible, and he Listens ta their concerns, explains the significance of their
finds, and creates ways far them to work together with the state to enlarge our
knowledge of the rich heritage of our past, and

WHEREAS, the o14 adage "Gond luck begins when preparation meets opportunity"
bas again confirmed on March 11, 1987, when Calvin, on his own initiative and
time, began exploring at a construction site in Tallahassee that soun yielded
artifacts that his trained eye nobed were different andi older than what he had
expected to find, and

WHEREAS, distressed by the pressure of construction schedules, Calvin
enlisted the help of friends and other volunteers in excavating the site from
March 11, 1987, ta May 4, 1987, and thus was able to explore the site at minimal
expense to the state, and

WHEREAS, during this period, Calvin confirmed his preliminary artifact
identification by scholarly research ani was ahle to publicly announce on April
21, 1987, that the site, now knawn as the Martin site, was in fact a part of the
1539-1540 de Soko winter encampment, and


WHEREAS, the Governor and Cabinet bib on may 5, 1987, by resolution commend
and thank Calvin Jones for his dedication ani discovery and recommend that
efforts for recognition of the significance of the site be continued, and

WHEREAS, the identification of the martin site has made Florida the only
state having an archaeological site proved to have been visited by Hernando he
Soto during his infamous exploration of this continent between 1539 and 1545, and

WiHEREAS, it is fitting, on this the 450th anniversary of he Soto's departure
from his minter encampment, to honor the archaeologist who has made such an
important contribution to the history of our state and of our country, and

WHEREAS, the accomplishments of Calvin Jones and the publication of his
research here and abroad make him not just a valued employee and honored
Floribian, but an archaeologist of international stature and one in whom all
Americans can have pribe, NOB, CHEREFORE,

Be It Resolved by the Senate of the State of Floriaa:

that the Senate honors and comments B. Calvin Jones for his outstanding
service and significant achievements in the field of archaeology and his
contributions to the historical knowledge of our state, our country, and our

BE IT FURCHER RESOCVED that a copI of this document, signed by the President
of the Senate, with the Seal of the Senate affixed, be presented to Bunhy Calvin
Jones as a tangible token of the esteem in which he is held by this boay.
* *

this is a true and correct
of Senate Resolution No. 31
adopteA by the Floriba
on maygl7, 1990.

Secretary of the


In FA 42(4) W.S. Eubanks raised
questions concerning the validity of
arguments by Charles Hudson et al. for
their de Soto Expedition RIute. In his
arguments, he pointed to the Peachtree
site near Murphy, N.C. as a sixteenth-
century Spanish contact site evidencing
possible de Soto expedition contact in an
area in conflict with the Hudson et al.
route reconstruction. In FA 43(1) Hudson

I commend The Flori Anthropol/ogst for providing Its Important and
continued forum for debate concerning the Spanish conquest of the
southeastern United States. In your last issue there were some criticisms
of W.S. Eubanks, Jr.'s article "Studying de Soto's Route: A Georgian House
of Cards" that I would like to address.

WS. Eubanks raised a legitimate point concerning the failure of the
"Georgian" Soto route reconstruct on to address a major concentration of
sixteenth-century European artifacts recovered from the Peachtree Site
near Murphy, N.C in their reply to Eubanks' criticisms. Charles Hudson and
Marvin Sm ith inconvincinrglv suggested that there are really very few
European artifacts from Murphv that date to the sixteenth-century.

interestingly. Hudson and Smith Identified three sixteenth-century
Nueva Cadiz beads from the site. Outside of Florida, three Nueva Cadiz
beads from one site is certainly an impressive quantity. Only one Nueva
Cadiz bead was recovered from the Little Egypt Site in northwest Georgia
where the "Georgians" (despite much ethnohistoric archaeological evidence
to the contrary) Insist that the important sixteenth-century town of Coosa
was located.

