The Florida anthropologist

Material Information

The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title:
Fla. anthropol.
Florida Anthropological Society
Place of Publication:
Florida Anthropological Society.
Publication Date:
Quarterly[<Mar. 1975- >]
Two no. a year[ FORMER 1948-]
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 24 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- May 1948-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01569447 ( OCLC )
56028409 ( LCCN )
0015-3893 ( ISSN )


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^ JUNE 1981

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THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST is published quarterly in March, June,
September, and December by the Florida Anthropological Society, Inc.,
Geoarcheological Research Center, Department of Geology, University
of Miami, Coral Gables, Fl. 33124. Subscription is by membership in
the Society for individuals and institutions interested in the aims
of the Society. Annual dues are $10.00; student members $6.00. Re-
quests for membership and general inquiries should be addressed to the
Secretary; dues, changes of address to the Membership Secretary; manu-
scripts for publication to the Editor; orders for back issues to the
Assistant Editor; and newsletter items to the President. Address changes
should be made at least 30 days prior to the mailing of the next issue.
Second class postage paid at Miami, Florida 33124.


President: Irving R. Eyster
Route 1, Box 96
Islamorada, FL 33036

1st Vice President: Marion M. Almy
5321 Avenida Del Mare
Sarasota, FL 33581

2nd Vice President: Claudine Payne
1009 Pine Street
Tallahassee, FL 32303

Secretary: Ray Williams
Department of Anthropology
University of South Florida
Tampa, FL 33620

Membership Secretary: Jeane L. Eyster
Route 1, Box 96
Islamorada, FL 33036

Treasurer and Resident
Agent: Ralph L. Struever
5350 Woodland Lakes Drive, Apt. 112
Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33410


Three years:. Jerry Hyde
4233 Oristano Road
Jacksonville, FL 32210

Two years: Karen Malesky
5312 Bay State Road
Palmetto, FL 33561

One year: Norcott S. henriquez
1510 Dewey Street
Hollywood, FL 33020


Editor: Robert S. Carr
Geoarcheological Research Center
Department of Geology
University of Miami
Coral Gables, FL 33124

Newsletter Editor: Irving Eyster
Route 1, Box 96
Islamorada, FL 33035

Editorial Board:
Kathleen A. Deagan
Department of Anthropology
Florida State University

John W. Griffin
St. Augustine, Florida

(USPS 200880)

Assistant Editor: Irving Eyster
Route 1, Box 96
Islamorada, FL 33035

George M. Luer
Sarasota, Florida

James J. Miller
Tallahassee, Florida

George Percy
Div. of Archives, History and
Records Management, Tallahassee

COVER: Burials at Cocoa Beach cemetery. Drawn by Calvin Jones.





Editor's Page .


The Archeological Salvage of the Bay West Site,

Collier County, Florida

by John Beriault, Robert Carr, Jerry

JUNE 1981

Stipp, Richard Johnson, and Jack Meeder .

The Republic Groves Site, Hardee County, Florida
by Barry R. Wharton, George R. Ballo, and

Mitchell E. Hope ....

Florida Anthropologist Interview With Calvin Jones

Part II:
Cocoa Beach, Florida . .

Investigations Into the Use of Chert Outcrops By

Prehistoric Floridians:

Corporation of America Site

The Container

by Barbara A. Purdy...

Wetherington Island:

by Marsha A. Chance

The Late Archaic-Poverty Point Steatite Trade
Network in the Lower Mississippi Valley:

Some Preliminary Observations

by Brent W. Smith .

An Archaic Lithic Procurement
Site in Hillsborough County

Excavations of an Archaic Cemetery in










This issue is the result of the work of a large number of people attempt-
ing to provide a collection of articles that brings forth the results of the
salvage recovery and excavations of five Archaic sites in Florida, three of
them being cemeteries and two being lithicc" sites. I believe these articles
will provoke some important considerations towards the nature:and design of
future surveys and excavations directed towards Archaic Period sites. I am
especially indebted to John Reiger for his help in editing this volume.

There are several books of interest of which I would like to alert
readers. The Only Land They Knew by J. Leitch Wright, Jr., an historian
from Florida State University, is available in hardback for $16.95. This
372-page book narrates the plight of the Southeastern Indians from the 16th
century to the 19th century. Order from the Free Press, MacMillian Publishing
Co., 200 D Brown Street, Riverside, New Jersey, 08370.

In Realms of Gold: The Proceedings of the Tenth Conference on Underwater
Archaeology, (edited by Wilburn A. Cockrell), presents 28 articles that focus
on shipwrecks, prehistoric sites, underwater cultural resource management, and
a panel discussion entitled the "Crisis in Underwater Archaeology". This
255-page large-sized paperback is available for $12.00 from Fantom Eight,
P. O. Box 8505, San Marino, California, 91108.

Visions of Time, by David E. Jones, is a book on experiments in psychic
archeology, and may be met with skepticism and incredulence by the close-minded,
but it presents a convincing case for the potential of using psychics in
scientifically controlled experiments for "reading" archeological artifacts.
One of the experiments is concerned with a site along the St. Johns River in
Florida, and I suggest that one reserves their judgments until after reading
this well-written book. The book is in paperback, for $7.50, 404 pages, and
is available from Quest Books, 306 West Geneva Road, Wheaton, Illinois, 60187.

The 38th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological Conference
will be held on November 12-14 at the Smoky Mountains Inn on the Plaza in
Asheville, N.C.



John Beriault, Robert Carr, Jerry Stipp, Richard Johnson, and Jack Meeder


The Bay West Site (8Cr200) was discovered as a result of dredging oper-
qations at the Bay West Nursery in February, 1980. A cypress pond was being
"demucked" for the purpose of removing and dispersing the pond's fertile peat
'for use in the nursery when human bones were observed by workmen. Nursery
owners, Arnie and Judy Leinweber, notified the Naples Chamber of Commerce,
the Collier County Historic Society, and Collier Sheriff's Department of the
discovery. A visit by the Sheriff's Department resulted in the collection
.of some of the dredged bones to determine if the material was related to a
contemporary crime. It was not until March 7, 1980, when Charles Dauray,Jr.,
"representing the Southwest Florida Archeological Society,visited the site that
the true significance of the discovery was realized. It was apparent that
the source of the human bone was a prehistoric cemetery situated deep below
the peat deposits of the cypress pond. The following day authors Beriault
and Carr met at the site with Arnie Leinweber and proposed a salvage operation
that would permit the recovery of archeological data in such a way as to not
Interfere with the ongoing dredging operation. The owners of the nursery were
fully cooperative, and allowed the recovery operation and willingly donated
all the archeological material to the Collier County Museum. Volunteers and
members of the Southwest Archeological Society worked to recover material from
the site until the first week of April.

The accession system for recovered items was supervised by the Collier
County Museum director, Mary Manion,and her staff. In total, several hundred
-pounds in wet weight of human osteological material and approximately 100
,pounds of wooden material was recovered.

Authors Stipp and Johnson of the University of Miami Geoarcheological
Research Center treated and conducted radiocarbon-14 dates on wooden posts
"and peat associated with the burials. These radiocarbon-14 determinations
.indicated that the burials dated from ca. 4400 BC-4900 BC, a date range closely
conforming with the time period of certain projectile point types recovered
from both the pond and adjacent uplands. Author Meeder, also of the University
of Miami Geoarcheological Research Center, excavated two core samples from
the pond to determine the nature and extent of the geology of the site as well
as to provide material for analysis for the interpretation of the site's

The human bones have been subsequently transferred to the Florida State
Museum in Gainesville and are being studied by Dr. William Maples. He anti-
,cipates completing a report on the human ostelogy sometime later this year.
yhree craniums with possible soft preserved brain tissue were sent to
Dr. Zimmerman and his comments are provided later in this report. The wooden
>artifacts have been sent to the Florida State Museum for conservation under
the direction of Dr. Barbara Purdy. Artifactual materials recovered from the
site are currently on exhibit at the Collier County Museum in Naples. Field
.notes and other excavation and accession records also repose at the Collier
County Museum.



The recovery of archeological data from 8Cr200 was hardly ideal because
of the degree of disturbance that had been impacted upon the site. Previous
to systematic salvage efforts,archeological material was recovered in an
uncontrolled fashion from the spoil that had been deposited by the dredge.
With the inception of the salvage project, transects were delineated across
the spoil piles to facilitate a controlled recovery of material, but since
the original provenance of the dredged peat was unknown, this control only
acted to make recovery less random and more systematic. Material was also
recovered from the dredge as the peat was being removed from the pond (Fig. 2).'
Material recovered in this fashion retained some degree of association between
the human skeletal elements, soil, and associated artifacts. In these cases,
it was possible to determine the general provenance of the burials within the
pond. It was observed that these burials were being recovered from 2 m to 3 m
below the water level of the pond which was about a meter below the contemporary
pond bottbM. Only material recovered and recorded during the ongoing dredge
operation was subjected to radiocarbon-14 analysis.

An attempt was made to excavate a two meter pit along the west edge of
the pond in an area that was to be destroyed the following day. This effort
was conducted to nearly midnight with the use of portable electric lights, but
water seepage prevented excavation to the depth of the burial deposits and
the pit was abandoned,unfinished.

A core sample was removed from both the west and east edges of the pond
under the direction of author Meeder. Analysis of the cores provided infor-
mation on the geological sequences and radiocarbon date determinations were
made from samples of basal peat. The samples are in storage and are available
for future palynological analysis and radiocarbon date determinations.

The core samples did not include any cultural material but did suggest
in the case of core #2 that there was little likelihood of any remaining ex-
tensive peat deposits that might be associated with any burials in the vicinity
of the eastern shore of the pond. The vicinity of Core Sample #1 (several
meters NE of the attempted 2 square) was removed during the dredging. Any
remaining burials are probably in the vicinity of the eastern shoreline where
the dredge deliberately avoided deep recovery.

During the course of this project the depth of the dredge excavations
was reduced so that it is possible that some burials were missed; but what,
if any, damage might have been suffered to any remaining features or burials
is impossible at this time to determine, A lack of underwater visibility and
the extensive number of water logged trees and roots prohibited any efforts to
dive into the pond and determine, first-hand, the nature and condition of any
remaining burials, but underwater explorations are scheduled for the spring/
summer of 1981.

Site Environment

The Bay West Site (.8Cr200) consisted of an Archaic mortuary situated in
the central pond depression (approximately 35 m diameter) of a discrete cypress


STATE ROAD B .6 -. .
'< "' BAY WE sS r SITE [
: *______________1 ,; I: .! *. '*' : A li

Figure 1.

Map of Bay West Site (8Cr200). Scale 1" = 100'.
Numbers 1 and 2 within the mortuary pond represent
the locations of core samples.


dome feature (Fig. 1). An adjoining area of higher ground forested in slash
pine (Pinus ellioti var. densa Little & Dorman) and saw palmetto (Serenoa
repens JBartr.] Small) yielded projectile points of comparative (stylistic)
age to the mortuary, as well as other lithic debris.

The site is depicted on several recent maps of Southwest Florida physio-
graphic regions (White 1970; Duever 1979) as reposing on the northern fringes
of the "Big Cypress Swamp" and the eastern extremities of the "Flatlands"
("South Western Slope"). The topography of the area, as in much of South
Florida, exhibits little relief, seldom greater than a meter or so
variance in an elevation above sea level,not exceeding 3-4 meters. Watershed
in the general region of the Bay West Site is south, forming part of the Big
Cypress watershed--"subarea B" (Duever 1979:91). Closer to the coast (i.e.
further west) the water flow and slough orientation is more southwesterly.

The site lies approximately 9-10 km east of the present coastline of
the Gulf of Mexico. Historically, the surrounding country consisted of slash
pine/saw palmetto "islands" scattered among stunted pond cypress (Taxodium
ascendens Brogn.) and marshy grassland areas,which,in turn,were transected
by denser bald cypress (Taxodium distichum [L.] Richard) strands whose dis-
positions were shaped partially by water flow direction. Strung loosely
throughout the strands and in random isolation elsewhere were cypress dome/
solution-hole formations, one of which contained the mortuary.

The geology of Southwest Florida has been shaped by many forces, the
chief of which has been fluctuating sea levels over the last 6-7 million years
which brought about "repeated cycles of sedimentation, solidification, weather-
ing, erosion and cap rock formation" (Duever 1979:31). A greatly simplified
exposition of the resulting geological strata can be given as: "the Pamlico
Sand Formation ( 10 feet thick), underlain successively by the Fort Thompson-
Caloosahatchee Marl Formations (undifferentiated 20 feet thick), and the
Tamiami Formation (at least 200 feet thick)" (Jakob 1980:21).

The Tamiami Formation has been assigned a temporality of Pliocene to
Late Miocene (Klinzing 1980:39). Since the deposition of this formation the
seas have innundated portions of South Florida at least ten times, though
comparatively little sediment remains from these transgressions.

The last two recognized innundations occurred in Late Pleistocene times.
They created sand deposits termed marine terraces: the Talbot sands (con-
temporaneous with the Fort Thompson Formation) and the later Pamlico sands (con
current with the Miami LimestoneY. It has been felt that the Immokalee Rise,
an elevated sand feature 10-15 km east of the Bay West Site, was the result
of bar and swale development of the Pamlico Sea (which had an altitude of
8 m above present level during an interglacial substate of the Wisconsin).
The Pamlico Sea has also been considered the source of the sandy mantle
covering the western portion of Collier County (Duever 1979:41) and encom-
passing the site locale.

Natural forces at work from Pleistocene times to present have--by dis-
solution of limerock due to ground acids and disruption of cap rock--promoted
development of cypress strands and solution hole pond features. The oldest
area peat deposits (recorded prior to work at Bay West) have yielded dates
around 5,800 years B.P. Duever assumes conditions at that time ."became
favorable for the vegetation species common in present South Florida plant
communities" (Duever 1979:36).


Overlying unconsolidated shell coquinas from the last innundation are
freshwater peat deposits, and these are concentrated in marshes, strands,
and solution holes. As Duever notes:

Organic soils are formed when litter builds up. In drier
areas, decay, fire, and oxidation destroy biological debris,
and traces of dark material in the soil may be all that remains.
But, in innundated areas where the oxygen necessary for decay
processes is lacking, as in the bottom of sloughs, plant frag-
ments accumulate as peat. The type of peat developed is de-
pendent upon water depth and pH, hydroperiod, vegetation type,
and topography. (1979:64)

Organic peats have accumulated in the wetter areas of cypress strands
and grass marshes at approximately 3.60-3.74 cm/100 C-14 years (Duever
1979:64-65). The formation in the northwest quadrant of the Bay West Site
Sis 200 cm deep and the basal peat dated at 7550 125 years B.P. (UM #2227).
Peat formation has also been linked to an average rate of sea-level rise during
the last 6,000 years (Duever 1979:70). Low oxygen levels and high pH values
in the peat environment at Bay West account in part for the remarkable pre-
servation of the wood, bone, and other organic materials found there.

It is interesting to note that a basal peat sample from the east side
of the pond was only 121-131 cm deep and dated from 5856 120 B.P.
(UM #2226). This suggests that the pond was expanding with time as the en-
vironment became increasingly more wet. Two core samples recovered from the
pond's edge provide some idea of the site's geology and are described in
Table 1.

On higher ground 100 m southwest of the mortuary, bulldozing uncovered
.a concentration of chipped stone artifacts and debitage. Stylistically, the
five projectile points recovered together with a fragmentary knife blade or
scraper reflect mid to late Archaic origins. The material employed in these
was a coraline chert or silex similar to that coming from the Tampa Bay/
Hillsborough River area.

The high ground on which these finds occurred was historically a pine
island with an understory of mixed grasses and clusters of saw palmetto.

In both the mortuary pond and on the adjacent upland pine island, two
forces have most actively influenced site conditions subsequent to aboriginal
activity. The first of these was the continual build-up of soil; the mantling
by an additional 20-39 cm of aeolian sand on the pine island and the con-
tinued formation of peat in the cypress pond.

The second force was fire. Fire has been called "a significant causative
agent in evolutionary processes in South Florida" (Duever 1979:221). Fusinite,
charred fragments of vegetative matter, has been found in all levels of region-
al peat deposits. Burnt matter is present throughout the peat at Bay West.
,Several bones from the pond burials show charring on portions which were ex-
posed to burning by oxidation of the peat in extremely dry years.

Periodic fires have promoted the development of a coastal plain willow
(Salix caroliniana Michx.) monoforest which, prior to development, dominated
the area of the burials in the central portion of the cypress dome/solution
hole. Fire also maintained the vegetative community of the slash pine/saw
palmetto island where many of the lithics were found.


Table 1

Geologic Sediments From Core Samples for Bay West Site (8Cr200)

Core Sample #1 West Shore

(Thickness of Peat Stratum = 200 cm.)

60 cm.
63 cm.

76 cm.

76 263 cm.

(180 214 cm.)
(253 263 cm.)

263 280
280 352


Quartz sand with organic constituents (fill)
Layer of vegetation (undecomposed) leaves and
Reddish brown fibrous peat, bottom grades into
black, amphorous peat
Black, amphorous peat to granular peat with
decreasing number of rootlets
Abundant wood
Basal peat
Organic rich white fine quartz sand
Very amphorous silty dark grey peat becoming
much sandier at 328 352 cm. Top portion
contains portion of Physa, but there are some
marine shell fragments, and towards the base,
all of the shells are marine.

Core Sample

#2 East Shore

(Thickness of Peat Stratum = 60 cm.)

0 20 cm.
20 73 cm.

73 131 cm.

(121 -
131 133
133 146

131 cm.)

146 304 cm.

Organic quartz sand with rootlets and uncommon
marine shells (possible fill)
Black peat with occasional cypress wood near top
becoming more peaty at lower level
Basal peat
White quartz sand
Quartz laden fibrous peat with abundant vertical
Tan to dark brown mottled quartz sand

The presence of presumed "fire sticks" and fire-shaped cypress posts with
the burials presupposes the Indians then were adept at producing fire. They
may have used forest fires as a hunting "tool",as did the later aborigines
mentioned in early historical accounts. Thus, much of the earlier evidence
of fire at and around the Bay West Site may be of human origin.

Eustatic sea-level rise over the last 6,000 years has produced surround-
ings considerably lower in regard to water table than when the Archaic peoples
were interring their dead at Bay West. The terrain may have been xeric in

__ __


nature then, similar to the "scrub" of Central Florida, The low-lying cypress
strands of today may have resembled sluggish riverine environments, and the
cypress domes may have resembled higher relief sinkhole features. Beach-found
ylithics washing ashore from "drowned" sites off the present-day coastline of
Collier County add credence to the theory that the South Florida terrain was
‘much higher five to six thousand years ago.

The similarities of external appearance and vegetative cover between the
.components of the Bay West Site and thousands of similar topographic features
in South Florida suggest the formulation of additional site model criteria

“and serious attempts by future archaeologists to locate and investigate corres-
ponding locales in South Florida,

Artifacts and Material Remains
, Salvage work performed during March, 1980,at the Bay West Site produced
quantities of human skeletal remains, animal bone, and an impressive series
of organic and inorganic artifacts, The human skeletal material is currently
being studied by Dr. William Maples of the University of Florida. A de-
tailed report of his findings on this portion of the recovered material
will be released soon. Most of the other organic material and artifacts are
yeing conserved by Dr. Barbara Purdy at the Florida State Museum. The remainder
of the artifacts repose at the Collier County Museum, excluding several items
‘recovered by nursery personnel prior to the recovery efforts.


Several hundred kilograms (wet weight) of wood and vegetative matter
were recovered from the site. Much of the material consisted of cylindrical
fragments of fire-burnt posts, Early on,during the recovery efforts, it be-
came clear these post fragments had been intentionally shaped and were in
‘some sort of association with the burials, The posts had been prepared by
cutting off and/or shaving smooth any lateral branches. They were then fire-
shaped by burning and scraping. One top end of a post was found that showed
evidence of having been girdled by chopping, and broken at the weakened place,
then burned and scraped smooth. The bottom end of another post had been shaped
into a flattened or "shovel-nosed" point, again by burning and scraping.


Nearly all the post material exhibited a burnt and smoothed (polished)
exterior. Thickness or diameter was remarkably uniform--the average being
.4.5 cm. Nearly all collected fragments were round, though some exhibited an
intentionally flattened side which may originally have been part of a tapered
‘point. Much of the material when viewed as freshly broken cross-sections
,exhibited 608 prominent annual rings. Much of the post material appeared to
be cypress (Purdy 1980). The dislocation by dredging had caused most of the
recovered fragments to be short, averaging 12-20 cm, with the longest 39 cm.
Many of the pieces bore rodent gnaw marks as well as those of tools used to
‘prepare them. Three representative samples of this material were radiocarbon
tested at University of Miami and yielded dates of 6520 + 135 B.P., 6675 +
85 B.P,, and 6630 + 80 B.P., respectively (see Table 2).

