Title Page
 General summary and conclusion...
 Table of Contents
 Preparation and chemical composition...
 Nutritive value for ruminants
 Nutritive value for poultry
 Literature cited

Group Title: Bulletin / University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 691
Title: Dried tomato pulp, its preparation and nutritive value for livestock and poultry
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027389/00001
 Material Information
Title: Dried tomato pulp, its preparation and nutritive value for livestock and poultry
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 19 p. : ill ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ammerman, C. B
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1965
Subject: Tomatoes   ( lcsh )
Feeds   ( lcsh )
Poultry -- Feeding and feeds   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 18-19.
Statement of Responsibility: C.B. Ammerman ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027389
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000929276
oclc - 18361297
notis - AEP0053

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    General summary and conclusions
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Preparation and chemical composition of dried tomato pulp
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Nutritive value for ruminants
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Nutritive value for poultry
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Literature cited
        Page 18
        Page 19
Full Text

MAY 1965




i-~s6 6


The disposal of cull tomatoes is a serious problem in certain
tomato-growing regions. As a means of sanitary and practical
disposal, the culls have been dehydrated and prepared in a form
suitable for animal feeding. Chemical composition, nutrient
digestibility by mature steers, protein utilization by lambs, and
utilization by poultry were determined on the dehydrated ma-
terial. The results indicate that dried tomato pulp is a potential
feedstuff for livestock and poultry.
A pilot dehydration plant, installed in conjunction with a
tomato packinghouse, was used to produce the dried tomato
pulp. Fresh tomatoes, having an average of 6 percent solids,
were pressed and dried. Approximately 50 percent of the press
juice was concentrated and added back to the dried material.
The resulting dried tomato pulp (consisting of both flakes and
fines) had an average proximate composition in percent on a
dry matter basis as follows: ash, 10.6; ether extract, 4.2; pro-
tein, 24.0; crude fiber, 17.8; and nitrogen-free extract, 43.4.
The average coefficients of digestibility obtained with steers
for protein, ether extract, crude fiber, and nitrogen-free extract
were 56.3, 90.2, 46.2, and 79.0, respectively. The average total
digestible nutrient value was 64.8. In nitrogen balance studies
with lambs, the protein in tomato pulp had a lower digestibility

and a lower biological value than protein from soybean meal.
The addition of an enzyme supplement containing protease,
amylase, and gumase was without effect on the digestibility
by lambs of protein and energy in the ration.
Replacing alfalfa meal with dried tomato pulp did not signi-
ficantly affect the growth rate and feed efficiency of cockerels
or broilers or the fat deposition in abdominal cavity or degree
of finish in the carcass of broilers. The deposition of carotenoid
pigments was significantly reduced in the skin of the cockerels
and the shanks of the broilers when tomato pulp replaced alfalfa
meal in the diet.
On the basis of these studies, the following conclusions are
1. As a means of disposal, cull tomatoes may be dehydrated
and utilized as a feedstuff for livestock and poultry.
2. Tomato pulp may be fed to ruminants as a partial re-
placement for energy feedstuffs and also as a substitute for part
of the roughage.
3. The relatively high protein content but low digestibility
of protein should be considered in ration formulation.
4. As a feedstuff for poultry, tomato pulp will not replace
alfalfa meal as a pigmenting agent in the diet of broilers but
may serve as an energy diluent in diets of starting pullets.