In addition to the impressive collection of Nueva Cadiz beads, at least
two Clai ksdaie Bells were found According to Jeffrey Brain of the
Peabody Museum, Clark3dale Bells are particularly diagnostic of the
sixteenth-century. While there was an atypical recovery of Clarksdale
Belis from eat iy sevenreenii-centurv Weiss phase sites in Aiabama as
Hudlsoi ai n1 cilitlh pointed our, tnese artifacts are more typically recovered
from sites occupied during the sixteenth-century. in fact, the "Georgians"
have used the recovery of Clarksdale Bells from northwest Georgia to
bolster their own case for sixteenth-century Coosa being located at the
Little Egypt Site

Hudson and Smith also failed to mention the two iron chisels that
Marvin Smith identified as probable sixteenth-century artifacts (letter
communication to the Curator of the Cherokee County Historical Museum
dated 11-28-89).

Hudson's and Smith's own examinations Identified three Nueva Cadiz
beads. two Clarksdale Bells, and two Iron chisels--a very impressive
collection of temporally sensitive artifacts. Yet. Hudson and Smith
concluded "there is no great concentration of Early Spalnsh artifacts at.

nc Little
hlet J. Little

and Smith presented arguments to refute
Eubanks' argument. In a March 23, 1990
letter to the FA Editor, Keith Little
presents information for consideration
suggesting that the Hudson and Smith
refutation of Eubanks was flawed. Keith
later requested that his letter be
included in the COmments section of the
FA. It has been photoreproduced/reduced

Keith Little
Archaeology Laboratory
Pensacola Junior College
1000 College Boulevard
Pensacola, Florida 32503


June, 1990

Vol. 43 No. 2

Tallahassee. Florida




dlitor's Page: FA 43(2) -- June 1990 ...................... 82
** & *


mInoring Private Sector Involvement In Archaeological Preservation: The Florida
Archaeological Cbuncl's Preservation wards Day by RIbert J. Austin .... 84

Florida Archaeological Cuncil Forum -- Building the RFture thile Protecting
the Past: A New Partnership Introductory Remarks by Stanley Bond .... 89

What State and Federal Laws Can and Can't Do For Archaeological Site Preserva-
tion by James J. Miller ........................... 91

Florida Firsts: Benefiting tron Florida's Past by Kathleen Deagan . 93

The De StBo site and Archaeological Preservation: A Developer's Point of View
by Chuck Mitchell ................... .......... 96

The Good, the Bad and the Ugly in Ibrthwest Florida Archaeology by tRbert
Thunen . . . . ... . . . . 101

The Florida Archaeological C(uncil's Stewards of Heritage Preservation wards
Banquet: Welcome Address by Kenneth W. Hardin . . ... 103

The Florida Archaeological Council's Stewards of Heritage Preservation awads
Banquet: Prepared IRearks by Jim Smith . . . .... 105

Excerpts Ercm mnments by the Stewards of Heritage Preservation Awards Banquet
Speakers Excerpted and Blited by bRbert J. Austin . . . .. 107

Some Thoughts an Roles and Responsibilities: The New Partnership and Beyond
by Robert J. Austin ............................ U3

The Temple Abund Museum: Iambering the First 'tenty Years by Yulee Lazarus 116


The Search for the Lost Rectors: A Public Archaeology Project --- Overview and
Project Description by Judith A. ense . . . .... 127

Excavations Uader Old Christ Church in Pensacola, Florida by Deborah Joy 133

The Search for the lost Rectors: A Public Archaeology Project -- Public Rela-
tions and Archaeology by Mary Ann Fabbro . . . . ... 138

The Search for the Lost Rectors: A Personal Perspective by B. Mdison QCrrin 140


Eastern Paleoindtan Lithic Resource Use edited by Christopher J. Ellis and
Johnathan C. lothrop. Reviewed by Dan P. rse . . . .. 144

Points and Blades of the Coastal Plain: A Glide to the Classification of Ibrth
American Hefted Implements in the Southeastern Coastal Plain Region by John
Powell. reviewed by Michael Wisenbaker . . . .... 146

Florida Senate Honors B. Calvin Jones for Archaeological Site Discoveries
by louis esar . . . . ... . . 149

The Question Remains: W. S. Eubanks' Argument for Sixteenth Century Spanish
Contact at the Peachtree Site ear Murphy, N.C. Has lIt Been Refuted by Hudson
and Sith. OOmnent by Keith Little ...................... 152


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