Other types of large wood fragments were noted. One specimen had a
truncated end or crown with a small tenon or protruberance centered in the
‘middle. Diameter was slightly more than the average for the posts. The wood
gseemed different as well--dark reddish brown, spongy and crumbly. This



object could have been the top portion of a weapon (i.e. club)or a totem
reminiscent of Cushing's Key Marco discoveries.

Loglike pieces of wood in generally poor states of preservation were
frequently found in association with human remains in the spoil heaps.
None examined bore any discernible traces of intentional working or alter-
ation. The logs' diameter was as great as 15 cm. The presence of this wood
in the mortuary pond area may have been due to natural forces, or there may
have been some distinct purpose for their apparent association with the burials.
The log material was soft, friable and a dark mahogany red color.

Many small branch or twiglike fragments were recovered. Some of these
were apparently tool handle remnants as indicated by the degree of intentional
shaping or working they displayed. Other less intensively worked specimens
demonstrated their aboriginal association by random tool marks or cuts and were
less altered from their natural state. Still other twigs and leafy matter
were found in dense concentration very closely associated with human remains.
It could be suggested this matter formed part of a burial structure or "bier".

The wood-tool handle material was recovered in hafted and unhafted form.
Two wood handle remnants were found as embedded "plugs" in spurlike artifacts
of antler (Figs. 3,4). Other unhafted fragments were symetrically cylindrical
and seemed to be tool or weapon shaft material. One shaftlike fragment was
carefully shaped, smoothed and finely incised with 12 paired parallel lines
(Fig. 5). The present length is 4.7 cm; diameter, 1.3 cm; and the banding
encompasses an area of 1.5 cm in length.

Most of the shaft material was carefully fashioned and smoothed; had di-
ameters which ranged from 1-1,3 cm; and were composed of dark, close-grained
hard-woods. None of this material evinced obvious signs of fire-shaping
(i.e. charring). It is surmised that some of the shaft fragments may be part
of atlatl darts or throwers.

Another distinct class of wood tools were represented by four recovered
examples. Their function may have been as "fire sticks"--parts of devices for
starting fire through friction (McDonald 1980). Three of the objects are
shaped twigs with one end intentionally or accidentally broken and the other
end drilled and shaped CFig. 6). Their present lengths are: 15.4 cm, 13.1
cm, and 11 cm, respectively. Their diameters are: 1.5 cm, 1.3 cm, and
1.2 cm. All have one or two circular, highly polished and burnt holes partially
drilled through their thicknesses, generally within 2.3 cm of the worked end.
That end is also tapered to a very blunt point that is highly polished and
burnt black,as if due to extreme friction.

Average diameter of the aforementioned holes is about 1 cm. Two of the
"fire sticks" have two holes; one of these sets of holes seems to have been
only partially formed. One of the three specimens is missing the tapered tip,
which has been broken off through design or accident; another specimen has two
parallelincised lines running longitudinally on the underside.

A fourth specimen was recovered that may be classified as a "fire stick"
by similarity of wood and shape. It, too, is a twig, possibly pine, and ex-
hibits a uniform placement of symetrical dimple marks which may have been
points of attachment of needles at a twig end. A point has been roughly form-
ed at one end by a series of slightly fluted cuts or gouges,much in the style
of a pencil sharpened by a knife. Several centimeters from this pointed end


ris a round burnt mark approximately 1 cm across. The fragment has a total
length of 14 cm and an average of diameter of 1.4 cm. It may represent some
stage in the functional creation of a "fire stick".

The remainder of the recovered wood twigs, sticks, and fragments were
less thoroughly or carefully worked. Often the degree of intentional alteration
dwas limited to a lateral branch removed from the main branch by two opposing
chops or cuts with an edged tool. Other wood fragments showed single cut
marks, scraping, striations, and parallel fluting or gouging running longi-
.tudinally. The fluting in particular resembled that produced with a modern
woodcarver's round gouge and was often 1 cm across and 6-7 mm deep._ This
fluting was usually produced in parallel longitudinal groupings of 3-3. These
,marks were indeed produced by human agency and were clearly different from
those produced by bark beetles and other insects.

Most of the wood in this category did not exceed 3 cm diameter and
showed little or no signs of fire shaping. It was often found in close asso-
,ciation with matted concentrations of twigs and leaves.

Other Vegetative Matter

Organic matter of botanic origin found in association with the burials
,ranged from the layer of light brown fibrous peat in which they seemed encased
to concentrations of preserved matted leaves and twigs that in many instances
seemed in particularly close association with the burials. Several attempts
-were made to collect samples of the peat when it was found adhering to or
massed about human skeletal remains. Three samples of peat were radiocarbon
tested at the University of Miami. One sample taken from within human bone
dated 6780 135 B.P. Another sample encasing human bone dated 5500 80 B.P.,
and a basal peat sample from a core taken in the northwest quadrant of the
*mortuary pond dated 7550 125 B.P.

Attempts were also made with poor results to take recognizable samples
of leafy matter. Although most of the plant species noted could have de-
posited detrital matter in the pond by natural activity, there seemed to be
a marked correlation of concentrated leafy matter and burials being deposited
.on the spoil heaps by the dragline. Plant species noted were: Lyonia sp., Ilex
(glabra?) sp. holly, wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera L.), saw palmetto stems,
.Blechnum sp. fern leaflets, cabbage palm TSabal palmetto (Walt.] Lodd. ex
SchultesY stems, and (slash) pine bark.


Antler material was frequently encountered in the peat from the pond.
4Often it was in the form of single tines or nearly whole antlers. There was
nothing to suggest these random pieces were present other than through seasonal
antler loss or by death of deer by natural causes in the pond area through the
years. Several of these antler pieces exhibited animal gnaw marks but no
aboriginal alteration. One outstanding find of this nature deserves parti-
"cular mention. The upper cranial portion.of an extremely large male deer was
,recovered from the peat in close proximity to a concentration of human bone.
The basal portion of the remaining antlers approached 4.5 cm diameter, sug-
gesting an unusually big animal by today's standards. The object's presence
in conjunction with human remains may suggest intentional placement with the


Two of the most intriguing artifacts found in the salvage efforts were
of antler. These artifacts appear to be atlatl hooks; (Figs. 3,4) (an artifact
type reported elsewhere in this volume). They consist of cylindrical sections
of the main portion of dear antler with one of the branching tines shaped into
a dorsal-like "fin" or spur. The cylindrical section was, in addition, drill-
ed longitudinally and a wood handle inserted, of which only small plug-like
pieces remain embedded in the handle. The two hooks are similar enough in
their main features to establish some sort of common function. They were
found in separate locations in the spoil pile on different occasions and were
presumably with separate burials. The first was found in close association
with the only stone projectile point recovered directly with the burials
(Fig. 7). The other specimen was recovered in near association with the in-
cised shaft fragment (Fig. 5). The first hook recovered had a small notch
at the top of the spur-like protruberance and fine striations or marks pre-
sumably made in the process of its creation (Fig. 3).

Measurements of these atlatl hooks are: length along the main drilled
cylindrical section, 2.9 cm and 2.5 cm respectively; from tip to dorsal spur
to base, 4.2 cm and 3.7 cm; diameter of drilled hole tapering from front to
back, both are 1 cm to .8 cm.


Two intensively worked objects of deer bone were noted. These were pre-
sumably projectile points made from foreleg bones. The first specimen was
recovered from spoil being dredged in the southwestern quadrant of the pond.
Its present length is 10.9 cm with a portion of the point missing. The point
is symetrical and highly polished, all but the basal end which shows deliberate
abrading apparently to aid in hafting.

Another bone point was later recovered intact in close association with
the first atlatl hook. It was less symetrical and polished (Fig. 10), Its
length was 12.2 cm. It also appeared to have been hafted. In addition to
the bone points, at least one unworked fragment of deer bone exhibited tool
cut marks.

Other animal bone, none with any sign of intentional working, came to
light in the course of the recovery efforts. Small mammal remains, and those
of sirens, snakes, birds, fish and turtles were discerned. Much, if not all,
of this material would routinely collect and be preserved in a peat swamp
environment. A rear tooth from Mammut gompotherium, a Pliocene elephant was
collected near the pond area by Jack Meeder. This object probably had no
association with aboriginal activities at the site and is likely to have
come from strata underlying the Holocene peat.


A significant collection of stone artifacts and debitage was acquired
from the mortuary site and adjacent higher ground. A total of five projectile
points have been noted to date. Three were found on the higher ground to the
southwest of the mortuary pond; one came from the southwestern rim of the pond;
and one was recovered in close association with one of the bone points, an
atlatl hook, and human remains.


The projectile points are all of the mid- to late-Archaic stemmed types
(Figs. 7,8,9). One point could be a Newnan type; the others could be classi-
fied as Levy variants (Bullen 1975:32). At least several of the points are
of heat-altered coralline chert or silex; one may be a fine-grained white
quartzite. Length ranges from 3.4 to 7.4 cm; the average is 4.5 cm. Work-
manship is excellent to competent. A fragmentary tool point, possibly a
knife blade, was also found. It was composed of an agatized coralline mate-
rial with concentric color banding and small crystalline pockets. Present
length is 4.5 cm. The tool blade was found on the higher ground southwest
of the pond.

Lithic debitage was recovered both on the higher ground and in the mor-
tuary pond. A large spall of patinated chert approximately 7 cm across was
found in the spoil pile in association with human bone. Twelve to sixteen
small percussion or pressure-flaked chert chips were found in an area re-
stricted to approximately 15 square meters southwest 100 m from the mortuary
pond on the higher ground. A large fire-altered chert flake 4-5 cm across
was collected in the same general area.

Other lithic artifacts have been noted from the general vicinity of the
Bay West Site. Two Archaic Stemmed points were turned up by bulldozing
activity near a cypress pond 3/4 kilometer south of the site.

A large stone bead of a fine-grained slightly translucent green stone
(possibly quartzite), obviously of nonlocal origin (Fig. 11), was the only
object of ornamentation collected. Its length is 1.9 cm.

Other miscellaneous fragments of stone were collected in probably asso-
ciation with human skeletal remains in the spoil heaps. These consisted of
burnt and unburnt fragments of local limestone and a flattened spall of lime-
stone caprock that measures 7.8 cm x 5.8 cm x 2.0 cm. These limestone frag-
ments show no immediately discernible trace of aboriginal alteration, but
their presence in the peat is suggestive, as there are no surface outcrops
of caprock in the immediate location of the mortuary pond.


It is significant that no identifiable artifacts of shell were recovered
from the Bay West Site. This absence may suggest that the Archaic Indians had
more of a terrestrial than marine orientation in their hunting/gathering or
resource utilization. The shell encountered at the site apparently was dredged
from strata beneath the Holocene peat formation (i.e. from a Pliocene/Pleisto-
cene, unconsolidated coquina containing Chione cancellata, Melongena corona
[king's crown], Busycon sp. [whelk], Lucina sp., several species of Cardium
sp. [cockle], and others).


One small body sherd of sand-tempered plain ware was recovered from a
spoil heap on the east side of the pond away from the majority of the finds.
This might indicate continued use through time of the pond feature as a source
of water--an extension of environmental interaction spanning pre-ceramic to
ceramic (i.e. Formative) times.


Human Skeletal Material

In lieu of the forthcoming professional and detailed analysis, some
generalizations will be made here concerning the remains of the estimated
35-40 individuals whose partial and disarticulated remains were collected
from the spoil heaps. The people buried in the mortuary pond were of both
sexes and ranged in age from infancy to comparatively advanced years, We
believe some skulls may exhibit artificial flattening. The most obvious
pathologies were dental. Heavy tooth wear, even in adolescents,was universal.
Degeneration of bone around the teeth due to plaque build-up, absesses,and
subsequent tooth loss could be easily noted. Arthritic-like bony growths
were observed on vertebrae. Bones were recovered with animal gnaw marks
suggesting some exposure of the body after death. One femoral bone exhib-
ited several straight marks suggestive of cord rubbing (Fig. 12). This may
or may not be indicative of bundle burying. Absence of ball joints from
large limb bones may also be indicative of bundle burials--or may simply
result from disassociation of the skeletal material by dredging and poor
collection practices. Dr. Michael Zimmerman analysed the suspected brain
tissue in three of the craniums and determined through microscopic analysis
that no tissue was present (Zimmerman 1980).

Table 2

Radiocarbon-14 Determinations for the Bay West Site (8Cr200)

FS #

577 (Bag 18 of 25)

578 (Bag 14 of 14)

578 (Bag 11 of 14)


Sample #2

Core #2

Core #1


wooden post

wooden post

wooden post



basal peat
(121-131 cm depth)

basal peat
(253-263 cm depth)

Age Years

6520135 B.P.

667585 B.P.

663080 B.P.

6780135. B.P.

550080 BP.

5855120 B.P.

7550125 B.P.

UM #









Fig. 2. Removal of peat from
Bay West cypress pond.

Fig. 3. Top view of antler
atlatl hook.

Fig. 4. Side view of antler
atlatl hook.

Fig. 5. Close-up of carved
wooden shaft.

Fig. 6. Wooden "fire-stick".



Fig. 7. Archaic Stemmed point.

Fig. 8. Newnan-like projectile

Fig. 9. Levy-like projectile

Fig. 11.

Fig. 10. Bone Bi-point.

Side view of stone

__ __ ___


Fig. 12. Human femurs. Note
"cut"marks on lower

Fig. 13. Frontal view
of human skull.

Fig. 14.

Side view of
human skull of
Fig. 13.



Previous Research

A large number of Middle Archaic sites have been located and recorded
throughout northern and central Florida. The vast majority of these sites
are described as small, special-use campsites characterized by lithic debit-
age with a lesser quantity of lithic tools, and as larger "central-base
villages" covering several hectares with an increased number of lithics
(Milianich and Fairbanks 1980:57). Similar if not identical types of Archaic
sites are located in southwest Florida, but information regarding these sites
has not been published, and their existence in Collier and Lee Counties
was apparently unknown to John M. Goggin and other investigators, until author
Beriault began a systematic survey and recording of sites that were character-
ized by lithic scatter located at a variety of different locations within the
Coastal Pine Flatlands of Collier County (Beriault 1973).

Despite the breadth of Middle Archaic Period sites throughout most of
Florida, few cemeteries dating from this period have ever been reported. One
of the major reasons for this situation is that most of the Archaic site types
described earlier are associated with sandy well drained soils, an environment
that does not lend itself to the preservation of organic material. A
second reason is that it is becoming increasingly apparent that many cemeteries*
from this time period are probably situated within lakes, ponds, or hydric
sinkholes. These natural features, particularly ponds and lakes, have usually
not been investigated, even when adjacent to known upland village or camp sites.k

To date, the best known and documented Middle Archaic cemetery in Florida
has been Little Salt Spring (Clausen et al. 1979). Ongoing multi-discipline
research directed by Carl J. Clausen has demonstrated that the spring has had
at least two major prehistoric occupations; one being Paleo-Indian ranging in
age from 12,000 to 9,000 years ago; and, the second, a cemetery and adjacent
habitation site that are from 6,800 to 5,200 years old (Clausen et al. 1979).
Little Salt Spring has an apparently large number of human burials (Clausen
estimates that the site contains more than 1,000 individuals) situated along
the slopes of the spring and associated slough, which are buried in peat that
allowed for the preservation of a large variety of soft organic material such
as matting, leaves, and wooden artifacts. An upland Archaic midden is situated
adjacent to the slough.

The Bay West cemetery presents a nearly identical artifactual assemblage
and chronology as Little Salt Spring. Likewise, the Republic Groves cemetery,
8Hr4 (Wharton et al. reported elsewhere in this volume) strongly resembles
these above sites. Similar water cemeteries have been recently reported in
other parts of southwest Florida--one in Hillsborough County (Jones 1981) and
another (now destroyed) in Collier County. It is obvious that water mortuaries,
reflect an integral expression of Mid-Archaic period mortuary patterns.

All of the above sites are situated within springs, ponds, or sloughs.
All of the sites appear to have a high concentration of human burials along
the slopes. Apparently, the burials were originally interred within the moist
peat below the water level, It is important to note that all of the three sites
discussed here have sharpened wooden stakes in close association with the
burials. It is the authors' hypothesis that these wooden stakes were originally
hammered into the peat in order to hold the burial biers or mats in place. This
conjecture is also offered by Hope Mitchell (n.d.:32) in his field notes.


Ghost Barriers and Water Mortuaries

The obvious question generated by a mortuary tradition that appears to
Sbe in continuance for a period of thousands of years is why is there a strong
association between human burials and water? The answer is, in part, pro-
vided by Robert Hall (1976:360-364) in his many examples of Indian beliefs
where water is considered to be a barrier for ghosts and supernatural beings.
Hall cites several ethnographic examples of how Indians selected burial areas
that were separated from villages of the living by water. It is not difficult
to interpret the Archaic water cemeteries of South and Central Florida as
reflecting similar beliefs. The fear of ghosts or returning spirits, while
not universal, is widespread among traditional societies, and placing human
remains within a spring or pond, seems to coincide with these beliefs. It
is possible that staking these burials into the watery peat was an attempt
to make certain that troublesome spirits would not break free of their water
barriers. Apparently, this tradition of ghost protection continued until the
Glades III period, as Hall notes (1976:361), with the construction of charnel
platforms over artificial ponds at Ft. Center (Sears 1971).

A Predicative Site Model

There are two natural components to the Archaic water cemetery--one, the
Water feature itself,which could actually be a pond, a sinkhole, or spring, and
second, the adjacent upland areas which is apparently the locus of the habita-
tion or resource procurement stations. The cemetery is situated along the
slopes of the water feature. Evidence from previously discussed sites indicate
that these water features are part of larger drainage systems, often draining
into streams or sloughs. During the Archaic Period some of these drainage
systems were probably suitable for canoe travel. Obviously, not all such
water features will have mortuaries, and hopefully, with additional research,
sufficient variables will be recognized that will provide more than just a
general predicative model for this type of site.

SImplications for Culture Resource Management

The discovery of a growing number of Archaic mortuary ponds and sinkholes
demonstrates that such sites are not isolated occurrences. They may very well
represent an integral site type for the Archaic Period in Florida. The small
number of recorded sites of this type undoubtedly is a result of the fact that
archeologists have not been conducting intensive surveys of water physiographic
features during cultural resource inventories. For example, the Southeast
Archeological Center of the National Park Service has just completed a four
year inventory/survey of archeological resources within the Big Cypress National
Preserve (Ehrenhard et al. 1978,1979,1981). Much of the survey tract contains
cypress pond features with adjacent uplands. Presumably, some of these pond
features might contain mortuaries. However, to date, none have been reported
because this type of feature has not been investigated. In all fairness to the
National Park Service and other governmental agencies and contractors involved
in cultural resource inventories, it must be stated that until recently there
has been no reason to focus any investigations on ponds and/or sinks within
south Florida because the mortuary pond has been a relatively unknown site
type. Furthermore, a survey of such features would add a substantial cost
factor to the project. Additional difficulties would be the development of a
testing strategy that would effectively sample such features. Attempting to
locate water mortuaries by underwater coring or subsurface excavations beneath
i deep peat sediments will be difficult at best.



This salvage project could never had been successful without the tremen-
dous effort expended by avocational archeologists, concerned citizens, and
the staff of the Collier County Museum, who donated their time, energy, and
jeopardized their safety and health to remove the artifacts and skeletal re-
mains from the redeposited peat of the Bay West cemetery. In a large sense,
this paper is a tribute to their work. Likewise, the owners of the site,
Judy and Arnie Leinweber and the Clesen family deserve praise for allowing
this salvage effort to be conducted. A special appreciation is also expressed
to the many scientists who provided their expertise and resources towards pre-
serving and interpreting the many facets of data that were recovered. These
scientists and archeologists include Carl Clausen, Travis Grey, Dr. William
Maples, Curtis McKinney, George McDonald, Dr. Barbara Purdy, and Dr. Michael
Zimmerman. Other individuals who contributed their time to this project in-
clude the following: Mr. and Mrs. Dave Addison, Dave Allerton, George Babcock,
Rick Bantz, Ted Bara, Jan Bean, Andrew Beriault, James Beriault, Warren Bittner,
Susan Burris, Pat Carroll, Ray Carroll, Steve Cox, Jerry Cutlip, Charles Dauray,
Jr., Gina Demangone, Travis Doering, Indi Early, Rusty Elferdink, Charles Evans,,
Guy Fischer, Fred Herfurth, Judith Herfurth, Greg Kamora, Amy Lawson, John
Lawson, Billy Leinweber, Christina Leinweber, Earl Maddox, Jean Majure, Mary
Manion, Diane McKinney, Rowena Morgan, Ted Morgan, John Reiger, Jayne Rice,
Jim Rice, Debbie Richards, Lorraine Santoria, Gary Schmelta, Anita Smith,
Beale Smith IV, Bruce Skinner, Neno Spagna, Allie Tartarsky, Kelly Ure, Jim
Vanas, Pam Vanas, the Vasques', Lyn Walker, Hymen Weiner, Danny Wingate, and
John Zakucia.

