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Fattening steers on winter pasture with ground snapped corn, ground shallu heads, molasses and cottonseed meal

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Fattening steers on winter pasture with ground snapped corn, ground shallu heads, molasses and cottonseed meal
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Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 391
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Kidder, Ralph W.
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Gainesville, Fla.
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University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
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Bulletn 391August, 1943


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
WILMON NEWELL, Director GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA





FATTENING STEERS ON


WINTER PASTURE

WITH
GROUND SNAPPED CORN, GROUND SHALLU HEADS,
MOLASSES AND COTTONSEED MEAL By R. W. KIDDER


Fig. 1. Steers fattening on winter pasture in the Everglades.


Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 391




EXECUTIVE STAFF
John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of the University8
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Directors Harold Mowry. M.S.A., Asso. Director L. 0. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Dir., Admin.' J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor3 Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editors Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editors Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian Ruby Newhall, Administrative Managers K. H. Graham, LL.D., Business Manager3 Claranelle Alderman, Accountant3

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY
W. E, Stokes, M.S., Agronomist' Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Associate2 W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Associate G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Associate Fred A. Clark, B.S., Assistant

ANIMAL INDUSTRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialist's R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman5 E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologists D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian3 L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist' N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.3 T. R. Freeman, Ph.D., Asso. in Dairy Mfg. R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., Asso. An. Hush. D. J. Smith, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.' P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Hush.3 G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.4
0. K. Moore, M.S., Asst. Poultry Hush.3 J. E. Pace, B.S., Asst. An. Hush.3 S. P. Marshall, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutr. C. B. Reeves, B.S., Asat. Dairy Tech.
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agr. Economist' 3 Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate Max E. Brunk, M.S. Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1 Ruth 0. Townsend, R.N. Assistant R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist' A. N. Tissot, Ph.D. Associate' H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A. Horticulturist' A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hart. R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hart. R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hert. J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Hert.' Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort. Byron E. Janes. Ph.D., Asst. Hart. A. L. Kenworthy, M.S., Asst. Hort.2 F. S. Lagassee, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.' II. M. Sell. Ph.D., Asso. Hrt.2
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist' 3 Phares Decker, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist Erdman West. M.S., Mycologist Lillian E. Arnold, M.S. Asst. Botanist
SOILS
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist' 3 Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemist F. B. Smith. Ph.D., Microbiologist3 C, E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist L. E. Ensminger, Ph.D., Soils Chem. J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technologist L. H, Rogers. Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist4 R. A. Carrigan, BS., Asso. Biochemist4 J. N. Howard, B.S., Asst. Chemist T. C. Erwin, Assistant Chemist H. W. Winsor. B.S.A. Assistant Chemist Geo. D. Thornton, M.S., Asst. Microbiologist' R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor' Olaf C. Olson, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor'


BOARD OF CONTROL

H. P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville R. H. Gore, Fort Lauderdale N. B. Jordan, Quincy T. T. Scott, Live Oak Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallasassee

BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist in Charge R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist V. E. Whitehurst, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. An. Hush.4 W. C. McCormick. B.S.A., Asst. An. Hush. Jesse Reeves, Asst. Agron., Tobacco W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asst. Agron.4
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Asso. Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Milton
Ralph L. Smith, M.S., Asso. Agronomist
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge V. C. Jamison, Ph.D., Soils Chemist B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist W. L. Thompson, B.S,, Entomologist W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist' R. K. Voorhees, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path, C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Chemist H. 0. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Hart. T. W. Young, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist J. W. Sites, M.S.A., Asso. Horticulturist
EVERGLADES STA. BELLE GLADE J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Charge J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist' F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron. Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane Physiologist
G. R. Townsend. Ph.D., Plant Pathologist R. W. Kidder, M.S. Asst. An. Husb. W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Asso. Chemist B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Eng.2 F. S. Andrews, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hart.' Roy A. Bair, Ph.D., Asst. Agron. E. C. Minnum, M.S., Asst. Truck Hort. N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist
SUB-TROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge S. J. Lynch, B.S.A., Asso. Horticulturist E. M. Andersen, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
W. CENT. FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE Clement D. Gordon, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry
Geneticist in Charge'
RANGE CATTLE STA., ONA W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., An. Hush. in Charge E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Asso. Agron., Waucbula Gilbert A. Tucker, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.4

FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
l. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge5
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D_ Plant Pathologist E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D,, Truck Horticulturist
Monticello
S. . Hill, B.S., Ast. E ntomologist'24 A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asst. Entomnologist2
Bradenton
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Horticulturist in
Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist F. T. McLean, Ph.D., Horticulturist A. L. Harrison, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge J. C. Russell, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist- ' Harry Armstrong, Meteorologist'

Head of Department.
In cooperation with U. S.
Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
in Military Service.
5On leave.


I 2







FATTENING STEERS ON WINTER PASTURE WITH GROUND SNAPPED CORN, GROUND SHALLU HEADS,
310LASSES AND COTTONSEED MEAL
By R. W. KIDDER
CONTENTS
page Page
Method of Procedure . . . 4 Composition of Feed, . . . 13 Results of Experiments -5 vis'us"i.n . . . . . - .___ - 13
Minerals Consumed to Summary . . 14
Grades of Steers and cqrcasses 11 Literature Cited . . . 14 Slaughter Records . . I - . . . 11

Southern Florida, because of its favorable climate and fertile soil, produces excellent pasture, particularly in the Everglades region. While many of the grasses grow most rapidly during the summer months, a substantial winter pasture can be obtained by using frost-resistant varieties of grass-both perennial and annual.
Pasture grass is the natural feed for cattle. All other cattle feeds are used in I or more of 4 ways: (a) to provide feed during seasons of the year when pastures are unavailable; (b) to supplement the pastures; (c) to utilize economically some commercial by-products; and (d) to concentrate the feed nutrients of the ration for some specific purpose, such as milk production or fattening for market.
More than 95 percent of the cattle sold for beef in Florida are fattened on grass. It is generally believed by cattlemen that steers fattened on grass alone return larger profits than those fattened with supplementary concentrates even though the animals do not gain as rapidly nor attain as high a degree of finish. It was considered important to determine the rate of gain and degree of finish which could be obtained by steers on pasture supplemented with limited amounts of concentrates.
Shallu or Egyptian wheat, an open-panicle type of grain sorghum, is grown in commercial amounts in the Everglades region around Lake Okeechobee. It was considered of prime importance to compare ground shallu heads with ground snapped corn and to study the effects of these feeds for fattening steers on pasture with molasses and cottonseed meal.
Previous feeding trials have shown that winter pasture supplemented with cottonseed meal and ground snapped corn is a satisfactory fattening ration and that blackstrap molasses can be used to replace one-half of the ground snapped corn when fed





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


with fresh cut sugarcane (1).1 Since molasses is produced locally, and under normal conditions costs less than corn, the use of this feed should reduce the cost of fattening steers.
The steer feeding experiments reported in this bulletin were conducted at the Everglades Experiment Station for 3 successive years, beginning in October 1939 and concluding in April 1942.

METHOD OF PROCEDURE

Animals.-The steers used in these trials were mostly grade Hereford and Angus, with some grade Devons from the Experiment Station herd, and a few grade Brahmans. All except the Devons were range steers raised in Highlands, Osceola, Okeechobee and Indian River counties. The first and second trials were conducted mostly with yearling steers but in the third trial the steers were 2 years old and over.
Thirty steers were divided uniformly, according to weight, grade and age, into 3 lots of 10 each at the beginning of each trial. Following a preliminary feeding period of 10 to 14 days the trials were conducted for 120 to 128 days. The steers were weighed individually on 3 consecutive days at the beginning and end of each preliminary feeding period and at the end of each trial. Individual weights also were taken at 28-day intervals.
The steers were graded as feeders at the beginning and as slaughter steers at the end of each trial. Individual weights were obtained before shipping and again on arrival at the market. After slaughter the carcasses were weighed before and after chilling and graded according to standard grades established by the Agricultural Marketing Service, United States Department of Agriculture.
Feeds.-Several varieties of perennial grasses, including Para, St. Augustine, Bermuda, Carib, Vasey and Dallis, were grazed in this experiment. While these pastures were not uniform, an attempt was made to provide an adequate amount of grass for each lot of steers. Temporary pastures of oats, barley, White Dutch clover and Italian rye grass were used by each lot in rotation to equalize the grazing between lots. During the first and third trials a supplement of freshly cut sugarcane was provided in amounts which were readily consumed when pasture became inadequate.

