Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Report of the director
 Report of the business manager
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural engineering
 Animal husbandry and nutrition
 Dairy science
 Editorial department
 Home economics
 Plant pathology
 Poultry husbandry
 Veterinary science
 Central Florida station
 Citrus station
 Everglades station
 Indian River field laboratory
 Plantation field laboratory
 Gulf Coast station
 North Florida station
 Range cattle station
 Sub-tropical station
 Suwannee Valley station
 West central Florida station
 West Florida station
 Field laboratories
 Federal-state frost warning...

Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00002
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1954
Publication Date: 1945-1967
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002452809
oclc - 12029671
notis - AMF8114
System ID: UF00027385:00002
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Table of Contents
        Page 6
    Report of the director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Report of the business manager
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Agricultural economics
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Agricultural engineering
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Animal husbandry and nutrition
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Dairy science
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Editorial department
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Home economics
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    Plant pathology
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    Poultry husbandry
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
    Veterinary science
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
    Central Florida station
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    Citrus station
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
    Everglades station
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
    Indian River field laboratory
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
    Plantation field laboratory
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
    Gulf Coast station
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
    North Florida station
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
    Range cattle station
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
    Sub-tropical station
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
    Suwannee Valley station
        Page 296
        Page 297
    West central Florida station
        Page 298
    West Florida station
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
    Field laboratories
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
    Federal-state frost warning service
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
Full Text






JUNE 30, 1954

Hollis Rinehart, Chairman, Miami
J. Lee Ballard, St. Petersburg
Fred H. Kent, Jacksonville
Mrs. Alfred I. duPont, Jacksonville
George W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauder-
W. Glenn Miller, Monticello
J. B. Culpepper, Sec., Tallahassee
Wm. H. Dial, Orlando

J. S. Allen, Ph.D., Acting President
J. W. Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agr.
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Director
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Dir.
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Asst. Dir.
R. L. Bartley, B.S., Adm. Mgr.'
G. R. Freeman, B.S., Supt. of Field
W. H. Jones, B.S., Asst. Supt. of
Field Operations

H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Econ.1"
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agr. Econ.3
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Econ.3
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agr. Econ.3
Z. Savage, M.S.A., Asso. Agr. Econ.
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agr. Econ.
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Asso. Agr. Econ.
D. L. Brooke, Ph.D., Asso. Agr. Econ.
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Asso. Market-
ing Economist 3
C. N. Smith, M.A., Asso. Agr. Econ.
E. Thor, M.S., Asso. Agr. Econ.3
L. A. Powell, Sr., M.S.A., Asst. Agr.
N. K. Roberts, M.S., Asst. Agr. Econ.
E. D. Smith, Ph.D., Asst. Agr. Econ.
J. C. Townsend, B.S.A., Agr. Statis-
tician, USDA, Orlando
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statis-
tician, USDA, Orlando
F. T. Galloway, M.S., Agr. Statis-
tician, U.S.D.A., Orlando
G. N. Rose, B.S., Asso. Agr. Econ.,
C. L. Crenshaw, M.S., Asst. Agr.
Econ., Orlando
B. W. Kelly, Ph.D., Asst. Agr. Econ.,

F. Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Eng. 3
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Asso. Agr. Eng.
J. S. Norton, M.S., Asst. Agr. Eng.

1 Head of Department.
SIn cooperation with U. S.
SCooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
SOn leave.


F. H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist 1
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
F. A. Clark, M.S., Asso. Agron.2
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.3
E. O. Burt, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
J. R. Edwardson, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
G. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Asst. Agron."
I. M. Wofford, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
R. L. Gilman, B.S., Asst. in Agron.


T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., An. Husb.h1
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., An. Nutritionist
M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husb.'
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist
A. M. Pearson, Ph.D., Asso. An.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Asso. An.
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Asst. An.
J. P. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutr.
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. An.
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Asst. Phys.3
P. E. Loggins, M.S., Asst. in An.
J. T. McCall, B.S., Asst. in Chem.
J. C. Outler, Jr., M.S., Asst. in Chem.
H. W. Newland, Int. Asst. in An.


E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Tech."
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husb.
P. T. D. Arnold, M.S.A., Asso. Dairy
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy
L. E. Mull, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Tech."
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. Dairy
Technologist "
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy
J. M. Wing, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy


J. F. Cooper, M.S.A., Editor 1
C. K. Beale, A.B.J., Asso. Editor 3
W. G. Mitchell, A.B.J., Asst. Ed.
S. L. Burgess, A.B.J., Asst. Ed.

A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entom. 1
J. R. Christie, Ph.D., Nematologist
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Asso. Entom.
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Asst. Entom.
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Asst. Entom.
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apic.
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Asst. Entom.

O. D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist

G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Hort.'
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Hort., Int.
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Hort.3
A. P. Lorz, Ph.D., Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asso. Hort.
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
A. Griffiths, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
M. W. Hoover, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst.
C. H. Van Middelem, Ph.D., Asst.
B. D. Thompson, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.

F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Hort.-

I. K. Cresap, Librarian
L. T. Urschel, M.A., Asst. in Library

W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Path.1 '
P. Decker, Ph.D., Plant Path.
R. W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path."
E. West, M.S., Botanist and
L. E. Arnold, M.S., Asso. Botanist
H. N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant

N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry
Husbandman 1 2
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry
Husbandman 3
1 Head of Department.
2In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 On leave.

F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist'
N. Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chem.
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chem.
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soils Tech.
G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Soil Microb.3
G. M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chem.
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Asst. Biochem.
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Asst. Soils
R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.3
V. W. Carlisle, M.S., Asst. Soil
0. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Asst. Soil
J. G. A. Fiskel, Ph.D., Asst.
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Asst. Soils
Physicist 3
W. K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
J. H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Asst. Chem.
R. G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil

D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterin. '
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasi-
M. Ristic, D.V.M., Asso. Path.
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterin.
W. R. Dennis, D.V.M., Asst.
J. G. Wadsworth, D.V.M., Asst.
Poultry Pathologist
W. M. Stone, Jr., M.S., Asst. in

E. W. Swarthout, D.V.M., Asso.
Poultry Pathologist


R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Director
in Charge
J. W. Wilson, ScD., Entomologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
B. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst.

A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
R. Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
W. C. Price, Ph.D., Virologist
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entom.
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entom.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
E. J. Deszyk, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
E. P. DuCharme, Ph.D., Asso. Plant
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chem.
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist '
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Asso. Entom.
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Asso. Ento-
A. H. Rouse, M.S., Associate Pectin
F. E. Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
W. R. F. Grierson-Jackson, Ph.D.,
Asst. Chemist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chem.
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Interim Asst.
R. C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Interim Asst.
J. R. Kuykendall, Ph.D., Interim
Asst. Horticulturist
J. J. McBride, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Asst.
M. F. Oberbacher, B.S., Interim
Asst. Plant Physiologist
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Eng.
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Hort.
I. Stewart, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
T. L. Brooks, B.S.A., Interim Asst.
in Pathology
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Asst. in
G. J. Edwards, B.A., Asst. in Chem.
T. B. Hallam, B.S., Asst. in
H. I. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Asst. in
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Asst. in
J. B. Weeks, B.S., Asst. in
C. D. Atkins, B.S., Collaborator
M. H. Dougherty, B.S., Collaborator
E. C. Hill, B.S.A., Collaborator
E. F. Hopkins, Ph.D., Collaborator
R. L. Huggart, B.S., Collaborator
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Collaborator
1 Head of Department.
In cooperation with U. S.
SCooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
On leave.

A. A. McCornack, M.S., Collaborator
R. R. McNary, Ph.D., Collaborator
E. L. Moore, Ph.D., Collaborator
S. V. Ting, Ph.D., Collaborator
R. W. Wolford, M.S., Collaborator

Indian River Field Laboratory,
Fort Pierce
F. J. Reynolds, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.

W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
in Charge
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Tech.
T. Bregger, Ph.D., Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agr. Eng.
R. S. Cox, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. An. Husb.
C. C. Seale, Asso. Agronomist
R. J. Allen, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
D. W. Beardsley, M.S., Asst.
An. Husb.
W. G. Genung, M.S., Asst. Entom.
V. E. Green, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
M. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
D. S. Harrison, M.S., Asst. Agr. Eng.
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Asst.
Soils Chemist
T. L. Meade, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutr.
C. T. Ozaki, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
J. N. Simons, Ph.D., Asst. Virologist
W. H. Thames, Jr., M.S., Asst.
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Hort.
M. R. Bedsole, Jr., M.S.A., Asst. in
Indian River Field Laboratory,
Fort Pierce
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asso. Entom.
D. M. Coe, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
Plantation Field Laboratory,
Fort Lauderdale
J. C. Stephens, B.S., Drainage Eng.2
F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Asso. Agron.

E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entom.
R. 0. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Path.
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Path.
D. G. A. Kelbert, Asso. Hort.
D. S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Asst. Soils
G. Sowell, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
A. J. Overman, M.S., Asst. in Soils

W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist
in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Path.
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Agronomist
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils
F. S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. Animal
F. E. Guthrie, Ph.D., Asst. Entom.
T. E. Webb, B.S.A., Asst. in

Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Asso. Agron.
Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Asso. Agron.
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Asso. Agron.
Mobile Unit, Pensacola
R. L. Smith, M.S., Asso. Agron.

W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
D. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Tech.
F. M. Peacock, M.S., Asst. in An.

G. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
R. A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Path.
F. B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist.
D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entom.
J. L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
R. B. Ledin, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
J. C. Noonan, M.S., Asst. Hort.
M. H. Gallatin, B.S., Soil Conserv.'

1 Head of Department.
SIn cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
1 On leave.

G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist
in Charge

M. W. Hazen, M.S., Animal
Husbandman in Charge'

C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director
in Charge
R. L. Jeffers, Ph.D., Asso. Agron.
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Asso. Agron.

Potato, Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathol-
ogist in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Hort.
T. M. Dobrovsky, Ph.D., Asst. Entom.
D. L. Myhre, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chem.
Pecan, Monticello
J. R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entom.'
Strawberry, Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Path.
Watermelon and Grape, Leesburg
J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Asso. Plant
Pathologist in Charge
C. C. Helms, Jr., B.S., Asst. Agron.
L. H. Stover, Asst. in Hort.
Weather Forecasting, Lakeland
W. 0. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist
in Charge
D. C. Russell, B.S., Associate
Meteorologist '
J. D. Cox, Assistant Meteorologist
R. H. Dean, Assistant Meteorologist
J. G. George, Asst. Meteorologist'
J. W. Milligan, Asst. Meteorologist
B. H. Moore, B.A., Assistant
Meteorologist 2
O. N. Norman, B.S., Assistant
Meteorologist 2
R. T. Sherouse, Asst. Meteorologist
C. E. Skillman, Asst. Meteorologist'
H. E. Yates, Asst. Meteorologist

6 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Report of the Director ............. .. ...................... .------- 7
Report of the Business Manager ....-........... ................... -- 23
Agricultural Economics ..............-.. .............-------------- 26
Agricultural Engineering .---....-........---........---.. ------------ 39
Agronomy -............-..-----....--....... ----......--...... ------- ----- 43
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition ............ -.......------- -----...- 55
Dairy Science --..... ---..-------.--------- ------- 66
Editorial ---.---.. --.. ----- --...-..-------.. ---- --- ....----.-- 72
Entomology ------.....------ ---..........--------------- ------- 91
Home Economics ....-......... --- ....---.....-------- 97
Horticulture ..........-...... .. ...............-- .-- 100
U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Investigations .......-.............--...-..- 114
Library ......... .... ... .. ... .... .-.... ----- --- 117
Plant Pathology .......... ......----.... ....- --... --- 118
Poultry Husbandry ...........-....---..... ..............------ 124
Soils ....-----------..... ..- -....... .---- -- 127
Veterinary Science ....-.........--- .......... ..------------- -- 140
Central Florida Station .....-...........--- ..... ..... ------- --- 144
Citrus Station ...... ------..-.......----------..---------....... 149
Everglades Station -----------------................ ---- -- -- 203
Plantation Field Laboratory ...............-... ---. ..... ....----- -- 245
Gulf Coast Station .......--.....-....- ... .....-........- -. ---- 252
North Florida Station .........--.......----...----- ---- ---------- 267
Mobile Units ..... ---...-.............. .-------- -------- 273
Range Cattle Station ................. ...............-..... ----. -- 277
Sub-Tropical Station ................. --...............----- 283
Suwannee Valley Station ........~.....-... ......---- ------- -- 296
W est Central Florida Station ................................ ---. .... --- 298
W est Florida Station ................-.......... ---......... ... -.. 299
Field Laboratories --.. --................ -------......--- ..- ... 303
Pecan Investigations Laboratory -..........-- ........- .....----. ----.. 303
Potato Investigations Laboratory ...........-----....-. ... -- -. ---- ... 303
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory --........-....--..--- ......-- ----..- 306
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory ........................ 309
Federal-State Frost Warning Service ..................---... ---------- 312

Annual Report, 1954


The high degree of specialization of agricultural enterprises within the
state is largely attributable to research accomplishments by personnel of
the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations. Florida is recognized as a
leader in progressive agriculture. To maintain this position and to foster
movements to keep its agriculture on the offensive is a challenge to the
imagination and ingenuity of the research leaders of agriculture. Rapid
advancement in agricultural sciences has led to the development of more
and more specialized areas of endeavor. To speed up scientific research
it is necessary to bring these specialists together for quick, common action.
Research by organized teams from many disciplines enables us to proceed
faster and more efficiently toward the solution of many complex problems.
An important phase of our activity which some people often overlook
is the mutual and close relationship which exists between the Station and
many organizations in addition to the Agricultural Extension Service, the
College of Agriculture and other divisions of the University of Florida. Sta-
tion investigations are conducted cooperatively with leaders from the State
Plant Board, State Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Soil Con-
servation Service, other State experiment stations in the United States,
various divisions of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the U. S.
Foreign Operations Mission. The Federal Frost Warning Service op-
erates cooperatively with the U. S. Weather Bureau, and many federally
employed individuals are stationed with our departments and stations
throughout the state. A close working relationship exists with the Vo-
cational Agriculture Division of the State Department of Education, the
Fish and Game Commission and other State and Federal Agencies. Thus
in our relationships with these and other people our research personnel are
aided in keeping abreast of national and international developments which
may be used advantageously in our research program.
The scope of the Stations' research program during the year was broader
and more comprehensive than ever before. Investigations of practically
every phase of Florida agriculture were conducted under 259 research
projects. Some of the more significant contributions include the develop-
ment of a new English pea, the Seminole snap bean, the Manalee tomato,
a high-yielding rust-resistant pole bean, two new lupines, and new strains
of grapes and cantaloupes. The burrowing nematode was identified as
a cause of "spreading decline" of citrus trees. Methyl bromide was
found to be an effective control for certain diseases of chrysanthemums and
also a good weedicide for that crop. Demetron applied to soil or foliage
is effective in controlling mites on azaleas, camellias and roses, and also,
in controlling whiteflies and aphids on gardenias. The reproductive ability
of beef cattle is related to quality of forage consumed. Rapid breakdown
in the teeth of cattle which occurs in some areas might be controlled by
improving the nutrition and controlling parasites of the animals. Brief
reports of all investigations conducted during the year are given on subse-
quent pages.
Many changes, additions and improvements occurred in the physical
equipment and facilities during the year. At the Main Station development
of the Beef Research Unit was substantially completed including clearing,

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

establishment and fencing of pastures, stocking area with cattle and the
construction of corrals and a dwelling for the herdsman. A much needed
machinery shed and silo were constructed at the Purebred Beef Unit. A
small flock of sheep was acquired by the Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
Department to obtain information on their possibilities in Florida.
A large well was drilled at the North Florida Station to furnish water
for irrigation and other purposes. A feed storage and cattle barn was con-
structed at the Mobile Unit at Chipley. The greenhouse was reconditioned
at the Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory. An old headhouse
to a greenhouse was rebuilt at the Citrus Station.
A laboratory-office building and an equipment shed were constructed at
the Suwannee Valley Station. Construction of hay and fertilizer storage
buildings were completed at the Range Cattle Station. For the first time
since the Range Cattle Station was established in 1941, telephone service
became available by the completion of a seven mile line from Ona.
The building program authorized by the 1953 Legislature is progressing.
Contracts for the $165,000 Animal Nutrition Laboratory and the $455,000
Agricultural Engineering Building at Gainesville, and the $20,000 Soils
Laboratory and Office Building at Hastings have been awarded with con-
struction to begin early in the next fiscal year. Plans are nearing comple-
tion of the other authorized buildings. Negotiations are underway for the
procurement of suitable land for a new Horticultural Unit near Gainesville,
and for an additional citrus grove development at Lake Alfred as provided
for by the last Legislature.


S. L. Burgess, Assistant Editor, Main Station, September 16, 1953.
B. W. Kelly, Assistant Agricultural Economist, Main Station, September 1,
W. M. Stone, Jr., Assistant in Parasitology, Main Station, July 1, 1953.
J. R. Kuykendall, Interim Assistant Horticulturist, Citrus Station, July 1,
A. A. McCornack, Collaborator, Citrus Station, July 1, 1953.
C. T. Ozaki, Assistant Chemist, Everglades Station, July 1, 1953.
R. C. J. Koo, Interim Assistant Biochemist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1953.
T. L. Meade, Assistant Animal Nutritionist, Everglades Station, July 1, 1953.
C. L. Crenshaw, Assistant Agricultural Economist, Main Station, September
1, 1953.
N. K. Roberts, Assistant Agricultural Economist, Main Station, November
1, 1953.
E. D. Smith, Assistant Agricultural Economist, Main Station, January 1,
F. T. Calloway, Agricultural Statistician, Main Station, August 1, 1953.
J. A. Edwardson, Assistant Agronomist, Main Station, September 19, 1953.
E. 0. Burt, Assistant Agronomist, Main Station, March 16, 1954.
I. M. Wofford, Assistant Agronomist, Main Station, September 20, 1953.
A. C. Warnick, Assistant Physiologist, Main Station, October 1, 1953.
P. E. Loggins, Assistant in Animal Husbandry, Main Station, September
1, 1953.
J. R. Christie, Nematologist, Main Station, February 1, 1954.
S. H. Kerr, Assistant Entomologist, Main Station, October 1, 1953.
L. T. Urschel, Interim Assistant in Library, Main Station, October 1, 1953.
M. Ristic, Associate Pathologist, Main Station, November 1, 1953.

Annual Report, 1954

J. G. Wadsworth, Assistant Poultry Pathologist, Main Station, June 1, 1954.
J. J. McBride, Assistant Chemist, Citrus Station, April 1, 1954.
T. L. Brooks, Interim Assistant in Pathology, Citrus Station, March 17, 1954.
G. J. Edwards, Assistant in Chemistry, Citrus Station, November 1, 1953.
D. W. Beardsley, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Everglades Station, Sep-
tember 1, 1953.
R. S. Cox, Associate Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, February 1, 1954.
J. N. Simons, Assistant Virologist, Everglades Station, September 1, 1953.
D. M. Coe, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, May 1, 1954.
G. Sowell, Jr., Assistant Plant Pathologist, Gulf Coast Station, February 16,
T. W. Young, Associate Horticulturist, Sub-Tropical Station, November 15,
R. L. Jeffers, Associate Agronomist, West Florida Station, April 1, 1954.
D. L. Myhre, Assistant Soils Chemist, Potato Investigations Laboratory,
November 1, 1953.
H. E. Yates, Assistant Meteorologist, Weather Forecasting Service, January
1, 1954.
J. F. Darby, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Central Florida Station, May 1,
1954. (Transferred from Indian River Field Laboratory, Ft. Pierce,
Everglades Station.)
Harold D. Wallace, Associate Professor and Associate Animal Husbandman,
Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, Main Station, July 1,
James M. Crall, Associate Plant Pathologist in Charge, Watermelon and
Grape Investigations Laboratory, July 1, 1953.
Willis H. Chapman, Agronomist, North Florida Station, July 1, 1953.
A. H. Spurlock, Agricultural Economist, Agricultural Economics Depart-
ment, Main Station, July 1, 1953.
Lillian E. Arnold, Associate Botanist, Department of Plant Pathology, Main
Station, July 1, 1953.
Walter R. Dennis, Assistant Parasitologist, Veterinary Science Department,
Main Station, July 1, 1953.
Fred A. Clark, Associate Agronomist, Agronomy Department, Main Sta-
tion, July 1, 1953.
R. A. Dennison, Horticulturist, Department of Horticulture, Main Station,
July 1, 1953.
Roger W. Bledsoe, Assistant Director, June 1, 1954.

D. D. Morey, Associate Agronomist, Main Station, July 31, 1953.
A. T. MacNab, Assistant in Chemistry, Main Station, July 31, 1953.
Glenn Van Ness, Associate Poultry Pathologist, Main Station, August 15,
L. O. Griffith, Assistant Editor, Main Station, August 1, 1953.
L. R. Knodel, Assistant in Chemistry, Citrus Station, July 31, 1953.
S. J. Folks, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Main Station, September 15,
F. V. Stevenson, Associate Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, Septem-
ber 8, 1953.
George Swank, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Central Florida Station, Feb-
ruary 28, 1954.
W. F. Spencer, Interim Assistant Chemist, Citrus Station, March 9, 1954.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

E. J. Elvin, Interim Assistant Horticulturist, Citrus Station, May 1, 1954.
W. T. Long, Assistant Horticulturist, Citrus Station, June 15, 1954.
G. M. Donnelly, Assistant in Library, Citrus Station, June 30, 1954.
R. D. Roush, B.S., Interim Assistant in Agronomy, June 30, 1954.

L. O. Gratz, Assistant Director, April 30, 1954.
Leave of Absence
G. H. Blackmon, Head, Department of Horticulture, Main Station, January
1, 1954.
The Station's research, conducted under planned and approved project
statements, is listed by the titles given below. There is some duplication
of titles because of cooperative studies at two or more locations. Work
of an exploratory nature and of short duration is given in the various
divisions under "miscellaneous."

Agricultural Economics
Project No. Title Page
154 Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida ............................-...... 26
186 Factors Affecting Costs and Returns in Florida Citrus Produc-
tion .---........-- ....---........-- -----...... .....-------------- ------------- 26
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency, Its Possible Inheritance,
and Depreciation in Dairy Herds .........................---- .....----------... 27
451 Crop and Livestock Estimating on Florida Farms with Emphasis
on Vegetable Crops ............ -.... ....-..........--- --------------..-.. 27
480 Cost of Production and Returns on Vegetable Crops in Florida .... 27
484 Packaging of Tomatoes ......-...--......- ..-....------ --.----. ---..------ 28
486 Costs and Factors Affecting Cost of Marketing Citrus Fruits in
Fresh and Processed Form ................-- ...... --. .. ------- 28
519 The Consumer Pattern for Citrus Fruit .........-.........--........ ..... 29
520 Coordinated Selling of Citrus Fruit ..-..............-- .----..--..... 29
556 Farm Rental Arrangements in Florida .......--......---..............--- 29
562 Consumer Demand for Citrus Products and Factors Affecting
that Demand ...... ................... ----- ------------- 30
579 Part-Time Farming in Florida -....................-- ----......... ---------- 30
593 Methods of Shipping Florida Citrus Fruits and Citrus Products 31
602 Marketing Meat Animals in Florida .........-------........--...--..---------.- 31
619 An Analysis of Present and Potential Utilization of Land for
Grazing and Alternative Uses in Central Florida ..........-.....-- 31
626 An Analysis of Efficiency of the Elemental Functions of Pack-
ing and Handling Florida Citrus from Tree Through Packing
H house ........-.......--- --..------- ..-------- ----- ---.... --- --------------- ---- --------... 32
627 Pasture Programs and Beeding Systems for Beef Production on
Flatwoods Soils of Central and North Central Florida -.........- 32
630 Economy of Marketing and Methods of Handling Sweet Corn
for Long Distance Shipments ..............- ......-.......----.. ------..---- 32
638 Improving Methods and Practices in Harvesting, Handling and
Packing Early Irish Potatoes .........................----------------------.. 33
647 The Effects of Enterprise Adjustments and Improved Management
Practices on Farm Incomes in North Florida ........................... 35

Annual Report, 1954

Project No. Title Page
651 Effects of Inter- and Intra-Market Competition on Milk Produc-
tion and Utilization in Central and South Florida --.................. 35
656 Legal Aspects of Farm-Tenancy in Florida ..-..........................-.... 36
664 Characteristics of Demand for Frozen Orange Concentrate Pro-
duced in Florida ................-..------- -----...--.. ....---... --.......... ..-... 36
665 An Analysis of the Efficiency of the Elemental Functions of Pack-
ing, Shipping and Handling Florida Citrus from the Packing
Line to the Retail Store ...--.. ..-..----.... -- .....-.....- ...... ..... 37
666 Marketing Charges and Returns from Florida Vegetables by Types
of Firms and Methods of Sale (Classification I. Marketing
Costs, Margins and Efficiency) ..-................................--..... 37
679 Market Organization and Selling Practices of Florida Fern, Gladi-
olus, Chrysanthemum, and Other Cut-Flower and Ornamental
Producers (Classification I. Marketing Cost, Margins and Effi-
ciency) (Begun During Year) -..........-.....-- ..................--.----- 37
685 Methods of estimating Florida Citrus Production (Begun During
Year) ............-......--..--.........-.. ......- --.--.. ..-. --- -- ---.---. ------ 38
688 Census of Citrus Groves in Highlands County (Begun During
Year) ....................-.-..........-...----- ----.. ---.. -.....---------- --. -------- 38
697 Estimating Snap Bean Acreage and Production ............................ 38

Agricultural Engineering
304 Replacement of Inferior with Improved Pasture Plant Species by
Improved Management Practices ..---......-.....-.. ........--.-- ..----- 39
555 Fertilization and Culture of Flue-Cured Tobacco ........................... 39
577 Determination of Optimum Air Delivery, Air Temperature and
Depth of Seed for Mechanical Drying (Closed During Year) .. 40
627 Pasture Programs and Breeding Systems for Beef Production on
Flatwoods Soils of Central and North Central Florida ............ 40
628 Irrigation of Permanent Pastures for Lactating Dairy Cows ........ 40
661 Pasture Renovation .......-..----------...--....--... .......- .. .... ................. 41
684 Pasture Irrigation on Flatwoods Soils (Begun During Year) ..... 41
SMiscellaneous: Improving Methods and Practices in Harvesting,
Handling and Packing Early Irish Potatoes; Protective Shield
to be Used on Dust Gun for Dusting Shade Tobacco ........... 42

20 Peanut Breeding for Superior Types for Market and for Livestock
Feed ............-........... --- --..........------------ .. 43
56 Variety Test Work with Field Crops -.......................- ........-..-.. 43
295 Pasture Grass and Legume Responses to Various Fertilizer and
Management Practices -..........-. ........... --.... --..... .----------- 44
297 Screening Forage and Cover Crop Introductions for Ecological
Adaptations and Use in Florida .................-... ...........-- 44
298 Forage and Pasture Grass Improvement ............................---- 45
301 Evaluation and Improvement of Forage and Cover Crop Legumes
Other Than Clovers and Lupines ...............---...-------.- --- 45
304 Replacement of Inferior with Improved Pasture Plant Species by
Improved Management Practices .... -....... ..-........ ..-..-. ........ .. 45
369 Effect of Environment on Compositon of Forage Plants .........-..... 45
372 Flue-Cured Tobacco Improvement ....................... ........ 46
374 Corn Breeding ................. .. ....- ----- --- --- -- -------------------.--- 46
417 Methods of Producing, Harvesting and Maintaining Pasture Plants
and Seed Stocks (Closed During Year) ....................... ... .. 46

12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Project No. Title Page
440 Effect of Cu, Mn, Zn, B, S, and Mg on the Growth of Grain Crops,
Forage Crops, Pastures and Tobacco .....-....... ......................... 46
444 Permanent Seed-Beds for Tobacco Plants ....------.................-...........-- 47
487 Improvement of Oats, Rye, Wheat and Barley Through Breeding
for Desirable Agronomic Characteristics and Resistance to
Disease ...-......----- .... ...---- ..-- .....--.....- ....--- -- -- .....----- 48
488 Nutrition and Physiology of the Peanut ....................-- ............- 48
537 Control of Insect Pests of Flue-Cured Tobacco ...........-..... ............. 48
555 Fertilization and Culture of Flue-Cured Tobacco .....-..................... 48
600 Breeding Improved Varieties of White, Red and Sweet Clover .-..... 50
612 Improvement of Lupines by Breeding for Yield and Insect and
Disease Resistance .--...----..............- ...-----....-- ....--....--....- ....-- 50
627 Pasture Programs and Breeding Systems for Beef Production on
Flatwoods Soils of Central and North Central Florida .......... 50
652 Evaluation and Improvement of Turf Grasses for Florida .--........ 50
661 Pasture Renovation ....-................... ..--..... .....---- --.-- ---.. -- ..- ..-..----- --- 53
678 Biology and Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Turf Grasses
(Begun During Year) -...----......--.......- ----...---. -. ............. .---..... 53
691 Seasonal Variations in Root Reserves of Certain Sandhill Plants
(Begun During Year) .............-- ..... .........-... .......... ........ 53
694 Herbicidal Control of Weeds in Peanuts and Oats (Begun Dur-
ing Y ear) -...................- ............--- -.... .................. ..-..........- ...-...- 54
...... Miscellaneous: Sea Island and Other Long Staple Cotton; Crop
Management; Lawn Management Studies; Herbicidal Control
of Weeds in Soybeans; Castor Beans ..................--...---.........-. 54
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle ..---....-- ---...... .... ... .. ................ 55
304 Replacement of Inferior with Improved Pasture Plant Species by
Improved Management Practices ......-...... .....-- ...--- ..-.---... --- 56
346 Investigation of Mineral Nutrition Problems of Livestock Through
the Use of Laboratory Animals ..--.....----.........................-- .-- 57
356 Herbage Composition and Animal Response as Influenced by Pas-
ture Management ..--...-.....--....--...-- --....-...----.. ...---.---..--..-- --. 57
412 Beef Yield and Quality from Various Grasses, from Clover and
Grass Mixtures, and Response to Fertilized and Unfertilized
Pastures .-....-......---------- ...-- ..---.. ..--..--- ... ---...--- .-- --... 58
461 Supplemental Feeds for Nursing Beef Calves ..............--...-- ............ 58
518 Thyroid Function in Chickens .................................---.. .........--- 58
540 Use of Citrus and Other Industrial By-Products for Feeding
Swine (Revised during year) -......................-- ......-..-..-- ..---------- 58
542 Supplemental Feeds for Sows During Reproduction and Lactation
on Florida Pastures .-....-.....--.....--......-.....- --...--- ....-..--- ..---....--- 59
543 Roughages for Maintenance and Growth of Beef Cattle in Flor-
ida .... -........------..... ----.............----------............................ 59
546 Loss of Nutrients from Defrosted Frozen Meat by Exudation (Re-
vised during year) .-.........-- .......-- .------.....-- ... .....-..--...--- ....-- ..... 59
551 Utilization of Calcium and Phosphorus by Poultry as Determined
with Radioactive Isotopes .......---------------... ...--......-- ...---- ..- ..... .. 59
566 Transfer of Mineral Elements Through the Placenta and Their
Distribution in the Fetus ......-.........--....--....-....---. ... ...-- ..-- ----.... 59
615 Influence of Breed Composition and Level of Nutrition on Adapta-
bility of Cattle to Central Florida Conditions .......................... -- 60
627 Pasture Programs and Breeding Systems for Beef Production on
Flatwoods Soils of Central and North Central Florida ..--....... 60