References Cited

Beriault, John G.
1973 "A Preliminary Report on the Area Known as the Collier-Coral
Ridge Tract, Southwest Florida". Manuscript on file with
Florida's Division of Archives, History, and Records Manage-
ment, Tallahassee, Florida.

Bullen, Ripley P.
1975 A Guide to the Indentification of Florida Projectile Points.
Rev. ed. Gainesville, Fla.: Kendall Books.

Clausen, Carl J., A. D. Cohen, C. Emiliani, J. A. Holman, and J. J. Stipp
1979 "Little Salt Spring, Florida: A Unique Underwater Site".
Science 203:609-614.

Duever, Michael J., J. E. Carlson, J. F. Meeder, L. C. Duever, L. H. Gunderson,
L. A. Riopelle, T. Alexander, R. Myers, and D. Spangler
1979 Resource Inventory of the Big Cypress National Preserve.
2 Vols. Volume I, Gainesville, Fla.: Center for Wetlands.

Ehrenhard, John E., Robert S. Carr and Robert C. Taylor
1978 The Big Cypress National Preserve Archeological Survey:
Phase 1. Southeast Archeological Center, National Park
Service, Tallahassee, Fla.

1979 The Big Cypress National Preserve: Archeological Survey
Season 2. Southeast Archeological Center, National Park
Service, Tallahassee, Fla.


Ehrenhard, John E, and Robert C, Taylor
1981 The Big Cypress National Preserve: Archeological Survey
Season 3. Southeast Archeological Center, National Park
Service, Tallahassee, Fla.

Hall, Robert

"Ghosts, Water Barriers, Corn, and Sacred Enclosures in
the Eastern Woodlands". American Antiquity 41(3):360-364.

Jakob, Paul G.
1980 "Some Aspects of the Hydrogeology of Coastal Collier County,
Florida". In Water, Oil and the Hydrology of Collier, Lee,
and Hendry Counties. Edited by Patrick J. Gleason. Miami,
Fla.: Miami Geological Society.

Jones, Calvin
Conversation with Robert Carr, April 13, 1981.

Klinzing, Susan L.
1980 "The Stratigraphy of the Tamiami Formation, Southwestern
Florida". In Water, Oil and the Hydrology of Collier, Lee,
and Hendry Counties. Edited by Patrick J. Gleason. Miami,
Fla.: Miami Geological Society.

McDonald, George
Conversation with Robert Carr, November, 1980.

Milianch, Jerald T. and Charles Fairbanks
1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic Press, New York.

Mitchell, Hope
N,D. "Republic Groves Archaeological Site: Field Notes".
Manuscript in possession of Hope Mitchell, Wauchula,

Olsson, Axel A. and Anne Harbison
1953 Pliocene Mollusca of Southern Florida. Monograph No. 8.
Philadelphia, Pa.: Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel-

Purdy, Barbara A.
Conversation with Robert Carr and John Beriault, September
5, 1980.

Sears, William H.
1971 Food Production and Village Life in Prehistoric South-
eastern United States. Archaeology 24(4):322-329.

White, William A.
1970 The Geomorphology of the Florida Peninsula. Geological
Bulletin 51. Bureau of Geology. Tallahassee, Fla.:
Department of Natural Resources.


Zimmerman, Michael R.
1980 "Indian Skull Specimens". (Two-page report on analysis of
three craniums from the Bay West Site). Report on file
with Collier County Museum, Naples, Florida.

John Beriault
Southwest Florida Archeological Society
Naples, Florida

Robert Carr
Jerry Stipp
Richard Johnson
Jack Meeder
Geoarcheological Research Center
Department of Geology
University of Miami


Barry R. Wharton, George R. Ballo, and Mitchell E. Hope

In 1968, while attempting to expand a section of citrus grove, bull-
dozer and dragline operations accidentally uncovered a buried archaeolog-
ical site within the confines of a small bayhead swamp. Grove employee Hill
Lambert recovered a few fossil bones from the disturbed muck and brought
them to the attention of author Mitchell E. Hope, a local avocational pale-
ontologist. In the process of examining the site, Hope encountered well-
preserved human skeletal remains and an incised antler artifact along a
freshly cut canal bank. Recognizing the importance of these finds and the
distinct possibility that more perishable remains might be present and jeop-
Sardized, Hope obtained permission from grove owner Herbert Leifman to con-
duct limited salvage excavations at the site. As excavations progressed,
it became evident that Hope was dealing with a large Archaic Period cemetery,
one which, with further excavations, could produce an even larger number
and variety of remarkably well-preserved organic-based artifacts and human

Nearly a decade later, author Wharton, while conducting excavations in
the northwest part of the county, learned of Mr. Hope's work at the Republic
Groves site. After visiting Hope and examining some of the artifacts, Wharton
and George R. Ballo agreed to help produce a preliminary report on the site.
This brief report summarizes Hope's excavations, field observations, field
notes, and recovered artifacts, and extracts the results of bioanthropolog-
ical studies conducted on portions of the skeletal remains by Saunders (1972)
and Angel (n.d.). The artifact assemblage per se, will be emphasized, because
a satisfactory documentation of the human remains has not yet been completed,
nor have all classes of recovered data been formally evaluated and inter-
related. Brief descriptions of the human interments and attendant features
are followed by a discussion of the site's chronology and the significance
of the Republic Groves site in terms of the prehistory of the inland Manatee

Site Description and Excavations

The Republic Groves site (8Hr4) is located in east-central Hardee County,
or roughly six miles southeast of the town of Zolfo Springs. Hardee County,
which borders on the east of Manatee County, falls within the Manatee arch-
aeological region as defined by Goggin (1947:118-119). Willey (1948:210)
agrees with Goggin's observation that the Manatee region has value as a
cultural-geographical transition zone between the cultural traditions occupy-
ing the Central Gulf Coast and Glades regions, bringing into focus the con-
tact and intermingling of these two traditions. The Republic Groves site is
situated on the southern, and, to-date poorly defined, inland portion of the
Manatee region.

The site lies at the margin of bottomland forest which flanks Mineral
Branch, about one mile north of its confluence with Charlie Creek, the
latter a major tributary stream of the Peace River. The site actually com-
prises two elements--the bayhead cemetery itself, and an adjacent upland


habitation zone. This upland zone covers an estimated 2-3 acres of gently
sloping terrain flanking the bayhead cemetery to the west, northeast and

This site is characterized by a low-density surface scatter of lithics
and two small limestone outcrops. In addition, freshwater mussel shells,
Busycon and marine clam shell fragments, worked bone and antler, and two
ceramic sherds were observed and/or recovered.

Hope delineated three concentrations of surface material within the
upland zone which he identified as areas A, B, and C (Figure 1). A single
test excavation (3 x 3 ft. square) placed within this upland zone failed to
produce subsurface material, and several additional small shovel tests were
likewise unproductive, suggesting that either the upland zone was only sparse-
ly occupied, or has been destroyed by agricultural practices and/or erosion.
Newnan and Florida Archaic Stemmed projectile points (Bullen 1975:31-32) are
represented in the surface collections, indicating a Middle to Late Archaic
period of occupation.

The bayhead cemetery portion of the site, prior to its disturbance,was
a typical Florida bayhead. Pre-1968 aerial photos show the bayhead formerly
covered an estimated 1-2 acres, measuring roughly 400 feet long and 250 feet
wide. Three springs were formerly active within the bayhead, and long-term
residents of the area recall that the pool formed by the springs was large
enough to swim in, and that during periods of drought it provided emergency
water needs. Beginning in 1968, the bayhead underwent severe disturbances
as a result of an attempt to expand the adjacent area of grove production.
Trees were cleared and a bulldozer attempted to plug the spring flow with
fill dirt, but this proved unsuccessful. Next, a canal was cut by a drag-
line across its southern portion to facilitate drainage. The resulting
spoil was then leveled by a bulldozer. The combined actions of the heavy
machinery caused lower lying deposits of muck and clay to be moved upwards
and admixed with the recent surficial deposits and vice versa. The recent
surficial stratum forms a one-foot thick deposit of mixed sand, clay, muck,
and vegetal matter overlying relatively undisturbed sediments that are up to
three feet deep. Presently, the cemetery area is overgrown with tall weeds.
During a brief visit to the site in September, 1970, Ripley Bullen provided
the following observations on the cemetery's stratigraphy:

an apparently homogenous strata of much, cat-tail rushes
and roots about 18 to 24 inches thick, with a heavy overlay of
recent fill, and underlayed with an extraordinarily fine grey
sandy clay. The burials appear to be primarily in the
upper two-thirds of the muck strata [paraphrased by Hope n.d.:59].

Hope recorded the following observations during his first visit to the site
in August of 1968:

The cemetery is [located on] low ground with an artesian spring
in the center. The soil immediately adjacent to the spring
is peat muck approximately 4 feet deep at the lowest point, and
gradually phasing out as the land slopes upward in all directions.
The muck is much more loose and friable in the upper levels.

- -.-.



0 100
f t



Fig. 1. Map of Republic Groves site.

I --

/ C




/ /




.._ ..... ____- __ ..... _

R 2

// I
/ /I

4C I L.

I J. I 'I


R 3

S I- I I ,..

Fig. 2. Excavation grid for Republic Groves site.



/ 3N


/ I



Many roots of recent vegetation are intrusive in the muck,
some reaching to the deepest levels. The muck is under-
lain by grey sandy clay [which contained some Pleistocene
faunal remains]. (Hope n.d.:1-2)

Further evidence of extensive disturbance was noted in the crushed
and fragmented nature of the human skeletal remains encountered during
excavation, perhaps the result of the weight of the heavy machinery.

The excavations conducted by Hope and a large contingent of approx-
imately forty interested volunteers began shortly after the canal con-
struction. Using his own funds and drawing upon volunteer labor, Hope
spent 85 fields days spread over a 26-month interval in the excavation of
an estimated 400 square feet of the cemetery resulting in about a 0.5-1.0%
sampling of the potential cemetery area. A grid frame composed of 10-foot
squares was laid over a portion of the cemetery. Each 10 x 10 foot unit
was, in turn, excavated in four 5 x 5 foot quadrants (Figure 2). The work
progressed slowly. The frequent and long intervals between excavations
caused problems, further aggravated by recurrent flooding of the mucky sed-
iments and vandalism. Despite these difficulties, Hope did maintain a daily
log of activities and highlighted many of the important findings. A photo-
graphic record of the excavations was also prepared. Notes and photographs,
in conjunction with some analyses of a portion of the human skeletal remains
by Saunders (1972) and Angel Cn.d.), and the Republic Groves artifact assem-
blage constitute the prime sources of information currently available on the
site. However, the greater portion of the task of fully interpreting the
excavations and materials recovered from Republic Groves still remains to
be done.

The Artifact Assemblage

Owing to the site's water-saturated organic peat and muck deposits,
a variety of perishable artifacts of a utilitarian and personal adornment
nature were preserved. Since we could not be certain, in many cases,
whether a given artifact had been recovered from a disturbed or undisturbed
context, the following descriptions of the Republic Groves artifact assem-
blage will not include provenience data, except to indicate whether found
within the cemetery area or from the adjacent upland habitation areas.

A variety of stone raw material, both local as well as exotic in
origin, were recovered from the surface and excavations. Although there
is some evidence of aboriginal utilization of the on-site limestone (por-
tions of which exhibited partial silicification suitable for crude knapping),
the bulk of the chert seems to have been procured elsewhere, possibly from
along the Peace River near Zolfo Springs, where Hawthorn Formation limestone
and clay locally outcrops (Cooke 1945:153). Also procured from this locality
was phosphatized sandstone, which, according to University of South Florida
geologist Dr. Sam Upchurch, can be found in the county's Bone Valley Forma-
tion deposits exposed along the Peace River in northern Hardee County.
Exotic serpentine-like stone is also represented in the lithic artifact


Projectile Point/Knives. A total of ten projectile point/knives were
recovered from Republic Groves, three from the surface of the adjacent up-
land areas, and seven from either the surface or subsurface within the
cemetery area. Identifiable specimens include two Putnam-like Florida
Archaic Stemmed, one Marion-like Florida Archaic Stemmed, one Levy-like
Florida Archaic Stemmed, one Newnan, one Sarasota, and one Pinellas sub-type
3 (Bullen 1975). The remaining specimens include a small Florida Archaic
Stemmed-like point, a broad-bladed broken base form that superficially
resembles the Florida Morrow Mountain type, and a distal blade fragment
(Figure 3).

Drills. Three drills were recovered, all from within the cemetery
area, although two of the three came from within 6 inches of the surface
and may have been introduced from the upland section by a bulldozer. All
exhibit a squared-off stem, with convex stem bases on two of them, and a
concave stem base on the third specimen. All conceivably represent recycled
Florida Archaic Stemmed points (Figure 4).

Flake Scraper/Knives. Three flake scraper/knives were recovered from
within the cemetery area, and all from beneath 14 inches below the surface.
Each exhibited working areas along the flake margins, the wear pattern of
which can be attributable to scraping and/or cutting actions. They seem to
have functioned as multi-purpose, general utility tools (Figure 5).

Flake Chopper. One large chopping implement is represented in the
collections. It was recovered in direct association with one of the child
burials at a depth of 20 inches below surface. Extensive marginal wear
patterns suggest that this implement functioned as a heavy-duty cutting
and chopping tool (Figure 6).

Miscellaneous Utilized Flakes. A total of four utilized flakes ex-
hibiting indistinguishable wear patterns have been assigned to this residual
category of flake tools. All were recovered from subsurface contexts within
the cemetery area, 14-15 inches below surface. All the specimens are rela-
tively small and probably were expedient, short-use/short-life tools (not

Waller Knife. A single specimen of a Waller knive (cf. Purdy and
Beach 1980:Figure 8u) was collected from the surface of the upland habitation
area. It had been fashioned from a blade-like flake and prepared for hafting
by side-notching (not pictured).

Micro-core. One example of a micro-core (cf. Bullen and Beilman
1973:6), recovered from the adjacent upland area, is represented in the
collection (not pictured).

Grinding/Anvil Stone. A single large specimen of phosphatized sand-
stone was recovered from the cemetery area. This implement suggested at
least two functions. One face exhibited a ground-down, smoothed and slightly
concave surface which very likely functioned as a grinding surface. The
opposite surface showed extensive pitting and probably served as an anvil
or working platform. One lateral edge exhibited a smoothed surface which
may also have functioned as a grinding surface (Figure 7).

Honing Stone. Another piece of phosphatized sandstone exhibited a
broad shallow groove running obliquely across one of its surfaces. Judging
by the large quantities of cylindrical bone tools found at the site, it is
probable that this specimen functioned as a shaft hone (not pictured).


Beads. Well over a hundred tubular stone beads are represented in
the collection (Figure 18). One hundred and eleven were found near the man-
dible of one of the child interments, suggesting they had been strung together
on a necklace.

Miscellaneous Stone. Two pieces of miscellaneous stone are represented
in the collections. One, a large polished (water worn?) quartzitic pebble,
was recovered from the canal bank 3.5 feet below surface. A large limestone
nodule came from the associated upland habitation area. This was recovered
from one of the two aforementioned limestone outcrops (not pictured).

Exotic Stone. Perhaps the most interesting item from the artifact
assemblage is a small triangular greenish-gold pendant, perforated at its
apex for suspension (Figure 8). University of South Florida minerologist
Dr. Abraham Rosenzweig has tentatively identified the stone as a serpentine-
like material. The stone is relatively soft (less than 5 on the Mohs'
scale), and contains antigurite (a hydrated magnesium silicate, and one of
the constituent minerals of serpentine) and flecks of talc. The most pro-
bable nearest sources for this type of stone are the southern Piedmont area
of northern Alabama and northern Georgia, Mexico, and various areas within
the Circum-Caribbean region. Its presence at Republic Groves indicates some
involvement in long-distance exchange systems with non-Floridian groups.


The wooden implements in the site assemblage may represent only a portion
of the total potential range of artifacts. Mr. Hope had noted early in his
excavations the presence of much woody material, which he presumed were sec-
tions of tree roots until he recovered a piece that exhibited a tapered shaft
and clear indications of whittling. Thereafter, all wooden pieces encounter-
ed where closely examined for evidence of human workmanship before discarding.

Wooden Stakes. A total of 33 tapered wooden stakes (pine and oak) were
recovered from the muck (Figure 9). They vary between 10 and 15 inches in
length, and between 1 to 23 inches in their widest diameter. The stakes
gradually taper toward their distal ends, and are bluntly tipped. Whole
specimens and proximal fragments show battering on their heads, as if hammer-
ed upon. Usually, these stakes were found in apparent association with the
human burials. Similar stakes were recovered from the Middle Archaic cemetery
at Little Salt Spring in Sarasota County. Clausen tentatively identified
these stakes as digging sticks (Clausen et al. 1979).


The antler artifacts from Republic Groves shows both similarities and
differences when compared with antler artifacts from other Florida sites.
Represented are an atlatl hook and a variety of pendant forms.

Atlatl Hook. A short, thick section of cut antler with a long spur
has been identified as an atlatl hook (Figure 10). It was recovered from a
depth of 27-29 inches below the muck surface in apparent association with
human skeletal remains.

Grooved Plummet. A single partially grooved (three-quarters only) well-
polished plummet was found buried in the muck at a depth of 20 inches (Figure


Incised Pendants/Ornaments. Four artifacts of incised antler were re-
covered in close co-association within one of the 5 x 5 foot squares. One,
(Figure 12),possibly a pendant or a hair ornament, had been fashioned from a
short section of cut antler, and bore an array of complex design motifs, in-
cluding nested chevrons, cross-hatched rectilinear bands and triangles, nested
triangles, and a combination nested triangle-rectangle design. The ornament
is divided into seven zones, set apart by incised lines, and is perforated
through the center for suspension. In complexity of design the ornament shows
clear relationships with similar artifacts from the Tick Island site and
various Orange subperiod 3 sites (Jahn and Bullen 1978; Bullen 1972).

Another apparent pendant (Figure 13a), fashioned from a curved antler
tine, exhibits a complex geometric design that spirals around the shaft.
Two design motifs are present--rectangles and triangles, which have been
appended to each other in various combinations. When the designs are un-
rolled and reproduced in plane view, the combinations of rectangles and
squares form a variety of elements, including large squares, triangles,
rectangles and portions thereof. What makes this pendant unique is the manner
of design execution. A series of rows and columns of small raised dots fill
the individual rectangles and triangles as if the craftsman meticulously
carved the background around each dot. Disregarding the manner of execution,
the various geometric motifs on this piece are replicated on the incised
antler shown in Figure 12. Figures 13b and 13c are curved antler pieces
which exhibit two parallel obliquely incised lines. The pendant shown in
Figure 13b has been worked into a penis- or snakelike shape. The antlers
depicted in Figures 13a and Figure 13b show evidence of a circular perfor-
ation for suspension.


The bone-tool assemblage appears identical in many respects to bone tools
recovered from various Archaic and Orange Period sites around Florida. Bones
from deer, unidentified small mammals, and birdswere fashioned into a variety
of utilitarian and ornamental artifacts.

Awls. Several awls were recovered from the muck (Figures 14a-d; Figure
15). Some were made from small mammal ulnas (Figures 14a-b), while others
were fashioned from deer metatarsal bones (Figures 14c-d) and ulnas (Figure 15).
Possible functions include use for manufacturing basketry and leather-working.
Flesher. One of the deer metatarsals bears a chisel-like bit, and has
been tentatively identified as a fleshing implement involved in the deflesh-
ing of animal hide (Figure 14e). It was found in near association with human

Pins. One possible bone pin (Figure 14f) fashioned from a deer meta-
tarsal into a long-shafted, sharply pointed implement, was recovered in prob-
able association with one of the burials.

Knives. Two types of bone knives were recovered from the muck zone--
deer scapula knives (Figure 16) and split-long bone knives (Figure 17). All
but one were recovered from burial areas.

Shark's Teeth. Several shark's teeth were recovered (not pictured) from
the muck, representing three genera (Galeocerdo, Hemipristis, and Lamna).
Only one had been perforated. They may have been intended for use as carving


Figure 3. Projectile points, a and c, Putnam;
b, small Archaic Stemmed; d, Sarasota;
e, Newnan; f, Pinellas; g, unidentified
stemmed blade fragment.

Figure 4. Drills.


