Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Report of the director
 Report of the business manager
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural engineering
 Animal husbandry and nutrition
 Dairy science
 Editorial department
 Home economics
 Plant pathology
 Poultry husbandry
 Veterinary science
 Central Florida station
 Citrus station
 Everglades station
 Indian River field laboratory
 Plantation field laboratory
 Gulf Coast station
 North Florida station
 Range cattle station
 Sub-tropical station
 Suwannee Valley station
 West central Florida station
 West Florida station
 Field laboratories

Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00003
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1955
Publication Date: 1945-1967
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002452809
oclc - 12029671
notis - AMF8114
System ID: UF00027385:00003
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Table of Contents
        Page 6
    Report of the director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Report of the business manager
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Agricultural economics
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Agricultural engineering
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Animal husbandry and nutrition
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Dairy science
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Editorial department
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Home economics
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Plant pathology
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Poultry husbandry
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
    Veterinary science
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
    Central Florida station
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
    Citrus station
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
    Everglades station
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
    Indian River field laboratory
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
    Plantation field laboratory
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
    Gulf Coast station
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
    North Florida station
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
    Range cattle station
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
    Sub-tropical station
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
    Suwannee Valley station
        Page 321
        Page 322
    West central Florida station
        Page 323
    West Florida station
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
    Field laboratories
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
Full Text






JUNE 30, 1955

J. Lee Ballard, Chairman, St. Peters-
Fred H. Kent, Jacksonville
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
W. Glenn Miller, Monticello
Mrs. A. I. duPont, Jacksonville
George W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauder-
J. B. Culpepper, Sec., Tallahassee

J. W. Reitz, Ph.D., President
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Provost for Agr.'
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Dir.
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph. D., Asst. Dir. and
R. L. Bartley, B.S., Adm. Manager 3
G. R. Freeman, B.S., Supt. of Field
W. H. Jones, M.A., Assistant Supt.
of Field Operations

Agricultural Economics
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Econ."
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agr. Econ.3
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Econ.'
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agr. Econ."
Z. Savage, M.S.A., Agr. Econ.
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agr. Econ.
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Asso. Agr. Econ.
D. L. Brooke, Ph.D., Asso. Agr. Econ.
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Asso. Market-
ing Economist
C. N. Smith, M.A., Asso. Agr. Econ.
E. Thor, M.S., Asso. Agr. Econ.
G. L. Capel, M.S., Asst. Agr. Econ.
L. A. Powell, Sr., M.S.A., Asst. Agr.
N. K. Roberts, M.S., Asst. Agr. Econ.
E. D. Smith, Ph.D., Asst. Agr. Econ.
L. A. Reuss, M.S., Agr. Economist,
J. C. Townsend, B.S.A., Agr. Statis-
tician, USDA, Orlando 2
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statisti-
cian, USDA, Orlando
F. T. Galloway, M.S., Agr. Statisti-
cian, USDA, Orlando
G. N. Rose, B.S., Asso. Agr. Econo-
mist, Orlando
C. L. Crenshaw, M.S., Asst. Agr.
Economist, Orlando
B. W. Kelly, Ph.D., Asst. Agr.. Econ-
omist, Orlando
Agricultural Engineering
F. Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Eng 1
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Asso. Agr. Eng.
J. S. Norton, M.S., Asst. Agr. Eng.
1 Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
SCooperative, other divisions. U. of F.
SOn leave.

F. H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist'
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
F. Clark, M.S., Asso. Agronomist 2
D. E. McCloud, Ph.H., Assoc. Agron.
E. O. Burt, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
J. R. Edwardson, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
G. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.3
I. M. Wofford, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
C. S. Hoveland, M.S., Interim Asst.
in Agronomy
R. L. Gilman, B.S., Asst. in Agron.
J. R. Iley, B.S., Int. Asst. in Agron.
K. Hinson, Ph.D., Co-operative Agt.,
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., An. Husb. 3
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., An. Nutritionist
M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husb.3
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist
A. Z. Palmer, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.3
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Asso. Animal
Husbandman 3
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Asst. Animal
J. P. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutr.
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. An.
Husbandman 3
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Asst. Phsy.
Larry Gillespie, M.S., Int. Asst. in
Animal Husbandry
P. E. Loggins, M.S., Asst. in Animal
Husbandry 3
J. T. McCall, B.S., Asst. in Chem.
J. C. Outler, Jr., M.S., Asst. in Chem.
Dairy Science
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Tech.1
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husb.3
P. T. D. Arnold, M.S.A., Asso. Dairy
Husbandman '
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy
Husbandman 3
L. E. Mull, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Tech.3
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. Dairy
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy
J. M. Wing, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Husb.
J. F. Cooper, M.S.A., Editor and
Head 1
F. B. Borries, Jr., A.B., Asso. Ed.'
W. G. Mitchell, A.B.J., Asst. Ed.
H. L. Moreland, Jr., B.S.A., Asst.
Editor 3
M. H. Sharpe, Ph.D., Asst. Ed.3

A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist1
J. R. Christie, Ph.D., Nematologist
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Entomologist
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Asst. Entom.
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Asst. Entom.
F A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apicul.
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Asst. Entom.
Home Economics
0. D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.'
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
Walter Reuther, Ph.D., Hort.'1
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Hort.
W. S. Greig, Ph.D., Hort.
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Hort.'
A. P. Lorz, Ph.D., Hort.
W. M. Dugger, Ph.D., Asso. Plant
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. K Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
A. Griffiths, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
M. W. Hoover, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst.
C. H. Van Middlelem, Ph.D., Asst.
B. D. Thompson, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
USDA Tung Laboratory
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. L. Barrows, B.S., Chem., USDA
C. Shear, M.S., Plant Phys., USDA
I. K. Cresap, Librarian
L. T. Urschel, M.A., Asst. in Library
Plant Pathology
W. B. Tisdale, Plant Pathologist"
P. Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. West, M.S., Bot. and Mycologist
H. N. Miller, Ph.D., Plant Path.
L. E. Arnold, M.S., Asso. Botanist
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant
M. K. Corbett, Ph.D., Asst. Plant
Poultry Husbandry
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry
Husbandman 1
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Poultry Husb.'
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist 1
N. Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chem.
1Head of Department.
SIn cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 On leave.

J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soils Tech.
G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Soil Microb.
G. M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Asso. Soils
Physicist '
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Asst. Soils
D. T. Brewer, M.S., Asst. Soil
R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
0. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil
C. F. Eno, Ph. D., Asst. Soil
J. G. A. Fiskel, Ph.D., Asst.
W. K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
W. .R Smith, B.S., Asst. Soil
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Asst. Chem.
R. G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil
Surveyor 2
Veterinary Science
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterin.1"
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterin.3
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasi-
M. Ristic, D.V.M., Asso. Pathologist
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veteri-
narian '
W. R. Dennis, D.V.M., Asst. Para-
J. G. Wadsworth, D.V.M., Asst. Poul-
try Pathologist
W. M. Stone, Jr., M.S., Asst. in
Poultry Disease Diagnostic Labora-
tory, Dade City
E. W. Swarthout, D.V.M., Asso.
Poultry Pathologist

Central Florida Station, Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Director
in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc. D., Entomologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
B. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst.
Citrus Station, Lake Alfred
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
R. Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
W. C. Price, Ph.D., Virologist

H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticultrist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entom.
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticultrist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
E. Deszyck, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
E. P. DuCharme, Ph.D., Asso. Plant
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chem.
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist'
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Asso. Entom.
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Asso. Entom.-
A. H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Pectin
I. Stewart, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist
F. E. Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
H. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
W. R. F. Grierson-Jackson, Ph.D.,
Asst. Chemist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Asst. Entom.
J. R. King, Ph.D., Asst. Entom.
R. C. JKoo, Ph.D., Interim Asst.
J. J. McBride, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Asst. Biochem.
M. F. Oberbacher, B.S., Interim
Assistant Plant Physiologist
D. S. Prosser, Jr, B.S., SAsst. Eng.
H. 0. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Hort.
T. L. Brooks, B.S.A., Interim Asst.
in Pathology
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Asst. in Entom.-
G. J. Edwards, B.A., Asst. in Chem.
T. B. Hallam, B.S., Asst. in Entom.-
H. I. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Assistant in
L. M. Sutton, B.S., Asst. in Entom.-
F. B. Thompson, M.S., Asst. in
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Assistant
in Entomology-Pathology
C. D. Atkins, B.S., Collaborator
M. H. Dougherty, B.S., Collaborator
E. C. Hill, B.S.A., Collaborator
E. F. Hopkins, Ph.D., Collaborator
R. L. Huggart, B.S., Collaborator
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Collaborator
A. A. McCornack, M.S., Collaborator
R. R. McNary, Ph.D., Collaborator
E. L. Moore, Ph.D., Collaborator
S. V. Ting, Ph.D., Collaborator
R. W. Wolford, M.S., Collaborator
Indian River Field Laboratory,
Fort Pierce
F. J. Reynolds, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
1 Head of Department.
2In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 On leave.

Everglades Station, Belle Glade
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Tech.
T. Bregger, Ph.D., Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agr. Eng.
R. S. Cox, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. An. Husb.
C. C. Seale, Asso. Agronomist
R. J. Allen, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
D. W. Beardsley, M.S., Asst. An.
W. G. Genung, M.S., Asst. Entom.
V. E. Green, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
E. D. Harris, Jr., B.S.A., Asst.
D. S. Harrison, M.S., Asst. Agr. Eng.
C. T. Ozaki, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
J. N. Simons, Ph.D., Asst. Virologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Hort.

Indian River Field Laboratory,
Fort Pierce
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asso. Entom.
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Asst.
Soils Chemist

Plantation Field Laboratory,
Fort Lauderdale
F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Asso. Agronomist
H. Y. Ozaki, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
J. C. Stephens, B.S., Drainage Eng.2

Gulf Coast Station, Bradenton
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D.., Entom.
R. 0. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Path.
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Path.
D. G. A. Kelbert, Asso. Hort.
D. S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Asst. Soils
G. Sowell, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Plant
A. J. Overman, M.S., Asst. in Soils
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.

North Florida Station, Quincy
W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist
in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Path.
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Agron.
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils
F. S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. Animal
F. E. Guthrie, Ph.D., Asst. Entom.
T. E. Webb, B.S.A., Asst. Agron.

Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Asso. Agron.
Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Asso. Agron.
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Asso. Agron.
Mobile Unit, Pensacola
R. L. Smith, M.S., Asso. Agron.
Range Cattle Station, Ona
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
D. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Tech.
J. E. McCaleb, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
F. M. Peacock, M.S., Asst. An. Husb.
Sub-Tropical Station, Homestead
G. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Director
in Charge
R. A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Path.
F. B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Hort.
D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entom.
J. L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
R. B. Ledin, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
J. C. Noonan, M.S., Asst. Hort.
Suwannee Valley Station, Live Oak
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist in
West Central Florida Station,
M. W. Hazen, M.S., Animal Hus-
Bandman in Charge
1 Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 On leave.

West Florida Station, Jay
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director
in Charge
R. L. Jeffers, Ph.D., Asso. Agron.
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Asso. Agron.
Potato, Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Patholo-
gist in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Hort.
T. M. Dobrovsky, Ph.D., Asst.
D. L. Myhre, Ph.D., Asst. Soils
Pecan, Monticello
J. R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entom.2
Strawberry, Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Path.
Watermelon and Grape, Leesburg
J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
in Charge
C. C. Helms, Jr., B.S., Asst. Agron.
L. H. Stover, Asst. in Hort.
Weather Forecasting, Lakeland
W. 0. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist
in Charge 2
D. C. Russell, B.S., Associate
Meteorologist -
J. D. Cox, B.S., Asst. Meteorologist 2
R. H. Dean, Asst. Meteorologist
J. G. Georg, Asst. Meteorologist 2
B. H. Moore, B.A., Assistant
Meteorologist 2
0. N. Norman, B.S., Assistant
Meteorologist 2
R. T. Sherouse, Asst. Meteorologist 2
H. E. Yates, Asst. Meteorologist 2

6 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Report of the Director ---........-........... ..................... ....... ...... ......... -... 7
Report of the Business Manager .............-... --....... ......... .. .. -... ... 24
Agricultural Econom ics ......... ........ ..................... ... ..... 27
Agricultural Engineering .................. ........ .... .........--........- 40
Agronomy ..-..... ..........--........--............. ... ......- .............- 47
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition .... ------. ........ -- ...... ... 60
Dairy Science .............. -.......... .... ............ .... .... ...... 73
E editorial ..-... --. .. ........ .. ............................ -- ....... 79
Entomology ................. --....................... ....... .-----.. 98
Home Economics _...........----.....--.... -. .. ....... 105
Horticulture .............. ..-................. .... ....... .. 108
U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Investigations ...................... 124
Library ........... .. .... ......... .....- ..- ..... 129
Plant Pathology ............-... ....- ...... ----... ...- 131
Poultry Husbandry .......................................--- ..... ...- ... 137
Soils ..........- ....--- ...--..... ..... ........-... ... ... ..-. 140
Veterinary Science ....-......- ...... ..... ----- ...--- ..-.- .....- ....-- 156
Central Florida Station ........................-- ............. .......... 162
Citrus Station .....-.......---- ....----................. ..- -.. .. 168
Everglades Station ..~.~................... ...... .. ..... .. .... .- .. 220
Indian River Field Laboratory ....... ... ........- ....... ..... ... 251
Plantation Field Laboratory ................... ......... -- .. ....-- ......-- 258
Gulf Coast Station ....-- .............. .................-- 265
North Florida Station ......-....-.............. .................. .. ... .... 290
Mobile Units ...--- -- .... ..-....... ...-......... .. --- .. ....-- 295
Range Cattle Station .. ~~~~.......-....- ...............---. 299
Sub-Tropical Station .................... ... ............-.. -- .. 305
Suwannee Valley Station ..-. ........- ..................-.... ......... 321
W est Central Florida Station ......... ............... ----- .. .....-. 323
West Florida Station ..........-----........-- -----......- .....-------- 324
Field Laboratories --..-............... -.--.......-.-......... ...---..... ......... 328
Pecan Investigations Laboratory ~~.... ................---- .. ..........-- 328
Potato Investigations Laboratory ..........-........ .. ..........- ...... 328
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory .......... -............. ..- .-..-..-.... 333
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory ........................ 355
Federal-State Frost Warning Service ..........-..... ...... ... 338

Annual Report, 1955 7



"The great lack of Florida is rich land, but where rich land is wanting,
good sense may be exercised with satisfactory results." So wrote Dr.
H. E. Van Deman, pomologist of the United States Department of Agri-
culture, in the annual report of the Secretary of Agriculture for the year
1889. Dr. Van Deman had recently made a visit to Florida, where the
new Agricultural Experiment Station had been organized just the previous
year at Lake City. The staff of the Station at that time consisted of
Dr. J. P. DePass as Director and Horticulturist, and six others-two
chemists, a combined entomologist and botanist, and three officers in charge
of the then existing branch stations at DeFuniak Springs, Fort Myers
and Ocala.
Since those early days, and particularly since the Station was moved
to Gainesville in 1906 as part of the newly created University of Florida,
there has been a steady growth in size of staff, development of facilities,
and expansion in scope of activities. But over these intervening years
one basic fact has not changed materially-the great expanse of Florida
soil is still naturally unfertile. It has been made fertile, and in fact
so much so that our State's total economy depends very heavily upon
its agricultural income. But this fertility for the most part has been
created artificially by the exercise of the "good sense" mentioned by Van
Most soil scientists agree that if we were to eliminate application of
fertilizers and good cultivation practices, our soils soon would revert
essentially to their existing natural state of 1889. This is largely be-
cause of the relatively high temperatures and rainfall, which oxidize humus
and leach mineral salts from the soil.
One can easily imagine, too, the status of our production today if
similar "good sense" had not been exercised in controlling diseases,
insects and other pests of our various crops. To mention only a few,
the Mediterranean fruit fly, citrus canker, fusarium wilt, late blight, bac-
terial soft rot-all would have disastrously curtailed production.
Although Florida's agriculture has experienced phenomenal develop-
ment during the past 65 years, most of our citizens appreciate that it
has been the result of a continuous struggle all the way, a "battle with
the elements" on the one hand and application of ingenuity in meeting
terrific competition on the other.
Throughout this entire development the work of the Agricultural
Experiment Station has provided a well-recognized and reliable source
of scientifically sound, practical information available to our producers
in their exercise of "good sense." In these endeavors the Station has
enjoyed fine cooperative relationships with agencies such as the Agricul-
tural Extension Service, the College of Agriculture and the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture.
A great factor in Florida's economy, generally recognized by our
farmers, business leaders, and statesmen, has been that the people of
Florida have maintained the Agricultural Experiment Station not only to
provide basic information for established enterprises and new develop-
ments, but as a form of insurance against serious losses from new pests
and diseases and the constant hazards of competitive developments else-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

where. The ensuing pages of brief reports on work during the past year
of departments, branch stations and field laboratories demonstrate the
scope and diverse nature of the research program.
My affiliation with the Station for the last 26 years, the past five
as Director, has enabled me to observe intimately its accomplishments,
its internal problems, and the general fine esteem in which it is held
throughout our State and nation and throughout the entire scientific
world. It has been a very proud and satisfying association for me.
On June 1, 1955, I was appointed Provost for Agriculture at the Univer-
sity of Florida, and therefore this will constitute my last annual report
as Director of the Station. Dr. J. R. Beckenbach has been appointed
Director, effective July 1, 1955, and I am confident that he assumes the
position with ample qualifications of training, experience, administrative
ability and a sense of responsibility so necessary in affording effective
leadership for a deserving staff through the years ahead.

During the year land was purchased for the new Horticultural Unit
near Gainesville; a greenhouse with headhouse was erected; and some
land was cleared and fenced. The Animal Nutrition Laboratory and
Veterinary Science buildings are about completed and ready for occu-
pancy. Individual feeding stalls were erected at the Swine Feeding Unit.
A small area near the Livestock Pavilion is being cleared and developed
as a Sheep Unit. At the Dairy Research Unit 15 acres of new land was
cleared for establishing permanent pastures. Shop machinery was pur-
chased to equip the new Agricultural Engineering Research Laboratory.
Equipment was installed at the Poultry Research Laboratory and other
equipment was secured for processing and storing poultry products. Con-
struction of the Agronomy farm laboratory building is well under way.
Land was purchased for a citrus grove near Haines City and a care-
taker's house and equipment shed were constructed. A greenhouse and
a storage shed were erected at the Citrus Station and a three-acre tract
of land near the office building was purchased as a site for a production
A greenhouse with headhouse containing offices and soils laboratory
was constructed at the Central Florida Station. Contributions from
farmers of the Zellwood and Sanford areas made possible the purchase
of a tractor, equipment, and construction of a small storage shed on the
muck area.
At the Indian River Field Laboratory an equipment storage shed was
erected and a greenhouse-laboratory unit and farm superintendent's
dwelling are under construction. Implement sheds were constructed at
the Gulf Coast and North Florida Stations and a steer-feeding barn was
erected at the latter location.
A new office and chemical laboratory building was completed and an
eight-inch well drilled to furnish water for irrigation and other purposes
at the West Florida Station. At the Range Cattle Station 20 acres of
land surrounded by other station property was purchased. A fertilieer-
seed storage building at the Sub-Tropical Station and a soils laboratory
and office building at the Potato Investigations Laboratory are near
completion. Negotiations are underway for the procurement of suitable
land for the Watermelon and Grape Laboratory as provided by the last

Annual Report, 1955


Coleman Younger Ward, Assistant in Agronomy, Range Cattle Station,
July 1, 1954.
Harold Lawrence Moreland, Jr., Assistant Editor, Editorial Department,
Main Station, July 1, 1954.
L. R. Arrington, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Department of Animal
Husbandry, July 1, 1954.
B. D. Thompson, Assistant Horticulturist, Department of Horticulture,
July 1, 1954.
H. Y. Ozaki, Assistant Horticulturist, Everglades Station, August 1, 1954.
Matthew Drosdoff, Soil Scientist (Cooperative USDA), Main Station, August
1, 1954.
H. L. Barrows, Chemist (Cooperative USDA), Main Station, August 1,
Cornelius Shear, Plant Physiologist (Cooperative USDA), Main Station,
August 1, 1954.
A. A. Cook, Cooperative Agent (USDA), Department of Agronomy, August
1, 1954.
L. A. Reuss, Agricultural Economist (Cooperative USDA), Department of
Agricultural Economics, September 1, 1954.
K. M. Corbett, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Department of Plant Pathology,
November 1, 1954.
H. W. Davis, Assistant Meteorologist, Weather Forecasting, December
1, 1954.
A. Z. Palmer, Associate Animal Husbandman, Department of Animal Hus-
bandry and Nutrition (Swift & Company), January 15, 1955.
W. M. Dugger, Associate Plant Physiologist, Department of Horticulture,
Main Station, February 1, 1955.
F. B. Thompson, Assistant in Library, Citrus Station, February 1, 1955.
M. H. Sharpe, Assistant Editor, Editorial Department, Main Station,
February 15, 1955.
G. L. Capel, Assistant Agricultural Economist (Cooperative USDA), Feb-
ruary 1, 1955.
Kuell Hinson, Cooperative Agent, Agronomy Department (USDA), April
1, 1955.
W. R. Smith, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Department of Soils, April 1, 1955.
J. R. King, Assistant Entomologist, Citrus Station (Cornell U.), April 1,
G. B. Killinger, Agronomist, transferred April 1, 1955, for a two year
period, from Department of Agronomy to Costa Rica Project.
D. T. Brewer, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Department of Soils (farmed Gaines-
ville), May 1, 1955.
J. E. McCaleb, Assistant Agronomist, Range Cattle Station (Midwestern
U.), June 1, 1955.
C. S. Hoveland, Interim Assistant in Agronomy, Department of Agronomy
(Texas Agriculture Station), June 1, 1955.
W. Reuther, Horticulturist and Head, Department of Horticulture (USDA),
June 1, 1955.
D. E. McCloud, Associate Agronomist, July 1, 1954.
H. H. Wilkowske, Associate Dairy Technologist, July 1, 1954.
J. Francis Cooper, Editor and Head, July 1, 1954.
Clyde Beale, Editor, July 1, 1954.

10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

F. M. Peacock, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Range Cattle Station,
July 1, 1954.
Zack Savage, Agricultural Economist, July 1, 1954.
T. E. Webb, Assistant Agronomist, North Florida Station, July 1, 1954.
J. M. Crall, Plant Pathologist, in Charge, Watermelon and Grape Investi-
gations Laboratory, July 1, 1954.
L. Gillespie, Research Assistant in Animal Husbandry and Teaching Assis-
tant, February 1, 1955.
S. L. Burgess, Assistant Editor, July 31, 1954.
F. E. Guthrie, Assistant Entomologist, North Florida Station, July 31, 1954.
M. G. Hamilton, Assistant Horticulturist, Everglades (Plantation Field
Laboratory), July 23, 1954.
T. L. Meade, Assistant Animal Nutritionist, Everglades, July 31, 1954.
V. W. Carlisle, Assistant Soils Surveyor, August 31, 1954.
J. R. Kuykendall, Interim Assistant Horticulturist, Citrus Station, August
31, 1954.
H. W. Newland, Interim Assistant in Animal Husbandry and Nutrition,
August 31, 1954.
A. M. Pearson, Associate Animal Husbandman, September 15, 1954.
J. H. Walker, Assistant Soil Surveyor, December 31, 1954.
R. W. Earhart, Plant Pathologist (USDA), January 1, 1955.
W. H. Thames, Jr., Assistant Entomologist, Everglades Station, February
28, 1955.
C. Y. Ward, Assistant in Agronomy, Range Cattle Station, March 1, 1955.


G. H. Blackmon, Horticulturist and Head of Department, Main Station,
January 1, 1955.
G. E. Ritchey, Agronomist in Charge, Suwannee Valley Station, June 30,

Clyde Beale, Editor, Main Station, February 1, 1955.

The Station's research, conducted under planned and approved project
statements, is listed by the titles given below. There is some duplication
of titles because of cooperative studies at two or more locations. Work of
an exploratory nature and of short duration is given in the various divisions
under "miscellaneous".

Agricultural Economics
Project No. Title Page
154 Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida .................................... 27
186 Factors Affecting Costs and Returns in Florida Citrus Production 27
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency, Its Possible Inheritance and
Depreciation in Florida Dairy Herds ..................................... 28
451 Crop and Livestock Estimating on Florida Farms with Emphasis
on Vegetable Crops ......................... ..............----....... 28

Annual Report, 1955

Project No. Title Page
480 Cost of Production and Returns on Vegetable Crops in Florida...... 29
486 Costs and Factors Affecting Cost of Marketing Citrus Fruits in
Fresh and Processed Form ....--............----....... ......................... 29
519 Consumer Pattern for Citrus Fruit ................. ..... ---.......-... ----30
520 Coordinated Selling of Citrus Fruit ....................-........................-.... 30
556 Farm Rental Arrangements in Florida (closed during year) -........-.. 30
562 Consumer Demand for Citrus Products and Factors Affecting that
Demand (closed during year) .............................. ...--- .... .... -----30
579 Part-time Farming in Florida ........ -................--- .....- ..-- ...--- ........ 31
593 Method of Shipping Florida Citrus Fruits and Citrus Products
(closed during year) ............... ..................................... 31
602 Marketing Meat Animals in Florida .-..................-............... ....... 31
619 An Analysis of Present and Potential Utilization of Land for Graz-
ing and Alternative Uses in Central Florida ............................. 31
626 An Analysis of the Efficiency of the Elementary Functions of
Packing and Handling Florida Citrus From the Tree Through
the Packinghouse ...................-............ ............ ........................ 32
627 Pasture Programs and Breeding Systems for Beef Production on
Flatwoods Soils of Central and North Florida ............................ 32
630 Economy of Marketing and Methods of Handling Sweet Corn for
Long Distance Hauling .............-...........- --. ----.....- .--- ....-----.... ..... 33
638 Improving Methods and Practices in Harvesting, Handling and
Packing Early Irish Potatoes .....----...............-- .....-...-.......... -.. -34
647 Effects of Enterprise Adjustments and Improved Management
Practices on Farm Incomes in North Florida -.---..... ................. 35
651 Effects of Inter- and Intra-Market Competition on the Production
and Utilization of Milk in Central and South Florida......-.......... 35
656 Legal Aspects of Farm Tenacy in Florida .......................................... 35
664 Characteristics of Demand for Frozen Orange Concentrate Pro-
duced in Florida ----.. ....- --.........-------- ----. ... ...... .............---.-- .. 36
665 An Analysis of the Efficiency of the Elemental Functions of Pack-
ing, Shipping, and Handling Florida Citrus From the Packing
Line to the Retail Store ............ ... ---............ .......--- ---............. 36
666 Marketing Charges and Returns from Florida Vegetables by Types
of Firm s and M ethods of Sale ........ ........... ............................... 37
679 Marketing Organization and Selling Practices of Florida Fern,
Gladiolus, Chrysanthemum, and Other Cut-Flower and Orna-
m mental Producers ........... ... ....... .............. ..... ..... ....... ..... 37
685 Methods of Estimating Florida Citrus Production .......-...--...... .... 37
688 Census of Citrus Groves in Highlands County (closed during year) 38
697 Estimating Snap Bean Acreage and Production ............................... 38
700 Expanding the Market for Florida Floricultural and Ornamental
Horticultural Crops .............. -------...-.................-.. ................... 38
701 Economics of Florida Dairy Farming ..---.............---........................ 38
720 Census of Citrus Groves in Florida (begun during year) ............ 39
730 Potato Handling Machinery (begun during year) .................-......... 39

Agricultural Engineering
555 Fertilization and Culture of Flue-Cured Tobacco .............................. 40
627 Pasture Programs and Breeding Systems for Beef Production on
Flatwoods Soils of Central and North Central Florida ............ 42
628 Irrigation of Permanent Pasture for Lactating Dairy Cows (closed
during year) ---..........------- ---..-.. ---........... ----......... .......... .. ..... 42
661 Pasture Renovation ..-..-- --..................-----------................... 43
684 Pasture Irrigation on Flatwoods Soils ............-...... -----.................. 44
730 Potato Handling Machinery (begun during year) ............................ 45

12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Agronomy Department
Project No. Title Page
20 Peanut Breeding for Superior Types for Market and for Livestock
Feed .--.........- -.....--........ .--...........-...------...-...----. ---- 47
56 Variety Test Work with Field Crops --........................-............... 47
295 Pasture Grass and Legume Responses to Various Fertilizer and
Management Practices .........-.......------ .........--..-.-- .---..--- 48
297 Screening Forage and Cover Crop Introductions for Ecological
Adaptations and Use in Florida ......................---............... .. 48
298 Forage and Pasture Grass Improvement ...---------.. -------.....-. 49
301 Evaluation and Improvement of Forage and Cover Crop Legumes
other than Clovers and Lupines ..................................... --...... 49
304 Replacement of Inferior with Improved Pasture Plant Species by
Improved Management Practices (closed during year) ....---... 49
369 Effect of Environment on Composition of Forage Plants (closed
during year) ...............--.......-...... -.....................------.....-- 50
372 Flue-Cured Tobacco Improvement ........................ ........ ...--. 50
374 Corn Breeding ...............- ..... ............... .........- ............. 51
440 Effect of Cu, Mn, Zn, B, S, and Mg on the Growth of Grain Crops,
Forage Crops, Pastures and Tobacco ...................-...... .... 51
444 Permanent Seedbeds for Tobacco Plants -....... ------.....---.-..... 52
487 Improvement of Oats, Rye, Wheat and Barley Through Breeding
for Desirable Agronomic Characteristics and Resistance to
D disease ...................... .................. ............ ....... ... --.. ....-- .. 53
488 Nutrition and Physiology of the Peanut ................................... 54
537 Control of Insect Pests of Flue-Cured Tobacco ...................-......... 54
555 Fertilization and Culture of Flue-Cured Tobacco ........-....---........ 54
600 Breeding Improved Varieties of White, Red and Sweet Clover....... 55
612 Improvement of Lupines by Breeding for Yield and Insect and
Disease Resistance ............................. ..-------------................... 55
627 Pasture Programs and Breeding Systems for Beef Production on
Flatwoods Soils of Central and North Florida -.........-................ 55
652 Evaluation and Improvement of Turf Grasses for Florida ........... 56
661 Pasture Renovation ..-----..........-.............-- ....- -------.....----..-.... 57
678 Biology and Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Turf Grasses 57
691 Seasonal Variations in Root Reserves of Certain Sandhill Plants 57
694 Herbicidal Control of Weeds in Peanuts and Oats _..... ......-...... 57
Miscellaneous: Sea Island and Other Long Staple Cottons; Crop
Management; Lawn Management Studies; Nematode Investi-
gations in Turf; Herbicidal Control of Weeds in Soybeans;
Control of Nutgrass with Herbicides and Tillage; Castor Beans 58

Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle ................. .. .... ................ 60
304 Replacement of Inferior with Improved Pasture Plant Species by
Improved Management Practices (closed during year) ........... 61
346 Investigations of Mineral Nutrition Problems of Livestock
Through the Use of Laboratory Animals ...-...-.....................--... 61
356 Herbage Composition and Animal Response as Influenced by Pas-
ture Management ---.......-------................-- ---- .------------..-- 62
412 Beef Yield and Quality from Various Grasses, from Clover and
Grass Mixtures, and Response to Fertilized and Unfertilized
Pastures (closed during year) .. --.............................-------....... 62
461 Supplemental Feeds for Nursing Beef Calves (closed during year) 62
518 Thyroid Function in Chickens (closed during year) .... .................- 63
540 The Use of Citrus and other Industrial By-Products for Feeding
Sw ine ...........................-- -------------------------------------- --- 63
542 Supplemental Feeds for Sows During Reproduction and Lactation
on Florida Pastures ............................-.. ..... .......------ ------....... 63