Annual Report, 1954

Project No. Title Page
629 Selection of Cattle Adapted for Beef Production in Southeastern
U united States ................. ..... ........... ..........-. .....-- ..-.-..--..- .-- 60
631 A Comparison of the Carcass Characteristics of Purebred Brah-
man, Purebred British Breeds and Their Crosses ........................ 61
661 Pasture Renovation ..-- ..-----...-- ..........- ....... .... .... ............ ----61
.... Miscellaneous: The Utilization of Waste Beef Fat in Steer Fatten-
ing Rations; The Utilization of Aureomycin in Steer Fattening
Rations; Supplements to Low-Gossypol Cottonseed Meal for
Growing-Fattening Swine; Creep Rations for Suckling Pigs;
The Effect of Feeding Aureomycin to Pigs on Restricted Ra-
tions; An Unidentified Growth Factor for the Pig; Various
Sources of Aureomycin Activity as Supplements for the Grow-
ing-Fattening Pig; Antibiotic Implants for Suckling Pigs;
Observations on a Method of Self-Feeding Soybean Oilmeal to
Growing-Fattening Swine Hogging off Corn and Chufas; Im-
provement of Reproductive Efficiency in Beef Cattle; The Effect
of Protein-Supplementation Upon Fertility in Beef Cattle;
Factors Associated with Age at Puberty and Reproductive Per-
formance in Beef Cattle; B-Complex Vitamin Deposition in the
Tissues of Pigs on Various Levels of Manganese; The Effect
of Phosphorus on the Ditsirbution of Certain B-Complex Vita-
mins in the Tissues of Young Calves; Zinc-Its Effect on the
Distribution of B-Complex Vitamins in the Tissues of the
Bovine; Thiamine Excretion in Urine from Humans Suffering
from Speech Defects; Ammoniated Citrus Pulp for Cattle;
"Stringhalt" in Cattle; Interrelationships of copper, Molyb-
denum and Phosphorus; Preliminary Information on Feeding
and Management of Sheep in Florida ...............................-......... 61
Dairy Science
213 Ensilability of Florida Forage Crops ...............................-........-- .. 66
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency, Its Possible Inheritance and
Depreciation in Dairy Herds --..........-...... ...-- ..--------. .----- 66
534 Cooling and Aging of Ice Cream Mixes ..--.....................-................ 66
564 Post Partum Development of Bovine Stomach Compartments and
Observations on Some Characteristics of their Contents ........ 67
571 Effects of Antibiotics and Chemotherapeutic Agents on Micrro-
organisms in Milk and Dairy Products (Revised during year) .. 67
575 Study of Production, Reproduction and Conformation of the Flor-
ida Agricultural Experiment Station Dairy Herd ..----.................. 68
594 Effect of Aureomycin Feeding Upon the Performance of Dairy
Calves ..--................---- ......--...-----------.. ----.. -- ---........... 68
628 Irrigation of Permanent Pastures for Lactating Dairy Cows ...... 68
633 Utilization of Temporary Pastures by Dairy Cattle ....................... 69
636 Influence of Dietary Pyrimidine Ribose Nucleic Acid and Some
of Its Probable Precursors on Dairy Calves ....................-........... 69
637 Improved Permanent Pastures for Growing Dairy Heifers ........... 69
667 Sub-Normal Milk; Its Production, Correction and Utilization ..-.... 70
Miscellaneous: New Flavors for Ice Cream; Test for Butterfat
Adulteration; Menadione Retards Development of Oxidized
Flavor of Milk; Defluorinated Rock Phosphate; Palatability of
New Citrus By-Product Feeds .--.....-.....--...................... 70, 71
670 Dissemination of Information on Agricultural Research Results _. 90

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Project No. Title Page
379 Control of the Pecan Nut Casebearer --.......................--....--... 91
531 Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Woody Ornamentals ........ 91
537 Control of Insect Pests of Flue-Cured Tobacco ............................. 91
583 Introduction and Testing of Nectar and Pollen Producing Plants
in Florida ...............................-... ...-. ... .......... ...-..-- ....-- ... --. 92
597 Control of the Hickory Shuckworm on Pecans ............................. 92
616 Control of Insects and Related Pests of Pastures .............................. 92
650 Factors Influencing Insecticidal Residues on Vegetable Crops .... 93
669 Biology and Control of Insects Attacking Cruciferous Crops in
Florida ...... ..-.......-...~....- ---.............. ........-- .....--... ..- ....... 94
678 Biology and Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Turf Grasses
(Begun During Year) ------. ----.. --...... --- ------.... ..---- ... --- ....... ------..- ..--.... 94
695 Identity and Distribution of Soil Nematodes in Florida (Begun
During Year) ..-...-- ......-- .....--.....--......- ...---. ----....-.---~.. ---...-- 95
SMiscellaneous: Systemic Insecticide Investigations; Peanut Stor-
age Investigations; Cut Flower and Foliage Plants; Straw-
berries -... .... ........-......-- ....- ......... .-- .....--.. 95, 96
Home Economics
568 Effect of Dietary Practices and Previous Illnesses on Carpal De-
velopment of Children ........-...... ................. ..-----------....... 97
569 Effect of Carotene or Vitamin A Deficiency in Young Rats on Sub-
sequent Life Pattern ...- ...........- .....-. .... --.. ......... ...... ...... ..... 97
570 Nutritional Deficiency in the Young Rat in Relation to Subse-
quent Malformation of Bones .........-.. ---...... .......--...----.--.... 98
625 Effect of Dietary Habits on Composition of the Blood of the Aged
(Closed During Year) ..--.-....................--- ..-....-.--- ...... ......---- 98
625 Effect of Dietary Practices on the Morphology of the Skeleton of
Aged Men and Women (Begun During Year) .....................-- ..-..... 99
50 Tung Production --.........-...--.............. --...--. .......-..-- ... --100
52 Native and Introduced Ornamental Plants .................-...--.......-..... 100
187 Variety Tests of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals .........-............. 101
365 Cultural Requirements of the Mu-Oil Tree ......--....--~...-................ 102
391 Vegetable Variety Trials .--...--.....--.....--......................... ---- 102
435 Irrigation of Vegetable Crops (Closed During Year) ..-.............-. 103
452 Culture and Classification of Camellia and Related Genera ....... 103
467 Maintaining Freshness in Vegetable with Ice (Closed During
Year) ........... ......-....... .... .....- .....-- ..... ------ ....-....-....-..--- 103
484 Packaging of Tomatoes (Closed During Year) ............................ 103
501 Vegetable Breeding Emphasizing Table Legumes .........---..---......-. 103
553 Testing Miscellaneous Fruits and Nuts ......- -......-..... ..-..-...-..... 105
565 Fertilization of Pecans ............-.... ........ ... ---........---....-- ....-- ........ 105
592 Prevention of Skinning of Potatoes (Closed During Year) -......... 105
599 Effect of Growth Regulators on Production and Quality of Cer-
tain Nut and Fruit Plants ............--..... ...---- .....-- .....------.. 105
616 Control of Insects and Related Pests of Pastures .....--...............-.... 105
624 Fertilizer Requirements for Watermelons --..---.. .....-- ---........--....... 105
630 Economy of Marketing and Methods of Handling Sweet Corn
for Long Distance Shipments .............. -........... .................... 106
632 Removal of Insecticide Residues from Harvested Fresh Vegetables 106
639 Analytical Techniques for the Chemical Determination of In-
secticide Residues on Vegetables (Closed During Year) .........-. 107

Annual Report, 1954

Project No. Title Page
640 Influence of Nutrition on Tomato Fruit Disorders ....................... 108
641 Maturity as Related to Quality of Tomatoes for the Fresh Market 108
642 Relationship of Heredity to the Ripening Performance of Toma-
toes .................-- ....----.......- ...- -. ---------. -- -- -----------------------------.. .- 108
643 Post-Harvest Effects of Temperature, Light, Storage, Atmosphere
and Humidity on Tomato Quality ........................................ ... 109
644 Tomato Quality as Influenced by Pre-Harvest Environmental
Conditions ............ ....-- .... .....-................. ..-.......-........- 109
650 Factors Influencing Insecticidal Residues on Vegetable Crops ....... 109
653 Influence of Maturity and Environment Upon Quality of Vege-
tables of the Legume Family ...................................... .......- 109
673 Effects of Time and Rate of Application of Fertilizers on Vege-
table Crops .............. ................... ....... .. ......-... ..------ ---------..- -- 110
681 Effect of Various Levels of Fertilizers on Sweet Potato Produc-
tion (Begun During Year) ... ............. ........-.. ........... .............. 110
689 Watermelon Damage from Field to Car Loading (Begun During
Y ear) ....................--- ..----- ----------- ...---. -------------.....-- -----..------- -- 110
693 Suitability of Florida-Grown Vegetable for Freezing (Begun Dur-
ing Y ear) .... ......- .....-. ... ... ..... ......- ...- .......- .....- ..... ...... .... .. 111
Miscellaneous: Cantaloupe Breeding; Black-Spotting of Radishes
after Harvesting; Precooling and Its Effects on the Quality
of Cantaloupes; Effects of Prepackaging and Refrigeration on
the Quality of Lychees .......... ....... ........... .- ........ ... 111
U. S. Field Laborotory for Tung, Investigations
Breeding, Selection, and Nutritional Studies of Tung -.................. 113
Plant Pathology
259 Collection and Preservation of Specimens of Florida Plants (Re-
vised During Year) .................................................... 118
281 Damping-off and Root Rots of Vegetable Crops ............................. 118
455 Camellia Diseases (Closed During Year) ...................................... 119
487 Improvement of Oats, Rye, Wheat and Barley Through Breeding
for Desirable Agronomic Characteristics and Resistance to
D disease ...--- .....--............- ...-......-- -------------....--.- -- ----- ---- ------....- 119
524 Nectar and Pollen Plants of Florida (Closed During Year) .......... 120
538 Virus Disease of Cucurbits and Other Vegetables in Central Flor-
ida ........ ............... ... .......... .. ..--. ..- ------- -- -- ---- 120
539 Control of Scab and Other Foliage Diseases of Pecans .................... 120
563 Causes and Control of Diseases of Potted Plants ........................... 121
574 Resistance of Peppers, Capsicum frutescens L., to Virus Diseases -. 121
588 Control of Soil Organisms Causing Damping-off and Root Rots
of N nursery Plants ............................. .............. .....-- ---------.------ 122
612 Improvement of Lupines by Breeding for Yield and Insect and
Disease Resistance ...................-.- .... .. ......-........ ..... .. 122
Miscellaneous: Control of Foliage Diseases of Roses; Control of
Root Rots and Leaf Spot of Strawberry; Plants Poisonous to
Livestock ................-...---..--- .--- --- ---... ... 123
Poultry Husbandry
503 Broiler Feeding Trials ........................... .............. .......-- ......- 124
551 Utilization of Calcium and Phosphorus by Poultry as Determined
with Radioactive Isotopes .............- ...... .......- .......... 124
572 Comparative Value of Simplified Poultry Diets for Egg and Meat
Production ...... .......... -....- -.- ... .--- .. --- --.----- --------- 125

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Project No. Title Page
696 Artificial Insemination of Hens for Producing Broiler Hatching
Eggs (Begun During Year) .......-................... ..............--. --.. 125
Miscellaneous: Activated Citrus Sludge for Growing Chicks;
Citrus Molasses Distillers' Dried Solubles in Rations for Grow-
ing Chicks; High Efficiency Rations for Layers .................... 125, 126
328 Interrelationship of Microbiological Action in Soils and Cropping
System s in Florida ............... ............. ..- ..-....... ............... .. 127
347 Chemical, Physical and Mineralogical Properties of Representative
Florida Soils ...--......-- ....--...-....-- .......---........-....----- ............. 128
368 Factors Affecting the Growth of Legume Bacteria and Nodule De-
velopment (Closed During Year) ..-..........-......--...-.......--.. 129
389 Classification and Mapping of Florida Soils .....-.......................... 129
404 Maintenance of Soil Fertility Under Permanent Pasture ....-...... 130
428 Availability of Phospohorus from Various Phosphates Applied to
Different Soil Types (Revised During Year) ........-..........-....... 130
433 Retention and Utilization of Boron in Florida Soils .....--............... 131
446 Testing Soils and Limestone -...... ---...... .............. ............. 131
447 Availability and Leaching of Minor Elements in Florida Soils .... 132
513 Maintenance of Available Nitrogen in Florida Soils (Closed Dur-
ing Year) .---..............-....--...................--.-...... .--........---. 133
576 Relationship Between Several Soil Water Constants and the Moist-
ure Content of Soils Under Supplemental Irrigation ................... 134
598 The Role of the Major Bases in Florida Soils ..........--.................--- 135
608 Sulfur Requirements of Representative Florida Soils .....-........ 135
614 Effect of Certain Insecticides on Microbiological Action in Soils .. 136
627 Pasture Programs and Breeding Systems for Beef Production on
Flatwoods Soils of Central and North Central Florida ....-..... 136
684 Pasture Irrigation on Flatwoods Soil (Begun During Year) .......... 137
687 Availability of Various Forms of Nitrogen Applied to Soils (Be-
gun During Year) ....--..... --.....-.... --. ----.....- ------.............--- ....... 137
691 Seasonal Variations in Root Reserves of Certain Sandhill Plants 138
493-535-544 Soil Management Investigations ............-.................... 138, 139
.- Miscellaneous: Suwannee Valley Experiment Station ................... 139
Veterinary Science
353 Infectious Bovine Mastitis ... --................-.......... .. ....... 140
424 Fowl Leucosis-Role of Nucleoproteins .............--..................... 140
462 Anaplasmosis of Cattle .............. ........-. .. .............. ..-.. 140
554 Control of Internal Parasites of Cattle ....--.........- ..-- ..--......... 140
557 Control of External Parasites of Cattle ..... ------...............-.............. 141
601 Built-up Litter as Related to Certain Diseases of Poultry ......-...- 142
634 Role of Vaccination and of Brooding Temperature in Micrococcus
and Streptococcus Infections in Broilers (Closed During Year) 142
683 Control of Lungworm Disease of Cattle (Begun During Year) .... 142
--.- Miscellaneous: Poultry Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Dade City;
Plants Poisonous to Livestock ..............-........- ....... .....- 143
Central Florida Station
281 Damping-off and Root Rots of Vegetable Crops ......--.......--.......-... 144
336 Cercospora Blight of Celery .........-----...... .. ......... ---.. -..... ---........... 144
391 Vegetable Variety Trials -.......-..-....-....----......... --.. ----... -- 144
401 Control of Lepidopterous Larvae Attacking Green Corn ...--.......--.. 145

Annual Report, 1954 17

Project No. Title Page
494 Improvement of Cultural Practices for Cabbage, Lettuce, Celery
and Other Vegetable Crops --...............--...-- --.... --.......--.... --145
495 Liquid Fertilizers for Vegetable Corps ................ ---...... ................ 146
496 Soil Management Problems in Vegetable Crop Fields ......-......... 146
501 Vegetable Breeding Emphasizing Table Legumes ....-...........--..... ----- 147
523 Control of Nematodes Injurious to Vegetable Crops ....................... 147
581 Synthetic Insecticides and Fungicides for Vegetable Crops in
Central F lorida ............................................... ... ........... 148
587 Fungicidal Control of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight of Sweet
Corn ...-........------.......... .-------------------------... --...----..----.. ---....... 148
650 Factors Influencing Insecticidal Residues on Vegetable Crops ........ 148
669 Biology and Control of Insects Attacking Cruciferous Crops in
Florida .............. ....... ...------- ----...--- ...-- ..------- ..- ..- 148
Citrus Station
26 Citrus Progeny and Bud Selection ................--.. ......---- ...--..-- 149
102 Variety Testing and Breeding ..................- ...- ....-...............-......... 149
185 Investigations of Melanose and Stem-end Rot of Citrus Fruit ....... 149
340 Citrus Nutrition Studies --...-.. ------- --. ..------.... ....- ........-..--... 150
341 Combined Control of Scale Insects and Mites on Citrus ................ 160
508 Water Relations with Citrus in the Coastal Citrus Areas ............. 161
509 The Nature, Causes and Control of Citrus Decline ....................... 162
510 Insect Parasitism and Related Biological Factors as Concerned
with Citrus Insect and Mite Control ..---......-....----..............-- 166
511 Diseases of Citrus Insects ......................................-. .-....---..----- 168
547 Bulk Handling of Fresh Fruit for Packinghouses ............................ 168
550 Microbiology of Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices ................-....... 169
605 Improved Machinery for Citrus Production ................................ 170
606 Ecological Factors Affecting Citrus Production ........................-.... 171
607 Florida Citrus Oils .-.....................--- ............-..-...-..-- -..-....... .... 172
610 Chemical Studies on New Fungicides and Insecticides for Citrus.... 172
611 Storage Studies on Concentrated Citrus Juices ...............................- 172
617 Citrus Rootstock Investigations in the Coastal Areas .................... 173
622 Recovery and Utilization of Naringin ..............--...................... 174
623 Refinement of Citrus Molasses ......----.. ---...... --------... ......--.... 175
646 Recovery and Utilization of Hesperidin ........-.......... ....... ....... .. 175
648 Citrus Juice Dispensers (Closed During Year) .---.............................-- 176
649 Clarification and Gelation in Concentrated Citrus Juices ............... 176
658 Soil Fertility and Grove Management Practices for Citrus in the
Indian River Area ...............-......-...- ... -.....-.......--.................. 177
659 Control of Citrus Insects and Mites in the Indian River Area .... 179
663 Root Distribution of Citrus Trees .................. .. ... ...--- ..--- .. 181
668 Color-Adding and Protective Coating Processes for Citrus Fruits 181
671 Degreening Citrus Fruits ..............--- ..........----------------- ......... 183
....- Miscellaneous: Decay Control Research; Fibreboard Shipping Con-
tainers; Relationship of Heat Treatment to the Quality of Pro-
cessed Citrus Juices and Concentrates; Standardization of
Processed Citrus Juices and Concentrates; Oxidizing Enzymes
in Citrus Products; Color of Citrus Products; Determination
of Amounts of the Dye F. D. & C. Red 32 on Color-added
Oranges and Products Made from Color-added Oranges; Fac-
tors Affecting the Quality of Processed Grapefruit Products;
Production and Use of Activated Citrus Sludge; Inositol in
Citrus Fruits; Chemical Changes in Citrus Fruits during Matu-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Project No. Title Page
ration; Quality of Citrus Fruits as Related to the Mineral Com-
position of the Whole Fruit and Subtending Leaves-Variation
of Mineral Composition of Leaves and Fruits as Affected by
Position on the Tree; Distribution and Rate of Spread of
Tristeza Disease; Factors Affecting the Development of Tris-
teza in Florida; Diagnosis and Rapid Determination of
Tristeza; Establishment of Nucellar Strains of Commercial
Citrus Varieties; Foliar-Applied NuGreen as a Supplementary
Nitrogen Fertilizer for Citrus; Sodium in Citrus Nutrition;
Investigation of Phosphatic Insecticides; Use of Chelated Metal
Compounds in Citrus Nutrition; Spectroscopic Analysis .... 185-202
Everglades Station
85 Observations on Performance of Introduced Herbaceous and Ar-
boreal Plant Materials (Revised During Year) ........................ 204
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse Condi-
tions ..-.........---..........-- --........--- ----- ---- ---- ---------.. -- 204
87 Biology and Control of Insects and Arachnids Affecting Vegetable
Crops in the Everglades Region (Revised During Year) ........ 207
88 Soils Investigations ................. ......... ---- ------------ 208
89 Water Control Investigations ... --...-..--....-----.. ------------. 208
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle ......-..............-... --- ------------. 208
168 Role of Special Elements in Plant Development Upon the Peat
and Muck Soils of the Everglades ........... -...........-...... ........ 211
169 Studies Upon the Prevalence and Control of the Sugarcane Moth
Borer in South Florida .....---...........----- -- .... -------- 213
172 Physiology of Sugarcane -..-.....-.... ...... ---------. --------.------------- 213
195 Pasture Investigations on the Peat and Muck Soils of the Ever-
glades ---........------------..... --------------- 214
206 Fiber Crops Investigations ............---.......---------- ------ 216
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ................ .------. ---- ---------------- 221
545 Breeding Beef Cattle for Adaptation to South Florida Conditions 223
549 Utilization of Feeds and Forages for Beef Production in the Ever-
glades and Lower East Coast of Florida ..............--........-....--.... 223
558 Viruses Affecting Vegetable Crops in the Everglades Area ..........- 224
559 Control of Nematodes and Subterranean Insects Injurious to Culti-
vated Crops ......---................---------- ----------------------------- 224
560 Improvement and Development of Spraying and Dusting Equip-
ment for Agricultural Use ........- ... ------- ....------.----...- 224
587 Fugicidal Control of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight of Sweet Corn 225
603 Breeding Snap Beans, Celery, and Sweet Corn for Southern Flor-
ida ..----.....----. --.. ... -------. .. .. 225
616 Control of Insects and Related Pests of Pastures -...........-............ 226
654 Weed Control Investigations in Vegetable Crops --...................-... 228
655 An Evaluation of 2,4-D Oontamination to Untreated Sensitive
Plants ........------ --------.- ------ --------- --------- --- -- -- --- ------ 232
657 Cane Breeding for Sugar, Syrup, Chewing and Forage Uses ........ 233
662 Selection, Breeding and Cultural Investigations of Field Corn and
Small Grains as Sources of Livestock Feeds in South Florida _.. 233
669 Biology and Control of Insects Attacking Cruciferous Crops in
Florida ------. --------.----.-- 234
674 Investigations of Agronomic Crops for Forage, Cover and Special
Uses -----..--.. -------- .---- .---..- .-- 235
680 Rice Investigations (Begun During Year) ................--.................- 235
692 Herbicidal Weed Control in Sugarcane (Begun During Year) .... 236

Annual Report, 1954

Project No. Title Page
...... Miscellaneous: Pelleted Vegetable Seed; Fruit Setting Compound;
Artificial Dormancy in Asparagus; Corn Diseases; Celery Dis-
eases; Pepper Diseases; Diseases of Other Vegetable Crops .. 237
Indian River Field Labortory
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse Condi-
tions .--........--......... ...- ------------ ...-- ..-... 240
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ..-.......... ..-. ......-.....-...... ..--.......--.... 242
398 Breeding for Combined Resistances to Diseases in Tomato (Re-
vised During Year) ................................-..............-......... 242
676 Ghost Spot of Tomato (Begun 8-28-53; closed 6-30-54) .............. 244
677 Control of Diseases of Unstaked Tomatoes Grown on the Sandy
Soils of South Florida (Begun During Year) ....................... 244
..... Miscellaneous: Vegetable-Pasture Rotation Trials .......................... 245
Plantation Field Laboratory
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse Condi-
tions ........ ...... .....-. .... ........ ....... .......... ........ 246
89 Water Control Investigations .... ........................................ 248
281 Damping-off and Root Rots of Vegetable Crops ........................... 248
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ................................... ....... ........... 249
662 Selection, Breeding, and Cultural Investigations of Field Corn
and Small Grains as Sources of Livestock Feeds in South Flor-
ida ....... ... -........... ....... ....... .. .................................................... 250
674 Investigations of Agronomic Crops for Forage, Cover, and Spe-
cial U ses ................... ............. .... ......... ...... ......-....... ... .... .... 250
-- Miscellaneous: Cultural Practice Investigation with Snap Beans .. 251
Gulf Coast Station
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ................... ......................- .. ... ...... .... .. 252
398 Breeding for Combined Resistances to Diseases in Tomato (Re-
vised During Year) ............. .......... .... ............... ...-..- ............ ... 254
401 Control of the Lepidopterous Larvae Attacking Green Corn ....... 254
402 Symptoms of Nutritional Disorders of Vegetable Crop Plants ..- 255
445 Insecticidal Value of DDT and Related Synthetic Compounds on
Vegetable Crops Insects in Florida ...................... .... ......... 255
449 Organic Fungicides for the Control of Foliage Diseases of Vege-
tables .......................... .. .. .. .. ... ... ....... 256
464 Gladiolus Variety Trials ....... ... .......... -- ...................... 256
502 Controlling Gladiolus Corm Diseases ...................-- ...-.. ......... 256
504 Controlling Insects Pests of Gladiolus ........................ ................ 257
506 Etiology and Control of Certain Epiphytotic Diseases of Gladiolus 257
523 Control of Nematodes Injurious to Vegetable Crops ................... 258
587 Fungicidal Control of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight of Sweet
Corn ........... ..... ..... -------...--- ..-- ............ 259
590 Gladiolus Fertility Studies ............................ ............. ..... ..... 259
591 Chemical Weed Control for Commercial Vegetable and Gladiolus
Production .... .............-........ ..- ..-..... ............. 260
595 Gladiolus Corm Storage ............. ........... ... ................ ... .... 261
613 Factors Affecting Germination of Seed and Growth of Vegetable
Plants in Seedbeds on Sandy Soil ....................... .... .. ..-... ... 261
616 Control of Insects and Related Pests of Pastures .................-.... .. 262
621 Effect of Accumulations of DDT and Other Organic Insecticides
in Sandy Soils on Tomato and Certain Microbiological Pro-
cesses in the Soil ..... ........... ................ 262

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Project No. Title Page
645 Control of Insects of Vegetables with Phosphatic Insecticides .... 263
650 Factors Influencing Insecticidal Residues on Vegetable Crops .... 263
660 Effect of Different Sources of Nitrogen and Potassium in Fer-
tilizers on the Yield and Quality of Vegetables ......................- 263
669 Biology and Control of Insects Attacking Cruciferous Crops in
Florida .-..... .--............ ...-.....---- ...------- -------........... --- 264
672 Cause and Control of Blackheart in Celery ................-......-............-. 264
678 Biology and Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Turf Grasses
(Begun During Year) --.........-.....................-------.-----........ 264
Miscellaneous: Nitrogen Levels and Nutritional Sprays; Corre-
lation Between Soil and Tissue Tests and Tomato Yields;
Effect of Soluble Salt on Growth of Potatoes; Fritted Trace
Elements; Nematode Control in Field-Seeded Cantaloupes;
Nematodes in Caladiums and Gladiolus ....................--........ 265
North Florida Station
33 Breeding and Selection of Disease-Resistant Varieties of Shade
Tobacco ...................-..-..-...- ...... -----..-- 267
260 Grain Crop Investigations ....---..........----.--.....---...---- ... ...-- ---.. ....- 267
261 Forage Crop Investigations .........~........ ............------ 268
374 Corn Breeding .--............-- ....--......--...........--- ....---..----- -----.. 268
428 Availability of Phosphorus from Various Phosphates Applied to
Different Soil Types ....---.......-...- ... ---. ------------- 269
493 Soil Management Investigations ..........---....--....-..--.-- ---- -------- .. 269
498 Utilization of Pastures in the Production of Beef Cattle -............ 269
525 Control of the Green Peach Aphid on Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco ........ 270
532 Management of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco Plant Beds ......--.....-..... 270
543 Roughages for Maintenance and Growth of Beef Cattle in Florida 270
580 Use of Citrus Molasses and Urea in Steer Fattening Rations ....... 271
585 Control of Insects Affecting Peanuts (Closed During Year) ....... 271
608 Sulfur Requirements of Representative Florida Soils ..................... 271
612 Improvement of Lupines by Breeding for Yield and Insect and
Disease Resistance ........--...........--.-.....----.----.... ------.--.. 271
616 Control of Insects and Related Pests of Pastures ..................--- ..... 272
635 Effect of Aureomycin Added to Rations of Swine Grazing High
Quality Pasture ...................................--- ...-------------------- 272
678 Biology and Control of Insects and Arachnid Pests of Turf
Grasses (Begun During Year) ........................--------------------- 272
686 Effects of Soil pH on Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco (Begun During
Y ear) .-......................---. --- ---- --.- ----- ------------------------------- 272
-. Miscellaneous: Housefly Control; Peaches; Sugarcane, Cowpeas;
Special Soil Studies; Date of Priming Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco;
Bacterial (Granville) Wilt of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco ........--.. 273
..- Mobile Units ........-...........-- -- -----.. ---- ----- 273
Range Cattle Station
390 Breeding Beef Cattle for Adaptation to Florida ........................... 277
404 Maintenance of Soil Fertility Under Permanent Pasture .............. 277
410 Winter Beef Cows on the Range .-................-- ...------..... -------------- 278
423 Effect of Fertilization and Seeding on the Grazing Value of Flat-
woods Pastures ........ ........... -- --- --------------- -----.---------- 278
476 Utilization of Citrus Products for Fattening Cattle ...................... 278
608 Sulfur Requirements of Representative Florida Soils ......-.....~-...... 279
615 Influence of Breed Composition and Level of Nutrition on Adapta-
bility of Cattle to Central Florida Conditions .......................... 279

Annual Report, 1954 21

Project No. Title Page
616 Control of Insects and Related Pests of Pastures .-......................... 280
618 Effect of Different Phosphatic Fertilizer Materials on Nutritive
Quality, Herbage Yields and Beef Production of Pangola Pas-
tures ......................... ............................ .... ........................ -.......... 280
629 Selection of Cattle for Beef Production in Southeastern United
States------------------ .................. ..... ......... ....................... ........ 280
631 A Comparison of the Carcass Characteristics of Purebred Brah-
man, Purebred British Breeds and Their Crosses ......................-- 281
...... Miscellaneous: Forage Variety Trials; Vegetable-Pasture Rotation
Studies for the Sandy Soils of South and Central Florida ........ 281
Sub-Tropical Station
275 Citrus Culture Studies ...............-.......... .. --...-...- ....-- 283
276 Avocado Culture Studies ................................. ........ .....-....-- ...-- 284
279 Nature, Importance and Control of Diseases of Minor Fruits and
Ornamentals (Revised During Year) ............................ ........... 285
280 Sub-Tropical Crops of Minor Economic Importance (Revised Dur-
ing Year) .......--- ......-- ....-..------- ..... .... ... ... .........---. 285
281 Damping-off and Root Rots of Vegetable Crops ................................ 286
285 Potato Culture Investigations ................. ...-..-----. ....--- .......----- .... 286
286 Tomato Culture Investigations .....-.....................- --- .........---.....---- ... 287
290 A Study of Diseases of the Avocado and Mango and Development
of Control Measures ........-..-..... ....--- ....------- -- ..-.... ..... 287
291 Control of Tomato Diseases ............--..----... ---------... ....... 288
391 Vegetable Variety Trials .................------ ...-- .....---------- ...---..-- ..- ..-- 289
398 Breeding for Combined Resistances to Diseases in Tomato ........ 289
422 Diseases of the Tahiti (Persian) Lime ............................- ........... 290
470 Biology and Control of Insects Affecting Sub-Tropical Fruits ........ 290
471 Biology and Control of Insects Affecting Winter Vegetable Crops .. 290
505 Importance, Etiology and Control of Papaya Diseases .................... 291
514 Sub-Tropical and Tropical Plant Introductions ..--...................-........ 291
515 Mango Selection, Propagation and Culture ......-........................-.....-. 291
522 Guava Propagation, Culture, Breeding and Selection ..---................ 292
587 Fungicidal Control of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight of Sweet
Corn ..-..........-......-------------...... --..........-- -- .-- .... ----------- ...... 292
675 Avocado Maturity Studies (Begun During Year) .-......................-... 292
678 Biology and Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Turf Grasses
(Begun During Year) ..................- ......................-......................... 293
682 Control of Potato Seed-Piece Decay (Begun During Year) ....-...... 293
--. Miscellaneous: Mango; Avocado; Irrigation, Water Control, Chlo-
ride Tolerance and Intrusion Studies on Rockdale and Perrine
Marl Soils of the Homestead Area in 1953 ................................... 293
Suwannee Valley Station
404 Maintenance of Soil Fertility Under Permanent Pasture ................ 296
..... Miscellaneous: Grass Legume Nursery; Small Grain Nursery;
Tobacco Studies; Lupine Studies; Soybean Studies; Soil Man-
agement Investigations; Corn Variety Test; Other Crops Un-
der Study ...-...-........ ....---...-- ...---- ---.. --....-------- ...-- ...--...--- 296
West Central Florida Station
Miscellaneous: Cattle Breeding; Grazing Studies; Visitors ........... 298
West Florida Station
374 Corn Breeding ....... ..-- ...- ---...--....----.. -- --.....-- ---....-----.. ..... --.....-. 299
404 Maintenance of Soil Fertility Under Permanent Pasture ........... 299

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Project No. Title Page
428 Availability of Phosphorus from Various Phosphates Applied to
Different Soil Types (Revised During Year) ........................... -- 299
544 Soil Management Investigations ......- .....-....---.. .........---... 300
553 Testing Miscellaneous Fruits and Nuts ...---..............--.....--....--.... 300
582 Pasture Investigations in West Florida ................-...........-..... 301
596 Variety Investigations of Field and Pasture Crops .............-....~....... 302
608 Sulfur Requirements of Representative Florida Soils .............-. 302


Pecan Investigations Laboratory
See Projects 379 and 597, ENTOMOLOGY; and Project 593, PLANT
Potato Investigations Laboratory
391 Vegetable Variety Trials -...--. ~-.... .. ..............-...-...........-.... 303
469 Improvement of Potato Cultural Practices (Closed During Year) 303
527 Cabbage Diseases Other Than Downy Mildew and Alternaria
Leaf Spot (Closed During Year) ...................-.. ......... .... 304
529 Potato Diseases ...--...--.......-------...---.......................... 304
620 Nature, Effects and Control of Boron and Molybdenum Deficiency
in Cauliflower ...--..-...-.......-....-- .....-......-......---- .---- --- ------ 304
650 Factors Influencing Insecticidal Residues on Vegetable Crops ...--. 304
669 Biology and Control of Insects Attacking Cruciferous Crops in
Florida ---......--.....-- ....--- --.....--- ....-.... ...... ---.....- ---... ------... ... 305
...... Miscellaneous: Influence of Nitrogen and Potash Side-dressings
on Potato Yields; Effect of Nitrogenous Side-dressing Ma-
terials on Cabbage and Cauliflower Yields; Manganese Defi-
ciency; Effect of Fertilization of Potatoes on Development of
Corky Ringspot; Internal Necrosis or Brown Spot of Pota-
toes; Comparison of Aldrin, Chlordane and Heptachlor for
Wireworm Control; Residual Characteristics of Some Insecti-
cides for W ireworm Control .........- --- .....--. ... .. .......... 305
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ................... ---....--............. 307
499 Strawberry Variety Trials -.....-..-..- ..... .. .--------------------------..... 307
Miscellaneous: Weed Control; External Root Nematodes; Virous
Diseases of Strawberry ....... --............ --- ........--.. 308
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory
150 Investigation of and Control of Fusarium Wilt, a Fungus Disease
of W aterm elons ....-.. -..... .. .......--- --........... ---------- --. 310
151 Investigation of and Control of Fungus Diseases of Watermelons 310
586 Grasses and Legumes for Pastures in Central Florida .......... ..... 311
-.- Development of Superior Varieties and Cultural Methods for Grape
Production in Florida ............ ................. .......---------- --------- 311
... Miscellaneous: Weed Control in Watermelons; Weed Control in
Dixie Runner Peanuts ....................~............- 312
Federal-State Frost Warning Service

Report for 1953-54 Season ..................-

.. 312



Hatch Fund

Salaries and wages ........