Figure 5.

Figure 6.

Flake scraper/knives.

l k chNIIMlp r.
0 1 2 3 4 5

Flake chopper.


Figure 7. Grinding stone (phosphatized sandstone).

Figure 8. Triangular stone pendant,


Figure 9. Tapered wooden stakes.

Figure 10, Antler atlatl hook,

Figure ll.

Figure 12.



Grooved antler plummet.

Incised antler pendant.




Figure 13. Incised and carved antler pendants or ornaments.

Figure 14. Bone awls, flesher (chisel), and pin.


Figure 15. Deer ulna awl.

Figure 16. Deer scapula knives.


Figure 17. Split bone knives.

Figure 18. Stone beads.


/ ,. .

-;"..:", '; 'I '


: f, n 1 9 1 4

Figure 19.

Twisted cordage.

Figure 20. The only fully articulated
skeleton (R.G.239) excavated.


k:' ..
i "'


Miscellaneous Bone. Several unmodified deer metatarsals were recovered
in apparent burial context. It is probable that these served as "blanks" for
the production of awls, pins, knives, or other bone tools (not pictured).

Miscellaneous Organic Materials

Included in this grouping is cordage made of either twisted sinew or
similar organic tissue (Figure 19). A matted impression was observed (but
not recovered) underlying one of the burials (not pictured). Two small
Busycon shell fragments were recovered from upland area. These represent
portions of some unidentified shell tool or food refuse (not pictured).

Burials and Features

According to Saunders (1972:33), Hope had uncovered the full and partial
remains of a minimum of 37 individuals, including 31 adults and 6 children.
Saunders utilized nineteen adult skulls in an attempt to determine the sexing
of a portion of the skeletal population. She indicates that six of the skulls
were male, four were probably male; seven of the skulls were female, and two
were probably female.

Primary flexed interments appear to predominate among those burials we
could identify with any certainty. One interment (Figure 20), an adult cat-
alogued as R. F. 239, was a fully articulated skeleton uncovered at a depth
of 22 inches. This was the only complete and tightly articulated skeleton
found at the site, the others showing varying degrees of disturbance which
made it difficult to reliably interpret burial mode. One isolated skull was
also encountered in the muck. There also appears to have been a distinct
cluster of six individual burials uncovered from one area. Hope noted that
these had been laid out in a radiating pattern with the feet pointed towards
center, suggesting a family or a deliberate group interment. Although
cross-referencing the burials with associated grave goods is still in pro-
gress, it would appear that the child burials were more richly supplied with
artifacts than the adult burials. Furthermore, there is unconfirmed evidence
for a differential distribution of the various classes of artifacts between
the children and adults.

While cleaning and restoring several of the crushed adult skulls, Hope
noted material other than muck inside the skull that he suspected to be re-
placed brain tissue. One of the skulls (R.G. 343), which had organiclike
material adhering to the interior of the crainal vault, was submitted by Hope
to the Smithsonian Institution, where Dr. Lawrence Angel examined it and pre-
pared a brief report (Angel n.d.). Angel describes this material as an
"amorphous coffee-colored mass" which had replaced the brain tissue, probably
induced by the presence of peat in the muck. The mass was "fragmented and
surrounded by layers of plant material," the inside of which still preserves
some of the brain-tissue structure.

A thin white-sand lens was uncovered in two separate locations, and
both appeared to cover human interments. One of these features measured
five feet across and appeared to have covered the remains of two or more
individuals. The other lens (not pictured), although only partially uncov-
ered in the corner of one of the excavation squares, appeared to form a
mounded contour.


Perhaps the most interesting of the cemetery features are the tapered
wooden stakes. Of the 33 recovered, the majority were in direct or probable
association with burials. One stake had been found driven partly into the
underlying Pleistocene clay. In several instances, groups of three to seven
of these stakes were placed vertically or obliquely in a straight line, some-
times alongside interments.

After completing his salvage of the site, Hope submitted the skeletal
collection to Florida Atlantic University for preliminary analysis. Lorraine
P. Saunders produced her Master's Thesis based on her analysis of the skeletal
remains (Saunders 1972), the most important results of which are highlighted
below. Using the left humeri as the basis to estimate population size,
Saunders derived a minimum estimate of 37 individuals, mostly adults. Sexing
was accomplished with a sample of 19 adult skulls.

The most common cranial pathology was a porosity or pitting of certain
areas of the skull, perhaps as a result of childhood disease such as a mild
anemia associated with hookworm. Angel's examination of the R. G. 343 skull
produced similar interpretations (Angel n.d.). In addition, there was some
evidence of arthritis on a number of individuals. Infracranial pathologies
included osteoarthritis (most common), osteophytosis, and several other minor
pathological conditions. The dentition disclosed very heavy attrition, and
a low incidence of caries. Estimates of stature yielded a height range of
between 5 feet 2 inches and 5 feet 8 inches. Saunders further mentions that
the skeletal population as a whole is characterized by robust, strongly
muscled individuals (Saunders 1972:17-39).

Late Paleo-Indian and Early Archaic Periods

Evidence suggesting minimal habitation or activities by groups of Late
Paleo-Indian or Early Archaic.cultures is represented by the one Waller Knife,
and possibly by the Dalton-like micro-core, both surface collected from the
adjacent upland area. Quantitatively, the artifacts indicate only very
transitory usage of the site during these periods by small groups while in-
volved in hunting or gathering activities.

Middle and Late Archaic Periods

In evaluating the temporal position of the major period of site usage
at Republic Groves, we have used both relative and absolute dating. The
majority of the diverse artifact assemblage from the site indicates a Middle
through Late Archaic occupation (including Orange and Transitional). Primary
evidence for this are the Newnan and Florida Archaic Stemmed projectile
points, which were used during these periods. The antler and bone tool
assemblage has a distinctive Florida Archaic character that is well repre-
sented at such sites as Tick Island (Jahn and Bullen 1978), and the large
Bluffton midden (Bullen 1955), and several other St. Johns River sites
(Bullen and Bryant 1965). Wooden stakes similar to the Republic Groves
specimens (but termed "digging sticks") were recovered from a Middle Archaic
context at Little Salt Spring (Clausen et al. 1979). There is also evidence
for a middle Orange Period occupation in light of the serpentinelike pendant
and the intricately worked antler pendants. In terms of design complexity,
the antler pendants should fall within Orange subperiods 2 or 3 (Bullen 1972).


It was also during the Middle Orange that evidence for interstate trade in
exotic materials clearly appears in the archaeological record. From Tick
Island, Bushnell (1960:Fig. 5b) described a serpentine plummet (drilled and
grooved) from the Harris Creek midden section of the site. Although from a
post-Archaic context, the Key Marco site also produced a grooved "serpentinized
igneous rock" plummet (Gilliland 1975:Plate 133G). Finally, the presence of
a Sarasota point, recovered form the canal bank at 30 inches below surface,
suggests site usage may have extended into the Transitional Period.

Four of the wooden tapered stakes were submitted for radiocarbon dating;
two directly to the Geoarcheological Research Center at the University of
Miami's Department of Geology and the others to Dr. Barbara Purdy of the
Florida State Museum. In selecting the samples, care was exercised to send
stakes that would bracket the period of site usage and which also came from
undisturbed areas of the muck. Consequently, two of the stakes selected were
the lowermost stake, R.G. 409, which has been found at a depth of between
26 to 39k inches, partly driven into the underlying Pleistocene clay stratum,
and the uppermost stake, R.G. 417, which was recovered from a depth of 13k
to 25% inches. These two stakes yielded uncorrected radiocarbon date deter-
minations of 5745 105 B.P. (R.G. 409, UM 2260) and 2485 80 B.P. (R.G. 417,
UM 2259). The two samples submitted to Purdy yielded dates of 6430 80 B.P.
(R.G. 418B) and 6520 65 B.P. (R.G. 420D). The majority of these dates indi-
cate a similar chronology to that of Little Salt Spring and the Bay West site
(Beriault et al. see this volume), but at this point of analysis, there is
sufficient evidence from the Republic Grove cemetery to suggest prehistoric
activity from ca. 4600 B.C. to 500 B.C.

Evidence for a post Archaic/Transitional occupation includes the one
Pinellas point recovered from the disturbed surface of the muck, and one
Belle Glade Plain sherd and one sand-tempered plain sherd uncovered from the
upland area, again quantitatively indicating transitory usage of the site
during this later period.

Discussion and Conclusions

The Republic Groves site is an important site located in a poorly under-
stood section of the Manatee region (Goggin 1947). Based on the number of
individuals represented in the mortuary population, and on the small sample
of the site thus far investigated, it can be projected that from several
hundred to well over a thousand individuals still lie preserved in the muck,
providing an excellent opportunity for physical anthropological studies. The
excellent preservation of otherwise perishable organic artifacts affords
unique insights into craft technology and subsistence practices. The social
dimensions of the mortuary practices could also be addressed.

In terms of regional prehistory, the Republic Groves Site demonstrates
the presence of groups living inland for a considerable part of the year.
A number of apparently coeval sites from the surrounding Charlie Creek area
have produced Newnan, Florida Archaic-Stemmed, and basally-notched point
forms. In conjunction with the Republic Groves data, the evidence suggests
that a Middle to Late Archaic group had maintained a permanent residence
within interior Hardee County. As work in other poorly known regions of
the Central Highlands of south-central Florida progresses, it is probable
that other inland-adapted Archaic sites will be brought to light.


Efforts undertaken locally have helped preserve the remaining unexca-
vated portion of the cemetery. However, the drainage canal has already begun
to slightly depress the water-saturation level, thus potentially destroying
a portion of the perishable remains that still lay buried in the muck. It
is hoped that in the near future, a program of site monitoring can be set
up to insure that continued desaturation does not occur.


A number of individuals, both professional and layperson, were involved
in some way in the salvage and preliminary analysis of the Republic Groves
materials. Although not a complete listing by any means, the following per-
sons should be acknowledged for their time and contributions: Keith and
Mary Hope, Mrs. Mitchell Hope, Hill Lambert, Ed Sockalosky, John Reynolds,
Robie Norrie, Mike Crawford, Sally Norris, Angus Hall, Peter Zelyk, Steve
Coleman, Tommy Clanton, Harry Orwig, Cynthia Metheny, Dr. William Sears
(F.A.U.), Dr. Audrey Sublette, Lorraine Saunders, Becky Lane, Drs. Ripley
P. and Adelaide K. Bullen (U.F.), Gene Keene, Earl Tyson, Karl Steinen, John
and Nancy McCaleb, Butch and Michele Henderson, Dr. Ray Williams (U.S.F.),
Dr. Roger Grange (U.S.F.), Dr. Sam Upchurch (U.S.F.), Dr. Abraham Rosenzweig,
Dana Ste.Clair, Dr. Jerry Stipp of the University of Miami's Geoarcheological
Research Center, Dr. Barbara Purdy of the Florida State Museum, and others
unintentionally omitted.

References Cited

Angel, J. Lawrence
n.d. Memorandum entitled "Report on skull submitted by Dr, Clayton
Ray, found by Mitchell Hope at Wauchula, Hardee Co., Florida,
in a muck deposit and dated to Archaic by Dr. William H. Sears"
(1970). Manuscript on file at Smithsonian Institution, Wash-

ington, D.C.

Bullen, Ripley P.
1955 Stratigraphic Tests at Bluffton, Volusia County, Florida.

Florida Anthropologist 8:1-16.

Bullen, Ripley P.
1972 The Orange Period of Peninsula Florida. In Fiber-tempered
Pottery in Southeastern United States and Northern Colombia:
Its Origins, Context, and Significance, ed. by Ripley P.
Bullen and James B. Stoltman. Florida Anthropological Society
Publications No. 6.

Bullen, Ripley P.
1975 A Guide to the Identification of Florida Projectile Points.
Revised Ed. Gainesville: Kendall Books.


Bullen, Ripley P. and L. E. Beilman
1973 The Nalcrest Site, Lake Weohyakapka, Florida. Florida

Anthropologist 26:1-22.

Bullen, Ripley P. and William J. Bryant
1965 Three Archaic Sites in the Ocala National Forest, Florida.
The William J. Bryant Foundation, American Studies, Report
No. 6. Orlando.


Bushnell, Francis F.
1960 The Harris Creek Site, Tick Island, Volusia County, Florida.
Florida Anthropologist 13:25-31.

Clausen, Carl J., A. D. Cohen, Cesari Emiliani, J. A. Holman, and J. J. Stipp
1979 Little Salt Spring, Florida: A Unique Underwater Site. Science

Cooke, C. Wythe
1945 Geology of Florida. Florida Geological Survey Bulletin No. 29.

Gilliland, Marion S.
1975 The Material Culture of Key Marco, Florida. Gainesville: The
University Presses of Florida.

Goggin, John M.
1947 A Preliminary Definition of Archaeological Areas and Periods
in Florida. American Antiquity 13:114-127.

Hope, Mitchell E.
n.d. Republic Groves Field Notes. Manuscript on file, University
of South Florida, Tampa. (Prepared 1968--1970)

Jahn, Otto L. and Ripley P. Bullen
1978 The Tick Island Site, St. Johns River, Florida. Florida
Anthropological Society Publications No. 10,

Purdy, Barbara A. and Laurie M. Beach
1980 The Chipped Stone Tool Industry of Florida's Preceramic
Archaic. Archaeology of Eastern North America 8:105-124.

Saunders, Lorraine P.
1972 Osteology of the Republic Groves Site. Unpublished M.A.
Thesis, Department of Anthropology, Florida Atlantic

Willey, Gordon R.
1948 Culture Sequence in the Manatee Region of West Florida.
American Antiquity 14:209-218.

Barry R. Wharton
Tampa, Florida

George R. Ballo
St. Petersburg, Florida

Mitchell E. Hope
Sebring, Florida




On November 10, 1980, Florida Anthropologist
editor, Robert Carr, conducted an interview with
Calvin Jones at Florida's Division of Archives,
History, and Records Management in Tallahassee.
This is Part II of that interview presenting the
preliminary results of Mr. Jones' work at the
Cocoa Beach cemetery site.

Editor: How would you generally describe the Archaic cemetery in Cocoa Beach,
Brevard County?

Jones: It was a cemetery dating from the Middle to Late Archaic time period,
probably in the 5000-6000 B.P. time range. This date is based on
the associated projectile point types that we found, some with burials,
some in a village area situated on the east side of Lake Pointset
which is part of the St. John's River drainage. There was also a
small occupation of Fiber-tempered on the site and a later St, John's
occupation on a portion of it.

Editor: How was that site discovered?

Jones: It was discovered by property owner, Jack Gauthier, who was digging
a ditch south of his mobile home village. The drag line operator
began to see skulls roll out of his drag line bucket and got off
and observed that they were human skulls and called the owner. Un-
fortunately, someone called the Sheriff's Dept. They came out and
excavated 8 or 10 burials by using shovels and determined that the
burials were not a recent massacre of people. Mr. Gauthier's devel-
oper, Pete Cantelou, called the Florida Division of Archives and
History and we were requested to look at the site. No artifacts had
been found prior to my visit. However, upon the first visit, a care-
ful inspection of the ditch area with its associated exposed bones,
revealed a limestone atlatl weight. Afterwards, I conducted field
work there in 1977 and 1978 with the help of the Indian River Chapter
of the Florida Anthropological Society.

Editor: How were the burials interred?

Jones: We removed approximately 110 burials and we assume the ditch destroyed
another 40 to 50 burials. So, we're talking about a cemetery of an
Archaic population that apparently utilized this site over a long
period of time. All of these burials for the most part were primary
flexed burials. EFigs, 1,2 Many of them were groups of two and three
individuals that were buried in the same pit. The site is located
only 18 feet above today's mean sea level, Apparently this low

-------Burial pit outlir
or pothuntert trench


figure 1

0 2 3



k ``


~1L ,'





elevation had a great deal to do with the mineralization of the
human skeletal remains, which, by the way, were so mineralized that
no radiocarbon date could be determined from the human bones. Nor
did we find enough reliable charcoal anywhere else to date the site.
The dating of the site has been determined purely by the association
of projectile points; i.e., Newnans Lake, Culbreath, etc.

Editor: How about shell?

Jones: We found a small quantity of shell which we may be able to date,
specifically fresh water mollusks that were placed in the linings
of some of the burial pits. We also found conch shell beads.

Editor: What kind of physiographic feature did the burial area occur in?

Jones: The site is 5 or 6 miles inland from the present coastline, near
Cocoa, and is located at one of the most narrow points between the
St. John's and the coast today. This location would have allowed
for the exploitation of resources from at least two or more major
resource areas.

This cemetery is situated on one of the higher palm covered eleva-
tions near the village area, specifically a sandy ridge. This is in
contrast to the muck ponds used at the three or four Archaic cemeteries
reported in other parts of Florida, However, there is a muck pond
lake near this site. In fact, the village site is situated around
it. This village area occupies 3 to 4 acres, but only has about 15 cm
thickness of cultural deposition. This part of the site will be test-
ed more adequately by Brenda Lavelle of the Florida State Museum.
She plans to conduct 3 to 4 weeks of field work this year and then
do a more extensive excavation on the village next year if she re-
ceives grant funding. Her work will tell us a little more about the
village and how these people lived and any specialized activity areas
that might have been associated with this village,

Editor: Do you think there's any particular reason why this ridge became the
site for something as important as the cemetery?

Jones: Well, none other than the fact that it was for that area one of the
higher spots next to the village. It was an area that was really
not part of the village itself, but very close and adjacent to it.
Apparently the muck pond at this site was serving as a food and
water source, so therefore, it was not chosen as a soft place to
place the bodies.

Editor: Where any investigations made of the pond area?

Jones: Yes, we took a drag line and made one scoop in the pond to determine
how deep it was. We did not reach the middle of it since it seems
to cover maybe an acre in size and is silted in with black muck. We
did reach six feet from the edge of the pond and at that point we
hit white sand. It looks like the lake was rather shallow at the
time that people lived there.

Editor: One scoop may not have been enough,


Jones: Well, you might be right, but our time and resources at that time
did not permit a more thorough investigation.

Editor: At what depth was the material recovered?

Jones: Burials were recovered from about 25 cm. below the surface to a
little over a meter in depth below the present surface,

Editor: What were the cemetery boundaries?

Jones: A very small area for these approximately 150 people, that was approx-
imately 50' N x S and 100' E x W. [Fig. I] So, we're talking about
an area of a little less than of an acre in size for this large
number of bodies. But, you have to remember, often two or three
bodies were found in one burial pit.

Editor: Considering that you could not clearly define burial pit outlines
in most instances, how can you be sure that these individual clusters
were buried at the same time?

Jones: It is a matter of logic. If the individuals are buried together then
when the flesh decays the bones will eventually fall down on each
other and touch. Whereas, if they're placed in the burial at differ-
ent times, dirt usually winds up being stacked in between and separa-
ting the skeletons.

Editor: How would you describe the cemetery and its associated burials and

Jones: There were five clusters of bodies. Orientation of burials does not
appear to be important, inasmuch as the burials were turned in all
directions within each of these five clusters. The five clusters
may or may not have been all used at the same time, and the character
of these burials with their associated or lack of associated artifacts
seem to suggest that these clusters were possibly societal divisions
or community divisions, perhaps clans, and these people were buried
according to their clan. Within each one of these clusters certain
people had artifacts that would suggest that they had a higher rank-
ing than most of the other individuals in the same cluster,

Editor: What were these artifacts?

Jones: Artifacts included atlatl weights, which are the round cut type that
I have not seen before in the St, John's area. These are different
from the banner type of stone and bone Moore found in the St. John's
shell midden. Also found were projectile points, bone tools and
ornaments, atlatl hooks and handles, bone harpoon points, lithic
tools, drilled sharks' teeth and shell beads.

The carved bone work is similar to Tick Island but also has some
differences in terms of motif. Also recovered were bone awls, some
made out of dog bone. There were a few small flints, scrapers and
knives placed in the burials, and in some instances, tool kits of
fossilized shark's teeth that had been hafted on the root end, These
were probably set into wooden handles. We also found tubular beads



Ar r


j~ tr~c-~-,3
~ S;s- i;:
It x,;
+. ` .r. i



Fig. 2. Flexed burials at the Cocoa Beach cemetery.

Fig. 3. Conch shell beads.


made out of conch shell. CFig. 3] No other marine shell was found
on the site other than these conch shell beads. There was no pre-
served wood at this site, either in the burials or in the village

Editor: How did the artifact assemblage compare to other Archaic assemblages
from Florida?