Annual Report, 1955

Project No. Title Page
543 Roughages for Maintenance and Growth of Beef Cattle in Florida 63
546 Loss of Nutrients from Defrosted Frozen Meat ......-...............-... 64
551 Utilization of Calcium and Phosphorus by Poultry as Determined
with Radioactive Isotypes ...-------..................-- .............----------... 64
566 Transfer of Mineral Elements Through the Placenta and Their
Distribution in the Fetus ..........--- ...........---.... .........-..-- ...... 64
615 Influence of Breed Composition and Level of Nutrition on Adapta-
bility of Cattle to Central Florida Conditions ............................ 64
627 Pasture Programs and Breeding Systems for Beef Production on
Flatwoods Soils of Central and North Central Florida ..........~.... 64
629 Selection of Cattle Adapted for Beef Production in Southeastern
United States ....--......-...................------ --..-..........- ....-..-- ......... 65
631 A Comparison of the Carcass Characteristics of Purebred Braham,
Purebred British Breeds and Their Crosses ................6............-.... 66
661 Pasture Renovation ....................... --.......... ........ ..... .......... 66
709 Improvement of Efficiency of Reproduction in Beef Cattle (begun
during year) .................. ............. ........-.................... 66
710 Effect of Protein Supplementation of Pasture Forage upon Fer-
tility in Beef Cattle (begun during year) ..............--------..........--... 67
716 Reproduction Phenomena in Aberdeen-Angus, Brahman and
Hereford Cattle (begun during year) ............ ............................ 67
717 Heritability of Performance Estimates on Aberdeen-Angus, Brah-
man and Hereford Cattle (begun during year) ............--.......... 67
718 Vitamins, Antibiotics and Unidentified Factors in Swine Nutrition
(begun during year) .............. .. ............ ..................... 68
721 Supplements and By-product Feeds for Beef Cattle (begun during
year) ................................................................---- ...--- .....-.-- 68
725 Influence of Level of Nutrition on the Reproductive Performance
of Swine (begun during year) ........ ......- .................................... 69
Miscellaneous: Preliminary Observations on Effect of Source of
Water on Rate of Gain of Growing-Fattening Pigs; Value of
Tri-Methyl-Alkyl-Ammonium Stearate in the Ration of Wean-
ling Pigs; Effects of Feeding Protein Supplements to Beef
Cattle at 24-, 48- and 72-Hour Intervals; Toxicity of Kenaf Seed
Meal as a Protein Supplement for Fattening Steers; Compari-
son of Age and Weight at Puberty in Heifers and Bulls of
Herford, Angus, Brahman, Brangus and Santa Gertrudis Cattle;
Effect of Dietary Manganese on Deposition of Certain B-
Complex Vitamins in Tissues of Swine; Ammoniated Citrus
Pulp for Cattle; Stringhalt in Cattle; Sugarcane and Bagasse
Pith as a Feed for Cattle; Analysis of Common and Unusual
Feeds and the Development of Analytical Methods; Manage-
ment and Feeding of Sheep in Florida; Dwarfism in Beef
Cattle -------......... --- --- ---. .......... ............... ..... -----......... 69

Dairy Science
213 Ensilability of Florida Forage Crops ........................... ................ 73
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency, Its Possible Inheritance
and Depreciation in Dairy Herds ...............-..--.. ..... .... ............ 73
564 Post-partum Development of Bovine Stomach Compartments and
Observations on Some Characteristics of Their Contents ....... 73
571 Effects of Antibiotics and Chemotherapeutic Agents on Micro-
organisms in Milk and Dairy Products .........--.....--....-........... ..- 74
575 Study of Production, Reproduction and Conformation of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Dairy Herd................ 74
594 Effect of Aureomycin Feeding Upon the Performance of Dairy
Calves ..-.............-----........... .......-- ---------.........................------ 74
628 Irrigation of Permanent Pastures for Lactating Dairy Cows
(closed during year) .................. ................... 75

14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Project No. Title Page
633 Utilization of Temporary Pastures by Dairy Cattle ........................ 75
636 Influence of Dietary Pyrimidine Ribose Nucleic Acid and Some
of Its Probable Precursors on Dairy Calves ............................ 75
637 Improved Permanent Pastures for Growing Dairy Heifers ....--.... 75
667 Sub-normal Milk: Its Production, Correction and Utilization....... 76
732 Agitation of Milk ((begun during year) ...........................-........... 76
Miscellaneous: Palatability of Fresh Avocado to Dairy Cows;
Interaction of Para Amino Salycilic Acid and Aureomycin in
the Feed of Young Calves; Bacteriophage Active Against Lac-
tic Streptococci; Variegated Cantaloupe Ice Cream; Relation
of Pipeline Milkers to Rancid Flavors; Fractionation Test for
Butterfat Adulteration --..... .------- ---- ..... .............. 77

670 Dissemination of Information on Agricultural Research Results 79

379 Control of the Pecan Nut Casebearer -.........................--------- -- 98
531 Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Woody Ornamentals.... 98
537 Control of Insect Pests of Flue-Cured Tobacco .....................--....... --98
583 Introduction and Testing of Nectar and Pollen-Producing Plants
in Florida .-..--...-..---...........----. --------- 99
597 Control of Hickory Shuckworm on Pecans .......--..------.......... ------.. 100
616 Control of Insects and Related Pests of Pastures ............................... 100
650 Factors Influencing Insecticidal Residues on Vegetable Crops-... 100
669 Biology and Control of Insects Attacking Cruciferous Crops in
Florida ..............................-------------------.. --------- -- 101
678 Biology and Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Turf Grasses 101
695 Identity and Distribution of Soil Nematodes in Florida ................ 102
698 Influence of Soil Management Practices on Nematodes in Florida
Soils .....--------------------------.. .-- ------------------- 103
729 Nematode Studies and Control on Ornamental Foliage Plants
(begun during year) ---...........-.. --------.------.---- 103
.- Miscellaneous: Systemic Insecticide Investigations; Peanut Stor-
age Investigations; Chrysanthemums; Bulb Mite Studies on
Caladiums; Insecticide Tests on Strawberries; Nematode Stud-
ies on Roses and Gardenias; Corn Earworm Control..........---...... 103

Home Economics
568 Effect of Dietary Practices and Previous Illnesses on Carpal De-
velopment of Children .............- --------..-----..----- --- 105
569 Effect of Carotene or Vitamin A Deficiency in the Young Rat on
Subsequent Life Pattern ..............----.................--------------------.. 106
570 Nutritional Deficiency in the Young Rat in Relation to Subsequent
Malformation of Bones .........-- .---------- ------------ 106
625 Effect of Dietary Practices on the Morphology of the Skeleton of
Aged Men and Women .-..-..---...- ------.-----... -------------. 107

50 Tung Production ...-......--..--.......-...---- ----- ----. .. 108
52 Native and Introduced Ornamental Plants ......................... .. 109
187 Variety Tests of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ...............-..------ 109
391 Vegetable Variety Trials --_ ---.........-.....-- ........--- ----- 110
452 Culture and Classification of Camellia and Related Genera (closed
during year) ...................... ..-- ----- -- -------------------------- 111

Annual Report, 1955

Project No. Title Page
501 Vegetable Breeding: Emphasizing Table Legumes (revised during
y ear) ....................................... ........ ........... ..... .. .......... 111
553 Testing Miscellaneous Fruits and Nuts .................... ..... ..--- .----.... 112
565 Fertilization of Pecans .................................. ..... ... ... ......... 112
599 Effect of Growth Regulators on Production and Quality of Cer-
tain Nut and Fruit Plants .... ............. ............ ................-- 113
616 Control of Insects and Related Pests of Pastures ............................ 113
624 Fertilizer Requirements for Watermelons (closed during year) -- 113
630 Economy of Marketing and Methods of Handling Sweet Corn for
Long Distance Shipm ents ................................. ....... ........... ....... 113
632 Removal of Insecticide Residues from Harvested Fresh Vegetables 114
640 Influence of Nutrition on Tomato Fruit Disorders .................. 114
641 Maturity as Related to Quality of Tomatoes for the Fresh Market 114
642 Relationship of Heredity to the Ripening Performance of Tomatoes 115
643 Post-harvest Effects of Temperature, Light, Storage Atmosphere
and Humidity on Tomato Quality .........-..................... ......-..... 115
644 Tomato Quality as Influenced by Pre-harvest Environmental Con-
ditions (closed during year) ...................- ...... ................. 116
650 Factors Influencing Insecticidal Residues on Vegetable Crops.. ..... 116
653 Influence of Maturity and Environment upon Quality of Vege-
tables of the Legume Family ......................---...............- -.... 116
673 Effects of Time and Rate of Application of Fertilizers on Vege-
table Crops .......................-.... ---- -----------------------------... .... 117
681 Effect of Various Levels of Fertilizers on Sweet Potato Produc-
tion ..........-..................... ......- ....... .. -............---------- -----. 117
689 Watermelon Damage from Field to Car Loading ................ ....... 117
690 Analytical and Sampling Procedures for Determining Parathion,
DDT and Other Organic Insecticides on Vegetables ..........-..... 118
693 Suitability of Florida-grown Vegetables for Freezing .... ...-.....-- 119
699 Analytical Procedures for Determining Residues of Systox and
Other Systemic Insecticides in Vegetables and Certain Sub-
tropical Fruits .............--... ....--- ------- -----......------ ---------.. ..- 119
722 Improvement of Hibiscus for North Florida (begun during year) 119
728 Effects of Biocidal Materials on the Physiology of Plants (begun
during year) .........---........-- ....-.----.................---- ...-----.-- 121
731 Hypocotyl Discoloration of Radishes (begun during year) ....... 121
Miscellaneous: Cantaloupe Breeding; Effect of Maturity and Stor-
age Treatments upon the Quality of Cantaloupes; Precooling of
Cantaloupes; Effects of Handling and Storage on the Quality of
Fresh Lychees; Factors Affecting Tissue Breakdown of Pink
Tomatoes in Commercial Handling .......................... ............. .. 122

U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Investigations
...... Breeding, Selection and Nutritional Studies of Tung .................... 124

Plant Pathology
259 Collection and Preservation of Specimens of Florida Plants....-- 131
281 Damping-off and Root Rots of Vegetable Crops (closed during
year) .............................----------------------------------------------------- 131
487 Improvement of Oats, Rye, Wheat and Barley Through Breeding
for Desirable Agronomic Characteristics and Resistance to
Disease ..........................--- --.... ....... -----------------------.............. 132
538 Virus Diseases of Cucurbits and Other Vegetables in Central
F lorida ........................................ ....- --.... ........ ......... ......... 132
539 Control of Scab and Other Foliage Diseases of Pecans -...--...... 133
563 Causes and Control of Diseases of Potted Plants ........-............... 134
574 Resistance of Peppers (Capsicum frutescens L.) to Virus Diseases 134

16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Project No. Title Page
588 Control of Soil Organisms Causing "Damping-off" and Root Rots
of Nursery Plants .........--- ......-... --............ .....----------.---- 134
612 Improvement of Lupines by Breeding for Yield and Insect and
Disease Resistance .-......_- ...................... ....... ...... ....--- ..-- .....- 135
729 Nematode Studies and Control on Ornamental Foliage Plants
(begun during year) ....... ......................................... ... ............ 135
... Miscellaneous: Control of Root Rots and Leaf Spot of Strawberry;
Virus Diseases of Lupines; Virus Diseases of Tomatoes; Plants
Poisonous to Livestock ........-................ --..--- .....--- ..........---- ...---- 135

Poultry Husbandry
503 Broiler Feeding Trials ......................... ....................---- ............. 137
551 Utilization of Calcium and Phosphorus by Poultry as Determined
with Radioactive Isotypes (closed during year) ...................... 137
572 Comparative Value of Simplified Poultry Diets for Egg and Meat
Production .....-............................ ................---......... ---....... ..... 137
696 Artificial Insemination of Hens for Producing Broiler Hatching
Eggs ----..- ------.. ---..... ............---..........-.--- .. ...- .....----......---- --.. ..- 138
708 Citrus Molasses Distillers' Dried Solubles in Rations for Growing
Chickens (begun during year) ......----.............-.........-- .---.....- 138
735 A High Efficiency Ration for Layers (begun during year) ............ 138
.--. Miscellaneous: Culling Pullets During the First Season of Lay;
Litter for Poultry Houses; Energy-Protein Relationship in
Broiler Feeds ....._--.---.........-.......------.....------- ----...... 139


328 Interrelationship of Microbiologi
Systems in Florida ...............
347 Chemical, Physical and Mineraloj
Florida Soils ......................
389 Classification and Mapping of Fl
404 Maintenance of Soil Fertility U
428 Availability of Phosphorus from
Different Soil Types ...............
433 Retention and Utilization of Bor
446 Testing Soils and Limestone ...
447 Availability and Leaching of M
535 Soil Management Investigations
576 Relationship Between Several So
ure Content of Soils Under
598 Role of the Major Bases in Flo
608 Sulfur Requirements of Represe
614 Effect of Certain Insecticides o0
627 Pasture Programs and Breeding
Flatwoods Soils of Central a
684 Pasture Irrigation on Flatwood
687 Availability of Various Forms o:
691 Seasonal Variations in Root Res
698 The Influence of Soil Managemen
ida Soils ...._-........- .......... .....
702 Factors Affecting the Establishy
Rhizobia in Soils (begun dul
707 Effects of Some Fertilizer Mati
the Productivity of Suwannee

cal Action in Soils and Cropping
........................ ................................... 140
gical Properties of Representative
.................................. .. .............. ..... .. 141
orida Soils ................................... 142
rnder Permanent Pasture ........... 142
Various Phosphates Applied to
...................................................... ... 143
'on in Florida Soils ........---..........------144
......................................- ............. 146
inor Elements in Florida Soils 146

-. ........-. .............. ..- ...... .... 153

il Water Constants and the Mois-
Supplemental Irrigation ............ 147
)rida Soils ..-.....--..... .. ................ 148
native Florida Soils .-..-.--........ 148
n Microbiological Action in Soils 149
Systems for Beef Production on
nd North Central Florida ........ 149
s Soil ................................ .... ..... 149
f Nitrogen Applied to Soils ........ 149
erves of Certain Sandhill Plants 151
t Practices on Nematodes in Flor-
........................... .......... .... ........ .. 151
nent, Activity and Persistence of
ring year) ........................................ 151
trials and Cropping Systems on
Valley Soils (begun during year) 152

Annual Report, 1955

Project No. Title Page
736 Effect of Fertilizer Sources and Levels on Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco
as Related to Soil and Plant Analysis (begun during year).... 152
Miscellaneous: Subsoiling and Deep Fertilization; Methods of
Sampling Mixed Fertilizer .......--.....- ..---- -...........------ .... 154

Veterinary Science

424 Fowl Leucosis-Role of Nucleoproteins (closed during year) -..-. 156
462 Anaplasmosis of Cattle ...---..-----. -------------......... 156
554 Control of Internal Parasites of Cattle ..........................-- .-------. 156
557 Control of External Parasites of Cattle ..................---......------------.. 157
601 Built-up Litter as Related to Certain Diseases of Poultry-......--.-... 158
683 Control of Lungworm Disease of Cattle ...-----....... -----------.. 158
706 Vibrio Fetus Infections (begun during year) ...........-- .....................-- 159
709 Improvement of Efficiency of Reproduction in Beef Cattle (begun
during year) ..............---- -----------------.. .. 159
723 Drinking Water Vaccination Versus Intranasal Vaccination for
Newcastle Disease in Young Chickens (begun during year)........ 160
727 Leptospirosis (begun during year) ................................. -- .. 160
734 Infection, Dissemination and Control of. Actinobacillosis (begun
during year) ._ ------- --------.---------------- 160
Miscellaneous: Poultry Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Dade City 161


Central Florida Experiment Station

281 Damping-off and Root Rots of Vegetable Crops (closed during
year) .-......... ....... .-------------------. 162
336 Cercospora Blight of Celery .............................. ..... 162
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ....................-----------.. --...------------- 163
401 Control of Corn Earworm on Sweet Corn --.. ................------- 164
494 Improvement of Cultural Practices for Cabbage, Lettuce, Celery
and Other Vegetable Crops ........-- -------------- 164
495 Liquid Fertilizers for Vegetable Crops ....-----............... ---... ..------- 165
496 Soil Management Problems in Vegetable Crop Fields ....-----.......... 165
501 Vegetable Breeding Emphasizing Table Legumes (revised dur-
ing year) .................................. ------ 165
523 Control of Nematodes Injurious to Vegetable Crops ................ -165
581 Synthetic Insecticides and Fungicides for Vegetable Crops in
Central Florida .----.... .------.------- ---------..--. 165
587 Fungicidal Control of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight of Sweet
Corn .-..........-------------...----........-.. 166
650 Factors Influencing Insecticidal Residues on Vegetable Crops .... 166
Miscellaneous: Sclerotiniose of Lettuce; Soft Rot of Cantaloupe;
Molybdenum Deficiency ; Bacteral Spot of Peppers; Insects Af-
fecting Asparagus plumosus .-- --............... ------------. 167

Citrus Experiment Station

26 Citrus Progeny and Bud Selection .----.............------..-------------- 168
102 Variety Testing and Breeding --------............ ----............. ........... ---------- 168
185 Investigations of Melanose and Stem-end Rot of Citrus Fruit ...... 169
340 Citrus Nutrition Studies .................................--------...... ------- 169
341 Combined Control of Scale Insects and Mites on Citrus .-----.............. 177
508 Water Relations with Citrus in the Coastal Citrus Areas .-..-....... 179
509 Nature, Causes and Control of Citrus Decline ............................ ---.. 180

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Project No. Title Page
510 Insect Parasitism and Related Biological Factors as Concerned
with Citrus Insect and Mite Control ...-.....- ............--................... 183
511 Diseases of Citrus Insects .............--............. --......... .... ............ 184
547 Bulk Handling of Fresh Fruit for Packinghouses ............................ 185
550 Microbiology of Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices ....................... 185
605 Improved Machinery for Citrus Production .......---..--....................--. 186
606 Ecological Factors Affecting Citrus Production .........-....... ...... 187
607 Florida Citrus Oils .............................................. ............... 188
610 Chemical Studies on New Fungicides and Insecticides for Citrus 189
611 Storage Studies on Concentrated Citrus Juices ---.............-............. 189
617 Citrus Rootstock Investigations in the Coastal Areas -..................... 190
622 Recovery and Utilization of Naringin ....................... .............. 191
623 Refinement of Citrus Molasses ...........---...............-........... 191
646 Recovery and Utilization of Hesperidin .--.................--................. 192
649 Clarification and Gelation in Concentrated Citrus Juices --....-..... 193
658 Soil Fertility and Grove Management Practices for Citrus in the
Indian R iver A rea .................. .................. ...................... ........... 194
659 Control of Citrus Insects and Mites in the Indian River Area........ 196
663 Root Distribution of Citrus Trees .................................. 197
668 Color-adding and Protective Coating Processes for Citrus Fruits 198
671 Degreening Citrus Fruits ........................ ....- .....-- -----............ ...... 9 198
....- Miscellaneous: Decay Control Research (Experiments with Miscel-
laneous Fungicides; Decay Control with Dowicide A-Hexamine
Treatment; Treatment of Fruit with Dowicide A-Hexamine for
Overseas Shipping Tests; Treatment of Oranges with Dowicide
A-Hexamine Preliminary to Cold Storage; Untreated Fiber-
board Cartons as Packages for Oranges); Other Processing and
By-Products Research (Relationship of Heat Treatment to
Quality of Processed Citrus Products; Oxidized Flavors in
Citrus Products; Factors Affecting Quality of Processed Grape-
fruit Products; Standardization of Processed Citrus Products;
Flavor Changes in Canned Orange Juice During Storage;
Utilization of Citrus Peel for By-product Production; Produc-
tion and Use of Activated Citrus Sludge; Inositol in Citrus
Fruits; New Citrus Products); Chemical Changes in Citrus
Fruits During Maturation; Distribution and Rate of Spread of
Tristeza; Diagnosis and Rapid Determination of Tristeza; Fac-
tors Affecting the Development of Tristeza in Florida; Estab-
lishment of Nucellar Strains of Commercial Citrus Varieties;
Foliar-Applied NuGreen as a Supplementary Nitrogen Fertili-
zer for Citrus; Investigations of Phosphatic Insecticides-Scale
Control; Purple Mite Control; Quality of Citrus Fruits as Re-
lated to Mineral Composition of the Whole Fruit and Subtend-
ing Leaves; Spectroscopic Analysis ................... .............. ..... 200

Everglades Experiment Station
85 Observations on Performance of Introduced Herbaceous and Ar-
boreal Plant M materials ......................--..-..----- --..-................. ........ 221
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse Condi-
tions (closed during year) .......-.............................-- .-- -...........-- .. 221
87 Biology and Control of Insects and Arachnids Affecting Vegetable
Crops in the Everglades Region ...............................-.............---.... 223
88 Soils Investigations (closed during year) ..........-....... -.......--.-.... 223
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle ....................---............... ......... ... 224
168 Role of Special Elements in Plant Development Upon the Peat
and Muck Soils of the Everglades (closed during year)-....... 224
169 Studies Upon the Prevalence and Control of the Sugarcane Moth
Borer in South Florida ................-- ....-- ................................... ----225
172 Physiology of Sugarcane (closed during year) ............. -............. 225

Annual Report, 1955 19

Project No. Title Page
195 Pasture Investigations on the Peat and Muck Soils of the Ever-
glades (closed during year) ......-.................. ................... 227
206 Fiber Crops Investigations (closed during year) -...---........-.... --228
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ...................----- .....-.. ...- ...- ..... ....-.. ...-----. 230
545 Breeding Beef Cattle for Adaption to South Florida Conditions
(revised during year) ---........................................-- ...-- ....--- .... 231
549 Utilization of Feeds and Forages for Beef Production in the Ever-
glades and Lower East Coast of Florida -.....-...........~..--- ....--- 231
558 Viruses Affecting Vegetable Crops in the Everglades Area ............ 232
559 Control of Nematodes and Subterranean Insects Injurious to Cul-
tivated Crops (closed during year) ...- --.............-...... ................ 233
560 Improvement and Development of Spraying and Dusting Equip-
ment for Agricultural Use ...............------- ...-- ...--- .--... ..---..... 234
587 Fungicidal Control of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight of Sweet
Corn ........-..........------- ................................. ..... .... ... .. 234
603 Breeding Snapbeans, Celery and Sweet Corn for Southern Florida 234
616 Control of Insects and Related Pests of Pastures ....--.........-.......... 235
654 Weed Control Investigations in Vegetable Crops ....---..........--....... 236
655 An Evaluation of 2,4-D Contamination to Untreated Sensitive
Plants ..................................... .................... ... --.... ..------.. ..... 239
657 Cane Breeding for Sugar, Syrup, Chewing and Forage Uses.......... 239
662 Selection, Breeding and Cultural Investigations of Field Corn and
Small Grains as Sources of Livestock Feeds in South Florida 240
669 Biology and Control of Insects Attacking Cruciferous Crops in
F lorida .......................... ................................................................... 240
674 Investigations of Agronomic Crops for Forage, Cover and Spe-
cial Uses ....... ..............-.. ......- .............. ..-- ..--.....----- -....--.... ...... 242
680 Rice Investigations ---..........-...... --...... .--.......... ...........----------... 242
692 Herbiciaal W eed Control in Sugarcane ............................... --... --.. 243
703 Nutritional Sprays for Vegetable Crop Production (begun dur-
ing year) ....--- ................--- ....---- ... --........ -- -----..... ....... ...........-... ... 245
711 Etiology and Control of Soil-borne Diseases of Celery (begun
during year) ...................--.. ..................... ...... ...--- ..--..... ...... 245
713 Surface and Sub-surface Hydrologic Studies in Central and South
Florida (begun during year) --... .------.......... ....--- ..................... 246
714 Design and Maintenance of Water Control Facilities for Agricul-
ture (begun during year) .............................-...--...-...--- ....-- -- 246
719 Agronomy, Breeding and Pathology Investigations of Fiber Crops
(begun during year) ........... -.....---....-..--..............-- ..- ......-- --- ... 247
..... Miscellaneous: Diseases of Lettuce; Bacterial Spot of Pepper;
Portable Milking Parlor ....--................................----..----.. 250

Indian River Field Laboratory
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse Con-
ditions (closed during year) ...........................-- ........-- .--- ...-- --- 251
391 Vegetable Variety Trials .....................................-...... --- ---- 253
398 Breeding for Combined Resistances to Diseases in Tomato.......-. 253
677 Control of Diseases of Unstaked Tomatoes Grown on the Sandy
Soils of South Florida (closed during year) ........................... 254
712 Vegetable-pasture Rotation Studies for Sandy Soils (closed dur-
ing year) .......-..... --.... .. ....-... ...........-...--......-....--...-----. 256
713 Surface and Sub-surface Hydrologic Studies in Central and South
Florida (begun during year) ................--.. ...---..................-... 256
... Miscellaneous: Potato Seed Treatment; Cucumber Diseases............ 258

Plantation Field Laboratory
85 Observations on Performance of Introduced Herbaceous and Ar-
boreal Plant Materials ................-....-- ....--........--------. .. 258

20 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Project No. Title Page
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse Condi-
tions (closed during year) ........................---............. .............. 258
281 Damping-off and Root Rots of Vegetable Crops (closed during
year) ......-......-... -- -........----------------------- ----- 260
391 Vegetable Variety Trials .........-- ..........----- -------... --- ..... ............. 261
654 Weed Control Investigations in Vegetable Crops ----..~....----........ 261
662 Selection, Breeding and Cultural Investigations of Field Corn
and Small Grains as Sources of Livestock Feeds in South
Florida .....------- -----......-- -----.. --.........----------. ------..... ................ 262
674 Investigations of Agronomic Crops for Forage Cover and Spe-
cial Uses ..----...-.... .... ......- ------ --------................... .. 262
713 Surface and Sub-surface Hydrologic Studies in Central and South
Florida (begun during year) ........................ ---............................ 262
714 Design and Maintenance of Water Control Facilities for Agri-
culture (begun during year) ----..........-------........ 264

Gulf Coast Experiment Station
391 Vegetable Variety Trials .......................-------------- ... ................. 265
398 Breeding for Combined Resistances to Diseases in Tomato ........ 267
402 Symptoms of Nutritional Disorders of Vegetable Crop Plants........ 267
445 Insecticidal Value of DDT and Related Synthetic Compounds on
Vegetable Crop Insects in Florida (closed during year) ....-. 270
449 Organic Fungicides for the Control of Foliage Diseases of Vege-
tables .- -- ----------......-.. .............. .................................. ..-- -----.... 270
464 Gladiolus Variety Trials (revised during year) ..................-............ 271
502 Control of Gladiolus Corm Diseases (revised during year) ........ 272
504 Controlling Insect Pests of Gladiolus ..------.......------ ...............-. 274
506 Control of Gladiolus Leaf and Flower Diseases (revised dur-
ing year) ---......-....--.. -- ...... --- ......---- .. -------- 274
523 Control of Nematodes Injurious to Vegetable Crops ...... ........ 275
587 Fungicidal Control of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight on Sweet
Corn .--.----------......--------........ --.......... .... .-- --- 276
590 Gladiolus Fertility Studies ..-.................. ...- -- ---------- .....--..--... 277
591 Chemical Weed Control for Commercial Vegetable and Gladiolus
Production ........... ---------........-.........--... ...-..-. ----- ..- ....-- 278
595 Gladiolus Corm Storage (closed during year) ..-........--.....--- .........-- 279
613 Factors Affecting Germination of Seed and Growth of Vegetable
Plants in Seedbeds on Sandy Soil (closed during year) ........... 279
616 Control of Insects and Related Pests of Pastures -....-.........-......... 281
621 Effect of Accumulations of DDT and other Organic Insecticides
in Sandy Soils on Tomatoes and Certain Microbiological
Processes in the Soil (closed during year) -.............-... 282
645 Control of Insects of Vegetables with Phosphatic Insecticides--........ 282
650 Factors Influencing Insecticidal Residues on Vegetable Crops-....- 282
660 Effect of Different Sources of Nitrogen and Potassium in Fer-
tilizers on Yield and Quality of Vegetables............------ .............-..283
669 Biology and Control of Insects Attacking Cruciferous Crops in
Florida ..--------.--................-------- ----.--- ...-- 283
672 Cause and Control of Black-heart of Celery ...----......................--- 283
678 Biology and Control of Insects and Arachnid Pests of Turf Grasses 284
... Miscellaneous: Pole-bean Breeding; Vegetable Seed Treatment for
the Control of Damping-off Diseases; Etiology of Soil Rot of
Cucumber; Control of Soil Rot of Cucumber; Size of Tomatoes
as Associated with Calcium Supply; Correlation Between Soil
and Tissue Tests and Tomato Yield and Quality; Effects of
Soluble Salts on Yield and Quality of Potatoes; Gladiolus
Production on Soil Treated with Crag 974; Response to Nema-
tocides on Established Turf ............................................. .. 284

Annual Report, 1955

North Florida Experiment Station
Project No. Title Page
33 Breeding and Selection of Disease-resistant Varieties of Shade
Tobacco ....................................... ... .. --------....----- ---------------- 290
260 Grain Crop Investigations .....-.......~.~..............-...- -..... 290
261 Forage Crop Investigations --------......... ........ ..------- 291
374 Corn Breeding .... ........--. ---............--..-- ....-.....-------- --- ----.... 291
428 Availability of Phosphorus from Various Phosphates Applied to
Different Soil Types .....---.....--......----- ..---..-------. .-- 292
493 Soil Management Investigations .................. ...... ...... ........... 292
498 Utilization of Pastures in the Production of Beef Cattle ................ 292
525 Control of the Green Peach Aphid on Cigar-wrapper Tobacco.._- 293
532 Management of Cigar-wrapper Tobacco Plant Beds .......................... 293
543 Roughages for Maintenance and Growth of Beef Cattle in Florida 293
580 Use of Citrus Molasses and Urea in Steer Fattening Rations........ 293
608 Sulfur Requirements of Representative Florida Soils .................... 294
612 Improvement of Lupines by Breeding for Yield and Insect and
Disease Resistance ....---...-..... --.. ............- ...--...-. -----....- .---.. 294
635 Effect of Aureomycin Added to Rations of Swine Grazing High
Quality Pasture _-.......................-.. .....-...... ....... ........ .-- 294
686 Effects of Soil pH on Cigar-wrapper Tobacco .--..-................-.......-- 294
726 Fertilizer Experiment with Shade Tobacco (begun during year)... 295
...... Miscellaneous: Housefly Control; Peaches; Special Soil Studies;
Date of Priming Cigar-wrapper Tobacco ................................ 295
- M obile Units ........................... ....... .. --- ... 295

Range Cattle Experiment Station
390 Breeding Beef Cattle for Adaptation to Florida ...........................-.. 299
410 Wintering Beef Cows on the Range (closed during year) ............... 299
423 Effect of Fertilization and Seeding on the Grazing Value of Flat-
woods Pastures ...............--.....-- ...--- ......--- ---....--------- ..--- ..-- 300
476 Utilization of Citrus Products for Fattening Cattle .................... 300
615 Influence of Breed Composition and Level of Nutrition on Adapt-
ability of Cattle to Central Florida Conditions ........................... 301
616 Control of Insects and Related Pests of Pastures............................- 301
618 Effect of Different Phosphatic Fertilizer Materials on Nutritive
Quality, Herbage Yields and Beef Production on Pangola Pas-
tures ................ ...-..........- -- ..---............................... ... .......301
631 A Comparison of the Carcass Characteristics of Purebred Brah-
man, Purebred British Breeds and Their Crosses .................... 302
712 Vegetable-pasture Rotation Studies for Sandy Soils (begun dur-
ing year) ...........---- ...................--..... ......... ..-- .....----.....-....---- 302
-.. Miscellaneous: Forage Variety Trials; Peanut Renovation and
Weed Control; Pasture Irrigation; Forage Preservation and
Storage; Grain Investigations; Pangola Hay and Bagasse;
"Stringhalt" in Cattle ...................---- .......-- ......- .... ------.. 302

Sub-Tropical Experiment Station
275 Citrus Culture Studies ... ........-......... ......-.- .. ............. 305
276 Avocado Culture Studies .........-----............---.......--.....---- -..--- 306
279 Nature, Importance and Control of Diseases of Minor Fruits
and Ornam entals ...................- .................... .......... ....... 306
280 Sub-tropical Crops of Minor Economic Importance....... ----------.. 306
281 Damping-off and Root Rots of Vegetable Crops (closed during
year) -.........................- ....-- ........--. ... ................. ....- 307
285 Potato Culture Investigations .......... .................-- ............... 308
286 Tomato Culture Investigations ..... .... ............. ....-........- 308

22 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Project No. Title Page
290 A Study of Diseases of the Avocado and Mango and Development
of Control Measures ----... .--. --- -..........--........... ............... 310
291 Control of Tomato Diseases ........------........------ ........ .............. 310
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ........---.........--- .....----.....-- ...-----..... 312
398 Breeding for Combined Resistance to Diseases in Tomato-......... 312
422 Diseases of the Tahiti (Persian) Lime --........---.... ......... .................... 312
470 Biology and Control of Insects Affecting Sub-tropical Fruits........ 313
471 Biology and Control of Insects Affecting Winter Vegetable Crops 313
505 Importance, Etiology and Control of Papaya Diseases ................... 313
514 Sub-tropical and Tropical Plant Introductions -............................. 314
515 Mango Selection, Propagation, and Culture --......--. --... ................ 314
522 Guava Propagation, Culture, Breeding and Selection..........-.......-..... 315
675 Avocado Maturity Studies ...........-- ...--... .............---........- ....-.-- ..... 315
678 Biology and Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Turf Grasses 315
682 Control of Potato Seed-piece Decay .......--...-......--...........-.... 315
704 Mango Fruitfulness (begun during year) .................................... 315
...... Miscellaneous: Avocado; Lychees; Mango; Pole Bean; Potato.... 316

Suwannee Valley Experiment Station
404 Maintenance of Soil Fertility Under Permanent Pasture............... 321
.... Miscellaneous: Cross Legume Nursery; Small Grain Nursery; To-
bacco Studies; Lupine Studies; Soybean Studies; Soil Manage-
ment Investigation; Corn Variety Test; Other Crops Under
Study --.....------....--....- ......-.....-................ ---- 321

West Florida Experiment Station
374 Corn Breeding ........-- ........---------...-......--------......- ----.. -324
404 Maintenance of Soil Fertility Under Permanent Pasture-...... 324
428 Availability of Phosphorus from Various Phosphates Applied to
Different Soil Types .....---.... --------...........----.--- .....-.. ------- 324
544 Soil Management Investigations .---..........- ........-- .......--..... 325
553 Testing Miscellaneous Fruits and Nuts ...................-...-.............--- 325
582 Pasture Investigations in West Florida .........----......-....--......-- ... 326
596 Variety Investigations of Field and Pasture Crops ....----............... 327
608 Sulfur Requirements of Representative Florida Soils .........- ..... 327

Potato Investigations Laboratory
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ............... ....................................... 328
529 Potato Diseases ........---- .......-- ......--- .......---....--..... ...---- ...- 328
620 Nature, Effects and Control of Boron and Molybdenum Deficiency
in Cauliflower (closed during year) ........ ...............--.......-...... 328
650 Factors Influencing Insecticidal Residues on Vegetable Crops ........ 329
669 Biology and Control of Insects Attacking Cruciferous Crops in
Florida -..-........-........ ....--------- --.... ..........-----.. 329
705 Biology and Control of Wireworms Injurious to Potatoes in the
Hastings Area (begun during year) ................. --........--.......... 330
715 Corky Ringspot of Potatoes (begun during year)............-............-- ..... 330
724 Irrigation, Fertilization and Seeding Rates for Potatoes in the
Hastings Area (begun during year) .-.............-....-....-- ....-- ...... -331
SMiscellaneous: Effect of Different Fertilizer Treatments on Yields
of Cauliflower; Influence of Sidedressing and Foliar Spray
on Yields of Cabbage; Molybdenum Deficiency Symptoms in
Different Vegetables; Internal Necrosis or Brown Spot of Po-
tatoes; Effect of Crowning Land and Different Fertilizer Treat-
ments on Potato Yields; Effect of Foliar Sprays, Nitrate of

Annual Report, 1955

Project No. Title Page
Potash Sidedressings and Lime on Yields and Specific Gravity of
Potatoes; Comparison of Muriate and Sulfate Sources of Potash
on Yields and Specific Gravity of Potatoes; Effect of Urea
Sprays on Yield of Sebago Potatoes; Effect of Amine-Type
2,4-D Hormone Spray on Yield, Color and Skinning of Tubers 331

499 Strawberry Variety Trials (closed during year) -.....-........--.....----. 333
Miscellaneous: Production of New Strawberry Varieties for Flor-
ida; Test of Virus-Free Missionary Plants; Weed Control; Ex-
ternal Root Nematodes ............. ..........-----............- 333

Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory
150 Investigations of and Control of Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon.... 335
151 Investigations of and Control of Fungus Diseases of Watermelons 336
586 Grasses and Legumes for Pastures in Central Florida ...............- 336
...... Development of Superior Varieties and Cultural Methods for Grape
Production in Florida ........................---- ..--.... --- --337
SMiscellaneous: Weed Control in Watermelons; Weed Control in
Dixie Runner Peanuts; Weed Control in Soybeans...........--........ 337

West-Central Florida Experiment Station
...... Annual Report 1954-55 ............------------------------- 323

Federal-State Frost Warning Service

...... Report for 1954-55 Season ....