Travel ..........................

Transportation of things .

Communication ............

Heat, light, power, etc.

Rental ............................

Contractual services .......

Supplies and materials .

Equipment ..................

Transfer ...........................

Total disbursements .....

Balance 6-30-54 ............

Total ......... ....... .....

$ 15,000.00


Adams Fund Purnell Jones
Fund Fund

$ 15,000.00 $ 60,000.00 $ 45,105.50

.............. -...- 229.16

....... ...... .... ..... 15.07





$ 15,000.00

15,000.00 | 60,000.0

$ 15,000.00 $ 60,000.00



$ 48,046.76


$ 83,137.94



























Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Salaries and wages .......................
Professional services .. ...
Travel ---.. .... ...........
Transportation of things ................
Communications .............................
R ental ------ .... ..... ..........-- ...............
Printing -.--.... .....................
Contractual services ....................
Supplies and materials .....-.........
Equipment -...-.---......
Land and buildings .................
Transfers ........... ........ ........ .....
Total disbursements ......................
Balance 6-30-54 ...........- ...........
Total -.... --....-.................


Personal services ........................
Professional services ........... ...
Travel ..... .............................
Transportation of things ...............
Communications ............. .........
Heat, light, power, etc -.......... ...
R ent ........ ...---.--- ...- ........ .............
Printing .. -........................... ....
Contractual services ........--......
Supplies and materials .......-.........
Equipm ent ......................-..-... ....-
Lands and structures .....................
Transfers ...... .........-. ......-..-
Total disbursements ...............--
Balance 6-30-54 .................... .......- .
Total --.....-. ........ -......


$ 86,874.23


$ 86,874.23

$515,318.52 1 $515,318.52


Salaries and labor -.............
Professional services ........
Travel ..........~.~...--- ---...-
Transportation of things ....
Communications ...............
Heat, light, power, etc. ....
Rent ..--..........-.--- ...---... .
Printing .......................-
Contractual services --.......-
Supplies and materials
Equipment .............--.....-...
Land and buildings ...........
Transfers ...........- ............
Total disbursements ....
Balance ..............................--
Total .......... ..........

Florida Ag.
Expt. Stations
$ 86,319.83

Grants and

$ 82,981.29

S $292.871.01 1


$ 82,981.29


$ .......------..




$ 30,721.34

.. -- -- --- ---.


$ 86,319.83


Salaries and labor ..........
Professional services .......
T ravel .............. .... ......
Transportation of things
Communications .......
Heat, light, power, etc.
Rent ....... ......................
Printing ...-- .......
Contractual services .....
Supplies and materials ...
Equipment ................... ..
Land and buildings ......

Total disbursements ......
Balance 6-30-54 ..............

T otal .... .. .. .........

Expt. Stations



Special Poultry Special
Disease Diag- Beef Research
nostic Lab. Unit
$ 14.00 $ 2,066.50
446.54 --
15.09 11.67
229.62 45.33
34.72 298.91
..... 605.86

324.49 213.86
2,000.77 8,947.81
1,704.40 4,969.52

4,769.63 17,228.71
5,230.37 271.29

$ 10,000.00 $ 17,500.00

Appropriation Total
$ ------ $2,075,346.90
.....- .. 20,519.41
... 27,121.54
143.93 259,339.00
8,675.07 87,010.54
2, 636,06 2.






Salaries and wages ........ $ 88,640.67
Travel ............................... 15,118.23
Transportation of things 1,689.23
Communications ........... 916.32
Rent and utility service 13,741.90
Printing & publications .. 25.09
Contractual services ....... 15,257.88
Supplies and materials ._ 121,573.54
Equipment ...... .......... 24,709.42
Land and buildings ......... 20,960.49
Transfers .................... .... 28.05
Total disbursements ....... 302,660.82
Balance 6-30-54 ............... 212,657.70

Total ............... ....... ..... 1 $ 515,318.52

State Funds


1 $2,764,070.30

Grants and
$ 83,114.29


$ 292,871.01




SLess: Weather
$ -5,428.00



$ -23.200.00




Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Work was continued on all projects reported on last year and five new
projects were added. The new lines of work were concerned with develop-
ing improved methods of estimating the production of citrus and vegetable
crops and of marketing Florida ornamental products. During the year the
department cooperated with other Southern states on five regional projects;
two agencies of USDA; several other departments; and the College of
Agriculture. These cooperative arrangements have proven satisfactory and
enabled a better coverage of the field than would have been possible other-

State Project 154 H. G. Hamilton
Compiling of data on the financial status and operations of 20 coopera-
tives was completed for the 1952-53 season's operations. These data are
being obtained for a period of years for the purpose of determining the
factors that make for success or failure of Florida farm cooperatives.
Field work was also begun in compiling data for determining the most
satisfactory pooling arrangements for Florida citrus associations.

Purnell Project 186 Zach Savage
Generally for most varieties of citrus in 1951-52 costs per acre were
approximately 5 percent higher than in 1950-51. Costs per box increased
approximately 10 percent, due to a slight decrease in yields. Although
calculations are not complete, indications are that costs per acre for
1952-53 changed very little from the previous season, while costs per
box increased slightly due to a slightly lower yield. Preliminary indica-
tions for the season closing August 31, 1954, are that per-acre costs
will approximate those for the previous season with per-box decreasing
slightly due to slightly higher yields. Indications are that yields, costs
and returns for 1953-54 will approximate 1951-52.
Tree declines and other diseases are problems in efficient fruit produc-
tion in some groves. Immediate replacement of trees when their produc-
tion decreases materially and there appears no hope for yield improve-
ment will tend to hold the grove at its highest efficiency under the circum-
stances. Every encouragement possible should be rendered replacements
to speed up their attaining economical fruit production in the shortest
time possible.
Groves on which records were kept that are not irrigated continue
to show higher net profits than irrigated groves. This was particularly
true for the 1951-52 season.
Adequate fertilizer poundages of needed elements for the season were
more important on these groves than timing of fertilizer applications.
Indications are that the time fertilizers are applied is not very important.

Annual Report, 1954

State Project 345 A. H. Spurlock
This project is conducted cooperatively with the Department of Dairy
Records of inventory values, replacements and causes of losses were
obtained from eight Florida dairy herds. Life span records of 144 addi-
tional cows this year made little change in results previously summarized.
The life span of 1,886 cows averaged 6.7 years, or about 4.7 years of
usefulness in the milking herd. Disposals increased rapidly after about
three years and at age five only two-thirds of the original number re-
mained in the herd. At age 10, 86 percent of the original herd was
gone. Cows reaching age 10 averaged 11.9 years of life and had a further
expectancy of 1.9 years of useful life.
The leading causes of disposal of 2,290 cows have been mastitis and
udder trouble, with 21 percent leaving the herd for those reasons. Low
production was the next most frequent reason for disposal, accounting
for 20 percent, and reproductive troubles removed 14 percent. Deaths from
all causes were responsible for 14 percent of all losses.
A Station bulletin (540) was published on the Productive Life-Span of
Dairy Cattle. (See also Proj. 345, DAIRY SCIENCE.)

State Project 451 G. N. Rose and C. L. Crenshaw
This project is conducted in cooperation with the Florida Crop and
Livestock Reporting Service, Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA, and
all releases are on a cooperative basis.
Estimates of acreage and forecasts of production of 7 fall, 15 winter,
and 13 spring crops were made from data obtained by personal interviews
and observations, by regular and special mailed questionnaires, and by tele-
phone. Simultaneously crop conditions, general progress and harvesting
data were obtained. Seventeen regular semi-monthly "Truck Crop News"
and/or acreage and production reports were released and 39,053 copies
were distributed. Eleven special reports were released and 11,422 copies
were distributed.
A survey in progress at the beginning of the fiscal year was completed
and furnished data for final revisions of the previous year's vegetable pro-
duction. Results from this survey supplemented work similar to that de-
scribed above and an annual statistical summary entitled "Florida Vege-
table Crops, Volume IX, 1953," was released with approximately 1,300 copies
Data developed under this project were used as a basis for the back-
ground information in the report of the Florida Agricultural Outlook Com-
mittee's annual appraisal of agricultural production for 1953-54, and will
again be used for 1954-55.

State Project 480 D. L. Brooke
Field schedules of costs of production and returns on vegetable crops
for the 1952-53 season were obtained from 380 growers representing 80,700
acres. All of the more important vegetable crops in the major producing

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

areas were included in the sample. Summaries by crops and areas for the
season, together with a five-year average of costs and returns, were com-
pleted. A mimeographed release, "Costs and Returns from Vegetable Crops
in Florida, Volume VIII," (AE Mimeo Report 54-11) was prepared and
mailed to grower-cooperators, county agents and interested industry men.
Crop summary tables by major producing areas for the 1952-53 season
were incorporated in the mimeograph, "Florida Vegetable Crops, Volume
IX," in cooperation with leaders of State Project 451.
A thesis entitled "Some Economic Aspects of the Florida Vegetable
Industry" was completed using five seasons of data obtained under this
project. Results of the study indicate increased growing costs, stable to
lower prices, and decreased net returns per unit of product. Vegetable
growers are now operating on a lower margin of profit, where profits
exist, than at any time since the end of World War II. They are faced
continually with problems of lowering costs per unit of product, reduction
of risk, proper combination of crops and seasonal distribution of production.
Growing costs per acre increased in 1952-53 over the five-season average
1948-49 to 1952-53 for most vegetables. The largest increase-23 percent-
was shown by tomatoes in Dade. Growing costs per acre of tomatoes
increased 16 percent in the Immokalee area and nearly 10 percent for the
staked crop in Manatee-Ruskin. Increases of 3 percent in the Everglades
to nearly 17 percent in Fort Myers were noted for Irish potatoes. Grow-
ing costs of sweet corn increased nearly 5 percent in Sanford, 11 percent
in the Everglades and 17 percent in the Zellwood area.
Higher rates for labor and for materials used was primarily responsible
for the higher growing costs per acre.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 484 A. H. Spurlock
(Regional SM-3)
This project, conducted cooperatively with the Department of Horticul-
ture and the USDA, has been inactive during the year, except for some
work in preparing a manuscript which is now being reviewed for publica-
tion. The project is closed with this Report. (See also Project 484, HORTI-

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 486 Eric Thor, A. H. Spurlock
(Regional SM-4) and H. G. Hamilton
The cost of packing and selling Florida citrus fruit per 1% -bushel equiva-
lent by type of container for 43 packinghouses during the 1952-53 season
was as follows: oranges, 1% Bruce box $0.95, 1% standard box $1.27,
'z-box mesh bag $0.87, /4-box mesh bag $0.97, 8-lb. mesh bag $1.21, and 5-lb.
mesh bag $1.45; grapefruit, 1% Bruce box $0.85, 1% standard box $1.17,
1/-box mesh bag $0.76, /4-box mesh bag $0.90, 8-lb. mesh bag $1.12,
5-lb. mesh bag $1.32; tangerines 1/ Bruce box $1.44, % standard box $1.53.
The cost of picking and hauling citrus fruits for 1952-53 was obtained
from 29 firms. Services studied included: (1) buying and selling, (2) pick-
ing, which included delivery to roadside, and (3) hauling from grove to
plant. Eleven firms were dealers specializing in procurement and sale of
fruit delivered to the plant and 18 were principally packers of fresh fruit.
Total cost per box for each of the groups was as follows: Dealers: buying
and selling $0.030, hauling $0.096, picking oranges $0.278, picking grape-

Annual Report, 1954

fruit $0.211, picking tangerines $0.500; fresh fruit packers: hauling $0.097,
picking oranges $0.298, picking grapefruit $0.222, picking tangerines $0.598.
The above costs are approximately the same as the costs were for the
1951-52 season, but substantially higher than for the 1950-51 season.
Results of the year's work were distributed to citrus packers and dealers
in two mimeographed releases: Cost of Handling Florida Citrus in Fresh
and Processed Form, 1952-53, and Costs of Picking and Hauling Florida
Citrus Fruits, 1952-53 Season.
This project is conducted cooperatively with the Farm Cooperative Serv-
ice, USDA.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 519 M. R. Godwin, L. A. Powell, Sr.
(Regional SM-4) and H. G. Hamilton
Further study was made of the economic relationships involved in re-
tailing citrus fruit based on store sales data obtained in Jacksonville,
Florida, during 1949-50 and Memphis, Tennessee, during 1951.
An analysis of the consumption pattern for selected combinations of
products indicates that the proportion of the combined purchases of orange
concentrate, orange juice, and fresh oranges attributable to orange concen-
trate varied directly with the level of consumer income, whereas fresh
oranges and orange juice showed an inverse relationship.
Statistical estimates of the elasticity of the demand for fresh oranges
yielded the following coefficients of elasticity in the several income areas
of Jacksonville and Memphis:
Income Area Jacksonville Memphis
Low ........ ....... ... ............ .......... 1.2 1.8
M edium ........-...-- .....--.............. 1.3 1.7
High ..............-- ..-..- ..--- ..-...-- .9 1.1
In general, sales of each class of citrus items were distributed over a
wide range of retail prices in the two cities. During periods of market
price adjustment the price distributions of individual products exhibited
pronounced multi-modal tendencies. However, under stable market condi-
tions the distribution of sales tended to become uni-modal.
Some degree of substitution between selected citrus and non-citrus prod-
ucts is indicated by statistical analysis involving: (1) A comparison of the
coefficients of variation of the price and quantity ratios of pairs of products,
and (2) the regression of quantity ratios on price ratios of pairs of
products with time included in the equation as an adjustment factor for
seasonal changes in the relationship.
A manuscript reporting the findings in detail has been completed and is
being prepared for publication.


State Project 520 H. G. Hamilton
This project was inactive during the year.

State Project 556 D. E. Alleger
One objective of this study was to provide assistance to landlords and
tenants in preparing leases. Work was centered on the preparation of lease

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

guides which explain to farmers what steps should be followed in prepar-
ing cash-rent, share-tenant and share-cropper agreements.

RMA Project 562-Title II C. N. Smith and H. G. Hamilton
(RM: C-33 L.P.3, ES-41)
Analysis of the retail store data on sales of citrus products in five
income area store groups in Meridian, Mississippi, during four monthly
periods in 1950 and 1951 has been completed. The manuscript, "Citrus
and Competing Products Sales in 20 Meridian, Mississippi, Grocery Stores
During Four Seasons, 1950-51," has been prepared.
A major finding of the study was that the quantity of processed citrus
products sold varied very little from month to month. The value of pro-
cessed product sales in the month of most movement did not exceed the
value in the month of smallest sales by as much as 27 percent. On the other
hand, the value of fresh fruit sales in the month of largest movement was
more than double that in the month of least sales in every income area
store group. More variation occurred in the month-to-month level of grape-
fruit products sales than in those of orange products. The purchase pat-
tern of high-income consumers for processed products was more stable
than that of those with low incomes.
Many of the retail grocery stores in Meridian carried a very large
number of assortments of processed citrus products and had a very slow
rate of inventory turnover. Much deterioration in product quality results
when processed citrus products fail to move from grocery shelves into com-
sumption channels at a faster rate than that recorded in many Meridian
Purnell Project 579 D. E. Alleger
This study is being conducted in three phases. The first was a survey
of small agricultural holdings in the Jacksonville area. It was terminated
with the publication in October 1953 of Bulletin 528, "Agricultural Activi-
ties of Industrial Workers and Retirees."
The second phase related to retirees who farmed in Hillsborough, Lee,
Marion, Pinellas and Putnam counties. A total of 193 records of retirement
farmers were obtained, 113 in Hillsborough. Sixty-seven percent of these
Hillsborough County operators were partially disabled and 17 percent to-
tally disabled. Seventy-three percent gave age or poor health as reasons
for retiring. The farms of these retirees averaged about 11 acres in size
and the average value of land and building was approximately $5,000.
More than 70 percent engaged in gardening type of farming, 7 percent
in poultry and only 5 percent in citrus. Net farm income averaged $229
and ranged from a loss of $1,021 to a gain of $1,967. Because of the age
and health of retirees, it is recommended that if farming is undertaken
it should be on a very modest basis. In general, not more than an acre
of land should be cultivated and should be primarily for the purpose of
home food. A small flock of poultry is desirable, but in general, dairying,
cattle raising and hogs in this area were not profitable enterprises.
The third survey planned under this project relates to under-employed
farmers in northwestern Florida who do off-farm work to supplement farm

Annual Report, 1954

State Project 593 M. A. Brooker
A manuscript entitled "Factors Influencing the Mode of Transportation
Used in Marketing Florida Fresh Citrus" was prepared and is in process of
publication. During the year, also, an article, "Transporting Florida Fresh
Citrus Fruit to Market," was published in The Marketing and Transporta-
tion Situation of the Agricultural Marketing Service, United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture. Major findings of the study were reported in last
year's annual report.
It has been maintained on occasions that the services rendered by rail-
roads and trucks are so different that a change in rate levels for one rela-
tive to the other would have little influence on the distribution of business
between them. However, an analysis of rail freight rate reductions which
occurred during the second season covered by the study indicated that
transportation cost is perhaps the most important single factor in de-
termining the mode of transportation used in moving fresh citrus to
market. It would be concluded, further, on the basis of this survey that,
given satisfactory service and competitive rates, both rail and trucks have
a part to play in moving Florida fresh citrus to market. Vigorous com-
petition between the carriers will assure each a share of the business
and will be beneficial to the citrus industry.


Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 602 W. K. McPherson
Results reported last year on the basis of analysis of prices paid for
cattle and calves in three Florida auctions over a 40-month period, Septem-
ber 1948-December 1951, were further substantiated by extending the analy-
sis through December 1953. It is now clear that the mechanism that dis-
covers reasonably reliable prices for commercial and lower grade cattle
in Florida does not discover an accurate and reliable market price for good,
choice and prime cattle, most of which are sold direct to slaughterers.


Purnell Project 619 L. A. Reuss,' R. E. L. Greene,
N. K. Roberts and W. K. McPherson
To meet the need for a broad analysis and description of land utilization
in Florida in convenient form, a bulletin entitled "Florida's Land Resources
and Land Use" was prepared under this project and is in process of pub-
Schedules obtained from 79 ranch operators in Pasco, Indian River and
DeSoto counties indicate extreme variation in methods and costs of ranch
operation and pasture improvement. The purpose of these records was to
obtain data on methods and costs of establishing improved pastures and
other related information. These and other data will be used in calculating
the effects of alternative inputs of capital into additional acreages of im-
proved pastures, additional fertilization, increased efficiency of livestock
and improved management on net returns.

1 In cooperation with the Production Economics Research Branch, ARS, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 626 Eric Thor and George Capel "
(Regional SM-4)
A comparison of average total cost of picking, hauling, receiving and
dumping oranges sold for fresh consumption was made for the following
methods: (1) tractor bulk trailer-bulk degreening, (2) goat truck-field box
degreening, hand dump, (3) tractor basket, semi-trailer truck-bulk degreen-
ing, (4) goat truck, semi-trailer truck-field box degreening, hand dump,
(5) goat truck, semi-trailer truck-automatic dump bulk degreening, and
(6) goat truck, semi-trailer truck-field box degreening, automatic dump.
The first two methods were analyzed for a situation in which the citrus
groves are within a five-mile radius of the packinghouse. It was found
for this particular condition that the tractor bulk trailer-bulk degreening
method had lower costs of approximately 71/2 cents per box than the goat
truck-field box degreening, hand dump method.
The other methods were compared for a condition that the citrus fruit
for a particular house is grown within a 30-mile radius. Other distances
could have been used for comparison but the cost differential between the
methods would not have been significantly different. The tractor basket,
semi-trailer truck-bulk degreening method had lower cost of approximately
6 cents per box than the conventional goat truck, semi-trailer truck-field
box degreening automatic dump method.

State Project 627 R. E. L. Greene
This experiment is designed to study variations in beef production,
using a cow-calf operation on a year-round basis, for different pasture
programs and breeding systems. The Agricultural Economics Department
has the responsibility for comparing costs and returns from the various
programs to show how well they pay. Data are being assembled on the
cost of establishing and maintaining various pastures. To make results
applicable to commercial operations, the experimental data are being sup-
plemented by cost data from individual farms. (See also Proj. 627, AN.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 630 A. H. Spurlock
(Regional SM-8)
This project is conducted in cooperation with the Department of Horti-
culture. Only the work by the Department of Agricultural Economics is
reported here.
Sales records of about 500 lots of sweet corn (carloads or less) have been
obtained for the 1953-54 season. These shipments originated in three areas
of the state-Dade County, Lake Okeechobee, and Sanford. Data for each
lot show the grade and size, number of crates sold, price received for each
crate, method and date of sale and of shipment, kind and amount of re-
SIn cooperation with the Market Organization and Cost Branch, Marketing Research
Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA, and Florida Citrus Experiment Station.

Annual Report, 1954

frigeration. All charges for packing, refrigerating and selling were ob-
tained also and for consigned sales the transportation and terminal charges
were recorded.
When collection of records ;s complete, data will be analyzed to deter-
mine the relation of price to grade, size and method of refrigeration used.
(See also Project No. 630, HORTICULTURE.)

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 638 R. E. L. Greene and
(Regional SM-9) A. C. Spurlock
This project is carried on cooperatively with the South Carolina Agri-
cultural Experiment Station and Agricultural Marketing Service and Main-
tenance and Improvement Section of the Market Research Division, USDA.
Work during the year was again concentrated on a study of mechanical
harvesting and bulk handling of potatoes in Florida and Alabama. Com-
plete mechanical equipment was used to harvest and handle potatoes on
1,335 acres in Florida and 1,755 acres in Alabama. A one-row machine that
placed the potatoes in bags was used to harvest 522 acres in the Hastings
area. Potatoes on 746 acres in Florida and 321 acres in Alabama were
dug with a conventional digger but were field-loaded and handled in bulk
from the field to the washer.
From the 1953 to the 1954 season significant improvements were made
in mechanical harvesters by some manufacturers, especially from the stand-

Fig. 1.-Potatoes being unloaded from bulk truck on an endless belt with
little or no damage.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

point of reducing mechanical damage and making the machines more de-
pendable. On one make of harvester all rod conveyers were completely
covered with rubber. Samples were collected in the Fort Myers area each
season in one packinghouse from Bliss Triumph potatoes dug with this make
of harvester. In 1953, before many adjustments were made in the equip-
ment, about 38 percent of the potatoes contained physical defects, but only
23 percent were damaged in 1954. More significant, probable grade defects
amounted to only 2 percent in 1954, compared to 22 percent in 1953.
Results in 1954 show that when mechanical equipment is carefully op-
erated and the packinghouse set up properly to receive potatoes handled
in bulk the quality of mechanically harvested potatoes is as good as or bet-
ter than those harvested and handled by conventional methods (Figs. 1 and
2). Physical damage in Sebago potatoes in one house in the Hastings
area averaged only 3 percent, of which only one-tenth of 1 percent was
probable grade defects.
At present one of the biggest problems in the successful operation of
mechanical equipment is the failure to set up packinghouses properly to
receive potatoes handled in bulk. In most cases facilities need to be im-
proved so that less physical damage is done. They need to be designed so
that dirt, vines, weeds and grass can be easily eliminated. In houses using
bins, special elevators must be developed for filling the bins. Improving
facilities at the packinghouses will do much to increase efficiency of the
operation of mechanical equipment.

Fig. 2.-Potatoes being severely damaged in unloading from bulk truck
onto an uncovered rod conveyor.

:~ h
NA ~ E ,t
*. 'v:


Annual Report, 1954

Growers using mechanical harvesting equipment can expect to reduce
their harvesting and handling cost at least 10 to 15 cents per 100-pound
packed bag. For best results they must plan for its use, study their method
of handling and coordinate all operations. Data from this study should help
both farms and packinghouse operators in obtaining maximum efficiency in
the use of mechanical harvesters and bulk handling equipment. (See also

Purnell Project 647 M. A. Brooker, R. E. L. Greene
and T. H. Ellis
Summaries of farm business records for 1952 on 132 farms in Columbia
and Suwannee counties show the average labor income to be $325 and the
labor earnings $420. These farms were slightly over 200 acres in size,
with 66 acres of land used for crops, 35 acres idle, 45 acres in cropland
pasture, 35 acres of permanent pasture, and 20 acres in woods and waste.
One of the most significant changes on these farms since early 1940 has
been the reduction in man-labor requirements. Per-acre requirements on
tobacco have been reduced from 510 to 360 man hours due to improved
technology and changed cropping practices. The tractor has become a fac-
tor of major importance, practically eliminating the mule as a source of
In the adjustment phase of the study, irrigation of tobacco and the
use of a tobacco harvester seem to be of major importance. The harvester
was used for the first time during the 1954 season. It offers possibilities
for an additional reduction in labor requirements. Records will be obtained
on the cost of operating tobacco harvesters and cost and returns of irri-
gating tobacco for the 1954 crop year.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 651 W. K. McPherson and E. E. Brown
Analysis of data obtained by interviewing 118 milk producers, 14 pro-
ducer-distributors and 13 distributors reveals that:
In Central and South Florida, dairies are located in or very near the
major markets for fluid milk.
Little or no inter-market competition for whole milk supplies exists
between distributors operating in different markets.
Local trade practices and/or institutional arrangements seriously limit
and in some instances actually preclude intra-market competition between
distributors for whole milk produced in or near any one of the market
Effective and in some instances intensive inter- and intra-market com-
petition (without regard for marketing areas) exists between dealers in the
consumer markets for fluid milk.
The informal agreements that can and do exist between distributors and
producers within the existing institutional framework have resulted in:
(1) Restricting and in some instances preventing new firms from entering
the industry, and (2) an abnormally high proportion of all whole milk being
sold as fluid milk.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 656 J. R. Greenman and H. G. Hamilton
(Regional S-11)
Since this project was approved on February 26, 1953, a general review
has been made of the laws of farm tenancy as stated by authorities in the
field; the Florida and Federal statutes and constitutions relating to farm
tenancy have been carefully analyzed; and a detailed analysis has been
made of each of the 249 reported cases on tenancy for Florida and 284
cases relating to share-cropping for Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, North
Carolina and South Carolina. Three kinds of non-freehold tenancy are
recognized under the statutes and reported cases of Florida: (1) Tenancy
at will; (2) tenancy for a term; and (3) tenancy at sufferance. Most farm
tenants in Florida rent under an oral contract, with rent payable annually.
Their tenancy under the Florida statutes is a tenancy at will from year
to year and it can be terminated by the giving of notice by the landlord
or tenant three months prior to the end of the annual rental period. Ten-
ancy at will in Florida corresponds to the old common law periodic tenancy.
At common law the distinguishing characteristic of tenancy at will was the
right of the tenant or landlord to terminate summarily-not after three
months' notice as now required in Florida. Whether a type of tenancy
exists in Florida today that corresponds to the old common law tenancy
at will is not clear from the statutes and cases, but it seems likely that
such a tenancy would be recognized by the courts in construing certain kinds
of contractual arrangements.
At common law a cropper is not a tenant and has the status of a mere
laborer; while a tenant, other than a tenant at sufferance, has rights in
the land and in the crops produced thereon. Florida statutes and cases
that define the nature of the cropper relationship do not exist. As the
project continues it becomes increasingly apparent that neither the Florida
statutes nor reported Supreme Court decisions cover many aspects of
farm tenancy and share-cropping in the state. On these matters it will
be necessary to analyze the reported cases of other states in order to
determine the probable position of the Florida Supreme Court when called
upon to render decisions as to the law in such situations. As indicated
above, 284 cases dealing with share-cropping for Georgia, Alabama, Missis-
sippi, North Carolina and South Carolina have already been analyzed.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 664 M. R. Godwin, L. A. Powell, Sr.
(Regional SM-4) and H. G. Hamilton
A trial was begun in June 1954 to determine the characteristics of the
demand for frozen orange cconcentrate by artificially manipulating the
price in retail stores under carefully controlled conditions and while using
the appropriate experimental design. Customers in 10 retail stores of a
large chain in the lower Delaware Valley area of Pennsylvania and New
Jersey were subjected to retail prices representing discounts of 4, 6 and
8 cents per 6-ounce can below the prevailing market price, and a premium
of 6 cents per can above the market. Daily sales records were obtained
on all fresh and frozen citrus products, and weekly sales records were
obtained for all canned citrus juices and hot-pack concentrates. Field work
will be terminated on August 9, 1954.

Annual Report, 1954

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 665 Eric Thor, H. G. Hamilton,
(Regional SM-4) B. S. White and G. L. Capel
This project is an extension of project 626. The data in project 626
revealed that there was considerable difference in the cost of packing and
handling citrus in the various containers. In addition, over one million
boxes of Florida citrus during the 1952-53 season were bulk shipments.
It is the purpose of this project to determine by an economic-engineering
study if the lower packing and handling cost for the various containers
and bulk shipments in Florida are actual savings, or if the costs are added
en route to the retail store.
The Florida Department of Agricultural Economics already has col-
lected the data required at the shipping end, and the Marketing Organiza-
tion and Cost Branch, Marketing Research Division, Agricultural Market-
ing Service, USDA, is to collect the data at the terminal markets.

RMA Project 666 H. G. Hamilton, D. L. Brooke
(Title II, ES-235) and C. N. Smith
A sample of firms selling tomatoes, snap beans and green peppers has
been drawn. Some 5,000 records of individual tomato sales by selling or-
ganizations in the Dade, Fort Pierce and Immokalee areas have been
obtained. Preliminary information from these data indicate that F.O.B.
sales return more money to growers than consigned, price arrival or
delivered sales. The three latter types of sale appear to be used by sales
organizations when one of two conditions prevails: (1) When supplies in
the market are larger than demand will readily absorb or, (2) when quality
of the product is poor and F.O.B. outlets are not available.

RMA Project 679 C. N. Smith, D. L. Brooke
(Title II, ES-236) and H. G. Hamilton
Data on sales of gladiolus during the 1952-53 marketing season have
been collected from a sample of 11 growers. Complete records were obtained
on consignment sales and on a 10 percent sample of sales made directly
to retail florists and other buyers. The marketing data collected include
daily quantities shipped, prices received, type of buyer, variety, grade,
market distribution and method of transportation.
About four weeks of additional field work will be required to complete
the enumeration of gladiolus marketing data. Following this, an analysis
will be made to develop price-quantity and other market relationships.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 685 B. W. Kelly, W. F. Callander 3
and C. L. Crenshaw
The determination of normal or expected yields for citrus trees by types
and ages under average conditions has been virtually completed. Production
data for six seasons have been collected on about 8,000 groves containing
2.5 million trees. The analytical and computational work has been done on
all types of fruit except tangerines.
The frame count has been investigated, improvements in techniques
have been instituted, and a more scientific, less expensive sample designed.
The frame count is expected to be continued for the next few years.
A technique for branch sampling has been designed for estimating the
average number of fruit per tree in the State. A survey of Valencia
oranges based upon this technique is scheduled to start the middle of August.
A fruit-sizer has been devised which measures the circumferences of
fruit under a constant spring tension. A suitable sample has been designed
and work started toward developing growth patterns of fruit which are
expected to provide a basis for the projection of September measurements
to an estimation of size at harvesting.

State Project 688 B. W. Kelly
The citrus census in Highlands County, obtaining the numbers of trees
by age, type, variety and rootstock, together with the major diseases found,
is now about one-third done. However, it is expected that during the next
fiscal year the scope of the census will be expanded to cover the entire
State, and in this event the work done in Highlands County will be incor-
porated into the State-wide census.

State Project 697 G. N. Rose, C. L. Crenshaw,
B. W. Kelly and J. B. Owens
This project was approved June 17, 1954. Work will begin July.
3 In cooperation with the Statistical Laboratory, University of Florida.