Jones: The range of artifacts is actually very narrow in terms of what one
might hypothesize for a total assemblage of artifacts associated with
a permanent or base camp and a burial site of the Archaic people at
this time period. It's a narrow range in terms of a very limited
number of scrapers and knife forms, a limited number of projectile
point forms; and with the exception of shell beads, three atlatl
weights, and the antler atlatl hooks and handle; the site is not
overly dramatic in terms of the kinds of artifacts. However, it is
a larger variety of artifact types than generally recovered from
upland Archaic sites.

Editor: What is the nature of this headdress piece that you just showed me?
[Fig. 4]

Jones: What appears to be a headdress is made up of several different kinds
of bones. It consists of two pieces of antler, one piece worn on
each side of the head. Both of these main pieces are four or five
inches long and are decorated with engraved linear motifs similar
to Tick Island specimens. One of them has what to me appears to be
an engraving of the hand symbol. Both of these pieces have a single
small diameter 1/8-1/4 inch size hole through their central portions
--which apparently permitted a lock of hair to be drawn through, and
then a raccoon penis bone was stuck through the lock of hair acting
something like a beret from which the hair was pulled tightly and
in each case formed a type of hair ornament on each side of the head.
This head ware was associated with one individual that had a total
of fifty-two artifacts.

Editor: What do you think the basic subsistence of this particular community

Jones: Well, from a preliminary analysis of faunal material from the village
area we determined that it was mostly water moccasin. Aquatic foods
predominated since they were near Lake Pointset and this little lake
ran into it. This included food like alligator, turtle, snake and
fish. Small quantities of freshwater mollusks apparently were eaten,
based on the shellfish remains found in the burials. There was also
evidence of duck, birds, but very little deer.

Editor: What did you observe about the sex and age of the individuals?

Jones: Unfortunately, age and sexing was completed for only about half of
the individuals in the field, We removed the burials rather rapidly,
even though we made careful drawings and photographs. It appears as
though the whole community was represented--men, women and children.
In a number of instances we found children in a burial with two or
more adults and the child was in each case laid in the grave last on


Fig. 4, Composit hair ornaments manufactured from deer antler
and raccoon penis bone. Illustration by Ron Jones,


top of the individuals, often extended, whereas adults were all
flexed or semi-flexed,

Editor: What is the present level of analysis of the skeletal materials?

Jones: There are a couple of physical anthropologists that are interested
in the material, but nothing has been worked out in terms of actu-
ally doing the physical analysis. We are, of course, in need of
this kind of information for Archaic populations in the state of
Florida. Hopefully, this material will be looked at with some
degree of comparison with what was found in Naples as well as at
Little Salt Spring,

Editor: How long did your field work last?

Jones: We worked on that site a total of about twenty days.

Editor: Did you work with volunteers?

Jones: The work could not have been done and would not have been done had
it not been for the help of the Indian River Chapter of the Florida
Anthropological Society who worked under my direction.

Editor: Where is the excavated material presently located?

Jones: Right here in the Division of Archives and History in Tallahassee.

Editor: What's the present status of the site? Is it still there?

Jones: Since we did our last work in 1978, the site has gradually been
encroached upon, a few acres at a time, The site is only four
acres and it will soon be impacted at least in part, by additional
mobile home units being developed by the owner. Within the next
year or two it will probably be mostly developed.

Editor: Do you have any plans for further work?

Jones: Unfortunately, we don't, because this again was one of those unex-
pected salvage projects, We didn't have any funding to do it. It
was only done with the help of the Indian River Chapter and so we
have no future plans.

Editor: How has your work at this site changed or affected your ideas about
the Archaic tradition?

Jones: These people were more sophisticated in terms of social organization
than I envisioned, quite a bit more sophisticated. Also, this site
is going to cause us to think twice about the upland Archaic sites
that only produce a small variety of artifacts, particularly where
there's no bone preservation. It's going to cause us to consider
that when there is no faunal bone preserved to help explain what
the site really represents in terms of activities, i.e., permanent
vs. temporary type extractive camps, it will be difficult to dif-
ferentiate between the two or more types of settlements which were


probably utilized. Obviously, some of the deep sand upland sites
which are commonly found in the interior parts of the state are
base camps and contain remains of cemeteries, although this pos-
sibility has not been adequately considered in the past. We are
going to just have to re-look at much previous work, e.g., surveys,
etc., and re-think our investigative and interpretative strategies
of Archaic sites in Florida in order to adequately assess these
cultural resources pertinent to this long cultural period if we
ever expect to gain an indepth understanding of those times.

Interpretative criteria for other areas of the Southeast are
apparently different than that which we can expect in Florida due
to differences in data preservation, environments, and cultural
adaptations. Since most of the tangible cultural data in Florida
has not been preserved due to our harsh climate, we are going to
have to look at what we have left and relate this to the environ-
mental setting at the time these sites were occupied. Types,
varieties, and functional or use ranges of chipped stone tools
and weapons, their contextual associations, and extent of their
occurrences on sites, will, when related to environmental settings
(reconstructions), eventually form the backbone or data base on
which Florida's Archaic period will be interpreted, but we are
just beginning to do this. Most of our previous work has been
largely confined to trying to identify projective point types.
Stone tool resource material, its origins, and selective usage
should prove also to be vital to this more comprehensive approach
through demonstrating contact, trade, etc. More research into
"chemo-archaeology" may also be useful in helping us to recover
lost data.

Figure 5. Top Line: Antler atlatl hooks.
Bottom Line: Limestone atlatl weight.


Barbara A. Purdy


In January 1976, archaeological investigations of a lithic outcrop/
workshop site (8Mrl54) were initiated in Marion County, Florida on timber-
land owned by Container Corporation of America. Following a six-month
survey of the area, excavations were begun in September 1976 at locations
selected during the reconnaissance period. The locales designated for
excavation were chosen because they promised to provide maximum and diver-
sified information about the geologic and cultural situation at the site.
In this paper I present a detailed description of the field explorations
and a statement about the interpretive potential of the laboratory analyses.


For years archaeologists have recognized the importance of stone im-
plements as "index fossils" because their stylistic characteristics provide
information about time and space distributions of prehistoric people. Since
the 1960s, manufacturing techniques and wear patterns of stone remains, along
with stylistic characteristics, have been examined more thoroughly. This
new approach furnishes fresh data about past human behavior.

When I came to the University of Florida in 1967, I discovered that
little work had been done with Florida's stone artifacts other than to
classify spearheads and arrowheads (Bullen 1975). In addition, there had
been virtually no investigations of the extensive stone outcrops that occur
along the ridge area in northcentral Florida. It seemed to me that I could
contribute to the knowledge of the prehistory of Florida by concentrating
on these voids. An initial effort to define tool kits for each major time
period in Florida is contained in Florida's Prehistoric Stone Technology
(Purdy 1981a). The following paper is an attempt to show how studies of
stone outcrops can supply valuable information about an important primitive
technology and about the people who employed the technology.

Basic to the study is an understanding of the geologic position of
the raw material desired by the prehistoric craftsmen. Six backhoe trenches
were dug in different locations of the Container Corporation of America
Site exposing the entire stratigraphic sequence to limestone bedrock. It
was possible to see in the profile the thickness of various geologic layers
and their relations to each other. These layers represent about 60 million
years of geologic history. It was learned that, in addition to chert form-
ing at a clay/limestone contact, a tabular chert of high quality appeared
to have formed in the clay itself or at or near the top of the clay, It
is possible that the tabular chert is not in place, as it may have been
disturbed by natural forces or by humans, but this is unlikely (see Fig. 2).


At the CCA Site I hoped to discover what methods were used to quarry
large chert nodules, determine how nodules were broken into suitable sized
pieces, where they were taken to be converted into finished products, what
kinds of implements were made, what tasks were performed with the stone
tools, and the time periods that the site was utilized. Most importantly,
I wanted to learn if the CCA Site represented a universe of chert pro-
curement and utilization practices for all of northcentral Florida and,
perhaps, the world.

Although I have taken a more interpretive posture elsewhere (Purdy 1981a),
this report is mainly descriptive. The goals mentioned above remain largely
unaccomplished. Stone procurement and utilization practices are vastly
complex matters having roots in a technology that is two million years old.
I am just beginning to discover what was known by early flintworkers about
sources, quality, and fracture patterns. If a time dimension, modifications
in cultural traditions, and changes in the natural environment are added,
one can understand that two or three years is not sufficient time to make
unquivocal statements about activities that occurred at lithic outcrop-sites.

Field Investigations

Eleven squares were systematically excavated at the CCA Site in 1976
and 1977 ( Fig. 1); 54.51 cubic meters of soil were removed and a total of
27,608 artifacts were recovered. Of these, 3,793 or 14% had been utilized
(Table 1). The used and unused specimens from each square were separated.
The unused artifacts were counted and weighed, and observations were made
pertaining to weathering, exposure to heat, and flaking techniques. No
further examination of the unused specimens is planned,and they are pre-
sently in temporary storage at the Florida State Museum in Gainesville.
Information about the artifacts exhibiting use wear was recorded on data
coding sheets (Table 2) and can be used to answer questions about flint-
working practices and changes in those practices.

Area 1

Square l.--The CCA Site was discovered while land was being cleared
by Container employees in preparation for the planting of pine seedlings,
A large oak was uprooted that contained over a thousand pieces of chert
in the root system, all of which had been altered by human activity.
Square 1 is located near the oak tree.

I hoped to answer several questions by excavating Square 1 and by further
examination of the bulldozed and backhoe trenches that were dug nearby.
Tens of thousands of pieces of stone were uncovered by the trenches, the
tree root, and the systematic excavation of the 2-meter square. Because of
the presence of large chert nodules and the crude nature of the chert
remains, it was assumed initially that this was an area of chert procure-
ment and that the stone found here resulted from breaking the rock into
manageable-size pieces, the most desirable of which had been taken else-
where to be used or converted into a variety of tools. The evidence,
however, does not conclusively support this belief for two important reasons.

First, if this is an area of chert procurement only, it seems logical
that the rock would be outcropping at or near the ground surface or exposed
as in a sinkhole or stream. This situation exists elsewhere at the CCA

---- CCA Prope rty Iiunidar
- Primiar Reads

.... .... U nli m p rer v d Read s

S E c at ed Test Squ areas
After Willisti on Fl mi lt n Quadranll es
U.S.G.S. I?. Seri I


8 0.5 00 I 1mil
1I l I l I I--

Contour Lines as Marked in Feet

Datum is Mean Sea Level


Site where the elevation is about 25-30 meters above sea level. Area 1
is 21 m above sea level and presently seems to be an area of deposition
rather than erosion. It is possible that when the material was being used,
climatic conditions differed from today, or the large amount of stone repre-
sents a lag deposit that occurs when the limestone matrix dissolves away.
None of our observations have solved this problem as yet. The backhoe
trench exposed the stratigraphy to bedrock (limestone), and we could see
high quality chert in presumably geologic context (Fig. 3). The extensively
quarried material was in a different matrix above and separated from the
undisturbed material.

Second, if the stone recovered in the cultural zone in Area 1 was being
broken just to retrieve convenient-sized pieces, it is not likely that it
would exhibit evidence of use. Yet 21% of the chert recovered from Square 1
and 19% from the tree root had been used. From only one other square at
the site (Area 2, Sq. 2W) was there a higher percentage of used material,
and the total artifact recovery from that square was extremely small. The
artifact description follows:

1. Square 1 yielded the largest number of used specimens per area
2. There were no thinning flakes with small ground platforms. There
were a few specimens where some platform preparation or roughening
of the platform area had occurred prior to flake removal.
3. Despite their crudeness, most of the artifacts had striking platforms.
In fact, the size, angle, and trimming of the striking platform is
very reminiscent of the Levallois technique as is the shape of some
4. There were no intentionally heat-altered specimens.
5. There were very few fire-exploded remains in contrast to the large
number found in other squares.
6. There were no bifacially worked stone artifacts with the exception
of one small thermally-altered Pinellas Point (500-1000 years old)
found near the surface in what we believe to be a recently disturbed
7. All of the stone was weathered to a certain extent and there were a
few heavily weathered specimens recovered. A number of the heavily
weathered pieces had been restruck and reused.

Most of the cultural material does not appear to differ greatly
throughout the deposit. It is curious that there are no bifacially struck
implements. This situation would be understandable if this were only a
chert procurement area where preliminary dressing of the stone occurred,
but this does not seem to be the case. The absence of fine-chipping debris
is also puzzling.

2 A description of the stratigraphy follows. Area 1, Square 1 is a
2-m Excavation was by natural stratigraphy. Zone A (5 cm thick) was
vegetation and modern humus in a gray sand matrix. This zone probably had
been disturbed by present-day land clearing operations. It contained 17
pieces of chert, four of which had been utilized.

Zone B is a tan sand (10-15 cm thick) increasingly stained with iron
oxide toward the bottom of the zone. Ninety-eight percent (4,771) of the
stone recovered in Square 1 came from Zone B; the stone literally formed an
uneven pavement throughout. There were many nodules all with multiple


Zone A = Gray sand and modern humus

B1= Light gray and brown
mottled sand

B2= Medium brown sand
C = Grayish brown clayey sand
with iron oxide concretions
D1= Gray-green sandy-clay

D2= Green sandy-clay
D3= Green sandy-clay with iron
oxide concretions

E = Limestone
X = Chert nodules

Fig. 2.--North profile of backhoe
trench, Area 1, near Duck Pond (CCA
8-Mr-154). Scale 10 cm : 1 m


large flake scars in addition to the large flakes themselves. The decision
was made to excavate by quadrant and to take only a 25% sample of the stone
material back to the laboratory. The sample was chosen as follows. All of
the chert excavated (except large nodules) was placed in the mechanical
shaker equipped with lh cm mesh. After the sand was screened, the artifacts
were scattered evenly and all artifacts from one-fourth of the screen were
bagged. Nodules over 10 cm in diameter were left in the field. It should
be noted that there were hundreds of flakes surrounding and beneath each
large nodule.

Zone C is a gray clayey sand with iron stains. The base of this
deposit is uneven,but it was 1 m thick in the southeast corner of the square.
Because Zone C was extremely difficult to dig, only the eastern half of the
square was excavated. It was noted that there was an increase in extreme
patina on some of the artifacts just above and within Zone C and also an
increase in the number of fire-exploded fragments. There was a marked
decrease in the overall number of specimens but some boulder-sized tabular
chert was found. None of the extremely weathered artifacts from Zones B
and C had striking platforms or bulbs of percussion.

Zone D is a green sandy clay, probably the Hawthorne Formation. Since
the Hawthorne Formation dates to the Miocene (ca.20 million years ago), there
is no possibility of finding cultural evidence,but we hoped to expose the
entire stratigraphy to bedrock through systematic excavation. An erosional
unconformity exists at the top of the Hawthorne,and a few small pieces of
chert were recovered that may have been culturally altered (tentative).
Excavation of Square 1 was discontinued at 1.90 m below ground surface.
Some interesting black rock was encountered and photographed at this depth
in the southeast quadrant of the square. Geologists did not believe that
this was Florida rock until they saw it in situ. Petrographic sections
showed that the rock was chertlike, but it was very tough and did not
fracture as easily or predictably as chert.

Area 2

Square l.--Area 2 is located in what appears to be an old'erosional
surface. Erosion was accelerated by construction of a logging road that
exposed literally hundreds of thousands of prehistorically quarried chert
nodules and flakes. These chert remains are deeply weathered. The location
of Square 1 Csee Fig. 1) was selected because it was near the logging road,
but had not been disturbed by recent activity. The artifact description

1. The most obvious characteristic is the extreme weathering and eroded
appearance of a majority of the artifacts. Flake scars and use wear
have been nearly obliterated in many cases.
2. Most of the heavily weathered stone lacked bulbs of percussion.
3. Some of the material has been fire-exploded.
4. A few less weathered specimens were recovered and all were technolog-
ically distinct from the weathered material.
5. No bifacially worked stone artifacts were recovered.

While most of the material is extremely eroded, the presence of a few
less weathered, stylistically different artifacts indicates that stone
remains of more than one time period have been mixed. No diagnostic artifacts


were found but the recovery of an extensively used heat-altered flake in
Level 3 suggests that the less weathered material may belong to the
Preceramic Archaic.

A description of the stratigraphy follows. Area 2, Square 1 is a
2-m Excavation was by 10 cm levels. The square is in a wooded area
with no ground covered except leaf mulch. Level 1 (0-10 cm below surface)
is a dark organic soil with many tree roots throughout. It contained 39
pieces of chert, two of which had been utilized (Zone A). Levels 2-4
(10-40 cm below surface) consisted of dark brown sand in which most of the
chert nodules and flakes from the square were recovered. The artifacts
decreased in size and number toward the bottom of Level 4. The clay content
and iron concretions increased in Level 5 (40-50 cm below surface). At
45 cm below surface (bottom of Zone B), the deposit became more rubbly
and the artifacts decreased significantly. Only the northeast quadrant of
Levels 6 and 7 was excavated (Zone C). Beneath nearly impermeable clay at
the top of Level 6, the deposit became clayey sand with iron concretions.
A posthole digger exposed the stratigraphy to 1.55 m below ground surface
in the northeast quadrant. The deposit was a very hard, compact, homo-
geneous, orange, clayey sand that was culturally sterile.

Ninety-five per cent (731 pieces) of the total artifact recovery of
Area 2, Square 1 was from a brown sand deposit 35-40 cm thick (Zone B).
A majority of these artifacts are extremely eroded and weathered. They
do not resemble the less weathered specimens from the same square and
none of the remains resemble those from Area 1, Square 1.

Square 2W.--During the survey period, extremely weathered and eroded,
crudely chipped stone remains were observed in a dry stream bed in Area 2.
We planned to excavate a trench cutting through in a meander created by the
stream. Square 2W is the west half of the trench, 2x1.5 m (see Fig. 1).
The artifact description follows:

1. Many of the artifacts had been fire exploded.
2. Stylistic differences exist between weathered and less weathered
3. Differences in weathering are exhibited even on individual artifacts
indicating that "antiques" were probably being restruck and reused.
4. None of the specimens had small ground platforms even though many had
been intentionally struck.
5. There were no bifacially worked implements recovered.
6. There were no intentionally heat-altered specimens recovered.

No diagnostic artifacts were recovered but a few of the specimens
resembled those described for early lithic assemblages elsewhere. For
example, one implement had a "nose" as described for the Lively Complex
in Alabama (Fig. 4).

A description of the stratigraphy follows. Square 2W is a 2x1.5 m
trench excavated by natural zones. Zone A was modern humus in a gray sand
matrix, 10 cm thick. Zone B was a light to medium brown and gray mottled
sand that contained cemented sand concretions. The square was culturally
sterile with only 10 unused chert fragments recovered until a depth of 77 cm.
In Zone Cl the deposit became rubbly, had a higher clay content, and con-
tained 282 pieces of chert, 72 of which were used. Zone C1 was literally


paved with chert,including many large flakes and nodules. Pieces of the
black rock mentioned for Area 1, Square 1 were found but were not utilized.
Cemented sand concretions were also present in Zone CI. The artifact
concentration of the trench was only 19 cm thick and rested on Zone C2
which was culturally sterile. Zone C2 is a hard compacted clayey sand with
iron concretions.

I believe that Zones A and B are alluvial sands deposited by the
adjacent stream which resulted in a concentration of the stream flow into
a narrower channel. A situation such as this might occur if climatic
conditions become dry, so that a wider bed is not needed to carry the load.
I do not know how long it took for alluviation to occur. The artifacts
and rubble that are found in Zone C1 are similar to and at the same elevation
as the stream. Stream alluviation has stabilized, at least temporarily,
because of vegetation (including small trees) that is present. I would like
to expand Square 2W at a right angle to the existing trench and also test
on the north side of the stream to determine the width of the original bed
and the relationship of the former habitation to the stream. The artifacts
appear stylistically ancient, and an unusually high percentage (26%) have
been used.

An alternate explanation is that the entire area near Square 2W had
been denuded prior to the deposition of sand and, finally, the stream down-
cut through the sand to form its channel; downcutting ceased when the stratum
containing the artifacts was reached. Both explanations support the antiquity
of the cultural remains. The origin of the sand, i.e.,' alluvial or aeolian,
can be determined by studying particle size distributions and other features.

Area 3
Square 1 (see Fig. l).--The location of the 3-m was selected because
a large amount of Preceramic Archaic Period stone tools and chipping debris
was exposed by the construction of a logging road nearby. The artifact
description follows:

1. The overwhelming majority of the material was heat-altered thinning
flakes typical of areas where tools were finished into final form or
of habitation areas where resharpening occurred.
2. Three tools belonging to the Preceramic Archaic Period were found.
These tools, plus the abundance of thermally-altered material, indicate
that the main occupation occurred 5,000-9,000 years ago.
3. Evidence of an earlier occupation exists, however, because the base
of a Paleo-Indian point (10,000-12,000 years old) was recovered (Fig. 4K).
4. In addition to the Paleo-Indian point, there were a number of extremely
weathered implements,none of which were thinning flakes nor stylistic-
ally familiar.
5. Fire-exploded fragments occurred throughout the deposit. Many fire-
exploded pieces were encased in iron concretions,especially in the
lower clay levels.