.... ... --........--- .......--------..... 338



Salaries and Wages ...-.......

Travel ....................- ..........

Transportation of things ......

Communications ......................

Heat, light, power, etc. -....

Rental ................. ...--. .....

Contractual services ...........

Supplies and materials ........

Equipment ...-......-......

Refunds ........-....... -

Total Disbursements ..............

Balance 6-30-55 ........... ...

Hatch Fund

$ 15,000.00

... . .

Adams Fund

$ 15,000.00

--- .- ---..... ...



Purnell Jones
Fund Fund

$ 60,000.00


------------ ------

-- -- ---------- ----
-- -- ------- ----

------------ ------

. ...-....... .. .

$ 45,751.75




-- ---------- --















Grand S


7,383.37 .




-- *------

349.30 2.






Total ...................................... $ 15,000.00 $ 15,000.00 $ 60,000.00 $ 48,105.71 $180,819.29 $318,925.00

Annual Report, 1955


Grants and
Donations Total

Salaries and wages ........................ $ 80,058.62 $ 80,058.62
Professional services ......... ........ 342.50 342.50
Travel ...........-.........----- ............ ..... I 5,974.09 5,974.09
Transportation of things ......... 1,434.30 1,434.30
Communications ................ .... ... 32.62 32.62
Rental ..................-..........-.............. 332.15 332.15
Printing ................-- ....... ......--------- .. 67.38 67.38
Contractual services ....-...-......... 1,723.12 1,723.12
Supplies and materials .................. 21,053.83 21,053.83
Equipment ......-.............-- .............-... 20,581.71 20,581.71
Land and buildings ....- .. ........... ....................
Transfers .......... ----...... ...... --....... .......--..............
Total disbursements ..................... $131,600.32 $131,600.32
Balance 6-30-55 ................................ 161,646.96 161.646.96

Total ......... ..... --....... .............. $293,247.28 $293,247.28


Fund Total

Personal services .....-.........-.. ......
Professional services .............
T ravel ...... ........ ... ...... .. .......
Transportation of things ......-.....
Communications ..-.......-.........
Heat, light, power, etc. -.......--
R ent ..............-...............-....... ..
Printing .... ........................
Contractual services ........-- ..-..-....
Supplies and materials -.............
Equipment ......... ------
Lands and structures .....--....
Transfer ... .......... ...-...... .........

Total disbursements ....................
Balance 6-30-55 ..-----........-....

T otal ................... -. -- ----.. ---.--..





$434,087.24 $434,087.24


Salaries and wages .....
Professional services ....
Travel ................................
Transportation of things
Communications ............
Heat, light, power, etc.
Rent ............ .................
Printing .....................
Contractual services .......
Supplies and materials--
Equipment .......... ........
Land and buildings ....

Total disbursements ..
Balance 6-30-55 ..............

Total ..............................

Fla. Agr.


$2,850,222.49 $

Dis. Lab.




Beef Herd
$ 4,076.20



$ 17,532.49

$ 17,566.21

$ 1,198.00




$ 27,288.69

$ 35,000.00



Salaries and wages ........
Travel ......... ..... ........
Transportation of things
Communications ..............
Rent & Utilities service
Printing & Publications..
Contractual services .....
Supplies and materials....
Equipment -...................
Land and buildings .......




I Grants

$ 80,401.12

I Less:
Sub-total Weather


Total disbursements ........ $434,087.24 $2,913.586.73 $131,600.32 $3,479,274.29 $ -24,814.88 $3,454,459.41
Balance 6-30-55 ...........- ................ 54,432.34 161,646.96 216,079.30 -376.66 215,702.64

$ .............



$ 50,000.00

$ 50,000.00





$ -5,868.80




_ ~



Total ..............................-

$437,087.24 $2,968,019.07


$3,695,353.59 $ -25,191.54 1 $3,670,162.05

Annual Report, 1955


During the year four projects were completed and work was started on
four new ones. New areas of work were: (1) Economic problems in Florida
dairy farming; (2) a census of citrus groves; (3) economics of potato
handling machinery; and (4) marketing of Florida ornamental plants. Co-
operation was continued with other Southern states, agencies of the USDA
and other departments of the Experiment Station.

StateProject 154 H. G. Hamilton
Data on the financial status, statements of operations and prices received
for fruit were obtained for 20 cooperatives for the fiscal year July 1, 1953-
June 30, 1954. Data covering pooling arrangements for all cooperatives
affiliated with Sealdsweet Sales, Inc., were obtained and analyzed.
Approximately 50 per cent of the associations used the seasonal pool by
variety and grade of fruit for fruit marketing in fresh form. Seasonal pool
arrangements were more than 10 times as important as any other pooling ar-
Seasonal pools have the following advantages: (1) Promote efficient man-
agement; (2) more efficient use of personnel and equipment; and (3) better
protection of the individual member from losses.
Processing fruit is normally placed in two pools-one for off-grades and
sizes from the packinghouse, the other for fruit moving directly from tree to

Purnell Project 186 Zach Savage
The usual routine field work of closing accounts for 1953-54 was done
and accounts were set up for 1954-55. Reports for 1952-53 were completed
in the office and copies made in processed form. Each enterprise report in-
cluded three five-year averages for all groves; individual season averages
for two seasons, 1951-52, 1952-53; and 1952-53 data for the individual enter-
prise. Such a report was made by age, variety and kind of citrus for 55
groupings and supplied cooperating growers concerned. Generally, for most
varieties in 1952-53 costs were approximately the same as in the previous
season. This was true on both per-acre and per-box bases, since yields were
very similar during these two seasons.
From 100 to 249 pounds of nitrogen were added per acre on 76 percent
of these groves over the last five seasons. The average for all groves was
147 pounds per acre, or 0.45 pound per box. Yields increased from added
nitrogen up to 350 pounds per acre. The increase between groups decreased
in the 300-349 group to what it was between lower groups. Yields decreased
progressively with higher rates of nitrogen above the 300-349 group.
Two applications of nitrogen per year produced as high yields and net
returns as three applications over the 10 seasons of 1942-52. The amount
applied annually is more important than the number of applications above
two. One application is not sufficient in most cases. Spring and summer
applications gave best results where two were used.
With trees at ample setting distances, grapefruit trees at 20 years of
age yield 40 percent more fruit than orange trees of that age. As age in-

28 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

creases beyond 20 years, grapefruit yields increase proportionally, reaching
yields 60 percent higher than orange at 35 years of age. Yield spreads
beyond 35 years increase very little.
Data over the last 22 seasons indicate that trees of mixed citrus from
5 to 24 years of age had maximum yields and net returns per acre where
80 to 99 trees were set per acre. Trees from 25 to 39 years of age had
higher yields and net returns with 60 to 79 trees per acre, and trees 40 years
of age and older gave best results with less than 60 trees per acre. This
means that in most situations it is best for the number of trees not to ex-
ceed 70. Spacings should vary with the kind of citrus, with grapefruit trees
set at the widest spacings.
Trees set too closely result in lower yields per tree and per acre than
where amply spaced. In crowded groves, yield and net returns decrease
rather rapidly, as indicated by the following data for oranges:
Relationship of Number of Trees per Acre and Yield at Various Ages
Number of Trees per Acre
Age of Tree 55 65 75 85
5 to 9 ......----------.. --..... .... 79 93 107 122
25 to 29 ......................... 264 287 310 318
45 to 49 -...............-- ...... ..... 434 390 355 289
Data for grapefruit have similar trends.

State Project 345 A. H. Spurlock
Records of inventory values, replacements and causes of losses were
obtained from seven dairy herds, and the data were added to results pre-
viously summarized.
The life span of 2,027 cows averaged 6.7 years, or about 4.7 years of
usefulness in the milking herd. Disposals increased rapidly after the first
year in the herd; at age five only two-thirds of the original number
remained. At age 10, 86 percent of the original herd was gone. Cows reach-
ing age 10 had a life expectancy of 1.8 years, and averaged 11.8 years of
Principal reasons for disposal of cows have been mastitis or some other
form of udder trouble; and low production. Each of these causes resulted
in about 21 percent of the disposals. Reproductive troubles removed about
14 percent, and 14 percent were sold for unstated reasons. Deaths from all
causes were responsible for about 15 per cent of all losses. (See also
Project 345, Dairy Science.)

State Project 451 G. N. Rose, C. L. Crenshaw and
J. B. Owens 1
Research under way at the beginning of the fiscal year was continued
to determine final acreage and production by counties and areas, and over-
all value of the various commercial vegetable crops. Records were taken on
approximately 195,000 acres representing nearly 50 percent of the total
vegetable crop estimated, as shown below. These were weighted against

1 Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, AMS, USDA

Annual Report, 1955

recorded utilization, mainly shipments by counties, to determine accuracy
of current State estimates and forecasts, and to revise them where neces-
Acreage covered in these revisions was an estimated 406,650 acres
planted and 379,150 acres for harvest, with an estimated f.o.b. value of
$136,405,000. These revised estimates, with comparison, and data on car-
lots and carlot equivalents, were released in an annual statistical summary,
"Florida Vegetable Crops, Volume X, 1954." Approximately 1,250 copies
have been distributed. Similar research on the 1954-55 production was
under way at the close of the fiscal year.
During the 1954-55 season, preliminary estimates and forecasts were
made currently on 6 fall, 14 winter, and 11 spring crops for fresh market.
Acreages and production were also estimated for snap beans, cucumbers,
and tomatoes utilized in processing. Data for these estimates, and for
truck crop news notes, were obtained by personal interviews and observa-
tions; by regular and mailed schedules; and by telephone. Twenty-nine
regular and special Truck Crop News and/or Acreage and Production re-
ports were released, and approximately 40,000 copies were distributed.
Data developed were used as a basis for background information in the
report of the Florida Agricultural Outlook Committee's annual appraisal of
agricultural production for 1954-55, and will be used again in a similar
appraisal for 1955-56.

State Project 480 D. L. Brooke
Field schedules of costs of production and returns on vegetable crops
for the 1953-54 season were obtained from more than 350 growers represent-
ing approximately 20 percent of the acreage planted during the season. A
mimeographed publication was prepared and mailed to grower-cooperators,
county agents and interested industry people.
Crop summary tables by major producing areas for the 1953-54 season
were incorporated in the mimeographed publication, "Florida Vegetable
Crops, Volume X," in cooperation with leaders of State Project 451.
Average per-acre losses from vegetable production were higher for
Florida growers in 1953-54 than in any of the last five seasons for many
crops. In general, yields were above average. This, together with larger
acreages planted, increased supplies offered. Heavy supplies depressed
prices, resulting in lower than average returns to growers.
Cost of growing most vegetable crops changed relatively little from the
five-year average in 1953-54. Increases of more than 10 percent were
noted only for pole beans in Dade County, celery in Oviedo, green peppers
in the Everglades and watermelons in the Newberry area. Decreases of
more than 10 per cent were noted for snap beans in the Sanford area,
cucumbers in Fort Myers and Wauchula, green peppers in Sumter, Irish
potatoes in the Everglades, tomatoes in Manatee-Ruskin (unstaked), Sum-
ter, and Wauchula, and watermelons in the Leesburg area.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 486 Eric Thor, A. H. Spurlock
(Regional SM-4) and H. G. Hamilton
Cost of packing and selling Florida citrus fruit per 13/ bushel equiva-
lent by type of container for 43 packinghouses during the 1953-54 season
was as follows: Oranges, 1% bu. wirebound box, $0.94; 1% bu. standard

30 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

box, $1.37; %4bu. cardboard box, $1.01; 1 box mesh bag, $0.89; 8 lb. mesh
bag, $1.23; and 5 lb. mesh bag, $1.46.
Grapefruit, 1% bu. wirebound box, $0.84; 1% bu. standard box, $1.19; %
bu. cardboard box, $0.91; 1/ box mesh bag, $0.72; 8 lb. mesh bag, $1.17;
5 lb. mesh bag, $1.37.
Tangerines, 4/ bu. wirebound bruce box, $1.37; and 4/ bu. standard box,
Cost of picking and hauling citrus fruits for 1953-54 was obtained from
37 firms, 13 of them specialized citrus dealers and 24 fresh fruit packers
or processors. Combined costs for the two groups averaged 28.87 cents
per box for picking oranges, 20.58 cents for picking grapefruit, and 60.86
cents for tangerines. Hauling from the grove to the plant averaged 9.61
cents per box. Specialized dealers also had an additional cost of 2.74
cents per box for procurement and sale of fruit.
Processing costs for 1953-54 were studied at 16 firms which packed 75
percent of the single strength juices and sections, and 49 percent of the
orange concentrate. Costs for packing juices and concentrates declined
slightly from the preceding season, but costs for sections increased some-
what. Average cost for processing single strength orange juice in 12/404
cases, sweetened, was $1.31; grapefruit sections in 24/303 cases, sweet-
ened, $2.33; orange concentrate in 48/6 cases, unsweetened, $1.80; and
per gallon (excluding materials and selling), $0.34.
Results of the year's work were distributed to citrus packers and dealers
in three mimeographs.
This project is conducted cooperatively with the USDA Farmer Copera-
tive Service.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 519 M. R. Godwin, L. A. Powell, Sr.
(Regional SM-4) and H. G. Hamilton
Except for revising the manuscript, "Economic Relationships Involved
in Retailing Citrus Products," reported last year, this project has been in-
State Project 520 H. G. Hamilton and W. T. Wesson
Based on data obtained from citrus firms, a manuscript, theoretical in
nature, has been prepared. Due to the highly specialized nature of the
problem, the manuscript is being reviewed by specialists in the field. Ten-
tative conclusions are not for publication at this time.

State Project 556 D. E. Alleger
Four lease guides were published in May 1955. They were Florida Field
Lease Guide, Florida Cash Rent Farm Lease Guide, Florida Share-Tenant
Lease Guide, and Florida Sharecropping Agreement Guide. Work under
this project was terminated with these publications.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 562 C. N. Smith and H. G. Hamilton
Title II (RM:c-33 L.P. E.S. 3, 41)
2 Marketing Research Division, AMS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1955

Work consisted of revising the manuscript, Citrus and Competing
Products Sales in 20 Meridian, Mississippi, Grocery Stores, Four Monthly
Periods, 1950-51. It was published as Bulletin 561 in May, 1955. This
project was closed June 30, 1955.

Purnell Project 579 D. E. Alleger
Analyses of 175 retirement farm records progressed during the year.
Tabular analyses have been completed, but some statistical computations
(regression analyses) are yet to be done. Results show that average net
farm earning are low-$212 annually-and that retirees farm for personal
satisfactions as well as for economic reasons.
Retirees with the largest average retirement incomes earned less from
farming than the lowest-income retirees. In general, net farm returns
dropped as retirement incomes rose, and also with advances in age. Dis-
abled retirees under 70 earned more from farming than the non-disabled,
probably because their cash needs were greater. After age 70, the effects
of age appeared to overshadow other influences limiting farm income.
Because of lessening of physical ability with increases in age, people who
retire at age 65 or later should plan very limited farm operations. Home
food supplementation and recreation are among the principal advantages
of retirement farming. An acre of cultivated ground will usually supply
sufficient space to realize these goals. This amount of land generally can
be found in or near villages or urban suburbs where public services are
available, services which old folks can ill afford to be without.

State Project 593 M. A. Brooker
This project was closed with publication of Bulletin 549, Factors In-
fluencing the Mode of Transportation Used in Marketing Florida Fresh
Citrus, September, 1954.
Relative transportation cost apparently is the most important single
factor in deciding method of transportation to be used in moving fresh
citrus to market. Other factors of importance are availability of the
various methods of transportation, and method of sale.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 602 W. K. McPherson
(Regional SM-7)
In addition to verifying results reported, research during the past year
strongly suggests that the larger auctions discover prices that are more
stable for cattle and calves.

Purnell Project 619 L. A. Reuss,' N. K. Roberts
R. E. L. Greene, and W. K. McPherson
This study is being conducted in cooperation with the Production Eco-
nomics Research Branch of the U.S.D.A. The first phase of the project
was completed with the publication of the bulletin, Florida's Land Re-
sources and Land Use.
3Production Economics Research Branch, ARS. USDA.

32 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Existing data concerning response of improved pastures to varying
amounts of fertilizer and the structure of ranch operating costs are being
utilized to bring out important economic problems in ranching and to
indicate research areas in which better data should be developed. Ranch
budgets have been prepared for a 5,000-acre illustrative ranch containing
some improved pasture and some native range. Comparisons are being
made between ranch costs and returns when various amounts of fertilizer
are applied per acre at various prices per pound of beef and per ton of
fertilizer. Similarly, costs and returns are being compared with 10, 20,
30, 40 and 50 percent of the illustrative ranch in improved pastures. At-
tention is also being given to effects of fertilization rates and pasture im-
provement programs upon capital employed in the ranch business. The con-
ditions under which it may pay to concentrate fertilizer upon a portion of
the improved pasture acreage are indicated, and the advantages and size
of the commercial "family-sized" ranch are discussed briefly.
Results of the study are being incorporated into a manuscript, Some
Aspects of the Economics of Establishing and Fertilizing Improved Pas-
tures for Beef Production in Central Florida. A circular, Costs of
Clearing Land and Establishing Improved Pastures in Central Florida,
based on data contained in the ranch schedules is also being prepared for
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 626 Eric Thor and G. L. Capel
(Regional SM-4)
Cost comparison of (1) methods of handling citrus fruit from the tree
to the highway truck and (2) methods of receiving and dumping were
reported last year. Cost analysis of the alternative methods of (1) as-
sembling and supplying boxes to packers; (2) closing packed boxes; and
(3) handling citrus fruit after it has been packed were completed. Low
cost methods have been synthesized into model plants of varying sizes.
From these model plants, relationship between size of packinghouse and
cost of operation will be estimated.
Station Bulletin 547, Cost of Moving Citrus From Tree Onto Highway
Truck as Related to Methods of Handling, was published in September,
1954, as was a mimeographed report, Cost Analysis of Bulk Handling
Methods for Fresh Citrus. This project is in cooperation with the Citrus
Experiment Station.
State Project 627 R. E. L. Greene
This experiment is designed to study variations in beef production,
using a cow-calf operation on a year-round basis, for different pasture
programs and breeding systems. Data were summarized showing cost
of establishing the various pastures and the year-to-year cost of operating
each program for the first two years. To make the results applicable
to commercial operations, the various costs were calculated on the basis
of the level of experimental practices being used. However, the data
were adjusted to show what it would cost to perform the various operations
of developing and maintaining pastures if they were done on a commercial
4Market Organization and Costs Branch, Marketing Research Division, AMS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1955

The cost per program of establishing the pastures, including a value for
land, varied widely. However, with the exception of Program 6, which
is set up to be irrigated; and Program 8, which contains a considerable
amount of unimproved pasture; the difference in cost per acre of es-
tablishing the pastures in the various programs was only about $20. The
cost per acre for Program 1 was $118; for Programs 5 and 7, $137 each.
The job of comparing costs and returns has been made more difficult
because of the year-to-year variation in percentage of cows calving on
individual programs. An indication of the variation in production between
the programs that would be necessary to make them profitable was ob-
tained by calculating the amount of beef needed at stated prices to cover
the cost of each program. A summary of the data for each of the first
two years showed that it cost less to operate Program 8 and most
to operate Program 6. At the level of experimental practices being used
for the two years and at 14 cents per pound for beef, it would be necessary
to produce 2,468 pounds of beef on Program 8 and 3,901 pounds on Program
6 to cover costs. This would be equivalent to 112 and 650 pounds per acre,
respectively. These data emphasize that if the experimental level of
practices are to be profitable, the livestock and pastures must be managed
so as to increase the amount of beef being produced. (See Proj. 627,
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 630 A. H. Spurlock and W. S. Greig "
(Regional SM-8)
Sales records of about 2,200 lots of sweet corn shipped from three
areas of Florida during the 1953-54 season have been analyzed to determine
prices and marketing charges. There was a distinct seasonal peak in total
Florida shipments, increasing from November to April, then declining to
June. The seasonal pattern of shipments was different for each area.
About 73 percent of the corn shipped was U. S. Fancy; 12 percent U. S.
No. 1; 13 percent U. S. No. 2; and less than 1 percent each combination
grade or ungraded.
F.o.b. prices of sweet corn varied inversely with total Florida ship-
ments. The season average price of fancy corn was $2.17 per crate
f.o.b. This was 25 cents more than U. S. No. 1 and 88 cents per crate
above U. S. No. 2. All grades averaged $2.02 per crate.
Local marketing charges to growers for the season varied between areas
and averaged 98 cents per crate. Typical charges in the Lake Okeechobee
area were: Container, 35 cents; grading, packing and hauling, 30 cents;
precooling, 10 cents; top ice furnished by the grower, 12 cents; inspection,
local selling charge and miscellaneous charges, 11 cents.
The f.o.b. type sale was predominant, accounting for 88 percent of the
total volume sold. Consigned sales were 7 percent and delivered sales 5
percent of the total. Higher prices were received from f.o.b. sales than
from consigned or delivered sales when compared by grade and by months
of sale. Part of this difference probably was due to the use of consign-
ment or delivered sales when demand was low and for cars that had been
in difficulty or were off-grade.
There was no relation between the amount of refrigeration used in
corn shipments and the f.o.b. price received. However, the refrigeration
practices among shippers were rather uniform, especially during the
warmer season, and there was little opportunity for observing divergent
Horticultural Crops Section, Market Organization and Costs Branch, AMS, USDA.

34 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Studies of terminal market quality and wholesale and retail handling
practices for sweet corn were conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, during
April and May 1955. About 230 samples were purchased during the
period for quality measurements, taste tests and appearance ratings.
Analyses of the data are now in progress. (See Project 630, HORTI-

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 638 R. E. L. Greene, J. S. Norton
(Regional SM-9) and H. C. Spurlock
(Cooperative with the Department of Agricultural Engineering.)
This is a subproject under regional project SM-9, Marketing Early
Irish Potatoes. Work is being carried on in cooperation with the Quality,
Maintenance and Improvement Section of the Agricultural Marketing
Service, USDA. Work during the year again was focused on the study
of mechanical harvesting and bulk handling of potatoes in Florida and
Alabama. Efforts were concentrated on analysis of data collected in
1953 and 1954.
A variable-speed, tilted-table belt separator, designed and built by the
Agricultural Engineering Department, was installed in a commercial
packinghouse and tested for effectiveness in removing dirt and trash in
bulk loads of potatoes. A bin loader for conveying potatoes from bulk
trucks to bins at packinghouses was tested for volume and amount of
damage to the potatoes. Assistance was also given in making some test
shipments from the Hastings area, comparing appearance and carrying
quality of washed and dried with non-dried Sebago potatoes.
In the Hastings area in 1954 the average cost per 100-pound packed
bag equivalent of harvesting and handling potatoes with mechanical equip-
ment was about 3.5 cents less than by the usual method. In Alabama
the difference was about 8 cents. Cost per unit with mechanical equip-
ment was greatly affected by the amount harvested per hour. In Alabama,
in 1954, the average rate of harvesting per total hours operated for two-
row harvesters was 98 100-pound bag equivalent; in the Hastings area of
Florida, it was 137 bags. One-row machines that placed the potatoes in
field bags harvested an average of 63 packed bags per hour. Rate of
harvesting per hour should increase as mechanical equipment is improved
and farmers and packinghouse operators gain more experience in the use
of such equipment.
Potatoes dug after a heavy rain and which contained a large amount of
dirt and trash were run over the tilted-table separator as they were
unloaded from the bulk trucks at the packinghouse. It was estimated
that the equipment was effective in removing 90 to 95 percent of dirt and
trash in the potatoes with only one laborer being used. The potatoes
received little or no mechanical damage.
A commercially built bin loader operated satisfactorily in transferring
potatoes from bulk loads to bins. The capacity of the loader was as high
as 1,000 bushels per hour. Little or no major damage was done to the
potatoes and only about 2 pounds per 100 pounds received minor damage.
Potatoes transferred directly from the bulk trucks to the washer had
slightly less skinning and were cleaner and brighter than the potatoes that
went through the bins. However, additional work is needed on the prob-
lem of use in bins in connection with bulk equipment; the cost of a
satisfactory bin loader is high and it is also difficult to move present
equipment from bin to bin.

Annual Report, 1955

Results in 1955 again showed that substantial progress is being made in
the development and use of mechanical potato-harvesting equipment. Manu-
facturers are learning the problems of operating their equipment in various
areas and are developing improvements. Farmers are obtaining increas-
ing experience and both they and packinghouse operators are adjusting
their operations to make for a more efficient use of mechanical equipment.
Successful use of mechanical harvesters should result in a lower cost for
harvesting and handling potatoes and a better quality product.

Purnell Project 647 M. A. Brooker, R. E. L. Greene
and T. H. Ellis
Effort was continued on summarizing and analyzing data collected in
1953 and 1954. Records were obtained on cost of operating tobacco har-
vesters from 24 farm operators who used tobacco harvesters during the
1954 season. Records were obtained also from 20 operators who irrieaated
Farmers who operated tobacco harvesters harvested an average of
17.3 acres per machine. About 100 hours less labor was used ner acre
with harvesters in comparison with the usual method. Estimated cost of
harvesting tobacco with a harvester and hanging it in the barn was about
$20.00 per acre, or 1.33 cents per pound less with a harvester than with
the usual method.
Analysis of the records from farmers who irrigated tobacco has not
been completed. It was estimated that in 1954 about 10 percent of the
tobacco grown in the state was irrigated. Farmers from whom records
were obtained estimated that their yield per acre with irrigation was
about 40 percent more than before they began using irrigation. However,
they had intensified other practices and were also using more fertilizer
per acre. Increase in net returns per acre due to irrigation and change in
other practices was estimated to be about $200 per acre.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) W. K. McPherson and E. E. Brown
Project 651
The general conclusion was reached that competition among dairies
selling whole milk to dealers is severely limited by informal agreements
between producers and distributors that make it extremely difficult for new
dairies to sell Class I whole milk; and dealers who give some producers
more favorable Class I milk quotas than others.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 656 J. R. Greenman
(Regional S-11) and H. G. Hamilton
During the year a manuscript, The Laws of Farm Tenancy and Share-
cropping in Florida, was prepared. It sets forth laws of farm tenancy
and sharecropping in Florida as found in the Florida Statutes, the Florida
Constitution, and reported cases of the Supreme Court of Florida and other
Southeastern states. It was written to give farmers, and those who serve
farmers, a better understanding of the nature of the farmers' rights, ob-
ligations and legal problems in entering into and participating in a tenancy
or sharecropping arrangement.