General Summary and Conclusions ----------- 2

Introduction ....- -- --- .-. ..---..--. 5

Preparation and Chemical Composition of Dried Tomato Pulp--- 6

Nutritive Value for Ruminants ....- ..-- ----- 10

Experimental Procedure ... .. ..... ...........---. ... ...--- --- 10

Results and Discussion -.--- --.---- 12

Summary .. ... .. .. ....._ ..-.- .. .. ...........----------- 15

Nutritive Value for Poultry ... .....--------- 15

Experimental Procedure --.. ... .. -- ------ 15

Results and Discussion --.-.-- ---- ..--- .----- -- 18

Summary .--.--- ..---- ----.........-------.. --------------18

Literature Cited ... ............ .. .......18



C. B. Ammerman, R. H. Harms, R. A. Dennison,
L. R. Arrington, and P. E. Loggins1

In recent years, dried tomato pulp has been prepared by
the dehydration of whole tomatoes. Unlike dried tomato pomace
and certain other tomato feed by-products, it consists of the
whole cull fruit. Such fruits are culled because of skin blemishes
and bruises, disease or insect damage, immaturity, or undesir-
able shape or size. The disposal of cull tomatoes has become a
serious problem in south Florida (4)2 and other tomato growing
regions, so the dehydration of the cull tomatoes provides a means
of disposal as well as the production of a by-product feedstuff.
To produce dried tomato pulp, the fruit is cut and pressed. The
resulting juice is concentrated by evaporation and remixed with
the press cake for further dehydration.
By-products of the tomato canning industry have long been
recognized to have nutritive value for livestock. Rabak (15),
in 1917, indicated that the chemical analysis of tomato seed
meal suggested it to be of potential value as a livestock feed.
In 1919, Hays (10) showed that tomato skins, seeds, and cores
discarded in the making of catsup served as a satisfactory feed
for swine. Dried tomato pomace, the pulpy residue remaining
after crushing and pressing the fruit, was found to be a suitable
feed for dairy cows when forming 15 percent of the concentrate
mixture (20, 21), and Esselen and Fellers (8) reported that
chicks 2 to 6 weeks of age readily consumed diets containing
11.6 percent tomato pomace. Tomato pomace has an antidiar-
rheal effect in dogs, foxes, and mink (12, 18) and has been used
in the treatment of diarrhea in both human adults and children
(14). Only limited data are available to indicate the nutritive
value of tomato by-products for ruminants. Chapman et al. (5)
SAmmerman, Assistant Animal Nutritionist, Department of Animal Science
Harms, Head, Department of Poultry Science
Dennison, Head, Department of Food Technology and Nutrition
Arrington, Associate Animal Nutritionist, Department of Animal Science
Loggins, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Department of Animal Science
SNumbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.

Figure 1.-Field disposal of cull tomatoes (courtesy of C. P. Thayer).

reported satisfactory gains by grazing steers which consumed
16 to 19 pounds daily of a concentrate in which dried tomato
pulp replaced 10 to 30 percent of the dried citrus plup. The
steers fed the tomato pulp rations yielded carcasses equal in
grade and acceptability to those fed the ration containing no
tomato pulp.
The present studies were conducted to obtain information
on the preparation and chemical composition of dried tomato
pulp and to determine its nutritive value for ruminants and

Preliminary laboratory studies with cull tomatoes indicated
that they could be successfully dehydrated and that the dried
product should have potential value as a livestock feed (11).
A pilot dehydration plant with capacity to produce tomato pulp
in sufficient quantity for animal feeding was installed near a
tomato packinghouse in Princeton, Florida. The dehydration
plant was equipped with a disintegrator for chopping the to-
matoes, a press to reduce the moisture content, a flash evapo-
rator to concentrate the press juice, a direct fired rotary drier

Dried Tomato Pulp

to dehydrate the press cake, conveyors, storage bins, and other
items that were necessary for the operation.
The dehydration plant operated intermittently from January
31 through May 21, 1958, when tomatoes were available. Adverse
weather conditions caused heavy losses to the tomato plantings
during this growing season, and the supply of fruit was much
below normal for this period of the year. The tomatoes averaged
94 percent moisture when received at the pilot plant. For most
of the pressing operation, the Brix of the press juice obtained
was approximately 5.3, and the moisture content of the press
cake was approximately 88 percent. The press cake contained
more moisture than could be removed in one pass through the
dryer. Therefore, a portion of the dried pulp was recycled and
mixed with the press cake before the latter entered the de-
hydrator. A satisfactorily dried pulp was obtained by this pro-
The press juice was concentrated in the evaporator, and not
more than one-half of the concentrate was added back to the
press cake. Additions of more than 50 percent resulted in ex-
cessive burning of the pulp. Both 33 and 50' Brix concentrates
were prepared at different times, and these were added to the
press cake.
The input air temperature for the dehydrator ranged from
256 to 301 F, with an average temperature of 282 F. The
output air temperature ranged from 2060 to 254' F, with an
average of 235 F. Because of the many modifications under-
taken in the operation of the dehydrator, it was not possible to
establish the optimum operating temperature.
The dried tomato tissue that had no peel attached tended to
break into small particles after dehydration. An average of
33 percent by weight of the product would pass through 1/8-inch
mesh screens. The screenings or "fines" contained the seeds
and most of the other interior portion of the fruit. It was much
more difficult to remove the moisture by dehydration from the
tissue to which peel was attached (flakes) than from the tissue
with no peel (fines). After passing through the dehydrator,
the flakes usually contained almost twice as much moisture
as did the fines.
The chemical composition of the tomato pulp and its com-
ponent parts is shown in Tables 1 and 2. Proximate analyses
and determinations for calcium and phosphorus were made
as outlined by A.O.A.C. (1). Magnesium and potassium were