2A description of the stratigraphy follows: Square 1 of Area 3 is a
3-m and was the first square excavated at the CCA site. It was dug by
10-cm levels. Level 1 was modern humus in an organically-stained sand
matrix. The remainder of the excavated area was light-brown sand with iron
concretions that increased with depth. There must have been a disturbance
of the sand deposit because cultural remains of more than one time period


were mixed and many of the artifacts were not resting horizontally. The
surface of the square had probably been disturbed by modern-day land
clearing activities,but this does not account for all of the mixing. A
clayey sand deposit lay unevenly beneath the sand and no artifacts were
found in it,except at the contact of the two zones. Some small pieces of
mica were recovered and are thought to be part of the naturally occurring
micaceous clays rather than culturally introduced. A posthole digger was
used to test the clayey deposit in several places.

Square 2 (see Fig. l).--The location of this 3-m2 was selected because
of the quantity of worked stone exposed when a logging road was constructed
nearby. A description of the artifacts follows:

1. A great deal of the material is extremely weathered and eroded.
2. Two implements were found that can be assigned to known time periods
in Florida. One is a broken basally-notched, heat-altered Citrus
point (about 3,000 years old), typical of the early Ceramic Archaic.
The point was discovered near the surface of the square when the
profile was being straightened. The other tool was a small,nicely
made unifacial scraper thought to be part of the tool kit of the
Paleo-Indian Period or earlier. It was found at the contact between
the sand and clayey-sand deposits.
3. Many fire-exploded fragments were found throughout.
4. A few specimens with small ground platforms were recovered from the
sand zone. Some were intentionally heat-altered.
5. The artifacts from the clayey sand were weathered deeply and exhibited
a white patina.
6. None of the specimens from the clay had small, prepared, striking
platforms and none were intentionally heat-altered. In fact, no
diagnostic implements were recovered from the claybut many showed
signs of use.
7. The percentage of used artifactual material was small when compared
to the unused. The differential would be even greater if the larger
nodules left at the site were included in the count.

A description of the stratigraphy follows. Excavation was by 10 cm
levels. The surface of the square had probably been disturbed by modern
land clearing activities. An unusually large quantity of very weathered
chert was present in Levels 1-3 and may represent a lag deposit. In Level
4 the (1) clayey sand zone was encountered, (2) the number and size of the
artifacts decreased, (3) the patina on the artifacts became very white,
and (4) there was an increase in the number of fire-exploded flakes. A
posthole digger was used to test the clayey sand for cultural material to
determine if it were worthwhile to continue excavations. Fifteen centi-
meters into the clayey sand,a stone "pick" was recovered. Excavation was
continued,but only in the eastern one-half of the square,because it was
very difficult to remove the wet clay. Eventually, excavations were con-
tinued only in the northeast quadrant from Levels 7-14 (60-130 cm below
surface). Two concentrations of stone remains were featured in the north-
east quadrant. Without question, a number of these specimens had been
culturally altered and utilized.

This is the first time that cultural material has been recovered from
a sandy clay deposit in Florida. The lithic remains from the clay were
not typologically similar to the lithic remains from the sand. The deposit


had been reworked because many of the artifacts were not lying horizontally.
Excavations were discontinued because it was nearly impossible to continue
without expanding the area being excavated and because material exposed in
a posthole indicated that we were close to the Hawthorne Formation of the

Square 3 and Square 3A.--The location of this 3-m2 was selected because
it was near a pond in an area that appeared to be undisturbed and because
abundant chert remains had been recovered when tests were made with a post-
hole digger. A description of the artifacts follows:

1. Two bifacially worked artifacts were recovered that probably belong
to the Preceramic Archaic Period of Florida's prehistory (5,000-9,000
years ago). One of these points was only a tip, and while the other
bears a resemblance to a Morrow Mountain, it is similar also to a
type reported by several investigators to be about 17,000 years old
(see Fig. 4G). There were thinning flakes with small ground platforms
but very few were intentionally heat-altered. Most of the thinning
flakes had been used. The cores from which the flakes were removed
were not found. In no case were the thinning flakes as weathered as
the chert of the other artifacts recovered from the square. No small
ground platformed artifacts were recovered below Level 8.
2. There was a wide variety of weathering among the artifacts from each
level, especially Levels 3-7. Most of the chert from Levels 1, 2, and
part of 3 was a granitic gray color. The percentage of heavily
patinated artifacts increased with depth (Purdy and Clark 1979).
3. Fire-exploded material occurred throughout the deposit and increased
with depth.
4. Much of the weathered chert looks like it was shattered because it
lacks striking platforms and bulbs of percussion. This situation
would result if the stoneworkers were using a block-on-block technique
i.e., hurling one large rock against another. It is also possible that
all of the heavily weathered chert has been fire-exploded. At any
rate, there is no pattern to the shape or striking techniques,but
there is a pattern to the use wear exhibited on many specimens, and
the use-wear is similar to less weathered specimens. Could this
indicate a continuity through time of tasks but a change in stone-
working technology? Interestingly, there are at least three distinct
stoneworking typologies present and they each have a different type
of weathering: (a) the gray material recovered just below the surface
has large striking platforms, bulbs of percussion, and a fairly uniform
shape. Some of the specimens were used,but the use-wear was slight.
None of the material had small, ground platforms, nor could be con-
sidered thinning flakes. Perhaps the gray material represents a pre-
liminary dressing of the stone; however, most specimens did not contain
cortex. (b) The thinning flakes are always the least weathered. This
situation may be due to a difference in the kind of material chosen,
a tabular vs a nodular chert, both of which are present at the site.
Cc) The deeply weathered material seldom has striking platforms, bulbs
of percussion, or uniform shape,but it was more utilized than the
other two categories.

A description of the stratigraphy follows. There apparently had been
no recent human-induced disturbances at or surrounding Area 3, Square 3.
A number of large oaks were near the square and the roots from the trees
made it very difficult to dig. These roots may, in fact, be partially or


wholly responsible for the mixed time periods evidenced by the artifacts.
Furthermore, many of the stone remains were not lying horizontally. The
square is adjacent to a pond on the south side and may actually have been
part of the pond during times of highwater stand especially in the southwest
quadrant and the extension, Sq. 3A. The granitic gray color of the chert
from Levels 1, 2, and part of 3 suggests that it was subjected to extreme
wetting and drying. We broke several of the gray specimens and it was
observed that the weathering penetrated the mass. This is a different
type of weathering than exists on the heavily patinated artifacts (Clark
and Purdy 1979). There is a hardwood hammock to the north, and Square 3,
especially the northeast quadrant, may have been part of the hammock during
dry periods.

Square 3 was dug by 10 cm levels. Square 3A was dug by natural
stratigraphic zones. A spodic horizon was encountered about 45 cm below the
surface in various places and was especially well developed in the northeast
quadrant. The bottom of the spodic horizon, about 65 cm below surface,
marks the boundary between the sand and clayey sand deposits. The upper
levels are organically stained sand,becoming wetter with depth, especially
in the southwest quadrant. The greatest number and most of the more in-
tensely altered artifacts were recovered from the southwest quadrant.
Between Levels 7 and 8, depositional changes from sand to clayey sand
occur and is also reflected in the number and nature of the artifacts.

In Level 7 of the southwest quadrant, a large chert nodule was en-
countered that at first seemed no different than many others. When efforts
to remove the nodule failed, we had no recourse but to excavate around it.
Eventually, it was noted that the nodule had an animal-like shape and that
it extended into the south and west walls of the square. We nicknamed
the rock "Paleo Dog." As excavation continued into Levels 8 and 9, a
massive iron concretion was encountered that encircled Paleo Dog's "head."
A marked increase in weight of the used artifacts (82% of total weight)
was recovered from this area (Feature 5). There was also a marked increase
of fire-exploded rock found near Feature 5.

Square 3A was excavated to expose all of the large chert nodule and to
make an effort to determine if it had been altered in any way to make it
look more animal-like. All of the "appendages" except the "head" had been
truncated deliberately. We can draw no definite conclusions,but it is
possible to speculate that this "creature" had not been broken, like the
rest of the nodules, because the prehistoric people noted its obvious
similarity to an animal. The large artifact recovery from such a small
part of the square near Paleo Dog would indicate that this was an activity
center. Stone implements continued to be recovered from Feature 5 to a depth
of 1.3 m below surface. Excavation was discontinued because we had reached
the watertable and the square was constantly wet. Tests made with a post-
hole digger to 1.75 m below surface uncovered no more artifacts.

Square 4 (see Fig. l).--The site of this 2-m2 was selected because it
was at a fairly high elevation and because surface collections indicated
that the artifact recovery might provide important information about Paleo-
Indian and Perceramic Archaic activities. A description of the artifacts


1. The smallest number of used artifacts C6%) recovered at the CCA site
came from Square 4.
2. A few very weathered specimens were found,but most of the remains
were thinning flakes with very little evidence of weathering.
3. Many of the thinning flakes were heat-altered, but interestingly,
there was no heat-altered material recovered from the lower levels.
It is not known if this observation can be used as an age indicator.
4. The presence of some exploded and more weathered material suggests
that there was probably a mixing of the time periods.
5. No diagnostic tools were recovered.

A description of the stratigraphy follows. Square 4 was dug by
10 cm levels. The surface had probably been disturbed by recent land-
clearing activities. Levels 1 and 2 were humus and roots in a gray sand
matrix. The sand became light gray in Level 3 with an increase in flakes
with iron concretions. Some artifacts were not lying horizontally in-
dicating that a disturbance had occurred in the past. Iron concretions
increased with depth and were present throughout the square by Level 6.
Excavations continued through Level 8 where gray clayey sand with iron
concretions was encountered. No artifacts were found in the clayey sand
tested with a posthole digger to 1.12 m below surface. The small number,
size, and type of artifacts recovered (mostly thinning flakes) suggests
a temporary habitation area where stone implements were resharpened,perhaps
as a minor part of the overall cultural activities that occurred there.

Square 5 (see Fig. 1).--This 1.5-m2 is approximately 10 m northwest
of Square 3 and is at a higher elevation on the hardwood hammock. The site
was selected because it appeared to be undisturbed by present-day land-
clearing operations, and because posthole tests indicated that important
information about stone-tool manufacture and utilization might be added to
that already recovered. A description of the artifacts follows:

1. Two stone implements were found. A Kirk Serrated point, dated
elsewhere at about 8,500 years old, permits us to assign with
confidence some of the artifacts to the Early Preceramic Archaic
Period. The point was vertical suggesting that the deposit had
been disturbed in the past. The other implement was a nicely made
incomplete tip of a biface, probably broken in the process of manu-
2. Most of the stone remains were unused, slightly weathered thinning
flakes. A few deeply weathered artifacts were found as well as some
fire-exploded fragments.

A description of the stratigraphy follows. The square was dug by
10 cm levels. Beneath a dark gray organically-stained sand with roots and
vegetation, the sand became light gray and graded to tan. Chert remains
were scarce until the bottom of Level 2. The flakes and blade-like flakes
became larger with depth and most of the cultural material was recovered
from the orange-tan sand. In the northwest quadrant in Level 4, an area of
black sand was encountered. The Kirk Serrated point mentioned above was
found at the top of Level 5 (40-50 cm below surface), and the other biface
was found in Level 6. There was a dramatic decrease in artifact recovery
halfway through Level 6. By Level 7, most of the material was very
weathered and exploded. No intentionally heat-altered flakes or flakes
with small ground platforms were found in Level 7. Levels 8, 9, and part


of 10 were primarily exploded,unused chert fragments. The spodic horizon,
which was present sporadically since Level 4, covered the entire floor of
the square toward the bottom of Level 7. Iron-stained clayey sand with
some large iron concretions began to appear. Some of the concretions
contained chert fragments. In Levels 10 and 11, there is a marked
increase in the size of the chert remains. Many of these appear to have
been exposed to fire but some of the material is quite sophisticated
though differing in technique from the specimens in the sand zone.

The evidence indicates that Levels 10 and 11 may represent a living
floor separated by a hiatus in recognizable cultural remains recovered from
the sand zone overlying it. Square 5A was excavated to investigate this
situation and to expand the black sand area seen at Level 4 and in the
profile. The results are to be reported elsewhere (Purdy, manuscript in

Square 1 (see Fig. 1).--This 3-m2 is located northwest of Duck Pond.
The site was selected because of its proximity to the pond and because a
number of Preceramic Archaic Period projectile points and a large quantity
of heat-altered chipping debris had been found on the surface nearby when
it was disturbed by recent land-clearning operations. A description of
the artifacts follows:

1. Two Middle Preceramic Archaic (5-6,000 years agol stemmed projectile
points were recovered, both of the Levy variety. One was found in
Level 1 and the other standing on end in Level 2 indicating a dis-
2. The overwhelming majority of the stone remains was fine chipping
debris, primarily unweathered heat-altered thinning flakes.
3. There were a few fire-exploded fragments found in the square as
well as a small amount of charcoal which is thought to be modern.
4. Sixty-one sand-tempered, nondiagnostic pottery sherds were found.

A description of the stratigraphy follows. The large number of arti-
facts in Level 1 indicates the surface had been removed either by natural
or human-induced activities. Natural downslope erosion is a possibility.
Iron-stained clayey sand was encountered in Level 1 in the southeast
quadrant immediately below the modern humus, Toward the bottom of Level 2,
clayey sand appeared throughout the square except in a sand pit, Feature 6.
It is believed that more recent artifacts might have been found in the
square if it had not been disturbed because Feature 6 probably served as
a refuge for the pottery. There was no indication that Feature 6 was more
than a void created when a tree root rotted away. No pottery was recovered
in Level 1. In Level 2 pottery was found only close to Feature 6. No
artifacts occurred in the clay.

Square 2 (see Fig. 1).--This 3-m2 is located approximately 30 m west of
Duck Pond. The site was selected because of its proximity to the pond and
because it did not seem to be disturbed by present-day landclearing acti-
vities. A description of the artifacts follows:

1. Thirteen recent points (arrowheads?) were recovered suggesting a date
for occupation from 500-1000 years ago. There were nine Pinellas
points and four Jackson or Duval points.



2. Thirteen sand-tempered pottery sherds were recovered.
3. Some material suggestive of the Preceramic Archaic, particularly
two unfinished points, were recovered.
4. A steeply flaked end scraper was found and is reminiscent of Paleo
5. There was some fire-exploded material.
6. Many heat-altered and unheated thinning flakes were recovered.
The flakes in the lower levels were not heated.
7. There was increased patina on the stone with depth.
8. The size of the artifacts increased with depth,as did the mixing
of techniques of different time periods.

A description of the stratigraphy follows. Square 2 was excavated
by 10 cm levels. This is the only square excavated at the CCA site where
at least a tentative statement can be made about the chronological
distribution of the diagnostic artifactual remains in the sand deposit.
It was observed that most of the recent arrowheads and the pottery were
recovered primarily from the first four levels. There did appear to be
some cultural mixing in Levels 4-6 but all of the artifacts suspected
of belonging to the Preceramic Archaic and Paleo-Indian Periods underlay
the younger material. In addition, the artifacts became more weathered
with depth. The stone remains tended to be larger with depth but this
might be due partially to settling.

Levels 1 and 2 were modern humus, roots and gray sand. Most of the
recent artifacts were recovered from Level 3. By Level 4, iron concretions
and spodic horizon began to appear in the north side of the square. The
underlying clayey sand zone was tested with a posthole digger but no
artifacts were found in it.

Square 3.--The location of the square is west of Square 2. Two pieces
of pottery were recovered and over 1200 stone remains weighing 4000 g;
none were diagnostic. The stone artifacts were primarily thinning flakes
including a large number that had been heat-altered. No lithic analysis
was conducted.

Discussion of Field Investigations

This report of investigations at the CCA site (8Mr1541 is primarily
descriptive. I had hoped to continue field and laboratory work but that
has not been possible to date. The frequency distributions of the raw
data, however, are interesting and even without further analysis it is
apparent that differences in weight, technique, and weathering of the
chert remains, and depositional changes in the stratigraphy will be sign-
ificant in making statements about time and space relationships. For

In Area 3, Sq. 3, it appears that after the stone was exposed, the
block-on-block technique or the firesetting method was used to break up
the huge nodules in some levels. From other levels of the same square,
however, every piece of stone possessed a striking platform, bulb of
percussion, and fairly uniform shape. Twelve per cent of the system-
atically struck and 15 per cent of the shattered material exhibited use
wear but only two bifacially flaked implements were recovered. Most
formal tools were made elsewhere at the site and these areas where final
reduction occurred are evidenced by the recovery of increased numbers of



points, fine chipping debris that is not found where procurement took place,
and thermally-altered flakes. For instance, the total weight of the stone
artifacts from Area 3, Sq. 3 was 206,053 grams (not including the large
nodules left at the site), an average of about 20 grams for each of the
10,000 specimens. Area 5, Sq. 2 yielded 4,069 artifacts weighing 16,629
grams (an average of 4 grams each). This square had 29 per cent of the
total artifact recovery of the two squares but only 7 per cent of the
weight. Thirteen points, other bifaces, scrapers, utilized flakes, and
fine chipping debris, including heat-altered flakes, were found in Area 5,
Sq. 2.

As noted recently by other investigators,(e.g., Peter White working
with people from New Guinea [White 1967] and Richard Gould's observations of
the Australian Aborigines [Gould et al. 1971]),I have also concluded that the
form of a stone implement is not as important in many cases as is its
functional edge. Also,use-wear on stone may not always be apparent;
therefore, even though use-wear can be detected on approximately 15% of
untrimmed flakes, it can probably be assumed that many more were used
that show no wear or no patterned use-scars,making positive interpretation
impossible. Another observation that complicates data analysis is that
re-use can occur and is evidenced by fairly "fresh" flake scars on deeply
weathered implements.

All known time periods of Florida's prehistory are represented at
the Container Corporation of America Site (Fig. 4). Chert remains from
a clayey sand matrix in Area 3, Squares 2, 3, and 5; and Area 2, Square 2W
provide strong evidence that an earlier stone tool tradition is also present
at the site.

The small, ground platformed thinning flakes are the least weathered
of all stone material recovered. They were sometimes found in association
with deeply weathered and eroded artifacts. Assuming that the material
is of similar quality and source (local) and that artifacts of the same
age exposed to the same environmental conditions will tend to weather
equally, we must conclude that artifacts of different ages have been mixed.

There is a suggestion that a Paleo-Indian component may be present in
a somewhat discrete position in the sand deposit. In Area 3, Square 4
and Area 5, Square 2, heat-altered thinning flakes are encountered in the
upper levels. Thinning flakes continued to be recovered from the lower
levels but they are not heat-altered. I have not observed that the practice
of thermal alteration was part of the stoneworking technology during the
Paleo Indian period. In addition, in Area 5, Square 2, a steeply flaked
end scraper CFig. 4 J) was found in Level 5. This technique is generally
considered Paleo-Indian and earlier. Furthermore, the unifacial scraper
recovered from Area 3, Square 2 (Fig. 4 I),also a Paleo-Indian or earlier
style, was found at the base of the sand deposit. In Area 3, Square 1
where the Suwannee point (Fig. 4 K) was recovered, no separation of the
material in the sand deposit was observed.

Nearly all of the heavily weathered or eroded chert remains lacked
bulbs of percussion and uniform shapes indicating that they were shattered
by the block-on-block technique or fire-exploded. Fire-exploded fragments
appeared in all of the squares but were more prevalent in the lower levels.
In the squares where artifacts were found in the clayey sand deposit, i.e.,
Area 3, Squares 2, 3, and 5, many of the stone implements apparently had

Table 1

Chert Artifact Recovery (CCA 8Mr1541

Area Used Unused Total Percentage of total excavated
Square No. % Wt.(g) % No. % Wt.(g) % No. Wt.(g) No. Wt.(g)
_____ Used Unused Used Unused

Area 1
Sq. 1 1,013 21 45,370 39 3,856 79 71,895 61 4,869 117,265 27 16 25 19

Area 2
Sq. 1 103 13 5,665 21 669 87 21,251 79 772 26,916 3 3 3 6
*Sq. 2W 72 26 8,740 47 210 74 9,935 53 282 18,675 2 1 5 3

Area 3
Sq. 1 69 10 1,375 48 591 90 1,500 52 660 2,875 2 2 1 0
*Sq. 2 139 6 14,710 30 2,328 94 34,460 70 2,467 49,170 4 10 8 9
*Sq. 3 &
Sq. 3A 1,670 15 92,149 30 9,499 85 211,338 70 11,169 303,487 44 40 51 57
Sq. 4 26 6 705 52 401 94 650 48 427 1,355 1 2 0 0
Sq. 5 112 7 4,087 30 1,478 93 9,660 70 1,590 13,747 3 6 2 3

Area 5
Sq. 1 172 14 875 35 1,131 86 1,622 65 1,303 2,497 5 5 0 0
Sq. 2 417 10 8,559 51 3,652 90 8,070 49 4,069 16,629 11 15 5 2
**Sq. 3 *** ***
(SE quad) 1,200 4,010

Total 3,793 14 182,235 33 23,815 86 370,381 67 27,608 552,616

*Does not

include large boulders left at site.
not analyzed except grossly--see notes.

