Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Agricultural experiment stations...
 Report of the director
 Report of the administrative...
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural engineering
 Animal science
 Dairy science
 Food technology and nutrition
 Fruit crops
 Ornamental horticulture
 Plant pathology
 Plant science section
 Poultry science
 Vegetable crops
 Veterinary science
 Central Florida station
 Citrus station
 Indian River field laboratory
 Everglades station
 Gulf Coast station
 North Florida station
 Range cattle station
 Sub-tropical station
 Suwannee Valley station
 West Central Florida station
 West Florida station
 Federal-state frost warning...
 Potato investigation laborator...
 Strawberry investigation labor...
 Watermelon and grape investigations...
 Historic note


Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00011
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1963
Publication Date: 1945-1967
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002452809
oclc - 12029671
notis - AMF8114
System ID: UF00027385:00011
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Agricultural experiment stations staff
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Report of the director
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Report of the administrative manager
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Agricultural economics
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Agricultural engineering
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Animal science
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Dairy science
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Food technology and nutrition
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Fruit crops
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Ornamental horticulture
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
    Plant pathology
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
    Plant science section
        Page 150
    Poultry science
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
    Vegetable crops
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
    Veterinary science
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
    Central Florida station
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
    Citrus station
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
    Indian River field laboratory
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
    Everglades station
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Indian River field laboratory
            Page 267
            Page 268
            Page 269
            Page 270
            Page 271
            Page 272
            Page 273
            Page 274
            Page 275
        Plantation field laboratory
            Page 276
            Page 277
            Page 278
            Page 279
            Page 280
            Page 281
            Page 282
            Page 283
            Page 284
            Page 285
            Page 286
            Page 287
    Gulf Coast station
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        South Florida field laboratory
            Page 305
            Page 306
            Page 307
            Page 308
            Page 309
    North Florida station
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Marianna unit
            Page 323
            Page 324
            Page 325
    Range cattle station
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
    Sub-tropical station
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
    Suwannee Valley station
        Page 349
        Page 350
    West Central Florida station
        Page 351
    West Florida station
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
    Federal-state frost warning service
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
    Potato investigation laboratory
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
    Strawberry investigation laboratory
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
    Watermelon and grape investigations laboratory
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
    Historic note
        Page 387
Full Text







JUNE 30, 1963







JUNE 30, 1963

.TI I Y OR1 i YL



GULF COAST a- Bradent






~-0*f-Le/ P/CAL

--.... -'"-N AMGLE
M A RI 0 N '/

q E 50r--- SOTO' .
...--- lli lade EXPERIMENT STATION
,_ t i t N D R. Y,
Irnmol'QleC c



Agricultural Experiment Stations Staff ......--
Report of the Director ................... ....................
Report of the Administrative Manager ........._ .


Agricultural Economics ...................
Agricultural Engineering ............... .......... ...
A gronom y .... -. .. .....- .... ... .... ...
A nim al Science ........... .... -.. ......... .. ...
B otany .............. .. .... .. ...... ... ......
D airy Science ................ .. ........ .....
E editorial ................................... .
Entom ology .......................................
Food Technology and Nutrition .............................
F forestry ........................................ .. .........----
Fruit Crops ...... .. .......... ....- .
Library .......................................
Ornamental Horticulture .......................................
Plant Pathology ................... ..... .........................
Plant Science Section ... ........ ....... ...
Poultry Science .......................- .......
S oils .................................... .... .
Statistics ........................ ......- ...- ... .
V vegetable Crops ...... .............. .........
Veterinary Science .. .......... ...... .. ...


Central Florida Station .............. .............
Citrus Station ................... ..... ... .......
Indian River Field Laboratory ........ ...
Everglades Station ....... .......................... ....
Indian River Field Laboratory ......................
Plantation Field Laboratory
Gulf Coast Station ...... ........ ..- ...... ....-
South Florida Field Laboratory ....................
North Florida Station .............- ..-...- ..... .
M arianna Unit ........ .. .... ......- ..-.. ..
Range Cattle Station ............ ....................... ...
Sub-Tropical Station ......... .. ................
Suwannee Valley Station .......................................
West Central Florida Station ..............................
W est Florida Station ........... ......................... ..


Federal-State Frost Warning Service ..................
Potato Investigations Laboratory .....................
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory ...................
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory


-..- ........ 4
-...-..-- 14
............. 24

.-..-... 26
.. 42
..... 46
... .. 63
... 79
-.-.-.. 82
-.-.-. .- 89
.............. 104
........-. 112
.........-... 12719
....-.....- .. 134
........... 136
... 142
.-..-.......- 150
....-...- 151
.. 155
..-.......- 174
-....-. ...... 175
........ 185

................ 203
-- -- .- --- -- -- -- 2 0 3
...........- 238
...... -2-
...................... 238

...................... 288'-
--.------------ 305,
-....-.-.. 310
..................... 323
.....- .... 326
-.- -...-..- ...... 338
.-.....-.- 349
--......-..... 351
-. ........-.-.-.. 352

................ 358
.................. ... 362
........... ......... 368
................ ..... 371



B. M. Harrison, Jr., Chairman, St. Petersburg
Frank M. Buchanan, Vice Chairman, Miami
John C. Pace, Pensacola
Wayne McCall, Ocala
Chester E. Whittle, Orlando
Charles R. Forman, Ft. Lauderdale
Gert H. W. Schmidt, Jacksonville
J. Broward Culpepper, Executive Director, Tallahassee

J. W. Reitz, Ph.D., President
E. T. York, Jr., Ph.D., Provost for Agriculture
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Director
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Associate Director
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Assistant Director
D. R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative Manager
G. R. Freeman, M.S.A., Superintendent of Field Operations
W. H. Jones, Jr., M. Agr., Assistant Superintendent of Field Operations

The following abbreviations after name and title of Experiment Station
Staff indicate cooperation with other organizations:
Coll.-University of Florida College of Agriculture
Ext.-University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service
USDA-United States Department of Agriculture
USWB-United States Weather Bureau
FCC-Florida Citrus Commission


Agricultural Economics Department
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and Head; also Coll.
and Ext.
R. L. Addison, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Statistician, USDA
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate Agricultural Economist
C. J. Arnold, Ph.D., Int. Associate Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
D. L. Brooke, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist
T. L. Brooks, B.S., Int. Assistant in Agricultural Economics
W. F. Chapman, M.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics, USDA
H. B. Clark, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Marketing Economist; also Coll.
G. G. Goshorn, B.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics, Orlando
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
J. R. Greenman, B.S.A., L.L.B., Agricultural Economist; also Coll. (on
Iv. of absence)
R. R. Hancock, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Statistician, Orlando
B. S. Lloyd, B.S., Int. Assistant in Agricultural Economics
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.

W. T. Manley, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist, USDA
J. E. Mullin, B.S., Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando
C. E. Murphree, D.P.A., Associate Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
C. A. Ouzts, B.S., Assistant in Agricultural Statistics, USDA
L. A. Reuss, M.S., Agricultural Economist, USDA
W. B. Riggan, B.S., Assistant Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
G. N. Rose, B.S., Associate Agricultural Economist, Orlando
Z. Savage, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist
B. J. Smith, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Economist
C. N. Smith, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist
J. F. Steffens, Jr., B.S., B.A., Associate Agricultural Statistician,
USDA, Orlando
R. G. Stout, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist, Orlando
H. G. Witt, M.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando

Agricultural Engineering Department
D. T. Kinard, Ph.D., Agricultural Engineer and Head; also Coll. and Ex.
J. F. Beeman, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
E. K. Bowman, B.S., Associate Industrial Engineer, USDA
R. E. Choate, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
W. G. Grizzell, B.I.E., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
J. B. Richardson, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
I. J. Ross, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
G. E. Yost, B.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA

Agronomy Department
F. H. Hull, Agronomist and Head; also Coll.
K. D. Butson, M.S., State Climatologist, USWB
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Agronomist
F. Clark, MSA., Associate Agronomist
J. R. Edwardson, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist; also Coll.
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
K. Hinson, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist, USDA
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist; also Coll.
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
A. J. Norden, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
P. L. Pfahler, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
G. M. Prine, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
E. G. Rodgers, Ph.D., Agronomist; also Coll.
O. C. Ruelke, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
S. C. Schank, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
V. N. Schroder, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
S. H. West, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist, USDA
Merrill Wilcox, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.

Animal Science Department
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
C. B. Ammerman, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Nutritionist
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
J. W. Carpenter, Ph.D., Assistant Meat Scientist
G. E. Combs, Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
J. R. Crockett, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Geneticist; also Coll.
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Director of Nuclear

R. E. Deese, M.S., Int. Assistant in Animal Science
J. F. Easley, M.S., Int. Assistant in Nutrition
J. P. Feaster, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
Marvin Koger, Ph.D., Animal Geneticist; also Coll.
P. E. Loggins, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
J. E. Moore, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
A. Z. Palmer, Ph.D., Associate Meat Scientist; also Coll.
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
D. L. Wakeman, M.S.A., Assistant Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Animal Physiologist; also Coll. (on Iv. of absence)

Botany Department
G. R. Noggle, Ph.D., Botanist and Head; also Coll.
D. S. Anthony, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
G. J. Fritz, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist; also Coll.
T. E. Humphreys, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
Yoneo Sagawa, Ph.D., Assistant Botanist; also Coll.
D. B. Ward, Ph.D., Assistant Botanist; also Coll.

Dairy Science Department
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist and Head; also Coll.
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Associate Dairy Technologist; also Coll.
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.
L. E. Mull, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist; also Coll.
K. L. Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Dairy Technologist; also Coll.
C. J. Wilcox, Ph.D., Assistant Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.
J. M. Wing, Ph.D., Associate Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.

West Florida Dairy Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Dairy Husbandman

Editorial Department
Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Editor and Head; also Ext.
K. B. Meurlott, B.A., Assistant Editor; also Ext.
M. L. Sharpe, M.S., Assistant Editor
Mary C. Williams, B.A., Assistant Editor

Entomology Department
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Entomologist and Head
A. A. DiEdwardo, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
F. A. Lee, M.A., Int. Assistant Entomologist
V. G. Perry, Ph.D., Nematologist; also Coll.
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Assistant Apiculturist
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
R. C. Wilkinson, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist

Food Technology and Nutrition Department
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Biochemist and Head; also Coll.
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist

C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
F. W. Knapp, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemsit; also Coll.
G. D. Kuhn, M.S., Assistant Food Microbiologist; also Coll.
H. P. Pan, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
R. C. Robbins, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist; also Coll.
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Horticulturist
Ruth 0. Townsend, R.N., Assistant in Nutrition
C. H. Van Middelem, Ph.D., Biochemist

Forestry Department
J. W. Willingham, Ph.D., Associate Forester and Acting Head; also Coll.
S. L. Beckwith, Ph.D., Associate Forester; also Coll.
P. W. Frazer, M.F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
C. G. Geltz, M.S.. Forester; also Coll.
R. E. Goddard, Ph.D., Assistant Geneticist; also Coll.
J. B. Huffman, D.F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
C. M. Kaufman, Ph.D., Forester; also Coll.
J. W. Miller, Jr., M.S.F., Forester; also Coll.
W. J. Peters, B.S., Int. Assistant in Forestry
D. M. Post, M.S.F., Assistant Forester; also Coll.
R. K. Strickland, M.S., Int. Assistant in Forestry
E. T. Sullivan, D.F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
K. R. Swinford, Ph.D., Forester; also Coll.

Fruit Crops Department
A. H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head; also Ext.
R. H. Biggs, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
J. F. Gerber, Ph.D., Assistant Climatologist
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Horticulturist
J. S. Shoemaker, Ph.D., Horticulturist
M. J. Soule, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist; also Coll.

Ida K. Cresap, Librarian
A. C. Strickland, Assistant Librarian
Janie L. Tyson, Assistant in Library

Ornamental Horticulture Department
E. W. McElwee, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Horticulturist
G. C. Horn, Ph.D., Associate Turf Technologist; also Coll.
J. N. Joiner, Ph.D., Associate Ornamental Horticulturist; also Coll.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
R. T. Poole, Jr., M.S.A., Research Associate
A. L. Radspinner, B.S., Int. Research Associate
T. J. Sheehan, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist; also Coll. (on Iv. of

Plant Pathology Department
P. Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Head; also Coll.
A. A. Cook, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
M. K. Corbett, Ph.D., Associate Virologist
T. E. Freeman, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
H. H. Luke, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist, USDA
H. N. Miller, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

W. C. Price, Ph.D., Virologist
D. A. Roberts, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist; also Coll.
R. F. Stouffer, Ph.D., Assistant Virologist
E. West, M.S., Botanist and Mycologist; also Coll.

Plant Science Section
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Geneticist in Charge

Poultry Science Department
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman and Head; also Coll.
and Ext.
R. H. Harms, Ph.D., Poultry Husbandman; also Coll.
F. R. Tarver, Jr., M.S., Assistant Poultry Husbandman; also Coll.
(on Iv. of absence)
H. R. Wilson, Ph.D., Assistant Poultry Husbandman; also Coll.

Soils Department
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist and Head; also Coll.
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
G. A. Brown, B.S.A., Assistant Soils Surveyor
R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist; also Coll.
V. W. Carlisle, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist; also Coll.
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Associate Soils Microbiologist
J. G. A. Fiskell, Ph.D., Biochemist; also Coll.
N. Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Associate Soils Physicist; also Coll.
C. C. Hortenstine, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
R. G. Leighty, B.S., Associate Soils Surveyor
T. C. Mathews, B.S.A., Assistant Soils Surveyor (on Iv. of absence)
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soils Technologist
W. K. Robertson, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
D. F. Rothwell, Ph.D., Associate Soils Microbiologist; also Coll.
D. 0. Spinks, Ph.D., Soils Chemist; also Coll.
M. N. Striker, B.S.A., Int. Assistant Soils Surveyor
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
G. M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
T. L. Yuan, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist

Statistics Department
A. E. Brandt, Ph.D., Statistician and Head

Vegetable Crops Department
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
D. D. Gull, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
S. J. Locascio, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist; also Coll.
A. P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
B. D. Thompson, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist; also Coll.

Veterinary Science Department
G. T. Edds, Ph.D., Veterinarian and Head; also Coll.
W. W. Kirkham, Ph.D., Associate Virologist

J. M. Kling, M.S., Research Associate
S. E. Leland, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Parasitologist
F. C. Neal, D.V.M., Assistant Veterinarian
P. E. Pardee, Jr., B.S., Int. Assistant in Bacteriology
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Pathologist; also Coll.
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist; also Coll.
F. H. White, Ph.D., Associate Bacteriologist


J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist in Charge
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
R. B. Forbes, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
H. L. Rhoades, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
W. T. Scudder, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Horticulturist
B. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist

H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
G. E. Alberding, B.S., Assistant in Chemistry, FCC
C. A. Anderson, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
L. B. Anderson, Jr., B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
C. D. Atkins, B.S., Chemist, FCC
J. A. Attaway, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist, FCC
R. W. Barron, B.A., Assistant in Chemistry, FCC
J. G. Blair, B.S.M.E., Associate Mechanical Engineer, FCC
R. F. Brooks, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
T. L. Brooks, M.S., Int. Assistant in Pathology
R. J. Collins, M.S., Int. Assistant Horticulturist
G. E. Coppock, M. S., Associate Agricultural Engineer, FCC
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
M. H. Dougherty, B.S., Assistant Chemical Engineer, FCC
E. P. DuCharme, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
G. J. Edwards, B.A., Assistant in Chemistry
A. W. Feldman, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Francine E. Fisher, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. B. Graves, Jr., Ph.D., Int. Assistant Chemist
T. B. Hallam, B.S., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
R. W. Hanks, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist
C. I. Hannon, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
F. W. Hayward, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
S. L. Hedden, M.Sc., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA
C. H. Hendershott, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist, FCC
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Associate Chemist
E. C. Hill, B.S.A., Assistant Bacteriologist, FCC
H. I. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
R. L. Huggart, B.S., Associate Chemist, FCC
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
P. J. Jutras, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Chemist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
D. W. Kretchman, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist

C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
S. K. Long, Ph.D., Assistant Industrial Bacteriologist
W. G. Long, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
A. A. McCornack, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist, FCC
M. D. Maraulja, B.S., Assistant in Chemistry, FCC
W. R. Meagher, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
E. L. Moore, Ph.D., Chemist, FCC
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Entomologist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
M. F. Oberbaucher, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist, FCC
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
R. Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
A. P. Pieringer, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
A. H. Rouse, M.S., Pectin Chemist
G. F. Ryan, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
Lila L. Sebring, M.S., Assistant in Library
A. G. Selhime, B.S., Assistant Entomologist, USDA
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
H. O. Sterling, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Biochemist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
A. C. Tarjan, Ph.D., Nematologist
S. V. Ting, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
Kenneth Trammel, B.S.A., Int. Assistant in Entomology
H. M. Vines, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist, FCC
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
T. A. Wheaton, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
R. W. Wolford, M.A., Associate Chemist, FCC

Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 1351, Fort Pierce

Mortimer Cohen, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
R. C. Bullock, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
D. V. Calvert, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist


W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
R. J. Allen, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Technologist
H. W. Burdine, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
M. H. Byrom, M.S., Agricultural Engineer, USDA
T. W. Casselman, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
H. L. Chapman, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist
D. W. Fisher, M.S., Associate Agronomist, USDA
W. G. Genung, M.S., Associate Entomologist
V. E. Green, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
C. E. Haines, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Husbandman
E. D. Harris, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
J. R. Iley, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
J. F. Joyner, Assistant Agronomist, USDA
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Animal Husbandman
F. leGrand, M.S., Assistant Agronomist
J. R. Orsenigo, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
W. H. Speir, Assistant in Hydraulic Engineering, USDA
T. E. Summers. Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist, USDA
P. L. Thayer, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist

F. H. Thomas, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist
C. Wehlburg, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
H. D. Whittemore, B.S.A.E., Associate Agricultural Engineer, USDA
F. D. Wilson, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Geneticist, USDA
J. A. Winchester, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Associate Horticulturist

Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 1351, Fort Pierce
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Entomologist
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
R. E. Stall, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist

Plantation Field Laboratory, 5305 S. W. 12th St., Fort Lauderdale
F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. D. Blackburn, M.S., Assistant Agronomist, USDA
H. I. Borders, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
E. O. Burt, Ph.D., Assistant Turf Technologist
W. C. Mills, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA
H. Y. Ozaki, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
E. H. Stewart, M.S., Associate Soils Physicist, USDA
L. W. Weldon, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist, USDA

GULF COAST STATION, Box 2125 Manatee Station, Bradenton

E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
D. S. Burgis, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
E. L. Hobbs, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
J. P. Jones, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
D. G. A. Kelbert, Associate Horticulturist
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. O. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Amegda J. Overman, M.S., Assistant Soils Microbiologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. E. Waters, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist

South Florida Field Laboratory, Box 973, Immokalee
P. H. Everett, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist


W. H. Chapman, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
F. S. Baker, Jr., M.S.A., Associate Animal Husbandman
D. R. Davis, A.B., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
C. E. Dean, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist
D. T. Sechler, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
W. B. Tappan, M.S.A., Assistant Entomologist
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist
W. D. Woodward, M.S., Assistant Soils Chemist
H. W. Young, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist

Marianna Unit, Box 504, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist

W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
C. L. Dantzman, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
J. E. McCaleb, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
F. M. Peacock, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman

SUB-TROPICAL STATION, 18905 S.W. 280th Street, Route 1, Homestead
R. A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
R. M. Baranowski, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
C. W. Campbell, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
L. A. McFadden, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
P. G. Orth, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
J. Popenoe, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
J. W. Strobel, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Horticulturist

H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist in Charge

W. C. Burns, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman in Charge, USDA

C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
L. S. Dunavin, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
M. C. Lutrick, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist


Potato Investigations Laboratory, Box 728, Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
D. R. Hensel, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. B. Workman, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist

Pecan Investigations Laboratory, Box A, Monticello
J. R. Large, M.S., Associate Plant Pathologist
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Associate Entomologist

Strawberry Investigations Laboratory, Plant City (Box 2386, Lakeland)
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Paul Sutton, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist

Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory, Box 321, Leesburg
J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
W. C. Adlerz, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
C. H. Curran, D.Sc., Entomologist

J. A. Mortensen, Ph.D., Assistant Geneticist
N. C. Schenck, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
L. H. Stover, Assistant in Horticulture

Weather Forecasting Service, Box 1058, Lakeland
W. 0. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist in Charge, USWB
J. G. George, B.S., Principal Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
L. L. Benson, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
G. R. Davis, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist
R. H. Dean, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
W. F. Mincey, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
B. H. Moore, B.A., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
O. N. Norman, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. T. Sherouse, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
W. R. Wallis, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist
H. E. Yates, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB


The date of this report marks the mid-point of the Agricultural Experi-
ment Stations 75th anniversary year. The original Hatch Act which au-
thorized and financed the start of the state experiment stations was passed
by the Congress of the United States in 1887, and the Legislature of the
State of Florida passed the required Act of Assent which established the
Florida Station in 1888.
The Annual Reports of the early years, with the Station located at Lake
City, make fascinating reading. It is often surprising, too, in the light of
the agricultural developments since that time.
It seems fitting to reprint the Introduction to "Bulletin No. 1 of the
Experiment Station of Florida" herewith. This was written by J. Kost,
M.D., LL.D., Director, and the 24 page report was published in April 1888.
The text of the introduction follows:
The Director of this Station is not without a deep sense that his
work is, in a great degree, a peculiar one, owing to the latitudinal
and climatic characteristics of Florida. Other stations have helps
from correspondent and analagous surroundings that afford mu-
tual advantages in station work. But the Florida Station, located
on a peninsula between ocean and sea, alone, must largely work out
its own materials. Already various letters of earnest solicitude
have come in, asking of us not to fail making the most of our
"peculiar position." Hence the consciousness of responsibility is
all the greater.
If, as is evident, this Station is expected to determine the possi-
bilities of the culture, in Florida, of tropical plants, and test the
acclimation of species of opposite climates, as also the careful
examination of the Florida soils and products, which in various
respects are peculiar, then surely the work here is an important
Since the station work contemplates alike the conditions of success
and the causes of failure in the culture of plants and rearing of
animals, the analyses of soils, researches in vegetable and animal
psysiology, as also the study of the most approved methods of hus-
bandry and appliances, as also the availments of the applied sci-
ences, in what these mean in handling the soil and its products, then
most evidently this station work is a great one. But we are fully
resolved to do our part to prove the wisdom of those far seeing men
in Congress who secured the means to effect this great national
enterprise. The American people must ever be known as in the
front rank in those great national movements that promote the
highest civilization and chief good of humanity.
The introduction of articles in these bulletins will not be in syste-
matic order; this the very nature of the work must preclude; but
in handling the materials every availment of science and the im-
proved arts will be placed in contribution. While kindliness in
criticisms is hoped for, and a lack of assurance is acknowledged
at the outset, our resolutions are strong for winning a grand suc-
We hope that the people of Florida will agree-after these 75 years-
that the Experiment Station has been the "grand success" which Director
Kost resolved that it would be.

Annual Report, 1963

In the light of our present knowledge of our agriculture, we can be
amused, perhaps, by some of these early reports. Timothy and Kentucky
bluegrass were under test. Apples were under test, and showed some prom-
ise when grafted to pear stock. Buckwheat, planted on "exhausted land",
showed "abundant promise of good yield".
Not so amusing-in fact, a little embarrassing-are the reports on red
and white clover. These showed promise when dressed with "Sopchoppy
phosphates and air-slaked lime". We are reminded that it was not until
about 1940 that the Station established clover as a dependable forage in
our state. Perhaps some of our people should have been more alert to
these early trials.
Under the Horticultural Section, the statement appears-"No country
perhaps is better adapted to peach culture than Florida". Varieties re-
ferred to were Peen-to and Honey. Some of our sister states to the north
overcame Florida's apparent advantage, and only recently are we again
seeing the very real potential of the peach in our state.
Despite the above, I hope that Director Kost would feel that the Experi-
ment Station has lived up to his early resolve in reasonable measure. In
any event, we have come far in agriculture in Florida.
This progress was reviewed in a special issue of our quarterly journal-
The Sunshine State Agricultural Research Report. Volume 8, No. 1 of
this journal was expanded to 164 pages, and reviewed the 75 years of the
Florida Station and of Florida's agriculture in considerable detail and
depth. Most gratifying was the receipt of hundreds of letters of congratu-
lations for the fine publication. Many expressed appreciation not only for
past contributions, but also were complimentary of present research pro-
gram and confidence in our future efforts.
Another highlight of interest during the past year was the appoint-
ment of the new Provost for Agriculture, Dr. E. T. York, Jr., on May 15,
1963, replacing W. M. Fifield, who had retired June 30, 1962. Dr. York
received his bachelor's and master's degrees from Auburn and Ph.D. from
Cornell, specializing in agricultural science. He is former head of agronomy
at North Carolina, director of the Alabama Extension Service, and eastern
director of the American Potash Institute, and comes to Florida from his
present position as United States government's administrator of the Fed-
eral Extension Service.
We are pleased with the selection made by President Reitz and look
forward to much progress under the capable leadership of Dr. York, who
as Provost will be the chief administrative officer of all agricultural units
at the University of Florida and will be directly responsible to the presi-
dent for the coordination of these units.


Of the $4 million needed to meet our capital building requirements as
recommended by the Agricultural Council, the 1963 Legislature appropri-
ated $200,000 for the relocation of the Gulf Coast Experiment Station at
Bradenton. This is a much needed improvement and will certainly aid the
research program of this station, but the over-all Stations' capital needs
remain critical.
During the year releases of funds were made for two $50,000 appro-
priations of the 1961 Legislature. One was for relocation of the Straw-
berry Investigations Laboratory about 3 miles west of Plant City, which
is presently under construction and will be ready for occupancy in the
fall of 1963. The other was for construction of a laboratory-office build-
ing on a new site west of Monticello of the Pecan Investigations Labora-
tory. Construction is underway and occupancy should take place late in

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

1963. A $20,000 appropriation for a citrus pulp pilot plant was released
and construction is underway, with anticipated operation during the 1963-
64 crop season. Grant funds of $76,500 from the Florida Citrus Commis-
sion were used to remodel and install laboratories in Building 22 at the
Citrus Experiment Station.
Minor building needs were partially met through use of limited operat-
ing capital outlay funds for such items as greenhouses, laboratory renova-
tion, barns, sheds, fencing, land clearing, silos, and other improvements
and repairs.

As we passed the three-quarter century mark during the past year,
much of the research work was of the same kind for which we are or-
ganized-useful, down-to-earth, problem-solving agricultural research. Not
old-fashioned research, but modern fundamental up-to-date basic research,
for scientists have a way of keeping up with one another whether astrono-
mers or virologists, and ours are no exception. Their job is to solve
New problems constantly occur in Florida's dynamic agricultural in-
dustry. The Stations' responsibility is to meet the challenges as they
become known, so the number of active projects underway is constantly
changing. Active projects are initiated formally in accordance with the
usually recognized procedures either by individual scientists or groups.
The team approach to solving the agricultural problems, which are con-
tinually becoming more complex, is a widespread practice throughout the
Station system. All work is carefully coordinated and evaluated for most
efficient use of research funds as well as most effective approach to the
solution of a problem. Research planning is a continuing process.
Following is a summary of the project changes during the year:

Projects State Hatch Regional AMA Total

Initiated 41 10 1 1 53
Completed 56 14 3 0 73
Revised 4 0 0 0 4
Total active 6/30/63 301 88 10 3 402
Total active 6/30/62 316 92 12 2 422
Increase or decrease -15 -4 -2 1 -20

Except for some projects which were temporarily inactive during the
year, the following reports by departments and stations contain the sum-
mary of work of all projects plus additional reports of preliminary explora-
tory research.
To obtain complete information on a given problem, commodity, or
process, the reader should consult the index, since related work may have
been done at several locations.
This report reflects an outstanding service to growers, ranchers, and
related agricultural industries as evidenced by the research contributions
reported in the following pages. To keep the public promptly informed,
field days, short courses, and conferences were held by various depart-
ments, branch stations, and field laboratories periodically during the year.