Italic figures in parentheses refer to "Literature Cited" in the back of this bulletin.





Fattening Steers on Winter Pasture


In addition to pasture these steers were fed concentrate mixtures as follows: Lot 1, cottonseed meal, molasses and ground snapped corn; Lot 11, cottonseed meal, molasses and ground shallu heads; and Lot III, cottonseed meal (only).
Cottonseed meal, 41 percent crude protein, was fed each year to all lots of steers at the rate of 2 pounds per head daily. The Lot III steers, on limited concentrates, received their cottonseed in cake or pellet form, thereby reducing some waste and improving distribution among the steers.
Cane molasses (blackstrap) produced from sugarcane grown in the Everglades was used.' It was fed in equal amounts to steers in Lots I and II and at the same rate as the ground snapped corn and ground shallu heads.
The ground snapped corn, Florida grown, was purchased through local feed dealers and was fed to steers in Lot I at a rate beginning at 2 pounds and gradually increasing to 5 pounds or more per head daily.
The shallu or Egyptian wheat was grown locally and consisted of the heads which had been cut by hand, dried in a commercial dehydrator and ground with a hammer mill. Lot II steers received this feed at the same rate that ground snapped corn was fed to Lot 1.
Steers were fed in the pasture daily at about 8 A.M. The molasses was poured over the grain mixture for Lots I and II and the container was left where the steers would lick out any remaining molasses.
Minerals.-Steamed bone meal and the "salt sick" mineral supplement were available to the steers at all times. The formula for the "salt sick" mineral used was:
100 pounds common fine salt 25 pounds red oxide of iron
2 pounds copper sulfate 2 ounces cobalt sulfate

RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS
Results of the first trial, which was started in October 1939 and concluded in March 1940, are shown in Table 1.
The first trial was conducted for 128 days, following a 14day preliminary feeding period. After 91 days, cool weather diminished the growth rate of the pasture grass, making it

2 Obtained froni United States Sugar Corporation, Clewiston, Florida.






Florida Agricultucral Experiment Station


advisable to supplement the grass with freshly cut sugarcane for the last 37 days of the trial. Steers in Lot I receiving ground snapped corn made better gains than those in Lot 11 receiving ground shallu heads. Lot III steers, fed cottenseed meal as the only concentrate, gained 106 pounds each compared with 218 pounds for Lot I and 203 pounds for Lot II.

TABLE 1.-COMr'ARISON OF LIMITED COTTONSEED MEAL WITH COTTONSEED
MEAL, MOLASSES AND GROUND SNAPPED CORN OR GROUND SHALLu HEADS FOR FATTENING STEERS ON WINTER PASTURE, OCTOBER 30, 1939, TO
MARCH 5, 1940-128 DAYS.


Grain supplement-----Number of steers fedAverage initial weight Average final weight pe: Average gain per steer Average daily gain pers


Lot I Lot II Lot III

Cottonseed Cottonseed
Mal, Groud Mel rud Cottonseed
. Snape Crn Shallu Heads~ Meal
-and Molasses and Molasses,1

------ 10 10 10

Pounds Pounds Pounds

?er steer 545 530 533
r steer -- 763 733 639
- . -- 218 203 106
teer 1---- I. 70 1.59 .83


Amount of feed consumed daily per steer:


Pasture ----- -Cottonseed mealMolasses - --------Ground snapped corn--Ground shallu . . Sugarcane last 37 days of


trial


ad lib.
2.00 5.21 5.21

9.68


ad jib.
2.00 5.21

5.21 9.68


Amount of feed required to produce 100 pounds gain:

Cottonseed meal ------------ 117.43 126.11
Molasses ---- -- - - ---- -- 305.96 328.57
Ground snapped corn------------. 305.96
Ground shallu ----- --------- 328.57
Sugarcane ----------- ---- 164.22 1 176.35


ad jib.
2.00 18.23




241.51 636.32


Results obtained during the second trial are shown in Table 2.
The second trial began after a 10-day preliminary feeding period in October 1940 and continued 120 days until February 1941. The feeds and methods were similar to those used in the first trial except that adequate grass was available during the whole period, making it unnecessary to feed sugarcane. Lot 11






Fatten my Steers on Winter Pasture 7


steers which received ground shallu heads made slightly higher gains than Lot I steers on the ground snapped corn ration. Steers in Lot III on limited concentrates gained 110 pounds each, compared with 162 pounds for Lot I and 172 pounds f or Lot 11.

TABLE 2.-COMPARISON OF LniITED COTTONSEED MEAL WITH COTTONSEED
MEAL. MOLASSES AND GROUND SNAPPED CORN OR GROUND SHALL HEADS FOR FATTENING STEERS ON WINTER PASTURE, OCTOBER 22, 1940, TO FEBRUARY 18, 1941-120 DAIS.


Lot I Lot 11 Lot III

Cottonseed Cottonseed
Meal, Ground Meal, Ground Cottonseed Grain supplement ----- . -------- Snapped Corn Shallu Heads Meal
and Molasses and Molasses

Number of steers fed .---------- 10 10 J 1

Pounds Pounds PoundsAverage initial weight per steer 587 581 597
Average final weight per steer 749 753 707
Average gain per steer .------ 162. 172. 110
Average daily gain per steer ----- 1.35 1.43 I .92


Amount of feed consumed daily per steer:

Pasture ----------------- --- ad lib. ad lib. ad lib.
Cottonseed me l. --- __---1 1.97 1.97 1.97
M olasses ----------- - ----- 4.98 4.98
Ground snapped corn __1------ 4.98 _Ground shalin heads _.---- . -4.98


Amount of feed required to produce 100 pounds gain:

Cottonseed meal ---_---.-- 145.68 137.21 214.55
M olasses __.----- ------------- 369.14 347.67
Ground snapped corn -- ---- 369.14
Ground shallu heads ---I----- 347.67


Results of the third and final trial are shown in Table 3.
Steers obtained for the third trial were older and heavier than those of the previous trials; however, they were of about the same grade. Following a 14-day preliminary feeding period the trial was started in December 1941 and continued 120 days to April 1942. As in the first trial, pasture grass became scarce, making it necessary to feed sugarcane for the last 36 days of






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the experiment. A field of oats was grazed by the 3 lots of steers on alternate days to supplement the pastures.

TABLE 3.-CoMPARalsoN OF LIMITED COTTONSEED MEAL WITH COTTONSEED
MEAL, MOLASSES AND GROUND SNAPPED CORN OR GROUND SHALL HEADS FOR ]FATTENING STEERS ON WINTER PASTURE, DECEMBER. 9, 1941, TO
APRIL 7, 1942-120 DAYS.


Grain supplement---Number of steers fed



Average initial weight per ste Average final weight per steer Average gain per steer -- .Average daily gain per steer.-


Lot 1 Lot 11 Lot III

Cottonseed ICottonseed Meal, Ground IMeal, Ground Cottonseed Snapped Corni Shalin Heads Meal
and Molasses and MolassesI

10 10 10

Pounds Pounds Pounds

er 727 725 708
--- 884 908 798
157 183 90
1.31 1.52 .75


Amount of feed consumed daily per steer:


Pasture ---- --------Cottonseed meal---------M olasses --------- ----------Ground snapped corn. -------Ground-shallu heads .-.I Sugarcane last 36 days of trial


ad l1b.
2.0 4.39 4.41

6.46


ad lib.
2.0 4.39

4.41 6.46


2.0 18.6


Amount of feed required to produce 100 pounds gain:


Cottonseed meal M olasses ----------Ground snapped corn Ground shallu heads Sugarcane ---------


152.87 335.67 337.26

148.09


131.15 287.98

289.34 127.05


266.67



744,44


Resulting gains for Lot 11 steers were slightly better than for Lot 1. Records of gain in weight at the end of 112 days showed very little advantage for ground shallu heads over ground snapped corn. Steers in Lot III gained 90 pounds each while those in Lot 11 gained 183 pounds each.
Average results of the 3 feeding trials are shown in Table 4.
Rates of gain or feed required to produce 100 pounds gain on ground shallu heads were 6nly slightly higher than on ground snapped corn, which shows that these 2 feeds were practically





Fattening Steers on Winter Pasture 9

equal in feeding value. Steers in Lot III on limited supplement averaged 57 percent as much gain in weight as Lot I and 55 percent as much as Lot 11. When cold weather retarded growth of pasture grass the steers consumed an average of 18.4 pounds of freshly cut sugarcane each per day in Lot III and 8.0 pounds in Lot I and 11. The feeding of freshly cut sugarcane apparently is a satisfactory and practical method of supplementing pastures when light frosts and cool weather diminish the growth of the grass.