Annual Report, 1954


During the year, research was continued on supplemental irrigation.
A project was initiated to study pasture irrigation on flatwoods soils. Fur-
ther work was done on mechanical harvesting and handling Irish potatoes.
Pasture renovation work was continued and a new project on pasture es-
tablishment was initiated.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 304 J. M. Myers and J. S. Norton
Eight different procedures to determine their effectiveness in destroying
a predominantly Centipede-Carpet grass sod and preparing a seedbed for
planting Pangola grass are being tested. The procedures vary in number
and type of operations required to replace undersirable pasture plant species
with the desirable plant species, Pangola grass. Chemicals and tillage
were tested in destroying the undersirable sod. Seedbed preparation varied
from a complete pulverization and mixing of the top soil to a very light,
shallow disking of the top soil. The effectiveness of the inferior plant eradi-
cation and seedbed preparation are being observed and measured at this time.
(See also Proj. 304, AGRONOMY and ANIMAL HUSBANDRY and NU-

Hatch Project 555 J. M. Myers
Three irrigation treatments (low, medium and high) were established
on the basis of soil moisture requirements, as determined during the 1952
season. From these determinations, it was found that the average daily
water consumption of tobacco for 13 consecutive seven-day periods-begin-
ning with transplanting and extending through the second "priming"-
was approximately 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.11, 0.13, 0.16, 0.22, 0.25, 0.22, 0.16,
0.15, 0.14, 0.13 inches. The medium irrigation treatment corresponded di-
rectly with the average daily consumption, with the low treatment being
33% percent less, and the high treatment being 331/ percent more. Each
irrigation treatment was tested with plant populations of 7,500 and 10,000
plants per acre.
Total rainfall during the season (March 23-June 30) was 21.04 inches,
75 percent above normal. Rainfall distribution was poor. A drought of
some consequence occurred during May, when the total rainfall amounted
to only .6 inch. Irrigation water totaled 4.30 inches in 7 applications, 8.00
inches in 11 applications and 11.63 inches in 16 applications for the low,
medium and high treatments, respectively.
The amount of water per application was increased progressively from
0.25 inch to approximately 1.00 inch during the first five weeks after trans-
planting. After the fifth week, all water applications were in amounts of
approximately 1.00 inch. The frequency of irrigation was determined by
the average daily consumption and rainfall.
Yield, gross value and quality were determined for each treatment. The
irrigation treatments did not indicate a difference in yield or gross value.
However, the medium irrigation treatment produced a larger quantity of
high quality tobacco. Ten thousand plants per acre gave significant in-
creases in both yield and gross value over 7,500 plants per acre; however,

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

the latter population treatment produced the largest amount of high quality
tobacco. (See also Proj. 555, AGRONOMY.)

State Project 577 J. M. Myers and Frazier Rogers
This project, inactive this year, is closed with this report. Bulletin
507 was published covering work accomplished.

State Project 627 J. S. Norton
This project is conducted in cooperation with Departments of Agricultural
Economics, Agronomy, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, and Soils.
The irrigation program being carried on under this project was dis-
rupted by the partial failure of the irrigation well in one of the pastures.
However, the stand of clover in the other irrigated pasture was better dur-
ing the latter part of June than it was in the non-irrigated clover pastures.
The period of superior clover production on the irrigated pasture has been
too short to affect significantly weight gains of the cows. (See also Proj.

State Project 628 J. M. Myers
The primary purpose of this project is to evaluate the use of irrigation
on Pangola grass-clover pastures for dairy cattle. Irrigation, fertilization,
pasture maintenance and cattle management practices were conducted so
as to give a high level of production.
Rainfall during the past year (July 1, 1953-June 30, 1954) was un-
usually well distributed. The only periods of drought were in May 1954
and the latter part of June 1954. Even then, drought symptoms were
not severe. Total rainfall during the year was 49.66 inches, while the
total irrigation water applied to the irrigated pastures was 10.85 inches
in nine applications.
The irrigated pastures produced 4.6 percent more cow-grazing days
per acre for the 1953-1954 period than the non-irrigated pastures. Irri-
gation increased cow-grazing days per acre 28.7 percent over non-irriga-
tion during a similar period (1952-1953) a year earlier. The distribution
pattern accompanying the 45.25 inches of rainfall for the 1952-1953 period
was so erratic that four severe droughts occurred. These droughts made
it necessary to supplement rainfall with 25.92 inches of irrigation water
in 32 applications to maintain the desired level of soil moisture.
In addition to the increased number of grazing days, the irrigated pas-
tures produced a higher yield of total digestible nutrients, stimulated clover
establishment and growth in early spring, and supplied a more uniform rate
of forage production than the non-irrigated pastures. (See also Proj. 628,

Annual Report, 1954

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 661 J. M. Myers and J. S. Norton
This project was modified in the fall of 1953 so that information could
be obtained on the effect of annual spring and biennial fall cultivation
(renovation), as well as annual fall cultivation, on the production of forage
on permanent pastures.
Preliminary results-which should not be considered as conclusive or
final-indicate that certain cultivation treatments may stimulate forage pro-
duction and also affect the botanical composition of pastures. A light to
medium cultivation, which penetrated to a depth of 3 to 4.5 inches and
caused a 12 to 15 percent sod opening, produced more forage on Bahia
grass pasture than the check during the 1953 growing season. An im-
plement such as a heavy chopper gives this type of cultivation.
None of the annual fall cultivation treatments caused an increase in
total forage production during the spring clover growing season; however,
they did have a decided effect upon the botanical composition of the forage.
The general effect was the greater the sod displacement scarificationn), the
greater the percentage of clover in the pasture mixture.
The production of Pangola grass was significantly increased when culti-
vated with a modified rotary tiller. This cultivating operation is classified
as heavy to a depth of 6 inches with 50 percent sod displacement.
Fall renovation appears to be better than spring renovation, insofar
as early spring production is concerned; however, there are indications that
by June, spring-renovated pastures are producing forage at a faster rate
than fall-renovated pastures. (See also Proj. 661, AGRONOMY, ANIMAL

State Project 684 J. S. Norton and J. M. Myers
This project was initiated in the fall of 1953. Preliminary work was
reported under miscellaneous work in the 1952-53 Annual Report.
Three fertility levels and seven water treatments were applied on Pan-
gola grass-clover and Bahia grass-clover plots. From June 20 to September
24, 1953, during which only 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 inches of supplemental irriga-
tion water were applied on the low, medium and high level treatments,
respectively, production paralleled the fertilization treatments. (Parallel,
as used herein, denotes increased production with increased applications.)
Clover production during the first three months of 1954, during which
no supplemental irrigation water was applied, paralleled the irrigation
treatments used during the dry period of April, May and June, 1953.
This is the result of clover living through the dry period on treatments
receiving the larger amounts of water. During this period, the highest
fertility rate produced the least forage. This condition was probably due
primarily to the first application of nitrogen being too concentrated, which
resulted in severely burning the clover on the high fertility treatment.
During April and May, 1954, when 3.0, 7.0 and 11.5 inches of supple-
mental irrigation water were applied on the low, medium and high water
levels, respectively, production continued to parallel the water treatments,
with little difference between fertilization levels under a given water treat-
During the fiscal year of June 20, 1953, to June 7, 1954, production of
the Bahia grass-clover treatments was 10 percent higher than the Pangola
grass-clover treatments. (See also Proj. 684, SOILS.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Improving Methods and Practices in Harvesting, Handling and Packing
Early Irish Potatoes.-Work on this project was continued from last year.
Mechanical harvesting and bulk handling equipment was observed and
studied in operation in the potato-producing areas of Florida and southern
Alabama. Preliminary work was started on equipment for mechanically
separating trash from the potatoes as they enter the packinghouse. Data
were collected to be used in designing a bin loading elevator.
A preliminary report on work done in 1952 and 1953 entitled "Mechani-
cal Harvesting and Bulk Handling of Potatoes in Florida and Alabama,"
by R. E. L. Greene, L. J. Kushman, J. S. Norton and A. C. Spurlock, was
published. Another report on work done in 1954 is in the process of being
prepared. (See also Proj. 638, AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS.)
Protective Shield to be Used on Dust Gun for Dusting Shade Tobacco.-
A protective shield was designed and built to be mounted on hand operated
dust guns used in dusting shade tobacco. The shield is semicircular and
fits over the crank on the dust gun in such a manner that the crank rotates
inside the shield. The shield prevents the crank from striking the tobacco
A report from the North Florida Experiment Station indicates that
the shield worked satisfactorily when used in dusting work conducted there.
No injury to tobacco plants was detected where the shield was used. Ordi-
narily, one plant in twenty is damaged at each dusting when hand dusting
is practiced on plants over three feet tall.

Annual Report, 1954


New lines of work begun this year are: 1. Chemical weed control in
cultivated crops and pastures. 2. Control of insect pests of turf grasses in
cooperation with entomologists. 3. Breeding disease-resistant castor beans
for oil production.
Increasing emphasis has been given to renovation of improved pastures.
Project 417 on pasture planting materials has been terminated.
A grant from the American Plant Food Council has been approved and
accepted to finance one fellowship on pasture production problems. An
additional grant of $1,000 from the same source for irrigation equip-
ment has been used for a well, pump and pipe at the Beef Research
Unit. Irrigation and fertilizer treatments on grass plots were begun in
the spring season.
Work was continued on responses of various field crops and pastures
to fertilizer, irrigation and pest control practices; testing of new plant
introductions; and breeding of small grains, forage grasses, lupines, corn,
peanuts, tobacco, soybeans, cowpeas and cotton. Results are summarized
under specific projects below.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 20 W. A. Carver and F. Clark
The new variety, Florispan Runner, released to growers in 1953, pro-
duces high yields of good market quality peanuts. Variety tests were
conducted in 1953 at Gainesville, Marianna and Jay. Yields of sound and
mature seed produced by the leading varieties expressed in percent of
common runner peanuts were as follows: Florispan Runner 179, Early
Runner 148, and Dixie Runner 98 percent.

Hatch Project 56 I. M. Wofford, W. A. Carver
and F. Clark
Yields of soybeans in the regional soybean variety tests were highest
for those strains maturing about October 25 (intermediate maturing group).
Several strains tested produced 3 to 45 percent higher yields and per-
formed as well as Jackson, Roanoke and Ogden, which are now being grown
in the state.
Results of variety tests with millet and sudan grass show that millet
is superior to sudan grass for forage production. New hybrid strains of
millet produced 9 to 33 percent higher yields of green forage when com-
pared with the common varieties now available for farm plantings.
Highest yields of forage and shelled peas were obtained from the cow-
pea varieties Paraguay No. 1, Chinese Red x Iron crosses, and Chinese
The behavior of volunteer sunflower plants, which came up after intro-
ductions were harvested on July 30, suggests that late plantings, on or
about that date, will produce a low growth and a seed yield suitable to
combine harvesting.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 295 G. B. Killinger and
R. W. Bledsoe
Under a rotation grazing management system 300, 375, and 359 pounds
per acre of beef were produced, respectively, from Pangola, Pensacola Bahia
and Coastal Bermuda pastures. The grazing season for these three grasses
extended from March 21 to September 18, 1953.
Five varieties of Bahia grass seeded in December 1953 on plots fertilized
at low, medium and heavily rates all came to a good stand and are making
rapid growth, except common Bahia which germinated poorly. Fertility
level has had no effect on rate of establishment or growth at this time.
Pangola grass mowed closely (1 to 2 inches) at intervals after the
grass had reached a height of 8 to 10 inches yielded only 50 percent as
much forage for the season as the same grass mowed back to a 4-inch
height at each cutting. (See also Proj. 412, AN. HUSB. and NUTR.)

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 297 D. E. McCloud and F. H. Hull 4
Nearly 500 introductions from 32 foreign countries and all five conti-
nents were evaluated in a screening nursery at Gainesville. Seed increases
were made for further testing, and a report was compiled showing the
adaptations and characteristics of over 200 former introductions.
Twenty-five introductions were well adapted to Florida's climate. Of
these the following are among the more promising new introductions:
Alysicarpus glumaceous (P. I. 193,734) from Kenya, Africa; Andropogon
pertusus (P. I. 217,973) from Cuba; Corckorus capsularis (P. I. 195,283),
a jute strain from China; and two St. Augustine grass species, Stenota-
phrum spp. (P. I. 203,896 and P. I. 204,289) from Uruguay and Brazil.
In the Bahia grass variety test, under higher levels of nitrogen fertiliza-
tion, both Argentine and Pensacola produced slightly over three tons of dry
forage per acre, while the introduction P. I. 162,902 yielded less than three
tons per acre. Pensacola continued to give higher production during the
spring season while yields from Argentine and P. I. 162,902 were higher
during midsummer.
Measurements of potential evapotranspiration of several crops were
compared to evaporation from bare soil and from a free water surface.
A comparison of the computed potential evapotranspiration using several
formulas showed that none gave results in close agreement with the
measured values. A close correlation of potential evapotranspiration
and mean weekly temperature was found to exist. A formula was derived
to express this relationship.
Daily Potential Evapotranspiration = KW T-3-; (K = .0130, W = 1.072).
Temperature probability curves were developed for evaluating the likeli-
hood of low temperature injury to plants. The probability of the first frost
was found to be 0.50 by November 20. Similarly for the last frost in the
spring a probability of 0.50 occurred by March 15 at Gainesville.

4 Cooperative with Field Crops Research Branch, ARS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1954

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 298 W. A. Carver and F. H. Hull
One narrow-leafed Bahia grass (R 41 E) was superior in rate of spread
and in forage production among 40 selections made in 1952. Other supe-
rior appearing narrow-leafed grasses are Lasseter's Giant Pensacola Bahia
and P. I. 162,791. All selections of broad-leafed type were inferior in frost
resistance and forage production.
Eighteen different Bahia grass strains of narrow-leaf and broad-leaf
type were seeded or sprigged in replicated plots in the spring of 1954 for
yield and management investigations.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 301 A. T. Wallace, E. S. Horner
and F. H. Hull"
The breeding programs with alfalfa, big trefoil and hairy indigo are
in the initial stages, and thus far no significant results can be reported
on them.
In the vetch variety trials the top forage-producing varieties were
Madison, Monatha and Oregon Woolypod, in the order named. The top
forage producing varieties in the winter pea trials were Papago, Tangier
and Romack, in the order named.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 304 G. B. Killinger
This project was revised July 1, 1953. An experiment was started
involving eight treatments for the destruction of Centipede and Carpet
grass and their replacement with Pangola grass. Two chemical herbicides
and various cultural treatments were included. Sodium TCA successfully
killed living centipede and carpet grass plants but allowed seed to germi-
nate and after six months numerous small seedlings of these two grasses
are in evidence. A combination of both summer and winter cover crops
has nearly eradicated the two grasses in question by shading and compe-
tition. Fallowing, both summer and winter, has kept these grasses in check.
However, new seedlings and parts of old plants continue to show life.
Pangola grass was satisfactorily established after all treatments. (See also
Proj. 304, AGR. ENGINEERING and AN. HUSB. and NUTR.)

Adams Project 369 R. W. Bledsoe
A study of the effects of nitrogen sources, rates and time of applica-
tions on forage production by Pangola and Pensacola Bahia grasses was
discontinued. Grasses were fertilized two, three or six times per year
with sodium nitrate and ammonium sulfate at rates from 30 to 480 pounds
of nitrogen per acre. Yields were highest when nitrogen was applied in
three applications. Increasing nitrogen rates from 30 to 480 pounds per
acre increased yield and protein in pounds per acre of Pangola grass by
4 and 8.5 times, respectively. At low rates of application the source of
5 Cooperative with Field Crops Research Branch, ARS, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

nitrogen had little influence on yield or protein content of either grass.
At high rates of nitrogen application yield of Pangola was 15 percent more
with sodium nitrate, while yield of Pensacola Bahia was approximately
10 percent higher with ammonium sulfate. Pangola responded much more
favorably to high rates of nitrogen than did Pensacola Bahia.

Adams Project 372 A. T. Wallace and F. Clark
Data were collected on F3 progeny from a cross between a nematode-
resistant line and a susceptible variety. It was found that the genotypic
correlation between narrow leaf width and nematode resistance was 0.30
(phenotypic correlation 0.71). This correlation indicates that the associa-
tion is probably linkage and not pleiotropism. Other genotypic correlations
show no association between leaf length and nematode resistance, but a
positive correlation, 0.32 (phenotypic correlation .13), between leaf length
and leaf width. Heritability estimates for leaf length was 5.8%, for leaf
width, 3.7%, and for roots galled, 29.1%. Other indications from the data
were that the genotypic-year interactions are relatively unimportant and
that wide-leaved nematode-resistant strains can be isolated.

Purnell Project 374 E. S. Horner and F. H. Hull
Dixie 18 was the leading hybrid in the regular commercial variety test
at Gainesville. Coker's 811 and Dixie 82 also gave good yields. The aver-
age yield of five early (corn belt) hybrids was 25 percent higher at a
planting rate of 9,000 plants per acre than at the normal 6,000 plants per
Two experimental hybrids produced about 15 percent more grain than
Dixie 18 at Gainesville for the second year. These hybrids appear to be
equal to Dixie 18 in standability and weevil resistance. (See also Proj. 374,

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 417 G. B. Killinger
Ergot in an Argentine Bahia seed crop has been partially controlled
by mowing off the seed heads when an infestation occurs and waiting
for another seed crop. Separation of ergotized seed from pure seed is
practically impossible and very costly once the seed have been combined
This project is being closed with this report.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 440 H. C. Harris, F. Clark
and R. L. Gilman
Leaching with water freely moved radioactive sulfur through 15-inch
columns of Arredondo loamy fine sand when the sulfur, as sulfate, was
applied to the top of the columns.
Cooperative with Field Crops Research Branch. ARS USDA.

Annual Report, 1954

Sulfur in the fertilizer increased the yield of tobacco about 11 percent
on the Station farm at Gainesville, even though a previous crop of peanuts
had received about 100 pounds of sulfur-DDT dust, 400 pounds of gypsum,
and 600 pounds of 0-10-10 fertilizer per acre.
Yield of tobacco grown on Blanton fine sand, level phase, at the green-
house was increased about 45 percent by sulfur in the fertilizer. Copper,
zinc, manganese, boron and molybdenum had no appreciable effect on yield
nor did strontium, cobalt, nickel, titanium, vanadium, chromium, columbium
and tungsten. Decreasing the phosphorus content of the fertilizer by half
had little effect on yield.
Oats were grown at the greenhouse on Arredondo loamy fine sand.
This soil had not been fertilized since 1930 and probably had little previous
to that time. Sulfur in the fertilizer of the pot cultures doubled the forage
weights of the oats. Plants grown without sulfur in the fertilizer were a
pronounced yellow color (Fig. 3) similar to nitrogen deficiency. Leaving
phosphorus out of the fertilizer had no apparent effect on the yield or growth
of the oats.

Fig. 3.-Effect of nitrogen and sulfur deficiency on growth of oats. Left
to right: Complete fertilizer except nitrogen, complete fertilizer except
sulfur and complete fertilizer.

State Project 444 F. Clark
Plots treated continuously with calcium cyanamid and uramon for 10
years were split and peat moss and sheep manure were applied separately to
each plot. No additional growth effect was observed.
Chicken manure, sheep manure, peat moss, Florahome peat and vermi-
culite were added to plots treated with methyl bromide. All materials
were sterilized prior to their use, except vermiculite. Vermiculite, sheep
manure and Florahome peat produced 17,000 transplants per 100 square
yards at the first pulling, while chicken manure produced 25,000 per 100
square yards.
Chlorobromopropene-55 and allyl alcohol were tested separately and
in combination for weed control and both were good.
Fifteen percent ferbam and 10 percent zineb were both effective in
controlling blue mold.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 487 A. T. Wallace
Oat lines resistant to crown rust, stem rust, culm rot and Victoria blight;
barley lines resistant to spot blotch, powdery mildew and leaf rust; and
wheat lines resistant to leaf rust, all of which appear to be adapted to
Florida, have been developed.
In addition to breeding small grains for disease resistance, adaptability
and grain production, increased emphasis is being placed on the development
of varieties that produce more forage.
In the variety trials the highest yielding varieties were Seminole, Sun-
land and Floriland oats, Coker's 47-27 wheat and 8-21 rye. (See also Proj.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 488 R. W. Bledsoe, H. C. Harris,
R. L. Gilman and F. A. Clark
Radioactive sulfur as sulfate when applied to the foliage of Dixie
Runner peanuts was absorbed and translocated to other parts of the plant.
Therefore, it is possible for the peanut plant to receive part of its nutrient
supply from sprays or dust.
Experiments with Early Runner peanuts indicate that S'" when applied
to the fruiting zone or the root zone is absorbed and moves to other parts
of the plant. Similar results for Dixie Runner peanuts have been reported.
Dixie Runner peanuts growing at the greenhouse on Blanton fine sand,
level phase, were a pronounced yellow color where sulfur was not in the
fertilizer treatment. The peanuts were also yellow when molybdenum
was not applied.

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 537 F. Clark
Twelve insecticide formulations were tested under uniform cultural
practices. Yields varied from 676 to 991 pounds per acre, with gross
dollar values ranging from $350 to $539 per acre. There was no correla-
tion between yields and per-acre values and degree of insect control from
the various materials. (See also Proj. 537, ENTOMOLOGY.)

Hatch Project 555 F. Clark, H. C. Harris
and R. W. Bledsoe
Experiments dealing with nitrogen sources, irrigation, fumigation, rates
of planting and sucker control were continued with the following results.
Sources of Nitrogen (Mineral vs. Organic), Irrigation and Fumigation.
-Five mineral sources of nitrogen were tested separately and in combina-
tion with a two-thirds ratio of mineral to one-third water insoluble organic
nitrogen. These sources of nitrogen were tested with both the D-D and
EDB-40 fumigants. All treatments were irrigated alike. Yield and acre
values are summarized in Table 1.
Cooperative with Field Crops Research Branch, ARS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1954


All Mineral % Mineral,
Nitrogen %1 Organic
Yield Value j Yield Value
Lbs. Dollars Lbs. Dollars
per Acre ,per Acre Iper Acre per Acre

Fumigated; irrigated .........- ......... 1,259 678 1,541 845
not irrigated ............. 1,217 609 1,340 710
Not fumigated; irrigated ............... 673 347 1,289 645
not irrigated ...... 942 509 1,154 521
Average four treatments ..-.....-...-..... 1,023 536 1,331 680

Rainfall for the growing season was 21.04 inches in all experiments.
Supplemental irrigation water was 6.75 inches for this test. This amount
of rainfall was 75 percent above normal. Even though rainfall distribution
was very erratic, the non-irrigated tobacco produced good yields.
The combination of two-thirds mineral nitrogen and one-third organic
nitrogen was better than the all mineral sources of nitrogen for this
season. Irrigation increased the average acre yield less this year. How-
ever, fumigation was good with and without irrigation.
Plant Population and Rates of Irrigation.-Three irrigation treatments-
high (11.6"), medium (8.0") and low (4.0")-were used with 7,500 and
10,000 plants per acre with the following results.
There were 139, 141 and 96 pound increases in yields in favor of
10,000 plants over 7,500 plants per acre with the three rates of irriga-
tion, respectively.
The dollar value per acre increases were 45, 69 and -10 for 10,000
plants over 7,500 plants per acre. The price per pound differences were
$1.48, $0.48 and $3.46 per hundred pounds in favor of the 7,500 plants
over the 10,000 plant population. Yields from the low irrigation rate
were good; however, the quality was poorer. There was approximately
$0.05 per pound difference between the medium and low rates of irrigation
in selling price.
Chemical Sucker Control.-Mineral oil and maleic hydrazide (MH 30)
were tested for the control of tobacco suckers. There was no difference
between the 0.3 and 0.6 percent concentration of MH 30. MH 30 was 66
percent better than the check and 50 percent better than mineral oil for
control of suckers. MH 30 did not provide as good control this year as in
other years. Basal suckers grew more vigorously on the non-irrigated
tobacco than on the irrigated tobacco.
Soil Fumigation.-Miscible EDB-75 at 8 gallons per acre and EDB-85
at 2.5 gallons per acre were tested.
Tobacco fumigated with EDB-75 and irrigated produced 1,789 pounds,
worth $956 per acre; without irrigation, 1,583 pounds, worth $847 per
Tobacco fumigated with EDB-85 and irrigated produced 1,783 pounds,
worth $974 per acre; without irrigation 1,740 pounds, worth $887 per acre.
Tobaccoo not fumigated but irrigated produced 1,343 pounds, worth
$733 per acre; without irrigation 1,334 pounds, worth $673 per acre.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Satisfactory control of nematodes was obtained from both fumigants.
(See also Proj. 555, AGR. ENGINEERING.)

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 600 E. S. Horner and F. H. Hull
Several experimental progenies of red clover were highly resistant to
powdery mildew in 1954, while all the commercial varieties are very sus-
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 612 J. R. Edwardson and F. H. Hull
One sweet mutant was found in the progeny of irradiated Alta Blue
lupine seed.
In the blue lupine preliminary test 28 selections produced as much as
or more green weight than the checks. In the blue lupine advanced test
8 selections produced significantly more green weight than the checks. Alta
Blue, common and Borre were checks in both tests.
Approximately one-fourth of all selections and segregating populations
in the yellow lupine nursery were reselected on the basis of vigor and/or
seed yield for further study. Thirty-one individual plants which appeared
to be virus-free or exhibited only mild virus symptoms were selected for
further study from yellow lupine lines.
Virus inclusion bodies were observed in leaf and stem epidermal tissue
of yellow sweet lupine. A chromosome number of 2n = 52 was tentatively
established for the species Lupinus hispanicus. (See also Proj. 612, PLANT

State Project 627 G. B. Killinger
Eight replicated pasture programs involving Pangola and Pensacola
Bahia grasses with and without clover and lespedeza and at several
levels of fertility were grazed by bred grade Brahman heifers for the
first full year. Yields varied from 5,236 to 10,757 pounds per acre of
dry herbage and from 267 to 896 pounds per acre of crude protein.
Pastures treated with a low rate of fertilizer produced the least and the
most heavily fertilized legume-grass pastures yielded the most. Excess
grass and grass-legume growth (Fig. 4) in midsummer carried through
into the following spring, coupled with excessive rainfall, caused a
loss of the Pangola grass stand in most treatments. (See also Proj. 627,

State Project 652 G. C. Nutter
Bermuda Testing Nursery.-Testing and evaluation have continued on 84
selections and varieties of Bermuda grass (Fig. 5). Data were collected
on cold tolerance, seasonal vigor, seed production tendency, disease suscep-
8Cooperative with Field Crops Research Branch, ARS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1954

tibility and nematode tolerance. The breeding stock was augmented by
the addition of 80 more selections assembled in a screening nursery for

Fig. 4.-Sampling herbage in experimental pastures for yield and chemi-
cal composition. Heavy clover and grass growth in June and July and
heavy grass growth in late summer caused loss of grass stand in spring.

Among the better performing Bermuda grasses were Florida 3, 4, 7, 8,
25, 26, 50, 56, 81, Tifton 57, 127 and Texas No. 8. However, further testing
is needed before recommendations should be made.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

In the early fall of 1953, sting nematode (Belonalaimus gracilis) was
discovered to be quite widespread in the Bermuda grass testing nursery.
The resulting damage among selections ranged from serious to inappre-
ciable. A quantitative nematode analysis was made in November 1953 on
all Bermuda grass selections. A similar analysis in June 1954 showed the
population of sting nematode to have increased appreciably throughout the
nursery with correspondingly higher turf damage. No other nematodes
were found in serious numbers. Field surveys on Bermuda turf in several
locations throughout the state also pointed to the sting nematode as a
serious, although not generally recognized, turf parasite. In many cases
secondary causes are blamed for nematode damage.
Heavy infestations of brown patch (Rhizoctonia solani) and dollar spot
(Sclerotinia homoeocarpa) were prevalent in the testing nursery during the
late summer and fall of 1953, resulting in variable degrees of susceptibility
among selections.
Miscellaneous Turfgrass Nurseries.-Varieties and selections of Zoysia
spp., St. Augustine, Centipede, Bahia, Carpet and other grasses planted
in 1953 have become established and other selections have been added.
Certain selections of Manila grass (F.Z. No. 1) performed outstandingly
throughout the year, with particular emphasis on desirable growth habit
and good year-around color.
St Augustine selections 1 and 2 appeared superior during the past year.
Selections of Centipede grass collected to date fall into one of two
classes-red-stemmed or green-stemmed-with little intra-class variability
observed. Although somewhat less vigorous in growth rate, the green-
stemmed type appears to exhibit more frost tolerance.
Among Bahia grasses tested, Paraguay, although slower to establish,
is developing a closer, denser and more weed-free turf than other fine-
leaved varieties. A prostrate selection by Ritchie (FM 3) produces an
excellent, wear-resistant, weed-free cover, but is coarse and exhibits poor
winter color. Carpet grass continues to show good turf quality in wet situa-

Fig. 5.-Burmuda grass testing nursery in 1953.

Annual Report, 1954

tions, where winter color is not of determining importance. None of the
Pangola selections tested have proven of value turfwise.


Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 661 G. B. Killinger
Both fall and spring renovation treatments using various implements
to cultivate or disturb the sod were tried on old Pangola, Pensacola Bahia
and Coastal Bermuda pastures.
The treatments range from very mild, where the sod was disturbed
very little, to severe, with more than half of the vegetation disturbed or
destroyed. The more drastic treatments in the fall were conducive to the
best clover development. None of the treatments have altered the rela-
tionship between the planted grasses and a gradual infestation of Centipede
and Carpet grasses. (See also Proj. 661, AGR. ENGINEERING and
AN. HUSB. and NUTR.)

State Project 678 G. C. Nutter
Sod Webworms.-Severe outbreaks of sod webworms developed in Ber-
muda grass ranges of the Gainesville turf nurseries beginning in the early
fall of 1953 and continuing through February 1954. Both the tropical
sod webworm and the bluegrass webworm were involved, with the former
decreasing in numbers as cold weather approached, while the latter corre-
spondingly increased in population. Damage to the turf in late December,
January and February was caused almost entirely by the bluegrass web-
worm. Investigations in mid-February disclosed a count of between 200
and 400 larvae and pupae per square yard. Turf damage was very serious.
Insecticidal tests were established in early January 1954, in cooperation
with the Entomology Department. Close-clipped ('/ inch) plots of Bay-
shore and Everglades No. 1 Bermuda grass were treated alike with DDT
(2 pounds actual per acre), chlordane (2 pounds actual per acre) and
endrin (% pound actual per acre). All materials were applied in the
emulsion form at 100 gallons of water per acre.
DDT gave good control and exhibited good residual action four months
later. Chlordane gave poor control throughout the tests, with endrin
being intermediate.
Chinch Bugs Test Area Established.-An area of 11,000 square feet
located in the turf research nurseries was planted to Bitter Blue St. Augus-
tine in April. When established, this area will be used in cooperation with
the Entomology Department to study chinch bug and St. Augustine manage-
ment problems. (See also Proj. 678, ENTOMOLOGY, SUB. TROP. STA.,

State Project 691 R. W. Bledsoe, Frank Woods
and Walt Hopkins
This project was approved April 26, 1954. Studies are conducted coopera-
tively with the Department of Soils and East Gulf Coast Branch, Southern
Forest Experiment Station, Marianna, Fla. Root samples of wiregrass,
SCooperative with East Gulf Coast Branch, Southern Forest Experiment Station.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

turkey oak and bluejack oak were collected during May and June. Chemical
analyses are to be run of samples for food reserves. (See also Proj. 691,

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 694 E. 0. Burt
(Regional S-18)
This project was approved June 10, 1954. Six herbicides were applied
at different rates pre-emergence to peanuts to study their effects on weeds
and peanuts. DNOSBP gave best results. This chemical gave very good
control of weeds at 6 pounds of active ingredient per acre and did not visibly
damage peanuts at twice this rate.