Annual Report, 1963


Troy L. Brooks, Int. Asst. in Pathology, Citrus Station, July 2, 1962
Melvin Lee Sharpe, Asst. Editor, Editorial, Aug. 1, 1962
James Glen Blair, Assoc. Mech. Engineer, Citrus Station, FCC, Aug. 1,
Henry H. Wilson, Asst. Poultry Husbandman, Poultry Science, Aug. 1,
Howard B. Graves, Jr., Int. Asst. Chemist, Citrus Station, Sept. 1, 1962
Albert L. Radspinner, Int. Res. Associate, Ornamental Horticulture, Sept.
1, 1962
Blair J. Smith, Asst. Ag. Economist, Agricultural Economics, Sept. 1, 1962
James F. Beeman, Asst. Ag. Engineer, Agricultural Engineering, Sept. 1,
Fred C. Neal, Asst. Veterinarian, Veterinary Science, Sept. 1, 1962
Balfit S. Gill, Int. Res. Associate, Food Technology and Nutrition, Sept.
10, 1962
Philip E. Pardee, Jr., Int. Asst. in Bacteriology, Veterinary Science, Sept.
10, 1962
Evert 0. Burt, Asst. Turf Technologist, Plantation Laboratory, Oct. 1,
J. R. Iley, Int. Res. Associate, Everglades Station, Oct. 1, 1962
John F. Easley, Int. Asst. in Nutrition, Animal Science, Oct. 1, 1962
Carl A. Anderson, Asst. Soils Chemist, Citrus Station, Nov. 1, 1962
Stanley E. Leland, Jr., Assoc. Parasitologist, Veterinary Science, Jan. 1,
Richard Emory Deese, Int. Asst. in Animal Science, Animal Science, Jan.
1, 1963
Wayne W. Kirkham, Assoc. Virologist, Veterinary Science, Jan. 15, 1963
Scott Logan Hedden, Asst. Ag. Engineer, Citrus Station, Feb. 1, 1963
Thurston Leondos Brooks, Jr., Int. Asst. in Ag. Economics, Agricultural
Economics, Feb. 18, 1963
K. B. Meurlott, Asst. Editor, Editorial, March 1, 1963
William Carlisle Mills, Asst. Ag. Engineer, Everglades Station, Mar. 5,
Robert L. Addison, Jr., Asst. Ag. Statistician, Agricultural Economics, Mar.
17, 1963
Denzil Robert Davis, Asst. Meteorologist, North Florida Station, Apr. 1,
Kenneth Trammel, Int. Asst. in Entomology, Citrus Station, May 1, 1963
Ernest S. Ford, Int. Botanist, Botany, May 1, 1963
E. T. York, Jr., Provost, Provost Office, May 15, 1963
James Malcolm Kling, Research Associate, Veterinary Science, June 1,
Thomas Adair Wheaton, Asst. Horticulturist, Citrus Station, June 1, 1963
Margaret E. Sosebee, Int. Asst. in Food Tech., Food Technology and Nu-
trition, June 17, 1963

Lorne A. McFadden, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Sub-Tropical Station, July
1, 1962
Shreve Simpson Woltz, Assoc. Plant Physiologist, Gulf Coast Station, July
1, 1962
Cornelis Wehlburg, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, July 1,
Howard W. Burdine, Assoc. Soils Chemist, Everglades Station, July 1, 1962

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Harry Wogman Ford, Horticulturist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1962
Robert Henry Harms, Poultry Husbandman, Poultry Dept., July 1, 1962
Allyn Austin Cook, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Plant Pathology, July 1, 1962
Albert Carson Strickland, Asst. Librarian, Agricultural Library, July 1,
Charles H. Van Middelem, Biochemist, Food Technology and Nutrition,
July 1, 1962
Stratton H. Kerr, Assoc. Entomologist, Entomology Department, July 1,
Alvin Cropper Warnick, Animal Physiologist, Animal Science, July 1, 1962
George Ernest Combs, Assoc. Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science, July 1,
Donald Lloyd Brooke, Ag. Economist, Agricultural Economics, July 1, 1962
Robert Armine Conover, Plant Pathologist in Charge, Sub-Tropical Station,
Nov. 21, 1962
Charles C. Hortenstine, Asst. Soils Chemist, from Everglades Station to
Soils Department, Main Station, July 1, 1962
Leonard Garnett Thompson, Jr., Soils Chemist, from North Florida Station
to Soils Department, Main Station, July 1, 1962
Joe Richard Crockett, Asst. Animal Geneticist, from Everglades Station to
Animal Science Department, July 1, 1962
William Gordon Kirk, Vice Director in Charge, from Ford Foundation
Burma Grant to Range Cattle Station, August 1, 1962
Marshall Reid Godwin, Marketing Economist, from Florida Citrus Com-
mission to Agricultural Economics Department, Nov. 16, 1962
Elwyn Spruiell Holmes, Asst. Ag. Engineer, from Agricultural Engineering
Department to Rural Civil Defense Coordinator in Extension, Jan. 14,
John C. Stephens, Drainage Engineer, Everglades Station, USDA, Sept. 1,
Ralph R. Smalley, Asst. Turf Tech., Everglades Station, Sept. 15, 1962
Margaret Gertrud Goerigk, Asst. in Bact., Veterinary Science Department,
Oct. 5, 1962
Alexis John Kniazeff, Assoc. Virologist, Veterinary Science Department,
Nov. 30, 1962
William G. Mitchell, Assoc. Editor, Editorial Department, Dec. 16, 1962
Philip Eugene Pardee, Jr., Int. Asst. in Bacteriology, Veterinary Science
Department, Mar. 31, 1963
Leo Daniel Marquis, Jr., Asst. Ag. Statistician, Agricultural Economics
Department, Mar. 31, 1963
Danny Dean Cox, Asst. Parasitologist, Veterinary Science Department, Apr.
24, 1963
Carl Jefferson Arnold, Int. Asst. Ag. Econ., Agricultural Economics De-
partment, May 18, 1963
Billie Stephens Lloyd, Asst. in Ag. Econ., Agricultural Economics Depart-
ment, June 18, 1963
Lorne Austin McFadden, Assoc. Plant Path., Sub-Tropical Station, June
30, 1963
John Popenoe, Assoc. Horticulturist, Sub-Tropical Station, June 30, 1968
Albert L. Radspinner, Int. Research Associate, Ornamental Horticulture
Department, June 30, 1963

Annual Report, 1963

William Louden Thompson, Entomologist, Citrus Station, Sept. 30, 1962
Edwin Fraser Hopkins, Plant Physiologist, Citrus Station, FCC, Apr. 30,
Ida K. Cresap, Librarian, Agricultural Library, June 30, 1963
Raymond Brown Becker, Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Science Department,
June 30, 1963
Hugo Otto Sterling, Asst. Horticulturist, Citrus Station, June 30, 1963
Norman R. Mehrhof, Poultry Husbandman and Head, Poultry Department,
June 30, 1963
Auther Hamner Eddins, Plant Pathologist in Charge, Potato Laboratory,
June 30, 1963
George Dewey Ruehle, Vice-Director in Charge, Sub-Tropical Station, Aug.
22, 1962
John Clement Noonan, Asst. Horticulturist, Sub-Tropical Station, Aug. 25,
Chris W. Anderson, Assoc. Virologist, Plant Pathology Department, Sept.
1, 1962
Charles Colin Seale, Assoc. Agronomist, Everglades Station, Feb. 5, 1963

Retirements Prior to 1962-63
Arthur Liston Shealy, Animal Husbandman and Head, Animal Science
Department, 1949
Gulie Hargrove Blackmon, Horticulturist, Ornamental Horticulture De-
partment, 1954
Levi Otto Gratz, Assistant Director, 1954
Arthur Forrest Camp, Vice-Director in Charge, Citrus Station, 1956
Ouida Davis Abbott, Home Economist, Food Technology and Nutrition
Department, 1958
Lillian E. Arnold, Associate Botanist, Plant Pathology Department, 1958
P. T. Dix Arnold, Associate Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Department, 1959
Rudolf William Ruprecht, Chemist and Vice-Director, Central Florida Sta-
tion, 1959
Jesse Roy Christie, Nematologist, Entomology Department, 1960
Mark W. Emmel, Veterinarian, Veterinary Science Department, 1961
J. Francis Cooper, Editor and Head, Editorial Department, 1961
Joseph Robert Neller, Soils Chemist, Soils Department, 1962
Willard M. Fifield, Provost for Agriculture, 1962


Commercial grants and gifts accepted as support for existing programs
during the year ending June 30, 1963. Financial assistance is hereby grate-
fully acknowledged.
Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Illinois
Poultry Science Department-$2,000
Citrus Experiment Station-$2,500
Allied Chemical Corporation, Orlando, Florida
Central Florida Experiment Station-$250
Citrus Experiment Station-$200
Everglades Experiment Station-$300
Everglades Experiment Station-$250
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$250
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$250

20 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

American Agricultural Chemical Company, Pierce, Florida
Soils Department-$3,600
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,404
American Brahman Breeders Association, Houston, Texas
Animal Science Department-$300
American Can Company, Tampa, Florida
Food Technology Department-$3,845
American Cyanamid Company, Princeton, New Jersey
Food Technology Department-$2,000
American Cyanamid Company, Wayne, New Jersey
Animal Science Department-$2,500
American Cyanamid Company, Bradley, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,751
American Maize Products Company, Roby, Indiana
Citrus Experiment Station-$2,500
American Oil Company, Chicago, Illinois
Citrus Experiment Station-$2,100
Armour Agricultural Chemical Company, Atlanta, Georgia
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,488
Basic, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio
Citrus Experiment Station-$4,000
Brunswick Pulp and Paper Company, Brunswick, Georgia
Forestry Department-$2,000
California Spray Chemical Corporation, Richmond, California
Everglades Experiment Station-$1,000
Chemagro Corporation, Kansas City, Missouri
Entomology Department-$250
Plant Pathology Department-$250
Veterinary Science Department-$2,400
Citrus Experiment Station-$500
Citrus Industry, Lakeland, Florida
Citrus Station-$6,250
Citrus Processors Association, Winter Haven, Florida
Animal Science-$6,000
0. H. Clapp and Company, New York, New York
Agricultural Engineering Department and
Fruit Crops Department-$8,000
Commercial Solvents Corporation, Terre Haute, Indiana
Animal Science Department-$3,000
Container Corporation of America, Fernandina Beach, Florida
Forestry Department-$2,000
Continental Woodlands, Savannah, Georgia
Forestry Department-$2,000
Mrs. F. L. DeBusk, Pensacola, Florida
Plant Pathology Department-$50
Diamond Alkali Company, Painesville, Ohio
Plant Pathology Department-$500
Vegetable Crops Department-$500
Central Florida Experiment Station-$2,400
Everglades Experiment Station-$750
Everglades Experiment Station-$750
Everglades Experiment Station-$350
Gulf Coast Experiment Station-$1,000
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$500
Distillers Feed Research Council, Cincinnati, Ohio
Animal Science Department-$4,000

Annual Report, 1963

Esso Research and Engineering Company, Linden, New Jersey
Vegetable Crops Department-$750
Central Florida Experiment Station-$750
Everglades Experiment Station-$750
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory-$750
Evanite Plastic Company, Leesburg, Florida
Fruit Crops Department-$953
Florida Citrus Commission, Winter Haven, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$8,300
Florida Flower Association, Ft. Myers, Florida
Gulf Coast Experiment Station-$200
Florida Orchid Association, Orlando, Florida
Plant Pathology Department-$100
Ornamental Horticulture-$100
Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation, Lakeland, Florida
Fruit Crops Department-$2,500
Ford Motor Company Fund, Dearborn, Michigan
Gulf Coast Experiment Station-$2,000
Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa
Veterinary Science Department-$750
Thelma T. Frazer, Gainesville, Florida
Plant Pathology Department-$10
Golf Course Superintendents Association of America, Jacksonville Beach,
Ornamental Horticulture Department-$500
W. R. Grace and Company, Bartow, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,863
Everglades Experiment Station-$1,500
Growers Administrative Committee, Lakeland, Florida
Agricultural Economics Department-$4,700
Hays Manufacturing Company, Erie, Pennsylvania
Fruit Crops Department-$35
Humble Oil and Refining Company, Baytown, Texas
Citrus Experiment Station-$11,000
International Harvester Company, Jacksonville, Florida
Fruit Crops Department-$300
International Paper Company, Mobile, Alabama
Forestry Department-$2,000
International Minerals and Chemical Corporation, Bartow, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$2,395
Jane T. Ishol, Scranton, Pennsylvania
Plant Pathology Department-$50
Jensen-Salsbery Laboratory, Inc., Kansas City, Missouri
Veterinary Science Department-$3,000
Lake Garfield Nurseries, Bartow, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,000
Manganese Chemicals Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland
Citrus Experiment Station-$4,000
Massey-Ferguson, Inc., Detroit, Michigan
Everglades Experiment Station-$650
Merck, Sharp & Dohme, Rahway, New Jersey
Veterinary Science Department-$2,000
Miller Chemical and Fertilizer Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland
Everglades Experiment Station-$600
Minute Maid Company, Orlando, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$2,000

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Monsanto Chemical Company, St. Louis, Missouri
Poultry Science Department-$3,500
Everglades Experiment Station-$1,500
Moorman Manufacturing Company, Quincy, Illinois
Animal Science Department-$7,500
National Association of Artificial Breeders, Columbia, Missouri
Dairy Science Department-$1,200
National Feed Ingredients Association, Des Moines, Iowa
Animal Science Department-$1,500
Niagara Chemical Division, FMC Corporation, Middleport, New York
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$500
NOPCO Chemical Company, Newark, New Jersey
Poultry Science Department-$200
Pabst Brewing Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Everglades Experiment Station-$1,500
Phelps Dodge Refining Company, New York, New York
Citrus Experiment Station-$2,000
Everglades Experiment Station-$2,000
Race and Race, Winter Haven, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$500
Rainy Sprinkler Sales, Gainesville, Florida
Fruit Crops Department-$120
Rayonier, Inc., Fernandina Beach, Florida
Forestry Department-$2,000
R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Agricultural Engineering Department and
Agronomy Department-$5,000
Rohm & Haas Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$1,500
G. D. Ruehle, Homestead, Florida
Plant Pathology Department-$5
Senninger Company, Orlando, Florida
Fruit Crops Department-$195
Shell Chemical Company, Atlanta, Georgia
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,500
Everglades Experiment Station-$1,000
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$500
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory-$300
Scott Paper Company, Mobile, Alabama
Forestry Department-$2,000
Shell Chemical Company, New York, New York
Food Technology Department-$3,000
Shell Development Company, Modesto, California
Plant Pathology Department-$600
Central Florida Experiment Station-$800
Sigma Delta Epsilon, Bethesda, Maryland
Gulf Coast Experiment Station-$500
Smith-Douglas, Norfolk, Virginia
Poultry Science Department-$3,000
Citrus Experiment Station-$828
Soft Phosphate Research, Ocala, Florida
Animal Science Department-$3,000
Soils Department and Citrus Experiment Station-$3,000
Soils Department and Suwannee Valley Experiment Station-$1,500
Speed Sprayer Plant, Orlando, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$2,000

Annual Report, 1963

Standard Oil Company, Cleveland, Ohio
Entomology Department-$900
Stauffer Chemical Company, Mountain View, California
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$500
St. Regis Paper Company, Jacksonville, Florida
Forestry Department-$2,000
Sun Oil Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Central Florida Experiment Station-$500
Swift and Company, Bartow, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$787
Tennessee Coal and Iron, Division of US Steel Corp., Fairfield, Alabama
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,200
Union Bag Camp Paper Corp., Savannah, Georgia
Forestry Department-$2,000
Virginia Carolina Chemical Corp., Nichols, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,759
Cecil Webb, Williston, Florida
Animal Science Department-$20,250
Grants for basic research were accepted from national agencies as
Atomic Energy Commission:
Agronomy Department (Plant Science)-$17,000
Agronomy Department-$10,309
Agronomy Department-$10,044
Botany Department-$15,917
Food Technology Department-$79,047
Soils Department-$11,356
Veterinary Science Department-$13,750
National Institutes of Health:
Animal Science Department-$34,349
Animal Science Department-$1,840
Animal Science Department-$37,245
Animal Science Department-$18,000
Botany Department-$14,840
Food Technology Department-$8,719
Food Technology Department-$9,832
Plant Pathology Department-$122,533
Veterinary Science Department-$16,350
Veterinary Science Department-$21,770
Veterinary Science Department-$25,885
Veterinary Science Department-$12,660
Gulf Coast Experiment Station-$8,395
National Science Foundation:
Agronomy Department-$9,400
Agronomy Department-$12,500
Veterinary Science Department-$13,600
Citrus Experiment Station-$9,800
USDA-Agricultural Research Service
Veterinary Science Department-$57,000
USDA-Farmer Cooperative Service
Agricultural Economics-$4,000



Fla. Agri.
Exp. Sta.

Salaries and wages ...............................
T ravel ....................... ....--.- .......... ... ..
Transportation and communication .....
U utilities ....... ... ... ...-.....- .. .- -
Printing .............................
Repairs and maintenance ...................... .
Contractual services .-.......- .....-....
R entals ......- ........ ......- ..-- .. ... .....-- ..-.
Other current charges and obligations
Supplies and materials .......................
Equipment ...............-...-- ......
Land and buildings .............................
Replacement fund ...............-...... ..........
Plant fund .................. .................

..... $4,371,521.43
..... 141,708.06
.. 95,973.56
.. 50,523.45
.. 119,421.79
S 22,328.38
.. 24,947.42
..... 28,382.17
.. 254,194.94
... 117,728.57
...... 174.40
--.. 25,401.18


$ 91,332.13

Grants and


Funds CQ

$4,691,066.76 E
162,320.62 I
51,953.88 Ej
36,302.86 m
42,103.73 ;.
35,029.35 9
666,060.27 s
365,017.59 "
174.40 o
25,401.18 -

.. $5,353,293.63 $657,855.38

Total state funds

$626,485.24 $6,637,634.25



Salaries and wages .............................
T ravel ........................................ ..
Transportation and communication .-
Utilities .....................
P rinting ................................... .......
Repairs and maintenance ..............

Contractual services ..............................-...-
R entals ......................... ........- --
Other current charges and obligations .............
Supplies and materials ........... ....................
Equipm ent ....... .... ................. ...
Land and buildings ............................ .. ....

....................... $369,929.19
.......... .. ........ 1,508.91
.. -..........- ...- 158.83
..... ............. 1,187.80

....... 411.06
...-- 1,566.82
-....- 142.08
- ..-..- 22.50
-...... 240.50
... .. 22,613.09
....... 61,099.58
........ 40,584.43

Total federal expenditures ..................................... $499,464.79


$ 45,470.00


$ 74,767.48


$ 6,125.81




$ 421,525.00


$ 10,399.44 $ 584,631.71

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Research was conducted under 45 projects. Nineteen of them were in
the field of production economics and 26 in marketing. Twenty of these
were in cooperation with other departments, and eight were regional proj-
ects in cooperation with other stations in the South. The department is
also cooperating with the Florida Citrus Commission in its research pro-
gram on the economics and marketing of citrus fruit.
During the year Dr. M. R. Godwin and Prof. J. R. Greenman, who had
been on leave, returned to the staff. B. J. Smith was added to the staff
on September 1, 1962. Dr. C. J. Arnold and Mrs. B. S. Lloyd resigned.

State Project 154 H. G. Hamilton and A. H. Spurlock
Significant results of early research which have formerly been pub-
lished but are out of print, together with recent results, were coordinated
into one manuscript. This manuscript will be submitted for publication
early in the next fiscal period. There have been many failures of coopera-
tives. However, the rate of cooperative failure has been less than for
other types of business engaged in similar operations. Many failures have
been due to technological changes.
Cooperatives with below average operating costs, which have obtained
returns from fruit equal to or above the industry as a whole, and which
have allocated these benefits to members on an equitable basis, have suc-
ceeded well as business organizations.

Hatch Project 186 Zach Savage

Operating costs per acre for the 1961-62 season were up 5 percent
over 1960-61 and were higher than for any other season of this Project
at $242.22. This was 2 percent higher than for 1959-60 and 10 percent
higher than the five-year average of 1956-61.
Labor, power, and equipment costs per acre at $104.58 were 6 percent
above 1960-61 but were down 4 percent from the 1956-61 average. Money
spent for fertilizer materials at $66.52 was down 6 percent from 1960-61
and up 8 percent over the five-year average. Money spent for spray and
dust materials at $36.59 was up 5 percent over 1960-61 and 45 percent
above the 1956-61 average. Real estate taxes at $19.59 were 17 percent
above the previous season and 34 percent above the five-year average.
Other "miscellaneous" items at $14.94 increased 73 percent over 1960-61
and 55 percent over the five-year average. This relatively large increase
in miscellaneous items was due chiefly to added expenses for materials
for frost protection.

State Project 345 A. H. Spurlock
Records of replacements, causes of losses, and disposal dates were con-
tinued on five dairy herds. Data were combined with results previously

Annual Report, 1963

obtained to determine length of life, depreciation rates, and reasons for
The lifespan of 4,012 replaced cows averaged 6.4 years or about 4.4
years in the milking herd. The disposal rate increased rapidly after the
first year in the herd, and after three years less than % of the original
animals remained. After five years 62Y2 percent were gone.
Cows reaching age six (four years in the herd) had a life expectancy
of 2.7 years and averaged 8.7 years of life; cows reaching age 10 had 1.7
years of life expectancy and thus averaged 11.7 years of life.
Live disposals from the herd were principally for low production, 30.7
percent; mastitis or some form of udder trouble, 25.0 percent; and repro-
ductive troubles, 17.7 percent. These three reasons or combinations of
them were responsible for 78 percent of the live disposals. About 9 per-
cent of the live disposals were for unstated reasons.
Death from all causes accounted for 13.9 percent of all disposals.
(See also Project 345, Dairy Science Department.)

State Project 451 G. N. Rose, R. G. Stout, G. G. Goshorn, and
R. R. Hancock'
Information was collected from various growers and processors to pre-
pare seasonal acreage and production forecasts. Some exploratory work
in developing objective methods of forecasting celery yields was conducted
in the Everglades and Zellwood areas. This work was summarized in a
paper, "Growth Rates and Projecting Celery Yields," presented at the
1963 annual meeting of the Florida Horticultural Society and published
in the proceedings issue. The project was closed as of November 6, 1962.

State Project 615 R. E. L. Greene
This experiment is designed to determine the relative productivity of
cows with different proportions of English and Brahman blood when run
under pasture programs designed to supply low, medium, and good nutri-
tion levels. The Agricultural Economics Department has the responsibility
of working with the project leaders in making an economic evaluation of
the various programs. Data are being accumulated on physical inputs and
outputs for the various programs.
(See also Project 615R, Range Cattle Station.)

State Project 627 R. E. L. Greene
This experiment is designed to evaluate pasture programs varying in
intensities of fertilization and levels of management in terms of forage
production, soil nutrient balance, and rate of economy of beef production.
The experiment contains one all-grass (Program 1), three grass-clover
(Programs 2, 3 and 4), and one irrigated grass-clover program (Pro-
1 Cooperative with Statistical Reporting Service. USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

gram 5). The all-grass program is fertilized with a mixed fertilizer and
a nitrogen top dressing. The grass-clover programs receive varying rates
of fertilizer but no top dressing. Each program is stocked with the esti-
mated number of cows it will carry on a year-round basis.
Summaries were made showing costs and returns for the 1960-61 and
1961-62 seasons. In each season the grass-clover program with the lowest
rate of fertilizer (Program 2) had the lowest cost per pound of beef and
the highest net return per acre. The cost of producing beef on the all-
grass program was about double that on Program 2, due mainly to a much
higher fertilizer cost, and also the necessity to feed more supplemental
feeds. The stocking rate was 1.45 acres per cow on Programs 1, 3, and 4,
and 1.33 acres on Programs 2 and 5. The estimated production of forage
per acre on a dry weight basis was higher on Programs 3 and 4 than on
Program 2, indicating that the utilization of forage on Program 2 was
probably better than on the other programs.
Production of beef on Program 2 was 324 pounds per acre in 1960-61
and 356 pounds in 1961-62. This compared to 235 pounds per acre in 1958-
59 and 316 pounds in 1959-60. An important factor contributing to the
increased production of beef per acre was the increase in average weight
of calves weaned, which was 527 pounds in the 1961-62 season and 427
pounds in the 1958-59 season.
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy, Animal
Science, and Soils departments.)

State Project 685 R. G. Stout and P. E. Shuler 2
Surveys of the preseason fruit counts by use of the improved frame
and the limb count methods were completed in September. The total orange
crop in October 1962 was estimated at 118.5 million boxes and grapefruit
at 38.5 million boxes. These estimates were based on the above surveys.
Following the freeze in December 1962, a cold damage survey was con-
ducted to determine the extent of damage to fruit and foliage.
In February and March three special surveys were conducted at two
week intervals to determine the juice weight, pounds solids, and acid con-
tent per 90-pound box of Valencia oranges. An analysis of these data in-
dicated that the three variables, (1) leaf condition in December, (2)
number of hours below 28 degrees, and (3) condition of fruit in the cold
damage survey in December two weeks following the freeze, explain about
65 percent of the variation in the March 1 juice weight of Valencia oranges.
It is planned to publish the results of this analysis along with other infor-
mation under the title "Citrus Fruit and Tree Damage Losses from the
December 1962 Freeze". A manuscript has been prepared from analysis
of the freeze data, illustrating a procedure whereby a grower could esti-
mate "drying out" of cold damaged fruit, entitled "Specific Gravity As a
Means of Estimating Juice Yields of Cold Damaged Valencia Oranges".
This paper has been submitted for publication as an Experiment Station
The monthly surveys of sizing and droppage were continued. Pro-
cedures were developed to analyze these data on IBM, including calcula-
tions of size and droppage rates and standard deviations by four areas of
the state.
The data collection continued on the internal fruit quality phase; how-
ever, the freeze in December greatly affected these data.
2 Cooperative with Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service.

Annual Report, 1963

State Project 701 R. E. L. Greene and B. J. Smith
The data for dairy farms in northeast Florida, central Florida, and
the Tampa Bay area obtained in 1959 and 1960 were analyzed to study
factors affecting costs and returns. The one outstanding way of reducing
net cost per gallon of milk sold and thus increasing labor income was to
increase the amount of milk sold per man. However, it appears that under
Florida conditions, increasing the production per cow to a high level did
not result in an increase in the amount of milk sold per man. At the same
time, if the number of cows cared for by one man was increased to a very
high level, production per cow was sacrificed to the point that income was
reduced. Operators who sold the largest amount of milk per man tended
to organize their businesses so that one man looked after a large number
of cows but at the same time production per cow was maintained at an
average level or better.
Work was begun on an economic study of dairy farms in west Florida.
At the end of the year records had been obtained for 29 farms in the Pen-
sacola area and 20 farms in the Tallahassee area. The farms surveyed were
selected to represent farms in three size groups.

State Project 720 R. G. Stout and J. W. Todd 3
Enumeration of a second sample of groves and sections was completed,
and the data from this sample and the sample for the year 1961-62 were
combined to prepare estimates of tree numbers by age group, kind, and
Analysis of the estimated tree numbers for 1961, based on the one-year
sample, and for 1962, based on the two samples, indicated a considerable
improvement in the statistical reliability of the 1962 estimate. Sampling
error (at 95 percent probability level) for all citrus trees was 4.3 percent
in 1961 and 2.7 percent for 1962. Sampling errors for all orange trees
reduced from 4.9 percent in 1961 to 3.6 percent in 1962, and for all grape-
fruit trees the sampling error was 5.4 percent in 1961 and 3.9 percent in
1962. Most county estimates showed a reduction in sampling errors;
Orange County for all citrus reduced from 12.6 percent in 1961 to 6.4 per-
cent in 1962, Polk reduced from 8.3 percent to 6.0 percent, and Lake County
increased slightly from 6.0 percent to 6.7 percent.
Citrus trees were found in about 19 percent of the land sections that
were considered to be suitable for citrus but did not contain citrus at the
time of the 19.54-57 report.
This project is closed as of June 30, 1963.

State Project 787 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley '
The purpose of this project is to examine the degree to which current
grade and size standards reflect value differences to consumers.
This study indicates that the standards currently employed in market-
ing mature green tomatoes delineate quality differences that are not dis-
cernable to consumers at the retail level. Generally, consumers regard

3Cooperative with Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service.
4 Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS, USDA.

30 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

two or more grade-size categories of tomatoes as equally acceptable. For
the smaller sizes and lower grades the indifference zone of the consumer
covers a rather wide assortment of tomatoes.
These findings along with their implications to the Florida tomato in-
dustry were published in March 1963 in Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tions Bulletin 652 entitled "An Economic Evaluation of Grade and Size
Standards for Mature Green Tomatoes".
This project is closed with this report.

State Project 788 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley 6
The practice of marketing vine-ripened tomatoes has brought about
substantial changes in the structure of the market for the total Florida
tomato crop. Individuals and firms in both the growing and marketing
sectors of the Florida tomato industry are in need of information regard-
ing the effect of this marketing innovation upon the pricing and market
To provide such information, a market survey was conducted in major
terminal markets in the eastern United States in the spring and summer
of 1961. Work during the year has consisted of the completion of an
analysis of the data obtained from this survey and the preparation of a
manuscript reporting the findings.
This project is closed with this report.