TABLE 4.-AVERAGE; RESULTS OF 3 FEEDING TRIALS, 1939-40, 1940-41,
1941-42, COMPARING LIMITED COTTONSEED MEAL WITH COTTONSEED MEAL, MOLASSES AND GROUND SNAPPED CORN OR GROUND SHALLu HEADS
FOR FATTENING STEERS ON WINTER PASTURE.


Grain supplem ent ---------------------------Number of steers fed -------------------Average initial weight per steer Average final weight per steer . Average gain per steer --- -----------Average daily gain per steer .


Lot I Lot 11

Cottonseed Cottonseed Meal, Ground Meal, Ground I Snapped Corn Shallu Heads j and Molasses and Molasses

30 30

Pounds Pounds


Lot III


Cottonseed
Meal Only

30

Pounds

613 715
102
. 85


620 799 179
1.49


612 798 186
1.55


Amount of feed consumed daily per steer:

Pasture . ------------------------------------- ad hb. ad lib.
Cottonseed meal . 1 1.99 1.99 M olasses . --------------- 4.87 4.87
Ground snapped corn . 4.87
Ground shallu heads . . ; - 4.87
Sugarcane* ----------- ------------------ - 1 8.07 8.07


Amount of feed required to produce 100 pounds gain:


ad lib.



18.42


Cottonseed meal ----------------- -----M olasses . . _ -----------------Ground snapped corn ----------Ground shallu heads ---- I -----Sugarcane* --------------------------------


138.66 836.92 337.45

156.16


131.49 321.41

321.86 151.70


240.91 690.28


* Sugarcane was fed to supplement Pastures in the first and third trials.






Florida Agricultural Expe rimient Station


MINERALS CONSUMED Average consumption of minerals per steer for the 3 trials is shown in Table 5.

TABLE 5.-AVERAGE TOTAL CONSUMPTION Or MINERALS PER STEER By LOTS.


Steam ed bone m eal --"Salt sick" mineral .


Lot I Po-unds

1.08 1.53


Lot 11 Po u nds,

1.23

1.92


Lot III

-Pounds

2.28 2.07


Pounds

1.53

1.84


TABLE 6.-AvEAGE





Lot I

Feeder steer grade ---Slaughter steer grade Carcass grade* .

Lot II

Feeder steer grade. Slaughter steer grade Carcass grade* .

Lot III
Feeder steer grade --Slaughter steer grade Carcass grade*. .


STEER GRADES By LOTS FOY


1939-40



High Medium High Medium High
Commercial


High Medium High Medium High
Commercial


High Medium Low Medium High Utility


1940-41


High Medium High Medium High
Commercial


High Medium High Medium High


Commercial


High Medium High Medium High
Commercial


EACH FEEDING TRIAL.


1941-42



High Medium High Medium Low Good


High Medium Low Good Low Good


High Medium

Low Medium

Low
Commercial


Average



High Medium High Medium High
Commercial


High Medium High Medium High
Commercial


High Medium

Medium Low
Commercial


* "Good" grade applies alike to live steers aod carcass grade. "Medium" grade live steer corresponds with "Commercial" grade carcass. "Common" grade steer produces "U~tility" grade carcass.





Fatteiiiug Steers an Winter Pasture


The steers in Lot III on limited concentrates consumed considerably more bone meal than those in Lots I and 11. The amount of "salt sick" mineral taken varied less between the lots. In the third year the steers consumed an average of 0.78 pounds of bone meal and 2.85 pounds of "salt sick" mineral.
These mineral consumption records constitute a basis for cattlemen to estimate the requirements of cattle and also indicate that considerable variations in requirements can be expected between different lots of cattle due to age, previous management, character of range where cattle were grown, palatability of supplements offered and perhaps other factors.

GRADES OF STEERS AND CARCASSES
In Table 6 are shown the average grades of steers by lots for each year, as feeder steers, as slaughter steers and as carcasses.
All lots of steers at the beginning of each trial were of equal feeder grade and at the end of the feeding period Lots I and 11 produced beef each year with an average grade of "High Commercial." Lot III steers in general were similar in finish and grade to grass-fattened steers direct from the range. In the second trial, 1940-41, two steers in Lot III graded "Low Good" which raised the lot average, while I steer in each of Lots I and II graded "Utility" and hence lowered the average grade for these lots.'
SLAUGHTER RECORDS
In Table 7 average marketing and slaughter records are presented to show the average dressing percentages by lots, the shrinkage en route to market and shrinkage during the cooling of the carcasses.
TABLE 7.-AVERAGE MARKETING AND SLAUGHTER DATA By LOTS.

Lot I Lot 11 Lot III

Number of steers --------- - 30 30 30
Shipping weight, pounds 808 804 730
Market weight, pounds -------- ----- 763 764 690
Shrinkage in transit, percent ----- 5 57 1 4.98 5.48
Warin carcass weight, pounds 449 447 378
Chilled carcass weight, pounds 442 440 372
Shrinkage in chilling, p, "nt I . 56 1 . 57 1 .59
Dressing percentage,* 'percent 58.8 58.5 54.8
*Calculated on market and warm carcass weights.
'Recently, OPA rulings have designated beef grades as follows: "Choice" as "AA", "Good" as "A", "Commercial" as "B", and "Utility" as "C".





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The slaughter records in Table 7 show no significant difference in shrinkage between lots either en route to market or in chilling the carcasses. The cattle were shipped to market by truck traveling 60 miles the first year, 240 miles the second year and 40 miles the last year. The average shrinkage each year for all lots was 5.43, 7.69 and 3.27 percent, respectively, which indicates that the shrinkage is greater when there is a long haul to market but is not proportional to the distance to market. Other factors such as time of year, day or night hauling and holding period before shipping may affect shrinkage.
Steers in Lots I and 11 were finished sufficiently to dress an average of 58.8 and 58.5 percent, respectively, while Lot III steers dressed 54.8 percent. The shrinkage en route to market has a direct effect on dressing percentage.

TABLE 8.-AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF FEEDS USED IN THE 3 STEER FEEDING TRIALS.


Dry Crude Crude N-Free
Matter jProtein Fat I Fiber Extract Ash
Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent

89.57 8.72 2.10 9.89 66.95 1.91 90.94 9.95 2,73 10.67 67.09 1.60 91.03 8.97 3.19 9.50 67.80 1.57
89.85 8.85 2,67 10.02 67.28 1.69

90.02 11.13 3.25 8.96 63.91 2,77 90.26 12.70 3.50 8.47 62.18 3.41 91.24 14.19 3.70 10.29 59.64 3.42 90.51 12.67 3.48 9.24 61.91 3.20

87.37 41.94 3.12 14.38 21.18 6.75 j 92.38 41.90 3.67 13.25 27.13 6.43
-1 89.37 41.95 2.53 12.92 25.82 6.15
89.71 41.93 3.11 13.52 24.71 6.44


Ground snapped co17
1939-1940 _ . _1940-1941 _ ----------1941-1942 -------------Average ----- ---------Ground shallu heads
1939-1940 -----------1940-1941 -------------1941-1942 --- ---------Average .-. ---------Cottonseed meal
1939-1940 ------- -----1940-1941 --------1941-1942 .
Average .