36 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

As this project continued, it became increasingly apparent that neither
the Florida Statutes nor the reported Supreme Court decisions of the
State covered many aspects of farm tenancy and sharecropping. On these
matters, it was necessary to analyze the reported cases of other states
to estimate the probable position of the Florida Supreme Court when called
upon to render decisions as to the law in such situations. In this connec-
tion, a detailed analysis was made of 330 reported cases and all of the
statutes relating to sharecropping in Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, North
Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia. A summary of the law
of sharecropping has been prepared for each of these states and copies
released to workers doing legal research in this field in Alabama, Georgia,
South Carolina and Virginia. A compilation of the laws of sharecropping
for the Southeastern states, including the seven states listed above and
Florida, will be completed by July 31, 1955.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 664 M. R. Godwin, L. A. Powell, Sr.,
(Regional SM-4) and H. G. Hamilton
A study of the characteristics of the retail demand for frozen orange
concentrate was conducted in 10 food stores in Trenton, N. J.-Philadelphia,
Pa., area during a nine-week period terminating Aug. 14, 1954. It involved
the artificial manipulation of retail prices for frozen orange concentrate
under conditions that would permit isolation of the effects of price from
the other variables associated with purchases at the retail level.
Customers were subjected to retail prices representing discounts of
3, 6 and 8 cents per 6-ounce can below the prevailing market price and
a premium of 4 cents above the market price. Daily sales records were
obtained on all fresh and frozen citrus products and weekly sales records
were obtained for all canned citrus juices and hot-pack concentrates.
A preliminary analysis to determine the nature of the demand for
frozen orange concentrate has been completed. Over the range of price
circumstances tested, an estimated elasticity coefficient of .823 was ob-
tained. This means that the demand for frozen orange concentrate in the
10 stores during the time interval covered by the study was slightly in-
elastic; that is, a 1 percent change in the price of this product was accom-
panied by an inverse response in purchases per customer in the amount of
.823 percent.
Further analyses are in progress to determine variations in customer
purchase rates during successive time intervals following the introduction of
a price change for frozen orange concentrate at the retail level.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 665 Eric Thor and G. L. Capel
(Regional SM-4)
This is an extension of Project 626. Analysis of the data in Project
626 shows that considerable difference existed in the cost of handling
citrus fruits in various containers in packinghouses. During the spring of
1955 data were collected in the northeastern United States on costs and
use of labor in unloading bulk shipments and packing the fruit into bags.
Data were collected also on costs and use of labor in unloading and
SMarket Organization and Costs Branch, AMS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1955

storing of bagged fruit by chain store warehouses. These data are being

(Classification I. Marketing Costs, Margins and Efficiency)
RMA Project 666 D. L. Brooke, C. N. Smith
(Title II, ES-235) and H. G. Hamilton
Some 15,000 records of individual sales of tomatoes, snap beans and
green peppers have been obtained from 26 sales organizations operating
in the State. These data have been coded and transferred to IBM cards
and are being processed with IBM equipment.

(Classification I. Marketing Costs, Margins and Efficiency)
RMA Project 679 C. N. Smith and D. L. Brooke
(Title II, ES-236)
Field collection of data on quantities sold and prices received by a
sample of gladiolus growers in marketing the 1952-53 crop was com-
pleted. Schedules were edited and data were coded and punched on IBM
cards. A preliminary analysis of sales made to New York City wholesale
commission florists showed that margins for transportation and com-
mission charges each accounted for approximately 20 percent of the per
dozen wholesale price of most grades of gladiolus.
Analysis of the data is being continued to develop price-grade, price-
variety, price-market and other relationships.

State Project 685 B. W. Kelly and C. L. Crenshaw
A number of possible techniques for obtaining objective measures of
citrus production have been tested. Three of the more promising-the
revised frame count, the limb count, and fruit measurements-have been
instituted on a field trial basis.
The revised frame count gave a fairly good October 1 estimate of
production, being within 3 percent for early and mid-season oranges;
within 5 percent for late oranges; and within 10 percent for grapefruit.
This estimate contained an upward bias due to the redefinition of a
frameable tree. This bias is probably on the order of 2 percent in the
case of oranges. Future estimates of production based on the frame count
as a ration estimate will probably be somewhat better.
The limb count is a means for estimating the average number of fruit
per tree in the State by counting the fruit on sample limbs on sample
trees. Limb counts were made on a sample of about 600 orange trees in
September and again in December 1954. A direct expansion of the Septem-
ber limb count resulted in an estimated production of 94.7 million boxes
for the 1954-55 season. However, three of the expansion factors used ....
tree numbers, fruit size at harvest, and droppage . were themselves
estimates. It is expected that the limb count as a ratio estimate will give
a good estimate of production as long as fruit growth and droppage
remain near normal.
Fruit measurements for determining average size and size distribution
are taken at monthly intervals from October to May. In addition, about

38 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

600 sample oranges were tagged and measurements were recorded at
monthly intervals on each of the tagged fruit. This was done to determine
the growth pattern over the entire distribution of fruit sizes for possible
future use in size and distribution estimation. Analysis of the tagged fruit
data has not been completed.

State Project 688 B. W. Kelly
Since funds became available for a State-wide census of citrus groves,
the Highlands County census as such was terminated. It has been com-
pleted as part of the state census. This project was closed September 1,

State Project 697 G. N. Rose, C. L. Crenshaw,
B. W. Kelly, and J. B. Owens
This project is in cooperation with the Florida Crop and Livestock
Reporting Service of the Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA, and is
designed to develop methods and techniques for obtaining more detailed
information on plantings of snap beans in the winter areas of South Florida.
Its purpose is to give growers semi-monthly information on the extent of
planting and harvesting of acreages, the condition of growing crops, and
forecasts of probable yields.
In determining these characteristics, two approaches were considered:
(1) semi-monthly tabulations of seed distribution were started for a com-
parative series; and (2) maps and aerial photographs were secured, or
arrangements made for procurement, for use in the area sampling approach.
Some work on the maps was done, such as designation of cultivated land,
woods, groves, etc., thus laying the groundwork for next year.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 700 C. N. Smith and D. L. Brooke
(Regional SM-12)
A field study was conducted in a group of grocery supermarkets in
Nashville, Tenn., during March and April 1955 to determine some of the
problems involved and the possibilities of expanding the sale of Florida
pompon chrysanthemums through this type outlet. The flowers were sold
only on weekends at prices which varied from 59 to 99 cents for a nine-
ounce parchment paper-wrapped bunch.
Although the volume of sales was relatively low, significant differences
between prices, weeks and stores were noted. During 1956 fiscal year it
is planned to test other merchandising techniques and types of packaging.

State Project 701 E. D. Smith and N. K. Roberts
Records of various aspects of dairy farm operation and financial ac-
counts were obtained from 105 dairy farms in the Florida peninsula during
August, September, and October 1954.
Preliminary analyses indicate: (1) Cash costs of milk production vary
markedly from year to year, depending to a considerable extent upon
SFlorida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service of the AMS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1955

citrus pulp prices; within any given year they vary greatly from dairy to
dairy; (2) average production per cow varied from a low of less than 350
gallons per year to more than 900 gallons in sample herds; the average
for the area covered by the survey was 624 gallons; (3) less than 15 percent
of the total feed requirements was supplied by pasture during 1953 and
the average yield of pasture feed was equal to less than one ton of alfalfa
hay equivalent roughage per acre of improved pasture; this average did
not include lower yielding carpet grass; (4) on the average, there were
only two acres of pasture land per cow and less than one-half of this was
in improved permanent or temporary pasture crops; (5) herd size was very
large, averaging about 150 milk cows, and was increasing by about 10
cows per herd during 1953; (6) average productive life expectancy of
cows entering milking herds was approximately five years; and, (7) only
one-third of all cow replacements were home raised.
Work on analysis of farm organization, particularly the economics
of improved pasture is now in progress.

State Project 720 B. W. Kelly, J. C. Townsend, Jr.,S
Paul Shuler," E. L. Ayres,"
J. N. Busby,' W. F. Callander"
Funds were made available to extend the census of citrus groves in
Highlands County to a State-wide basis. They were contributed by in-
dustry and matched by RMA funds.
The State Plant Board agreed to do the enumeration of the groves in
connection with their regular inspection work. This arrangement provided
a nucleus of trained enumerators in a permanent organization, to which
additional personnel could be added, and allowed the State Plant Board
to make a substantial contribution in personnel and equipment to the census.
The data being collected include for each grove: Kind, type or variety
of fruit; number of trees, vacancies and resets; estimated age; spacing in
grove, and system of planting; diseases found, and number of trees affected;
and legal description of grove property.
Field work got underway about the first of November, and when sus-
pended the latter part of May until the next fruit season, 13.8 million
trees had been enumerated. The census should be finished easily during
the 1955-56 fruit season.

State Project 730 R. E. L. Greene
The study is designed to develop and test mechanical equipment to be
used at packinghouses which are packing potatoes hauled in bulk. More
efficient methods are needed, at the packinghouse, for removing clods, vines
and trash for the potatoes. In houses using temporary storage bins
special equipment is needed also for transferring the potatoes from the
bulk bodies to the bins. During the year an experimental separator was
built. It was estimated that this equipment was effective in removing
90 to 95 percent of the dirt and trash in the potatoes, even under conditions
where there was an excessive amount of these materials in bulk loads.
(For a more complete description of the separator, see project 730,
Agricultural Engineering; see also Project 638, Agricultural Economics,
for additional results on testing of the equipment.)
SFlorida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, AMS, USDA.
"The State Plant Board of Florida.

40 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Research was continued on irrigation of pastures and flue-cured to-
bacco. Additional work was done on potato harvesting machinery, and
a new project was initiated to develop new potato-handling machinery.
Additional information was obtained from the pasture-renovation studies.
Shop machinery was purchased to equip the new Agricultural Engineering
Research Laboratory. This new laboratory will facilitate the farm machin-
ery research program.

Hatch Project 555 J. M. Myers
Three irrigation rates, four fertilizer treatments and four plant popu-
lations were tested on flue-cured tobacco plots at Gainesville in 1954.




1800 H






88 =



8T 0

Fig. 1.-Effect of irrigation on yield and quality
in 1954.

of flue-cured tobacco

A daily water consumption use rate, for the first 13 weekly periods
after transplanting, of 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.11, 0.13, 0.16, 0.22, 0.25, 0.22,
0.16, 0.15, 0.14 and 0.13 inches was designated the "medium" irriga-
tion treatment. The "low" irrigation rate was one-third lower and the
"high" rate was one-third higher. When rainfall was insufficient to
supply water at the above rates, irrigation was used to make up the
difference. The amount of water per irrigation application was in-

Annual Report, 1955

7500 q10,00

Fig. 2.-Effect of plant per acre on yield and
tobacco in 1954.

quality of flue-cured


"I. Q __ -

2000 h


Fi F2 Fs F4
Fig. 3.-Effect of a split application of fertilizer on yield and quality
of flue-cured tobacco in 1954.









87 2

42 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

creased progressively from 0.25 inch to approximately 1.00 inch during
the first five weeks after transplanting. After the fifth week, all irrigation
applications were in amounts of approximately one inch. Irrigation was
needed only during the first 12 weeks. For this period, rainfall totaled
9.50 inches. Thirteen and seventy-seven hundredths (13.77) inches of
irrigation water were applied in 20 applications to the "high" rate, 8.90
inches in 14 applications to the "medium" rate, and 5.82 inches in nine
applications to the "low" rate in the 12-week period. More than one-
half the rainfall, 5.91 inches, occurred during a six-day period in early
The four fertilizer treatments involved placing the total amount of fer-
tilizer for the tobacco in one, two, three and four applications. Plant popu-
lations used were 5,000, 7,500, 10,000 and 12,500 plants per acre.
The "low" irrigation rate produced the highest yield and the lowest
percentage of high quality tobacco, while the "high" rate furnished the
lowest yield and highest percentage of high quality tobacco. The "medium"
rate of irrigation produced a good balance between high yield and high
The fertilizer test indicated that highest yield and best quality were
obtained by splitting the total amount of fertilizer for the tobacco in two
applications-one-half before transplanting and one-half approximately two
weeks after transplanting.
A plant population of between 7,500 and 10,000 plants per acre gave
the highest yield consistent with good quality. Five thousand plants per
acre produced the highest percentage of high quality tobacco but yield was
lowest, and 12,500 plants per acre produced the largest yield of tobacco but
the percentage of high quality tobacco was lowest. (See also Proj. 555,
State Project 627 J. S. Norton
The irrigated program in this experiment is a clover-grass mixture
receiving a high level of fertilization. Only four applications of irrigation
water were made on the irrigated pastures during the year. The only
program that exceeded the irrigated program in forage production was
the all-grass program with the same fertilization level. The irrigated pro-
gram exceeded all other programs in protein production with an average
of 916 pounds per acre. (See also Proj. 627, AGRICULTURAL ECO-
State Project 628 J. M. Myers
Two acres (four plots) of Pangola grass-white clover pasture were ir-
rigated during 1954 to maintain a moisture level satisfactory for ade-
quate plant growth. At no time was the available soil moisture in the
top six-inch layer of soil less than 25 percent of the total available soil
moisture at field capacity. The soil type is predominantly Leon fine sand
and Ona fine sand, with a hardpan located at a depth of approximately
two feet.
Rainfall during the year totaled 40.89 inches and was well distributed
May and August were the only two months during which an apparent
critical shortage of soil moisture occurred in the non-irrigated pasture. An
average of 18 irrigation water applications, totaling approximately 17

Annual Report, 1955

inches, was required to maintain the desired soil moisture level in the irri-
gated pasture. During the 12-month period, irrigation water was applied
at any time the soil moisture needed replenishing, even though grazing took
place only eight months of the year. Irrigation was needed during non-
grazing months to assist in clover seed germination and early clover growth.
The irrigated pasture produced 4.1 percent more cow-grazing days per
acre and 4.9 percent more total digestible nutrients per acre than a similar
non-irrigated pasture. Other advantages offered by the irrigated pasture
were earlier spring production, a more uniform rate of production during
the grazing season, and continuous grazing during the grazing season.
From March 1, 1955, until June 30, 1955, one acre (two plots) of the irri-
gated pasture mentioned above was placed under a different irrigation and
grazing management program than had been used previously, and compared
with a similar non-irrigated pasture, managed the same except for irrigation.
Water, both rainfall and irrigation, was made available to the irrigated
pasture at a rate of approximately 0.30 inch per day, with an interval
between irrigation applications of two or three days. During the four-
month period, 8.84 inches of rainfall were supplemented by 31.04 inches
of irrigation water in 37 applications. Clover produced at least 95 per-
cent of the grazing, as very little Pangola grass survived the winter.
The irrigated pasture supplied 205 cow-grazing days and 2,662 pounds
of total digestible nutrients. These amounts were 220 percent and 210
percent more than those supplied by the non-irrigated pasture. Also the
irrigated pasture was still sustaining an excellent stand of clover on June
30, 1955, while much of the clover had disappeared from the non-irrigated
pasture (closed during year). (See also Proj. 628, DAIRY SCIENCE.)

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 661 J. M. Myers and J. S. Norton
Clover-grass pasture plots have been renovated by various cultivation
methods during the last two and one-half years at Gainesville. Certain
of these methods appear to affect the production of forage as well as the
botanical composition of the pasture mixture during the early spring
Production on Pangola grass-clover pasture plots was increased when
30 to 50 percent of the sod was displaced by a cultivation in the fall. The
increased production was accounted for by increases in both clover and
grass yields. An annual renovation produced higher yields than a biennial
renovation. Spring renovation proved detrimental to clover production
but was beneficial to grass production in the summer months.
Bahia grass-clover plots responded best to a light-medium cultivation to
a depth of 3 to 4.5 inches, which opened or displaced 12 to 15 percent of
the sod. An annual cultivation in the fall caused the Bahia-clover plots
to produce a larger amount of clover than a biennial cultivation in the
fall. However, a biennial cultivation in the fall appears to be as satisfac-
tory as an annual fall cultivation insofar as grass production during the
summer months is concerned. Annul spring renovation did not prove bene-
ficial to the Bahia grass-clover plots.
Coastal Bermuda-clover plots produced highest yields when renovated
with a heavy or intense cultivation. This type of cultivation was obtained
by using either a spring-tooth field cultivator or a modified rotary tiller.
An annual fall renovation appeared to invigorate clover and grass growth
in approximately the same proportion. Spring renovation was detrimental
to spring clover growth but proved to be about equal to a fall renova-
tion as an aid to summer grass production. (See also Proj. 661, AGRON-

44 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 684 J. S. Norton and J. M. Myers
The irrigation-fertilization treatments were continued as outlined in
previous reports, except that each plot was divided into halves with nitro-
gen withheld from one half during the year.
When production for the period from August 2, 1954, to June 27, 1955,
was averaged according to fertility treatments, it showed an increase with
increased fertilization levels. One exception was noted in the Bahia grass-
clover plots which did not receive nitrogen. In that case, the highest
fertility level produced the least forage. For Pangola grass-clover treat-
ments, the average production of plots receiving nitrogen was two and one-
half times that of the plots receiving no nitrogen. For Bahia grass-clover,
the nitrogen plots produced three times as much forage as those receiving
no nitrogen. The Bahia grass-clover plots which received nitrogen produced
one and one-half times as much forage as the corresponding Pangola grass-
clover plots.
Analysis of the yields according to water treatments showed several
interesting trends. In both the Bahia grass-clover and the Pangola grass-
clover treatments that received no nitrogen, production increased with in-
creased quantities of irrigation water. This was due largely to increased
clover production during the spring with increased amounts of water,
coupled with very low grass production during the summer.
The Pangola grass-clover plots receiving nitrogen produced on-an in-
verse relationship to the amount of water applied. Here again clover
was responsible for the trend. This time, however, the better, more per-
sistent stands of clover on the high water treatments retarded grass pro-
duction during the summer of 1954 as well as the spring of 1955. The
high temperatures experienced during the summer of 1954 retarded clover
production, thus holding the total yield for the year to a level lower than
where no clover was present to inhibit Pangola grass growth.

Fig. 4.-Harvesting potatoes in grassy conditions. Such conditions
cause slow rate of travel of harvester and frequent stops to allow laborers
to separate trash and potatoes.

Annual Report, 1955

The Bahia grass-clover plots that received nitrogen showed little change
for different water treatments. Also, production of clover on these plots
was generally very low during the fiscal year. (See also Proj. 684,
State Project 730 J. S. Norton and J.. M. Myers
This project was initiated in the fall of 1954. Two problems that had
become apparent during work on Project 638 (Agricultural Economics)
were (1) the need for a better method of removing clods and vegetative
material from potatoes harvested in bulk as they were unloaded at the
packinghouse and (2) a better method of getting the potatoes from the
"bulk" trucks into the temporary storage bins.

Jr a I


Fig. 5.-Truckload of potatoes harvested where conditions were such that
equipment and laborers were unable to remove all the weeds and vines at
the rate at which the the harvester was traveling.

Cost of harvesting potatoes with mechanical equipment is affected by
rate of harvesting, in bushels per hour, which in turn is affected by the
capacity of the harvester and laborers to remove extraneous material from
the potatoes before they go into the truck. The detrimental effect of the
extraneous material going into the trucks would be reduced if it could be
removed easily by equipment at the packinghouse. With this in mind, a
machine was built during the winter of 1954 which, when tested, proved
very satisfactory for removing loose soil, weeds, vines and other trash
from the potatoes as they were unloaded. In tests in the Hastings area, this
machine removed approximately 95 percent of all extraneous material from
potatoes which contained up to 20 bushels of such material in a 200-bushel
It was hoped the machine could be tested for effectiveness in removing
clods from the potatoes in areas where clods are present. Dade County is
the only area in Florida where this problem is common, but since no
mechanical harvesters were operated in that area, it was not possible to

46 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

test it in cloddy conditions. However, it is believed the machine can be
made to do a satisfactory job of clod removal.
Figures 4 and 5 show the trash problem, Figure 6 shows the trash elimi-
nator in operation. Plans for the construction of a clod and trash eliminator
are being prepared for publication.

Fig. 6.-Clod and trash eliminator in operation. Approximately 95
percent of the trash was removed from each of several 200-bushel loads like
that in Fig. 5 in 30 minutes or less unloading time per load.

A commercially built bin-filling elevator, designed specifically for the
type bins used in the Hastings and Bunnell areas, was introduced in the
Hastings area. It met the specifications of a satisfactory bin-filling eleva-
tor, namely, large capacity (1,000 bushels per hour); flexibility; gentle
handling of the potatoes; and mobility. No attempt was made by Experi-
ment Station personnel to modify the design of this elevator or to design
one of their own. However, the bin-filler was expensive and, although it
was mobile, required a tractor or six men to move it. It is planned to
attempt to design a less expensive and more easily moved bin filler next
year. (See also Proj. 730, AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS.)

Annual Report, 1955


Research on nutritive requirements, climatic adaptation, management,
breeding, and weed and pest control of tobacco, pasture grasses, peanuts,
corn, lupines, small grains, castorbeans, miscellaneous legumes, cotton,
clovers, alfalfa, millets, grain sorghum, and turf grasses has been con-
tinued as formerly, much of it in cooperation with other departments,
branch stations, and the USDA. A new project on development of adapted
soybeans was initiated in cooperation with the USDA. Nematode control
investigations in turf grasses are being greatly expanded with financial
grants from the United States Golf Association, Shell Development Com-
pany, Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corporation, and B. F. Goodrich Chemical
Company. Grants were received from Greenwood Farms, Thomasville,
Ga., for corn breeding, and from American Plant Food Council for pasture
production with irrigation and fertilizer.
Construction of the farm laboratory building provided by appropriation
of the 1953 Legislature is well under way. About $1,500 was spent for an
irrigation pump and portable pipe for field plots. A little more than $900
was spent on laboratory instruments which in part are to provide for
determination of specific amino acids in forage and grain. More than
$2,000 was spent for repairs and replacement of farm machinery, including
trade-ins of one truck and one tractor.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 20 W. A. Carver and Fred Clark
Hybrids were made in the spring of 1954 and 1955, crossing Virginia
Jumbo Runner, Dixie Runner and Florispan Runner with large-seeded run-
ner strains of Spanish-Virginia Jumbo Runner origin. Objective was to
select lines having medium large seeds and good quality.
Florispan Runner produced relatively high yields in 1954 under drouthy
conditions. The yield of Florida-bred varieties and common runner peanuts
or Florida Runner for 1954 and for the period 1946-1954 are as follows:
Yield of Sound and Mature Seed in Percent
1954 1946-1954
Dixie Runner ...................... ..- ... 111 117
Early Runner .... -- ...........-....-..... 162 130
Florispan Runner -......................... 206 164
Florida Runner .............. ..-........... 100 100
Preliminary studies of the effect of planting dates on seed quality in-
dicate that July plantings harvested in November will produce high quality
seeds in a Jumbo type peanut; and close spacings must be used to com-
pensate for low yield per plant from late seedings.

Hatch Project 56 I. M. Wofford and
J. R. Edwardson
Yields of 15 early maturing and five late maturing DeKalb sorghum
hybrids were compared with seven early maturing varieties. Average
yield of the 15 early hybrids was 75 percent more than the average of the

48 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

varieties. The highest yielding hybrid (58 bushels per acre) produced 98
percent more grain than the highest yielding variety (29 bushels per
The yield performance of soybeans in the regional soybean variety
tests was highest for those strains maturing about October 8 (early matur-
ing group) when compared with those maturing 10 to 20 days later. Sev-
eral of the strains tested produced from 2 to 40 per cent higher yields and
performed as well as Jackson, Roanoke and Ogden varieties. Date of
planting studies indicated that May 1 is the best time to plant late-maturing
strains and June 1 the best time for early-maturing varieties.
Results of variety tests with millet and sudan grass again show that
millet is superior to sudan grass for forage production.
The highest yields of forage and shelled peas were obtained from the
cowpea varieties Chinese Red x Iron crosses, Paraguay No. 1 and Calhoun
Crowder. Thinning the stand did not significantly increase yield of Para-
guay No. 1 seed.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) G. B. Killinger, D. E. McCloud
Project 295 and H. C. Harris
Five Bahia grass varieties seeded in December, 1953, made excellent
growth during the 1954 season. All varieties produced more forage at
high than at low fertility levels. Yields ranged from 2,000 pounds per
acre dry weight forage for common Bahia to 6,000 pounds per acre for
Pensacola Bahia. Several newer strains produced approximately the same
total forage as Pensacola.
Fields of Pangola grass and Coastal Bermuda grass grown under varied
nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium levels ranged from 2,000 to 16,000
pounds per acre of dry forage, all of which was produced from May 28
through October 5. The low yield was from plots receiving no nitrogen
while the high yield was produced on plots receiving nitrogen at the rate
of 1,561 pounds per acre per year (60 pounds N. every two weeks). The
protein content of the forage also increased with the heavier application of
nitrogen. Phosphorus and potassium rates did not affect yields at the
lower nitrogen levels, but did account for increased forage with heavier
rates of nitrogen fertilization. (See also Proj. 412, AN. HUSB. and

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 297 D. E. McCloud and
(Contributing to Regional Project S-9) F. H. Hull "
The 426 introductions from 23 foreign countries and all five continents
were planted in the greenhouse. Of these, 308 germinated and were trans-
planted to a field nursery to determine their general adaptation to Florida.
Seed increases were made for the Southeastern Regional Plant Introduc-
tion Station, and a comprehensive report was compiled showing the char-
acteristics and adaptation of more than 500 former introductions.
Seventeen introductions were well adapted to Florida's climate. The
following are among the more promising: Borthrichloa insculpta (P.I.
199,314) ; Chloris gayana (P.I. 208,083) ; Digitaria smutsii (P.I. 209,579);
two Panicum stapfianum introductions (P.I. 208,012 and P.I. 208,104); and
Setaria sphaceolata (P.I. 209,579). All of these came from Africa. Sev-
'0 Cooperative with Field Crops Research Branch, ARS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1955

eral Digitaria spp. were placed in the grass- breeding program to serve
as a source of new germ plasm.
The evaluation of three Bahia grass varieties was concluded this year
and Pensacola and Argentine (P.I. 148,996) continued to give higher for-
age production than the more recent introduction (P.I. 162,902).
Measurements of potential evapotranspiration were expanded to include
Pangola grass and Coastal Bermuda grass. Energy balance studies indi-
cate that rates of daily water use above a maximum of somewhat less than
0.20 inches per day cannot occur for sustained periods. Evapotranspi-
rometers giving higher rates are subject to advective heat transfer and do
not indicate field values. The evapotranspiration concept has been extended
to the field and is giving satisfactory results when used to determine
the timing of supplemental irrigations.
Punching and preliminary analysis of weather data on more than 50,000
IBM cards from Gainesville, Belle Glade, Lake Alfred and Quincy have
been completed. These records are proving invaluable in crop production
problems involving weather factors.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 298 W. A. Carver and F. H. Hull :
The 11 Bahia grass strains planted during the summer of 1954 in
replicated plots have become well established. The early 1955 clippings
from these plots showed higher yields for narrow-leaf types. Plots planted
from seeds in 1954 failed to produce a stand of plants and were abandoned.
A large number of crosses made naturally to self-sterile lines, and by hand
pollination between broad-leaf and narrow-leaf types, have shown no
superiority over parent lines. It is known that some broad-leaf lines set
seed almost entirely by apomixis.
Plans are being made to irradiate cuttings of Pangola grass and seeds
of Argentine Bahia grass to induce favorable variations.
In 1955, introductions of rye grass, tall fescue, millet and sorghums are
being grown in observation plots. Regional variety tests of tall fescue and
rye grass also are being conducted.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 301 A. T. Wallace, E. S. Horner
and F. H. Hull"
The breeding programs with alfalfa and big trefoil are being continued
and a breeding program with crotalaria is being initiated. No significant
results can be reported from them at this stage.
In the vetch variety trials, the top forage-producing variety was Madi-
son. The top forage-producing variety in the winter pea trials was Tangier.
Indian and Du Puits were the leaders in an alfalfa variety test on flatwoods

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 304 G. B. Killinger
Botanical composition studies indicate that none of eight specific treat-
ments was entirely satisfactory for destroying carpet and centipede grasses
and establishing of Pangola grass.
Cooperative with Field Crops Research Branch, ARS, USDA.

50 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Maleic hydrazide (MH) applied as a spray at 10 pounds per acre has
kept carpet and centipede grass seedlings to a zero count, but may have
been detrimental to rapid growth and establishment of Pangola grass.
Plowing of carpet and centipede grass sods, followed by several months
fallowing and then planting to Pangola grass, has been successful for
establishing Pangola grass but has not eliminated all of the carpet and
centipede grasses.
Chemical and/or cultural treatments can be expected to give different
results with different seasons.
This project is being closed with this report. (See also Proj. 304 and
AN. HUSB. and NUTR.)

Adams Project 369 H. C. Harris
In pasture fertilization experiments the nitrogen content of the har-
vested Pangola grass, Pensacola Bahia grass, and mixed clovers with
these grasses, was high when the fertilizer application closely preceded
the time of harvesting the sample. The prosphorus and potassium contents
of the forage followed this same pattern to some extent. The calcium con-
tent was lowest in mid and late summer. Fertilizer application closely
preceding time of harvesting the sample increased the sodium content, and
ammonium nitrate appeared to have some effect in that respect.
This project is being closed with this report.

Adams Project 372 Fred Clark
Following the 1953 progeny evaluation tests, some 130 lines were selected
from the 600 head selections on the basis of measurements of number and
size of leaves, as well as for root-knot resistance. This was done in an
attempt to overcome the close association between high resistance and
narrow leaf. Many of these lines did not survive the nematode infesta-
tion. Two hundred and twenty head selections were made during 1954.

Fig. 7.-Effect of fertilizer treatments on growth of sweet yellow lupine
in the greenhouse on Blanton fine sand, level phase. Comp. is complete
fertilization, including minor elements. Deficiencies are indicated on labels.

KF No l jNMo So MN

"oiI j

-i Ms^

Anmnal Report, 1955

Two interspecific hybrid lines were tested, Bel-4-30 and Bel-4-31. These
lines were very vigorous, and because of the heterogeneity of the material,
individual plant selections had to be made for root-knot resistance. Bel-4-31
was superior to Bel-4-30 in yield and quality. However, Bel-4-30 had higher
resistance. It appears quite likely that the high resistance and narrow-leaf
type association have been broken by these two crosses.

Purnell Project 374 E. S. Horner and F. H. Hull
The third cycle of selection for combining ability with F44 x F6 was
completed. The test hybrids produced on the average 7 percent more
grain than Dixie 18 and 12 percent more than those of the previous cycle.
Analyses of the third cycle data indicate that an additional gain of about
10 percent can be made in the next cycle of selection.
Dixie 18, Coker's 811, and Funk's G-740 were the leading commercial
hybrids tested. All were good in yield, standability, and weevil resistance.
U. S. 13 was the highest yielding early hybrid in the tests. (See also
'06-. .'l < Atl IAa V .

Fig. 8.-A stage in sulfur deficiency on Dixie 18 corn.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 440 H. C. Harris, Fred Clark
and R. L. Gilman
The effect of soil treatments on forage yield and the chemical nature of
sweet yellow lupine was compared on Blanton fine sand, level phase, at the
greenhouse. Potassium, magnesium, sulfur and molybdenum each greatly
increased the yield of lupine (Figure 7). Boron seemed slightly beneficial.
Calcium had no effect on yield, even though the soil is very low in that

52 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

element. The same was true for phosphorus. Potassium, magnesium and,
to a lesser extent, molybdenum increased root weight, while sulfur had no
effect. The dry weight of the nodules was increased by potassium, sulfur or
magnesium. A deficiency of sulfur, potassium, molybdenum or magnesium
caused the dry nodules to be low in nitrogen.
In a parallel experiment on the same soil with Dixie 18 corn, the forage
yield was markedly increased by nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur
and zinc, while the effect of magnesium was only slight. Yield was not
affected by calcium application. Thus the influences of molybdenum, zinc,
phosphorus and magnesium on the yield of the two crops on the same soil
were quite different.

Fig. 9.-A stage in zinc deficiency (white bud) of Dixie 18 corn.

Dixie 18 corn developed certain deficiency symptoms (Figures 8, 9, and
10) which vary from those described in the literature.
In experiments on Arrendondo loamy fine sand at the greenhouse,
oat forage grown with a sulfur deficiency was high in nitrogen, while with
a nitrogen deficiency it was high in sulfur. Similar results were obtained
for nitrogen and sulfur content of tobacco when grown on Blanton fine
sand, level phase, at the greenhouse.

State Project 444 Fred Clark
Nugreen and calcium cyanamid continue to provide good weed control.
Methyl bromide, however, is highly recommended as a herbicide and as a
nematocide for plant beds Allyl alcohol looks very promising.
Vermiculite and peat moss were the best organic mulches this year.
Zineb and ferbam are both very effective for controlling blue mold;
however Maneb and Agrimycin seem promising but need additional test-
Four dates for seeding were tested this year. Results are incomplete.