Hatch Project 895 A. H. Spurlock and H. G. Hamilton
(Regional SM-22)
Citrus harvesting costs for 33 firms, 1961-62, averaged as follows per
1% bushel box: picking oranges, 33.8 cents; picking grapefruit, 25.8 cents;
and picking tangerines, 81.7 cents. Hauling from roadside to plant cost
10.4 cents per box. Costs of packing and selling Florida fresh citrus fruit
per 1% bushel equivalent by 42 packinghouses, 1961-62, were as follows:

Container Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines

1% bushel wirebound box $1.07 $0.96
% bushel wirebound box 1.43 1.29 $1.53
% bushel fiberboard box-East coast 1.45 1.33
% bushel fiberboard box-Interior 1.24 1.11
5 lb. mesh bag 1.64 1.59
5 lb. poly. bag in master carton 1.69 1.62

Packinghouses varied in the cost of handling fruit from 22 percent
below average to 22 percent above the average. Nineteen of the 42 houses
were within 5 percent of the average for all.
Average costs for processing, warehousing, and selling typical products
from 18 plants were: single strength orange juice in 12/46 oz. cans, sweet-
ened, $1.61; grapefruit sections in 24/303 cans, sweetened, $2.67; frozen
6 Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1963

orange concentrate in 48/6 oz. cans, unsweetened, $2.02. Frozen orange
concentrate per gallon cost $0.41 excluding packaging materials. Process-
ing of citrus by-products cost an average of $21.92 per ton for citrus pulp
and meal, $14.43 per ton for molasses, and $0.1239 per pound for cold
pressed peel oil.
Results of the year's work were distributed to citrus dealers, packers,
and processors in three mimeographed releases for the 1961-62 season:
(1) "Costs of Picking and Hauling Florida Citrus Fruits," (2) "Costs of
Packing and Selling Florida Fresh Citrus Fruits," and (3) "Costs of Pocess-
ing, Warehousing and Selling Florida Citrus Products."

Hatch Project 916 R. E. L. Greene
Work on this project during the year was devoted to a final revision
of a manuscript for publication. The project is closed with this report.


Hatch Project 937 W. B. Riggan, M. R. Godwin,
(Regional SM-22) and B. S. Lloyd
Economic and statistical models for estimating the price of oranges
on the tree and a mathematical model for estimating the price of flexibility
of demand have been formulated. The model specifies the current on-tree
price of oranges as a function of the current (USDA) estimated produc-
tion of oranges; the carryover of canned, concentrated, and single strength
orange juice; a seasonal factor (month); and trend. Disposable personal
income is also to be tested with this model.
This model specifies the relationship between the farm level supply
equation and the consumer demand equation. The problem of identification
and multicollinearity due to the high correlation among the prices of vari-
ous orange products has been solved.

AMA Project 951 C. N. Smith
Field enumeration of data from a stratified sample of 200 ornamental
nurserymen was completed during the past year. Schedules have been
edited, data tabulated, and preliminary estimates made.
Of the estimated total sales of $24,000,000 by business establishments
producing a portion of the products they sold, 70 percent were made to
retail buyers and 30 percent to wholesale buyers. More than half of the
retail sales consisted of products and services marketed through land-
Data on costs of various operations were also obtained from six land-
scape nurserymen. These data are now in the process of analysis.

State Project 970 D. L. Brooke
Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida for the 1961-62
season were obtained from growers and summarized for 13 different veg-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

tables in 10 of the major producing areas of the state. The 1961-62
season was one of the most profitable for vegetable growers in recent
years. Reductions in acreages and losses from adverse weather condi-
tions in competing areas increased the demand for Florida vegetable crops
throughout most of the season. Prices of cabbage, leaf crops, celery, and
tomatoes were noticeably higher, while relatively little change was noted
for snap beans, cucumbers, eggplant, green peppers, and squash.
Increases in yields of nearly 65 percent were noted for vine-ripened
tomatoes on the lower East Coast and nearly 100 percent for cucumbers
in the Immokalee-Lee area. Celery yields were about 6 percent higher
in central Florida and the Everglades in 1961-62 than in 1960-61. Differ-
ences in weather account for large variations in yields within and between
State Project 973 W. K. McPherson
(Regional SM-23)
More than two thirds of the inter- and intra-state shipments of hogs
in the Southeast moved over the least transportation cost routes during
four one-week periods in 1960-61. Movements of hogs to and from pen-
insular Florida and movements of pork out of this part of the state were
too small to estimate by the techniques used in the regional study.
Northwest Florida was the only area of the state in which farmers pro-
duced more hogs than were slaughtered in area packing plants. Most of
the surplus hogs were slaughtered in south Georgia, with a few moving
east and south within the state. On the other hand, a relatively small
number of slaughter hogs were shipped into northeast Florida, principally
from southeast Georgia. Shipments into and out of Florida follow the
least transportation cost pattern very closely in the two areas in which
substantial movements take place.
The movement of pork into central and south Florida exceeded an
average of 1.2 million pounds for each of the sample weeks. This was the
largest movement in the region. Regional Bulletins No. 66 titled "Market-
ing, Slaughter and Consumption of Livestock and Meats in the South",
and No. 83 "Hog and Pork Movements in the Southeast", describing the
findings of this study in more detail are now available.

Hatch Project 977 W. K. McPherson
Other project leaders are continuing to collect annual data upon which
the economic analysis will be based.
(See also Project 977, Animal Science Department.)

State Project 995 R. E. L. Greene
The object of the study is to compare beef production and income from
heifers bred to calve first as two-year-old heifers versus calving at three
years of age. Various physical production data are being collected for the
experimental groups of heifers. The Agricultural Economics Department
has the responsibility of working with the leaders on the project to as-
semble and analyze the necessary data to make a comparison of net re-

Annual Report, 1963

turns for the two breeding systems. It will be 1963 before sufficient data
are accumulated for an economic evaluation.
(See also Project 995, Animal Science Department.)

AMA Project 1012 D. L. Brooke, W. B. Riggan,
(ES 672) and C. N. Smith
Marketing Florida Watermelons.-Florida watermelon growers sold 18
percent of their 1960 crop to itinerant truckers, 43 percent to cash buyers,
and 39 percent through other handlers. Itinerant truckers sold their por-
tion to chains, other terminal buyers, retail stores, and direct to consumers.
Cash buyers and other handlers sold to chain groups and to other terminal
jobbers and wholesalers.
Chain groups bought over 57 percent of Florida's watermelons handled
by all types of handlers in 1960. In addition they bought an undetermined
small amount through cash purchases from growers. Results of this
study are available in "Some Organizational and Functional Aspects of
the Florida Watermelon Industry," as Agricultural Economics Mimeo Re-
port 63-12. This portion of the project is closed with this report.
Market Organization and Structure of the Florida Celery Industry.-
Study of the market organization and structure of the Florida celery in-
dustry during the year has dealt with the factors affecting the price of
Florida celery on a week-to-week basis in an attempt to furnish the in-
dustry with a reasonably accurate forecasting formula. It is possible
to forecast Florida celery prices one week in advance quite reliably using
the factors: (1) expected Florida supply, Monday through Thursday of
next week, plus the amount of unsold celery on hand on Friday of the
current week; (2) expected California supply of celery, Sunday through
Saturday of next week; (3) Florida price per crate of sizes 3 and larger
F.O.B. Belle Glade on Friday of the current week. Using the above fac-
tors, it was possible to forecast prices for the next week with an accuracy
of 93 percent during the 1961-62 season. The industry tested the formula
on the 1962-63 price and further refinements will be made for 1963-64, if
State Project 1017 R. E. L. Greene
This project was designed to develop and test improved methods, equip-
ment, and facilities for receiving and temporary holdings of potatoes at
the packinghouse, with major emphasis on bulk handling systems. During
the 1962-63 season work was concentrated on the system of bulk dumping
of potatoes from a farm truck into a flat-bottom bin, since data for the
two previous seasons indicated this to be a promising and satisfactory
method for the Hastings area.
A very satisfactory test was obtained for the flat-bin system. Tests
loads of potatoes were run through the bin under commercial conditions
on seven different days. A total of 26 loads were handled, representing
about 2,000 packed hundred-weights of potatoes, or potatoes off more than
10 acres.
It is the opinion of the researchers that sufficient data have been col-
lected to indicate that in the Hastings area the flat-bin system would be
a satisfactory system of receiving and temporarily holding of potatoes
handled in bulk. Suggested plans will be developed for installation of the

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

system at the packinghouse and a description of operational procedures.
An appraisal will also be made of the estimated investment and cost of
the new method compared with the present method. A part of the work
on this project during the coming year will be devoted to these questions.
(See also Project 1017, Agricultural Engineering Department.)

Hatch Project 1018 R. E. L. Greene
The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze fluid milk sup-
ply and movement by producing areas in Florida, fluid milk utilization pat-
terns, and the net balance of supplies and consumption of fluid milk in
various marketing areas. Major emphasis during the year was the re-
vision of a doctor's dissertation for a report on the study. This manu-
script was issued as a mimeograph report. Attention during the coming
year will be given to the problem of projecting the number of dairy cows
and milk supplies for Florida in 1970.

State Project 1027 R. E. L. Greene
The objectives of this study are to determine the economic value of sev-
eral methods of supplemental feeding grazing yearling steers for one year
before they are placed in the feedlot and to determine the subsequent effects
of these methods on feedlot performance. The third year of this project
has been completed, and the data show a trend similar to that exhibited by
the two previous cycles. Data are being accumulated on physical inputs
and outputs for the various methods of handling the steers. The Agricul-
tural Economics Department has the responsibility of working with the
project leaders in making an economic evaluation of the different systems.
Such a summary will be prepared during the coming year based on the
results for the three periods.
(See also Project 1027, Everglades Station.)

State Project 1028 W. K. McPherson
Other project leaders are continuing to collect annual data upon which
the economic analysis will be based.
(See also Project 1028, Everglades Station.)

Hatch Project 1030 D. E. Alleger
(Regional S-44)
Economic opportunity, as measured by per capital and family incomes,
has been twice as great for over a decade in the Pensacola area, where in-
dustrialization has taken place, as in the Holmes-Walton area, which has
remained predominantly rural, according to the findings of this study.

Annual Report, 1963

Data reveal that agricultural income per farm rose and fell with in-
creases and declines in industrial income. In both areas the ratio of com-
mercial farmers to all farmers (low-income, retirement, and rural residen-
tial, etc.) was small (14.0 percent). These facts are set forth in consid-
erable detail in a manuscript which has been submitted for publication

Hatch Project 1035 R. E. L. Greene
Work on the project during the year has consisted of supervising the
completion of a doctor's dissertation based on the study. This manuscript
has been revised to be issued as an Experiment Station publication. The
project will be closed with the issuance of the Station publication.

State Project 1066 M. R. Godwin, B. S. Lloyd,
and K. M. Gilbraith '
Work during the year consisted of the completion of the analysis of
the results of experimental shipments of icebox-type watermelons into
the English market during the spring of 1961. A final report entitled
"The Export Market Potential for Florida Icebox Watermelons," Agricul-
tural Economics Report 63-5, was prepared and issued in April 1963.
This project is closed with this report.

Regional Project 1078 C. N. Smith
(Regional SM-25)
Further analyses of research done on expanding the market for flowers
were completed. A paper summarizing results of flower merchandising
research at Florida and elsewhere was prepared, and revisions were made
in three manuscripts on expanding markets for flowers; these are being
submitted for publication as a bulletin and as two circulars.
A questionnaire was devised, sampling methods were chosen, and other
preparations were made for conducting a study of consumer purchase pat-
terns and preferences for cut flowers and artificial flowers and for living and
artificial foliage. Field work for this study, which was postponed due to
delays in getting an up-to-date list of households, will be conducted in
Gainesville in the summer and fall of 1963.
Preliminary plans have been made for a study of the practices and
opinions of lending agencies, the home building industry, and real estate
agencies toward landscaping. This study will be conducted during the com-
ing fiscal year.
(See also Project 1078, Ornamental Horticulture.)

Hatch Project 1083 W. K. McPherson
The class, grade, price, and weight of the cattle and calves sold at the
16 largest markets in the state for the past year have been recorded on
6 Cooperative with Florida Agricultural Extension Service.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

IBM cards. These data have been used to estimate the monthly average
prices and weights of animals in the several classes and grades and the
extent to which they vary within each month.

State Project 1085 C. E. Murphree
During the 1930-40 decade, the title to most of the riverfront land in
Suwannee County reverted to the state through tax delinquencies. But
with the interest in outdoor recreation that developed following World
War II, riverfront land was in 1962 among the most valuable in the county.
One of the most tangible effects of using riverfront land for recreation
has been the increase in county tax revenue. The assessed value of river-
front land has increased, and the collection of taxes is no longer a problem.
While it is more difficult to measure than the change in county tax rev-
enue the appreciation in riverfront land values has been in the past and
may in the future be a prominent factor in the growth of the economy of
the county. Market values represent an estimate of the present and all
discounted future earnings of the riverfront land. For county residents
who sold riverfront land after an increase in price due to recreation, the
prospective future earnings were realized and represent an addition of
income to the economy of the county from recreation. Despite a sale of
riverfront land to a non-resident who acquires the right to all future
earnings, the realization of these earnings will create secondary benefits
which will accrue to the economy of the county. The output of riverfront
land used for recreation is a service which, unlike mineral deposits or
agricultural products, cannot be exported from the county and processed
for consumption elsewhere. Hence, when the consumption of the flow of
services from this land takes place, it will result in an expansion in the
economy of the county through the creation of a demand for complementary
goods and services.

Hatch Project 1096 M. R. Godwin, W. F. Chapman, Jr.,7
(Regional SM-22) and W. T. Manley
The purpose of this project is to determine the extent to which fresh
oranges grown in Florida and in California are substitutes. Because of
the market differentiation between the oranges grown in the interior and
Indian River districts of Florida, the substitution of each of the two
Florida products in relation to California oranges was examined. The
basic research approach employed in this project consisted of the delib-
erate manipulation of prices to the end of generating data that would allow
the measurement of the desired substitution relationships. Field work on
the study was conducted in a representative Northern market area during
the six-week period beginning April 19, 1962 (see 1962 report).
During the year the data obtained from field operations were trans-
formed in a manner that would facilitate the use of high-speed computa-
tional techniques on electronic computers, and analytical operations were
completed. An evaluation of the study results is currently in progress,
and plans are being formulated to prepare a manuscript reporting the
7 Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1963

Hatch Project 1126 A. H. Spurlock and W. B. Riggan
Sweet corn in the Lake Okeechobee area was sold under the Florida
State Marketing Order program at controlled prices. These prices were
sometimes a minimum, sometimes a ceiling, but often a single selling price
for a given U. S. grade. There was thus no price variation for any fac-
tors other than those included in the present official grades.
(See also Project 1126, Food Technology and Nutrition Department.)

State Project 1127 A. H. Spurlock
Pallet box handling equipment has been installed in a packinghouse and
is ready for trial runs. However, no trials were made because of the
freeze which caused most of the fruit to be diverted direct to processors.
(See also Project 1127, Citrus Station.)

Hatch Project 1129 C. N. Smith
An economic survey of the Florida foliage plant industry showed that
234 growers had estimated sales of $11,105,000 in 1961. When plants pur-
chased by other growers and resold were included, total industry sales
amounted to $12,773,000.
The 719 acres in commercial foliage plant production in 1962 repre-
sented a rise from 485 acres in 1956. Of the 719 acres, 204 acres were open
land, 483 acres were shaded, and 77 acres were in greenhouses.
Out-of-state greenhouse operators, purchasing a third of all plants
sold, and variety stores, buying a fourth, were the principal market outlets
of foliage plants. Other major buyers were retail florists, brokers, and
local growers.
Foliage plant growers have reported depressed prices in recent seasons.
Average sales per acre fell from $20,700 in 1956 to $16,350 in 1961. Com-
petition from growers in other areas, artificial foliage, and an oversupply of
plants are among the factors now making for economic hardships in this


State Project 1133 G. N. Rose, G. G. Goshorn, R. G. Stout,
and R. R. Hancock

During the 1962-63 season preliminary estimates of acreages planted
and for harvest, and forecasts of production, were made monthly; average
prices were estimated semi-monthly on 16 major vegetable crops including
melons, potatoes, and strawberries for fresh market. Cucumbers grown
specifically for pickles, spinach, snap beans, and tomatoes for processing
were estimated separately. Squash was estimated at the end of the season.
Acreage inventory reports of Florida celery were released monthly, on a
weekly basis, in conjunction with a monthly report from Arizona and Cali-
fornia; on sweet corn grown in the Everglades and Pompano area on a

s Cooperative with Statistical Reporting Service, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

weekly planting basis released monthly; and on tomatoes, released weekly,
in conjunction with Texas.
Weather-Crop weekly releases carried U. S. weather data by areas
with various conditions of vegetables, and shipments for the three most
current weeks. All reports were integrated with the national program of
the Statistical Reporting Service, USDA.
Studies on the development of objective methods of forecasting celery
yields were continued in the Everglades area. Data on time for celery,
sweet corn, and tomatoes to reach maturity were obtained currently. Sim-
ilar data on other crops are being obtained in conjunction with the end-
of-season survey. Growers' records of acreages, production, and prices
received are obtained to be weighted against shipments of record to esti-
mate county and area acreages and production. A similar survey made at
the end of the 1961-62 season (State Project 451, now closed) was used to
prepare final estimates of 17 major vegetable crops, including melons, po-
tatoes, squash and strawberries, totaling 336,000 acres planted and 314,000
acres harvested. This acreage produced an estimated 38 million cwt, valued
at $192.8 million. These data were released in 1963 in "Florida Agricul-
tural Statistics, Vegetable Summary, 1962."

State Project 1153 W. K. McPherson
On the basis of data published in the "Florida Soil and Water Conserva-
tion Needs Inventory" the percentage of the land in each county used as
forest and wood land, pastures and range land, crop land, "other" land,
and for non-agricultural purposes in 1958 and the changes that are ex-
pected to take place by 1975 were calculated.

State Project 1162 W. K. McPherson
(Regional SM-11)
The collection of data on the cost of moving feed grains from points
of origin in surplus producing areas to Florida destinations was initiated
soon after the project was approved, May 9, 1963.

State Project 1168 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley '
During the spring months, both vine-ripened and mature green to-
matoes grown in Florida must be marketed in competition with increasing
supplies of greenhouse-grown tomatoes produced in the northern regions
of the United States. This project is designed to determine the nature of
the competitive relationship between the two types of tomatoes produced
in Florida and those grown under greenhouse conditions.
Field work on this project was conducted in six representative food mar-
kets in Northern Ohio over a six-week period beginning April 22, 1963. In
the test stores, carefully standardized displays of vine-ripened and mature
green tomatoes from Florida and locally produced green-house grown toma-
toes were maintained, and price differentials were systematically introduced

9 Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS. USDA.

Annual Report, 1963

between the three types of products. These differentials were designed to
determine the extent to which customers would shift from the purchase of
one type of tomato to the purchase of another in response to a changing
relative price situation. The extent and the nature of such shifts afford
the basis for a statistical description of the substitution relationships be-
tween the three products.
Analytical operations based on the data generated in the retail store
tests are currently in progress.

State Project 1170 R. G. Stout, J. W. Todd,10
J. E. Mullen,1o and C. E. Sheppard 1

This project was approved on May 5, 1963, and field work will commence
July 1, 1963, in obtaining data according to the procedures outlined in the
project statement.

Hatch Project 1172 R. E. L. Greene
The purpose of this study is to determine production practices of beef
producers and to evaluate the economic potential of selected systems of
beef production as a means of making a more profitable use of farm and
human resources in the Snwannee River development area.
Complete farm business records for the 1962 calendar year and a record
of production practices for beef producers have been obtained by the sur-
vey method for a sample of 29 farms in Columbia and Suwannee counties.
The farms for which data were obtained were selected in consultation with
the county agricultural agents and other agricultural workers to represent
current production practices being used by beef producers in the area. At
the end of the year the records were being tabulated and the data were in
the process of being analyzed.

State Project 1173 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley "
This project is designed to examine the extent to which the under-
standing and attitudes of affected industry groups influence operational
problems encountered under a marketing agreement program. The Florida
Tomato Marketing Agreement will be employed as a case study.
Work on this project has consisted of a preliminary consideration of the
interviewing techniques that will be employed in field operations, and of a
consideration of alternative means of obtaining a sample of Florida to-
mato growers to be interviewed.


Florida Agricultural Production Index.-Index numbers measuring the
total volume of agricultural production in Florida have been brought up
to date through 1962. Crop production in 1962 was 11 percent higher than
'o Cooperative with Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service.
11 Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

in 1961 and 83 percent above the base period, 1947-49. Livestock and live-
stock products increased in volume by approximately 4 percent over 1961
and were 126 percent over the base period. Production of all crops and
livestock was up 8 percent over the preceding year and was 94 percent
above the 1947-49 average.
Production of citrus increased in 1962 by 24 percent, sugarcane increased
149 percent, vegetables as a group were unchanged, grains decreased 10
percent, and tobacco decreased 7 percent. Milk production increased by 1
percent over 1961, and meat animals and poultry production each increased
5 percent.
Total production is affected by crop acreages and numbers of livestock
breeding units and by yield or output per acre or per unit. In 1962 crop
acreage increased by 10 percent and livestock breeding units by 3 percent.
Yields of crops in 1962 were 7 percent higher than in 1961 and 69 percent
above the 1947-49 base period. Livestock yields or output per unit were
1 percent higher than the preceding period and 45 percent above the base
period. (A. H. Spurlock)
Soil and Water Conservation Needs Inventory.-The data collected by
the State and County Soil and Water Conservation Needs Committees were
summarized in a report published under the title of "Florida's Soil and
Water Conservation Needs Inventory". This inventory presents estimates
of (1) the major uses that were being made of the state's land in 1958, (2)
the changes that are expected to take place in the use of land by 1975, and
(3) the conservation treatments that will facilitate this change. A sub-
committee of four members contributed to the preparation of this manu-
script. (W. K. McPherson)
The Availability of Water for Agriculture and Forestry.-In an effort
to estimate the amount of water that agricultural and forestry enterprises
will use in the future, a conceptural framework was developed for estimat-
ing the rate at which the hydrologic cycle produces water with the attri-
butes human beings find useful. This concept was used in a journal article
published in the 1962 Proceedings of the Soil and Crop Science Society of
Florida. (W. K. McPherson)
Movement of Citrus Trees From Nurseries.-Movement of citrus trees
from Florida nurseries to Florida destinations was the second highest
over the period of 1928 to 1962. The fiscal period of these data was July 1,
1961, to June 30, 1962. This movement was down less than 1 percent in
1961-62 under the 1960-61 movement-the highest movement of the 34
seasons. The movement in 1961-62 was 2,819,452 trees.
Seventy-nine percent of the 1961-62 movement was orange trees-
Temple included-compared with 85 percent during the five-year period
of 19,55-60. Orange, grapefruit, and tangerine trees made up 88 percent
of the total movement in 1961-62 and 90 percent during the five-year aver-
age of 1955-60. The remaining trees were Murcott, 4 percent; tangelo,
4 percent; and 4 percent other mandarins, limes, lemons, and other citrus.
(Zach Savage)
Competition for Florida Fruit and Vegetable Crops.-The degree of
competition which Florida faces is determined by tabulating weekly car-
lot shipments of selected fruits and vegetables from Florida, other states,
and foreign countries during the Florida shipping season. Such data are
valuable to growers and extension workers in determining the more de-
sirable production periods during the Florida season. They are also avail-
able to industry groups in the preparation of statistics for hearings on
freight rates and marketing agreements and in establishing annual move-
ment patterns of Florida crops. Allied service industries may find them
valuable in planning peak movement and supply requirements.

Annual Report, 1963

"Florida Truck Crop Competition" was published as Agricultural Eco-
nomics Mimeo Report 63-2. (D. L. Brooke)
The Florida Sweet Corn Industry, 1953-1962.-The sweet corn industry
in Florida, while relatively young, has undergone many changes and tre-
mendous expansion. During the past 10 years major production has cen-
tered in those areas of Florida having the greatest advantage from a cost
standpoint, namely, the mucklands of the Everglades and Zellwood. During
the 1961-62 season 15 percent of the season's production was harvested in
the fall, 15 percent in the winter, and 70 percent in the spring. The de-
pressing effect which the spring volume has had on prices during May and
June is an indication of (1) a need for adjustments in supply and (2) a
need for more efficient marketing and better distribution of the product.
To present formally some of the problems of the industry at a public hear-
ing on the proposed State Marketing Order was the purpose for which
"The Florida Sweet Corn Industry, 1953-1962" was prepared. It was
subsequently published as Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report 63-4.
(D. L. Brooke)
Facilitating Farm Enlargement and Extensive Land Uses in Low-Income
Areas of North Florida.-Consolidation of operating units is one of the
principal methods of attaining large-scale operation either in mechanized
cash-cropping, livestock farming, or forestry. In north Florida the in-
fluence of consolidation of holdings probably greatly exceeds the effects of
division of existing units into a large number of smaller farms or move-
ment of farms and land into non-agricultural uses. This research seeks
to identify and measure the main streams of change and to study particu-
lar cases of farm consolidation and of shifts of land to more extensive
uses. The conditions, characteristics, economic incentives, personal satis-
factions, and institutional arrangements surrounding such changes are of
interest in this study.
Through consolidation farms tended to move up the size scale. Below
about 320 acres in size, the rate of decrease in numbers of farms tended
to vary inversely with size. Above about 320 acres in size, numbers of
farms increased but at a declining rate as size of farm increased. By size
classes, the average size of farm increased between about 50 and 800
acres. Very small farms and very large farms decreased in average size.
From 1950-59, all types of classified commercial farms decreased in
number except cash-grain farms.
Among the commercial farms classified by type of farms in 1959, live-
stock farms accounted for 40 percent of the farms, 59 percent of land in
farms, 28 percent of cropland harvested, and 50 percent of the value of
all farm products sold. (L. A. Reuss)
Costs and Returns on West Florida Dairy Unit.-Assistance was again
given to Mr. White and the Dairy Science Department in summarizing
records to show costs and returns in producing milk and also cost of pro-
ducing various crop enterprises. A summary was prepared for 1962, and
comparisons made with the results for 1960 and 1961.
For the past three years, the records have been summarized on a cal-
endar year basis. Because of the sequence of crops in the area, it was
suggested that the accounting year be changed to the 12-month period
October 1 to September 30. The ending inventory for 1962 was adjusted
as to amounts and values as of October 1, 1962, so that the suggested ac-
counting period can be used in future years. Additional forms were de-
veloped for improving the accuracy of the information being obtained. It
was suggested that consideration might be given to keeping complete cost
accounts on the operation of the Unit. (R. E. L. Greene)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Research done relates to the production of tobacco and vegetables, bulk
handling of citrus pulp, handling of potatoes at packinghouses, problems
in harvesting of sorghum for silage, and to land drainage and other sub-
jects, with emphasis on determining efficiencies to be gained by the use of
mechanical and physical means in the production and handling of crops
and agricultural materials. The work involved nine regular projects, all
but one being in cooperation with other Station units.

State Project 627 J. M. Myers
The pasture program involves the use of irrigation as a cultural prac-
tice. Irrigation applications were made when soil moisture deficit was
equivalent to 1 inch of water below field capacity in the top 18-inch layer
of soil. Rainfall for the year was about normal. Three applications of
irrigation water were made in April and May 1963.
Pasture production did not appear to be influenced to any great extent
by irrigation again this year; this was the same type of response which
has been obtained every year since the experiment was started in 1958.
It appears that more irrigation water is needed to influence production, but
it is doubtful that the application of more water would be economical be-
cause of the physical characteristics of the flatwoods soil on which the pas-
tures are located and the relatively low value of crop being grown.
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agronomy, Animal
Science, and Soils departments).

State Project 1017 E. K. Bowman and I. J. Ross
Two systems have been studied for moving potatoes from the field to
the packinghouse in bulk. These systems involve the use of a farm-type
truck for hauling potatoes and dumping entire loads into a holding facility
from which they are flumed and the use of pallet boxes for hauling, tempo-
rarily holding the potatoes, and dumping them to packing line input. Esti-
mated costs, developed from previous years' work with potato handling
systems, show bulk dumping to be 16 percent less in cost than conven-
tional systems (hopper-body trucks and sloping-bottom bins) and 19 per-
cent less than for the pallet box system. This year's work has involved
only the experimental bulk dumping system because of these indicated
cost relationships. The experimental setup was moved and installed at a
different packinghouse. The objective of this year's work was to test
further the operational characteristics of the bulk dumping system with
a slight modification in existing equipment, with steady water flow rates
used in fluming the potatoes from the dumping bin, and with a different
variety of potatoes.
One change was made in the bulk dumping equipment used in this
year's test. The end-gate locking mechanism on the dump truck was
changed to permit the truck driver to release the end-gate while seated

Annual Report, 1963

in the cab. This change in equipment has decreased the time required to
perform this particular task.
Twenty-four loads of potatoes were handled during this season. The
weight per load ranged from 81 to 88 hundredweight. The times recorded
for dumping the potatoes were in the range of three minutes per load.
These times were consistent with previously reported work on this project.
A steady flow of water was provided for fluming potatoes out of the experi-
mental bin. The rate of output of potatoes from the bin varied from 22,000
to 51,000 pounds of potatoes per hour with water flow rates of 150 to
250 gallons per minute.
Several evaluations of tuber injury were made. The results of these
evaluations agreed with previous and more extensive evaluations of tuber
injury and showed no disadvantage in this regard for bulk dumping. Red
La Soda potatoes were among the varieties used in this year's work. No
disadvantage was found from the standpoint of tuber injury in bulk dump-
ing the La Soda potatoes.

State Project 1020 J. F. Beeman
Application patterns from different fumigant applicators were studied,
including the use of a technique of photographing phosphorescent tracers
in the fumigant by ultraviolet light at night.
A second bed press was designed and built to complement the first
one and provide a facility for fumigating two rows simultaneously. The
two units were effective in forming beds. Further studies are in progress
to evaluate the effectiveness of these applicators on sandy soils.
(See also Project 1020, Central Florida Station.)