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Table 1.--Chemical Composition of Tomato Pulp Used in Ruminant
Finest Flakes Pulp
Proportion, % 41 59 100
Dry matter, % 1 90.9 89.6 89.1
Energy, therms/pound 2.01 2.07 2.00
Proximate Composition, %(
Ash 8.5 9.9 10.6
Ether extract 4.5 2.7 4.2
Protein 22.0 23.4 24.0
Crude fiber 17.4 18.8 17.8
Nitrogen-free extract 47.6 45.2 43.4
Mineral Composition
Calcium, % 0.56 0.42 0.58
Phosphorus, /, 0.51 0.56 0.56
Magnesium, I% ft 0.20 0.18 0.20
Potassium, % tt 2.50 3.45 3.63
Iron, %c 0.48 0.37 0.46
Copper, ppm 26.5 23.7 32.6
Pectic Substances, %
H2O soluble 5.29 6.08 8.90
NH, oxalate soluble 8.74 8.71 9.18
HC1 soluble 4.24 3.85 4.45
TOTAL 18.27 18.64 22.53
t All of the fines passed through a U.S. Bureau of Standards No. 10 sieve, 86 percent through
No. 20, 61 percent through No. 30, and 41 percent through a No. 40 sieve.
$ Other than dry matter content, all values expressed on the moisture-free basis.
ttValues were obtained by J. NeSmith, Soils Specialist, Agricultural Extension Service,
University of Florida.
Values were obtained by C. B. Hall, Department Food Technology and Nutrition, Univer-
sity of Florida.

determined with a flame photometer as described by Breland (3),
and pectic materials were determined according to the procedures
of Rouse and Atkins (16). Iron and copper were determined by
the methods of Sideris (17) and Cheng and Bray (6), respec-
tively. Gross energy was measured with an adiabatic oxygen
bomb calorimeter.
The proximate composition of the whole pulp (Table 1) was
considerably different from that of tomato pomace. As reported
by Morrison (13), the average percentages, expressed on a dry
matter basis, of ash, ether extract, crude fiber, and nitrogen-
free extract in eight tomato pomace samples were approximately
3.5, 15.3, 32.2, and 25.1, respectively. Tomato pulp in the present
study contained 10.6, 4.2, 17.8, and 43.4 percent of the corre-
sponding nutrients, respectively. Both tomato pomace and the
tomato pulp contained approximately 24 percent protein. To
prepare the tomato pulp, approximately one-half of the pressed
juice was concentrated by evaporation and remixed with the
pomace or press cake prior to dehydration. Removal of the juice
portion when making tomato pomace may explain a major part

Two Series of Dried Tomato Pulp Samples.t


Proximate composition, %(

Series 1, 4 samples

Flakes Average
Fines (1/8"-1/16")
Fines (<1/16")

Series 2, 3 samples
Flakes Average
Fines (<1/8")

Ash Extract

Protein Fiber


Mineral composition, Qrc

Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Potassium

9.4 1.3 19.1 18.8 51.4 0.61 0.40 0.29 3.43
(8.9-10.1) (0.8-2.2) (18.2-20.3) (15.6-21.1) (50.0-53.2) (0.49-0.79) (0.33-0.44) (0.25-0.38) (3.00-4.10)