Sea Island and Other Long Staple Cotton.-Progress is being made
in selection for better opening bolls, more fluff in the lock and scant fuzz
or near black seed in the Sealand variety.
During the current season Sea Island types of cotton are being grown
in variety tests at Gainesville, Leesburg and Sanford. A seed increase
field of "Coastland", a new Sea Island variety, has been planted in Marion
County. (W. A. Carver, J. W. Wilson, Clyde C. Helms and Fred H. Hull.)
Crop Management.-For the sixth consecutive year when Dixie 18 corn
followed bitter blue lupine no significant yield increases in grain were ob-
tained from 40 pounds each of P20O and K20 nor from 40 pounds of N alone
or with P and K. Yields of grain from plots receiving 2,4-D only, cultiva-
tion with a rotary hoe only, or no cultivation were significantly lower than
from plots receiving regular cultivation. (I. M. Wofford, T. C. Skinner, E.
O. Burt and F. Clark.)
Lawn Management Studies.-Three clipping levels and four rates of
fertility have been established in a management study involving six major
lawn grasses. Clipping levels are beginning to show differences among
the various grasses, but more time is needed before differences in the
fertility rates can be expected.
Among the major lawn grasses, Bermuda and Manila (Zoysia matrella)
perform best when clipped closely (1/-1 inch) and frequently. Bermuda
grass, particularly, should be clipped frequently enough to avoid severe
"cut-back". Otherwise, the turf will appear in an unsightly brown condi-
tion for several days following mowing. St. Augustine, Centipede, Bahia
and Carpet grasses should be clipped generally at a 2-inch height. For
Bahia and Carpet grasses relatively frequent mowing is necessary during
the seeding season to combat tall-growing seed shoots. (Gene C. Nutter.)
Herbicidal Control of Weeds in Soybeans.-Twelve herbicides were ap-
plied at different rates pre-emergence to soybeans that were planted in June
1954. One herbicide, DNOSBP, was also applied seven days after emergence
of the soybeans. Objectives of the work include such factors as tolerance
of soybeans to different concentrations of different herbicides, degree of
weed control, and kind of weeds killed. (E. O. Burt.)
Castor Beans.-In the spring of 1954 a project was initiated to study
the diseases affecting castor beans in the Southeast and to evaluate collected
stocks for resistance. (A. A. Cook.10)
10 Agent Pathologist, Tobacco and Special Crops Section, Field Crops Research Branch,

Annual Report, 1954


The new Beef Research Unit program is well underway. Cooperative
studies in beef cattle production and breeding, pasture fertilization, irriga-
tion and costs of beef production are being studied in cooperation with the
Departments of Agronomy, Soils, Agricultural Engineering and Agricultural
Grants-in-aid have been received from Lederle Laboratories, Merck and
Company, The National Vitamin Foundation, the Lasdon Foundation, Inc.,
Eli Lilly and Company, Chas. Pfizer and Company, Swift and Company,
The National Cottonseed Products Association, The Nutrition Foundation,
U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, U. S. Public Health Service, Coronet Phos-
phate Company, American Chlorophyll Division of Strong, Cobb and Com-
pany, Inc., The National Mineral Feeds Association, The Soft Phosphate
Institute, The Costa Rican Government and the Lovett-Steiden Table Sup-
ply Foundation Fund. These grants, totaling about $68,000 yearly, have
enabled the Department to expand many of its investigations on nutrition,
minerals, swine, beef cattle, meats and physiology of reproduction.
The animal breeding, genetics and physiology of reproduction studies
have been expanded with the addition of an animal physiologist. Coopera-
tive studies in this field are well underway at the branch stations at Ona,
Belle Glade and Brooksville. The meats work has been expanded with the
addition of a full-time technician. Cooperative work on carcass studies is
underway with the branch stations at Ona, Brooksville and Quincy, as well
as at the Beef Research Unit.
Twelve high quality Hereford heifers have been purchased and a very
outstanding Hereford bull has been leased with the $7,500 provided the
Department by the Southeastern Livestock Improvement Foundation, Quincy,
Florida. Nine high quality Brahman heifers have been given the Depart-
ment by the Eastern Brahman Breeders Association. An outstanding Angus
bull has been loaned and another one given the Department by L. F. Tomlin-
son, West Frankfort, Illinois. Four Angus heifers have been loaned to
the Department by Jim Farquhar, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. These transac-
tions have enabled the Department to improve its herds of beef cattle.
A small flock of sheep was added this past year, since considerable in-
terest is being manifested concerning the possibilities for producing sheep
in Florida.
The approval of a new Nutrition Laboratory building by the 1953 Legis-
lature has provided the means for more adequate nutrition research service
to the livestock industries. The importance of proper nutrition for a healthy
livestock population has been repeatedly demonstrated during the past year.
The need for minerals and a proper balance between different mineral ele-
ments has been emphasized, both by experimental results and by practical
experience. The similarity of clinical symptoms in animals and symptoms
occurring in humans has led to rather generous support from the National
Institutes of Health, the Atomic Energy Commission and other such or-
Purnell Project 133 G. K. Davis, R. L. Shirley, W. G. Kirk, R. B. Becker,
P. T. Dix Arnold," S. P. Marshall, J. P. Feaster and J. T. McCall
An explanation for the development of a rapid tooth break-down in the
molars of cattle in certain areas of the state has not been obtained, but
1 Cooperative with Range Cattle Station and Dairy Science.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

it has been observed that improvement of nutritional conditions-including
a balance of the calcium, phosphorus and trace mineral intake-along with
a reasonable control of parasites has been followed by an elimination of
this condition.
Fluorine analyses have been made on the feed and tissues of cattle
from areas suspected of fluorosis. Although high levels have been found
in a few instances, this is not a general problem in Florida.
Investigations will be continued on the effect of the extremely low manga-
nese levels occurring in some areas upon performance of cattle in those
areas in terms of milk yield and reproductive performance.
The continued need for close attention to phosphorus supplementation
of cattle rations in many areas of the state has been re-emphasized during
the past year. Phosphorus deficiency, both borderline and severe, has been
observed in areas as widely separated as West Florida and the Everglades.
The expanding use of cane molasses, citrus molasses and citrus pulp as
supplements to cattle on low-phosphorus pastures has, in many instances,
accentuated a phosphorus deficiency. This has resulted in poor performance
of the cattle. However, this condition can be readily corrected by adding
phosphorus to the feed with high-level phosphorus mineral supplements or
by extensive use of phosphorus fertilizers on pastures. Failure to provide
adequate phosphorus in a number of locations has not only caused poor per-
formance in the cattle being fed, but has resulted in poor reproduction and
weak calves, with consequent damage to succeeding generations of cattle.
This has been particularly disastrous in several purebred herds.
Vitamin B&i has not prevented the development of copper deficiency-
molybdenum toxicity symptoms in copper-deficient areas. It has resulted
in a rapid correction of anemia when supplements of copper and iron were
given orally and vitamin B12 injected subcutaneously.
Work has been renewed on the availability of phosphorus from defluori-
nated phosphate. Defluorinated phosphate has been irradiated in the pile
at Oak Ridge so that the P32 could be followed in balance studies and com-
pared with P3' from phosphoric acid and dicalcium phosphate. Results in-
dicate that phosphorus from the defluorinated phosphate is as available as
phosphorus from bone meal, and that the defluorinated 17% phosphate is
reasonably palatable.
Studies of phosphate sources-now in their sixth year at the Range
Cattle Station-continue to show close relationships between available phos-
phorus and the availability of trace elements, particularly copper and manga-
nese, and between the available phosphorus and the utilization of nitrogen.
Cooperative work at the Dairy Research Unit at Hague has been con-
tinued. Indications are that the level of iron oxide in the original FES
salt sick mineral may be lowered without detrimental effects. Blood analyses
have been continued on the dairy cattle to follow the effects of the mineral
mixture and in an effort to establish normal values for blood constituents.
(See also Project 133, EVERGLADES STA.)

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 304 J. F. Hentges, Jr.,
and T. J. Cunha
Eight treatments were used to destroy Centipede and Carpet grass be-
fore establishing Pangola grass. Summer fallowing proved to be the supe-
rior treatment, and Pangola was satisfactorily established. (See also Project

Annual Report, 1954 57

Purnell Project 346 G. K. Davis, J. P. Feaster,
J. T. McCall, L. R. Arrington,
R. L. Shirley and J. C. Outler
High-calcium diets did not change molybdenum metabolism as compared
with normal diets, nor could it be shown that high-molybdenum diets in-
fluenced the calcium utilization by laboratory animals. With high-calcium
diets, however, there was a rapid urinary excretion of molybdenum. The
excretion of phosphorus in the urine by rats on normal diets was approxi-
mately 10 times as high as was the case with rats on high-calcium-low-
phosphorus diets. There was some increase in phosphorus of the bone with
high-calcium diets.
Study of molybdenum and manganese relationships has been emphasized,
since it has been found that on high-molybdenum diets rats improved rapidly
with the addition of high levels of manganese to the rations. The manga-
nese, particularly, alleviated symptoms of bone change. This confirms ob-
servations that molybdenum interferes with manganese utilization.
Studies of availability of phosphorus from defluorinated rock phosphate
have demonstrated that the P"2 from this source is as available as the phos-
phorus from bone meal, although not as available as that from phosphoric
In work with rabbits and guinea pigs it has been shown that molybdenum
exerts a toxicity that is similar in both species, with the exception that in
guinea pigs there is a much more severe loss of hair and a higher mortality
than in rabbits. The most striking change in rabbits is that of the bones.
Bone changes and some tooth changes have been observed in guinea pigs.
Cortisone, ACTH and B, did not give relief from the bone changes observed
in a high-molybdenum diet, although such relief had been observed in rats.
Work has been continued on a study of distribution of nitrogen in swine
as influenced by varying levels of protein and aureomycin. At the same
time, the distribution of phosphorus in various tissues has been studied.
Aureomycin with high-protein rations does appear to change the phosphorus

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 356 G. K. Davis and J. T. McCall
Research under this project has been re-directed to study the influence
of varying fertilizer practices upon the availability of copper, molybdenum,
manganese and zinc in pasture forage, and the effect of these different levels
upon animals using pasture as their principal source of feed. The protein
level of forage appears to be associated, at least in part, with the trace-
element content of the soil and forage. Low levels of copper, manganese
and zinc have resulted in a lowered protein content of the forage. This
has been particularly apparent in Pangola grass, which reflects variation
in the soil nutrients more rapidly than most other grasses. Copper contents
have increased from 7 parts per million to as high as 25 parts per million
with the application of phosphate fertilizers in the form of superphosphate,
without the addition of copper supplements. The addition of lime has
repeatedly resulted in lowering of the copper value of the forage. These
results re-emphasize the importance of soil pH in the availability of copper
for plant and animal nutrition. On occasion, heavy applications of lime
have caused copper values to drop to a deficiency level.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 412 J. F. Hentges, Jr., T. J. Cunha
and G. B. Killinger "
One pasture each of Coastal Bermuda, Pensacola Bahia, and Pangola
grass were grazed in rotation by yearling steers. Limited stands of White
Dutch and Hubam clovers were in each pasture. The grazing season
extended from March 21 to September 18, 1953. Production of beef per
acre was 300, 359, and 375 pounds, respectively, on Pangola, Coastal Ber-
muda, and Pensacola Bahia grass pastures. (See also Proj. 295, AGRON-

State Project 461 J. F. Hentges, Jr., T. J. Cunha
and M. Koger
Seventeen head of purebred Angus cows averaged 990 pounds in weight
within 12 hours after calving and produced calves which averaged 59 pounds
at birth. Twenty-two head of purebred Hereford cows averaged 1,002
pounds in weight and produced 70-pound calves. After grazing all summer
with free access to a creep ration of crimped oats and cracked corn, the
Angus calves averaged 343 pounds and the Hereford calves 344 pounds
when the weaning weights were adjusted to 180 days of age. Relative
type scores averaged 99.7 for the Hereford calves and 112 for the Angus
calves. At weaning time, the Hereford cows averaged 1,044 pounds and
the Angus cows 957 pounds in weight. All cattle and calves in the pure-
bred herd were scored on type, market grade and condition.

State Project 518 G. K. Davis
This project has been inactive this year, except for continued exami-
nation of histological sections of thyroid and pituitary tissues of the previous
year's investigations. Development of tumors as reported by other investi-
gators has not been observed.

State Project 540 H. D. Wallace and T. J. Cunha
Dried citrus distiller's solubles, a by-product from the manufacture of
alcohol from citrus molasses, has been fed to pigs in two experiments to
determine its feeding value. One experiment was conducted in drylot and
the other on pasture. In both tests, as little as 10 percent of the citrus
dried solubles reduced gains and feed efficiency. A level of 20 percent
caused a severe reduction in gains. The solubles tested appeared to be
unpalatable at the levels fed to the pigs. The material was flame dried at
approximately 3000 F. This may have reduced palatability, and undoubtedly
caused a lowering of nutritive value. Further studies are contemplated.

12 Cooperative with Agronomy.

Annual Report, 1954

State Project 542 H. D. Wallace and T. J. Cunha
A study is underway to determine the long-time effect of adding aureo-
mycin to the ration of gestating-lactating sows fed on good grass and
legume pastures. First, second and third litter performances-as measured
by number of pigs farrowed, birth weights and weaning weights-have thus
far indicated no advantage (or disadvantage) for the addition of 20 gms.
of aureomycin per ton of feed over this long period.
Another experiment, designed to determine the feasibility of feeding
low-gossypol cottonseed meal to sows during gestation and lactation, has
been partially completed. The sows that received the cottonseed meal (17
percent of total grain ration) performed in a manner very similar to the
control group which received soybean oilmeal as the main source of protein.

State Project 543 J. F. Hentges, Jr. and T. J. Cunha
Dried citrus pulp and two low-quality roughages-whole peanut hulls
and ground corn cobs-were compared as components of beef cattle rations
in a preliminary trial. Each of these feeds made up one-third of a basal
ration which consisted of equal parts by weight of citrus molasses and a
corn-oats mixture. The basal ration was supplemented by a mixture of
sunflower seed meal, alfalfa meal, bonemeal and cobaltized salt.
All three groups of steers made similar weight gains: 1.41, 1.40 and
1.42 for the steers fed citrus pulp, peanut hulls and ground corn cobs,
respectively. The steers fed peanut hulls required the most feed per pound
of gain and their dressing percentages were 2.65% lower than was observed
for steers fed citrus pulp or corn cobs. (See also Proj. 543, NORTH FLA.

State Project 546 A. M. Pearson, F. H. Jack and T. J. Cunha
This project was inactive during the year.

State Project 551 R. L. Shirley, J. P. Feaster,
J. T. McCall and G. K. Davis
For this report see Project 551, POULTRY HUSBANDRY.

Adams Project 566 G. K. Davis, J. P. Featser, L. R. Arrington,
J. T. McCall and H. W. Newland
Both radioactive calcium" and radioactive molybdenum were found
to be transferred to the fetuses of sows given oral doses of these isotopes,
but the transfer of molybdenum took place only to a slight extent. Cal-
cium crossed the placenta to such an extent that the concentration of
the isotope was higher in the fetal bones than in those of the sow. In

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

work with a high-calcium, low-phosphorus ration it has been possible to
show that the phosphorus excretion pattern is markedly altered, apparently
because the excess calcium within the animal body ties up the phosphorus.
While calcium metabolism is not influenced by molybdenum directly, there is
a markedly increased absorption of molybdenum by rats on a high-calcium,
low-phosphorus ration.
Radioactive zinc," administered orally to pregnant rats, was found to be
transferred to the fetuses in appreciable amounts after the 18th day of
gestation. Only about 5% of the orally administered zinc is absorbed. Of
this, from 10 to 70% passed to the fetuses, with the larger amounts passing
across the placenta in the latter part of gestation. Radioactive zinc was
shown to pass through the mammary gland and to be obtained by the young
through milk. In preliminary observations in connection with the placental
transfer of manganese in rabbits, it was found that rabbits fed a high-
molybdenum diet suffered from a female sterility or that there was an early
re-absorption of fetuses.

State Project 615 M. Koger
For this report, see Project 615, RANGE CATTLE STATION.

State Project 627 M. Koger
The first calf crop resulting from mating Angus, Brahman, Hereford
and Shorthorn bulls to half-blood Brahman cows was weaned in the fall
of 1953. More data will be required before general inferences can be
drawn on differences between breeding groups. The 180-day weights of
calves sired by different breeds of bulls for the first year averaged 295
pounds for the Brahman, 296 pounds for the Angus, 311 pounds for the
Hereford and 320 pounds for the Shorthorn. Market grades at weaning,
ranked in ascending order by breeds, were as follows: Brahman and
Angus equal, Shorthorn and Hereford. One group of Angus calves-
which were born early and not included above-out-performed all groups
in both weight and grade. This was due, in part at least, to seasonal
influence. The cattle on clover-grass pastures had a decided advantage
over cattle on all-grass pastures in cow weights, weaning weight and grade
of calves, reproduction rate and economy of production. (See also Project

State Project 629 M. Koger, A. C. Warnick, W. G. Kirk,
M. W. Hazen and E. J. Warwick
Foundation herds of cattle of different breeding are being compared
at Brooksville. As the program progresses, progeny of these herds will be
13 In Cooperation with Range Cattle Station and Animal and Poultry Husbandry Research
Branch, ARS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1954

used to test various breeding systems in breeding groups in commercial op-
erations. During 1953-54 assembly of an Angus herd was begun. Performance
of the various breeds for the 1953-54 season was as follows: Reproduction
rate, Brahman 75%1/, Brangus 69% and Hereford 100%. Reproductive effi-
ciency of Red Poll and Santa Gertrudis could not be determined due to
previous treatment. Weight of calves at 180 days: Brahman 339 pounds,
Brangus 364 pounds, Hereford 310 pounds, and Red Poll 361 pounds. Type
score of calves: Brahman low good, Brangus good, Hereford high good,
Red Poll high commercial. Condition score of calves: Brahman low good,
Brangus good, Hereford high commercial, Red Poll low good. (See also

State Project 631 A. M. Pearson and M. Koger
A group of steers representing purebred Brahman, % Brahman x %
Shorthorn, 1 Brahman x /2 Shorthorn and 1 Brahman x 3% Shorthorn was
raised and fattened under identical conditions (see Range Cattle Station
State Project 631) and slaughtered in the University Meats Laboratory.
Detailed carcass work revealed little difference in dressing percentage be-
tween groups, but the carcass grades were higher as the percentage of
British blood was increased. Physical separation of the 9-10-11 rib roast
showed the 3/ Shorthorn x /4 Brahman had the highest percentage of fat
and lowest percentage of lean, whereas the reverse was true for the pure-
bred Brahman. The animals having 3% Shorthorn breeding had the smallest
percentage of hide but the heaviest digestive tract, while the purebred
Brahmans had the heaviest hide and the lightest digestive tract. Results
of both the palatability test and the shear test for tenderness showed the
higher the percentage of British blood the more tender was the meat, but
otherwise no clearcut difference in palatability occurred. (See also Project

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 661 J. F. Hentges, Jr. and T. J. Cunha
For this report see Project 661, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING and
The Utilization of Waste Beef Fat in Steer Fattening Rations.-Two
studies were conducted to determine the feeding value of two levels of raw
waste beef fat (5% and 10% of a basal ration) in steer fattening rations.
The basal ration consisted of cracked corn, crimped oats, cottonseed meal,
citrus pulp and citrus molasses. Steers receiving 5% raw waste beef fat
made faster, cheaper and more efficient gains than steers receiving the basal
ration. It was noted that steers fed 10% raw waste beef fat gained slowly
and scoured frequently throughout the trial. Palatability tests and shear
tests failed to show any differences in tenderness of meat due to treatment.
This study was supported in part by a grant from Winn Lovett-Steiden
Table Supply Welfare Association. (J. F. Hentges, Jr., A. M. Pearson and
Cecil A. Tucker II.)
Utilization of Aureomycin in Steer Fattening Rations.-Two levels of
aureomycin (10 mg. and 20 mg. per 100 pounds body weight daily) in the

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

form of Aurofac 2A were fed in a basal ration of ground snapped corn,
cottonseed meal and citrus molasses to fattening steer calves for 147 days
in drylot. Feed intake was kept the same in all lots. There were no sta-
tistically significant differences in effects of aureomycin upon rates of gain,
efficiency of feed utilization, skeletal growth, blood hemoglobin levels, en-
docrine gland weights and various carcass characteristics. However, the
steers fed aureomycin had a slight weight gain advantage over the steers
fed the basal ration. There was an increase in heart girth and circum-
ference of cannon bone for those steers fed aureomycin. The feeding of
aureomycin had no effect upon the size of the pituitary and thyroid glands.
However, it was noted that the adrenal glands were larger and the seminal
vesicle glands were smaller in the aureomycin-fed steers. This trial will be
repeated, allowing the animals to consume all they will eat in all lots. This
work was supported in part by a grant from Lederle Laboratories. (J. F.
Hentges, Jr., T. J. Cunha and Cecil A. Tucker, II.)
Supplements to Low-Gossypol Cottonseed Meal for Growing-Fattening
Swine.-Two experiments conducted in drylot have demonstrated that a
low-gossypol, prepressed, solvent-extracted, cottonseed meal was not quite
as good a source of protein as was soybean oilmeal. However, reasonably
good gains were registered on the cottonseed meal ration and no symptoms
of gossypol poisoning were observed. In a third experiment raw waste beef
fat and and crude cottonseed oil were fed as supplements to the corn-cotton-
seed meal ration. Each was added at a level of 4 percent. The crude
cottonseed oil did not improve gains but did improve feed utilization. The
waste beef fat improved average daily gains 0.17 pound per day but had
no marked effect on feed efficiency. This work was supported in part by
a grant-in-aid from Merck and Company. (H. D. Wallace, J. McKigney
and L. Gillespie.)
Creep Rations for Suckling Pigs.-This study was designed to deter-
mine the influence of special feed ingredients on the palatability of
creep rations. Eight rations were simultaneously offered to suckling pigs
at two weeks of age. Seven of the eight rations were pelleted and one
was fed in meal form. A ration containing 10 percent of cane sugar
was consumed in largest quantity. A pelleted ration containing 10
percent of prime stabilized beef tallow and a similar tallow ration which
was not pelleted were both relished and consumed in significant quantity.
Citrus molasses, cane molasses and two corn products which were partially
dextrinized and gelatinized did not appear to improve the palatability
of rations containing them. This study was supported in part by a
grant-in-aid from Winn and Lovett's Food Stores Foundation. (H. D. Wal-
lace and F. A. McMillan.)
Effect of Feeding Aureomycin to Pigs on Restricted Rations.-An experi-
ment conducted in drylot showed that, when the feed intake was restricted
to 60 and 80 percent of a full ration, aureomycin did not increase rate of
growth. However, when the pigs were allowed a full ration, the antibiotic
was an effective supplement. Two additional experiments were conducted
on pasture. In these tests the pigs had access to excellent forage. Pigs
fed restricted rations under these conditions gave a small response to aureo-
mycin supplementation in one experiment and no response in the other.
Carcass studies revealed that the percentage of lean cuts was increased as
a result of feed restriction. The antibiotic induced no consistent changes
in carcass characteristics. This work was supported in part by a grant-in-
aid from Lederle Laboratories. (H. D. Wallace, J. McKigney, L. Gillespie,
C. E. Haines and A. M. Pearson.)

Annual Report, 1954

An Unidentified Growth Factor for the Pig.-In a drylot experiment a
material known as P. F. P. (Pfizer Fermentation Product) was tested as a
supplemental ingredient in the ration of the young, growing pig. A corn-
soybean oilmeal ration which was well fortified with the vitamins and min-
erals known to be required by the pig as well as 5 mg. of terramycin per
pound, was used in the study. When 2% of P. F. P. was added to this ration
a highly significant growth response was obtained. Since P. F. P. contains
residual terramycin, it is possible that the additional antibiotic supplied
by the product influenced the rate of gain. Further studies are contem-
plated to investigate this possibility. This work was supported in part by a
grant-in-aid from Chas. Pfizer and Company. (H. D. Wallace and C. E.
Various Sources of Aureomycin Activity as Supplements for Growing-
Fattening Pig.-Crude aureomycin (90% crystalline aureomycin-HC1) Auro-
fac-2A (3.6 gms. of aureomycin-HC1 per pound) and tetracycline (a chemi-
cal derivative of aureomycin) were compared in a feeding test conducted
on pasture. It was observed that the crude aureomycin and Aurofac-2A
were somewhat more effective than the tetracycline. This study was sup-
ported in part by a grant-in-aid from Lederle Laboratories. (H. D. Wal-
lace and F. A. McMillan.)
Antibiotic Implants for Suckling Pigs.-Two hundred and thirty pigs
from 28 litters were used in a study to determine the influence of baci-
tracin and aureomycin-HCl pellet implants on growth and survival of nurs-
ing pigs. In these tests there was no significant effect of either antibiotic
on 4-week weights, 56-day weights, or survival from birth to weaning.
This work was supported in part by a grant from Lederle Laboratories, The
National Vitamin Foundation, and the Lasdon Foundation, Inc. (H. D. Wal-
lace, J. McKigney and L. Gillespie.)
Observations on a Method of Self-Feeding Soybean Oilmeal to Growing-
Fattening Swine Hogging off Corn and Chufas.-An experiment was con-
ducted to determine a suitable method for self-feeding soybean oilmeal to
swine hogging off corn. Results indicated that straight soybean oilmeal is
much too palatable to be self-fed. A mixture of one-half soybean oilmeal
and one-half ground oats was also consumed in larger quantities than needed
to meet the protein requirements of the pig. The most economical mixture
consisted of one-third soybean oilmeal and two-thirds ground oats. Pigs
ate this combination in approximately the quantity essential to provide the
needed protein. A second experiment involving chufas gave essentially the
same results. (H. D. Wallace, L. Gillespie and J. McKigney.)
Improvement of Reproductive Efficiency in Beef Cattle.-A study was be-
gun to determine the causes of low fertility in range beef cows that were
bred to a fertile bull and killed either at 3 or 34 days after breeding. The
primary causes of low fertility were failure of ovulation (20.2%), failure
of egg recovery (20.2%), early embryonic death (18.3%), failure of cleav-
age of the ova (10.1%), and failure to show estrus (9.1%). Only 33 percent
of the cows had normal embryos 34 days after breeding. This work was sup-
ported in part by a grant from Swift and Company. (A. C. Warnick, M.
Koger and W. C. Burns.)
Effect of Protein-Supplementation upon Fertility in Beef Cattle.-Non-
pregnant cows that received 1% pounds of 36% cottonseed cake pellets dur-
ing four winter months on grass and grass-clover pastures had higher
gains during this period than non-supplemented cows. The supplemented
cows also showed an advantage in gains following supplementation during
the early summer period. Weanling heifers supplemented with a high (21/%
Ibs. daily) and a low (11/2 lbs. daily) cottonseed cake supplement during

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

3% winter months had approximately the same daily gain during and fol-
lowing supplementation on grass and grass-clover pastures. Evidently both
groups received all the protein they needed.
Guinea pigs are being fed forage from the above two types of pastures
to determine effect on reproduction and weight changes. This work was
supported in part by grant from National Cottonseed Products Association,
Inc. (A. C. Warnick, M. Koger and T. J. Cunha.)
Factors Associated with Age at Puberty and Reproductive Performance
in Beef Cattle.-The percentage of yearling heifers that had been in heat
up to June 10, 1954, for the various breeds was: Red Poll, 100; Hereford,
50; Brangus, 50; Santa Gertrudis, 13; and Brahman, 11. The average age
in days at first heat for those heifers that had been in heat for the breeds
was: Red Poll, 381; Hereford, 388; Brangus, 439; Brahman, 455. The
average number of estrous periods for each heifer that had been in heat
for the breeds was: Hereford, 4; Red Poll, 2.3; Brangus, 2; Santa Gertrudis,
1.5; and Brahman, 1. Young bulls were checked for sexual activity by
allowing them to mount an "estrogenized" heifer. In a comparison of a
limited number of bulls from three breeds, the Hereford bulls showed the
earliest sexual activity, followed by the Brangus and Brahman bulls. This
work was conducted at Brooksville in cooperation with the USDA. (A. C.
Warnick, M. Koger and M. W. Hazen.1")
B-Complex Vitamin Deposition in the Tissues of Pigs on Various Levels
of Manganese.-Tissues from two groups of pigs, in which levels of 5 ppm
and 100 ppm of manganese were fed, were assayed for B-complex vitamins.
The ham, Longissimus dorsi, and liver were sampled and are being analyzed
for thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin Bi2. This study was supported
in part by the Atomic Energy Commission. (A. M. Pearson and G. K.
Effect of Phosphorus on the Distribution of Certain B-Complex Vita-
mins in the Tissues of Young Calves-Young bull calves weighing from
133 to 360 pounds were placed on a low-phosphorus ration, with a calcium
to phosphorus ratio of 2.5 to 1. Four calves were given orally administered
defluorinated rock phosphate in which a portion of the phosphorus had been
converted to P32. One received P3' in KHPO, orally, and two received
P32 intraveneously. Following a balance study the animals were slaughtered
and samples of the round, Longissimus dorsi, and liver were taken. These
samples are being analyzed for thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and pantothenic
acid. (G. K. Davis and A. M. Pearson.)
Zinc-Its Effect on the Distribution of B-Complex Vitamins in the Tis-
sues of the Bovine.-Two groups of steers were fed either a basal ration
containing 50 ppm of zinc or the basal ration plus 1,000 ppm of zinc. The
liver of the high-zinc steers had less riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and
vitamin B. than that from the control animals. The round from the high-
zinc animals contained more riboflavin and vitamin B1, but less niacin and
pantothenic acid than the control group. The Longissimus dorsi muscle
from the high-zinc animals contained more riboflavin but less vitamin
B, and pantothenic acid and the same amount of niacin as the control
animals. (A. M. Pearson and G. K. Davis.)
Thiamine Excretion in Urine from Humans Suffering from Speech De-
fects.-Ten adult males suffering from stuttering were compared to 10
normal male adults in the amount of thiamine excreted after a therapeutic
dose of thiamine was administered. The therapeutic dose was 22.4 mg. of
thiamine administered three times per day. Those who stuttered voided

14 Cooperative with West Central Fla. Station.

Annual Report, 1954

1,388 ml. of urine per day and excreted 19.68 percent of the added thiamine.
This compared with a volume of 1,312 ml. and 16.30 percent of the added
dosage for the normal person. This indicated that the controls were capable
of utilizing a higher percentage of added thiamine. (G. K. Davis.)
Ammoniated Citrus Pulp for Cattle.-Drylot feeding trials have been
conducted at the Range Cattle Station. See Range Cattle Station Project
476 for results. Samples of ammoniated citrus pulp from seven sources
have been secured and analyzed. Some samples have been tested for palata-
bility by Dr. R. B. Becker. Results indicate (1) there are wide variations
in crude protein content, (2) great differences in palatability exist, (3) a
palatable, 12-14 percent crude protein ammoniated citrus pulp can be pro-
duced, and (4) when palatable, ammoniated citrus pulp is a good feed for
cattle. (G. K. Davis, W. G. Kirk and J. T. McCall.)
"Stringhalt" in Cattle.-Second generation cattle from "stringhalt" cows
and a "stringhalt" bull have been carried to 600-800 pounds and upon
slaughter the leg bones have been obtained and examined for the defect
which permits upward luxation of the patella. The development of this
condition in Brahman cattle appears to be associated with an hereditary
defect which becomes apparent upon injury, nutritional drain as with partu-
rition and lactation, or some other strain. Data are being accumulated
on the occurrence of stringhalt in Florida cattle. (G. K. Davis, W. G. Kirk i
and D. A. Sanders."')
Interrelationships of Copper, Molybdenum and Phosphorus.-The bone
changes which have been observed repeatedly in animals on low copper-
high molybdenum diets have been studied histologically. Changes which
occur indicate that the calcium phosphate of the bone matrix is removed
and in place of the bone salts there is an invasion of connective tissue. The
bones thus weakened tend to assume abnormal shapes characteristic of those
seen in manganese deficiency. The similarity of these changes has led
to incorporation of manganese in larger amounts than normal. Results
have shown that molybdenum interfers with manganese utilization in the
animals. This study was supported in part by the Nutrition Foundation.
(G. K. Davis and L. R. Arrington.)
Preliminary Information on Feeding and Management of Sheep in Flor-
ida.-Eleven Southdown ewes and one Southdown ram are being used in
this study. The flock has been pastured mainly on the following grasses:
Coastal Bermuda, Pangola, Bahia, Love grass and winter oats. They re-
ceived supplemental feeding (a mixture of corn, oats and cottonseed meal)
during the winter and for 60 days after lambing at the rate of one-half
pound daily per head. The lambs are being creep-fed this same mixture.
The average weight of the ewes prior to lambing was 123.5 pounds. After
three months of lactation the ewes have an average weight of 105 pounds.
A 109 percent lamb crop was obtained with an average birth weight of
7 pounds 7 ounces per lamb. The average lambing date was March 19th,
with a range of from March 10th to March 28th. On June 14th the average
weight of the lambs was 42.7 pounds. An average wool clip of 2 pounds
10 ounces was obtained from the August 1953 shearing date until the March
23, 1954, shearing date. Samples taken on May 4, 1954, to determine in-
ternal parasite infestation showed a low percentage of internal parasites.
The ewes were drenched with phenothiazine on March 1, 1954, and again 21
days later. This drenching was repeated again on May 18, 1954. In addi-
tion, the ewes are fed free choice a mixture of 9 parts salt and 1 part pheno-
thiazine. (P. E. Loggins, J. F. Hentges and T. J. Cunha.)
1' Cooperative with Range Cattle Station.
SCcoperative with Range Cattle Station and Veterinary Science.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The work at the Dairy Research Unit at Hague has continued along
the same lines as during the year before. A project on calf feeding has
been added. Complete equipment for analyses of feed has been obtained,
including an instrument for the spectrophotometric analyses for certain
vitamins and minerals and other nutrients in feeds and milk.
The work on the use of citrus and tropical fruits in ice cream has been
expanded to include orange, lime, lemon, tangerine, mango, guava and
others. Generally good acceptance has been accorded these new flavors
by all who have tasted them. Some new refrigerating equipment has been
State Project 213 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
G. K. Davis 1 and J. M. Wing
Laboratory pit silos 48 inches in diameter and 8 feet deep were used
with three crops. With each wilted forage the first silo contained no added
preservative, while 150 and 250 pounds of dried citrus pulp were added, re-
spectively, per ton of forage in the second and third silos. The finished
silages were fed in turn to four cows and fecal samples were secured after
10 days for determination of digestibilities by the chromogen-ratio tech-
nique. Rates of consumption of these silages are a partial indicator of
palatabilities, though modified by bulkiness.
Forage Average Daily Consumption per Cow
Silo 1 Silo 2 Silo 3
Pangola grass, long ......................-- 35.3 lbs. 38.4 lbs. 42.8 lbs.
White Dutch clover
and Dallis grass ..... ............. 55.8 lbs. 50.8 lbs. 51.5 Ibs.
Oats, chopped ............................. 55.9 lbs. 60.7 Ibs. (To be fed)

State Project 345 R. B. Becker and P. T. Dix Arnold
Eight cooperating Florida herds contributed records of breeding, inven-
tory, replacements from the milking herds and causes of losses. Increasing
cooperation was obtained with artificial breeding units over the United
States concerning dairy and Milking Shorthorn bulls.
Bulletin 540, Productive Life-Span of Dairy Cattle, was published as a
progress report, based on records of 1,742 Florida dairy cows, 2,182 dairy
bulls discarded while usable, 5,177 bulls completing usefulness in natural
service and 1,186 bulls in artificial service. Significant differences occurred
in percentages of bulls lost from sterility, low breeding efficiency, foreign
bodies and actinimycosis between natural and artificial service. (See also

Bankhead-Jones Project 534 W. A. Krienke and E. L. Fouts
Experiments to determine the effect on whipping quality of rate of
cooling when vat-pasteurized ice cream mixes are cooled through a sweet-
Cooperative with AN. HUSB. and NUTR.