Hatch Project 1034 J. M. Myers, I. J. Ross
Field tests with the continuous harvesting-curing system for bright-
leaf tobacco have indicated that the system is practical and probably can
be used to advantage in many production systems. General specifications
for the equipment and facilities for the system have been completed.
The duration of the coloring period when curing tobacco in bulk appears
to have an effect on the nicotine and sugar content of the leaf lamina as
well as the filling value of the tobacco. For fully mature tobacco the aver-
age nicotine content was greatest and the sugar content was smallest for
tobacco colored 90 hours as compared to coloring periods of 30 and 60 hours.
Filling value was also greatest for the 90-hour coloring period. Variation
in the duration of the coloring period for tobacco leaves harvested approxi-
mately one week prior to full maturity did not appear to affect the chemical
content or physical characteristics of the cured leaf.
The rate of drying during the leaf drying phase of curing does not ap-
pear to be a significant factor affecting the chemical content, physical
characteristics, and appearance of the cured leaf. Drying potentials as
great as that supplied by 140F air at 40 cfm per square foot were used
for leaf drying on fully colored tobacco without affecting quality.
The quality of the cure does not appear to be affected by density at
which leaves are placed in the bulk container, provided proper air distri-
bution and drying rates are maintained. Surface densities of 17.8, 26.7;

44 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

and 35.6 pounds per square foot were tested with no difference in quality
being detected. Air distribution appeared to be more uniform through
the more tightly packed container.
Tests continue to indicate that bulk cured tobacco has greater filling
value than conventionally cured tobacco.

State Project 1053 I. J. Ross and J. M. Myers
Yield and apparent digestibility of sorghum ensiled in the milk to dough
stage was compared with that of the same crop cut after the grain had
become hard. The hard grain had a moisture content of 31.1 percent dry
basis and was cracked with a roller mill. The cracked grain had a fineness
modulus of 4.01 (ASAE Standard, see ASAE Yearbook, 1962) and a uni-
formity index of 4:5:1 (ASAE, Standard).
(Also see Project 1053, Dairy Science Department.)

Hatch Project 1082 I. J. Ross
A laboratory system for handling granular materials has been com-
pleted, and several projects relating to the flow of materials have been
An unloading device has been installed in a round bin which has a coni-
cal shaped bottom. The unloading device consists of a 4-inch diameter
screw conveyor which extends vertically into the conical section of the bin
approximately 8 inches, and an electric motor and drive assembly necessary
to rotate the screw. The unloading device was used to unload citrus pulp
from the bin. Its performance was satisfactory with only minor difficulties
associated with plugging. The unit is being redesigned to overcome these
The phenomenon of bridging and the factors influencing flow rate are
being studied. A bin has been constructed which can be changed to differ-
ent shapes and dimensions. This bin is presently being used to study the
effect of bin shape and material depth on the formation and shape of ma-
terial bridges over outlet orifices. Citrus pulp is being used as the bulk
material in this study. The mechanics of flow in tubes is being studied.
The objective of this work is to determine how materials flow in enclosed
spaces and the factors affecting flow rate under these conditions.

Hatch Project 1111 E. S. Holmes
This is a cooperative project between Agricultural Engineering, Fruit
Crops, and U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Serv-
ice. Results are reported under Project 1111, Fruit Crops Department.


Drying of Lychees.-Approximately 350 pounds of lychee fruit have
been dried in forced, hot-air drying equipment for the Florida Lychee As-
sociation. This sample will be used by the Association to partially deter-
mine the acceptability of the dried fruit on commercial markets. Further

Annual Report, 1963

work is being planned to study the conditions necessary to dry lychee fruit
in forced, hot-air drying systems. (I. J. Ross)
Mechanical Aids for Harvesting Vegetables.-Use of mechanical aids
for harvesting vegetables indicates that significant savings in manhours
are possible and that quality of the product is not impaired by handling
methods used. Preliminary studies have established that more specific
investigation of mechanical harvesting of vegetables should be profitable
in pointing out additional opportunities for production efficiency in these
operations. Work will continue under a formal project jointly with the
Vegetable Crops Department. (J. F. Beeman)
Spraying Cattle Compared to Dipping for Pest Control.-Injuries to
animals and loss of animals reportedly have been caused by use of dipping
vats for control of pests, leading to the idea that perhaps a spray chute
might be used to apply chemicals as effectively as dipping. Limited trials
with a cattle chute equipped with a spray system suggest two important
points to be resolved: 1. the type of nozzles and the liquid pressure need
to be determined precisely to assure penetration of the liquid through the
hair coat of animals; 2. the arrangement and management of the spraying
operation must be developed to obtain minimum resistance from the animal
and assure a steady flow of animals through the chute. Use of a chute at
least 20 feet long or more appeared to have merit in assuring good cover-
age of the animals.
A commercially available portable spray chute was tried on several
hundred animals. These animals appeared to be wet thoroughly. The
machine offers promise as a substitute for a dipping vat, but field tests
and experience in areas of high pest population are needed to evaluate
fully the merits of the portable spray chute. (E. S. Holmes and J. M.
Temporary Linings for Vegetated Waterways During the Pre-Sod
Period.-Procedure and laboratory facilities have been developed to study
the problem of controlling waterway erosion during the time interval be-
tween channel construction and sod establishment. Preliminary studies
have been initiated on the problem. (J. M. Myers and R. E. Choate)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Brief reports on 32 active research projects on field crops and pastures
are presented. Many of them are cooperative with other departments or
with branch stations. The last four are new this year to include new ob-
jectives under the main objective of improving agronomic crop plants and
their culture.

Hatch Project 20 W. A. Carver and A. J. Norden
Florigiant, a jumbo runner type, released by the Florida Experiment
Station in 1961, compared favorably with several jumbo varieties of the
1962 variety test in freedom from broken pods and from loose shelled
kernels. These comparisons were made with stacked peanuts, picked on a
carding type peanut picker. F416, a new jumbo runner line, originating
from crosses involving white Spanish, pearl Spanish, and two Virginia
jumbo runner varieties, showed fewer broken pods and fewer loose kernels
of any entry of the variety test. Its high production of uniform pods makes
it a favorite among new lines.
The yields of sound and mature seed, expressed as percent, in Florida
station tests during the two seasons 1961 and 1962 were as follows: Com-
mon Runner-100, Dixie Runner-92, Early Runner-168, Florigiant-182,
F416-178, Bradford Runner-126 and NC-2-132.
Fifteen varieties and breeding lines were grown in Florida Station
variety tests of 1962 at two locations. Line F420-215-1 ranked highest in
yield of sound and mature seed per acre. F416 was second, Florigiant third,
followed by F393, Early Runner, NC-2, Bradford Runner, Common Run-
ner, and Dixie Runner, last.
Crosses were made in the greenhouse in 1962, using as parents white
Spanish, small seeded runner and bunch types, and Virginia runner and
Virginia bunch types.

Hatch Project 295 G. B. Killinger
Tifhi-1 bahiagrass with an average yield of 10,600 pounds of oven-dry
forage per acre from seven replicates produced 16.4 percent more forage
than Pensacola bahiagrass during the third season since establishment.
In the first season of establishment four sources of ladino clover out-
yielded Nolin's improved and Louisiana S-1 white clovers with yields of
from 5,100 to 3,800 pounds per acre of oven-dry clover forage. A 40
pounds per acre application of fritted trace elements was responsible for
a 25.1 percent increase in total season yield of clover and grass from the
same plots.
Tensas, Chesapeake, Nolin's, and Penscott were the highest yielding red
clover varieties in a 10 variety trial with yields of 5,800 to 4,700 pounds
per acre of oven-dry clover forage.
Digitaria species (Pangola types) survived temperatures of 10 F
with a minimum of freeze damage when protected by a growth of 15 to
20 inches as opposed to a 25 percent plant loss from close cut Digitaria
having 4 to 6 inches of growth.

Annual Report, 1963 47

Hatch Project 372 Fred Clark
The testing of numerous tobacco selections was continued in the nema-
tode nurseries at Gainesville and Branford, Florida. The nematode species
M. javanica predominates in the Gainesville nursery while the M. incognita
Sp. Acrita is more prevalent in the Branford nursery. This occurrence pro-
vides an excellent testing program against two of the most virulent nema-
tode species which affect tobacco. In the commercial variety test R-64,
C-316, F22, N.C. 95, Speight 10, and McNair 12 produced the best results.
Variety F22 was released, and because of the higher yielding characteristics
and improper harvesting of this variety, some growers experienced diffi-
culty in marketing. Those growers who harvested properly did not ex-
perience any major trouble.
The increased evidence of black shank has made it necessary to initiate
a testing program at the North Florida Experiment Station. N.C. 95,
a new varietal release having multiple resistance to black shank, gran-
ville wilt, and fusarium, did not survive the black shank at the station last
year. This fact has raised the question of possible species differences in
black shank organisms. Several F2 crosses were tested; seven plants sur-
vived the test, and these have been greenhouse tested and are presently
being tested in the black shank nursery at Quincy as F, material.
Hatch Project 374 E. S. Homer
Tests were continued to evaluate new inbred lines for use in commercial
hybrids and to evaluate different methods of improving grain yield and
other important characteristics of hybrid corn.
Three experimental inbred lines in particular showed promise for the
third year of testing. Hybrids involving these new lines were significantly
higher yielding and had about 50 percent more erect plants at harvest than
the standard hybrids Florida 200 and Dixie 18.
An experimental hybrid utilizing an improved pollinator parent for
Florida 200 also performed well at four locations, averaging 2 bushels per
acre more than Florida 200 and having 25 percent more erect plants at
harvest. Foundation seed of this hybrid are now being increased.
A relationship was found between type of tester used in recurrent
selection experiments and expression of hybrid x location interaction for
grain yield. This interaction in a group of fourth cycle test crosses was
large and highly significant where a heterogeneous, broad-gene base tester
was used, but was very small where an inbred line tester was used. The
same trend was seen in the third cycle crosses grown earlier, but was not ap-
parent in the first or second cycle. This unexpected result is of importance
because large hybrid x location interactions are very undesirable from a
practical viewpoint. It indicates that narrow base testers may have an
advantage over broad base testers not previously suspected.
Florida 200, Riemer's 408, Greenwood 471, Greenwood Jackson, and
Coker 67 were among the leading hybrids in the commercial variety tests.
(See also Project 374, North Florida, Suwannee Valley, and West Flor-
ida stations.)

State Project 444 Fred Clark
Plants have been grown continuously and successfully since 1944 in
the same bed area.
Several new materials were tested this year for weed control:

48 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

1. A mixture of 30 percent ethylene dibromide and 70 percent methyl
2. A mixture of 10 percent ethylene dibromide and 90 percent methyl
These two chemical mixtures were compared with ethylene dibromide.
All three mixtures performed favorably this year.
A fungicide labeled SD (Shell) 345 was also tested. However, it was
not effective against weeds. Blue mold was not a problem in tobacco seed-
lings this year.

Hatch Project 488 H. C. Harris
Florigiant peanuts when grown under controlled greenhouse conditions
on Lakeland fine sand, a soil low in calcium, produced seed with a high
percent of dark plumule (Figure 1). An application of CaCO3 to the soil
completely prevented the occurence of dark plumule in the seed, as was
reported previously. Furthermore, lime both increased the yield and de-
creased the percent of hulls. About 20 percent of the seed with dark
plumule germinated, but the ones that did germinate were weak and
many of them died. Thus, seed with dark plumules are worthless for
planting purposes.




Figure 1.-Opened peanut seed, one normal and the other
with dark plumule (right).

Annual Report, 1963

Boron had a marked effect on the Florigiant peanut. In fact, without
boron in the fertilizer treatment, few peanuts were produced. Stems of
boron deficient plants frequently were cracked, and often there was a
dark colored area at the nodes of the branches. Characteristics of boron
deficient plants are shown in Figures 2 and 3. Plants with no treatment
of any kind seemed normal except small. They produced some seed, and
the foliage did not have any noticeable visual symptoms of boron deficiency.
In other words, a complete fertilizer in every respect except unbalanced
relative to boron was worse than no fertilizer at all.

Figure 2.-Boron deficient plant showing split stems and dark colored
areas at the nodes of the branches.


Hatch Project 555

Fred Clark and H. C. Harris

A new series of fertilizer rates and ratios were tested. These tests
were initiated, hoping that the information would assist in making ferti-
lizer recommendations based on soil tests. The following fertilizer analyses
were tested: 5-10-10, 4-8-12, 3-12-9, and 3-9-9. An 8-0-24 top dresser
was used to supply additional nitrogen and potash.
The 3-12-9 with 560 pounds of 8-0-24 top dresser produced the best
yield and quality. A 4-8-12 fertilizer used at 1,800 pounds with 20 pounds
of a chelated mixture of minor elements also produced a good yield and
quality of leaf.
Three rates of nitrogen 48, 72, and 96 pounds plus two rates of potash,
144 and 184 pounds per acre, were tested with calcium vs no calcium ap-
plied as dolomite at the rate of one ton per acre. MH-30 vs no MH-30
was included in the treatments. The average yield irrespective of nitrogen
was higher with the 184 pounds of potash without lime, and there was
little difference between the 144 and 184 pound rates of potash when
MH-30 was applied; however, where lime was applied the average yields

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

were lower, irrespective of treatments. An application of 96 pounds of
nitrogen, no calcium, and 184 pounds of potash (KsO) and MH-30 was the
best treatment. Shell fumigant number 7727 was tested for the control
of nematodes and compared favorably with D-D. This material may be
applied in dry or liquid form.

Figure 3.-Branch of a boron deficient peanut three months old, one
month after applying boron to the soil where grown. Note that the lower
part has visual deficiency symptoms of boron, while the upper part is free
of them. Many of the lower leaves are mildly mottled or have a mosaic

Annual Report, 1963

State Project 627 G. B. Killinger
Clover production was limited by dry weather and frost late in the
spring; however, cow and calf development were excellent as evidenced
by calf crop and cattle gains.
The pasture fertilization by programs and total oven-dry forage yields
are shown in the following table:

Lbs. 0-10-20 Lbs. of Nitrogen Lbs. of Forage
Program per Acre per Acre per Acre

1 450 180 7781
2 300 0 5288
3 500 0 6513
4 700 0 7007
5 900 0 7475

Yields of dry forage for the season ranged from 1,000 to 2,000 pounds
less per acre in 1962 than for the previous year.
The effect of drought limiting clover growth during both 1961 and
1962 probably accounts for the lowered total forage production for the
1962 season. The nitrogen supply in the soil was limited for two seasons
due to poor clover growth, and this was responsible for a lowered grass
yield from programs 2 through 5.
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Engineer-
ing, Animal Science, and Soils departments.)

Hatch Project 758 Fred Clark and H. C. Harris
Present research on tobacco curing is being conducted under Project
1034. Work for this year was confined to statistical analyses of the data
of this project, which is closed with this report.

Hatch Project 760 G. M. Prine, V. N. Schroder,
0. C. Ruelke, S. H. West,1
and K. D. Butson 2

Temperatures of the microclimate surrounding pangolagrass, which
was severely injured by cold temperatures, were measured. The rate of
cooling and warming and duration of exposure to critical minimum tempera-
ture varied with amount of plant cover. Cold injury to pangolagrass was
minimized under tall accumulated plant cover during frequent, light frosts
but was more severe during prolonged severe freezes than where cover
was removed. In another study, minimum air temperatures 1 inch above
loose cultivated soil were lower than corresponding temperatures over
packed soil.
SCooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.
2 Cooperative with U. S. Weather Bureau.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Shading Florida 200 corn at 50 percent of normal daylight for one week
periods during silking and early ear development significantly reduced
grain yields, as much as 15 bushels per acre. Shading at earlier stages
of plant development had no effect on grain yield.
Aluminum foil reflectors covering the middles between 38 inch rows of
Coker 67 corn increased the grain yield from 106 to 126 bushels per acre.
The increase in grain yield resulted from an increase in number of ears
per plant.
The average ear weight of Florida 200 corn was 0.61 pounds at 9,000
plants per acre and 0.40 pound at 18,000 plants per acre. Seventy-nine
percent of the detrimental effect on individual plant yields at the higher
population occurred later than 10 weeks after seedlings emerged from
the soil.
Foliar applications of potassium gibberellate to Florida 200 corn under
field conditions did not result in grain yield increases, but were effective
in reducing suckering to about one-fourth of that in the check. A pot
study showed that potassium gibberellate increased the height and dry
weight of corn shoots, but decreased the dry weight of roots.

State Project 761 Kuell Hinson 3
The direction and degree of associations among characters are being
investigated for their implications in interpreting results and for their
possible utility in selecting for various characters. The experimental
plant material used to obtain the results reported here was obtained
from 97 randomly selected families from the cross Roanoke x CNS-4. Cor-
relations and regressions obtained to date indicate that plant height, seed
size, and percent protein are associated more closely with yield than nine
other characters considered. The relative degree of association is in the
order the characters are listed. A strong negative correlation between
percent protein and percent oil has been repeatedly established. After
excluding percent protein and percent oil as independent variables, seed
density, seed size, and yield are associated more with percent protein;
whereas seed density, days to flower, and lodging are associated more
with percent oil. These associations are phenotypic and are useful pri-
marily in interpreting data. Further analyses will define genotypic as-
sociations which will be more useful to a breeder in a selection program.
Associations may occur which make simultaneous selection for two
characters impractical, as has been demonstrated for percent protein and
percent oil. Associations of this type should be recognized. It is also
important to define the range over which associations occur. For example,
these data indicate that a change of four days in days to flower will reduce
oil content of seeds by 0.5 percent when the change is from 44 to 48 days,
but there is no change in percent oil when days to flower is increased
from 57 to 61 days.

Hatch Project 766 V. N. Schroder and H. C. Harris
Investigation of organic acid levels as related to minor element nutri-
tion has shown variation due to several causes including the potassium
(K) supply. This effect was studied using oats grown in soil at three
3 Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USD'A.

Annual Report, 1963

levels of K: 0, 28, and 140 pounds per acre. Within six days after plant-
ing, chromatographic analysis showed the presence of citrate and malate
in the leaves of all the plants and also succinate in those plants grown at
the high K level. With continued growth succinate was detected in plants
grown at the intermediate level and later at the 0 level of K. Quantitative
differences continued to exist for about a month. Oats grown on an inert
silica quartz medium supplied with a complete nutrient solution showed
a decrease in succinate within 24 hours after K was removed from the
nutrient solution. Oats grown at a low K level showed a rapid increase
in succinate when the K level was increased. Changes were more marked
in the younger leaves.

Hatch Project 767 G. B. Killinger, A. J. Norden,
(Regional S-9) and W. A. Carver
Erucastrum abyssinica, P.I. 243913, a rape-like oilseed crop, was grown
at a number of locations in Florida to be evaluated for seed production
and/or forage qualities. At Gainesville, cattle did not readily graze this
crop at two locations on different soil types. Swine grazed the Erucastrum;
however, results were not conclusive. Seed yields continue to average
1,500 to 2,200 pounds per acre. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Gila
variety produced 1,200 pounds of seed per acre; however, the plants were
infected with Stemphylium, which reduced seed yield. Kenaf (Hibiscus
cannabinus) introductions as well as commercial lines were grown with
dry plant stem yields of 5 to 10 tons per acre. In this area kenaf is being
considered as a pulp rather than fiber crop.
Seven new peanut (Arachis hypogoea) introductions from Israel and
two from Jamaica are being evaluated. An introduction P.I. 280688 having
deep purple plant pigment has been crossed with Florida varieties to serve
as a genetic marker.
Adaptation studies were continued with the potential oilseed crops,
sesame and castorbeans. Newly released dwarf castorbean hybrids from
Texas and California were superior to the open pollinated varieties. A
dehiscent sesame selection, Fla. SO-50-1-B, which traces to a single plant
selected from P.I. 170733 in 1960, produced the highest yields in Gaines-
ville tests for the third consecutive year (40 percent more than the com-
mercial check variety, Margo).
Many new hybrid grain and forage sorghum varieties which were
placed on the market in the United States during the past three years are
being evaluated in Florida. Fifty grain sorghum hybrids at Gainesville
yielded from 1,707 to 4,650 pounds of dry grain per acre. Many of the
hybrids possess characteristics enabling them to recover rapidly and uni-
formly after cutting and compete favorably with weeds, thus giving them
the potential of two grain crops per season. Forage sorghum entries
yielded from 5 to 12 tons of dry forage per acre from two cuttings. The
quality of the sorghum forage was found to vary widely between entries,
as indicated by the large difference obtained in grain to forage ratios.
Hatch Project 767 is closed with this report.
Hatch 780 Fred Clark
Evaluation of seven insecticides was made during the 1962 tobacco
season. Economic returns were more than 150 dollars per acre over the
non-treated tobacco.
(See also Project 780, Entomology Department.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Hatch Project 783 P. L. Pfahler
An experiment designed to measure the response of six homogeneous
oat varieties representing the range in morphological variation between
Avena sativa and A. byzantina was conducted to determine if species simi-
larity could be associated with forage and grain production and thus be
profitably included in selection criteria. Results indicated that early
season forage production was associated with sativa types, while late sea-
son forage production was associated with byzantine types. Cold toler-
ance was associated with byzantine types. The distribution of forage
production by a given variety could be considerably altered by selection of
population density, although sativa types were more affected by popula-
tion density than byzantine types. High grain production was associated
with sativa types. A composite of all six varieties stabilized forage and
grain production over a number of environmental conditions.
Two wild rye species, Secale montanum and S. vavilovii, classified as
perennial in their native habitat, were grown for observation and use for
interspecific hybridization with the cultivated annual rye species, S.
cereale. S. montanum displayed moderate seedling vigor and a high de-
gree of resistance to mildew and leaf rust; it headed profusely under 16
hour artificial daylength. S. vavilovii had excellent seedling vigor and ex-
tremely susceptibility to mildew and leaf rust, and headed moderately
under 16 hour artificial daylength. Under Florida conditions, both species
appear to retain the perennial habit and possess a high degree of cold tol-
erance. Interspecific hybridization between these species and several
adapted varieties of annual cultivated rye, S. cereale, have resulted in mod-
erate quantities of seed.
(See also Project 783, Plant Pathology Department.)

Hatch Project 850 W. A. Carver and S. C. Schank
Millet (Pennisetum glaucum and P. Spicatum) crossing and selfing fol-
lowed by pedigreed selection, mainly in dwarf or low growing forms, are
being continued as outlined in the last report.
The millet-napiergrass hybrid (No. 125) showed a high degree of winter
killing in 1961-62, and was almost completely killed by the severe cold of
1962-63, showing it to be too tender for growing in central Florida. The
napiergrass parent of No. 125 was uninjured by the cold.
Severe winter killing of Digitaria and Chloris accessions also occurred
during the winter of 1962-63. Only 23 of 84 lines at Hague had sufficient
cold tolerance to be used in breeding work. Chromosome counts to identify
species with 2n = 18 have been accomplished with six different accessions
having nine pairs of chromosomes in the primary microsporocytes. Higher
chromosome numbers have been counted in four other accessions. Major
emphasis is being directed toward obtaining cytogenetic information con-
cerning all Digitaria species. Since pangolagrass (Digitaria decumbens
Stent.) is most likely an interspecific hybrid, the cytogenetic analysis of
closely related species may shed information on the genomic constitution
of this species. Interspecific hybridization between Digitarias with the
same chromosome number will be accomplished first, with a continuing
evaluation of these grasses for seed-set characteristics, winter hardiness,
drought tolerance, and other desirable characters. Attempts to double the
chromosome number of D. decumbens have not been successful to date, but
will be continued. Induction of polyploidy in pangolagrass may (1) make
possible a seeded pangolagrass, (2) promote winter hardiness, and (3)
increase palatability and succulence.

Annual Report, 1963

State Project 900 E. G. Rodgers and Fred Clark
In a study of crop rotation and fertilization effects, corn continued to
be more productive when grown on land in alternate years in contrast to
every year. Corn in rotation with tobacco was less productive than when in
rotation with peanuts. Nitrogen applied at 50 pounds per acre to the soil
before turning increased corn yields from 1 to 4 bushels per acre.
Work under Project 900 is closed with this report.
(See also Project 900, Suwannee Valley Station.)

State Project 909 Kuell Hinson '
Jackson has been the recommended soybean variety for northcentral
Florida since 1955 but has not been widely accepted by farmers. Hardee,
a new variety released in 1962, has been tested with Jackson in uniform
regional tests at Gainesville and Live Oak for three years. In addition,
72 plots of each variety were grown at each location in 1962. Yield data

Gainesville Live Oak
Hardee Jackson Hardee Jackson

Av. 72 plots 1962 (Bu./A) 39.9 32.5 28.0 25.2
Uniform tests 1960-62 (Bu./A) 38.6 30.8 33.2 24.1

A late-season infestation of stinkbugs apparently reduced the potential
yield of Hardee at Live Oak in 1962 but had little effect on the earlier ma-
turing Jackson variety. The approximately 30 percent increase in yield
plus more disease resistance and better seed holding are expected to make
Hardee acceptable to farmers in northcentral Florida. Seed of Hardee
should be generally available for 1965 plantings.
The Hardee variety is not well adapted to the organic soils of central
Florida. Farmers in the Zellwood area considered CNS-4 their best variety
before 1961. Variety comparisons in 1961 indicated that Lee is superior
to CNS-4, and the 1961 tests confirmed the superiority of Lee. Lee yielded
34 percent more than CNS-4 (1961-62 average), had more disease resistance,
and had a more desirable plant type for combining. All varieties now be-
ing grown extensively in the lower southeast were included in the 1962
tests. Lee was distinctly superior to all others. However, 11 breeding lines
have equaled or exceeded Lee in yield for two successive years.
(See also Project 909, Central Florida and North Florida stations.)


Hatch Project 950 H. C. Harris
An application of copper or boron in the fertilizer greatly increased the
yield of certified Louisiana S-1 white clover when grown in the greenhouse
SCooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

on virgin Leon fine sand. Plants grown without these two elements in the
treatment had characteristic deficiency symptoms. A deficiency of boron or
copper appeared to affect adversely the size of nodules on the plants. Cop-
per or boron deficiency seemed to make the clover more susceptable to cold
damage. Both F6(A) and L578 (fert), pure lines of corn, responded
markedly to an application of copper to the same soil, but a boron appli-
cation had no noticeable effect. In nutrient solution studies L578 (fert)
seemed to be more sensitive to boron deficiency than F6(A).
Seed color studies, in cooperation with Dr. S. H. West (ARS, USDA),
on alfalfa and clovers have been continued and extended. The lighter
colored seed germinate better than darker ones. Seed became darker
with age and germination decreased with age. A water extract of dark
alfalfa seed put on the light colored seed inhibited germination of the light
colored ones. The chemical inhibitor, which has not been identified, is more
in dark seed.

State Project 971 A. J. Norden
This project, designed to study deterioration of bahiagrass plantings
and effect of age of sod on the yield and quality of crops that follow, is now
entering into its fourth year. Previously designated plots are seeded to
bahiagrass each year, while the remaining plots are maintained in a culti-
vated crop of corn or peanuts. After five years have elapsed, all plots will
be planted to a cultivated field crop.
A two-year-old stand of bahiagrass produced 10,338 pounds per acre of
dry forage from four cuttings in 1962 compared to first year yields in 1961
of 7048 pounds per acre. Bahiagrass plots seeded in 1961 produced 8000
pounds of dry forage per acre in 1962 or 29 percent less than did the two-
year-old stand. Nitrogen content of the bahiagrass from the two-year-old
planting, however, was lower (1.25 percent dry weight compared to 1.40
percent for the first year plots).
An analysis of soil samples from each plot for numbers and species of
nematodes was completed by Nematologist Dr. V. G. Perry. The numbers
of nematodes of the various species found in the cultivated plots varied
from the previous year. However, the total numbers of nematodes re-
mained quite stable. In the grass plots, those seeded in 1960 had consid-
erably fewer numbers of nematodes than those seeded in 1961, and fewer
nematodes were found in the one-year-old grass plots than in the culti-
vated plots of corn. Ring nematodes were the most prevalent species in
both the grass and the corn plots in 1962. No statistically significant re-
lationship, however, was obtained between the yield and plant development
of corn and the numbers of nematodes found in the soil in 1962.

Regional Research Project 998 G. M. Prine, V. N. Schroder,
(Regional S-47) O. C. Ruelke, S. H. West,5
and K. D. Butson "
The application of potash in addition to nitrogen to pangolagrass ferti-
lized for a fall hay crop increased cold resistance of pangolagrass in the
5 Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.
6 Cooperative with U. S. Weather Bureau.