8.3 7.8 21.3 17.6 45.0 0.46 0.47 0.33 2.72
(7.3-9.0) (6.4-11.1) (19.9-23.0) (13.2-20.2) (41.8-50.1) (0.26-0.66) (0.39-0.58) (0.28-0.39) (2.33-3.40)

9.6 6.3 21.2 17.6 45.3 0.46 0.46 0.33 3.29
(9.1-10.4) (5.3-7.0) (20.5-21.8) (13.8-19.8) (43.2-49.4) (0.36-0.53) (0.41-0.50) (0.29-0.39) (2.67-3.80)

10.0 3.4 19.5 19.7 47.4 0.80 0.41 0.42 2.38
(9.6-10.4) (3.1-3.7) (18.3-20.9) (17.9-21.9) (46.7-48.2) (0.53-0.96) (0.38-0.43) (0.36-0.47) (2.15-2.65)

9.9 6.7 20.5 19.7 43.1 0.79 0.46 0.46 1.98
(9.3-10.3) (5.4-7.7) (20.0-21.5) (19.2-20.0) (42.0-45.3) (0.55-0.96) (0.44-0.50) (0.41-0.54) (1.60-2.37)

i All values expressed on the moisture-free basis.

Table 2.--Chemical Composition of

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

of the difference in composition between the two tomato by-
products. The nutrient composition of the fines and flakes was
similar; however, there was an indication that the flakes were
lower in ether extract and protein, and higher in potassium. The
presence of most of the seeds in the fines portion may partially
explain the difference in composition. The values of 0.37 to 0.48
percent iron are considerably higher than those reported by
Albritton (2) for whole tomatoes and may be due in part to
contamination from machinery during processing. Spectro-
graphic examination indicated that no molybdenum was present.
The flakes were largely peel with some attached tissue and
were hygroscopic in nature. It was observed that tomato flakes
containing 6.5 percent moisture increased to 11.1 percent mois-
ture in a 37-day observation period when placed in porous bags
and stored with exposure to normal atmospheric moisture. Stor-
age under dry conditions was required to prevent formation of
mold in the dried pulp.
The composite tomato pulp was bulky in nature, having an
average density of 12.9 pounds per cubic foot and containing 17.8
percent crude fiber. Although bulky, a mixture of 40 percent
tomato flakes, 20 percent tomato fines, and 40 percent tomato
press juice concentrate (50 Brix) pelleted satisfactorily.3

Dried tomato pulp was evaluated as a feedstuff for ruminants.
Its nutrient digestibility by mature steers and protein utilization
by lambs were determined. Studies also were conducted to de-
termine the'effect of a dietary enzyme supplement upon the
digestibility of nutrients in a ration high in dried tomato pulp.
Experimental Procedure
Nutrient Digestibility.-A conventional digestibility trial
was conducted with three 2-year-old steers in which nutrient
digestibility of the tomato pulp was determined "by difference"
by feeding both Alyce clover hay alone and a mixture of 30
percent Alyce clover hay and 70 percent tomato pulp. A 21-day
preliminary feeding period was followed by a 7-day total fecal
collection period. In another experiment, conducted with the
same animals, the tomato pulp was gradually increased in the
ration until 100 percent pulp was fed for 17 days. Total fecal
SPelleting tests courtesy Wenger Mixer Mfg., Sabetha, Kansas.

Dried Tomato Pulp

collections were taken during the last 7 days of this period for
obtaining digestibility coefficients. Twelve to 14 pounds of the
rations were fed daily in two equal feedings which maintained
animal body weight. In addition, 25 grams of defluorinated
phosphate (4.25 grams P, 8.75 grams Ca) and 25 grams of trace
mineralized salt (Footnote *, Table 3) were fed daily. Water
was provided ad libitum during the preliminary period but was
supplied twice daily when the steers were in metabolism stalls.