Cottonseed cake
1939-1940 -------------1940-1941 -------------1941-1942 . .
Average ---------------M olasses" - ----------------------


21.44 28.09 23.20
24.24 63.99

10.48 8.20


87.04 94.38 90.96 � -0. 79 80.20

20.00 18.19


44.07 44.40 44.80
44.42 9.01

1.38 2.73


2.78 2.15 2.90
2.61

0

. 22 0.52


11.76 12.75 13.69 12.71

0

6.90

5.40


Sugarcane" ----- . j

Pasture grass --------------


*Analysis by United States Sugar Corporation.
"Unpublished data, Everglades Experiment Station.
!Average of 46 analyses on 6 varieties of grass in grazing stage, Everglades Experiment Station (8).





Fattening Steers on, Winter Pasture


COMPOSITION OF FEEDS
Samples of the ground snapped corn, ground shallu heads and cottonseed meal and cake were taken at 28-day intervals during each trial and composite samples were analyzed of each feed for each trial. Average composition of these feeds is shown in Table 8.
DISCUSSION
The cattle feeding program in southern Florida is based upon the economical use of pasture grass, whereas in other sections of the state dry-lot feeding is a common practice (3). In this experiment cattle in Lot III fattened on grass supplemented with limited concentrates gained at the rate of 0.85 pounds per day and produced carcasses with an average grade of "Low Commercial." They consumed 241 pounds of cottonseed meal per 100 pounds gain (Table 4) and yielded 54.8 percent of dressed beef. General observations have indicated that these steers were about equal in finish and grade to many of the steers sold for slaughter from the ranges of Florida.
Steers in Lots I and 11 fed additional carbohydrate concentrates produced carcasses with an average grade of "High Commercial" and dressed 58.8 and 58.5 percent. On this feed they gained at the average rates of 1.49 and 1.55 pounds per day and required 813 and 775 pounds of concentrates, respectively, per 100 pounds gain (Table 4).
Under feed and beef prices which prevailed during the 3 years of these feeding trials it appears that the greatest net returns would come from the cattle fattened mostly on grass. The individual cattleman will have to decide whether or not it will be profitable to feed concentrates in addition to grass and the amount of such concentrates he will feed. The amount of grass available, the local cost of supplementary feeds, the quality of cattle being fed and the spread in value between "Utility" and "High Commercial" or "Low Good" grades of beef should be considered in making the decision.
The increased use of purebred and high grade sires along with improved methods of herd and pasture management is producing better beef cattle throughout Florida. These steers of improved breeding have an inherited ability to attain a higher degree of finish and will respond more to the feeding of concentrates than steers having a preponderance of native breeding.
A relatively small acreage of sugarcane, which grows well in





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


southern Florida, provided a reserve of feed during periods of winter pasture shortage. The entire stalk was fed, including mill cane, tops and leaves. It was put through a silage cutter immediately before feeding.

SUMMARY
Feeding trials were conducted annually for 3 seasons to compare ground snapped corn with ground shallu heads for fattening Florida steers on winter pasture, and to study the effects of limited concentrates on growth rates and carcass grades. Each animal of the 3 lots received 2 pounds of cottonseed meal per day.
Ground shallu heads were found to produce slightly more gains and to provide slightly more total digestible nutrients than ground snapped corn.
Carcasses of steers fattened on ground shallu heads and ground snapped corn with molasses and cottonseed meal made an average grade of "High Commercial" while those fed limited concentrates (cottonseed meal only) averaged "Low Commercial."
From the rate of gain obtained by steers and from the quality and grade of carcasses produced, pasture grass with limited concentrates was shown to supply insufficient nutrients to attain a high finish on steers.
The ground shallu heads contained more protein but less nitrogen-free extract than ground snapped corn.
The feeding of mature, freshly cut, unstripped sugarcane put through an ensilage cutter daily is shown to be a satisfactory and practical method of supplementing pastures when frosts and cool weather diminish the growth of grass.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to acknowledge the counsel and assistance of Drs. J, R. Neller, A. L. Shealy and W. G. Kirk in conducting these experiments and in preparing this publication. The feeds and grasses were analyzed by Dr. W. T. Forsee, Jr., and L. S. Jones. Steers were fed by J. 0. Roberts.
LITERATURE CITED
1. KIDDER, R. W., and W. G. KIRK. Cattle feeding in southern Florida.
Fla. Agy. Exp. Sta. Bul. 360. 1941.
2. NELLER, J. R., anid A. DAANE. Yield and conmposition of Everglades
grass crops in relation to fertilizer treatment. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bul. 338. 1939.
3. SHEALY, A. L., W. G. KIRK and R. M. CROWN. Comparative feeding
value of silages made from Napier grass, sorghum and sugarcane.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 358. 1941.




Full Text

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Bulletin 391 August, 1943 UNIVERSITY OF f.LORIDA AGR I CULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION WILMON NEWELL, Director GAINESVILLE , FLORIDA FATTENING STEERS ON WINTER PASTURE WITH GROUND SNAPPED CORN, GROUND SHALLU HEADS, MOLASSES AND COTTONSEED MEAL By R. W. KIDDER Fig. 1.-Steers fattening on w int er pasture in the Everglades. S ingl e copie s free to Flo1ida residents upon request to AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA

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EXECUTIVE STAFF John J. Tigert, M.A., LL . D ., President of the U niversitya Wilmon Newell, D . Sc., Director• Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asso. Director L. 0. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Dir. , Admin . J. Francis Cooper, M . S.A. , Editor 3 Clyde Beale, A.B . J., Assistant Editor• Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian Ruby N ew hall, Administrative Manager• K. H. Grah a m, LL.D. , Bu s ine ss Manager Claranelle Alderman, Accountant• MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE AGRONOMY W. E. Stokes, M . S . , Agronomistl Fr e d H. Hull . Ph.D., Agronomist G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Associate 2 W . A. Carver, Ph.D .. A sso ciat e Roy E. Blaser, M . S., Associate G. B. Killin g er, Ph.D ., A sso ciate Fr e d A . Cl ark , B.S. , Assistant ANIMAL INDUSTRY A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialist 1 3 R. B . Becker, Ph.D . , Dairy Husbandman• E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Techn o l og ist• D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., V e terinarian M. W. Emmel, D.V . M . , Veterin a rian 3 L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., P a rasitologist• N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr ., Poultry Husb. 3 T. R. Freeman, Ph.D., As so. in Dairy Mfg. R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., .Asso. An. Hush. D . J. Smith, B.S . A., Asst . An . Hush.• P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb. 8 G . K. D av i s, Ph.D., Animal Nu t ritionist L. E. Mull, M.S .. Asst. in Dairy Tech .• 0. K. Moor e, M. S., A ss t. Po ult ry Husb. 3 J . E . P ac e , B.S., A sst. An . Hu s b. 3 S. P . Marshall, M . S., Asst. in An. Nutr. C. B. Reeve s, B.S., A sst . Dairy Tech. ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL C. V. Noble, Ph.D., A g r. Economist> 3 Za ch Savage, M.S.A., Associate A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate Max E. Brunk, M.S .. Assistant ECONOMICS, HOME Ouida D . Abbott, Ph . D . , Home Econ . 1 Ruth 0 . Townsend, R.N .. Assistant R. Il. F re nch, Ph .D. , B ioch e mi st ENTOMOLOGY J. R. W atson, A . M., Entomolo <>; istl A. N . Ti ss o t, Ph.D. , Assoc i a te 3 H. E. Bratley, M. S .A., Assi st an t HORTICULTURE G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A .. Horticulturist' A. L . St a hl. Ph.D .. As so ciate F. S. J a mison, Ph.D., Truck H o rt. R. J. Wilmot, M. S. A .. Asst . H ort. R. D. Dickey, M.S . A. , Asst . H ort.• J. Carlt o n Cain, B. S.A .. Asst. Hort.• Victor F . N e ttles, M.S . A., As s t . H or t.• Byr on E. Janes. Ph.D., A ss t. H ort. A. L. Ke nw o rth y, M. S., A ss t. H o rt.' F. S . La 1< ass e e, Ph . D .• Asso . H o r t. 2 TI. M. Sell, Ph.D., Asso. H o rt.' PLANT PATHOLOGY W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pa t holo gi st 1 Ph a res Deck e r, Ph . D., A ss o. Pl a nt Pathol o gist Erdman We st. M.S., Mycologist Lilli a n E. Arnold, M.S .. A ss t. Botanist SOILS R . V. Allison , Ph . D .. Chemist' Ga y lord M. Volk, M.S., Chemi s t F. B. Smith. Ph.D., Microbiologist' C. E. Bell, Ph . D., A ssoc iate Chemist L. E. E ns min g er. Ph.D ., Soils Che m . J. R. H en der so n, M.S .A. , So il T ec hn o logi s t L. H . Roger s, Ph . D., Asso. Biochemist• R. A. C a rrig a n, B. S., Asso. Bi oc hemi st-! J. N. Howard , B . S., A ss t . Chemist T. C. Erwin, Assistant Ch e mist H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist Geo . D. Thornton , M.S. , As s t. Microbiolo g ist' R. E. C a ldw e ll, M.S.A. , A ss t. Soil Surve yo r' Ol af C. Olson, B .S ., A ss t . So il S ur ve yor ' BOARD OF CONTROL H . P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville R. H . Gore, F o rt Lauderdale N . B . Jordan , Quincy T. T. Scott, Live Oak Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland J . T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallasassee BRANCH STATIONS NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY J . D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist in Charge R. R. Kin ca id , Ph . D., Plant Pathologi s t V . E. Whi te hul' s t, Jr .. B.S.A. , Asst. An. Hu s b. 4 W. C . McCormick, B.S . A., Asst. An. Hush. J e sse Reeves. Asst . Agron., Tobacco W. H . Ch ap man, M . S., Asst. Agron.• Mobile Unit, Monticello R. W . Wallace, B.S., Asso. Agronomist Mobile Unit, Milton Ralph L. S mith, M.S., Asso. Agronomist CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED A. F. Camp, Ph.D .. Horticulturist in CharQ:e V . C. Jamison, Ph.D., Soils Chemist B. R. Fud g e, Ph.D. , Associate Chemist W. L. Tll o mp so n, B.S .. E nt om ol og ist \\ '. W . Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist• R. K. Voorhee s , Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path. C . R . Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Chemist H. 0 . Sterling, B.S., Asst. Hort. T. W. Young-, P h.D. , A ss o. Ho1ti c ulturist J . W . Si tes , M .S. A. , A sso. Horticulturist EVERGLADES STA .. BELLE GLADE J . R. Nell er , Ph.D., Biochemist in Charge J. W. Wil s on, S c.D., Entomologi s t• F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron . Thom as Bregger, Ph.D .. Sugarcane Phy s iol og ist G. R . To wnsend , Ph.D., Plant Patholo g ist R . W. Ki dder , M.S .. Asst. An. Hu s h. W. T. For se e, Jr ., P h.D. , As so . Chemi s t B . S . Clayton, B.S.C.E . , Drainage Eng . F. S. Andrews, Ph . D., Asso. Truck Hort . Roy A. Bair, Ph.D., As st . A g ron. E . C. Minnum , M.S., Asst. Truck Hort. N. C . Hay s lip, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist SUB-TROPICAL STA .. HOMESTEAD Geo. D. Ruehl e , Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge S . J. L y n c h, B.S. A., A sso. H or ticul t urist E . M . Anrl e rs en, P h. D. , Asso. H o rticulturi s t W. CENT. FLA. STA .. BROOKSVILLE C lem e nt D. Gordon, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry G enet ic i s t in Ch a r g e::! RANGE CATTLE STA .. ONA W. G. Kirk, Ph . D .. An. Husb. in Char g e E. M. Hod ge s, Ph.D., As s o. Agron., Wauchula Gilbert A. Tuck e r, B.S.A .• A ss t. An. Hush.• FIELD STATIONS Leesburg M. N. W a lke,, P h.D., Plant Pat h. in C har ge Plant City A. N. Br oo ks, Ph.D., Pl an t Pathologist Hastings A. H . Eddins, Ph.D .. Plant Pathologist E. N. Mc C ubbin, Ph.D., T ru c k Horti c ulturist Monticello S . 0. Hill , D.S. , A sst . Entomo lo gist"• A. M. Phillips, B.S . , Asst. Entomolugist 2 Bradenton J. R. Becke nb ac h, P h.D., H o rticulturi s t in Ch a r ge E. G. Kelsheim e r, Ph.D .• Ent o mologist F . T. McL e an, Ph.D . . H ort icultur is t A . L. Han is on , Ph.D ' ., Plan t Patholo gis t David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Patholo g ist Sanford R. W. Ruprecht, P.h.D., Chemist in Charge J. C . Ru sse ll , M.S. , Asst. Entomologi st Lakeland E. S. EI1i s o n . M e t eoro }o g i s t~ r. Harry Arm s tr o ng, M et eor ol og i s t ~ 1 H ea d o f D e partmen t. :! In coop e rat io n with U. S . 3 Coope rat iv e, oth e r d iv i s i ons , U. of F. In Military Ser v ice. r. On lea ve.

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FATTENING STEERS ON WINTER PASTURE WITH GROUND SNAPPED CORN, GROUND SHALLU HEADS, MOLASSES AND COTTONSEED MEAL By R. W. KIDDER co:--;TEKTS Pag: e Meth o d of P ocedure _ 4 Re s ul ts of Expe rim e nt s . ... .. . __ _ __ __ . . .. . .. .. ... . ;) Min e rals C ons umerl .. . . .... . . .. . .... .... . . .. .. ... ....... . . . 10 Grad es of Steers and Car casse s .. .. . ..... ..... 11 Slau ght er Record s _____ _ _ _ ___ , 11 Co m})o s ition o f Feecls .. ... D 'iscus s ion . Summ ary ---L iterature Cit e d Pag e -13 -----1 3 ---------------14 ----------------14 South e rn Florida, be ca use of its favorable climate and fertile soil, produce s excellent pa st ure, particularly in the Everglades region. While many of the grasses grow most rapidly during the s ummer months, a substantial winter pa s ture can be obtained by using fro s t-resistant varietie s of grass-both perennial and annual. Pasture gra s s i s the natural feed for cattle. All other cattle feeds are u se d in 1 or more of 4 ways: (a) to provide feed during seasons of the year when pastures are unavailable; (b) to s upplement the pa s tures; (c) to utilize economically s ome commercial by-prnduct s ; and (d) to concentrate the feed nutri ent s of the ration for so me s pecific purpo se, such a s milk pro duction or fattening for market. More than 95 percent of the cattle sold for beef in Florida are fattened on gra s s. It is generally believed by cattlemen that ste e rs fattened on grass alone return larger profits than those fattened with supplementary conc e ntrates even though the ani mals do not gain as rapidly nor attain as high a degre e of finish. It was considered important to determine the rate of gain and degree of fini s h which could be obtained by steers on pasture supplemented with limited amounts of con ce ntrates. Shallu or Egyptian wheat, an open-panicle type of grain sor ghum, is grown in commercial amounts in the Everglades r eg ion around Lake Okeechob ee . It was considered of prime importance to compare ground shallu heads with ground snapped corn and to study the effects of these feeds for fattening steers on pa s ture with molasses and cottenseed meal. Previous feeding trials have shown that winter pasture supple mented with cottonseed meal and ground snapped corn is a satis factory fattening ration and that blackstrap molasses can be used to replace one-half of the ground snapped corn when fed