Annual Report, 1963

early part of the winter. However, as the winter progressed, the difference
between potash fertilized and unfertilized plots became less, and by spring
no significant difference was measurable.
An experimental alfalfa strain developed in Florida had 19.5 percent
of established plants surviving after the first harvest season. Hairy Peru-
vian, the next most persistent of the 20 alfalfa varieties studied, had 12.9
percent survival. In another experiment the persistence through first year
of Hairy Peruvian alfalfa was increased when broad-leaf and grassy weeds
were controlled by pre-emergence application of the herbicide dacthal at
6 to 8 pounds per acre both alone and with 1/ pound per acre of 2,4-DB.
Richey blue lupine seedlings sprayed with 8 pounds per acre of guanine
two weeks before a severe freeze had 100 percent of the plants surviving.
Where no guanine was used, only 50 percent of the plants survived. Vari-
ous purines and pyrimidines are being evaluated for ability to reduce win-
ter injury of cold sensitive forages.
The effect of various growth regulators on forage quality was studied.
The spray application of 8 pounds per acre of maleic hydrazide increased
the total available carbohydrate content in napiergrass from 8.5 to 29.7
percent. However, there was no significant difference in animal gain over
control when the forage was fed to or grazed by sheep. Maleic hydrazide
sprayed on Pensacola bahiagrass at rate of 4 pounds per acre in late spring
reduced the number of seed heads emerging and produced a more desirable

Hatch Project 1034 Fred Clark
Bulk curing appears to be the base for mechanization of harvesting as
well as curing tobacco. Treatments included length of coloring time, leaf
drying, and stem drying with several rates of air velocity. The 60 hour
coloring time, 45 cfm of air, and 135F leaf drying was the best treatment
for ripe tobacco. For unripe tobacco 30 hours coloring was best for one
lot and 60 hours appeared to be the best with another. A 45 cfm air
velocity with a leaf drying temperature of 135F was also rated best for
fnripe tobacco.
For leaf drying techniques where air velocity varied from 45 to 67.5
cfm, the 45 cfm produced the best tobacco with 110 to 140'F leaf drying
temperature. Coloring time was 65 hours for all treatments in this test.
For bulk density 45 cfm air velocity at 1350F was superior to the 67.5
and 90 cfm air flow.
For air flow rate a 69 hour coloring time with a 45 cfm air flow at
135F leaf drying was best for the fifth cure. Since filling value is im-
portant, it was significant that many of the treatments compared favorably
with the check or conventional barn cure.
(See also Project 1034, Agricultural Engineering.)

Hatch Project 1036 A. T. Wallace
Research was continued on the objectives, i.e., developing treatments
that will produce the highest mutation rates at the Vb locus in oats and
investigating the nature of the induced mutations. In one experiment test-
ing the interaction of ethylene imine and gamma rays, the maximum mu-
tation rate obtained with ethylene imine was 11 x 10-'/Ms seed and the
maximum rate with gamma rays was 6 x 10-"/M2 seed. When these two
mutagens were combined, the maximum rate obtained was 43 x 10- /M2

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

seed. Such a large interaction can be significant to plant breeders. In a
test to compare the mutation rates at the Vb locus in oats with the fre-
quency of chlorophyll mutations in barley, the results indicate that there
is a good relationship between them at low doses of irradiation, but the
relationship tends to be poor at high radiation doses. The chlorophyll mu-
tations also responded to specific seed treatments differently from the Vb
locus. Thus chlorophyll mutation rates are of limited use in predicting
the mutation rate of a specific locus. Data indicate that chimeras are pro-
duced in panicles of oat plants grown from irradiated seeds. These chimeric
sectors increase in size as the dose of irradiation increases. Mutation
rates based on M1 oat panicles or M1 barley heads are equally reliable as
those based on M2 seedlings. Cytological examination of mutant lines
has been continued. Eight monosomic lines were isolated. These are
being crossed for identification. A karyotype of the oat chromosomes has
been constructed and will be used for identification of chromosome aberra-
tions associated with the mutations. Additional crosses were made between
the mutants for the purpose of determining whether or not allelic comple-
mentation can be measured with the mutant alleles.

State Project 1053 A. J. Norden
The second cycle of a rotation system was completed comparing forage
and grain yields from consecutive plantings of spring corn, summer sor-
ghum, and fall oats with the standard rotation of spring corn and fall
oats. The three crops per year rotation produced 45 percent more forage
per acre than did the two crops per year rotation. Since January 1961,
the three crops per year rotation plots have received a total of 588, 275,
and 403 pounds per acre of N, P0s and K20, respectively, compared with
296, 179, and 259 pounds per acre for the two crops per year rotation
plots. Dolomitic lime and minor element applications were similar for
both rotations.
The yields of corn and oats from plots which had produced a crop
of sorghum were not statistically different from corn and oat yields on
plots which had not been planted to sorghum. The level of available PzO1
and KO in the soil from plots of both rotations is slightly lower than at
the start of the experiment.
An intensive evaluation of 20 hybrid corn varieties for silage was con-
ducted at two locations in 1962. The later maturing hybrids produced
higher silage yields. However, moderate and early maturing hybrids pro-
duced silage with a higher grain to forage ratio.
The vegetative and seed production of 30 sorghum varieties were evalu-
ated in replicated plantings made during four different months (April,
May, June, July) in 1962. Highly significant variety by date of planting
interactions were obtained in regard to seed yield, plant height, and ma-
turity, indicating that certain sorghum varieties are apparently better
adapted to late plantings than others. This test is being continued in 1963.
(See also Project 1053, Dairy Science and Agricultural Engineering de-

Hatch Project 1087 M. Wilcox and E. G. Rodgers
New or unproved herbicides were applied in duplicate to corn, soy-
beans, and peanuts at various rates in screening experiments. The more

Annual Report, 1963 59

promising herbicides were included in advanced yield trials of from four
to six replications.
Peanuts.-2,4-DEP plus DNBP at 3 plus 11/ pounds per acre, applied
at emergence, effected a yield slightly higher (non-significantly) than a
cultivated check (2228 vs. 2207 pounds per acre dry peanuts), and plots
treated with prometryne at 21/2 pounds per acre pre-emergence or sesone
plus trifluralin at 3 plus 2 pounds per acre at emergence yielded slightly
but not significantly less (0.7 percent) than the cultivated check. Several
other combinations of herbicides show promise and are under evaluation.
Field Corn.-Combinations of fenac or 2,4-D at 1 to 11/2 pounds per
acre plus DCPA at 6 pounds per acre gave better pre-emergence weed
control than the presently approved herbicides, atrazine and simazine,
under low moisture conditions without affecting yields.
Soybeans.-Several herbicides and combinations of herbicides gave ex-
cellent weed control and effected yields non-significantly greater than that
of a cultivated check. The most effective herbicides when used alone were
ametryne at 1 pound per acre and linuron at % pound per acre. The
most effective combinations were TD-66 plus DCPA at 2 plus 5 pounds
per acre, PCP plus DCPA at 8 plus 5 pounds per acre, and PCP plus di-
phenamid at 8 plus 2 pounds per acre.

State Project 1100 P. L. Pfahler
Studies relating to homeostasis were conducted using varieties of oats
(self-pollinating Avena genus) and rye (obligate cross-pollinating Secale
cereal) which are subjected to intense interplant competition in commer-
cial production.
In oats, populations possessing genetic diversity in the form of distinct
varieties were synthesized by mechanical mixture of two varieties, Sem-
inole and Floriland, which are complementary regarding forage and grain
production. In relation to forage and grain production, the use of com-
posite populations was advantageous since the yield of all composite pop-
ulations was not significantly different than the higher-yielding component
variety. The variability in forage production by these populations over
a number of environmental conditions was directly proportional to the per-
centage of each component variety in the population. However, the vari-
ability in grain production by these populations over a number of environ-
mental conditions indicated greater stability in the composite populations.
Results suggest that by proper selection of component varieties, composite
populations could be synthesized so that the effect of a specific environ-
mental variable or interaction could be reduced.
In rye, populations possessing greater genetic diversity were pro-
duced by mechanical mixture of two heterogeneous varieties, Florida Black
and Gator, which are complementary in forage and grain production. In
both forage and grain production the yield of the composite populations
equalled or surpassed the yield of the higher yielding component variety.
The variability in forage and grain production by these populations was
considerably lower in the composite populations than in the component
varieties. Proper selection of component varieties for composite popula-
tions could reduce or alter the effect of a given environmental variable or

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Regional Research Project 1131 E. G. Rodgers and M. Wilcox
(Regional S-18)
The leaching of simazine, atrazine, atratone, and ipazine applied at
2 and 4 pounds active ingredient per acre to columns of Lakeland fine
sandy soil 6 inches in diameter and 23 inches in depth as influenced by
simulated rainfall in amounts varying from 1 to 16 inches in 7 to 28 days
was studied under greenhouse conditions. Abnormalities of cucumber and
oats seedlings grown in soil samples from representative 1-inch horizons
to a maximum depth of 23 inches in surface-treated columns served as the
basis of evaluations.
Atrazine moved through the entire soil column in toxic concentrations,
particularly at the higher rate of application, with no more than 4 inches
of simulated rainfall. Simazine moved in lethal concentrations to a depth
of 4 to 6 inches and stunted growth to at least 12 inches. Atratone
moved in lethal amounts no further than 5 inches and in growth stunting
concentrations 6 to 8 inches. Ipazine in toxic concentrations moved no
deeper than 4 inches, even after a total of 16 inches of simulated rainfall.
Ipazine, simazine, and atratone were leached to maximum depths by higher
rates of rainfall. The lower rate of each herbicide was leached in toxic
concentrations to depths 2 to 4 inches less than the above depths by the
higher rate.
Toxicity symptoms that appeared usually were in evidence 7 to 10 days
after planting as leaf chlorosis and stem bending and breaking. Seedlings
failing to survive usually were dead 14 days after planting.

Hatch Project 1134 J. R. Edwardson
For the first time, nuclear control of non-Mendelian leaf variegation
in the absence of inducer genes has been demonstrated. Variegation in
certain strains of tobacco is permanently suppressed by genes from un-
related strains. Leaf variegation in petunia has been transmitted by
grafting; this variegation is not expressed in the graft generation. The
inheritance of variegation in petunia is non-Mendelian, transmission occur-
ring through egg cells and pollen. Graft transmission of male sterility
from cytoplasmic male sterile petunia through "immune" tobacco to "sus-
ceptible" petunia has been accomplished. An increase in the percentage of
completely male sterile plants, in progeny derived from grafting fertile
petunias on male sterile stocks, has been achieved by selection. Studies
are continuing on the influence of gamma and ultra-violet radiation on
cytoplasmic sterility factors in corn.

Hatch Project 1135 J. R. Edwardson
Field studies on effectiveness of insecticides on seed yield in yellow lu-
pine indicate that Thimet is effective in controlling vectors of Bean Yellow
Mosaic virus. Studies of the inheritance of resistance to Phomopsis and
to Bean Yellow Mosaic virus in yellow lupine are continuing. It has
been determined in blue lupine that resistance to the Stemphylium leaf-
spot complex is conditioned by the presence of the recessive genes qll, qll
or ql1 ql. Studies of the possibility of increasing the degree of resistance

Annual Report, 1963

to Stemphylium fungi by combining both pairs of recessive genes in one
line are in progress. "Ritchey", an improved seed producing variety of
bitter blue lupine, will be released in the fall of 1963.

Project 1154 E. S. Horner
Selection for improved summer persistence and productivity in white
clover and alfalfa, previously carried on under projects 301 and 600, is
being continued on a somewhat larger scale under this new project.
White Clover.-A 12-clone synthetic experimental variety in broadcast
plots survived the summer of 1962 satisfactorily, while adjacent plots of
La. S1 (a widely used commercial variety) largely died out. The latter
were re-established by natural reseeding, but did not produce sufficient
forage for grazing as early in 1963 as the experimental variety plots. In
other plots planted in the fall of 1962, the experimental variety produced
significantly (70 percent) more forage than La. S1 in May 1963, while the
yields in April were not different. These results indicate that an appre-
ciably longer grazing season may be possible with this variety than with
La. S1. Seed was produced in 1963 for further testing.
Thirty-eight introductions from 16 different countries are being evalu-
ated. Large differences in vigor have been noted, but data on persistence
will not be available until the fall of 1963.
Alfalfa.-Mass selection for persistence was continued with no-i-w
results. Seed was harvested to complete the fifth generation of selection.
Other work includes the evaluation of 136 introductions from foreign
countries and 130 polycross progenies at two locations. Data on summer
persistence are not yet available.

Powdered Milk Sidedressing and Residual Chicken Manure on Corn.
-The grain yield per acre of Coker 67 corn grown on Arredondo fine sand
under heavy fertilization (200 pounds N, 100 pounds P.O-, and 320 pounds
K2O per acre) and weekly application of 1.4 or more inches of water as
rain and/or irrigation was 99 bushels for check, 102 bushels when side-
dressed with 1,000 pounds per acre of powdered skimmilk when plants
were 10 inches in height, 102 bushels when plots received 45 tons per acre
of chicken manure the previous season, and 102 bushels when plots received
both 45 tons of residual chicken manure and 1,000 pounds of powdered skim-
milk sidedressing. There was no difference in average ear weight. The
small insignificant differences in grain yield were due to difference in num-
ber of ears per plant.
On Leon fine sand without irrigation four varieties of corn receiving
fertilization rates of 135 pounds N, 216 pounds P.Os, and 285 pounds KIO
per acre had an average yield of 115 bushels per acre. When three split
applications of powdered skimmilk were applied (500 pounds per acre at
planting and 1,000 pounds per acre at 6 and 12 weeks after planting),
the yield was reduced to 97 bushels per acre. Severe drought conditions
occurred when no effective rainfall fell from the fourth to twelfth week
after planting. (G. M. Prine and G. B. Killinger)
Stimulation of Flowering with Gamma Irradiation.-From time to time
reports appear in the scientific literature stating that ionizing radiation
will greatly stimulate the growth of plants and/or parts of plants. An
experiment was designed and conducted to test the effects of gamma irradi-
ation on the flowering of plants. For the experiment, seeds from four
varieties of pansies (Swiss Giant Redskin, F1 Hybrid White, Swiss Giant

62 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Lake of Thun, Swiss Giant Paper White) were equilibrated to 10 percent
moisture content and irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma rays at 0, 2,500,
5,000, 7,500, and 10,000 roentgen units. The young seedlings were trans-
planted to the field in a randomized block design with six replications.
During the months of February, March, and April, each bloom from each
plant was clipped and its diameter measured in millimeters. The results
show that irradiation of the seeds did not increase the number of blooms
or the diameter of the blooms produced. The variety by treatment inter-
actions were not significant in the analyses of variance. There were, how-
ever, significant differences between the varieties independent of the ir-
radiation treatments. The F1 Hybrid White and the Swiss Giant Paper
White produced the largest number of blooms, while the F1 Hybrid White
produced the largest blooms. These data should not be interpreted to in-
dicate that radiation will not stimulate the growth of plants or plant parts,
but they do indicate that all irradiation experiments for the purpose of
stimulating plant growth should be repeated before conclusions are drawn.
(A. T. Wallace)

Annual Report, 1963


Research was conducted on 45 projects. New projects include bio-
chemical and cytological investigations of inherited dwarfism in beef cat-
tle; the value of selenium for cattle and sheep; the effect of phosphorus
deficiency on semen production; a comparison between bulls and steers on
carcass quality; the effect of varying calcium-phosphorus ratios on beef
tenderness; effect of feed restriction and protein level on performance and
carcass characteristics of swine; relationship of fat to metabolism and
heart function; value of dehydrated bakery product as a livestock feed;
beef cattle feed formulation for increased efficiency of feed utilization; bio-
chemical and physiological aspects of founder in cattle; and the influence
of monosodium glutamate on ration palatability for young pigs.
A concrete block barn was enlarged to increase capacity for meta-
bolism racks and to provide a facility for slaughtering and studying an-
imals fed radioactive compounds.
Grant-in-aid funds totaling approximately $109,000 were obtained from
12 different commercial companies, foundations, and the U. S. Public Health
The department has continued and enlarged its cooperation with other
departments and branch stations in nutrition, breeding, physiology, genetics,
and meats studies. In addition to considerable foreign correspondence,
visitors from all parts of the world visit and consult staff members fre-
quently throughout the year. Some of the staff have visited, advised, and
given talks in Mexico, Venezuela, Columbia, Argentina, and other Latin
American countries this past year. Dr. A. C. Warnick is spending a year
in Argentina advising and working with beef cattle fertility problems.
His assignment is being sponsored by the United Nations FAO group.
Drs. R. L. Shirley, C. B. Ammerman, and L. R. Arrington were awarded
travel grants by the National Science Foundation to present papers at the
sixth International Congress on Nutrition held at Edinburgh, Scotland, last
August. Dr. T. J. Cunha was awarded a travel grant by the Soybean
Council of America to give a talk at the World Conference on Animal
Production held in Rome last September. He also served as a member of
the organizing committee for the conference. Afterwards, he gave a num-
ber of seminars in Europe. Many of the staff have also judged livestock
shows and helped breeders in Latin America with their livestock procure-
ment and production problems. At present eight Latin American students,
plus students from other foreign countries, are doing research and gradu-
ate study toward advanced degrees in the department. This is indicative
of the increasing importance of Florida in Latin America and other areas
of the world.


State Project 615 M. Koger
This is a cooperative project located at the Range Cattle Station. For
results from this study see Project 615 under Range Cattle Station.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 627 M. Koger
Five pasture programs are being evaluated by grazing with cows and
calves which are also utilized in the cattle breeding study.
The five pasture programs include (1) an all-grass program fertilized
at the rate of 450 pounds of 0-10-10 plus 180 pounds of N annually per
acre. The remaining programs are clover-grass, fertilized at varying rates
as follows: (2) 300 pounds of 0-10-20; (3) 500 pounds of 0-10-20 annually
plus nitrogen as needed up to 60 pounds per acre; (4) 700 pounds of 0-10-20
plus nitrogen as needed, and (5) 900 pounds of 0-10-20 plus nitrogen as
needed on irrigated pasture. The weight of calf weaned per acre was 424,
453, 468, 447, and 486 pounds respectively.
The breeding systems being compared are: (1) straight breeding to
Angus and Hereford, (2) crisscrossing of Angus and Hereford, (3) criss-
crossing Angus and Brahman, and (4) crisscrossing Hereford and Santa
Gertrudis. Weaning rate of 1962, based on number of cows bred, was
87, 91, 80, and 92 percent respectively. Average weaning weight per calf
was 521, 518, 525, and 556 pounds for the respective groups.
(See also Project 627 under Agricultural Economics, Agricultural En-
gineering, Agronomy, and Soils departments for other phases of this co-
operative study.)

State Project 629 M. Koger, A. Z. Palmer,
(contributing to S-10) and A. C. Warnick
This project is cooperative between the Florida Station and USDA.
It is located at Brooksville, and results are reported under Project 629
under West Central Florida Station.

State Project 717 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and M. Koger
Relative breed performance data were compiled on registered Angus,
Brahman, and Hereford cattle and calves which were maintained under
similar environmental conditions. These data will be collected for a 10-
year period to permit calculation of heritability estimates of performance
factors. To date, Brahman calves have had heavier average birth weights
(67 pounds) than Herefords (6.5 pounds), and Herefords have had heavier
birth weights than Angus (60 pounds). The range in birth weights was
17 to 90 pounds. Prior to supplemental feeding, Angus male and female
calves gained slightly faster than Herefords, but during the supplemental
feeding period gains for each breed were about equal. Weaning weights
of Brahmans have exceeded the other breeds in most years. At weaning
time, mature Brahman cows averaged about 100 pounds heavier in weight
than Angus or Hereford cows. Until 1963, type scores and estimated
slaughter grades of weaning calves were higher for Angus and Herefords
than Brahmans. In 1962, Brahman males had the highest average type
score and estimated slaughter grade. Angus and Hereford bulls reached
puberty at earlier ages on the average than Brahmans; however, motile

Annual Report, 1963

sperm were seen in the semen of several Brahman bulls between the ages
of 14 to 18 months. Angus cows have consistently weaned the largest calf
crop. Detailed data on other performance factors were recorded for later

Hatch Project 738 G. E. Combs, H. D. Wallace,
and T. J. Cunha

Two experiments designed to evaluate the vitamin D requirement of
young pigs fed rations containing relatively small (0.50 percent) amounts
of calcium and phosphorus have been completed. Data obtained from the
first experiment showed that the apparent absorption of calcium with
pigs fed rations containing 100, 200, or 400 I.U. of added vitamin D2 was
90 percent higher than those pigs which did not receive added vitamin D.
The absorption of phosphorus was similar for all treatments. In the second
experiment vitamin D levels of 0, 50, or 100 I.U. per pound were used,
and calcium absorption of the supplemented treatments was only 25 per-
cent greater than the non-supplemented group. The data from this ex-
periment also indicated that vitamin D may exert an influence on phos-
phorus absorption and on the apparent digestibility of protein and ether
The comparatively small absorption of calcium observed in experi-
ment 1 was not reflected in the percentage of fibula ash. The quantity
of bone ash and the percentage of calcium and phosphorus in the ash was
similar for all levels of vitamin D. A similar effect was obtained with
femur ash in the second experiment.
Digestion coefficients from experiment 2 indicated that vitamin D in-
fluenced the digestibility of protein and ether extract but exerted little
effect on dry matter digestibility.
The rate of gain was influenced by the presence of vitamin D in the
first but not the second experiment. In neither experiment did vitamin D
exert an influence on efficiency of gain.

State Project 752 M. Koger, A. C. Warnick,
(contributing to S-10) and J. F. Hentges, Jr.
This year's calf crop will conclude the evaluation of critical test matings
between the Snorter Hereford, Midget Brahman and Guinea (Dexter).
The conclusions to date are:
(1) The compact animal known in Florida as the Guinea is the heterozy-
gote for the Dexter bulldog gene.
(2) There appears to be some genetic or physiological relationship be-
tween the Guinea and the Snorter Hereford dwarf, since crossing
them has resulted in one Dexter type bulldog and numerous fetal
(3) The Snorter gene is present in the Brahman, as evidenced by the
appearance of typical Snorter dwarf calves in crossbred progeny
of purebred Brahman and Hereford parents. It appears likely that
the Midget Brahman is the heterozygote for the Snorter dwarf

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

(4) Genes carried by cattle of mixed breeding modify the expression of
the Snorter dwarf gene. Non-carrier females produced by mating
Snorter Hereford bulls to Brahman Native cows when mated back
to their dwarf sire have produced significantly fewer than the
expected ratio of one-half dwarf calves.
This concludes the reports from this project. It has been replaced
by Project No. 1136, "Biochemical and Cytological Investigations of In-
herited Dwarfism in Beef Cattle."

Hatch Project 755 L. R. Arrington, C. B. Ammerman,
G. K. Davis, and T. J. Cunha
A study of the effect of protein and phosphorus upon utilization of
low quality hay by steers has shown that protein increased utilization, but
additional phosphorus (20 gm per day) was ineffective. The addition of
soybean meal (2 pounds per day) to a ration for steers composed largely
of low quality pangolagrass hay increased cellulose digestion in vitro and
in vivo and increased voluntary feed intake. Average daily hay intake in
kg, and percent pangolagrass cellulose digestion after 48 hours for hay,
hay plus phosphorus, hay plus soybean meal, and hay plus phosphorus
plus soybean meal was 4.48, 32.9; 4.57, 33.2; 7.54, 54.5; and 7.17, 54.4,
Whole citrus seeds fed to dairy cattle were physically broken down
in the digestive tract, and no whole seeds passed into the feces. Average
digestion coefficients of nutrients in rations high in whole citrus seeds fed
to calves were: dry matter, 73.5; crude protein, 67.3; ether extract, 85.5;
and energy, 72.0. As a part of the study of the nutritive value of citrus
seeds, the chemical composition of five samples has been determined. The
average composition of these seeds, in percent, was: moisture, 3.61; ash,
3.35; crude protein, 15.07; ether extract, 42.05; crude fiber, 12.90; NFE,
State Project 768 L. R. Arrington, C. B. Ammerman,
and G. K. Davis
A semi-purified diet using low quality ground grass hay has been pre-
pared and used as a basal ration for the study of protein requirements.
Other diets prepared from all purified ingredients were not consumed in
sufficient amounts to promote growth of young or maintain weight of adult
rabbits. Using the semi-purified diet, studies are in progress to determine
the protein requirements for growth and maintenance. Preliminary re-
sults indicate that 15 percent protein is adequate for growth and that soy-
bean meal is better utilized than casein as a source of protein. Mature rab-
bits fed a diet containing 10 percent protein as soybean meal were main-
tained in positive nitrogen balance.
Studies of the digestibility of nutrients in a complete ration have shown
that fat was digested to the greatest degree; crude fiber, least. Young
rabbits (five to eight weeks old) digested protein and fat to a significantly
greater degree than adult rabbits. Average digestion coefficients for nu-
trients in the complete ration were: dry matter, 67.5; protein, 75.5; fat,
82.3; NFE, 79.8; crude fiber, 16.0; energy, 67.4.

Annual Report, 1963

State Project 805 R. L. Shirley, G. K. Davis, H. D. Wallace,
A. C. Warnick, J. F. Hentges, A. Z. Palmer,
P. E. Loggins, J. W. Carpenter, and T. J. Cunha 1
Thirty-two Brahman-British crossbred steers were divided in such a
manner that half received 0 and 25,000 I.U. of vitamin A and half of each
vitamin A group received 0 and 50 mg of vitamin E per day. They were
fattened on a corn-citrus pulp-cottonseed meal ration for 110 days on pas-
ture and slaughtered, and xanthine oxidase activity was determined in the
liver. The dietary treatments had no significant effect.
Rams, 14 months of age and weighing 122 pounds, were divided into
controls, protein deprived, and energy deprived groups and fed diets that
contained 13.1, 3.2 and 14.2 percent protein and 64.8, 66.6, and 48.4 percent
total digestible nutrients, respectively. Semen obtained after 126 days on
the diets gave methylene blue decoloration times of 18, 14, and 3 minutes
for the above three groups, respectively. Copper ions (0.0001 M) gave a
significant increase in the time required for the decoloration of the reagent.
Average fructolysis values of 17, 7, and 9 mg of fructose destroyed per 10'
sperm per hour were obtained for the above groups, respectively.
After 183 days on the diets the above rams were slaughtered, and aver-
age succinoxidase values of 12.6, 10.8, and 10.4 ml of oxygen uptake per
hour per gram fresh heart ventricle were obtained for the control, protein,
and energy deprived groups, respectively (P<0.05).

Hatch Project 809 A. C. Warnick and M. Koger
The cooperative experiment with Deseret Farms, Inc., on feeding pro-
gesterone to mature cows and two-year-old heifers for synchronization of
estrus was continued. After feeding progesterone for 18 consecutive days
the cows and heifers were divided into three groups which were injected
with 0, 1, and 3 mg of estradiol per head, respectively. There was a
higher incidence of estrus and ovulation in the heifers than in the cows,
but there was no detectable difference, in either heifers or cows, between
the groups which received different levels of estradiol.
The fertility data based on rectal palpation 45 days after the end of
the breeding season revealed that 70 percent of the heifers and 21 percent
of the lactating cows which received progesterone were pregnant as com-
pared to 62 percent of the control heifers and 51 percent of the control

State Project 884 A. Z. Palmer and J. W. Carpenter
A new USDA beef grading system was offered to the beef industry
July 1, 1962, on a trial basis. The new system was called dual grading,
inasmuch as the system provided two separate grades for each carcass-
quality grade indicated the palatability or acceptability and yield grade
designated the salable meat value of the carcass.
The system for determining yield grade was developed by the USDA
on heavy slaughter cattle of largely British breeding. Florida Agricultural
1 In cooperation with H. L. Chapman, Jr., of the Everglades Experiment Station.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Experiment Station studies of the factors influencing quality and yield
grades have involved lighter weight cattle and cattle of more diverse breed-
ing and type. These studies have indicated that: (1) Slaughter cattle can
be appraised with reasonable accuracy as to carcass yield grade. (2) Beef
carcasses can be appraised with reasonable accuracy as to yield of bone-
less, fat-trimmed lean from the round, rump, loin, rib, and chuck. (3)
Differences in cut-out value of real economic significance were found among
carcasses of the same quality grade. (4) The thickness of fat over the rib
eye was shown to be the best indication of carcass cutability. Thicker cov-
erings of fat indicated less red meat in the carcass. Other indicators of
lean cut yields were thickness through the chuck, percent kidney knob,
chilled carcass weight, and rib eye area. (5) It was found that the sys-
tem for yield grading carcasses developed by the USDA and presently in
use was reasonably accurate in predicting lean cut yields of lighter weight
slaughter cattle and cattle varying considerably in breeding. (6) Florida
produces meaty carcasses as well as wasty carcasses. (7) Conformation
was found to be a limiting factor in the gradeability of British type as
well as Brahman crossbred and other crossbred type cattle. (8) Carcass
quality grades are higher on the dual system of grading than on the old
beef grading standards. (9) Breeding has a very pronounced effect on
carcass meatiness or wastiness and on the inherent ability to marble in the
feed lot. (10) Quality grades and yield grades have been shown to be a
matter of breeding as well as feeding.

State Project 922 M. Koger
This project is designed to study the comparative performance of
straightbred Angus, straightbred Brangus, and Angus-Brangus crossbreds.
The crossbred animals will be produced from a criscross system. The cow
herd will be divided into four groups: Herd 1-Angus cows mated to Angus
bulls; Herd 2-Angus-Brangus crossbred cows mated to Angus bulls; Herd
3-Angus-Brangus crossbred cows mated to Brangus bulls; and Herd 4-
Brangus cows mated to Brangus bulls.
The project has been underway only three years; thus it will be several
years before breed composition will stabilize. The average weaning weights
of calves produced by the four foundation herds in 1962 were 327, 357, 379,
and 368 pounds respectively. Pregnancy rates were 93, 92, 86, and 81
percent, respectively.
(See also Project 922, Everglades Station.)