Protein Utilization.-Ten Florida native lambs averaging 72
pounds in body weight were used to obtain nitrogen balance data
for dried tomato pulp. The lambs were randomly assigned to
either the tomato pulp or soybean meal ration shown in Table 3.
A 21-day preliminary feeding period was followed by a 7-day
total fecal and urinary collection period. The lambs were fed
equal amounts twice daily, and water provided ad libitum. The
tomato pulp ration was slightly unpalatable to the lambs, and
daily feed intakes were maintained at only 700 grams for both
rations. This level of feeding, however, allowed slight body
weight gains by all lambs during the experiment. Because of the
higher fiber content of the tomato pulp ration, 5 percent Solka
floc (cellulose fibers) was added to the soybean meal ration. The
tomato pulp and soybean meal rations contained 12.7 and 13.1
percent protein, respectively, on the air dry basis. Approximately
58 percent of the total protein was supplied by the test material
in each ration.

Enzyme Supplementation.-In another experiment four na-
tive lambs averaging 73 pounds in body weight were used in a
conventional digestibility trial to determine the effect of a
dietary enzyme supplement (protease, amylase, and gumase
activity) on the digestibility of nutrients in tomato pulp. The
ration shown in Table 3 with 2,000 International Units (IU)
Vitamin A palmitate and 500 IU Vitamin D2 added per pound
of ration was used. It was mixed in a stainless steel mixer and
equally divided. The enzyme preparation4 was added to one por-
tion at the rate of 3 grams per kilogram. The lambs were used
in a single reversal design which yielded four individual coeffi-
cients of digestibility for each experimental ration. Preliminary
21-day feeding periods were followed by 7-day collection periods.
The lambs were fed equal amounts twice daily and watered ad
SZymo-Pabst, supplied by Pabst Brewing Co., Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Table 3.-Composition of Lamb Rations.
Ingredients Soybean Meal Tomato Pulp
Snapped corn (ground) 42.0 42.0
Bahiagrass hay (ground) 20.0 20.0
Corn starch 15.5 1.0
Soybean meal (50% protein) 13.5 -
Tomato pulp 33.0
Solka floct 5.0 -
Corn oil 2.0 2.0
Salt, trace mineralized 1.0 1.0
Defluorinated phosphate (18% P, 31% Ca) 1.0 1.0
100.0 100.0
t Source of cellulose obtained from Dicalite Company, New Orleans, Louisiana.
t The Carey Salt Co., Hutchinson, Kan. Listed minimum analysis in percent: Fe, 0.27;
Mn, 0.25; Cu, 0.033, Co, 0.01; Zn, 0.005; I, 0.007; and NaCI, 95.9.

libitum. Average daily feed intake per lamb was 650 grams, and
all lambs maintained body weight throughout the experiment.
Proximate analyses of the rations and feces were made as
outlined by A.O.A.C. (1). Gross energy was measured with an
adiabatic oxygen bomb calorimeter. The data were analyzed
statistically by analysis of variance as described by Snedecor

Results and Discussion
The dried tomato pulp used in these experiments was re-
ceived with the flakes and screenings or fines bagged separately.
The experimental material yielded 59 percent flakes and 41 per-
cent fines at the time of processing and was mixed in this
proportion for feeding. (For nutrient composition, see Table 1.)

Nutrient Digestibility.-The data obtained with steers in-
dicated that the digestibility of each nutrient in the tomato pulp
was slightly higher when fed with clover hay than when fed
alone (Table 4). Only for ether extract, however, was there a
significant difference in digestibility (P<.05). The average di-
gestibility coefficients of 56.3 obtained for protein and 46.2 for
crude fiber are lower than those for most concentrates, while
the coefficients of 90.2 for ether extract and 79.0 for nitrogen-
free extract are more nearly comparable with coefficients ob-
tained with many concentrates.
Although no signs of digestible disturbances became evident,

Dried Tomato Pulp

steers consuming only tomato pulp appeared rather gaunt, pre-
sumably from lack of bulk. This condition might have been over-
come to some extent had the pulp been offered free-choice. Feces
from the steers consuming only tomato pulp were of a rather
sticky or waxy consistency and had a water content similar to
that of feces from steers receiving only clover hay (71.6 com-
pared with 73.3 percent). Reports with several species have
indicated that tomato pomace in the diet has an antidiarrheal
effect (12, 14, 18).