Annual Report, 1954 67

water plate-type cooler indicate that, when using sodium alginate sta-
bilizer, best results can be expected by cooling to a temperature of about
450 F. Cooling to 40' F. and to 500 F. resulted in less rapid whipping of
mixes during freezing. The addition of a small amount of an emulsifier to
such mixes improved whipping quality to the extent that differences due to
cooling temperatures were of little consequence.
Cooler capacity was greatly reduced when cooling sodium alginate mixes
to 40' F. and lower because of the resulting higher viscosity of the mixes.
In general, rates of cooling of ice cream mixes are of little importance
in mix processing when other factors are controlled.

State Project 564 S. P. Marshall, P. T. Dix Arnold,
R. B. Becker and J. M. Wing
Twelve male Jersey calves between the ages of 0 and 150 days and of
normal weight for age were used in studying the development of stomach
compartments and characteristics of their contents. The rumen, reticulum
and omasum grew rapidly, while the abomasum grew slowly. Arrange-
ments of five orders of laminae in the abomasum were tabulated.
The dry matter content of stomach-compartment ingesta of 43 calves
between the ages of 20 and 160 days averaged: rumen, 16.71 percent;
reticulum, 12.48 percent; and omasum, 21.94 percent. The abomasum con-
tents of 17 calves 20 to 60 days of age and receiving milk plus dry feed
was 20.43 percent, while that for 24 animals 70 to 160 days of age and fed
only dry feed was 12.89 percent. Samples of ingesta from each compart-
ment were air-dried and separated according to sizes of particles in study-
ing a mechanical phase of digestion.
Stomach compartment ingesta of 93 calves were found to be acid, with
one exception, for that of the rumen, reticulum and omasum. Specific
gravity values of stomach compartment contents ranged as follows: rumen,
0.8429 to 1.0377; reticulum, 0.7921 to 1.0222; omasum, 0.9110 to 1.0450;
and abomasum, 0.9652 to 1.1130.

Bankhead-Jones Project 571 H. W. Wilkowske, W. A. Krienke
and E. L. Fouts
A microbiological assay method was developed for measurement of ac-
tivity of penicillin and other dairy starter inhibitory agents. The method
was sensitive to a concentration of 2.0 units of penicillin per gram of cheese.
Of the 14 different commercial brands of mold-ripened cheeses assayed,
none contained as much as 2.0 units of penicillin per gram of cheese. No
other culture-inhibitory substances were present in the cheese in a con-
centration such that it could be detected when as much as 10 percent cheese
was included in the culture preparations assayed. For all practical pur-
poses there was no penicillin present in commercial blue, roquefort, camem-
bert or Nuworld cheese.
Eighteen different Jersey and Guernsey cows were fed menadione at
rates varying from 25 to 600 milligrams per cow per day for periods rang-
ing from 11 to 48 days. Also, sodium menadiol diphosphate was fed to
six cows at rates varying from 1,000 to 10,000 milligrams per cow per
day for periods ranging from 5 to 24 days. Samples of milk were titrated

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

for acidity periodically and were bacteriologically analyzed for total counts,
coliform counts and psychrophillic counts. The feeding of menadione and
sodium menadiol diphosphate did not affect normal rate of milk souring, rate
of lactic acid development by dairy cultures, nor standard, coliform and
psychrophillic plate counts.

State Project 575 P. T. Dix Arnold, S. P. Marshall
and R. B. Becker
During the year 40 cows completed official production records in their
respective breeds. No official type rating was conducted in the herd during
the past year but a fall classification is planned. An intensive veterinary
treatment program with difficult breeders has increased breeding efficiency
during the spring months.
One bull and 48 cows were sold for slaughter and two cows died. Low
production, udder troubles and breeding difficulties were the principal
causes for disposal of the cows. The bull was sold because his daughters
failed to produce satisfactorily and were not the equal of their dams in
body conformation.

State Project 594 S. P. Marshall, P. T. Dix Arnold
and J. M. Wing
To date, 13 Jersey calves, fed from birth through 60 days of age on
milks containing 5 mg. of aureomycin hydrochloride per pound plus con-
centrate and hay, gained an average of 50.7 pounds, while the control
animals not receiving the antibiotic gained an average of 44.8 pounds. The
aureomycin-fed calves consumed an average of 5.9 percent more milk, 25.9
percent more concentrate and 0.2 percent more hay.
Six calves in the aureomycin-fed group, that were continued from 61
through 120 days of age on alfalfa hay and concentrate containing 50
ppm of aureomycin hydrochloride, gained an average of 74.9 pounds; six
animals receiving these feeds without the antibiotic gained an average of
62.7 pounds during this period. The experimental group consumed 12.9
percent more concentrate and 11.0 percent more hay than the control ani-
After aureomycin hydrochloride was removed from the ration of the
experimental group at 121 days of age their average gain and feed intake
during the ensuing 30 days was below that of the control calves.

State Project 628 S. P. Marshall
Four irrigated and four non-irrigated plots of fertilized Pangola-white
clover pasture, grown on Scranton loamy fine sand, were grazed rotation-
ally with separate groups of lactating cows. The irrigated pastures fur-
nished 666 cow days of grazing and 6,686 pounds of total digestible nu-
trients per acre during the grazing season of March 3 through November
23, 1953. The non-irrigated pastures supplied 551 cow days of grazing and
5,628 pounds of total digestible nutrients per acre during the foraging
period of March 27 through November 23.

Annual Report, 1954

In 1954 grazing was initiated March 2 on the irrigated pastures and
March 9 on the non-irrigated plots. The irrigated pastures provided 579.5
cow days of grazing through June 30, while the non-irrigated ones fur-
nished 559.5.
Supplemental irrigation of pasture increased the yield of total digestible
nutrients 19 percent, maintained a more uniform carrying capacity, length-
ened the grazing season and sustained high nutritive quality in the forage
during dry periods. (See also Proj. 628, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER-

State Project 633 S. P. Marshall and P. T. Dix Arnold
Oats.-Cows grazing Floriland oats produced an average of 32.9 pounds
of 4 percent fat-corrected milk daily during the pasture season of Novem-
ber 21, 1953, through March 22, 1954. They obtained 62.8 percent of their
total digestible nutrient intake from the pasture which supplied 1,684.3
pounds of total digestible nutrients per acre.
The oats were grown on Orlando fine sand; fertilized with 500 pounds
of 8-8-8 per acre at planting time; and 68.2 pounds of nitrogen were applied
in two top-dressings during the fall and winter.
Sweet Yellow Lupine.-Dairy heifers gained an average of 1.28 pounds
daily on sweet yellow lupine during the grazing period of December 29,
1953, through March 21, 1954. They gained an average of 148 pounds in
body weight and obtained 1,061 pounds of total digestible nutrients per
acre of pasture grazed. The heifers refused lupine for about 2! days
after being placed on this pasture, but consumed the forage readily after
they became accustomed to it.
The lupine was planted on Scranton loamy fine sand and fertilized with
phosphorus and potash. Heavy rainfall in December water-logged the soil
and about one-third of the lupine stand died.
Oats-Kenland Red Clover.-Heifers grazing Floriland oats-Kenland Red
clover from December 1, 1953, to June 23, 1954, gained 377 pounds per acre
of pasture and obtained from it 2,921.1 pounds of total digestible nutrients
per acre. Their average daily gain of 1.17 pounds was 172 percent of the
normal growth rate for heifers of their ages.
The oat-clover mixture was planted on loamy fine sand that had been
limed and the pasture was fertilized with phosphorus, potash and nitrogen.

State Project 636 J. M. Wing
Young Jersey calves which were supplemented with methionine and
oratic acid gained 46 and 16 percent faster in body weight and withers
height, respectively, than comparable controls. A 42-percent superiority
in efficiency of feed utilization also was observed in the treated group.

State Project 637 S. P. Marshall
Separate groups of dairy heifers were grazed rotationally on fertilized
Pangola-white clover and on Coastal Bermuda-white clover pastures. Dur-
ing the period of March 5 through June 3, when white clover was the

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

principal forage present, animals grazing the clover-Pangola areas gained
an average of 1.26 pounds daily and 318.5 pounds per acre of pasture.
Those on clover-Bermuda plots gained 1.26 pounds daily and 374.8 pounds
per acre.
From June 4 through November 8 the forage in these pastures was
almost entirely grass. Heifers grazing the Pangola plots during this period
gained 0.58 pound daily and 362.4 pounds per acre of pasture. Those on
the Coastal Bermuda areas averaged 0.48 pound daily increase in body
weight and 248.4 pounds per acre.

Bankhead-Jones Project 667 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
J. M. Wing, W. A. Krienke, L. E. Mull,
H. H. Wilkowske and E. L. Fouts
In field investigations, milk declined in butterfat percentages during
winter and again during early spring. This was apparently associated with
abundance of first lush growth of forage and with young tender vegeta-
tion following a killing frost. Producers overcame the condition soon with
long hay or with reserve old pasture.

New Flavors for Ice Cream.-Guavas were processed into the fresh-fruit
type of injection flavoring material and this was used to prepare variegated
guava ice cream. Consumer acceptance of this new flavor of ice cream has
been excellent.
After preparing a seed-free pulp of the fruit, processing is similar to
that of processing frozen concentrated orange juice for injection flavoring
of ice cream.
Several varieties of mangos have been processed into the fresh-fruit
type of injection flavoring material for ice cream. Individual variety
flavor differences were observed, but emphasis is needed on adequate tree
ripening of the fruit.
Yield studies indicate that, for each pound of properly ripened mangos,
it is possible to prepare ample injection flavoring material to flavor up to
2.0 gallons of variegated mango ice cream.
Variegated mango ice cream has been accorded a most excellent con-
sumer acceptance. (W. A. Krienke.)
Test for Butterfat Adulteration.-The use of 1-gram sample instead of
the 5-gram sample in Reichert-Meissl determinations is being investigated.
Early results indicate only slightly higher values when the observed data
are converted proportionately. This modification will make possible the
use of a considerably smaller sample of butter oil for the selective solidifi-
cation fractionation procedure of sample preparation reported earlier. (W.
A. Krienke.)
Menadione Retards Development of Oxidized Flavor of Milk.-When
small amounts of menadione were included in the ration of producing
cows, the milk possessed a high tolerance to the action of added copper in
inducing the oxidized flavor than was the case prior to the menadione
supplementation. The effect was observed to follow the change in the
ration within a few days when the amount of menadione was 0.3 grams
twice daily.
A salt of menadione, 2-methyl-l,4-naphthohydroquinone diphosphoric
acid ester tetrasodium salt, was found to be effective also when fed as well

Annual Report, 1954

as when added directly to milk. Its water-solubility property makes it
suitable for the latter use, whereas menadione is limited to feeding for
effective use due to the fat-soluble property its possesses. (See Jour. Dairy
Science 37: 6: 640. 1954.) Cooperative with Department of Animal Hus-
bandry and Nutrition. (W. A. Krienke and L. R. Arrington.)
Defluorinated Rock Phosphate.-A high quality defluorinated rock phos-
phate, prepared by Coronet Phosphate Company, was tested for palata-
bility with dairy cows at the Dairy Research Unit and a coastal area in
Palm Beach County. It was mixed in various proportions with common salt
and offered to milking cows that had access to their usual mineral supple-
ments at the same time.
The new defluorinated rock phosphate, as offered, was readily acceptable
to dairy cows as compared with their usual mineral supplement (see Bulle-
tin 513), including steamed bonemeal. In cooperation with Animal Hus-
bandry and Nutrition, L. V. Minear of Pennock Plantation and Coronet
Phosphate Company. (R. B. Becker.)
Palatibility of New Citrus By-Product Feeds.-Unmixed dried pulps
from limes, oranges and grapefruit, plain ammoniated citrus pulp and am-
moniated citrus pulp with 8% molasses were offered in two palatability
trials with milk cows.
Dried lime pulp was eaten readily at first offering by 9 out of 16 cows.
It was considered sufficiently palatable to serve satisfactorily as feed. Am-
moniated citrus pulp with 8% molasses also was reasonably palatable.
Plain ammoniated pulp was consumed wholly by few cows, so that addi-
tion of molasses was considered desirable. When all five citrus feeds were
offered side by side on three consecutive days, little difference in preference
was shown by milking cows between dried grapefruit, orange and the am-
moniated citrus pulp plus molasses; lime pulp was next and plain am-
moniated citrus pulp always was last choice. In cooperation with Ani-
mal Husbandry and Nutrition, Minute Maid Corporation of Leesburg and
Clinton Foods, Inc., Dunedin, Florida. (R. B. Becker and P. T. Dix Arnold.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


With a research staff growing in numbers and in knowledge gained,
the amount of information disseminated by the Station's editorial and
research staffs also is growing apace. Increases have been registered
in number of different bulletins and circulars printed and in total num-
bers printed, in journal articles and other papers accepted by scientific
and popular magazines, in mimeographed information sheets by the de-
partments, and in news and radio releases.

To make results of its research available to the public, the station printed
the largest number of different bulletins it has ever issued in a single fiscal
year and the largest total quantities of bulletins, as well as an average
number of circulars. The 22 new bulletins printed amounted to 859 pages,
the total printings being 216,500 copies. The 16 circulars covered 121 pages,
with 143,000 copies being printed.
Although the press bulletins series as a vehicle for new manuscripts
was discontinued in 1949, the 6-page list of available publications is still
issued as a press bulletin. It was printed three times, the total quantity
being 7.000. Also, Press Bulletin 658 Azalea Culture, was revised and re-
printed, the edition being 10,000, and Press Bulletin 602, Composting and
Mulching, was reprinted in a 3,000 quantity.
Following is a list of bulletins issued during the year, with authors,
pages and quantities printed:
Bul. Title Pages Edition
520 Sweet Corn Production on the Sandy Soils of the
Florida Lower East Coast, by Walter A. Hills, N. C.
Hayslip, J. F. Darby and W. T. Forsee, Jr ............. 31 7,500
521 Essential Oils from Florida Citrus (T), by J. W.
Kesterson and R. Hendrickson .................. ....-- ...----- 70 7,500
522 Effect of Rotations, Fertilizers, Lime and Green Ma-
nure Crops on Crop Yields and on Soil Fertility, by
L. S. Thompson, Jr., and W. K. Robertson -..........---- 32 10,000
523 Growing Oats in Florida, by Darrell D. Morey, W. H.
Chapman and R. W. Earhart ..............-........---..-------- 36 10,000
524 Physical, Spectographic and Chemical Analyses of
Some Virgin Florida Soils (T), by Nathan Gammon,
Jr., J. R. Henderson, R. A. Carrigan, R. E. Caldwell,
R. G. Leighty and F. B. Smith -.................... ----- 130 5,000
525 Agronomic Studies of Ramie in the Florida Ever-
glades (T), by Charles C. Seale, Edward O. Gangstad
and J. Frank Joyner ................ .......... ....--.--------- ----- 30 6,000
526 Soil Moisture Relations in the Coastal Citrus Areas
of Florida (T), by T. W. Young .............. ...- ....-- 48 5,000
527 Value of Pearl Millet Pasture for Dairy Cattle, by
Sidney P. Marshall, A. B. Sanchez, H. L. Somers and
P. T. Dix A rnold ................................. --.. ... ..- ---- --- 20 8,000
528 Agricultural Activities of Industrial Workers and
Retirees, by Daniel E. Alleger ............................ 43 6,000
529 Dairy Calves-Their Development and Survival, by
P. T. Dix Arnold and R. B. Becker ........................... 23 7,500

Annual Report, 1954

Bul. Title
530 Bush Snap Bean Production on the Sandy Soils of
Florida, W. A. Hills, J. F. Darby, W. H. Thames, Jr.,
and W T F orsee, Jr. .....................................................
531 Comparative Feeding Value of Citrus Molasses, Cane
Molasses, Ground Snapped Corn and Dried Citrus
Pulp for Fattening Steers on Pasture, by H. L.
Chapman, Jr., R. W. Kidder and S. W. Plank ........
532 2,4-D for Post-Emergence Weed Control in the Ever-
glades, by Charles C. Seale, John W. Randolph and
V ictor L. Guzm an ................ .... .... ...... ..... ..... .....
533 Economic Study of Farming in the Plant City Area,
Hillsborough County, Florida, by R. E. L. Greene ........
534 Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers in
Florida, by N. C. Hayslip, W. G. Genung, E. G.
Kelsheimer, and J. W W ilson .......................................
535 Commercial Gladiolus Production in Florida, by Rob-
ert 0. Magie and W. G. Cowperthwaite ...................-...
536 Recommended Fertilizers and Nutritional Sprays for
Citrus, by H. J. Reitz, C. D. Leonard, J. W. Sites,
W. F. Spencer, J. Stewart and J. W. Wander .....
537 Soil Management Practices on Red Bay Fine Sandy
Loam, by R. W. Lipscomb and W. K. Robertson ....
538 Citrus Products for Beef Cattle, by W. G. Kirk and
G eorge K D avis ................................... .. ........- .....-
539 Some Trends and Characteristics of the Dairy In-
dustry in Florida, by W. K. McPherson and Robert
F loyd Luckey, Jr .............. .... ............. .. .... ............
540 Productive Life-Span of Dairy Cattle, by R. B. Becker,
P. T. Dix Arnold and A. H. Spurlock ....................
541 Selecting and Using Beef and Veal, by A. M. Pearson
and W G. Kirk ............ .................... ...............

The following circulars were printed:
S-58 Coffee-Weed (Bagpod) Seed Poisoning of Cattle, by
Charles F. Simpson and Erdman West ........................
S-59 Manalucie, a Tomato with Distinctive New Features,
by James M. Walter and David G. A. Kelbert ........
S-60 Orange and Companion Fruits Prepared into Injec-
tion-Type Products for Flavoring Ice Cream, by W.
A. Krinke and L. E. M ull ............... ................. .........
S-61 Inoculated Legumes in the Farm Program, by Geo.
D Thornton .--. ---- -.......................... .....................
S-62 The Florispan Runner Peanut Variety, by W. A.
C arver ............. ..... ...... ..... ...-.. ..... ........... .............
S-63 Sunland and Seminole, Two New Oats for Florida,
by Darrell D. M orey ...................... ...............-. .. .... ......
S-64 Control of Some Insect Pests of Improved Pastures,
by E. G. Kelsheimer, D. W. Jones and E. M. Hodges -.
S-65 Dixie Shade, a New Variety of Cigar-Wrapper To-
bacco, by Randall R. Kincaid ......... ......................
S-66 Safety Devices for Use with Parathion Containers,
by D. S. Prosser, Jr., and C. R. Stearns, Jr. .............
S-67 Erect and Trailing Blackberries in Florida, by R. H.
Sharpe and R. D. Dickey ................. ... ......... .....


Pages Edition



36 15,000

53 6,000

57 17,500

67 7,500

15 25,000

27 6,000

16 15,000

32 7,000

18 7,500

36 20,000

8 10,000

10 7,500

4 7,500

8 15,000

4 8,000

8 7,500

6 15,000

6 5,000

8 10,000

8 10,000

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Cir. Title Pages Edition
S-68 The Lake Emerald Grape, by L. H. Stover ............-. 12 15,000
S-69 Control of Two Helminthosporium Leaf Blights of
Sweet Corn in Peninsular Florida, by Warren N.
Stoner, Robert A. Conover, J. M. Walter, John F.
Darby, George Swank, Jr., and F. V. Stevenson ........... 7 8,000
S-70 Effect of Fertilizers and Lime on Yield of Clovers
and Fescue in North Florida, by L. G. Thompson, Jr. 8 5,000
S-71 Sweet Potato Variety Trials in Florida, by V. F.
Nettles ..----......--. ........... .. ..... --- --------------. ----------. 8 7,500
S-72 Manalee, a Disease-Resistant Early Tomato, by David
G. A. Kelbert and James M. Walter .....-..................... 8 5,000
S-73 Seminole, a New Disease-Resistant, Green, Round-
Podded Bean, by Emil A. Wolf and Walter A. Hills 8 6,000
Publications are distributed to libraries, technical workers and county
agents as soon as printed and thereafter on request only.

Newspapers and farm journals throughout the country continued to
print large quantities of materials from the Florida Experiment Station
Editors and based on research by the scientific staff. A recap reveals that
15 farm magazines printed 35 articles by Station Editors, and these totaled
748 column inches. A breakdown shows four Florida magazines, 16 articles,
339 inches; four Southern magazines, 12 articles, 287 inches; and seven
national journals, seven articles, 122 inches.
News of Station accomplishments and activities continues to be widely
used by both daily and weekly papers of Florida. Some of the larger dailies
send their farm editors to the main and branch stations to gather their own
stories. Station editors supply the Associated Press wires with current
news and make direct mailings to one or more dailies practically every
week. One Assistant Editor writes Lwo or more "skeleton" stories a
week which are mailed to county agents to fill in and supply their papers.
This service was inaugurated early in the fiscal year.
Agricultural News Service, the weekly clipsheet published by the Agri-
cultural Extension Service, continued to be a largely used medium for dis-
seminating Station information to weekly newspapers, farm papers, pro-
fessional workers and others.


Although the Station staged no television shows during the year, its
news and informational materials were more widely broadcast over Florida
radio stations than ever before. The Florida Farm Hour over WRUF,
Gainesville, continued to be a major outlet. Station Editors broadcast news
and other materials on this program practically every week day. Research
staff members made 115 talks.
Most of the 115 talks and some other materials were adapted to Farm
Flashes, and 135 seven-minute talks were sent to 43 other stations through-
out the state. Associated Press teletypes carried our weekly farm review
and monthly gardening roundup to member stations. A fortnightly re-
view of Florida agriculture containing considerable Experiment Station
material went direct to 32 stations every two weeks.
Editors sent five minutes of copy, about half relative to Experiment
Station, weekly to a Jacksonville radio and TV station for double use.

Annual Report, 1954

In its efforts to keep the public continuously informed on the work done
and under way, the Station's radio service also supplied 53 tapes containing
96 Station talks to five radio stations, through county agents. One tape
containing three talks was sent to a broadcasting station in Pennsylvania,
on special request.
The Journal Series furnishes an outlet for a vast amount of technical
and semi-technical information in addition to that carried in bulletins and
circulars. Articles for this series are edited, assigned a number and sent
to publications. Reprints are available on the following, which were pub-
lished during the year:
25. Fiskel, J.G.A., and S. B. McCaleb. The Nature of the Clay Fraction
of Some Soils in Florida. Soil Science 76: 12. 1953.
69. Spencer, W. F. The Influence of Cation Exchange Reactions on the
Retention and Availability of Cations in Sandy Soils. Soil Science
77:2. 1954.
86. Griffiths, J. T., and W. L. Thompson. Reduced Spray Programs for
Citrus Canning Plants in Florida. Jour. of Eco. Entomology 46: 6.
88. Ford, Harry W. The Effect of Spreading Decline Disease on the Dis-
tribution of Feeder Roots of Orange and Grapefruit Trees on Rough
Lemon Rootstock. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 61. 1953.
90. Nettles, V. F., and Said Hamdi. Influence of Soil Fumigants on Total
Nitrogen, Potassium, Magnesium, and Calcium Content of Tomato
Leaves. Proc. Am. Soc. for Hort. Sci. 61. 1953.
96. Speir, William H., and John C. Stephens. Herbicidal Tests for Con-
trol of Para Grass on Ditch Banks in the Everglades Region of Florida.
Weeds 2: 1. 1953.
127. Forsee, W. T., Jr. Fertilizer Experiments with Field Corn on Ever-
glades Peaty Muck Soils. Proc. Soil Science Soc. of America 18: 1.
131. Stewart, Ivan, and C. D. Leonard. Molybdenum Requirements of
Florida Citrus. Proc. Am. Soc. for Hort. Sci. 62. 1953.
145. Sherbakoff, C. D. Fusaria Associated with Citrus Feeder Roots in
Florida. Phytopath. 43: 7. 1953.
154. Hoover, Maurice W., and R. A. Dennison. The Correlation of Stages
of Maturity and Growing Temperatures with Certain Physical Meas-
urements in the Southern Pea. Proc. Am. Soc. for Hort. Sci. 62. 1953.
155. Burke, Jack D., L. R. Arrington, and G. K. Davis. Blood Volume and
Molybdenum Toxicity in Rabbits. Blood-The Jour. of Hematology
8: 12. 1953.
157. Earhart, R. W. Comparisons of Helminthosporium Species Attacking
Oats in Florida. Phytopath. 43: 9. 1953.
158. Hayslip, N. C., E. G. Kelsheimer, W. H. Thames, Jr., and J. W. Wilson.
Corn Earworm Investigations in Florida. Jour. of Eco. Entomology
46: 4. 1953.
161. Knorr, L. C. Transmission Trials with Crinkle-Scurf of Citrus. Plant
Disease Reporter 37: 10. 1953.
162. Stoner, Warren N. Leafhopper Transmission of a Degeneration of
Grape in Florida and Its Relation to Pierce's Disease. Phytopath.
43:11. 1953.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

163. Rouse, A. H. Distribution of Pectinesterase and Total Pectin in
Component Parts of Citrus Fruits. Food Technology 7: 9. 1953.
166. Suit, R. F., and E. P. DuCharme. The Burrowing Nematode and Other
Parasitic Nematodes in Relation to Spreading Decline of Citrus. Plant
Disease Reporter 37: 7. 1953.
167. Arrington, L. R., and George K. Davis. Molybdenum Toxicity in the
Rabbit. Jour. of Nutrition 51:2. 1953.
168. Feaster, J. P., R. L. Shirley, J. T. McCall and G. K. Davis. P3' Dis-
tribution and Excretion in Rats Fed Vitamin D-Free and Low Phos-
phorus Diets. Jour. of Nutrition 51: 3. 1953.
169. Hill, E. C., F. W. Wenzel and A. Barreto. Colorimetric Method for
Detection of Microbiological Spoilage in Citrus Juices. Food Tech-
nology 8: 3. 1954.
171. DuCharme, E. P., and R. F. Suit. Nematodes Associated with Avo-
cado Roots in Citrus Spreading Decline Areas. Plant Disease Re-
porter 37: 8. 1953.
172. Dennis, W. R., W. M. Stone and L. E. Swanson. A New Laboratory
and Field Diagnostic Test for Fluke Ova in Feces. Jour. of Am.
Vet. Med. Assn. 124: 922. 1954.
173. Van Ness, Glenn. Weather Influence in Blue Comb in Chickens. Sci.
118: 3072. 1953.
174. Wilkowske, H. H. Relationship Between Titratable Acidity and pH
During Lactic Acid Fermentation in Reconstituted Nonfat Milk. Jour.
Dairy Sci. 37: 1. 1954.
175. Olsen, R. W., and E. L. Moore. Sugar Hydrate Formations in Frozen
Citrus Concentrates. Food Technology 8: 3. 1954.
176. Wallace, A. T., W. D. Hanson and Phares Decker. Natural Cross-
Pollination in Blue and Yellow Lupines. Agronomy Jour. 46: 2. 1954.
178. Conover, Robert A., and Robert W. Fulton. Occurrence of Potato Y
Virus on Tomatoes in Florida. Plant Disease Reporter 37: 9. 1953.
181. Anderson, C. W. The Aster Ring Spot Virosis of Central Florida.
Phytopath. 44: 2. 1954.
183. Krienke, Walter. Orange Flavor Formula Now Uses Corn Syrup.
Ice Cream Field Nov., 1953.
184. Volk, G. M., and Nathan Gammon, Jr. Potato Production in Florida
as Influenced by Soil Acidity and Nitrogen Sources. Am. Potato Jour.
31:3. 1954.
185. Wallace, H. D., M. Milicevic, A. M. Pearson, T. J. Cunha and M. Koger.
The Influence of Aureomycin on the Protein Requirements and Carcass
Characteristics of Swine. Jour. of Animal Sci. 13: 1. 1954.
188. Dobrovsky, T. M. Another Wireworm of Irish Potatoes. Jour. of
Eco. Entomology 46: 6. 1953.
189. Spencer, E. L. Factors Associated with Crease-Stem of Tomatoes.
Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
192. Magie, Robert O. Gladiolus Corm Treatments in the Control of Fusar-
ium Rot. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
193. Sharpe, R. H. Horticultural Development of Florida Blueberries.
Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
194. Anderson, C. W. Two Watermelons Mosaic Virus Strains from Cen-
tral Florida. Phytopath. 44: 4. 1954.

Annual Report, 1954

195. Ruehle, George D. Two Fruits for South Florida. Proc. Fla. St. Hort.
Soc. 66. 1953.
196. Swank, George. Fungicides for the Control of Early Blight on Celery.
Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
197. Hall, C. B. Prevention of Skinning of Potatoes. Proc. Fla. St. Hort.
Soc. 66. 1953.
198. Suit, R. F., E. P. DuCharme, T. L. Brooks and H. W. Ford. Factors
in the Control of the Burrowing Nematode on Citrus. Proc. Fla. St.
Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
200. Woltz, S. S., R. O. Magie and C. M. Geraldson. Studies on Leaf Scorch
of Gladiolus. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
201. Westgate, Philip J., and R. Bruce Ledin. Belair Groves, Sanford,
Pioneer in Sub-tropical Horticultural Introductions. Proc. Fla. St.
Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
202. Malcolm, John L. Chelates for the Correction of Iron Chlorosis in
Subtropical Plants. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
203. Good, Joseph M., Jr. Characteristics and Occurrence of Certain Nema-
todes in Florida Soils. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
204. Smith, F. B. Soil Microbiology Contributes to Florida Agriculture.
Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
205. Fiskel, J. G. A., W. T. Forsee, Jr. and J. L. Malcolm. Some Manga-
nese-Iron Relationships in Tomato Fruits Grown on Marl, Peat and
Sand Soils. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
206. Eno, Charles F. The Effect of Copper on Nitrification in Some Flor-
ida Soils. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
207. Grierson, W., and W. F. Newhall. Degreening Conditions for Florida
Citrus. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
208. Dobrovsky, T. M. Retarding Effect of Some Insecticides on Cab-
bage Seedlings. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
209. Rouse, A. H., and C. D. Atkins. Maturity Changes in Pineapple
Oranges and Their Effects on Processed Frozen Concentrate. Proc.
Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
212. Whitner, B. F., Jr., D. G. A. Kelbert, James Montelaro, George Swank,
Jr. and John W. Wilson. Cantaloupes for Florida. Proc. Fla. St.
Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
213. Reitz, Herman J., and Neil F. Shimp. Copper Oxide as a Soil Amend-
ment for Citrus. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
214. Volk, Gaylord M. Formation of Plowsole Pans in Florida. Proc. Fla.
St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
215. Ford, Harry. Root Distribution of Chlorotic and Iron-Chelate-Treated
Citrus Trees. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
216. Leonard, C. D., and Ivan Stewart. Chelated Iron as a Corrective for
Lime-Induced Chlorosis in Citrus. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
217. Atkins, C. D., and A. H. Rouse. The Effect of Different Methods of
Juice Extraction on the Pectic Content of Valencia Orange Juice.
Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
218. Guzman, V. L., and E. A. Wolf. Effect of 2,4-D on Four Sweet Corn
Hybrids at Different Stages of Growth. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc.
66. 1953.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

219. Forsee, W. T., Jr., and N. C. Hayslip. Fertility Requirements of Field
Corn Grown on Sandy Soils Following a Fall Crop of Unstaked
Tomatoes. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
220. Darby, J. F. Recent Developments in the Control of the Major Dis-
eases of Unstaked Tomatoes Grown on the Sandy Soils of South
Florida. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
221. Hayslip, N. C., and W. T. Forsee, Jr. A Preliminary Report on the
Use of Nutritional Sprays Containing N, P, and K in Tomato Produc-
tion. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
222. Smith, Cecil, N. Vegetable Trade in the Caribbean Area. Proc. Fla.
St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
223. Deszyck, E. J., and J. W. Sites. The Effect of Borax and Lead Arsenate
Sprays on the Total Acid and Maturity of Marsh Grapefruit. Proc.
Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
224. Pratt, R. M., and W. L. Thompson. Spray Programs, Varieties and
Weather Conditions in Relation to Six-Spotted Mite and Purple Mite
Infestations. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
225. Sites, J. W., I. W. Wander and E. J. Deszyck. The Effect of Fertilizer
Timing and Rate of Application on Fruit Quality and Production of
Hamlin Oranges. Proc, Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
226. Olsen, R. W., R. L. Huggart and C. D. Atkins. Frozen Temple Orange
Concentrate. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
227. Hill, E. C. Microbiological Examination of Jaffa Oranges with Stylar
End Spot. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
228. Dickey, R. D. Growing Tulips in Northern Florida. Proc. Fla. St.
Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
241. Knorr, L. C., E. P. DuCharme and J. N. Busby. Discovery of Ex-
ocortis in Florida Citrus. Plant Disease Reporter 38: 1. 1954.
260. DuCharme, E. P., and L. C. Knorr. Vascular Pits and Pegs Asso-
ciated with Diseases in Citrus. Plant Disease Reporter 38: 3. 1954.
261. Knorr, L. C., and W. L. Thompson. Spraying Trials for the Control
of Florida Scaly Bark in Citrus. Plant Disease Reporter 38: 3. 1954.