PAGE 4

4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station with fresh cut sugarcane (1) .1 Since molasses is produced locally, and under normal conditions costs less than corn, the use of this feed should reduce the cost of fattening steers. The steer feeding experiments reported in this bulletin were conducted at the Everglades Experiment Station for 3 successive years, beginning in October 1939 and concluding in April 1942. METHOD OF PROCEDURE Animals.-The steers used in these trials were mostly grade Hereford and Angus, with some grade Devons from the Experi ment Station herd, and a few grade Brahmans. All except the Devons were range steers raised in Highlands, Osceola, Okee chobee and Indian River counties. The first and second trials were conducted mostly with yearling steers but in the third trial the steers were 2 years old and over. Thirty steers were divided uniformly, according to weight, grade and age, into 3 lots of 10 each at the beginning of each trial. Following a preliminary feeding period of 10 to 14 days the trials were conducted for 120 to 128 days. The steers were weighed individually on 3 consecutive days at the beginning and end of each preliminary feeding period and at the end of each trial. Individual weights also were taken at 28-day intervals. The steers were graded as feeders at the beginning and as slaughter steers at the end of each trial. Individual weights were obtained before shipping and again on arrival at the mar ket. After slaughter the carcasses were weighed before and after chilling and graded according to standard grades estab lished by the Agricultural Marketing Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Feeds.-Several varieties of perennial grasses, including Para, St. Augustine, Bermuda, Carib, Vasey and Dallis, were grazed in this experiment. While these pastures were not uniform, an attempt was made to provide an adequate amount of grass for each lot of steers. Temporary pastures of oats, barley, White Dutch clover and Italian rye grass were used by each lot in rotation to equalize the grazing between lots. During the first and third trials a supplement of freshly cut sugarcane was pro vided in amounts which were readily consumed when pasture became inadequate. 1 Italic figures in parentheses refer to "Literature Cited" in the back of this bulletin.

PAGE 5

Fattening Steers on Winter Pasture 5 In addition to pasture these steers were fed concentrate mix tures as follows: Lot I, cottonseed meal, molasses and ground snapped corn; Lot II, cottonseed meal, molasses and ground shallu heads; and Lot III, cottonseed meal (only). Cottonseed meal, 41 percent crude protein, was fed each year to all lots of steers at the rate of 2 pounds per head daily. The Lot III steers, on limited concentrates, received their cottonseed in cake or pellet form, thereby reducing some waste and improv ing distribution among the steers. Cane molasses (blackstrap) produced from sugarcane grown in the Everglades was used. 2 It was fed in equal amounts to steers in Lots I and II and at the same rate as the ground snapped corn and ground shallu heads. The ground snapped corn, Florida grown, was purchased through local feed dealers and was fed to steers in Lot I at a rate beginning at 2 pounds and gradually increasing to 5 pounds or more per head daily. The shallu or Egyptian wheat was grown locally and consisted of the heads which had been cut by hand, dried in a commercial dehydrator and ground with a hammer mill. Lot II steers re ceived this feed at the same rate that ground snapped corn was fed to Lot I. Steers were fed in the pasture daily at about 8 A. M. The molasses was poured over the grain mixture for Lots I and II and the container was left where the steers would lick out any remaining molasses. Minerals.-Steamed bone meal and the "salt sick" mineral supplement were available to the steers at all times. The formula for the "salt sick" mineral used was: 100 pounds common fine salt 25 pounds red oxide of iron 2 pounds copper sulfate 2 ounces cobalt sulfate RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS Results of the first trial, which was started in October 1939 and concluded in March 1940, are shown in Table 1. The first trial was conducted for 128 days, following a 14day preliminary feeding period. After 91 days, cool weather diminished the growth rate of the pasture grass, making it 0 Obtained from United States Sugar Corporation, Clewiston, Florida.

PAGE 6

6 Florida Agriculturnl Exper imen t Stat ion advisable to supplement the grass with freshly cut sugarcane for the last 37 days of the trial. Steers in Lot I receiving ground snapped corn made better gains than those in Lot II receiving ground s hallu heads. Lot III steers, fed cottenseed meal as the only concentrate, gained 106 pounds each compared with 218 pounds for Lot I and 203 pounds for Lot II. TABLE !.-COMPARISON OF LIMITED COTTONSEED MEAL WITH COTTONSEED MEAL, MOLASSE S AND GROUND SNAPPED CORN OR GROUND SHALLU HEADS FOR FATTENING STEERS ON WINTER PASTURE, OCTOBER 30, 1939, TO MARCH 5 , 1940-128 DAYS. I / Lot I Lot II I Cottonseed Cottonseed I Meal, Ground Meal, G r ound I Grain s upplement -----Sna pped Com Shallu H e ads I and Molasses and Mol a ss es I Number of s teer s f e d ----/ 10 I 10 I Av er age initial weight pe1 st e er Average final weight per s teer Av e rage gain per steer -Average daily gain per steer -Pound s 545 763 218 1. 7 0 Amount of feed consumed daily per st eer: Pasture ---------Cottonseed meal _ -------Molasses ----Ground snapped corn Ground shallu Sugarcane la st 37 days of trial ad lib. 2.00 5.21 5.21 9.68 Pound s 530 733 203 1.59 ad lib. 2.00 5.21 5.21 9.68 Amount of fe e d re quired to produce 100 pounds gain: Cottonseed m e al -----Molasses -----------Ground snapped corn --Ground shallu ----Sugarcane ---------117.43 3 05.96 3 0 5 .96 164.22 126.11 328.57 328.57 176.35 Lot III Cottonseed Meal 10 Pounds 533 63 9 106 .83 ad l i b. 2.00 18.2 3 241.51 6 3 6. 32 Results obtained during the second trial are shown in Table 2. The second trial began after a 10-day preliminary feeding period in October 1940 and continued 120 days until February 1941. The feeds and methods were similar to those used in the first trial except that adequate grass was available during the whole period, making it unnecessary to feed sugarcane. Lot II

PAGE 7

Fatt e ning Steers on Winter Pastur e 7 steers w hi ch received ground s h a llu heads made s li ghtly higher gains than Lot I s t eers on the ground snapped corn ration. Steer s in Lot III on limi ted co n ce ntrate s gained 110 pound s each, comp ared with 162 pounds for Lot I and 172 pounds for Lot II. TABLE 2 .-C OMPARISON OF LDUT ED C OTTONSE E D MEAL WITH COTTONSEED MEAL, MOLA SSES AND GR0VND SNAPPED CORN OR GROUND SHALLU HEADS FOR FATTENIN G STEERS ON WINTER PA S T U R E, OCTOBER 22 , 1940, TO FEB RUARY 18, 1941-120 DAYS. Lot I Lot II Lo t III : Cottonseed : Cottonseed I ; Meal, G ro und I Meal, Grnund I Cottonseed Grain supplement .. . ! Snapped Corn ! S h a llu H e!lds j Meal and Molas ses I a nd M o la sses , Numb e r o f steers fed .. .. . . ... .......... . 10 P o unds Average initial w e igh t p e r st eer 587 Average fina l we i g ht per stee r ... . 749 Aver a ge gain per st eer .. ... .. .... ... ... i 162 Av e r age daily gain pe r stee r 1 .35 Amount of feed cons um ed daily per s t eer: P as tu re .. ..... .. .. .... . ..... ... .. . .. . Cottonse e d meal . j M ol a sses Ground s na pp ed c or n Ground s hallu heads .. ad l i b. 1.97 4.98 4. 98 10 Pounds 5 81 753 1 72 1.4 3 od lib. 1. 97 4 . 98 4.98 Amount of feed r eq uired to produce 100 po und s gain : I C ot tons e ed meal . .... .. ..... . .... ... .. . I Mola sses ... ... ..... ........ .. . ... .. .. . . ... . .. ) Ground s na p ' ped corn ... ........... ! Ground shallu heads .. .... ... .. .... . 1 I 145.68 36 9.14 369 . 14 137 .2 1 3 47.67 3 47 .6 7 10 Pound s 597 707 110 .92 ad lib. 1.97 214.55 R es ults of t h e third and final trial are shown in Table 3. Steer s obtained for the third trial were o l der and heavier than tho se of the pr ev iou s trial s ; however, they were of about the same grade. F o llowing a 14-day preliminary feeding period the trial was s tarted in De cember 1 941 and continued 120 days to April 1942. As in the first trial, pasture grass became scarce, making it n ecessary to feed s ugar cane for the l ast 36 d ays of