Hatch Project 938 A. C. Warnick and M. Koger
The cooperative experiment with purebred Brahman breeders which
was started in January 1962 was continued through April 1963, and the
data are in the process of being analyzed at the time of this report. Pre-
liminary observations show that in yearling Brahman heifers where 10
percent were cycling in March as indicated by a corpus luteum on the ovary,
there was a gradual increase in numbers cycling until all had cycled in
March of the following year when they were two years old. In a group of
crossbred heifers, which were observed at only one location, 20 percent of
the heifers had cycled in March as yearlings and 100 percent had reached
puberty at approximately 18 months of age. There were indications of a

Annual Report, 1963 69

seasonal effect on estrual behavior in Brahman heifers; whereas, the cross-
bred heifers did not appear to be affected by season.
In a study of the frequency and duration of estrus and time of ovula-
tion, Brahman heifers showed a much shorter average length of estrus
with more extreme variation than in British breeds.

Hatch Project 975 A. Z. Palmer and J. W. Carpenter
In the first trial, 55 mature sheep were allotted, by age, sex, and weight,
into five lots of 11 animals each and fed the same rations for 28 days. Lot
1 was the non-injected control. Lots 2, 3, 4, and 5 were injected in the
jugular vein with 3 mg per pound live weight, of the phosphate indicated.
The phosphate solution was divided into three equal doses and injected at
times indicated. Lot 2 was injected with sodium metaphosphate 3, 2, and
1 hour ante-mortem. Lot 3 was injected with sodium metaphosphate 48, 24,
and 3 hour ante-mortem. Lot 4 was injected with sodium pyrophosphate 3, 2,
and 1 hour ante-mortem. Lot 5 was injected with sodium pyrophosphate
48, 24, and 3 hours ante-mortem. Chops from lot 5 carcasses were signifi-
cantly (P<.01) more tender than lot 1. All injected lots were more tender
than the control.
In the second trial, 33 mature sheep were allotted by age, sex, and
weight into three lots of 11 animals each. Lot 1 was fed a ration with
a normal calcium to phosphorus ratio. Lot 2 was fed a ration with a high
calcium to phosphorus ratio. Lot 3 was fed a ration with a high phos-
phorus to calcium ratio. At the end of a 28-day feeding period blood sam-
ples were taken and animals were slaughtered. Average Warner-Bratzler
shear scores were 14.45, 13.76, and 11.74 for lots 1, 2, and 3, respectively.
These scores were not significantly different. Significant (P<.05) but low
correlation coefficients were found between tenderness and blood serum
calcium, bone phosphorus, and muscle phosphorus. Muscle calcium and
blood serum phosphorus were not found to be associated with tenderness.

Hatch Project 977 H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs,
and M. Koger
Since August of 1960 approximately 20 sows have been farrowed every
two months on a year around basis. A total of 16 farrowings have been
completed to date, involving a total of 327 litters which averaged 10.29
live pigs at birth and 9.06 live pigs when weaned at two weeks of age.
Litter size at birth has increased from approximately 9 to 11 live pigs
during the three-year period. This improvement has been due to a relative
increase in the number of crossbred to purebred Duroc sows in the herd
and to an increase in the average age of the herd. Herd culling and selec-
tion have also been contributory factors. Farrowing results indicate rela-
tively minor effects of season on litter size, but weaning weights and sur-
vivability are adversely affected by hot weather. Conception rate has
been reduced some when matings occur during the months of June, July,
August, and September. A comparison of the number of matings per con-
ception (1 vs 2) continues to show a marked difference in favor of two
matings. Conception rate has been only 60 to 70 percent for sows mated
during first heat after weaning litters at two weeks of age. However, the
2 Cooperative with W. K. McPherson, Agricultural Economics Department; T. C. Skinner,
Agricultural Engineering Department; and S. J. Folks, Florida Power Corporation.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

litters conceived by these early matings have been of average size. The
feeding of hygromycin to the sow as an anthelmintic commencing four
weeks before farrowing and throughout lactation has proved effective as
the sole treatment for controlling worm infection in pigs continued under
a confinement management system. A nutritional study designed to evalu-
ate dried corn distillers solubles as a source of unidentified factors for sows
during reproduction has not yielded significant positive results to date.

State Project 981 M. Koger, T. J. Cunha,
and A. Z. Palmer
This report marks the termination of a three-year study. Economic
returns were slightly better from grazing calves for a year and feeding
as long yearlings than from feeding calves for 181 days immediately fol-
lowing weaning. Results from the two practices will vary widely, how-
ever, with feed and pasture costs and beef prices affecting the results ob-
tained. Calves can be fed economically when:
1. Feed prices are moderate or low in relation to beef prices.
2. There is a premium for handy weight, high grading carcasses.
3. Heavy weight calves can be obtained at prices competitive with year-
ling cattle.
Brahman-British crossbred type calves generally will compare more fa-
vorably with long yearling feeders of the same breeding than British calves
will compare with long yearlings of British breeding. The advantages for
feeding calves are:
1. Animals are finished at a younger age, reducing maintenance re-
quirements and increasing facilities available for other cattle.
2. Crossbred type calves can be finished to highefr-arcass grades than
can long yearling cattle of the same breeding.
3. Total feed requirements per pound of carcass are decreased as com-
pared with older beef.
The disadvantages of feeding calves are:
1. A higher requirement for concentrates.
2. Reduced possibilities for using roughages.
3. A longer period in the feedlot.
4. Difficulty in obtaining calves at prices competitive with yearling
In this trial, there was no economic advantage for supplementing year-
ling steers on summer pasture prior to dry-lot feeding.

State Project 995 M. Koger and A. C. Warnick
Since 1958 one-half of the replacement heifers at the Beef Research
Unit have been bred as yearlings to calve first at two years of age. Calves
from these two-year-old heifers are being vealed at the start of the breed-
ing season on March 1. The other half of replacements have been bred to
calve first at three years of age. It will be 1964 before sufficient data will
accumulate for analysis.

Annual Report, 1963

State Project 999 G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace
The influence of particle size of corn on the performance of finishing,
weanling, and baby pigs was studied. Yellow corn of either medium or fine
grind was mixed with other ingredients to form a complete and nutrition-
ally adequate ration. Pigs weighing initially 100 pounds gained faster
and more efficiently when fed the ration containing finely ground corn. The
similarity in feed consumed by the two groups suggests that the smaller
particle size of the finely ground corn resulted in an improved biological
An increase in daily gain and feed consumption was also obtained with
baby pigs fed the finely ground corn. Almost identical feed efficiencies
for the two treatment groups indicates that enhancement of ration pal-
atability rather than increased utilization was experienced with these
young pigs. With weanling pigs weighing 44 pounds initially, no signifi-
cant differences were obtained in rate and efficiency of gain or in feed
consumed. Previous observations have shown that for pigs of this weight
neither palatability nor thoroughness of chewing is a major problem with
a fortified corn-soybean meal ration. The comparative cost of finely
ground and medium ground corn relative to the improvement in perform-
ance would of course determine the feasibility of using the finely ground
In another study a dried bakery product, "Swine NuJets", was investi-
gated for possible use as a corn substitute in starter rations. The data
indicated that as much as 30 percent of the corn could be replaced by
NuJets when dried skimmilk and soybean meal served as the sources of
supplementary protein.

State Project 1001 H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs,
and A. Z. Palmer
An experiment has been completed in which two levels of protein, 17
percent and 13 percent, were compared as to influence on feedlot perform-
ance and carcass. The higher level of protein permitted faster, more
efficient gains, and the carcasses yielded significantly greater lean cut out.
The difference in marbling of the loin eye muscle was striking. The low
protein pigs exhibited extreme marbling compared to the higher protein
fed pigs. Barrows gained faster than gilts but yielded lower percentages
of lean cuts. The differences in marbling or internal fat deposition due to
dietary protein level were evident in both sexes.

State Project 1002 H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs
Several feeding experiments have been conducted to determine the
efficacy of using certain antibiotics and other compounds as growth stim-
ulants. Three experiments involved amphotericin, a new antifungal anti-
biotic. In the first trial the material produced significant improvements in
gain when fed singly or in combination with aureomycin. However, in two
succeeding trials the compound was without effect. Extensive study of
high level copper supplementation has confirmed an earlier conclusion that
this procedure is not justified in view of the dangers involved. Initial
growth responses have been observed with growing-finishing pigs fed high
levels of copper, but the advantage disappears as the animals move toward

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

market weight. Young pigs have responded consistently to high levels of
copper during the period from two to eight weeks of age. A comparison
of zinc-bacitracin and natural bacitracin suggests that these forms of baci-
tracin are equally effective as growth promotants. Zymo-Pabst, a combina-
tion of digestive enzymes, did not improve feed intake or performance of
early weaned pigs. Monosodium glutamate has been tested as a palata-
bility ingredient for creep fed and early weaned pigs with clearly positive

State Project 1003 M. Koger and A. C. Warnick
This is a new project cooperative between the Department of Animal
Science, North Florida Experiment Station, and State Prison Farm, Rai-
Cattle of different inherent sizes will be developed by selection. Data
will not be available until such cattle are developed. The foundation cattle
in this project in 1962 had an average mature cow weight of 873 pounds;
weaning weight of calf, 433 pounds; and a pregnancy rate of 67 percent.
(See also Project 1003, North Florida Station.)

State Project 1010 A. C. Warnick and H. D. Wallace
Three experiments involving 68 gilts were conducted to study the
effects of the level of energy intake and alfalfa meal on time of first
heat, ovulation rate, and embryo survival. The rations fed were: (1) high
energy with 10 percent alfalfa meal, (2) limited energy with 62 percent
alfalfa meal, and (3) limited energy with 10 percent alfalfa meal. The
gilts in all trials were bred at first heat and slaughtered 25 days following
breeding. The average age in days and weight in pounds at breeding for
gilts on the three respective rations were: (1) 194 and 225, (2) 207 and 179,
and (3) 200 and 201. The average daily gains from the initial weight of
approximately 100 pounds to breeding were 1.45, 0.79, and 1.11 pounds for
the three rations, respectively. The average number of corpora lutea
for gilts on the three rations was 15.0, 12.7, and 13.8, respectively. The
average number of normal embryos and the percent embryo survival at 25
days post-breeding were 11.3 and 76.9 percent; 10.9 and 85.7 percent; and
10.9 and 79.5 percent for the three respective groups. Statistical analysis
revealed a significantly higher ovulation rate in the high energy gilts; but,
with a slightly lower percent embryo survival in this group, there were no
significant differences in normal embryos at slaughter due to ration.

Hatch Project 1044 J. P. Feaster
The amount of radioiron (Fe-59) transferred from the pregnant gilt
to the 95-day fetus and the effect of Co-60 radiation on iron transfer is
being studied. Of the gilts used in the study, half received 400 roentgens
whole-body Co-60 radiation, while half were not irradiated, serving as con-
trols. Fe-59 was injected intravenously two days after irradiation, and

Annual Report, 1963

three days elapsed between injection and sacrifice. Fetal tissues analyzed
for Fe-59 were blood, liver, muscle, spleen, heart, and sternal bone.
Fetuses from irradiated gilts were found to contain significantly higher
levels of iron-59 in all of these organs and tissues except muscle. As to
maternal tissues, the non-irradiated gilts showed higher concentrations of
Fe-59 in the blood, the heart, and the spleen, and lower concentrations in the
liver, than irradiated gilts. In the contents of both the large and the
small intestine, levels were higher in irradiated animals, indicating in-
creased secretion of Fe-59 from the blood into the intestine. Thus whole-
body radiation seems to have resulted in increased passage of radioiron
through the placental, blood vessel, and intestinal membranes, indicating
an effect of increased membrane permeability. It is felt that this study
needs to be rerun with another group of gilts to provide sufficient numbers
to insure the validity of the findings.

State Project 1045 R. L. Shirley, L. R. Arrington,
J. P. Feaster, and C. B. Ammerman
Forty-eight male rats 26 days of age were divided into two groups
and fed 0 and 200 I.U. of vitamin A per day, respectively; each vitamin
A group was subdivided and fed 6 and 56 ppm of copper in their diets.
After 90 days on the diets it was found that vitamin A had no significant
effect on the copper deposition in the liver, and that copper had no signifi-
cant effect on vitamin A deposition in the liver.
The failure of lactation in rats fed excess dietary iodine was not cor-
rected with oxytocin hormone. The toxicity of iodine was also demon-
strated in rabbits with 500 ppm iodine as KI. Preliminary studies with
2,500 ppm iodine in a purified diet for weanling rats indicate a reduced
feed consumption and retarded growth. Studies are continuing with an
evaluation of the effect of iodine as Nal and as KIOs.
Molybdenum as sodium molybdate significantly reduced feed intake
and weight gains of weanling rats. One thousand ppm molybdenum was
effective either in the feed or in drinking water. When rats were pair fed
to equalize feed intake, most of the effect of molybdenum upon growth
could be accounted for by the reduced feed intake. Five hundred ppm
molybdenum was not effective in reducing feed intake or weight gains of
rats fed ad libitum. The feed to gain ratio of rats fed 1,000 ppm molybde-
num was significantly reduced when fed ad libitum, but digestibility of nu-
trients was not altered.

State Project 1061 R. L. Shirley, J. F. Easley,
and G. K. Davis

In September, December, March, and June, blood was obtained from
cattle on pasture that received no phosphorus, superphosphate, superphos-
phate and lime, triple superphosphate, rock phosphate, colloidal phosphate,
and basic slag. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, calcium, and phosphorus were
determined on the blood. All groups had 12 0.1 gm of hemoglobin per
100 ml blood except the colloidal phosphate group, which averaged 11.1.
The control group had average hematrocrit values of 46, and the others
ranged in values from 43.6 to 49.5. All groups averaged 10 0.3 mg of
calcium per 100 ml of blood for the year. Average phosphorus concentra-

74 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

tions expressed as mg of phosphorus per 100 ml of blood were 5.0, 5.3,
5.8, 5.7, 6.4, 6.4, and 5.9 for the no phosphorus, superphosphate, superphos-
phate and lime, triple superphosphate, rock phosphate, colloidal phosphate,
and basic slag groups, respectively.
(See Project 1061 of the Range Cattle Station.)

Hatch Project 1063 P. E. Loggins, M. Koger,
(Contributing to Regional A. C. Warnick, and T. J. Cunha
Project S-29)
The 1963 lamb crop was the first produced from our experimental de-
sign to study the effect of geographical location on the reproductive per-
formance of sheep. Fifty-three Rambouillet ewes of Alabama, Florida, and
Texas origin plus 51 Florida Native ewes were exposed to rams of the
same breeding. Vasectomized rams were used from April 30 to September
15, 1962, to determine earliness of estrus and breeding dates. Intact rams
were placed with the ewe flock beginning July 1 for a 75-day breeding sea-
son. Ten Rambouillet ewes were found to be in estrus before July 1; of these
three were of Alabama, three of Florida, and four of Texas origin. The
Florida Native ewes were found to be in anestrus prior to July 1. The
average dates of first estrus in the breeding ewes were as follows: Alabama
Rambouillet, July 14; Florida Rambouillet, July 16; Texas Rambouillet,
July 8; and Florida Native ewes, July 25. The lambing percentages for
the 1963 lambing season were as follows: Alabama Rambouillet, 107 per-
cent; Florida Rambouillet, 127 percent; Texas Rambouillet, 105 percent;
and Florida Native, 122 percent; with average lambing dates of December
17, 22, 16, and 17 respectively.
The lambs were weaned on February 26, 1963, at an average age of
70 days. The lambs received creep feed and were continued on a full feed-
ing program following weaning until market date May 20, 1963. The Ala-
bama Rambouillet lambs averaged 66 pounds; Florida Rambouillet, 76
pounds; Texas Rambouillet, 67 pounds; and Florida Native lambs, 71
pounds; with live slaughter grade of top choice, low prime, low prime, and
average choice, respectively. Average market weights of lambs in all
groups were low for profitable lamb production.

Hatch Project 1079 C. B. Ammerman, L. R. Arrington,
J. M. Wing, R. L. Shirley, and
J. P. Feaster
Experiments were conducted with ruminal fistulated steers and intact
wether lambs to determine the effect of magnesium and sulfur on in vivo
and in vitro cellulose digestion and voluntary feed intake. Cellulose di-
gestion in vivo and in vitro was significantly reduced when a magnesium
deficient or sulfur deficient purified ration was fed. Rumen microorganisms
obtained from lambs on the first, second, and third days after receiving
the magnesium deficient ration exhibited a significant decrease in in vitro
cellulose digestion on the third day. A concurrent decrease in voluntary
feed intake was observed. Using an in vitro transferral inoculation tech-
nique, a specific requirement for magnesium by cellulolytic microorganisms
was demonstrated. Oral administration of magnesium oxide did not result
in an immediate improvement in voluntary feed intake. However, feed
consumption returned to near the level of the lambs receiving the com-
plete ration after three to four days.
3 In cooperation with H. L. Chapman, Jr., Everglades Station.

Annual Report, 1963

Seventy-two Brahman-British crossbred steers were fed on pasture a
corn-citrus pulp-cottonseed meal ration containing 35 ppm copper for 136
days. The steers were divided into nine groups of eight each in such a
manner that different lots were fed 0, 25,000, and 50,000 I.U. of vitamin A
per day, and each level of vitamin A was fed with 0, 50, and 250 mg of
vitamin E per day. The liver of those fed 0, 50, and 250 mg of vitamin E
per day had 902, 844, and 1,267 ppm of copper on the dry weight basis, re-
spectively (P<.01). Vitamin A had no significant effect upon the level of
copper in the liver.

State Project 1101 P. E. Loggins
This is a cooperative project between the Animal Science and Veterinary
Science departments. Results from the study are reported under Project
1101, Veterinary Science Department.

Hatch Project 1117 J. E. Moore, R. L. Shirley,
C. B. Ammerman, and L. R. Arrington
The effect of soybean meal or urea nitrogen on the utilization of low
quality bermudagrass hay (7.9 percent protein) by rumen microorganisms
was investigated using fistulated steers. A high quality bermudagrass hay
(10.7 percent protein) was included in the study for comparison. Using
the nylon bag technique for determining the rate of forage cellulose di-
gestion in the rumen, it was shown that the cellulose of the low quality hay
was fermented at a lower rate than the high quality hay. However, neither
source of nitrogen increased the rate of cellulose digestion of the low qual-
ity hay. These data suggest that factors other than nitrogen intake con-
trol the rate of cellulose fermentation of low quality roughage by rumen
microorganisms in vivo.
A comparison of three laboratory methods for predicting forage quality
was carried out in conjunction with a digestion trial to determine the nu-
tritive value of a bermudagrass hay and a pangolagrass hay. The pangola-
grass hay fed in these trials had higher dry matter and cellulose digesti-
bility coefficients in vivo than did the bermudagrass hay. Both in vitro
dry matter digestibility and cellulose digestibility by rumen microorgan-
isms could be used to predict the in vivo nutritive value. In vitro cellulose
digestibility had a lower coefficient of variation than dry matter digesti-
By using a rapid automatic method for titration of rumen fluid, the
characteristics of buffer systems in the rumen fluid of hay-fed and corn-
fed steers were compared. Samples from hay-fed steers were found to
contain two major buffering systems, while samples from corn-fed steers
contained only one major buffering system. The data indicated that the
bicarbonate buffer system was greatly decreased in the corn-fed steers due
to lower intraruminal pH.

State Project 1132 J. F. Hentges, Jr., A. Z. Palmer,
and J. E. Moore
The extent to which dried citrus meal (highest quality available) could
replace ground shelled corn in a standard high energy fattening feed mix-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

ture was measured in a feeding trial with 120 yearling steers. Citrus meal
replaced the following percentages of corn in the respective diets: 0,
25, 50, 75 and 100. The only difference in weight gain between treatments
was a slightly (0.1 to 0.2 pound per day) lower gain when 100 percent
of the corn was replaced. The rumen mucosa of steers fed the largest
quantities of citrus meal exhibited marked changes in color and papillae
shape. Detailed studies are underway on the histology of the rumen
mucosa, volatile fatty acid composition of reticulorumen ingesta, measures
of carcass quality, rib fat content of fatty acids, efficiency of feed utiliza-
tion, and other criteria.

Hatch Project 1136 J. R. Crockett, M. Koger, J. P. Feaster,
(Contributing to S-10) and A. C. Warnick
This project was just recently approved and will be initiated this sum-
State Project 1155 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and J. P. Feaster
This new project is designed to give insight into the cause of digestive
disorders, especially "founder" in beef cattle. Basic research experiments
have shown that intraruminally and intraduodenally administered hista-
mine is partially absorbed into the circulatory system within a few minutes.
These observations have encouraged future research on the possible role of
histamine in digestive disorders. A preliminary study with a histamine-
releasing compound has given inconclusive results. An increased incidence
of founder has been associated with highly acid rumen ingesta in the fore-
stomachs of cattle which have consumed excessive quantities of starchy
State Project 1156 R. L. Shirley, Marvin Koger,
P. E. Loggins, J. E. Moore,
J. P. Feaster, and T. J. Cunha
At the Beef Research Unit, 19 three-year-old heifers given 2.5 mg of
selenium as sodium selenite subcutaneously per 100 pounds of body weight
at 90-day intervals from 12 to 15 months before calving had calves with
average birth weights of 70 pounds compared to 60 pounds for 19 corre-
sponding calves from heifers that did not receive the selenium. Seven
calves from two-year-old heifers that received selenium doses as above
averaged 48 pounds at birth compared to 52 pounds for seven from heifers
that received no selenium. A similar study is being made with heifers
at the Everglades Correctional Institution varying the selenium dosage
and times of administration.
Thirty-eight steers were injected subcutaneously at 0, 60, and 120 days
in the feedlot with 2.5 mg of selenium per 100 pounds of body weight. They
were slaughtered 50 days after the last dose and compared with an equal
number of controls. The selenium had no effect on gains, heart and liver
weights, and selenium concentration in the tissues.
4 In cooperation with H. L. Chapman, Jr., and R. W. Kidder of the Everglades Station.

Annual Report, 1963

Lambs dosed with 1.25 mg of selenium subcutaneously soon after birth
and at 28-day intervals showed no increased gains at weaning over con-
trol lambs. This is a repeat of results obtained last year. Serum glutamic-
oxalacetic transaminase enzyme activity values did not indicate any white
muscle disease or dystrophy in these lambs.


State Project 1180 M. Koger
This project is located at the North Florida Station. See Project 1180
under North Florida Station.

The Physiology and Biochemistry of Hybrid Vigor.-The efficiency of
feed utilization by straightbred and crossbred calves under strictly con-
trolled conditions has been determined. Results showed that crossbred
calves had a greater appetite than straightbred calves. Gross efficiency
of feed utilization (pounds of carcass per unit of feed) was similar for all
groups of calves. There were significant differences, however, in the tis-
tues, in which reserves were stored. Brahman calves were more efficient
in converting feed into meat protein, British calves were most efficient in
converting fat, while crossbreds were intermediate. It is planned to expand
this project to determine the relative feed requirements of straightbred
and crossbred mother cows for producing a pound of calf. (M. Koger,
T. J. Cunha, and A. C. Warnick)
Effect of Energy and Protein Deficiencies on Growth and Reproductive
Performance of Young Rams.-Thirty-six rams were fed purified rations
for approximately six months to study the effects of low protein and low
energy on their growth, blood composition, and reproductive performance.
The rams averaged 14 months of age and 120 pounds in weight at the be-
ginning of the test and were allotted to three groups. The low protein
ration contained 20 percent of the required energy needs with adequate
protein. The control ration was adequate in all known requirements. The
low protein and low energy rations caused a decrease in feed intake and
average daily weight change. Average feed intakes were 3.2, 2.0, and 1.2
pounds daily, and average daily weight changes were 0.16, -0.09, and
-0.20 pounds for rams on the control, low protein, and low energy diets,
respectively. Blood hemoglobin content was significantly higher (P<.01)
for the control rams than for the other two groups. Hematocrit values
were significantly greater in the control (P<.01) and low protein (P<.05)
rams than for those on low energy. Mean semen volume for the control
rams was significantly higher (P<.01) than for the rams in the deficient
groups, but there were no significant ration differences in semen motility,
concentration, total cell production, and fertilizing capacity. (A. C. War-
nick, T. J. Cunha, R. L. Shirley, and R. E. Deese)
Indices of Pork Carcass Meatiness.-Certain indices are used almost
universally in evaluating pork carcasses for estimated lean cut yield. The
purpose of this study was to evaluate these criteria and in addition specific
gravity of the untrimmed and trimmed ham in an effort to select the best
index for predicting the yield of the four lean cuts. For this study 216
carcasses of market weight barrows and gilts of mixed breeding were
used. All carcasses were measured and cut according to procedures recom-
mended by the Reciprocal Meats Conference. The simple correlations of
various indices studied with the four lean cuts were: carcass length (0.10),
fat back thickness at the first rib (-.67), fat back thickness at the last rib

78 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

(-.60), fat back thickness at the last lumbar vertebra (-.69), loin eye area
at the 10th rib (0.57), specific gravity of the untrimmed ham (0.70), spe-
cific gravity of trimmed ham (0.56), and carcass weight (-.40). All of
the above correlation coefficients were highly significant (P<.01) except
carcass length, which had little relationship to lean cut yield. In a step-
wise regression analysis the first four variables in order of importance
were: specific gravity of the untrimmed ham, fat thickness at the first rib,
fat thickness at the last lumbar vertebra, and loin eye area. These four
variables gave a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.84 and accounted for
over 70 percent of the variation in lean cut yield. The addition of other
variables in this analysis gave only a slight increase in the accuracy of
estimating lean yield. (J. W. Carpenter, A. Z. Palmer, M. Koger, and
H. D. Wallace)
Effectiveness of Various Procedures in Reducing the Amount of Radio-
nuclides in the Human Dietary Chain.-Studies have been initiated to in-
vestigate procedures whereby radionuclide contamination of feedstuffs can
be prevented from entering the human dietary chain by alteration of rumi-
nant rations. Preliminary research on this project involved a study of the
effect of Verxite (feed grade vermiculite) on the absorption and excretion
of iodine-131 in wethers. The data indicated that Verxite could not be ex-
pected to reduce the absorption of iodine-131. (J. E. Moore and G. K.
Davis, cooperating with B. G. Dunavant, College of Medicine)

Annual Report, 1963


A mass spectrometer has been installed and placed in operation. It is
being used to study oxygen metabolism in plants and nitrogen fixation in
non-leguminous plants. Several micro-plant growth chambers were built
and are being used to study the effect of high temperatures on the bio-
chemistry of plants.

Hatch Project 953 T. E. Humphreys
A study of the uptake of sugars by plant tissues was continued. The
corn scutellum (cotyledon) was used since this organ is involved in the
sugar transport from the endosperm to the root-shoot axis which occurs
during germination and early development of the seedling.
The rate of glucose uptake into slices of the scutellum was influenced
by the length of the incubation period prior to the addition of glucose and
by the concentration of glucose in the external medium. The amounts of
glucose, reducing sugars, sucrose and glucose-6-phosphate were determined
in slices incubated for 1, 2, or 4 hours in the presence or absence of glu-
cose. It is concluded from these results that the net rate of glucose uptake
is controlled by the rate at which the entering glucose is phosphorylated.
Furthermore, it is postulated that the hexokinase catalyzing the phosphory-
lation reaction is inhibited by glucose-6-phosphate, the inhibition being
competitively reversed by glucose.
Studies on the uptake of fructose and its effect on glucose uptake are
underway. The hexokinase of the corn scutellum is in the process of being
isolated so that its properties may be investigated.

Hatch Project 1042 G. J. Fritz
The direct addition of molecular oxygen to organic substrates in vivo
is being studied; this process is called "oxygen fixation". Isotopic oxygen-
18 tracer technique is utilized and oxygen-18 is determined by mass spec-
trometry; also, the feasibility of determination of oxygen-18 by neutron
activation (oxygen-19 is produced) is being investigated, in collaboration
with the Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Florida. Met-
abolic reactions of the type under investigation are catalyzed by enzymes
called oxygenases and hydroxyases; oxygenases catalyze the addition of
two atoms of oxygen gas to one molecule of substrate, and hydroxylases
catalyze the incorporation of one atom of oxygen gas into substrate. The
research program includes investigation in such areas as (1) the ability
of plant seedlings such as soybean, pea, castor bean, corn, and wheat to
fix molecular oxygen directly into organic substrate(s), including the vari-
ability of such ability with seedling age, (2) the effect of various environ-
mental factors (temperature, oxygen tension) upon the ability of plants to
fix oxygen gas, and (3) the identification of the products) of molecular
oxygen fixation. In this last category, more specifically, current work in-
volves the isolation of hydroxyproline from tissue slices, which are be-
lieved to produce hydroxyproline from proline; oxygen gas labeled with oxy-
gen-18 is being used to show that hydroxyproline is labelled. Other work
has the purpose of showing that lipid peroxides produced by maize seedlings
in the presence of oxygen gas labelled with oxygen-18 are also labelled.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 1118 D. B. Ward
Work has continued on various genera and families of the vascular
flora of Florida. Manuscript has been prepared for the genera Emilia,
Palafoxia, and Polypteris (Compositae), Evolvulus (Convolvulaceae), Poly-
gonatum, and Trillium (Liliaceae). Tin Myint has prepared the manu-
script for Merremia (Convolvulaceae), and Robert R. Smith has done so
for Polygala (Polygalaceae). These manuscripts will perhaps undergo
slight revision before publication, but are essentially in finished form with
the exception of the maps giving distribution of the included species, many
of which need additional field work to attain the degree of completeness
In a less finished state is manuscript for a number of additional genera:
Fimbristylis (Cyperaceae), Gnaphalium (Compositae), Crotalaria (Legum-
inosae), Chamaesyce & Poinsettia (Euphorbiaceae), Oxypolis (Umbelli-
ferae). (The last three genera by Derek Burch.)
In March the first unit of the Flora to be completed-Pinus (Pinaceae)
-was published in the journal Castanea.