Table 4.-Average Digestion Coefficients and Total Digestible
Nutrients for Tomato Pulp in Steer Experiments.t

Ether Crude
Protein Extract Fiber
Tomato pulp,
fed with hay 58.0 94.6* 50.1
Tomato pulp,
fed alone 54.6 85.8 42.2
Average 56.3 90.2 46.2
t Each figure represents an average of three determinations.
I Expressed on the moisture-free basis.
* P<.05.



78.4 63.1
79.0 64.8

Protein Utilization.-Nitrogen balance data obtained with
lambs are summarized in Table 5. Biological values were calcu-
lated by assuming a metabolic fecal nitrogen output of 0.55 gram
per 100 grams dry matter consumed and an endogenous urinary
nitrogen output of 0.033 gram per kilogram body weight (9).
The nitrogen in the dried tomato pulp ration was less digestible
(P<.01) and had a lower biological value (P<.05) than the
nitrogen in the soybean meal ration. The values of 51 for the

Table 5.-Nitrogen Balance Data Obtained with Lambs for Rations
Containing Tomato Pulp or Soybean Meal.t
Soybean Meal Tomato Pulp

N intake, grams/day 14.71 14.27
N in feces, grams/day 4.56 7.04
N in urine, grams/day 5.94 5.57
N retained, grams/day 4.21 1.66
N retained, %c 28.6** 11.6
Apparent digestibility of N, % 69** 51
Biological value of N 64* 57
Net apparent value of N 44 29
t Each figure represents an average of five determinations.
" P<.05.

Table 6.-Nutrient Composition of Ration and Effect of Supplemental Enzymes on Average Digestion Coefficients and
Total Digestible Nutrients of Lamb Rations Containing 33 Percent Tomato Pulp.

Composition of Rationt





7.0 14.0 4.7 19.4 54.9

Digestion Coefficients and TDN$





t Expressed on the moisture-free basis.
* Each figure represents an average of four determinations.







Dried Tomato Pulp

apparent digestibility coefficient and 29 for net apparent value
[(apparent digestibility coefficient x biological value) / 100]
obtained with the tomato pulp ration were applied to the tomato
pulp itself. On a dry matter basis, tomato pulp contained 12.2
percent apparent digestible protein and 7.0 percent apparent net
available protein. Based on the steer data, the apparent digest-
ible protein content was 13.5 percent. Average coefficients of
digestibility for energy and organic matter were 69 and 70 for
the tomato pulp ration and 74 and 77 for the soybean meal ration.
These coefficients were significantly different between rations

Enzyme Supplementation.-No improvement in digestibility
of nutrients resulted from the addition of enzymes to the ration
high in tomato pulp (Table 6). The average coefficient of digesti-
bility for protein in this study was 49.6, which was similar to
the value of 51 obtained with the same ration in the earlier
studies. The coefficients of digestibility obtained for ether ex-
tract, crude fiber, and nitrogen-free extract for this ration, which
contained 33 percent tomato pulp, were similar to the coefficients
obtained for tomato pulp when fed alone or with hay to steers.

To evaluate dried tomato pulp as a feedstuff for ruminants,
nutrient digestibility by steers and protein utilization by lambs
were determined. Average coefficients of digestibility obtained
with steers for protein, ether extract, crude fiber, and nitrogen-
free extract were 56.3, 90.2, 46.2, and 79.0, respectively. When
supplying 58 percent of the total protein in the ration for lambs,
nitrogen in tomato pulp had a lower digestibility coefficient (P<
.01) and a lower biological value (P<.05) than nitrogen from
soybean meal. The addition of a dietary enzyme supplement
containing protease, amylase, and gumase activity did not im-
prove the digestibility of nutrients in a ration containing 33
percent tomato pulp.