In addition to the articles listed above, 272 articles not given journal
series numbers were published in periodicals and journals as follows:
Abbott, O. D. Vitamin Content of Florida Grown Foods. Bulletin 9, Bureau
of Professional Relations, Coll. of Pharmacy, U. of Fla. 1953.
Allen, R. J., Jr. An Improvement for Machinery to Drill Seed into Pasture
Sod. Agronomy Jour. 46: 1: 48. 1954.
Allison, R. V. Fiber Crops Culture Progress in Florida Since 1940. Fla.
Growers and Rancher 61: 11 (1273):20, 34. 1953.
Andrus, C. F., and George D. Ruehle. The Homestead Tomato. Market
Growers Jour. 14-15, 26. Sept. 1953.
Arnold, P. T. Dix. Learn to Live with Surplus. Fla. Dairy News 4: 4: 8-9.
Arrington, L. R., J. C. Cutler, and G. K. Davis. Availability of Phosphorus
from Phosphates After Irradiation in the Pile. Jour. Dairy Sci. 37: 661.

Annual Report, 1954

Becker, R. B. American Contributions to Better Dairy Cattle. Hoard's
Dairyman 98: 17: 736-739. 1953.
Becker, R. B. Dairy Science Marches on in 1953. Fla. Dairy News 3: 5: 8.
Becker, R. B. Dairy Science Marches on in 1953. Fla. Dairy News 4: 1: 22,
24. 1954.
Becker, R. B., and P. T. Dix Arnold. Subnormal Butterfat Tests Affected
by Roughage Supply. Guernsey Breeders' Jour. 90: (1): 16-17. Jan.
1, 1954.
Bedsole, M. R., Jr., and Thomas Bregger. Some Relations of Chemical
Analysis of Soil and Fresh Sugarcane Tissue to Growth and Yield. Proc.
Int. Soc. of Sugarcane Technologists. Agr. Section 24, 40. 1953.
Blackmon, G. H. The Ornamental Horticultural Industry. Fla. Handbook
4th Edition 157-159. 1953.
Blackmon, G. H., and R. D. Dickey. The Tung Industry. Fla. Handbook
4th Edition 162-163. 1953.
Blackmon, G. H. Good Roses Begin with Soil Preparation. Floriland 4: 1:
3, 20. 1953.
Blackmon, G. H. Some Shrubs for the Landscape in North Florida. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 66: 324-325. 1953.
Blue, W. G. Pasture Quality, Carrying Capacity Below Maximum on Flor-
ida Pastures. Fla. Cattleman 18: 10: 18-20. 1954.
Bregger, Thomas. A Brief Summary of Sugar Cane Breeding in Florida-
1930-1953. Proc. Soil Science Soc. of Fla. 13: 60-63. 1953.
Brooke, D. L., and A. H. Spurlock. Vegetable Trend is Sharply Upward.
Fla. Grower and Rancher 61: 11 (1273): 15, 16, 19. 1953.
Brooks, A. N. Florida Ninety Strawberry After Year in Field. Fla.
Grower and Rancher 62:2 (1276):11, 22, 23. 1954.
Brooks, A. N. Florida Ninety Strawberry After One Year in Commercial
Production. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66: 109-111. 1953.
Burgess, Sam. Citrus Important in 4-H Training Program. Fla. Grower
and Rancher 62:2 (1276): 24. 1954.
Burgis, Donald S. Chemical Use on Seedbeds. Florida Grower and Rancher
61:9 (1271):3. 1953.
Camp, A. F. The Citrus Industry of Japan. Citrus Mag. 16: 8: 20-28. 1954.
Also, California Citrograph 39: 8: 282-286. 1954.
Camp, A. F. Citrus Growing Since Columbus. Fla. Handbook 4th Edi-
tion 164-166. 1953.
Carpenter, J. W., A. M. Pearson, H. D. Wallace, F. H. Jack and Mike Mili-
cevic. The Content of B-Complex Vitamins in the Tissues of Pigs Fed
Various Levels of Protein with and without Aureomycin. Jour. of Ani-
mal Science 12: 4: 900. 1953.
Carver, W. A. Florispan, New Peanut for Florida. Fla. Grower and
Rancher 61: 12 (1274): 8, 28. 1953.
Carver, W. A. Peanut Breeding and Variety Response to Environment.
Proceedings Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 13: 48-51. 1953.
Chapman, W. H. A Coordinated Small Grain Breeding Program for Florida
and Southeastern United States. Proceedings Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 13:
39-42. 1953.
Chapman, W. H. Small Grains in Florida. Victory Farm Forum 49: 23.

80 Ilorida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Childs, J. F., and Erdman West. Butt Rot of Queen Palms in Florida Asso-
ciated with Ganoderma Sulcatum. Pit. Dis. Rept. 37: 12: 632-633. 1953.
Choate, R. E., D. E. McCloud and L. C. Hammond. Zone of Moisture With-
drawal by Certain Pasture Species. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 51: 57.
Cohen, M., and L. C. Knorr. Present Status of Tristeza in Florida. Proc.
Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66: 20-22. 1953. Also, Cit. Ind. 35: 2: 5-7, 14. 1954.
Cooper, J. Francis. Florida Talks Nutrition. Eastern Feed Merchant 5: 1:
2-S, 90-S. 1954.
Cooper, J. Francis. Burrowing Nematode in Citrus. Florida Grower 61: 7
(1269): 16, 22. 1953.
Cooper, J. Francis. Better Oats on the Way. Progressive Farmer 68: 10:
169. 1953.
Cooper, J. Francis. Two New Oats Improving Southeast Feed Look. Seeds-
man's Digest 4: 10: 10-11. 1953.
Cooper, J. Francis. Florida Oat Breeders Add Sunland and Seminole.
Sou. Seedsman 16:10:58, 62. 1953.
Crall, J. M. Better Watermelons as Florida Industry Grows. Fla. Grower
and Rancher 62: 3 (1277):13, 40. 1954.
Cunha, T. J. Bloat Can Be Prevented. Florida Cattleman 17: 10: 97-101.
Cunha, T. J. Research Aids Beef Production. Fla. Cattleman 17: 11: 76-77,
90. 1953.
Cunha, T. J. Fast Gains on Feed Needed; Search for More Efficient Feed
Users Is Important. Fla. Cattleman 18: 1: 104. 1953.
Cunha, T. J. Adequate Feeding of Cattle During the Winter Months One
of Florida's Problems. Fla. Cattleman 18: 2: 76-77. 1953.
Cunha, T. J. Purebred Bull Has Great Share in Improving Quality in Beef
Industry. Fla. Cattleman 18: 2: 80-81. 1953.
Cunha, T. J. University of Florida Emphasized Instruction. (Part I) Fla.
Cattleman 18: 3: 60-62. 1953. (Part II) Fla. Cattleman 18: 4: 70-71,
77, 79. 1953.
Cunha, T. J. Stabilize Cattle Income by Improving Quality of Cattle. Fla.
Cattleman 18: 5: 40. 1954.
Cunha, T. J. Soybeans Instead of Beef? Uh-uh! Fla. Cattleman 18: 5: 74-
75. 1954.
Cunha, T. J. How to Get Best Results from Silage. Fla. Cattleman 18: 7:
56-58. 1954.
Cunha, T. J. Don't Waste Your Investment by Starving your Bulls. Fla.
Cattleman 18: 7: 74. 1954.
Cunha, T. J. The Ideals in Beef Cattle Herd. Fla. Grower and Rancher 61:
10 (1272): 24-25. 1953.
Cunha, T. J. Progress in Beef Cattle Industry Since 1940. Fla. Grower and
Rancher 61:11 (1273):21. 1953.
Cunha, T. J. Next Year's Stockfeed Supply. Fla. Grower and Rancher 62:
4 (1278): 6. 1954.
Cunha, T. J. Pointers on Making Silage. ACL Agricultural and Livestock
Topic 6: 6: 2-3. 1954.
Cunha, T. J., and Clyde Beale. Beef for the 5th Plate. Farm and Ranch 83:
12:24, 33. 1953.

Annual Report, 195.4 81

Cunha, T. J. Present Status of Vitamin Needs of Swine for Growth, Re-
production and Lactation. Feed Age 4: 5: 20-25. 1954.
Cunha, T. J. Florida: Birthplace of Nation's Beef Industry. Fla. Handbook
4th Edition 170-175. 1953.
Cunha, T. J. Lush Grazing Calls for Hay. Progressive Farmer 68: 12: 22.
Cunha, T. J. La Industria Del Ganado En la Florida. Revista Cebu 2: 2:
15, 19. 1954.
Cunha, T. J. Guide Los Toros Que Compra. Revista Cebu 2: 3: 22, 23.
Darby, J. F. Unstaked Tomato Spray Program. Fla. Grower and Rancher
61:10 (1272): 22. 1953.
Davis, Geo. K. Pastures Are Not Always What They Seem. ACL Agricul-
tural and Livestock Topics 5: 7: 1, 3, 4. 1953.
Davis, Geo. K. The Mineral Elements and What They Do in the Body.
Bulletin 8, Bureau of Professional Relations, Coll. of Pharmacy, U. of
Fla. 1953.
Davis, Geo. K., L. R. Arrington and J. C. Outler. Availability of Phos-
phorus in Defluorinated Phosphate Fed to Cattle After Activation in the
Pile. Jour. An. Sci. 12: 913. 1953.
Davis, Geo. K., and H. F. Roberts. Levels of Blood Urea in Urea Feeding
of Cattle. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 51: 73-74. 1954.
Davis, Donald E., W. H. MacIntire, C. L. Comar, W. M. Shaw, S. H. Winter-
berg and H. C. Harris. Use of Ca' Labeled Quenched Calcium Silicate
Slag in Determination of Proportions of Native and Additive Calcium in
Lysimeter Leachings and in Plant Uptake. Soil Sci. 76:2:153-163.
Decker, Phares, T. E. Webb and J. R. Edwardson. Varietal Improvement
of Lupines for Florida. Proceedings Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 13: 75-78.
Deszyck, E. J., H. J. Reitz and J. W. Sites. Basic Copper Arsenate-a New
Material for Grapefruit Maturity Sprays. Citrus Mag. 16: 7: 15-17.
Dickey, R. D. Minor Element Deficiencies of Ornamental Plants. Fla. Sub-
Tropical Gardener 2: 11: 20-21; 2: 12: 27-29. 1954.
Driggers, J. C. The Hen Is an Egg Factory. Fla. Grower and Rancher 61:
10 (1272): 10, 45. 1953.
Driggers, J. C. Poultry Progress 1940-1953. Fla. Grower and Rancher.
61:11 (1273):44. 1953.
Driggers, J. C. What's New in Poultry Nutrition. Fla. Poultry and Farm
Jour. 19: 10:4; 19:11:4; 19:12:9. 1953. 20: 1:20; 20:2:14; 20:3: 7.
Driggers, J. C. What You Need in a Bag of Feed. Fla. Poultry and
Farm Jour. 19: 10: 6, 18. 1953.
Driggers, J. C. U. of F. Has Adequate Poultry Courses. Florida Poultry
and Farm Journal 20: 1: 19. Jan. 1954.
Driggers, J. C. Driggers Outlines Breeding Needs. Florida Poultry and
Farm Journal 20: 3: 6, 7, 12. March 1954.
Earhart, R. W. Reaction of Wheat Varieties to Septoria Nodorum in Flor-
ida. Plant Disease Reporter 37: 8: 436-437. 1953.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Edson, Seton N. A Convenient Quick-Test for Potash in Coastal Plains
Soils. Better Crops with Plant Food 37:9: 25-26, 47. 1953.
Emmel, M. W. Bleached Oats as Chicken Feed. Fla. Grower and Rancher
61:11 (1273):44. 1953.
Fifield, Willard M. Where to Get Agricultural Information. The Flor-
ida Handbook 4th Edition 152-154. 1953.
Fifield, Willard M. The Importance of Basic Research. Proc. of Fla. Mango
Forum 13: 6-9. 1953.
Fiskel, J. G. A., and George Mourkides. The Manganese Status of Some
Florida Soils. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 51: 54-55. 1954.
Ford, Harry W. Changes in Root Distribution Associated with Citrus Nu-
trition on Sandy Soils. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 51: 141-142. 1954.
Fouts, E. L. Low Fat Milk from Jersey Cows. Fla. Dairy News 3: 3: 16.
Fouts, E. L. Facts by Fouts-Monthly Column-Southern Dairy Products
Jour. 54: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. 1953. 55: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 1954.
Gallatin, M. H. Fertilizer, Irrigation Studies on Avocados and Limes on
The Rockdale Soils of the Homestead Area. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
66:228-230. 1953.
Gammon, Nathan, Jr. Sodium and Nitrogen Play Important Roles in Sum-
mer Fertilization of Pangola Grass. Victory Farm Forum 48: 9. 1953.
Gangstad, E. O., J. F. Joyner and C. C. Seale. The Effect of Cultural Treat-
ments on the Frost Injury and Growth of Sansevieria in South Florida.
Tropical Agriculture 30: 7-9: 171-177. 1953.
Gangstad, E. O., C. C. Seale and J. Frank Joyner. Preliminary Studies in
the Use of Herbicides for the Control of Weeds in Sansevieria. Weeds
2: 2: 113-118. 1953.
Geraldson, C. M. Field Control of Blackheart of Celery. Proc. Fla. St.
Hort. Soc. 66: 155-159. 1953.
Geraldson, Carroll M., and Ernest L. Spencer. Factors Affecting Calcium
Utilization by Plants. Proceedings Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 13: 155-158.
Godwin, Marshall. The Nature of the Demand for Florida Oranges. Citrus
Mag. 16:1: 18-21. 1954.
Godwin, M. R. What Can the Florida Vegetable Industry Accomplish with
a Marketing Agreement? Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 66. 1953.
Good, J. M., Jr., W. K. Robertson and L. G. Thompson, Jr. Effect of Crop
Rotation on the Populations of Meadow Nematode, Pratylenchus Leioce-
phalus, in Norfolk Loamy Fine Sand. Plant Dis. Reporter 38: 3: 178-180.
Green, V. E., Jr. The Scuffle Hoe-A Valuable Tool for Small Plot Work
on Non-Rocky Soils. Agronomy Jour. 46: 2: 94-95. 1954.
Green, V. E., Jr. The Results of Pan-American Cooperation to Corn Pro-
duction in South Florida. Proc. 2nd Pan-Am. Congress of Agronomy.
Green, V. E., Jr. The Everglades-Florida's Marshy Gold Mine. Seedsmen's
Digest Nov. pp. 14, 38. 1953.
Green, V. E., Jr. Rice-Growing Is Added to Everglades Culture. What's
New in Crops and Soils 6: 1. 1953.
Gierson, W., and W. F. Newhall. Should Gassing of Temples be Banned?
Citrus Mag. 16: 2: 30-31. 1953.

Annual Report, 1954 83

Hamilton, H. G. Citrus Is Florida's Principal Source of Agricultural Income.
Fla. Grower and Rancher 61:11 (1273):6-8. 1953.
Hamilton, H. G. Our University Provides Us Basic Needs to Progress.
Fla. Grower and Rancher 61: 11 (1273): 29-31. 1953.
Hamilton, H. G. Making Decisions Concerning Integration. Proc. Assn.
Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 51: 144-145. 1954.
Hansard, Sam L., C. L. Comar, H. M. Crowder and George K. Davis.
Factors Affecting the Physiological Behavior of Calcium in Cattle. Proc.
Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 51: 72-73. 1954.
Harkness, R. W. Continued Observations on Maturity Tests for Mangoes.
Proc. Fla. Mango Forum 13: 27. 1953.
Harris, H. C. Pasture Improvement Helps Improve Beef Quality. Fla.
Cattleman 18: 9: 18, 70. 1954.
Harris, H. C. Lupines and Fertilization. Fla. Grower and Rancher 62: 3
(1277): 6. 1954.
Hentges, James F. Vitamin A and Vitamin A Precursors in Swine Feed-
ing. Feed Age 3: 9: 40. 1953.
Hentges, J. F., Jr., and A. M. Pearson. Pointers on Picking a New Herd
Sire. Florida Cattleman 17: 10: 22-26. 1953.
Hentges, J. F., Jr., and M. Koger. Know Your Goals in Picking Bulls. Fla.
Cattleman 18: 10: 24. 1954.
Hodges, E. M., D. W. Jones and W. G. Kirk. Pasture Progress of Past
Years Has Benefited Cattle Owners; Grazing Season Is Longer, Cattle
Quality Up. Fla. Cattleman 17: 9: 22-25. 1953.
Hodges, E. M., D. W. Jones and F. M. Peacock. Steers Pictured on Cover
of June Cattleman Make Profit when Slaughtered. Fla. Cattleman 17:
10: 60-61. 1953.
Hodges, E. M., D. W. Jones. Pangola Aphids Pose Serious Problem. Fla.
Cattleman 18:9: 24, 73. 1954.
Hodges, E. M., D. W. Jones and W. G. Kirk. Native and Improved Pasture
for a Breeding Herd. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 51: 49-50. 1954.
Hodges, E. M. Pasture Varieties and Fertilization in Florida. Victory
Farm Forum 48: 20-21. 1953.
Horner, Earl S. The Field Corn Breeding Program in Florida. Proceed-
ings Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 13: 52-56. 1953.
Hull, Fred H. Multigenic Population Models. Biometrics Soc. 1954.
Hutton, C. E. The Production of Row Crops in Western Florida. Victory
Farm Forum 50: 21. 1954.
Jamison, F. S. European Problems in Marketing Fruits and Vegetables
Described. Fla. College Farmer 6: 2: 6, 22. 1954.
Jamison, F. S. Fruit and Vegetable Marketing in Europe. Proc. Fla. St.
Hort. Soc. 66: 177-179. 1953.
Johnson, Warren O. Cold Air Flows Like Water. Fla. Grower and Rancher
61:11 (1273):50. 1953.
Johnson, Warren O. Oil-Wood-Coke for Grove Heating? Fla. Grower and
Rancher 61:12 (1274): 15. 1953.
Johnson, Warren O. The Use of Grove Thermometers. Fla. Grower and
Rancher 62:1 (1275): 10, 36. 1954.
Johnson, Warren O. Grove Heating Costs Vary with Equipment. Fla.
Grower & Rancher 62: 2 (1276): 14, 18. 1954.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Johnson, Warren O. Florida Freezes. Weatherwise 7: 1: 7-10. 1954.
Joiner, Jasper N. Gardening Along the Tampa Parallel. Tropical Homes
and Gardening 4: 10: 15. 1953.
Kelbert, D. G. A., and J. M. Walter. Performance of New Tomato Types
in the Gulf Coast Area. ACL Agricultural and Livestock Topics 6: 2:
1, 3, 4. 1954.
Kelbert, D. G. A., and J. M. Walter. Performance of New Tomato Types
in the Gulf Coast Area. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 66: 107-109. 1953.
Kelsheimer, E. G. Tomato Spray Insect Control. Fla. Grower and Rancher.
61:12 (1274): 22. 1953.
Kelsheimer, E. G., and L. C. Kuitert. How to Banish the Cockroach. Fla.
Grower and Rancher 62: 5 (1279): 25. 1954.
Kelsheimer, E. G. Insect Infestations of Grasses. Florida Park and Rec-
reation Training Institute Proceedings 74. April 1953.
Kelsheimer, E. G. Insects and Other Pests of Lawns and Turf. Florida
Sub-Tropical Gardener 1: 12: 18-21. 1953.
Kelsheimer, E. G. Insect Control in Warm Season Grasses. The Golf
Course Reporter 22: 49. 1954.
Kelsheimer, E. G., and Amegda J. Overman. Notes on Some Ectoparasitic
Nematodes Found Attacking Lawns in the Tampa Bay Area. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 66: 301-303. 1953.
Kelsheimer, E. G. Granular Insecticides. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 66:
311-313. 1953.
Killinger, G. B., and Fred H. Hull. Florida's Pasture and Forage Crops.
Economic Leaflets, U. of Fla. Coll. of Bus. Adm. 12: 8. 1953.
Killinger, G. B. It's Tricky-But It's Possible to Grow Alfalfa in Florida
Now. Fla. Cattleman 18: 9: 36-37. 1954.
Killinger, G. B. Better Grasses, New Plants Have Revolutionized Florida
Pastures. Florida Grower and Rancher 61:11 (1273): 22-23. 1953.
Kirk, W. G., and F. M. Peacock. Productivity of Brahman Bulls. Proc.
Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 51: 58-59. 1954.
Kirk, W. G. Good Management Makes the Difference in Winter Care of
Cows. Fla. Cattleman 18: 3: 34B. 1953.
Kirk, W. G., and F. M. Peacock. Method to Select Bulls Discussed. Fla.
Cattleman 18: 6: 8, 16. 1954.
Kirk, W. G., and F. M. Peacock. Dry Lot, Pasture Feeding Compared at
Range Station. Fla. Cattleman 18: 9: 32-33. 1954.
Knorr, L. C., and W. L. Thompson. Control of Leprosis with Miticidal
Sprays. Citrus Ind. 35: 5: 9, 12, 13. 1954.
Knorr, L. C., and E. P. DuCharme. Thirty-Three Florida Rough Lemon
Seed Sources Tested for Tolerance to Tristeza. Citrus Magazine 15: 12:
24, 25. 1953.
Knorr, L. C. Crinkle-Scurf-a Leaf-Crinkling, Bark-Scurfing Disorder of
Late Orange Trees. Citrus Mag. 16: 4: 12-14, 32. 1953.
Koger, Marvin. How to Select Next Year's Bulls. Fla. Cattleman 17: 12:
57-59. 1953.
Kretschmer, Albert E., Jr., and Norman C. Hayslip. Yields and Chemical
Composition of Clover-Pangola grass Mixtures Grown on Immokalee
Fine Sand, as Influenced by Liming and Application of Soluble and In-
soluble Sources of Phosphate and Potash. Proceedings Soil Sci. Soc. of
Fla. 13: 159-170. 1953.

Annual Report, 1954

Krienke, W. A. Orange and Other Citrus Juices now Flavor Ice Cream.
Citrus Mag. 16: 3: 32. 1953.
Krienke, W. A., and Leon Mull. Orange Ice Cream Formulas Released by
University of Florida. Fla. Dairy News 3: 4: 8, 21. 1953.
Krienke, W. A., and L. R. Arrington. Susceptibility of Milk to Copper-
Induced Oxidized Flavor and an Inhibitory Effect of Menadione when
Included in the Ration. Jour. Dairy Sci. 37: 6: 640. 1954.
Krienke, W. A. Citrus Ice Cream. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 66: 287-288.
Kropf, D. H., A. M. Pearson and H. D. Wallace. Waste Beef Fat in Swine
Rations with Special Reference to its Effect on Carcass Characteristics.
Jour. of Animal Sci. 12: 4: 902. Nov. 1953.
Kuitert, L. C. Effectiveness of Hand Equipment in Applying Insecticides
for Controlling Corn Earworms. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 51: 105.
Kuitert, L. C. Use of Demeton (Systox) for Controlling Insects of Orna-
mentals. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 66: 321-323. 1953.
Kuitert, L. C. Malathion for Insect Control on Ornamentals. Southern
Seedsman 17: 2: 48. 1954.
Kulwich, R., Sam L. Hansard, C. L. Comar and G. K. Davis. Copper, Molyb-
denum and Zinc Interrelationships in Rats and Swine. Proc. Soc. for
Experimental Biology and Medicine 84: 2: 487-491. 1953.
Large, J. R. Summary of Two Years Aeroplane Spraying Experiments to
Control Pecan Scab. Proc. Southeastern Pecan Growers Assn. March
Large, J. R. Progress Report on Experiments to Control Pecan Scab with
a High Pressure Ground Spray Machine in Florida in 1953. Proc. S. E.
Pecan Growers Assn. March 1954.
Ledin, R. Bruce. The Vegetative Shoot Apex of Zea Mays. Am. Jour of
Botany 41: 1: 11-17. 1954.
Ledin, R. Bruce. Composite Plants in the Everglades National Park. Ever-
glades Natural History 1:1: 14-18. 1953.
Ledin, R. Bruce. A Rare South Florida Tree (Cupania glabra). Ever-
glades Natural History 2: 2: 102. 1954.
Ledin, R. Bruce. Mysore Black Raspberry, New Fruit for Home Gardens.
Florida Grower 61:7 (1269): 5, 24. 1953.
Ledin, R. Bruce. John Loomis Blodgett (1809-1853)-A Pioneer Botanist
of South Florida. Tequesta 13: 23-33. 1953.
Ledin, R. Bruce. Haden Faces Taste Test. Tropical Homes and Gardens
4: 8: 38. 1954.
McCloud, D. E. Forage Plants Mostly Imported. Fla. Cattleman 18: 9: 18.
McCloud, D. E. Computed vs. Measured Potential Evapotranspiration.
Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 51: 192. 1954.
McCloud, D. E. Symposium: Breeding Crop Plants for Better Adaptability
to Florida Conditions. Forage and Cover Plant Introduction by the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Proceedings Soil Sci. Soc. of
Fla. 13: 32-38. 1953.
McPherson, W. K. Beef Outlook Concerns Many Producers. Fla. Cattleman
17: 11: 38, 40, 84. 1953.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

McPherson, W. K. Economic Outlook for Cattle Industry Analyzed; Pros-
pects Favorable for Long-Range Beef Demand. Fla. Cattleman 18: 5:
82-84. 1954.
McPherson, W. K. Beef Price Trend Is Discussed. Fla. Cattleman 18: 9:
24D. 1954.
McPherson, W. K. Some Problems and Opportunities Created by Florida's
Changing Population. U. of Fla. Economic Leaflets 12: 7. 1953.
Magie, Robert O. Some Fungi that Attack Gladioli. Reprinted from Year-
book of Agriculture, Separate No. 2476 601-607. 1953.
Malcolm, John L. Micronutrients in Subtropical Fruits. Proc. Fla. State
Soil Sci. Soc. 10: 143-146. 1953.
Marshall, S. P. Clover Pasture Reduces Feed Costs. Fla. Dairy News
4:2:32. 1954.
Marshall, S. P. Dairymen Benefit from Quality Pastures. Fla. Dairy News
4:3:9. 1954.
Marshall, S. P. Value of Pangola-White Clover Pasture for Lactating
Cows. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 51: 83-84. 1954.
Mathes, Ralph, J. W. Ingram, D. D. Questel, W. H. Thames and A. L.
Dugan. Current Status of Sugarcane-Insect Investigations in the
United States. Proc. Inter. Soc. of Sugarcane Technologists. 8th Con-
gress 560-567. 1953.
Mehrhof, N. R. Florida's Growing Poultry Industry. ACL Agricultural
and Livestock Topics 5: 11: 2-3. 1953.
Mehrhof, N. R. The Poultry Industry. Fla. Handbook 4th Edition 176.
Mitchell, William G. What We Know about Antibiotics in Swine Breeding.
Farm and Ranch 83: 8: 17. 1953.
Mitchell, William, G. Some Southern Soils Need Sulfur. Farm and Ranch
83: 12: 19, 29. 1953.
Mitchell, William G. Pastures Need Cultivation, Too. Fla. Grower 61:9
(1271): 16. 1953.
Mitchell, William G. Power Potato Digging. Fla. Grower 62: 6 (1280):12,
21. 1954.
Mitchell, William G. Sunflower Seed Meal for Steers and Poultry. Fla.
Grower and Rancher 62: 1 (1275): 7, 12. 1954.
Mitchell, William G. Farm Research Results. Fla. Grower and Rancher
62: 4 (1278): 27. 1954.
Mitchell, William G. Irrigation of Tobacco. Fla. Grower and Rancher
62:5 (1279): 28. 1954.
Mitchell, William G. Now They're Talking about Growing Sunflowers for
Proteins. Progressive Farmer 69: 1:26. 1954.
Mitchell, William G. Rice-Promise for the Everglades. Progressive
Farmer 69: 2: 20. 1954.
Mitchell, William G. Mist for Muscadine Rooting. Progressive Farmer
69: 6: 108. 1954.
Mitchell, William G. Floranna, Promising New Clover. Progressive
Farmer 68: 8: 22. 1953.
Mitchell, William G. Here's the Lupine for those Heavy Soils. Seedmen's
Digest 4: 9: 12. 1953.
Mitchell, William G. Chelates Can Stop Chlorosis. Seedmen's Digest 5:4:
24-25. 1954.

Annual Report, 1954 87

Mitchell, William G. Florispan Runner for More Peanuts per Acre. Seed-
men's Digest 5: 4: 46. 1954.
Mitchell, William G. How Farmers Get Information. Ace-Amer. Assn.
of Agr. College Editors 36: 7: 4. 1954.
Mitchell, William G. Artificial Insemination Will Mean More Hatching
Eggs. American Poultry Jour. 85: 3: 12-31. 1954.
Mitchell, William G. Propagating by Constant Mist. Flower Grower 61: 7:
53-55. 1953. Also Plants and Gardens 9: 4: 280-281. 1954.
Mitchell, William G. Citrus-World Traveler Extraordinary. The Garden
Journal of the New York Botanical Garden 3: 5: 155-158. 1953.
Mitchell, William G. Floriland-The King of Florida Oats. Southern Seeds-
man 16: 7: 15, 86. 1953.
Muma, Martin H. Lady Beetle Predators of Citrus Scale Insects. Citrus
Mag. 15: 11: 24, 25. 1953.
Muma, Martin H. Lady Beetle Predators of Citrus Whiteflies. Citrus Mag.
16: 3: 12, 13, 37. 1953.
Muma, Martin H. Lady Beetle Predators of Citrus Mealybugs. Citrus
Mag. 16: 8: 16, 17. 1954.
Muma, Martin H. Predators and Parasites of the Citrus Tree Snail. Citrus
Mag. 16: 10: 8, 9. 1954.
Myers, J. M., and Fred Clark. The Effects of Certain Irrigation Treat-
ments on the Yield and Quality of Flue-Cured Tobacco. Proc. Assn. Sou.
Agr. Wkrs. 51: 45-46. 1954.
Newsom, D. W., R. K. Showalter and S. A. Harmon. Congo Watermelon
Damage Reduction Studies at the Shipping Point. Proc. Assn. Sou.
Agr. Wkrs. 51: 129-130. 1954.
Nutter, Gene C. Your Summer Lawn Five Important Steps in Caring
for It. Fla. Grower 62: 6 (1280):14, 23. 1954.
Nutter, Gene C. Adaptability and Management of Grasses for Florida
Cemeteries. Fla. Turf Asso. Bul. 1: 1: 4-7. 1954.
Nutter, Gene C. The Florida Lawn-Establishing the New Lawn. Fla. Turf
Assn. Bul. 1:2:4-7. 1954.
Nutter, Gene C. Bermuda Selections and New Grasses for Warm Season
Courses. Golf Course Reporter 22: 31-33. 1954.
Pate, J. B., C. C. Seale and E. 0. Gangstad. Varietal Studies of Kenaf
Hibiscus comalbinms L. in South Florida. Agronomy Jour. 46: 2: 75-77.
Pate, J. B.. E. O. Gangstad, J. F. Joyner and C. C. Seale. Kenaf in South
Florida. Jour. of N. Y. Botanical Gardens. Mar.-Apr. 40-41. 1954.
Peacock, Fentress M., W. G. Kirk and Marvin Koger. Effect of Breeding of
Dam on Weaning Weight of Range Calves. Abst. Proc. Soc. An. Prod.
12: 4: 896-897. 1953.
Pearson, A. M. Research on How Feed Affects Quality of Meat. Fla. Cat-
tleman 17: 11: 26. 1953.
Pearson, A. M. Farm Meat Preserving Is Discussed. Fla. Cattleman 18:
10: 59-60. 1954.
Pearson, A. M., Marvin Koger, W. G. Kirk, D. H. Kropf, R. B. Sleeth,
J. F. Hentges, Jr. A Comparison of Certain Carcass Characteristics of
Brahman Versus British Breeds of Steers. Jour. of Animal Sci. 12: 4:
897. Nov. 1953.