PAGE 8

8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station the experiment. A field of oats was grazed by the 3 lots of steers on alternate days to supplement the pastures. TABLE 3.-COMPARISON OF LIMITED COTTONSEED MEAL WITH COTTONSEED MEAL, MOLASSES AND GROUND SNAPPED CORN OR GROUND SHALLU HEADS FOR FATTENING STEERS ON WINTER PASTURE, DECEMBER 9, 1941, TO APRIL 7, 1942-120 DAYS. Lot I Lot II Cottonseed Cottonseed Grain supplement Meal, Ground Meal, Ground .. .. Snapped Corn Shallu Heads and Molasses and Molasses Number of steers fed . . . .. .. . \ I Average initial weight per steer I Average final weight per steer .. . . Average gain per steer .... .. .... .. .... . . Average daily gain per steer .. . ... . 10 Pounds 727 884 157 1.31 Amount of feed consumed daily per steer: Pasture .. .. ... . .. . . ... .... ... . ... . ... .. . . . . . .. . Cottonseed meal ... . . .. .. . . Molasses . . ... .. . . .... . ... .... ... . . . .. .... .... . Ground snapped corn Ground shallu heads .... . .... .. ... . . Sugarcane last 36 days of trial ' ad lib. 2.0 4.39 4.41 6.46 10 Pounds 725 908 183 1.52 ad lib. 2.0 4.39 4.41 6.46 Amount of feed required to produce 100 pounds gain: I Cottonseed meal ... ... .. . . . . . ... . ...... . Molasses .. ..... . .......... . . . .... . ..... .. ... . . Ground snapped corn .. . . . .... .. .... . Ground shallu head s . .. . .. ... .. .... . Sugarcane ... . .... . . . . .. .. ..... . ...... . ... . I I 152.87 335.67 337.26 148.09 131.15 287.98 289.34 127.05 Lot III Cottonseed Meal 10 Pounds 708 798 90 .75 ad lib. 2.0 18.6 266.67 744.44 Resulting gains for Lot II steers were slightly better than for Lot I. Records of gain in weight at the end of 112 days showed very little advantage for ground shallu heads over ground snapped corn. Steers in Lot III gained 90 pounds each while those in Lot II gained 183 pounds each. Average results of the 3 feeding trials are shown in Table 4. Rates of gain or feed required to produce 100 pounds gain on ground shallu heads were only slightly higher than on ground snapped corn, which shows that these 2 feeds were practically

PAGE 9

Fattening Steers on Winter Pasture 9 equal in feeding value. Steers in Lot III on limited supplement averaged 57 percent as much gain in weight as Lot I and 55 per cent as much as Lot II. When cold weather retarded growth of pasture grass the steers consumed an average of 18.4 pounds of freshly cut s ugarc ane each per day in Lot III and 8.0 pounds in Lot I and II. The feeding of freshly cut sugarcane apparently is a satisfactory and practical method of supplementing pastures when light frosts and cool weather diminish the growth of the grass. TABLE 4.-AVERAGE RESULTS OF 3 FEEDING TRIALS, 1939-40, 1940-41, 1941-42, COMPARING LIMITED COTTONSEED MEAL WITH COTTONSEED MEAL, MOLASSES AND GROUND SNAPPED CORN OR GROUND SHALLU HEADS FOR FATTENING STEERS ON WINTER PA S TURE. Lot I Lot II Cottonseed Cottonseed I Meal, Ground Meal, Ground I Grain supplement ....... . ..... . . ..... . .. ..... Snapped Corn Shallu Heads I and Molasses and Molasses 1 I I Number of steers fed .... .... .. . . ... ... . i 30 , 30 I Pounds Pounds j Average initial weight per steer i Average final weight per steer ... . Average gain per steer . ....... .. .. . .. . Average daily gain per steer ....... . 620 799 179 1.49 Amount of feed consumed daily per steer: l Pasture . ....... . . . ...... . .. . ... . . . ..... .. ...... 1 Cottonseed meal . . ........ . .... .. . . ..... ! Molasses . ......... . ... . ......... . .... ... ..... . ! Ground snapped corn ....... . ... .. . ! Ground shallu heads . . . ..... ... ..... , S * I ugarcane . . ...... . . . . ... . . . . ..... .. ...... 1 ad lib. 1.99 4.87 4.87 8.07 612 798 186 1.55 ad lib. 1.99 4.87 4.87 8.07 Amount of feed required to produce 100 pounds gain: I Cottonseed meal 1 ~l?;~~de~;;pp~d~~ ~;; : : : :::: : : : ::::: : Ground shallu heads . .. . . . ... . . . ... . 1 Sugarcane* I 138.66 3 36.92 337.45 156.16 131.49 321.41 321.86 151. 70 ! "' Su g arcane wa s fed to supplem e nt pastur e s in the fi rs t and third trials. Lot III Cottonseed Meal Only 30 Pounds 613 715 102 .8 5 ad lib. 1.99 18.42 240.91 690.28

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10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station MINERALS CONSUMED Average consumption of minerals per steer for the 3 trials is shown in Table 5. TABLE 5.-AVERAGE TOTAL CONSUMPTION OF MINERALS PER STEER BY LOTS. Steamed bone meal "Salt si ck" mineral ..... . Lot I Pound s 1.08 1.53 Lot II Pounds 1.2 3 1.92 Lot III Pound s 2 .28 2.07 Average Pounds 1.5 3 1.84 TABLE 6.-AVERAGE STEER GRADES BY LOTS FOR EACH FEEDING TRIAL. 1939-40 1940-41 1941-4 2 Average L ot I Feeder steer grade .. .. . . High High High High Medium Medium Medium Medium Slaughter steer grade High High High High Medium Medium Medium Medium Carcass grade* High High Low High Commercial Commercial Good Commercial Lot II Feeder steer grade . ..... High High High High Medium Medium Medium Medium Slaughter st eer grade High High Low High Medium M e dium Good Medium Carcass grade* --High High Low High Commercial Commercial Good Commerci a l Lot III Feeder steer grade .. .... High High High High Medium Medium Medium Medium S l aughter s te e r grade Low High Low Medium Medium Medium Medium Carcass grad e* ............ High High Low Low Utility Commercial Commercial Commercial ''Good 0 grade app li es alike to live steers and car c ass g rad e. "Medium" grade liv e st eer cor res ponds with '~Comm~rcial" grade carcass . u common" g rade steer p roduces "Utility" grade carcas s.

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Fatt e ning Ste e rs on Winter Pastur e 11 The steers in Lot III on limited concentrates consumed con siderably more bone meal than those in Lots I and II. The amount of "salt sick" mineral taken varied less between the lots. In the third year the steers consumed an average of 0.78 pounds of bone meal and 2.85 pounds of "salt sick" mineral. These mineral consumption records constitute a basis for cattlemen to estimate the requirements of cattle and also indi cate that considerable variations in requirements can be expected between different lots of cattle due to age, previous management, character of range -where cattle were grown, palatability of supplements offered and perhaps other factors. GRADES OF STEERS AND CARCASSES In Table 6 are shown the average grades of steers by lots for each year, as feeder steers, as slaughter steers and as carcasses. All lots of steers at the beginning of each trial were of equal feeder grade and at the end of the feeding period Lots I and II produced beef each year with an average grade of "High Com mercial." Lot III steers in general were similar in finish and grade to grass-fattened steers direct from the range. In the second trial, 1940-41, two steers in Lot III graded "Low Good" which raised the lot average, while 1 steer in each of Lots I and II graded "Utility" and hence lowered the average grade for these lots. 3 SLAUGHTER RECORDS In Table 7 average marketing and slaughter records are pre sented to show the average dressing percentages by lots , the shrinkage en route to market and shrinkage during the cooling of the carcasses. TABLE 7.-AVERAGE MARKETING AND SLAUGHTER DATA BY LOTS. Number of ste e rs ... . .. . . . . Shipping weight, pounds . .. . Market w e ight, pound s ... ... . . . .. .. . Shrinkage in transit, percent .... : Wa r m carcass weight, pounds 1 Chilled carcass weight, pounds I Shrinkage in chilling, perc e nt .. Dressing percentage,* percent . Lot I 3 0 808 76 3 5.57 449 442 1.56 58.8 Calculated on marke t and w a rm carcas s w e ight s. Lot II 30 804 764 4.98 447 440 1.57 58.5 Lot III 30 730 690 5.48 378 372 1.59 54.8 3 Recently, OP A rulings have designated beef grades as follows: "Choice" as "AA", "Good" as "A", "Comm e rcial" as "B" , and "Utility" a s "C".