***Not included in total.


Table 2. Information Recorded on Data Coding Sheets

Computer Code














Artifact number (e.g., 0027)
Artifact category (e.g., 13=utilized flake)
Site (e.g., 2=CCA Site)
Area of find at site (e.g., 0=surface; l=backhoe trench;
2=trench two; 3=3 meter square)
Square (e.g., 01=1; 02=2; 03=3; 04=4; 05=5; etc.)
Level (e.g., 0=not dug by levels; l=level 1; 2=level 2, etc.)
Type of site (e.g., l=workshop site; 2=quarry or outcrop;
3=habitation; 4=kill site; 5=mound; 6=quarry/workshop;
Area of site
Length in centimeters (e.g., 08.6)
Width in centimeters (e.g., 01.7)
Thickness in centimeters (e.g., 0.5)
Index (e.g., 0.23), length x width divided by thickness x 100
Weight in grams (e.g., 0024.6)
Heated, leave blank if question or do not know: (e.g., 0=no;
l=yes; 2=used with heat; 3=exposed to heat or heat damaged)
Pressure flaked (e.g., 0=no; l=slight; 2=yes)
Symmetrical (e.g., 0=no; 1=not too symmetrical; 2-fairly; 3=very)
Does it show signs of use?, leave blank if cannot determine:
(0=no; 1=yes, slight; 2=yes, heavy)
Type of use: (e.g., 00=abrader; 01=hammer; 02=scraper, etc.)
Patina (0=no; l=slight; 2=moderate; 3-heavy; 4-chalky;
5=moderately patinated/reflaked; 6=heavily patinated/
reflaked or shattered)
Solution weathering (0=no; l=slight; 2=moderate), rate is
based on visual or subjective determination
Angle of use or angle of edge (usually use): 0=<50 ; 1=>50 ;
Area of use: (0=single use area; 1=more than one area of use,
single face; 2=more than one area of use, both faces)
Length of use (e.g., 01.1) applicable mostly to scraping or cutting
Cortex (0=no; l=yes)
Flake type: (0=primary flake with cortex; l=secondary flake,
little or not cortex but also no multiple flake scars;
2=secondary flake with scars on dorsal surface; 3=flake
with bifacial flaking)
Amateur (0=no; l=yes, subjective; use only for projectiles
Striking platform (leave blank if mi-sing): 0=big; l=small;
2=big/prepared; 3=prepared/small; 4=ground or roughed
up/big; 5=ground or roughed up/small
Bulb of force: (l=salient; 2=diffuse)
Type of projectile point: (l=Paleo; 2=Bolen; 3=Archaic;
4=Early Ceramic; 5=Late Ceramic; 6-other or undeterminable)
Type of Archaic
Blades only: (l=triangular; 2=trapesoid; 3=triangular/nibbled;
4=trapesoid/nibbled; 5=nibbled)



Figure 4. Artifacts recovered at the CCA Site, 8Mr154: (A) Sand-tempered pottery (A.5, Sq.2);
(B) Pinellas point (A.5, Sq.2); (C) Jackson or Duval point (A.5, Sq.2); (D) Citrus
point (A.3, Sq.2); (E) Levy point (A.5, Sq.1); (F) Kirk Serrated (A.3, Sq.5);
(G) this type unnamed but assumed to Preceramic Archaic (A,3, Sq.3); (H) Bolen
Point (A.2, Surface); (I) Unifacial Scraper (A,3, Sq.2); (J) End scraper (A.5, Sq.2);
(K) Broken Suwannee point (A.3, Sq.1); (L) "nosed" implement (A.2, Sq.2W).



been partially destroyed by heat, but use-wear was not entirely obliterated.
In Area 3, Square 3, particularly the southwest quadrant, a peat fire may
have been responsible for the intense burning observed. The square is
adjacent to a pond and may actually have been part of the pond during
certain times. Another explanation for the occurrence of exploded stone
material is that the flintworkers were utilizing the ancient fire-setting
method to break up the large chert nodules. If fire-setting is done
correctly, however, there should be no damage to the material when using
this method as a procurement technique (Purdy 1981b).

The original objective of the investigations at the Container Corpor-
ation of America Site was to study the ways in which prehistoric stone-
workers processed chert raw material at a source and converted it into
finished products. The focus of the investigations has shifted, at least
temporarily, in order to document the existence of an occupation component
believed to underlie the Paleo-Indian Period in a sandy clay zone.


The investigations reported upon in this article were supported by
a grant from Container Corporation of America. I am grateful to the field
crew, particularly Carl McMurray, Ray Willis, and Nina Thanes Borreman,
for their excellent assistance and suggestions.

References Cited

Clark, David E. and Barbara A. Purdy
1979 Electron Microprobe Analysis of Weathered Florida Chert,
American Antiquity 44(3):517-524.

Gould, Richard A., Dorothy A. Koster and Ann H, L. Sontz
1971 The Lithic Assemblage of the Western Desert Aborigines of
Australia. American Antiquity 36(2):149-169.

Josselyn, D. W.
1965 The Lively Complex. Journal of Alabama Archaeology
11(2) :104-122.

Purdy, Barbara
1981a Florida's Prehistoric Stone Technology, University Presses
of Florida, Gainesville. (Currently in press

1981b Pyrotechnology: Prehistoric Application to Chert Materials
in North America. In Early Pyrotechnology, Smithsonian In-
stitution Publication, Washington. (Currently in press)

Purdy, Barbara A. and David E. Clark
1979 Weathering Studies of Chert: A Potential Solution to the
Chronology Problem in Florida. Proceedings of the Symposium
on Archaeometry and Archaeological Prospection, Bonn, Germany,
March, 1978.
White, J. Peter
1967 Ethno-Archaeology in New Guinea, Two Examples. Mankind
6(9):409-414. Dr. Barbara A. Purdy
Florida State Museum
Gainesville, Florida



Marsha A. Chance

As a result of the impending construction of a Tampa 1-75 bypass by the
Florida Department of Transportation, the Wetherington Island site (8Hi473)
was subjected to a preliminary excavation in October, 1979. Thirty-three
square meters were chosen randomly from the grided site and excavated over
a period of six weeks. This study was conducted under the auspices of Florida's
Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties of the Division of Archives, History
and Records Management (DAHRM).

Situated on Cowhouse Slough, which forms a drainage area for the Hills-
borough River, Wetherington Island is a lithic procurement site where the
aboriginal population obtained material suitable for tool manufacture. The
chert and agatized coral components of Florida's Miocene Tampa Formation were
readily available there, apparently due to the erosion of an unusual geologi-
Scal uplift within the flood zone of the slough. Artifacts recovered included
unaltered lithic material, lithic debris from the early and middle stages of
tool production, and a minimal number of reforms. A single projectile point
was recovered from disturbed context, and one point was found in a previously
untested location in October, 1980. Both were Archaic Stemmed points, which
are frequently found in eastern Hillsborough County. They represent a time
period between about 5,000 and 1,000 B.C. (Bullen 1975).

A partial analysis of the assemblage took place over a period of fifteen
weeks in the DAHRM laboratories in Tallahassee. Analysis indicates that the
assemblage also includes a significant number of lithic flakes which appear
to have been utilized. Recent replicative experimentation in the DAHRM labor-
atory has shown that the use-wear patterns on the artifacts closely resemble
those produced in scraping medium-hard materials, such as green hardwoods,
seasoned pine, or soaked antler. It may be that the site had a secondary
function, serving as a source for a specific plant material, or as an activity
area utilized for some other particular purpose.

The necessary excavation and evaluation of site 8Hi473 presented a multi-
plicity of research and logistical problems of taxing complexity. The char-
acter of the lithic assemblage was found to be at variance with that of lithics
usually collected in Florida, and the overwhelming number of potential arti-
facts was organizationally problematic.

A subsequent phase of excavation (Phase III) has been recommended, and
hypotheses have been formulated for further testing. In addition, Dr. S. B.
Upchurch of the University of South Florida has received a grant from the
Florida Board of Regents to conduct an extensive petrological analysis of
cherts from 8Hi473 and other sites.

Approximately three quarters of the site is situated on an erosional clay
remnant. The remnant is overlain by a thin sand strata, and interfaces with
undulating limestone at about 130 centimeters below surface. The lithic debris
is located primarily at the surface of the clay, although some culturally mod-
ified material has been recovered from within the clay in two specific locations



These materials may represent site use precedent to the Middle Archaic and
will require further analysis.

As a result of predicted intersite relationships and intrasite varia-
bility, and because it is a very large lithic procurement site, Wetherington
Island represents an aspect of Florida's cultural prehistory which is of
major significance. Geologically, the site is significant because major
studies of similar lithic resources have not previously been undertaken in
Florida. The environmental, technological, functional, spatial and temporal
aspects of the site all warrant continued study; therefore, the site has been
deemed eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places
under the criteria established in the Code of Regulations.

Site Description

Site 8Hi473 is bordered on the south by a creek, on the east and north
by seasonal ponds, and on the west by a ditched drainage area (Figure 1).
During times of flood, the erosional remnant is surrounded by flowing water.
To the north, an extension of the site lies on the slope between the pond
and an upland deep sand site approximately a quarter of a mile distant.

The site is underlain by limestone of the Tampa Formation, deposited
during the early Miocene age. Weathering has induced the formation of an
insoluble clay cap or erosional remnant upon the limestone and contains
discrete chert inclusions within the limestone formed by a process of ground
water percolation. As silicon-rich sea waters percolated downward, portions
of the limestone substrata were dissolved and replaced by chalcedony, thereby
constructing a very durable form of chert. Most of the chert at Wetherington
Island was apparently precipitated along the bedding planes, and is there-
fore layered between limestone strata (Upchurch 1980).

The clay stratum at the site is a highly plastic formation which has
been assumed by geologists to predate human population. The upper levels
of the B horizon are oxidized to a light or dark brown color, while the lower
levels are yellow-gray clay. At between fifty and one hundred centimeters
below the surface of the clay there is evidence of limestone deterioration
to marl, precedent to the formation of the clay overburden. The clay is over-
lain by a single stratum of Bradenton fine sand, ranging from twenty to thirty
centimeters in thickness.

Limestone and chert nodules occur in abundance on the south end of the
clay knoll adjacent to the creek, although interpretation is complicated by
the placement of dredge spoil on the creek bank. It is apparent,however,
that quantities of chert may have been exposed on the erosional remnant prior
to the accumulation of the sandy upper strata.

Within the floodplain of Cowhouse Creek, there are two vegetative phases
before the upland begins. A hydrophytic community characteristic of a sub-
merged water's edge environment occurs along the banks of the creek. The
second phase, which is the ecotone (transitional phase) between the hydro-
phytic and upland phases, is represented by a ten meter band containing a
number of species which connote disturbance. It is dominated by a fairly
typical mixed live oak hammock with a live oak/sweet gum/hickory association,
and has been altered by man within the last forty to fifty years.


The top of the clay knoll supports an agricultural field of grasses and
sedges, and has suffered major soil displacement over the last fifty to one
hundred years. North of the field is a typical upland hammock, though it too
has been disturbed from man's influence in recent years.

Ground cover is minimal, and the understory has a very low diversity due
to cattle damage. The largest trees are one hundred to 150 years old, in-
dicating immaturity of the mesic forest. Logging activities and catastrophic
fire have opened the canopy and allowed smaller trees to grow up (Atkins 1979).

On the basis of vegetation and disturbance patterns, the erosional
remnant was initially classified into three sub-areas, Areas A, B, and C,
which were subjected to formal excavation techniques. Excavation units were
chosen from a random table of numbers, and 1x2 meter rectangles were exca-
vated to facilitate widely dispersed testing of the large site. Soil was
removed in arbitrary ten centimeter levels, except where evident strati-
graphy warranted removal by natural zones. In most units, the sand over-
burden was removed to the level of the clay surface, and the clay subsurface
was tested with a soil auger for the presence of culturally modified lithic
inclusions. Soil removal required small tools rather than shovels, since
the site is quite shallow and the lithics are heavily concentrated. Quarter-
inch mesh was used for screening, with the addition of eighth-inch mesh when
very small flakes were present. Soil samples for Ph, phosphate, and pollen
analysis were removed from a ten centimeter column in the southwest corner
of each unit. Areas outside of the grid were subjected to informal and
uncontrolled tests for assessing content and evaluation.

Upon excavation,it was determined that the subsurface concentration of
lithic material was so voluminous that a smaller unit of examination would
be required to facilitate adequate recording. In order to retain secure
associations between categories of debitage after excavation, four quadrants
were designated within each two meter square.

The artifact assemblage from site 8Hi473 is composed entirely of lithic
material, and approximately four thousand pounds of chert and limestone were
transported to Tallahassee to be washed, processed and analyzed. The individ-
ual fragments ranged widely in size and conformation. Some were too large to
be moved,although culturally altered, and required classification in situ.
The smallest flakes were approximately fifty millimeters wide.

Lithic technology has been defined by Collins (1975) as a system in which
raw material is extracted from the physical environment and subsequently mod-
ified by specific techniques to produce a sequence of product groups. The
presence or absence of various product groups within the artifact assemblage is
indicative of the functional limitations of the site. During each of the
stages in the lithic reduction process, certain forms (product groups) are pro-
duced and discarded or saved for future use. Collins has generated an etic
model for the tool reduction process, which allows the archaeologist to make
inferences regarding emic site function. The seven manufacturing stages and
the product groups of this model have been employed for this project. The
stages are:



I. Acquisition of raw material
II. Core preparation and reduction
III. Primary trimming
IV. Secondary trimming
V. Modification or refurbishment
VI. Use
VII. Disposal

In an attempt to reconstruct the cultural activity pattern at Wethering-
ton Island, the assemblage was further classified by a system of discrete
attributes which relate to stages I through VII. The system was devised by
members of the DAHRM staff, on the basis of lithic analytical categories dis-
cussed in archaeological literature. Systems relied on primarily included
those of White (1963) and Crabtree (1972).

Artifacts manifesting micro-flaking as a result of use-wear were exam-
ined at 25x magnification with a stereoscopic lens. Magnification allowed
classification of the use-wear flaking pattern according to utilization
(scraping, sawing, cutting, or drilling), as well as observations regarding
the type of material worked (Tringham 1974). A comparative collection was
manufactured by replicative techniques in an attempt to define specific
cultural activities which produced the use-wear patterns.


Excavation indicated that lithic material is multitudinous in Area C
(near the creek), occurs in less volume in Area A (near the north pond), and
is limited in Area B (near the center of the knoll), which has been severely
altered by agricultural activity. A fourth section of the site, Area D, is
located on the north side of the north pond. It was tested but not subjected
to formal excavation. It differs from the clay remnant in terms of soil type,
artifact deposition, lithic classification, and lithic volume. In Area D
the cultural material is scattered through a thick subsurface horizon of
yellow sand, and the artifact assemblage includes an assortment of small
debris categories associated with later stages on the reduction continuum.
At fifty to seventy centimeters below surface,red clay or sandy muck was
encountered, as opposed to the clay characteristic of the nearby remnant.
The assemblages from Area A, B, and C, in contrast to that of Area D, incor-
porated large quantities of unaltered resource material as well as a wide
range of altered lithic debris produced during the early and middle stages of
lithic reduction, Evidence of utilized edges occurred in the assemblages from
all areas,

The interpretation of the uniquely uncharacteristic lithics collected
at site 8Hi473 was found to be a complicated, time-consuming process, Also,
because a Phase III project would be recommended, only three one meter quad-
rants were completely analyzed during Phase II laboratory procedures. The
units chosen were considered representative of the intrasite variability upon
which the hypotheses to be tested by Phase III investigations were based
(Table 1).

Unaltered material represented 54% of the artifacts removed from the
three units. On an individual basis, the unaltered material accounted for
55.9% of the specimens in unit 1, 65% from unit 2, and 49.8% from unit 3.



In each unit, the majority of the material (92.5 to 99.8%) was in the four
to sixty-four millimeter size range. A comparison by weight, however, in-
dicates that the altered material actually weighed more than the unaltered.
One implication of this contrast is that the altered portion of the assemblage
may have included more dense chert, perhaps as a result of aboriginal choice
based on weight. Units 1 and 2 are located in Area C near the creek, while
unit 3 is in Area A, at the top of the erosional remnant. While unaltered
material is predominant in Area C and recessive in Area A, the opposite is
true of the altered material. If altered and utilized specimens are viewed
as one category, unit 2 yielded 35.6%, and unit 3 produced 78.6%. The pre-
dominance of decortication flakes in Area C, as opposed to a dearth of them
in Area A, is also indicative of a reduction step differentiation. Figure 2
illustrates an example of the product groups taken from a single excavation
unit in Area A. They are arranged in the order of production, and include
products from the first three manufacturing stages in the lithic reduction

A comparison of utilized material in each unit indicates that more
utilized debris and tools were recovered from units 1 (132) and 3 (133), than
from unit 2 (29). However, two additional factors are important to the under-
standing of utilized material. First, the assemblages from Area C contained
a large number of hammerstones, and that of Area A did not.

Unit 1 contained forty-eight scrapers and forty-seven hammerstones, four
with secondary usage. Thus it appears that the relatively heavier activities
of initial procurement and core reduction were occurring to a greater degree
in Area C. The second point concerns a definition of the term, "utilization"
at site 8Hi473. With the exception of a few tools, utilized specimens have
been subjected to very minimal usage. They are fragments of debitage selected
from the masses of discarded debris, and the difference between those used
and those not used is often indistinct. The task completed, the utilized
specimen was discarded for a second time. As a result of minimal use-wear,
analysis was difficult, depending largely on the expertise of a skilled lithic
technologist, aided by magnification.

The chert of site 8Hi473 is a sedimentary rock characterized by a dense
cryptocrystalline structure and composed of chalcedony and cryptocrystalline
quartz. Some of the artifacts recovered from the B horizon at 8Hi473 appear
to be porcelanite, but there are no comparable specimens from sand proveniences.
Porcelanization may therefore be a function of environmental and temporal
variables, as well as impure inclusions. There is frequent reference to the
"chert problem" in geological literature (Pettijohn 1957). This problem, as
it applies to site 8Hi473, is multiple. For example, the lithic assemblage
is dominated by chert which is extremely weathered or patinated on the ex-
terior surfaces. This "rind" is characterized by roughness and albification
comparable to the appearance of limestone. Chemical tests indicate,however,
that it is in fact silaceous, does not react with acid, and therefore that
this "cortex" is actually a thick layer of patination. It is texturally quite
divergent from the patination ordinarily observed. It is speculated that it
occurred as a result of silica replacement by opal, but no studies have been
conducted toward the mineralogical interpretation of patination processes.
The studies now being conducted on 8Hi473 artifacts by Dr. Upchurch may
clarify this aspect of chert patination processes.

In addition, the interior colorations of the chert range widely. Chert
colors are known to represent mineral content, but the colors and content are


also affected by age and patination processes. Thus, the "chert problem,"
as it applies to the cultural interpretation of the Wetherington Island site,
is one of variability. The causes of patination are not specifically under-
stood, though they can be enumerated (temporal, environmental, and mineral-
ogical), and the mineral content varies widely even within an individual out-
crop. The interpretation of the lithic assemblage from site 8Hi473 is there-
fore limited by insufficient petrological research.

A second silaceous material is also evident in the artifact assemblage.
Fossilized coral was formed as silica replaced the structure of coral heads
within the Tampa Formation. Culturally altered corals appear at site 8Hi473,
primarily in the eastern half of Area C. Unit 2 within this area contained
pressure flaked coral and coral debitage which had been thermally altered,
three qualities which were not evident in other excavation units. The coral
may have had a separate origin, or it may represent a separate temporal in-
terval, or both, thus rendering unit 2 anomalous in terms of spatial and
functional variables.