Annual Report, 1955

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 487 A. T. Wallace
(Contributing to Regional Project S-13)
Oat, wheat and barley lines in the recurrent selection program were
grown in nurseries at five locations. From these nurseries 266 lines of
oats, 10 lines of wheat and 26 lines of barley have been selected for further
The optimum plot size for clipping oats was determined to be one row
eight feet long replicated four or five times. The seeding rate of one
bushel per acre produced more forage than did three bushels, which in
turn produced more than six bushels. Oats clipped at a three-inch height
produced more forage than those clipped at a six-inch height. Oats planted
October 1 produced more forage than those planted September 1. An
early and a late-maturing variety, when mixed at planting, produced more
forage per acre than an average of the varieties planted separately.
Six plants showing resistance to crown rust were selected among
segregating progeny of irradiated Southland. Plants free of awns and
basal hairs were selected from segregating progeny of irradiated Floriland.
Irradiated progeny of Floriland are being used to initiate a recurrent se-
2 Coperative with Field Crops Research Branch, ARS, USDA.

Fig. 10.-A stage in magnesium deficiency of Dixie 18 corn. A reddish
color along the margins of the lower blades was first observed. Stripes
appear later.

*-'7 aaf iiin~i IT

54 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

election program to determine the effect of the accumulation of induced
micromutations in oats. (See also Proj. 487, PLANT PATHOLOGY;

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 488 H. C. Harris, R. L. Gilman
and Fred Clark
Early Runner peanuts were grown individually in containers of soil for
three weeks after germination. Then radioactive sulfur was applied in
solution to one of the second leaves of each plant. Approximately 1.5
percent of the application was taken up in six days by one leaf and moved
to the above-ground portion of the plants.
When S" was applied to the root or the fruiting system of Early Runner
peanuts in sand culture, the sulfur moved freely from the point of applica-
tion to other parts of the plant. Much more S" was absorbed by the root
than the fruit system. However, when there was a sulfur deficiency in
the root area the fruit system absorbed more, tending to compensate for
the root deficiency.
Dixie Runner peanuts grown at the greenhouse on Blanton fine sand,
level phase, produced essentially no peanuts when calcium was not applied
to the fruiting zone. Other treatments had no effect on fruit yield when
calcium was not applied in the fruiting area. A sulfur or molybdenum
deficiency decreased the percentage of nitrogen in the foliage. Sulfur or
calcium in the treatment increased the percentage composition of those

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 537 Fred Clark
Four insecticide treatments were tested under uniform cultural prac-
tices. Only the Endrin spray and the 5 percent TDE dust treatments were
better than the check plot for yield and dollar value. Endrin-treated tobacco
produced the highest yield and dollar value per acre. (See also Proj. 537,

Hatch Project 555 Fred Clark and H. C. Harris
Experiments dealing with rates of irrigation, rates of planting, sources
of nitrogen, varieties, fumigation and sucker control were continued, with
the following results:
Plant Populations and Rates of Irrigation.-Four fertilizer treatments
(based on four split applications of a 4-8-12 fertilizer applied at the total
rate of 1,200 pounds per acre) and four plant populations (5,000, 7,500,
10,000 and 12,500 pounds per acre) were treated with three rates of irriga-
tion (4.0, 8.0 and 11.6 inches). Total rainfall for the growing season was
9.5 inches. Irrigation water totaled 5.82 inches in nine irrigations, 8.90
inches in 14 applications, and 13.77 inches in 20 applications. One split
application of the fertilizer was better than three or four split applications,
irrespective of treatments.
Highest yield came from the 12,500 plants per acre, highest average
quality from 5,000 plants per acre. Production of high quality tobacco
paralleled the irrigation treatments, while an inverse relationship existed
between total yield and irrigation treatments.

Annual Report, 1955 55

The 7,500 to 10,000 plants per acre, with one split application of the
fertilizer made approximately two weeks after transplanting, and the
medium rate of irrigation produced highest net returns.
Nitrate of soda, urea, sulfate of ammonia, ammonium nitrate and a
one-third ratio of nitrate of soda, urea and sulfate of ammonia with fumi-
gation and irrigation averaged 1,567 pounds of tobacco per acre; a ratio
of two-thirds mineral and one-third insoluble organic combinations of nitro-
gen averaged 1,550 pounds of tobacco per acre. The non-fumigated plots
for the same treatments averaged 1,282 and 1,476 pounds per acre.
Without irrigation, although fumigated, the same sources of nitrogen
produced 817 pounds for the all-mineral sources and 702 pounds for the
mineral-organic combination. Yields of tobacco for the non-fumigated
plots were 525 and 634 pounds per acre.
Chemical Sucker Control.-Effective sucker control was obtained by
using one pint of maleic hydrazide for every 1,300 plants; approximately
six to seven pints are needed per acre to provide effective sucker control,
provided plant growth has been fairly normal throughout the growing
season. (See also Proj. 555, AGR. ENGINEERING.)

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 600 E. S. Horner and F. H. Hull
Mass selection for powdery mildew resistance in red clover has been
effective. About 78 percent of the plants in the 1955 nursery were resis-
tant, compared with 70 percent in 1954. However, root-rot caused the
death of all the red clover plants during the summer of 1954.
A number of white clover plants lived through the summer and made
good fall growth. Twenty of these were multiplied vegetatively for further

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 612 J. R. Edwardson and F. H. Hull"
Several X-ray mutants from Alta Blue lupine were increased for seed.
An early drought and severe winter injury made selection difficult and
discarding of lines impractical in both blue and yellow lupine nurseries.
Seed yield in Borre again was drastically reduced by thrips.
It has been demonstrated that lupine virus symptoms can be transmitted
from infected to non-infected yellow lupine plants by the green peach
aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer).
White-seeded yellow sweet lupine seed were irradiated at the Brookhaven
National Laboratory with thermal neutrons and X-rays. In the first year's
progeny of neutron-treated seed, mutations for seed, flower and foliage
color were observed. Fifteen virus-free plants were found in the neutron-
treated plots, four in the X-ray and three in the control plots (See also

State Project 627 G. B. Killinger, D. E. McCloud
and H. C. Harris
Eight replicated pasture programs involving Pangola grass and Pen-
sacola Bahia grass, with and without winter clovers, with varied fertiliza-
13 Cooperative with Field Crops Research Branch, ARS, USDA.

56 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

tion rates, and with and without irrigation, were grazed with cows and
calves for the second full season.
Yields of forage from all-grass pastures varied from 2,611 pounds of
oven-dry herbage per acre to 10,689 pounds per acre. These yields were
from pastures treated with 225 pounds of 8-8-8 plus 16 pounds of nitrogen
per acre and 900 pounds of 8-8-8 plus 48 pounds of nitrogen per acre,
respectively. Protein produced from the same pastures ranged from 132 to
936 pounds per acre on the grass pastures.
Yields of clover-grass pastures varied from 2,186 to 9,160 pounds of
oven-dry forage per acre. Protein produced on the same clover-grass pas-
tures ranged from a low of 236 pounds to a high of 1,124 pounds per
Nitrogen and mineral content varied in proportion to the fertilizer
applied and was greatly influenced by time of application. Plant samples
analyzed two weeks after fertilization contained more protein and minerals
than samples analyzed six weeks after fertilization.
Pangola grass was markedly lower in sodium than Pensacola Bahia grass
in all instances. (See also Proj. 627, ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NU-

State Project 652 G. C. Nutter
Bermuda Grasses.-Evaluations were continued on 84 selections of
Bermuda grass in a previously established testing nursery. Additional
data were collected on seasonal performance, disease susceptibility, drought
tolerance, cold tolerance, seeding tendency and fertility response at each
of two clipping levels (1 and % inch).
During the winter season considerable variability in performance was
evident among selections at the lower, but not at the higher, clipping
height. During this season there was no appreciable response to bi-
weekly over monthly fertilizer applications. However, fertility response
became more pronounced in the warmer seasons, with selection variability
being evident.
Certain selections were noted for prolific production of close-growing
seedheads, an undesirable characteristic of putting green grasses. Heav-
iest seedhead set occurred from January to March.
Selections most outstanding in performance during the year included
FB numbers 4, 12, 17, 23, 45, 49, 52, 53, 60, 61, 62, 66, 69, 76 and 79.
Additional Bermuda grass selections have been planted for screening.
Zoysia Grasses.-Fifty selections of Zoysia grasses were planted in a
testing nursery in May 1955. Data will be collected on rate of establish-
ment, growth habit, textural characteristics, seasonal performance and
disease susceptibility.
St. Augustine Grass.-Additional data were collected on 24 selections
grown under three clipping heights and two fertility levels. The selections
exhibited wide variability in adaptation to close mowing, winter per-
formance, resistance to weed invasion, and maximum growing height.
Florida selections 1, 2, 3, 4, 12, 16, 20 and 22 were outstanding during the
Other Grasses.-Pensacola Bahia grass continued to perform well as a
low maintenance cover. Bahia selection No. 10 was superior to Pensa-
cola in winter performance at the high fertility level.

Annual Report, 1955

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 661 G. B. Killinger and
I. M. Wofford
Fall and spring renovation treatments were again applied to Pangola,
Pensacola Bahia and Coastal Bermuda pasture sods. All treatments bene-
fited the clover and grass growth for all pastures.
Dry and cold weather during the fall and winter of 1954-55 limited
the amount of clover germination and growth. (See also Proj. 661, AGR.

State Project 678 G. C. Nutter
Studies have been conducted on problems of applying insecticides to
established turf through irrigation injector systems. Emulsion concen-
trates have been used successfully in this manner for the control of sod
webworm, armyworms, mole-crickets and ants. Although the method is
simple and economical, successful use is dependent upon accurate, uniform
sprinkler distribution. Sprinkler selection and spacing and hydraulic
pressure must be carefully evaluated. (See also Proj. 678, ENTOMOLOGY,

State Project 691 H. C. Harris, Frank Woods and
Walt Hoskins "
Analyses of samples for last year show that available carbohydrates
were low in bluejack oak roots in April and early May, while turkey oak
roots were low in late April or early May. The available carbohydrates
of wiregrass roots were low in midsummer.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 694 E. 0. Burt
(Regional S-18)
Six herbicides were applied at different rates pre-emergence to peanuts
to study their effects on weeds and peanuts. DNOSBP (alkanolamine
salts) gave best results. The 6-, 9- and 12-pound rates gave very good
control of weeds with apparently no damage to peanuts. Karmex W and
the low volatile esters of 2,4-D at the one-pound rates gave very good
The amine and low volatile ester formulations of 2,4-D and MCP were
applied at six different rates to oats at three different stages of growth.
Sodium trichlorobenzoate (HC-1281S), amino triazole and DNOSBP were
applied at different rates to oats at one or two different stages of growth.
Somewhat better weed control was noted in plots treated when the oats
were in the two- to three-leaf stage than when they were in either the
three to four or four to five leaf stages. The amine and ester formulations
of 2,4-D at rates of 14 and 1/ pounds acid equivalent per acre gave ex-
oellent control of weeds with little or no damage to oats. Other treat-
ments were less satisfactory.
14 Cooperative with East Gulf Coast Branch, Southern Forest Experiment Station.

58 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Sea Island and Other Long Staple Cottons.-The May 7, 1954, planting
of five Sea Island type strains produced a poor stand of plants, and was
replanted on July 13. An extra early killing frost came on the first of
November. A few bolls opened later on most plants. All lines appeared
to be equal in earliness and yield. No yield weights were taken.
Improvement of Sealand cotton through pedigreed selection is being
Yield trials of five Coastland Sea Island cotton strains are being grown
in 1955 on the Main Station farm and at the branch stations at Leesburg and
Sanford. (W. A. Carver, J. W. Wilson, C. C. Helms and F. H. Hull.)
Crop Management.-For the seventh consecutive year, when Dixie 18
corn followed bitter blue lupine no significant increases in grain were ob-
tained from 40 pounds each of P.O, and KsO, nor from 40 pounds of N
alone or with P. and K. Yields of grain from plots receiving 2,4-D only,
cultivation with a rotary hoe only, or no cultivation, were significantly
lower than from plots receiving regular cultivations.
The only significant yield response of soybean seed obtained from a
fertilizer test at the Suwannee Valley Station was to applications of nitrate
of soda at time of planting when compared to the check plot. Nitrate of
soda applied at blooming and 3-12-12 at planting gave a significant yield
increase over 0-12-12.
Of six herbicides used pre-emergence to soybeans at the Watermelon
and Grape Investigations Laboratory, only SPCP and CIPC did not sig-
nificantly reduce stands as compared to plots receiving no chemicals. (I. M.
Wofford, E. O. Burt, G. E. Ritchey, C. C. Helms, Jr., and T. C. Skinner.)
Lawn Management Studies.-During the past rather severe winter sea-
son Manila grass (Zoysia matrella) was superior in performance to five
other lawn grasses. Bermuda grass ranked second, followed in order by
Pensacola Bahia, St. Augustine, carpet and centipede grasses.
With the better performing grasses, winter condition varied directly
with increasing level of fertility and indirectly with increasing height of
cut. However, with those grasses which turn dormant in cold weather,
close clipping and high fertility increased the invasion of winter annual
weeds and decreased the rate of recovery in the spring.
A seasonal planting study has been initiated with Manila, St. Augus-
tine, Bermuda and centipede grasses to determine the effect of date of
planting on rate of growth and establishment. Plantings of these grasses
will be made every 40 days throughout the year. (G. C. Nutter.)
Nematode Investigations in Turf.-Continuing surveys indicate that
nematode damage in turf grasses is becoming more widespread. To date,
the most frequently encountered parasites include sting (Belonalaimus
gracilis), lance (Hoplolaimus coronatus), stubby root (trichodorus spp),
and dagger (Xiphenema americanum) nematodes. Damage has been found
in all major turf grasses. Soil sterilization is recommended where turf
grasses are being planted in nematode-infested areas.
Tests have been established in four sites throughout the State to ex-
plore the feasibility of controlling nematodes in established turf with
chemicals. Three commercially formulated materials are being tested, each
at four concentrations. To date some improvement in turf condition is evi-
dent with certain treatments. Phytotoxicity has not caused concern. (G.
C. Nutter.) (See also Proj. 695, ENTOMOLOGY.)
Herbicidal Control of Weeds in Soybeans.-Twelve herbicides were ap-
plied at different rates pre-emergence to soybeans planted June 5, 1954.
Ten herbicides were applied pre-emergence to soybeans planted July 26,

Annual Report, 1955

1955. One herbicide, DNOSBP, was also applied seven days after emer-
gence of the soybeans. None of the treatments gave satisfactory weed
control without reducing the stand of soybeans planted June 5. Treat-
ments applied to soybeans planted July 26 resulted in better weed control
and less damage to soybeans. CIPC and SPCP gave excellent control of
weeds with little or no damage to soybeans. (E. O. Burt.)
Control of Nut Grass (Cyperus rotundus L.) with Herbicides and
Tillage.-Repeated applications of amino triazole, 2,4-D (low volatile ester),
and a single application of Dalapon were effective in controlling nut grass
top growth. Ninety percent of the nut grass plants emerging in plots
treated with amino triazole and then disked showed toxicity symptoms.
(E. O. Burt.)
Castorbeans.-Four castorbean diseases which are serious in Florida are
bacterial leafspot (Xanthomonas ricinicola), Alternaria leafspot (Alter-
naria ricini), Cercospora leafspot (Cercospor'a ricini), and gray mold
(Botrytis ricini). Gray mold is the most serious factor limiting yield. The
variety Cimarron and a few others have some tolerance to bacterial and
Alternaria leafspots. No resistance to Cercospora leafspot or gray mold
has been found in any variety.
An attempt to control seed-borne inoculum of bacterial leafspot by
treating the seed with hot water was not successful.
The importance of several other diseases of castorbean is being studied.
(A. A. Cook.")
5 Cooperative with Field Crops Research Branch, ARS, USIYA.

60 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The work in the Department has continued along the same lines as
last year. Eight new projects were written and one project was revised
during the year. The Beef Research Unit program is well underway.
Grants-in-aid have been received from Lederle Laboratories, Eli Lilly
and Company, Chas. Pfizer and Company, Swift and Company, The National
Cottonseed Products Association, The Nutrition Foundation, U. S. Atomic
Energy Commission, U. S. Public Health Service, Coronet Phosphate Com-
pany, The Soft Phosphate Institute and the Lovett-Steiden Table Supply
Foundation. These grants, totaling $59,150 last year, have enabled the de-
partment to expand many of its investigations on minerals, vitamins, anti-
biotics, proteins, meats, breeding, and physiology of reproduction work with
beef cattle and swine. All grants have been used to expand work that is
of particular interest to Florida livestock people.
A small flock of Hampshire sheep was added this year, since more
interest is being manifested in possibilities of producing sheep in Florida.
A small herd of dwarf-carrier cows and dwarf calves was obtained to use in
testing bulls used in Station herds and to study the genetics and heredity
involved in this problem.
The New Nutrition Laboratory building is about completed and ready
for occupancy. An addition to the swine-feeding unit of 48 individual
feeding stalls was completed. A 60-acre area near the Beef Research
Unit is being developed for physiology studies. A small area near the
Livestock Pavilion is being cleared and developed as a sheep unit.
Completion of the new Animal Nutrition Laboratory will permit in-
tensified research in livestock problems in Florida. The new facilities will
enable the use of many techniques which previously have been limited by
lack of space. Work with radioactive isotopes and other specialized tech-
niques will be especially useful in the attack on many of these problems.
Completion of the other units will allow for further expansion in the swine,
sheep and physiology studies.

Purnell Project 133 G. K. Davis, R. L. Shirley, W. G. Kirk,"
R. B. Becker,'" P. T. Dix Arnold,"
S. P. Marshall," J. P. Feaster, J. T. McCall,
L. R. Arrington and J. C. Outler, Jr.
Included in the work under this project during the past year have
been the studies on the rapid erosion of teeth in cattle in five widely scat-
tered areas of Florida. This condition appears to be of nutritional origin and
originates in a disturbed mineral balance concerned with calcium, phos-
phorus, copper and molybdenum. Fluorosis has come under study because
of conditions around some of the industrial plants of the state. A rela-
tionship between manganese and molybdenum has been suggested by find-
ings on some of the muck areas. This has opened up a new approach to the
overall investigations into trace element requirements of cattle. Vitamin
Bi as a part of the cobalt nutrition picture in ruminants has been shown
to be influenced by molybdenum and to have some relation to copper
nutrition, although the exact details are unknown. Copper toxicity again
Cooperative with Dairy Science Dept., Range Cattle and Everglades Stations.

Annual Report, 1955

has become a problem in certain areas in the state, due to high levels of
copper feeding in areas which are borderline muck and sand.
Differences in availability of phosphorus from different sources applied
to pastures appear to be closely related to the availability of sufficient
nitrogen. Unless nitrogen is available in ample quantities, differences in
the availability of phosphorus from different sources are not apparent.
Studies have been renewed with defluorinated phosphate as a source of phos-
phorus in mineral mixtures for cattle with evidence that phosphorus avail-
ability is satisfactory. Work is in progress with colloidal phosphate as a
possible source of phosphorus for farm animals. Studies have been con-
tinued at the Dairy Research Center at Hague on the level of iron required
in the salt-sick mineral as determined by the blood hemoglobin levels in
cattle on various levels of iron in the salt mixture.
Extensive studies have dealt with the influence of trace elements-
copper, molybdenum and manganese-on the oxidation reduction enzymes of
the heart tissues of cattle, swine and other animals. Evidence is accumulat-
ing that the trace elements are especially vital in the utilization of pro-
tein by cattle and by laboratory animals. (See Proj. 133, EVERGLADES

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 304 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and T. J. Cunha
Eight treatments were used to destroy Centipede and Carpet grass before
establishing Pangola grass. Both mechanical and chemical treatments gave
a measure of kill and control of Centipede and Carpet Grass, but a plan for
complete eradification was not found. Pangola grass was established suc-
cessfully on all plots except those given chemical treatments. The project
is being closed with this report. (See also Project 304, AGRICULTURAL

Purnell Project 346 G. K. Davis, J. P. Feaster, J. T. McCall,
L. R. Arrington and J. C. Outler, Jr.
Various sources of phosphate have been sent to Oak Ridge for activa-
tion in the nuclear reactor and then used in studies of phosphorus avail-
ability. It has been demonstrated that there is a very marked species
difference in the utilization of phosphorus from such sources as dicalcium
phosphate, defluorinated phosphate and colloidal phosphate. Results with
rats are not necessarily applicable directly to cattle. Work with rats,
rabbits and guinea pigs has demonstrated that the relationship between
molybdenum and copper, which was first shown in cattle, is probably an
indirect effect. Protein level and sulfates appear to have a marked in-
fluence upon the interaction of these two trace elements and upon the
interaction of these elements with phosphorus.
Work with different forms of molybdenum such as sodium molybdate
and ammonium phosphomolybdate has shown that there is a marked dif-
ference in effects of these compounds upon animals.
Work with manganese is being carried out with swine. Rations very
low in manganese are being fed over several generations to ascertain
the influence of this element upon growth and reproduction. The very
low levels of manganese which have been used indicate that a natural de-
ficiency of manganese with swine is extremely unlikely under Florida condi-
tions, unless an interfering element is introduced into the ration.

62 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Low protein rations appear to have a definite effect upon the action
of trace elements such as molybdenum and also upon the composition of
heart and muscle tissues. Such rations also cause marked changes in the
enzyme activity of these tissues. Guar seed meal has been tested with rats
and shown to be of low palatability but non-toxic.
In studies with zinc it was found that only about 5 percent of zinc
in the diet is absorbed from the intestinal tract. This zinc is readily trans-
ferred to the milk of a lactating female.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 356 G. K. Davis and J. T. McCall
Total dry matter content of pasture herbage has been shown to be
the most serious limitation under certain pasture conditions, especially on
the muck soils. The principal limiting factor in year-around pasture
management is that of adequate protein. Protein has been shown to vary
with the seasons in spite of heavy applications of nitrogen and other fer-
tilizer elements. With satisfactory pasture development, trace elements
such as cobalt may still be limiting factors in the performance of cattle on
these pastures and must be considered as part of the overall management
In work with forages from muck soils it has been shown that the ratio
of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium to phosphate, sulfate,
chloride and nitrates may be important in the performance of cattle on
otherwise excellent pastures. Copper has been shown to counteract un-
favorable effects of an imbalance of these elements, even when copper
deficiency is not present. Work under this project has also included
studies of the quality of silage from various grasses and legumes as re-
lated to the overall production of feed from pastures on muck and sandy
land pastures.

State Project 412 J. F. Hentges, Jr., T. J. Cunha
and G. B. Killinger
This project was inactive during the year and is being closed. (See also
Proj. 295, AGRONOMY.)

State Project 461 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and T. J. Cunha
A summary of the data compiled between January 1945 and January
1955 shows that the purebred Angus cows averaged 1,009 pounds after
calving and produced calves averaging 64 pounds at birth. The Hereford
cows averaged 1,043 pounds after calving and produced calves averaging
73 pounds at birth. After grazing during the summers without supple-
mental feed, the weaning weights of the Angus calves averaged 459 pounds
and the Hereford calves 457 pounds. At weaning time the Angus cows
averaged 1,051 pounds and the Hereford cows 1,148 pounds in weight.
The amount of supplemental feed consumed per cow during the wintering
period varied from 800 to 1,500 pounds of grass hay for all cows, and an
additional 350 to 1,000 pounds of concentrates for lactating cows.
This project is closed with this report.

Annual Report, 1955

State Project 518 G. K. Davis
This project has been inactive during the current year and is being dis-
continued with this report.

State Project 540 H. D. Wallace and T. J. Cunha
Fresh avocado pulp was fed to growing-fattening swine on a free-choice
basis in addition to a complete ration. It required 443 pounds of avocado
pulp to replace 46 pounds of the complete ration. When fed alone the
avocados failed to maintain body weight of pigs. Fresh avocado seeds were
offered free-choice but pigs refused to eat them.
Ground citrus pulp has been utilized as a diluent in soybean oilmeal to
prevent over-consumption when the soybean oil meal was self-fed to
growing-fattening swine. Results indicate that citrus pulp is satisfactory
for this purpose but the optimum dilution rate for varying conditions has not
yet been determined.
An attempt has been made to utilize detoxified tung meal in a free-
choice protein supplemental mixture for growing-fattening swine. Re-
sults of this test indicate that tung meal is extremely unpalatable to
pigs. Until this limitation is overcome, tung meal cannot serve as a useful
source of protein for swine.

State Project 542 H. D. Wallace and T. J. Cunha
A study has been completed to determine the long-time effect of
adding aureomycin at the rate of 40 grams per ton to the ration of gestating-
lactating sows fed on good grass and legume pastures. First, second, third,
fourth and fifth litter performances indicate that the aureomycin supple-
mented sows have farrowed slightly heavier pigs, weaned slightly fewer
pigs and weaned less total weight per litter. There is no clear evidence
from the experiment that the antibiotic has been either detrimental or
beneficial over this long-time feeding period.

State Project 543 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and T. J. Cunha
Three supplemental feeding programs were compared for wintering cows
on dry Pangola grass pasture. Dry cows self-fed Pangola grass silage from
an experimental self-feeding horizontal above-ground silo consumed 44
pounds daily, had an average daily gain of 0.4 pounds, and an increase-in-
condition score of 1.7 points. Lactating cows fed similarly showed a weight
loss of 106 pounds and a decrease-in-condition score of 1.7 points. Weight
losses of cows being hand fed limited amounts (15 to 30 pounds) of Pangola
grass silage were 58 pounds for dry cows and 168 pounds for lactating
cows. Average decreases-in-condition scores were 1.0 point for dry cows and
2.3 points for lactating cows. Weight losses for cows being hand-fed Pan-
gola grass hay in quantities equivalent on a dry matter basis to the silage
allowed the limited-fed cows were 52 pounds for dry cows and 189 pounds
for lactating cows. Average decreases-in-condition scores were 1.1 points
for dry cows and 2.6 points for lactating cows. Average feed and labor

64 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

costs were $17.49 for the self-fed silage group, $10.98 for the limited-fed
silage group, and $13.32 for the limited-fed hay group. This project is
being closed this year. (See also Proj. 543, NORTH FLA. STA.)

State Project 546 A. M. Pearson, F. H. Jack and T. J. Cunha
This project was inactive during the year.

State Project 551 R. L. Shirley, J. P. Feaster,
J. T. McCall and G. K. Davis
For this report, see Project 551, POULTRY HUSBANDRY.

Adams Project 566 G. K. Davis, John P. Feaster,
L, R. Arrington, J. T. McCall
and H. W. Newland
The production of normal young by farm animals is of particular in-
terest in the overall cycle of reproduction, and work under this project has
been concerned with the nutrition of the fetus before birth. Radioactive
isotopes have been particularly useful in labeling the various elements
which are being studied in order that they might be followed from feed
through the dam into the developing young. Nutritional factors have been
shown to have a marked influence on the availability of a number of the
trace elements, notably zinc and copper, with regard to their availability to
the fetus. Calcium and phosphorus, which also have been studied, have
been less influenced by changes in nutrition. Studies with phosphorus in-
dicate that quantitatively this may be a very important element in the
development of the fetus. Factors which cause a low blood phosphorus in
the dam may be critical in the development of the fetus. Work under
this project has reemphasized the importance of good nutrition of females
during the middle and later part of pregnancy if strong, normal young
are to be produced. The presence of excess molybdenum in the diet may
interfere seriously with the transfer of trace elements to the fetus, with
resulting malformation of young.

State Project 615 M. Koger
For this report, see Project 615, RANGE CATTLE STATION.

State Project 627 M. Koger
The second calf crop sired by bulls of the Angus, Brahman, Hereford
and Shorthorn breeds, and out of cows approximately one-half Brahman
and one-half native breeding maintained on eight different pasture pro-
grams, was weaned in early September, 1954. Weights of calves at 180
days of age were 415, 409, 407 and 379 pounds for calves sired by Here-

Annual Report, 1955

ford, Shorthorn, Angus and Brahman bulls, respectively. These breed dif-
ferences were similar to those of the previous year, except that the
Hereford and Shorthorn calves were reversed in order.
The market grades of calves at weaning, ranked in descending order by
breeds, were as follows: Angus, Hereford, Shorthorn and Brahman, the
same order as calves weaned the previous year.
The long-yearling weights of heifers (taken 9-20-54) from the 1953
calf crop were 741 pounds for English heifers from the Quincy Station, 679
pounds for heifers sired by Hereford bulls, and 604 pounds for heifers
by Brahman bulls.
Feed-lot gains made by steer calves from the 1953 crop were 2.13, 2.07,
2.05, and 1.97 pounds per head daily for calves sired by Hereford, Short-
horn, Brahman and Angus bulls, respectively.
Carcass grades ranked in the order of Shorthorn, Angus, Hereford and
Brahman, with the first three being very similar and approximately one
grade higher than the Brahman.
The strikingly superior performance of cattle on pastures containing
clovers, as compared with all-grass pastures, was noted for the third con-
secutive year. The conception rate was 65 percent on clover pastures and
32 percent on grass pastures. Calves from the clover pastures weaned at
422 pounds, while calves from grass pastures weighed 397 pounds and
averaged one-third of a grade lower in market score. No supplemental
feeding was needed on clover pastures, while cows on grass pastures re-
ceived protein supplement for approximately 90 days at the rate of from
1.0 to 1.5 pounds per head daily.
Different rates of fertilization on pastures with the same forage plants
did not significantly affect the average performance per animal unit. The
average carrying capacities of the different pasture programs, expressed
as number of cow grazing days supplied per acre, were as follows:
On all-grass pastures: 300 pounds of 6-6-6 plus 50 pounds of ammonium
nitrate, 154 days; double this amount of fertilizer, 203 days; and three times
base amount, 305 days.
On clover-grass pastures: 600 pounds of 0-12-12, 316 days; with 1,200
pounds of 0-12-12, 382 days.
One acre of improved clover pasture, fertilized at the rate of 600 pounds
of 0-12-12 per acre, plus three acres of native range, supplied 387 grazing
days. Irrigated clover pasture fertilized at the rate of 1,200 pounds of
0-12-12 furnished 386 grazing days per acre. (See also Project 627,

State Project 629 M. Koger, A. C. Warnick, W. G. Kirk,
(Contributing to Regional Project S-10) W. M. Hazen and E. J. Warwick
The performance of herds of different breeding is being compared at
the Brooksville Station. Produce of these herds will be used in future
years in testing breeding systems for commercial operations. The groups
represented include Angus, Brahman, Brangus, Hereford and Santa Ger-
trudis. Foundation herds have been established and are now in produc-
tion. Because of recent establishment of some of the herds and variation
in previous treatment, no general trends can be established from results
to date. (See also report, WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION.)

17 In cooperation with RANGE CATTLE STATION and Animal and Poultry Husbandry
Research Branch, ARS, USDA.

66 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 631 A. Z. Palmer, W. G. Kirk, J. W. Carpenter and M. Koger
Three groups of approximately 16 steers were raised and fattened under
similar conditions at the Range Cattle Station. Each group represented
purebred Brahman; % Brahman x 14 Shorthorn; V2 Brahman x 1/ Short-
horn; and 14 Brahman x % Shorthorn. One group of 16 steers was
slaughtered each year. Slaughter and carcass data have been collected
each year.
Data collected this third year have not been analyzed statistically, but
along with the second year's data, they confirm earlier findings: Organo-
leptic evaluation and shear tests for tenderness indicated that the higher
the percentage of British blood the more tender the meat. Purebred Brah-
man had the heaviest hides and the lightest digestive tracts. The per-
centage of hide and digestive tract increased with increased British blood.
Physical separation of the ninth, tenth, and eleventh rib roasts showed that
the % Shorthorn x 1/ Brahman had the highest percentage of fat and
the lowest percentage of lean: the reversal is true of purebred Brahman.
(See also Project 631, RANGE CATTLE STATION.)

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 661 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and T. J. Cunha
For this report, see Project 661, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

State Project 709 A. C. Warnick, M. Koger,
A. Z. Palmer and M. Ristic
A study of anatomical and physiological causes of low fertility in brucel-
losis-free cows that were assembled and bred to fertile bulls was continued.
Cows were slaughtered either three or 34 days after breeding and the
reproductive organs examined.
The average interval from exposure to the bull until estrus occurred
was 43.1 days in cows of Brahman breeding and only 8 days in English
cows. Approximately 28 percent of the Brahman cows had an abnormal
uterine lining or necrotic tissue in the uterus, 7 percent failed to ovulate, 5
percent had bursitis or pyosalpinx and 2 percent had cystic follicles, while
57 percent had organs that appeared normal anatomically. Approxi-
mately 8 percent of the English cows had a pyosalpinx or bursitis condition
of the tubes, 25 percent failed to ovulate, while 67 percent had normal
reproductive organs. Failure of fertilization due to a lack of ovulation,
a loss of egg or an unfertilized egg, were about equally as important as
early embryonic death in accounting for low fertility in cows with both
Brahman and English breeding. Only 28 percent of the Brahman cows
and 33 percent of the English cows had normal embryos 34 days after
breeding. This indicates that the chances of "low-fertility" cows (cows
which fail to calve one or two years in a row) to produce a calf are very
low. Cattlemen could improve their production considerably by culling these
"low-fertility" cows. An active vibrio fetus infection was not found in
the cows checked, although there was some necrotic tissue in the uterus.