Florida Agricultural Expe iment Stations

Pettis, A. M., and J. Mostella Myers. Tramp Iron in Pasture Causes Hard-
ware Sickness. Fla. Grower and Rancher 62: 3 (1277): 12. 1954.
Pratt, R. M., and W. L. Thompson. Citrus Insect Control. Citrus Ind.
34:7:3; 34: 8: 24; 34:9:23; 34:10:4; 34:11:3; 34: 12: 12. 1953. 35:
1: 3; 35: 2, 3, 9; 35:3: 3; 35: 4: 3, 4; 35: 5: 5. 1954.
Pratt, R. M. Seasonal and Geographical Distribution of Some Citrus Insects
and Mites in Florida. Citrus Mag. 16: 1: 14-17. 1953.
Prosser, D. S., Jr., W. F. Grierson, W. F. Newhall, Eric Thor and J. K. Sam-
uels. New System of Bulk Handling for Citrus Packing Houses. Citrus
Mag. 16: 2: 14-15. 1953.
Ristic, M. White Scours in Calves. Dairy News Vol. 4: 3: 12. 1954.
Ristic, M. Paratyphoid Infection in Calves. Fla. Dairy News 4: 1: 17. 1954.
Ristic, M., and F. Young. Laboratory Tests for Newcastle and Infectious
Bronchitis Disease of Chickens. Florida Poultry and Farm Journal 20:
6: 10, 11. June 1954.
Ruehle, George D. Some Native Trees and Shrubs as Ornamentals, No. 1
Everglades Natural History 1:4: 169-176. 1953.
Ruehle, George D. Some Native Trees and Shrubs as Ornamentals, No. 2.
Everglades Natural History 2: 2: 93-99. 1954.
Ruehle, George D. Meet a Brilliant Newcomer from Africa. Floriland 2: 3:
22. 1953.
Ruehle, George D. Organic Fungicides for Control of Anthracnose of
Mango. Proc. of Fla. Mango Forum 13: 12-14. 1953.
Sanders, D. A. Calf Pneumonia. Fla. Dairy News 4: 2: 27. 1954.
Sanders, D. A. Research Facilities to be Improved. Dairy News Vol. 4: 3:
12, 13. 1954.
Savage, Zach. The Small Farm and the Small Grove. Citrus Magazine 15:
11: 10. 1953.
Savage, Zach. Summer Supplies of Citrus for 1953. Citrus Magazine 15:
12: 11. 1953.
Savage, Zach. World Trade in Citrus Fruit. Citrus Magazine 16: 1: 12, 13.
Savage, Zach. Does Irrigation Pay on your Grove? Citrus Mag. 16: 2: 12.
1953. Also Citrus Ind. 34: 12: 9. 1953.
Savage, Zach. Data on Cost Account Groves over 10 Years of Age. Citrus
Mag. 16: 3: 24, 28, 29. 1953.
Savage, Zach. Citrus Crop Comparison and Outlook. Citrus Mag. 16: 4:
15-16. 1953.
Savage, Zach. Prices and Public Policy. Cit. Mag. 16: 5: 13. 1954.
Savage, Zach. Production and Fresh Shipments of Florida Oranges, Grape-
fruit and Tangerines by Counties. Citrus Mag. 16: 6: 34-35. 1954.
Savage, Zach. Citrus Tree Movement from Florida Nurseries. Cit. Mag.
16: 7: 8, 9, 32. 1954.
Savage, Zach. Citrus Exports. Citrus Mag. 16: 7: 28. 1954.
Savage, Zach. Production and Fresh Shipments of Florida Oranges by
Counties. Citrus Mag. 16:8: 12, 29. 1954.
Savage, Zach. Florida in the World Citrus Picture. Citrus Mag. 16: 9: 12,
13, 20. 1954.
Savage, Zach. Production and Fresh Shipments of Florida Grapefruit.
Citrus Mag. 16: 10: 16-17. 1954.

Annual Report, 1954 89

Savage, Zach. How to Boost Your '54 Farm Income. Fla. Grower and
Rancher 62: 3 (1277): 44. 1954.
Simpson, Charles F. Bangs Is Serious Disease. Fla. Cattleman 17: 12:
40-42. 1953.
Simpson, Charles F. Anaplasmosis Frequent Cause of Cattle Losses; Con-
trol Is Difficult. Fla. Cattleman 18:4: 74. 1953.
Smith, Cecil N. Horticultural Specialties. Fla. Grower & Rancher 61: 11
(1273):36. 1953.
Spencer, E. L. Factors Associated with Crease-Stem of Tomato. Proc.
Asso. Southern Agr. Workers 51:125. 1954.
Stuart, Neil W., J. M. Jenkins, W. G. Cowperthwaite, S. S. Woltz and Ar-
thur Bing. Preliminary Report on Effects of Curing, Storage Tempera-
ture, and Relative Humidity on Flowering and Corm Production of
Gladiolus. Gladiolus Magazine 18: (1): 47-58. 1954.
Swanson, Leonard E. Control of Heel Flies, Other External Parasites Ex-
plained. Fla. Cattleman 18: 4: 80. 1953.
Swanson, Leonard E. Take Care to Avoid Lungworms. Fla. Cattleman 18:
8: 84. 1954.
Thompson, W. L. Materials for Purple Mite Control. Citrus Ind. 34: 11:
8, 13. 1953.
Thompson, W. L. Solve Insect and Mite Problems. Fla. Grower and
Rancher 61: 11 (1273): 40. 1953.
Thor, Eric. The Problem of Price Supports for Perishable Farm Products.
Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 51: 150. 1954.
Thornton, George D. Compost Means Life for Florida Soil. Floriland
4:1: 6, 22. 1953.
Thornton, George D. Soil Testing in an Instructional Program in Soils.
Proceedings Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 13: 147-148. 1953.
Tissot, A. N., Milledge Murphey, Jr., and R. E. Waites. A Brief History of
Entomology in Florida. Fla. Entomologist 37: 2: 51-71. 1954.
Wallace, H. D. Hogging Down Corn Discussed. Fla. Cattleman 17: 10: 78,
96. 1953.
Wallace. H. D. Helpful Suggestions on Feeding and Managing Swine for
Maximum Gains Are Offered by University Worker. Fla. Cattleman 18:
1: 34. 1953.
Wallace, H. D. Swine Gain Since 1940 Tops 819,000. Fla. Grower and
Rancher 61:11 (1273): 32. 1953.
Wallace, H. D., John McKigney, A. M. Pearson and T. J. Cunha. The
Effect of Aureomycin on the Growth and Carcass Characteristics of
Pigs Fed Limited Rations. Jour. of Animal Science 12: 935. 1953.
Wallace, H. D., John McKigney and Larry Gillespie. Corn-Cottonseed Meal
Rations for Weanling Pigs Fed in Drylot. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs.
51: 69. 1954.
Wallace, H. D., John McKigney and Larry Gillespie. Bacitracin and Aureo-
mycin Implants for Suckling Pigs. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 51: 70.
Walter, James M. Soils Problems Confronting the Tomato Breeding Pro-
gram. Proceedings Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 13: 57-59. 1953.
Wenzel, F. W., E. L. Moore and C. D. Atkins. Frozen Tangerine Concen-
trate. Cit. Mag. 16: 5: 10-11, 26-27. 1954.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Wenzel, F. W., E. L. Moore and C. D. Atkins. Frozen Tangerine Concen-
trate. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc. 66: 14-17. 1953.
West, Erdman. Control the Lawn Diseases. Floriland 3: 3, 22. 1953.
West, Erdman, Mortimer Cohen and L. C. Knorr. Brown Rot of Citrus Fruit
on the Tree in Florida. Plant Disease Reporter 38: 2: 120-121. 1954.
Wilkowske, H. H. Developments in Bulk Handling of Milk. Fla. College
Farmer 6: 2: 8. 1954.
Wilkowske, H. H. The Keeping Quality of Milk. Sou. Dairy Prod. Jour.
54:1:29-31. 1953.
Wilkowske, H. H., W. A. Krienke, L. R. Arrington and E. L. Fouts. Bac-
teriological Studies of Milk from Menadione Fed Cows. Jour. Dairy
Sci. 37(6): 636-637. 1954.
Wilkowske, H. H. Fluoridation of Milk? (A guest editorial) Jour. Milk
and Food Tech. 17: 4: 107-108. 1954.
Wilkowske, H. H., L. R. Arrington and W. A. Krienke. Lactic Acid De-
velopment and Flavor Studies of Milk from Cows Fed Menadione. Proc.
Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 51: 92. 1954.
Wilkowske, H. H. Better Buttermilk; Improving Flavor and Aroma. Sou.
Dairy Prod. Jour. 55: 1: 74-75, 78-79, 82. 1954.
Wilkowske, H. H., and S. O. Noles. Handling Milk for Dispensers. Sou.
Dairy Prod. Jour. 55: 2: 120-121, 126, 128, 132. 1954.
Wilson, J. W. Effective Insecticide Use in Your Garden. Floriland 8: 5, 20.
Wing, James M. Culling Your Dairy Herd. Fla. Dairy News 4: 2: 33. 1954.
Wolfenbarger, D. 0. A Comparison of Dilute and Concentrate Sprays for
Control of Insects of Potato and Tomato. Proc. Assn. Sou. Agr. Wkrs.
51:104. 1954.
Woltz, S., S. J. Toth and F. E. Bear. Zinc Status of New Jersey Soils. Re-
printed from Soil Sci. 76: 2: 115-122. 1953.

State Project 670 William G. Mitchell
During the past year a mail survey was made among Florida growers,
ranchers and farmers to learn whether they had adopted any of 10 listed
research results, where they got the information about adopted results, and
where they usually get farming information. Returns amounted to 27.4 per-
cent of the questionnaires mailed. Forty-three percent of those who an-
swered had adopted one or more of the results. Use of chelated iron was
the result most often adopted, followed in order by concentrated sprays
for citrus, Floriland oats and soil fumigation.
Top six sources of information on these adopted results were: Experi-
ment Station publications; another grower; seed, feed or fertilizers dealers;
visit to stations or local county agent (tie); magazines; and newspaper re-
ports. Top six usual sources of information listed by those who answered
were: magazine articles; other growers; local county agent; newspaper
reports; Experiment Station publication; and seed, feed or fertilizer
dealers. All persons answering this questionnaire owned their own farms,
and as a group they were older than the average of Florida rural people.
Their average grade level was a little above the eleventh grade. Sixty per-
cent answered they did live on their own farms; 29 percent did not.

Annual Report, 1954 91


The addition of a Nematologist and an Assistant Entomologist to the
department staff made it possible to begin a comprehensive research pro-
gram on plant parasitic nematodes and to expand the work on pests of
turf grasses. The research program on pests of ornamental plants was
broadened to include work on chrysanthemums, asparagus ferns and foliage
plants. Work was started also on pests of strawberries. Investigations
were continued on honey plants, insecticide residues on vegetables and
pests of cruciferous crops, pastures, pecans and tobacco.

State Project 379 A. M. Phillips
This project was continued at the Pecan Investigations Laboratory, in
cooperation with the Entomology Research Branch, Agricultural Research
Service, USDA.
The insecticides used in the hickory shuckworm experiment in 1953
(see Project 597) all gave excellent control of the nut casebearer.
In another test designed to study the influence of time of application
on effectiveness of nut casebearer sprays, parathion, EPN and Nitrox
(methyl parathion) were each applied April 27 and 30 and May 3, 1953.
Only 17.1 percent of the nut clusters in the unsprayed plots were infested.
The insecticides reduced this infestation by 77.2 to 95.5 percent. With each
insecticide the last application was more effective than either of the pre-
ceding ones.

State Project 531 L. C. Kuitert
Tests continue to show that soil drench and foliage applications of deme-
ton are extremely effective in controlling mite infestations on azaleas, ca-
mellias, pyracantha and roses. Excellent control of mites infesting azaleas
was obtained with demeton when it was applied through the irrigation sys-
tem at a rate of 12 ounces active ingredient per acre. Soil drench and
foliage applications of demeton have been effective also against aphids
and whiteflies on gardenias and hibiscus. Foliage applications have been
effective against soft scales and most armored scales. Demeton is effective
against tea scale crawlers and immature stages, but does not eliminate
A combination spray of parathion and oil emulsion has been the most
effective treatment for controlling tea scales. Parathion and malathion
continue to be effective against aphids, mealybugs, whiteflies, cottony
cushion scales and most soft and armored scales. DDT was found effec-
tive against the holly spittlebug, but to reduce damage all grass and
shrubbery within a radius of 25 to 30 feet must also be treated.

Bankhead-Jones Project 537 L. C. Kuitert and A. N. Tissot
Sprays made with emusifiable concentrates of TDE, DDT and endrin
were applied with a small power sprayer and one dust treatment of 5
percent TDE was put on with a rotary hand duster. Three applications on
May 4 and 25 and June 5 gave satisfactory control of budworms and horn-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

worms through the growing season. The four materials were equally effec-
tive against the lepidopterous larvae, but endrin also checked aphids and
gave excellent control of grasshoppers.
In previous years it was noticed that excellent control of insects some-
times did not produce the increases in yield or quality of tobacco that
normally would be expected. It was concluded during this year's trials
that untreated plots scattered among the treated ones do not constitute a
real check in so far as numbers of insects and amount of damage are con-
cerned. On numerous occasions it was observed that wasps, other preda-
tors and parasites were much more abundant in the check plots than in the
treated ones. It was obvious that the beneficial insects were being forced
to concentrate on a small part of the planting and that they therefore
exerted much more pressure on the pest insects than would have occurred
with a comparable infestation throughout the field. (See also Proj. 537.

State Project 583 F. A. Robinson
In the honey plant evaluation trials, Dixie reseeding crimson clover and
Florana annual sweet clover again were leading nectar producers. White
Dutch yielded almost no nectar but produced considerable pollen. The ever-
flowering locust, Robinia semperflorens (L.), still looks promising as a po-
tential honey plant and attempts to propagate it vegetatively are continuing.
Air layering shows some promise, though root development is slow.
Lupines have never been considered a honey plant, but in the spring
of 1954 a small field of sweet yellow lupine was visited by large numbers
of honeybees which gathered nectar and pollen in good quantities. The
nectar flow in lupines apparently stops abruptly at midday, as no bees
visited the field after 2:00 p.m. In buckwheat the nectar flow stops even
earlier, as no bees visited the blossoms after 1:00 p.m.
To obtain more information on the effects of insecticides on honey-
bees, three applications of a spray containing 1 pound each of 15% wettable
parathion and 25% wettable lindane in 100 gallons of water were made
on watermelons and cantaloupes at blossoming time. Applications were
made in the afternoon and no evidence of any ill effect to the bees was noted.

State Project 597 A. M. Phillips
This project was carried on at the Pecan Investigations Laboratory, in
cooperation with the Entmology Research Branch, Agricultural Research
Service, USDA.
Under conditions of heavy infestation, when 92.8 percent of the nuts
on unsprayed trees were infested, even six applications of EPN, para-
thion and malathion, put on at three-week intervals, failed to give effective
control of the shuckworm.

State Project 616 A. N. Tissot, L. C. Kuitert
and R. E. Waites
The way in which the lupine maggot, Hylemya lupini Coq., passes the
summer has been a mystery for several years. Cage tests have proven that
the summer is passed in the pupal stage. The first flies emerged about the

Annual Report, 1954

middle of November. Seedling lupines are destroyed by the maggots, while
older plants usually survive their attacks, so it is concluded that damage
during this critical stage could be avoided through early planting. Ro-
tation of crops was found to be very beneficial in reducing infestations.
When lupines followed lupines without an intervening crop or the benefit
of cultivation, an average of 91.6 percent of the seddlings were infested.
When a summer crop of corn occupied the land between the two lupine
crops only 10.3 percent of the seedlings in the new plantings were infested.
Spider mites, Tetranychina apicalis Banks, which have caused extensive
damage to white clover pastures, were found to pass the summer in the
egg stage. This mite has two distinct types of egg; a winter egg laid on
the leaflets and a summer egg laid in the grooves of the petioles of the
leaves. Demeton at 4 ounces actual per acre was extremely effective in
controlling heavy infestations of the mites. Malathion 5% dust at 43.8
pounds per acre was only moderately effective while chlorparacide spray
at 1 pound actual per acre and 10% DDT plus 70% sulfur at 44.5 pounds
were ineffective.
Chinch bugs, Blissus leucopterus insularis Barber have always been con-
sidered as pests only of St. Augustine grass. The first observation of dam-
age to pasture grasses occurred in a pasture of mixed Pangola and torpedo
grass near Tavares, Florida. Large patches of both grasses had been
killed in an area of more than an acre.
Three insecticides were tested against fall armyworm, Laphygma frugi-
perda (A. & S.), and striped grassworms, Mocis spp. Toxaphene at 1.5
pounds actual per acre was especially effective, while endrin and aldrin,
each used at 8 ounces actual per acre, gave fair and poor control respectively.

State Project 650 R. E. Waites
Residue determinations of several insecticides on various vegetables
showed a marked decrease in amounts of residue within a few days after
Three sprays of malathion 50% emulsifiable concentrate, each at 10.1,
20.2 and 30.3 ounces active ingredient per acre, were applied at weekly
intervals on turnips. Residues ranged from 1.07 to 4.99 ppm four hours
after the last application and from 0.63 to 1.33 ppm after seven days.
Two applications of malathion, each at 20.2 and 30.3 ounces active in-
gredient per acre, were put on spinach a week apart. Four hours after the
last application residues ranged from 75.1 to 153.9 ppm and after seven
days from 2.0 to 6.4 ppm showing reductions of 97 and 95 percent for the
two concentrations.
Four sprays of chlordane 50% wettable powder, each at 0.87, 1.25 and
2.50 pounds active ingredient per acre, were made on head lettuce at
weekly intervals. Samples taken 4 hours, 7 days and 14 days after the last
application showed residue ranges of 3.23 to 15.30 ppm, 1.16 to 4.49 ppm
and 0.81 to 2.70 ppm, respectively.
One application of chlordane 50% wettable spray at 1.0 and 1.5 pounds
active ingredient per acre was used on broccoli. Samples taken four hours
after application and seven days later showed residues of 3.02 to 9.14 ppm
and 0.35 to 0.79 ppm for the two concentrations and intervals, respectively.
Demeton (Systox) 50% emulsifiable concentrate was used on snap beans
in two ways. In one test the seed was soaked for one hour in 1%/ and 2%

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

water emulsions and planted immediately. Beans sampled at harvest gave
residues of 0.00 and 0.05 ppm for the two concentrations. Two foliar sprays
were put on a week apart, each applied at 0.29 and 0.58 pounds active in-
gredient per acre. Beans harvested 19 days after the last application showed
residues of 0.15 to 0.22 ppm and 0.29 to 0.41 ppm for the two rates of ap-
plication, respectively. (The laboratory determinations of residues were
made by C. H. Van Middelem. See also Proj. 639, HORTICULTURE and

State Project 669 L. C. Kuitert
Seven treatments, including three dusts and four sprays, were used in
replicated tests for the control of green peach and cabbage aphids on
turnips and mustard. With the exception of endrin spray, all materials
gave a complete cleanup of aphids, though they varied widely in the ra-
pidity with which they killed. Demeton spray gave 100 percent control in
less than 24 hours. Parathion 1% dust killed all aphids within three days.
A few living aphids remained after three days on plants receiving malathion
dust and malathion and parathion sprays, but two days later the plants
were clean. Lindane gave a complete kill in five days, although aphids
were numerous three days after treatment. Endrin spray reduced the
aphid population materially but a few living aphids remained on the plants
after nine days.
The amounts of materials used based on pounds of active ingredients
per acre were as follows: Dusts: parathion, 0.57; malathion, 3.2; lindane,
0.96; sprays: demeton, 0.28; parathion, 0.25; malathion, 1.18; and endrin,
0.58. (See also Proj. 669 CENT. FLORIDA, GULF COAST and EVER-

State Project 678 L. C. Kuitert and S. H. Kerr
The sod webworm, Pachyzancla phaeopteralis Guen., was found to re-
quire about six weeks to go from egg to adult at a mean temperature of
about 76-78 F. The egg stage required 6-10 days; the seven larval instars
25 days; and the pupal stage about seven days. Field-collected adults lived
two weeks in cages. Lowering the rearing temperature to 72-73 F. nearly
doubled the length of the larval and pupal stages. Eggs were laid singly
or in small clusters. The eggs were rounded in outline, flattened and about
0.7 mm. in diameter and 0.1 mm. high. Late in the fall of 1953, Crambus
teterrellus Zinck. replaced P. phaeopteralis in the Gainesville area and was
destructive during the winter months. In tests against the crambids 2
pounds actual DDT per acre gave excellent control, 0.5 pound actual
endrin per acre gave fair control and 2 pounds actual chlordane per acre
was ineffective.
In a test concerning the control of chinch bug, Blissus leucopterus in-
sularis Barber, in a thick St. Augustine turf in Sarasota, DDT and para-
thion emulsions gave very good control, chlordane emlusion was less effec-
tive, and dieldrin and demeton emulsions gave little or no control. (See

Annual Report, 1954

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9b, 1 and 2) Project 695 J. R. Christie
A survey in the Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory vine-
yard at Leesburg showed four species of nematodes associated with the
grapes. Pratylenchus sp., a meadow nematode, was numerous and wide-
spread; Belonolaimus gracilis Steiner, the sting nematode, was numerous
on occasional vines; and Xiphinema sp., a dagger nematode, and Longidoruss
sp. were found in small numbers on a few vines.
Pine seedlings in the plant bed at the Austin Cary Memorial Forest
near Gainesville were severely injured by the common stubby-root nema-
tode, Trichodorus sp. Extensive root injury caused by a dagger nematode,
Xiphinema sp., necessitated considerable replanting of slash pine seedlings
in a planting near Shamrock, Florida.
Surveys in lawns and golf courses show that several species of nema-
todes are associated with the grasses and it seems probable that some of
them may be responsible for turf troubles which heretofore have not been
satisfactorily explained. From a total of 30 samples taken at various loca-
tions in the state, Belonolainmts gracilis Steiner was found in 20, Cricone-
moides spp. in 12, Hoplolaimus coronatus Cobb in 11, Trichodorus sp. in
four, Helicotylenchus sp. in three, and Tylenchorhynchuts sp. in two. These
counts indicate that Belonolaimus is by all odds the most important turf
pest but that severe injury may be caused occasionally by Trichodorus and
Tylench orhynchus.
Systemic Insecticide Investigations.-Demeton (Systox) at 2 and 4
pounds actual per acre was applied as a soil drench before planting sum-
mer squash. Squash fruits harvested 65 days after treatment showed a
uniform 0.2 ppm for the lower rate of application and from 0.3 to 0.4
ppm for the higher rate. Squash harvested six days after a single spray
application at 2 and 4 pounds actual demeton per acre carried from 0.4
to 1.4 ppm and 0.4 to 1.8 ppm of residue for the two rates respectively.
(H. E. Bratley.)
Peanut Storage Investigations.-Peanuts in storage sometimes are dam-
aged severely by insect pests and some varieties are believed to be more
susceptible to injury than others. A storage test started in the winter of
1953 was designed to obtain information on varietal differences and the
possibility of protecting stored peanuts with insecticides. Replicated samples
of Early Runner, Dixie Runner and Florispan Runner peanuts in the shell
were dusted with DDT 10% lindane 5% and 95.8% ryania concentrate, each
at 0.5 grams per pound and with a grain protectant containing pyrethrins
and piperonyl butoxide at 0.9 grams per pound, and then stored in open
paper bags on Decemebr 8, 1953. Half pound samples were examined then
for insects and insect damage. Similar samples taken March 8, 1954, showed
no increase in damage or in numbers of insects in any of the treatments or
The warmer weather of the next three months stimulated insect activity
and the check lots of peanuts suffered considerable damage. DDT and
lindane gave excellent protection in all varieties. The other materials gave
fair protection in Florispan Runner but poor control in the other varieties.
In all the varieties, insect damage was confined almost entirely to cracked
or very thin-shelled nuts. The shells of Florispan Runner were perceptibly
tougher than those of the other varieties. (H. E. Bratley.)

96 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Cut Flower and Foliage Plants.-Insecticidal tests were initiated on
chrysanthemums and asparagus plumosus ferns. Demeton emulsifiable con-
centrate, applied as a soil drench to chrysanthemums at rates of 4, 8, 16 and
20 ounces of active ingredients per acre, was effective in controlling aphids
at all levels. The small number of other insects found in the checks limited
the conclusions which could be drawn. Sprays and dusts, including para-
thion, demeton, endrin, toxaphene, dieldrin, TDE and DDT plus sulfur were
applied to asparagus ferns for the control of the fern caterpillar. Due to
the small number of larvae found in the check plots, no significant data were
obtained and there was no evidence of phytotoxicity. (S. H. Kerr and L. C.
Strawberries.-Investigations of insect and mite pests infesting straw-
berries were begun. Insecticidal treatments included four dusts and three
sprays. Chlordane, DDT plus sulfur and strobane dusts and parathion
spray were much superior to the other treatments in controlling pameras
and flower thrips. Demeton and TEPP sprays gave poor control, while
malathion dust was intermediate. Plants were small and appeared sickly
in the chlordane treatment, while plants receiving parathion were healthy
and vigorous. Parathion gave the highest yields and best grades of ber-
ries followed closely by DDT plus sulfur. The lowest yield was obtained
in the chlordane treatment, followed closely by the check and strobane.
Some progress has been made on cataloguing the other insect pests and
evaluating their importance. (L. C. Kuitert.)

Annual Report, 1954


The principal investigations of this Department have been centered
on factors influencing skeletal development and maintenance. This work
has been carried on with both humans and animals.
A micro method has been developed for the determination of vitamin A
in a drop of blood.

Purnell Project 568 0. D. Abbott, R. B. French
and R. O. Townsend
X-ray studies conducted during the current year on school children con-
firm earlier studies indicating that retarded carpal and epiphyseal develop-
ment is due in most cases to dietary deficiencies which have existed through-
out life and even before birth. Conferences with parents have led to a
better understanding of the causes of retardation and the means to be
employed in preventing or correcting the condition. Upon comparison of
roentgenograms of the same children taken during the past two school years
with those taken during the present one, some interesting observations were
made. When they were fed diets furnishing adequate bone-building ma-
terial, children retarded two years showed normal or near normal carpal
development; those retarded five years had made progress but develop-
ment still lagged. On the other hand, when the diet pattern had not im-
proved, little progress was noted. Again it was found that the lunate due
to appear about the age of 21/2 to 3 years was the carpal most often missing
and was delayed until all other centers were present.
The degree of carpal and epiphyseal development provides another
index for the assessment of nutritional status of children. From this
work it was concluded that deprivation of essential bone-building material
early in life, whether due to illness or to poor food habits, results in re-
tardation of skeletal development. This condition can be overcome or
prevented by supplying an adequate diet, especially one containing plenty
of milk.
With the organization of data and the preparation of a manuscript, this
project will close.

Purnell Project 569 R. B. French, O. D. Abbott
and R. O. Townsend
A method for the determination of carotene and vitamin A in a drop
of blood, using the Beckman model B spectrophotometer, has been worked
out. The modified method is essentially that of Bessey's: Volume measure-
ment in constriction pipettes, saponification of serum and extraction of caro-
tene and vitamin A with absorption measurement at 328 and 450 millimi-
crons followed by destruction of the 328 absorbant by ultraviolet radiation
and estimation of vitamin A by difference.
Vitamin A and carotene determinations were made at intervals on the
blood of rats that, as weanlings, had been exposed to vitamin A deficiency.
These rats then had been either realimented on the diet fed our stock colony,

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

on 10 I.U. vitamin A per day, or 40 I.U. of carotene a day. Determinations
were made after the animals had been on a vitamin A-free diet for at least
24 hours. The younger animals, in general, exhibited a high level of vitamin
A in their serum. This level was considerably higher than that of animals
of corresponding age that had not been exposed to the deficiency. As the
animals matured, fasting levels of vitamin A in the serum of animals on low
intake of vitamin A tended to drop to zero. Fasting serum carotene values
tended, regardless of previous treatment, to be low and, in about half the
cases, zero. Rats on the stock colony diet were fed greens three times
weekly-a high carotene diet-and their fasting serum values ranged for
carotene from 0 to 55 gamma/100 ml, with an average of 19, and for vitamin
A from 32 to 304, with an average of 112 I.U. vitamin A/100 ml.

Purnell Project 570 R. B. French, O. D. Abbott
and R. O. Townsend
The delayed and non-alleviable injuries which either show up or are
continued into latter life after a young rat's brief exposure to a dietary
mineral deficiency are reported and summarized.
Young rats exposed to a mineral deficiency grew femurs that were
longer than those of controls of the same body length. During the period
of dietary deficiency, femur length increased while other measurable
growth processes were retarded.
After realimentation on adequate dietary calcium and phosphorus,
femur lengths of rats exposed to a single deficiency tended to equilibrate
to the usual length. One or both femurs of rats exposed to a brief calcium
and phosphorus deficiency failed to elongate afterwards when on a diet
adequate in all respects.
Females-perhaps because of smaller growth requirements-were less
affected by the deficiency than were the males. With the addition of
vitamin D to the diet, sex differences tended to cancel.
Diets low in both protein and minerals tended to inhibit skeletal ab-
normalties, since growth was slowed and mineral needs apparently les-
Associated with shortened femurs were fractures of the thoracic verte-
bra, but these did not appear to incapacitate the animals.
Regardless of the kind of mineral deficiencies, joints of all animals
were enlarged and showed synovial degeneration. Such joints, though sen-
sitive to touch when the rats were young, had little effect on activity.
Malformations of the femur and pelvic structure showed the delicate
balance between dietary adequacy and inadequacy on skeletal developments.
Results of this research are now being incorporated in a manuscript.

Purnell Project 625 0. D. Abbott, R. B. French
and R. 0. Townsend
The results of this study may be summarized as follows: The average
caloric intake of 306 men and women 60 to 91 years of age was somewhat
lower than the recommended standards for adults, but the intake of eight
essential nutrients approached closely or exceeded the standards. The diets
of men more nearly met the standards than did those of the women. The

Annual Report, 1954

average values for protein, calcium and iron were low in women's diets.
The mean hemoglobin values and erythrocyte counts were within the
normal range for men and women. The total leucocyte and differential
counts showed no abnormalities associated with either sex or age.
The relation of hemoglobin levels to dietary levels of iron varied with
the individual. High correlations were found in subjects whose hemoglobin
values ranged from subnormal to anemic. Further increases in iron had
no effect upon hemoglobin values already within the normal range.
From the response of individuals with low hemoglobin values and/or
low total red cells to hematinic treatment, it was evident that these low
values were due to dietary deficiencies, faulty absorption or impaired utiliza-
tion of these essentials but not to age.
Results of this investigation have now been incorporated in a manuscript.
This phase of study is closed with this report. Report of revised project
is given below.

Purnell Project 625 (1953 Revision) O. D. Abbott, R. B. French
and R. O. Townsend
A study is now being made of the effect of dietary practices upon skeletal
morphology and mineralization of 306 men and women of ages 60 to 91 years.
Gross morphology was assessed on the basis of posture, and mineral-
ization and bone character on the basis of X-rays of the pelvic girdle. Ap-
proximately one-fourth of the group had some degree of spinal curvature
which was confined primarily to the cervical vertebrae. No case of tho-
racic kyphosis was noted. Enlarged and stiff joints due to arthritis also
affected the posture of 24 percent of the women and 12 percent of the men.
The enlargement was usually in finger and toe joints, and the stiffness was in
the hip and shoulder joints. Another factor affecting posture of women was
the type of shoe. Ill-fitted shoes contributed to the formation of calluses,
corns and bunions. The type of heel-sling, high, run over-affected not
only posture but also balance. Most of the accidents happened to women
and the type of shoe worn played an important role.
Roentgenograms were made of approximately one-third of the group.
Nearly half of them had well mineralized skeletons, while in the rest of the
group mineralization varied from light to very poor. Among other ab-
normalities were compression of the lumbar vertebrae, calcium deposits
in the hip joints, and roughening of the bony contour of the symphysis
pubis. A definite shortening of the neck of the femur was noted in three
women. A direct correlation between calcium intake and skeletal min-
eralization was found in women. This relationship was not so apparent in
men. It appeared that man's need for calcium is not so great as is woman's,
or that his metabolism of calcium is more efficient. All women had well
mineralized skeletons when the calcium intake was at least one gram per
day, while men maintained a good skeletal structure on half that amount.