Experimental Procedure
Two feeding experiments were conducted with poultry to
determine the feeding value of dried tomato pulp as a replace-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

ment for alfalfa meal in the diet of growing chicks. The basal
diets used in experiment 1 and in experiment 2 are shown in
Table 7. When tomato pulp was used, it completely replaced
alfalfa meal at a level of 3 percent of the diet.
In the first experiment 160 day-old Single Comb White
Leghorn cockerels were randomly distributed to eight pens of
20 chicks each with two pens for each of the four treatments.
In the second experiment 150 day-old Vantress X White Plym-
outh Rock broiler type chicks were randomly allotted to six
pens of 25 chicks each with three pens for each of the two treat-
At 1 day of age all chicks were intraocularly vaccinated for
infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease. The birds were
started in electrically heated battery brooders with raised screen
wire floors. At 4 weeks of age they were transferred into finish-
ing batteries, where they were kept until termination of the
experiment. Feed and water were given ad libitum.
All chicks were individually weighed at 8 weeks of age, and
feed consumption was determined for the 8-week period. In
experiment 1 the birds were dressed and visually scored for
deposition of carotenoid pigments of the skin, deposition of fat
in the abdominal cavity, and degree of fleshing of the dressed
carcass. In experiment 2 the shanks of the live birds were

Table 7.-Composition of Basal Diets Used in Poultry Experiments.
Experiment 1 Experiment 2
Ingredients Basal 1 Basal 2 Basal
Yellow corn 59.9 36.6 56.6
Soybean meal (50% protein) 28.1 38.0 30.4
Marco B-75t 13.4
Animal fat (stabilized) -1.0
Alfalfa meal or tomato pulp 3.0 3.0 3.0
Fish meal (Menhaden, 60% protein) 3.0 3.0 3.0
Dried whey 2.5 2.5 2.5
Ground limestone 1.0 1.0 1.0
Steamed bone meal 1.5 1.5 1.5
Salt 0.4 0.4 0.4
Micro-ingredients:: 0.6 0.6 0.6
Methionine +ft
100.0 100.0 100.0
tA mixture of vegetable oils, supplied through the courtesy of Marco Chemicals Company,
Fort Worth, Texas.
$ Supplied per pound of feed; 2000 IU Vitamin A, 700 ICU Vitamin Da, 6 mcg Vitamin B1i,
2 mg riboflavin, 9 mg niacin, 4 mg calcium pantothenate, 317 mg choline choloride, 5 tng
terramycin, and 0.08 gms MnSO4.
ttSupplied 270 mg methionine per pound of feed.

Table 8.-Body Weight, Feed Efficiency, Skin Pigmentation, Shank Pigmentation, Fleshing and Fat Deposition of Chickens
at Eight Weeks of Age When Fed Diets Containing Either Alfalfa Meal or Tomato Pulp.

Experiment 1
Alfalfa Meal Tomato Pulp
Basal Ration Basal Ration
1 2 Av. 1 2 Av.

Body weight, gm
Feed efficiency,
gm feed/gm gain
Skin pigmentation







2.72 3
1.83' '


Experiment 2

Alfalfa Meal

Tomato Pulp

Male Female Av. Male Female Av.

Body weight, gm 1492 1223 1357 1436 1218 1327
Feed efficiency, -2.08 2.10
gm feed/gm gain
Shank pigmentation 2.98 2.51 2.75 2.09 1.76 1.92**

t Scores ranged from one to three in increments of 0.33 with three the most pigmented.
$ Scores ranged from one to four in increments of 0.33 with four the most desirable.
* Significantly (P<05) lower pigmentation of shanks when compared to the average score of the group receiving alfalfa meal.
**Difference in shank pigmentation significant (P<.01).

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

visually scored for deposition of carotenoid pigments.
All statements of probability are based on analysis of vari-
ance according to Snedecor (20), with significant treatment
differences determined by Duncan's multiple range test (7).

Results and Discussion

The results of feeding rations containing 3 percent tomato
pulp to chicks as a replacement for alfalfa meal are shown in
Table 8. Growth rate and feed efficiency were not significantly
affected by the substitution of tomato pulp. Deposition of fat
in the abdominal cavity and degree of finish of the dressed car-
casses were not affected by the ration treatment. Carotenoid
pigments in the skin of the cockerels were significantly reduced
(P<.05) and the shanks of broilers contained less yellow color
(P<.01) when tomato pulp replaced alfalfa meal in the diet.