State Project 1121 Y. Sagawa
A large collection of orchid species has been brought together. Attempts
are being made to relate external features of the developing fruits to the
developmental stages of the ovules within the fruit. Since earlier work
in this laboratory established that once fertilization has been effected
ovules can be cultured and mature plants obtained, it would be desirable to
be able to predict the time of fertilization by use of gross external fruit
features only. Preliminary evidence shows that there is a correlation be-
tween fruit diameter and the stages of internal development.


Physiology of Dwarfing in Plants.-We have continued our studies on
the effect of a number of chemical dwarfing agents on the growth, morph-
ology, and physiology of turfgrasses and ornamental plants. Two projects
are now being developed in collaboration with the Department of Orna-
mental Horticulture.
The effect of several chemical dwarfing agents on the developmental
physiology of the apical stem meristem of the chrysanthemum has been
studied. Cytochemical studies of tissue slices has shown that the dwarfing
agents specifically affect starch accumulation. This work is being developed
as a dissertation problem. (G. R. Noggle)
Biochemical Effects of High Temperature on Plants.-Preparatory work
for a study of the biochemical effects of high temperature on plants has
been concerned mostly with materials and methods.
Preliminary studies have narrowed the initial choice of plant material
to two varieties of common pea (Pisum sativum) and to several races of
Arabidopsis thaliana. Aseptic growth of the Arabidopsis through its en-
tire life cycle under conditions of controlled environment has been success-
fully obtained. Techniques and considerable equipment have been designed,
developed, and tested for the aseptic growth studies. Adequate stocks of
seeds of several races of Arabidopsis have been grown and stored under
aseptic or very clean conditions to reduce contamination of seed stock. Con-
taminated imported seed had been a major problem in the development of

Annual Report, 1963 81

aseptic techniques. Growth and other performance data for three Arab-
idopsis strains under standard aseptic conditions have been obtained. Sim-
ilar data for the two varieties of pea (one heat-resistant, the other not)
growing in sand culture in a growth chamber have been collected.
Considerable development and standardization work on analytical tech-
niques has taken place. Quantitative examination of alcoholic extracts of
plant tissue and standards has been attempted by various techniques, espe-
cially solvent partition, ion exchange, and paper chromatography.
Heat-resistant and heat-sensitive varieties of the two species have been
grown under optimum and higher than optimum temperature conditions.
Alcoholic extracts have been made and are being stored at -10C pending
satisfactory completion of the analytical development work. The extracts
will then be analyzed for a series of substances. The alcohol-soluble, free
amino acids will be the first group of compounds to be examined.
A proposal covering projected further work has been prepared and sub-
mitted. (D. S. Anthony)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The Department of Dairy Science has facilities for research in dairy
products at the Dairy Products Laboratory on the campus and for research
in dairy husbandry at the Dairy Research Unit, Hague (Main Station),
and at the West Florida Dairy Unit, at Chipley. The Main Station herd is
composed of approximately 300 registered animals of the five major dairy
breeds. The West Florida Dairy Unit is composed of about 100 dairy ani-
mals, about half of which are registered.
Two new projects were started: "Mineral Requirements for Cattle"
and "Variation of Milk and Fat Yields of Florida Dairy Cattle." A bunker-
type silo, 400 tons capacity, was constructed with concrete floor and creo-
sote treated supports and sides. The original and maintenance costs of
this unit will be compared with a similar all-concrete silo of about the
same capacity, also built recently.
Cooperative work has been conducted with other departments, includ-
ing Animal Science, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Engineering, and
Dr. R. B. Becker, Dairy Husbandman, retired June 30, 1963, after 34
years' service with the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.

State Project 213 J. M. Wing, R. B. Becker,
and C. J. Wilcox
A uniformity trial to determine degree of replication necessary for en-
silability studies is under way using pearlmillet as the forage. Additional
comparisons are being made between no treatment and treatment with
methyl para amino benzoate, calcium carbonate, propyl para amino ben-
zoate, and dried bakery product. The effects of method of planting corn
for silage (broadcast versus row) is being investigated by means of studies
on ensilability, consumption rates, and digestibility. The digestibility data
on silage made by various treatments using alfalfa, hairy indigo, soybeans,
lupine, oats, pangolagrass, pearlmillet, and Sart sargo have been published
as Technical Bulletin 655.

State Project 345 R. B. Becker and C. J. Wilcox
Five cooperating Florida herds were the source of cow-disposal and
reproduction records. Records were obtained on tenure and turnover of
bulls in use in 53 artificial breeding organizations in the United States and
Canada. Conversion to frozen semen and additional consolidations of studs
have contributed to operational economies. A grant from the National
Association of Artificial Breeders contributes to support of this project.
A Station bulletin cooperative with the Ohio Agricultural Experiment
Station, entitled "Genetic Aspects of Actinomycosis and Actinobacillosis
in Cattle," is in process of joint publication.
(See also State Project 345, Agricultural Economics Department.)

Annual Report, 1963

State Project 575 C. J. Wilcox, R. B. Becker,
and S. P. Marshall

Average production per cow in the purebred dairy herd increased 114
pounds of milk and 8 pounds of fat during the year. This improvement was
satisfactory, although not as great as the increases experienced in the past
two years. Guernseys, Jerseys, and Holsteins were classified during the
year with moderate increases in scores for each breed. Overall scores
averaged 81.6, 82.6, and 80.8, respectively.
A study of the effects of year and season of freshening on production
showed both to be highly significant, but no evidence of interaction. The
analysis included 1,370 Jersey milk records for the period 1931-60. Produc-
tion averaged 7,136 pounds (2X, 305-day, M.E.), with a standard deviation
of 1,591 pounds. Yearly average yields were found to have increased
steadily to a high of 9,000 pounds per cow in 1960. The most efficient man-
ner of grouping months into seasons for future research on these data was
found to be: (1) December, January, February; (2) March, April, May;
(3) June, July, August; (4) September, October, November. Additional
analyses of the linear and non-linear effects of age, previous dry period,
days open, and length of record on production are nearing completion.


State Project 923 J. M. Wing and C. J. Wilcox
The purpose of this project is to determine the value of various pasture
crops when they are harvested mechanically and fed under drylot condi-
tions. The forages involved are oats, white clover alone and in combina-
tion with Dallasgrass or pangolagrass, Coastal bermudagrass, pangolagrass,
pearlmillet, Dallasgrass, soybeans, field peas, corn planted in rows and
broadcast, rye, alfalfa, Sart sargo, Gahi millet, and Starr millet. Criteria
include yields per acre, growing season, cost of production, voluntary in-
take, and digestibility of the feeds. The effects of supplementary hay and
bulky concentrates on the utilization of succulent forages also are being in-
vestigated. The field work and the chemical analyses have been completed,
and mathematical calculations are in progress. The data will be presented
for publication during the ensuing year.
This project is terminated with this report.


Hatch Project 1046 L. E. Mull and W. A. Krienke
The study initiated the previous year was continued with 19 additional
samples of NDM (total 34 samples).
Bacteriological qualities of nearly all were excellent. For this group
of samples the spread in protein content was greater (0.60 percent) than
for the first group (0.35 percent). Chemical tests showed only three of the
34 samples (10 percent) to be of questionable quality for cottage cheese
purposes, due to low solubility and/or low whey protein nitrogen values.
The conditions are thought to be caused by too much heat during the man-
ufacturing process.
Manufacturing characteristics substantiated predictions based on chem-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

ical tests at both the 10 percent and 12 percent solids levels of the reconsti-
tuted skimmilks.
Curd yields (adjusted to 20 percent total solids) of the 12 percent skim-
milks were more closely related to protein content than were those of the
10 percent skimmilks; differences in curd yields were about 1.67 percent
for each 0.10 percent change in protein content. At the 12 percent total
solids level of reconstitution the yield of curd (adjusted to 20 percent total
solids) averaged about 2 percent more per pound of NDM than that at the
10 percent total solids level of reconstitution. In addition, curd particle
characteristics were improved and vat output capacity was increased 20
percent at the higher level of reconstitution.

RRF Project 1047 C. J. Wilcox, R. B. Becker, W. A. Krienke,
(Regional S-49) J. M. Wing, L. E. Mull, and E. L. Fouts
Monthly sampling of the 180-cow station dairy herd continued with data
accumulated for local and regional use. Some 428 usable lactation records
have now been sent to the regional data collection center. A preliminary
analysis of records from several regional research groups has been sched-
uled for early 1964. Analysis of samples taken at daily intervals has been
completed. Estimates of covariation among constituents were obtained.
Ranges for three breeds of partial correlations between solids-not-fat con-
tent and other variables were as follows: with fat content, 0.18 to 0.35;
with pH, -.09 to -.14; with titratable acidity, 0.06 to -.13; with protein
content, 0.56 to 0.69; with chloride content, -.37 to -.61; with milk yield,
-.06 to -.15. Corresponding regression coefficients should enable research-
ers to predict variation in a given constituent in terms of a different con-
stituent. Although 57 to 73 percent of the variation in solids-not-fat could
be attributed to variation in protein, fat, and chloride contents on a total,
within-breed basis, only 21 to 33 percent could be so described on a within-
cow sample-period basis.

Hatch Project 1049 K. L. Smith and C. J. Wilcox
During the past year 3,390 aseptically drawn quarter milk samples
were examined. About 51.2 percent of the samples taken during the sum-
mer of 1962 contained hemolytic staphylococci, and about 3.7 percent of
these samples contained both hemolytic staphylococci and 1 million or more
leucocytes per milliliter. About 33.5 percent of the samples taken during
the winter contained hemolytic staphylococci, and about 8.8 percent of
these samples contained both hemolytic staphylococci and 1 million or more
leucocytes per milliliter.
A total of 9,128 samples were examined during the three-year sampling
period, and 39.6 percent of the samples contained hemolytic staphylococci.
Approximately 6.2 percent of the total samples contained both hemolytic
staphylococci and 1 million or more leucocytes. Based on results of physi-
ological tests run on 400 hemolytic isolates, it appears that approximately
25 percent of the quarter samples examined contained coagulase positive
staphylococci. The differences between summer samples and winter sam-
ples with regard to the percent samples containing hemolytic staphylococci
or the samples containing both hemolytic staphylococci and 1 million or
more leucocytes were not significant.

Annual Report, 1963

About 74 percent of the coagulase positive isolates were typed using
the International series of phages, as compared to 66 percent when using
the six Seto and Wilson phages. About 20 percent of the organisms typed
were of phage pattern, 53, 79, 83B. In comparing these results with other
published results it appears that the predominating phage pattern in the
staphylococcal isolates varies from one herd to the next and from one area
of the country to the next.

State Project 1053 S. P. Marshall, E. L. Fouts,
and J. B. White
RS610 sorghum planted July 6, 1962, was harvested September 26 and
produced an average of 4.2 tons of ensilage per acre with grain compris-
ing 28 percent of the dry matter. Oats seeded on the same land September
28 were grazed with dairy heifers from October 31, 1962, through February
25, 1963, except for an interruption of December 13 to January 29 caused
by the freeze. The animals gained an average of 191 pounds in body weight
and obtained an average of 1,535 pounds of total digestible nutrients per
acre from the pasture. Corn seeded on this land March 12 was harvested
for ensilage June 27 and produced 13.5 tons per acre containing 31.3 per-
cent dry matter.
Fermentation and seepage dry matter losses from the ensilage har-
vested in 1962 were 7.3 percent for corn containing 33.7 percent dry mat-
ter and 9.5 percent for sorghum containing 26.7 percent dry matter. Lac-
tating cows fed these silages as the sole roughage produced an average
of 43.4 pounds of milk daily on corn silage as compared with 41.6 pounds
daily on sorghum. Silage dry matter intake averaged 22.4 pounds daily
for corn and 17.2 pounds for sorghum. Concentrate allowances were equal-
ized for the animals on each silage.
Yield and apparent digestibility of RS610 sorghum ensiled in the milk
to dough stage was compared with the same crop cut after the grain had
become hard. Grain from the mature crop was harvested, cracked, and
recombined with the forage before ensiling. Values for yield of dry matter
per acre, apparent digestibility of dry matter, and apparent digestibility
of crude protein were 2,875 pounds, 62 percent, and 58 percent, respectively,
for the regular silage, and 3,184 pounds, 58 percent, and 52 percent, re-
spectively, for the more mature silage.
(See Project 1053, Agronomy and Agricultural Engineering depart-
Hatch Project 1062 J. M. Wing
This work was undertaken as a step in determining vitamin A require-
ments of cattle. The particular objective concerns the influence of feed
source and season on the extent to which cattle absorb carotene. Digestion
trials by indicator methods are conducted at 30-day intervals on hay and
fresh or ensiled grasses and legumes. Seventeen feeding and collection
periods have been completed, methods for handling and analyzing samples
have been developed, and the chemical analyses are in progress.

Hatch Project 1079 J. M. Wing
Supplementary iron is recommended for cattle maintained on Florida
soils, but attempts to deplete iron reserves have been unsuccessful when

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

cattle were maintained on pastures used previously by cattle which were
supplemented with iron. Thus, it seemed that unabsorbed iron from the
cattle feed possibly had built up sufficient reserves in the soils. The present
experiment utilized two pasture areas not previously grazed by cattle.
One new pasture area was occupied by lactating cattle which were unsup-
plemented. Comparable animals on the other new ground pasture received
the recommended iron supplementation. A third group was maintained
on old pasture land without supplementation. The first lactation period
has not been completed, but all animals appear to be producing well and
no visible abnormalities have occurred. Hemoglobin and packed red blood
cell volumes expressed as grams per 100 milliliters and as a percent of
blood volume were as follows: new pasture without supplementation, 10.0
and 37.2; new pasture with iron supplementation, 9.8 and 36.1; old pas-
ture without supplementation, 9.8 and 37.4. All these values are normal
for lactating cows.
(See also Hatch Project 1079, Animal Science Department)

State Project 1114 L. E. Mull and K. L. Smith
Approximately 1,150 purified isolates have been obtained by monthly
sampling of six commercial brands of INDM in consumer-sized packages
over a 12-month period.
The average count for all 72 samples using four incubation tempera-
tures was 1,706 per gm with a standard error of 132.37. The average counts
of the samples taken during the spring and summer months appeared to
be lower than those for the samples taken during the remainder of the
year. Analysis of variance showed differences in counts among months
to be significant (P < 0.05). Interactions between month and sample and
between month and temperature, were also significant (P< 0.01), however,
making the interpretation of the month effects difficult.
Frequency of isolation of cocci in INDM was significantly influenced by
incubation temperature, month of sampling, and sample. Physiological
tests have been run on approximately 150 cocci isolated from the powder
samples. About 10 percent (15) of the spherical-shaped organisms ap-
peared to belong to the genera Micrococcus and Staphylococcus. Accord-
ing to their ability to utilize glucose anaerobically and to produce cata-
lase, 12 of the 15 organisms growing in clumps and clusters were classified
as being staphylococci. According to their ability to tolerate 6.5 percent
sodium chloride and survival of laboratory pasteurization, the isolates clas-
sified as streptococci appeared to belong to the Enterococcus group.

State Project 1137 C. J. Wilcox
This project has just been initiated and is designed to isolate and evalu-
ate variability in milk and milk fat production associated with breed, herd,
year, season of freshening, and their various interactions. Production rec-
ords from Florida dairy herds which have been collected through the Dairy
Herd Improvement Association testing programs will be utilized. About
18,000 records punched in data cards are at hand for analysis.

Influence of Feeding Arsenic and Lead to Cows Upon Their Secretion
in Milk.-Eight lactating Jersey cows were assigned to four groups of two
animals each. They either grazed on millet pasture or were fed chopped

Annual Report, 1963

millet forage and were offered a supplemental concentrate. Arsenic and
lead fed daily to the cows in milligrams per 100 pounds body weight were:
Group 1, 0.00 and 0.00; Group 2, 1.17 and 3.23; Group 3, 2.34 and 6.47;
Group 4, 4.68 and 12.95. Body weight of the cows ranged from 820 to
1,040 pounds. With reference to initiation of arsenic and lead feeding,
milk samples for analyses were taken at -5, 0, +1, +3, and +14 days, and
subsequently at 14-day intervals, respectively, through the remainder of the
126 day feeding experiment.
This study is in cooperation with the Citrus Station, and the results of
milk analyses are shown in their report. (S. P. Marshall and E. L. Fouts)
Chloride Test Useful in Predicting Lactose Crystallization in Condensed
Skimmilk.-Two lots of milk (each from about 20 cows) were separated
and the skims concentrated to about 36 percent total soldis (T.S.). Adjust-
ments were made with respective skims to solids contents of 34, 32, 30,
and 28 percent. Portions of each were held at about 360 F for four days
and examined for lactose crystallization.
The two skims were of the following percentage compositions for high
and low chloride samples, respectively: chloride, 0.194 and 0.128; lactose,
4.90 and 5.62; protein, 3.2 and 3.4; total solids, 8.84 and 9.74. Of the 0.90
percent difference in T. S., 0.72 is accountable to lactose and 0.20 to pro-
tein. The opposite difference in chloride content of 0.066 percent results
in an unaccountable difference between the two skims of 0.046 percent.
This may be attributed to experimental error and/or differences among
other components of the skims.
Based on these results (the study is being continued) and on reviews
of literature on milk composition, it appears that where lactose determina-
tions are not made, the chloride value, coupled with protein and T. S. values
for skimmilk, may be useful in estimating the critical concentration for
condensed skimmilk to avoid lactose crystallization. (W. A. Krienke)
Refinements in Operating the Fiske Cryoscope.-A study was made
to more clearly define some of the procedures in the instructions-"uniform
techniques and manipulation must be followed."
It was found that the galvanometer light did not always come to a stop
at exactly 30.0 to the left of 0. Differences among milk samples, slight
differences in volume of sample (3.0 ml), and differences between a milk
sample and the standard salt solutions were found to make it impossible
to switch from "cool" to "super cool" at the right point.
When the light does not reach 30.0 it is necessary to lift the tube, swing
it back, and warm the sample (grasp the tube with the hand to warm the
sample) until the light moves to about 20.0 to the right of 0. Return the
tube to the bath and "cool" again, but allow the light to move slightly far-
ther to the left before switching to "super cool".
When the light moves beyond 30.0, allow it to come to a stop. Quickly
raise and lower the tube (this allows for a very slight warming) and again
allow the light to come to a complete stop. It is essential that the light
come to a stop at exactly 30.0 or extremely close to this point. Our trials
resulted in no deviation for 12 to 15 seconds at the stop, but only 5 to 7
seconds without deviation are required.
When making the reading, use a magnifier and observe that the light
does not move when the "high" sensitivity switch is released. Under this
condition the temperature dial is at the correct setting. (W. A. Krienke)
SWAFT Test for Whey Protein.-The SWAFT test, (salt-whey, acid,
formol-titration) was developed in this study as a simplified test for esti-
mating whey protein.
Preparation of the sample to produce the whey is essentially the same
as that of Harland and Ashworth, except that 100 ml of skim instead of
10 ml are required.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

A Babcock milk pipette is used to transfer two portions of the salt-
whey into a 150 ml beaker. Titrate against 0.025 N. alkali with phenolph-
thalein as indicator. Record the burette reading (25 ml burette desirable)
and add 1 ml of standardized formalin solution (previously adjusted to
faint pink phenolphthalein end-point with 0.1 N. alkali). Again titrate the
sample to the faint pink end-point. The ml of 0.025 N. alkali required for
the second titration is the SWAFT whey protein value.
On a limited number of observations, using reconstituted NDM at 10
percent and 12 percent T.S. levels, differences among SWAFT whey pro-
tein values compared favorably to differences among whey protein values
obtained by the Harland and Ashworth method. In trials involving different
heat treatments of skimmilk the SWAFT whey protein values changed
(lower) as the known critical temperature for stability of serum proteins
was exceeded progressively. (W. A. Krienke)
Effect of High Solids Reconstituted Skimmilk on Growth and Meat
Qualities of Veal Calves.-Twenty male calves (Holstein, Jersey, Guernsey,
and Ayrshire) were divided into two comparable groups. All were fed con-
centrates and hay free choice, and milk at the rate of 10 pounds per 100
pounds of body weight daily in two equal feedings. The milk feeding sched-
ule for all calves included pure colostrum from birth through four days of
age; a mixture of one-half colostrum and one-half reconstituted skimmilk
from five through 21 days of age; and thereafter, skimmilk. All skimmilk
fed to control calves was reconstituted at the rate of 10 percent solids. The
animals in the experimental group received skimmilk which was reconsti-
tuted at the rate of 20 percent solids. The high solids calves consumed
significantly smaller amounts of concentrate feeds (173.4 compared to
218.6 pounds), but no significant differences in growth or meat quality
occurred. (J. M. Wing)
Growth Characteristics of Dairy Starter Cultures.-Cultures of strep-
tococci and leuconostoc isolated from commercial starter cultures and from
other sources were identified. All of the streptococci isolated from com-
mercial cultures were S. cremoris except one. Each of the cultures of
streptococci and leuconostoc, together with two cultures of lactobacilli, a
culture of S. faecalis var. liquefaciens, and a culture of S. thermophilus were
combined with each other organism and tested for stimulation and inhibi-
tion of acid production. Both stimulation and inhibition were noted. It
was concluded that the practice of mixing starter cultures in some dairy
plants was not advisable unless the cultures were first checked for com-
The cultures were tested for the effect on acid production of the addi-
tion of optical isomers of lactic acid to the skimmilk. Most cultures were
affected only slightly if at all.
Four media for the selection and enumeration of leuconostoc were com-
pared with the control medium of tomato juice agar. The control medium
gave significantly higher counts. The selective medium containing tetra-
clycine gave the most consistent separation of the leuconostoc from the
streptococci tested.
The commercial starter cultures were grown at incubation temperatures
of 21 C, 300 C, 32 C, and 370 C. After 18 and 28 hours incubation time
the cultures were plated to obtain the total count and the leuconostoc count.
The highest total count was reached after 18 hours incubation at 21 C
but decreased upon further incubation. The leuconostoc count continued
to increase after 18 hours. The leuconostoc either did not grow at 37 C
or reached only very low counts. The incubation of dairy lactic cultures at
temperatures above 32 C or for short incubation times would probably
result in very little flavor production. (K. L. Smith)

Annual Report, 1963


This year was highlighted by special projects. The most noteworthy
was editing and publishing the 164-page Diamond Jubilee edition of the
Sunshine State Agricultural Research Report. Filling two vacant positions
permitted the department to operate at full strength for the first time in
two years and allowed the department to increase its off-campus coverage
of Station educational events. The construction of a sound-proof television
studio plus the addition of two high speed radio tape duplicator units al-
lowed the department to better meet the demands of commercial radio
and television stations for top quality educational materials.


The Station printed 93,000 copies of 12 new bulletins totaling 380 pages,
and 42,500 copies of five new circulars totaling 34 pages. Three bulletins
and three circulars were reprinted. Reprinted publications totaled 52,500
copies and 296 pages.
Publications printed were: Number
Pages Printed

Bul. 649 Income, Resources, and Adjustment Potentials
Among Rural Families in North and West
Florida. L. A. Reuss and K. M. Gilbraith ...
Bul. 650 Evaluation of Herbicides for Soybeans on
Central Florida Organic Soils. W. T. Scudder
Bul. 651 Comparisons of Phosphorus Fertilizers for
Pastures on Flatwoods Soils in Florida.
J. R N eller ........ ..........- ....-. .......... ..-. ......
Bul. 652 An Economic Evaluation of Grade and Size
Standards for Mature Green Tomatoes. Mar-
shall R. Godwin and William T. Manley ......
Bul. 653 The Use of Phosphorus in Citrus Fertilizer.
W F. Spencer ............................ ........... .....
Bul. 654 Pangolagrass Hay and Silage with Cottonseed
Meal and Urea in Fattening Rations. W. G.
Kirk, F. M. Peacock, and E. M. Hodges ......
Bul. 655 Nutrient Intake of Cows from Silages Made
from Typical Florida Forages. J. M. Wing
and R. B. Becker ................... ........... .......
Bul. 656 Sulfur Fertilization of Winter Clovers, Coast-
al Bermudagrass, and Corn on North and
West Florida Soils. L. G. Thompson, Jr.,
and J. R. Neller .............. --..............--.. -......--.
Bul. 657 Persistence of Simazine in Florida Mineral
and Organic Soils. W. T. Scudder ...............-
Bul. 658 Evaluation of Several Pasture Grasses on Im-
mokalee Fine Sand in South Florida. Albert
E. Kretschmer, Jr., and Norman C. Hayslip
Bul. 659 Unirrigated and Irrigated Alfalfa-Oat-Clover
Pasture for Dairy Cattle. Sidney P. Mar-
shall and J. Mostella Myers .........................
Bul. 660 Labor and Material Requirements for Vege-
table Crops. D. L. Brooke .............. ....... ........



8 12,000









84 6,000

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Cir. S-141 Florida H-13, A Promising Sansevieria Hy-
brid as a Source of Cordage Fiber. F. D. Wil-
son, J. F. Joyner, D. W. Fisher, and T. E.
Sum m ers .--- -------------- ..................................-
Cir. S-142 Dade, A Rust Resistant Pole Bean for Fresh
Market. R. A. Conover, J. M. Walter, and
A P L orz ......... ...... ...................................
Cir. S-143 Ritchey, An Improved Seed Producing Variety
of Bitter Blue Lupine. J. R. Edwardson........
Cir. S-144 The Ruehle Avocado. John Popenoe ............
Cir. S-145 Spring Field Corn and Sorghum Production
after Fall Vegetables. Albert E. Kretschmer,
Jr., Norman C. Hayslip, and W. T. Forsee, Jr.
Publications revised and/or reprinted were:
Bul. 597 Feed Lot Performance and Carcass Grades
of Brahman and Brahman Shorthorn Steers.
Fentress M. Peacock and W. G. Kirk ............
Bul. 602 The Florida Avocado Industry. George D.
R uehle .......................... .......... ............................
Bul. 605A Insect Pests of the Avocado and Their Con-
trol. D. O. W olfenbarger .............................
Cir. S-121B Recommendations for Commercial Lawn
Spraymen. S. H. Kerr .---...............................
Cir. S-125 Flordahome, A Double Pink Ornamental
Peach. R. H. Sharpe .....-................... ............
Cir. S-139A Florida No. 1 and Florisun, Two New Canta-
loupe Varieties for Florida Growers. F. S.
Jamison, James Montelaro, and J. D. Norton

6 6,000

8 10,000

4 6,500
4 10,000

12 10,000


04 15,000

52 10,000

12 7,500

4 5,000

8 10,000

All new publications are sent to libraries and specialists in many states
and to county agents and vocational agricultural teachers in Florida. The
Mailing Room also distributes the publications upon request.
Improvement in readability of the Sunshine State Agricultural Research
Report was stressed. Circulation of this 20-page research quarterly in-
creased from 5,777 to 6,452.

Live programming of the Florida Farm Hour over WRUF, University
radio station, remained at the same level as the past year. The program
went into its 34th year with broadcast time from 12:10 to 12:30 p.m., Mon-
day through Friday. Experiment Station workers made 242 talks during
the year.
The 60-second spot announcements continued to increase in popularity.
Stations using the spots increased from 13 to 15 during the year. The
spots are voiced by the radio specialist, and about half of them deal with
Experiment Station information.
Mimeographed Farm Flashes were sent out daily to 51 radio stations.
Sixty percent of these five-minute features were based on Experiment Sta-
tion information. Six short items, usually about one minute in length,
were sent weekly to the same 55 radio stations for use during station
breaks or informational programs. At least 60 percent of the material
came from Experiment Station information.
The tape service was expanded. Radio stations using the tapes were
increased from 28 to 32 stations. Six cuts-each about five minutes-were

Annual Report, 1963

sent weekly to these stations. These tapes featured 198 talks by Experi-
ment Station workers.
The Florida Farm Review, a five-minute summary of agricultural in-
formation, was sent weekly to Associated Press and United Press Inter-
national news wire services for teletype distribution to their member radio
and television stations. Much of the information contained is based on
Experiment Station material.


The weekly television show over WUFT, University educational tele-
vision station, was continued. During the 45-week show year, 75 Station
researchers appeared on the program. The live show was taped and sent
to five stations for showing on a regular schedule basis. Thus, 205 show-
ings of this program were made during the year reaching an estimated
40,000 individuals per week.
Four new 15-minute television films were made during the year, which
increased the number of films made by the department to 201. These films
are loaned to commercial television stations. The television film service
reaches an estimated 80,000 viewers each week. About half of these films
are on Experiment Station activities. In addition to television use, these
films are becoming increasingly popular as teaching films by county agents.
To keep pace with Station progress all the films were evaluated with
the researcher involved and either brought up to date or taken off the active
list until a revision could be scheduled. During the year a revised film
catalogue was issued. In addition to serving the stations with 15-minute
shows, progress was made in making news film clips available for showing
during prime viewing time which will insure that the activities of the Ex-
periment Station will reach a greater audience.