Annual Report, 1955

State Project 710 A. C. Warnick, M. Koger and T. J. Cunha
Nonpregnant parous cows which received 1 pounds of 36 percent
protein cottonseed cake during four winter months on either grass or
grass-clover pastures had higher gains during this period than non-supple-
mented cows. The protein-supplemented cows showed an advantage in gains
following supplementation during the summer and fall period. Differences
in gain were wider between the supplemented and non-supplemented cows
on grass pastures than on the grass-clover pastures. There was a 100
percent calf crop in both groups of cows on the grass-clover pasture and
in the protein-supplemented grass cows, but only 75 percent in the non-
supplemented grass cows. The average calving date was 67 days earlier in
supplemented than in non-supplemented cows on grass pasture.
Eighteen-month-old heifers on either grass or grass-clover pastures
which received 1% pounds of 41 percent protein cottonseed cake gained
more than non-supplemented heifers. Several heifers in the non-supple-
mented grass group stopped coming into estrus during January and
February, so the interval from February 2 (when bulls were put in)
to first breeding was 36 days in these heifers, compared to 16 days in the
protein-supplemented heifers. The average interval to first breeding in
the heifers on the grass-clover pastures was nine days for the protein-
supplemented and eight days for the non-supplemented heifers.
Weanling heifers which received one pound of cottonseed cake during
the winter gained more than non-supplemented heifers on either grass or
grass-clover pastures. There was a wider difference in weights between
the two groups on the grass pastures than between the two on grass-clover
Guinea pigs fed fresh forage or hay from the grass-clover pastures
have greater viability than comparable guinea pigs fed straight grass
forage. Reproduction rate is higher in guinea pig females fed grass-
clover hay, even when supplemented with protein, than in females fed grass
hay plus protein.

State Project 716 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and A. C. Warnick
Purpose of this project is to determine the age at puberty, frequency
and duration of estrus, interval from parturition to postpartum estrus,
and associated reproduction phenomena in three breeds of beef cattle. Re-
sults to date show the age at puberty to be 208 days for Angus, 239 days
for Herefords and no Brahman heifers have exhibited estrus at 480
days of age. The average number of estrous periods to date were 6.9 in
the Angus heifers and 4.8 in the Hereford heifers. The average lengths
of estrous cycles were 37 days in Angus and 28.6 days in Herefords. The
average interval from parturition to first estrus was 50.8 days in Augus,
41.9 days in Herefords and 69 days in Brahmans. Additional information is
being collected on the duration of estrus.

State Project 717 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and M. Koger
This project was begun September 1, 1954. Performance data on the
1955 spring calf crop are incomplete. The average birth weights were

68 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

64 pounds for 33 Hereford calves, 54 pounds for 23 Aberdeen Angus
calves and 62 pounds for five Brahman calves. The average weights of
the cows are parturition were 972 pounds for Herefords, 939 pounds for
Aberdeen Angus and 976 pounds for Brahmans. The incidence of pink-
eye has been 23.4 percent in Herefords, 14.6 percent in Aberdeen Angus
and 5 percent in Brahmans. Two cases of cancer eye developed in the
Hereford cow herd. Standardized weaning weights, type scores and
market grades will be recorded on the cattle and calves at weaning time.

State Project 718 H. D. Wallace and T. J. Cunha
A study is underway to determine the influence of feeding aureomycin
on the requirement of the young pig for pantothenic acid. It has been
demonstrated that a corn-soybean meal type ration is deficient or borderline
in pantothenic acid when fed to young pigs in dry lot. Performance of
the pigs was extremely variable in this regards, however. Tissue analyses
and additional growth tests are in progress to determine the influence of
aureomycin feeding on the need for dietary pantothenic acid.
An experiment has been completed in which the supplementary value
of 0, 5, 25 and 50 mgs. of aureomycin per pound of feed for the thrifty
weanling pigs was studied. Each increase in antibiotic level resulted in some
additional growth response. However, the increase was not sufficient under
conditions of this experiment to justify high level supplementation (25 and
50 mgs.).
Two experiments have been conducted to determine the value of erythro-
mycin as a supplement for growing-fattening pigs. Graded levels of the
antibiotic were tested in each experiment. Growth was not significantly
affected at any of the levels tested, but feed conversion was improved at
all levels of supplementation. Limited tests were conducted on hygromycin.
This antibiotic was effective in one test and not in another.
An unidentified growth factor (Pfizer Fermentation Product) has been
added to a corn-soybean meal type ration and fed to weanling pigs on oats
pasture. The pigs which received the unidentified growth factor supple-
ment required approximately the same amount of feed per pound gain,
but gained 0.10 pounds per head per day faster than the control group.

State Project 721 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and T. J. Cunha
The nutritive value of stabilized waste beef fat in pelleted supple-
mental feeds was determined for wintering heifer calves on Pangola grass
pastures. Twenty-two calves were divided into two groups. Lot I received
a pelleted basal ration of 300 pounds citrus meal, 300 pounds yellow corn
meal, 160 pounds 41 percent cottonseed meal and 40 pounds alfalfa meal.
Lot II received a similar ration, except that 60 pounds stabilized waste beef
fat replaced 60 pounds (7.5 percent of ration) citrus meal. Tenox R was
used to stabilize the waste beef fat and no rancidity in feeds containing
the fat was noted after six months of storage. The palatability of the
pellets containing fat was satisfactory. The feed intake of each lot was
limited to five pounds per head during the initial and final four-week
periods of the study. During this time the heifers in Lot II, which received
pellets containing 7.5 percent waste beef fat, gained 35 pounds more than
the heifers in Lot I. During the other eight weeks of the study the daily
feed intake was increased to seven pounds because of frost damage to

Annual Report, 1955

the grass. During this period, Lot I gained 90 pounds more than Lot II.
The gains during these two periods may reflect a better utilization of energy
from waste beef fat during periods of limited supplemental feed intake.
The average daily gains for the entire study were 0.67 pounds for Lot I and
0.79 pounds for Lot II.

State Project 725 A. C. Warnick and H. D. Wallace
The average age and weight at first estrus of 23 gils on a limited
energy ration (approximately 50 percent of full-fed group with equivalent
amounts of protein, vitamins and minerals) was 216 days and 158 pounds,
compared to 196 days and 184 pounds for 23 gilts on full feed on pasture.
The average ovulation rate in gilts on the limited ration at the first and
second estrus was 10.3 and 10.8 eggs, respectively, compared to 13.7 eggs
and 14.3 eggs for gilts in the full-fed group. The fertilization rate on all
eggs recovered was 90 percent on the limited ration and 94 percent on
the full-fed ration. The average number of embryos 25 days after breeding
was 9.2 in the gilts on the limited ration and 11.6 in gilts on full-fed ration.
The number of live pigs farrowed from gilts on the limited ration was
8.6, compared to 9.3 in the full-fed group.
These data indicate that the additional energy in the ration of gilts
causes a younger age and heavier weights at puberty and increased ovula-
tion rate, while there was more embryonic mortality than on a limited
energy ration. All gilts except one showed a postpartum estrus and were
bred to fertile boars within three days after farrowing but all breeding
were infertile, since estrus occurred in all gilts following the weaning of the
pigs. This indicates that gilts and sows very seldom conceive when bred
shortly after farrowing.
Preliminary Observations on the Effect of Source of Water on Rate of
Gain of Growing-Fattening Pigs.-Fresh lake water, stagnant pond water,
distilled water, and water from a shallow well have been compared as
sources of water for growing-fattening pigs. This preliminary experi-
ment indicated no marked differences in the performance of the pigs getting
the various sources of water. (T. J. Cunha, H. D. Wallace and R. H.
Value of Tri-Methyl-Alkyl-Ammonium Stearate in the Ration of Wean-
ling Pigs.-This compound was tested for its growth-promoting value at
levels of 200 and 400 grams per ton of feed. It was ineffective at the lower
level of supplementation and appeared to depress growth at the higher
level. (H. D. Wallace and D. B. Aronson.)
Effects of Feeding Protein Supplements to Beef Cattle at 24-, 48-, and
72-Hour Intervals.-Two experiments have been conducted to study the
effects of feeding cottonseed meal as the sole source of supplemental protein
for steers at 24-, 48- and 72-hour intervals. In the first experiment, three
lots of seven steers each were fed four pounds of dried citrus pulp daily
and had access to dry Pangola grass pasture. The amounts of cottonseed
meal fed were 1.75 pounds every 24 hours (Lot I), 3.50 pounds every 48
hours (Lot II), and 4.25 pounds every 72 hours (Lot III). Average daily
gains of Lots I, II and III were 0.87, 0.86 and 0.68 pounds, respectively,
over a 63-day wintering period.
In the second experiment, three lots of 11 steers each were fed three
pounds dried citrus pulp daily and had access to Pangola grass hay. The

70 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

amounts of cottonseed meal fed were one pound every 24 hours (Lot I),
two pounds every 48 hours (Lot II) and three pounds every 72 hours (Lot
III). The average daily gains of Lots I, II, and II were 1.13, 1.14 and 1.10
pounds over a 12-week period. (J. F. Hentges, Jr.)
Toxicity of Kenaf Seed Meal as a Protein Supplement for Fattening
Steers.-Two yearling steers were fed kenaf seed meal as the sole source
of protein supplement in a cracked corn-citrus pulp ration over a 14-week
period. The daily consumption of kenaf seed meal was increased from one
to ten pounds per steer, with each steer consuming 480 pounds during the
trial. No toxic effects were noted, the steers had an average daily gain of
1.98 pounds, and they increased in condition one market grade. (J. F.
Hentges, Jr.)
Comparison of Age and Weight at Puberty in Heifers and Bulls of
Hereford, Angus, Brahman, Brangus and Santa Gertrudis Cattle."-The
average age at first heat in a limited number of heifers was Hereford 456
days, Red Poll 381 days, Brangus 462 days and Brahman 511 days. Aver-
age weights at first heat were heavier in Brahman and Santa Gertrudis
than in Hereford, Red Poll and Brangus heifers. Young Hereford and Red
Poll bulls reach puberty (age they mate an estrus heifer) earlier and at a
lighter weight than Brangus, Brahman and Santa Gertrudis bulls. (A. C.
Warnick, M. Koger, W. C. Burns and M. W. Hazen.)
Effect of Dietary Manganese on the Deposition of Certain B-Complex
Vitamins in Tissues of Swine.-Duroc gilts were used in this study. There
were two experimental groups, one receiving a basal ration containing a
low level (6 ppm.) of manganese and the other receiving the same basal
ration plus 100 ppm. of manganese.
The animals were sacrificed after they were fed their respective ration
for approximately 100 days. The hams, Longissimus dorsi, muscles and
livers of the gilts were assayed by chemical and microbiological procedures
for thiamine, pantothenic acid, niacin and folic acid. Results were re-
ported on a fresh basis and dry, fat-free basis. Statistical analysis of the
values on a dry, fat-free basis at the 5 percent level of significance showed
that high level manganese supplementation (100 ppm.) to the basal
ration did not significantly alter the thiamine, pantothenic acid, niacin or
folic acid deposition in the tissues assayed. (H. D. Wallace, T. J. Cunha,
J. Liuzzo and A. Z. Palmer.)
Ammoniated Citrus Pulp for Cattle.1"-Ammoniated citrus pulp pre-
pared at various times by two Florida industrial organizations has been
tested for palatability, feeding value and composition. Results to date
indicate that ammoniated citrus pulp can be prepared that is as palatable
as regular citrus pulp and that the non-protein nitrogen present in the
ammoniated citrus pulp can be used satisfactorily as a source of protein for
cattle. The most satisfactory products have contained a protein equivalent
value of from 15 to 18 percent. Because a number of the samples pre-
sented for tests have not been palatable to cattle, it appears that the main
obstacle to preparation of a commercial ammoniated citrus pulp is that of
preparing, at an economical cost, a product that is palatable for cattle.
(George K. Davis, W. G. Kirk and R. B. Becker.)
Stringhalt in Cattle."-A number of animals have been bred to study
the inheritance of "stringhalt" in cattle. Leg bones from these cattle
have been secured for photographic records and for analytical records in
comparison with normal cattle. Results to date indicate that "stringhalt,"
as it occurs in cattle, is due to a congenital weakness and is brought on
18 In cooperation with Animal and Poultry Husbandry Research Branch, ARS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1955

by a "stress" which may be nutritional or functional in origin. (G. K.
Davis and W. G. Kirk.)
Sugarcane and Bagasse Pith as a Feed for Cattle."2-During the past
year trials have been carried on with a product that is a combination of
blackstrap molasses and sugar cane bagasse pith to determine the value of
this product in feeding programs with beef cattle. Preliminary results
indicate that this product can be used satisfactorily. Studies will be con-
tinued during the coming year to determine digestibility of the pith.
(George K. Davis and W. G. Kirk.)
Analysis of Common and Unusual Feeds and the Development of Analy-
tical Methods.-During the year a number of unusual feeds have been pre-
sented for analysis to determine their possible use in livestock feeding.
Some of these feeds appear to be satisfactory from an analytical basis but are
impractical from a production standpoint. The analysis of feed samples
and animal tissues, representing between 4,000 and 5,000 individual analyses,
has led to a constant search for improved methods to reduce time and ex-
pense of analytical work. Feed and tissue analysis is fundamental to all
of the research conducted in nutrition.
During the past year all of the methods used in the Nutrition Laboratory
have been re-evaluated and new procedures tested for speed and accuracy.
Some of these newer methods have been used to replace the older methods.
New methods have been adopted for calcium and magnesium determina-
tions. A new phosphorus determination has been tested and found more
satisfactory for certain materials, and also has been adopted. This new
method makes it possible to differentiate between the different forms of
phosphate in phosphate materials. New methods or drastic alteration in
previous methods are being used for copper, cobalt, manganese and zinc.
(J. T. McCall and G. K. Davis.)
Management and Feeding of Sheep in Florida.-A small flock of South-
down and Hampshire sheep is being used in this study. The flock consists
of 17 aged ewes, six yearling ewes, 17 lambs, and three rams. Pastures
(predominantly Coastal Bermuda, Pangola and Bahia) were the principal
source of feed, with additional supplemental feeding (a mixture of 60
percent corn, 30 percent citrus pulp and 10 percent cottonseed meal) during
the winter and for 45 days after lambing at the rate of one-half pound
per head daily. The average weight of the Southdown ewes prior to lamb-
ing was 114 pounds and after three months of lactation, 104 pounds (wt.
5-4-55). The average weight of the Hampshire ewes prior to lambing was
120.3 pounds and after three months of lactation 119.3 pounds (wt. 5-21-55).
In the Southdown flock a 166 percent lamb crop was obtained, with an
average birth weight of 7.5 pounds per lamb. The average lambing date
was February 7, with a range of January 9 to March 3. The Hampshire
flock produced an 87 percent lamb crop with an average birth weight of 9.1
pounds per lamb. The average lambing date was March 22, with a range
of February 1 to May 13. The Hamphire flock was purchased on February
12, 1955, and thus their data cannot be compared directly with that of the
On May 21, average weight of the Southdown lambs was 46.9 pounds
and the Hampshire lambs 41.3 pounds. An average wool clip of 6.25 pounds
was sheared from the Southdowns and 5.3 pounds from the Hampshires.
Samples taken during the year to determine parasite infestation showed
the flock to be low in internal parasites. The flock was drenched and fed
phenothiazine to control internal parasites. In addition, the flock has free
SCooperative with Range Cattle Station.

72 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

choice to a mixture of 9 parts salt and 1 part phenothiazine. (P. E. Loggins
and T. J. Cunha.)
Dwarfism in Beef Cattle.-Dwarf animals from different sources are
being studied to characterize the various types of dwarfism prevalent in
beef cattle. Matings are being made between various types of dwarfs or
dwarf-carriers to determine the genetic relationship between the more
prevalent types of dwarfism. Dwarfs of the following types have been
The widely prevalent "snorter," a dwarf encountered in Herefords.
The achondroplasic dwarfs in Angus, assumed to be the same as
the "snorter" type in Herefords.
The long-headed type of dwarf prevalent in Hereford, Angus, Short-
horn and crossbred cattle.
Midget in Brahman cattle.
The so-called guinea animal found in Florida native cattle.
Animals of the various types are also being slaughtered to determine
the anatomical and skeletal characteristics of the various types of dwarfs.
The work has not been underway long enough to draw conclusions at this
time. (M. Koger, A. C. Warnick, J. F. Hentges, Jr., and A. Z. Palmer.)

Annual Report, 1955


The work at the Dairy Research Unit at Hague has continued along
lines similar to the year before. In February 1955, 15 registered Holstein
heifers were obtained as a nucleus for a purebred herd of this breed.
They were all to freshen in the fall of 1955. Fifteen acres of new land
have been cleared for establishing permanent pastures. The Jersey cows
in the herd showed some improvement in type classification over the
previous year.
Some new equipment has been added for a study of the manufacture
of cottage cheese. New equipment has been installed for the agitation of
milk in large tanks by compressed air.

State Project 213 R. B. Becker, J. M. Wing, P. T .Dix Arnold,
J. T. McCall and G. K. Davis 21
Pilot silos were filled in series of three, with plain chopped forage, with
150 pounds of dried citrus pulp added, or eight pounds of sodium meta-
bisulfate per ton of forage. Crops tested were chopped Pangola grass in
early bloom stage; hairy indigo; and wilted yellow sweet lupine. Four dry
cows were fed 10 days from each silo and fecal samples obtained for diges-
tibility estimates by the chromogen ratio technique. In general, palatability
of silages from these three crops rated in order: preserved with citrus
pulp, with bisulfite and plain.

State Project 345 R. B. Becker and P. T. Dix Arnold
Seven cooperating Florida herds contributed records of breeding, inven-
tory, replacement and causes of turnover of cows in dairy herds. Breeding
organizations have contributed records concerning bulls in artificial service.
The average age of 327 bulls in artificial service, born before 1938, was
10 years and 10.4 months at time last effective semen was collected. Their
average tenure in artificial use was two years and nine months. Reasons
for termination of usefulness of 1,972 bulls of all ages in artificial service
were: 15 percent died, 45.6 percent for low efficiency and 39.4 percent for a
variety of specific reasons. Some bulls were withdrawn from artificial
service because of lease terminations, low efficiency or replacement. Under
limited natural subsequent use, 173 were effective for an average of nearly
20 months additionally, only 72 then being used less than a year. (See

State Project 564 S. P. Marshall, P. T. Dix Arnold,
R. B. Becker and J. M. Wing
Studies of stomach compartment development and of some characteristics
of their contents were continued with five Jersey male calves between the
ages of 160 and 220 days.
2 Cooperative with Animal Hu;bandry and Nutrition.

74 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Data to date from 98 calves between the ages of 0 and 300 days of
age reveal that the rumen, reticulum and omasum are non-functional at
birth but develop rapidly during early life. The abomasum is well-developed
at birth but increases in size slowly.
Specific gravity values for the omasum and abomasum contents usually
were above unity, while those for the rumen and reticulum ingesta were
above unity prior to the onset of fermentation (usually at 20 to 30 days of
age) but then dropped below afterwards, due to the presence of trapped
The pH values of stomach compartment contents ranged as follows:
Rumen, 5.17 to 7.10; reticulum, 5.10 to 7.19; omasum, 4.21 to 7.00; and
abomasum, 1.84 to 4.87. Ingesta of all compartments was found to be acid
with one exception for that of the rumen, the reticulum and the omasum.

Bankhead-Jones Project 571 H. H. Wilkowske, W. A. Krienke
and E. L. Fouts
Quantitative studies were made of the antibacterial activity against
commercial dairy starters of the vitamin K compounds menadione and
menadione diphosphate when incorporated directly into milk. Culture levels
ranged from 0.0001 to 5 percent. The effect of mendadione in the milk at
concentrations of 3 to 5 ppm was evidenced by a measurable reduction in the
rate of lactic acid development at 300 C. Ten ppm of menadione extended
the length of time to reach 0.25 percent acidity (keeping quality time)
by three hours; 50 ppm extended it by eight hours. To preserve milk for
more than 24 hours at 30 C., levels higher than 100 ppm of menadione were
needed, which caused discoloration and undesirable flavor in the milk. Simi-
lar results were obtained using skimmilk as the medium. Menadione diphos-
phate did not exhibit antibacterial activity at concentrations as high as
1,000 ppm in milk inoculated with dairy starters.

State Project 575 P. T. Dix Arnold, S. P. Marshall
and R. B. Becker
During the year 28 cows, 20 Jerseys and eight Guernseys, completed
official production records. All were milked twice daily for 305 days in
their first lactations. Forty young Jersey cows were classified officially
for type and had an average score of 81.5 percent, as compared with a
previous classification average of 77.5 percent on 35 cows. Breeding ef-
ficiency increased slightly over last year.
Through the interest of the Florida Holstein Club and friends of the
dairy industry, 15 purebred Holstein-Friesian heifers were obtained in
February 1955 as a foundation for a herd of this breed.

State Project 594 S. P. Marshall, P. T. Dix Arnold
and J. M. Wing

Fifteen calves fed from birth through 60 days on milks containing 5
mgs. of aureomycin hydrochloride per pound plus hay and concentrate

Annual Report, 1955

gained an average of 50.2 pounds, while an equal number of control ani-
mals made average gains of 44.9 pounds. During this period the calves fed
the ration containing aureomycin consumed 4.8 percent more milk, 24.6
percent more concentrate and 4.4 percent more hay than did the control
When aureomycin was removed from the ration of four calves at 60
days of age their average gain during the ensuing 30 days was 17.2 pounds,
as compared with an average of 39.4 pounds for four comparable control
animals. During this period the control animals consumed 17 percent more
concentrate and 52 percent more hay than did those previously fed aureo-

State Project 628 S. P. Marshall
Four irrigated and four non-irrigated plots of Pangola-white clover
pasture were grazed rotationally with separate groups of lactating cows
in 1954. During the period March 2 through October 31 the irrigated
pasture furnished 585 cow days of grazing and 7,148 pounds of total
digestible nutrients per acre. The non-irrigated pasture provided 562 cow
days of grazing and 6,814 pounds of total digestible nutrients per acre
during the grazing intervals March 9 through August 19 and August 31
through October 31.
In 1955 one acre of irrigated and one acre of non-irrigated pasture
were grazed with separate groups of cows under rotational systems, using
portable electric fences. The irrigated pasture supplied 205 cow days of
grazing and 2,662 pounds of total digestible nutrients during the grazing
period of March 10 through June 30. The non-irrigated pasture, grazed
from March 22 through April 26, furnished 64 cow days of grazing and
858 pounds of total digestible nutrients. (Closed during year.) (See Proj.

State Project 633 S. P. Marshall and P. T. Dix Arnold
Dairy heifers grazing rotationally a mixed pasture containing Hairy
Peruvian alfalfa, white clover, California burr clover, Kenland red clover
and oats obtained 4,061 pounds of total digestible nutrients per acre from it
during the period of December 1, 1954, through June 30, 1955. During this
interval the animals made average daily gains of 1.4 pounds, which was
154 percent of the normal growth rate for heifers of their ages.

State Project 636 J. M. Wing
Young Jersey calves whose rations were supplemented with orotic acid
plus methionine were significantly superior in body weight gains (46
percent) and in efficiency of feed utilization (41 percent) over controls.
No significant differences were found in increased height at withers.

State Project 637 S. P. Marshall
Pangola-white clover and Coastal Bermuda-white clover pastures were
grazed rotationally, using different groups of heifers. Grazing was started

76 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

March 2 on clover-Pangola and February 23 on clover-Coastal Bermuda
and was terminated November 1 on both pastures. The heifers gained
901.3 pounds in body weight and obtained 7,285 pounds of total digestible
nutrients per acre of Pangola-clover pasture grazed. Those on Coastal
Bermuda-clover gained 806.4 pounds in weight and derived 6,598 pounds of
total digestible nutrients per acre from pasture.
During the first 84 days, when the forage consumed was almost entirely
white clover, the heifers made average daily gains of 1.59 and 1.52 pounds,
respectively, on clover-Pangola and clover-Bermuda pastures. When the
forage consumed was almost exclusively grass, during the summer and
fall, average daily gain per animal was 0.88 pound for those on Pangola
and 0.95 pound for those on Coastal Bermuda.

Bankhead-Jones Project 667 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
J. M. Wing, W. A. Krienke, L. E. Mull,
H. H. Wilkowske and E. L. Fouts
Part 1: Feeding Trials.-Twelve milking cows were used in a feeding
trial from December 1954 to April 1955. Two control cows received pas-
ture, corn silage and some hay with mixed concentrates. Ten cows were
experimental. The trial was divided into four periods-a preliminary
period and a final period when the experimental cows were fed the same
as the control group. During the second (experimental) period of 46
days the 10 cows received the same mixed concentrates as the controls,
but a bulky mixture of dried citrus and beet pulps and dried brewers'
grains replaced all roughage. The fat percentage in the milk of all 10
experimental animals decreased materially during the experimental period.
Then the 10 cows were grouped in five pairs for the "recovery" period,
the respective pairs receiving either pasture, Pangola hay, corn silage,
alphacel or wood shavings in limited amounts as supplementary feed.
Recovery of butterfat tests occurred in the milk of those cows receiving
hay, silage or pasture. The response was negative with cows receiving
alphacel and inconclusive on wood shavings.
Part 2: Milk Composition and Dairy Products Studies.-Butterfat tests
dropped by totals 0.5 to 2.2 percent (10 cows) within periods of 10 to 46
days after start of experimental feeding. All the milk of these experimental
cows was collected during a period of four days, separated and the skim-
milks combined for a commercial size batch of cottage cheese. The pII
and acidity changes were normal but the skimmilk failed to coagulate
normally, resulting in only fair quality cottage cheese and in a low yield.
Total solids were 9.46 percent, compared to 9.67 percent for the control
skim. The skimmilk from the control cows resulted in excellent cheese.
Curd tension values of the experimental whole milks were considerably
lower than for controls. Freezing points of the milks were not affected
by the change in feed.

Bankhead-Jones Project 732 L. E. Mull and E. L. Fouts
Trials were made comparing mechanical, air and circulatory agitation
in relation to rate of cooling and degree of churning on 1,000-gallon volumes
of milk in a 1,000-gallon insulated cold wall storage tank. The time of
cooling from 40 to 350 F. was 25 minutes by mechanical agitation and
75 minutes by air agitation. Cooling by circulation was at about the

Annual Report, 1955

same rate as air agitation but the churning was so severe that cooling to
350 F. could not be accomplished by this method. Butterfat losses by
mechanical and air methods were negligible. Butterfat losses by circula-
tory agitation were not determined but appeared to be much greater than
by the other methods.

Palatability of Fresh Avocado to Dairy Cows.-Seeds were removed
from No. 3 grade avocados and the fresh pulp was offered on five days
to 22 dairy cows after they consumed the regular offering of feed. Seven
cows tasted the fresh avocado pulp one day. Four others ate the offering
two to four times during the five-day observation period. Only two of them
ate any appreciable amount of the fresh pulp.
Avocado seeds were tested biologically, using rats. These animals sick-
ened and died in 48 to 70 hours.
Different levels of calcium carbonate were added to pulp of separate
fruits for oven-drying. The average air-dry pulp amounted to 19.17 per-
cent of the weight of the original fruit. This work was in cooperation with
the Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Department. (R. B. Becker and
P. T. Dix Arnold.)
Interaction of Para Amino Salicylic Acid and Aureomycin in the Feed
of Young Calves.-Calves which were given either para amino salicylic
acid or aureomycin in their feed were about equal in growth and both
were significantly superior to controls. When both supplements were sup-
plied simultaneously, however, growth in experimental subjects was not
significantly different from that observed in controls. (James M. Wing.)
Bacteriophage Active Against Lactic Streptococci.-Bacteriophage ac-
tive against the lactic acid-producing cultures commonly used in dairy
plants for the manufacture of various fermented dairy products have been
encountered in Northern states for the past 20 years, primarily in areas
producing large amounts of cheddar cheese. The first evidence of such
outbreak in Florida was observed on February 26, 1955, in a large com-
mercial dairy plant which experienced unsatisfactory lactic acid production
in 800-gallon vats of skimmilk intended for the manufacture of cottage
cheese. Recommended corrective measures, which included thorough sani-
tization and a culture rotation plan, were successful in controlling the out-
break. Whey obtained from the cottage cheese was found to contain an
agent active against the culture being used in the plant at the time of
the outbreak. The agent causing the slow acid production has been
tentatively identified as bacteriophage with additional characterization
and identification now in progress. (H. H. Wilkowske.)
Variegated Cantaloupe Ice Cream.-Cantaloupes of the Smith's Perfect
variety were used to determine flavor characteristics, flavor stability and
flavor acceptability when processed into injection materials and used
as flavoring products in the manufacture of variegated cantaloupe ice
cream. In preparing the cantaloupes for use in ice cream, melons of
varying degrees of ripeness were used and varying amounts of the flesh
(from center toward rind) were used.
Seven experienced judges considered the flavor of variegated canta-
loupe ice cream acceptable to consumers. Added salt and fruit acid im-
proved the character of the flavor. Storage of the ice cream samples for
12 months caused little deterioration in flavor. This work was done in
cooperation with the Department of Horticulture. (W. A. Krienke and
M. W. Hoover.)

78 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Relation of Pipeline-Milkers to Rancid Flavor.-A study .was made
of flavor problems at some dairy plants and of milking operations at dairy
farms in one of the large milk-sheds of the State.
Some of the pipeline-milking operations, together with refrigerated milk
storage tank operations, were found to be responsible for physical mis-
treatment of milk to a degree that rancidity developed in the milk. Such
factors as air incorporation in milk, intermittent cooling and warming of
the milk in the lines, types of vacuum releasers, types and methods of opera-
tion of milk pumps, method of discharge of milk into tank, design and speed
of tank agitators and others should receive study. In a few instances
these newer systems of handling milk were found, also, to involve flavor
changes because of the growth of psychrophilic bacteria. These problems
yielded readily to corrective measures. (W. A. Krienke.)
Fractionation Test for Butterfat Adulteration.-Fractionation of butter-
fat is accomplished more rapidly and with best reproductibility of frac-
tions when the original butteroil and each liquid fraction is seeded with
a few solidified particles of original butterfat and with the previous solid
fractions, respectively.
Fat numbers of the original samples and of the six fractions by
this procedure made possible identification of samples of butterfat con-
taining as little as 3 percent of some vegetable fats and oils. Specially
prepared fats for frozen desserts could not be detected in butterfat by fat
numbers when fractionated, but saponification numbers appear to be useful
for this purpose. Iodine numbers are being investigated.
The fractionation procedure may be useful in nutrition studies of but-
terfat and in product development. (W. A. Krienke.)

Annual Report, 1955


Continued expansion in amount of research information disseminated
was registered during the year in an effort to make research results avail-
able to the public as soon as possible after they are achieved. More
different bulletins and more total copies were printed than during any other
fiscal year in the Station's history, more journal series articles also were
carried in the journals, and a regular television show was inaugurated.
Four of the five editors devote approximately half time to work for the
Agricultural Extension Service.

The Station printed 25 new bulletins, 20 of which were popular and 5
technical in nature. They ranged in size from 11 to 47 pages, totaling 732
pages, and in edition from 5,000 to 15,000. Totals of 141,500 in the
popular and 29,000 in the technical editions were printed. The number of
circulars issued was about average.
No new numbered press bulletins are being issued since the circular
series has replaced them. However, two old ones were reprinted, each
being four pages. The editions totaled 43,000 copies. The six-page list
of bulletins-which is brought up-to-date periodically-was printed twice,
for a total of 5,000 copies, and a four-page list of staff was issued in
a 1,500 quantity.