Table 1. Phase II Lithic Analysis Totals Site 8Hi473

Tools and Obviously
Unit Unaltered Altered Utilized Debris Utilized Debris

1. 80S/04W-C 55.9% 43.9% 132 67

2. 98S/40E-B 64 % 35.6% 29 5

3. 26N/04E-D 49.8% 78.6% 133 39


The watershed of the Hillsborough River lies within the Central Gulf
Coast archeological region, as defined by Goggin in 1949. Little systematic
research, particularly in the riverine environment, has been conducted in the
area since that time. In recent years, state and federal laws regulating
the protection of cultural resources have promoted studies of the inland
sector, and as a result, a number of reports have been generated which are
beginning to form the foundation for a comprehensive understanding of pre-
historic exploitation within the Hillsborough River drainage system. It is
expected that the reports resulting from current excavations in the 1-75
right-of-way in eastern Hillsborough County will contribute substantially to
the extant body of archeological data for the region.

The Archaic period, which commenced in approximately 8500 B.C. (Milanich
and Fairbanks 1980), is now ordinarily subdivided into Early, Middle, and Late
manifestations. Populations during the Archaic were perhaps less nomadic and
more dependent upon seasonal usage and occupation of specific sites than
earlier people had been, and their tools and lithic production techniques
varied as well. The inland Archaic sites of west central Florida are mainly
lithic scatters which seem to have been left behind as the people abandoned


Figure 2. Site 8Hi473--Lithic Product Groups from Early States of
Reduction (Recovered from a Single Excavation Unit in Area A)

Top Line--(left to right) hard hammer bifacial reduction flakes,
secondary decortication flakes, primary decortication flakes,
hammerstone fragments

Middle Line--(left to right) choppers, broken bifaces, intact
bifaces, broken blanks (primary decortication flakes),
intact blanks (primary decortication flakes)

Bottom Line--hammerstones



one resource procurement area in search of another. Surface indications
range from the presence of one or two lithic flakes to scatters of debitage
and tools extending over very large horizontal areas. Subsurface testing
has shown that in some cases these scatters also extend vertically to depths
of over two meters below surface. Judging from the number of sites present,
the upper reaches of the Hillsborough River were popularly exploited. Obvi-
ously, the river and its tributaries provided fresh water and a high protein
food source, as well as transportation. The insular land form, as it now
appears between the Hillsborough River and Cowhouse Slough, supports scatter-
ed lithic concentrations throughout, as well as the large lithic source site,
8Hi473. It is possible that the petrological analyses now being performed
can chemically link the lithics of the procurement site with those of adjacent
sites which served other primary functions in the Middle to Late Archaic

The archeological interpretation of the Archaic period is also character-
ized by minimum petrological research. Since lithic tools and the debitage
resulting from their production form the entire assemblage from the majority
of Archaic sites, it is imperative that petrological studies be increased so
that intersite and intrasite relationships can be established. The excavation
and analysis of materials from site 8Hi473 will contribute significantly to
the present data base because it is a source site for the lithics recovered
from any number of other sites.

The research goals for a Phase III excavation were formulated as the
Phase II project progressed, and have been subsequently augmented with the
advancement of laboratory analysis. In addition to the questions alluded to
in this report, the following specific field observations also led to the
generation of hypotheses to be tested through Phase III excavation.

Prehistoric Environment

The Phase II investigation was initially hampered by major flooding in
early October, 1979. There was one fortunate aspect to the inundation,however,
in that the erosional remnant became completely surrounded by flowing water.
This occurrence, coupled with information given by the property owner regard-
ing historic inundation levels, aided in our ability to reconstruct the pre-
historic environment.

Another indication of ancient site morphology was extrapolated from the
localization of culturally produced lithic material on the surface of the
clay (B) horizon. Since the majority of the material was lying at the inter-
face of the clay and the sand overburden, it appeared that the erosional
remnant had been at least partially stripped of the A horizon at the time
artifact deposition. Some large boulders, their bases imbedded in the clay,
extended upward and protruded above the surface.

The excavation of specific archeological features also led to the tenta-
tive observation that portions of the erosional remnant had been periodically
scoured and eroded by a flow of water. In one unit, three depressions were
encountered in the clay surface. Each was on the downslope, or southwestern
side, of a large boulder, and each had been filled by the sand overburden.
This pattern is one which occurs when the velocity of water turbulence is
great enough to promote the formation of eddies downstream of an obstruction
in the flow. If the turbulence is sufficient to produce erosion velocity,



the critical tractive force is attained, entrainment of soil grains occurs,
and a depression is formed. The process is also aided by hydraulicking,
which is the removal of loose material by the force of impact of the water
alone (Morisawa 1968).

Technological Production

"Quarry" is a general term which is defined as a place where stone is
excavated by cutting or blasting (Webster 1970). The term has not been em-
phasized in this report for two reasons. First, there is no evidence of true
quarring activity, which depends upon cutting into a rock face or subsurface
strata. Second, although all stages probably occurred sporadically, pre-
liminary analysis showed that the majority of the material was produced near
the beginning of the lithic reduction continuum. As a result, it is theorized
that the technological production was primarily limited to what might best be
termed procurement activities. Toward the achievement of specificity then,
the site has been designated a lithicc procurement station."

Spatial Distribution

Ethnological studies have shown that when performing lithic procurement
and reduction activities, members of extant hunting and gathering groups
arrange themselves in predictable spatial distributions over the surface of
the site (White et al. 1977). Gould (1977) has also stated that "chipping
stations at large quarry sites generally consist of small circular or oval
patches of ground. These small clearings are mainly used when men en-
gaged in percussion-trimming flakes from cores with prepared striking plat-
forms, as opposed to the much heavier work of obtaining flakes by means of
block-on-block percussion applied to natural outcrops and large boulders at
the site. Thus most of the waste flakes one finds around and on such clearings
tend generally to be smaller than those found over the site as a whole."

Phase II excavations uncovered a number of conformities which appeared
to be the edges of thin, circular or oval lithic clusters on the clay surface
of the erosional remnant. They seemed to consist of comparatively smaller
debris, and occurred outside the areas of heaviest lithic concentration. It
is suggested that the excavation of large continuous areas may reveal a com-
plete circular scatter produced by the activity of one or a pair of individuals.

A second category of spatial patterning appeared to relate to the high
concentration of material apparent in Area A, adjacent to the creek. In exca-
vation units placed progressively northward over the site and away from the
creek, the amount of recovered artifactual material was progressively min-
imized, as if proximity to the concentration of source material were a sign-
ificant variable.

Hypotheses for Future Research

It has been determined that site 8Hi473 is a lithic procurement station
utilized during the Middle to Late Archaic period (Chance 1980a; 1980b). How-
ever, a number of additional questions have been raised regarding the environ-
mental, technological, functional, spatial, and temporal aspects of the site.
Thorough illumination of these processes will require additional data; there-
fore,a set of four hypotheses and test implications have been formulated to



be tested through Phase III excavation. They are interrelated to the degree
that a solid comprehension of site definition and intrasite variability will
depend upon complete testing of each hypothesis.

The test implications of the following hypotheses have been omitted here
in the interest of space

Hypothesis I: Time
Areas A and C of site 8Hi473 were utilized during the Middle to
Late Archaic period.
Hypothesis II: Function
Site 8Hi473 was utilized primarily as a lithic procurement station,
although additional activities occurred on the site as well.
Hypothesis III: Space and Technology
The intital stages of the lithic reduction process appear to have
occurred primarily adjacent to the creek in Area C, at the location
of the major concentration of lithic material. Progressively later
stages in the reduction continuum occurred progressively northward
over the site. The final stages of reduction, including thermal
alteration, occurred primarily north of the pond in Area D, and
at other sites.
Hypothesis IV: Space
The spatial distribution of the on-site lithic reduction activities
at site 8Hi473 includes a pattern of individualized lithic clusters
scattered over the surface of the erosional remnant.
Hypothesis V: Function
The functional distribution of the on-site activities at site
8Hi473 will be indicated by an observable pattern of simultaneous
use differentiation which may include lithic resource procurement
and reduction and plant and animal resource procurement and pre-
paration, as well as other habitation-related activities.

In order to test adequately the stated hypotheses, it will be necessary
to excavate approximately thirty square meters within Areas A, C, and D,
during Phase III investigations. The correct evaluation of the archeological
and paleontological remains will be dependent upon an assortment of inven-
tories, which will be conducted in the DAHRM laboratory and by specialists
under contract with the DAHRM. Three categories of analyses, including general
analysis, lithic material identification, and statistical analysis will be
required for adequate inventorying of the resources and data recovered from
this site. A final report is expected in 1982.

References Cited

Bullen, Ripley P.
1975 A Guide to the Identification of Florida Projectile Points.
Kendall Books, Gainesville.

Chance, Marsha A.
1980a A Preliminary Report of Phase II Investigations at Wetherington
Island: A Lithic Procurement Site in Hillsborough County.
DAHRM Miscellaneous Project Report Series.
1980b The Wetherington Island Site (8Hi473); An Archaic Lithic
Procurement Station. Holocene Geology and Man in Pinellas
and Hillsborough Counties, Florida. Southeastern Geological
Society Guidebook, No. 22. Tallahassee.



Collins, Michael B.
1975 Lithic Technology as a Means to Processual Inference. Lithic
Technology: Making and Using Stone Tools. Earl Swanson, ed.
Mouton Publishers, Paris.

Crabtree, Don E.
1972 An Introduction to Flintworking. Occasional Papers of the
Idaho State University Museum. Earl H. Swanson and B. Robert
Butler, eds. Vol. 28, part 2. Pocatello, Idaho,

Goggin, John M.
1949 Cultural Traditions in Florida Prehistory. The Florida Indian
and His Neighbors. John W. Griffin, ed. Rollins College,
Winter Park.

Gould, R. A.
1977 Ethno-archaeology; or Where Do Models Come From? Stone Tools
as Cultural Markers: Change, Evolution and Complexity.
R. V. S. Wright, ed. Humanities Press, Inc., New Jersey.

Milanich, Jerald T. and Charles H. Fairbanks
1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic Press, New York.

Morisawa, Marie
1968 Streams: Their Dynamics and Morphology. McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York.

Pettijohn, Francis J.
1957 Sedimentary Rocks. Harper and Brothers, New York,

Tringham, Ruth, et al.
1974 Experimentation in the Formation of Edge Damage: A New Approach
to Lithic Analysis. Journal of Field Archaeology, Volume 1.

Upchurch, S. B.
1980 Report on the Geology of the Archaeological Site at Cowhouse
Creek and Morris Bridge Road (8Hi473), Hillsborough County,
Florida. Manuscript on File, DAHRM.

Webster's Dictionary
1970 Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language. The
World Publishing Company, New York.

White, Anita M.
1963 Analytic Description of the Chipped-stone Industry from Snyders
Site, Calhoun County, Illinois. Miscellaneous Studies in
Typology and Classification, Anthropological Papers, No. 19
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
White, J. Peter, et al.
1977 Group Definitions and Mental Templates. Stone Tools as
Cultural Markers: Change, Evolution and Complexity.
R. V. S. Wright, ed. Humanities Press, Inc., New Jersey.

Marsha A. Chance
Florida Division of Archives
History and Records Management
Tallahassee, Florida



Brent W. Smith

In a recent article (Smith 1975a) I provided some evidences of the
participation of the prehistoric occupants of the Young's Bayou drainage
area of Natchitoches Parish in Northwest Louisiana in a vast lithic raw
material trade network during Archaic and Poverty Point (1700-500 B.C.;
Webb 1977) times. One of the underlying assumptions was that the Poverty
Point and Beau Rivage Sites in Louisiana, Jaketown and Claiborne in
Mississippi, and Calion in Arkansas served as redistribution centers which
provided raw materials or finished products for a number of other groups
of people throughout the Lower Mississippi Valley (Figure 1).

Prior to that paper, the idea of the Poverty Point Site as a redis-
tribution center had been explored by Howard Winters (1968), Clarence
Webb (1968), Jon Gibson (1973 and 1974), Ted Brasher (1973), and Brent
W. Smith (1974 and 1975b). Only Brasher, however, has attempted to
systematically describe the precise relationships of those sites which
participated in the Late Archaic-Poverty Point lithic trade network. His
research involved the use of central place theories from the discipline
of geography to examine the function of the Poverty Point type site and
other Poverty Point sites within the various lithic trade networks in the
Lower Mississippi Valley. Since the publication of the Young's Bayou
study (Smith 1975a), Clarence Webb (1977) and Jon Gibson (1979) have
further discussed the Poverty Point trade network and have posited certain
sites as redistribution centers.

Recently, new data obtained from the University of Virginia at
Charlottesville (courtesy C.G. Holland, Department of Anthropology, and
Ralph Allen, Department of Chemistry) and from Alden B. Carpenter, Depart-
ment of Geology, University of Missouri (Schambach 1975), provide some
provocative insights on the steatite (soapstone) trade network in the
Lower Mississippi Valley and adjacent areas. Steatite or soapstone can
be simply defined as "any stone containing the mineral talc" (Holland,
Pennell and Allen n.d.), which formed geologically from the metamorphism
of serpentine bearing rocks containing varying amounts of rare earth
elements. Steatite in the form of whole vessels or vessel fragments has
been discovered at nine Poverty Point sites in Louisiana, at eleven sites
in Mississippi, and at three in Arkansas (Webb 1977:35). Steatite samples
were analyzed for trace elements by using neutron activation as a means
for relating an individual artifact from a particular site to the outcrop
which served as the original quarry source and to artifacts from other
sites where these artifacts had been brought or traded. This technique
has been discussed previously by Alvin Luckenbach, C.G. Holland and Ralph
O. Allen (1975a, 1975b), and Clyde L. Quimby (1975).

The results of these analyses are provided in tabular form in Tables 1
and 2. The data provided in Table 2 are more specific in terms of quarry
locations (due to a greater availability of existing quarry source infor-
mation) and are, therefore, more beneficial. Both universities analyzed
samples from the Poverty Point Site; Carpenter (Table 1) assumes a Northwest
Georgia or Eastern Alabama quarry source which is consistent with Holland
and Allen who "match-up" the "Army 2" specimen with a hypothetical Alabama



-- Galena
L- --White Chert
I Hematite
I Magnetite

Gulf of Mexico







16WC1 Poverty Point Southern Appalachians
Nine Specimens Poverty Point (N.W. Georgia and E. Alabama)

3LA5 Johnny Ford (Lewisville) Archaic/Fourche Southern Appalachians
One Specimen Maline (N.W. Georgia and E. Alabama)

3LA7 One Specimen Archaic Southern Appalachians
(N.W. Georgia and E. Alabama)

3LA25 One Specimen Archaic Southern Appalachians
(N.W. Georgia and E. Alabama)

3C026 King's Creek Archaic Southern Appalachians
One Specimen (Fragment of Bowl) (N.W. Georgia and E. Alabama)

3CL29 Kirkham Archaic/Marksville/ Southern Appalachians
One Specimen Coles Creek (N.W. Georgia and E. Alabama)
__________________________________ __________________________I_________________________________I



16WC1 Poverty Point
16WC1 Poverty Point
16WC1 Poverty Point
Claiborne (MS)
Terrall Lewis
Young's Bayou
Young's Bayou
22QU577 Joe George
22C0543 Meredith
22LF 500 Neill
22QU518 Norman
22LF540 McGary
22QU567 Tackett
22HU553 Honey Island

22HU505 Jaketown
22HU505 Jaketown
22HU505 Jaketown
22CR504 Teoc Creek
22CR504 Teoc Creek

22CR504 Teoc Creek

Poverty Point
Poverty Point
Poverty Point
Poverty Point
Poverty Point
Late Archaic
Late Archaic
Poverty Point
Poverty Point
Poverty Point
Poverty Point
Poverty Point
Poverty Point



Poverty Point

AL-1: Alabama Quarry
AL Sites; Tackett Site (MS)
NC; Amelia Co. Chula Quarry, VA
AL Quarry 1TA15; 9FU83 Quarry, GA
DeKalb Co., GA Quarry; 40M08 (TN); Cobb
DeKalb Co., GA Quarry; 40M08 (TN); Cobb
Soapstone Ridge Quarry, DeKalb Co., GA
DeKalb Co., GA Quarry; 40M08 (TN); Cobb
Terrall Lewis; Alabama Habitation Sites
Soapstone Ridge Quarry, DeKalb Co., GA
Alabama Habitation Sites
Soapstone Ridge Quarry, DeKalb Co., GA
Alabama Quarry 1TA15; Georgia Quarry
Soapstone Ridge Quarry, DeKalb Co., GA
Soapstone Ridge Quarry, DeKalb Co., GA
Soapstone Ridge Quarry, DeKalb Co., GA

Co., GA; AL
Co., GA; GA

Co., GA; GA

- 9FU83

I I. I



quarry, "AL-1". Samples "Miss 8,9,10,16,18-24" in Table 2 are not listed
specifically, but are from the following sites: 22QU567, Tackett (1 sherd),
22CR504, Teoc Creek (1 sherd), 22HU505, Jaketown (7 sherds), and 22QU518,
Norman (1 sherd).

With only one exception (16NA58, Young's Bayou: sample "Army 7" in
Table 2), all specimens match-up with quarries or sites in Georgia or
Alabama, thus precisely documenting the "Poverty Point Interaction Sphere"
in the Lower Mississippi Valley, Alabama and Georgia. The Young's Bayou
specimen remains an anomaly. This match-up with sites in North Carolina
and the Chula Quarry in Amelia County, Virginia, is puzzling. The Young's
Bayou Site had a Late Archaic component which evidenced possible inter-
action with the Poverty Point Culture, but nothing completely definitive.
Does this indicate the involvement of the occupants at Young's Bayou with
a Late Archaic steatite trade network other than Poverty Point, or does
this indicate instead that more data is needed on Poverty Point steatite?
I suspect the latter is the case, but-only when hundreds of additional
samples are analyzed from the Poverty Point Site and other sites and
quarries within and outside of the Lower Mississippi Valley, will we get
a better handle on the mechanisms, nature and extent of this Late Archaic-
Poverty Point steatite trade network and "Interaction Sphere".


First of all, I would like to thank C. G. Holland and Ralph Allen
of the University of Virginia for their neutron activation analysis of
the steatite sherds. I am also appreciative to John Connaway, Survey
Archaeologist, Mississippi Department of Archives and History, for pro-
viding the specimens from Mississippi and to H. F. ("Pete") Gregory,
Department of Social Sciences, Northwestern State University, for pro-
viding the specimens from Poverty Point, Terrell Lewis and Young's Bayou
listed in Table 2. I would also like to thank Mrs. Charlyn Spies for the
typing of the manuscript.

This article is a slightly revised version of an article previously
published in the Louisiana Archaeological Society Newsletter (Smith 1976).
I would also like to thank the Society for permission to publish this

References Cited

Brasher, Ted. J.
1973 An Investigation of Some Central Functions of Poverty Point.
Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Northwestern State University of
Louisiana, Natchitoches.

Gibson, Jon L.
1973 Social Systems at Poverty Point, An AnAlysis of Intersite
and Intrasite Variability. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation,
Southern Methodist University, Dallas.

1974 Poverty Point: The First North American Chiefdom,
Archaeology 27(2):97-105.



1979 Poverty Point Trade in South Central Louisiana: An
Illustration From Beau Rivage. Louisiana Archaeology

Holland, C. G. and Ralph O. Allen
1975a Soapstone Artifacts: Tracing Prehistoric Trade Patterns
in Virginia. Science 187:57-58.

1975b The Application of Instrumental Activation Analysis to a
Study of Prehistoric Steatite Artifacts and Source Materials.
Archaeometry 17(1):69-83.

Quimby, Clyde L.
1975 Tracing Prehistoric Trade Routes Using Soapstone (Steatite)
Artifacts. Tennessee Archeological Society Newsletter
20(12) :6-7.

Schambach, Frank
1975 A Unique Engraved Steatite Bowl From Southwest Arkansas.
Bulletin of the Arkansas Archaeological Society.

Smith, Brent W.
1974 Prehistoric Settlement Patterns of the Young's Bayou
Drainage, Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana. Unpublished
M.A. Thesis, Northwestern State University of Louisiana,

1975a Prehistoric Settlement Patterns of the Young's Bayou
Drainage, Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana. Louisiana
Archaeology 2:163-200.

1975b The Round School Site. Newsletter of the Louisiana
Archaeological Society.

1976 The Late Archaic-Poverty Point Steatite Trade Network
in the Lower Mississippi Valley: A Preliminary Report.
Louisiana Archaeological Society Newsletter 3(4):6-10.

Webb, Clarence H.
1968 The Extent and Content of Poverty Point Culture. American
Antiquity 33(3):297-321.

1977 The Poverty Point Culture. Geoscience and Man 17. School
of Geoscience, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge.

Winters, Howard D.
1968 Values Systems and Trade Cycles of the Late Archaic. In
New Perspectives in Archaeology, edited by Sally R. Binford
and Lewis R. Binford, pp. 175-221. Aldine, Chicago.

Brent W. Smith
Metairie, Louisiana


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