Filling two positions bolstered the news coverage of Experiment Station
activities, as one assistant editor was assigned to spend full time to news
coverage. This, coupled with a more efficient news distribution system, has
increased the use of material furnished to weekly newspapers, magazines,
radio stations, and other media outlets.
The editor wrote a weekly gardening column which appeared in 25
papers on a regular schedule and in a dozen other papers as filler material.
These columns were based on Experiment Station material and reach an
estimated 500,000 individuals each week.
Local correspondents and farm page editors were assisted in securing
material for their own stories. Many correspondents picked up materials
for news stories at the branch stations. Also, farm journals continue to
use Experiment Station information supplied by Station editors and other
staff members.


Papers by research staff members continue to be printed in large num-
bers. These appear in technical journals in the United States and a few
in foreign countries. Those included in the Journal Series are forwarded
to the journals by the Station editorial staff, and reprints are ordered for
distribution when they are printed. The series now contains more than
1,600 listings.
Following is a list of Journal Series articles printed during the year and
those not previously listed:

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

1202A. A Comparison of the Amount of Phosphorus from Different Soils
by Various Extractants. H. L. Breland and F. A. Sierra. Soil Sci.
Soc. Am. Proc. 26: 4: 348-350. July-Aug. 1962.
1232. Bacterial Leaf Spot Disease Affects Poinsettia in Florida. Lorne
A. McFadden and Howard R. Morey. Plant Disease Reporter 46:
8: 551-554. Aug. 1962.
1236. The Isolation and Identification of Some Volatile Carbonyl Com-
ponents from Orange Juice. John A. Attaway, Richard W. Wolford,
and G. J. Edwards. J. Agri. and Food Chem. 10: 2: 102-104. Mar.-
Apr. 1962.
1240. Purification of Potato Virus X without Aggregation. M. K. Cor-
bett. Virology 15: 1:8-15. 1961.
1249. Psorosis in Venezuela-an Emendation. Gino Malaguti and L. C.
Knorr. Proc. Intern. Org. Citrus Virologists. 57-59. 1961.
1250. Error in Wedge Prism Calibration. J. W. Willingham. J. Forestry.
60: 2: 123, 126-127. Feb. 1962.
1264. Tristeza in Florida. Mortimer Cohen and Harry C. Burnett. Proc.
Intern. Org. Citrus Virologists. 107-112. 1961.
1265. Phosphorus and Potassium Requirements for Growing Sugarcane on
Organic Soils in South Florida. F. le Grand, H. W. Burdine, and
F. H. Thomas. Sugar J. June 1961.
1267. Installation and Operation of a Set of Water-Table Plots on an
Organic Soil. D. S. Harrison, W. H. Speir, and F. H. Thomas.
Agr. Eng. 6: 1: 3-5. 1963.
1271. Composition and Digestibility of Corn Silage as Affected by Ferti-
lizer Rate and Plant Population. R. A. Alexander, J. F. Hentges,
Jr., W. K. Robertson, G. A. Barden, and J. T. McCall. J. Animal
Sci. 22: 1: 5-8. Feb. 1963.
1282. The Application of Gas Chromatography to the Analysis of Flavor
Components of Citrus Juices. Richard W. Wolford and John A.
Attaway. Intern. Gas Chromatog. Symposium Proc. Ch. 3, 457-
470. 1962.
1286. Growth-Modifying and Antimetabolite Effects of Amino Acids on
Chrysanthemum. S. S. Woltz. Plant Physiol. 38: 1: 93-99. Jan.
1287. Leaf Galls on Siderasis Fuscata Caused by Root-Knot Nematode
Meloidogyne Incognita. H. N. Miller and A. A. DiEdwardo. Plant
Pathol. 52: 10: 1071-1073. Oct. 1962.
1289. Competition Studies in Soybeans. Kuell Hinson and W. D. Hanson.
Crop Sci. 2: 117-123. 1962.
1300. Effectiveness of Treatments for the Control of Soil-Borne Fusarium
Infections of Manalucie Tomatoes. Huey I. Borders. Plant Disease
Reporter. 45: 12: 972-973. Dec. 1961.
1305. Effect of Temperature and Handling Practices on The Degreening
Rate of Green-Colored Grapefruit Intended for the European Mar-
ket. M. F. Oberbacher. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 80: 308-311.
1306. Absorption of Maleic Hydrazide by Citrus. C. H. Hendershott.
Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 80: 237-240. 1962.
1307. Analysis of Recovered Natural Orange Essence by Gas Chroma-
tography. R. W. Wolford, G. E. Alberding, and J. A. Attaway.
J. Agri. and Food Chem. 10: 297-301. July-Aug. 1962.

Annual Report, 1963

1310. Effect of Dietary Protein on Fructose, Citric Acid and 5-Nucleoti-
dase Activity in the Semen of Bulls. R. L. Shirley, T. N. Meacham,
A. C. Warnick, J. F. Hentges, Jr., and T. J. Cunha. J. Animal Sci.
22: 1: 14-18. Feb. 1963.
1311. The Responses of Orange Trees and Fruits to Freezing Tempera-
tures. C. H. Hendershott. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 80: 247-254.
1312. Availability of Phytic Acid for Chick. R. H. Harms, P. W. Wal-
droup, R. L. Shirley, and C. B. Ammerman. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol.
Med. 41: 4: 1189-1191. July 1962.
1313. Mycosphaerella Fruit Rot of Watermelon. N. C. Schenck. Phyto-
pathol. 52: 7: 635-638. July 1962.
1314. A Rapid Method for Purifying Tobacco Ringspot Virus and its
Morphology as Determined by Electron Microscopy and Negative
Staining. M. K. Corbett and D. A. Roberts. Phytopathol. 52: 9:
902-905. Sept. 1962.
1380. Electron Microscopy of the Cardiovascular System of the Normal
and Beta-Aminopropionitrile Fed Turkey. C. F. Simpson, W. R.
Pritchard, R. H. Harms, and J. H. Sautter. Exptl. and Molecular
Pathol. 1: 4: 321-343. Aug. 1962.
1382. Effects of Nitrogen and Potassium Levels on the Growth, Flowering
Responses and Foliar Composition of Chrysanthemum morifolium
'Bluechip'. Jasper N. Joiner and Thomas G. Smith. Proc. Am.
Soc. Hort. Sci. 80: 571-580. 1962.
1383. Skeletal and Cardiovascular Lesions in Turkeys Induced by Feeding
Beta-Aminopropionitrile. C. F. Simpson, W. R. Pritehard, R. H.
Harms, and J. H. Sautter. Exptl. and Molecular Pathol. 1: 4: 305-
320. Aug. 1962.
1384. Increasing the Effectiveness of Ionizing Radiations in Inducing Mu-
tations. A. T. Wallace. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 21: 89-
96. 1961.
1385. The Effects of Liming on the Availability of Fe and Mn and on
Soil Ca and Soil pH on Davie Fine Sand. Charles C. Hortenstine
and H. Y. Ozaki. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 21: 44-50.
1386. The Response of Pangolagrass to Nitrogen from Several Sources.
J. E. McCaleb, E. M. Hodges, and C. L. Dantzman. Soil and Crop
Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 21: 63-66. 1961.
1387. The Effect of Seasonal Variation on Soil Reaction and Nutrient
Status of Some Western Florida Soils. M. C. Lutrick. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 21: 179-185. 1961.
1388. Expressions of Heterosis in Intervarietal Crosses of Cigar-Wrapper
Tobacco. C. E. Dean. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 21: 97-106.
1389. Fertility Responses of St. Augustine, Pangola, and Pensacola Bahia
Grasses on South Florida Sandy Soils. Frederick T. Boyd. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 21: 74-80. 1961.
1390. Corn Yields and Incidence of Barren Stalks in an Experiment Using
High Nitrogen Rates-A Progress Report. John G. A. Fiskell.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 21: 237-244. 1961.
1391. The Effects of Spacing, Hybrids and Varieties, Fumigation and
Mulches on Yields of Highly Fertilized Corn. W. H. Chapman. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 21: 206-213. 1961.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

1392. Effect of Lime on Yield of Peppers and on Soil Calcium. H. Y.
Ozaki and C. C. Hortenstine. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 21:
50-55. 1961.
1394. Nitrogen Transformations in Citrus Trees. Ivan Stewart. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 21: 272-282. 1961.
1395. Another Look at Tall Fescue for Northwest Florida. L. S. Duna-
vin, Jr. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 21: 128-136. 1961.
1396. Drainage Characteristics of Leon and Felda Sands. 1. Water Ta-
ble Behavior. R. B. Diamond, L. C. Hammond, and J. M. Myers.
Soil and Crop. Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 21: 38-44. 1961.
1397. A Short Quantitative Method for Estimating the Population Density
of Soil Fungi. N. C. Schenck and E. A. Curl. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 21: 13-17. 1961.
1398. Response of Field Corn Varieties to Plant Populations and Plant-
ing Dates on Flatwoods Soil. A. J. Norden. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 21: 213-220. 1961.
1399. Light, A Factor To Be Considered in Growing Corn. Gordon M.
Prine. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 21: 221-228. 1961.
1400. The Influence of Row Direction on Microclimate, Yield, and Damage
by Freezing in Lupine and Oats. S. H. West and G. M. Prine. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 21: 140-147. 1961.
1401. Response of Clover Varieties to Minor Element Fertilization at the
Suwannee Valley Station. H. W. Lundy and J. G. A. Fiskell. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 21: 171-177. 1961.
1402. Late Summer Fertilization for Winter Forage in North Florida.
W. G. Blue, Nathan Gammon Jr., and H. W. Lundy. Soil and Crop
Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 21: 56-62. 1961.
1403. The Role of Growth Inhibitors in Reducing Winter Injury in Flor-
ida's Pastures. O. Charles Ruelke. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 21: 136-139. 1961.
1404. Gaseous Loss and Mobility as Factors in Nitrogen Efficiency. Gay-
lord M. Volk. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 21: 261-268. 1961.
1405. Carbon Dioxide as it Affects Corn Yields. W. K. Robertson, V. N.
Schroder, H. W. Lundy, and G. M. Prine. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla. Proc. 21: 229-237. 1961.
1406. Soybeans and Wheat Yield Response to Residual Phosphorus, Pot-
ash and Lime for Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam. W. K. Robertson and
C. E. Hutton. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 21: 186-191. 1961.
1407. A Virus-Like Syndrome in Tomato Caused by a Mutation. J. R.
Edwardson and M. K. Corbett. Am. J. Botany. 29: 6: 571-575.
1408. Physical Form and Composition of Hay on Lactation, Rumen De-
velopment and Digestibility. R. A. Alexander and J. F. Hentges,
Jr. J. Animal Sci. 21: 3: 439-443. Aug. 1962.
1409. Protein, Nucleotide and Ribonucleic Acid Metabolism in Corn Dur-
ing Germination Under Water Stress. S. H. West. Plant Physiol.
37: 5: 565-571. Sept. 1962.
1411. The Influence of Maleic Hydrazide on Citrus Trees and Fruits.
C. H. Hendershott. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 80: 241-246. 1962.
1413. Paper Chromatographic Analysis of Urethan Derivatives of Satu-
rated Aliphatic Alcohols. John A. Attaway, Richard W. Wolford,
Gilbert E. Alberding, and George J. Edwards. Anal. Chem. 34: 6:
671-673. May 1962.

Annual Report, 1963

1415. Effect of Four Amendments on Soil Physical Properties and on
Yield and Quality of Putting Greens. R. R. Smalley, W. L. Pritch-
ett, and L. C. Hammond. Agron. J. 54: 393-395. 1962.
1416. Effect on Plant Growth of Particle Size and Degree of Solubility
of Phosphorus Labeled in 12-12-12 Fertilizer. J. R. Neller. Soil
Sci. 94: 6: 413-417. Dec. 1962.
1418. Extraction and Clean-up Studies for Parathion Residues on Leafy
Vegetables. C. H. Van Middelem, R. E. Waites, and J. W. Wilson.
J. Agri. and Food Chem. 11: 1: 56. Jan.-Feb. 1963.
1419. Attempts at Controlling Citrus Burrowing Nematodes Using Nema-
tode-Trapping Fungi. A. C. Tarjan. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 21: 17-36. 1961.
1420. Phorate Residues in Tomato Fruit and Foliage. C. H. Van Middelem
and R. M. Baranowski. J. Econ. Entomol. 55: 5: 600-603. Oct.
1422. Comparison of the Requirements of Battery and Floor-grown Chicks
for Calcium and Phosphorus. P. W. Waldroup, C. B. Ammerman,
and R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci. 41: 5: 1433-1436. Sept. 1962.
1423. Intraspecific Variation in Phytoseiidae (Acarina-Mesostigmata).
Martin H. Muma and Harold A. Denmark. Fla. Entomol. 45:2:
57-65. June 1962.
1424. Contributions to the Flora of Florida-2, Pinus (Pinaceae). Daniel
B. Ward. Castanea. 28: 1-10. May 1963.
1425. Effect of Low Protein Intake on the Deposition and Placental Trans-
fer of Sulfur-35. J. P. Feaster and G. K. Davis. J. Nutrition. 77:
3: 369-373. July 1962.
1426. The Effects of Progesterone and Progestational Compounds Upon
the Production of Laying Pullets. R. E. Cook and A. C. Warnick.
Poultry Sci. 41: 5: 1545-1550. Sept. 1962.
1427. Technique for Evaluating Herbicides against Submerged, Emersed
and Floating Aquatic Weeds. Robert D. Blackburn. Weeds 11: 1:
21-24. Jan. 1963.
1428. Effect of Various Salts on the Availability of Zinc and Manganese
to Citrus. Ivan Stewart and C. D. Leonard. Soil Sci. 95: 2:149-
154. Feb. 1963.
1430. Insecticides for the Control of the Green Peach Aphid on Shade-
Grown Tobacco. William B. Tappan. J. Econ. Entomol. 56: 1: 34-40.
Feb. 1963.
1432. Genetic Variations in Hemoglobins of Beef Cattle. J. R. Crockett,
Marvin Koger, W. C. Burns, M. E. Hammond, and H. L. Chapman,
Jr. 22: 1: 173-176. Feb. 1963.
1433. Growth and Digestibility Studies with Young Pigs Fed Various
Levels and Sources of Calcium. G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace.
J. Animal Sci. 21: 4: 734-737. Nov. 1962.
1437. Activity of Vitamin K, and Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex
when Measured by Mortality of Chicks with Cecal Coccidiosis. R. H.
Harms, P. W. Waldroup, and D. D. Cox. Poultry Sci. 61: 6: 1836-
1839. Nov. 1962.
1438. Some Relationships Among Hydrogen, Aluminum and pH in So-
lution and Soil Systems. T. L. Yaun. Soil Sci. 95: 3: 155-163. Mar.
1439. Calcium Deficiency in Field-Grown Citrus Trees. W. F. Spencer
and R. C. J. Koo. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 81: 202-208. 1962.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

1440. Effects of Lime on Incidence of Botrytis Gray Mold of Tomato.
Robert E. Stall. Phytopathol. 53: 2: 149-151. Feb. 1963.
1441. The Occurrence and Cause of Iron Oxide Deposits in Tile Drains.
W. F. Spencer, R. Patrick, and H. W. Ford. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Am.
27: 2: 134-137. Mar.-Apr. 1963.
1442. Herbicides for Gladiolus. D. S. Burgis and W. E. Waters. Weeds.
11: 1: 53-55. Jan. 1963.
1444. Seasonal Changes Occurring in the Pectinesterase Activity and Pec-
tic Constituents of the Component Parts of Citrus Fruits. I.
Valencia Oranges. A. H. Rouse, C. D. Atkins, and E. L. Moore.
J. Food Sci. 27: 5: 419-425. Sept.-Oct. 1962.
1446. Blood volume of Brahman and Hereford Cattle as Measured by In-
jected Radioiodinated Bovine Serum Albumin. J. R. Howes, J. F.
Hentges, Jr., and J. P. Feaster. J. Animal Sci. 22: 1: 183-7. Feb.
1448. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Pigs Fed Low Vitamin A Rations.
T. N. Meacham, T. J. Cunha, G. E. Combs, H. D. Wallace, A. C.
Warnick, R. L. Shirley, and C. F. Simpson. Soc. Exptl. Biol. and
Med. 3: 30-34. 1962.
1451. Comparative Digestive Powers of Hereford and Braham Cattle.
J. R. Howes, J. F. Hentges, Jr., and G. K. Davis. J. Animal Sci. 22:
1: 22-26. Feb. 1963.
1452. Relationship of the Egg Formation Cycle to Antibiotic Blood Level
in Laying Hens. R. H. Harms and P. W. Waldroup. Poultry Sci.
61: 6: 1932-1936. Nov. 1962.
1453. Detachable Auxiliary Sheets for Easy Detection of Bands on an
Electrophoresis Curtain. Huo-Ping Pan. Anal. Chem. 34: 1356.
Sept. 1962.
1456. Absorption and Tissue Distribution of P-32 from Different Inorganic
Sources in Rats. L. R. Arrington, J. C. Outler, C. B. Ammerman,
and G. K. Davis. Quart. J. Fla. Acad. Sci. 25: 2: 161-166. 1962.
1457. Effect of Processing and Storage on Stability of Concentrated
Orange Juice. E. L. Moore, A. H. Rouse, and C. D. Atkins. Food
Technol. 56: 12: 91-95. 1962.
1458. Studies of a Foliage Variegation in Pepper. A. A. Cook. Proc. Am.
Soc. Hort. Sci. 81: 390-395. 1962.
1459. The Composition of Valencia Orange Oil as Related to Fruit Ma-
turity. J. W. Kesterson and R. Hendrickson. Am. Perfumer. 77:
12: 21-24. Dec. 1962.
1460. Control of Black Scale in Florida. R. F. Brooks and W. L. Thomp-
son. J. Econ. Entomol. 55: 5: 813-814. Oct. 1962.
1462. Leptospiral Agglutinins in Snake Serums. F. H. White. Am. J.
Vet. Research. 24: 98: 179-182. Jan. 1963.
1464. Preliminary Report on the Feeding Value of Blackstrap Molasses
for Beef Cows. H. L. Chapman. Sugar J. 25: 4: 37. Sept. 1962.
1466. Control of the Darkening of the Butts of Prepackaged Celery.
C. B. Hall. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 81: 354-357. 1962.
1467. Isolation of a Mutant Strain of Potato Y Virus. A. A. Cook. Plant
Disease Reporter. 46: 8: 569. Aug. 1962.
1468. The Effect of Feeding Various Levels of Crotalaria spectabilis Seed
on the Performance of Chicks, Turkeys and Pullets. R. H. Harms,
P. W. Waldroup, and C. F. Simpson. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 142:
3: 260-263. Feb. 1963.

Annual Report, 1963

1469. Pathologic Changes Associated with Feeding Various Levels of
Crotalaria spectabilis Seed to Poultry. C. F. Simpson, P. W. Wal-
droup, and R. H. Harms. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 142: 3: 264-271.
Feb. 1963.
1470. Relative Absorption and Excretion by Beef Cattle of Copper from
Various Sources. H. L. Chapman, Jr., and M. C. Bell. J. Animal
Sci. 22: 1: 82-85. Feb. 1963.
1471. Aortic Rupture in Turkeys Induced by Diethlstilbestrol. C. W.
Beall, Charles F. Simpson, W. R. Pritchard, and R. H. Harms. Proc.
Soc. Exptl. Biol. and Med. 113: 442-443. 1963.
1472. Aortic Sclerosis in a Cat. C. F. Simpson and R. F. Jackson. J. Am.
Vet. Med. Assoc. 142: 3: 282-284.
1473. Chemical control of Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium Rolfs II of
Snap Beans in Boca Raton, Florida, 1962. Huey I. Borders. Plant
Disease Reporter. 46: 651-52. Sept. 1962.
1474. Changes in the Characteristics of Farms and in Farm Income in
Florida Counties, 1954-1959. W. K. McPherson. Bur. Econ. and
Business Research. Part 5, State Econ. Studies 14: 1: 53-62. 1962.
1475. Toxicity of Cupric Sulfate for Beef Cattle. H. L. Chapman, Jr.,
S. L. Nelson, R. W. Kidder, W. L. Sippel, and C. W. Kidder. J. Ani-
mal Sci. 21: 4: 960-962. Nov. 1962.
1476. The Effect of Gamma Radiation on the Availability of Nitrogen and
Phosphorus in Soil. C. F. Eno and H. Popenoe. Soil Sci. Soc. Am.
Proc. 27: 3: 299-301. May-June 1963.
1477. The Effect of Minor Element Deficiencies on Free Amino Acids in
Citrus Leaves. Ivan Stewart. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 81: 244-
249. 1962.
1479. A New Technique for Preparing Film on Cell Window for Infrared
Absorption Spectroscopy. Huo-Ping Pan and G. J. Edwards. Appl.
Spectroscopy. 17: 3: 74. 1963.
1480. Chemical Control of Bacterial and Cercospora Leaf Spots and Phy-
tophthora Blight of Pepper on South Florida Sandy Soils. Huey I.
Borders. Plant Disease Reporter. 46: 9: 652-654. Sept. 1962.
1481. A Synecological Study of the Effects of the Imported Fire Ant
Eradication Program. W. C. Rhoades. Fla. Entomol. 45: 4: 161-
173. Dec. 1962.
1482. Comparison of Free Amino Acids and Amides in Roots of Healthy
and Radopholus similis Infected Grapefruit Seedlings. R. W. Hanks
and A. W. Feldman. Phytopathol. 53: 4: 419-422. Apr. 1963.
1484. Influence of Low Protein Rations on Growth and Semen Character-
istics of Young Beef Bulls. T. N. Meacham, T. J. Cunha, A. C.
Warnick, J. F. Hentges, Jr., and D. D. Hargrove. J. Animal Sci.
22: 1: 115-120. Feb. 1963.
1486. Relative Effectiveness of Recurrent Selection for Specific and for
General Combining Ability in Corn. E. S. Horner, H. W. Lundy,
M. C. Lutrick, and R. W. Wallace. Crop Sci. 3:63-66. Jan.-Feb.
1487. Estimating Citrus Production by Use of Frame Count Survey. Roy
G. Stout. J. Farm Econ. 44: 4: 1037-1049. Nov. 1962.
1488. Gamma Irradiation and Interrelation of Dietary Vitamin A and
Copper on their Deposition in the Liver of Swine. R. L. Shirley,
T. N. Meacham, A. C. Warnick, H. D. Wallace, J. F. Easley, G. K.
Davis, and T. J. Cunha. J. Nutrition. 78: 4: 454-456. Dec. 1962.

98 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

1490. Spectrophotometric Assay of Ascorbic Acid Oxidase. M. F. Ober-
bacher and H. M. Vines. Nature. 197:4873: 1203-1209. Mar.
1491. Availability of Nitrogen Contained in Certain Condensation Prod-
ucts of the Reaction of Urea with Formaldehyde. F. Leslie Long
and G. M. Volk. Agronomy J. 55: 155-158. 1963.
1492. Determination of Ornithine, Lysine, Arginine, Citrulline, and Histi-
dine. Ivan Stewart. J. Chromatog. 10: 404-476. Aug. 1962.
1495. Strain Differences in the Protein Requirement of Laying Hens.
R. H. Harms and P. W. Waldroup. Poultry Sci. 41: 6: 1985-1987.
Nov. 1962.
1496. Seedcoat Colors Associated with Physiological Changes in Alfalfa
and Crimson and White Clovers. S. H. West and H. C. Harris.
Crop Sci. 3: 3: 190-193. May-June 1963.
1497. Effects of Meloidogyne incognita acrita on Kenaf and Use of Photo-
periodism in Selecting for Resistance. T. E. Summers, F. D. Wil-
son, and J. F. Joyner. Phytopathol. 53: 5: 613-614. May 1963.
1498. Hairless Guernsey Cattle. R. B. Becker, C. F. Simpson, and C. J.
Wilcox. J. Heredity. 54: 1: 2-7. Jan.-Feb. 1963.
1499. The Effects of Feeding Various Levels of Vitamin A on Chicks
with Cecal Coccidiosis. P. W. Waldroup, Charles F. Simpson,
D. D. Cox, and R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci. 42: 1:274-275. Jan.
1500. Further Studies of Diet Composition on Egg Weight. R. H. Harms
and P. W. Waldroup. Poultry Sci. 42: 3: 657-662. May 1963.
1503. Thickness of a Subsoil Layer in Relation to Tree Size and Root
Distribution of Citrus. Harry W. Ford. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci.
82: 177-179. 1963.
1504. Digestibility of Rations Containing Different Sources of Supple-
mentary Protein by Young Pigs. G. E. Combs, F. L. Osegueda,
H. D. Wallace, and C. B. Ammerman. J. Animal Sci. 22:2:396-
398. May 1963.
1506. Distribution of Microorganisms, Citrus Feeder Roots, Nitrate Pro-
duction and Nutrients in the Profile of Leon, Scranton, Immokalee,
and Blanton Fine Sands. Harry W. Ford and Charles F. Eno. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 75: 49-52. 1962.
1507. Three-year Study on Hesperidin Recovery as Related to Valencia
Orange Maturity. R. Hendrickson and J. W. Kesterson. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 75: 289-291. 1962.
1508. Malpractices in the Citrus Nursery that Predispose Grove Trees to
Disease. L. C. Knorr. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 75: 42-48. 1962.
1509. Decay and Rind Breakdown of Oranges in Fiberboard Cartons and
Wirebound Boxes. A. A. McCornack and E. F. Hopkins. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 75: 323. 1962.
1510. Insecticidal Control of the Cabbage Looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hbn.),
in the Hastings, Florida, Area. R. B. Workman. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 75: 143-146. 1962.
1511. Varietal Differences in Firmness and Placental Breakdown of To-
matoes. C. B. Hall and J. M. Walter. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
75: 304-307. 1962.
1512. Tomato Variety Evaluation on Sandy Soils for Pink Harvest. Nor-
man C. Hayslip and Paul H. Everett. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
75: 180-183. 1962.

Annual Report, 1963

1513. The Effectiveness of Ethion Against Mites that Feed on Florida
Citrus. Roger B. Johnson. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 75:89-94.
1514. Stimulation of Pansy Bloom Number and Diameter with Gamma
Irradiation. A. T. Wallace. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 75:456-
460. 1962.
1515. Preference and Use of Pesticides on Citrus During a Ten Year
Period. William A. Simaton. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 75:99-
103. 1962.
1516. Effects of Fertilizer Rates and Frequencies on Potted Chrysanthe-
mum Production. W. E. Waters. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 75:
460-463. 1962.
1517. Chemical Weed Control in Gladiolus Cormels. W. E. Waters. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 75: 464-468. 1962.
1518. Herbicides for Cabbage, Cauliflower and Broccoli. D. S. Burgis.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 75: 130-131. 1962.
1519. A Comparison of In-the-Row and Overall Soil Fumigation for the
Control of Plant Nematodes. H. L. Rhoades, E. S. Holmes, and
W. T. Scudder. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 75: 125-129. 1962.
1520. Combatting Iron Oxide Deposits in Drain Lines. Harry W. Ford
and W. F. Spencer. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 75: 27-32. 1962.
1521. Forecasting Late Blight of Potato at Hastings, Florida. A. H.
Eddins. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 75: 206-208. 1962.
1522. The Response of Sweet Peppers in Everglades Organic Soils to P
and K Fertilization. Charles C. Hortenstine. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 75: 146-152. 1962.
1523. A Survey of Xanthomonas vesicatoria Resistance to Streptomycin.
P. L. Thayer and R. E. Stall. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 75: 163-165.
1524. Effects of Amino Acid Antimetabolites Upon Nematodes and To-
matoes. A. J. Overman and S. S. Woltz. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
75: 166-170. 1962.
1525. Electrostatic Dusting in Beans. T. W. Casselman, P. L. Thayer,
and W. G. Genung. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 75: 220-223. 1962.
1526. Fluoride Toxicity in Gladiolus and Methods of Amelioration. S. S.
Woltz. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 75: 469-471. 1962.
1527. The Influence of Pruning on Size and Quality of Florida Grapefruit.
D. W. Kretchman and P. J. Jutras. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 75:
35-42. 1962.
1528. Growing Tomatoes and Cucumbers with High Analysis Fertilizer
and Plastic Mulch. C. M. Geraldson. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
75: 253-260. 1962.
1529. Adaptable Varieties, Herbicides and Plant Spacing for Bulb Onions
on Sandy Land. D. G. A. Kelbert and D. S. Burgis. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 75: 153-156. 1962.
1530. The Relationships Among Several Physical and Chemical Measure-
ments made on Oranges. W. G. Long. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
75: 292-294. 1962.
1531. A Nitrogen Source Experiment with Valencia Oranges on Two Soil
Types in the Indian River Area. David V. Calvert, R. R. Hunziker,
and Herman J. Reitz. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 75: 77-82. 1962.