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12 Florida Agric u ltural Exper imen t Station The slaughter records in Table 7 show no significant differ ence in shrinkage between lots either en route to market or in chilling the carcasses. The cattle were shipped to market by truck traveling 60 miles the first year, 240 miles the second year and 40 miles the last year. The average shrinkage each year for all lots was 5.43, 7.69 and 3.27 percent, respectively, which indicates that the shrinkage is greater when there is a long haul to market but is not proportional to the distance to market. Other factors such as time of year, day or night hauling and holding period before shipping may affect shrinkage. Steers in Lots I and II were finished sufficiently to dress an average of 58.8 and 58.5 percent, respectively, while Lot III steers dressed 54.8 percent. The shrinkage en route to market has a direct effect on dressing percentage. TABLE 8.-AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF FEEDS USED IN THE 3 STEER FEEDING TRIALS. I Dry I Crude j Matter Protein Fat I Crude I N-Free j I Fiber Extract Ash I Percent Percent Percent I Percent Percent Percent Ground snap ped corn \ 1939-1940 . ... 89.57 8.72 2.10 9.89 66.95 1.91 1940-1941 .......... . . .. .. ! 90.94 9.95 2.73 10.67 67.09 1.60 1941-1942 .... ... .. ... .... 7 1 _9~1~.0~3c-c-_8.,....-=-97--s-_-=-3.~1 _ 9 -,--l~~_.,:t-=-~--~=;,...,:~=~---1-.5 = 7_ Grou::e:::~u~~~d~ ----1 89.85 8.85 2.67 1.69 1939-1940 .. . .. .. ... ... ... ! 90.02 11.13 3.25 8.96 63.91 2.77 1940-1941 ............... 1 90.26 12. 70 3.50 8.47 62.1s 3.41 1941-1942 .. ... ... . ..... . _ ! _91_.2_4_1 _ 14 _ . _19--i__ 3._7_0 ~-1_0 _ .2_9 __ 5_9 _.6 _ 4~~3 _ .4 ~ 2_ Cott:n::::g:~~; ... . 90.51 12.67 3.48 9.24 61.91 3.20 i~:ti~!~ I ~UJ !U6 U~ 1941-1942 \ _8_9_.3 _ 7~_4_1_ .9_5~ _2_._53~_1_2._9_2 _ _ 2_5_.8_2 _ _ 6_ . 1 _ 5_ Average i 89.71 I 41.931 3.11 13.52 24.71 6.44 Cottonseed cake I 1939-1940 .. .. ...... .. .... , 87.04 ( 44.071 2.78 11.76 21.44 6.99 1940-1941 \ 94.38 44.40 2.15 12.75 28 .09 7.01 1941-1942 ..... ... ... .. . 90.96 44.80 2.90 13 .69 23.20 6 .3 7 Average ..... ... .... . ..... ;-.,,. 90-c-.=7-c-9-,--4-c-4.,....4-2 c--+ --=2-.6:c-cl-;--l 7 2 -=. 7,.,.1-;--=-24c--. -=24-,-; --c6 "" . 7 =c 9cMolasses* ... .... ...... . ..... . .... 80.20 9.01 0 Sugarcane** .... ... ...... .. ... ! 20.00 Pasture grasst I 18.19 1. 38 .22 2.731 0 .52 Analysis by United States Sugar C orp oi-ation. ** Unpublished data, Everglades Experiment Station. 0 6.90 5.40 63.99 10.48 8.20 7.20 1.02 1.34 t Average of 46 analys e s on 6 v a rieties of gr ass in grazing stage, Everglad es Experiment Station (S).

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Fatt e ning Ste e rs on Winter Pastur e 13 COMPOSITION OF FEEDS Samples of the ground snapped corn, ground shallu heads and cottonseed meal and cake were taken at 28-day intervals during each trial and composite samples were analyzed of each feed for each trial. Average composition of these feeds is shown in Table 8. DISCUSSION The cattle feeding program in southern Florida is based upon the economical use of pasture grass, whereas in other sections of the state dry-lot feeding is a common practice ( 3 ). In this experiment cattle in Lot III fattened on grass supplemented with limited concentrate s gained at the rate of 0.85 pounds per day and produced carcasses with an average grade of "Low Com mercial." They consumed 241 pounds of cottonseed meal per 100 pounds gain (Table 4) and yielded 54.8 percent of dressed beef. General observations have indicated that these steers were about equal in finish and grade to many of the steers sold for slaughter from the ranges of Florida. Steer s in Lots I and II fed additional carbohydrate concen trates produced carcasses with an average grade of "High Com mercial" and dressed 58.8 and 58.5 percent . On this feed they gained at the average rates of 1.49 and 1.55 pounds per day and required 813 and 775 pound s of c onc e ntrates, r es pectively, per 100 pounds gain (Tabl e 4). Under feed and beef prices which pr ev ailed during the 3 years of these feeding trials it appears that the greatest net returns would come from the cattle fattened mostly on grass. The in dividual cattleman will have to decide whether or not it will be profitable to f ee d concentrates in addition to grass an d the amount of s uch concentrates he will feed. The amount of grass available, the local cost of supplementary feeds, the quality of cattle being fed and the spread in value between "Utility" and "High Commercial" or "Low Good" grades of beef should be considered in making the d ecis ion. The increas e d use of purebred and high grade sires along with improved methods of h e rd and p as ture management is produc ing better beef cattle throughout Florida. The se ste er s of im proved breeding ha ve an inherited ability to attain a higher degree of finish and will re s pond more to the feeding of con centrates than steers having a preponderance of native breeding. A relatively small acreage of sugarcane, which grows well in

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14 Florida Agricult u rnl &rperiment Station southern Florida, provided a reserve of feed during periods of winter pasture shortage. The entire stalk was fed, including mill cane, tops and leaves. It was put through a silage cutter immediately before feeding. SUMMARY Feeding trials were conducted annually for 3 seasons to com pare ground snapped corn with ground shallu heads for fatten ing Florida steers on winter pasture, and to study the effects of limited concentrates on growth rates and carcass grades. Each animal of the 3 lots received 2 pounds of cottonseed meal per day. Ground shallu heads were found to produce slightly more gains and to provide slightly more total digestible nutrients than ground snapped cor:ri. Carcasses of steers fattened on ground shallu heads and ground snapped corn with molasses and cottonseed meal made an average grade of "High Commercial" while those fed limited con centrates (cottonseed meal only) averaged "Low Commercial." From the rate of gain obtained by steers and from the quality and grade of carcasses produced, pasture grass with limited concentrates was shown to supply insufficient nutrients to at tain a high finish on steers. The ground shallu heads contained more protein but less nitrogen-free extract than ground snapped corn. The feeding of mature, freshly cut, unstripped sugarcane put through an ensilage cutter daily is shown to be a satisfactory and practical method of supplementing pastures when frosts and cool weather diminish the growth of grass. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to acknowledge the counsel and a ss istance of Dr s . J. R. Neller, A . L. Sh e aly and W. G. Kirk in conducting these experiments and in preparing this publication. The fe ed s and grasses were analyzed by Dr. W. T. Forse e , Jr., and L. S. Jon es . Steers were fed by J. 0. Robert s. LITERATURE CITED 1. KIDDER, R. W., and W. G. KIRK. Cattle fe e ding in souther~ Florida. Fla . Agr. Exp. Sta . Bul. 360. 1941. 2. NELLER, J. R., and A. DAANE. Yield and composition of Everglades grass crops in relation to fertilizer treatment. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 338 . 19 3 9. 3. SHEALY, A. L., W. G. KIRK and R. M. CROWN. Comparative feeding value of silages made from Napier grass, sorghum and sugarcane. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bui. 358. 1941.