Following is a list of bulletins printed:
Bul. Title P
542 Value of Alyce Clover Pasture for Lactating Dairy
Cows, by S. P. Marshall and P. T. Dix Arnold ...........
543 Control of Downy Mildew with Fungicides, by A. H.
E ddin s ................ ......... ..............- .. --........ .......
544 A Rapid Test for Possible Excesses of Copper in
Sandy Soils, by W F. Spencer -.........-- ..-...--... ..........
545 Hesperidin, the Principal Glucoside of Oranges (T),
by R. Hendrickson and J. W. Kesterson _................
546 The Lychee in Florida, by Milton Cobin and R. Bruce
L edin ...----- -- --- -------------............. ... ...................
547 Cost of Moving Citrus from Tree onto Highway
Trucks as Related to Methods of Handling, By Eric
Thor and Luke D. Dohner .........................................
548 Some Honey Plants of Florida, by Lillian E. Arnold
549 Factors Influencing the Method of Transportation
Used in Marketing Fresh Florida Citrus, by Marvin
A. Brooker and Kenneth M. Gilbraith .......................
550 Production of Vegetable Plants in Seedbeds on Sandy
Soil, by Donald S. Burgis -............. .... ..... .... .........
551 Producing Hatching Eggs in Cages by Means of Arti-
ficial Insemination, by J. Clyde Driggers ........
552 Copper Oxide as a Source of Fertilizer Copper for
Plants Growing on Everglades Organic Soils, by W. T.
Forsee, Jr., T. C. Erwin and Albert E. Kretschmer, Jr.
553 Sunflower-Seed Meal as a Protein Supplement for
Beef Cattle and Swine, by A. M. Pearson, H. D. Wal-
lace and J. F. H entges, Jr .......---- -- ..... -... ...................

'ages Edition











11 6,000

80 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

CLYDE KENYON BEALE-Aug. 25, 1905-Feb. 1, 1955
Assistant, Associate and Editor, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
April 1, 1935-Feb. 1, 1955.
A worker ready, willing and able.

Annual Report, 1955

Bul. Title Pa
554 Year-Round Grazing on a Combination of Native and
Improved Pasture, by D. W. Jones, E. M. Hodges and
W G. Kirk ....-.................... .. .....--- ... .........-----
555 Florida's Land Resources and Land Use, by L. A.
R euss ......................~.........- ... --....- ..- .. -- --- ----
556 Effects of Size and Spacing of Whole and Cut Seed
Pieces on Yields and Returns from Sebago Potatoes at
Hastings, Florida, by E. N. McCubbin -................--
557 Production of Southern Peas (Cowpeas) in Florida,
by A. P. Lorz, J. W. Wilson, E. G. Kelsheimer and
V G Perry ..................... .................. ..- -----------
558 Relation Between Soluble Phosphorus in Fertilized
Soils and Growth Response of Pasture Forage, by
J. R. Neller, H. W. Lundy and D. W. Jones................
559 Soil Factors Related to Growth and Yield of Slash
Pine Plantations (T), by Robert L. Barnes and
Charles W Ralston .... ........... ....- -------- -------
560 Containers for Shipping Florida Tomatoes, by L. H.
Halsey, L. P. McColloch, A. H. Spurlock and R. K.
Show alter ....... ............. ...- ........... .. --------- -
561 Citrus and Competing Products Sales in 20 Meridian,
Mississippi, Grocery Stores, Four Monthly Periods,
1950-51, by Cecil N. Smith -------........---.....
562 Dietary and Hematologic Studies of the Aged (T), by
O. D. Abbott, Ruth O. Townsend and R. B. French
563 Growing Tomatoes on the Sandy Soils of Peninsular
Florida, by E. L. Spencer, D. G. A. Kelbert, E. G.
Kelsheimer and D. S. Burgis .....---........-..--..
564 Bulk Handling of Fresh Citrus Fruit (T), by D. S.
Prosser, Jr., W. F. Grierson, Eric Thor, W. F. New-
hall and J. K. Samuels ................. .. ........ ... ......-- ---
565 Tests of Low Head, High Volume Farm Pumps (T),
by J. C. Stephens, A. L. Craig and W. H. Spier .....
566 Low-Gossypol Cottonseed Meal as a Source of Protein
for Swine, by H. D. Wallace, T. J. Cunha and G. E.
Com bs .............................- .... ..-- ---.- -- ---- ---------
Eleven new circulars were printed, totaling 158 pages
Following is a list:
S-74 Soil Testing, by W. L. Pritchett and H. L. Breland
S-75 A New Suggestion for Control of Damping-off and
Root-Rot of Snap Beans, by W. B. Tisdale and W. B.
M oore .............- ....------ -- ...-------- -. -- ------ .
S-76 Managing West Florida Soils for High Corn Yields,
by C. E. Hutton, H. W. Lundy and W. K. Robertson
S-77 Soil Associations of Dade County, Florida, by R. G.
Leighty, M. H. Gallatin, J. L. Malcolm and F. B.
Smith ................- ....... -- ..............- ....---
S-78 Internal Parasites of Cattle-Their Control with
Phenothiazine and Management, by Leonard E. Swan-
son, Walter R. Dennis and William M. Stone, Jr.
S-79 Florida Field Lease Guide, by Daniel E. Alleger,
Charles M. Hampson and Harold H. Ellis ..............
S-80 Florida Cash Rent Farm Lease Guide, by Daniel E.
Alleger, Charles M. Hampson and Harold H. Ellis

ges Edition













26 6,000
and 107,000








82 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Bul. Title Pages Edition
S-81 Florida Share-Tenant Lease Guide, by Daniel E. Alle-
ger, Charles M. Hampson and Harold H. Ellis- ..... 20 6,000
S-82 Florida Share Cropping Agreement Guide, by Daniel
E. Alleger, Charles M. Hampson and Harold H. Ellis 18 6,000
S-83 Control of Blackheart of Celery by C. M. Geraldson 8 6,000
S-84 Soil Associations of Sarasota County, Florida, by
Ralph G. Leighty, Orlando E. Cruz, Robert Wilder-
muth and F. B. Smith ........~..... ....... ... ...... 32 10,000

The Station and the Agricultural Extension Service inaugurated alter-
nate weekly television shows April 8 over WFLA-TV in Tampa. Each
show takes about 13 minutes of a 30-minute farm program. Scripts were
prepared and details handled by an assistant editor. Experiment Station
workers presented six shows in April, May and June, three of which
were live and three on film.
Radio programs were continued without abatement. The daily Florida
Farm Hour over WRUF, University radio station, continued to use Ex-
periment Station workers as a principal source of talks, and these
workers made 127 such talks during the year. Of these, 93 were re-
worked into farm flashes and sent to 50 other Florida radio stations. The
Editor presented the Farm Question Box 52 times, and more than half
of the answers were from Experiment Station staff members.
Staff members also recorded 94 talks on 54 tapes for five stations,
mostly in cooperation with programs sponsored by county agents.

Information was released to newspapers through a weekly clipsheet
of the Agricultural Extension Service, over press assocaition wires, in
direct mailings to papers, and through farm page editors and other re-
porters. The newspaper stories carried not only announcements and re-
ports of meetings and field days, but also results of research projects and
timely suggestions on current topics. Dailies particularly, and weeklies
also, used Station news generously.
Farm journals carried more materials prepared by the Station Editors
this year than ever before. Ten national farm papers and related maga-
gines printed 13 articles which occupied 271 column inches of space; two
Southern journals carried 15 articles for 415 inches; and five Florida pub-
lications printed 22 articles occupying 615 column inches. Thus 17 jour-
nals carried 50 articles for 1,301 inches of space.
An Assistant Editor continued to prepare two or more "skeleton"
stories each week for county agent release, and most of these dealt with
information supplied by Experiment Station research workers. A number
of county agents released these stories to their newspapers.

The Journal Series, established in April 1951, continued to grow in
usefulness as a means of getting research results published. Articles pre-
pared by research workers are checked and assigned journal series num-
bers and forwarded to scientific journals. Reprints are ordered when the
articles are printed, and thus can be distributed to interested persons.
This year 89 of these articles, the largest number yet, were printed.
Following is a list.

Annual Report, 1955 83

230. Infrared Determinations of Biphenyl in Citrus Fruits, by W. F. New-
hall and L. R. Knodel. Analytical Chem. 26: 1234. 1954.
231. Effect of Lime on the Availability of Phosphorus in Soils of High to
Low Sesquioxide Content, by W. K. Robertson, J. R. Neller, and
F. D. Bartlett. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Am. 18: 2. 1954.
232. The Effect of Iron Chelates on Root Development of Citrus, by H. W.
Ford, Ivan Stewart and C. D. Leonard. Proc. Am. Soc. for Hort. Sci.
63. 1954.
233. Rate of Deposition and Turnover of P"' and Ca" in Tissues of the
Laying Hen, by R. L. Shirley, J. C. Driggers, J. T. McCall, N. Nien-
berg and G. K. Davis. Poult. Sci. 33: 5. Sept. 1954.
234. Distribution and Retention of Anhydrous Ammonia in Sandy Soils,
by W. G. Blue and C. F. Eno. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Am. 18: 4. Oct.
235. Soil Factors Affecting Molybdenum Uptake by Cauliflower, by N.
Gammon, Jr., G. M. Volk, E. N. McCubbin and A. H. Eddins. Proc.
Soil Sci. Soc. of Am. 18: 3. July 1954.
236. The Effect of Dietary Molybdenum Upon Growth, Hemoglobin, Re-
production and Lactation of Rats, by Max. A. Jeter and George K.
Davis. Jour. of Nutr. 54: 2. Oct. 1954.
238. Malathion and Diazinon for Control of House Flies in North Florida
Cattle Barns, by F. E. Guthrie and F. S. Baker. Fla. Ento. 37: 1.
239. Rooting Muscadine Grapes under Mist, by R. H. Sharpe. Proc. Am.
Soc. for Hort. Sci. 63. 1954.
240. A Rapid Colorimetric Test for Organic Matter in Certain Mineral
Soils, by S. N. Edson and G. D. Thornton. Jour. Fla. Acad. of Sci.
17:2. 1954.
243. Conditions Affecting the Availability of Residual and Applied Man-
ganese in the Organic Soils of the Florida Everglades, by W. T.
Forsee, Jr. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Am. 18: 4. Oct. 1954.
245. Ethylenediamine Tetra Acetic Acid as a Means of Influencing Serium
Calcium Levels in Male Chickens, by F. L. Coune and J. C. Drig-
gers. Poult. Sci. 33: 5. Sept. 1954.
246. Mineral Metabolism (Animals), by G. K. Davis and J. K. Loosli. Ann.
Rev. of Biochemistry. 23. 1954.
248. History and Present Status of Watermelon Improvement by Breed-
ing, by J. M. Crall. Proc. Soil. Sci. Soc. of Fla. 13. 1953.
249. Inhibition of the Oxidized Flavor of Milk with Chelating Compounds,
by L. R. Arrington and W. A. Krienke. Jour. Dairy Sci. 37: 7. July
250. The Value of Antibiotics in Animal Nutrition, by T. J. Cunha and
H. D. Wallace. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 13. 1953.
251. The Influence of Subcutaneous Implantation of Bacitracin and Aureo-
mycin Pellets on the Growth and Survival of Suckling Pigs, by H. D.
Wallace, John McKigney and L. Gillespie. Jour. Antibiotics and
Chemotherapy. 4: 6. 1954.
252. Improvement in Potato Varieties and Yields at Hastings, Fla., by
A. H. Eddins and E. N. McCubbin. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 13.
253. The Importance of Disease Resistance in Small Grain Breeding, by
R. W. Earheart. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 13. 1953.

84 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

254. Utilizing Soil Tests as a Basis for Determination of Optimum
Levels of Phosphate and Potash for Crops Growing on Everglades
Peat and Muck Soils, by W. T. Forsee, Jr. Proc. Soil. Sci. Soc. of
Fla. 13. 1953.
255. Laboratory Studies on the Toxicity of Thirteen Insecticides to To-
bacco Hornworms, by F. E. Guthrie. Jour. Ec. Ento. 47: 2. 1954.
256. Sampling Soils on a Field Basis, by W. L. Pritchett, H. L. Breland
and W. D. Hanson. Proc. Soil Sci. of Fla. 13. 1953.
257. The Development of New Varieties of Table Legumes for Produc-
tion in Florida, by A. P. Lorz. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 13. 1953.
258. Objectives of Soil and Tissue Analysis, by G. M. Volk. Proc. Soil
Sci. Soc. of Fla. 13. 1953.
259. A Comparison of Dilute and Concentrate Sprays for Control of In-
sects of Potato and Tomato, by D. O. Wolfenbarger. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 47: 3. 1953.
262. Relation Between Phosphorus Recovered by Plants and That Re-
moved by Chemical Extractants from Florida Soils, by W. K. Rob-
ertson and C. E. Hutton. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 13. 1953.
263. Current Facilities for Soil Testing in Florida on a Service Basis. D.
State Supported Laboratories, by F. B. Smith. Proc. Soil Sci. of Fla.
13. 1953.
264. Breeding Flue-Cured Tobacco for Root-Knot Resistance and Desirable
Leaf Type, by A. T. Wallace and Fred Clark. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of
Fla. 13. 1953.
266. A Non-Contaminating Nylon-Slip Roll Pulverizer for Grinding Oven-
Dried Plant Samples Prior to Chemical Analysis, by A. E. Kretschmer,
Jr., and J. W. Randolph. Analyt. Chem. 26, pp. 1862. Nov. 1954.
267. Placental Transfer of Molybdenum" and Calcium" in Swine, by R. L.
Shirley, M. A. Jeter, J. P. Feaster, J. T. McCall, J. C. Outler and
G. K. Davis. Jour. of Nutr. 54: 1. Sept. 1954.
268. Assay of Various Mold-Ripened Cheeses for Antibiotic Activity, by
H. H. Wilkowske and W. A. Krienke. Jour. Dairy Sci. 37: 10. Oct.
269. Control of Bacterial Spot of Tomato and Pepper Seedlings with
Agrimycin, by R. A. Conover. Plant Dis. Reptr. 38: 6 1954.
270. Effect of Dietary Aureomycin and Different Levels of Protein on Sev-
eral Phosphorus and Nitrogen Compounds in Hams, by R. L. Shirley,
H. D. Wallace and G. K. Davis. Jour. Ag. and Food Chem. 2: 16.
271. Haemoproteus columbae Infection in Florida Pigeons, by Charles F.
Simpson and E. W. Swarthout. Vet. Med. 49: 11. Nov. 1954.
272. Sources Contributing to Subsoil Acidity in Florida Citrus Groves,
by I. W. Wander. Am. Soc. for Hort. Sci. Proc. 64. 1954.
273. Effect of Pulp Quantity on Chemical and Physical Properties of
Citrus Juices and Concentrates, by A. H. Rouse, C. D. Atkins and
R. L. Huggart. Food Tech. 8: 10. 1954.
275. An Association Between Narrow Leaves and Root-Knot Resistance in
Flue-Cured Tobacco, by A. T. Wallace. Agron. Jour. 46: 10. Oct.
276. The Effects of Some Fertilizer Treatments on the Yield and Fiber
Quality of Sansevieria in South Florida, by E. O. Gangstad, J. F.
Joyner and C. C. Seale. Trop. Agr. 31. 1954.

Annual Report, 1955

279. Further Study of Experimental Vibrio Fetus Infection in Male
Hamsters, by M. Ristic, D. A. Sanders and F. Young. Jour. Am.
Vet. Med. Assoc. 16: 58. Jan. 1955.
280. Laboratory Observations on Conoderus vagus Candeze (Coleoptera,
Elateridae), by T. M. Dobrovsky. Fla. Ento. 37:3. 1954.
281. Absorption and Tissue Distribution of Radiozinc in Steers Fed High
Zinc Rations, by J. P. Feaster, Sam L. Hansard, J. T. McCall, F. H.
Skipper and G. K. Davis. Jour An. Sci. 13: 4. 1954.
283. Color Differences of Citrus Juices and Concentrates, Using the Hunter
Color Difference Meter, by R. L. Huggart and F. W. Wenzel. Food
Tech. 9: 1. 1955.
285. Metabolism of Phosphorus" and Molybdenum" in Rats Receiving High
Calcium Diets, by L. R. Arrington and G. K. Davis. Jour. Nutr. 55: 2.
Feb. 1955.
286. The Effect of Anhydrous Ammonia on Nematodes, Fungi, Bacteria
and Nitrification in Some Florida Soils, by C. F. Eno, W. G. Blue,
and J. M. Good, Jr. Soil Sci. Soc. of Am. 19: 1. Jan. 1955.
287. Effect of Orotic Acid and Methionine Supplementation on Feed Con-
sumption and Growth of Young Dairy Calves, by J. M. Wing. Jour.
Dairy Sci. 38: 5. May 1955.
290. An Incubation Method for Collecting Migratory Endo-parasitic Nema-
todes, by T. W. Young. Plant Dis. Reprtr. 38: 11. 1955.
291. Parathion Residues on Celery, by C. H. Van Middelem and J. W.
Wilson. Jour. Econ. Ento. 48:1:88. Feb. 1955.
292. Effectiveness of Sorbic Acid as a Preservative for Tangerine Sherbet
Base, by Roger Patrick and C. D. Atkins. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 67. 1954.
293. Value and Limitations of Soil Testing to the Grower of Ornamentals,
by E. L. Spencer and S. S. Woltz. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67.
294. Effectiveness of Demeton (Systox) for the Control of Camellia Pests,
by L. C. Kuitert. Am. Camellia Ybk. 1954.
295. Will Recommended Insecticidal Practices Result in Toxic Residues in
the Soil? by A. J. Overman, E. G. Kelsheimer and E. L. Spencer.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
296. Studies on the Nutritional Requirements of Gladiolus, by S. S. Woltz.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
297. Chemical Analysis as a Tool in Determining Factors Affecting Tomato
Quality, by C. M. Geraldson, E. L. Spencer, and M. C. Jorgensen.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
298. Fungicidal Spray Trials for the Control of Watermelon Leaf Spots,
by J. M. Crall. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
299. Recovery of Citrus Glucosides, by R. Hendrickson and J. W. Kester-
son. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
300. Cassio tora L., a Leguminous Host of Tobacco Etch Virus, by C. W.
Anderson. Plant Dis. Reptr. 38: 11. 1954.
301. Several Years' Comparisons of "Good" Tomato Fungicides, by R. A.
Conover. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
302. Chemical and Physical Tests of Avocado Maturity, by R. W. Harkness.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
303. Mango Breeding, by T. W. Young and R. Bruce Ledin. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.

86 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

305. Survey of Iron Deficiency in Florida Citrus, J. Richard Kuykendall.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
306. Life History of the Tropical Sod Webworm, Pachyzancla phaeopteralis
Guenee, by S. H. Kerr. Fla. Ento. 38:1. March 1955.
308. Incidence of Tobacco Blackshank Directly Related to Soil pH, by
Randall R. Kincaid and Nathan Gammon, Jr. Plant Dis. Reptr.
38: 12. Dec. 1954.
309. Peach Variety Tests, by R. H. Sharpe, T. E. Webb and H. W. Lundy.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
313. Root Distribution in Relation to the Water Table, by H. W. Ford.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
314. Lemon and Lime Pectinesterase and Pectin, by A. H. Rouse and C. D.
Atkins. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
315. Blackheart of Celery and Its Relationship to Soil Fertility and Plant
Composition, by P. J. Westgate, W. G. Blue and C. F. Eno. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
316. Mango Varieties, by R. Bruce Ledin. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
67. 1954.
317. Mechanical Harvesting and Bulk Handling of Potatoes, by R. E. L.
Greene and J. S. Norton. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
318. The Guava Fruit Moth, by D. O. Wolfenbarger. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 67. 1954.
319. Parasitic Nematodes on Avocados-A Preliminary Report, by T. W.
Young and George D. Reuhle. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67.
325. Some Plant-Vector-Virus Relationships of Southern Cucumber Mosiac
Virus, by J. N. Simons. Phytopath. 45: 4. April 1955.
326. Availability of Phosphorus, Potassium and Magnesium from Insoluble
Sources as Indicated by Growth and Leaf Analysis of Sweet Orange
Seedlings, by I. W. Wander. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
330. Congo Watermelon Damage and Quality at the Shipping Point, by
R. K. Showalter. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
331. The Value of Organic Nitrogen in Vegetable Fertilizers, by G. M.
Volk. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
333. Minor Element Availability in Everglades Peat from the Lake Apopka
Area, by J. G. A. Fiskel. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
334. Grove Hedging Studies on Citrus, by D. S. Prosser. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
336. Vibrio fetus Infection in Cattle, by M. Ristic, D. A. Sanders and M.
E. Tyler. Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 16. 1955.
341. A Chlorosis of Citrus Produced by Biuret as an Impurity in Urea, by
M. F. Oberbacher. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
342. Controlling Preharvest Fruit Drop of Pineapple Oranges with 2,4,5
Trichlorophenoxypropionic Acid, by J. W. Sites. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
344. Turning and Mature-Green Yields of Several Tomato Varieties from
Staked and Unstaked Plants, by L. H. Halsey and F. S. Jamison.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
345. The Status of the Purple Mite and Its Control, by W. L. Thomp-
son, R. B. Johnson and J. W. Sites. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67

Annual Report, 1955

346. Absorption, Deposition and Placental Transfer of Zinc" in the Rat,
by J. P. Feaster, S. L. Hansard, J. T. McCall and G. K. Davis. Am.
Jour. of Phys. 181: 2. May 1955.
347. The Effect of Lead Arsenate Sprays on Quality and Maturity of
Ruby Red Grapefruit, by E. J. Deszyck and J. W. Sites. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
348. Studies on the Use of Malathion on Citrus, by R. B. Johnson and
W. L. Thompson. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
359. Measurement and Control of Color of Orange Concentrate, by R. L.
Huggart and F. W. Wenzel. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67. 1954.
362. The Effect on Honeybees of Parathion Sprays Applied to Florida Citrus
Groves, by F. A. Robinson. Fla. Ento. 38: 2. June 1955.
369. A Progress Report on Gray Mold, Botrytis cinerea Fr., and Ghost
Spot of Tomatoes and Their Control, by J. F. Darby. Plant Dis.
Reprtr. 39: 2. Feb. 1955.
374. Effect of Rain on Control of Purple Scale with Parathion, by R. B.
Johnson and C. R. Stearns. Fla. Ento. 38: 2. June 1955.
383. Preliminary Report on a Strain of Cucumber Mosiac Virus Obtained
from Cowpea Plants, by C. W. Anderson. Plant Dis. Reptr. 39: 5.
May 1955.

Staff members also contribute numerous articles not given journal
series numbers to scientific and popular farm journals. Here is a list of
240 which appeared during the year.
Allison, R. V. Field Harvesting of Ramie. Atlantic Coast Line Agr. and
Livestock Topics 7: 4: 1-3. 1955.
Anderson, C. W. Viruses of Vegetable Crops and Miscellaneous Plants in
Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67: 102-105. 1954.
Arrington, L. R., J. Cutler and G. K. Davis. Availability of Phosphorus
from Phosphates after Irradiation in the Pile. Jour. Dairy Sci. 37: 661.
Baker, F. S., Jr., Cattle Feeding in North Florida. Fla. Gr. and Rancher.
62:11 (1285): 12-42. 1954.
Beardsley, D. W. Fattening Cattle on Pasture. Fla. Gr. and Rancher.
62: 11 (1285): 13-15-34. 1954.
Beardsley, D. W. Fattening Cattle on Pasture. ACL Agr. and Livestock
Topics. 6: 9:1-3. 1954.
Becker, R. B. Dairy Science Marches On-1954. Fla. Dairy News. 4: 6.
9, 11, 34. 1954.
Becker, R. B. Dairy Science Marches On-1954. Fla. Dairy News. 5:1: 10.
Blue, W. G. That Ratio of Nutrients for Pastures Depends on Soil Factor
is Profitable to Remember. Fla. Cat. & Livestock Jour. 18: 12: 36.
Blue, W. G., and C. F. Eno. Anhydrous Ammonia Good Source of Crop
Nitrogen. Fla. Cat. & Livestock Jour. 19:9: 28-31. 1955.
Brooks, T. L. Additional Hosts of the Burrowing Nematode in Florida.
PI. Dis. Reptr. 39: 4: 309. 1955.
Brooks, T. L. Host Range of the Burrowing Nematode Internationally
and in Florida. Cit. Mag. 17:5: 16-18. 1955. Also Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 67: 81-83. 1954.

88 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Burns, W. C., A. C. Warnick, M. Koger and A. M. Pearson. Factors As-
sociated with Low Fertility in Beef Cattle. Jour. An. Sci. 13:1016.
Burt, E. O. A Report on Control of Creeping Beggarweed in Centipede
Grass Turf. Fla. Turf Assn. Bul. 2: 2: 4-5. 1955.
Camp, A. F., and E. P. DuCharme. Spreading Decline of Citrus. Cit.
Mag. 17: 4: 11-14, 24-29. 1954.
Camp, A. F. Symposium on "Spreading Decline" of Citrus. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 67: 74. 1954.
Camp, A. F., and D. S. Prosser. Machine Treats Nursery Stock for Nema-
tode. Fla. Gr. and Rancher 63:6 (1292): 11, 25. 1955.
Coe, Donald M. Progress Report on the Use of Streptomycin for the
Control of Bacterial Spot on Tomatoes under Field Conditions on South
Florida Sandy Soils. P1. Dis. Reptr. 39: 3: 215-219. 1955.
Conover, R. A. Chemical Soil Treatment for the Control of Rhizoctonia
on Snap Beans. P1. Dis. Reptr. 39: 2: 103-105. 1955.
Conover, R. A. An Evaluation of Streptomycin Sprays for Bacterial Spot
Control in Commercial Tomato Plantbeds. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
67: 105-107. 1954.
Cook, A. A. Occurrence of a Pleospora Species on Castor Bean Leaves.
Pl. Dis. Reptr. 39:2 184. 1955.
Cook, A. A. Charcoal Rot of Castor Bean in the United States. P1. Dis.
Reptr. 39: 3: 233-235. 1955.
Cooper, J. Francis. Bigger Calf Crops Are Indicated When Cattle Get
Clover with Grass, U. of F. Announces. Fl. Cat. and Livestock Jour.
19: 5: 63. 1955.
Cox, R. S., and E. A. Wolf. A Crown Rot of Sweet Corn Caused by
Helminthosporium turcicum Pass. Phytopath. 45: 291-292. 1955.
Cox, R. S., D. S. Harrison and C. S. Yager. A Versatile Spray Rig for
Small Field Plots. P1. Dis. Reptr. 39: 1: 48-50. 1955.
Cox, R. S. A Preliminary Report on Diseases of Lettuce in the Ever-
glades and Their Control. P1. Dis. Reptr. 39: 5: 421-423. 1955.
Cox, R. S. Compatability Between a Streptomycin-Terramycin Formu-
lation and Copper in the Control of Bacterial Blight of Celery. P1.
Dis. Reptr. 39: 6: 478-479. 1955.
Cox, R. S. Cold Pox, a Disease on Cucumber in South Florida. P1.
Dis. Reptr. 39 :6: 478-479. 1955.
Cunha, T. J. Cunha Gives Advice on Pastures. Fla. Cat. 18: 11: 40, 79.
Cunha, T. J. Prepare Now for Winter Problems. Fla. Cat. 19: 2: 24. 1954.
Cunha, T. J. Cows Need Winter Proteins. Fla. Cat. 19: 1: 36. 1954.
Cunha, T. J. Cunha Outlines Progress Possible During 1955. Fla. Cat.
19: 5: 68-69. 1955.
Cunha, T. J. Keep Cows Healthy in Winter. Fla. Cat. 19: 5: 75-77. 1955.
Cunha, T. J. Are You Making Hay or Straw? Fla. Cat. 19: 9: 22-23. 1955.
Cunha, T. J. Stilbestrol Work is Outlined. Fla. Cat. 19: 9: 56-57. 1955.
Cunha, T. J. Quality Silage and Hay Are Both Excellent Winter Feeds.
Fla. Gr. and Rancher. 62: 9: 4. 1954.
Cunha, T. J. Beef Cattle in Calving Season. Fla. Gr. and Rancher. 63: 3.
4. 1955.

Annual Report, 1955 89

Cunha, T. J., and H. D. Wallace. The Value of Antibiotics in Animal
Nutrition. Lederle Vet. Bul. 13: 1: 2-6. 1954.
Cunha, T. J. The Purebred Need in Florida. Shorthorn World. 39:10: 208-
210. 1954.
Cunha, T. J. Winter Care of Bulls. Shorthorn World. 39:19:9. 18. 1955.
Cunha, T. J. Habla del cuidado de los toros. Revista Cebu Oct.: 16: 17,
Cunha, T. J. More Meat with Less Feed. Prog. Farmer. 70: 3: 31, 82.
Cunha, T. J. Effects of Deficiency and Requirements of Inositol in Animals.
The Vitamins: Chemistry, Physiology, Pathology. Vol. II. Academic
Press, Inc. Pp. 367-371, 381, 382. 1954.
Davis, George K. Chromium in Soils, Plants and Animals. Am. Chem.
Soc. Monograph. 1954.
Davis, George K. Molybdenum Toxicity in Livestock. Merck Vet. Manual.
Davis, George K. Evaluation of Mineral Adequacy. Methods for Evalua-
tion of Nutritional Adequacy and Status. Advisory Board on Quarter-
master Research and Development, 126-134. 1954.
Davis, G. K. Micro Elementosen la Nutrocion Animal. Second Pan-
American Congress of Veterinary Medicine, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Anais
do Segundo Congresso Pan-Americano de Medicina Veterinaria, 146-160.
Davis, G. K., and W. G. Kirk. Citrus Pulp-An Economical Cattle Feed.
Rural New Yorker. 449. 1954.
Davis, G. K., and R. K. Lindenstruth. Effect of Molybdenum on the Metabo-
lism of Bone. Jour. of An. Sci. 13: 980. 1954.
Dennison, R. A., and C. B. Ball. Field and Greenhouse Observations under
which Vascular-Browning (Gray Wall) of Tomatoes Occurs. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67: 133. 1954.
Dickey, R. D. Minor Element Deficiencies of Ornamental Plants in Florida.
Fla. Sub-Trop. Gard. 2:11: 20-21. 1954.
Dickey, R. D. Freezing Injury Test with Foliage Plants. Florists' Rev.
115:2972: 38. 1954.
Driggers, J. Clyde. What's New in Poultry Nutrition. Fla. Poult. and
Farm Jour. 20: 6: 10. 1954.
Driggers, J. Clyde. Florida Chickens Use Same Nutrients as Northern
Birds. Fla. Poult. and Farm Jour. 20: 7: 3. 1954.
Driggers, J. Clyde. What's New in Poultry Nutrition. Fla. Poult. and
Farm Jour. 20: 7: 9. 1954.
Driggers, J. Clyde. Florida Too Dependent on Outside Breeders. Fla.
Poult. and Farm Jour. 20:9: 10, 13. 1954.
Driggers, J. Clyde. What's New in Poultry Nutrition. Fla. Poult. and
Farm Jour. 20: 9: 3. 1954.
Driggers, J. Clyde. What's New in Poultry Nutrition. Fla. Poult. and
Farm Jour. 20: 10: 9. 1954.
Driggers, J. Clyde. Caged Layers Need Proper Control Diet. Fla. Poult.
and Farm Jour. 20: 10: 14-18. 1954.
Driggers, J. Clyde. What's New In Poultry Nutrition. Fla. Poult. and
Farm Jour. 20:11: 10. 1954.