Two experiments were conducted to determine if dried to-
mato pulp could be substituted satisfactorily for alfalfa meal in
broiler feeds at a level of 3 percent. The growth rate of chicks,
utilization of feed, deposition of fat in the abdominal cavity, and
finish of dressed carcass were unaffected when tomato pulp re-
placed alfalfa meal in the diet. However, deposition of carotenoid
pigment in the skin and shanks was significantly reduced with
the dried tomato pulp.

1. A.O.A.C. Official Methods of Analysis, 9th ed., Association of Official
Agricultural Chemists, Washington, D. C. 1960.
2. Albritton, E. C. Standard values in nutrition and metabolism. W. B.
Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa. p. 121. 1954.
3. Breland, H. L. Methods of analysis used in soil testing. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta., Soils Mimeo Rept. 58-3. 1957.
4. Brooke, D. L. and G. L. Capel. An economic analysis of alternative
methods of cull tomato disposal in Dade County, Florida. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta., Agricultural Economics Mimeo Rept. 59-2. 1958.
5. Chapman, H. L., C. E. Haines, J. R. Crockett, and R. W. Kidder. Dried
tomato pulp for fattening steers on pasture. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.,
Everglades Station Mimeo Rept. 59-3. 1958.
6. Cheng, K. L. and R. H. Bray. Two specific methods of determining
copper in soils and in plant material. Anal. Chem. 25:655. 1953.

Dried Tomato Pulp 19

7. Duncan, D. B. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11:1.
8. Esselen, Jr., W. B. and C. R. Fellers. Nutritive value of dried tomato
pomace. Poultry Sci. 18: 45. 1939.
9. Harris, L. E. and H. H. Mitchell. The value of urea in the synthesis
of protein in the paunch of the ruminant. I. In maintenance. J. Nutr.
22: 167. 1941.
10. Hays, F. A. Swine Production in Delaware, p. 28. Feeding tomato
waste versus grain alone to fattening growing pigs. Del. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 124. 1919.
11. Hoover, M. W., and R. A. Dennison. Preliminary studies of the
utilization of cull tomatoes. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 70: 211. 1957.
12. McCay, C. M. and S. E. Smith. Tomato pomace in the diet. Science
91: 388. 1940.
13. Morrison, F. B. Feeds and Feeding, 22nd ed., Morrison Publishing Co.,
Ithaca, N. Y. 1957.
14. Morrison, L.M. The control of diarrhea by tomato pomace. J. Digest.
Diseases 13:196. 1946.
15. Rabak, F. The utilization of waste tomato seeds and skins. USDA
Bul. 632. 1917.
16. Rouse, A. H. and C. D. Atkins. Pectinesterase and pectin in com-
mercial citrus juices as determined by methods used at the Citrus
Experiment Station. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 570. 1955.
17. Sideris, C. P. Colorimetric microdetermination of iron. J. Ind. Eng.
Chem. Anal. Ed. 14: 756. 1942.
18. Smith, S. E. Tomato and tomato products for feeding fur animals.
N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta. Rec. 81: 93. 1941.
19. Snedecor, G. W. Statistical Methods, 5th ed., The Iowa State College
Press, Ames, Iowa. 1956.
20. Tomhave, A. E. Dried tomato pomace in the dairy ration. Del. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Ann. Rept. 172: 23. 1931.
21. Tomhave, A. E. Dried tomato pomace in the dairy ration. Del. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Ann. Rept. 179: 23, 1932.


The authors wish to acknowledge the Florida Tomato Com-
mittee, Orlando, Florida, for funds in support of these studies
and the assistance of R. F. Celmer, C. R. Douglas, F. R. Tarver,
Jr., J. T. McCall, G. K. Davis, J. E. Wing, J. V. Mason, and C. W.
Burgin. Some of the data presented herein were reported in the
J. Agr. Food Chem. 11: 347, 1963.

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