90 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Driggers, J. Clyde. What's New in Poultry Nutrition. Fla. Poult. and Farm
Jour. 21:2: 3. 1955.
Driggers, J. Clyde. What's New in Poultry Nutrition. Fla. Poult, and Farm
Jour. 21: 4: 6, 13. 1955.
Driggers, J. Clyde. What's New in Poultry Nutrition. Fla. Poult. and
Farm Jour. 21: 6: 13. 1955.
DuCharme, E. P. Cause and Nature of Spreading Decline of Citrus. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67: 75-81. 1954.
Fifield, Willard M. Grass Helps State Cattle Industry. Fla. Cat. & Live-
stock Jour. 18: 12: 50-51. 1954.
Fiskel, J. G. A., L. C. Raymond, H. A. Steppler and W. A. DeLong. Some
Observations on the Effect of Weather on the Utilization of Super-
phosphate and Manure, Applied as a Topdressing to a Permanent
Pasture. Canadian Jour. of Ag. Sci. 33: 531-541. 1953.
Fiskel, J. G. A., W. A. DeLong and W. F. Oliver. The Uptake by Plants of
Labelled Phosphate from Neutron-Irradiated Calcium Phosphates. III.
Penetration into Soil and Uptake by Pasture Herbage. Canadian Jour.
of Ag. Sci. 33: 559-565. 1953.
Ford, Harry W. Field Experimental Work with Rootstocks and Its Limi-
tations. Cit. Mag. 17: 8: 14. 1955.
Ford, Harry W. Investigations with Systemic Treatments. Cit. Mag.
17: 9: 16. 1955.
Ford, H. W. Field Experimental Work with Rootstocks and Its Limita-
tions. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67: 91-92. 1954.
Ford, H. W. Investigations with Systemic Treatments. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 67: 94. 1954.
Ford, H. W. Is There a Place for Lemons in Florida-A Panel Discussion.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67: 206-210. 1954.
Forsee, W. T., Jr. Fertilizing Vegetables in the Everglades. Amer. Veg.
Gr. 3: 5: 24-25. 1955.
Fouts, E. L. Department of Dairy Science Announces Plans for 1955.
Fla. Dairy News. 5: 1: 16, 30, 35. 1955.
Gammon, Nathan, Jr. The Problem of Soil Acidity. Chilean Nitrate Farm
Forum. 53: 15. 1955.
Good, J. M., J. R. Christie and G. C. Nutter. Nematodes Are Causing
Extensive Damage to Florida Turf. Fla. Turf Assn. 1: 4: 7-8. 1954.
Green, V. E., Jr. Rice-Soil Conserving or Soil Depleting. Proc. Soil Sci.
Soc. Amer. 17: 3: 283, 284. 1953.
Green, V. E., Jr. Germany Honors con Liebig on Postage Stamps. Agron.
Jour. 45: 519. 1953.
Green, V. E., Jr. Rice (a book review). Agron. Jour. 46: 100. 1954.
Green, V. E., Jr. Research Increases Corn Yield. Fla. Gr. and Rancher.
62:12 (1286): 10-23. 1954.
Green, V. E., Jr. Humus Is Wonderful, but Keep It in Focus. Seeds-
men's Dig. 12: 36-37, 40, 43. 1954.
Green, V. E., Jr. Rice Investigations in Florida. Rice Ann. 36. 1954.
Green, V. E., Jr. Floral Postage Stamps. Seed World. 75:11: 44-45.
Green, V. E., Jr. Rice on the World's Postage Stamps. Rice Jour. 57: 10:
35-39. 1954.

Annual Report, 1955 91

Guzman, V. L. Herbicidal Control of Weeds in Sugarcane on Organic
Soils. Proc. So. Weed Control Conf. 8:203-206. 1955.
Guzman, V. L., and E. A. Wolf. Chemical Weeding of Cabbage in Muck
Soils. Proc. So. Weed Control Conf. 8: 335-343. 1955.
Guzman, V. L., and E. A. Wolf. Weeding Lettuce and Endive with CIPC
in Muck Soils. Proc. So. Weed Control Conf. 8: 344-348. 1955.
Halsey, L. H. How About Vine-Ripened Tomatoes? Market Gro. Jour.
84:2: 26. 1955.
Hansard, Sam. L., C. L. Comar and G. K. Davis. Effects of Age Upon the
Physiological Behavior of Calcium in Cattle. Am. Jour. of Phys.
177:3: 383-389. 1954.
Hendrickson, R., and J. W. Kesterson. Sugar Addition Calculator for
Grapefruit Concentration. Cit. Mag. 17:8: 18-19. 1955.
Hentges, J. F., Jr., and M. Koger. Selecting a Herd Sire. Fla. Cat.
18:10: 24. 1954.
Hentges, J. F., Jr. Effect of Nutrition upon Calf Crop. Fla. Cat. 19:1:
50. 1954.
Hentges, J. F., Jr. Waste Beef Fat in Steer Fattening Rations and Its
Effect upon the Carcass. Jour. An. Sci. 13: 4: 970. 1954.
Hodges, E. M. Pangola Damage Has Increased. Fla. Cat. and Livestock
Jour. 19:8: 79. 1955.
Hoover, M. W., and R. A. Dennison. Studies on the Freezing of Straw-
berries in Fla. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67: 197-199. 1954.
Hopkins, E. F., and K. W. Loucks. Cooling Fruit after Dowicide A-Hexa-
mine Treatment Gives Better Decay Control. Cit. Mag. 17:8: 9-12,
33. 1955.
Jamison, F. S. Florida's Vegetable Industry. Mkt. Gr. Jour. 83: 10: 24-
31. 1954.
Jamison, F. S. Market Demand and New Crops. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 67: 149-151. 1954.
Jones, D. W., E. M. Hodges, W. G. Kirk and F. M. Peacock. Pangola
Rates Highest in Range Station Gain Tests. Fla. Cat. 19: 9: 38-59.
Kelbert, D. G. A. Outlook for Growing and Marketing Vine-Ripened
Tomatoes in Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67: 117-119. 1954.
Kelbert, D. G. A. The Production and Marketing of Vine-Ripened Tomatoes
in Florida. ACL Agr. and Livestock Topics. 7: 6: 1, 3, 4. 1955.
Kelsheimer, E. G. Nematodes Infesting Certain Bulbs, Corms, and Tubers.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67: 297-300. 1954.
Kelsheimer, E. G. The Lesser Cornstalk Borer. Fla. Gr. and Rancher.
63:2 (1288): 20, 36. 1955.
Kelsheimer, E. G. Nematode Infestation of Gladiolus Bulbs. Fla. Gr. and
Rancher. 63: 5: 16-17. 1955.
Kerr, Stratton H. Some Factors Involved in Chinch Bug Control. Fla.
Turf Assn. Bul. 1: 3: 3. 1954.
Kerr, S. H. Some "Minor" Pests of Florida Turf. Fla. Turf Assn. Bul.
1:4: 3, 8. 1954.
Kerr, S. H. The Insect Net. Fla. Turf Assn.. 1: 3: 3, 8. 1954.
Kerr, S. H. Current Status of Turf Insect Research. Fla. Turf Assn. Bul.
2:2: 3, 8. 1955.

92 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Kerr, S. H. Insect Pests of Florida Lawns. Trop. Homes and Gardens.
5: 6: 26, 40, 45. 1955.
Killinger, G. B. Year-round Roughage for Cattle. Fla. Gr. and Rrancher.
62:11 (1285): 11-42. 1954.
Killinger, G. B. How Far Have We Gone in Pasture Production? Farm
Forum. 52: 14, 15. 1954.
Killinger, G. B. Planning, Planting and Fertilizing for Year-round Grazing.
Farm Forum. 51: 5, 6. 1954.
Killinger, G. B. Lessons from Pasture Studies in Florida, Iowa and Kansas.
Joint Cor. on Grassland Farming. 1955 Report.
Kirk, W. G. The Range Cattle Industry of Florida. Joint Corn. on Grass-
land Farming. 1955 Report.
Koger, M., and A. C. Warnick. High Fertility: Its Importance and How
To Achieve It. Hereford Jour. July 1954. 766-767.
Koger, Marvin. Essentials in Building a Sound Breeding Program for a
Commercial Cattle Operation. Fla. Gr. and Rancher. 62:11: 9. 1954.
Koger, M., A. C. Warnick, W. C. Burns and A. M. Pearson. Factors Asso-
ciated with Low Fertility in Beef Cattle. Jour. of An. Sci. 13: 4: 1016.
Koger, Marvin, and W. C. Burns. Incidence of Dwarfism Is Said to Be In-
creasing. Fla. Cat. and Livestock Jour. 14: 5: 62. 1955.
Kretschmer, A. E., Jr., and W. T. Forsee, Jr. The Use and Effectiveness of
Various Copper Bearing Materials for Application to Everglades Organic
Soils. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. 18: 4: 471-474. 1954.
Krienke, Walter A. Tropical Fruits in Ice Cream. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 67: 256-257. 1954.
Krienke, Walter A. Oxidized Flavor-Can It Be Prevented? Hoard's
Dairyman 99: 13: 621, 639. 1954.
Krienke, W. A. Improved Fractionation and Fat Number Determination for
Detecting Butterfat Adulteration. Jour. of Dairy Sci. 38: 6: 599. 1955.
Krienke, W. A. The Rancid Milk Flavor Problem. Fla. Dairy News
5: 22: 22. 1955.
Kuitert, L. C. Insect Problems in Turf. Proceedings 2nd Annual Univ. of
Fla. Turf Conf. 1954.
Kuitert, L. C. Malathion for Insect Control on Ornamentals. NEWS Fla.
Nurserymen & Gr. Assn. 4: 1: 3. 1955.
Ledin, Bruce. Florida Mango Census. Sub-Trop. Gard. 2: 13: 20-21. 1954.
Lorz, A. P. Pole Bean Breeding in Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
67: 157-158. 1954.
McCloud, D. E. High-Level Fertilization Produces Eight Tons of Forage to
Acre of Land. Fla. Cat. 19: 9: 18. 1955.
McMillan, F. A., and H. D. Wallace. Palatability Studies on Creep Feed
Formulations for Suckling Pigs. Jour. of An. Sci. 13: 993. 1954.
Magie, R. 0. Stromatinia Diseases of Gladiolus. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
67: 313-317. 1954.
Magie, R. O. Fusarium Wilt Control Is Under Study for Gladiolus. Fla.
Gr. and Rancher. 62:7 (1281): 10, 39. 1954.
Mitchell, W. G. Table Legume Breeding in Florida. So. Seedsman.
17:11: 28-88. 1954.
Mitchell, W. G. A Model P. R. System for Experiment Stations. ACE,
Am. Asso. of Agr. Col. Editors. 37: 4: 3. 1954.

Annual Report, 1955 93

Mitchell, W. G. Iron Chelates. Plants and Gardens. 10: 4: 258-260.
Mitchell, W. G. Iron Chelates for Iron Starved Plants. Pop. Gardening.
5:7: 35. ]954.
Mitchell, W. G. Chemical Magic Feeds Plants Iron. Trop. Homes and
Gardening. 5: 1: 24. 1954.
Mitchell, W. G. Green Magic-With Chelated Iron. Am. Veg. Gr. 2: 11:
11-12. 1954.
Mitchell, W. G. Florida's Vegetable Nomads. Am. Veg. Gr. 3: 3: 22, 30.
Mitchell, W. G. Pastures Purify Infested Florida Vegetable Lands. Seeds-
man's Dig. 5: 7: 15, 33, 49. 1954.
Mitchell, W. G. Sunflower Seed Meal for Protein. Seedsman's Dig. 5: 7:
24-32. 1954.
Mitchell, W. G. A New Kind of Customer. Seedsman's Dig. 6: 2: 10, 43.
Mitchell, W. G. Florida's "Golden Apples" Have Come a Long, Long
Way. Farm and Ranch Topics. 9: 4: 3. 1955.
Mitchell W. G. Sunflower Seed Meal for Poultry and Steers. Prog.
Farmer. Jan. 1954.
Mitchell, W. G. Florida Ranchers Are Sold on Silage for Beef Cattle.
Prog. Farmer. July 1954.
Mitchell, W. G. Chelated Iron-New Plant Food Miracle. Prog. Farmer
69:8: 22. 1954.
Mitchell, W. G. Many Farmers Have Found Florispan Runner Money
Making Peanut. Prog. Farmer. 70: 3. 28-29. 1955.
Mitchell, W. G. Chelates vs. Vegetables. Fla. Gr. and Rancher. 62:7
(1281): 16. 1954.
Mitchell, W. G. Clover and Your Cows. Fla. Gr. and Rancher. 62:8
(1282): 20. 1954.
Mitchell, W. G. New and Better Oats. Fla. Gr. and Rancher. 62: 10
(1284): 12-16. 1954.
Mitchell, W. G. Good Sires-Good Herds. Fla. Gr. and Rancher. 62:11
(1285): 16-28. 1954.
Mitchell, W. G. Children's Diet and Bone Development. Fla. Gr. and
Rancher. 62:12 (1286): 20-25. 1955.
Mitchell, W. G. Control of Parasites in Cattle. Fla. Gr. and Rancher.
63:1 (1287): 46-47. 1955.
Mitchell, W. G. Close-Up of New Peanut Varieties. Fla. Gr. and Rancher.
63:2 (1288): 33, 34. 1955.
Mitchell, W. G. Toxic Soil from Insecticides. Fla. Gr. and Rrancher.
63:3 (1289): 30. 1955.
Mitchell, W. G. Year-Round Grazing for Beef Cattle. Fla. Gr. and Rancher.
63:4: 3, 30. 1955.
Mitchell, W. G. Start Baby Pigs on Creep Ration. Fla. Gr. and Rancher.
63: 5: 23. 1955.
Mitchell, W. G. Limited Diet and Bodily Functions. Fla. Gr. and Rrancher.
63:6 (1292): 26. 1955.
Muma, Martin H. Ladybettle Predators of Citrus Mites. Cit. Mag. 16: 11:
10-11. 1954.

94 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Muma, Martin H. Three Thrips Predatory on Citrus Insects and Mites in
Fla. Cit. Mag. 17: 9: 11, 12, 13. 1955.
Noonan, J. C. Horticultural Portraits by Photography. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 67: 266-267. 1954.
Nutter, G. C. Improved Bermuda Grass Lawns. Fla. Turf. Assn. Bul.
1: 3: 6-7. 1954.
Nutter, G. C. The Turf Outlook for 1955. Fla. Turf Assn. Bul. 2: 1:
1, 6-8. 1955.
Nutter, G. C. Characteristics and Management of St. Augustine Grass
Lawns. Fla. Turf Assn. Bul. 2: 2: 6-8. 1955.
Ozaki, C. T. Some Important Uses of Tissue Testing. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc.
Fla. 13: 143-146. 1954.
Palmer, A. Z. Hides Can Be Tanned and Cured by Simple Method. Fla.
Cattleman. 19: 9: 50-51. 1955.
Peacock, Fentress M., and W. G. Kirk. Performance in the Feed Lot of
Calves and Yearlings. Fla. Gr. and Rancher. 62:11 (1285): 10, 40.
Pearson, A. M., D. H. Kropf and H. D. Wallace. Observations on the Use
of Waste Beef Fat in Swine Rations. Jour. An. Sci. 13: 630-637. 1954.
Pearson, A. M., J. W. Carpenter, W. G. Kirk, M. Koger and D. H. Kropf.
A Comparison of Carcasses from Purebred Brahman Steers with Steers
of Varying Proportions of Shorthorn and Brahman Breeding. Jour. An.
Sci. 13: 971. 1954.
Pepper, J. O., and A. N. Tissot. A New Species of Cinerea from Pennsyl-
vania (Homoptera: aphidea). Fla. Ent. 38: 2:85-88. 1955.
Pritchett, W. L. New Forage Species for the Bolivian Valleys. Boletin
Experimental No. 1, Bolivian Agr. Exp. Sta. Feb. 1951: 1-6.
Pritchett, W. L., and R. Quintanilla. Mejoramiento del Suelos Boliviano.
Boletin Experimental No. 3, Bolivian Agr. Exp. Sta. July, 1952: 1-24.
Pritchett, W. L., and L. B. Nelson. The Effect of Light Intensity on the
Growth Characteristics of Alfalfa and Bromegrass. Agron. Jour.
43:4: 172-177. 1951.
Prosser, David S. Safety Flags for Grove Tractors. Fla. Gr. and Rancher.
62: 11 (1285): 40. 1954.
Prosser, David S.. Grove Hedging Studies on Citrus. Cit. Mag. 17: 6:
18, 19. 1955.
Racine, R. G., and G. B. Killinger. The Response of Pangola Grass and
Coastal Bermuda Grass to High Nitrogen Fertilization. Am. Plant Food
Jour. 9:1: 2. 1955.
Randolph, J. W. The Present Need for a Suitable Ramie and Kenaf Har-
vester and Some Advantages of Limited Field Processing. Proc. Soil
Sci. Soc. 11: 149-156. 1951.
Randolph, J. W., and V. L. Guzman. Floating Nozzle Applicators for Post-
Emergence Control of Weeds. Proc. So. Weed Control Conf. 8: 413-415.
Reitz, H. J., C. D. Leonard, J. W. Sites, W. F. Spencer, I. Stewart, and I. W.
Wander. Recommended Fertilizers and Nutritional Sprays for Citrus.
Cit. Mag. 71: 2: 11-13, 37. 1954.
Ristic, M., and D. A. Sanders. Canine Microsporosis. Vet. Med. 50: 5:
225-228. 1955.
Sanders, D. A. Canine Piroplasmosis. The Merck Vet. Manual, 1st Ed.

Annual Report, 1955

Sanders, D. A. Eyeworm of Poultry. The Merck Vet. Manual, 1st Ed.
Savage, Zach. Grove Records and Their Value. Citrus Ind. 53:7: 2, 8.
Savage, Zach. Grove Record Quantative Data of Great Value. Fla. Gr.
and Rancher. 62:8 (1282): 20. 1954.
Savage, Zach. Some Pointers from Citrus Records. Fla. Gr. and Rancher.
63:5: 6. 1955.
Savage, Zach. Production of Florida Tangerines. Cit. Mag. 16:11: 12,
13, 21. 1954.
Savage, Zach. Florida's Position in U. S. Production of Oranges and
Tangerines. Cit. Mag. 16: 12: 18. 1954.
Savage, Zach. Florida's Position in U. S. Production of Grapefruit. Cit.
Mag. 17:1: 10-11. 1954.
Savage, Zach. Fertilizer Elements Added. Cit. Mag. 17:2: 33-35. 1954.
Savage, Zach. Cash Receipts from Citrus with Comparisons. Cit. Mag.
17:3: 28-29. 1954.
Savage, Zach. Citrus Estimates with Comparisons. Cit. Mag. 17: 4: 15.
Savage, Zach. Data on Citrus Production Costs of Groves over 10 Years
of Age. Cit. Mag. 17:5: 14-15. 1955.
Savage, Zach. Citrus Tree Movement from Florida Nurseries. Cit. Mag.
17: 16: 28-31. 1955.
Savage, Zach. Stocks Used for Citrus Trees Moved in 1953-54. Cit. Mag.
17: 7: 8-9. 1955.
Savage, Zach. Production of Citrus in the Northern Hemisphere. Cit. Mag.
17:8: 17-20. 1955.
Savage, Zach. How Many Citrus Trees per Acre. Cit. Ind. 36: 5: 12, 13, 20.
Savage, Zach. The Middleman. Cit. Mag. 17: 10: 11-13, 37. 1955.
Schomer, H. A., R. K. Showalter, R. E. Hardenburg and B. D. Thompson.
Prepackaging Celery at Production Area in Florida. Pre-Pack-Age.
8: 10: 18, 20, 21-27. 1955.
Seale, C. C., E. O. Gangstad, J. F. Joyner and J. B. Pate. Fiber Crops in
Florida. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Fla. 11: 129: 141. 1951.
Seale, C. C., E. O. Gangstad and J. B. Pate. Preliminary Studies on the
Fiber Qualities of Ramie Varieties. Turrialba. 4: 2: 66-71. 1954.
Shideler, Frank J., and W. L. Pritchett. Bolivian Phosphate Discovery
May Boost Country's Agriculture. For. Agric. 16:10: 182-184. 1952.
Shirley, R. L., H. D. Wallace and G. K. Davis. Antibiotics and Nutrition.
Agr. and Food Chemistry. 2:16:830. 1955.
Showalter, R. K., S. A. Harmon, B. B. Brantley, D. W. Newsom and J. F.
Pittman. Changes in Congo Watermelons after Harvest. Proc. So.
Assn. Agri. Wkrs. 52: 136-137. 1955.
Showalter, R. K. Recent Developments in Handling Watermelons as Re-
lated to Damage. Proc. Nat. Handling Perishable Agr. Commodities
Conf. 9: 117-118. 1955.
Simpson, C. F., and E. West. Plant Poisonings of Livestock. Merck Vet.
Manual, 1st Ed. 1955.
Smith, C. N., and J. Wayne Reitz. Florida Orange Exports. Fla. Gr.
and Rancher. 63:1 (1287): 3, 22, 23. 1955.

96 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Spurlock, A. H. Bargain for Farmers Economist Analyzes New
Social Security Law. Fla. Gr. and Rancher. 62: 10 (1284): 8, 9, 23.
Stewart, Ivan, and C. D. Leonard. What Chelates Are. ACL Agr. and
Livestock Topics. 7: 2: 1-4. 1955.
Stover, L. H. Ten Years' Observations on the Lake Emerald Grape.
Sub-trop. Gard. 3: 6: 17-18. 1955.
Suit, R. F. The Experimental Basis and Limitations of the Pull-and-
Treat Method of Handling Spreading Decline. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 67: 85-89. 1954.
Suit, R. F. Resistant Rootstock Studies Using the Temperature Tank for
Screening. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67:90: 90-91. 1954. Also
Citrus Mag. 17: 8: 13-14.
Suit, R. F. Research on Non-Phytotoxic Soil Treatments. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 67: 92-93. 1954.
Suit. R. F. Research on Non-Phytotoxic Chemical Treatments for Soil
Treatment. Cit. Mag. 17:8: 23-24. 1955.
Thompson, B. D., and Phares Decker. The Occurrence of Two Types of
Hopocotyl Discoloration of Harvested Radishes. P1. Dis. Reptr. 39: 5:
416. 1955.
Thompson, W. L., R. B. Johnson and J. W. Sites. The Status of the Purple
Mite and its Control. Cit. Mag. 17: 5: 8-11, 20. 1955.
Thompson, W. L., R. M. Pratt, and R. B. Johnson. Citrus Insect Control.
Cit. Ind. 36:5: 3. 1955.
Thornton, George. Fertilizer Materials and Factors Affecting Their Use.
Sub-Trop. Gard. 2: 11: 8-9. 1954.
Volk, G. M. Nitrogen Sources for the Maintenance of Turf Grasses.
Fla. Turf Assn. Bul. 1:3. 1954.
Wadsworth, J. G. Bleeder Disease on Increase in Florida. Fla. Poult. and
Farm Jour. 20: 9: 6-11. 1954.
Wadsworth, J. G., M. W. Emmel, J. C. Driggers and N. R. Mehrhof.
Drinking Water Vaccination versus Intranasal Vaccination for New-
castle Disease in Young Chickens. Fla. Poult. and Farm Jour. 21: 4: 2.
Wallace, A. T. Managing Small Grains for Maximum Grazing. Farm
Forum. 51:8 1954.
Wallace, A. T., G. K. Middleton, R. E. Comstock and H. F. Robinson.
Genotypic Variances and Covariances of Six Quantitative Characters in
Oats. Dept. of Agron. and Exp. Statistics, N. C. Agr. Exp. Sta. Jour.
Paper, 524.
Wallace, A. T., G. K. Middleton, R. E. Comstock and H. F. Robinson. Vari-
ability in Letoria and Fulwin Oats. N. C. Agr. Exp. Sta. Jour. Paper 599.
Wallace, H. D., and L. Gillespie. Ilotycin as a Feed Ingredient for Grow-
ing Fattening Swine. Jour. An. Sci. 13: 984. 1954.
Wallace, H. D. Large Litters are Profit Basis in Swine Business. Fla. Cat.
and Livestock Jour. 19: 5: 72. 1955.
Wallace, H. D. Swine on Pasture May Use 15 Percent Less Grain. Fla.
Cat. and Livestock Jour. 19:5 64. 1955.
Wallace, H. D. Results of Low-Gossypol Cottonseed Meal Research. Fla.
Cat. and Livestock Jour. 19: 2: 44. 1954.
Walter, James M. Fighting Bacterial Spot in Growing the Tomato and
Pepper. Fla. Gro. and Rancher. 62:10 (1284): 7-43. 1954.

Annual Report, 1955

Walter, J. M. The 1953 Outbreak of Black Rot at Ruskin. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 67: 109-111. 1954.
Wander, I. W. Effects of Sulfur and Nitrogen Sources on Subsoil in
Florida Citrus Groves. Farm Forum. 52: 8, 9. 1954.
Westgate, Philip J. Chelated Iron for Iron Chlorotic Plants. ACL Agr.
& Livestock Topics. 6: 10: 4. 1954.
Whitman, J. V., P. E. Loggins, Doyle Chambers, L. S. Pope and D. F.
Stephens. Some Sources of Error in Weighing Steers Off Grass. Jour.
of An. Sci. 13: 4: 832, 842. 1954.
Wilkowske, H. H., and S. A. Noles. Practical Sanitary Aspects of Bulk Milk
Dispensing. Jour. of Milk & Food Tech. 17: 7: 214-218. 1954.
Wilkowske, H. H., F. E. Nelson and C. E. Parmelee. Serological Classifi-
cation of Becteriophages Active Against Lactic Streptococci. Applied
Microbiology. 2: 5: 243-249. 1954.
Wilkowske, H. H., F. E. Nelson and C. E. Parmalee. Heat Inactivation
of Bacteriophage Strains Active Against Lactic Streptococci. Applied
Microbiology. 2: 5: 250-253. 1954.
Wilkowske. Preventing Feed Flavors in Milk. Fla. Dairy News. 4: 4: 24,
25, 27. 1954.
Wilkowske, H. H. How to Avoid Watered Milk. Fla. Dairy News. 4: 6:
8. 1954.
Wilson, John W. One Hundred Years of Professional Entomology-The
Contributions the Profession Has Made to Florida Agriculture. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67: 8-11. 1954.
Wolf, E. A. Chain-Shot Firecracker Barrage Tried as Experiment Drives
Blackbirds Away, Save Sprouting Glades Cornfields. Fla. Gr. and
Rancher. 62: 8 (1282): 15, 28. 1954.
Wolf, E. A., and V. L. Guzman. A Summary of Weed Control Experiments
in Sweet Corn on the Organic Soils of the Florida Everglades. Proc.
So. Weed Control Conf. 8: 349-356. 1955.

State Project 670 William G. Mitchell
A survey was made by mail and telephone to determine who listens to
the Florida Farm Hour, what percentage of potential listeners actually
listen, and whether those who listen are satisfied with the program con-
tent. In a telephone survey, 200 calls were made and 155 answers recorded.
In the mail survey, 200 questionnaires were mailed and 33 replies received.
Twelve percent of those who answered the phone survey reported they
were listening to the Farm Hour, and 31 percent listened regularly. Ten
percent had their radios on but were tuned to other stations, while 78
percent were not listening to the radio when called.
In the mail survey, 72 percent of those who answered lived on farms,
Sixty-nine percent of those who answered the questionnaire said they listen
to the farm hour. Education and radio ownership were high among those
who replied, and age distribution was good.
Opinions given on the Farm Hour were generally good, but several
people suggested changes in content. Largest votes were for more general
farm news and more on-the-spot reports. The farm question box was the
most popular part of the Florida Farm Hour.

98 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Work was continued on all projects reported on last year and a new
project concerned with the control of nematodes on ornamental foliage
plants was added. Two of the projects are in cooperation with the USDA
and more than half of the remainder are carried on cooperatively with
workers in other departments and branch stations. The tobacco insect
project will be terminated with the current crop and it is planned to
replace it with another project covering some other phase of tobacco
pest investigation. Preliminary studies and trials on insect, mite and
nematode pests of roses, chrysanthemums, caladiums, gardenias and straw-
berries gave promising results.

State Project 379 A. M. Phillips
This project was continued at the Pecan Investigation Laboratory in
cooperation with the Entomology Research Branch, ARS, USDA.
The insecticides used in the hickory shuckworm experiments in 1954
(see project 597) each gave excellent control of the nut casebearer.
In the experiment designed to study the influence of time of applica-
tion on effectiveness of nut casebearer sprays, EPN, parathion and nitrox
(methyl parathion) were applied April 26 and 29 and May 2, 1955. Only 10.2
percent of the nut clusters in the unsprayed plots were infested and the
insecticides reduced this infestation by 72.6 to 98.5. Parathion and EPN
gave their most effective control with the last application, while with nitrox
it was the preceding one.

State Project 531 L. C. Kuitert and S. H. Kerr
Parathion was effective in controlling Florida red, purple and pyriform
scales, aphids and whiteflies infesting citrus species, camellias, gardenias,
hibiscus and roses. Demeton was effective in controlling aplids, white-
flies, and mites infesting gardenias, hibiscus and azaleas when applied to
the foliage or as a soil drench. No satisfactory treatment has been found
for the control of flower thrips infesting roses. High concentrations of
parathion, malathion and experimental insecticide 12008 and low concentra-
tions of Stauffer R-1303 were phytotoxic to Caledonia and Talisman roses,
the only varieties on which they were tested.

Bankhead-Jones Project 537 L. C. Kuitert and A. N. Tissot
Three sprays and two dusts were used in the 1955 field plot test. Sprays
were applied with three-gallon compressed air sprayers and dusts with
rotary hand dusters. Applications were made April 29, June 8 and July 1.
Hornworms appeared early but the population remained low and damage
light until late in the season when harvest was nearly finished. Budworms
and their damage fluctuated greatly and the heaviest egg laying occurred
when the plants began to bloom. Hornworms averaged 46 per 100 plants
and budworms 3 per 100 plants at time of first application. All materials

Annual Report, 1955

gave excellent control of both kinds of larvae. At the time of the second
application hornworms and budworms averaged 38 and 31 larvae, respec-
tively, per 100 plants. With this somewhat heavier infestation all materials
were equally and fully effective. Amounts of materials used in this appli-
cation, on a pounds per acre active ingredient basis, were as follows:
endrin spray 0.35; TDE spray 0.84; malathion spray 0.91; TDE 5 percent dust
1.61 and endrin 1 percent dust 0.32.
At the third application both hornworms and budworms were much
more numerous and both populations were increasing rapidly. Horn-
worms and budworms averaged 96 and 62 larvae, respectively, per 100
plants. The tobacco was large and insecticide coverage less thorough
than in earlier applications. Under these conditions malathion spray was
much inferior to the other treatments, all of which gave excellent control
of both hornworms and budworms. Amounts of materials used, on a pounds
per acre active ingredient basis, were: Endrin spray, 0.56; TDE spray
1.24; malathion spray 1.28; TDE 5 percent dust 2.90, and endrin 1 percent
dust 0.34. Aphids were extremely scarce throughout the season and the
infestation never exceeded four lightly infested plants per 1,000 plants.
This is the last report under this project, as it will be terminated at the
close of the 1955 crop season. A Station bulletin based on information ob-
tained under the project is now being prepared for publication. (See Proj.
537, Agronomy).

State Project 583 F. A. Robinson
Eighteen plants were tested in the Honey Plant Introduction Garden
during the past year. Dixie reseeding crimson clover, Trifolium rubrmn
(L.) and Floranna annual sweet clover, Melilotus alba (Desv.), continued
to be very good nectar-producing plants. Their flowers were visited by
honeybees in large numbers. White Dutch clover, Trifolium repens (L.),
again failed to secrete any nectar and will not be included in further tests.
The planting of lionstail mint, Leonurus sibiricus (L.), which had ap-
peared quite promising in former tests, was killed during the past winter.
Everflowing locust, Robinia pseudoacacia (L.), has continued to grow
rapidly, and its flowers attract honeybees in large numbers. Attempts to
propagate this tree from seed so far have been unsuccessful. Eight tupelo
trees, Nyssa ogeeche (Marsh.), planted in 1950, bloomed this year for the
first time. Several thousand tupelo seed were planted in November 1954
and 41 percent of these seed germinated. Three hundred one-year-old
tupelo seedlings were distributed to interested persons for planting in
other parts of the State. Approximately one acre of Japanese buckwheat,
Fagopyrum esculentum (Moenuch), was planted in March 1955, and it was
in full bloom by April 15. Honeybees were observed visiting the flowers in
large numbers during the morning hours, but nectar secretion by this plant
evidently ceases in the early afternoon, as no bees can be found visiting
buckwheat flowers after 1:00 P. M. This trait was observed also in a one-
acre planting of sweet yellow lupine, Lupinus lutea (L.), which attracted
honeybees in large numbers until about 2:00 P.M., after which time no
bees could be found in the field.
Nectar samples were collected from several plants by centrifuging the
flowers for five minutes at 3800 rpm. Measurements were made of the
volume of nectar extracted and the sugar concentration of each sample
was determined by the use of a hand refractometer. The quantities of
nectar shown were extracted from five florets each of the clovers and